Science.gov

Sample records for red island shoal

  1. Mapping islands, reefs and shoals in the oceans surrounding Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, L. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Comparisons of the imagery with aerial photography of areas of reefs and island and with 1:250,000 maps of coastlines indicate that the MSS imagery depicts detail to an extent which is satisfactory for 1:250,000 mapping. As the imagery does not have some of the disadvantages of aerial photography, the former should be valuable for mapping reefs, islands, and shoals. The water discoloration problem is significant as the discolored water appears to occur near shallow depths, so that confusion could arise through the misinterpretation of discolored water, when it exists, as shallow water.

  2. Character of shell beds flanking Herod Point shoal, southeastern Long Island Sound, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, L.J.; Williams, S.J.; Babb, Ivar G.

    2011-01-01

    High biogenic productivity, strong tidal currents, shoal topography, and short transport distances combine to favor shell-bed formation along the lower flanks of a cape-associated shoal off Herod Point on Long Island, New York. This shell bed has a densely packed, clast-supported fabric composed largely of undegraded surf clam (Spisula solidissima) valves. It is widest along the central part of the western flank of the shoal where topographic gradients are steep and a stronger flood tide results in residual flow. The bed is narrower and thinner toward the landward margins where currents are too weak to transport larger valves and topographic gradients are gentle, limiting bed-load transport mechanisms by which the shells are concentrated. Reconnaissance mapping off Roanoke Point suggests that shell beds are also present at the other cape-associated shoals off northeastern Long Island, where relatively similar geomorphic and oceanographic conditions exist. These shell beds are important to the Long Island Sound ecosystem because they provide complex benthic habitats of rough and hard substrates at the boundary between the muddy basin floor and mobile sand of the shoals. ?? 2011, the Coastal Education & Research Foundation (CERF).

  3. Selecting islands and shoals for conservation based on biological and aesthetic criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; Leopold, D.J.; Smardon, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    Consideration of biological quality has long been an important component of rating areas for conservation. Often these same areas are highly valued by people for aesthetic reasons, creating demands for housing and recreation that may conflict with protection plans for these habitats. Most methods of selecting land for conservation purposes use biological factors alone. For some land areas, analysis of aesthetic qualities is also important in describing the scenic value of undisturbed land. A method for prioritizing small islands and shoals based on both biological and visual quality factors is presented here. The study included 169 undeveloped islands and shoals a??0.8 ha in the Thousand Islands Region of the St. Lawrence River, New York. Criteria such as critical habitat for uncommon plant and animal species were considered together with visual quality and incorporated into a rating system that ranked the islands and shoals according to their priority for conservation management and protection from development. Biological factors were determined based on previous research and a field survey. Visual quality was determined by visual diagnostic criteria developed from public responses to photographs of a sample of islands. Variables such as elevation, soil depth, and type of plant community can be used to classify islands into different categories of visual quality but are unsuccessful in classifying islands into categories of overall biological quality.

  4. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles...

  5. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles...

  6. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles...

  7. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles...

  8. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles...

  9. Offshore sand-shoal development and evolution of Petit Bois Pass, Mississippi-Alabama Barrier Islands, Mississippi, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flocks, James G.; Kelso, Kyle W.; Twichell, Gregory C.; Buster, Noreen A.; Baehr, John N.; Rosati, Julie D.; Wang, Ping; Roberts, Tiffany M.

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of recently collected geophysical and sediment-core data identifies an extensive shoal field located off Dauphin and Petit Bois Islands. The shoals are the product of Pleistocene fluvial deposition and Holocene marine-transgressive processes, and their position and orientation oblique to the modern shoreline has been stable over the past century. The underlying stratigraphy has also influenced the evolution of the barrier platform and inlets. Buried distributary channels bisect the platform, creating erosion hotspots that breach during intense and repeated storms. Inlet growth inhibits littoral transport, and over time, reduces the down-drift sand supply. These relations demonstrate the role of the antecedent geologic framework on morphologic evolution. This study is part of the USGS Northern Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility Project and the USACE Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program. These projects produced a wealth of information regarding coastal geology, geomorphology, and physical resources; some of the initial results are presented here.

  10. Population recovery and natural recruitment of lake trout at Gull Island Shoal, Lake Superior, 1964-1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schram, Stephen T.; Selgeby, James H.; Bronte, Charles R.; Swanson, Bruce L.

    1995-01-01

    We documented an increase in the abundance of wild lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) at Gull Island Shoal in western Lake Superior and examined the relationship between parental-stock size and recruitment of age-0 fish in 1964–1992. Abundance of adult wild female lake trout and densities of age-0 fish both increased during the 28-year period. A significant positive, linear relationship (P = 0.0002) was found between the abundance of wild females on the spawning reef in the fall and density of age-0 lake trout on adjacent nursery grounds in August and September of the following year. The abundance of hatchery-origin females did not explain significant amounts (P = 0.107) of variation in recruitment. We concluded that most recruitment in 1965–1992 was the result of natural reproduction of wild females. After 28 years of recovery the Gull Island Shoal lake trout population appears to have additional capacity to increase because the stock-recruitment relationship is still linear. Therefore, restoration periods on the order of 30 years may be needed for other lake trout populations in the Great Lakes. We recommend that the refuge established to protect this population be maintained to allow further study of the relationship between parental stock and recruitment, and to provide a major source of recruitment to the lake trout population in the surrounding waters

  11. Hatching, dispersal, and bathymetric distribution of age-0 wild lake trout at the Gull Island Shoal complex, Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, Charles R.; Selgeby, James H.; Saylor, James H.; Miller, Gerald S.; Foster, Neal R.

    1995-01-01

    We studied age-0 lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) associated with spawning and nursery areas of the Gull Island Shoal complex in western Lake Superior. Post-emergent age-0 lake trout were captured on rocky spawning substrate with a 3-m beam trawl and at the nursery area with a bottom trawl from June to September 1990 and June to August 1991. Catch data suggested that age-0 lake trout move distances of 7–11 km to the nursery area over a 3-month period. Water currents, measured at Gull Island Shoal, may be a part of the transport mechanism. Examination of daily-growth increments on the sagittae and back-calculation from the date of capture revealed that most fish hatched between 6 June and 19 July in 1990 and between 30 April and 30 May in 1991. The duration of the hatch was 100 days in 1990 and 120 days in 1991, and the estimated incubation period is about 7 months for lake trout eggs at this site. Similar hatch-date distributions of age-0 captured on different sampling dates suggested that natural mortality was low.

  12. Factors affecting marine debris deposition at French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument, 1990-2006.

    PubMed

    Morishige, Carey; Donohue, Mary J; Flint, Elizabeth; Swenson, Christopher; Woolaway, Christine

    2007-08-01

    Data on the amount and type of small debris items deposited on the beaches of the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge Tern Island station, French Frigate Shoals were collected over 16 years. We calculated deposition rates and investigated the relationship among deposition and year, season, El Niño and La Niña events from 1990 to 2006. In total 52,442 debris items were collected with plastic comprising 71% of all items collected. Annual debris deposition varied significantly (range 1116-5195 items) but was not influenced by season. Debris deposition was significantly greater during El Niño events as compared to La Niña events. Although often deduced to influence floating marine pollution, this study provides the first quantitative evidence of the influence of El Niño/La Niña cycles on marine debris deposition. PMID:17572447

  13. Analysis of seafloor change at Breton Island, Gosier Shoals, and surrounding waters, 1869–2014, Breton National Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flocks, James G.; Terrano, Joseph F.

    2016-08-01

    Characterizing bathymetric change in coastal environments is an important component in understanding shoreline evolution, especially along barrier island platforms. Bathymetric change is a function of the regional sediment budget, long-term wave and current patterns, and episodic impact from high-energy events such as storms. Human modifications may also cause changes in seafloor elevation. This study, conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, evaluates bathymetric and volumetric change and sediment characteristics around Breton Island and Gosier Shoals located offshore of the Mississippi River Delta in Louisiana. This area has been affected by significant storm events such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Sedimentation patterns at Breton Island and offshore have also been modified by the excavation of a shipping channel north of the island. Four time periods are considered that encompass these episodes and include long-term change and short-term storm recovery: 1869–2014, 1869–1920, 1920–2014, and 2007–2014. Finally, sediment characteristics are reported in the context of seafloor elevation.

  14. Reproductive biology of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas) at Tern Island, French Frigate Shoals, Hawai`i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niethammer, K.R.; Balazs, G.H.; Hatfield, J.S.; Nakai, G.L.; Megyesi, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    We monitored nesting of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus) on Tern Island, French Frigate Shoals, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands from 1986 through 1991. Egg oviposition occurred between 26 April and 20 October. Nesting peaked between mid-June and early August. Hatchlings emerged between mid-August and early October. Mean incubation period was 66.0 (range 53-97) days. Mean clutch size was 92.4 (range 33-150) eggs. Mean hatching success was 78.6% when averaged over success of individual nests and 81.1% when calculated as percentage of total number of eggs. Natural hatchling emergence was 71.1%, based on percentage of total number of eggs. Live and dead hatchlings were found when nests were excavated and accounted for 10.0% of the eggs. Incubation periods tended to be longer in early and later portions of the season than in midseason, and incubation periods tended to decrease the farther inland the nest was situated from the high tide line. Maximum hatching success occurred at an incubation length of 66.7 days. Other trends indicated that nesting peaked near 5 July when conditions produced a near optimal incubation period for yielding maximum hatching success.

  15. Geology of Saipan, Mariana Islands; Part 4, Submarine topography and shoal-water ecology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloud, Preston E.

    1959-01-01

    The topography of the sea floor within 10 miles of Saipan broadly resembles that of the land. Eastward, toward the Mariana trench, slopes are about 6°, without prominent benches or scarps. This is inferred to indicate easterly continuation of generally pyroclastic bedrock. The westward slope averages 2° to 3° and consists mainly of nearly flat benches and westfacing scarps. This is taken to imply westward continuation of a limestone bench-and-fault-scarp topography. Projection of known faults to sea and through Tinian, on the basis of topographic trends, suggests a pattern of west-dipping normal faults that parallel the strike of the Mariana ridge and affect the shape and position of islands at the crest of the ridge.

  16. Birth of two volcanic islands in the southern Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenbin; Ruch, Joël; Jónsson, Sigurjón

    2015-01-01

    Submarine eruptions that lead to the formation of new volcanic islands are rare and far from being fully understood; only a few such eruptions have been witnessed since Surtsey Island emerged to the south of Iceland in the 1960s. Here we report on two new volcanic islands that were formed in the Zubair archipelago of the southern Red Sea in 2011–2013. Using high-resolution optical satellite images, we find that the new islands grew rapidly during their initial eruptive phases and that coastal erosion significantly modified their shapes within months. Satellite radar data indicate that two north–south-oriented dykes, much longer than the small islands might suggest, fed the eruptions. These events occurred contemporaneously with several local earthquake swarms of the type that typically accompany magma intrusions. Earthquake activity has been affecting the southern Red Sea for decades, suggesting the presence of a magmatically active zone that has previously escaped notice. PMID:26010945

  17. Birth of two volcanic islands in the southern Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenbin; Ruch, Joël; Jónsson, Sigurjón

    2015-05-26

    Submarine eruptions that lead to the formation of new volcanic islands are rare and far from being fully understood; only a few such eruptions have been witnessed since Surtsey Island emerged to the south of Iceland in the 1960s. Here we report on two new volcanic islands that were formed in the Zubair archipelago of the southern Red Sea in 2011-2013. Using high-resolution optical satellite images, we find that the new islands grew rapidly during their initial eruptive phases and that coastal erosion significantly modified their shapes within months. Satellite radar data indicate that two north-south-oriented dykes, much longer than the small islands might suggest, fed the eruptions. These events occurred contemporaneously with several local earthquake swarms of the type that typically accompany magma intrusions. Earthquake activity has been affecting the southern Red Sea for decades, suggesting the presence of a magmatically active zone that has previously escaped notice.

  18. 15. Photo copy of drawing, May, 3, 1963. STRATFORD SHOAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photo copy of drawing, May, 3, 1963. STRATFORD SHOAL L/S FIRE DETECTION AND FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. Drawing no. 03-2723, U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit, Warwick, Rhode Island. - Stratford Shoal Lighthouse, Long Island Sound, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  19. Ship Shoal as a prospective borrow site for barrier island restoration, coastal south-central Louisiana, Usa: Numerical wave modeling and field measurements of hydrodynamics and sediment transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, G.W.; Pepper, D.A.; Xu, Jie; Zhang, X.

    2004-01-01

    Ship Shoal, a transgressive sand body located at the 10 m isobath off south-central Louisiana, is deemed a potential sand source for restoration along the rapidly eroding Isles Dernieres barrier chain and possibly other sites in Louisiana. Through numerical wave modeling we evaluate the potential response of mining Ship Shoal on the wave field. During severe and strong storms, waves break seaward of the western flank of Ship Shoal. Therefore, removal of Ship Shoal (approximately 1.1 billion m3) causes a maximum increase of the significant wave height by 90%-100% and 40%-50% over the shoal and directly adjacent to the lee of the complex for two strong storm scenarios. During weak storms and fair weather conditions, waves do not break over Ship Shoal. The degree of increase in significant wave height due to shoal removal is considerably smaller, only 10%-20% on the west part of the shoal. Within the context of increasing nearshore wave energy levels, removal of the shoal is not significant enough to cause increased erosion along the Isles Dernieres. Wave approach direction exerts significant control on the wave climate leeward of Ship Shoal for stronger storms, but not weak storms or fairweather. Instrumentation deployed at the shoal allowed comparison of measured wave heights with numerically derived wave heights using STWAVE. Correlation coefficients are high in virtually all comparisons indicating the capability of the model to simulate wave behavior satisfactorily at the shoal. Directional waves, currents and sediment transport were measured during winter storms associated with frontal passages using three bottom-mounted arrays deployed on the seaward and landward sides of Ship Shoal (November, 1998-January, 1999). Episodic increases in wave height, mean and oscillatory current speed, shear velocity, and sediment transport rates, associated with recurrent cold front passages, were measured. Dissipation mechanisms included both breaking and bottom friction due to

  20. Model of inner shelf shoal development, Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, P.; Nummedal, D.; Reimnitz, E.

    1985-01-01

    At least two types of inner shelf shoals exist in the Beaufort Sea, Alaska. One type is located up to 40 km from the shoreline in an average water depth of 20m and oriented obliquely to the coast. A second type of shoals occur adjacent to existing barrier islands where minimum water depth over the shoal crest may be as little as 30-50cm. The development of shallow water shoals is believed to be a result of barrier island submergence. Dinkum Sands is an example of a shallow water shoal. This linear sand body is located between Cross and Narwhal Islands, 25km northeast of Prudhoe Bay. The shoal complex is 8 km long and less than 2 km wide and has a maximum relief of 5m. Historical data reveal submergence of an island over at least a 25 year period. The proposed initial stage of shoal development occurs when longshore sediment transport between barrier islands is disrupted by numerous events of downdrift tidal inlet breaching. Reduction in the amount of available sediment to each island results in significant coastal erosion (stage 2), manifest as a landward migration of the shoreline and a reduction in barrier elevation. The final stage of the model is barrier submergence. At present the greatest accumulation of sediment on Dinkum Sands occur at the distal extremities of the shoal. These are believed to represent the location of recurved spits at either end of the island prior to submergence. Application of the submergence model to explain deepwater shoal development must await the collection of shallow (10m) whole core data.

  1. Estimating microsatellite based genetic diversity in Rhode Island Red chicken.

    PubMed

    Das, A K; Kumar, S; Rahim, A

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate microsatellite based genetic diversity in two lines (the selected RIR(S) and control line RIR(C)) of Rhode Island Red (RIR) chicken. Genomic DNA of 24 randomly selected birds maintained at Central Avian Research Institute (India) and 24 microsatellite markers were used. Microsatellite alleles were determined on 6% urea-PAGE, recorded using GelDoc system and the samples were genotyped. Nei's heterozygosity and Botstein's polymorphic information content (PIC) at each microsatellite locus were estimated. Wright's fixation indices and gene flow were estimated using POPGENE software. All the microsatellite loci were polymorphic and the estimated PIC ranged from 0.3648 (MCW0059) to 0.7819 (ADL0267) in RIR(S) and from 0.2392 (MCW0059) to 0.8620 (ADL0136) in RIR(C). Most of the loci were highly informative (PIC>0.50) in the both lines, except for five loci in RIR(S) and six loci in RIR(C) line. Nei's heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.4800 (MCW0059) to 0.8056 (ADL0267) in RIR(S) and from 0.2778 (MCW0059) to 0.875 (ADL0136) in RIR(C). Out of 24 loci, 15 (62.5%) in RIR(S) and 14 loci (58.33%) in RIR(C) revealed moderate to high negative FIS index indicating heterozygote excess for these loci in corresponding lines, but the rest revealed positive FIS indicating heterozygosity deficiency. A mean FIS across the both lines indicated overall 10.77% heterozygosity deficit and a mean FIT indicated 17.19% inbreeding co-efficient favoring homozygosity over the two lines. The mean FST indicated that 10.18% of the microsatellite variation between the two lines was due to their genetic difference. PMID:27175188

  2. Late Holocene chronology, origin, and evolution of the St. Bernard Shoals, Northern Gulf of Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Bryan E.; Kulp, Mark A.; Miner, Michael D.

    2009-12-01

    Several shore-parallel marine sand bodies lie on the Louisiana continental shelf. They are Trinity Shoal, Ship Shoal, Outer Shoal, and the St. Bernard Shoals. These shoals mark the submerged positions of ancient shorelines associated with abandoned deltas. Three of these shoals are single elongate deposits. The fourth shoal, the St. Bernard Shoals, consists of a group of discrete sand bodies ranging in size from 44 to 0.05 km2, 25 km southeast of the Chandeleur Islands in 15-18 m of water. The St. Bernard Shoals are stratigraphically above the St. Bernard delta complex, which was active 2,500-1,800 years b. p. Understanding the evolution of the St. Bernard Shoals is necessary to reconstruct the Holocene chronology of the St. Bernard delta complex and the eastern Louisiana continental shelf. For this study, 47 vibracores and 400 km of shallow seismic reflection data collected in 1987 across the Louisiana shelf were analyzed. In June 2008, 384 km of higher-resolution seismic reflection data were acquired across the study area and appended to the preexisting datasets. Vibracores were integrated with seismic profiles to identify facies and their regional distribution. Our results demonstrate that the deltaic package stratigraphically below the St. Bernard Shoals is chronologically younger than the northern distributaries, but derived from the same trunk distributary channel (Bayou la Loutre). The river eventually bypassed the northern distributaries, and began to deposit sediment further onto the continental shelf. After abandonment, the overextended delta lobe was rapidly transgressed, creating a transgressive shoreline that eventually coalesced with earlier shorelines in the region to form the Chandeleur Islands. The St. Bernard Shoals formed by the reworking of the relict distributary deposits exposed on the inner to mid shelf during and subsequent to shoreface ravinement.

  3. French Frigate Shoals reef health survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Coles, Steve L.; Rameyer, Robert

    2002-01-01

    French Frigate Shoals consists of a large (31 nm) fringing reef partially enclosing a lagoon. A basalt pinnacle (La Perouse Pinnacle) arises approximately halfway between the two ends of the arcs of the fringing reefs. Tern Island is situated at the northern end of the lagoon and is surrounded by a dredged ship channel. The lagoon becomes progressively shallower from west to east and harbors a variety of marine life including corals, fish, marine mammals, and sea turtles (Amerson 1971). In 2000, an interagency survey of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands was done to document the fauna and flora in FFS (Maragos and Gulko, 2002). During that survey, 38 stations were examined, and 41 species of stony corals were documented, the most of any of the NW Hawaiian islands (Maragos and Gulko 2002). In some of these stations, corals with abnormalities were observed. The present study aimed to expand on the 2000 survey to evaluate the lesions in areas where they were documented.

  4. Shoal, Nevada Site Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    The Shoal Site is situated on 2,560 acres of withdrawn federal lands located within the north-central portion of the Sand Springs Range in Churchill County, Nevada. The town of Fallon is the largest populated area in the region and is about 30 miles northwest of the site. The region around the Shoal Site is sparsely populated; military installations, recreation, ranching, and mining provide the dominant commercial interests. The Project Shoal underground nuclear test was part of the Vela Uniform program sponsored jointly by the U.S Department of Defense and U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Vela Uniform was a research and development program directed toward locating, detecting, and identifying underground detonations. The objective of Project Shoal was to detonate a nuclear device underground in an active seismic area to improve the United States' ability to detect, identify, and locate underground nuclear detonations.

  5. Status of breeding seabirds on the Northern Islands of the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Shobrak, Mohammed Y.; Aloufi, Abdulhadi A.

    2013-01-01

    We undertook breeding surveys between 2010 and 2011 to assess the status of breeding birds on 16 islands in the northern Saudi Arabia. Sixteen bird species were found breeding at three different seasons; i.e. winter (Osprey), spring (Caspian and Saunder’s Terns), and summer (Lesser Crested, White-cheeked, Bridled Terns). It is postulated that food availability is an important factor influencing the breeding of seabirds in the northern Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Several species laid eggs earlier in northern parts of the Red Sea than in southern parts. The predicted increases in temperatures (Ta) could have a negative effect on species survival in the future, especially on those whose nests that are in the open. Finally, disturbance, predation and egg collection were probably the main immediate threats affecting the breeding seabird species in the northern Red Sea. PMID:24955009

  6. Status of breeding seabirds on the Northern Islands of the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Shobrak, Mohammed Y; Aloufi, Abdulhadi A

    2014-07-01

    We undertook breeding surveys between 2010 and 2011 to assess the status of breeding birds on 16 islands in the northern Saudi Arabia. Sixteen bird species were found breeding at three different seasons; i.e. winter (Osprey), spring (Caspian and Saunder's Terns), and summer (Lesser Crested, White-cheeked, Bridled Terns). It is postulated that food availability is an important factor influencing the breeding of seabirds in the northern Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Several species laid eggs earlier in northern parts of the Red Sea than in southern parts. The predicted increases in temperatures (Ta ) could have a negative effect on species survival in the future, especially on those whose nests that are in the open. Finally, disturbance, predation and egg collection were probably the main immediate threats affecting the breeding seabird species in the northern Red Sea.

  7. Shoaling in juvenile guppies: the effects of body size and shoal size.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, J M; McRobert, S P

    2008-03-01

    While factors affecting shoal mate choice have been examined extensively in adult guppies (Poecilia reticulata), few studies have focused on the shoaling behavior of juveniles. In this study, juvenile guppies were tested for their ability to shoal as well as their response to shoal mates of different body size and to shoals with different numbers of individuals. In dichotomous choice tests, 10-day-old guppies (mean body length=8.83 mm), 30-day-old guppies (13.17 mm) and 50-day-old guppies (18.6mm) were given the opportunity to swim near shoals of five fish or an empty chamber. In most cases, the juvenile fish demonstrated shoaling behavior, swimming near a group of fish rather than an empty chamber, regardless of the age of the stimulus shoal. When presented with two shoals, one of similar age and body size and one of dissimilar age and body size, only the 50-day-old guppies showed a significant preference for the age-matched shoal. Similarly, when choosing between a large shoal and a small shoal, only the 50-day-old guppies spent significantly more time near the larger shoal. Thus, while juveniles at each age shoaled, only 50-day-old fish demonstrated the shoal mate discrimination seen in adult fish. PMID:18061375

  8. Colonization of the Scottish islands via long-distance Neolithic transport of red deer (Cervus elaphus)

    PubMed Central

    Mulville, Jacqueline A.; Bruford, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) have played a key role in human societies throughout history, with important cultural significance and as a source of food and materials. This relationship can be traced back to the earliest human cultures and continues to the present day. Humans are thought to be responsible for the movement of a considerable number of deer throughout history, although the majority of these movements are poorly described or understood. Studying such translocations allows us to better understand ancient human–wildlife interactions, and in the case of island colonizations, informs us about ancient human maritime practices. This study uses DNA sequences to characterise red deer genetic diversity across the Scottish islands (Inner and Outer Hebrides and Orkney) and mainland using ancient deer samples, and attempts to infer historical colonization events. We show that deer from the Outer Hebrides and Orkney are unlikely to have originated from mainland Scotland, implying that humans introduced red deer from a greater distance. Our results are also inconsistent with an origin from Ireland or Norway, suggesting long-distance maritime travel by Neolithic people to the outer Scottish Isles from an unknown source. Common haplotypes and low genetic differentiation between the Outer Hebrides and Orkney imply common ancestry and/or gene flow across these islands. Close genetic proximity between the Inner Hebrides and Ireland, however, corroborates previous studies identifying mainland Britain as a source for red deer introductions into Ireland. This study provides important information on the processes that led to the current distribution of the largest surviving indigenous land mammal in the British Isles. PMID:27053752

  9. Colonization of the Scottish islands via long-distance Neolithic transport of red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Stanton, David W G; Mulville, Jacqueline A; Bruford, Michael W

    2016-04-13

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) have played a key role in human societies throughout history, with important cultural significance and as a source of food and materials. This relationship can be traced back to the earliest human cultures and continues to the present day. Humans are thought to be responsible for the movement of a considerable number of deer throughout history, although the majority of these movements are poorly described or understood. Studying such translocations allows us to better understand ancient human-wildlife interactions, and in the case of island colonizations, informs us about ancient human maritime practices. This study uses DNA sequences to characterise red deer genetic diversity across the Scottish islands (Inner and Outer Hebrides and Orkney) and mainland using ancient deer samples, and attempts to infer historical colonization events. We show that deer from the Outer Hebrides and Orkney are unlikely to have originated from mainland Scotland, implying that humans introduced red deer from a greater distance. Our results are also inconsistent with an origin from Ireland or Norway, suggesting long-distance maritime travel by Neolithic people to the outer Scottish Isles from an unknown source. Common haplotypes and low genetic differentiation between the Outer Hebrides and Orkney imply common ancestry and/or gene flow across these islands. Close genetic proximity between the Inner Hebrides and Ireland, however, corroborates previous studies identifying mainland Britain as a source for red deer introductions into Ireland. This study provides important information on the processes that led to the current distribution of the largest surviving indigenous land mammal in the British Isles. PMID:27053752

  10. Paleomagnetism of mesozoic red chert from Cedros Island and the San Benito Islands, Baja California, Mexico revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagstrum, Jonathan T.; Sedlock, Richard L.

    1992-02-01

    Previous paleomagnetic study of Mesozoic subduction-complex rocks on Cedros Island and the San Benito Islands, Mexico, shows that these rocks have been remagnetized; a single-polarity magnetization was found in chert sections and underlying pillow basalt deposited during a mixed-polarity interval of the geomagnetic field. Reanalysis of the Cedros and San Benito chert samples (101 total) shows that 13 samples also retain a high blocking-temperature component of magnetization (600° to 680°C) indicating a polarity stratigraphy and deposition of the bedded chert near 2° ± 3° paleolatitude. These data are similar to those for red chert in California and Japan implying that many of the Mesozoic ophiolitic chert sequences now exposed around the Pacific rim were initially deposited within the equatorial zone of high biologic productivity. These new data also support accretion of the Cedros and San Benito chert to the American margin at tropical paleolatitudes requiring significant northward translation (and clockwise rotation) to bring them to their present position with respect to the continental interior.

  11. 78 FR 56980 - Muscle Shoals Reservation Redevelopment, Colbert County, Alabama

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... Muscle Shoals Reservation Redevelopment, Colbert County, Alabama AGENCY: Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA... its final environmental impact statement (EIS) for the redevelopment of the Muscle Shoals Reservation... Statement for the Muscle Shoals Reservation Redevelopment was published in the Federal Register on...

  12. Fishing from past to present: continuity and resilience of red abalone fisheries on the Channel Islands, California.

    PubMed

    Braje, Todd J; Erlandson, Jon M; Rick, Torben C; Dayton, Paul K; Hatch, Marco B A

    2009-06-01

    Archaeological data from coastal shell middens provide a window into the structure of ancient marine ecosystems and the nature of human impacts on fisheries that often span millennia. For decades Channel Island archaeologists have studied Middle Holocene shell middens visually dominated by large and often whole shells of the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens). Here we use modern ecological data, historical accounts, commercial red abalone catch records, and zooarchaeological data to examine long-term spatial and temporal variation in the productivity of red abalone fisheries on the Northern Channel Islands, California (USA). Historical patterns of abundance, in which red abalone densities increase from east to west through the islands, extend deep into the Holocene. The correlation of historical and archaeological data argue for long-term spatial continuity in productive red abalone fisheries and a resilience of abalone populations despite dramatic ecological changes and intensive human predation spanning more than 8000 years. Archaeological, historical, and ecological data suggest that California kelp forests and red abalone populations are structured by a complex combination of top-down and bottom-up controls.

  13. A new species of Hetereleotris (Perciformes: Gobiidae) from Farasan Island (Red Sea).

    PubMed

    Kovačić, Marcelo; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Mal, Ahmad O

    2014-07-31

    A new species of the genus Hetereleotris is described from Farasan Island, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea, on the basis of a single specimen. Hetereleotris dorsovittata sp. nov is unique among the known sixteen species of Hetereleotris, except for H. diademata and H. psammophila, in the combination of the absence of head canals and lack of squamation. The low count of pectoral-fin rays (14) is only overlap with H. psammophila (14 or 15), whereas all other Hetereleotris species have a higher number of pectoral-fin rays. The new species differs from H. psammophila in having more soft rays in the dorsal and anal fins, by the arrangement of papillae in the preoperculo-mandibular row i and by coloration. The single specimen was collected in the large lagoon at the base of an isolated small coral patch at a depth of 1m. 

  14. Ecology and behavior of Gecarcoidea natalis, the Christmas Island red crab, during the annual breeding migration.

    PubMed

    Adamczewsk, A M; Morris, S

    2001-06-01

    The terrestrial crab Gecarcoidea natalis is endemic to the forests of Christmas Island but must migrate each year to the coast to breed. During 1993 and 1995, radio-tracking, mark and recapture, and counting methods were used to establish the routes, walking speeds, direction of travel, and destinations of migrating crabs, as well as crab numbers and distribution. The density of crabs ranged from 0.09 to 0.57 crabs per square meter, which gave a population estimate of 43.7 million adult crabs on the island. During the dry season the crabs were relatively inactive but on arrival of the wet season immediately began their migration. The crabs generally walked in straight lines, and most crabs from around the Island traveled toward the northwest shore instead of simply walking toward the nearest shore. The maximum recorded distance walked by a red crab in one day was 1460 m, but the mean was 680 m per day in 1993 and 330 m in 1995. Comparing the 1993 and 1995 study seasons, there was a 3-week difference in the timing of the start of the migration, but the spawning date was fixed by the lunar phase and took place 17 to 18 days after mating. In 1993, late rain prompted a "rushed" migration and crabs walked directly to their shore destinations; in contrast, in 1995 most crabs made stops of 1 to 7 days during the downward migration. By giving the crabs a chance to feed along the way and minimizing the time that the population was concentrated near the shore, these stops may be important in ensuring that the animals have enough food after the long dry season. Furthermore, this behavior implies that the crabs are able to judge how far away they are from the shore during the migration.

  15. Morphological and Color Differences between Island and Mainland Populations in the Mexican Red Rump Tarantula, Brachypelma vagans

    PubMed Central

    Vilchis-Nestor, Claudia A.; Machkour-M'Rabet, Salima; Barriga-Sosa, Irene de los A.; Winterton, Peter; Hénaut, Yann

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of species into new ecosystems, especially in small and isolated regions such as islands, offers an excellent opportunity to answer questions of the evolutionary processes occurring in natural conditions on a scale that could never be achieved in laboratory conditions. In this study, we examined the Mexican red rump tarantula Brachypelma vagans Ausserer (Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae), a species that was introduced to Cozumel Island, Mexico, 40 years ago. This introduction provides an exceptional model to study effects such as morphological variation between island populations and those on the mainland in open habitats facing the island. Intraspecific variation related to the color polymorphism was compared. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotypic differences between continental populations of B. vagans and the introduced population on Cozumel Island. Phenotypic difference was evaluated using two approaches: 1) comparison of the morphometric measurements of adult and juvenile individuals at the local scale and between continental and island populations, and 2) comparison of individual color polymorphism between mainland and island populations. Two locations were sampled within the continental part of the Yucatan peninsula and two on the island of Cozumel. The number of samples analyzed at each site was 30 individuals. The morphometric results showed significant differences between continental and island populations, with bigger individuals on the island. In addition, three new variations of the typical color pattern of B. vagans recorded so far were observed. This study opens the door to further investigations to elucidate the origin of the phenotypic variation of the isolated individuals on Cozumel Island. Also, the widest range of color morphs found for a tarantula species is reported. PMID:24224805

  16. Morphological and color differences between island and mainland populations in the Mexican red rump tarantula, Brachypelma vagans.

    PubMed

    Vilchis-Nestor, Claudia A; Machkour-M'rabet, Salima; de Los A Barriga-Sosa, Irene; Winterton, Peter; Hénaut, Yann

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of species into new ecosystems, especially in small and isolated regions such as islands, offers an excellent opportunity to answer questions of the evolutionary processes occurring in natural conditions on a scale that could never be achieved in laboratory conditions. In this study, we examined the Mexican red rump tarantula Brachypelma vagans Ausserer (Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae), a species that was introduced to Cozumel Island, Mexico, 40 years ago. This introduction provides an exceptional model to study effects such as morphological variation between island populations and those on the mainland in open habitats facing the island. Intraspecific variation related to the color polymorphism was compared. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotypic differences between continental populations of B. vagans and the introduced population on Cozumel Island. Phenotypic difference was evaluated using two approaches: 1) comparison of the morphometric measurements of adult and juvenile individuals at the local scale and between continental and island populations, and 2) comparison of individual color polymorphism between mainland and island populations. Two locations were sampled within the continental part of the Yucatan peninsula and two on the island of Cozumel. The number of samples analyzed at each site was 30 individuals. The morphometric results showed significant differences between continental and island populations, with bigger individuals on the island. In addition, three new variations of the typical color pattern of B. vagans recorded so far were observed. This study opens the door to further investigations to elucidate the origin of the phenotypic variation of the isolated individuals on Cozumel Island. Also, the widest range of color morphs found for a tarantula species is reported.

  17. Morphological and color differences between island and mainland populations in the Mexican red rump tarantula, Brachypelma vagans.

    PubMed

    Vilchis-Nestor, Claudia A; Machkour-M'rabet, Salima; de Los A Barriga-Sosa, Irene; Winterton, Peter; Hénaut, Yann

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of species into new ecosystems, especially in small and isolated regions such as islands, offers an excellent opportunity to answer questions of the evolutionary processes occurring in natural conditions on a scale that could never be achieved in laboratory conditions. In this study, we examined the Mexican red rump tarantula Brachypelma vagans Ausserer (Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae), a species that was introduced to Cozumel Island, Mexico, 40 years ago. This introduction provides an exceptional model to study effects such as morphological variation between island populations and those on the mainland in open habitats facing the island. Intraspecific variation related to the color polymorphism was compared. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotypic differences between continental populations of B. vagans and the introduced population on Cozumel Island. Phenotypic difference was evaluated using two approaches: 1) comparison of the morphometric measurements of adult and juvenile individuals at the local scale and between continental and island populations, and 2) comparison of individual color polymorphism between mainland and island populations. Two locations were sampled within the continental part of the Yucatan peninsula and two on the island of Cozumel. The number of samples analyzed at each site was 30 individuals. The morphometric results showed significant differences between continental and island populations, with bigger individuals on the island. In addition, three new variations of the typical color pattern of B. vagans recorded so far were observed. This study opens the door to further investigations to elucidate the origin of the phenotypic variation of the isolated individuals on Cozumel Island. Also, the widest range of color morphs found for a tarantula species is reported. PMID:24224805

  18. Feeding ecology of long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis wintering on the Nantucket Shoals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Timothy P.; Veit, Richard R.; Perry, Matthew C.

    2009-01-01

    A substantial proportion, perhaps 30%, of the North American breeding population of Long-tailed Ducks (Clangula hyemalis) winter in the vicinity of Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. These birds spend the night on Nantucket Sound and commute during daylight hours to the Nantucket Shoals, which extend about 65 km offshore from the southeastern corner of Nantucket. Strip transects done from a single-engine plane in 1997 and 1998 indicated that Long-tailed Ducks foraged over the shallower (<= 20 m depth) portions of the Nantucket Shoals, up to 70 km offshore. Diet analyses of ten birds collected in February 1999 and five in December 2006 showed that they fed principally (106.6 +/- 42.0 individuals per crop) on Gammarus annulatus, a pelagic amphipod that often forms large aggregations, and is consumed by several species of fish and marine mammals. Our findings emphasize the importance of conservation of the Nantucket Shoals and the prevention of oil spills or other potentially harmful accidents.

  19. EXERCISE IN THE TERRESTRIAL CHRISTMAS ISLAND RED CRAB GECARCOIDEA NATALIS - ENERGETICS OF LOCOMOTION

    PubMed

    Adamczewska; Morris

    1994-03-01

    The respiratory and circulatory physiology of exercising Christmas Island red crabs Gecarcoidea natalis were investigated with respect to their annual breeding migration. Red crabs were allowed to walk for up to 45 min. During this exercise period, the functioning of the circulatory system in gas transport and the energy status of the red crabs were quantified. Energy production during exercise required both aerobic and anaerobic contributions. The aerobic scope of G. natalis was low, with only a doubling of the resting rate of oxygen consumption (resting M(dot)O2=95±15 µmol kg-1 min-1). Maximal O2 consumption was attained within the first 5 min of exercise and the level remained stable thereafter. The anaerobic contribution to energy production was directly related to the speed of locomotion. l-lactate levels in blood and leg muscle were similar throughout the exercise period; blood lactate concentration was 33.39±2.29 mmol l-1 after 45 min of exercise. Heart rate in resting animals was 56±7 beats min-1. At the onset of exercise, heart rate also doubled, but without a significant increase in cardiac output. Increased O2 delivery was facilitated by increased extraction from the blood. During the 45 min of exercise, glucose levels increased rapidly in the muscle tissue (from 2.30±0.54 to 8.78±1.20 mmol l-1) and subsequently in the blood (from 1.22±0.26 to 2.12±0.17 mmol l-1), fuelling increased glycolysis during locomotion. The energy production from stored glucose/glycogen was sufficient to support the energetic needs of locomotion, since the energy charge remained stable at 0.82. Haemolymph l-lactate levels in crabs sampled in the field after migration were high compared with levels in many crustacean species but equivalent to l-lactate levels in laboratory animals exercised for less than 10 min. During their migration, therefore, the red crabs avoid exceptional l-lactate build-up in the blood by either walking very slowly or intermittently. However, G

  20. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: an assessment of coral reef fishes in the US Pacific Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zgliczynski, B. J.; Williams, I. D.; Schroeder, R. E.; Nadon, M. O.; Richards, B. L.; Sandin, S. A.

    2013-09-01

    Widespread declines among many coral reef fisheries have led scientists and managers to become increasingly concerned over the extinction risk facing some species. To aid in assessing the extinction risks facing coral reef fishes, large-scale censuses of the abundance and distribution of individual species are critically important. We use fisheries-independent data collected as part of the NOAA Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program from 2000 to 2009 to describe the range and density across the US Pacific of coral reef fishes included on The International Union for the Conservation of Nature's (IUCN) 2011 Red List of Threatened Species. Forty-five species, including sharks, rays, groupers, humphead wrasse ( Cheilinus undulatus), and bumphead parrotfish ( Bolbometopon muricatum), included on the IUCN List, were recorded in the US Pacific Islands. Most species were generally rare in the US Pacific with the exception of a few species, principally small groupers and reef sharks. The greatest diversity and densities of IUCN-listed fishes were recorded at remote and uninhabited islands of the Pacific Remote Island Areas; in general, lower densities were observed at reefs of inhabited islands. Our findings complement IUCN assessment efforts, emphasize the efficacy of large-scale assessment and monitoring efforts in providing quantitative data on reef fish assemblages, and highlight the importance of protecting populations at remote and uninhabited islands where some species included on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species can be observed in abundance.

  1. EXERCISE IN THE TERRESTRIAL CHRISTMAS ISLAND RED CRAB GECARCOIDEA NATALIS - BLOOD GAS TRANSPORT

    PubMed

    Adamczewska; Morris

    1994-03-01

    The respiratory and circulatory physiology of the terrestrial Christmas Island red crab Gecarcoidea natalis was investigated with respect to exercise in the context of its annual breeding migration. Red crabs were allowed to walk for predetermined periods of up to 45 min. During this exercise period, blood gas measurements were made on venous, pulmonary and arterial samples to assess the function of the lungs in gas exchange and the performance of the circulatory system in gas transport and to determine the role and importance of the haemocyanin. The lungs of G. natalis were very efficient at O2 uptake, pulmonary blood being 80­90 % saturated throughout the 45 min exercise period. The maximum O2-carrying capacity was 1.1 mmol l-1, and haemocyanin (Hc) delivered 86 % of oxygen in resting crabs and 97 % during exercise. Oxygen delivery to the tissues was diffusion-limited during exercise. Indirect evidence, from the changes in haemolymph pH during transit through the lungs, suggested that the lung is the site of CO2 excretion. The Bohr shift was high at high pH (pH 7.8­7.5, phi=-1.23) but decreased at low pH (pH 7.1­6.8, phi=-0.48). The decreased Hc affinity for O2 during the exercise period facilitated O2 delivery to the tissues without impairing O2 loading at the lungs. The decrease in pH was sufficient to explain the change of affinity of Hc for O2 during the exercise period. The marked acidosis (0.8 pH unit decrease) was largely metabolic in origin, especially during sustained locomotion, but less than could be predicted from concomitant lactate production.

  2. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency alters erythroblastic island formation, steady-state erythropoiesis and red blood cell lifespan in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Stuart T.; Midwinter, Robyn G.; Coupland, Lucy A.; Kong, Stephanie; Berger, Birgit S.; Yeo, Jia Hao; Andrade, Osvaldo Cooley; Cromer, Deborah; Suarna, Cacang; Lam, Magda; Maghzal, Ghassan J.; Chong, Beng H.; Parish, Christopher R.; Stocker, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 is critical for iron recycling during red blood cell turnover, whereas its impact on steady-state erythropoiesis and red blood cell lifespan is not known. We show here that in 8- to 14-week old mice, heme oxygenase-1 deficiency adversely affects steady-state erythropoiesis in the bone marrow. This is manifested by a decrease in Ter-119+-erythroid cells, abnormal adhesion molecule expression on macrophages and erythroid cells, and a greatly diminished ability to form erythroblastic islands. Compared with wild-type animals, red blood cell size and hemoglobin content are decreased, while the number of circulating red blood cells is increased in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice, overall leading to microcytic anemia. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency increases oxidative stress in circulating red blood cells and greatly decreases the frequency of macrophages expressing the phosphatidylserine receptor Tim4 in bone marrow, spleen and liver. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency increases spleen weight and Ter119+-erythroid cells in the spleen, although α4β1-integrin expression by these cells and splenic macrophages positive for vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 are both decreased. Red blood cell lifespan is prolonged in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. Our findings suggest that while macrophages and relevant receptors required for red blood cell formation and removal are substantially depleted in heme oxygenase-1 deficient mice, the extent of anemia in these mice may be ameliorated by the prolonged lifespan of their oxidatively stressed erythrocytes. PMID:25682599

  3. Variability in foraging behaviour of red-footed boobies nesting on Europa Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, Loriane; Cotté, Cédric; Prudor, Aurélien; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2016-04-01

    Seabirds are considered to be good indicators of the marine environment. However, little is known about the effects of environmental variability on the foraging behaviour of tropical seabirds. Red-footed boobies (RFB) nesting on Europa Island (Mozambique Channel) were fitted with GPS devices over four years and different breeding stages. We first show that the durations of foraging trips vary extensively according to the stage of the breeding, being short during brooding, intermediate during incubation and long during fledging. This result highlights the importance of considering breeding stage when conducting comparisons of foraging between sites or years. In addition, we show that RFB adjusted their foraging behaviour between years (2003, 2011, 2012 and 2013) according to the prevailing environmental conditions. During 2011, RFB made longer foraging trips with larger area-restricted search (ARS) zones over a larger total surface area, suggesting that the foraging conditions were probably poor. This year was characterized by a decrease of the major environmental drivers of the Mozambique Channel system, i.e. particularly low chlorophyll concentrations in the northern part of the Mozambique Channel, as well as a weak eddy activity. This observation suggests that environmental conditions may have altered the southward transport and concentration processes structuring the trophic chain, leading to adverse conditions for a central-place forager like the RFB. Our results emphasize that environmental and breeding stage variation should be taken into account to better understand the distribution of these predators in marine tropical ecosystems.

  4. Chemical ecology of red mangroves, Rhizophora mangle, in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fry, Brian; Cormier, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The coastal red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle L., was introduced to the Hawaiian Islands from Florida 100 yr ago and has spread to cover many shallow intertidal shorelines that once were unvegetated mudflats. We used a field survey approach to test whether mangroves at the land-ocean interface could indicate watershed inputs, especially whether measurements of leaf chemistry could identify coasts with high nutrient inputs and high mangrove productivities. During 2001-2002, we sampled mangroves on dry leeward coasts of southern Moloka'i and O'ahu for 14 leaf variables including stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (delta13C, delta15N), macronutrients (C, N, P), trace elements (B, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), and cations (Na, Mg, K, Ca). A new modeling approach using leaf Na, N, P, and delta13C indicated two times higher productivity for mangroves in urban versus rural settings, with rural mangroves more limited by low N and P nutrients and high-nutrient urban mangroves more limited by freshwater inputs and salt stress. Leaf chemistry also helped identify other aspects of mangrove dynamics: especially leaf delta15N values helped identify groundwater N inputs, and a combination of strongly correlated variables (C, N, P, B, Cu, Mg, K, Ca) tracked the mangrove growth response to nutrient loading. Overall, the chemical marker approach is an efficient way to survey watershed forcing of mangrove forest dynamics.

  5. 18. Photocopy, "Light house for ship shoals, details of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy, "Light house for ship shoals, details of the apparatus for inserting the piles into the shoal, sheet no. 53", National Archives (8" x 10" print from 4" x 5" negative) - Ship Shoal Light Station, Gulf of Mexico, Theriot, Terrebonne Parish, LA

  6. Red Iron-Pigmented Tooth Enamel in a Multituberculate Mammal from the Late Cretaceous Transylvanian "Haţeg Island".

    PubMed

    Smith, Thierry; Codrea, Vlad

    2015-01-01

    Mammals that inhabit islands are characterized by peculiar morphologies in comparison to their mainland relatives. Here we report the discovery of a partial skull associated with the lower jaws of a Late Cretaceous (≈70 Ma) multituberculate mammal from the Carpathian "Haţeg Island" of Transylvania, Romania. The mammal belongs to the Kogaionidae, one of the rare families that survived the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction in Europe. The excellent preservation of this specimen allows for the first time description of the complete dentition of a kogaionid and demonstration that the enigmatic Barbatodon transylvanicus presents a mosaic of primitive and derived characters, and that it is phylogenetically basal among the Cimolodonta. Another peculiarity is the presence of red pigmentation in its tooth enamel. The red coloration is present on the anterior side of the incisors and on the cusps of most of the teeth. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) analysis reveals that the pigmented enamel contains iron, as in living placentals. Such a red pigmentation is known in living soricine shrews and many families of rodents, where it is thought to increase the resistance of the enamel to the abrasion that occurs during "grinding" mastication. The extended pattern of red pigment distribution in Barbatodon is more similar to that in eulipotyplan insectivores than to that in rodents and suggests a very hard diet and, importantly, demonstrates that its grasping incisors were not ever-growing. As inferred for other endemic Transylvanian vertebrates such as dwarf herbivorous dinosaurs and unusual theropod dinosaurs, insularity was probably the main factor of survival of such a primitive mammalian lineage relative to other mainland contemporaries of the Northern hemisphere.

  7. Red Iron-Pigmented Tooth Enamel in a Multituberculate Mammal from the Late Cretaceous Transylvanian "Haţeg Island".

    PubMed

    Smith, Thierry; Codrea, Vlad

    2015-01-01

    Mammals that inhabit islands are characterized by peculiar morphologies in comparison to their mainland relatives. Here we report the discovery of a partial skull associated with the lower jaws of a Late Cretaceous (≈70 Ma) multituberculate mammal from the Carpathian "Haţeg Island" of Transylvania, Romania. The mammal belongs to the Kogaionidae, one of the rare families that survived the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction in Europe. The excellent preservation of this specimen allows for the first time description of the complete dentition of a kogaionid and demonstration that the enigmatic Barbatodon transylvanicus presents a mosaic of primitive and derived characters, and that it is phylogenetically basal among the Cimolodonta. Another peculiarity is the presence of red pigmentation in its tooth enamel. The red coloration is present on the anterior side of the incisors and on the cusps of most of the teeth. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) analysis reveals that the pigmented enamel contains iron, as in living placentals. Such a red pigmentation is known in living soricine shrews and many families of rodents, where it is thought to increase the resistance of the enamel to the abrasion that occurs during "grinding" mastication. The extended pattern of red pigment distribution in Barbatodon is more similar to that in eulipotyplan insectivores than to that in rodents and suggests a very hard diet and, importantly, demonstrates that its grasping incisors were not ever-growing. As inferred for other endemic Transylvanian vertebrates such as dwarf herbivorous dinosaurs and unusual theropod dinosaurs, insularity was probably the main factor of survival of such a primitive mammalian lineage relative to other mainland contemporaries of the Northern hemisphere. PMID:26177465

  8. Estimates of Cl atom concentrations and hydrocarbon kinetic reactivity in surface air at Appledore Island, Maine (USA), during International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation/Chemistry of Halogens at the Isles of Shoals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pszenny, Alexander A. P.; Fischer, Emily V.; Russo, Rachel S.; Sive, Barkley C.; Varner, Ruth K.

    2007-05-01

    Average hydroxyl radical (OH) to chlorine atom (Cl·) ratios ranging from 45 to 119 were determined from variability-lifetime relationships for selected nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) in surface air from six different transport sectors arriving at Appledore Island, Maine, during July 2004. Multiplying these ratios by an assumed average OH concentration of 2.5 × 106 cm-3 yielded estimates of Cl· concentrations of 2.2 to 5.6 × 104 cm-3. Summed reaction rates of methane and more than 30 abundant NMHCs with OH and Cl· suggest that Cl· reactions increased the kinetic reactivity of hydrocarbons by 16% to 30% over that due to OH alone in air associated with the various transport sectors. Isoprene and other abundant biogenic alkenes were the most important hydrocarbon contributors after methane to overall kinetic reactivity.

  9. Kin assortment in juvenile shoals in wild guppy populations.

    PubMed

    Piyapong, C; Butlin, R K; Faria, J J; Scruton, K J; Wang, J; Krause, J

    2011-05-01

    Grouping provides many potential benefits to individuals in terms of foraging and anti-predator protection. However, it has been suggested that individuals could gain additional benefits in terms of indirect fitness by grouping with kin. Surprisingly, the genetic composition of wild fish shoals and the importance of kin-associated shoaling remain poorly understood. The Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) has life history traits that might promote kin structure of shoals such as internal fertilisation and small brood size in contrast to many other fish species. Even though previous studies did not find any indication of kin structure in shoals of adult guppies, it is possible that related juveniles remain together in shoals, partly because of lower mobility and because the advantages of kin association may change with age. Using 10 microsatellite markers, we conducted a genetic analysis on 40 shoals from four populations. Pair-wise relatedness was inferred using a modified version of the software package COLONY and permutation tests were conducted to test the hypothesis that kin occur together in juvenile shoals more often than expected by chance. The frequency of sib dyads among juveniles within shoals was significantly larger than that between shoals in two high predation populations but not in two low predation populations. This finding contributes to the understanding of factors underlying shoal composition and highlights the potential of recent methodological advances for detecting such relationships.

  10. Kin assortment in juvenile shoals in wild guppy populations

    PubMed Central

    Piyapong, C; Butlin, R K; Faria, J J; Scruton, K J; Wang, J; Krause, J

    2011-01-01

    Grouping provides many potential benefits to individuals in terms of foraging and anti-predator protection. However, it has been suggested that individuals could gain additional benefits in terms of indirect fitness by grouping with kin. Surprisingly, the genetic composition of wild fish shoals and the importance of kin-associated shoaling remain poorly understood. The Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) has life history traits that might promote kin structure of shoals such as internal fertilisation and small brood size in contrast to many other fish species. Even though previous studies did not find any indication of kin structure in shoals of adult guppies, it is possible that related juveniles remain together in shoals, partly because of lower mobility and because the advantages of kin association may change with age. Using 10 microsatellite markers, we conducted a genetic analysis on 40 shoals from four populations. Pair-wise relatedness was inferred using a modified version of the software package COLONY and permutation tests were conducted to test the hypothesis that kin occur together in juvenile shoals more often than expected by chance. The frequency of sib dyads among juveniles within shoals was significantly larger than that between shoals in two high predation populations but not in two low predation populations. This finding contributes to the understanding of factors underlying shoal composition and highlights the potential of recent methodological advances for detecting such relationships. PMID:20823907

  11. Egg production, egg quality and crop content of Rhode Island Red hens grazing on natural tropical vegetation.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Khaled Abouelezz Fouad; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald; Solorio-Sanchez, Javier Francisco

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the suitability of the outdoor system for Rhode Island Red hens under the tropical conditions of southern Mexico. Twelve floor pens, each containing four birds, were divided randomly into two groups. The first group was raised indoors only, while each of the second group replicates had access to an outdoor area with natural-grown vegetation from 0800 to 1700 hours daily. Both groups fed ad libitum on a commercial layers diet. The results revealed no differences in body weight between treatments. The outdoor group recorded significantly higher egg laying rate (86.90 vs. 78.05 %), higher egg mass (50.66 vs. 45.30 g egg/hen/day), and higher feed intake (103.70 vs. 97.67 g/day) versus the indoor group. The outdoor group had eggs with darker yellow yolks (9.46 vs. 5.46), lower yolk, and higher albumen proportions (P < 0.05) versus the indoor group. The crop content of the outdoor hens consisted of 86.55 % concentrated feed, 6.30 % plant material, 2.27 % grit stones, 1.69 % snails and oyster shells, 1.25 % seeds, 0.95 % farm wastes, and 0.99 % insects, worms, and larvae. Of the outdoor hens, 43.1 % was observed to be in the range at each scanning time. The outdoor system in the tropics had beneficial effects on Rhode Island Red hen performance, and the hens utilized the outdoor area effectively and obtained various feed items. PMID:22820940

  12. EUCOLEUS BOEHMI INFECTION IN THE NASAL CONCHAE AND PARANASAL SINUSES OF RED FOX (VULPES VULPES) ON PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND, CANADA.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Alfonso; Aburto, Enrique; Jones, Kathleen; Robbins, William; Conboy, Gary

    2016-04-28

    Eucoleus boehmi (Nematoda: Capillariidae) occurs in the nasal conchae and paranasal sinuses of wild and domestic canids. We surveyed the red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) on Prince Edward Island, Canada, for E. boehmi infection and characterized the associated histopathology. Nasal capillarid infections were detected based on histologic examination of three coronal sections of the nasal cavity and by centrifugal flotation examination (CFE) of rectal feces. Capillarids were detected in histologic sections in 28 of 36 (78%) foxes; detection occurred most frequently in the caudal section (28 foxes) and least in the rostral section (10 foxes). Adult worm morphology was typical for capillarids (stichosome esophagus, bacillary bands, bipolar plugged eggs); E. boehmi eggs were specifically identified based on the characteristic pitted shell wall surface. Adult worms were detected in histologic sections in all 28 and E. boehmi eggs in 21 of the positive foxes. No eggs of Eucoleus aerophilus were observed in any of the sections. Affected foxes had an eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis with goblet cell hyperplasia. Eggs of E. aerophilus were detected on CFE in 20 of 36 (56%) foxes; 19 of the histologically positive foxes were coinfected with E. aerophilus. Eggs of E. boehmi were detected on CFE in 26 of 36 (72%) foxes and were consistent in size and morphology with those described from wild canids, but they differed from those reported from cases of infection in dogs. Prevalence based on identification of eggs on histologic section or CFE indicated 27 of 36 (75%) red foxes examined were infected with E. boehmi.

