Science.gov

Sample records for red oak revealed

  1. Red Oak Borer

    Treesearch

    D. E. Donley; R.E. Acciavatti

    1980-01-01

    The red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman)3, is an important member of the oak borer complex that permanently damages the wood of living oak trees and causes a decrease in lumber grade. The loss in grade can amount to 40 percent of the current tree value, which, at today's prices, is about $80 per thousand board feet for factory grade lumber in terms of...

  2. Pyrosequencing of the northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) chloroplast genome reveals high quality polymorphisms for population management

    Treesearch

    Lisa W. Alexander; Keith E. Woeste

    2014-01-01

    Given the low intraspecific chloroplast diversity detected in northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), more powerful genetic tools are necessary to accurately characterize Q. rubra chloroplast diversity and structure. We report the sequencing, assembly, and annotation of the chloroplast genome of northern red oak via pyrosequencing and...

  3. Storing Red Oak Acorns

    Treesearch

    F. T. Bonner

    1973-01-01

    Cherrybark, Shumard, and water oak acorns can be stored for 3 years or longer if kept at a moisture content of at least 30 percent of fresh weight and at a temperature of 37F. Polyethylene bags are good containers.

  4. Chloroplast DNA variation of northern red oak

    Treesearch

    Jeanne Romero-Severson; Preston Aldrich; Yi Feng; Weilin Sun; Charles Michler

    2003-01-01

    Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation was examined in 48 northern red oaks at 14 sites representing contrasting glacial histories and age structures within the state of Indiana in the United States. PCR-RFLP of three intergenic regions revealed five haplotypes. Haplotype I was common to seven sites and was the most frequent (17 trees). Haplotype II was common to five sites...

  5. Success of Underplanting Northern Red Oaks

    Treesearch

    Martin A. Spetich; Daniel C. Dey; Paul S. Johnson; David L. Graney

    2004-01-01

    We summarize results of the growth and survival of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings 11 years after planting in shelterwoods in the Boston Mountains of Arkansas. Shelterwood overstories were harvested 3 years after underplanting > 4,000 northern red oak seedlings. Woody vegetation that was competing with planted seedlings received two...

  6. The red oak - white oak forests of the Anthracite Region

    Treesearch

    C. F. Burnham; M. J. Ferree; F. E. Cunningham

    1947-01-01

    The red oak - white oak forests of the Anthracite Region occupy as substantial portion - 28.6 percent or 915,200 acres - of the region's 3,198,400 acres of forest land. These forests have been so heavily cut for lumber and mine timbers during the past 100 years and have been so badly ravaged by fire following these heavy cuttings that in their present condition...

  7. Insects that damage northern red oak acorns

    Treesearch

    Lester P. Gibson

    1982-01-01

    From 1961 to 1964 and in 1979, the insects found damaging acorns of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) in their relative order of abundance were: Curculio proboscideus F., C. sulcatulus (Casey), Melissopus latiferreanus (Wals.), C. nasicus (Say), C. orthorhynchus...

  8. Sustaining northern red oak forests: managing oak from regeneration to canopy dominance in mature stands

    Treesearch

    Daniel C. Dey; Gary W. Miller; John M. Kabrick

    2008-01-01

    Across the range of northern red oak, managers have problems sustaining current stocking of northern red oak in forests. Oak species are adapted to frequent stand disturbances that reduce the abundance of shade tolerant competitors and control fast-growing pioneer species. A widely recommended approach to regenerating northern red oak is to develop relatively large...

  9. Oak decline and red oak borer outbreak: impact in upland oak-hickory forests of Arkansas, USA

    Treesearch

    Laurel J. Haavik; Joshua S. Jones; Larry D. Galligan; James M. Guldin; Fred M. Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Oak-hickory forests in the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas recently experienced an episode of oak mortality in concert with an outbreak of the red oak borer (Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)). We utilized data from the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service to explore changes in percent red oak (Quercus...