  13. EUCOLEUS BOEHMI INFECTION IN THE NASAL CONCHAE AND PARANASAL SINUSES OF RED FOX (VULPES VULPES) ON PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND, CANADA.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Alfonso; Aburto, Enrique; Jones, Kathleen; Robbins, William; Conboy, Gary

    2016-04-28

    Eucoleus boehmi (Nematoda: Capillariidae) occurs in the nasal conchae and paranasal sinuses of wild and domestic canids. We surveyed the red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) on Prince Edward Island, Canada, for E. boehmi infection and characterized the associated histopathology. Nasal capillarid infections were detected based on histologic examination of three coronal sections of the nasal cavity and by centrifugal flotation examination (CFE) of rectal feces. Capillarids were detected in histologic sections in 28 of 36 (78%) foxes; detection occurred most frequently in the caudal section (28 foxes) and least in the rostral section (10 foxes). Adult worm morphology was typical for capillarids (stichosome esophagus, bacillary bands, bipolar plugged eggs); E. boehmi eggs were specifically identified based on the characteristic pitted shell wall surface. Adult worms were detected in histologic sections in all 28 and E. boehmi eggs in 21 of the positive foxes. No eggs of Eucoleus aerophilus were observed in any of the sections. Affected foxes had an eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis with goblet cell hyperplasia. Eggs of E. aerophilus were detected on CFE in 20 of 36 (56%) foxes; 19 of the histologically positive foxes were coinfected with E. aerophilus. Eggs of E. boehmi were detected on CFE in 26 of 36 (72%) foxes and were consistent in size and morphology with those described from wild canids, but they differed from those reported from cases of infection in dogs. Prevalence based on identification of eggs on histologic section or CFE indicated 27 of 36 (75%) red foxes examined were infected with E. boehmi. PMID:26967142

  14. Distribution and textural character of surficial sediments, Isles Dernieres to Ship Shoal region, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, S.J.; Circe, R. ); Penland, S. )

    1989-09-01

    Since 1986, the US Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey have undertaken field studies of the physical processes responsible for the widespread and extremely rapid coastal erosion of Louisiana's barriers along the Mississippi River delta plain coast. The study area encompasses the coastal and inner shelf region from Raccoon Point to Sandy Point and includes a database of 12-m long vibracores, surface grab samples, sidescan sonar, high resolution seismic reflection profiles, and precision hydrographic profiles. This paper presents results in the coastal-shelf sector that includes the Isles Dernieres barrier island chain seaward almost 30 km to Ship Shoal. The surface and near-surface sediments of the region reflect fluvial and nearshore marine origin with pervasive evidence of winnowing and reworking by marine processes associated with frequent tropical storms and the passage of winter cold fronts. Beach sediments are remarkably uniform in grain size (fine quartz sand), except for the often abundant presence of carbonate shell debris, and are generally well to very well sorted. The shoreface and inner shelf are mantled with muddy sands and sandy muds, whereas, Ship Shoal is almost wholly fine quartz sand, similar in many sedimentologic respects to the Isles Dernieres. The results are consistent with the model of coastal evolution, presented in 1988, in which Ship Shoal is the prototypical example of a drowned coastal barrier undergoing submarine reworking and landward migration in pace with the rapid rates of sea level rise and subsidence.

  15. Strategies for migration in the terrestrial christmas island red crab gecarcoidea natalis: intermittent versus continuous locomotion

    PubMed

    Adamczewska; Morris

    1998-12-01

    The terrestrial red crab Gecarcoidea natalis undertakes an annual breeding migration and must sustain locomotion for prolonged periods. The migrating crabs must travel a specific distance in a fixed time and can either walk at a constant speed or walk faster for short periods and then pause to feed or rest. To simulate the potential differences between continuous and intermittent locomotion during the migration, red crabs were sampled after walking at a voluntary speed for 5 or 20 min without pausing or after 20 min of enforced walking intermittently at approximately twice that speed. The respiratory and metabolic status of the crabs was investigated during the different exercise regimes to assess which strategy might be more advantageous during the migration. The gills and lungs appeared to function similarly in gas exchange, and the PO2 in the haemolymph was 8.2 kPa which fully saturated the haemocyanin with O2. The uptake of O2 by red crabs was diffusion-limited and the diffusion coefficient (Ldiff) varied from 0.53 in resting crabs to 0. 8 post-exercise. Post-exercise, red crabs experienced a mixed respiratory/metabolic acidosis which was greatest (0.2 pH units) in crabs walking intermittently, i.e. at a higher speed. Haemolymph l-lactate concentrations peaked at 5 mmol l-1 immediately post-exercise in the intermittent exercise group, whereas after 20 min of continuous exercise haemolymph l-lactate continued to increase, reaching a maximum of 2.5 mmol l-1 at 1 h post-exercise. l-Lactate recovered slowly to basal levels within 5 h. The maximum rate of l-lactate clearance from the haemolymph was only 1.75 mmol l-1 h-1, and short pauses in exercise were insufficient for substantial l-lactate reoxidation. Exercise regimes in the laboratory were within the locomotor speeds determined for migrating red crabs, which overall have a mean walking speed close to their aerobic limit but periodically pause and also exceed this limit by three- to fourfold.

  16. Temporal and spatial variability of ooid sand shoals: Comparison of Mississippian of Kentucky and Quaternary of Bahamas

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, M.R. )

    1989-08-01

    An examination of the lithology and topography of Andros Island, Bahamas, reveals it is a Pleistocene ooid sand shoal. A comparison with Joulters Cays (a modern ooid sand shoal directly to the north) shows that much of the original depositional topography is preserved through at least one cycle of sea level highstand and lowstand. Both the Pleistocene and the Holocene ooid sand bodies are a few kilometers to tens of kilometers wide. The total vertical relief of a single episode of Quaternary ooid sand deposition is more than 10 m and includes accumulation in tidal channels, shallow flat areas, and eolian dunes. Today, much of Andros Island is within 2 m of present sea level and is the site of a belt several kilometers wide consisting of muddy tidal flat sediments overlying an exposure surface. The site of ooid sand deposition and shoal complex formation is not continuous along shorelines, especially windward margins, but shifts abruptly along the margins of platforms as a result of minor fluctuations of sea level. Thus, it should be expected that ooid sand shoals (ancient and modern) should be in direct lateral and vertical contact with lagoons, tidal flats, and reefs. The Mississippian Slade Formation contains many of the features of Quaternary ooid sand accumulation: abrupt vertical and lateral gradations between oolitic grainstones, packstones, and lime mudstones, vertical relief of individual oolitic sedimentary packages up to 30 m (perhaps with eolian dunes) and numerous exposure surfaces of varying intensities. These characteristics suggest that this formation represents a time of rapid fluctuations of relative sea level and abrupt shifts in the sites of ooid sand shoal complexes.

  17. Holocene sand shoals offshore of the Mississippi River delta plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Penland, Shea; Suter, John R.; McBride, Randolph A.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Kindinger, Jack G.; Boyd, Ron

    1989-01-01

    Collectively, these sand shoals represent a large potential source of aggregate for shoreline restoration and erosion control as well as possible hard mineral resources. Scientifically, these shoals provide insight into the processes which control coastal evolution and shelf sand development under the condition of relative sea level rise.

  18. Checklist of Recent thecideoid brachiopods from the Indian Ocean and Red Sea, with a description of a new species of Thecidellina from Europa Island and a re-description of T. blochmanni Dall from Christmas Island.

    PubMed

    Logan, Alan; Hoffmann, Jana; Lüter, Carsten

    2015-09-08

    Compilation of a checklist of Recent thecideoid brachiopods from the Indian Ocean and Red Sea indicates that members of this superfamily are represented by a small number of species. The subfamily Lacazellinae is represented by Ospreyella maldiviana from the Maldive Islands but the presence of Lacazella cannot yet be confirmed in the Indian Ocean as the holotype of Lacazella mauritiana from Mauritius is lost. The subfamily Thecidellininae is represented by Thecidellina blochmanni from Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean and the Red Sea while a new species T. europa is here described from Europa Island in the Mozambique Channel. The subfamily Minutellinae is represented by Minutella minuta from Samper Bank and Walters Bank in the south-western Indian Ocean and in the Red Sea. Since the holotype of Thecidellina blochmanni from Flying Fish Cove, Christmas Island is also lost, this species is re-described and illustrated mainly from topotypes in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, from which a suggested neotype has been selected.

  19. Checklist of Recent thecideoid brachiopods from the Indian Ocean and Red Sea, with a description of a new species of Thecidellina from Europa Island and a re-description of T. blochmanni Dall from Christmas Island.

    PubMed

    Logan, Alan; Hoffmann, Jana; Lüter, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Compilation of a checklist of Recent thecideoid brachiopods from the Indian Ocean and Red Sea indicates that members of this superfamily are represented by a small number of species. The subfamily Lacazellinae is represented by Ospreyella maldiviana from the Maldive Islands but the presence of Lacazella cannot yet be confirmed in the Indian Ocean as the holotype of Lacazella mauritiana from Mauritius is lost. The subfamily Thecidellininae is represented by Thecidellina blochmanni from Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean and the Red Sea while a new species T. europa is here described from Europa Island in the Mozambique Channel. The subfamily Minutellinae is represented by Minutella minuta from Samper Bank and Walters Bank in the south-western Indian Ocean and in the Red Sea. Since the holotype of Thecidellina blochmanni from Flying Fish Cove, Christmas Island is also lost, this species is re-described and illustrated mainly from topotypes in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, from which a suggested neotype has been selected. PMID:26623894

  20. Destruction of a Holothuria scabra population by overfishing at Abu Rhamada Island in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Mohamed Hamza

    2005-10-01

    Populations of Holothuria scabra at Abu Rhamada Island were investigated during 52 months, from July 1999 to October 2003. During the first 23 months (July, 1999-May, 2001) the Island had a robust population with a tri-modal size frequency distribution curve, very high densities (85.7-95.1 ind./100 m2 at the sandy habitat), high abundance (3362-3110 individuals) and biomass (46.7-34.3 kg/100 m2). Also, during this period most individuals were at depths between 4 and 6m and no individuals were recorded deeper than 15m. The population declined after harvesting began (June, 2001) and by March, 2002 the size frequency distribution showed a bimodal pattern with an obvious decrease in abundance of large individuals. There was also a slight reduction in densities (73.2-60.1 ind./100 m2 at the sandy habitat), abundance (2292-1682 individuals) and biomass (21.6-11.3 kg/100 m2), and a marked shift towards deeper waters. Overfishing reached its maximum during the final 19 months of the study, and by October, 2003, density (30.7-0.4 ind./100 m2 at the sandy habitat), abundance (802-10 individuals) and biomass (6.9-0.1 kg/100 m2) were all greatly reduced. The size frequency distribution of the population became unimodal, large animals disappeared and no recruits were seen. During this period, individuals were found at very deep depths (30 to >40 m). The study also showed that sandy substrate was the preferred habitat for H. scabra, accommodating the largest number of individuals. The population of H. scabra at Abu Rhamada Island was found to spawn biannually from 1999 to 2001, then only once during 2002 when high fishing pressure occurred, and ceased completely in 2003. The sex ratio was not significantly different from 1:1 before fishing begun, but shifted to an increasing male bias reaching 93% males by January 2003. None of the small animals remaining after January, 2003 could be sexed. Size at sexual maturity decreased from prefishing (185 mm for females and 160 mm for

  1. Seeing red: Characterizing historic bricks at Sylvester Manor, Shelter Island, New York 1652-1735

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidheiny, Martin John

    The goal of this project is to develop a basic material characterization of the bricks excavated at the site of Sylvester Manor on Shelter Island, New York. In the early Manor period of 1650-1690, this early Northern provisioning plantation supplied Barbadian sugar operations and pursued mercantile interests independent of state control. Accounting for the range of production defects and material characteristics of the bricks suggests on-site or local manufacture as a regional ceramic industry developed. Qualitative visual analysis and petrographic thin-sections were used to characterize the internal composition, variation and production evidence in the bricks. Interpreting the results of this analysis offers alternatives to the assumptions about building materials on the site, using material properties to assess the role of building materials as the landscape changed.

  2. Network of marine environmental observation, surveillance and control in the canary islands waters (red acomar)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda, M. J.; Villagarcía, M. G.; Barrera, C.; Pérez, J.; Cianca, A.; Godoy, J.; Maroto, L.; Cardona, L.; Llinás, O.

    2003-04-01

    On January 2003 it has began the experimental core deployment of a Marine Obsevational network in Gran Canaria Island sorrounding waters, as a first step of a network which will spread to the whole Canarian Archipelago. The network initially consists of 6 buoys, 3 to 5 are expected to be permanently operative whereas the rest will be under maintenance and improvement. In the beginning each buoy has a double mission: on one hand to contribute to the general observation of oceanographic/ meteorologic parameters of general interest; on the other, to provide specific interesting data to a specific user at least. Some users are the aquaculture enterprises that develop their productive activity in cages moored at sea, the water management companies, public institutions in charge of management of environmentally protected areas and organisers of sailing competitions. Each buoy is composed of a common sensors assembly (position: GPS, compass; meteorology: speed and direction of wind, air temperature, relative humidity; oceanography: water temperature, conductivity, pH, oxygen) and a specific sensor set-up (turbidity, chlorophyll, nutrients, hydrocarbons) depending on the each buoy function. Power, control and processing elements are also included in the buoy. The basic observational program consists of a reading cycle of all the parameters each hour, though it is also possible the programming of specific cycles or the request of a needed demand. Data are transmitted via VHF to a proximal point in land which is linked to a specific user, who acts as a local control element. From each point, the data are sent via a mobile or fixed telephone line to the central control, located at the ICCM. Upon arrival, the data undergo several quality and transformation processes in order to be able to publish those parameters of general interest in the project web (http://iccm.rcanaria.es), and those specific for each user according to their particular protocol. Additionally, it is

  3. Photochemical Formation of Fe(II) and Peroxides in Coastal Seawater Collected around Okinawa Island, Japan - Impact of Red Soil Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, K.; Nakajima, H.; Higuchi, T.; Fujimura, H.; Arakaki, T.; Taira, H.

    2003-12-01

    In a study to elucidate the impacts of red soil pollution on the oxidizing power of seawater, photochemical formation of Fe(II) and peroxides was studied in seawaters collected around Okinawa Island, Japan. The northern part of Okinawa Island suffers from red soil pollution which is caused mainly by land development such as pineapple farming and the construction of recreational facilities. We studied photochemical formation of peroxides and Fe(II) in the same seawater samples because the reaction between HOOH and Fe(II) forms hydroxyl radical (OH radical), the most potent environmental oxidant. Photochemical formation of Fe(II) was fast and reached steady-state in 30 minutes of simulated sunlight illumination and the steady-state Fe(II) concentrations were about 80% of total iron concentrations. Photochemical formation of peroxides was relatively slow and formation kinetics varied, depending on the initial peroxide concentrations. Because photochemical formation of peroxides was faster and total iron concentrations in the red soil polluted seawater were higher, red soil polluted seawater is expected to have greater oxidizing power than seawater that is not polluted with red soil.

  4. Intersex condition of shoal bass in the Flint River, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Dallas R; Miller, Debra L; Ingram, Travis R; Tannehill, Josh E

    2011-12-01

    We examined male shoal bass Micropterus cataractae from the Flint River, Georgia, to determine the prevalence of intersex. During March and April 2010, we sampled 61 shoal bass from six sites along the Flint River. Testes were examined histologically and classified as intersex if the presence of oocytes was noted. Using a severity index, we compared samples collected on different dates and from different locations according to age and testis weight. No significant variations were noted among any of the groupings. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the intersex condition in shoal bass is severe enough to warrant concern and whether it is a natural phenomenon.

  5. Comparison of beak and feather disease virus prevalence and immunity-associated genetic diversity over time in an island population of red-crowned parakeets.

    PubMed

    Knafler, Gabrielle J; Ortiz-Catedral, Luis; Jackson, Bethany; Varsani, Arvind; Grueber, Catherine E; Robertson, Bruce C; Jamieson, Ian G

    2016-04-01

    Pathogen outbreaks in the wild can contribute to a population's extinction risk. Concern over the effects of pathogen outbreaks in wildlife is amplified in small, threatened populations, where degradation of genetic diversity may hinder natural selection for enhanced immunocompetence. Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) was detected for the first time in an island population of red-crowned parakeets (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae) in 2008 on Little Barrier Island (Hauturu-o-Toi) of New Zealand. By 2013, the prevalence of the viral infection had significantly decreased within the population. We tested whether the population of red-crowned parakeets showed a selective response to BFDV, using neutral microsatellite and two immunity-associated genetic markers, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We found evidence for selection at viral-associated TLR3; however, the ability of TLR3 to elicit an immune response in the presence of BFDV warrants confirmation. Alternatively, because red-crowned parakeet populations are prone to fluctuations in size, the decrease in BFDV prevalence over time may be attributed to the Little Barrier Island population dropping below the density threshold for viral maintenance. Our results highlight that natural processes such as adaptation for enhanced immunocompetence and/or density fluctuations are efficient mechanisms for reducing pathogen prevalence in a threatened, isolated population. PMID:26699786

  6. Distribution of naturally occurring radioactivity and ¹³⁷Cs in the marine sediment of Farasan Island, southern Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Zahrany, A A; Farouk, M A; Al-Yousef, A A

    2012-11-01

    The present work is a part of a project dedicated to measure the marine radioactivity near the Saudi Arabian coasts of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf for establishing a marine radioactivity database, which includes necessary information on the background levels of both naturally occurring and man-made radionuclides in the marine environment. Farasan Islands is a group of 84 islands (archipelago), under the administration of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in the Red Sea with its main island of Farasan, which is 50 km off the coast of Jazan City. The levels of natural radioactivity of (238)U, (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K and man-made radionuclides such as (137)Cs in the grab sediment and water samples around Farasan Island have been measured using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in the sediment samples were found to be 35.46, 1.75, 3.31, 0.92, 34.34 and 0.14 Bq kg(-1), respectively.

  7. Long-term morphological response to dredging including cut-across-shoal in a tidal channel-shoal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Hai; Wang, Chong-Hao; Tang, Li-Qun; Liu, Da-Bin; Guo, Chuan-Sheng; Liu, Chun-Jing; Zhao, Hui-Ming

    2014-12-01

    This study examines long-term channel-shoal stability in the Tieshan Bay, which is located on the southwest coast of China. A large-scale channel-shoal system has historically existed in the outer Tieshan Bay. A navigation waterway is initiated by cutting and dredging a mid-channel shoal to supply coal to a power plant on the middle coast of the Tieshan Bay. Dredging of the access channel to the Tieshan Port was conducted in two stages followed by land reclamation. It is thus of practical meaning to explore how the channel-shoal system will evolve in long term afterwards. This study uses the process-based finite-volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) to investigate long-term (centennial) morphological evolution of the channel-shoal system. After well calibration of hydrodynamics and sediment transport, the model forecasts morphodynamic evolution in hundred years. The simulations show that continuous erosion in tidal channels and accretion over shoals and intertidal flats occur. However, the cutting and access channels will be subjected to long-term siltation. A secondary channel indicating the reorientation of the access channel will emerge, and a localized channel-ridge system at the junction of the major channels will be formed. The overall erosion/accretion pattern demonstrates the combined effect of bottom friction and advective sediment transport processes to be responsible for the channel-shoal formation. Dredging of the tidal channels will stimulate the stability of the channel-shoal pattern. It suggests that the navigation waterway should be set up following the long-term morphological evolution of the channel-shoal system at a design stage and maintenance dredging volume might thus be minimized.

  8. Shoaling of nonlinear internal waves in Massachusetts Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scotti, A.; Beardsley, R.C.; Butman, B.; Pineda, J.

    2008-01-01

    The shoaling of the nonlinear internal tide in Massachusetts Bay is studied with a fully nonlinear and nonhydrostatic model. The results are compared with current and temperature observations obtained during the August 1998 Massachusetts Bay Internal Wave Experiment and observations from a shorter experiment which took place in September 2001. The model shows how the approaching nonlinear undular bore interacts strongly with a shoaling bottom, offshore of where KdV theory predicts polarity switching should occur. It is shown that the shoaling process is dominated by nonlinearity, and the model results are interpreted with the aid of a two-layer nonlinear but hydrostatic model. After interacting with the shoaling bottom, the undular bore emerges on the shallow shelf inshore of the 30-m isobath as a nonlinear internal tide with a range of possible shapes, all of which are found in the available observational record. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. The nutritional effect of Moringa oleifera fresh leaves as feed supplement on Rhode Island Red hen egg production and quality.

    PubMed

    Abou-Elezz Fouad Mohammed, Khaled; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald; Solorio-Sanchez, Javier Francisco

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential of Moringa oleifera fresh leaves (MOL) as feed supplement on the performance and egg quality of Rhode Island Red (RIR) hens under the tropical conditions of Yucatan, Mexico. Forty-eight RIR hens were allocated in 12 floor pen replicates each with four birds. Thereafter, the replicates were divided into three groups which were corresponded to ad libitum feed (control), ad libitum feed supplemented with MOL T1 (AL + MOL) and restricted feed amount (20% lower than control) with MOL T2 (RCD + MOL), respectively. T1 (AL + MOL) had higher egg laying rate (71.4% versus 66.6%), higher daily egg mass production (45.4 versus 41.9 g/day), lower feed intake (121.3 versus 127.5 g/day) and better feed conversion ratio (2.8 versus 3.2 g feed:g egg) versus control. T2 / (RCD + MOL) had lower values of body weight, egg laying rate, egg weight and egg mass, and recorded better feed conversion ratio than the control group. The control group recorded a higher percentage of pecked eggs versus T1 and T2 (6.5% versus 1.2% and 2.0 %). Similar intake of MOL (3.1 and 3.4 g DM/day) was recorded in T1 (AL + MOL) and T2 (RCD + MOL). Yolk color was improved significantly in T1 (AL + MOL) than both control and T2 (RCD + MOL), while T2 (RCD + MOL) had eggs with lower yolk and higher albumen percentages than the other two ad libitum groups. The results suggest that MOL could be used successfully as sustainable tropical feed resource for RIR hens.

  10. Osmoregulation in the terrestrial Christmas Island red crab Gecarcoidea natalis (Brachyura: Gecarcinidae): modulation of branchial chloride uptake from the urine.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H H; Greenaway, P

    2002-10-01

    Crabs generally produce urine iso-osmotic to their haemolymph, but terrestrial crabs are able to vary the composition of their final excretory fluid (termed P) postrenally, in the branchial chambers. Regulatory aspects of branchial urine processing were investigated in the Christmas Island red crab Gecarcoidea natalis acclimated to drinking either freshwater (FW crabs) or 70% seawater (SW crabs). FW crabs released dilute P (mean [Cl(-)] 8.8 mmol l(-1)). Drinking 70% seawater caused the mean [Cl(-)] of the P to rise to 376 mmol l(-1) over 5 days, approaching the haemolymph [Cl(-)]. FW crabs with saline-perfused branchial chambers absorbed chloride at a high rate (10 mmol kg(-1) h(-1)), and haemolymph [Cl(-)] increased at approximately 20 mmol l(-1) h(-1). SW crabs exhibited elevated haemolymph osmolalities and ion concentrations and zero branchial chloride uptake. FW crabs that were salt-loaded by branchial chamber perfusion over several hours downregulated, and eventually ceased, chloride uptake. The rate of downregulation, but not the initial chloride flux, was dependent on initial haemolymph [Cl(-)]. Intravascular infusion of NaCl caused immediate reduction in branchial [Cl(-)] of 80%. Crabs ingested and regurgitated the perfusion saline, supporting suggestions that reingestion of urine could conserve water and ions. Dopamine upregulated branchial chloride transport in G. natalis. This is consistent with the ion-regulatory effects of dopamine in euryhaline marine brachyurans but contrasts with its inhibitory effects in the terrestrial anomuran Birgus latro. Dopamine increased the rate of urine release in FW crabs. Urine composition appears to be unimportant in ionic regulation, except in the case of magnesium, levels of which were elevated in the urine of SW crabs.

  11. The Geological evolution of the Farasan Banks Using GIS , Remote sensing and ground trothing data, Southeast the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bantan, Rashad A.

    2013-04-01

    In the southeastern Red Sea The Farasan Bank lies, 40km off the southwestern coast of Saudi Arabia. It is consists of many features including islands (for example Farasan Al-Kabir Island, and Sajid Island), emergent coral reef and reefs, sand shoals, and sea floor depressions. The Farasan Islands arise from the Farasan Bank and are separated from the coast by the Al-Banat Sea The shape of the Farasan islands is elongated northwest-southeast parallel to the Red Sea axial trough and southwest of the Saudi Arabian coastline, and is shown to be intersected by a number of submerged and emergent salt dome features such as diapirs, circular graben, circular bays and circular sea floor depressions and emergent shoals. This study processes Landsat TM, Spot, and Ikones in a variety of ways in order to examine the surface geology of the Farasan Islands, and the Geomorphology of the Farasan Bank. The two largest islands; Farasan Al-Kabir and Sajid, have been studied in detail and their outcropping geology has been ground truthed by a series of transects, stratigraphic logs and sampling material for geological age dating. This investigation indicates that the Farasan Islands consist of six major sedimentary/environmental units, three of these comprise Recent sediments; wet sabkha and rocks, bioclastic sand, and vegetated areas, and three are units of shallow marine reefal limestone comprising bioclastic grainstone, bioclastic rudstone and bioclastic floatstone. The reefal limestones have been dated using 87/86 strontium isotopes and these indicate a spread of Pleistocene ages with the higher elevations on the islands exposing older rocks. The Farasan Limestone has been deformed by salt diapirism into a variety of mapped structures including salt domes, anticlinal salt ridges, solution holes and surface breccias. Bathymetric mapping down to 30m identifies seafloor salt domes and solution holes. The Al Banat Sea is considered to be a salt withdrawal basin between Farasan Bank and

  12. Combined effects of flow condition and parasitism on shoaling behaviour of female guppies Poecilia reticulata.

    PubMed

    Hockley, F A; Wilson, C A M E; Graham, N; Cable, J

    2014-01-01

    Group living in fish can provide benefits of protection from predators and some parasites, more efficient foraging for food, increased mating opportunities and enhanced energetic benefit when swimming. For riverine species, shoaling behaviour can be influenced by various environmental stressors, yet little is known how flow rate might influence the shoaling of diseased fish shoals. In view of the increasingly unpredictable flow rates in streams and rivers, this study aimed to assess the combined effect of flow condition and parasitism on the shoaling behaviour of a model fish species. Shoal size, shoal cohesion and time spent shoaling of female guppies Poecilia reticulata were compared when infected with the directly transmitted ectoparasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli under flow and static conditions. Flow condition was an important factor in influencing shoaling behaviour of guppies with the fish forming larger shoals in the absence of flow. When a shoal member was infected with G. turnbulli, shoal cohesion was reduced, but the magnitude of this effect was dependent on flow condition. In both flow and static conditions, bigger fish formed larger shoals than smaller counterparts. Future changes to stream hydrology with more frequent flooding and drought events will affect the shoaling tendency of fish. During high-flow events, diseased fish may not be able to keep up with shoal mates and therefore have a higher risk of predation. Additionally, these findings may be important for aquaria and farmed species where an increase in flow rate may reduce aggregation in fish.

  13. Combined effects of flow condition and parasitism on shoaling behaviour of female guppies Poecilia reticulata.

    PubMed

    Hockley, F A; Wilson, C A M E; Graham, N; Cable, J

    2014-01-01

    Group living in fish can provide benefits of protection from predators and some parasites, more efficient foraging for food, increased mating opportunities and enhanced energetic benefit when swimming. For riverine species, shoaling behaviour can be influenced by various environmental stressors, yet little is known how flow rate might influence the shoaling of diseased fish shoals. In view of the increasingly unpredictable flow rates in streams and rivers, this study aimed to assess the combined effect of flow condition and parasitism on the shoaling behaviour of a model fish species. Shoal size, shoal cohesion and time spent shoaling of female guppies Poecilia reticulata were compared when infected with the directly transmitted ectoparasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli under flow and static conditions. Flow condition was an important factor in influencing shoaling behaviour of guppies with the fish forming larger shoals in the absence of flow. When a shoal member was infected with G. turnbulli, shoal cohesion was reduced, but the magnitude of this effect was dependent on flow condition. In both flow and static conditions, bigger fish formed larger shoals than smaller counterparts. Future changes to stream hydrology with more frequent flooding and drought events will affect the shoaling tendency of fish. During high-flow events, diseased fish may not be able to keep up with shoal mates and therefore have a higher risk of predation. Additionally, these findings may be important for aquaria and farmed species where an increase in flow rate may reduce aggregation in fish. PMID:25152559

  14. The influence of oceanographic scenarios on the population dynamics of demersal resources in the western Mediterranean: Hypothesis for hake and red shrimp off Balearic Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massutí, Enric; Monserrat, Sebastià; Oliver, Pere; Moranta, Joan; López-Jurado, José Luis; Marcos, Marta; Hidalgo, Manuel; Guijarro, Beatriz; Carbonell, Aina; Pereda, Pilar

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the present paper is to study the relationships between some climatic indices and parental stock, recruitment and accessibility to trawl fishery of hake ( Merluccius merluccius) and red shrimp ( Aristeus antennatus) off Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean). Available annual catch per unit effort, recruitment and spawning stock biomass have been used as biological data. As environmental data, the meso-scale IDEA index and the large-scale North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Mediterranean Oscillation (MO) indices have been used. To analyze possible links between these indices with the population dynamics of demersal resources, two non-linear approaches have been applied: (i) stock-recruitment relationships from Ricker and Beverton-Holt models, by sequentially incorporating environment factors; (ii) generalized additive modelling, both classical general and threshold non-additive models were considered. The latter simulate an abrupt change in explicative variables across different phases (time periods or climatic index values). The results have shown that two oceanographic scenarios around the Balearic Islands, associated with macro and meso-scale climate regimes, can influence the population dynamics of hake and red shrimp. This is especially true for recruitment, which seems to be enhanced during low NAO and IDEA indices periods. During these periods, colder-than-normal winters generate high amounts of cold Western Mediterranean Intermediate Waters (WIW) in the Gulf of Lions, which flow southwards and reach the Balearic Islands channels in spring, increasing the productivity in the area. This oceanographic scenario could also be favourable to the distribution of hake on the fishing grounds where the trawl fleet targets this species, increasing its accessibility to the fishery. Both spawning stock and abundance of red shrimp seems to be also enhanced by high MO index periods, which could reflect the increased presence of the saline and warm Levantine

  15. Sea-floor character and sedimentary processes of Great Round Shoal Channel, offshore Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, Lawrence J.; Ackerman, Seth D.; Foster, David S.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Moser, M.S.; Stewart, H.F.; Glomb, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    The imagery, interpretive data layers, and data presented herein were derived from multibeam echo-sounder and sidescan-sonar data collected in the vicinity of Great Round Shoal Channel, the main passage through shoals located at the eastern entrance to Nantucket Sound, Massachusetts, and from the stations occupied to verify these acoustic data (fig. 1). Basic data layers show sea-floor topography, sun-illuminated shaded relief, and backscatter intensity; interpretive layers show the distributions of surficial sediment, sedimentary environments, and sea-floor features. Presented verification data include sediment grain-size analyses and a gallery of still photographs of the seabed. The multibeam and sidescan data, which together cover an approximately 39.9-km² area of sea floor, were collected during National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) hydrographic survey H11079 (fig. 1). Although originally collected for charting purposes, these data provide a fundamental framework for research and management activities along this part of the Massachusetts coastline (Noji and others, 2004), show the composition and terrain of the seabed, and provide information on sediment transport and benthic habitat. This publication is the third in a series of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) digital reports describing the sea-floor geology around Cape Cod. The first focused on the area off the eastern shore of the outer Cape (Poppe and others, 2006); the second on a passage through the Elizabeth Islands (Poppe and others, 2007).

  16. Numerical simulations of shoaling internal solitary waves of elevation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chengzhu; Subich, Christopher; Stastna, Marek

    2016-07-01

    We present high-resolution, two- and three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of large amplitude internal solitary waves of elevation on the laboratory scale, shoaling onto and over a small-amplitude shelf. The three-dimensional, mapped coordinate, spectral collocation method used for the simulations allows for accurate modelling of both the shoaling waves and the bottom boundary layer. The shoaling of the waves is characterized by the formation of a quasi-trapped core which undergoes a spatially growing stratified shear instability at its edge and a lobe-cleft instability in its nose. Both of these instabilities develop and three-dimensionalize concurrently, leading to strong bottom shear stress. We explore significant regions of Schmidt and Reynolds number space and demonstrate that the formation of shear instabilities during shoaling is robust and should be readily observable in a number of standard laboratory setups. In the experiments with a corrugated bottom boundary, boundary layer separation is found inside each of the corrugations during shoaling. This more complex boundary layer phenomenology precludes the formation of the lobe-cleft instability almost completely and hence provides a different mechanism for fluid and material exchange across the bottom boundary layer. Our analyses suggest that all of these wave-induced instabilities can lead to enhanced turbulence in the water column and increased shear stress on the bottom boundary. Through the generation and evolution of these instabilities, the shoaling of internal solitary waves of elevation is likely to provide systematic mechanisms for material mixing, cross-boundary layer transport, and sediment resuspension.

  17. P and trace metal contents in biomaterials, soils, sediments and plants in colony of red-footed booby (Sula sula) in the Dongdao Island of South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaodong; Zhao, Sanping; Sun, Liguang; Yin, Xuebin; Xie, Zhouqin; Honghao, Luo; Wang, Yuhong

    2006-10-01

    Concentrations of P and trace metals Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb and Hg in the faeces, bones, eggshells and feathers of seabirds and in the plants, soils and sediments with and without seabird influence on Dongdao Island, South China Sea, were determined and analyzed. Among the seabird biomaterials, the levels of P, Zn, Cu and Cd are the highest in the droppings and several times those in other materials; the Hg concentration is the highest in the feathers; and the Pb content is comparable among these biomaterials. These marked differences indicate different intake-bioaccumulation-elimination pathways for different trace metals. The levels of P, Zn, Cu, Cd and Hg in the plant, soil and sediment samples with the influence of seabird droppings are significantly higher than those in the samples without, and they are significantly correlated with each other. Thus, P, Zn, Cu, Cd and Hg are very likely to have a common source-predominantly bird guano-and the faeces of red-footed booby is an important vector for the flux of nutrient phosphorus and trace metals Zn, Cu, Cd and Hg from marine to island ecosystems on Dongdao Island.

  18. P and trace metal contents in biomaterials, soils, sediments and plants in colony of red-footed booby (Sula sula) in the Dongdao Island of South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaodong; Zhao, Sanping; Sun, Liguang; Yin, Xuebin; Xie, Zhouqin; Honghao, Luo; Wang, Yuhong

    2006-10-01

    Concentrations of P and trace metals Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb and Hg in the faeces, bones, eggshells and feathers of seabirds and in the plants, soils and sediments with and without seabird influence on Dongdao Island, South China Sea, were determined and analyzed. Among the seabird biomaterials, the levels of P, Zn, Cu and Cd are the highest in the droppings and several times those in other materials; the Hg concentration is the highest in the feathers; and the Pb content is comparable among these biomaterials. These marked differences indicate different intake-bioaccumulation-elimination pathways for different trace metals. The levels of P, Zn, Cu, Cd and Hg in the plant, soil and sediment samples with the influence of seabird droppings are significantly higher than those in the samples without, and they are significantly correlated with each other. Thus, P, Zn, Cu, Cd and Hg are very likely to have a common source-predominantly bird guano-and the faeces of red-footed booby is an important vector for the flux of nutrient phosphorus and trace metals Zn, Cu, Cd and Hg from marine to island ecosystems on Dongdao Island. PMID:16530247

  19. Sea level, topography and island diversity: phylogeography of the Puerto Rican Red-eyed Coquí, Eleutherodactylus antillensis.

    PubMed

    Barker, Brittany S; Rodríguez-Robles, Javier A; Aran, Vani S; Montoya, Ashley; Waide, Robert B; Cook, Joseph A

    2012-12-01

    Quaternary climatic oscillations caused changes in sea level that altered the size, number and degree of isolation of islands, particularly in land-bridge archipelagoes. Elucidating the demographic effects of these oscillations increases our understanding of the role of climate change in shaping evolutionary processes in archipelagoes. The Puerto Rican Bank (PRB) (Puerto Rico and the Eastern Islands, which comprise Vieques, Culebra, the Virgin Islands and associated islets) in the eastern Caribbean Sea periodically coalesced during glaciations and fragmented during interglacial periods of the quaternary. To explore population-level consequences of sea level changes, we studied the phylogeography of the frog Eleutherodactylus antillensis across the archipelago. We tested hypotheses encompassing vicariance and dispersal narratives by sequencing mtDNA (c. 552 bp) of 285 individuals from 58 localities, and four nuDNA introns (totalling c. 1633 bp) from 173 of these individuals. We found low support for a hypothesis of divergence of the Eastern Islands populations prior to the start of the penultimate interglacial c. 250 kya, and higher support for a hypothesis of colonization of the Eastern Islands from sources in eastern Puerto Rico during the penultimate and last glacial period, when a land bridge united the PRB. The Río Grande de Loíza Basin in eastern Puerto Rico delineates a phylogeographic break. Haplotypes shared between the PRB and St. Croix (an island c. 105 km south-east of this archipelago) likely represent human-mediated introductions. Our findings illustrate how varying degrees of connectivity and isolation influence the evolution of tropical island organisms. PMID:23163292

  20. Sea level, topography and island diversity: phylogeography of the Puerto Rican Red-eyed Coquí, Eleutherodactylus antillensis.

    PubMed

    Barker, Brittany S; Rodríguez-Robles, Javier A; Aran, Vani S; Montoya, Ashley; Waide, Robert B; Cook, Joseph A

    2012-12-01

    Quaternary climatic oscillations caused changes in sea level that altered the size, number and degree of isolation of islands, particularly in land-bridge archipelagoes. Elucidating the demographic effects of these oscillations increases our understanding of the role of climate change in shaping evolutionary processes in archipelagoes. The Puerto Rican Bank (PRB) (Puerto Rico and the Eastern Islands, which comprise Vieques, Culebra, the Virgin Islands and associated islets) in the eastern Caribbean Sea periodically coalesced during glaciations and fragmented during interglacial periods of the quaternary. To explore population-level consequences of sea level changes, we studied the phylogeography of the frog Eleutherodactylus antillensis across the archipelago. We tested hypotheses encompassing vicariance and dispersal narratives by sequencing mtDNA (c. 552 bp) of 285 individuals from 58 localities, and four nuDNA introns (totalling c. 1633 bp) from 173 of these individuals. We found low support for a hypothesis of divergence of the Eastern Islands populations prior to the start of the penultimate interglacial c. 250 kya, and higher support for a hypothesis of colonization of the Eastern Islands from sources in eastern Puerto Rico during the penultimate and last glacial period, when a land bridge united the PRB. The Río Grande de Loíza Basin in eastern Puerto Rico delineates a phylogeographic break. Haplotypes shared between the PRB and St. Croix (an island c. 105 km south-east of this archipelago) likely represent human-mediated introductions. Our findings illustrate how varying degrees of connectivity and isolation influence the evolution of tropical island organisms.

  1. Silver island films as substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS): a methodological study on their application to artists' red dyestuffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Alyson V.; Van Duyne, Richard P.; Casadio, Francesca

    2005-11-01

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has enormous capabilities for the unambiguous identification of artists' red lake pigments and dyestuff. Until now, red lake pigments have been very poorly characterized with conventional Raman spectroscopy due to their high fluorescence and weak Raman scattering cross section. Furthermore, very small amount of dyestuff is necessary to achieve intense deep colors; therefore a characterization method with enhanced sensitivity is needed to accurately identify the dyestuff. This study focuses on two red dyestuffs, carminic acid and laccaic acid, which are extensively utilized in old masters' paintings. We propose an innovative sensing method using 6 nm silver island films (AgIFs) fabricated with electron beam (e-beam) deposition on the colorant particles under investigation. The results of an in-depth methodological investigation into the signal-enhancement achievable with various experimental conditions applied to these substrates are presented. We explore the effects of varying laser excitation frequencies (532.15 nm 632.8nm and 785.7 nm), laser power at the sample and we investigate the dependence of S/N in the spectra from different spot sizes. Finally, the sensitivity of the method is determined. The results of the semi-quantitative analysis have allowed us to determine the best experimental conditions to achieve the highest sensitivity in the investigation of this important class of artists' colorants.

  2. Dynamic web cache publishing for IaaS clouds using Shoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gable, Ian; Chester, Michael; Armstrong, Patrick; Berghaus, Frank; Charbonneau, Andre; Leavett-Brown, Colin; Paterson, Michael; Prior, Robert; Sobie, Randall; Taylor, Ryan

    2014-06-01

    We have developed a highly scalable application, called Shoal, for tracking and utilizing a distributed set of HTTP web caches. Our application uses the Squid HTTP cache. Squid servers advertise their existence to the Shoal server via AMQP messaging by running Shoal Agent. The Shoal server provides a simple REST interface that allows clients to determine their closest Squid cache. Our goal is to dynamically instantiate Squid caches on IaaS clouds in response to client demand. Shoal provides the VMs on IaaS clouds with the location of the nearest dynamically instantiated Squid Cache.

  3. Tidal Variability of Infragravity Waves Over Cape-Associated Shoals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paniagua-Arroyave, J. F.; Adams, P. N.; Valle-Levinson, A.; Parra, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Particulate transport at cape-related shoals is generally driven by water circulation that is derived from interactions among tides, waves, and wind. At inner-shelves with alongshore uniform slopes, it has been shown that gravity waves produce offshore-directed transport by means of infragravity (IG) motions. However, the influence of IG waves on the spatial and temporal patterns of particulate transport is not yet understood at cape-related shoals (i.e. inner-shelves characterized by non-uniform bathymetry). To analyze the connection between IG waves and tides, cross-spectral and cross-wavelet analyses were performed on time series data of current profiles and pressure that were measured at both sides of a shoal (east swale and west swale) near Cape Canaveral, Florida. Overall, IG wave heights were coherent with water levels at ~2 cycles/day with a 95% statistical confidence at both locations. However, the coherence at the west swale (closer to shore) was lower than at the east swale. High coherence squared (>0.8) between tidal motions and IG energy could be explained by changes in water depth that produced IG energy losses to sea-swell frequencies during low tide. The 1-m difference in mean depth between east and west locations may explain the difference in coherence as water is not shallow enough at the west swale to produce IG energy losses. This may highlight the sensitivity of IG waves to changes in water depth within this shoal complex. Our results agree with previous studies regarding tidal variability of IG energy in nearshore and inner-shelf environments and could be applied to improve understanding of the role of complicated bathymetry in particulate transport at cape-associated shoals.

  4. Sex differences in a shoaling-boldness behavioral syndrome, but no link with aggression.

    PubMed

    Way, Gregory P; Kiesel, Alexis L; Ruhl, Nathan; Snekser, Jennifer L; McRobert, Scott P

    2015-04-01

    A behavioral syndrome is observed in a population when specific behaviors overlap at the individual level in different contexts. Here, we explore boldness and aggression personality spectra, the repeatability of shoaling, and possible associated correlations between the behaviors in a population of lab-reared zebrafish (Danio rerio). Our findings describe a sex-specific boldness-shoaling behavioral syndrome, as a link between boldness and shoaling behaviors is detected. The results indicate that bold males are likely to have a stronger shoaling propensity than shy males for unfamiliar conspecifics. Conversely, bold females are more likely to shoal than shy females, but only when presented with heterospecific individuals. Additionally, aggression does not correlate with boldness or shoaling propensity for either sex. A positive relationship between boldness and shoaling that differs by sex is contrary to most of the present literature, but could help to explain population dynamics and may also have evolutionary implications.

  5. Respiratory gas transport, metabolic status, and locomotor capacity of the Christmas Island red crab Gecarcoidea natalis assessed in the field with respect to dichotomous seasonal activity levels.

    PubMed

    Adamczewska, A M; Morris, S

    2000-05-01

    Red crabs, Gecarcoidea natalis, exhibit seasonal activity patterns: low activity during the dry season when they shelter in burrows to avoid dehydration, and high activity during the wet season. Red crabs were examined in situ in the rainforest of Christmas Island to determine if there were underlying seasonal differences in the capacity for exercise and associated metabolism. During both seasons, free-ranging (FR) crabs engaged in their normal activities and, together with crabs induced to exercise for 5 min, were sampled for haemolymph and muscle tissue. Respiratory gases in the haemolymph and key metabolites were measured to assess differences in metabolic status of FR and exercised crabs. Actively foraging FR crabs during the wet season exhibited a relative haemolymph hypoxia (2.9 kPa) and accumulated an extra 3 mmol. litre(-1) of CO(2) compared to the relatively inactive FR crabs during the dry season. Wet-season crabs appeared to be in a state of relative respiratory acidosis compared to dry-season animals. This hypercapnia may arise as a consequence of a relative hypoventilation in animals with a relatively higher metabolic rate during the wet season. Oxygenation of pulmonary and arterial haemolymph was similar and remained high after 5 min of exercise, indicating that the gills and lungs functioned similarly in gas exchange in both FR and exercised crabs. During exercise, venous O(2) reserves decreased and red crabs experienced a mixed respiratory/metabolic acidosis. Similar changes, after 5 min of enforced exercise, in metabolite concentrations, pH and respiratory gas status in the haemolymph during both sampling seasons suggest that the crabs maintain similar capacity to increase exercise during the wet and the dry seasons, despite the differences in underlying physiological status. This is important since after prolonged inactivity during the dry season, with the arrival of moonsoonal rains, red crabs must engage in their annual breeding migration.

  6. Comparative mortality and predation in relation to egg production traits of Rhode Island Red, Black Australorp and Hyblack laying hens in scavenging production systems of rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mata, F; Mwakifuna, B

    2012-01-01

    1. Black Australorp (BA), Rhode Island Red (RIR), and Hyblack (HB) birds were used in farm and field scavenging systems in Malawi, to study mortality through disease and predation in relation to laying performance. 2. Predation was higher in BA than HB. 3. Mortality through disease was higher in RIR than BA and HB. 4. Crossbred HB birds show the lowest combination of mortality and predation, suggesting a heterosis effect. 5. Mortality did not differ on farms and in field environments, suggesting an inability to improve biosecurity in farm conditions. 6. There was a positive relationship between eggshell strength and mortality. Calcium depletion from the birds' bones, limiting foraging and escaping ability may be the explanation, which ultimately increases susceptibility to disease and predation.

  7. Sedimentary characteristics of carbonate intra-platform shoals and their formation in Ordovician Tarim Basin, West China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, M.

    2015-12-01

    The widely distributed carbonate intra-platform shoals has become a new important exploration target within the Tarim Basin, where reservoirs of Yubei oil-field (discovered in 2011) and the Shunnan oil-field (discovered in 2013) occur. Better understanding of the sedimentary characteristics and formation of intra-platform shoals is significant for predicting the distribution of Ordovician shoal reservoirs. The sedimentary characteristics, distribution patterns and formation mechanisms of carbonate intra-platform shoals in Ordovician Tarim Basin were studied based on outcrop analogue, core data, thin section observation, seismic, and well log data. Those shoals include oolitic shoal, intraclast shoal and bioclastic shoal. The intra-platform shoal consists of three sedimentary units: shoal base, shoal core and shoal cover, which are adjacent to intershoal sea faces. Laterally, the intra-platform shoals occurred as a more continuous sheet-like body.The intra-platform shoals deposited mainly in the lowstand systems tract and late stage of highstand systems tract. Several factors were probably responsible for the occurrence of intra-platform shoals, including: (i) a relatively shallow-water condition with a strong hydrodynamic environment, (ii) high-frequency oscillations of the sea level, and (iii) Subtle paleo-highs and relatively weak structural activities, which are important for the spatial distribution of reservoir facies.

  8. Shoaling Large Amplitude Internal Solitary Waves in a Laboratory Tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allshouse, Michael; Larue, Conner; Swinney, Harry

    2014-11-01

    The shoaling of internal solitary waves onto the continental shelf can change both the wave dynamics and the state of the environment. Previous observations have demonstrated that these waves can trap fluid and transport it over long distances. Through the use of a camshaft-based wavemaker, we produce large amplitude shoaling waves in a stratified fluid in a laboratory tank. Simulations of solitary waves are used to guide the tuning of the wave generator to approximate solitary waves; thus nonlinear waves can be produced within the 4m long tank. PIV and synthetic schlieren measurements are made to study the transport of fluid by the wave as it moves up a sloping boundary. The results are then compared to numerical simulations and analyzed using finite time Lyapunov exponent calculations. This Lagrangian analysis provides an objective measure of barriers surrounding trapped regions in the flow. Supported by ONR MURI Grant N000141110701 (WHOI).

  9. Fast and accurate decisions through collective vigilance in fish shoals

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Ashley J. W.; Herbert-Read, James E.; Sumpter, David J. T.; Krause, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Although it has been suggested that large animal groups should make better decisions than smaller groups, there are few empirical demonstrations of this phenomenon and still fewer explanations of the how these improvements may be made. Here we show that both speed and accuracy of decision making increase with group size in fish shoals under predation threat. We examined two plausible mechanisms for this improvement: first, that groups are guided by a small proportion of high-quality decision makers and, second, that group members use self-organized division of vigilance. Repeated testing of individuals showed no evidence of different decision-making abilities between individual fish. Instead, we suggest that shoals achieve greater decision-making efficiencies through division of labor combined with social information transfer. Our results should prompt reconsideration of how we view cooperation in animal groups with fluid membership. PMID:21262802

  10. Letter Report: Contaminant Boundary at the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Pohll; Karl Pohlmann

    2004-08-06

    As part of the corrective action strategy reached between the U.S. Department of Energy and the State of Nevada, the extent and potential impact of radionuclide contamination of groundwater at underground nuclear test locations must be addressed. This report provides the contaminant boundary for the Project Shoal Site, based on the groundwater flow and transport model for the site, by Pohlmann et al.

  11. Integrating Ecology and Geomorphology in Etowah River Shoal Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, W. W.; Meyer, J. L.; Leigh, D.; Goodloe, R.

    2005-05-01

    Designs of stream restoration projects are typically based primarily on geomorphic data. However, these data may not be comprehensive enough to design ecologically successful restoration projects. In summer 2004 Georgia Ecological Services (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) surveyed nearly 80 km of the Etowah River, GA. The goal of this survey was to identify sediment sources and potential restoration techniques that would benefit imperiled, shoal-inhabiting fishes in the Etowah River. An essential and unique part of this survey was to collect both ecological and geomorphic data to build a more holistic understanding of how and why shoal habitats vary. One ecological measure included was the density and length of river weed Podostemum ceratophyllum, a submerged aquatic macrophyte. Other studies have shown that the imperiled "Coosa" madtom (Noturus sp. cf. N. munitus) and freckled darter (Percina lenticula) occur more frequently in the presence of Podostemum. Results indicate that the density and length of Podostemum increases with shoal width and particle size, highlighting the importance of geomorphology in its growth. Restoration activities that focus on these habitat characteristics will facilitate Podostemum growth and will probably aid in the recovery of the "Coosa" madtom and freckled darter in the Etowah River.

  12. Pleistocene barrier bar seaward of ooid shoal complex near Miami, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halley, Robert B.; Shinn, Eugene A.; Hudson, J. Harold; Lidz, Barbara H.

    1977-01-01

    An ooid sand barrier bar of Pleistocene age was deposited along the seaward side of an ooid shoal complex southwest of Miami, Florida. The bar is 35 km long, about 0.8 km wide, elongate parallel with the trend of the ooid shoal complex and perpendicular to channels between individual shoals. A depression 1.6 km wide, interpreted as a back-barrier channel, isolates the bar from the ooid shoals. During sea-level fall and subaerial exposure of the bar, the ooid sand was cemented in place, preventing migration of the barrier. No Holocene analogue of this sand body is recognized, perhaps because of the relative youthfulness of Holocene ooid shoals. This Pleistocene ooid shoal complex, with its reservoir-size barrier bar, may serve as a refined model for exploration in ancient ooid sand belts.

  13. Shoaling as an antiparasite defence in minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to trematode cercariae.

    PubMed

    Stumbo, Anthony D; James, Clayton T; Goater, Cameron P; Wisenden, Brian D; Cotter, Sheena

    2012-11-01

    1. Individuals that live in groups benefit from increased foraging success and decreased predation. Protection from some types of parasites may provide an additional benefit of group-living. For fish, the extent to which shoaling can reduce an individual's risk of exposure to the infective stages of parasites is unknown. 2. We tested for antiparasite benefits of shoaling in fathead minnows exposed to larvae (cercariae) of two of their most common species of trematode, Ornithodiplostomum ptychocheilus and Posthodiplostomum minimum. As developing stages (metacercariae) of these trematodes cause reductions in minnow activity, growth and survival, natural selection should favour the evolution of cercariae-avoidance behaviours. 3. We evaluated shoal dimensions in groups of minnows exposed to O. ptychocheilus and to other chemical/physical stimuli within aquaria. To compare risk of exposure in shoaling vs. non-shoaling fish, we confined groups of minnows into mesh cages in outdoor mesocosms, exposed them to cercariae, then compared mean worm numbers in grouped vs. solitary fish. Lastly, we tested whether fish located within the centre of an artificial shoal reduced their risk of cercariae exposure compared with those along peripheral edges. 4. Minnows distinguished infective cercariae from other potential aquatic threats and responded with activity that reduced the 2-dimensional area of their shoals 15-fold compared with water-only controls. Fish confined within artificial shoals had 3-fold fewer worms than single fish and minnows located within the centre of artificial shoals had significantly fewer worms than those without peripheral minnows. 5. These results show that shoaling reduces a minnows' risk of exposure to cercariae, either directly via detection of cercariae in the water column followed by behavioural avoidance or indirectly via behaviour-mediated differences in exposure between shoaling vs. non-shoaling fish.

  14. Cyclic behavior of sandy shoals on the ebb-tidal deltas of the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridderinkhof, W.; Hoekstra, P.; van der Vegt, M.; de Swart, H. E.

    2016-03-01

    Ebb-tidal deltas are bulges of sand that are located seaward of tidal inlets. Many of these deltas feature shoals that cyclically form and migrate towards the coast. The average period between successive shoals that attach to the coast varies among different inlets. In this study, a quantitative assessment of the cyclic behavior of shoals on the ebb-tidal deltas of the Wadden Sea is presented. Analysis of bathymetric data and Landsat satellite images revealed that at the majority of inlets along the Wadden Sea migrating shoals occur. The average period between succeeding shoals correlates to the tidal prism and has values ranging between 4 and 130 years. A larger tidal prism favors larger periods between successive shoal attachments. However, such a relationship was not found for wide inlets with multiple channels. There is a positive relationship between the frequency with which the shoals attach to the coast and their migration velocity, and a negative relationship between the migration velocity of the shoal and the tidal prism. Finally, the data were too sparse to assess whether the longshore sediment transport has a significant effect on the period between successive shoals that attach to the coasts downdrift of the observed tidal inlets.

  15. Patterns of MHC-DRB1 polymorphism in a post-glacial island canid, the Newfoundland red fox (Vulpes vulpes deletrix), suggest balancing selection at species and population timescales.

    PubMed

    Marshall, H Dawn; Langille, Barbara L; Hann, Crystal A; Whitney, Hugh G

    2016-05-01

    As the only native insular Newfoundland canid between the extinction of the wolf in the 1930s and the recent arrival of coyotes, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes deletrix Bangs 1898) poses interesting questions about genetic distinctiveness and the post-glacial colonization history of the island's depauperate mammalian fauna. Here, we characterized genetic variability at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DR β1 domain (DRB1) locus in 28 red foxes from six sampling localities island-wide and compared it with mitochondrial control region (CR) diversity and DRB1 diversity in other canids. Our goals were to describe novel DRB1 alleles in a new canid population and to make inferences about the role of selection in maintaining their diversity. As in numerous studies of vertebrates, we found an order-of-magnitude higher nucleotide diversity at the DRB1 locus compared with the CR and significantly positive nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitution ratios, indicative of selection in the distant past. Although the evidence is weaker, the Ewens-Watterson test of neutrality and the geographical distribution of variation compared with the CR suggest a role for selection over the evolutionary timescale of populations. We report the first genetic data from the DRB1 locus in the red fox and establish baseline information regarding immunogenetic variation in this island canid population which should inform continued investigations of population demography, adaptive genetic diversity, and wildlife disease in red foxes and related species.

  16. Patterns of MHC-DRB1 polymorphism in a post-glacial island canid, the Newfoundland red fox (Vulpes vulpes deletrix), suggest balancing selection at species and population timescales.

    PubMed

    Marshall, H Dawn; Langille, Barbara L; Hann, Crystal A; Whitney, Hugh G

    2016-05-01

    As the only native insular Newfoundland canid between the extinction of the wolf in the 1930s and the recent arrival of coyotes, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes deletrix Bangs 1898) poses interesting questions about genetic distinctiveness and the post-glacial colonization history of the island's depauperate mammalian fauna. Here, we characterized genetic variability at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DR β1 domain (DRB1) locus in 28 red foxes from six sampling localities island-wide and compared it with mitochondrial control region (CR) diversity and DRB1 diversity in other canids. Our goals were to describe novel DRB1 alleles in a new canid population and to make inferences about the role of selection in maintaining their diversity. As in numerous studies of vertebrates, we found an order-of-magnitude higher nucleotide diversity at the DRB1 locus compared with the CR and significantly positive nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitution ratios, indicative of selection in the distant past. Although the evidence is weaker, the Ewens-Watterson test of neutrality and the geographical distribution of variation compared with the CR suggest a role for selection over the evolutionary timescale of populations. We report the first genetic data from the DRB1 locus in the red fox and establish baseline information regarding immunogenetic variation in this island canid population which should inform continued investigations of population demography, adaptive genetic diversity, and wildlife disease in red foxes and related species. PMID:26894280

  17. Organochlorines in the free-ranging Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) from French Frigate Shoals, North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Willcox, Maia K; Woodward, Lee Ann; Ylitalo, Gina M; Buzitis, Jon; Atkinson, Shannon; Li, Qing X

    2004-04-25

    The Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) is an endangered species found only in the Hawaiian Island chain. The largest subpopulation, at French Frigate Shoals, has been in decline since 1989. In order to assess organochlorine (OC) levels in the Hawaiian monk seals, whole blood and blubber samples were collected in 1999 from 46 free-ranging Hawaiian monk seals at French Frigate Shoals, and were analyzed for eight dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as six other PCB congeners, DDT and DDT metabolites. Average levels of the total PCBs in blood samples from adult male, juvenile and reproductive female groups were 4800, 4000 and 3000 ng/g lipid wt., respectively, whereas 3200, 1300 and 1200 ng/g, respectively, in blubber from the three corresponding groups. p,p'-DDE was the only DDT detected in blubber samples, and no DDTs were detected in blood samples. Concentrations of the total PCBs in adult males were significantly higher than the levels measured in either reproductive females or juveniles. There were significant correlations between age and blubber p,p'-DDE, estimated mass and total blood PCBs or blubber p,p'-DDE, and body condition and total blood PCBs. Although it is clear that the Hawaiian monk seal has been exposed to OCs, it is unclear what biological effects, if any, these xenobiotics may have on the animals. PMID:15081740

  18. Metabolic status and respiratory physiology of Gecarcoidea natalis, the Christmas Island red crab, during the annual breeding migration.

    PubMed

    Adamczewsk, A M; Morris, S

    2001-06-01

    With the arrival of the monsoonal rains and after months of inactivity during the dry season, the terrestrial crab Gecarcoidea natalis embarks on its annual breeding migration to the coast. The physiological demands of the migration were assessed by determining respiratory gases in the hemolymph, key metabolites, and energy stores in G. natalis during two migratory seasons. At the end of each day of migration the pulmonary hemolymph PO2 decreased by 1-2.5 kPa, but the hemocyanin remained saturated with O2 and the venous reserve was largely unchanged (O2 > 0.4 mmol x l(-1)). The breeding migration of red crabs was accomplished without recourse to anaerobiosis, even though at times walking speeds (up to 6.2 +/- 0.5 m x min(-1)) exceeded those that promoted anaerobiosis in non-migrating crabs and in crabs exercised in the laboratory. In contrast to all previous studies, at the end of each day of migrating, red crabs experienced an alkalosis (up to 0.1 pH units) rather than any acidosis. This alkalosis was removed overnight when the crabs were inactive. Although there were seasonal fluctuations in the glycogen, glucose, and triglyceride stores, crabs engaging in the migration did not draw on these stores and must have fed along the way. In contrast, crabs returning from breeding activities on the shore terraces had significantly depleted glycogen stores. Additionally, in 1993, the male crabs returning from the breeding activities on the terraces were dehydrated and experienced a decrease in muscle tissue water of 11%. In contrast to the breeding migration per se, fighting for burrows in which breeding occurs produced severe anaerobiosis in males, especially the victors: after 135 s of combat, the maximum L-lactate concentration in the hemolymph was 35 mmol x l(-1). It appears that burrowing, courtship, and mating are more demanding than the migration itself. Furthermore, the data provide evidence that the metabolic responses of migrating individuals of G. natalis might

  19. Regulation of urine reprocessing in the maintenance of sodium and water balance in the terrestrial Christmas Island red crab Gecarcoidea natalis investigated under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Morris, Stephen; Ahern, Mark D

    2003-08-01

    Land crabs produce isosmotic urine but reduce salt loss by reabsorbing salt via the gills to produce a dilute excretory fluid (P). This branchial salt reclamation is regulated in response to changes in dietary salt availability. The regulation of branchial Na reabsorption and osmotic status was investigated in the terrestrial crab Gecarcoidea natalis on Christmas Island. Confinement within field enclosures had no general effect on salt and water balance compared with crabs free in the rainforest but there were seasonal effects. Extracellular fluid volume was 27.9% body mass during the wet season but only 22.7% in the dry season. Urine production was 53 ml kg(-1) day(-1) in the dry season but 111 ml kg(-1) day(-1) in the wet season, while water flux rates were 140 ml kg(-1) day(-1) and 280 ml kg(-1) day(-1), respectively. Serotonin but not dopamine increased urine production by at least 16% but only during the dry season when rates were seasonally lowered. Crabs acclimated to drinking 50% seawater increased haemolymph osmotic pressure and downregulated branchial reabsorption of salt. Net Na flux (J(net)) and unidirectional Na influx (J(in)) were investigated in branchial perfusion experiments. In red crabs acclimated to drinking freshwater, J(in), J(net) and the activity of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were increased by serotonin, indicating that the increase of sodium absorption was due to a stimulation of the ATPase. Red crabs drinking 50% seawater reduced J(net) primarily due to increased passive loss (J(out)), since both J(in) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were unchanged. Serotonin and dopamine abolished the increased diffusive loss and re-established J(net) with no change in J(in). G. natalis exhibits different regulatory systems. Branchial salt uptake can be adjusted via the leak component when adequate salt is available but also by stimulated active uptake under diluting conditions. The gills are important sites of ion pumping in euryhaline aquatic crabs, and the

  20. The adaptive significance of crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH) in daily and seasonal migratory activities of the Christmas Island red crab Gecarcoidea natalis.

    PubMed

    Morris, Stephen; Postel, Ute; Mrinalini; Turner, Lucy M; Palmer, Jessica; Webster, Simon G

    2010-09-01

    The Christmas Island red crab Gecarcoidea natalis undergoes extreme changes in metabolic status, ranging from inactivity during the dry season, to a spectacular annual breeding migration at the start of the wet season. The dramatic change in metabolic physiology that this polarisation entails should be reflected in changes in endocrine physiology, particularly that of the crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH), of which we know relatively little. CHH levels were measured using a novel ultrasensitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA), together with metabolites (glucose, lactate), in the field at several scales of temporal resolution, during migratory activities (wet season) and during the inactive fossorial phase (dry season). Release patterns of CHH were measured during extreme (forced) exercise, showing for the first time an unexpectedly rapid pulsatile release of this hormone. A seasonally dependent glucose-sensitive negative-feedback loop was identified that might be important in energy mobilisation during migration. Haemolymph lactate levels were strongly correlated with CHH levels in both field and experimental animals. During migration, CHH levels were lower than during the dry season and, during migration, daytime CHH levels (when most locomotor activity occurred) increased. However, the intense dawn activity in both dry and wet seasons was not always associated with repeatable hyperglycaemia or CHH release. The results obtained are discussed in relation to the life history and behaviour of G. natalis. PMID:20709934

  1. The adaptive significance of crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH) in daily and seasonal migratory activities of the Christmas Island red crab Gecarcoidea natalis.

    PubMed

    Morris, Stephen; Postel, Ute; Mrinalini; Turner, Lucy M; Palmer, Jessica; Webster, Simon G

    2010-09-01

    The Christmas Island red crab Gecarcoidea natalis undergoes extreme changes in metabolic status, ranging from inactivity during the dry season, to a spectacular annual breeding migration at the start of the wet season. The dramatic change in metabolic physiology that this polarisation entails should be reflected in changes in endocrine physiology, particularly that of the crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH), of which we know relatively little. CHH levels were measured using a novel ultrasensitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA), together with metabolites (glucose, lactate), in the field at several scales of temporal resolution, during migratory activities (wet season) and during the inactive fossorial phase (dry season). Release patterns of CHH were measured during extreme (forced) exercise, showing for the first time an unexpectedly rapid pulsatile release of this hormone. A seasonally dependent glucose-sensitive negative-feedback loop was identified that might be important in energy mobilisation during migration. Haemolymph lactate levels were strongly correlated with CHH levels in both field and experimental animals. During migration, CHH levels were lower than during the dry season and, during migration, daytime CHH levels (when most locomotor activity occurred) increased. However, the intense dawn activity in both dry and wet seasons was not always associated with repeatable hyperglycaemia or CHH release. The results obtained are discussed in relation to the life history and behaviour of G. natalis.

  2. Association patterns and shoal fidelity in the three-spined stickleback.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Ashley J W; Botham, Marc S; Hoare, Daniel J; James, Richard; Broom, Mark; Godin, Jean-Guy J; Krause, Jens

    2002-01-01

    We investigated pairwise association patterns and shoal fidelity in free-ranging, individual three-spine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) by capturing entire shoals of sticklebacks and tagging each shoal member with a unique individual mark before releasing the shoal at the point of capture. We recaptured tagged fishes in the study area on five subsequent days, noting their identity, their location and the individuals with which they were associated. Stable partner associations between fishes were observed which might provide the basis for shoal fidelity via social networks. These results suggest the potential for the kinds of inter-individual association patterns assumed by models of predator inspection and 'tit-for-tat' behaviours in free-ranging fishes. PMID:12495488

  3. Diet analysis by next-generation sequencing indicates the frequent consumption of introduced plants by the critically endangered red-headed wood pigeon (Columba janthina nitens) in oceanic island habitats.

    PubMed

    Ando, Haruko; Setsuko, Suzuki; Horikoshi, Kazuo; Suzuki, Hajime; Umehara, Shoko; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Isagi, Yuji

    2013-10-01

    Oceanic island ecosystems are vulnerable to the introduction of alien species, and they provide a habitat for many endangered species. Knowing the diet of an endangered animal is important for appropriate nature restoration efforts on oceanic islands because introduced species may be a major component of the diets of some endangered species. DNA barcoding techniques together with next-generation sequencing may provide more detailed information on animal diets than other traditional methods. We performed a diet analysis using 48 fecal samples from the critically endangered red-headed wood pigeon that is endemic to the Ogasawara Islands based on chloroplast trnL P6 loop sequences. The frequency of each detected plant taxa was compared with a microhistological analysis of the same sample set. The DNA barcoding approach detected a much larger number of plants than the microhistological analysis. Plants that were difficult to identify by microhistological analysis after being digested in the pigeon stomachs were frequently identified only by DNA barcoding. The results of the barcoding analysis indicated the frequent consumption of introduced species, in addition to several native species, by the red-headed wood pigeon. The rapid eradication of specific introduced species may reduce the food resources available to this endangered bird; thus, balancing eradication efforts with the restoration of native food plants should be considered. Although some technical problems still exist, the trnL approach to next-generation sequencing may contribute to a better understanding of oceanic island ecosystems and their conservation.

  4. Exotic invaders gain foraging benefits by shoaling with native fish

    PubMed Central

    Camacho-Cervantes, Morelia; Garcia, Constantino Macías; Ojanguren, Alfredo F.; Magurran, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater habitats are under increasing threat due to invasions of exotic fish. These invasions typically begin with the introduction of small numbers of individuals unfamiliar with the new habitat. One way in which the invaders might overcome this disadvantage is by associating with native taxa occupying a similar ecological niche. Here we used guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from a feral population in Mexico to test the prediction that exotic shoaling fish can associate with heterospecifics, and that they improve their foraging efficiency by doing so. Guppies have invaded the Mexican High Plateau and are implicated in the declines of many native topminnow (Goodeinae) species. We show that heterospecific associations between guppies and topminnows can deliver the same foraging benefits as conspecific shoals, and that variation in foraging gains is linked to differences in association tendency. These results uncover a mechanism enabling founding individuals to survive during the most vulnerable phase of an invasion and help explain why guppies have established viable populations in many parts of Mexico as well in every continent except Antarctica. PMID:26064552

  5. Noble gases, their carrier phases, and argon chronology of upper mantle rocks from Zabargad Island, Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trieloff, M.; Weber, H. W.; Kurat, G.; Jessberger, E. K.; Janicke, J.

    1997-12-01

    Three ultramafic bodies on Zabargad Island contain fresh peridotites with mostly unfractionated primitive bulk major and trace element abundances and mostly monomineralic vein rocks (pyroxenites, olivinites, homblendites, etc.). We analyzed a set of coarse grained vein rocks with the 40Ar- 39Ar technique applying high resolution stepheating. Neutron induced argon isotopes derived from Ca, K, and Cl, and the specific degassing behaviour of major and accessory minerals enabled us to separate and identify different trapped and radiogenic argon components and their hosts. Within two clinopyroxenites trapped argon is present in (1) low temperature, low 40Ar/36Ar phases (serpentine and/or fluid inclusions), (2) pyroxene-related Cl-rich carriers (pyroxene and/or associated microinclusions) and (3) amphiboles which are intimately and nonseparably intergrown with pyroxene. The amphiboles, which can texturally, chemically, and isotopically be divided into different generations, formed by interaction of spinels and pyroxenes with mantle fluids during different stages of diapiric uplift (Agrinier et al., 1993). Formation of these amphiboles and microinclusions in pyroxenes, along with incorporation of isotopically distinct Ar with 40Ar/36Ar ratios up to 8000, can be related to recent mantle metasomatism also evident in Arabian xenoliths (Henjes-Kunst et al., 1990) and must have been induced by a variety of mantle fluids. For a homblendite, in situ radiogenic and excess argon components could be separated: the plateau age of 18.7 ± 1.3 Ma is in perfect agreement with a zircon Pb/Pb age of 18.4 ± 1.0 Ma (Oberli et al., 1987) interpreted as the age of crustal intrusion. Obviously, the formation of the hornblendite occurred during the final stage of uplift, most probably by interaction with seawater, as suggested by strontium, oxygen, and hydrogen isotopic data (Agrinier et al., 1993) and the low 40Ar/36Ar ratio (305) of the trapped argon. 4He, 20Ne, 40Ar, and 36Ar were measured

  6. A model of tephra dispersal from an early Palaeogene shallow submarine Surtseyan-style eruption(s), the Red Bluff Tuff Formation, Chatham Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorrentino, Leonor; Stilwell, Jeffrey D.; Mays, Chris

    2014-03-01

    The Red Bluff Tuff Formation, an early Palaeogene volcano-sedimentary shallow marine succession from the Chatham Islands (New Zealand), provides a unique framework, in eastern 'Zealandia', to explore tephra dispersal processes associated with ancient small phreatomagmatic explosions (i.e. Surtseyan-style eruptions). Detailed sedimentological mapping, logging and sampling integrated with the results of extensive laboratory analyses (i.e. grain-size, componentry and applied palaeontological methods) elucidated the complex mechanisms of transport and deposition of nine identified resedimented fossiliferous volcaniclastic facies. These facies record the subaqueous reworking and deposition of tephra from the erosion and degradation of a proximal, entirely submerged ancient Surtseyan volcanic edifice (Cone II). South of this volcanic cone, the lowermost distal facies provides significant evidence of deposition as water-supported volcanic- or storm-driven mass flows (e.g. turbidity currents and mud/debris flows) of volcaniclastic and bioclastic debris, whereas the uppermost distal facies exhibit features of tractional sedimentary processes caused by shallow subaqueous currents. Further north, within the proximity of the volcanic edifice, the uppermost facies are represented by an abundant, diverse, large, and well preserved in situ fauna of shallow marine sessile invertebrates (e.g. corals and sponges) that reflect the protracted biotic stabiliszation and rebound following pulsed volcanic events. Over a period of time, these stable and wave-eroded volcanic platforms were inhabited by a flourishing and diversifying marine community of benthic and sessile pioneers (corals, bryozoans, molluscs, brachiopods, barnacles, sponges, foraminifera, etc.). This succession exhibits a vertical progression of sedimentary structures (i.e. density, cohesive and mass flows, and cross-bedding) and our interpretations indicate a shallowing upwards succession. This study reports for the first

  7. Migration-related changes in gene expression in leg muscle of the Christmas Island red crab Gecarcoidea natalis: seasonal preparation for long-distance walking.

    PubMed

    Postel, Ute; Thompson, Fiona; Barker, Gary; Viney, Mark; Morris, Steve

    2010-05-01

    During their annual breeding migration the Christmas Island land crab Gecarcoidea natalis sustains locomotion aerobically for up to 12 h per day compared with just 10 min during the dry season when their muscles quickly become anaerobic. A seasonal transition to an endurance-muscle phenotype would thus seem essential for migrating crabs. The current study employed a gene discovery approach comparing two expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries, one each for leg muscle from dry (non-migrating) and wet season (migrating) crabs. The 14 most abundant transcripts differed in their representation between the two libraries. The abundances of transcripts of genes predicted to code for different proteins forming contractile muscle components, including actin, troponin and tropomyosin, were significantly different between seasons and thus between physiological states. The shift in the isoform composition of the contractile elements provided evidence for a switch from slow phasic (S1) to slow tonic (S2) fatigue-resistant muscle fibres. A tropomyosin (tm) transcript aligned with a tm isoform of lobster (tmS2), and semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed this isoform to be more abundant in the migrating crab muscle. Two LIM protein coding genes, a paxillin-like transcript (pax) and a muscle LIM protein (mlp), were relatively up-regulated in muscle of wet season crabs. These proteins have a fundamental role in muscle development and reconstruction, and their comparative up-regulation is consistent with a remodelling of leg muscle for migration in the wet season. Such a transition would result in an increased representation of aerobic endurance-type fibres concomitant with the greater aerobic exercise capacity of the migrating red crabs.

  8. Maturation of shoaling behavior is accompanied by changes in the dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Buske, Christine; Gerlai, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The zebrafish has been one of the preferred vertebrate model organisms of developmental biology, and is becoming an important research tool for behavioral neuroscience and behavior genetics. A prominent feature of zebrafish is their strong shoaling tendency. Most recently, the first study investigating the development of shoaling in zebrafish demonstrated that a few days after hatching zebrafish do not shoal, but that shoaling tendency gradually increases during development. The current study investigates this phenomenon using the nearest neighbor distance, a measure most frequently employed for the quantification of shoal cohesion in fish. We demonstrate that shoal cohesion increases with age, while thigmotaxis, "wall hugging," does not show a consistent age-dependent change. The mechanisms underlying the maturation of shoaling are unknown. HPLC analysis of whole brain extracts finds the concentration of dopamine, DOPAC, serotonin, and 5-HIAA normalized to total brain protein weight to increase with age. Although the behavioral and neurochemical results are only correlative at this point, they may open a new avenue into the investigation of the mechanisms and development of social behavior in zebrafish. PMID:21656763

  9. Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the 2007 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 located in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. Requirements for CAU 447, as specified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and the State of Nevada, includes groundwater monitoring in support of site closure. This is the first groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the PSA.

  10. Periphyton accumulation at remote reefs and shoals in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Stoermer, Eugene F.; Kociolek, John P.

    1991-01-01

    Observations made from a submarine showed that the bed-rock surfaces at water depths of about 5 to 14 m on Stannard Rock and Superior Shoal in Lake Superior were covered with a dense, fleece-like blanket of periphyton. Examination of the periphyton revealed it consisted primarily of structurally complex, diverse, diatom communities, but occasional small thalli of the green algae Cladophora andStigeoclonium were also noted. Extensive windrows of detritus-like material, apparently derived from the local periphyton community, were seen on soft bottoms at depths of about 20 to 60 m near the reefs. Our observations suggested that these periphyton communities may be locally important to the food web at these remote and oligotrophic sites, which are 22 to 77 km from the nearest mainland shore and are surrounded by water at least 140 m deep.

  11. Androgen response to social competition in a shoaling fish.

    PubMed

    Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F

    2016-02-01

    Androgens respond to social challenges and this response has been interpreted as a way for males to adjust androgen-dependent behavior to social context. However, the androgen responsiveness to social challenges varies across species and a conceptual framework has been developed to explain this variation according to differences in the mating system and parental care type, which determines the regimen of challenges males are exposed to, and concomitantly the scope (defined as the difference between the physiological maximum and the baseline levels) of response to a social challenge. However, this framework has been focused on territorial species and no clear predictions have been made to gregarious species (e.g. shoaling fish), which although tolerating same-sex individuals may also exhibit intra-sexual competition. In this paper we extend the scope of this conceptual framework to shoaling fish by studying the endocrine response of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to social challenges. Male zebrafish exposed to real opponent agonistic interactions exhibited an increase in androgen levels (11-ketotestosterone both in Winners and Losers and testosterone in Losers). This response was absent in Mirror-fighters, that expressed similar levels of aggressive behavior to those of winners, suggesting that this response is not a mere reflex of heightened aggressive motivation. Cortisol levels were also measured and indicated an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis in Winners of real opponent fighters, but not Losers or in Mirror-fighters. These results confirm that gregarious species also exhibit an endocrine response to an acute social challenge. PMID:26497408

  12. "What the Red Squirrel Is To the Gray": The Importance of Culture in the Composition of School Boards on Mount Desert Island, Maine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Barbara Kent

    This paper examines the imbalance in representation of native-born Mainers on the school board in Mount Desert Island, Maine. Mount Desert Island is the location of Acadia, the second most visited national park in the United States. In this community, native-born Mainers represent 68 percent of the year-round population, but 80 percent of people…

  13. Hybridization threatens shoal bass populations in the Upper Chattahoochee River Basin: Chapter 37

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dakin, Elizabeth E; Porter, Brady A.; Freeman, Byron J.; Long, James M.; Tringali, Michael D.; Long, James M.; Birdsong, Timothy W.; Allen, Micheal S.

    2015-01-01

    Shoal bass are native only to the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint river system of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida, and are vulnerable to extinction as a result of population fragmentation and introduction of non-native species. We assessed the genetic integrity of isolated populations of shoal bass in the upper Chattahoochee River basin (above Lake Lanier, Big Creek, and below Morgan Falls Dam) and sought to identify rates of hybridization with non-native, illegally stocked smallmouth bass and spotted bass.

  14. Validation Analysis of the Shoal Groundwater Flow and Transport Model

    SciTech Connect

    A. Hassan; J. Chapman

    2008-11-01

    Environmental restoration at the Shoal underground nuclear test is following a process prescribed by a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) between the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. Characterization of the site included two stages of well drilling and testing in 1996 and 1999, and development and revision of numerical models of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. Agreement on a contaminant boundary for the site and a corrective action plan was reached in 2006. Later that same year, three wells were installed for the purposes of model validation and site monitoring. The FFACO prescribes a five-year proof-of-concept period for demonstrating that the site groundwater model is capable of producing meaningful results with an acceptable level of uncertainty. The corrective action plan specifies a rigorous seven step validation process. The accepted groundwater model is evaluated using that process in light of the newly acquired data. The conceptual model of ground water flow for the Project Shoal Area considers groundwater flow through the fractured granite aquifer comprising the Sand Springs Range. Water enters the system by the infiltration of precipitation directly on the surface of the mountain range. Groundwater leaves the granite aquifer by flowing into alluvial deposits in the adjacent basins of Fourmile Flat and Fairview Valley. A groundwater divide is interpreted as coinciding with the western portion of the Sand Springs Range, west of the underground nuclear test, preventing flow from the test into Fourmile Flat. A very low conductivity shear zone east of the nuclear test roughly parallels the divide. The presence of these lateral boundaries, coupled with a regional discharge area to the northeast, is interpreted in the model as causing groundwater from the site to flow in a northeastward direction into Fairview Valley. Steady-state flow conditions are assumed given the absence of

  15. Surficial geology of the sea floor in Long Island Sound offshore of Plum Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; Blackwood, D.S.; Schaer, J.D.; Ostapenko, A.J.; Glomb, K.A.; Doran, E.F.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have been working cooperatively to interpret surficial sea-floor geology along the coast of the Northeastern United States. NOAA survey H11445 in eastern Long Island Sound, offshore of Plum Island, New York, covers an area of about 12 square kilometers. Multibeam bathymetry and sidescan-sonar imagery from the survey, as well as sediment and photographic data from 13 stations occupied during a USGS verification cruise are used to delineate sea-floor features and characterize the environment. Bathymetry gradually deepens offshore to over 100 meters in a depression in the northwest part of the study area and reaches 60 meters in Plum Gut, a channel between Plum Island and Orient Point. Sand waves are present on a shoal north of Plum Island and in several smaller areas around the basin. Sand-wave asymmetry indicates that counter-clockwise net sediment transport maintains the shoal. Sand is prevalent where there is low backscatter in the sidescan-sonar imagery. Gravel and boulder areas are submerged lag deposits produced from the Harbor Hill-Orient Point-Fishers Island moraine segment and are found adjacent to the shorelines and just north of Plum Island, where high backscatter is present in the sidescan-sonar imagery.

  16. Fish Cam: An Online Tool for Introducing Shoaling Behavior to the Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Southwell, Maura; Galassi, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Fish Cam is an on-line educational resource that enables students to participate in behavioral research projects without ever leaving their classroom. By linking onto the Fish Cam site, students will observe an experimental tank in which fish choose shoal-mates in dichotomous choice tests. In these experiments, a test fish, in the central compartment, displays its shoaling preference by swimming near small shoals of fish in either of two side compartments. Assays are designed to examine the effects of phenotype, shoal size, and other factors known to influence shoaling. Students monitor Fish Cam in real time, and students collect data simply by running timers when the test fish crosses into the preference zones at each end of the central compartment. The times are logged onto data sheets that we provide, and we assist the students with their analysis. The simplicity of shoaling behavior makes it an ideal model system for data collection that is accessible to students of all ages and, in its first few years of operation, Fish Cam studies have been performed by fifth-, seventh- and eleventh-grade students. Sample lesson plans and handouts are available online to enhance the Fish Cam experience. The ultimate goals of this project are to make scientific research accessible in the classroom and promote science education. PMID:23244694

  17. Fish cam: an online tool for introducing shoaling behavior to the classroom.

    PubMed

    Southwell, Maura; Galassi, Maria; McRobert, Scott

    2012-12-01

    Fish Cam is an on-line educational resource that enables students to participate in behavioral research projects without ever leaving their classroom. By linking onto the Fish Cam site, students will observe an experimental tank in which fish choose shoal-mates in dichotomous choice tests. In these experiments, a test fish, in the central compartment, displays its shoaling preference by swimming near small shoals of fish in either of two side compartments. Assays are designed to examine the effects of phenotype, shoal size, and other factors known to influence shoaling. Students monitor Fish Cam in real time, and students collect data simply by running timers when the test fish crosses into the preference zones at each end of the central compartment. The times are logged onto data sheets that we provide, and we assist the students with their analysis. The simplicity of shoaling behavior makes it an ideal model system for data collection that is accessible to students of all ages and, in its first few years of operation, Fish Cam studies have been performed by fifth-, seventh- and eleventh-grade students. Sample lesson plans and handouts are available online to enhance the Fish Cam experience. The ultimate goals of this project are to make scientific research accessible in the classroom and promote science education. PMID:23244694

  18. Fish cam: an online tool for introducing shoaling behavior to the classroom.

    PubMed

    Southwell, Maura; Galassi, Maria; McRobert, Scott

    2012-12-01

    Fish Cam is an on-line educational resource that enables students to participate in behavioral research projects without ever leaving their classroom. By linking onto the Fish Cam site, students will observe an experimental tank in which fish choose shoal-mates in dichotomous choice tests. In these experiments, a test fish, in the central compartment, displays its shoaling preference by swimming near small shoals of fish in either of two side compartments. Assays are designed to examine the effects of phenotype, shoal size, and other factors known to influence shoaling. Students monitor Fish Cam in real time, and students collect data simply by running timers when the test fish crosses into the preference zones at each end of the central compartment. The times are logged onto data sheets that we provide, and we assist the students with their analysis. The simplicity of shoaling behavior makes it an ideal model system for data collection that is accessible to students of all ages and, in its first few years of operation, Fish Cam studies have been performed by fifth-, seventh- and eleventh-grade students. Sample lesson plans and handouts are available online to enhance the Fish Cam experience. The ultimate goals of this project are to make scientific research accessible in the classroom and promote science education.

  19. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  20. Factors controlling navigation-channel Shoaling in Laguna Madre, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, R.A.; Nava, R.C.; Arhelger, M.

    2001-01-01

    Shoaling in the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway of Laguna Madre, Tex., is caused primarily by recycling of dredged sediments. Sediment recycling, which is controlled by water depth and location with respect to the predominant wind-driven currents, is minimal where dredged material is placed on tidal flats that are either flooded infrequently or where the water is extremely shallow. In contrast, nearly all of the dredged material placed in open water >1.5 m deep is reworked and either transported back into the channel or dispersed into the surrounding lagoon. A sediment flux analysis incorporating geotechnical properties demonstrated that erosion and not postemplacement compaction caused most sediment losses from the placement areas. Comparing sediment properties in the placement areas and natural lagoon indicated that the remaining dredged material is mostly a residual of initial channel construction. Experimental containment designs (shallow subaqueous mound, submerged levee, and emergent levee) constructed in high-maintenance areas to reduce reworking did not retain large volumes of dredged material. The emergent levee provided the greatest retention potential approximately 2 years after construction.

  1. Fluid management plan for the Project Shoal Area Offsites Subproject

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has initiated the Offsites Subproject to characterize the hazards posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing activities at facilities other than the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A primary Subproject objective is to gather adequate data to characterize the various Subproject sites through the collection of surface and subsurface soil samples and by drilling several wells for the collection of groundwater data. The Project Shoal Area (PSA) is one of the Subproject`s Nevada sites and is subject to the requirements set forth in the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (DOE, 1996a). In accordance with the FFACO, a Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed for work at the PSA (designated as Corrective Action Unit Number 416). This Fluid Management Plan (FMP) provides guidance for the management of fluids generated from wells constructed at the PSA. Long-term monitoring and future activities at the site, if required, will be set forth in additional documents as required by the FFACO. The ultimate method for disposition of fluids generated by site operations depends upon sample analysis and process knowledge in relation to fluid management criteria. Section 2 describes well site operations; Section 3 discusses fluid management criteria; Section 4 includes the fluid monitoring program; Section 5 presents the fluid management strategy; Section 6 provides for fluid management during routine well monitoring; and Section 7 contains reporting criteria.

  2. Tidally-forced flow in a rotating, stratified, shoaling basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, Kraig B.

    2015-06-01

    Baroclinic flow of a rotating, stratified fluid in a parabolic basin is computed in response to barotropic tidal forcing using the nonlinear, non-hydrostatic, Boussinesq equations of motion. The tidal forcing is derived from an imposed, boundary-enhanced free-surface deflection that advances cyclonically around a central amphidrome. The tidal forcing perturbs a shallow pycnocline, sloshing it up and down over the shoaling bottom. Nonlinearities in the near-shore internal tide produce an azimuthally independent 'set-up' of the isopycnals that in turn drives an approximately geostrophically balanced, cyclonic, near-shore, sub-surface jet. The sub-surface cyclonic jet is an example of a slowly evolving, nearly balanced flow that is excited and maintained solely by forcing in the fast, super-inertial frequency band. Baroclinic instability of the nearly balanced jet and subsequent interactions between eddies produce a weak transfer of energy back into the inertia-gravity band as swirling motions with super-inertial vorticity stir the stratified fluid and spontaneously emit waves. The sub-surface cyclonic jet is similar in many ways to the poleward flows observed along eastern ocean boundaries, particularly the California Undercurrent. It is conjectured that such currents may be driven by the surface tide rather than by winds and/or along-shore pressure gradients.

  3. Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps Form Different Sized Shoals that Readily Intermix.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Ratna; Xiong, Peter X; Sorensen, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    Two species of congeneric filter-feeding microphagous carps from Asia, the bighead and the silver carp, were recently introduced to North America and have become highly invasive. These species of carp have similar food habits but the silver carp has the unique habit of jumping when disturbed. Both species have complex but poorly understood social behaviors and while both are thought to aggregate (form groups) and shoal (form tight social groups), this possibility has not yet been examined in these species. The present study examined the grouping tendencies of these species in the laboratory and the effects of fish density and species identity on it. Using nearest neighbor distance (NND) as a metric, we showed that both juvenile bighead and juvenile silver carp grouped (aggregate) strongly (P<0.05) but to different extents, and that fish density had no effect (P>0.05) on this behavior. Within aggregations, bighead carp tended to form a single large shoal while silver carp formed shoals of 2-3 individuals. Further, when tested as mixed-species groups, bighead and silver carp readily shoaled with each other but not with the common carp, which is from Eurasia and a member of another feeding guild. Due to their similar feeding strategies, we speculate that the bighead and silver carp tend to aggregate and shoal to facilitate both their foraging efforts and to avoid predation, while the differences in the size of the shoals they form may seemingly reflect their different anti-predation strategies. These complex shoaling behaviors likely influence Asian carp distribution in rivers, and thus how they might be sampled and managed.

  4. Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps Form Different Sized Shoals that Readily Intermix

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Ratna; Xiong, Peter X.; Sorensen, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Two species of congeneric filter-feeding microphagous carps from Asia, the bighead and the silver carp, were recently introduced to North America and have become highly invasive. These species of carp have similar food habits but the silver carp has the unique habit of jumping when disturbed. Both species have complex but poorly understood social behaviors and while both are thought to aggregate (form groups) and shoal (form tight social groups), this possibility has not yet been examined in these species. The present study examined the grouping tendencies of these species in the laboratory and the effects of fish density and species identity on it. Using nearest neighbor distance (NND) as a metric, we showed that both juvenile bighead and juvenile silver carp grouped (aggregate) strongly (P<0.05) but to different extents, and that fish density had no effect (P>0.05) on this behavior. Within aggregations, bighead carp tended to form a single large shoal while silver carp formed shoals of 2–3 individuals. Further, when tested as mixed-species groups, bighead and silver carp readily shoaled with each other but not with the common carp, which is from Eurasia and a member of another feeding guild. Due to their similar feeding strategies, we speculate that the bighead and silver carp tend to aggregate and shoal to facilitate both their foraging efforts and to avoid predation, while the differences in the size of the shoals they form may seemingly reflect their different anti-predation strategies. These complex shoaling behaviors likely influence Asian carp distribution in rivers, and thus how they might be sampled and managed. PMID:27276024

  5. Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps Form Different Sized Shoals that Readily Intermix.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Ratna; Xiong, Peter X; Sorensen, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    Two species of congeneric filter-feeding microphagous carps from Asia, the bighead and the silver carp, were recently introduced to North America and have become highly invasive. These species of carp have similar food habits but the silver carp has the unique habit of jumping when disturbed. Both species have complex but poorly understood social behaviors and while both are thought to aggregate (form groups) and shoal (form tight social groups), this possibility has not yet been examined in these species. The present study examined the grouping tendencies of these species in the laboratory and the effects of fish density and species identity on it. Using nearest neighbor distance (NND) as a metric, we showed that both juvenile bighead and juvenile silver carp grouped (aggregate) strongly (P<0.05) but to different extents, and that fish density had no effect (P>0.05) on this behavior. Within aggregations, bighead carp tended to form a single large shoal while silver carp formed shoals of 2-3 individuals. Further, when tested as mixed-species groups, bighead and silver carp readily shoaled with each other but not with the common carp, which is from Eurasia and a member of another feeding guild. Due to their similar feeding strategies, we speculate that the bighead and silver carp tend to aggregate and shoal to facilitate both their foraging efforts and to avoid predation, while the differences in the size of the shoals they form may seemingly reflect their different anti-predation strategies. These complex shoaling behaviors likely influence Asian carp distribution in rivers, and thus how they might be sampled and managed. PMID:27276024

  6. The geomorphology of the Chandeleur Island Wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Debusschere, K.; Penland, S.; Westphal, K. ); Handley, L. ); Michot, T. ); Reed, D.; Seal, R.

    1990-09-01

    The Chandeleur Islands represent the largest and oldest transgressive barrier island arc in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Generated by the transgressive submergence of the St. Bernard delta complex, the Chandeleur Islands form the protective geologic framework for one of the richest areas of salt marsh and seagrass flats in Louisiana. The Chandeleur barrier island arc is 60 km long and consists of five individual islands backed by a linear, multiple bar system enclosing a shallow basin floored by extensive seagrass flats. The northern part of the Chandeleur chain is the highest in relief, elevation, width, and habitat diversity. Nonstorm morphology is predominantly a combination of continuous dunes and dune terraces. Numerous washover channels and large washover fans extend into the backbarrier environment. Further south, the island width decreases and washover flats and terraces dominate the shoreline morphology In the southernmost section, the island arc is fragmented into a series of small islands and shoals separated by tidal inlets. Between 1984 and 1989, aerial videotape, aerial photographic, and bathymetric surveys were used to map and monitor the geomorphic changes occurring along the shoreline and in backbarrier areas. The aerial videotape mapping surveys focused on the impacts of hurricanes Danny, Elena, and Juan on the geomorphology of the islands. Videotape imagery was acquired in July 1984 and in July (prestorm), August (post-Danny), September (post-Elena), and November (post-Juan) 1985. A coastal geomorphic classification was developed to map the spatial and temporal landscape changes between surveys.

  7. Atlantic Deep-water Response to the Early Pliocene Shoaling of the Central American Seaway

    PubMed Central

    Bell, David B.; Jung, Simon J. A.; Kroon, Dick; Hodell, David A.; Lourens, Lucas J.; Raymo, Maureen E.

    2015-01-01

    The early Pliocene shoaling of the Central American Seaway (CAS), ~4.7–4.2 million years ago (mega annum-Ma), is thought to have strengthened Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The associated increase in northward flux of heat and moisture may have significantly influenced the evolution of Pliocene climate. While some evidence for the predicted increase in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation exists in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, similar evidence is missing in the wider Atlantic. Here, we present stable carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope records from the Southeast Atlantic-a key region for monitoring the southern extent of NADW. Using these data, together with other δ13C and δ18O records from the Atlantic, we assess the impact of the early Pliocene CAS shoaling phase on deep-water circulation. We find that NADW formation was vigorous prior to 4.7 Ma and showed limited subsequent change. Hence, the overall structure of the deep Atlantic was largely unaffected by the early Pliocene CAS shoaling, corroborating other evidence that indicates larger changes in NADW resulted from earlier and deeper shoaling phases. This finding implies that the early Pliocene shoaling of the CAS had no profound impact on the evolution of climate. PMID:26193070

  8. Shoaling reduces metabolic rate in a gregarious coral reef fish species

    PubMed Central

    Killen, Shaun S.; McClure, Eva C.; Munday, Philip L.; McCormick, Mark I.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many animals live in groups because of the potential benefits associated with defense and foraging. Group living may also induce a ‘calming effect’ on individuals, reducing overall metabolic demand. This effect could occur by minimising the need for individual vigilance and reducing stress through social buffering. However, this effect has proved difficult to quantify. We examined the effect of shoaling on metabolism and body condition in the gregarious damselfish Chromis viridis. Using a novel respirometry methodology for social species, we found that the presence of shoal-mate visual and olfactory cues led to a reduction in the minimum metabolic rate of individuals. Fish held in isolation for 1 week also exhibited a reduction in body condition when compared with those held in shoals. These results indicate that social isolation as a result of environmental disturbance could have physiological consequences for gregarious species. PMID:27655821

  9. Tributyltin affects shoaling and anxiety behavior in female rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiliang; Zhang, Chunnuan; Sun, Ping; Shao, Xian

    2016-09-01

    Effects of tributyltin (TBT) on reproduction are well established in many fish species. However, few studies report the effects of TBT on non-reproductive behaviors, which is a novel aspect of endocrine disruption in fish. Thus, the present study used rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) to investigate the effects of TBT, at environmental concentrations of 1, 10 and 100ng/L, on shoaling and anxiety behaviors. The results showed that fish exposed to TBT had less group cohesion during the course of the 10-min observation period as compared with the control fish. Further, TBT altered the shoaling in the Novel tank test, where shoaling is determined as the tendency to leave a shoal of littermates trapped behind a Plexiglas barrier at one end of the test tank. Fish exposed to TBT had shorter latency before leaving shoal mates and spent more time away from shoal than control fish. In addition, we also used Novel tanks to study the anxiety behavior as the tendency to stay at the bottom when introduced into an unfamiliar environment. The fish exposed to TBT showed increased anxiety, manifested as increased latency to enter the upper half and decreased time in upper half when compared with the control fish. TBT exposure increased the levels of dopamine and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and decreased the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine and its metabolite 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid in the brain. Thus, the hypofunction of the dopaminergic system or of the serotoninergic system or the combination of the two may underlie the observed behavioral change, which might affect the fitness of fish in their natural environment. PMID:27472783

  10. Can seismic character identify lithologies associated with Bluell and Sherwood shorelines and shoals

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.H. )

    1991-06-01

    Several new oil fields have been discovered in the Bluell and Sherwood members of the Mission Canyon Formation, reviving the Mississippian shoreline play in the eastern Williston basin. During periodic regressions, carbonates and evaporites were deposited along the shoreline of a shallow sea. Embayments in the shoreline created traps that contain 3 - 8 million bbl of oil. Carbonate shoals developed offshore. Surrounded by impermeable carbonate mud, they trap 1 - 3 million bbl of oil. The ability of seismic character to distinguish lithologies associated with shorelines and shoals was investigated using sonic logs, models, and seismic data. Shorelines: The gross thickness of the Bluell zone can range between 40 and 70 ft, the Sherwood zone between 35 and 80 ft. Changing thicknesses on geologic models had a distinct effect on seismic character. Also, seismic character varied in response to changing stratigraphy above, within, and below the Bluell and Sherwood zones. Carbonate and anhydrite bulk densities and velocities differ by about 10%. Modeling this difference demonstrated a minimal change in seismic character. Seismic character cannot delineate the shoreline transition from carbonate to anhydrite. Other stratigraphic variations alter seismic character more than this lithologic change. Shoals: Velocity and density variations between shoal carbonates and intershoal mud can differ by 30%. Sonic log seismograms and seismic data show a distinct character change between these lithologies. Seismic character can be used to delineate carbonate shoals and mud. However, the shoal/mud character change can be modified by the seismic response to other stratigraphic variations. Calibration with nearby wells can reduce interpretational uncertainty.

  11. March 2010 Groundwater Sampling at the Project Shoal Site, Nevada (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Project Shoal Area (Shoal) in March 2010. Wells HC-4, HC-5, HC-7, HC-8, MV-1, MV-2 and MV-3 were sampled March 10-12, 2010, as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Wells HC-1, HC-2, HC-3, and HC-6 were sampled March 24, 2010, by Desert Research Institute personnel.

  12. Corrective action investigation plan for Project Shoal Area CAU No. 416

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) is part of an ongoing US Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project for the investigation of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 416, Project Shoal Area (PSA). Project Shoal was conducted to determine whether seismic waves produced by underground nuclear testing could be differentiated from naturally occurring earthquakes. The PSA site is located approximately 30 miles southeast of Fallon, Nevada, in the northern portion of Sand Springs Mountains in Churchill County. This CAIP will be implemented in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan, and all applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection policies and regulations.

  13. Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    SciTech Connect

    K. Pohlmann; G. Pohll; J. Chapman; A. Hassan; R. Carroll; C. Shirley

    2004-03-01

    Groundwater flow and radionuclide transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test are characterized using three-dimensional numerical models, based on site-specific hydrologic data. The objective of this modeling is to provide the flow and transport models needed to develop a contaminant boundary defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater at the site throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will then be used to manage the Project Shoal Area for the protection of the public and the environment.

  14. Anatomy of a shoreface sand ridge revisted using foraminifera: False Cape Shoals, Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Marci M.; McBride, Randolph A.

    2008-01-01

    Certain details regarding the origin and evolution of shelf sand ridges remain elusive. Knowledge of their internal stratigraphy and microfossil distribution is necessary to define the origin and to determine the processes that modify sand ridges. Fourteen vibracores from False Cape Shoal A, a well-developed shoreface-attached sand ridge on the Virginia/North Carolina inner continental shelf, were examined to document the internal stratigraphy and benthic foraminiferal assemblages, as well as to reconstruct the depositional environments recorded in down-core sediments. Seven sedimentary and foraminiferal facies correspond to the following stratigraphic units: fossiliferous silt, barren sand, clay to sandy clay, laminated and bioturbated sand, poorly sorted massive sand, fine clean sand, and poorly sorted clay to gravel. The units represent a Pleistocene estuary and shoreface, a Holocene estuary, ebb tidal delta, modern shelf, modern shoreface, and swale fill, respectively. The succession of depositional environments reflects a Pleistocene sea-level highstand and subsequent regression followed by the Holocene transgression in which barrier island/spit systems formed along the Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf not, vert, ~5.2 ka and migrated landward and an ebb tidal delta that was deposited, reworked, and covered by shelf sand.

  15. Anatomy of a shoreface sand ridge revisited using foraminifera: False Cape Shoals, Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, M.M.; McBride, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Certain details regarding the origin and evolution of shelf sand ridges remain elusive. Knowledge of their internal stratigraphy and microfossil distribution is necessary to define the origin and to determine the processes that modify sand ridges. Fourteen vibracores from False Cape Shoal A, a well-developed shoreface-attached sand ridge on the Virginia/North Carolina inner continental shelf, were examined to document the internal stratigraphy and benthic foraminiferal assemblages, as well as to reconstruct the depositional environments recorded in down-core sediments. Seven sedimentary and foraminiferal facies correspond to the following stratigraphic units: fossiliferous silt, barren sand, clay to sandy clay, laminated and bioturbated sand, poorly sorted massive sand, fine clean sand, and poorly sorted clay to gravel. The units represent a Pleistocene estuary and shoreface, a Holocene estuary, ebb tidal delta, modern shelf, modern shoreface, and swale fill, respectively. The succession of depositional environments reflects a Pleistocene sea-level highstand and subsequent regression followed by the Holocene transgression in which barrier island/spit systems formed along the Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf ???5.2 ka and migrated landward and an ebb tidal delta that was deposited, reworked, and covered by shelf sand.

  16. Growth of red InP/GaInP quantum dots on a low density InAs/GaAs island seed layer by MOVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roßbach, R.; Schulz, W.-M.; Reischle, M.; Beirne, G. J.; Hermannstädter, C.; Jetter, M.; Michler, P.

    2008-11-01

    We demonstrate the growth of InP/GaInP quantum dots on a low density InAs/GaAs island seed layer ( 107 cm-2) by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. The strain produced by the underlying InAs islands results in a distinct bimodal size distribution of the InP/GaInP quantum dot layer where large dome shaped structures and small quantum dots could be observed using atomic force microscopy. Using μ-photoluminescence only luminescence from the small high energetic InP-QDs could be recorded with emission linewidths of around 140 μeV. Autocorrelation measurements confirmed the zero dimensionality of the InP quantum dots.

  17. A Pliocene shoaling basaltic seamount: Ba Volcanic Group at Rakiraki, Fiji

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhie, J.

    1995-03-01

    At Rakiraki in northeastern Viti Levu, the Pliocene Ba Volcanic Group comprises gently dipping, pyroxene-phyric basaltic lavas, including pillow lava, and texturally diverse volcanic breccia interbedded with conglomerate and sandstone. Three main facies associations have been identified: (1) The primary volcanic facies association includes massive basalt (flows and sills), pillow lava and related in-situ breccia (pillow-fragment breccia, autobreccia, in-situ hyaloclastite, peperite). (2) The resedimented volcaniclastic facies association consists of bedded, monomict volcanic breccia and scoria lapilli-rich breccia. (3) The volcanogenic sedimentary facies association is composed of bedded, polymict conglomerate and breccia, together with volcanic sandstone and siltstone-mudstone facies. Pillow lava and coarse hyaloclastite breccia indicate a submarine depositional setting for most of the sequence. Thick, massive to graded beds of polymict breccia and conglomerate are interpreted as volcaniclastic mass-flow deposits emplaced below wave base. Well-rounded clasts in conglomerate were reworked during subaerial transport and/or temporary storage in shoreline or shallow water environments prior to redeposition. Red, oxidised lava and scoria clasts in bedded breccia and conglomerate also imply that the source was partly subaerial. The facies assemblage is consistent with a setting on the submerged flanks of a shoaling basaltic seamount. The coarse grade and large volume of conglomerate and breccia reflect the high supply rate of clasts, and the propensity for collapse and redeposition on steep palaeoslopes. The clast supply may have been boosted by vigorous fragmentation processes accompanying transition of lava from subaerial to submarine settings. The greater proportion of primary volcanic facies compared with resedimented volcaniclastic and volcanogenic sedimentary facies in central and northwestern exposures (near Rakiraki) indicates they are more proximal than those

  18. Tidal characteristics in the Wenzhou offshore waters and changes resulting from the Wenzhou Shoal Reclamation Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Min; Bao, Xianwen; Yu, Huaming; Ding, Yang

    2015-12-01

    The Wenzhou Shoal Reclamation Project is the core part of Wenzhou Peninsula Engineering which is a big comprehensive development project to expand the city space. The dynamics of the surrounding area was proved to suffer little effect in response to the Lingni north dyke since it was built approximately along the current direction. Therefore, this paper focuses firstly on the tidal characteristics in the Wenzhou and Yueqing bays with the Lingni north dyke being built and then on the changes resulting from the implementation of the on-going Wenzhou Shoal Reclamation Project (WSRP) which will reclaim land from the whole Wenzhou Shoal. To simulate the tidal dynamics, a high-resolution coastal ocean model with unstructured triangular grids was set up for the Wenzhou and Yueqing Bays. The model resolved the complicated tidal dynamics with the simulated tidal elevation and current in good agreement with observations. In the study area, M2 is the predominant tidal component, which means the tide is semidiurnal. The new reclamation project hardly affects the Yueqing Bay and the open ocean, but there are concentrated effects on the mouth of the southern branch of the Oujiang River and the southwest of Wenzhou Shoal. This study provides an indicative reference to the local government and helps to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of the project.

  19. Evaluation of groundwater flow and transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test: An interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Pohll, G.; Chapman, J.; Hassan, A.; Papelis, C.; Andricevic, R.; Shirley, C.

    1998-07-01

    Since 1962, all United States nuclear tests have been conducted underground. A consequence of this testing has been the deposition of large amounts of radioactive materials in the subsurface, sometimes in direct contact with groundwater. The majority of this testing occurred on the Nevada Test Site, but a limited number of experiments were conducted in other locations. One of these is the subject of this report, the Project Shoal Area (PSA), located about 50 km southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The Shoal test consisted of a 12-kiloton-yield nuclear detonation which occurred on October 26, 1963. Project Shoal was part of studies to enhance seismic detection of underground nuclear tests, in particular, in active earthquake areas. Characterization of groundwater contamination at the Project Shoal Area is being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) with the State of Nevada Department of Environmental Protection and the US Department of Defense (DOD). This order prescribes a Corrective Action Strategy (Appendix VI), which, as applied to underground nuclear tests, involves preparing a Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP), Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Corrective Action Plan, and Closure Report. The scope of the CAIP is flow and transport modeling to establish contaminant boundaries that are protective of human health and the environment. This interim report describes the current status of the flow and transport modeling for the PSA.

  20. Implications of multiple mating for offspring relatedness and shoaling behaviour in juvenile guppies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P; Kelley, Jennifer L

    2008-12-23

    Polyandry (female multiple mating) can confer important benefits to females, but few studies have considered its potential costs. One such cost may arise through differences in the relatedness of offspring born to females with different mating histories; offspring born to monandrous females are always full siblings, while those produced by polyandrous females may be full or half siblings. These differences may have important consequences for social interactions among offspring. We used artificial insemination in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a promiscuous live-bearing fish, to evaluate shoaling behaviour in polyandrous and monandrous broods. We combined this information with known parentage data for the polyandrous broods to determine whether sibling relatedness influenced offspring shoaling behaviour. While we detected no effect of mating treatment (polyandry/monandry) on shoaling behaviour, we found that pairs of full siblings spent significantly more time shoaling (and in close proximity) than pairs of half siblings. This latter finding confirms the ability of newborn guppies to distinguish brood mates on the basis of kinship, but also suggests an important and hitherto unrealized potential cost of polyandry: a reduction in within-brood relatedness with potentially important implications for offspring social behaviour.