  10. Sulfuryl fluoride fumigation of red oak logs eradicates the oak wilt fungus

    Treesearch

    Elmer L. Schmidt; Jennifer Juzwik; Brian Schneider

    1997-01-01

    Preliminary field trials using red oak logs from trees dying from oak wilt disease were successful in eliminating oak wilt fungus from sapwood after fumigation with sulfuryl fluoride for 72 h under tarp. These results support earlier laboratory data on the fungitoxicity of sulfuryl fluoride as a potential replacement for methyl bromide of exported red oak veneer logs....

  11. Acorn production in red oak

    Treesearch

    Daniel C. Dey

    1995-01-01

    Manipulation of stand stocking through thinning can increase the amount of oak in the upper crown classes and enhance individual tree characteristics that promote good acorn production. Identification of good acorn producers before thinning or shelterwood harvests can be used to retain them in a stand. Stocking charts can be used to time thinnings and to estimate acorn...

  12. Fertilization Tests With Potted Red Oak Seedlings

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Phares

    1971-01-01

    Soil-pot tests with red oak seedlings indicated that forest soils supplied more N and P and produced better seedling growth than old-field soils. Growth was closely correlated with content of N and P in the foliage. K fertilization did not improve seedling growth on any of the soils studied.

  13. Decay not serious in northern red oak

    Treesearch

    Frederick H. Berry; John A. Beaton

    1971-01-01

    A study of 114 northern red oak, Quercus rubra, indicated that decay is not serious during the time necessary to produce high-quality saw logs and veneer logs. Two heart-rot fungi, Poria oleraceae and P. cocos, accounted for almost 25 percent of the total decay volume in the study trees. Basal fire wounds, dead...

  14. The impact of strip clearcutting on red oak seedling development

    Treesearch

    Jamie L. Schuler; Michael Boyce; Gary W. Miller

    2017-01-01

    A mature upland yellow-poplar/red oak stand was harvested using an alternating strip clearcut method. Red oak seedlings were planted across a light gradient between the cut and residual strips to assess the potential ability of the residual strips to foster the development of competitive oak seedlings over time. After one growing season, no differences in seedling...

  15. A Dendrochronological Analysis of Red Oak Borer Abundance

    Treesearch

    Rose-Marie Muzika; Richard P. Guyette

    2004-01-01

    Unprecedented outbreaks of red oak borer (Enaphalodes rufulus Haldemann) have occurred in the lower Midwestern United States. Although generally not a mortality agent, red oak borer appears to contribute to general oak decline and mortality. The objective of this project was to explore dendrochronology as a means of determining the role of tree age,...

  16. Quality Characteristics of Appalachian Red Oak Lumber

    Treesearch

    Janice K Wiedenbeck; Charles J. Gatchell; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1995-01-01

    Red oak lumber defect information derived from a well-constructed board data bank was analyzed. The potential utility of No. 1 Common and No. 2A Common lumber is indicated by the finding that 23 percent of the No. 1 Common boards and 35 percent of the No. 2A Common boards in the data bank contain clear-face cutting percentages that meet the minimum requirement for the...

  17. 1992 Data Bank for Red Oak Lumber

    Treesearch

    Charles J. Gatchell; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Elizabeth S. Walker; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Data Bank for Red Oak Lumber is a collection of fully described FAS, Selects, No. 1 Common, and No. 2A Common boards (a total of 1,578 at present). The data bank has two unique features to aid in sample selection. The first feature is the double grading of FAS, No. 1 Common, and No. 2A Common boards to reflect the surface area in grading cuttings when grading...

  18. Site Index Predictions for Red Oaks and White Oak in the Boston Mountains of Arkansas

    Treesearch

    D.L. Graney

    1977-01-01

    The relationship of soil and topography to site indices of northern red (Quercus rubra L. ), black (Q. uelutina Lam.) and white (Q. alba L.) oaks in the Boston Mountains indicates that white oaks should be favored for management on the finer-textured soils and on good south and west slope sites. Both red oaks and white oak could be managed on north- and east-facing...

  19. Foliar nutrient concentrations of oak, hickory, and red maple

    Treesearch

    Amy J. Scherzer; Robert P. Long; Joanne Rebbeck

    2003-01-01

    Early autumn foliar nutrient concentrations of overstory oak (white oak [Quercus alba L.] or chestnut oak [Q. prinus L.]) understory hickory (mockernut hickory [Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt.] or pignut hickory [C. glabra (Mill.) Sweet]), and both overstory and understory red maple (...