  1. A method for resolving occlusions when multitracking individuals in a shoal.

    PubMed

    Dolado, Ruth; Gimeno, Elisabet; Beltran, Francesc S; Quera, Vicenç; Pertusa, José F

    2015-12-01

    Studying the collective behavior of fishes often requires tracking a great number of individuals. When many fishes move together, it is common for individuals to move so close to each other that some fishes superimpose themselves on others during one or several units of time, which impacts on tracking accuracy (i.e., loss of fish trajectories, interchange of fish identities). Type 1 occlusions arise when two fishes swim so near each other that they look like one long fish, whereas type 2 occlusions occur when the fishes' trajectories cross to create a T- or X-shaped individual. We propose an image processing method for resolving these types of occlusions when multitracking shoals in two dimensions. We assessed processing effectiveness after videorecording shoals of 20 and 40 individuals of two species that exhibit different shoal styles: zebrafish (Danio rerio) and black neon tetras (Hyphessobrycon herbertaxelrodi). Results show that, although the number of occlusions depended on both the number of individuals and the species, the method is able to effectively resolve a great deal of occlusions, irrespective of the species and the number of individuals. It also produces images that can be used in a multitracking system to detect individual fish trajectories. Compared to other methods, our approach makes it possible to study shoals with water depths similar to those seen in the natural conditions of the two species studied. PMID:25294043

  2. Applying Tafkaa For Atmospheric Correction of Aviris Over Coral Ecosystems In The Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, James A.; Montes, Marcos J.; Ustin, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Growing concern over the health of coastal ecosystems, particularly coral reefs, has produced increased interest in remote sensing as a tool for the management and monitoring of these valuable natural resources. Hyperspectral capabilities show promising results in this regard, but as yet remain somewhat hindered by the technical and physical issues concerning the intervening water layer. One such issue is the ability to atmospherically correct images over shallow aquatic areas, where complications arise due to varying effects from specular reflection, wind blown surface waves, and reflectance from the benthic substrate. Tafkaa, an atmospheric correction algorithm under development at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, addresses these variables and provides a viable approach to the atmospheric correction issue. Using imagery from the Advanced Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over two shallow coral ecosystems in the Hawai ian Islands, French Frigate Shoals and Kane ohe Bay, we first demonstrate how land-based atmospheric corrections can be limited in such an environment. We then discuss the input requirements and underlying algorithm concepts of Tafkaa and conclude with examples illustrating the improved performance of Tafkaa using the same AVIRIS images.

  3. Shoals and valley plugs in the Hatchie River watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, Timothy H.

    2000-01-01

    Agricultural land use and gully erosion have historically contributed more sediment to the streams of the Hatchie River watershed than those streams can carry. In 1970, the main sedimentation problem in the watershed occurred in the tributary flood plains. This problem motivated channelization projects (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1970). By the mid-1980's, concern had shifted to sedimentation in the Hatchie River itself where channelized tributaries were understood to contribute much of the sediment. The Soil Conservation Service [Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) since 1996] estimated that 640,000 tons of bedload (sand) accumulates in the Hatchie River each year and identified roughly the eastern two-thirds of the watershed, where loess is thin or absent, as the main source of sand (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1986a). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the West Tennessee River Basin Authority (WTRBA), conducted a study of sediment accumulation in the Hatchie River and its tributaries. This report identifies the types of tributaries and evaluates sediment, shoal formation, and valley-plug problems. The results presented here may contribute to a better understanding of similar problems in West Tennessee and the rest of the southeastern coastal plain. This information also will help the WTRBA manage sedimentation and erosion problems in the Hatchie River watershed.The source of the Mississippi section of the Hatchie River is in the sand hills southwest of Corinth, Mississippi (fig. 1). This section of the Hatchie River flows northward in an artificial drainage canal, gathering water from tributary streams that also are channelized. The drainage canal ends 2 miles south of the Tennessee State line. The Tennessee section of the Hatchie River winds north and west in a meandering natural channel to the Mississippi River. Although most of the Hatchie River tributaries are also drainage canals, the river's main stem has kept most of

  4. Comparing wave shoaling methods used in large-scale coastal evolution modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limber, P. W.; Adams, P. N.; Murray, A.

    2013-12-01

    A variety of methods are available to simulate wave propagation from the deep ocean to the surf zone. They range from simple and computationally fast (e.g. linear wave theory applied to shore-parallel bathymetric contours) to complicated and computationally intense (e.g., Delft's ';Simulating WAves Nearshore', or SWAN, model applied to complex bathymetry). Despite their differences, the goal of each method is the same with respect to coastline evolution modeling: to link offshore waves with rates of (and gradients in) alongshore sediment transport. Choosing a shoaling technique for modeling coastline evolution should be partly informed by the spatial and temporal scales of the model, as well as the model's intent (is it simulating a specific coastline, or exploring generic coastline dynamics?). However, the particular advantages and disadvantages of each technique, and how the advantages/disadvantages vary over different model spatial and temporal scales, are not always clear. We present a wave shoaling model that simultaneously computes breaking wave heights and angles using three increasingly complex wave shoaling routines: the most basic approach assuming shore-parallel bathymetric contours, a wave ray tracing method that includes wave energy convergence and divergence and non-shore-parallel contours, and a spectral wave model (SWAN). Initial results show reasonable agreement between wave models along a flat shoreline for small (1 m) wave heights, low wave angles (0 to 10 degrees), and simple bathymetry. But, as wave heights and angles increase, bathymetry becomes more variable, and the shoreline shape becomes sinuous, the model results begin to diverge. This causes different gradients in alongshore sediment transport between model runs employing different shoaling techniques and, therefore, different coastline behavior. Because SWAN does not approximate wave breaking (which drives alongshore sediment transport) we use a routine to extract grid cells from SWAN

  5. Multiple S-isotopic evidence for episodic shoaling of anoxic water during Late Permian mass extinction.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanan; Farquhar, James; Zhang, Hua; Masterson, Andrew; Zhang, Tonggang; Wing, Boswell A

    2011-02-22

    Global fossil data show that profound biodiversity loss preceded the final catastrophe that killed nearly 90% marine species on a global scale at the end of the Permian. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this extinction and yet still remain greatly debated. Here, we report analyses of all four sulphur isotopes ((32)S, (33)S, (34)S and (36)S) for pyrites in sedimentary rocks from the Meishan section in South China. We observe a sulphur isotope signal (negative δ(34)S with negative Δ(33)S) that may have resulted from limitation of sulphate supply, which may be linked to a near shutdown of bioturbation during shoaling of anoxic water. These results indicate that episodic shoaling of anoxic water may have contributed to the profound biodiversity crisis before the final catastrophe. Our data suggest a prolonged deterioration of oceanic environments during the Late Permian mass extinction.

  6. Leadership emergence in a data-driven model of zebrafish shoals with speed modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zienkiewicz, A.; Barton, D. A. W.; Porfiri, M.; Di Bernardo, M.

    2015-11-01

    Models of collective animal motion can greatly aid in the design and interpretation of behavioural experiments that seek to unravel, isolate, and manipulate the determinants of leader-follower relationships. Here, we develop an initial model of zebrafish social behaviour, which accounts for both speed and angular velocity regulatory interactions among conspecifics. Using this model, we analyse the macroscopic observables of small shoals influenced by an "informed" agent, showing that leaders which actively modulate their speed with respect to their neighbours can entrain and stabilise collective dynamics of the naïve shoal. Supplementary material in the form of two mp4 files available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjst/e2015-50093-5

  7. Interactions between aggression, boldness and shoaling within a brood of convict cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciatus).

    PubMed

    Moss, Sarah; Tittaferrante, Stephanie; Way, Gregory P; Fuller, Ashlei; Sullivan, Nicole; Ruhl, Nathan; McRobert, Scott P

    2015-12-01

    A behavioral syndrome is considered present when individuals consistently express correlated behaviors across two or more axes of behavior. These axes of behavior are shy-bold, exploration-avoidance, activity, aggression, and sociability. In this study we examined aggression, boldness and sociability (shoaling) within a juvenile convict cichlid brood (Amatitlania nigrofasciatus). Because young convict cichlids are social, we used methodologies commonly used by ethologists studying social fishes. We did not detect an aggression-boldness behavioral syndrome, but we did find that the aggression, boldness, and possibly the exploration behavioral axes play significant roles in shaping the observed variation in individual convict cichlid behavior. While juvenile convict cichlids did express a shoaling preference, this social preference was likely convoluted by aggressive interactions, despite the small size and young age of the fish. There is a need for the development of behavioral assays that allow for more reliable measurement of behavioral axes in juvenile neo-tropical cichlids.

  8. Wave spectra of a shoaling wave field: A comparison of experimental and simulated results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, W. D.; Grosch, C. E.; Poole, L. R.

    1982-01-01

    Wave profile measurements made from an aircraft crossing the North Carolina continental shelf after passage of Tropical Storm Amy in 1975 are used to compute a series of wave energy spectra for comparison with simulated spectra. Results indicate that the observed wave field experiences refraction and shoaling effects causing statistically significant changes in the spectral density levels. A modeling technique is used to simulate the spectral density levels. Total energy levels of the simulated spectra are within 20 percent of those of the observed wave field. The results represent a successful attempt to theoretically simulate, at oceanic scales, the decay of a wave field which contains significant wave energies from deepwater through shoaling conditions.

  9. Multiple S-isotopic evidence for episodic shoaling of anoxic water during Late Permian mass extinction.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanan; Farquhar, James; Zhang, Hua; Masterson, Andrew; Zhang, Tonggang; Wing, Boswell A

    2011-01-01

    Global fossil data show that profound biodiversity loss preceded the final catastrophe that killed nearly 90% marine species on a global scale at the end of the Permian. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this extinction and yet still remain greatly debated. Here, we report analyses of all four sulphur isotopes ((32)S, (33)S, (34)S and (36)S) for pyrites in sedimentary rocks from the Meishan section in South China. We observe a sulphur isotope signal (negative δ(34)S with negative Δ(33)S) that may have resulted from limitation of sulphate supply, which may be linked to a near shutdown of bioturbation during shoaling of anoxic water. These results indicate that episodic shoaling of anoxic water may have contributed to the profound biodiversity crisis before the final catastrophe. Our data suggest a prolonged deterioration of oceanic environments during the Late Permian mass extinction. PMID:21343928

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 447: Project Shoal Area, Nevada Subsurface Site

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1998-11-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) continued environmental investigation of the subsurface Project Shoal Area (PSA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447. The PSA is located in the Sand Springs Mountains in Churchill County, Nevada, about 48 kilometers (km) (30 miles [mi]) southeast of Fallon, Nevada. Project Shoal was part of the Vela Uniform Program which was conducted to improve the US' ability to detect, identify, and locate underground nuclear detonations. The test consisted of detonating a 12-kiloton nuclear device deep underground in granitic rock to determine whether seismic waves produced by an underground nuclear test could be differentiated from seismic waves produced by a naturally occurring earthquake. The test was a joint effort conducted by the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the US Department of Defense (DoD) in October 1963 (AEC, 1964).

  11. Multiple S-isotopic evidence for episodic shoaling of anoxic water during Late Permian mass extinction

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yanan; Farquhar, James; Zhang, Hua; Masterson, Andrew; Zhang, Tonggang; Wing, Boswell A.

    2011-01-01

    Global fossil data show that profound biodiversity loss preceded the final catastrophe that killed nearly 90% marine species on a global scale at the end of the Permian. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this extinction and yet still remain greatly debated. Here, we report analyses of all four sulphur isotopes (32S, 33S, 34S and 36S) for pyrites in sedimentary rocks from the Meishan section in South China. We observe a sulphur isotope signal (negative δ34S with negative Δ33S) that may have resulted from limitation of sulphate supply, which may be linked to a near shutdown of bioturbation during shoaling of anoxic water. These results indicate that episodic shoaling of anoxic water may have contributed to the profound biodiversity crisis before the final catastrophe. Our data suggest a prolonged deterioration of oceanic environments during the Late Permian mass extinction. PMID:21343928

  12. Significance of carbonate-clastic shoaling cycles in Mississippian of northern Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, J.W.

    1983-03-01

    Shoaling-upward carbonate shelf cycles are known to occur in many parts of the world and throughout the geologic record. Upper Mississippian (Chesterian) strata in northern Arkansas consist of alternating limestones and shales that include a set of shoaling-upward cycles. These cycles, occurring within the dominantly carbonate Pitkin Formation, differ from the pattern described above in that they contain a significant terrigenous component. At the beginning of a cycle, the shoreline was distinct from the deeply submerged shelf and lime and terrigenous mud accumulated in a quiet-water setting. Thickness and facies analysis of the Pitkin indicate an east-west trending shelf with a shoreline located in southern Missouri, perhaps curving south around the Ozark uplift. Eastward increase in shale percentage in the Pitkin suggests transport of fine clastics around the southeast flank of this uplift. The Illinois basin was an active Chesterian depocenter and during periods of maximum transgression fine clastics may have passed through a seaway southwest into northern Arkansas. As shoaling proceeded, the shoreline regressed south with the advancing carbonate sand sheet, cutting off the avenue of fine clastics. Quartz sand, probably derived from a thick sequence of lower Paleozoic sandstones exposed along the uplift by the retreating sea, became admixed with oolite across the newly built platform. These shoaling cycles are the product of slow, steady, subsidence along a northern Arkansas shelf punctuated by episodes of relatively rapid carbonate sand sedimentation and clastic influx. A similar tectonic and depositional setting must have given rise to other such deposits that occur in the geologic record.

  13. Familiarity affects social network structure and discovery of prey patch locations in foraging stickleback shoals

    PubMed Central

    Atton, N.; Galef, B. J.; Hoppitt, W.; Webster, M. M.; Laland, K. N.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous factors affect the fine-scale social structure of animal groups, but it is unclear how important such factors are in determining how individuals encounter resources. Familiarity affects shoal choice and structure in many social fishes. Here, we show that familiarity between shoal members of sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) affects both fine-scale social organization and the discovery of resources. Social network analysis revealed that sticklebacks remained closer to familiar than to unfamiliar individuals within the same shoal. Network-based diffusion analysis revealed that there was a strong untransmitted social effect on patch discovery, with individuals tending to discover a task sooner if a familiar individual from their group had previously done so than if an unfamiliar fish had done so. However, in contrast to the effect of familiarity, the frequency with which individuals had previously associated with one another had no effect upon the likelihood of prey patch discovery. This may have been due to the influence of fish on one another's movements; the effect of familiarity on discovery of an empty ‘control’ patch was as strong as for discovery of an actual prey patch. Our results demonstrate that factors affecting fine-scale social interactions can also influence how individuals encounter and exploit resources. PMID:25009061

  14. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean Disposal from Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project Area

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Borde, A.B.; Nieukirk, S.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Shoal harbor/Compton Creek Project Area in Belford and Monmouth, New Jersey to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. This was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project area consisted of bulk chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation studies. Eleven core samples were analyzed or grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. Other sediments were evaluated for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  15. Continuous wide area monitoring of fish shoaling behavior with acoustic waveguide sensing and bioclutter implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makris, Nicholas C.; Ratilal, Purnima; Symonds, Deanelle T.; Nero, Redwood W.

    2001-05-01

    Field measurements are used to show that the detailed behavior of fish shoals can be continuously monitored at roughly 1-min intervals over wide areas spanning hundreds of square kilometers by long range acoustic waveguide sensing. The technique was used on the New Jersey Continental Shelf to produce unprecedented video images of shoal formation, fragmentation, and migration. Simultaneous line-transect measurements show the imaged shoals to contain pelagic fish with densities of at least one individual per meter3. The technique relies upon acoustic waveguide propagation in the continental shelf. Here, trapped modes dominate propagation and suffer only cylindrical spreading loss rather than the spherical loss suffered in free-space transmission or short-range propagation in the ocean. In contrast, standard methods for fish surveyance involve line transect measurements from slow moving research vessels that significantly under-sample fish distributions in time and space, leaving an incomplete behavioral picture. The implications of this bioclutter phenomenon on the Navy's long range active sonar operations in continental shelf environments are discussed.

  16. Chlorophyll bloom in the western Pacific at the end of the 1997-1998 El Niño: The role of the Kiribati Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messié, M.; Radenac, M.-H.; Lefèvre, J.; Marchesiello, P.

    2006-07-01

    During the transition between El Niño and La Niña conditions in 1998, a dramatic bloom occurred near the equator around 170°E, with chlorophyll concentrations reaching more than 0.8 mg m-3 in May. Previous studies attributed this bloom to a wind-driven upwelling and to the shoaling of the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC), but they did not explain its particular location near the Kiribati Islands. By combining simulations with observations, we determined that these islands were able to locally disrupt the physical dynamics and the nutrient fields to the extent that they were directly responsible for the location and the amazing strength of the bloom. Our results suggest that an island mass effect was responsible for generating the bloom, while the barrier formed by the islands increased EUC shoaling to the west of them, which explained the bloom peak.

  17. Observations of near-bed sediment convergence processes at Diamond Shoals, NC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, J. C.; List, J. H.; Voulgaris, G.; Sanchez, A.

    2010-12-01

    Diamond Shoals is a large sedimentary deposit approximately 20 km in length that spans the shelf width from Cape Hatteras, NC to the shelf break. This shoal is part of a series of convergent features associated with the cuspate forelands of the Carolinas coast. The processes that have formed and maintain these shoals are not well understood, however, previous studies have suggested wind, wave, and tidal processes have maintaned these configurations. In this study we present field measurments of waves, bottom orbital velocities, near-bottom mean currents, and near-bed suspended-sediment concentration data from calibrated Acoustic Backscatter Sensors (ABSs) at two different sites on the north and south sides of the shoal. A rotating sonar was also placed at the North Site to measure sea floor bed forms. The instruments were deployed in approoximately 12 m of water from January through April of 2009. The time period is marked with several storms events that last on the order of a few days and reoccurred approximately every 5 days. Results demonstrate a strong correlation between the wind forcing (that reached up to 20 m/s) with the surface waves (up to 4m) demonstrating local generation. Bottom orbital velocities from surface waves exceeded threshold for sediment mobility during storms and correlate with increased sediment concentrations in the water column. Near-bottom currents also generate increased bottom stress capable of locally suspending sediment. Suspended-sediment concentrations reached up to 100 mg/l during high energy events. In addition, sonar images show re-orientation of the sea floor ripples during storm events. Advective sediment fluxes computed from the ABS and near-bottom mean currents show a net transport eastward at the south site and southward at the northern site. These fluxes indicate converging and offshore orientated net sediment transport, providing a mechanism to maintain the shoal. Observations are compared to atmospheric forcings

  18. Entrainment of Dungeness Crab in the Desdemona Shoals Reach of the Lower Columbia River Navigation Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Walter H.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, J. R.

    2006-09-30

    Proposed dredging of the Columbia River has raised concerns about related impacts on Dungeness crab in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). This study follows two major efforts, sponsored by the Portland District of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to quantify the number of crabs entrained by a hopper dredge working in the CRE. From June 2002 through September 2002, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted direct measurements of crab entrainment in the CRE from the mouth of the Columbia River (MCR, river mile -3 to +3) upriver as far as Miller Sands (river mile 21 to 24). These studies constituted a major step in quantifying crab entrainment in the CRE, and allowed statistically bounded projections of adult equivalent loss (AEL) for Dungeness crab populations under a range of future construction dredging and maintenance dredging scenarios (Pearson et al. 2002, 2003). In 2004, PNNL performed additional measurements to improve estimates of crab entrainment at Desdemona Shoals and at Flavel Bar, a reach near Astoria that had not been adequately sampled in 2002 (Figure 1). The 2004 data were used to update the crab loss projections for channel construction to 43 ft MLLW. In addition, a correlation between bottom salinity and adult (age 2+ and 3+, >100 mm carapace width) crab entrainment was developed using 2002 data, and elaborated upon with the 2004 data. This crab salinity model was applied to forecasting seasonal (monthly) entrainment rates and AEL using seasonal variations in salinity (Pearson et al. 2005). In the previous studies, entrainment rates in Desdemona Shoals were more variable than in any of the other reaches. Pearson et al. (2005) concluded that ?the dynamics behind the variable entrainment rates at Desdemona Shoals are not fully understood,? as well as finding that juvenile crab entrainment was not significantly correlated with salinity as it was for older crab. The present study was undertaken to address the question of whether the

  19. Diurnal trends in the mid-water biomass community of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands observed acoustically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Marc O.; Brainard, Russell E.; Au, Whitlow W. L.

    2004-10-01

    The nighttime mid-water biomass occurring near six banks in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands was investigated using 38- and 120-kHz EK60 echosounders. Locations investigated included: French Frigate Shoals, Maro Reef, Lisianksi Island/Neva Shoals, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Kure Atoll and Midway Atoll. Surveys were designed to sample transect lines parallel and normal to shore between 10 p.m. and 7 a.m. and once during daylight hours. A diurnal trend was found in the occurrence of mid-water sound scattering organisms at all six locations. Communities of organisms accumulate at night on the edges of each island between the 20- and 100-fathom isobaths. The highest densities of organisms restrict their horizontal movements to depths of 20 fathoms or deeper, but increases in biomass were also observed at shallower depths. The northern islands of Kure, Midway, and Pearl and Hermes Atolls exhibited patchier distributions than the southern islands. The composition of the biomass is presently unclear but resembles the mesopelagic boundary community found near the Main Hawaiian Islands. Simultaneous observations with the TOAD camera system revealed clouds of zooplankton mixed with small fish and other micronekton. The nightly influx of these organisms is likely a significant, though poorly understood, component of these islands ecosystems.

  20. Canary Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  1. The coastline remote sensing survey for Zhao Shu Island in Xisha Islands based on WorldView-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Zhong, Chang; Kong, Fanping

    2014-11-01

    Due to diastrophism, tide action and human activities, the coastline is always in flux. There are lots of coral islands in the south sea of China. Remote sensing survey for the coastline not only can reassert the necessity and importance of coral protection, but also can provide basic data and scientific basis for island ecologic protection, reasonable utilization of land resources. The study area named Zhao Shu Island lies in Jintong Islands of Xisha. It is a coral island which has people inhabited. Using WorldView-2 satellite remote sensing images as data sources we carry out three phases of coastline investigation and monitoring. The satellite data phases are 2002, 2010 and 2013. Firstly, affirm the bands valuable for color composition on the basis of spectral and correlation analysis. Then extract the coastline by a series of image process, such as image correction, fusion, waterline extraction and coastline revision. Finally determine the coastline types and length by artificial interpretation. The results show that the island length is gradually smaller, which means the island area is reducing. The beach bedrock coast in northern island was eroded seriously especially during the period between 2010 and 2013. In addition, the shoal head shape in the western island changed a lot.

  2. Evaluation of the SHOALS 1000T Bathymetric LIDAR System for Monitoring Channel Sediment Within the Colorado River in Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, P. A.; Gonzales, F. M.; Brown, K. M.; Melis, T. S.

    2005-12-01

    The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center of the U.S. Geological Survey monitors sediment transport and storage within the Colorado River ecosystem in Arizona in order to develop flow protocols for the Glen Canyon dam that preserve or restore aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Currently, monitoring the channel sediments is accomplished using acoustic multi-beam surveys, which are very time-consuming. We explored more efficient collection systems that could provide a 2-m point spacing and a vertical accuracy of 25 cm or better. The dual-beam SHOALS 1000T LIDAR system, which simultaneously collects bathymetric and topographic data, could meet these requirements if flown at a 300 m altitude. This low altitude required this fixed-wing system to be modified for helicopter collection to navigate the sinuous, steep-walled canyon. We tested the helicopter-based SHOALS on two segments of the Colorado River - the San Juan River confluence at Lake Powell and the southern portion of Glen Canyon near Lees Ferry. The test flights occurred in late November after a high-flow dam experiment. Early winter storms injected such large volumes of sediment into the unmanaged San Juan River that the SHOALS green laser could not penetrate the water's surface. The water at Lees Ferry was relatively clear (Secchi depths of 7-7.5 m) because there are no tributaries between Lees Ferry and Glen Canyon dam and because the dam maintained a low steady flow for a week following the high-flow experiment in order for ground and aerial surveys to collect monitoring data. At a 300 m altitude, the SHOALS scanner produced a 60-m ground swath. Seven separate flight lines were collected - more than necessary to cover the 100-m-wide channel. Three GPS stations were operated within 30 km of the test flights. Within the areas of overlap between each pair of the seven SHOALS flight lines we found the reproducibility of the SHOALS data to be 19 cm in the channel and 21 cm on land. At Lees Ferry, 20 land

  3. 76 FR 68358 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Program, the western Aleutian Islands red king crab and Pribilof Islands red and blue king crab fisheries have failed to open, and the Saint Matthew Island blue king crab fishery has only been open during the... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY:...

  4. Island of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Three main volcanoes make up the island of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5W): the older volcanoes Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea and the recent Kilauea seen venting steam. This color infrared image is one of a pair (see STS052-77-002) to compare the differences between color film and color infrared film. Color film presents an image as it appears to the human eye whereas color infrared imagery reduces atmospheric haze and portrays vegetation as shades of red.

  5. Regressive and transgressive barrier islands on the North-Central Gulf Coast — Contrasts in evolution, sediment delivery, and island vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otvos, Ervin G.; Carter, Gregory A.

    2013-09-01

    Basic differences between non-deltaic regressive and deltaic transgressive barrier islands reflect major contrasts in geological settings and sediment sources. Two island groups on the N. Gulf of Mexico provide unique perspectives of genetic and geomorphic contrasts applicable in a worldwide context. The near-extinction of the deltaic transgressive Chandeleur barriers and reduction of the sturdier prograded Mississippi-Alabama (MS-AL) chain are related to differences in sediment sources, storm, and anthropogenic impact. 160 years of documentary evidence points to contrasting geological settings, development history, sediment sources, and island morphology as responsible for different island erodibility and life spans. The non-deltaic chain received larger volumes of coarser, less erodible medium sand from the NE Gulf coast. Onshore sand flux from reworked delta deposits received from the retreating delta shoreface initiated the fragile, thin, and isolated transgressive Chandeleur islands. Fine-grained sand from unconsolidated muds of abandoned Mississippi-St. Bernard delta lobes maintained two distinct transgressive barrier island categories. In the absence of quantitative data on cross-shore transport, discrepancies between estimated littoral drift volumes and sand reserves for nourishment remain unexplained. Medium-sandy MS-AL barriers have resisted storm events far better than delta barriers. However, even the former chain did undergo 26 to 53% area reduction since 1848. Anthropogenic intervention stymied island growth. Emerging intertidal berm-basins formed on sandy shoal platforms in storm-eliminated sectors have contributed to partial island recovery. Delta attrition by wave erosion, tectonic, and compactional subsidence had accelerated delta lobe and barrier island decay. Intensive storm erosion culminating in and following Hurricane Katrina came close to eradicate the highly vulnerable Chandeleur barrier chain. Lacking adequate nourishment, after

  6. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium ...

  7. Surficial sediment stability on Georges Bank, in the Great South Channel and on eastern Nantucket Shoals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Bradley P.; Cowles, Geoffrey W.; Stokesbury, Kevin D. E.

    2012-10-01

    Surficial sediment stability was estimated on Georges Bank, in the Great South Channel and on eastern Nantucket Shoals (36,699 km2) by determining where benthic shear stresses derived from an ocean model matched or exceeded the critical shear stress of the observed surficial sediments. The shear stress resulting from M2 and S2 semi-diurnal tides was estimated with the Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model. Mixed-sediment critical shear stress levels were calculated for sediment compositions ranging from sand to boulder-dominated using 67,400 underwater video quadrats sampled from 1999 to 2010. Stresses matched or exceeded the sediment critical levels in 16,926 km2 (46%) of the study area, and were inversely related to water depth (r2=69.1%). In depths >50 m (10,953 km2) all sediments were stable due to weak flow (≤0.4 N m-2). In the shallower higher flow areas (>0.4 N m-2, 25,716 km2) only sediments containing gravel remained stable. The largest stresses occurred on Nantucket Shoals and central and northeastern Georges Bank (≥2 N m-2); in these areas only sand with cobbles or sediments dominated by gravel remained stable. Outcrops of these stable sediments were surrounded by highly unstable areas with stresses 2 to 9 times higher than the sediment critical levels. This analysis identifies the locations which likely remain stable even under the high shear stresses typical of Georges Bank, the Great South Channel and eastern Nantucket Shoals. Further, we provide the map products needed to begin investigating the influences of natural sediment disturbance on the spatial and temporal patterns of the benthos including the resilience of stable versus unstable areas to anthropogenic disturbances.

  8. Exposure assessment of groundwater transport of tritium from the Shoal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, J.; Pohlmann, K.; Andricevic, R.

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies are responsible for nuclear weapons research and development as part of the national defense program. These activities include underground nuclear testing, and a small number of such tests have been conducted at sites distant from the Nevada Test Site (NTS). An NTS site-wide Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is being prepared in 1995 and includes the two offsite test areas in Nevada: the Shoal site and the Central Nevada Test Area. At the time of these tests, evaluations of project safety and predictions of groundwater transport of contaminants were made, and the tests were deemed safe to the public. These early evaluations were not considered sufficient for the EIS, so DOE decided to perform a new exposure assessment for the Shoal site. The basic scenario evaluated for this exposure assessment is transport of tritium from the Shoal underground nuclear test by groundwater to a receptor well where an individual drinks the contaminated water for 70 years, centered around the time of peak tritium concentration. This scenario is entirely hypothetical because, as of 1995, there are no known occurrences of humans drinking water downgradient from the test. Four specific scenarios are analyzed because of uncertainty in flowpath direction. Two of these presume that wells are drilled at the boundary of the current DOE land withdrawal and are then used for drinking water supply. Wells do not currently exist at these locations and thus the resultant risks do not apply to any current populations; however, there are no controls to prevent such wells from being drilled in the future. The two other scenarios consider transport to the first existing wells along possible flowpaths. These wells are currently used only seasonally to water cattle, and as such, these risks also do not apply to current populations.

  9. TRIADS: A phase-resolving model for nonlinear shoaling of directional wave spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheremet, Alex; Davis, Justin R.; Tian, Miao; Hanson, Jeffrey L.; Hathaway, Kent K.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the performance of TRIADS, a numerical implementation of a phase-resolving, nonlinear, spectral model describing directional wave evolution in intermediate and shallow water. TRIADS simulations of shoaling waves generated by Hurricane Bill, 2009 are compared to directional spectral estimates based on observations collected at the Field Research Facility of the US Army Corps Of Engineers, at Duck, NC. Both the ability of the model to capture the processes essential to the nonlinear wave evolution, and the efficiency of the numerical implementations are analyzed and discussed.

  10. Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    SciTech Connect

    K. Pohlmann; G. Pohll; J. Chapman; A. Hassan; R. Carroll; C. Shirley

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test through numerical modeling using site-specific hydrologic data. The ultimate objective is the development of a contaminant boundary, a model-predicted perimeter defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater from the underground test throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will be developed using the numerical models described here, after they are approved for that purpose by DOE and NDEP.

  11. Flood-inundation maps for the East Fork White River at Shoals, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boldt, Justin A.

    2016-05-06

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.9-mile reach of the East Fork White River at Shoals, Indiana (Ind.), were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the East Fork White River at Shoals, Ind. (USGS station number 03373500). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site (NWS AHPS site SHLI3). NWS AHPS forecast peak stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation.Flood profiles were computed for the East Fork White River reach by means of a one-dimensional, step-backwater model developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the current stage-discharge relation (USGS rating no. 43.0) at USGS streamgage 03373500, East Fork White River at Shoals, Ind. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to compute 26 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from approximately bankfull (10 ft) to the highest stage of the current stage-discharge rating curve (35 ft). The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system (GIS) digital elevation model (DEM), derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) data, to delineate the area flooded at each water level. The areal extent of the 24-ft flood-inundation map was

  12. Validation, Proof-of-Concept, and Postaudit of the Groundwater Flow and Transport Model of the Project Shoal Area

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed Hassan

    2004-09-01

    The groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model characterizing the Shoal underground nuclear test has been accepted by the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. According to the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) between DOE and the State of Nevada, the next steps in the closure process for the site are then model validation (or postaudit), the proof-of-concept, and the long-term monitoring stage. This report addresses the development of the validation strategy for the Shoal model, needed for preparing the subsurface Corrective Action Decision Document-Corrective Action Plan and the development of the proof-of-concept tools needed during the five-year monitoring/validation period. The approach builds on a previous model, but is adapted and modified to the site-specific conditions and challenges of the Shoal site.

  13. March 2011 Groundwater Sampling at the Project Shoal Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Project Shoal Area (Shoal) in March 2011. Wells HC-1, HC-2, HC-4, HC-5, HC-6, HC-7, MV-1, MV-2 and MV-3 were sampled as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Two extra tritium samples were collected from well HC-4, one sample (HC-4-400) was collected at about 1/3 of the purge volume (135 gallons), the second sample (HC-4-400) was collected at 2/3 of purge volume (270 gallons). These additional samples were collected prior to completing the well purging process to evaluate the effects well purging has on the analytical results. Samples were not collected from locations HC-3 and HC-8 at the direction of the S.M. Stoller Corporation site lead.

  14. 3D, CAEX help independent add reserves inexpensively in ship shoal area of gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, S.C.; Murphy, J.R. ); Mastorsis, S.S. )

    1993-01-18

    New exploration technologies can transform the way an independent oil company explores for hydrocarbons and develops reserves. For one independent, Murphy Exploration and Production Co. (Murphy Expro), a unit of Murphy Oil Corp., the metamorphosis began in 1988 when it launched its first comprehensive project using 3D seismic data and computer aided exploration (CAEX) workstations. In a declining 38 year oil field in the Gulf of Mexico, 3D tools and methods have enabled Murphy to increase oil and gas reserves during the past four years by 21% and 30%, respectively. Many of the new reservoirs were discovered in highly faulted complexes of relatively small, subtle traps. Further, the discoveries were accomplished with a drilling success rate of about 90% in an area where exploratory dry holes had been the rule rather than the exception. Murphy Expro has been able to maintain field production rates by adding new production at remarkably low finding costs for this region. As a result of the project's success, Murphy has committed itself to advanced oil finding technology. Between 1988 and yearend 1992 the company acquired more than 12,000 line miles of 3D seismic in five Gulf of MexIco fields including Ship Shoal 113. This article describes how the change to 3D philosophy and practice took place at Ship Shoal 113 and its impact on Murphy Expro.

  15. Nocturnal Fish Use of New Jersey Marsh Creek and Adjacent Bay Shoal Habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rountree, R. A.; Able, K. W.

    1997-06-01

    Night-time sampling with gill nets in the Little Egg Harbor estuary revealed a component of the estuarine fish fauna, hitherto poorly documented, which is comprised of relatively large size classes of juvenile and adult life history stages. The fishesMustelus canis, Pomatomus saltatrix, Paralichthys dentatus, Brevoortia tyrannus, Prionotus evolansandAlosa mediocriswere the most abundant fishes captured. These observations suggest that Mid-Atlantic Bight estuaries are important nurseries for juvenile stages beyond the first year, as well as for the young of the year (YOY). Although many other studies emphasise the importance of estuaries as nurseries for YOY stages, the importance of estuaries to later juvenile life stages has been largely overlooked. This component of estuarine fish fauna has been poorly represented in previous North American studies because of probable gear avoidance, and because most studies are conducted primarily during the day. The authors hypothesise that these later juvenile stages are likely to be important estuarine faunal components in other geographic regions, as well as in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. A descriptive comparison of catches between ebb and flood tide stages, and between bay shoal and tidal marsh creek habitats, suggests that later juvenile and adult stages of several species make tidal migrations into shallow estuarine habitats, such as shoals and marsh creeks, during the night hours.

  16. Zebrafish response to 3D printed shoals of conspecifics: the effect of body size.

    PubMed

    Bartolini, Tiziana; Mwaffo, Violet; Showler, Ashleigh; Macrì, Simone; Butail, Sachit; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Recent progress in three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has enabled rapid prototyping of complex models at a limited cost. Virtually every research laboratory has access to a 3D printer, which can assist in the design and implementation of hypothesis-driven studies on animal behavior. In this study, we explore the possibility of using 3D printing technology to understand the role of body size in the social behavior of the zebrafish model organism. In a dichotomous preference test, we study the behavioral response of zebrafish to shoals of 3D printed replicas of varying size. We systematically vary the size of each replica without altering the coloration, aspect ratio, and stripe patterns, which are all selected to closely mimic zebrafish morphophysiology. The replicas are actuated through a robotic manipulator, mimicking the natural motion of live subjects. Zebrafish preference is assessed by scoring the time spent in the vicinity of the shoal of replicas, and the information theoretic construct of transfer entropy is used to further elucidate the influence of the replicas on zebrafish motion. Our results demonstrate that zebrafish adjust their behavior in response to variations in the size of the replicas. Subjects exhibit an avoidance reaction for larger replicas, and they are attracted toward and influenced by smaller replicas. The approach presented in this study, integrating 3D printing technology, robotics, and information theory, is expected to significantly aid preclinical research on zebrafish behavior. PMID:26891476

  17. MATURATION OF SHOALING IN TWO ZEBRAFISH STRAINS: A BEHAVIORAL AND NEUROCHEMICAL ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Mahabir, Samantha; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Buske, Christine; Gerlai, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal social behavior is a hallmark of several human neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders for which appropriate treatment is lacking. The zebrafish has been proposed as a tool with which these disorders may be modeled and their mechanisms analyzed. A potential starting point of such analyses is the identification of genetic differences between distinct zebrafish strains. Here we compare AB and TU, two well established zebrafish strains, and characterize the developmental trajectories of their shoaling (social) behavior and of the levels of dopamine, serotonin as well as a metabolite of each of these neurotransmitters, DOPAC and 5HIAA from whole brain extracts. Using a novel video-tracking software application, we demonstrate significant strain dependent changes in the maturation of shoaling between day 7 and day 87 post-fertilization. Using high-precision liquid chromatography specifically adapted to zebrafish, we uncover a significant age x strain interaction in dopamine and DOPAC that apparently correlates well with the behavioral differences found between the strains. We also report on strain differences in serotonin and 5HIAA. We discuss possible mechanistic analyses that will address causality and conclude that zebrafish will be a useful tool with which the neurobiological and genetic bases of social behavior may be analyzed in vertebrates. PMID:23518435

  18. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  19. Pressure-gradient-driven nearshore circulation on a beach influenced by a large inlet-tidal shoal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, F.; Hanes, D. M.; Kirby, J. T.; Erikson, L.; Barnard, P.; Eshleman, J.

    2011-04-01

    The nearshore circulation induced by a focused pattern of surface gravity waves is studied at a beach adjacent to a major inlet with a large ebb tidal shoal. Using a coupled wave and wave-averaged nearshore circulation model, it is found that the nearshore circulation is significantly affected by the heterogeneous wave patterns caused by wave refraction over the ebb tidal shoal. The model is used to predict waves and currents during field experiments conducted near the mouth of San Francisco Bay and nearby Ocean Beach. The field measurements indicate strong spatial variations in current magnitude and direction and in wave height and direction along Ocean Beach and across the ebb tidal shoal. Numerical simulations suggest that wave refraction over the ebb tidal shoal causes wave focusing toward a narrow region at Ocean Beach. Due to the resulting spatial variation in nearshore wave height, wave-induced setup exhibits a strong alongshore nonuniformity, resulting in a dramatic change in the pressure field compared to a simulation with only tidal forcing. The analysis of momentum balances inside the surf zone shows that, under wave conditions with intensive wave focusing, the alongshore pressure gradient associated with alongshore nonuniform wave setup can be a dominant force driving circulation, inducing heterogeneous alongshore currents. Pressure-gradient-forced alongshore currents can exhibit flow reversals and flow convergence or divergence, in contrast to the uniform alongshore currents typically caused by tides or homogeneous waves.

  20. Shoaling of large-amplitude nonlinear internal waves at Dongsha Atoll in the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Ke-Hsien; Wang, Yu-Huai; St. Laurent, Louis; Simmons, Harper; Wang, Dong-Ping

    2012-04-01

    Shoaling of large-amplitude (˜100 m) nonlinear internal waves over a steep slope (˜3°) in water depths between 100 m and 285 m near Dongsha Atoll in the northern South China Sea is examined with an intensive array of thermistor moorings and a bottom mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler. During the 44 h study period in May 5-7, 2008, there were four groups of large internal waves with semidiurnal modulation. In each wave group a rapid transition occurred during the shoaling, such that the front face of the leading depression wave elongated and plunged to the bottom and the rear face steepened and transformed into a bottom-trapped elevation wave. The transitions occur in water depths of 200 m and deeper, and represent the largest documented internal wave shoaling events. The observations repeatedly capture the detailed temperature and velocity structures of the incident plunging waves. Strong horizontal convergence and intense upward motion are found at the leading edge of transformed elevation waves, suggesting flow separation near the bottom. The observations are compared with the previous observations and model studies. The implication of the shoaling internal waves on coral reef ecology also is discussed.

  1. Pressure-gradient-driven nearshore circulation on a beach influenced by a large inlet-tidal shoal system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shi, F.; Hanes, D.M.; Kirby, J.T.; Erikson, L.; Barnard, P.; Eshleman, J.

    2011-01-01

    The nearshore circulation induced by a focused pattern of surface gravity waves is studied at a beach adjacent to a major inlet with a large ebb tidal shoal. Using a coupled wave and wave-averaged nearshore circulation model, it is found that the nearshore circulation is significantly affected by the heterogeneous wave patterns caused by wave refraction over the ebb tidal shoal. The model is used to predict waves and currents during field experiments conducted near the mouth of San Francisco Bay and nearby Ocean Beach. The field measurements indicate strong spatial variations in current magnitude and direction and in wave height and direction along Ocean Beach and across the ebb tidal shoal. Numerical simulations suggest that wave refraction over the ebb tidal shoal causes wave focusing toward a narrow region at Ocean Beach. Due to the resulting spatial variation in nearshore wave height, wave-induced setup exhibits a strong alongshore nonuniformity, resulting in a dramatic change in the pressure field compared to a simulation with only tidal forcing. The analysis of momentum balances inside the surf zone shows that, under wave conditions with intensive wave focusing, the alongshore pressure gradient associated with alongshore nonuniform wave setup can be a dominant force driving circulation, inducing heterogeneous alongshore currents. Pressure-gradient- forced alongshore currents can exhibit flow reversals and flow convergence or divergence, in contrast to the uniform alongshore currents typically caused by tides or homogeneous waves.

  2. New observations of eddies and boundary currents in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Amy S.; Swift, Stephen A.; Churchill, James H.; McCorkle, Daniel C.; Abualnaja, Yasser; Limeburner, Richard; Zhai, Ping

    2013-04-01

    -nutrient Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW) being advected rapidly northward near the eastern boundary by a subsurface jet with a transport of ~0.35 Sv, and with speeds of order 0.2 m/s in the depth range 35-100 m. The GAIW layer overlapped with the euphotic zone and contributed to enhanced productivity in the 35-75 m depth range. Most of the intrusion entered deep channels between coral reef islands and shoals in the Farasan Bank region off Saudi Arabia, while a fraction was advected into the basin interior by a mesoscale eddy. The shoreward intrusion of GAIW could have significant implications for the coral reef ecosystems in the Red Sea. Numerical model results and some drifter trajectories from this and previous studies suggest that major elements of the large-scale circulation in the Red Sea are located near the western boundary, emphasizing the need for an international effort to survey the entire Red Sea from coast to coast.

  3. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  4. Winter storm-induced hydrodynamics and morphological response of a shallow transgressive shoal complex: Northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siadatmousavi, S. Mostafa; Jose, Felix

    2015-03-01

    Using extended deployments during seasons of low and high discharge from the Atchafalaya River, meteorological, hydrodynamic and bottom boundary layer parameters were monitored from Tiger and Trinity Shoal complex, off Louisiana coast, USA. During winter storms, the surface current speed measured at both shoals exceeded 0.5 m/s and the entire water column followed the prevailing wind direction. The current speed close to the bottom exceeded 0.3 m/s during high energy northerly winds. The mean water level in the shoal complex increased during southerly winds and decreased during northerly winds, such that the difference between wind set-up and set-down exceeded 0.7 m in Tiger Shoal and 0.6 m in Trinity Shoal during high energy frontal passages. The swell height was inversely correlated with mean water level, and increased during pre-frontal phase and decreased during post-frontal phase of winter storms. The sea (short waves) height responded quickly to wind direction and speed; and within a few hours after the wind shifted and blowing from the north, the sea height increased during both deployments. Bimodal wave frequency spectrum was observed during wind veering from southerly to northerly, when both sea and swell intensities were significant. The Tiger Shoal bed sediment texture transformed drastically, from mud to shell and shell hash assemblage, within a period of two weeks during the December 2008 deployment. Backscatter signal intensity from a Pulse Coherent Acoustic Doppler Profiler (PCADP) and its velocity estimates were used to determine the vertical extend and timing of mud resuspension and their eventual flushing out from the shoal environment, when exposed to high energy winter storm passages. The computed time frame for a total transformation of bottom sediment texture (from muddy bottom to shell and shell hash assemblage) was supported by the combined wave and bottom current induced shear stress at shoal bed. The bed samples collected from Tiger Shoal

  5. Characteristics and Mechanisms of Cardiopulmonary Injury Caused by Mine Blasts in Shoals: A Randomized Controlled Study in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Han, Gengfen; Wang, Ziming; Wang, Jianmin; Yang, Weixiao; Chen, Jing; Kang, Jianyi; Zhang, Sen; Wang, Aimin; Lai, Xinan

    2013-01-01

    Background Because the characteristics of blast waves in water are different from those in air and because kinetic energy is liberated by a pressure wave at the water-air interface, thoracic injuries from mine blasts in shoals may be serious. The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics and mechanisms of cardiopulmonary injury caused by mine blasts in shoals. Methods To study the characteristics of cardiopulmonary injury, 56 animals were divided randomly into three experimental groups (12 animals in the sham group, 22 animals in the land group and 22 animals in the shoal group). To examine the biomechanics of injury, 20 animals were divided randomly into the land group and the shoal group. In the experimental model, the water surface was at the level of the rabbit's xiphoid process, and paper electric detonators (600 mg RDX) were used to simulate mines. Electrocardiography and echocardiography were conducted, and arterial blood gases, serum levels of cardiac troponin I and creatine kinase-MB and other physiologic parameters were measured over a 12-hour period after detonation. Pressures in the thorax and abdomen and the acceleration of the thorax were measured. Conclusion The results indicate that severe cardiopulmonary injury and dysfunction occur following exposure to mine blasts in shoals. Therefore, the mechanisms of cardiopulmonary injury may result from shear waves that produce strain at the water-air interface. Another mechanism of injury includes the propagation of the shock wave from the planta to the thorax, which causes a much higher peak overpressure in the abdomen than in the thorax; as a result, the abdominal organs and diaphragm are thrust into the thorax, damaging the lungs and heart. PMID:24358110

  6. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  7. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-14

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  8. 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 located in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended February 2008) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof of concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 447 that were conducted at the site during 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by LM for the PSA

  9. 2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-01

    This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended March 2010) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes the results from the groundwater monitoring program during fiscal year 2010.

  10. Response of shoal grass, Halodule wrightii, to extreme winter conditions in the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hicks, D.W.; Onuf, C.P.; Tunnell, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of a severe freeze on the shoal grass, Halodule wrightii, were documented through analysis of temporal and spatial trends in below-ground biomass. The coincidence of the second lowest temperature (-10.6??C) in 107 years of record, 56 consecutive hours below freezing, high winds and extremely low water levels exposed the Laguna Madre, TX, to the most severe cold stress in over a century. H. wrightii tolerated this extreme freeze event. Annual pre- and post-freeze surveys indicated that below-ground biomass estimated from volume was Unaffected by the freeze event. Nor was there any post-freeze change in biomass among intertidal sites directly exposed to freezing air temperatures relative to subtidal sites which remained submerged during the freezing period.

  11. Groundwater Model Validation for the Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    SciTech Connect

    2008-05-19

    Stoller has examined newly collected water level data in multiple wells at the Shoal site. On the basis of these data and information presented in the report, we are currently unable to confirm that the model is successfully validated. Most of our concerns regarding the model stem from two findings: (1) measured water level data do not provide clear evidence of a prevailing lateral flow direction; and (2) the groundwater flow system has been and continues to be in a transient state, which contrasts with assumed steady-state conditions in the model. The results of DRI's model validation efforts and observations made regarding water level behavior are discussed in the following sections. A summary of our conclusions and recommendations for a path forward are also provided in this letter report.

  12. Turning the Tide: Estuaries Shaped by Channel-Shoal Interactions, Eco-engineers and Inherited Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinhans, M. G.; Braat, L.; Leuven, J.; Baar, A. W.; van der Vegt, M.; Van Maarseveen, M. C. G.; Markies, H.; Roosendaal, C.; van Eijk, A.

    2015-12-01

    Estuaries exhibit correlations between inlet dimensions, tidal prism and intertidal area, but to what extent estuary planform shape and shoal patterns resulted from biomorphological processes or from inherited conditions such as coastal plain and drowned valley dimensions remains unclear. We explore the hypothesis that mud flats and vegetation as a self-formed lateral confinement have effects analogous to that of river floodplain on braided versus meandering river patterns. Here we use the Delft3D numerical model and a novel tidal flume setup, the Metronome, to create estuaries from idealized initial conditions, with and without mud supply at the fluvial boundary. Experimental mud was simulated by crushed nutshell. Both the numerical and experimental estuaries were narrower with increasing mud, and had a lower degree of channel braiding. The experimental estuaries developed meanders at the river boundary with floodplain developing on the pointbar whereas cohesionless cases were more dynamic.

  13. 2009 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-01

    This report presents the 2009 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended February 2008) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 447 that were conducted at the PSA during fiscal year 2009.

  14. Red Capes, Red Herrings, and Red Flags.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Donald W.

    The argument that the personality structures obtained from retrospective ratings reflect semantic similarity structures has been as provocative as a red cape in the bull ring. High congruence between those two kinds of structures seems well established. What is less clear is how and why those structures differ from that for immediate judgments of…

  15. Island Hopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

  16. Anatahan Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... of the Mariana Islands in 1914 (the first year of World War l) and Germany released the islands to Japan in 1919. Japan received a ... States by the United Nations. The wreckage of a World War II B-29 Superfortress, a four-engine propeller-driven bomber, lies on the north ...

  17. Sea-level rise and coastal groundwater inundation and shoaling at select sites in California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoover, Daniel J.; Odigie, Kingsley; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Barnard, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Study regionThe study region spans coastal California, USA, and focuses on three primary sites: Arcata, Stinson Beach, and Malibu Lagoon.Study focus1 m and 2 m sea-level rise (SLR) projections were used to assess vulnerability to SLR-driven groundwater emergence and shoaling at select low-lying, coastal sites in California. Separate and combined inundation scenarios for SLR and groundwater emergence were developed using digital elevation models of study site topography and groundwater surfaces constructed from well data or published groundwater level contours.New hydrological insights for the regionSLR impacts are a serious concern in coastal California which has a long (∼1800 km) and populous coastline. Information on the possible importance of SLR-driven groundwater inundation in California is limited. In this study, the potential for SLR-driven groundwater inundation at three sites (Arcata, Stinson Beach, and Malibu Lagoon) was investigated under 1 m and 2 m SLR scenarios. These sites provide insight into the vulnerability of Northern California coastal plains, coastal developments built on beach sand or sand spits, and developed areas around coastal lagoons associated with seasonal streams and berms. Northern California coastal plains with abundant shallow groundwater likely will see significant and widespread groundwater emergence, while impacts along the much drier central and southern California coast may be less severe due to the absence of shallow groundwater in many areas. Vulnerability analysis is hampered by the lack of data on shallow coastal aquifers, which commonly are not studied because they are not suitable for domestic or agricultural use. Shallow saline aquifers may be present in many areas along coastal California, which would dramatically increase vulnerability to SLR-driven groundwater emergence and shoaling. Improved understanding of the extent and response of California coastal aquifers to SLR will help in preparing for mitigation

  18. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration plan for corrective action unit 416, Mud Pit, Project Shoal Area

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This plan addresses the actions necessary for the restoration and closure of the Project Shoal Area (PSA), Surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 416, Mud Pit (Corrective Action Site No. 57-09-01), a pit that was used to store effluent produced during drilling of the Post-Shot Borehole PS-1 in 1963. This plan describes the activities that will occur at the site and the steps that will be taken to gather enough data to obtain a notice of completion from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). This plan was prepared under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) concept, and it will be implemented with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996) and the Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan (DOE/NV, 1994). The SAFER process is being employed at this CAU where enough information exists about the nature and extent of contamination to propose an appropriate corrective action without completing a Corrective Action Decision Document and Corrective Action Plan. This process combines elements of the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process and the observational approach to help plan and conduct corrective actions. DQOs are used to identify the problem and define the type and quality of data needed to complete the investigation phase of the process. This has already been completed for the mud pit so it will not be repeated here. The DQOs for the mud pit are presented in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Project Shoal Area, CAU No. 416 (DOE/NV, 1996). This observational approach provides a framework for managing uncertainty and planning decision making.

  19. Structure, age and origin of the bay-mouth shoal deposits, Chesapeake Bay, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Berquist, C.R.; Hobbs, C. H.

    1988-01-01

    The mouth of Chesapeake Bay contains a distinctive shoal complex and related deposits that result from the complex interaction of three different processes: (1) progradation of a barrier spit at the southern end of the Delmarva Peninsula, (2) strong, reversing tidal currents that transport and rework sediment brought to the bay mouth from the north, and (3) landward (bayward) net non-tidal circulation and sediment transport. Together, these processes play a major role in changing the configuration of the estuary and filling it with sediment. The deposits at the mouth of the bay hold keys both to the evolution of the bay during the Holocene transgression and to the history of previous generations of the bay. The deposit associated with the shoals at the mouth of the bay, the bay-mouth sand, is a distinct stratigraphic unit composed mostly of uniform, gray, fine sand. The position and internal structure of the unit shows that it is related to near-present sea level, and thus is less than a few thousand years old. The processes affecting the upper surface of the deposit and the patterns of erosion and deposition at this surface are complex, but the geometry and structure of the deposit indicate that it is a coherent unit that is prograding bayward and tending to fill the estuary. The source of the bay-mouth sand is primarily outside the bay in the nearshore zone of the Delmarva Peninsula and on the inner continental shelf. The internal structure of the deposit, its surface morphology, its heavy-mineral composition, bottom-current studies, comparative bathymetry, and sediment budgets all suggest that sand is brought to the bay mouth by southerly longshore drift along the Delmarva Peninsula and then swept into the bay. In addition to building the southward- and bayward-prograding bay-mouth sand, these processes result in sand deposition tens of kilometers into the bay. ?? 1988.

  20. Fluid Management Plan for Corrective Action Unit 447: Project Shoal Area, Subsurface, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1

    SciTech Connect

    Findlay, Rick

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) initiated the Offsites Project to characterize the risk posed to human health and the environment as a result of testing at formerly used nuclear sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The scope of this Fluid Management Plan (FMP) is to support the subsurface investigation at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447, Shoal - Subsurface, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Corrective Action Unit 447 is located in the Sand Spring Range, south of Highway 50, about 39 miles southeast of Fallon, Nevada. (Figure 1-1). This FMP will be used at the PSA in lieu of an individual discharge permit for each well or a general water pollution control permit for management of all fluids produced during the drilling, construction, development, testing, experimentation, and/or sampling of wells conducted by the Offsites Project. The FMP provides guidance for the management of fluids generated during investigation activities and provides the standards by which fluids may be discharged on site. Although the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), Bureau of Federal Facilities (BoFF) is not a signatory to this FMP, it is involved in the negotiation of the contents of this plan and approves the conditions contained within. The major elements of this FMP include: (1) establishment of a well-site operations strategy; (2) site design/layout; (3) monitoring of contamination indicators (monitoring program); (4) sump characterization (sump sampling program); (5) fluid management decision criteria and fluid disposition; and (6) reporting requirements.

  1. Possible return of Acropora cervicornis at Pulaski Shoal, Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lidz, Barbara H.; Zawada, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Seabed classification is essential to assessing environmental associations and physical status in coral reef ecosystems. At Pulaski Shoal in Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida, nearly continuous underwater-image coverage was acquired in 15.5 hours in 2009 along 70.2 km of transect lines spanning ~0.2 km2. The Along-Track Reef-Imaging System (ATRIS), a boat-based, high-speed, digital imaging system, was used. ATRIS-derived benthic classes were merged with a QuickBird satellite image to create a habitat map that defines areas of senile coral reef, carbonate sand, seagrasses, and coral rubble. This atypical approach of starting with extensive, high-resolution in situ imagery and extrapolating between transect lines using satellite imagery leverages the strengths of each remote-sensing modality. The ATRIS images also captured the spatial distribution of two species once common on now-degraded Florida-Caribbean coral reefs: the stony staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis, a designated threatened species, and the long-spined urchin Diadema antillarum. This article documents the utility of ATRIS imagery for quantifying number and estimating age of A. cervicornis colonies (n = 400, age range, 5–11 y) since the severe hypothermic die-off in the Dry Tortugas in 1976–77. This study is also the first to document the largest number of new colonies of A. cervicornis tabulated in an area of the park where coral-monitoring stations maintained by the Fish and Wildlife Research Institute have not been established. The elevated numbers provide an updated baseline for tracking revival of this species at Pulaski Shoal.

  2. Turbulence and mixing generated by internal waves shoaling on a barrier reef.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, K. A.; Monismith, S. G.

    2008-12-01

    Results are presented from an observational study of the turbulent bottom boundary layer on the outer Southeast Florida shelf in July and August 2005. ADCPs and ADVs deployed at 15 m on Conch Reef measured mean and turbulent velocities. Turbulence in the reef bottom boundary layer is highly variable in time and is modified by near bed flow, shear, and stratification driven by shoaling internal waves. In the absence of internal waves on the shelf, currents from 1 to 5 meters above the bed are well described by a logarithmic profile and turbulent dissipation measured 0.6 to 3.0 meters above the bed agrees with classic bottom boundary layer scaling. We examine turbulence in the bottom boundary layer during a typical internal wave event and show that internal waves can induce significant increases in near-bed flow speed, shear, dissipation, and turbulent scalar diffusivity, Kρ. Estimates of flux Richardson number, calculated directly from measurements of dissipation and buoyancy flux, support the dependence of Rf on Frt and on turbulent intensity, ɛ/νN2, relationships that have been previously shown in laboratory and numerical work. Results from this study suggest that for reef communities exposed to continental shelf and slope processes, internal waves may play an important role in mass transfer to benthic organisms. In addition to the episodic onshore transport of cool, subthermocline water masses, with elevated nutrient concentrations, we have shown that the bottom-intensified currents from shoaling internal waves can increase turbulent dissipation and mixing in the reef bottom boundary layer.

  3. Rebecca shoal barrier reef complex of Gulfian and Paleocene age - onshore and offshore Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, G.O.

    1989-03-01

    Surrounding the Florida Peninsula and the offshore portion of the South Florida basin is a 1300-mi long dolomite barrier reef complex that occupies a 3800-ft composite interval spanning most of the Gulfian and Paleocene. Forty-four wells have penetrated various aspects of this complex. Growth began with the Card Sound facies (some 1400 ft thick) in the lower Gulfian, shortly after the end of the Early Cretaceous. This facies is present in only two wells, 4 mi apart on Key Largo. The appearance of the Rebecca Shoal reef in the earliest Gulfian indicates that the Florida Straits were then present, as deep water would have been necessary to support a growing reef of this magnitude. During the late Gulfian, the reef (Plantation equivalent) expanded northward along the East Coast and westward along the Keys. The width now was over 6 mi. By the beginning of the Paleocene, the reef (Tavernier facies) had completely surrounded the peninsula, resulting in the deposition of the Cedar Keys dolomite-anhydrite lagoonal facies. The width of the complex was now as much as 20 mi. At the close of the Paleocene, the Rebecca Shoals reef ended abruptly. It was overlain by an orange/brown anhedral dolomite characteristic of the basal Eocene. The lithology of the outer region of the reef complex is characterized by a light-colored, porous, fine to medium crystalline euhedral dolomite. Large cavities, including a 60-ft cavern, have been reported. Two core samples show a taluslike rubble texture with vug porosity between the square-sided fragments. Behind the Tavernier reef, this facies is gradually replaced by nonporous anhedral and cryptocrystalline dolomite. Farther lagoonward, these three lithologies become interbedded with typical Cedar keys, a very fine microcrystalline to microcrystalline dolomite.

  4. Water quality in the upper Shoal Creek basin, southwestern Missouri, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumacher, John G.

    2001-01-01

    Results of a water-quality investigation of the upper Shoal Creek Basin in southwestern Missouri indicate that concentrations of total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (NO2t+NO3t) in water samples from Shoal Creek were unusually large [mean of 2.90 mg/L (milligrams per liter), n (sample size)=60] compared to other Missouri streams (mean of 1.02 mg/L, n=1,340). A comparison of instantaneous base-flow loads of NO2t+NO3t indicates that at base-flow conditions, most NO2t+NO3t discharged by Shoal Creek is from nonpoint sources. Nearly all the base-flow instantaneous load of total phosphorus as P (Pt) discharged by Shoal Creek can be attributed to effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Samples collected from a single runoff event indicate that substantial quantities of Pt can be transported during runoff events compared to base-flow transport. Only minor quantities of NO2t+NO3t are transported during runoff events compared to base-flow transport. Fecal coliform bacteria densities at several locations exceed the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) standard of 200 col/100 mL (colonies per 100 milliliters) for whole-body contact recreation. During 13 months of monitoring at 13 stream sites, fecal coliform densities (median of 277 and 400 col/100 mL) at two sites (sites 2 and 3) on Shoal Creek exceeded the MDNR standard at base-flow conditions. The maximum fecal coliform density of 120,000 col/100 mL was detected at site 3 (MDNR monitoring site) during a runoff event in April 1999 at a peak discharge of 1,150 ft3/s (cubic feet per second). Fecal coliform densities also exceeded the MDNR standard in three tributaries with the largest densities (median of 580 col/100 mL) detected in Pogue Creek. Results of ribopattern analyses indicate that most Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria in water samples from the study area probably are from nonhuman sources. The study area contains about 25,000 cattle, and has an estimated annual production of 33 million

  5. Birthmarks - red

    MedlinePlus

    Strawberry mark; Vascular skin changes; Angioma cavernosum; Capillary hemangioma; Hemangioma simplex ... There are two main categories of birthmarks: Red birthmarks are ... are called vascular birthmarks. Pigmented birthmarks are areas ...

  6. Devon Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island   ... each summer since 1999, researchers from NASA's Haughton-Mars Project and the Mars Society reside at this "polar desert" location to study the geologic and ...

  7. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  8. A comparison of HCMM surface temperatures with in situ temperature data. [Nantucket shoals and the Gulf of Mexico regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vukovich, F. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    All HCMM required were processed. Calibrated and atmospherically corrected sea surface temperatures were developed for the Nantucket Shoals and Gulf of Mexico regions. These data were analyzed and the sea surface temperatures along the various transacts were compared with in situ data. The comparisons indicate that there is, on the average, a root mean square difference between the in situ data and the HCMM sea surface temperatures of + or - 1.0 C. The linear correlation coefficient was 0.97.

  9. A comparison of HCMM surface temperatures with in situ temperature data. [Gulf of Mexico and the Nantucket Shoals Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Algorithms were updated for a quicker analysis of computer compatible tapes in an effort to establish the absolute and relative accuracy of HCMM infrared data. Data for four case studies were identified and extracted from the tapes. These studies include three dates for the Nantucket Shoals region and one date for the Gulf of Mexico region. Upper air meteorological data, which are needed to make atmospheric correction of the HCMM data, are being reduced and prepared for calculation of the atmospheric effect.

  10. 2014 Well Completion Report for Corrective Action Unit 447 Project Shoal Area Churchill County, Nevada October 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Findlay, Rick

    2015-11-01

    This report summarizes the drilling program conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management at the Project Shoal Area (Shoal) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 447 in Churchill County, Nevada. Shoal was the location of an underground nuclear test conducted on October 26, 1963, as part of the Vela Uniform program sponsored jointly by the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (a predecessor to DOE). The test consisted of detonating a 12-kiloton nuclear device in granitic rock at a depth of approximately 1,211 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs) (AEC 1964). The corrective action strategy for the site is focused on revising the site conceptual model and evaluating the adequacy of the monitoring well network at the site. Field activities associated with the project were conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended) and applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) policies and regulations.

  11. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  12. Development of a Groundwater Management Model for the Project Shoal Area

    SciTech Connect

    G. Lamorey; S. Bassett; R. Schumer; D. Boyle; G. Pohll; J. Chapman

    2006-09-01

    This document describes the development of a user-friendly and efficient groundwater management model of the Project Shoal Area (PSA and surrounding area that will allow the U.S. Department of Energy and State of Nevada personnel to evaluate the impact of proposed water-use scenarios. The management model consists of a simple hydrologic model within an interactive groundwater management framework. This framework is based on an object user interface that was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and has been used by the Desert Research Institute researchers and others to couple disparate environmental resource models, manage temporal and spatial data, and evaluate model results for management decision making. This framework was modified and applied to the PSA and surrounding Fairview Basin. The utility of the management model was demonstrated through the application of hypothetical future scenarios including mineral mining, regional expansion of agriculture, and export of water to large urban areas outside the region. While the results from some of the scenarios indicated potential impacts to groundwater levels near the PSA and others did not, together they demonstrate the utility of the management tool for the evaluation of proposed changes in groundwater use in or near the PSA.

  13. Design considerations for achieving high accuracy with the SHOALS bathymetric lidar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, Gary C.; Thomas, Robert W. L.; LaRocque, Paul E.

    1996-11-01

    The ultimate accuracy of depths from an airborne laser hydrography system depends both on careful hardware design aimed at producing the best possible accuracy and precision of recorded data, along with insensitivity to environmental effects, and on post-flight data processing software which corrects for a number of unavoidable biases and provides for flexible operator interaction to handle special cases. The generic procedure for obtaining a depth from an airborne lidar pulse involves measurement of the time between the surface return and the bottom return. In practice, because both of these return times are biased due to a number of environmental and hardware effects, it is necessary to apply various correctors in order to obtain depth estimates which are sufficiently accurate to meet International Hydrographic Office standards. Potential false targets, also of both environmental and hardware origin, must be discriminated, and wave heights must be removed. It is important to have a depth confidence value matched to accuracy and to have warnings about or automatic deletion of pulses with questionable characteristics. Techniques, procedures, and algorithms developed for the SHOALS systems are detailed here.

  14. Using an Automated 3D-tracking System to Record Individual and Shoals of Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Maaswinkel, Hans; Zhu, Liqun; Weng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Like many aquatic animals, zebrafish (Danio rerio) moves in a 3D space. It is thus preferable to use a 3D recording system to study its behavior. The presented automatic video tracking system accomplishes this by using a mirror system and a calibration procedure that corrects for the considerable error introduced by the transition of light from water to air. With this system it is possible to record both single and groups of adult zebrafish. Before use, the system has to be calibrated. The system consists of three modules: Recording, Path Reconstruction, and Data Processing. The step-by-step protocols for calibration and using the three modules are presented. Depending on the experimental setup, the system can be used for testing neophobia, white aversion, social cohesion, motor impairments, novel object exploration etc. It is especially promising as a first-step tool to study the effects of drugs or mutations on basic behavioral patterns. The system provides information about vertical and horizontal distribution of the zebrafish, about the xyz-components of kinematic parameters (such as locomotion, velocity, acceleration, and turning angle) and it provides the data necessary to calculate parameters for social cohesions when testing shoals. PMID:24336189

  15. Modelling the Seasonal Overturning Circulation in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Fengchao; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Pratt, Larry; Bower, Amy; Koehl, Armin; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh

    2015-04-01

    The overturning circulation in the Red Sea exhibits a distinct seasonally reversing pattern and is studied using 50-year, high-resolution MIT general circulation model simulations. The seasonal water exchange in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb is successfully simulated, and the structures of the intruding subsurface Gulf of Aden intermediate water are in good agreement with summer observations in 2011. The model results suggest that the summer overturning circulation is driven by the combined effect of the shoaling of the thermocline in the Gulf of Aden resulting from remote winds in the Arabian Sea and an upward surface slope from the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden set up by local surface winds in the Red Sea. For the winter overturning circulation, the climatological model mean results suggest that the surface inflow intensifies in a western boundary current in the southern Red Sea that switches to an eastern boundary current north of 24°N. The overturning is accomplished through a cyclonic recirculation and a cross-basin overturning circulation in the northern Red Sea, with major sinking occurring along a narrow band of width about 20 km along the eastern boundary and weaker upwelling along the western boundary. The northward pressure gradient force, strong vertical mixing, and horizontal mixing near the boundary are the essential dynamical components in the model's winter overturning circulation.

  16. Red Palm Mite Situation in the Caribbean and Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red palm mite (Raoiella indica Hirst Tenuipalpidae), a pest of coconuts and ornamental palms in Asia and Africa, was reported in the Caribbean in 2004. By 2008, it had spread to at least twelve islands, two counties in Florida and to Venezuela. Red palm mite causes yellowing and leaf necrosis wi...

  17. Bathymetry of the Wilderness breach at Fire Island, New York, June 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownell, Andrew T.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Spore, Nicholas J.; McNinch, Jesse E.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center in St. Petersburg, Florida, collaborated with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility in Duck, North Carolina, to collect shallow water bathymetric data of the Wilderness breach on Fire Island, New York, in June 2013. The breach formed in October 2012 during Hurricane Sandy, and the USGS is involved in a post-Sandy effort to map, monitor, and model the morphologic evolution of the breach as part of Hurricane Sandy Supplemental Project GS2-2B: Linking Coastal Vulnerability and Process, Fire Island. This publication includes a bathymetric dataset of the breach and the adjacent nearshore on the ocean side of the island. The objective of the data collection and analysis is to map the bathymetry of the primary breach channel, ebb shoal, and nearshore bar system.

  18. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.

    To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.

    Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack

  19. Estuary and barrier island study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, D. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Scan line distortion is apparent in ERTS-1 imagery, imparting a serrated-edge appearance to shorelines. This feature however does not hinder observation and interpretation of broad features such as shoaling areas and sediment plumes. Shoaling in the backshore areas and inlets is easily discernible in spectral bands 4 and 5. Contrast between land and water is especially striking in spectral band 7, allowing easy identification of tidal flat areas.

  20. Siberian Islands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Distinguishing Clouds from Ice over the East Siberian Sea, Russia     View Larger Image ... ocean are visible. The East Siberian Sea is part of the Arctic Ocean and is ice-covered most of the year. The New Siberian Islands are ...

  1. Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

  2. Red-billed Leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Male, Timothy D.; Fancy, Steven G.; Ralph, C. John

    1998-01-01

    Known in the cage bird trade as the Japanese Hill-Robin, Peking Robin, or Peking Nightingale, the Red-billed Leiothrix was first imported into the Hawaiian Islands in 1911 ( Fisher and Baldwin 1947 ), with intentional releases to the wild occurring after 1918 ( Caum 1933 ). A native of Southeast Asia, southern China, and the Himalayan regions of India, this species is a medium-sized, green and yellow babbler with a conspicuous red bill and strongly notched tail. The species is extremely active, but individuals are somewhat secretive and difficult to see as they flit around in the understory, often in small groups. The Red-billed Leiothrix is found in a wide variety of habitats in the Hawaiian Islands, including both native and exotic forests from sea level to near mountain summits exceeding 4,000 m elevation.

  3. Weak response of oceanic dimethylsulfide to upper mixing shoaling induced by global warming.

    PubMed

    Vallina, S M; Simó, R; Manizza, M

    2007-10-01

    The solar radiation dose in the oceanic upper mixed layer (SRD) has recently been identified as the main climatic force driving global dimethylsulfide (DMS) dynamics and seasonality. Because DMS is suggested to exert a cooling effect on the earth radiative budget through its involvement in the formation and optical properties of tropospheric clouds over the ocean, a positive relationship between DMS and the SRD supports the occurrence of a negative feedback between the oceanic biosphere and climate, as postulated 20 years ago. Such a natural feedback might partly counteract anthropogenic global warming through a shoaling of the mixed layer depth (MLD) and a consequent increase of the SRD and DMS concentrations and emission. By applying two globally derived DMS diagnostic models to global fields of MLD and chlorophyll simulated with an Ocean General Circulation Model coupled to a biogeochemistry model for a 50% increase of atmospheric CO(2) and an unperturbed control run, we have estimated the response of the DMS-producing pelagic ocean to global warming. Our results show a net global increase in surface DMS concentrations, especially in summer. This increase, however, is so weak (globally 1.2%) that it can hardly be relevant as compared with the radiative forcing of the increase of greenhouse gases. This contrasts with the seasonal variability of DMS (1000-2000% summer-to-winter ratio). We suggest that the "plankton-DMS-clouds-earth albedo feedback" hypothesis is less strong a long-term thermostatic system than a seasonal mechanism that contributes to regulate the solar radiation doses reaching the earth's biosphere.

  4. Weak response of oceanic dimethylsulfide to upper mixing shoaling induced by global warming.

    PubMed

    Vallina, S M; Simó, R; Manizza, M

    2007-10-01

    The solar radiation dose in the oceanic upper mixed layer (SRD) has recently been identified as the main climatic force driving global dimethylsulfide (DMS) dynamics and seasonality. Because DMS is suggested to exert a cooling effect on the earth radiative budget through its involvement in the formation and optical properties of tropospheric clouds over the ocean, a positive relationship between DMS and the SRD supports the occurrence of a negative feedback between the oceanic biosphere and climate, as postulated 20 years ago. Such a natural feedback might partly counteract anthropogenic global warming through a shoaling of the mixed layer depth (MLD) and a consequent increase of the SRD and DMS concentrations and emission. By applying two globally derived DMS diagnostic models to global fields of MLD and chlorophyll simulated with an Ocean General Circulation Model coupled to a biogeochemistry model for a 50% increase of atmospheric CO(2) and an unperturbed control run, we have estimated the response of the DMS-producing pelagic ocean to global warming. Our results show a net global increase in surface DMS concentrations, especially in summer. This increase, however, is so weak (globally 1.2%) that it can hardly be relevant as compared with the radiative forcing of the increase of greenhouse gases. This contrasts with the seasonal variability of DMS (1000-2000% summer-to-winter ratio). We suggest that the "plankton-DMS-clouds-earth albedo feedback" hypothesis is less strong a long-term thermostatic system than a seasonal mechanism that contributes to regulate the solar radiation doses reaching the earth's biosphere. PMID:17901211

  5. Groundwater flow near the Shoal Site, Sand Springs Range, Nevada: Impact of density-driven flow

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, J.; Mihevc, T.; McKay, A.

    1994-09-01

    The nature of flow from a highland recharge area in a mountain range in north-central Nevada to discharge areas on either side of the range is evaluated to refine a conceptual model of contaminant transport from an underground nuclear test conducted beneath the range. The test, known as the Shoal event, was conducted in 1963 in granitic rocks of the Sand Springs Range. Sparse hydraulic head measurements from the early 1960s suggest flow from the shot location to the east to Fairview Valley, while hydrochemistry supports flow to salt pans in Fourmile Flat to the west. Chemical and isotopic data collected from water samples and during well-logging arc best explained by a reflux brine system on the west side of the Sand Springs Range, rather than a typical local flow system where all flow occurs from recharge areas in the highlands to a central discharge area in a playa. Instead, dense saline water from the playa is apparently being driven toward the range by density contrasts. The data collected between the range and Fourmile Flat suggest the groundwater is a mixture of younger, fresher recharge water with older brine. Chemical contrasts between groundwater in the east and west valleys reflect the absence of re-flux water in Fairview Valley because the regional discharge area is distant and thus there is no accumulation of salts. The refluxing hydraulic system probably developed after the end of the last pluvial period and differences between the location of the groundwater divide based on hydraulic and chemical indicators could reflect movement of the divide as the groundwater system adjusts to the new reflux condition.

  6. Oxygen limitations on marine animal distributions and the collapse of epibenthic community structure during shoaling hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jackson W F; Tunnicliffe, Verena

    2015-08-01

    Deoxygenation in the global ocean is predicted to induce ecosystem-wide changes. Analysis of multidecadal oxygen time-series projects the northeast Pacific to be a current and future hot spot of oxygen loss. However, the response of marine communities to deoxygenation is unresolved due to the lack of applicable data on component species. We repeated the same benthic transect (n = 10, between 45 and 190 m depths) over 8 years in a seasonally hypoxic fjord using remotely operated vehicles equipped with oxygen sensors to establish the lower oxygen levels at which 26 common epibenthic species can occur in the wild. By timing our surveys to shoaling hypoxia events, we show that fish and crustacean populations persist even in severe hypoxia (<0.5 mL L(-1) ) with no mortality effects but that migration of mobile species occurs. Consequently, the immediate response to hypoxia expansion is the collapse of community structure; normally partitioned distributions of resident species coalesced and localized densities increased. After oxygen renewal and formation of steep oxygen gradients, former ranges re-established. High frequency data from the nearby VENUS subsea observatory show the average oxygen level at our site declined by ~0.05 mL L(-1) year(-1) over the period of our study. The increased annual duration of the hypoxic (<1.4 mL L(-1) ) and severely hypoxic periods appears to reflect the oxygen dynamics demonstrated in offshore source waters and the adjacent Strait of Georgia. Should the current trajectory of oxygen loss continue, community homogenization and reduced suitable habitat may become the dominant state of epibenthic systems in the northeast Pacific. In situ oxygen occurrences were not congruent with lethal and sublethal hypoxia thresholds calculated across the literature for major taxonomic groups indicating that research biases toward laboratory studies on Atlantic species are not globally applicable. Region-specific hypoxia thresholds are necessary to

  7. Predicting sea-level rise vulnerability of terrestrial habitat and wildlife of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Berkowitz, Paul; Courtot, Karen N.; Krause, Crystal M.; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Berkowitz, Paul; Courtot, Karen N.; Krause, Crystal M.

    2012-01-01

    wildlife breeding habitats for each island. The subsequent chapter (chapter 2) details a study of the Laysan Island ecosystem, describing a quantitative model that incorporates SLR, storm wave, and rising groundwater inundation. Wildlife, storm, and oceanographic data allowed for an assessment of the phenological and spatial vulnerability of Laysan Island's breeding bird species to SLR and storms. Using remote sensing and geospatial techniques, we estimated topography, classified vegetation, modeled SLR, and evaluated a range of climate change scenarios. On the basis of high-resolution airborne data collected during 2010-11 (root-mean-squared error = 0.05-0.18 m), we estimated the maximum elevation of 20 individual islands extending from Kure Atoll to French Frigate Shoals (range: 1.8-39.7 m) and computed the mean elevation (1.7 m, standard deviation 1.1 m) across all low-lying islands. We also analyzed general climate models to describe rainfall and temperature scenarios expected to influence adaptation of some plants and animals for this region. Outcomes for the NWHI predicted an increase in temperature of 1.8-2.6 degrees Celsius (°C) and an annual decrease in precipitation of 24.7-76.3 millimeters (mm) across the NWHI by 2100. Our models of passive SLR (excluding wave-driven effects, erosion, and accretion) showed that approximately 4 percent of the total land area in the NWHI will be lost with scenarios of +1.0 m of SLR and 26 percent will be lost with +2.0 m of SLR. Some atolls are especially vulnerable to SLR. For example, at Pearl and Hermes Atoll our analysis indicated substantial habitat losses with 43 percent of the land area inundated at +1.0 m SLR and 92 percent inundated at +2.0 m SLR. Across the NWHI, seven islands will be completely submerged with +2.0 m SLR. The limited global ranges of some tropical nesting birds make them particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts in the NWHI. Climate change scenarios and potential SLR impacts presented here

  8. 'King George Island' Brushed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This mosaic was made from frames acquired by the microscopic imager on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during Spirit's 1,031 Martian day, or sol, on the red planet (Nov. 27, 2006). It shows a rock target called 'King George Island' after the target was brushed by the rover's rock abrasion tool. The mosaic covers approximately 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across and shows the granular nature of the rock exposure. The grains are typically about 1 millimeter (.04 inches) wide. Data from the rover's Moessbauer spectrometer provides evidence that they have an enhanced amount of the mineral hematite relative to surrounding soils.

  9. Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    In the early hours of February 7, ASTER captured this nighttime thermal infrared image of an eruption of Anatahan Volcano in the central Mariana Islands. The summit of the volcano is bright indicating there is a very hot area there. Streaming to the west is an ash plume, visible by the red color indicating the presence of silicate-rich particles. Dark grey areas are clouds that appear colder than the ocean. Anatahan is a stratovolcano that started erupting in May 2003, forming a new crater.

    The image covers an area of 56.3 x 41.8 km, and is located 16 degrees north latitude and 145.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  10. Two's company, three's a crowd: food and shelter limitation outweigh the benefits of group living in a shoaling fish.

    PubMed

    Ford, John R; Swearer, Stephen E

    2013-05-01

    Identifying how density and number-dependent processes regulate populations is important for predicting population response to environmental change. Species that live in groups, such as shoaling fish, can experience both direct density-dependent mortality through resource limitation and inverse number-dependent mortality via increased feeding rates and predator evasion in larger groups. To investigate the role of these processes in a temperate reef fish population, we manipulated the density and group size of the shoaling species Trachinops caudimaculatus on artificial patch reefs at two locations with different predator fields in Port Phillip Bay, Australia. We compared mortality over four weeks to estimates of predator abundance and per capita availability of refuge and food to identify mechanisms for density or number dependence. Mortality was strongly directly density dependent throughout the experiment, regardless of the dominant predator group; however, the limiting resource driving this effect changed over time. In the first two weeks when densities were highest, density-dependent mortality was best explained by refuge competition and the abundance of benthic predators. During the second two weeks, food competition best explained the pattern of mortality. We detected no effect of group size at either location, even where pelagic-predator abundance was high. Overall, direct density effects were much stronger than those of group size, suggesting little survival advantage to shoaling on isolated patch reefs where resource competition is high. This study is the first to observe a temporal shift in density-dependent mechanisms in reef fish, and the first to observe food limitation on short temporal scales. Food competition may therefore be an important regulator of postsettlement reef fish cohorts after the initial intense effects of refuge limitation and predation. PMID:23858647

  11. Two's company, three's a crowd: food and shelter limitation outweigh the benefits of group living in a shoaling fish.

    PubMed

    Ford, John R; Swearer, Stephen E

    2013-05-01

    Identifying how density and number-dependent processes regulate populations is important for predicting population response to environmental change. Species that live in groups, such as shoaling fish, can experience both direct density-dependent mortality through resource limitation and inverse number-dependent mortality via increased feeding rates and predator evasion in larger groups. To investigate the role of these processes in a temperate reef fish population, we manipulated the density and group size of the shoaling species Trachinops caudimaculatus on artificial patch reefs at two locations with different predator fields in Port Phillip Bay, Australia. We compared mortality over four weeks to estimates of predator abundance and per capita availability of refuge and food to identify mechanisms for density or number dependence. Mortality was strongly directly density dependent throughout the experiment, regardless of the dominant predator group; however, the limiting resource driving this effect changed over time. In the first two weeks when densities were highest, density-dependent mortality was best explained by refuge competition and the abundance of benthic predators. During the second two weeks, food competition best explained the pattern of mortality. We detected no effect of group size at either location, even where pelagic-predator abundance was high. Overall, direct density effects were much stronger than those of group size, suggesting little survival advantage to shoaling on isolated patch reefs where resource competition is high. This study is the first to observe a temporal shift in density-dependent mechanisms in reef fish, and the first to observe food limitation on short temporal scales. Food competition may therefore be an important regulator of postsettlement reef fish cohorts after the initial intense effects of refuge limitation and predation.

  12. Breeding productivity of Smith Island black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Stotts, D.B.; Harrison, M.K.; Perry, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the breeding performance of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) on Smith Island, Chesapeake Bay, to improve our understanding of island black duck breeding ecology and to make management recommendations to enhance productivity. During 1995-96, we implanted 56 female black ducks with 20-g radio transmitters and tracked 35 of the individuals through the breeding season to locate nests, determine nest fate, and identify brood habitat. We also increased preseason banding efforts and compared capture characteristics over 12 years with those from the Deal Island Wildlife Management Area, a banding site on the mainland of Tangier Sound. A low rate of nesting (37%), lack of renesting, and poor hatching success (31%) indicated that island salt marsh habitats present a harsh environment for breeding black ducks. Black ducks located 11 of 13 nests (85%) in black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh where they were vulnerable to flooding from extreme tides and to egg predators. No nests were found on forested tree hammocks, a feature that distinguishes Smith Island from nearby South Marsh and Bloodsworth Islands. Nest predators included red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), herring gulls (Larus argentams), fish crows (Corvus ossifragus), and, potentially, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Unlike mainland red foxes, foxes radio tracked on Smith Island were found to be capable swimmers and effective low marsh predators. We found shoreline meadows of widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) to be important foraging sites for black ducks and suspected that the virtual absence of fresh water in this high salinity environment (1217+ ppt) to incur some cost in terms of growth and survival of ducklings. Preseason bandings revealed a high proportion of banded adults and a strong positive correlation in age ratios with the Deal Island banding site. This latter finding strongly suggests a negative universal effect of storm tides on nest success for Tangier Sound black ducks. Management to

  13. Carolinas Coastal Change Processes Project data report for observations near Diamond Shoals, North Carolina, January-May 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, Brandy N.; Warner, John C.; Voulgaris, George; List, Jeffrey H.; Thieler, E. Robert; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.

    2011-01-01

    This Open-File Report provides information collected for an oceanographic field study that occurred during January - May 2009 to investigate processes that control the sediment transport dynamics at Diamond Shoals, North Carolina. The objective of this report is to make the data available in digital form and to provide information to facilitate further analysis of the data. The report describes the background, experimental setup, equipment, and locations of the sensor deployments. The edited data are presented in time-series plots for rapid visualization of the data set, and in data files that are in the Network Common Data Format (netcdf). Supporting observational data are also included.

  14. Classifying Pacific islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (<20 years) transient islands are not included. The principal aim of the classification is to assess the spatial diversity of the geologic and geomorphic attributes of Pacific islands. It is intended to be valid at a regional scale and based on two attributes: five types of lithology (volcanic, limestone, composite, continental, surficial) and a distinction between high and low islands. These attributes yielded eight island types: volcanic high and low islands; limestone high and low islands; composite high and low islands; reef (including all unconsolidated) islands; and continental islands. Most common are reef islands (36 %) and volcanic high islands (31 %), whereas the least common are composite low islands (1 %). Continental islands, 18 of the 1779 islands examined, are not included in maps showing the distribution of island attributes and types. Rationale for the spatial distributions of the various island attributes is drawn from the available literature and canvassed in the text. With exception of the few continental islands, the distribution of island types is broadly interpretable from the proximity of island-forming processes. It is anticipated the classification will become the basis for more focused investigation of spatial variability of the climate and ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as

  15. 2012 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 447

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    The Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Nevada was the site of a 12-kiloton underground nuclear test in 1963. Although the surface of the site has been remediated, investigation of groundwater contamination resulting from the test is still in the corrective action process. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted at the site as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. Analytical results from the 2012 monitoring are consistent with those of the previous years, with tritium detected only in well HC-4. The tritium concentration in groundwater from well HC-4 remains far below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-established maximum contaminant level of 20,000 picocuries per liter. Concentrations of total uranium and gross alpha were also detected during this monitoring period, with uranium accounting for nearly all the gross alpha activity. The total uranium concentrations obtained from this monitoring period were consistent with previous results and reflect a slightly elevated natural uranium concentration, consistent with the mineralized geologic terrain. Isotopic ratios of uranium also indicate a natural source of uranium in groundwater, as opposed to a nuclear-test-related source. Water level trends obtained from the 2012 water level data were consistent with those of previous years. The corrective action strategy for the PSA is currently focused on revising the site conceptual model (SCM) and evaluating the adequacy of the current monitoring well network. Some aspects of the SCM are known; however, two major concerns are the uncertainty in the groundwater flow direction and the cause of rising water levels in site wells west of the shear zone. Water levels have been rising in the site wells west of the shear zone since the first hydrologic characterization wells were installed in 1996. While water levels in wells west of the shear zone continue to rise, the rate of increase is less than in previous years. The SCM will be revised, and an

  16. Vertical Distribution of Radiation Stress for Non-linear Shoaling Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, B. M.; Slinn, D. N.

    2004-12-01

    components (Sxx and Sxy) resulting from obliquely incident, non-linear shoaling waves. Vertical profiles of the radiation stress components predicted by the numerical model are compared with published analytical solutions, expressions given by linear theory, and observations from an investigation employing second-order cnoidal wave theory.

  17. Surficial geology of the sea floor in west-central Long Island Sound as shown by sidescan-sonar imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, M. L.; Moser, M.S.; Christman, E.B.

    2005-01-01

    We used sidescan-sonar imagery detailing almost 300 km2 of the sea floor in west-central Long Island Sound in conjunction with bathymetry, sediment samples, bottom video, and seismic data to interpret the area's surficial geology. The distribution of sediments and sedimentary environments interpreted from these data sets represents the Quaternary geology, regional bathymetry, and effects of modern tidal- and wave-driven currents. Four distinct sedimentary environments consisting of 1) fine-grained deposition, 2) sorting and reworking, 3) coarse-grained bedload transport, and 4) erosion or nondeposition, were identified and mapped. Relatively low-energy environments prevail where deposition of clayey silts occurs in deeper water throughout the central part of the study area, and in the protected areas of the far northeastern corner. As low-energy environments transition to relatively high-energy environments, sorting and reworking of sand, silty sand, and sand-silt-clay takes place on the flanks of the shoals and over smaller bathymetric highs. Environments of coarse-grained bedload transport, distinguished by sandy sediments with current-derived bedforms, are located on an unnamed shoal in the northwestern part of the study area and directly to the south of this on Stratford Shoal. High-energy conditions are reflected by environments of erosion or nondeposition, which occur on bathymetric highs where gravel and gravelly sediments are present.

  18. Lake Tahoe Bottom Characteristics Extracted from SHOALS Lidar Waveform Data and Compared to Backscatter Data From a Multibeam Echo Sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elston, G. R.; Gardner, J. V.

    2002-12-01

    The waveforms recorded by airborne lidar bathymetry (ALB) systems are currently processed only for depth information. In addition to bathymetry, multibeam echo sounder (MBES) systems provide backscatter data in which regions of different acoustic properties are distinguishable. These regions can often be correlated to different bottom types. Initial attempts to extract equivalent data from the ALB waveforms have confirmed the expectation that such information is encoded in those waveforms. Water clarity, bathymetry, and bottom type control the detailed shapes of ALB waveforms in different ways. Specific features of a bottom-reflected signal can be identified, for example its rise-time and amplitude, and used for clustering and classifying the individual data points. Two data sets from Lake Tahoe are available for comparison: ALB data from the SHOALS (scanning hydrographic operational airborne lidar survey) system of the US Army Corps of Engineers, and Simrad EM1000 MBES data from the USGS. Feature extraction, clustering, and classification of the SHOALS data reveals changes in the optical bottom reflectance characteristics that are echoed in the acoustic bottom backscatter properties.

  19. One for all and all for one: the importance of shoaling on behavioral and stress responses in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Pagnussat, Natália; Piato, Angelo L; Schaefer, Isabel C; Blank, Martina; Tamborski, Angélica R; Guerim, Laura D; Bonan, Carla D; Vianna, Mônica R M; Lara, Diogo R

    2013-09-01

    Zebrafish has been increasingly used in behavioral studies, but data can present high variability. Most studies have been performed using isolated zebrafish, despite their interactive nature and shoaling behavior. We compared adult zebrafish behavior and cortisol levels after exposure to novelty as well as sensitivity to Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in animals tested individually or in groups of three (triplets). In the exploratory behavior task, data from single fish and triplets were not significantly different, but single fish data were more disperse in latency, to enter and time spent in the tank upper part, and crossings. In the light-dark task, time in the light zone and crossings were not different between groups, but latency to enter the dark zone and data variability were. We also observed that the latency to reach stage III seizures induced by PTZ was higher in triplets, but data dispersion was not different from single fish. Finally, cortisol levels of fish individually exposed to a novel environment were higher and more variable than triplets, while both groups had higher levels than unmanipulated animals. Thus, when tested individually, zebrafish are more stressed and present more variable behavior due to disruption of their natural shoal strategies. These features can be beneficial or detrimental depending on study aims and should be considered when designing, analyzing, and interpreting zebrafish behavioral data.

  20. Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    1988-06-01

    The Solomon Islands, which form an archipelago in the Southwest Pacific about 1900 km northeast of Australia, are described. Included are brief descriptions about such points as geography, people, history, type of government, political conditions, economy, and foreign relations. In 1987 the population was 301,180 (49% under age 14); the annual growth rate was 3.67%. The infant mortality rate is 46/1000; the life expectancy, 54 years. Health conditions in the Solomons generally are adequate, and the country does not suffer from serious endemic diseases other than malaria, in both the vivax and falsiparum strains. Hospitals and pharmacies are limited to population centers and missions. PMID:12177986

  1. Island of Kauai, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The island of Kauai, of the Hawaiian Island archipelago (22.0N, 159.5W) peeks out from scattered cloud cover. The island's volcanic origins are easily seen by the distinctive lava flow topography and lush vegetation.

  2. Seeing Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This New Horizons image of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io was taken at 13:05 Universal Time during the spacecraft's Jupiter flyby on February 28, 2007. It shows the reddish color of the deposits from the giant volcanic eruption at the volcano Tvashtar, near the top of the sunlit crescent, as well as the bluish plume itself and the orange glow of the hot lava at its source. The relatively unprocessed image on the left provides the best view of the volcanic glow and the plume deposits, while the version on the right has been brightened to show the much fainter plume, and the Jupiter-lit night side of Io.

    New Horizons' color imaging of Io's sunlit side was generally overexposed because the spacecraft's color camera, the super-sensitive Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), was designed for the much dimmer illumination at Pluto. However, two of MVIC's four color filters, the blue and 'methane' filter (a special filter designed to map methane frost on the surface of Pluto at an infrared wavelength of 0.89 microns), are less sensitive than the others, and thus obtained some well-exposed views of the surface when illumination conditions were favorable. Because only two color filters are used, rather than the usual three, and because one filter uses infrared light, the color is only a rough approximation to what the human eye would see.

    The red color of the Tvashtar plume fallout is typical of Io's largest volcanic plumes, including the previous eruption of Tvashtar seen by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft in 2000, and the long-lived Pele plume on the opposite side of Io. The color likely results from the creation of reddish three-atom and four-atom sulfur molecules (S3 and S4) from plume gases rich in two-atom sulfur molecules (S2 After a few months or years, the S3 and S4 molecules recombine into the more stable and familiar yellowish form of sulfur consisting of eight-atom molecules (S8), so these red deposits are only seen around recently-active Io

  3. Coastal bathymetry data collected in June 2014 from Fire Island, New York—The wilderness breach and shoreface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Timothy R.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Wilson, Kathleen E.; Henderson, Rachel E.; Brenner, Owen T.; Reynolds, Billy J.; Hansen, Mark E.

    2016-08-02

    Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center in St. Petersburg, Florida, collected bathymetric data along the upper shoreface and within the wilderness breach at Fire Island, New York, in June 2014. The U.S. Geological Survey is involved in a post-Hurricane Sandy effort to map and monitor the morphologic evolution of the shoreface along Fire Island and model the evolution of the wilderness breach as a part of the Hurricane Sandy Supplemental Project GS2-2B. During this study, bathymetry was collected with single-beam echo sounders and global positioning systems, mounted to personal watercraft, along the Fire Island shoreface and within the wilderness breach. Additional bathymetry was collected using backpack global positioning systems along the flood shoals and shallow channels within the wilderness breach.

  4. Coastal bathymetry data collected in June 2014 from Fire Island, New York—The wilderness breach and shoreface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Timothy R.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Wilson, Kathleen E.; Henderson, Rachel E.; Brenner, Owen T.; Reynolds, Billy J.; Hansen, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center in St. Petersburg, Florida, collected bathymetric data along the upper shoreface and within the wilderness breach at Fire Island, New York, in June 2014. The U.S. Geological Survey is involved in a post-Hurricane Sandy effort to map and monitor the morphologic evolution of the shoreface along Fire Island and model the evolution of the wilderness breach as a part of the Hurricane Sandy Supplemental Project GS2-2B. During this study, bathymetry was collected with single-beam echo sounders and global positioning systems, mounted to personal watercraft, along the Fire Island shoreface and within the wilderness breach. Additional bathymetry was collected using backpack global positioning systems along the flood shoals and shallow channels within the wilderness breach.

  5. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  6. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  7. The biogeography of globally threatened seabirds and island conservation opportunities.

    PubMed

    Spatz, Dena R; Newton, Kelly M; Heinz, Reina; Tershy, Bernie; Holmes, Nick D; Butchart, Stuart H M; Croll, Donald A

    2014-10-01

    Seabirds are the most threatened group of marine animals; 29% of species are at some risk of extinction. Significant threats to seabirds occur on islands where they breed, but in many cases, effective island conservation can mitigate these threats. To guide island-based seabird conservation actions, we identified all islands with extant or extirpated populations of the 98 globally threatened seabird species, as recognized on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, and quantified the presence of threatening invasive species, protected areas, and human populations. We matched these results with island attributes to highlight feasible island conservation opportunities. We identified 1362 threatened breeding seabird populations on 968 islands. On 803 (83%) of these islands, we identified threatening invasive species (20%), incomplete protected area coverage (23%), or both (40%). Most islands with threatened seabirds are amenable to island-wide conservation action because they are small (57% were <1 km(2) ), uninhabited (74%), and occur in high- or middle-income countries (96%). Collectively these attributes make islands with threatened seabirds a rare opportunity for effective conservation at scale.

  8. 46 CFR 401.407 - Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron, MI. 401.407 Section 401.407 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE REGULATIONS Rates, Charges, and...

  9. Low-frequency target strength and abundance of shoaling Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the Gulf of Maine during the Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing 2006 Experiment.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zheng; Andrews, Mark; Jagannathan, Srinivasan; Patel, Ruben; Jech, J Michael; Makris, Nicholas C; Ratilal, Purnima

    2010-01-01

    The low-frequency target strength of shoaling Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the Gulf of Maine during Autumn 2006 spawning season is estimated from experimental data acquired simultaneously at multiple frequencies in the 300-1200 Hz range using (1) a low-frequency ocean acoustic waveguide remote sensing (OAWRS) system, (2) areal population density calibration with several conventional fish finding sonar (CFFS) systems, and (3) low-frequency transmission loss measurements. The OAWRS system's instantaneous imaging diameter of 100 km and regular updating enabled unaliased monitoring of fish populations over ecosystem scales including shoals of Atlantic herring containing hundreds of millions of individuals, as confirmed by concurrent trawl and CFFS sampling. High spatial-temporal coregistration was found between herring shoals imaged by OAWRS and concurrent CFFS line-transects, which also provided fish depth distributions. The mean scattering cross-section of an individual shoaling herring is found to consistently exhibit a strong, roughly 20 dB/octave roll-off with decreasing frequency in the range of the OAWRS survey over all days of the roughly 2-week experiment, consistent with the steep roll-offs expected for sub-resonance scattering from fish with air-filled swimbladders.

  10. SeaWinds - South Georgia Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Winds are blocked by an island mountain barrier that produces a long 'shadow' of low winds on the downwind side of the island stretching for hundreds of kilometers (about 500 miles long) in this image produced from data from NASA's SeaWinds instrument on the QuikScat satellite.

    South Georgia Island, in the South Atlantic Ocean (approximately 1,500 kilometers, or miles, east of the Falkland/Malvinas Islands, is only 170 kilometers long (about 106 miles) and 30 kilometers (about 19 miles)wide, but contains 13 peaks exceeding 2,000 meters (more than 6,500 feet) in height. The island thus acts as a significant barrier to the surface winds in this forbidding part of the world oceans.

    Mountainous islands and steep coastal topography can modify the surface wind field for many hundreds of kilometers seaward. The detailed air-sea-land interaction processes involved are not well understood, largely because of a lack of accurate, high-resolution, extensive wind speed and direction measurements. The broad-swath, all-weather SeaWinds instrument on NASA's QuikScat satellite is providing unique measurements of ocean winds, revealing previously unknown wind patterns caused by island topography and allowing development of improved models for coastal ocean winds.

    This image shows QuikScat measurements of wind speed and direction during a single pass over South Georgia Island on September 13, 1999. The island itself is shown as black (for heights less than 750 meters(less than half a mile), green (for heights between 750 and 1,500 meters (less than half a mile to about one mile), and red (for regions greater than 1,500 meters, or about one mile in altitude). The white area surrounding the island represents the region where land contamination does not allow wind measurements to be made. The horizontal and vertical coordinates are in kilometers, with origin on the island at latitude 54.5 degrees south, longitude 30 degrees east.

    This large-scale view shows regions of

  11. The IHW island network. [International Halley Watch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedner, Malcolm B., Jr.; Liller, William

    1987-01-01

    Early astronomical photography of comets at perihelion encouraged the establishment of an International Halley Watch (IHW) Team for regularly photographing the Comet. The February 1986 period was particularly troublesome due to the limitations of cometary visibility in the Southern Hemisphere. Schmidt cameras were placed on Tahiti, Easter Island, Faraday Station on the Antarctic Peninsula, Reunion Island and in South Africa. Blue- and red-filter B/W images were obtained every night and color prints were occasionally shot. Each night's images were examined before the next night's photography. Several interesting anecdotes are recounted from shipping, manning and operation of the telescopes.

  12. Well Completion Report for Corrective Action Unit 447, Project Shoal Area, Churchill County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Findlay

    2006-09-01

    This Well Completion Report is being provided as part of the implementation of the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 (NNSA/NSO, 2006a). The CADD/CAP is part of an ongoing U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) funded project for the investigation of CAU 447 at the Project Shoal Area (PSA). All work performed on this project was conducted in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996), and all applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) policies and regulations. Investigation activities included the drilling, construction, and development of three monitoring/validation (MV) wells at the PSA. This report summarizes the field activities and data collected during the investigation.

  13. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  14. 50 CFR 600.1104 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... endorsement for Norton Sound red king. More specifically, the reduction endorsement fisheries, and the crab... endorsement fisheries, are: (1) Bristol Bay red king (the corresponding crab rationalization fishery is Bristol Bay red king crab), (2) Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area C. opilio and C. bairdi...

  15. 50 CFR 600.1104 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... endorsement for Norton Sound red king. More specifically, the reduction endorsement fisheries, and the crab... endorsement fisheries, are: (1) Bristol Bay red king (the corresponding crab rationalization fishery is Bristol Bay red king crab), (2) Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area C. opilio and C. bairdi...

  16. 50 CFR 600.1104 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... endorsement for Norton Sound red king. More specifically, the reduction endorsement fisheries, and the crab... endorsement fisheries, are: (1) Bristol Bay red king (the corresponding crab rationalization fishery is Bristol Bay red king crab), (2) Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area C. opilio and C. bairdi...

  17. 50 CFR 600.1104 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... endorsement for Norton Sound red king. More specifically, the reduction endorsement fisheries, and the crab... endorsement fisheries, are: (1) Bristol Bay red king (the corresponding crab rationalization fishery is Bristol Bay red king crab), (2) Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area C. opilio and C. bairdi...

  18. 50 CFR 600.1104 - Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... endorsement for Norton Sound red king. More specifically, the reduction endorsement fisheries, and the crab... endorsement fisheries, are: (1) Bristol Bay red king (the corresponding crab rationalization fishery is Bristol Bay red king crab), (2) Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area C. opilio and C. bairdi...

  19. Bathymetry of the waters surrounding the Elizabeth Islands, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Andrews, Brian D.; Ackerman, Seth D.; Twichell, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The Elizabeth Islands in Massachusetts that separate Vineyard Sound from Buzzards Bay are the remnants of a moraine (unconsolidated glacial sediment deposited at an ice sheet margin; Oldale and O’Hara, 1984). The most recent glacial ice retreat in this region occurred between 25,000 and 20,000 years ago, and the subsequent rise in sea level that followed deglaciation caused differences in the seafloor character between Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound. The relatively rough seafloor of Vineyard Sound reflects widespread exposure of glacial material. Shoals mark the location of recessional ice contact material, and deep channels illustrate where meltwater drainage incised glacial deposits. Following ice retreat from the Elizabeth Islands, a glacial lake formed across the mouth of Buzzards Bay, when the lake drained, it scoured two deep channels at the southern end of the bay. Sea level rise began to inundate Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay about 8,000 years ago and continues to modify the modern seafloor (Robb and Oldale, 1977). Fine-grained marine and estuarine sediments were deposited in the partially protected setting of Buzzards Bay. These deposits, up to 10 meters in thickness, buried the high-relief glacial landscape and created the generally smooth modern seafloor. In contrast, the Vineyard Sound of today experiences strong tidal currents, which largely prevent the deposition of fine-grained material and constantly rework the glacial sand and gravel within shoals. The seafloor of the sound largely reflects the contours of the ancient glaciated landscape that existed before sea level began to rise. The bathymetric data used to create the hillshaded relief image of the seafloor were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management and supplemented with National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration hydrographic survey data. The map shows the detailed bathymetry of Buzzards Bay and Vineyard

  20. Recent morphodynamic evolution of the largest uninhibited island in the Yangtze (Changjiang) estuary during 1998-2014: Influence of the anthropogenic interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wen; Mei, Xuefei; Dai, Zhijun; Tang, Zhenghong

    2016-08-01

    Estuarine geomorphology worldwide has greatly changed in the Anthropocene due to intensive human inferences in river basin and within estuary, which has received increasing global concerns. Here, recent morphodynamic evolution of Jiuduan Shoal (JDS), the largest uninhabited island in the Yangtze (Changjiang) Estuary, and associated controlling factors were analyzed based on unique high-resolution seasonal-surveyed bathymetric data during 1998-2014. It can be indicated that JDS presents novel 12 and 48 months fluctuations though significant accretion was detected on high flats above -2 m. Meanwhile, morphodynamic evolution of JDS during 1998-2014 was divided into three stages: significant siltation on landward half of north JDS and expanding of Jiangya Shoal (JYS, part of JDS) tail, but less accretion at high flats from 1998 to 2002; continuous variations of JYS and reshape of seaward JDS with erosion band and heave appearance from 2002 to 2006; retentive alteration of JYS but recovery of erosion band and heave, together with redistribution of sand between high and low flats on seaward JDS after 2007. Moreover, river discharge could be likely the key factor controlling periodic characteristics of recent JDS evolution. Deep waterway project (DWP) dominates area increase of JDS by inducing accretion in north edge and south edge of Lower Shoal between 1998 and 2014.

  1. SRTM Anaglyph: Fiji Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.

    This shaded relief anaglyph image was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shaded relief image back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar

  2. Mesoscale geomorphic change on low energy barrier islands in Chesapeake Bay, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. Andrew G.

    2013-10-01

    energy barrier islands closely resemble open ocean barrier islands. Continued reworking leads to widening of the inlets with consequent loss of constriction of tidal flow. The tidal deltas are, thus, no longer maintained and ultimately the island system disintegrates through inlet widening and is transformed to subtidal shoals. Barrier islands at various stages in this evolutionary cycle can be observed around the bay. Mid-bay barrier islands are affected by wave processes from both sides. This helps maintain the barrier island form and enables barrier islands to persist as sediment is exchanged between both sides of the island. Rates of barrier island translation are extremely high (up to 30 m/year over a 12 year period). This is attributed to the low volume of sand, which facilitates complete rollover in short periods. Accelerated sea level rise is likely to hasten the translation rates of marsh fringe barrier islands. The rapid disintegration of most spits compared to the persistence of marsh fringe barrier islands points to a reliance on the marsh as a stabilising point. If the marshes are overstepped by rising sea level as appears to be happening, the complete disintegration of the barrier islands is highly likely.

  3. The shallow stratigraphy and sand resources offshore of the Mississippi Barrier Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twichell, David; Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Baldwin, Wayne; Foster, David; Flocks, James; Kelso, Kyle; DeWitt, Nancy; Pfeiffer, William; Forde, Arnell; Krick, Jason; Baehr, John

    2011-01-01

    Coastal Mississippi is protected by a series of barrier islands ranging in length from 10-25 kilometers that are less than 2 kilometers wide. The majority of these islands comprise the Gulf Islands National Seashore (GUIS), an ecologically diverse shoreline that provides habitat for wildlife including migratory birds and endangered animals. The majority of GUIS is submerged, and aquatic environments include dynamic tidal inlets, ebb-tide deltas, and seagrass beds. The islands are in a state of decline, with land areas severely reduced during the past century by storms, sea-level rise, and human alteration. Morton (2008) estimates that since the mid-1800s up to 64 percent of island surface area has been lost. Heavy damage was inflicted in 2005 by Hurricane Katrina, which passed by as a Category 3 storm and battered the islands with winds of more than 160 kilometers per hour and a storm surge up to 9 meters. Since 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with the National Park Service, has been mapping the seafloor and substrate around the islands as part of the USGS Northern Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility project. The purpose of these investigations is to characterize the near-surface stratigraphy and identify the influence it may have on island evolution and fate. In 2009, this effort provided the basis for a collaborative effort with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to expand the investigation outside of GUIS boundaries as part of the Mississippi Coastal Improvement Project (MsCIP). The MsCIP program consists of structural, nonstructural, and environmental project elements to restore portions of coastal Mississippi and GUIS affected by storm impact. The project includes the placement of sand along the islands, both on the present beaches and within the littoral zone, to mitigate shoreline erosion and breaching. This action requires the location and assessment of offshore sand or sediment deposits that can provide

  4. Japan: Shikoku Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... deploying instruments aboard several ships, aircraft, and island stations in the waters surrounding Japan and Korea. They characterized ... These MISR images, centered just north of Shikoku Island in southwest Japan, were acquired on April 13, 2001 during Terra orbit ...

  5. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  6. Invasive mammal eradication on islands results in substantial conservation gains.