  20. Factors limiting northern red oak reproduction in Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    Russell S. Walters; L. R. Auchmoody

    1993-01-01

    When harvested, upland oak forests of northwestern Pennsylvania generally regenerate to new forests dominated by non-oak species. In 1988, the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station began to identify and learn to manipulate factors that limit the establishment and development of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings in second-generation...

  1. Oak Dispersal Syndromes: Do Red and White Oaks Exhibit Different Dispersal Srategies?

    Treesearch

    Michael Steele; Peter Smallwood; William B. Terzaghi; John E. Carlson; Thomas conteras; Amy McEuen

    2004-01-01

    We provide an overview of the ecological and evolutionary interactions between oaks and several of their dispersal agents, and review a series of studies that demonstrate how various acorn characteristics affect feeding and caching decisions of these animals, which in turn may influence oak dispersal and establishment. We demonstrate that acorns of red oak species show...

  2. How pallets with red oak deckboards performed in use

    Treesearch

    Robert S. Kurtenacker

    1975-01-01

    In-use tests in a combination brick and cement block yard and subsequent laboratory tests indicated that laminated pallet deckboards made from knife-cut, low-grade red oak logs can perform as well as deckboards of solid red oak. Performance was not significantly different between laminated oak deckboard pallets assembled with 2-l/2-in.-long by 15-gage staples and...

  3. Chemical Properties Associated with Bacterial Wetwood in Red Oaks

    Treesearch

    Zicai Xu; Theodor D. Leininger; Andy W.C. Lee; Frank H. Tainter

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial wetwood is a major cause of value loss in the red oak lumber industry in the United States. Red oak trees in Mississippi, South Carolina, and Florida were sampled and evaluated for certain chemical properties possibly associated with the wetwood condition. Specific variables investigated were pH and concentmtions of methane, cations (Na+. Ca++, K+, and Mg...

  4. Amplification of North American Red Oak Microsatellite Markers in European White Oaks and Chinese Chestnut

    Treesearch

    P. R. Aldrich; M. Jagtap; C. H. Michler; J. Romero-Severson

    2003-01-01

    We examined the cross-species amplification success of thirty microsatellite markers developed from North American northern red oak (Quercus rubra) in other members of the family Fagaceae. Sixteen of these markers are newly developed and we report primer sequences and amplification conditions here. Twelve of the thirty (40.0%) red oak markers...

  5. Elemental concentrations in foliage of red maple, red oak, and white oak in relation to atmospheric deposition in Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    D. D. Davis; J. M. Skelly; B. L. Nash

    1995-01-01

    Foliage was sampled in June and late August-early September in 1988 and 1989 from the outer crowns of codominant red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and white oak (Q. alba L.) trees in forest stands along an atmospheric deposition gradient in north-central Pennsylvania. Leaf samples...

  6. Effects of shading on growth and development of northern red oak, black oak, black cherry, and red maple seedlings. II. biomass partitioning and prediction

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1987-01-01

    Northern red oak, black oak, black cherry, and red maple seedlings were grown under light treatments ranging from 8 to 94% of full sunlight for 2 years. Growth was least at the lowest light level and total dry weight increased with increasing light. Total dry-weight rankings (largest to smallest) at all light levels were black cherry, northern red oak, black oak, and...

  7. Effect of acorn moisture content at sowing on germination and seedling growth of white oak and northern red oak

    Treesearch

    Shi-Jean Susana Sung; Paul P. Kormanik; Catharine D. Cook; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Taryn L. Kormanik

    2006-01-01

    White oak (Quercus alba L.) and northern red oak (Q. rubra L.) acorns were collected locally or from seed orchards in October 2002. Mean acorn moisture content (MC) was 48 percent for white oak and 39 percent for northern red oak. These acorns were air dried to different MCs before being sown into nursery beds in early December...

  8. Pollination biology of northern red and black oak

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Cecich; William W. Haenchen

    1995-01-01

    Pistillate flower abortion in northern red oak and black oak was evaluated in relation to pollination and fertilization. The presence, position, and characteristics of the pollen grains, pollen tubes, and ovules were determined with bright field and fluorescence microscopy. Flower survival counts were made weekly, from late April to mid- September. Both species have...

  9. Response of chestnut oak and red oak to drought and fertilization: growth and physiology

    Treesearch

    M.D. Kleiner; M.D. Abrams; J.C. Schultz

    1991-01-01

    Chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.) and red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings were grown for two seasons under two nutrient regimes: fertilizer + (NPK) and fertilizer - (No NPK). Beginning two weeks after budbreak, water was withheld for 10 weeks during the second growing season. Leaf water potentials, gas exchange measurements and...

  10. Efficacy of Alamo for prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of oak wilt in red oaks, 2004

    Treesearch

    K. Ward; J. Juzwik; S. Bernick

    2004-01-01

    An experiment (prophylactic study) to determine the efficacy of Alamo in preventing spread of C. fagacearum through grafted roots of oak wilt-affected and of apparently healthy red oaks was initiated in eight locations in east-central and southeastern Minnesota in Jul 2002.

  11. Mammal caching of oak acorns in a red pine and a mixed oak stand

    Treesearch

    E.R. Thorn; W.M. Tzilkowski

    1991-01-01

    Small mammal caching of oak (Quercus spp.) acorns in adjacent red pine (Pinus resinosa) and mixed-oak stands was investigated at The Penn State Experimental Forest, Huntingdon Co., Pennsylvania. Gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) and mice (Peromyscus spp.) were the most common acorn-caching...

  12. Propagation of Southern Red Oak and Water Oak by Rooted Cuttings

    Treesearch

    Horace J. Duncan; Fred R. Matthews

    1969-01-01

    Southern red oak and water oak, needed in studies of fusiform rust of southern pines, were propagated from cuttings of rooted stump sprouts and mature tree branches placed in outdoor propagation beds in June. Root strike and root development were increased when cuttings with basal wounds were treated with both the hormone IBA and the fungicide folpet. Cuttings from...

  13. Red oak borers become sterile when reared under continuous light

    Treesearch

    Jimmy R. Galford

    1975-01-01

    Red oak borers, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), reared under continuous light for 12 weeks became sterile. Sterility is thought to have been caused by light destroying vitamins essential for fertility

  14. Microcoppice: a new strategy for red oak clonal propagation

    Treesearch

    D.E. Harper; B.H. McCown

    1991-01-01

    The great demand for red oak (Quercus rubra L.) has forced plant propagators to consider viable methods of mass clonal propagation for the species. A process called 'microcoppicing' is presently being developed to help meet such needs.

  15. Patterns of northern red oak growth and mortality in western Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    J. R. McClenahen; R. J. Hutnik; D. D. Davis

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluates the extent and cause(s) of an observed decline of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) on a 50-km portion of a major anticlinal ridge in west central Pennsylvania, and illustrates an approach for evaluating tree declines. Long term annual observations of forest health revealed the onset of crown dieback in 1983, chiefly among red...

  16. Releasing red oak reproduction using a growing season application of Oust

    Treesearch

    Jamie L. Schuler; John Stephens

    2010-01-01

    In most cases, newly harvested upland oak stands contain sufficient numbers of red oak stems to form a fully stocked oak stand in the future. Unfortunately, many stands will not reach full stocking of oak due to intense competition from other non-oak reproduction. There are few feasible options to release established oak reproduction from other broadleaf woody or non-...

  17. The increasing sacrcity of red oaks in Mississippi river floodplain forestS: Influence of the residual overstory

    Treesearch

    Chadwick Dearing Oliver; E.C. Burkhardt; Daniel A. Skojac

    2005-01-01

    Red oaks - cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) willow oak (Quercus phellos L.), water oak (Quercus nigra L.), and Nuttall oak (Quercus texana Buckley; aka: Quercus nuttallii Palmer) - are not regrowing in Mississippi Delta river floodplain forests in the southeastern United...