    PubMed

    Jones, Holly P; Holmes, Nick D; Butchart, Stuart H M; Tershy, Bernie R; Kappes, Peter J; Corkery, Ilse; Aguirre-Muñoz, Alfonso; Armstrong, Doug P; Bonnaud, Elsa; Burbidge, Andrew A; Campbell, Karl; Courchamp, Franck; Cowan, Philip E; Cuthbert, Richard J; Ebbert, Steve; Genovesi, Piero; Howald, Gregg R; Keitt, Bradford S; Kress, Stephen W; Miskelly, Colin M; Oppel, Steffen; Poncet, Sally; Rauzon, Mark J; Rocamora, Gérard; Russell, James C; Samaniego-Herrera, Araceli; Seddon, Philip J; Spatz, Dena R; Towns, David R; Croll, Donald A

    2016-04-12

    More than US$21 billion is spent annually on biodiversity conservation. Despite their importance for preventing or slowing extinctions and preserving biodiversity, conservation interventions are rarely assessed systematically for their global impact. Islands house a disproportionately higher amount of biodiversity compared with mainlands, much of which is highly threatened with extinction. Indeed, island species make up nearly two-thirds of recent extinctions. Islands therefore are critical targets of conservation. We used an extensive literature and database review paired with expert interviews to estimate the global benefits of an increasingly used conservation action to stem biodiversity loss: eradication of invasive mammals on islands. We found 236 native terrestrial insular faunal species (596 populations) that benefitted through positive demographic and/or distributional responses from 251 eradications of invasive mammals on 181 islands. Seven native species (eight populations) were negatively impacted by invasive mammal eradication. Four threatened species had their International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List extinction-risk categories reduced as a direct result of invasive mammal eradication, and no species moved to a higher extinction-risk category. We predict that 107 highly threatened birds, mammals, and reptiles on the IUCN Red List-6% of all these highly threatened species-likely have benefitted from invasive mammal eradications on islands. Because monitoring of eradication outcomes is sporadic and limited, the impacts of global eradications are likely greater than we report here. Our results highlight the importance of invasive mammal eradication on islands for protecting the world's most imperiled fauna. PMID:27001852

  7. Invasive mammal eradication on islands results in substantial conservation gains

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Holly P.; Holmes, Nick D.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Tershy, Bernie R.; Kappes, Peter J.; Corkery, Ilse; Aguirre-Muñoz, Alfonso; Armstrong, Doug P.; Bonnaud, Elsa; Burbidge, Andrew A.; Campbell, Karl; Courchamp, Franck; Cowan, Philip E.; Cuthbert, Richard J.; Ebbert, Steve; Genovesi, Piero; Howald, Gregg R.; Keitt, Bradford S.; Kress, Stephen W.; Miskelly, Colin M.; Oppel, Steffen; Poncet, Sally; Rauzon, Mark J.; Rocamora, Gérard; Russell, James C.; Samaniego-Herrera, Araceli; Seddon, Philip J.; Spatz, Dena R.; Towns, David R.; Croll, Donald A.

    2016-01-01

    More than US$21 billion is spent annually on biodiversity conservation. Despite their importance for preventing or slowing extinctions and preserving biodiversity, conservation interventions are rarely assessed systematically for their global impact. Islands house a disproportionately higher amount of biodiversity compared with mainlands, much of which is highly threatened with extinction. Indeed, island species make up nearly two-thirds of recent extinctions. Islands therefore are critical targets of conservation. We used an extensive literature and database review paired with expert interviews to estimate the global benefits of an increasingly used conservation action to stem biodiversity loss: eradication of invasive mammals on islands. We found 236 native terrestrial insular faunal species (596 populations) that benefitted through positive demographic and/or distributional responses from 251 eradications of invasive mammals on 181 islands. Seven native species (eight populations) were negatively impacted by invasive mammal eradication. Four threatened species had their International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List extinction-risk categories reduced as a direct result of invasive mammal eradication, and no species moved to a higher extinction-risk category. We predict that 107 highly threatened birds, mammals, and reptiles on the IUCN Red List—6% of all these highly threatened species—likely have benefitted from invasive mammal eradications on islands. Because monitoring of eradication outcomes is sporadic and limited, the impacts of global eradications are likely greater than we report here. Our results highlight the importance of invasive mammal eradication on islands for protecting the world's most imperiled fauna. PMID:27001852

  8. Invasive mammal eradication on islands results in substantial conservation gains.

    PubMed

    Jones, Holly P; Holmes, Nick D; Butchart, Stuart H M; Tershy, Bernie R; Kappes, Peter J; Corkery, Ilse; Aguirre-Muñoz, Alfonso; Armstrong, Doug P; Bonnaud, Elsa; Burbidge, Andrew A; Campbell, Karl; Courchamp, Franck; Cowan, Philip E; Cuthbert, Richard J; Ebbert, Steve; Genovesi, Piero; Howald, Gregg R; Keitt, Bradford S; Kress, Stephen W; Miskelly, Colin M; Oppel, Steffen; Poncet, Sally; Rauzon, Mark J; Rocamora, Gérard; Russell, James C; Samaniego-Herrera, Araceli; Seddon, Philip J; Spatz, Dena R; Towns, David R; Croll, Donald A

    2016-04-12

    More than US$21 billion is spent annually on biodiversity conservation. Despite their importance for preventing or slowing extinctions and preserving biodiversity, conservation interventions are rarely assessed systematically for their global impact. Islands house a disproportionately higher amount of biodiversity compared with mainlands, much of which is highly threatened with extinction. Indeed, island species make up nearly two-thirds of recent extinctions. Islands therefore are critical targets of conservation. We used an extensive literature and database review paired with expert interviews to estimate the global benefits of an increasingly used conservation action to stem biodiversity loss: eradication of invasive mammals on islands. We found 236 native terrestrial insular faunal species (596 populations) that benefitted through positive demographic and/or distributional responses from 251 eradications of invasive mammals on 181 islands. Seven native species (eight populations) were negatively impacted by invasive mammal eradication. Four threatened species had their International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List extinction-risk categories reduced as a direct result of invasive mammal eradication, and no species moved to a higher extinction-risk category. We predict that 107 highly threatened birds, mammals, and reptiles on the IUCN Red List-6% of all these highly threatened species-likely have benefitted from invasive mammal eradications on islands. Because monitoring of eradication outcomes is sporadic and limited, the impacts of global eradications are likely greater than we report here. Our results highlight the importance of invasive mammal eradication on islands for protecting the world's most imperiled fauna.

  9. Long-term coral community records from Lugger Shoal on the terrigenous inner-shelf of the central Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, C. T.; Smithers, S. G.; Johnson, K. G.

    2009-12-01

    Long-term (millennial timescale) records of coral community structure can be developed from the analysis of corals preserved in radiometrically dated reef cores. Here, we present such a record (based on six cores) from Lugger Shoal, a turbid zone, nearshore reef on the inner-shelf of the central Great Barrier Reef. Lugger Shoal initiated growth ~800 cal yBP. It is constructed of large in situ Porites bommies, between which a framework of coral rubble (dominated by Acropora pulchra, Montipora mollis, Galaxea fascicularis and Cyphastrea serailia) has accumulated. Reef accretion occurred under conditions of net long-term fine-grained, terrigenous sediment accumulation, and with a coral community dominated throughout by a consistent, but low diversity, suite of coral taxa. This dataset supports recent suggestions that nearshore coral communities that establish themselves under conditions that are already close to the thresholds for coral survival may be resilient to water quality deteriorations associated with human activities.

  10. 14. HULETT ORE UNLOADERS IN MOTION; UNLOADING CANADIAN RED ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. HULETT ORE UNLOADERS IN MOTION; UNLOADING CANADIAN RED ORE FROM THE 'GEORGE M. CAR.' VIEW LOOKING EAST. (Also see OH-18-38, OH-18-39, and OH-18-40.) - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  11. 38. HULETT ORE UNLOADERS IN MOTION; UNLOADING CANADIAN RED ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. HULETT ORE UNLOADERS IN MOTION; UNLOADING CANADIAN RED ORE FROM THE GEORGE M. CARL.' VIEW LOOKING EAST. (Also see OH-18-14, OH-18-39, and OH-18-40) - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  12. Hawaiian Islands, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This cloudy view of the Hawaiian Islands (21.0N, 157.5W) demonstrates the phenomena of island water wakes and, to a lesser extent, cloud wakes as well. The islands form an obstruction to the ocean current flow and in effect create an observable turbulence in the water on the backside of the islands. The same effect can be observed in clouds as they leave wind blown wisps or streamers around obstacles in their path.

  13. Canary Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This nearly vertical view of the Canary Archipelago (28.5N, 16.5W) shows five of the seven islands: Grand Canary, Tenerife, Gomera, Hierro and La Palma. The largest island in view is Tenerife. Island cloud wakes evident in this photo are the result of southerly winds giving rise to cloud banks on the lee side especially on Tenerife which has the highest volcanic peaks. Island water wakes and internal waves are also evident but not as apparent.

  14. Henderson Island, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Henderson Island (24.5S, 128.5W) Pacific Ocean southeast of the Tuamotu Archipelago, is a good example of the many barren islands that but for lack of a source of water could be another lush tropical paradise. The crew of HMS Bounty, in searching for a refuge, sailed past this island but rejected it in favor of nearby Pitcairn Island because of the lack of resources and water.

  15. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  16. Falkland Islands, UK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

  17. RED-LETTER DAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

  18. Red blood cell production

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells are an important element of blood. Their job is to transport oxygen to the body’s tissues in exchange for carbon dioxide, which is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of bones. Stem cells in the red bone marrow called hemocytoblasts ...

  19. Pine Island Glacier

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica     View ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during ... sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay. To the left of the "icebergs" label are chunks of floating ice. ...

  20. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  1. Atmospheric Vortices near Guadalupe Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These MISR images from June 11, 2000 (Terra orbit 2569) demonstrate a turbulent atmospheric flow pattern known as the von Karman vortex street. This phenomenon is named after aerodynamicist Theodore von Karman, who theoretically derived the conditions under which it occurs. The alternating double row of vortices can form in the wake of an obstacle, in this instance the eastern Pacific island of Guadalupe. The rugged terrain of this volcanic Mexican island reaches a maximum elevation of 1.3 kilometers. The island is about 35 kilometers long and is located 260 kilometers west of Baja California.

    The vortex pattern is made visible by the marine stratocumulus clouds around Guadalupe Island. The upper image is a color view obtained by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. North is toward the left. The orientation of the vortex street indicates that the wind direction is from lower left to upper right (northwest to southeast). The areas within the vortex centers tend to be clear because the rotating motions induce a vertical wind component that can break up the cloud deck.

    The lower view is a stereo picture generated from data acquired by MISR's fore- and aft-viewing 70-degree cameras. A 3-D effect is obtained by viewing the image with red/blue glasses and placing the red filter over your left eye. Note how the downwelling atmospheric motion (change in elevation from high to low) is accompanied by a clearing in the center of the first vortex. As the vortices propagate downstream, their rotational velocities weaken. As a consequence, the induced vertical motion and cloud-clearing effect weakens as well.

    Theodore von Karman was a Professor of Aeronautics at Caltech and Director of Caltech's Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory from 1930-1949. He was one of the principal founders of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra

  2. Individually assessed boldness predicts Perca fluviatilis behaviour in shoals, but is not associated with the capture order or angling method.

    PubMed

    Kekäläinen, J; Podgorniak, T; Puolakka, T; Hyvärinen, P; Vainikka, A

    2014-11-01

    Selectivity of recreational angling on fish behaviour was studied by examining whether capture order or lure type (natural v. artificial bait) in ice-fishing could explain behavioural variation among perch Perca fluviatilis individuals. It was also tested if individually assessed personality predicts fish behaviour in groups, in the presence of natural predators. Perca fluviatilis showed individually repeatable behaviour both in individual and in group tests. Capture order, capture method, condition factor or past growth rate did not explain variation in individual behaviour. Individually determined boldness as well as fish size, however, were positively associated with first entrance to the predator zone (i.e. initial risk taking) in group behaviour tests. Individually determined boldness also explained long-term activity and total time spent in the vicinity of predators in the group. These findings suggest that individual and laboratory-based boldness tests predict boldness of P. fluviatilis in also ecologically relevant conditions, i.e. in shoals and in the presence of natural predators. The present results, however, also indicate that the above-mentioned two angling methods may not be selective for certain behavioural types in comparison to each other. PMID:25270290

  3. [Biomass and carbon storage of Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora in Jiuduan Shoal Wetland of Yangtze Estuary, East China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Li, Xiu-zhen; Yan, Zhong-zheng; Chen, Xiu-zhi; He, Yan-long; Guo, Wen-yong; Sun, Pei-ying

    2013-08-01

    By the methods of field survey and laboratory analysis, an investigation was conducted on the seasonal dynamics of biomass and carbon storage of Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora dominated vegetation belts in the Jiuduan Shoal Wetland of Yangtze Estuary, East China in 2010-2012. The organic carbon storage of the biomass (including aboveground part, underground part, and standing litter) of the two plants was the highest in autumn and the lowest in spring. The average carbon storage of the biomass of S. alterniflora per unit area (445.81 g x m(-2)) was much higher than that of P. australis (285.52 g x m(-2)), and the average carbon storage of the standing litter of S. alterniflora (315.28 g x m(-2)) was also higher than that of P. australia (203.15 g x m(-2)). However, the organic carbon storage in the surface soil (0-30 cm) under P. australis community (1048.62 g x m(-2)) was almost as twice times as that under S. alterniflora community (583.33 g x m(-2)). Overall, the carbon accumulation ability of P. australis community (3212.96 g x m(-2)) was stronger than that of the S. alterniflora community (2730.42 g x m(-2)). Therefore, it is of significance to protect the P. australis community in terms of carbon sequestration at the salt marsh.

  4. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2001-09-14

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project has been reservoir description and characterization. This effort has included four tasks: (1) geoscientific reservoir characterization, (2) the study of rock-fluid interactions, (3) petrophysical and engineering characterization and (4) data integration. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 1. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been initiated. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and heterogeneity in these reef and shoal reservoirs have been

  5. Dynamics of seabird colonies vulnerable to sea-level rise at French Frigate Shoals, Hawai`i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Courtot, Karen N.; Krause, Crystal M.; Seavy, Nathaniel E.; Hartzell, Paula; Hatfield, Jeff S.

    2013-01-01

    and habitat creation may mitigate projected seabird population declines due to habitat loss. We predict substantial losses in seabird nesting habitat across the low-lying Hawaiian Islands by 2100 and emphasize the need to restore higher elevation seabird colonies.

  6. Island history affects faunal composition: the treeshrews (Mammalia: Scandentia: Tupaiidae) from the Mentawai and Batu Islands, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargis, Eric J.; Woodman, Neal; Morningstar, Natalie C.; Reese, Aspen T.; Olson, Link E.

    2014-01-01

    The Mentawai and Batu Island groups off the west coast of Sumatra have a complicated geological and biogeographical history. The Batu Islands have shared a connection with the Sumatran ‘mainland’ during periods of lowered sea level, whereas the Mentawai Islands, despite being a similar distance from Sumatra, have remained isolated from Sumatra, and probably from the Batu Islands as well. These contrasting historical relationships to Sumatra have influenced the compositions of the respective mammalian faunas of these island groups. Treeshrews (Scandentia, Tupaiidae) from these islands have, at various times in their history, been recognized as geographically circumscribed populations of a broadly distributed Tupaia glis, subspecies, or distinct species. We used multivariate analyses of measurements from the skull and hands to compare the island populations from Siberut (Mentawai Islands) and Tanahbala (Batu Islands) with the geographically adjacent species from the southern Mentawai Islands (T. chrysogaster) and Sumatra (T. ferruginea). Results from both the skull and manus of the Siberut population show that it is most similar to T. chrysogaster, whereas the Tanahbala population is more similar to T. ferruginea, confirming predictions based on island history. These results are further corroborated by mammae counts. Based on these lines of evidence, we include the Siberut population in T. chrysogaster and the Tanahbala population in T. ferruginea. Our conclusions expand the known distributions of both the Mentawai and Sumatran species. The larger geographical range of the endangered T. chrysogaster has conservation implications for this Mentawai endemic, so populations and habitat should be re-evaluated on each of the islands it inhabits. However, until such a re-evaluation is conducted, we recommend that the IUCN Red List status of this species be changed from ‘Endangered’ to ‘Data Deficient’.

  7. Density-independent survival of wild lake trout in the Apostle Islands area of Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, Charles R.; Schram, Stephen T.; Selgeby, James H.; Swanson, Bruce L.

    1995-01-01

    The lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) stock at Gull Island Shoal in western Lake Superior was one of only a few stocks of lean lake trout in the Great Lakes that survived overfishing and predation by the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Since the mid 1960s, the abundance of wild recruits measured at age 0 and the number of age-7 to -11 wild fish recruited to the fishable stock have increased. We used the Varley-Gradwell method to test for density-dependent survival between these life stages. Survival from age-0 to ages 7–11 was not affected by increasing density, which suggests that further increases in recruitment and stock size are still possible. We suggest that testing for the existence of density-dependent survival can be used to indicate when lake trout populations are rehabilitated.

  8. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 1. Model validation and summer circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Fengchao; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Pratt, Larry J.; Bower, Amy S.; Zhai, Ping; Köhl, Armin; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh

    2014-04-01

    The overturning circulation in the Red Sea exhibits a distinct seasonally reversing pattern and is studied using high-resolution MIT general circulation model simulations. In the first part of this study, the vertical and horizontal structure of the summer overturning circulation and its dynamical mechanisms are presented from the model results. The seasonal water exchange in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb is successfully simulated, and the structures of the intruding subsurface Gulf of Aden intermediate water are in good agreement with summer observations in 2011. The model results suggest that the summer overturning circulation is driven by the combined effect of the shoaling of the thermocline in the Gulf of Aden resulting from remote winds in the Arabian Sea and an upward surface slope from the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden set up by local surface winds in the Red Sea. In addition, during late summer two processes associated, respectively, with latitudinally differential heating and increased salinity in the southern Red Sea act together to cause the reversal of the contrast of the vertical density structure and the cessation of the summer overturning circulation. Dynamically, the subsurface northward pressure gradient force is mainly balanced by vertical viscosity resulting from the vertical shear and boundary friction in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb. Unlike some previous studies, the three-layer summer exchange flows in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb do not appear to be hydraulically controlled.

  9. Created versus natural coastal islands: Atlantic waterbird populations, habitat choices, and management implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Allen, D.H.; Jenkins, D.

    2003-01-01

    Nesting colonial waterbirds along the Atlantic Coast of the United States face a number of landscape-level threats including human disturbance, mammalian predator expansion, and habitat alteration. There have been changes from 1977 to the mid-1990s in use of nesting habitats and populations of a number of seabird species of concern in the region, including black skimmers Rynchops niger Linnaeaus, common terns Sterna hirundo Linnaeaus, gull-billed terns Sterna nilotica Linnaeaus, least terns Sterna antillarum Lesson, royal terns Sterna maxima Boddaert, and sandwich terns Sterna sandvicensis Cabot. These species form colonies primarily on the following habitat types: large, sandy barrier or shoal islands, natural estuarine or bay islands (mostly marsh), man-made islands of dredged deposition materials (from navigation channels), and the mainland. Significant changes in the use of the dredged material islands have occurred for these species in New Jersey and North Carolina, but not in Virginia. Population declines and changes in bird habitat use appear to be at least partially associated with the conditions and management of the existing dredged material islands, coastal policy changes associated with creating new dredged material islands, and competing demands for sand for beach augmentation by coastal communities. As these and other coastal habitats become less suitable for colonial waterbirds, other manmade sites, such as bridges and buildings have become increasingly more important. In regions with intense recreational demands, coastal wildlife managers need to take a more aggressive role in managing natural and man-made habitats areas and as stakeholders in the decision-making process involving dredged materials and beach sand allocation.

  10. The shark assemblage at French Frigate Shoals atoll, Hawai'i: species composition, abundance and habitat use.

    PubMed

    Dale, Jonathan J; Stankus, Austin M; Burns, Michael S; Meyer, Carl G

    2011-01-01

    Empirical data on the abundance and habitat preferences of coral reef top predators are needed to evaluate their ecological impacts and guide management decisions. We used longline surveys to quantify the shark assemblage at French Frigate Shoals (FFS) atoll from May to August 2009. Fishing effort consisted of 189 longline sets totaling 6,862 hook hours of soak time. A total of 221 sharks from 7 species were captured, among which Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis, 36.2%), gray reef (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, 25.8%) and tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier, 20.4%) sharks were numerically dominant. A lack of blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) distinguished the FFS shark assemblage from those at many other atolls in the Indo-Pacific. Compared to prior underwater visual survey estimates, longline methods more accurately represented species abundance and composition for the majority of shark species. Sharks were significantly less abundant in the shallow lagoon than adjacent habitats. Recaptures of Galapagos sharks provided the first empirical estimate of population size for any Galapagos shark population. The overall recapture rate was 5.4%. Multiple closed population models were evaluated, with Chao M(h) ranking best in model performance and yielding a population estimate of 668 sharks with 95% confidence intervals ranging from 289-1720. Low shark abundance in the shallow lagoon habitats suggests removal of a small number of sharks from the immediate vicinity of lagoonal islets may reduce short-term predation on endangered monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) pups, but considerable fishing effort would be required to catch even a small number of sharks. Additional data on long-term movements and habitat use of sharks at FFS are required to better assess the likely ecological impacts of shark culling. PMID:21347321

  11. Hydrologic Data and Evaluation for Model Validation Wells, MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3 near the Project Shoal Area

    SciTech Connect

    B. Lyles; P. Oberlander; D. Gillespie; D. Donithan; J. Chapman; J. Healey

    2007-02-14

    In 2006, a drilling campaign was conducted at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) to provide information for model validation, emplace long-term monitoring wells, and develop baseline geochemistry for long term hydrologic monitoring. Water levels were monitored in the vicinity of the drilling, in the existing wells HC-1 and HC-6, as well as in the newly drilled wells, MV-1, MV-2 and MV-3 and their associated piezometers. Periodic water level measurements were also made in existing wells HC-2, HC-3, HC-4, HC-5 and HC-7. A lithium bromide chemical tracer was added to drilling fluids during the installation of the monitoring and validation (MV) wells and piezometers. The zones of interest were the fractured, jointed and faulted horizons within a granitic body. These horizons generally have moderate hydraulic conductivities. As a result, the wells and their shallower piezometers required strenuous purging and development to remove introduced drilling fluids as evidenced by bromide concentrations. After airlift and surging well development procedures, the wells were pumped continuously until the bromide concentration was less then 1 milligram per liter (mg/L). Water quality samples were collected after the well development was completed. Tritium scans were preformed before other analyses to ensure the absence of high levels of radioactivity. Tritium levels were less than 2,000 pico-curies per liter. Samples were also analyzed for carbon-14 and iodine-129, stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, as well as major cations and anions. Aquifer tests were performed in each MV well after the bromide concentration fell below acceptable levels. Water level data from the aquifer tests were used to compute aquifer hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity

  12. The Shark Assemblage at French Frigate Shoals Atoll, Hawai‘i: Species Composition, Abundance and Habitat Use

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Jonathan J.; Stankus, Austin M.; Burns, Michael S.; Meyer, Carl G.

    2011-01-01

    Empirical data on the abundance and habitat preferences of coral reef top predators are needed to evaluate their ecological impacts and guide management decisions. We used longline surveys to quantify the shark assemblage at French Frigate Shoals (FFS) atoll from May to August 2009. Fishing effort consisted of 189 longline sets totaling 6,862 hook hours of soak time. A total of 221 sharks from 7 species were captured, among which Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis, 36.2%), gray reef (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, 25.8%) and tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier, 20.4%) sharks were numerically dominant. A lack of blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) distinguished the FFS shark assemblage from those at many other atolls in the Indo-Pacific. Compared to prior underwater visual survey estimates, longline methods more accurately represented species abundance and composition for the majority of shark species. Sharks were significantly less abundant in the shallow lagoon than adjacent habitats. Recaptures of Galapagos sharks provided the first empirical estimate of population size for any Galapagos shark population. The overall recapture rate was 5.4%. Multiple closed population models were evaluated, with Chao Mh ranking best in model performance and yielding a population estimate of 668 sharks with 95% confidence intervals ranging from 289–1720. Low shark abundance in the shallow lagoon habitats suggests removal of a small number of sharks from the immediate vicinity of lagoonal islets may reduce short-term predation on endangered monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) pups, but considerable fishing effort would be required to catch even a small number of sharks. Additional data on long-term movements and habitat use of sharks at FFS are required to better assess the likely ecological impacts of shark culling. PMID:21347321

  13. The shark assemblage at French Frigate Shoals atoll, Hawai'i: species composition, abundance and habitat use.

    PubMed

    Dale, Jonathan J; Stankus, Austin M; Burns, Michael S; Meyer, Carl G

    2011-02-10

    Empirical data on the abundance and habitat preferences of coral reef top predators are needed to evaluate their ecological impacts and guide management decisions. We used longline surveys to quantify the shark assemblage at French Frigate Shoals (FFS) atoll from May to August 2009. Fishing effort consisted of 189 longline sets totaling 6,862 hook hours of soak time. A total of 221 sharks from 7 species were captured, among which Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis, 36.2%), gray reef (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, 25.8%) and tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier, 20.4%) sharks were numerically dominant. A lack of blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) distinguished the FFS shark assemblage from those at many other atolls in the Indo-Pacific. Compared to prior underwater visual survey estimates, longline methods more accurately represented species abundance and composition for the majority of shark species. Sharks were significantly less abundant in the shallow lagoon than adjacent habitats. Recaptures of Galapagos sharks provided the first empirical estimate of population size for any Galapagos shark population. The overall recapture rate was 5.4%. Multiple closed population models were evaluated, with Chao M(h) ranking best in model performance and yielding a population estimate of 668 sharks with 95% confidence intervals ranging from 289-1720. Low shark abundance in the shallow lagoon habitats suggests removal of a small number of sharks from the immediate vicinity of lagoonal islets may reduce short-term predation on endangered monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) pups, but considerable fishing effort would be required to catch even a small number of sharks. Additional data on long-term movements and habitat use of sharks at FFS are required to better assess the likely ecological impacts of shark culling.

  14. The Shoal Arm Formation, north-central Newfoundland: Fe- and Mn-enriched sediments underlying black shales and flysch

    SciTech Connect

    Bruechert, V.; Delano, J.W.; Kidd, J.W.; William, S.F. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Middle Ordovician Shoal Arm Formation is located in the central volcanic belt of north-central Newfoundland and consists of a sequence of hematitic argillites overlain by grey cherts and then black shales directly underneath a late Ordovician/early Silurian flysch sequence. The hematitic argillites are enriched in Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Co. Geochemically definable components within related lithologic groups were discriminated using principal component analysis and factor analysis. These procedures indicate the presence of (1) biogenic, (2) mixed detrital, (3) hydrothermal, and (4) Mn-carbonate components. The base of the hematitic part is marked by a sharp increase in the hydrothermal component, which then decreases stratigraphically upward. The Mn-carbonate component also decreases upwards, but persists up to the grey cherts. The clastic component changes from mixed mafic/pelagic clay-like detritus to Zr-, Nb- and Y-rich detritus in the top hematitic part. The grey cherts mark a transitional stage between the hematitic sediments (oxic) and the black shales (anoxic). The change to increasingly O[sub 2]-deficient conditions is explained by (a) an increase of biological productivity and related O[sub 2]-drain by C[sub org]-oxidation and/or (b) diachronous subsidence of the basin floor into a deep-water anoxic layer as a result of the loading of the basin floor by an approaching thrust stack. The similar stratigraphic sequence and geochemistry of the Middle Ordovician sediments in the Taconic Allochthon of New York State suggest that these processes also acted at other locations along the continental margin of the Iapetus Ocean. This uniformity may reflect the strong influence of the warm Middle Ordovician climate on the sediment facies or, alternatively, the control by the specific tectonic environment.

  15. Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  16. Sand Resources, Regional Geology, and Coastal Processes of the Chandeleur Islands Coastal System: an Evaluation of the Breton National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lavoie, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Breton National Wildlife Refuge, the Chandeleur Islands chain in Louisiana, provides habitat and nesting areas for wildlife and is an initial barrier protecting New Orleans from storms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in partnership with the University of New Orleans Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences undertook an intensive study that included (1) an analysis of island change based on historical maps and remotely sensed shoreline and topographic data; (2) a series of lidar surveys at 3- to 4-month intervals after Hurricane Katrina to determine barrier island recovery potential; (3) a discussion of sea level rise and effects on the islands; (4) an analysis of sea floor evolution and sediment dynamics in the refuge over the past 150 years; (5) an assessment of the local sediment transport and sediment resource availability based on the bathymetric and subbottom data; (6) a carefully selected core collection effort to groundtruth the geophysical data and more fully characterize the sediments composing the islands and surrounds; (7) an additional survey of the St. Bernard Shoals to assess their potential as a sand resource; and (8) a modeling study to numerically simulate the potential response of the islands to the low-intensity, intermediate, and extreme events likely to affect the refuge over the next 50 years. Results indicate that the islands have become fragmented and greatly diminished in subaerial extent over time: the southern islands retreating landward as they reorganize into subaerial features, the northern islands remaining in place. Breton Island, because maintenance of the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet (MRGO) outer bar channel requires dredging, is deprived of sand sufficient to sustain itself. Regional sediment transport trends indicate that large storms are extremely effective in transporting sand and controlling the shoreline development and barrier island geometry. Sand is transported north and south from a divergent zone near

  17. Hydrologic data for Block Island, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Emily

    1993-01-01

    This report was compiled as part of a study to assess the hydrogeology and the quality and quantity of fresh ground water on Block Island, Rhode Island. Hydrologic data were collected on Block Island during 1988-91. The data are pre- sented in illustrations and tables. Data collec- ted include precipitation, surfae-water, ground- water, lithologic, and well-construction and dis- charge information. Precipitation data include total monthly precipitation values from 11 rain gages and water-quality analyses of 14 precipi- tation samples from one station. Surface-water data include water-level measurements at 12 ponds, water-quality data for five ponds, and field specific-conductance measurements at 56 surface- water sites (streams, ponds, and springs). Ground- water data include water-level measurements at 159 wells, water-quality data at 150 wells, and field specific-conductance data at 52 wells. Lithologic logs for 375 wells and test borings, and construc- tion and location data for 570 wells, springs, and test borings are included. In addition, the data set contains data on water quality of water samples, collected by the Rhode Island Department of Health during 1976-91, from Fresh and Sands Ponds and from wells at the Block Island Water Company well field north of Sands Pond.

  18. Insular and migrant species, longevity records, and new species records on Guana Island, British Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boal, C.W.; Sibley, F.C.; Estabrook, T.S.; Lazell, J.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted mist netting each October from 1994 to 2004 on Guana Island, British Virgin Islands, and recorded bird sightings to develop a more complete inventory of the island's resident and migrant species. During our study, we recorded four new species for the British Virgin Islands: Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia; 1996), Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera; 1997), Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus; 2000), and Red-necked Phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus; 2004). Blackpoll Warbler (Dendroica striata) was the most frequently captured Neotropical migrant landbird, despite only being first detected in the region in 1989. Captures and detections of other Neotropical migrant landbirds suggest that many species may be more common in the region than previously believed, or, as speculated by other researchers, that migrant routes may be shifting eastward due to habitat degradation on western Caribbean islands. We also used recapture data to establish longevity records of resident species, including Caribbean Elaenia (Elaenia martinica; ??? 7 years), Bananaquit (Coereba flaveola; 7 years), Black-faced Grassquit (Tiaris bicolor; ???9 years), and Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita; 5 years). Longevities of other resident species were similar to, or slightly less than, those reported elsewhere.

  19. Cobb's Red Cabbage Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an indicator made from the pigment in red cabbage. Cabbage is grated then soaked in water. When the water is a strong red, the cabbage is strained out. The cabbage-juice indicator is then used to test for acids and bases. Includes a list of good foods to test for acidity and alkalinity. (PVD)

  20. Space Radar Image of Reunion Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image shows the volcanic island of Reunion, about 700 km (434 miles) east of Madagascar in the southwest Indian Ocean. The southern half of the island is dominated by the active volcano, Piton de la Fournaise. This is one of the world's most active volcanoes, with more than 100 eruptions in the last 300 years. The most recent activity occurred in the vicinity of Dolomieu Crater, shown in the lower center of the image within a horseshoe-shaped collapse zone. Recent lava flows appear in shades of red, purple and orange. Light green areas are heavily vegetated forest, while much of the purple area near the coast is farmland. The radar illumination is from the left side of the image and dramatically emphasizes the precipitous cliffs at the edges of the central canyons of the island. These canyons are remnants from the collapse of formerly active parts of the volcanoes that built the island. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 5, 1994. The image is centered at 21.2 degrees south latitude, 55.6 degrees east longitude. The area shown is approximately 50 km by 80 km (31 miles by 50 miles). North is toward the upper right. Colors are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  1. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2002-09-25

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of rockfluid interactions, (2) petrophysical and engineering characterization, (3) data integration, (4) 3-D geologic modeling, (5) 3-D reservoir simulation and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 2. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions is near completion. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and

  2. Pine Island Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Birth of a Large Iceberg in Pine Island Bay, Antarctica     View ... iceberg (42 kilometers x 17 kilometers) broke off Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica (75°S latitude, 102°W longitude) sometime ...

  3. Island Natural Science School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).

    Prepared for students in grade six attending the Island Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes island lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of…

  4. Back to Treasure Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  5. Islands in a Storm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    Smith Island in the Chesapeake Bay is actually a group of three islands: Ewell, Rhodes Point, and Tylerton. Dwindling enrollment jeopardizes the community's two schools that contain grades one through seven. The school board believes they can give the sixth and seventh graders at Ewell and Tylerton a better education on the mainland. (MLF)

  6. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  7. Marine and Island Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  8. 75 FR 25794 - Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World Championship, Upper New York Bay, Lower Hudson...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA08 Regulated Navigation Area: Red Bull Air Race World... State Park, New Jersey and Ellis Island, New Jersey and New York for the Red Bull Air Race...

  9. Analysis of borehole-radar reflection logs from selected HC boreholes at the Project Shoal area, Churchill County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, J.W.; Joesten, P.K.; Pohll, G.M.; Mihevic, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Single-hole borehole-radar reflection logs were collected and interpreted in support of a study to characterize ground-water flow and transport at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Churchill County, Nevada. Radar logging was conducted in six boreholes using 60-MHz omni-directional electric-dipole antennas and a 60-MHz magnetic-dipole directional receiving antenna.Radar data from five boreholes were interpreted to identify the location, orientation, estimated length, and spatial continuity of planar reflectors present in the logs. The overall quality of the radar data is marginal and ranges from very poor to good. Twenty-seven reflectors were interpreted from the directional radar reflection logs. Although the range of orientation interpreted for the reflectors is large, a significant number of reflectors strike northeast-southwest and east-west to slightly northwest-southeast. Reflectors are moderate to steeply dipping and reflector length ranged from less than 7 m to more than 133 m.Qualitative scores were assigned to each reflector to provide a sense of the spatial continuity of the reflector and the characteristics of the field data relative to an ideal planar reflector (orientation score). The overall orientation scores are low, which reflects the general data quality, but also indicates that the properties of most reflectors depart from the ideal planar case. The low scores are consistent with reflections from fracture zones that contain numerous, closely spaced, sub-parallel fractures.Interpretation of borehole-radar direct-wave velocity and amplitude logs identified several characteristics of the logged boreholes: (1) low-velocity zones correlate with decreased direct-wave amplitude, indicating the presence of fracture zones; (2) direct-wave amplitude increases with depth in three of the boreholes, suggesting an increase in electrical resistivity with depth resulting from changes in mineral assemblage or from a decrease in the specific conductance of ground

  10. Erosion and deterioration of the Isles Dernieres Barrier Island Arc, Louisiana, U.S.A.: 1853 to 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McBride, Randolph A.; Penland, Shea; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Westphal, Karen A.

    1989-01-01

    Using cartographic and aerial photography data from the years 1853, 1890, 1934, 1956, 1978, 1984, and 1988, shoreline change maps of the Isles Dernieres barrier island arc were constructed. These data were accurately superimposed, using a computer mapping system, which removed projection, datum, scale, and other cartographic inconsistencies. Linear, areal, and perimeter measurements indicate that the Isles Dernieres are suffering rapid rates of coastal erosion, land loss, and breakup. Bayside and gulfside erosion, in combination with sediment shortage and subsidence, have caused the Isles Dernieres to narrow through time. In addition, the core of the barrier island arc does not migrate landward and instead, breaks up in place as a result of inlet breaching and development. This is in contrast to other models of landward barrier island migration during transgression. If these trends continue, the Isles Dernieres will likely evolve into a subaqueous inner-shelf shoal by the early 21st century. Loss of the Isles Dernieres barrier island arc will severely impact the Terrebonne parish estuary, resulting in decreased environmental quality and increased public risk from storms and hurricanes.

  11. Geographic structure and host specificity shape the community composition of symbiotic dinoflagellates in corals from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stat, Michael; Yost, Denise M.; Gates, Ruth D.

    2015-12-01

    How host-symbiont assemblages vary over space and time is fundamental to understanding the evolution and persistence of mutualistic symbioses. In this study, the diversity and geographic structure of coral-algal partnerships across the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands archipelago was investigated. The diversity of symbionts in the dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium was characterised using the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene in corals sampled at ten reef locations across the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Symbiodinium diversity was reported using operational taxonomic units and the distribution of Symbiodinium across the island archipelago investigated for evidence of geographic structure using permutational MANOVA. A 97 % sequence similarity of the ITS2 gene for characterising Symbiodinium diversity was supported by phylogenetic and ecological data. Four of the nine Symbiodinium evolutionary lineages (clades A, C, D, and G) were identified from 16 coral species at French Frigate Shoals, and host specificity was a dominant feature in the symbiotic assemblages at this location. Significant structure in the diversity of Symbiodinium was also found across the archipelago in the three coral species investigated. The latitudinal gradient and subsequent variation in abiotic conditions (particularly sea surface temperature dynamics) across the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands encompasses an environmental range that decouples the stability of host-symbiont assemblages across the archipelago. This suggests that local adaptation to prevailing environmental conditions by at least one partner in coral-algal mutualism occurs prior to the selection pressures associated with the maintenance of a symbiotic state.

  12. Ober's Island: The Mallard Ober's Island, One of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island: The Mallard - Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  13. Survival, transport, and sources of fecal bacteria in streams and survival in land-applied poultry litter in the upper Shoal Creek basin, southwestern Missouri, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumacher, John G.

    2003-01-01

    Densities of fecal coliform bacteria along a 5.7-mi (mile) reach of Shoal Creek extending upstream from State Highway 97 (site 3) to State Highway W (site 2) and in two tributaries along this reach exceeded the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) standard of 200 col/100 mL (colonies per 100 milliliters) for whole-body contact recreation. A combination of techniques was used in this report to provide information on the source, transport, and survival of fecal bacteria along this reach of Shoal Creek. Results of water-quality samples collected during dye-trace and seepage studies indicated that at summer low base-flow conditions, pastured cattle likely were a substantial source of fecal bacteria in Shoal Creek at the MDNR monitoring site (site 3) at State Highway 97. Using repeat element Polymerase Chain Reaction (rep-PCR), cattle were the presumptive source of about 50 percent of the Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates in water samples from site 3. Cattle, horses, and humans were the most common presumptive source of E. coli isolates at sites further upstream. Poultry was identified by rep-PCR as a major source of E. coli in Pogue Creek, a tributary in the upper part of the study area. Results of the rep-PCR were in general agreement with the detection and distribution of trace concentrations of organic compounds commonly associated with human wastewater, such as caffeine, the antimicrobial agent triclosan, and the pharmaceutical compounds acetaminophen and thiabendazole (a common cattle anthelmintic). Significant inputs of fecal bacteria to Shoal Creek occurred along a 1.6-mi reach of Shoal Creek immediately upstream from site 3. During a 36-hour period in July 2001, average densities of fecal coliform and E. coli bacteria increased from less than or equal to 500 col/100 mL upstream from this stream reach (sample site 2c) to 2,100 and 1,400 col/100 mL, respectively, at the MDNR sampling site. Fecal bacteria densities exhibited diurnal variability at all

  14. Red Bull Stratos Presentation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Red Bull Stratos High Performance Director Andy Walshe & Technical Project Director Art Thompson share the Stratos story with JSC. Supported by a team of experts, Felix Baumgartner reached 128,100 ...

  15. Whence the red panda?

    PubMed

    Flynn, J J; Nedbal, M A; Dragoo, J W; Honeycutt, R L

    2000-11-01

    The evolutionary history of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher-level phylogeny of the "bear-like" arctoid carnivoran mammals. Characters from morphology and molecules have provided inconsistent evidence for placement of the red panda. Whereas it certainly is an arctoid, there has been major controversy about whether it should be placed with the bears (ursids), ursids plus pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, walrus), raccoons (procyonids), musteloids (raccoons plus weasels, skunks, otters, and badgers [mustelids]), or as a monotypic lineage of uncertain phylogenetic affinities. Nucleotide sequence data from three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear intron were analyzed, with more complete taxonomic sampling of relevant taxa (arctoids) than previously available in analyses of primary molecular data, to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the red panda to other arctoid carnivorans. This study provides detailed phylogenetic analyses (both parsimony and maximum-likelihood) of primary character data for arctoid carnivorans, including bootstrap and decay indices for all arctoid nodes, and three statistical tests of alternative phylogenetic hypotheses for the placement of the red panda. Combined phylogenetic analyses reject the hypotheses that the red panda is most closely related to the bears (ursids) or to the raccoons (procyonids). Rather, evidence from nucleotide sequences strongly support placement of the red panda within a broad Musteloidea (sensu lato) clade, including three major lineages (the red panda, the skunks [mephitids], and a clearly monophyletic clade of procyonids plus mustelids [sensu stricto, excluding skunks]). Within the Musteloidea, interrelationships of the three major lineages are unclear and probably are best considered an unresolved trichotomy. These data provide compelling evidence for the relationships of the red panda and demonstrate that small taxonomic sample sizes can result in misleading or possibly erroneous

  16. Whence the red panda?

    PubMed

    Flynn, J J; Nedbal, M A; Dragoo, J W; Honeycutt, R L

    2000-11-01

    The evolutionary history of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher-level phylogeny of the "bear-like" arctoid carnivoran mammals. Characters from morphology and molecules have provided inconsistent evidence for placement of the red panda. Whereas it certainly is an arctoid, there has been major controversy about whether it should be placed with the bears (ursids), ursids plus pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, walrus), raccoons (procyonids), musteloids (raccoons plus weasels, skunks, otters, and badgers [mustelids]), or as a monotypic lineage of uncertain phylogenetic affinities. Nucleotide sequence data from three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear intron were analyzed, with more complete taxonomic sampling of relevant taxa (arctoids) than previously available in analyses of primary molecular data, to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the red panda to other arctoid carnivorans. This study provides detailed phylogenetic analyses (both parsimony and maximum-likelihood) of primary character data for arctoid carnivorans, including bootstrap and decay indices for all arctoid nodes, and three statistical tests of alternative phylogenetic hypotheses for the placement of the red panda. Combined phylogenetic analyses reject the hypotheses that the red panda is most closely related to the bears (ursids) or to the raccoons (procyonids). Rather, evidence from nucleotide sequences strongly support placement of the red panda within a broad Musteloidea (sensu lato) clade, including three major lineages (the red panda, the skunks [mephitids], and a clearly monophyletic clade of procyonids plus mustelids [sensu stricto, excluding skunks]). Within the Musteloidea, interrelationships of the three major lineages are unclear and probably are best considered an unresolved trichotomy. These data provide compelling evidence for the relationships of the red panda and demonstrate that small taxonomic sample sizes can result in misleading or possibly erroneous

  17. Red cell metabolism in red and grey kangaroos.

    PubMed

    Agar, N S

    1977-12-15

    Glucose utilization, lactate production and glutathione regeneration were measured in the red blood cells of 2 species of Australian Marsupials, Eastern grey Kangaroo (Macropus gigantus) and red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), and were found to be significantly lower in the red blood cells from grey than that of red kangaroos.

  18. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2010-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that…

  19. Lost island found

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An abandoned ll-by-5-km kidney-shaped chunk of freshwater ice, used as a research station for 25 years, was rediscovered after the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) lost track of the island for 6 months. The recent find may foreshadow another loss, however: The island is drifting through the Greenland Sea and into the North Atlantic where it should melt within several months and d u m p its cargo of oil drums, equipment, and a wrecked plane into the ocean.Known as Fletcher's Ice Island—after Joseph O. Fletcher, a member of the first team of researchers to inhabit the island and a recently retired NOAA climate researcher—the ice chunk has already melted to a third of its original 49 m thickness. A pilot flying over the area to measure annual pollution buildup in the Arctic located the drifting island 242 km from the North Pole near the International Date Line.

  20. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  1. Small islands adrift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petherick, Anna

    2015-07-01

    With the charismatic former president of the Maldives, Mohamed Nasheed, behind bars on a widely derided terrorism charge, Anna Petherick asks whether small island states can really make themselves heard in Paris.

  2. Islands, resettlement and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Jon; O'Neill, Saffron J.

    2012-01-01

    Resettlement of people living on islands in anticipation of climate impacts risks maladaptation, but some forms of population movement carry fewer risks and larger rewards in terms of adapting to climate change.

  3. Melville Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  4. Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Devon Island is situated in an isolated part of Canada's Nunavut Territory, and is usually considered to be the largest uninhabited island in the world. However, each summer since 1999, researchers from NASA's Haughton-Mars Project and the Mars Society reside at this 'polar desert' location to study the geologic and environmental characteristics of a site which is considered to be an excellent 'Mars analog': a terrestrial location wherein specific conditions approximate environmental features reported on Mars. Base camps established amidst the rocks and rubble surrounding the Haughton impact crater enable researchers to conduct surveys designed to test the habitat, equipment and technology that may be deployed during a human mission to Mars. One of the many objectives of the project scientists is to understand the ice formations around the Haughton area, in the hopes that this might ultimately assist with the recognition of areas where ice can be found at shallow depth on Mars.

    These images of Devon Island from NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument provide contrasting views of the spectral and angular reflectance 'signatures' of different surfaces within the region. The top panel is a natural color view created with data from the red, green and blue-bands of MISR's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera. The bottom panel is a false-color multiangular composite of the same area, utilizing red band data from MISR's 60-degree backward, nadir, and 60-degree forward-viewing cameras, displayed as red, green and blue, respectively. In this representation, colors highlight textural properties of elements within the scene, with blue tones indicating smooth surfaces (which preferentially forward scatter sunlight) and red hues indicating rougher surfaces (which preferentially backscatter). The angular reflectance 'signature' of low clouds causes them to appear purple, and this visualization provides a unique way of distinguishing clouds from snow and

  5. Red cell enzymes.

    PubMed

    Paniker, N V

    1975-03-01

    As compared to other cells of the body, the mammalian red cell has one of the simplest structural organizations. As a result, this cell has been extensively used in studies involving the structure, function, and integrity of cell membranes as well as cytoplasmic events. Additionally, the metabolic activities of the red blood cell are also relatively simple. During the past quarter century or so, an ocean of knowledge has been gathered on various aspects of red cell metabolism and function. The fields of enzymes, hemoglobin, membrane, and metabolic products comprise the major portion of this knowledge. These advances have made valuable contributions to biochemistry and medicine. Despite these favorable aspects of this simple, anucleated cell, it must be conceded that our knowledge about the red cell is far from complete. We are still in the dark concerning the mechanism involved in several aspects of its membrane, hemoglobin, enzymes, and a large number of other constituents. For example, a large number of enzymes with known catalytic activity but with unknown function have eluded investigators despite active pursuit. This review will be a consolidation of our present knowledge of human red cell enzymes, with particular reference to their usefulness in the diagnosis and therapy of disease. Owing to the multitude of publications by prominent investigators on each of the approximately 50 enzymes discussed in this review, it was impossible to cite a majority of them.

  6. The Role of Backbarrier Filling in the Evolution of a Barrier Island System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, C. J.; Fitzgerald, D. M.; Stone, B. D.; Carruthers, E.; Gontz, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    inlet southward. GPR profiles reveal that the inlet sequence contains conformable sets of southerly dipping reflectors punctuated by sharp truncation surfaces, cut and fill structures and smaller packets of northerly dipping reflectors. These large-scale structures are evidence of inlet migration, ebb-delta breaching, onshore bar migration, channel shoaling, and closure of a tidal inlet. Discovery of the paleo-inlet within the Plum Island lithosome illuminates the larger process of backbarrier infilling and its effect barrier and tidal inlet morphodynamics. Sediment influx to the backbarrier from nearby river systems and the offshore led to bay sedimentation, formation of tidal flats and marshes, and a vast reduction in the bay tidal prism. Ultimately the inlet closed by a southerly building spit.

  7. Island-arc carbonates: characterization and recognition in the ancient geologic record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, C. M.

    1996-10-01

    Carbonates of island-arc origin that are preserved in Paleozoic-Mesozoic terranes of the North American Cordillera exhibit a distinctive suite of paleontologic and lithologic features and share a fundamental similarity with limestones forming in modern volcanic arcs. This study provides the first detailed synthesis of carbonate depositional systems in island arcs and documents primary sedimentary constituents based on facies relationships and faunal communities. Models are developed that show patterns in the long-term evolution of shallow marine organisms and the construction, evolution, and demise of carbonate platforms in island arcs. A suite of criteria is identified that may be used to differentiate island-arc carbonates from limestones that accumulated in other platform settings. Biogeographic isolation, prolonged subsidence, steep submarine slopes and tectonic instability of volcanic edifices contribute to the development of relatively high levels of species endemism, impoverished normal marine faunas, complex provincial affinities, and relict biotas in limestones that are characterized by exceptionally thick platform and periplatform sequences, fringing and barrier reefs at the shelf margin, extensive lagoonal deposits and rapid lateral and vertical facies changes. Although destructive tectonic and geologic processes in island arcs may hinder determining the original size and extent of the carbonate platform, and particular facies types may not be represented (e.g., fringing and barrier reefs may be replaced by sand shoals at the platform, margin), many characteristics have potential value for identifying carbonates of island-arc origin in the ancient rock record. Apart from being associated with calc-alkaline volcanic and volcaniclastic assemblages, the most valuable suite of features for recognizing island-arc carbonates is marine biotas that exhibit elevated levels of endemism and mixed paleobiogeographic affinities, extraordinary thicknesses of platform

  8. Early Silurian (Llandoverian) Leask Point and Charlton Bay bioherms, Manitoulin Island, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Mielczarek, W.; Copper, P.

    1986-08-01

    About 300 bioherms are known in the Llandoverian Manitoulin Formation of eastern Manitoulin Island. In the South Bay area, the large Leask Piont bioherm and Charlton Bay patch-reef complex lack a distinct skeletal growth framework. Bioherms consist of mudstone and wackestone, with isolated lenses of bafflestone, boundstone, floatstone. Fossils are scarce, but crinozoans and bryozoans comprise about 90% of the bioclasts. Other fauna include stromatoporoids, corals, brachiopods, gastropods, trilobites, and probable algae (algae are difficult to identify and may have played a significant role). Faunal ratios remained relatively constant during mound growth. Soft substrates with sedimentation rates of a few millimeters per year are suggested by bedding type and morphologic dominance of lamellar and tabular corals and stromatoporoids. An increased sedimentation rate, resulting from shoaling, is indicated by more overturned, broadly conical corals in the upper parts of the mounds. Shoaling may be responsible for cessation of mound growth. Lithoclasts are more common in the upper parts of the mounds. They formed when semiconsolidated muds were disturbed and redeposited during storms. Megarippled interreef surface areas, largely devoid of coral growth, indicate mud instability at Charlton Bay. Lack of suitable stable substrates may have hampered coral development. Dolomitization was postdepositional. The diagenetic sequence occurred in three stages: 1)selective pyritization and silicification, formation of an early muddy dolomite replacing the mud fraction of the dolostone, lithification and formation of rare calcite cement and neomorphic syntaxial rims; 2)clear, coarse dolomite replacing pore-filling calcite cement, syntaxial rims, and unaltered macrofossils, stylolitization, grain-to-grain dissolution; and 3)a late dolomite found mainly as fine rhombs in stylolites, solution seams, and intraskeletal pore space.

  9. Sedimentation and diagenesis along open and island-protected windward carbonate platform margins of the Cretaceous El Abra Formation, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minero, Charles J.

    1991-05-01

    The windward margin of the mid-Cretaceous Valles-San Luis Potosi carbonate platform in northeastern Mexico included open and island-protected segments. Depositional environments and diagenesis vary markedly with margin type. Sand shoals near the windward open margin are composed of oncoid-bioclastic and cross-laminated carbonates. Increasingly restricted and finer lagoonal and tidal-flat environments occurred bankwards, recording gradually decreasing wave and current energy. Lithofacies include peloid-miliolid, cryptalgal laminite, lime mudstone, and molluscan carbonates. Islands along the windward margin are composed of rudistid-skeletal debris from adjacent reefs. Lagoonal to tidal-flat sediments were deposited bankwards. Similar lithofacies occur as in these environments along the open margin but they are muddier and contain less diverse fauna. The different energy regimes along the margin influenced the distribution and packaging of banktop sediments. The bankward transition to low-energy, restricted environments was gradual across the open margin. In contrast, muddy sediments with restricted fauna accumulated in close proximity to the island-protected margin. Non-cyclic vertical lithofacies successions characterized the open platform margin, whereas asymmetric shoaling-upward sequences characterized the island-protected margin. Early diagenesis along the open margin was minor; burial diagenesis was of major importance. Thin rinds of marine cement are widespread but meteoric diagenesis was minor. Burial promoted extensive compaction. Mg-rich connate brines expressed from Guaxcama gypsum resulted in dolomitization and lithification, thereby precluding further compaction. Pore fluids resulting from dehydration of Guaxcama gypsum to anhydrite yielded pore-filling and replacement anhydrite in the El Abra Formation. Burial and Laramide deformation (Maastrichtian-Paleocene) resulted in stylolitization and extensive fracturing. Uplift produced widespread meteoric

  10. Reviving red snapper.

    PubMed

    Estabrook, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Red snappers in the Gulf of Mexico once hovered on the brink of extinction, their population having dropped to 2 percent of what had historically swum in the Gulf. But thanks to a recently introduced plan that turns the conventional wisdom of fisheries management on its head, the picture has begun to change. Called Individual Fishing Quotas (IFQs), the new regulations, which give a guaranteed allotment of fish to each participant instead of applying industry-wide quotas, went into effect for Gulf of Mexico Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) in early 2007. The results were immediate and so profound that the Gulf Fishery Management Council voted earlier this year to increase the annual limit on red snapper to nearly 7 million pounds from 5 million.

  11. Red-based cumulus.

    PubMed

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    2015-02-01

    Observations and model simulations of cumulus clouds whose bases are tinted red when the Sun is well above the horizon are presented. Conditions for seeing red bases include (1) a red underlying surface (which may consist of dust clouds, as from haboobs) with high albedo, (2) small fractional cloud cover when the Sun is far enough below the zenith for direct sunlight to illuminate much of the surface directly below and around cloud base, (3) optically thick clouds so that the bases are dark, and (4) clouds with bases that are near enough to the observer to appear high in the sky so that the admixture of scattered light from the intervening atmosphere is minimized.

  12. UAV Monitoring for Enviromental Management in Galapagos Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballari, D.; Orellana, D.; Acosta, E.; Espinoza, A.; Morocho, V.

    2016-06-01

    In the Galapagos Islands, where 97% of the territory is protected and ecosystem dynamics are highly vulnerable, timely and accurate information is key for decision making. An appropriate monitoring system must meet two key features: on one hand, being able to capture information in a systematic and regular basis, and on the other hand, to quickly gather information on demand for specific purposes. The lack of such a system for geographic information limits the ability of Galapagos Islands' institutions to evaluate and act upon environmental threats such as invasive species spread and vegetation degradation. In this context, the use of UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) for capturing georeferenced images is a promising technology for environmental monitoring and management. This paper explores the potential of UAV images for monitoring degradation of littoral vegetation in Puerto Villamil (Isabela Island, Galapagos, Ecuador). Imagery was captured using two camera types: Red Green Blue (RGB) and Infrarred Red Green (NIR). First, vegetation presence was identified through NDVI. Second, object-based classification was carried out for characterization of vegetation vigor. Results demonstrates the feasibility of UAV technology for base-line studies and monitoring on the amount and vigorousness of littoral vegetation in the Galapagos Islands. It is also showed that UAV images are not only useful for visual interpretation and object delineation, but also to timely produce useful thematic information for environmental management.

  13. Heron Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  14. Volcanic Geology of Negit Island, Mono Lake, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bursik, M.; Kobs, S.; Jayko, A.

    2008-12-01

    Negit Island, located in Mono Lake, eastern California, is a dacitic cumulodome with seven distinct lava flows emanating from at least four separate vent areas. Vent areas are dominated by en echelon northeast-trending fissures, indicating strong tectonic control. Neptunian(?) pyroclastic deposits on the north end of the island indicate an explosive subaqueous eruption early in island history. Northwestern shorelands, as well as a former landbridge to the island, retain a localized cap of rotated Pleistocene lake bottom sediment blocks, suggesting that proto-Negit was similar to modern Paoha Island, a nearby young structural dome draped with rotated lake bed blocks and explosive ejecta. In analogy with Paoha, the pyroclastic ejecta and blocks may thus indicate sublacustrine block landsliding with attendant eruption as an initial magmatic-structural dome grew, on which later lava domes and flows were superposed. What may be the oldest lava flow, in the center-west, is overlain by a deep orange-red soil, and three Mono Craters tephras. The well-developed soil indicates an extended period of chemical weathering before overlying tephra deposition. The southwestern end of the island is dominated by young lava flows and a prominent dome, which are not overlain by the most recent North Mono Craters tephra of 1350 A.D., consistent with earlier work indicating that parts of the island are younger than any eruption of the Mono Craters. The history of early structural doming with little or minimal eruptive activity at both Negit and Paoha Islands may have important implications for the current episode of noneruptive unrest and doming at nearby Long Valley caldera.

  15. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-02-25

    The University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company, has undertaken an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary goal of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. Geoscientific reservoir property, geophysical seismic attribute, petrophysical property, and engineering property characterization has shown that reef (thrombolite) and shoal reservoir lithofacies developed on the flanks of high-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Vocation Field example) and on the crest and flanks of low-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Appleton Field example). The reef thrombolite lithofacies have higher reservoir quality than the shoal lithofacies due to overall higher permeabilities and greater interconnectivity. Thrombolite dolostone flow units, which are dominated by dolomite intercrystalline and vuggy pores, are characterized by a pore system comprised of a higher percentage of large-sized pores and larger pore throats. Rock-fluid interactions (diagenesis) studies have shown that although the primary control on

  16. Orgin and significance of geochemical variability among oils and gas-condensates in the Tiger Shoal Field, northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, P.A.; Imbus, S.W.; McKeever, S.R.

    1995-12-31

    Geochemical data placed in geological context is key to understanding the processes controlling the variability of oils and gas-condensates in the Tiger Shoal Field, northern Gulf of Mexico. Thermal maturity at generation and phase partitioning are the principal processes accounting for variability in the bulk and molecular properties of the oils and gas-condensates. Quantification of the extent that these processes altered the oils and gas-condensates between fault blocks and among individual sands permits: (1) documentation of the most effective migration conduits, (2) inference of deeper or shallower pay zones, (3) and assessment of vertical and lateral fluid connectivity. Calibration of bulk to molecular properties will permit rapid assessment of the type and extent of alteration using basic parameters such as API gravity and gas oil ratio (GOR). Upon mass balancing with initial reserves data, a detailed risking scheme for remaining prospects within the field can be formulated.

  17. Safety Evaluation Report for the Tennessee Valley Authority's Plan to Decommission its Low-Level Radioactive Waste Burial Site at Muscle Shoals, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Gant, K.S.; Kettelle, R.H.

    1998-11-01

    From 1966 to 1981, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) operated a burial site, licensed under the former 10 CFR 20.304, for low-level radioactive waste on its Muscle Shoals, Alabama, reservation. TVA submitted a decommissioning plan for the burial site and requested approval for unrestricted use of the site. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate this plan to determine if the site meets the radiological requirements for unrestricted use as specified in 10 CFR 20.1402; that is, an average member of the critical group would not receive more than 25 mrem/y from residual radioactivity at the TVA Low-Level Radioactive Waste Burial Site and the radioactivity has been reduced to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  18. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2003-09-25

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling that utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling, testing of the geologic-engineering model, and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of seismic attributes, (2) petrophysical characterization, (3) data integration, (4) the building of the geologic-engineering model, (5) the testing of the geologic-engineering model and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 3. Progress on the project is as follows: geoscientific reservoir characterization is completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been completed. Observations regarding the diagenetic

  19. Habitat and environment of islands: primary and supplemental island sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matalas, Nicholas C.; Grossling, Bernardo F.

    2002-01-01

    The original intent of the study was to develop a first-order synopsis of island hydrology with an integrated geologic basis on a global scale. As the study progressed, the aim was broadened to provide a framework for subsequent assessments on large regional or global scales of island resources and impacts on those resources that are derived from global changes. Fundamental to the study was the development of a comprehensive framework?a wide range of parameters that describe a set of 'saltwater' islands sufficiently large to Characterize the spatial distribution of the world?s islands; Account for all major archipelagos; Account for almost all oceanically isolated islands, and Account collectively for a very large proportion of the total area of the world?s islands whereby additional islands would only marginally contribute to the representativeness and accountability of the island set. The comprehensive framework, which is referred to as the ?Primary Island Set,? is built on 122 parameters that describe 1,000 islands. To complement the investigations based on the Primary Island Set, two supplemental island sets, Set A?Other Islands (not in the Primary Island Set) and Set B?Lagoonal Atolls, are included in the study. The Primary Island Set, together with the Supplemental Island Sets A and B, provides a framework that can be used in various scientific disciplines for their island-based studies on broad regional or global scales. The study uses an informal, coherent, geophysical organization of the islands that belong to the three island sets. The organization is in the form of a global island chain, which is a particular sequential ordering of the islands referred to as the 'Alisida.' The Alisida was developed through a trial-and-error procedure by seeking to strike a balance between 'minimizing the length of the global chain' and 'maximizing the chain?s geophysical coherence.' The fact that an objective function cannot be minimized and maximized simultaneously

  20. Fluid Management Plan for Corrective Action Unit 447: Project Shoal Area, Subsurface, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1 with ROTC 1 and Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Echelard

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) initiated the Offsites Project to characterize the risk posed to human health and the environment as a result of testing at formerly used nuclear sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The scope of this Fluid Management Plan (FMP) is to support the subsurface investigation at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447, Shoal-Subsurface, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Corrective Action Unit 447 is located in the Sand Spring Range, south of Highway 50, about 39 miles southeast of Fallon, Nevada. (Figure 1-1). This FMP will be used at the PSA in lieu of an individual discharge permit for each well or a general water pollution control permit for management of all fluids produced during the drilling, construction, development, testing, experimentation, and/or sampling of wells conducted by the Offsites Project. The FMP provides guidance for the management of fluids generated during investigation activities and provides the standards by which fluids may be discharged on site. Although the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), Bureau of Federal Facilities (BoFF) is not a signatory to this FMP, it is involved in the negotiation of the contents of this plan and approves the conditions contained within. The major elements of this FMP include: (1) establishment of a well-site operations strategy; (2) site design/layout; (3) monitoring of contamination indicators (monitoring program); (4) sump characterization (sump sampling program); (5) fluid management decision criteria and fluid disposition; and (6) reporting requirements.

  1. Seasonal Hypoxia on the Shelf and Shoaling of the Permanent Oxycline in the Open Sea: Two Faces of the Black Sea Deoxygenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capet, Arthur; Stanev, Emil; Beckers, Jean-Marie; Grégoire, Marilaure

    2016-04-01

    The Black Sea is highly sensitive to external forcings and constitutes a natural laboratory to study the interplays of atmospheric warming and eutrophication on deoxygenation dynamics. Two decades of eutrophication were followed by a sudden reduction of nutrient loads in the late 1980s. Warm and cold air temperature cycles (5-10 years) follow atmospheric oscillation patterns, with a clear warming affecting the recent decades. On the Black Sea north western shelf (<120m), which receives more that 3/4 of the river runoff, seasonal hypoxia occurs when summer stratification prevents atmospheric fluxes to compensate for the respiration of organic matter accumulated in the lower water column and the sediments. A former multidecadal 3D model study (1) indicated that current monitoring do not provide a satisfactorily assessment of hypoxia, (2) revealed the inertia due to the benthic accumulation of organic matter during eutrophication period and (3) estimated the nutrient reduction effort required in adaptation to atmospheric warming. In the open basin (120-2000m), the permanent interface between anoxic and oxic waters is subject to vertical migration as the ventilation ensured by dense water formation balances the respiration of sinking organic matter. The analysis of R/V casts and ARGO profiles revealed that the oxycline has shoaled from 140 to 90m between 1955 and present years, while the basin lost 36 % of its oxygen inventory. While the interactions between seasonal hypoxia on the shelf and the shoaling oxic interface in the open basin are not clear, both dynamics will face atmospheric warming and new industrial development of the lower danube watershed. We discuss the specific monitoring and modelling efforts required to assess the environmental and economical threat cast by further deoxygenation in the Black Sea.

  2. Maintenance of biodiversity on islands.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Ryan A; Fung, Tak; Chimalakonda, Deepthi; O'Dwyer, James P

    2016-04-27

    MacArthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography predicts that island species richness should increase with island area. This prediction generally holds among large islands, but among small islands species richness often varies independently of island area, producing the so-called 'small-island effect' and an overall biphasic species-area relationship (SAR). Here, we develop a unified theory that explains the biphasic island SAR. Our theory's key postulate is that as island area increases, the total number of immigrants increases faster than niche diversity. A parsimonious mechanistic model approximating these processes reproduces a biphasic SAR and provides excellent fits to 100 archipelago datasets. In the light of our theory, the biphasic island SAR can be interpreted as arising from a transition from a niche-structured regime on small islands to a colonization-extinction balance regime on large islands. The first regime is characteristic of classic deterministic niche theories; the second regime is characteristic of stochastic theories including the theory of island biogeography and neutral theory. The data furthermore confirm our theory's key prediction that the transition between the two SAR regimes should occur at smaller areas, where immigration is stronger (i.e. for taxa that are better dispersers and for archipelagos that are less isolated).

  3. Maintenance of biodiversity on islands.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Ryan A; Fung, Tak; Chimalakonda, Deepthi; O'Dwyer, James P

    2016-04-27

    MacArthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography predicts that island species richness should increase with island area. This prediction generally holds among large islands, but among small islands species richness often varies independently of island area, producing the so-called 'small-island effect' and an overall biphasic species-area relationship (SAR). Here, we develop a unified theory that explains the biphasic island SAR. Our theory's key postulate is that as island area increases, the total number of immigrants increases faster than niche diversity. A parsimonious mechanistic model approximating these processes reproduces a biphasic SAR and provides excellent fits to 100 archipelago datasets. In the light of our theory, the biphasic island SAR can be interpreted as arising from a transition from a niche-structured regime on small islands to a colonization-extinction balance regime on large islands. The first regime is characteristic of classic deterministic niche theories; the second regime is characteristic of stochastic theories including the theory of island biogeography and neutral theory. The data furthermore confirm our theory's key prediction that the transition between the two SAR regimes should occur at smaller areas, where immigration is stronger (i.e. for taxa that are better dispersers and for archipelagos that are less isolated). PMID:27122558

  4. 'Vintage' Red Raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Vintage' is a new primocane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA–ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR released in cooperation with the Oregon State Agricultural Experiment Station and the Washington State University Agricu...

  5. Clover, Red (Trifolium pretense)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic modification of plants by the insertion of transgenes can be a powerful experimental approach to answer basic questions about gene product function. This technology can also be used to make improved crop varieties for use in the field. To apply this powerful tool to red clover, an important ...

  6. Red mud product development

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, D.B.

    1996-10-01

    Kaiser Alumina and Chemical Co. impounds red mud, the byproduct of alumina production, behind levees. Kaiser recognizes that this action cannot be maintained indefinitely. Therefore, a project is in progress to produce useful products from red mud that increase the profitability of the Gramercy facility. Before products could be developed, an obstacle had to be overcome. The annual rainfall in South Louisiana prevents evaporative drying of the mud lakes. Innovative methods were applied to dry the lake mud. Two products have been developed. A daily landfill cover and an absorbant, which are marketed under the Cajunite{trademark} banner. Both products are currently being tested by potential customers at their sites. Environmental concerns were addressed during development. Extensive TCLP results show no metal leachate problems. All pilot tests and plant trials received LADEQ approval. Products that are under development include levee core, road base, fertilizer fillers and synthetic soils. State and Federal agencies are interested in using red mud to remediate coastal erosion. Kaiser is also pursuing the recovery of metals from red mud.

  7. Red Cross Swimming Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlasich, Cynthia

    1989-01-01

    Six new aquatic courses, developed by the Red Cross, are described. They are: Infant and Preschool Aquatics, Longfellow's Whale Tales (classroom water safety lessons for K-Six), Basic Water Safety, Emergency Water Safety, Lifeguard Training, and Safety Training for Swim Coaches. (IAH)

  8. Red sea drillings.

    PubMed

    Ross, D A; Whitmarsh, R B; Ali, S A; Boudreaux, J E; Coleman, R; Fleisher, R L; Girdler, R; Manheim, F; Matter, A; Nigrini, C; Stoffers, P; Supko, P R

    1973-01-26

    Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered. PMID:17843766

  9. Red sea drillings.

    PubMed

    Ross, D A; Whitmarsh, R B; Ali, S A; Boudreaux, J E; Coleman, R; Fleisher, R L; Girdler, R; Manheim, F; Matter, A; Nigrini, C; Stoffers, P; Supko, P R

    1973-01-26

    Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered.

  10. Altamaha River Delta, Georgia Sea Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The history of sea islands in the Altamaha River delta on the coast of Georgia is revealed in this image produced from data acquired by the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR), developed and operated by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The outlines of long-lost plantation rice fields, canals, dikes and other inlets are clearly defined. Salt marshes are shown in red, while dense cypress and live oak tree canopies are seen in yellow-greens.

    Agricultural development of the Altamaha delta began soon after the founding of the Georgia Colony in 1733. About 25 plantations were located on the low-lying islands and shores by the 19th century, taking advantage of the rich alluvial flow and annual inundation of water required by some crops. The first major crop was indigo; when demand for that faded, rice and cotton took its place. A major storm in 1824 destroyed much of the town of Darien (upper right) and put many of the islands under 20 feet of water. The Civil War ended the plantation system, and many of the island plantations disappeared under heavy brush and new growth pine forests. Some were used as tree farms for paper and pulp industries, while the Butler Island (center left) plantation became a wildlife conservation site growing wild sea rice for migrating ducks and other waterfowl. Margaret Mitchell is reputed to have used the former owner of the Butler Plantation as a basis for the Rhett Butler character in her novel 'Gone With The Wind,' taking the first name from Rhett's Island (lower right).

    These data were obtained during a 1994-95 campaign along the Georgia coast. AIRSAR's ability to detect vegetation canopy density, hydrological features and other topographic characteristics is a useful tool in landscape archaeology. AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. The analysis on the data shown was accomplished by Dr. Gary Mckay, Department of Archaeology and Geography, and Ian

  11. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  12. Island custom blocking technique

    SciTech Connect

    Carabetta, R.J. )

    1988-03-01

    The technique of Island blocking is being used more frequently since the advent of our new head and neck blocking techniques and the implementation of a newly devised lung protocol. The system presented affords the mould room personnel a quick and accurate means of island block fabrication without the constant remeasuring or subtle shifting to approximate correct placement. The cookie cutter is easily implemented into any department's existing block cutting techniques. The device is easily and inexpensively made either in a machine shop or acquired by contacting the author.

  13. Long Island Solar Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  14. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1943-01-01

    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  15. Kiritimati, Kiribati (Christmas Island)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pronounced 'Ki-ris-mas,' Kiritimati Island has a large infilled lagoon that gives it the largest land area (125 square miles, 321 square km) of any atoll in the world. Captain Cook named the atoll Christmas Island when he arrived on Christmas Eve in 1777. Used for nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s, the island is now valued for its marine and wildlife resources. It is particularly important as a seabird nesting site-with an estimated 6 million birds using or breeding on the island, including several million Sooty Terns. Rainfall on Kiritimati is linked to El Nino patterns, with long droughts experienced between the wetter El Nino years. This image is based on a mosaic of four digital photographs taken on 16 January 2002 from the Space Station Alpha as part of the Crew Earth Observations Project. The underlying data have 10 meter spatial resolution. Coral reefs are one of the areas selected as a scientific theme for this project (see also the recent Earth Observatory article, Mapping the Decline of Coral Reefs. The mosaic, based on images ISS004-ESC-6249 to 6252, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  16. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  17. Bouvet Island near Antarctica

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... supplies were discovered on the island in 1964, but their origin could not be determined. Seals in the area were declared to be ... NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed ...

  18. Christmas Island birds returning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

  19. Registration of 'Red Ruby' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red Ruby’ soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2007 via an exclusive licensing agreement through Michigan State University (MSU) Technologies. Red Ruby was selected from the cross Pioneer ‘2552’/Pioneer ‘2737W’ ma...

  20. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  1. Magnetic island induced bootstrap current on island dynamics in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K.C.; Spong, D.A.

    2006-02-15

    When a magnetic island is embedded in toroidally symmetric tokamaks, the toroidal symmetry in |B| is broken [K. C. Shaing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 245003 (2001)]. Here, B is the magnetic field. This broken symmetry induces an additional bootstrap current density in the vicinity of the island. It is illustrated that this island induced bootstrap current density modifies the island evolution equation and imposes a lower limit on the absolute value of the tearing mode stability parameter {delta}{sup '} for the island to be unstable. This lower limit depends on the local poloidal plasma beta {beta}{sub p}, the ratio of the plasma pressure to the poloidal magnetic field pressure. If {beta}{sub p} is high enough, the magnetic island is stable. This mechanism provides an alternative route to stabilize the island.

  2. Magnetic Island Induced Bootstrap Current on Island Dynamics in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, Donald A; Shaing, K. C.

    2006-02-01

    When a magnetic island is embedded in toroidally symmetric tokamaks, the toroidal symmetry in |B| is broken [K. C. Shaing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 245003 (2001)] . Here, B is the magnetic field. This broken symmetry induces an additional bootstrap current density in the vicinity of the island. It is illustrated that this island induced bootstrap current density modifies the island evolution equation and imposes a lower limit on the absolute value of the tearing mode stability parameter |{Delta}{prime}| for the island to be unstable. This lower limit depends on the local poloidal plasma beta {beta}{sub p}, the ratio of the plasma pressure to the poloidal magnetic field pressure. If {beta}{sub p} is high enough, the magnetic island is stable. This mechanism provides an alternative route to stabilize the island.

  3. Great Red Spot (GRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A huge permanent anticyclone in Jupiter's southern hemisphere, visible as a reddish oval at just over 20 °S. The earliest unequivocal observation was by Heinrich Schwabe in 1831 (the often-quoted sighting by Robert Hooke in 1664 now seems to have been of a similar but different spot). The GRS became a striking feature around 1880, when it developed a deep red coloration. It was also prominent in ...

  4. 78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is...

  5. No Red River capture since the late Oligocene: Geochemical evidence from the Northwestern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Meng; Shao, Lei; Liang, Jianshe; Li, Qianyu

    2015-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) in the sediment samples of six industrial wells from the Yinggehai-Song Hong Basin in the Northwestern South China Sea were analyzed and compared with the detrital zircon U-Pb data from earlier studies to extrapolate sediment provenance. The results reveal that the Red River (Song Hong River), Hainan Island and Central Vietnam have been the main provenances of the Yinggehai-Song Hong Basin since the late Oligocene. The Red River has been supplying sediments with positive Eu anomalies from basic-ultrabasic metamorphic and volcanic parent rocks to most parts of the basin, while Hainan Island has delivered sediments with negative Eu anomalies from granitic and sedimentary parent rocks to the eastern slope area of the basin. The progradational downlap structures in the seismic profiles also support the finding that the sediment supply is mainly from the Red River and from Hainan Island. The metamorphic rocks, which are widespread within the Red River drainage, not only provided high volumes of sediments to the basin but also contributed to the positive Eu anomalies observed. Because their REE and U-Pb signatures are similar to those of the Red River source, the metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Song Ma Suture Zone, Kontum Massif, and Jinghong area were probably parts of a large basic provenance region before being separated by strike-slip movements along the Ailao Shan-Red River shear zone. Furthermore, our results indicate that the Red River drainage area has been relatively stable since the late Oligocene. Therefore, if a drainage capture from the Red River occurred, it is likely to have taken place before the late Oligocene.

  6. 10Be concentrations of Red soils in Southwest Japan and its possibility of dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maejima, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.; Nakano, C.

    2004-08-01

    10Be concentrations of six Red soils distributed in Southwest Japan ranged from 0.8 × 108 to 2.7 × 109 atoms g-1, and minimum absolute ages were estimated by inventory of meteoric 10Be. The results are follows: Red soils on Toyota derived from granite (⩽25 ka), Kashii derived from Tertiary shale (⩽24 ka), Akiyoshidai derived from limestone (⩽110 ka), Okinawa Island derived from Kunigami gravel bed (⩽9 ka) and Ogasawara Island derived from agglomerate and Boninite (⩽22 and ⩽7 ka) were obtained, respectively. Soil age except with Akiyoshidai indicated younger age. It suggested that the loss of 10Be from the soil was caused by leaching of 10Be or by soil erosion, and 10Be is susceptible to leaching out from these Red soils under the humid climate condition such as Southwest Japan.

  7. LOUISIANA BARRIER ISLAND EROSION STUDY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger,, Asbury H.; Penland, Shea; Williams, S. Jeffress; Suter, John R.

    1987-01-01

    During 1986, the U. S. Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey began a five-year cooperative study focused on the processes which cause erosion of barrier islands. These processes must be understood in order to predict future erosion and to better manage our coastal resources. The study area includes the Louisiana barrier islands which serve to protect 41% of the nation's wetlands. These islands are eroding faster than any other barrier islands in the United States, in places greater than 20 m/yr. The study is divided into three parts: geological development of barrier islands, quantitative processes of barrier island erosion and applications of results. The study focuses on barrier islands in Louisiana although many of the results are applicable nationwide.

  8. Molecular Systematics of Threatened Seed Plant Species Endemic in the Caribbean Islands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review of available Caribbean Island red-lists species (CR and EN categories based on the IUCN guidelines from 2001, and E category established according to the IUCN guidelines from 1980) is presented. A database of at least 1,300 endemic species that are either Critically Endangered or Endangered...

  9. FLANDERS FIELDS MEMORIAL IN TRAFFIC ISLAND ON EAST DRIVE. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FLANDERS FIELDS MEMORIAL IN TRAFFIC ISLAND ON EAST DRIVE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  10. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  11. Bird pollination of Canary Island endemic plants.

    PubMed

    Ollerton, Jeff; Cranmer, Louise; Stelzer, Ralph J; Sullivan, Steve; Chittka, Lars

    2009-02-01

    The Canary Islands are home to a guild of endemic, threatened bird-pollinated plants. Previous work has suggested that these plants evolved floral traits as adaptations to pollination by flower specialist sunbirds, but subsequently, they appear to have co-opted generalist passerine birds as sub-optimal pollinators. To test this idea, we carried out a quantitative study of the pollination biology of three of the bird-pollinated plants, Canarina canariensis (Campanulaceae), Isoplexis canariensis (Veronicaceae) and Lotus berthelotii (Fabaceae), on the island of Tenerife. Using colour vision models, we predicted the detectability of flowers to bird and bee pollinators. We measured pollinator visitation rates, nectar standing crops as well as seed-set and pollen removal and deposition. These data showed that the plants are effectively pollinated by non-flower specialist passerine birds that only occasionally visit flowers. The large nectar standing crops and extended flower longevities (>10 days) of Canarina and Isoplexis suggests that they have evolved a bird pollination system that effectively exploits these low frequency non-specialist pollen vectors and is in no way sub-optimal. Seed set in two of the three species was high and was significantly reduced or zero in flowers where pollinator access was restricted. In L. berthelotii, however, no fruit set was observed, probably because the plants were self-incompatible horticultural clones of a single genet. We also show that, while all three species are easily detectable for birds, the orange Canarina and the red Lotus (but less so the yellow-orange Isoplexis) should be difficult to detect for insect pollinators without specialised red receptors, such as bumblebees. Contrary to expectations if we accept that the flowers are primarily adapted to sunbird pollination, the chiffchaff (Phylloscopus canariensis) was an effective pollinator of these species.

  12. Bird pollination of Canary Island endemic plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollerton, Jeff; Cranmer, Louise; Stelzer, Ralph J.; Sullivan, Steve; Chittka, Lars

    2009-02-01

    The Canary Islands are home to a guild of endemic, threatened bird-pollinated plants. Previous work has suggested that these plants evolved floral traits as adaptations to pollination by flower specialist sunbirds, but subsequently, they appear to have co-opted generalist passerine birds as sub-optimal pollinators. To test this idea, we carried out a quantitative study of the pollination biology of three of the bird-pollinated plants, Canarina canariensis (Campanulaceae), Isoplexis canariensis (Veronicaceae) and Lotus berthelotii (Fabaceae), on the island of Tenerife. Using colour vision models, we predicted the detectability of flowers to bird and bee pollinators. We measured pollinator visitation rates, nectar standing crops as well as seed-set and pollen removal and deposition. These data showed that the plants are effectively pollinated by non-flower specialist passerine birds that only occasionally visit flowers. The large nectar standing crops and extended flower longevities (>10 days) of Canarina and Isoplexis suggests that they have evolved a bird pollination system that effectively exploits these low frequency non-specialist pollen vectors and is in no way sub-optimal. Seed set in two of the three species was high and was significantly reduced or zero in flowers where pollinator access was restricted. In L. berthelotii, however, no fruit set was observed, probably because the plants were self-incompatible horticultural clones of a single genet. We also show that, while all three species are easily detectable for birds, the orange Canarina and the red Lotus (but less so the yellow-orange Isoplexis) should be difficult to detect for insect pollinators without specialised red receptors, such as bumblebees. Contrary to expectations if we accept that the flowers are primarily adapted to sunbird pollination, the chiffchaff ( Phylloscopus canariensis) was an effective pollinator of these species.

  13. Miocene reef carbonates of Mariana Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, H.G. Jr.

    1988-02-01

    Miocene carbonates in the southern Mariana Islands are impressive for their lithologic diversity, thicknesses (over 250 m), and geographic extent (> 20% combined outcrop coverage over four major high islands: Guam, Rota, Tinian and Saipan). Sections are dominated either by lagoonal algal-foraminiferal wackestones and mudstones with locally abundant high-energy shelly-skeletal facies, or by rubbly to muddy, fore-reef-to-bank deposits of packstones and grainstones with highly diverse and variable biogenic clasts. Fresh to deeply weathered volcaniclastic material may comprise at least 80% of some high-energy fore-reef facies, whereas lagoonal and bank deposits usually contain less than 0.5% terrigenous material. Surprisingly, the Miocene in the Marianas lacks almost completely any reef-core facies. Several poorly developed coral-rich mounds on Saipan and localized laminated red algal buildups on Guam appear to constitute the extant reef-wall facies in the Miocene. The lack of buildups may be a matter of differential survival; it may result from headland erosion and benching associated with emergence of narrow reef tracts as has been postulated by others for south Guam. Alternatively, the authors are proposing that Miocene bathymetry and the volume of terrigenous influx militated against significant reef core formation. Radiometric age dating of these reef carbonates has proven unsuccessful because pervasive diagenesis has transformed the entire Miocene section into low-magnesium calcite with minor and occasional dolomite. Freshwater phreatic diagenesis accounts for the principal porosity variation and trace element distribution.

  14. Miocene reef carbonates of Mariana Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, H.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Miocene carbonates in the southern Mariana Islands are impressive for their lithologic diversity, thicknesses (over 250 m), and geographic extend (>20% combined outcrop coverage over four major high islands: Guam, Rota, Tinian and Saipan). Sections are dominated either by lagoonal algal-foraminiferal wackestones and mudstones with locally abundant high-energy shelly-skeletal facies, or by rubbly to muddy, fore-reef-to-bank deposits of packstones and grainstones with highly diverse and variable biogenic clasts. Fresh to deeply weathered volcaniclastic material may comprise at least 80% of some high-energy fore-reef facies, whereas lagoonal and bank deposits usually contain less than 0.5% terrigenous material. Surprisingly, the Miocene in the Marianas lacks almost completely any reef-core facies. Several poorly developed coral-rich mounds on Saipan and localized laminated red algal buildups on Guam appear to constitute the extant reef-wall facies in the Miocene. The lack of buildups may be a matter of differential survival; it may result from headland erosion and benching associated with emergency of narrow reef tracts as has been postulated by others for south Guam. Radiometric age dating of these reef carbonates has proven unsuccessful because pervasive diagenesis has transformed the entire Miocene section into low-magnesium calcite with minor and occasional dolomite. Freshwater phreatic diagenesis accounts for the principal porosity variation and trace element distribution.

  15. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  16. Radar surface signatures for the two-dimensional tidal circulation over Phelps Bank, Nantucket shoals: A comparison between theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, A. L.; Chubb, S. R.; Askari, F.; Valenzuela, G. R.; Bennett, J. R.; Keller, W. C.

    1994-04-01

    A comparison is made between real aperture radar (RAR) measurements and simulations (based on modeled tidal currents) of radar cross section over a complicated tidal basin (in the vicinity of the Phelps Bank region of the Nantucket shoals) in order to more fully understand the origin of radar signatures that are observed at the ocean surface as a consequence of variations in the topography of the ocean bottom. The Phelps Bank region was mapped under two extreme wind speed conditions: in high winds, in excess of 15 m/s, and in low winds, of the order of 2-3 m/s. For the light-wind case the measured radar cross section over the west side of the Phelps Bank was enhanced by as much as 20 dB relative to the clutter background. For the high-wind case, no discernible bathymetric signature was found in the highclutter background. Numerical results for the two-dimensional M2 (semidiurnal) tidal currents over the Phelps Bank (Greenberg et al., 1989), with ⅛ × ⅛ min of arc resolution, are used as input to the surface signature models: the Alpers and Hennings (1984) first-order Bragg relaxation model; a generalized form of this relaxation model (in which wind directional effects are incorporated in an approximate manner); and the full-spectrum model of Lyzenga and Bennett (1988). Comparisons between the models (which do not include wave breaking) and an extreme case of 2-3 m/s winds (where strong wave breaking could become important) reveal that although the models predict correlation between variations in bottom topography and surface signature, they significantly underpredict the magnitude of the observed effect. The model calculations also are very sensitive at low (<2 m/s) wind speeds to the functional form that is assumed for the wind-wave forcing in the wave action equation. Prior visual observations and measurements of wave spectra (and wave shoaling) in the vicinity of Phelps Bank strongly suggest that the deficiencies of the modeled results that occur explicitly

  17. [Salmonella pathogenicity islands].

    PubMed

    Sırıken, Belgin

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella species are facultative intracellular pathogenic bacteria. They can invade macrophages, dendritic and epithelial cells. The responsible virulence genes for invasion, survival, and extraintestinal spread are located in Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs). SPIs are thought to be acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Some of the SPIs are conserved throughout the Salmonella genus, and some of them are specific for certain serovars. There are differences between Salmonella serotypes in terms of adaptation to host cell, virulence factors and the resulting infection according to SPA presence and characteristics. The most important Salmonella virulence gene clusters are located in 12 pathogenicity islands. Virulence genes that are involved in the intestinal phase of infection are located in SPI-1 and SPI-2 and the remaining SPIs are required for intracellular survival, fimbrial expression, magnesium and iron uptake, multiple antibiotic resistance and the development of systemic infections. In addition SPIs, Sigma ss (RpoS) factors and adaptive acid tolerance response (ATR) are the other two important virulence factors. RpoS and ATR found in virulent Salmonella strains help the bacteria to survive under inappropriate conditions such as gastric acidity, bile salts, inadequate oxygen concentration, lack of nutrients, antimicrobial peptides, mucus and natural microbiota and also to live in phagosomes or phagolysosomes. This review article summarizes the data related to pathogenicity islands in Salmonella serotypes and some factors which play role in the regulation of virulence genes.

  18. Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This brief movie shows counterclockwise atmospheric motion around Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The clip was made from blue-filter images taken with the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft during seven separate rotations of Jupiter between Oct. 1 and Oct. 5, 2000.

    The clip also shows the eastward and westward motion of the zonal jets, seen as the horizontal stripes flowing in opposite directions. The zonal jets circle the planet. As far as can be determined from both Earth-based and spacecraft measurements, the positions and speeds of the jets have not changed for 100 years. Since Jupiter is a fluid planet without a solid boundary, the jet speeds are measured relative to Jupiter's magnetic field, which rotates, wobbling like a top because of its tilt, every 9 hours 55.5 minutes. The movie shows motions in the magnetic reference frame, so winds to the west correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than the magnetic field, and eastward winds correspond to features rotating a little faster.

    Because the Red Spot is in the southern hemisphere, the direction of motion indicates it is a high-pressure center. Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Scientists suspect these small white features are lightning storms. The storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for the large-scale features.

    The smallest features in the movie are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across. The spacing of the movie frames in time is not uniform; some consecutive images are separated by two Jupiter rotations, and some by one. The images have been re-projected using a simple cylindrical map projection. They show an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east-west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet

  19. Scanning Electron Microscopy Reveals Two Distinct Classes of Erythroblastic Island Isolated from Adult Mammalian Bone Marrow.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Jia Hao; McAllan, Bronwyn M; Fraser, Stuart T

    2016-04-01

    Erythroblastic islands are multicellular clusters in which a central macrophage supports the development and maturation of red blood cell (erythroid) progenitors. These clusters play crucial roles in the pathogenesis observed in animal models of hematological disorders. The precise structure and function of erythroblastic islands is poorly understood. Here, we have combined scanning electron microscopy and immuno-gold labeling of surface proteins to develop a better understanding of the ultrastructure of these multicellular clusters. The erythroid-specific surface antigen Ter-119 and the transferrin receptor CD71 exhibited distinct patterns of protein sorting during erythroid cell maturation as detected by immuno-gold labeling. During electron microscopy analysis we observed two distinct classes of erythroblastic islands. The islands varied in size and morphology, and the number and type of erythroid cells interacting with the central macrophage. Assessment of femoral marrow isolated from a cavid rodent species (guinea pig, Cavis porcellus) and a marsupial carnivore species (fat-tailed dunnarts, Sminthopsis crassicaudata) showed that while the morphology of the central macrophage varied, two different types of erythroblastic islands were consistently identifiable. Our findings suggest that these two classes of erythroblastic islands are conserved in mammalian evolution and may play distinct roles in red blood cell production. PMID:26898901

  20. Photochemical Formation of Hydroxyl Radical in Red-Soil-Polluted Seawater in Okinawa, Japan -Potential Impacts on Marine Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakaki, T.; Hamdun, A. M.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Ikota, H.; Fujimura, H.; Oomori, T.

    2004-12-01

    Development of pineapple farmlands and construction of recreational facilities caused runoff of red soil into coastal ocean (locally termed as red-soil-pollution) in the north of Okinawa Island, Japan. In an attempt to understand the impacts of red soil on oxidizing power of the seawater, we studied formation of hydroxyl radical (OH radical), the most potent oxidant in the environment, in red-soil-polluted seawaters, using 313 nm monochromatic light. Photo-formation rates of OH radical showed a good correlation with dissolved iron concentrations (R = 0.98). The major source of OH radical was found to be the Fenton reaction (a reaction between Fe(II) and HOOH). The un-filtered red-soil-polluted seawater samples exhibited faster OH radical formation rates than the filtered samples, suggesting that iron-bearing red soil particles enhanced formation of OH radical.

  1. The red ear syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Red Ear Syndrome (RES) is a very rare disorder, with approximately 100 published cases in the medical literature. Red ear (RE) episodes are characterised by unilateral or bilateral attacks of paroxysmal burning sensations and reddening of the external ear. The duration of these episodes ranges from a few seconds to several hours. The attacks occur with a frequency ranging from several a day to a few per year. Episodes can occur spontaneously or be triggered, most frequently by rubbing or touching the ear, heat or cold, chewing, brushing of the hair, neck movements or exertion. Early-onset idiopathic RES seems to be associated with migraine, whereas late-onset idiopathic forms have been reported in association with trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs). Secondary forms of RES occur with upper cervical spine disorders or temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction. RES is regarded refractory to medical treatments, although some migraine preventative treatments have shown moderate benefit mainly in patients with migraine-related attacks. The pathophysiology of RES is still unclear but several hypotheses involving peripheral or central nervous system mechanisms have been proposed. PMID:24093332

  2. Red - Take a Closer Look

    PubMed Central

    Buechner, Vanessa L.; Maier, Markus A.; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Schwarz, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Color research has shown that red is associated with avoidance of threat (e.g., failure) or approach of reward (e.g., mating) depending on the context in which it is perceived. In the present study we explored one central cognitive process that might be involved in the context dependency of red associations. According to our theory, red is supposed to highlight the relevance (importance) of a goal-related stimulus and correspondingly intensifies the perceivers’ attentional reaction to it. Angry and happy human compared to non-human facial expressions were used as goal-relevant stimuli. The data indicate that the color red leads to enhanced attentional engagement to angry and happy human facial expressions (compared to neutral ones) - the use of non-human facial expressions does not bias attention. The results are discussed with regard to the idea that red induced attentional biases might explain the red-context effects on motivation. PMID:25254380

  3. Probing magnetic bottom and crustal temperature variations along the Red Sea margin of Egypt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ravat, D.; Salem, A.; Abdelaziz, A.M.S.; Elawadi, E.; Morgan, P.

    2011-01-01

    Over 50 magnetic bottom depths derived from spectra of magnetic anomalies in Eastern Egypt along the Red Sea margin show variable magnetic bottoms ranging from 10 to 34. km. The deep magnetic bottoms correspond more closely to the Moho depth in the region, and not the depth of 580??C, which lies significantly deeper on the steady state geotherms. These results support the idea of Wasilewski and coworkers that the Moho is a magnetic boundary in continental regions. Reduced-to-pole magnetic highs correspond to areas of Younger Granites that were emplaced toward the end of the Precambrian. Other crystalline Precambrian units formed earlier during the closure of ocean basins are not strongly magnetic. In the north, magnetic bottoms are shallow (10-15. km) in regions with a high proportion of these Younger Granites. In the south, the shoaling of the magnetic bottom associated with the Younger Granites appears to be restricted to the Aswan and Ras Banas regions. Complexity in the variation of magnetic bottom depths may arise due to a combination of factors: i) regions of Younger (Precambrian) Granites with high magnetite content in the upper crust, leaving behind low Curie temperature titanomagnetite components in the middle and lower crust, ii) rise in the depth of 580??C isotherm where the crust may have been heated due to initiation of intense magmatism at the time of the Red Sea rifting (~. 20. Ma), and iii) the contrast of the above two factors with respect to the neighboring regions where the Moho and/or Curie temperature truncates lithospheric ferromagnetism. Estimates of fractal and centroid magnetic bottoms in the oceanic regions of the Red Sea are significantly below the Moho in places suggesting that oceanic uppermost mantle may be serpentinized to the depth of 15-30 km in those regions. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  4. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  5. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  6. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  7. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  8. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel....

  9. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have ... being told they had asthma, 2014 Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Non-Hispanic White Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander/ ...

  10. Seeing red on the road.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Romnán, Amparo; Megías, Alberto; Díaz-Piedra, Carolina; Catena, Andrés; Di Stasi, Leandro L

    2015-01-01

    Human and animal research has found that red perception is associated with specific behavioral reactions, generally characterized by intense responses. Here, we explored whether red cars are perceived as more dangerous than other colored cars. One hundred Spanish drivers examined several road scenarios which involved hazardous cars with different colors: red, green, yellow, black, gray, and white. Driver's behavior (response time and probability of braking) and the perceived level of risk for each scenario were analyzed. Although car color affected participants' response times, contrary to expectations, red cars did not elicit faster responses or higher perceived levels of risk. PMID:26489219

  11. Red cell aging in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ganzoni, A. M.; Oakes, R.; Hillman, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    Previous studies of red cell structure and metabolism during the aging process have relied upon in vitro techniques of cell separation into various age populations. Probably the most common approach is to isolate the older red cells with the assumption that they are more dense. This may lead to a number of inconsistencies in observations, and may certainly raise questions about possible cell changes secondary to manipulative procedures. For this reason, an experimental system was devised where a normal red cell population could be studied, while aging, in an in vivo environment. The initial red cell mass of a large number of inbred rats was transferred repeatedly into an ever smaller number of animals, making it possible to follow an aging population of red cells up to 48 days while preventing contamination with newly produced cells by suppression of erythropoiesis with transfusion-induced polycythemia. During this period, samples of progressively older red cells could be obtained for measurements of red cell constant. It was noted that the normal rat red cell undergoes both volume reduction and significant hemoglobin content loss with aging. In addition, the hemoglobin concentration within the cell demonstrated an early rise after a return to nearly normal values. These findings are noteworthy in that they help to explain the characteristics of life-spans of cohort labeled red cell populations in small animals, and provide a possible example of a cell's remodeling process within the spleen. PMID:5090053

  12. Space Radar Image of Long Island Optical/Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This pair of images of the Long Island, New York region is a comparison of an optical photograph (top) and a radar image (bottom), both taken in darkness in April 1994. The photograph at the top was taken by the Endeavour astronauts at about 3 a.m. Eastern time on April 20, 1994. The image at the bottom was acquired at about the same time four days earlier on April 16,1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) system aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Both images show an area approximately 100 kilometers by 40 kilometers (62 miles by 25 miles) that is centered at 40.7 degrees North latitude and 73.5 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper right. The optical image is dominated by city lights, which are particularly bright in the densely developed urban areas of New York City located on the left half of the photo. The brightest white zones appear on the island of Manhattan in the left center, and Central Park can be seen as a darker area in the middle of Manhattan. To the northeast (right) of the city, suburban Long Island appears as a less densely illuminated area, with the brightest zones occurring along major transportation and development corridors. Since radar is an active sensing system that provides its own illumination, the radar image shows a great amount of surface detail, despite the night-time acquisition. The colors in the radar image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In this image, the water surface - the Atlantic Ocean along the bottom edge and Long Island Sound shown at the top edge - appears red because small waves at the surface strongly reflect the horizontally transmitted and received L-band radar signal. Networks of highways and railroad lines are clearly

  13. Fluid Management Plan for the Project Shoal Area, Off-sites Subproject, CAU 447, Revision 0 (with Record of Technical Change No. 1, 2, and 3)

    SciTech Connect

    USDOE /NV

    1999-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has initiated the Off-Site Project to characterize the hazards posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing activities at facilities other than the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Project Shoal Area (PSA) is one of the Off-Sites Project areas located off the NTS, but within the state of Nevada. The PSA is located approximately 48 kilometers (30 miles) southeast of Fallon, Nevada. Four wells were drilled at the PSA in 1996 as part of the site investigation administered through the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996). The hydrogeologic data gathered from these wells was used to support the groundwater flow and contaminant transport modeling of the PSA. However, the subsequent evaluation of the groundwater model concluded that further delineation of the subsurface was required to reduce uncertainties in the model. In accordance with the FFACO, an addendum to the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for the proposed PSA subsurface investigation, Corrective Action Unit 447, was developed. The addendum proposed the drilling and construction of four additional wells and the conduct of hydrologic testing at the PSA. This Fluid Management Plan (FMP) provides guidance for the management of fluids generated from the well construction and testing activities at the PSA.

  14. Island biogeography of the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Helmus, Matthew R; Mahler, D Luke; Losos, Jonathan B

    2014-09-25

    For centuries, biogeographers have examined the factors that produce patterns of biodiversity across regions. The study of islands has proved particularly fruitful and has led to the theory that geographic area and isolation influence species colonization, extinction and speciation such that larger islands have more species and isolated islands have fewer species (that is, positive species-area and negative species-isolation relationships). However, experimental tests of this theory have been limited, owing to the difficulty in experimental manipulation of islands at the scales at which speciation and long-distance colonization are relevant. Here we have used the human-aided transport of exotic anole lizards among Caribbean islands as such a test at an appropriate scale. In accord with theory, as anole colonizations have increased, islands impoverished in native species have gained the most exotic species, the past influence of speciation on island biogeography has been obscured, and the species-area relationship has strengthened while the species-isolation relationship has weakened. Moreover, anole biogeography increasingly reflects anthropogenic rather than geographic processes. Unlike the island biogeography of the past that was determined by geographic area and isolation, in the Anthropocene--an epoch proposed for the present time interval--island biogeography is dominated by the economic isolation of human populations.

  15. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2012-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that non-structural manipulations that leave island structures intact can radically alter judgments of island violations. We argue here, building on work by Deane, Kluender, and others, that processing factors have the potential to account for this otherwise unexplained variation in acceptability judgments. We report the results of self-paced reading experiments and controlled acceptability studies which explore the relationship between processing costs and judgments of acceptability. In each of the three self-paced reading studies, the data indicate that the processing cost of different types of island violations can be significantly reduced to a degree comparable to that of non-island filler-gap constructions by manipulating a single non-structural factor. Moreover, this reduction in processing cost is accompanied by significant improvements in acceptability. This evidence favors the hypothesis that island-violating constructions involve numerous processing pressures that aggregate to drive processing difficulty above a threshold so that a perception of unacceptability ensues. We examine the implications of these findings for the grammar of filler-gap dependencies.* PMID:22661792

  16. Island biogeography of the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Helmus, Matthew R; Mahler, D Luke; Losos, Jonathan B

    2014-09-25

    For centuries, biogeographers have examined the factors that produce patterns of biodiversity across regions. The study of islands has proved particularly fruitful and has led to the theory that geographic area and isolation influence species colonization, extinction and speciation such that larger islands have more species and isolated islands have fewer species (that is, positive species-area and negative species-isolation relationships). However, experimental tests of this theory have been limited, owing to the difficulty in experimental manipulation of islands at the scales at which speciation and long-distance colonization are relevant. Here we have used the human-aided transport of exotic anole lizards among Caribbean islands as such a test at an appropriate scale. In accord with theory, as anole colonizations have increased, islands impoverished in native species have gained the most exotic species, the past influence of speciation on island biogeography has been obscured, and the species-area relationship has strengthened while the species-isolation relationship has weakened. Moreover, anole biogeography increasingly reflects anthropogenic rather than geographic processes. Unlike the island biogeography of the past that was determined by geographic area and isolation, in the Anthropocene--an epoch proposed for the present time interval--island biogeography is dominated by the economic isolation of human populations. PMID:25254475

  17. The Flooding of Long Island Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, E.; Varekamp, J. C.; Lewis, R. S.

    2007-12-01

    Between the Last Glacial Maximum (22-19 ka) and the Holocene (10 ka) regions marginal to the Laurentide Ice Sheets saw complex environmental changes from moraines to lake basins to dry land to estuaries and marginal ocean basins, as a result of the interplay between the topography of moraines formed at the maximum extent and during stages of the retreat of the ice sheet, regional glacial rebound, and global eustatic sea level rise. In New England, the history of deglaciation and relative sea level rise has been studied extensively, and the sequence of events has been documented in detail. The Laurentide Ice Sheet reached its maximum extent (Long Island) at 21.3-20.4 ka according to radiocarbon dating (calibrated ages), 19.0-18.4 ka according to radionuclide dating. Periglacial Lake Connecticut formed behind the moraines in what is now the Long Island Sound Basin. The lake drained through the moraine at its eastern end. Seismic records show that a fluvial system was cut into the exposed lake beds, and a wave-cut unconformity was produced during the marine flooding, which has been inferred to have occurred at about 15.5 ka (Melt Water Pulse 1A) through correlation with dated events on land. Vibracores from eastern Long Island Sound penetrate the unconformity and contain red, varved lake beds overlain by marine grey sands and silts with a dense concentration of oysters in life position above the erosional contact. The marine sediments consist of intertidal to shallow subtidal deposits with oysters, shallow-water foraminifera and litoral diatoms, overlain by somewhat laminated sandy silts, in turn overlain by coarser-grained, sandy to silty sediments with reworked foraminifera and bivalve fragments. The latter may have been deposited in a sand-wave environment as present today at the core locations. We provide direct age control of the transgression with 30 radiocarbon dates on oysters, and compared the ages with those obtained on macrophytes and bulk organic carbon in

  18. Fade to Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Infrared Andromeda Galaxy (M31) Poster [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stars Dust

    This animation shows the Andromeda galaxy, first as seen in visible light by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, then as seen in infrared by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

    The visible-light image highlights the galaxy's population of about one trillion stars. The stars are so crammed into its core that this region blazes with bright starlight.

    In contrast, the false-colored Spitzer view reveals red waves of dust against a more tranquil sea of blue stars. The dust lanes can be seen twirling all the way into the galaxy's center. This dust is warmed by young stars and shines at infrared wavelengths , which are represented in red. The blue color signifies shorter-wavelength infrared light primarily from older stars.

    The Andromeda galaxy, also known affectionately by astronomers as Messier 31, is located 2.5 million light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. It is the closest major galaxy to the Milky Way, making it the ideal specimen for carefully examining the nature of galaxies. On a clear, dark night, the galaxy can be spotted with the naked eye as a fuzzy blob.

    Andromeda's entire disk spans about 260,000 light-years, which means that a light beam would take 260,000 years to travel from one end of the galaxy to the other. By comparison, the Milky Way is about 100,000 light-years across. When viewed from Earth, Andromeda occupies a portion of the sky equivalent to seven full moons.

    Because this galaxy is so large, the infrared images had to be stitched together out of about 3,000 separate Spitzer exposures. The light detected by Spitzer's infrared array camera at 3.6 and 4.5 microns is sensitive mostly to starlight and is shown in blue and green, respectively. The 8-micron light shows warm dust and is shown in red. The

  19. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  20. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  1. The phytochrome red/far-red photoreceptor superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Sharrock, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    Proteins of the phytochrome superfamily of red/far-red light receptors have a variety of biological roles in plants, algae, bacteria and fungi and demonstrate a diversity of spectral sensitivities and output signaling mechanisms. Over the past few years the first three-dimensional structures of phytochrome light-sensing domains from bacteria have been determined. PMID:18771590

  2. Photochemical formation of hydroxyl radical in red-soil-polluted seawater - effects of dissolved organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, M.; Arakaki, T.

    2006-12-01

    Development of pineapple farmlands and construction of recreational facilities caused runoff of red soil into the coastal ocean (locally termed as red soil pollution) in the north of Okinawa Island, Japan. Red soil is acidic and contains a few percent of iron oxide. We were interested in the formation of hydroxyl radical (·OH), the most potent oxidant in the environment, from the photo-Fenton reaction (reaction between Fe(II) and HOOH) in red-soil-polluted seawater. Various artificial seawater solutions were prepared by adding red soil, HOOH, and/or humic acid to clean seawater, and were used for photochemical experiments. Commercially available humic acid was used to represent natural organic compounds. All the solutions were filtered through 0.45 micron filter before conducting photochemical experiments. Comparisons among the solutions indicated that dissolved chemicals from the red-soil only slightly increased the OH radical photoformation. Photoformation rates of OH radicals of the HOOH + red soil solutions were similar to the calculated rates from direct photolysis of HOOH. Furthermore, addition of humic acid to the HOOH + red soil solutions did not significantly enhance the photo-Fenton reaction, suggesting that Fe(II), even if it had been formed, did not react with HOOH to form OH radicals at detectable level in seawater.

  3. White-toothed shrews (Mammalia, Soricomorpha, Crocidura) of coastal islands of Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Abramov, Alexei V.; Bannikova, Anna A.; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract New findings of the white-toothed shrews (Crocidura spp.) from offshore islands of Vietnam are reported. The species identifications have been confirmed by the analysis of complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140 bp). Crocidura phuquocensis is the only species found in the Phu Quoc Island. Crocidura fuliginosa has been recorded from two islands of the Con Dao Archipelago (Con Son and Bai Canh). The occurrence of Crocidura fuliginosa in Vietnam has been genetically confirmed for the first time. Crocidura attenuata has been collected from the Cat Ba Island for the first time, and this finding corresponds well with the proposal that the species’ distribution is confined to the north and east of the Red River only. PMID:22855639

  4. Islands of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowdeswell, Julian; Hambrey, Michael

    2002-11-01

    The Arctic islands are characterized by beautiful mountains and glaciers, in which the wildlife lives in delicate balance with its environment. It is a fragile region with a long history of exploration and exploitation that is now experiencing rapid environmental change. All of these themes are explored in Islands of the Arctic, a richly illustrated volume with superb photographs from the Canadian Arctic archipelago, Greenland, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. It begins with the various processes shaping the landscape: glaciers, rivers and coastal processes, the role of ice in the oceans and the weather and climate. Julian Dowdeswell and Michael Hambrey describe the flora and fauna in addition to the human influences on the environment, from the sustainable approach of the Inuit, to the devastating damage inflicted by hunters and issues arising from the presence of military security installations. Finally, they consider the future prospects of the Arctic islands Julian Dowdeswell is Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute and Professor of Physical Geography at 0he University of Cambridge. He received the Polar Medal from Queen Elizabeth for his contributions to the study of glacier geophysics and the Gill Memorial Award from the Royal Geographical Society. He is chair of the Publications Committee of the International Glaciological Society and head of the Glaciers and Ice Sheets Division of the International Commission for Snow and Ice. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for Glaciers (Cambridge University Press). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994).

  5. IslandViewer update: Improved genomic island discovery and visualization.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Bhavjinder K; Chiu, Terry A; Laird, Matthew R; Langille, Morgan G I; Brinkman, Fiona S L

    2013-07-01

    IslandViewer (http://pathogenomics.sfu.ca/islandviewer) is a web-accessible application for the computational prediction and analysis of genomic islands (GIs) in bacterial and archaeal genomes. GIs are clusters of genes of probable horizontal origin and are of high interest because they disproportionately encode virulence factors and other adaptations of medical, environmental and industrial interest. Many computational tools exist for the prediction of GIs, but three of the most accurate methods are available in integrated form via IslandViewer: IslandPath-DIMOB, SIGI-HMM and IslandPick. IslandViewer GI predictions are precomputed for all complete microbial genomes from National Center for Biotechnology Information, with an option to upload other genomes and/or perform customized analyses using different settings. Here, we report recent changes to the IslandViewer framework that have vastly improved its efficiency in handling an increasing number of users, plus better facilitate custom genome analyses. Users may also now overlay additional annotations such as virulence factors, antibiotic resistance genes and pathogen-associated genes on top of current GI predictions. Comparisons of GIs between user-selected genomes are now facilitated through a highly requested side-by-side viewer. IslandViewer improvements aim to provide a more flexible interface, coupled with additional highly relevant annotation information, to aid analysis of GIs in diverse microbial species.