  18. Red oak propagation at the Griffith State Nursery, Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin

    Treesearch

    Jim Storandt

    2002-01-01

    Annual seedling goals at Griffith are approximately 1 million bareroot red oak seedlings. We sell both 1+0 and 2+0 seedlings. Red Oak has become a major species in our nurseries over the past 15 years. In 1986, statewide distribution of red oak was 325,000 (1% of state production). Of this, 76,000 were from Griffith. In 1999, red oak distribution hit 2.7 million (13%...

  19. Monitoring oak-hickory forest change during an unprecedented red oak borer outbreak in the Ozark Mountains: 1990 to 2006

    Treesearch

    Joshua S. Jones; Jason A. Tullis; Laurel J. Haavik; James M. Guldin; Fred M. Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Upland oak-hickory forests in Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma experienced oak decline in the late 1990s and early 2000s during an unprecedented outbreak of a native beetle, the red oak borer (ROB), Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman). Although remote sensing supports frequent monitoring of continuously changing forests, comparable in situ observations are critical for...

  20. The effects of pruning treatments and initial seedling morphology on northern red oak seedling growth

    Treesearch

    Donald J. Kaczmarek; Phillip E. Pope

    1993-01-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings exhibit relatively high survival rates following planting, but their growth rates are often slow and extensive stem dieback can occur. This study was designed to investigate the growth responses of northern red oak seedlings planted with or without root-pruning or shoot-pruning. One-year-old (1-0) northern red oak nursery...

  1. The influence of shade on northern red oak seedlings growth and carbon balance

    Treesearch

    Jennifer L. Jennings

    1995-01-01

    One management problem of the Southern Appalachian mixed hardwood forest is the lack of development of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings on high quality sites. Regeneration of red oak is not the problem. Following the removal of a stand, a combination of new seedlings, advanced reproduction and stump sprouts ensure red oak's initial...

  2. Tree shelters increase heights of planted northern red oaks

    Treesearch

    D.O. Lantagne

    1991-01-01

    A clearcut in southern Michigan was planted to 2-0 northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings in the spring of 1987. Four treatments included: control (clearcut harvest only), woody brush control, plastic tree seedling shelters 122 cm tall, and woody brush control plus tree seedling shelters.

  3. Survival of northern red oak acorns after fall burning

    Treesearch

    L.R. Auchmoody; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1993-01-01

    Survival of recently fallen northern red oak acorns after exposure to a cool fall burn was evaluated in northwestern Pennsylvania. Although no acorns were consumed by the fire, some were charred. Between 40 and 49 percent of the acorns in the litter were destroyed. The fire was not hot enough to kill Curculio larvae within the acorns. Burned acorns infested with...

  4. Progress of Heart Rot Following Fire in Bottomland Red Oaks

    Treesearch

    E. Richard Toole; George M. Furnival

    1957-01-01

    The most important cause of cull in southern hardwood forests is heart rot that develops from wounds made by fire. This study derived means by which the forester working with bottomland red oaks can determine the amount of decay behind old fire scars and estimate the rot that can be expected from new wounds.

  5. Water Uptake and Germination of Red Oak Acorns

    Treesearch

    F. T. Bonner

    1968-01-01

    When pericarps were intact, water was absorbed by Nuttall, pin, cherrybark, and northern red oak acorns, mainly through the vascular openings of the cup scar. Uptake through the pericarp was greater for acorns with a thin waxy coating on the pericarp than for acorns with a heavy waxy coating. Splitting or removing the pericarp greatly speeded uptake. Osmotically...

  6. Shelterwood-planted northern red oaks: integrated costs and options

    Treesearch

    Martin A. Spetich; Daniel Dey; Paul. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    Tree biology, environmental site conditions, relative monetary costs, management options, and the competitive struggle between planted trees and other vegetation were integrated when underplanting northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings in Boston Mountain shelterwoods. This approach provides insight into the collective costs (...

  7. Protecting red oak seedlings with tree shelters in northwestern Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    Russell S. Walters; Russell S. Walters

    1993-01-01

    Examines the growth and survival of planted and natural red oak seedlings and seedlings from planted acorns within translucent tan tree shelters, fences, and unprotected controls under a shelterwood seed-cut stand. Seedlings planted within tree shelters and fences were inside tree shelters. Natural seedlings grew very little and their height inside and outside of tree...

  8. Microsatellite markers for northern red oak (Fagaceae: Quercus rubra)

    Treesearch

    Preston R. Aldrich; Charles H. Michler; Weilin Sun; Jeanne Romero-Severson

    2002-01-01

    We provide primer sequences for 14 (GA)n microsatellite loci developed from northern red oak, an important timber species. We screened loci using two sets of samples. A parent-offspring set included DNA from seven acorns collected from one mother tree along with maternal DNA, to determine that all progeny carried a maternal allele at each locus....

  9. Detection of defects in red oak deckboards by ultrasonic scanning

    Treesearch

    Mohammed F. Kabir; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Mark E. Schafer

    2000-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to detect defects in red oak (Quercus rubra, L.) deckboards by ultrasonic scanning. Scanning of the deckboards was carried out with two rolling transducers in a pitch-catch arrangement with pallet parts moving between the transducers at 70 ft/m and 220 ft/m. Data were collected, stored and processed using LabViewTM software. The defects...

  10. In vitro propagation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.)

    Treesearch

    G. Vengadesan; Paula M. Pijut

    2009-01-01

    In vitro propagation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) shoots was successful from cotyledonary node explants excised from 8-wk-old in vitro grown seedlings. Initially, four shoots per explant were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.4 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.45 ...

  11. Vegetative propagation of mature and juvenile northern red oak

    Treesearch

    James J. Zaczek; K. C. Steiner; C. W., Jr. Heuser

    1993-01-01

    Rooting trials were established to evaluate rooting success of cuttings from mature and juvenile, grafted and ungrafted northern red oak (NRO). Buds from 4 mature NRO ortets and juvenile seedlings were grafted onto juvenile and mature rootstock. Cuttings were collected from the grafts and from juvenile and mature shoots developed in situ and...

  12. Predicting yields from Appalachian red oak logs and lumber

    Treesearch

    Daniel E. Dunmire

    1971-01-01

    One utilization problem is in pinpointing how to efficiently and effectively recover usable parts from logs, bolts, and lumber. Yields, which are output divided by input, provide a key to managers who make processing decisions. Research results are applied to indicate yields of graded lumber and dimension stock from graded Appalachian red oak (group) logs. How to...

  13. Interannual consistency of gross energy in red oak acorns

    Treesearch

    A.G. Leach; R.M. Kaminski; J.N. Straub; A.W. Ezell; T.S. Hawkins; T.D. Leininger

    2013-01-01

    Red oak Quercus spp., Subgenus Erythrobalanus acorns are forage for mallards Anas platyrhyncos, wood ducks Aix sponsa, and other wildlife that use bottomland hardwood forests in the southeastern United States. However, annual variation in true metabolizable energy from acorns would affect carrying-capacity estimates of bottomland hardwood forests for wintering ducks....

  14. Infectivity and sporulation of Phytophthora ramorum on northern red oak and chestnut oak

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Branches from northern red and chestnut oak seedlings were dip-inoculated with 5,000 sporangia per milliliter of Phytophthora ramorum and incubated at 100 percent relative humidity in dew chambers for 6 days. Three plants were then used to assess sporangia production, while the other three plants w...

  15. Sporulation capacity of Phytophthora ramorum on northern red oak and chestnut oak

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Branches from six 2 to 3-year old northern red and chestnut oak seedlings were dip-inoculated with ca. 5,000 sporangia per milliliter of Phytophthora ramorum isolate Pr-6 and incubated at 100 percent relative humidity in dew chambers for 6 days. Three plants were then used to assess sporangia produ...

  16. Evaluation of spectral light management on growth of container-grown willow oak, nuttall oak and summer red maple

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant response to blue, red, gray or black shade cloth was evaluated with willow oak (Quercus phellos L.), Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii Palmer, Nuttall) and Summer Red maple (Acer rubrum L. ‘Summer Red’) liners. Light transmitted through the colored shade cloth had no influence on germination of ...

  17. Red Oak (Quercus rubra, L.) acron collection, nursery culture and direct seeding: A literature review

    Treesearch

    Daniel C. Dey

    1995-01-01

    The artificial regeneration of red oak by planting or direct seeding is an important method for restoring oak in ecosystems where it has been lost as a result of past management practices. Planting and direct seeding can also be used to supplement natural oak regeneration and to ensure that sufficient oak reproduction is in place when overstories are removed through...