  6. Eddies around Guam, an island in the Mariana Islands group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolanski, E.; Richmond, R. H.; Davis, G.; Deleersnijder, E.; Leben, R. R.

    2003-06-01

    Near-surface currents around Guam, a 35 km long, slab-shaped island in the Mariana Islands group, were estimated from current meters, satellite-derived surface topography, and a numerical model. A dominant northwestward-flowing North Equatorial Current prevailed from June to December 2000, with speeds typically 0.1-0.2 m s -1, generating unsteady eddies in the lee of Guam. A number of transient eddies off the tips of the island were apparent, the smallest eddies were at the scale of local topographic features such as headlands and embayments, while other eddies were island size. In addition to eddies off the tips of the island, a large (200 km in diameter) cyclonic oceanic eddy was advected eastward past Guam during the last 2 weeks of August 2000. Centered on Guam for a few days, this eddy formed elsewhere and impinged on the island generating anticlockwise currents around the island of up to 0.5 m s -1. It is suggested that these eddies are sufficiently energetic to return fish and coral eggs and larvae to their natal reefs in Guam, thereby enabling self-seeding of coral reefs in Guam. The numerical model also predicts that large (up to 30 m amplitude) island-generated internal waves may occur around Guam; however, no observations are presently available to support this prediction.

  7. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input. PMID:26913017

  8. 19. New York Connecting Railroad: Randalls Island Viaduct. Randalls Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. New York Connecting Railroad: Randalls Island Viaduct. Randalls Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.54. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  9. 15. New York Connecting Railroad: Wards Island Viaduct. Wards Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. New York Connecting Railroad: Wards Island Viaduct. Wards Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.65. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  10. Classification of red variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattei, Janet A.; Foster, Grant; Hurwitz, Leora A.; Malatesta, Kerriann H.; Willson, Lee Anne; Mennessier, Marie-Odile

    1997-01-01

    Red variables are traditionally classified into Mira, semiregular (SR), and slow irregular (L) variables. The Mira variables are the best defined subgroup, whereas SR and L stars are more numerous. The SR subgroup is additionally subdivided into: SRa variables, which feature regular variability with smaller pulsation amplitudes than Miras; SRb variables, which are less regular; SRc variables, which are more luminous; and SRd variables, which are warmer. Relationships within each group are not clear. An analysis of long-term American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSP) light curves is reported on. It is found that Mira-type variables are clearly different and distinguishable from SR variables. Similarly, M-type Miras and C-type Miras feature different light curve properties. The M-Miras form a homogeneous group. The pulsations of SR variables are unstable.

  11. Urban heat island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.

    1991-01-01

    The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.

  12. Island of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The three main volcanoes which make up the island of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5W) include the older large shield volcanoes Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea and the more recent Kilauea. The rift zones of Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea are delineated by the black lava flows whereas the smaler Kilauea can be seen venting steam. This color image is one of a pair (see STS052-95-037) to compare the differences between color film and color infrared film.

  13. Fire Island National Seashore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayagandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd

    2007-01-01

    These lidar-derived topographic maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. The aims of the partnership that created this product are to develop advanced survey techniques for mapping barrier island geomorphology and habitats, and to enable the monitoring of ecological and geological change within National Seashores. This product is based on data from an innovative airborne lidar instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL).

  14. Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (Map of the US with the states that have significant Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander populations according to the Census Bureau) HI - ...

  15. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific Islanders, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the fourth leading cause of infant mortality. Asian/Pacific Islanders women generally have lower infant mortality rates ...

  16. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders Overall, Asian American adults are less likely ... Disease Death Rates per 100,000 (2013) Asians/Pacific Islanders Non-Hispanic White Asians/Pacific Islanders /Non- ...

  17. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander adults are 10% less likely to ever ... to non-Hispanic white adults. In 2014, Asian/Pacific Islander adults aged 65 years and older were ...

  18. Diabetes and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Pacific Islander > Diabetes Diabetes and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Asian Americans, in general, have the same ... However, there are differences within the Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander population. From a national survey, Native Hawaiians/ ...

  19. The Compton Effect Red Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kierein, John

    2004-05-01

    In 1923 (Phil Mag. 46, 897.) A. H. Compton noted that the Compton effect produces a red shift for all wavelengths when the scattered electron is free and not bound to an atom or molecule. He suggested that the red shift in the visible spectrum at the limb of the sun is larger than that at the center due to the Compton effect from the greater number of free electrons in the sun's atmosphere along the line of sight. Kierein and Sharp (1968, Solar Physics 3, 450) quantified this and showed a good correlation of red shift observations with the variation in the number of these electrons along the line of sight from center to limb and suggested that the quasar red shift and cosmological red shift could be similarly explained. Grote Reber mapped and measured the background hectometric radiation and found it to be unexpectedly bright. In 1968 (J. Franklin Inst. 285,1), while describing these measurements and maps he explained this brightness as being due to the Compton effect causing the cosmological red shift and accelerating intergalactic electrons. The resulting universe is static. The predicted red shift from the Compton effect deviates from Hubble's law only at large red shifts.

  20. Geologic control on the evolution of the inner shelf morphology offshore of the Mississippi barrier islands, northern Gulf of Mexico, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flocks, James G.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Kelso, Kyle W.

    2015-01-01

    Between 2008 and 2013, high-resolution geophysical surveys were conducted around the Mississippi barrier islands and offshore. The sonar surveys included swath and single-beam bathymetry, sidescan, and chirp subbottom data collection. The geophysical data were groundtruthed using vibracore sediment collection. The results provide insight into the evolution of the inner shelf and the relationship between the near surface geologic framework and the morphology of the coastal zone. This study focuses on the buried Pleistocene fluvial deposits and late Holocene shore-oblique sand ridges offshore of Petit Bois Island and Petit Bois Pass. Prior to this study, the physical characteristics, evolution, and interrelationship of the ridges between both the shelf geology and the adjacent barrier island platform had not been evaluated. Numerous studies elsewhere along the coastal margin attribute shoal origin and sand-ridge evolution to hydrodynamic processes in shallow water (<20 m). Here we characterize the correlation between the geologic framework and surface morphology and demonstrate that the underlying stratigraphy must also be considered when developing an evolutionary conceptual model. It is important to understand this near surface, nearshore dynamic in order to understand how the stratigraphy influences the long-term response of the coastal zone to sea-level rise. The study also contributes to a growing body of work characterizing shore-oblique sand ridges which, along with the related geology, are recognized as increasingly important components to a nearshore framework whose origins and evolution must be understood and inventoried to effectively manage the coastal zone.

  1. Shifting shoals and shattered rocks : How man has transformed the floor of west-central San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chin, John L.; Wong, Florence L.; Carlson, Paul R.

    2004-01-01

    subembayments--north bay (San Pablo and Suisun Bays), central bay, and south bay--each characterized by a central area of open water surrounded by intertidal mudflats and marshes. Central bay includes Alcatraz and Angel Islands and also a number of submerged bedrock knobs that protrude through the sediment of the bay floor and rise to within about 40 feet (12 m) of the water surface. The most prominent of these are Harding, Shag, Arch, and Blossom Rocks. These rocks have been lowered by blasting several times in the past, but they remain a potential hazard to shipping because newer cargo vessels are designed with increasingly deeper drafts. Central bay's location adjacent to two major population and commerce centers, San Francisco and Oakland, subjects it to greater human influences than less developed parts of the estuary. The western part of central San Francisco Bay is adjacent to the Golden Gate, the estuary's outlet to the Pacific Ocean. The changing submarine topography of the west-central bay, as well as its geology, form the main focus of this book.

  2. Neoproterozoic granitoids on Wrangel Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sergeev, S. A.; Sokolov, S. D.; Tuchkova, M. I.

    2016-07-01

    Based on geochronological U-Pb studies, the age of Wrangel Island granitoids was estimated as Neoproterozoic (Cryogenian). Some granitoids contain zircons with inherited cores with an estimated age of 1010, 1170, 1200, and >2600 Ma, assuming the presence of ancient (Neoarchean-Mesoproterozoic) rocks in the Wrangel Island foundation and their involvement in partial melting under granitoid magma formation.

  3. Red yeast rice for dysipidemia.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Shariq; Al Badarin, Firas J; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lavie, Carl J; O'Keefe, James H

    2013-01-01

    Red yeast rice is an ancient Chinese food product that contains monacolins, chemical substances that are similar to statins in their mechanisms of action and lipid lowering properties. Several studies have found red yeast rice to be moderately effective at improving the lipid profile, particularly for lowering the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. One large randomized controlled study from China found that red yeast rice significantly improved risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and overall survival in patients following myocardial infarction. Thus, red yeast rice is a potentially useful over-the-counter cholesterol-lowering agent. However, many red yeast rice formulations are non-standardized and unregulated food supplements, and there is a need for further research and regulation of production.

  4. Polysaccharides of the red algae.

    PubMed

    Usov, Anatolii I

    2011-01-01

    Red algae (Rhodophyta) are known as the source of unique sulfated galactans, such as agar, agarose, and carrageenans. The wide practical uses of these polysaccharides are based on their ability to form strong gels in aqueous solutions. Gelling polysaccharides usually have molecules built up of repeating disaccharide units with a regular distribution of sulfate groups, but most of the red algal species contain more complex galactans devoid of gelling ability because of various deviations from the regular structure. Moreover, several red algae may contain sulfated mannans or neutral xylans instead of sulfated galactans as the main structural polysaccharides. This chapter is devoted to a description of the structural diversity of polysaccharides found in the red algae, with special emphasis on the methods of structural analysis of sulfated galactans. In addition to the structural information, some data on the possible use of red algal polysaccharides as biologically active polymers or as taxonomic markers are briefly discussed.

  5. Re-evaluating the origins of late Pleistocene fire areas on Santa Rosa Island, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rick, Torben C.; Wah, John S.; Erlandson, Jon M.

    2012-09-01

    At the close of the Pleistocene, fire regimes in North America changed significantly in response to climate change, megafaunal extinctions, anthropogenic burning and, possibly, even an extraterrestrial impact. On California's Channel Islands, researchers have long debated the nature of late Pleistocene "fire areas," discrete red zones in sedimentary deposits, interpreted by some as prehistoric mammoth-roasting pits created by humans. Further research found no evidence that these red zones were cultural in origin, and two hypotheses were advanced to explain their origin: natural fires and groundwater processes. Radiocarbon dating, X-ray diffraction analysis, and identification of charcoal from six red zones on Santa Rosa Island suggest that the studied features date between ~ 27,500 and 11,400 cal yr BP and resulted from burning or heating, not from groundwater processes. Our results show that fire was a component of late Pleistocene Channel Island ecology prior to and after human colonization of the islands, with no clear evidence for increased fire frequency coincident with Paleoindian settlement, extinction of pygmy mammoths, or a proposed Younger Dryas impact event.

  6. Roentgenologic aspects of bone islands.

    PubMed

    Onitsuka, H

    1977-06-01

    A review of radiographs of 143 Adult Health Study and 46 non-sample subjects made over a period of 23 years established sites, sizes, ages at detection, and prevalence of 209 bone islands in 189 subjects. Except for 18 new bone islands, all appeared during the period of observation. Twenty-six of them changed: of these, 21 enlarged, 4 became smaller, and 1 disappeared. There was no association with atomic bomb radiation dose. Bone islands were more frequent in the pelvis and femora but often occurred in the ribs. Five bone islands in adolescents enlarged proportionally to bone growth, suggesting that they often participate metabolically in the normal osseous system. Bone islands must be differentiated from osteoblastic metastases.

  7. SRTM Perspective with Landsat Virgin Islands, Carribean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, and Virgin Gorda are the four main islands (front to back) of this east-looking view of the U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands, along the northeast perimeter of the Caribbean Sea. For this view, a nearly cloud-free Landsat image was draped over elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and shading derived from the SRTM data was added to enhance the topographic expression. Elevation is shown with 1.5x scaled vertical exaggeration. Coral reefs fringe the islands in many locations and appear as very light shades of blue. Tropical vegetation appears green, and developed areas appear in shades of brown and white.

    As in much of the world, topography is the primary factor in the pattern of land use development in the Virgin Islands. Topography across most of the islands is quite rugged, and although the steep slopes create a scenic setting, they crowd most development into the small areas of low relief terrain, generally along the shoreline. The topographic pattern also affects water supply, wastewater disposal, landfill locations, road construction, and most other features of the development infrastructure. Topography also defines the natural drainage pattern, which is the major consideration in anticipating tropical storm water runoff dangers, as well as the dangers of heightened sediment impacts upon the adjacent coral reefs.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994

  8. Island tameness: living on islands reduces flight initiation distance.

    PubMed

    Cooper, William E; Pyron, R Alexander; Garland, Theodore

    2014-02-22

    One of Darwin's most widely known conjectures is that prey are tame on remote islands, where mammalian predators are absent. Many species appear to permit close approach on such islands, but no comparative studies have demonstrated reduced wariness quantified as flight initiation distance (FID; i.e. predator-prey distance when the prey begins to flee) in comparison with mainland relatives. We used the phylogenetic comparative method to assess influence of distance from the mainland and island area on FID of 66 lizard species. Because body size and predator approach speed affect predation risk, we included these as independent variables. Multiple regression showed that FID decreases as distance from mainland increases and is shorter in island than mainland populations. Although FID increased as area increased in some models, collinearity made it difficult to separate effects of area from distance and island occupancy. FID increases as SVL increases and approach speed increases; these effects are statistically independent of effects of distance to mainland and island occupancy. Ordinary least-squares models fit the data better than phylogenetic regressions, indicating little or no phylogenetic signal in residual FID after accounting for the independent variables. Our results demonstrate that island tameness is a real phenomenon in lizards.

  9. Coloration and growth of red lettuce grown under UV-radiation transmitting and non-transmitting covers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of red lettuce for salad mixes in Hawaii is primarily out-of-doors in the drier, leeward sides of the islands. Because the newer acrylic-polycarbonate hard covers transmit only small amounts of UV-radiation (which is essential for anthocyanin production), we experimented with a new ethyle...

  10. 2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  11. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  12. Red Clump Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girardi, Léo

    2016-09-01

    Low-mass stars in their core-helium-burning stage define the sharpest feature present in the color-magnitude diagrams of nearby galaxy systems: the red clump (RC). This feature has given rise to a series of methods aimed at measuring the distributions of stellar distances and extinctions, especially in the Magellanic Clouds and Milky Way Bulge. Because the RC is easily recognizable within the data of large spectroscopic and asteroseismic surveys, it is a useful probe of stellar densities, kinematics, and chemical abundances across the Milky Way disk; it can be applied up to larger distances than that allowed by dwarfs; and it has better accuracy than is possible with other kinds of giants. Here, we discuss the reasons for the RC narrowness in several sets of observational data, its fine structure, and the presence of systematic changes in the RC properties as regards age, metallicity, and the observed passband. These factors set the limits on the validity and accuracy of several RC methods defined in the literature.

  13. Red blood cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Ford, J

    2013-06-01

    The foundation of laboratory hematologic diagnosis is the complete blood count and review of the peripheral smear. In patients with anemia, the peripheral smear permits interpretation of diagnostically significant red blood cell (RBC) findings. These include assessment of RBC shape, size, color, inclusions, and arrangement. Abnormalities of RBC shape and other RBC features can provide key information in establishing a differential diagnosis. In patients with microcytic anemia, RBC morphology can increase or decrease the diagnostic likelihood of thalassemia. In normocytic anemias, morphology can assist in differentiating among blood loss, marrow failure, and hemolysis-and in hemolysis, RBC findings can suggest specific etiologies. In macrocytic anemias, RBC morphology can help guide the diagnostic considerations to either megaloblastic or nonmegaloblastic causes. Like all laboratory tests, RBC morphologies must be interpreted with caution, particularly in infants and children. When used properly, RBC morphology can be a key tool for laboratory hematology professionals to recommend appropriate clinical and laboratory follow-up and to select the best tests for definitive diagnosis. PMID:23480230

  14. Red blood cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Ford, J

    2013-06-01

    The foundation of laboratory hematologic diagnosis is the complete blood count and review of the peripheral smear. In patients with anemia, the peripheral smear permits interpretation of diagnostically significant red blood cell (RBC) findings. These include assessment of RBC shape, size, color, inclusions, and arrangement. Abnormalities of RBC shape and other RBC features can provide key information in establishing a differential diagnosis. In patients with microcytic anemia, RBC morphology can increase or decrease the diagnostic likelihood of thalassemia. In normocytic anemias, morphology can assist in differentiating among blood loss, marrow failure, and hemolysis-and in hemolysis, RBC findings can suggest specific etiologies. In macrocytic anemias, RBC morphology can help guide the diagnostic considerations to either megaloblastic or nonmegaloblastic causes. Like all laboratory tests, RBC morphologies must be interpreted with caution, particularly in infants and children. When used properly, RBC morphology can be a key tool for laboratory hematology professionals to recommend appropriate clinical and laboratory follow-up and to select the best tests for definitive diagnosis.

  15. Plant communities of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Ronilee A.; Halvorson, William L.; Sawdo, Andell A.; Danielsen, Karen C.

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the plant communities on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, was conducted from January through July 1988.  Vegetation data were collected at 296 sites using a releve technique.  The plant communities described include: grassland, coastal marsh, caliche scrub, coastal sage scrub, lupine scrub, baccharis scrub, coastal bluff scrub, coastal dune scrub, mixed chaparral, mixed woodland, torrey pine woodland, closed-cone pine woodland, island oak woodland, riparian woodland, and riparian herbaceous vegetation. The areal extent of each community was mapper on USGS 7.5' topographic maps, and digitized for GIS manipulation.

  16. Poplar Island Environmental Restoration Project: Challenges in waterbird restoration on an island in Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Miller, J.; Reese, J.G.

    2007-01-01

    At 460 hectares, the Paul Sarbanes Environmental Restoration Project at Poplar Island, Talbot County, Maryland, represents the largest 'beneficial use' dredged material project of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (a cooperative project with Maryland Port Administration). Begun in 1998, the 15-year restoration project will ultimately consist of roughly 220 ha of uplands and 220 ha of tidal wetland habitats, with limited areas of dike roads, perimeter riprap, and unvegetated mudflats. Wetland restoration began in one small section (or 'cell') in 2002, but not all cells will be filled with dredged material until at least 2013. As a major objective of the restoration, six species of waterbirds were identified as 'priority species' for Chesapeake Bay: American black duck (Anas rubripes), snowy egret (Egretta thula), cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), common tern (Sterna hirundo), and least tern (S. antillarum). Monitoring of nesting activities of these species from 2002 to 2005 indicated that all species except black ducks colonized the site rapidly. More than 800 pairs of common terns nested in 2003 to 2004. Because of predation by red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), reproductive success was very low for the terns. Trapping was effective in removing the foxes, and other controls have been applied to opportunistic nesting species including herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis). An effective public education program on the island has helped address concerns about animal control.

  17. Red ginseng and cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Anderson, Samantha; DU, Wei; He, Tong-Chuan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2016-01-01

    The ginseng family, including Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng), and Panax notoginseng (notoginseng), is commonly used herbal medicine. White ginseng is prepared by air-drying after harvest, while red ginseng is prepared by a steaming or heating process. The anticancer activity of red ginseng is significantly increased, due to the production of active anticancer ginsenosides during the steaming treatment, compared with that of white ginseng. Thus far, anticancer studies have been mostly focused on Asian ginseng. In this article, we review the research progress made in the anticancer activities of red Asian ginseng, red American ginseng and red notoginseng. The major anticancer mechanisms of red ginseng compounds include cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis/paraptosis, and inhibition of angiogenesis. The structure-function relationship analysis has revealed that the protopanaxadiol group ginsenosides have more potent effects than the protopanaxatriol group. Sugar molecules in ginsenosides inversely impact the antiproliferative potential of these compounds. In addition, ginsenoside stereoselectivity and double bond position also influence the anticancer activity. Future studies should focus on characterizing active red ginseng derivatives as potential anticancer drugs. PMID:26850342

  18. Red ginseng and cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Anderson, Samantha; DU, Wei; He, Tong-Chuan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2016-01-01

    The ginseng family, including Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng), and Panax notoginseng (notoginseng), is commonly used herbal medicine. White ginseng is prepared by air-drying after harvest, while red ginseng is prepared by a steaming or heating process. The anticancer activity of red ginseng is significantly increased, due to the production of active anticancer ginsenosides during the steaming treatment, compared with that of white ginseng. Thus far, anticancer studies have been mostly focused on Asian ginseng. In this article, we review the research progress made in the anticancer activities of red Asian ginseng, red American ginseng and red notoginseng. The major anticancer mechanisms of red ginseng compounds include cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis/paraptosis, and inhibition of angiogenesis. The structure-function relationship analysis has revealed that the protopanaxadiol group ginsenosides have more potent effects than the protopanaxatriol group. Sugar molecules in ginsenosides inversely impact the antiproliferative potential of these compounds. In addition, ginsenoside stereoselectivity and double bond position also influence the anticancer activity. Future studies should focus on characterizing active red ginseng derivatives as potential anticancer drugs.

  19. Classification of collective behavior: a comparison of tracking and machine learning methods to study the effect of ambient light on fish shoaling.

    PubMed

    Butail, Sachit; Salerno, Philip; Bollt, Erik M; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-12-01

    Traditional approaches for the analysis of collective behavior entail digitizing the position of each individual, followed by evaluation of pertinent group observables, such as cohesion and polarization. Machine learning may enable considerable advancements in this area by affording the classification of these observables directly from images. While such methods have been successfully implemented in the classification of individual behavior, their potential in the study collective behavior is largely untested. In this paper, we compare three methods for the analysis of collective behavior: simple tracking (ST) without resolving occlusions, machine learning with real data (MLR), and machine learning with synthetic data (MLS). These methods are evaluated on videos recorded from an experiment studying the effect of ambient light on the shoaling tendency of Giant danios. In particular, we compute average nearest-neighbor distance (ANND) and polarization using the three methods and compare the values with manually-verified ground-truth data. To further assess possible dependence on sampling rate for computing ANND, the comparison is also performed at a low frame rate. Results show that while ST is the most accurate at higher frame rate for both ANND and polarization, at low frame rate for ANND there is no significant difference in accuracy between the three methods. In terms of computational speed, MLR and MLS take significantly less time to process an image, with MLS better addressing constraints related to generation of training data. Finally, all methods are able to successfully detect a significant difference in ANND as the ambient light intensity is varied irrespective of the direction of intensity change.

  20. Ontogenetic changes in feeding and food preferences of the dog conch Laevistrombus canarium Linnaeus 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Merambong shoal, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husna, Wan Nurul Wan Hassan; Mazlan, Abd Ghaffar; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2016-10-01

    Laevistrombus canarium is one of the marine gastropod mollusks that have high commercial value, particularly in the aquaculture sector in Malaysia. This study was conducted to determine the feeding and food items of L. canarium at different ontogenetic stages (juveniles, sub-adults and adults) from Merambong shoals, Malaysia. Field observations on feeding activity were conducted, followed by detailed laboratory analysis on the stomach content. Five-minutes observations on randomly selected individuals were conducted at the field sampling site and their feeding activities were recorded with reference to age stage. Various shell sizes from each ontogenetic stage were randomly collected and quickly anaesthetized with ice and preserved in 10% formalin before being transported to the laboratory for stomach content analyses. Field observations showed that L. canarium mainly grazed on epiphytes occurring on seagrass (46.67%), followed by sediment surface (40%) and epiphytes occurring on macroalgae (13.33%). Stomach content analyses showed a significant difference (P <0.05) in gastro-somatic index (Gasi) between the juveniles (0.39±0.05), sub-adults (0.68±0.09) and adults (0.70±0.05) (P <0.05). Food items found in the conch stomach include diatoms, detritus, foraminifera, seagrass and macroalgae fragments, sand particles and shell fragments. The Index of Relative Importance (%IRI) indicates three main types of food dominated the three ontogenetic stages namely diatoms, sand particles and detritus. However, no significant difference (P >0.05) was detected between the three main food items (diatoms, sand particles and detritus) among the ontogenetic stages. Therefore, feeding activity revealed the role of the dog conch in the marine food network. While, classification of the types of food consumed by L. canarium through stomach content analysis determines the particular position of the gastropod in the food chain. Further studies are needed to provide a better insight

  1. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER image was acquired on December 12, 2000, and covers an area of 38 x 48 km. Pine Island Glacier has undergone a steady loss of elevation with retreat of the grounding line in recent decades. Now, space imagery has revealed a wide new crack that some scientists think will soon result in a calving event. Glaciologist Robert Bindschadler of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center predicts this crack will result in the calving of a major iceberg, probably in less than 18 months. Discovery of the crack was possible due to multi-year image archives and high resolution imagery. This image is located at 74.1 degrees south latitude and 105.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  2. Romantic red: red enhances men's attraction to women.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Andrew J; Niesta, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness of other women, nor men's perceptions of women's overall likeability, kindness, or intelligence. The findings have clear practical implications for men and women in the mating game and, perhaps, for fashion consultants, product designers, and marketers. Furthermore, the findings document the value of extending research on signal coloration to humans and of considering color as something of a common language, both within and across species.

  3. 78 FR 48668 - PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long Island Lighting Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on August 1, 2013, pursuant to Rule...

  4. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  5. A red-tailed hawk at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At KSC, a red-tailed hawk waits on top of a utility pole for the slightest movement in the grass below. It feeds mostly on small rodents. Ranging in height from 18 inches to 25 inches, the species has a stocky build with a whitish breast and rust-colored tail. It has a high-pitched descending scream with a hoarse quality. The hawk inhabits mainly deciduous forest and adjacent open country from Alaska and Nova Scotia south to Panama. KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  6. A red-tailed hawk at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    From the top of a utility pole, a red-tailed hawk launches into flight, perhaps after spotting prey, typically a small rodent. Ranging in height from 18 inches to 25 inches, the species has a stocky build with a whitish breast and rust-colored tail. It has a high-pitched descending scream with a hoarse quality. The hawk inhabits mainly deciduous forest and adjacent open country from Alaska and Nova Scotia south to Panama. KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  7. Global Collembola on Deception Island.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  8. Global Collembola on Deception Island

    PubMed Central

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  9. Sexing a sex-role-reversed species based on plumage: potential challenges in the red phalarope

    PubMed Central

    Ditlecadet, Delphine; Martin, Luc J.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Sex-role reversal, in which males care for offspring, can occur when mate competition is stronger between females than males. Secondary sex traits and mate attracting displays in sex-role-reversed species are usually more pronounced in females than in males. The red phalarope (Phalaropus fulicarius) is a textbook example of a sex-role-reversed species. It is generally agreed that males are responsible for all incubation and parental care duties, whereas females typically desert males after having completed a clutch and may pair with new males to lay additional clutches. The breeding plumage of female red phalaropes is usually more brightly colored than male plumage, a reversed sexual dichromatism usually associated with sex-role reversal. Here, we confirm with PCR-based sexing that male red phalaropes can exhibit both the red body plumage typical of a female and the incubation behavior typical of a male. Our result, combined with previous observations of brightly colored red phalaropes incubating nests at the same arctic location (Igloolik Island, Nunavut, Canada), suggests that plumage dichromatism alone may not be sufficient to distinguish males from females in this breeding population of red phalaropes. This stresses the need for more systematic genetic sexing combined with standardized description of intersexual differences in red phalarope plumages. Determining whether such female-like plumage on males is a result of phenotypic plasticity or genetic variation could contribute to further understanding sex-role reversal strategies in the short Arctic summer. PMID:27168992

  10. Sexing a sex-role-reversed species based on plumage: potential challenges in the red phalarope.

    PubMed

    Giroux, Marie-Andrée; Ditlecadet, Delphine; Martin, Luc J; Lanctot, Richard B; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Sex-role reversal, in which males care for offspring, can occur when mate competition is stronger between females than males. Secondary sex traits and mate attracting displays in sex-role-reversed species are usually more pronounced in females than in males. The red phalarope (Phalaropus fulicarius) is a textbook example of a sex-role-reversed species. It is generally agreed that males are responsible for all incubation and parental care duties, whereas females typically desert males after having completed a clutch and may pair with new males to lay additional clutches. The breeding plumage of female red phalaropes is usually more brightly colored than male plumage, a reversed sexual dichromatism usually associated with sex-role reversal. Here, we confirm with PCR-based sexing that male red phalaropes can exhibit both the red body plumage typical of a female and the incubation behavior typical of a male. Our result, combined with previous observations of brightly colored red phalaropes incubating nests at the same arctic location (Igloolik Island, Nunavut, Canada), suggests that plumage dichromatism alone may not be sufficient to distinguish males from females in this breeding population of red phalaropes. This stresses the need for more systematic genetic sexing combined with standardized description of intersexual differences in red phalarope plumages. Determining whether such female-like plumage on males is a result of phenotypic plasticity or genetic variation could contribute to further understanding sex-role reversal strategies in the short Arctic summer. PMID:27168992

  11. GIPSy: Genomic island prediction software.

    PubMed

    Soares, Siomar C; Geyik, Hakan; Ramos, Rommel T J; de Sá, Pablo H C G; Barbosa, Eudes G V; Baumbach, Jan; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Miyoshi, Anderson; Tauch, Andreas; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco

    2016-08-20

    Bacteria are highly diverse organisms that are able to adapt to a broad range of environments and hosts due to their high genomic plasticity. Horizontal gene transfer plays a pivotal role in this genome plasticity and in evolution by leaps through the incorporation of large blocks of genome sequences, ordinarily known as genomic islands (GEIs). GEIs may harbor genes encoding virulence, metabolism, antibiotic resistance and symbiosis-related functions, namely pathogenicity islands (PAIs), metabolic islands (MIs), resistance islands (RIs) and symbiotic islands (SIs). Although many software for the prediction of GEIs exist, they only focus on PAI prediction and present other limitations, such as complicated installation and inconvenient user interfaces. Here, we present GIPSy, the genomic island prediction software, a standalone and user-friendly software for the prediction of GEIs, built on our previously developed pathogenicity island prediction software (PIPS). We also present four application cases in which we crosslink data from literature to PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs predicted by GIPSy. Briefly, GIPSy correctly predicted the following previously described GEIs: 13 PAIs larger than 30kb in Escherichia coli CFT073; 1 MI for Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243, which seems to be a miscellaneous island; 1 RI of Acinetobacter baumannii AYE, named AbaR1; and, 1 SI of Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 presenting a mosaic structure. GIPSy is the first life-style-specific genomic island prediction software to perform analyses of PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs, opening a door for a better understanding of bacterial genome plasticity and the adaptation to new traits. PMID:26376473

  12. GIPSy: Genomic island prediction software.

    PubMed

    Soares, Siomar C; Geyik, Hakan; Ramos, Rommel T J; de Sá, Pablo H C G; Barbosa, Eudes G V; Baumbach, Jan; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Miyoshi, Anderson; Tauch, Andreas; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco

    2016-08-20

    Bacteria are highly diverse organisms that are able to adapt to a broad range of environments and hosts due to their high genomic plasticity. Horizontal gene transfer plays a pivotal role in this genome plasticity and in evolution by leaps through the incorporation of large blocks of genome sequences, ordinarily known as genomic islands (GEIs). GEIs may harbor genes encoding virulence, metabolism, antibiotic resistance and symbiosis-related functions, namely pathogenicity islands (PAIs), metabolic islands (MIs), resistance islands (RIs) and symbiotic islands (SIs). Although many software for the prediction of GEIs exist, they only focus on PAI prediction and present other limitations, such as complicated installation and inconvenient user interfaces. Here, we present GIPSy, the genomic island prediction software, a standalone and user-friendly software for the prediction of GEIs, built on our previously developed pathogenicity island prediction software (PIPS). We also present four application cases in which we crosslink data from literature to PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs predicted by GIPSy. Briefly, GIPSy correctly predicted the following previously described GEIs: 13 PAIs larger than 30kb in Escherichia coli CFT073; 1 MI for Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243, which seems to be a miscellaneous island; 1 RI of Acinetobacter baumannii AYE, named AbaR1; and, 1 SI of Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 presenting a mosaic structure. GIPSy is the first life-style-specific genomic island prediction software to perform analyses of PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs, opening a door for a better understanding of bacterial genome plasticity and the adaptation to new traits.

  13. Space Radar Image of Santa Cruz Island, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This space radar image shows the rugged topography of Santa Cruz Island, part of the Channel Islands National Park in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Santa Barbara and Ventura, Calif. Santa Cruz, the largest island of the national park, is host to hundreds of species of plants, animals and birds, at least eight of which are known nowhere else in the world. The island is bisected by the Santa Cruz Island fault, which appears as a prominent line running from the upper left to the lower right in this image. The fault is part of the Transverse Range fault system, which extends eastward from this area across Los Angeles to near Palm Springs, Calif. Color variations in this image are related to the different types of vegetation and soils at the surface. For example, grass-covered coastal lowlands appear gold, while chaparral and other scrub areas appear pink and blue. The image is 35 kilometers by 32 kilometers (22 miles by 20 miles) and is centered at 33.8 degrees north latitude, 119.6 degrees west longitude. North is toward upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 10, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  14. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  15. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  16. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  17. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  18. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  19. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  20. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  1. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  2. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area...

  3. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1,...

  4. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were four times more likely than non- ... a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander adults have developed several of the high ...

  5. Red blood cells, spherocytosis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Spherocytosis is a hereditary disorder of the red blood cells (RBCs), which may be associated with a mild anemia. Typically, the affected RBCs are small, spherically shaped, and lack the light centers seen ...

  6. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? RBC Antibody Identification Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Alloantibody Identification; Antibody ID, RBC; RBC Ab ID Formal name: Red Blood Cell ...

  7. [Relationships between island characteristics and arthropod diversity in Thousand-Island Lake].

    PubMed

    Ren, Li-jun; Xu, Zhi-hong; Lu, Jian-bo; Zhao, Gai; Zhang, Qun

    2009-09-01

    In April, May, August, and October 2006, grid-based sampling method was adopted to investigate the diversity and abundance of arthropods on 50 islands in the Thousand-island Lake, with the effects of island area, island altitude, island shape, inter-island distance, and island-mainland distance on arthropod species richness analyzed. With the increase of island area, the richness of total arthropod species and that of the arthropod species with high- and low- dispersal ability all increased, and the relationships between island area and arthropod species richness corresponded to the classical island biogeography model. The island area, island altitude, and island shape had comprehensive effects on the arthropod species richness, while inter-island distance and island-mainland distance had less effects. The richness of total arthropod species had a significant positive correlation with island altitude and island shape, that of the arthropod species with high- dispersal ability was significantly positively correlated with island area and island altitude, while no significant relationship was observed between the richness of arthropod species with low-dispersal ability and the island characteristics.

  8. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...

  9. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...

  10. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...

  11. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...

  12. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of...

  13. From seamount to oceanic island, Porto Santo, central East-Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Ralf; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich

    2002-08-01

    The uplifted and deeply eroded volcanic succession of Porto Santo (central East-Atlantic) is the product of a wide spectrum of dynamic processes that are active in shoaling to emergent seamounts. Two superimposed lapilli cones marking the base of the exposed section are interpreted as having formed from numerous submarine to subaerial phreatomagmatic explosions, pyroclastic fragmentation being subordinate. The lower basaltic and the upper mugearitic to trachytic sections are dominated by redeposited tephra and are called 'lapilli cone aprons'. Vertical growth due to accumulation of tephra, voluminous intrusions, and minor pillowed lava flows produced ephemeral islands which were subsequently leveled by wave erosion, as shown by conglomerate beds. Periods of volcanic quiescence are represented by abundant biocalcarenite lenses at several stratigraphic levels. The loose tephra piles became stabilized by widespread syn-volcanic intrusions such as dikes and trachytic to rhyolitic domes welding the volcanic and volcaniclastic ensemble into a solid edifice. Shattering of a submarine extrusive trachytic dome by pyroclastic and phreatomagmatic explosions, accentuated by quench fragmentation, resulted in pumice- and crystal-rich deposits emplaced in a prominent submarine erosional channel. The dome must have produced an island as indicated by a collapse breccia comprising surf-rounded boulders of dome material. Subaerial explosive activity is represented by scoria cones and tuff cones. Basaltic lava flows built a resistant cap that protected the island from wave erosion. Some lava flows entered the sea and formed two distinct types of lava delta: 1. closely-packed pillow lava and massive tabular lava flows along the southwestern coast of Porto Santo, and 2. a steeply inclined pillow-hyaloclastite breccia prism composed of foreset-bedded hydroclastic breccia, variably-shaped pillows, and thin sheet flows capped by subhorizontal submarine to subaerial lava flows along the

  14. Eustatic and far-field tectonic control on the development of an intra-platform carbonate-shoal complex: upper tongue of the Tanglewood Member, Upper Ordovician Lexington Limestone, central Kentucky, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, Dibya Raj; Ettensohn, Frank R.; Clepper, Marta L.

    2016-11-01

    The Lexington or Trenton Limestone is an Upper Ordovician (Chatfieldian-Edenian; upper Sandbian-lower Katian), temperate-water unit, averaging about 60-m thick, that was deposited in relatively shallow waters across the Lexington Platform in east-central United States during the Taconian Orogeny. Lexington/Trenton shallow-water deposition ended across most of the platform in late Chatfieldian time and from that point deepened upward into the more shale-rich Clays Ferry, Point Pleasant and Kope formations due to apparent sea-level rise. In central Kentucky, however, deposition of the Lexington Limestone continued into early Edenian time and includes up to 50 m of additional coarse calcarenites and calcirudites at the top, which form the Tanglewood buildup and reflect locally regressive conditions, apparently related to local structural uplift. Consequently, in central Kentucky, the Lexington is more than 100-m thick, and Lexington deposition on the buildup continued into early Edenian time as an intra-platform shoal complex that tongues out into deeper-water units in all directions. In an attempt to understand how this shoal complex developed, we examined the last major body of coarse skeletal sands in the central Kentucky Lexington Limestone, the upper tongue of the Tanglewood Member, a 12-m-thick succession of fossiliferous calcarenite and calcirudite that occurs across an area of 5200 km2 near the center of the Lexington Platform. Although relatively homogeneous, the upper Tanglewood is divisible into five, small-scale, fining-upward, sequence-like cycles, which contain prominent, widespread deformed horizons. Facies analysis indicates that four lithofacies, which reflect distinct depositional environments, comprise the sequences across the shoal complex. Lithofacies were correlated across the shoal complex by integrating cyclicity and widespread deformed horizons in order to delineate the locations of major depositional environments. Facies analysis shows that

  15. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  16. Synthesizing knowledge of ocean islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefferson, Anne J.; Lees, Jonathan M.; McClinton, Tim

    2011-11-01

    AGU Chapman Conference on the Galápagos as a Laboratory for the Earth Sciences; Puerto Ayora, Galápagos, Ecuador, 25-30 July 2011 An inspiration for Darwin's theory of evolution, the Galápagos Islands and surrounding waters are a natural laboratory for a wide range of Earth science topics. The Galápagos are perfectly situated for geophysical and geochemical investigations of deep-Earth processes at a hot spot, and proximity to a spreading center allows exploration of hot spot-ridge interactions. Several highly active volcanoes show rapid deformation facilitating investigation of melt transport paths and volcanic structure. The islands exhibit a range of ages, eruptive styles, and climatic zones that allow analysis of hydrogeologic and geomorphic processes. The Galápagos Islands are a World Heritage Site and are an ideal setting for developing an integrated biological and geological understanding of ocean island evolution.

  17. Eocene paleosols of King George Island, Maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinola, Diogo; Portes, Raquel; Schaefer, Carlos; Kühn, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Red layers between lava flows on King George Island, Maritime Antarctica, were formed during the Eocene, which was one of the warmest periods on Earth in the Cenozoic. Our hypothesis is that these red layers are paleosols formed in periods of little or no volcanic activity. Therefore, our main objective was to identify the main pedogenic properties and features to distinguish these from diagenetic features formed after the lava emplacement. Additionally, we compared our results with volcanic soils formed under different climates to find the best present analogue. The macromorphological features indicate a pedogenic origin, because of the occurrence of well-defined horizons based on colour and structure. Micromorphological analyses showed that most important pedogenic features are the presence of biological channels, plant residues, anisotropic b-fabric, neoformed and illuvial clay and distinct soil microstructure. Although the paleosols are not strongly weathered, the geochemical data also support the pedogenic origin despite of diagenetic features as the partial induration of the profiles and zeolites filling nearly all voids in the horizons in contact with the overlying lava flow, indicating circulation of hydrothermal fluids. The macromorphological and micromorphological features of these paleosols are similar to the soils formed under seasonal climates. Thus, these paleosol features do not correspond to the other proxies (e.g. sediment, plant fossils), which indicate a wet, non-seasonal climate, as in Valdivian Forest, Chile, during the Eocene in King George Island

  18. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows the western end of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution.

    Black areas near the top of the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface at the top of the image.

    This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

    This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 10 km (6.2 miles) Location: 14.02 deg. North lat., 171.52 deg. West Orientation: North at top Date Acquired: August 10, 2000

  19. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows most of the northern coast of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the line of circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution. The capital of Western Samoa, Apia, is in the lower left of the image.

    Angular black areas in the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface , along the left side of the image.

    This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

    This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 63 km (37.3 miles) Location: 14.16 deg. North lat., 171.75 deg. West Orientation: North towards

  20. Predicting red wolf release success in the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Manen, Frank T.; Crawford, Barron A.; Clark, Joseph D.

    2000-01-01

    Although the red wolf (Canis rufus) was once found throughout the southeastern United States, indiscriminate killing and habitat destruction reduced its range to a small section of coastal Texas and Louisiana. Wolves trapped from 1973 to 1980 were taken to establish a captive breeding program that was used to repatriate 2 mainland and 3 island red wolf populations. We collected data from 320 red wolf releases in these areas and classified each as a success or failure based on survival and reproductive criteria, and whether recaptures were necessary to resolve conflicts with humans. We evaluated the relations between release success and conditions at the release sites, characteristics of released wolves, and release procedures. Although <44% of the variation in release success was explained, model performance based on jackknife tests indicated a 72-80% correct prediction rate for the 4 operational models we developed. The models indicated that success was associated with human influences on the landscape and the level of wolf habituation to humans prior to release. We applied the models to 31 prospective areas for wolf repatriation and calculated an index of release success for each area. Decision-makers can use these models to objectively rank prospective release areas and compare strengths and weaknesses of each.

  1. Habitability of planets around red dwarf stars.

    PubMed

    Heath, M J; Doyle, L R; Joshi, M M; Haberle, R M

    1999-08-01

    Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible.

  2. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  3. Eco-geomorphic processes that maintain a small coral reef island: Ballast Island in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayanne, Hajime; Aoki, Kenji; Suzuki, Takuya; Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya; Ide, Yoichi; Iwatsuka, Yuudai; Takahashi, Kenya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Sekimoto, Tsunehiro; Isobe, Masahiko

    2016-10-01

    Landform changes in Ballast Island, a small coral reef island in the Ryukyu Islands, were investigated by remote sensing analysis and a field survey. The area of the island almost doubled after a mass coral bleaching event in 1998. Coral branches generated by the mass mortality and broken by waves were delivered and stocked on a reef flat and accumulated to expand the area of the island. In 2012 high waves generated by typhoons also changed the island's topography. Overall, the island moved in the downdrift direction of the higher waves. Waves impacting both sides of the island piled up a large volume of coral gravels above the high-tide level. Eco-geomorphic processes, including a supply of calcareous materials from the corals on the same reef especially during stormy wave conditions, were key factors in maintaining the dynamic topographic features of this small coral reef island.

  4. Rough-Legged Buzzards, Arctic Foxes and Red Foxes in a Tundra Ecosystem without Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Pokrovsky, Ivan; Ehrich, Dorothée; Ims, Rolf A.; Kondratyev, Alexander V.; Kruckenberg, Helmut; Kulikova, Olga; Mihnevich, Julia; Pokrovskaya, Liya; Shienok, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Small rodents with multi-annual population cycles strongly influence the dynamics of food webs, and in particular predator-prey interactions, across most of the tundra biome. Rodents are however absent from some arctic islands, and studies on performance of arctic predators under such circumstances may be very instructive since rodent cycles have been predicted to collapse in a warming Arctic. Here we document for the first time how three normally rodent-dependent predator species—rough-legged buzzard, arctic fox and red fox – perform in a low-arctic ecosystem with no rodents. During six years (in 2006-2008 and 2011-2013) we studied diet and breeding performance of these predators in the rodent-free Kolguev Island in Arctic Russia. The rough-legged buzzards, previously known to be a small rodent specialist, have only during the last two decades become established on Kolguev Island. The buzzards successfully breed on the island at stable low density, but with high productivity based on goslings and willow ptarmigan as their main prey – altogether representing a novel ecological situation for this species. Breeding density of arctic fox varied from year to year, but with stable productivity based on mainly geese as prey. The density dynamic of the arctic fox appeared to be correlated with the date of spring arrival of the geese. Red foxes breed regularly on the island but in very low numbers that appear to have been unchanged over a long period – a situation that resemble what has been recently documented from Arctic America. Our study suggests that the three predators found breeding on Kolguev Island possess capacities for shifting to changing circumstances in low-arctic ecosystem as long as other small - medium sized terrestrial herbivores are present in good numbers. PMID:25692786

  5. Rough-legged buzzards, Arctic foxes and red foxes in a tundra ecosystem without rodents.

    PubMed

    Pokrovsky, Ivan; Ehrich, Dorothée; Ims, Rolf A; Kondratyev, Alexander V; Kruckenberg, Helmut; Kulikova, Olga; Mihnevich, Julia; Pokrovskaya, Liya; Shienok, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Small rodents with multi-annual population cycles strongly influence the dynamics of food webs, and in particular predator-prey interactions, across most of the tundra biome. Rodents are however absent from some arctic islands, and studies on performance of arctic predators under such circumstances may be very instructive since rodent cycles have been predicted to collapse in a warming Arctic. Here we document for the first time how three normally rodent-dependent predator species-rough-legged buzzard, arctic fox and red fox - perform in a low-arctic ecosystem with no rodents. During six years (in 2006-2008 and 2011-2013) we studied diet and breeding performance of these predators in the rodent-free Kolguev Island in Arctic Russia. The rough-legged buzzards, previously known to be a small rodent specialist, have only during the last two decades become established on Kolguev Island. The buzzards successfully breed on the island at stable low density, but with high productivity based on goslings and willow ptarmigan as their main prey - altogether representing a novel ecological situation for this species. Breeding density of arctic fox varied from year to year, but with stable productivity based on mainly geese as prey. The density dynamic of the arctic fox appeared to be correlated with the date of spring arrival of the geese. Red foxes breed regularly on the island but in very low numbers that appear to have been unchanged over a long period - a situation that resemble what has been recently documented from Arctic America. Our study suggests that the three predators found breeding on Kolguev Island possess capacities for shifting to changing circumstances in low-arctic ecosystem as long as other small - medium sized terrestrial herbivores are present in good numbers.

  6. Rough-legged buzzards, Arctic foxes and red foxes in a tundra ecosystem without rodents.

    PubMed

    Pokrovsky, Ivan; Ehrich, Dorothée; Ims, Rolf A; Kondratyev, Alexander V; Kruckenberg, Helmut; Kulikova, Olga; Mihnevich, Julia; Pokrovskaya, Liya; Shienok, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Small rodents with multi-annual population cycles strongly influence the dynamics of food webs, and in particular predator-prey interactions, across most of the tundra biome. Rodents are however absent from some arctic islands, and studies on performance of arctic predators under such circumstances may be very instructive since rodent cycles have been predicted to collapse in a warming Arctic. Here we document for the first time how three normally rodent-dependent predator species-rough-legged buzzard, arctic fox and red fox - perform in a low-arctic ecosystem with no rodents. During six years (in 2006-2008 and 2011-2013) we studied diet and breeding performance of these predators in the rodent-free Kolguev Island in Arctic Russia. The rough-legged buzzards, previously known to be a small rodent specialist, have only during the last two decades become established on Kolguev Island. The buzzards successfully breed on the island at stable low density, but with high productivity based on goslings and willow ptarmigan as their main prey - altogether representing a novel ecological situation for this species. Breeding density of arctic fox varied from year to year, but with stable productivity based on mainly geese as prey. The density dynamic of the arctic fox appeared to be correlated with the date of spring arrival of the geese. Red foxes breed regularly on the island but in very low numbers that appear to have been unchanged over a long period - a situation that resemble what has been recently documented from Arctic America. Our study suggests that the three predators found breeding on Kolguev Island possess capacities for shifting to changing circumstances in low-arctic ecosystem as long as other small - medium sized terrestrial herbivores are present in good numbers. PMID:25692786

  7. Kelp forest monitoring 1994 annual report. Channel Islands National Park. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kushner, D.; Lerma, D.; Richards, D.

    1994-12-31

    The 1994 results of the Channel Islands Natonal Park Kelp Forest Monitoring Project are described in this report. Population dynamics of 68 taxa or categories of algae, fish, and invertebrates were measured at 16 permanent sites around the five islands within the park. Survey techniques utilized SCUBA and surface-supplied-air, and included quadrants, band transects, random point contacts, fish transects, video transects, size frequency measurements, artificial recruitment modules, and species list surveys. Temperature data was collected using temperature loggers deployed at each of the sixteen sites. Size frequency measurements were taken from artificial recruitment modules at ten sites. In 1994, 13 sites had giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, forests, one site was dominated by the aggregating red sea cucumber, Pachythyone rubra, one site was dominated by red sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus francisanus, and another by purple sea urchins, S. purpuratus. Wasting disease was observed in sea stars and wasting syndrome was apparent in sea urchins.

  8. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...

  9. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...

  10. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...

  11. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...

  12. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′...

  13. Eddies off the Queen Charlotte Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The bright red, green, and turquoise patches to the west of British Columbia's Queen Charlotte Islands and Alaska's Alexander Archipelago highlight the presence of biological activity in the ocean. These colors indicate high concentrations of chlorophyll, the primary pigment found in phytoplankton. Notice that there are a number of eddies visible in the Pacific Ocean in this pseudo-color scene. The eddies are formed by strong outflow currents from rivers along North America's west coast that are rich in nutrients from the springtime snowmelt running off the mountains. This nutrient-rich water helps stimulate the phytoplankton blooms within the eddies. (For more details, read Tracking Eddies that Feed the Sea.) To the west of the eddies in the water, another type of eddy-this one in the atmosphere-forms the clouds into the counterclockwise spiral characteristic of a low pressure system in the Northern Hemisphere. (Click on the image above to see it at full resolution; or click to see the scene in true-color.) The snow-covered mountains of British Columbia are visible in the upper righthand corner of the image. This scene was constructed using SeaWiFS data collected on June 13, 2002. SeaWiFS image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  14. Red cell metabolism studies on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengel, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    Blood samples from Spacelab crewmembers were studied for possible environment effects on red cell components. Analysis involved peroxidation of red cell lipids, enzymes of red cell metabolism, and levels of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid and adenosine triphosphate. Results show that there is no evidence of lipid peroxidation, that biochemical effect known to be associated with irreversible red cell damage. Changes observed in glycolytic intermediates and enzymes cannot be directly implicated as indicating evidence of red cell damage.

  15. OUTERBRIDGE CROSSING BRIDGE IN PERSPECTIVE, STATEN ISLAND ON RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OUTERBRIDGE CROSSING BRIDGE IN PERSPECTIVE, STATEN ISLAND ON RIGHT - Outerbridge Crossing Bridge, Spanning Arthur Kill from New Jersey to Staten Island, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  16. 76 FR 22033 - Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN AGENCY... Safety Unit Duluth, MN is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Red River, MN. This safety zone is...-0263 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T09-0263 Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN....

  17. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  18. Fossil mammoths from Santa Cruz Island, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushing, John; Daily, Marla; Noble, Elmer; Louise Roth, V.; Wenner, Adrian

    1984-05-01

    Mammoth remains on Santa Cruz Island, one of the four Northern Channel Islands of California, are very sparse, in marked contrast to those reported from Santa Rosa and San Miguel Islands of the same island group. A probable major reason for this scarcity is that Quaternary deposits are greatly restricted on Santa Cruz Island. It is proposed, contrary to popular opinion, that fossils found on Santa Cruz Island were derived from animals which died on the island, and were not transported there by humans. Reasons for this conclusion are that the size and geological context of the fossils are similar to those of the largest mammoth fossils of Santa Rosa Island, and that, in spite of extensive investigations by many persons, mammoth remains have not been found in middens, either on the islands or on the adjacent mainland.

  19. Changes of mercury contamination in red-crowned cranes, Grus japonensis, in East Hokkaido, Japan.

    PubMed

    Teraoka, Hiroki; Tagami, Yukari; Kudo, Moe; Miura, Yoshiaki; Okamoto, Erika; Matsumoto, Fumio; Koga, Kimiya; Uebayashi, Akiko; Shimura, Ryoji; Inoue, Masako; Momose, Kunikazu; Masatomi, Hiroyuki; Kitazawa, Takio; Hiraga, Takeo; Subramanian, Annamalai

    2012-07-01

    Red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) are native to eastern Hokkaido (island population), in contrast to the mainland, which migrates between the Amur River basin and eastern China-Korea peninsula. During the 1990s we found that Red-crowned cranes in Hokkaido were highly contaminated with mercury: however, the source was unknown. We investigated the time trend of mercury contamination in Red-crowned cranes. Total mercury levels in the livers and kidneys from cranes dead in the 2000s were lower than those dead in the 1990s. Feather is a major pathway of mercury excretion for many bird species and is used as an indicator of blood mercury level during feather growth. As internal organs from the specimens collected before 1988 were not available, we analyzed the flight feather shavings from stuffed Red-crowned cranes dead in 1959-1987 and found that the mercury level of feathers from cranes dead in the 1960s and 1970s was not more than those from the cranes dead in the 2000s. These results suggest that mercury contamination in Red-crowned cranes in Hokkaido decreased temporally during the 1990s-2000s. This indicates the possible occurrence of some mercury pollution in Red-crowned cranes' habitat in this region in the 1990s or before. PMID:22193864

  20. The role of red alder in riparian forest structure along headwater streams in southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orlikowska, E.H.; Deal, R.L.; Hennon, P.E.; Wipfli, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    We assessed the influence of red alder on tree species composition, stand density, tree size distribution, tree mortality, and potential for producing large conifers, in 38-42 yr old riparian forests along 13 headwater streams in the Maybeso and Harris watersheds on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. Red alder ranged from 0 to 53% of the total live basal area of the stands. Tree density, basal area of live and dead trees, and mean diameter of live conifers were not significantly related to the percent of alder as a proportion of total stand live basal area within these riparian forests. The mean diameter of the 100 largest conifers per hectare (the largest trees) was similar among different sites and appeared unrelated to the amount of alder in the stands. The mean diameter of dead conifers increased slightly with increasing proportion of red alder. Most dead trees were small and died standing. Red alder was much more concentrated immediately along stream margins (within 0-1 m distance from the stream bank vs. > 1 m). The presence of red alder did not inhibit the production of large-diameter conifers, and both alder and conifers provided small woody debris for fishless headwater streams in southeastern Alaska. Red alder is an important structural component of young-growth riparian stands.