  18. Response of outplanted northern red oak seedlings under two silvicultural prescriptions in north Alabama

    Treesearch

    Callie Jo Schweitzer; Emile Gardiner; Stephanie Love; Tom Green

    2005-01-01

    The decision to artificially regenerate oak must be predicated on some basis. After completing an assessment of the potential to regenerate oak naturally, we decided our stands might benefit from supplemental oak plantings. The primary objective of this study was to couple outplanting of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) with applied silviculture...

  19. Assessing wood quality of borer-infested red oak logs with a resonance acoustic technique

    Treesearch

    Xiping Wang; Henry E. Stelzer; Jan Wiedenbeck; Patricia K. Lebow; Robert J. Ross

    2009-01-01

    Large numbers of black oak (Quercus velutina Lam.) and scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea Muenchh.) trees are declining and dying in the Missouri Ozark forest as a result of oak decline. Red oak borer-infested trees produce low-grade logs that become extremely difficult to merchandize as the level of insect attack increases. The objective of this study was to investigate...

  20. Red oak decline and mortality by ecological land type in the Missouri ozarks

    Treesearch

    John M. Fan Kabrick; Stephen R. Shifley

    2007-01-01

    Oak decline, the precipitous mortality of mature oak trees, has been a chronic problem in xeric oak ecosystems and is reaching unprecedented levels in red oak group (Quercus section Lobatae) species in the Ozark Highlands. The high rates of mortality are leading to rapid changes in species composition, forest structure, and related changes in fire...

  1. Green above-stump weights for red oak, red maple and white birch in northern Michigan.

    Treesearch

    Helmuth M. Steinhilb; Edwin S. Miyata; Thomas R. Crow

    1983-01-01

    Presents the green weights of the above-stump portion of trees, boles, and residue for red oak, red maple, and white birch in northern Michigan. Estimating equations and green weight tables are included for the tree components of each species.

  2. Regeneration of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) using shelterwood systems: Ecophysiology, silviculture and management recommendations

    Treesearch

    Daniel C. Dey; William C. parker

    1996-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing relaible methods for regenerating red oak (Quercus rubra) in Ontario. Traditional silviculture methods have not been successful in maintaining the curent levels of oak growing stock. In this paper, we review the ecology, physiology and reproductive biology of red oak. This discussion stresses the...

  3. Biology and Sampling of Red Oak Borer Populations in the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas

    Treesearch

    Damon Crook; Fred Stephen; Melissa Fierke; Dana Kinney; Vaughn Silisbury

    2004-01-01

    A complex interaction of multiple factors has resulted in >75 percent mortality/decline of more than 1 million acres of red oak (Quercus, subgenus Erythrobalanus) on the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests. The most striking feature of this oak decline event is an unprecedented outbreak of red oak borer. A visual stand assessment...

  4. Planting northern red oak: a comparison of stock types

    Treesearch

    J.J. Zaczek; K.C. Steiner; T.W. Bowersox

    1991-01-01

    Height and survival values of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were compared three years after outplanting as functions of: stock types (direct-seeded, 1-0, 2-0, 1-1, 2-1, and 2-year-old seedlings grown in 7.9-liter pots), presence or absence of undercutting in the nursery, and presence or absence of top-clipping when field planting. In all, 33 or...

  5. Autumn predation of northern red oak seed crops

    Treesearch

    Kim C. Steiner

    1995-01-01

    Production and autumn predation of northern red oak acorns was measured over four years in five Pennsylvania stands dominated by this species. Mean annual production was 41,779/acre, of which an average of 7.9% was destroyed by insects or decay following insect attack, and an average of 38.6% was destroyed or removed by vertebrates. White-tailed deer appeared to be the...

  6. 1998 data bank for kiln-dried red oak lumber

    Treesearch

    Charles J. Gatchell; R. Edward Thomas; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1998-01-01

    A collection of 3,487 fully described, kiln-dried red oak boards totaling 20,021 board feet. The boards, which are straight or contain no more than ? inch of crook, are FAS, FAS ONE FACE (F1F), Selects, No. 1 Common, No. 2A Common, or No. 3A common. The boards were graded with the UGRS (Ultimate Grading and Remanufacturing System) computer program. After the grade was...

  7. Data bank for short-length red oak lumber

    Treesearch

    Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Charles J. Gatchell; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1994-01-01

    This data bank for short-length lumber (less than 8 feet long) contains information on board outlines and defect size and quality for 426 414-inch-thick red oak boards. The Selects, 1 Common, 2A Common, and 3A Common grades are represented in the data bank. The data bank provides the kind of detailed lumber description that is required as input by computer programs...

  8. Effect of moisture loss on red oak sawlog weight

    Treesearch

    Edward L. Adams

    1971-01-01

    A study was made to determine the effect of moisture loss on the weights of red oak sawlogs. The logs, ranging from 9 to 21 inches in scaling diameter and from 8 to 14 feet in length, were dried for a 12-week period. The 21-log sample lost 7.6 percent of the total green sawlog weight. The weight loss for individual logs ranged from 5.3 to 14.5 percent. In general, as...

  9. Acorn production in northern red oak stands in northwestern Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    L. R. Auchmoody; H. Clay Smith; Russell S. Walters

    1993-01-01

    Northern red oak acorn production was measured in 21 maturing stands on good sites in northwestern Pennsylvania. The number of acorns produced per acre varied from a low of 7,000 to nearly 273,000. Acorns were produced in all years. In no year was there consistently good acorn production at all areas, nor was there a good crop for more than two consecutive years at any...

  10. Underplanting northern red oak in Missouri without herbicides.

    Treesearch

    Paul S. Johnson

    1992-01-01

    Describes a provisional assessment of the effectiveness of applying herbicides to woody competitors between 0.5- and 1.5- inches d.b.h. before underplanting northern red oak. Results suggest that no weed control, i.e., not using herbicides, would require only modest increases in the numbers or initial size of nursery stock needed to obtain a given future stocking goal...

  11. Effects of shading on growth and development of northern red oak, black oak, black cherry, and red maple seedlings. I. height, diameter, and root/shoot ratio

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1985-01-01

    Optimum light levels for shelterwood cutting to develop the large advance regeneration that require were investigated using eight shade-cloth treatments. Seedlings of northern red oak, black oak, black cherry and red maple were grow under these light treatments for 2 years. Height and diameter were measured annually, and samples were harvested for dry weight and leaf...

  12. Potential Effects of Large-scale Elimination of Oaks by Red Oak Borers on Breeding Neotropical Migrants in the Ozarks

    Treesearch

    Frederick M. Stephen Kimberly G. Smith

    2005-01-01

    The Arkansas Ozarks are currently experiencing an outbreak of the red oak borer (Enaphalodes rufulus), a native insect that has previously not been considered an important forest pest species. As many as 50 percent of the trees in the Ozarks, which has the highest density of oaks in the United States, may be dead by the year 2006. The Ozarks are...

  13. Performance of nutrient-loaded red oak and white oak seedlings on mine lands in southern Indiana

    Treesearch

    K. Francis Salifu; Douglass F. Jacobs; Zonda K. D. Birge

    2008-01-01

    Exponential nutrient loading was used to build nutrient reserves in northern red oak (Quercus rubra) and white oak (Q. alba) seedlings during standard bareroot nursery culture at the Vallonia State Nursery, Indiana. Nursery grown seedlings were outplanted the following year onto a mine reclamation site in southern Indiana to...

  14. Monitoring oak-hickory forest change during an unprecedented red oak borer outbreak in the Ozark Mountains: 1990 to 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Joshua S.; Tullis, Jason A.; Haavik, Laurel J.; Guldin, James M.; Stephen, Fred M.

    2014-01-01

    Upland oak-hickory forests in Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma experienced oak decline in the late 1990s and early 2000s during an unprecedented outbreak of a native beetle, the red oak borer (ROB), Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman). Although remote sensing supports frequent monitoring of continuously changing forests, comparable in situ observations are critical for developing an understanding of past and potential ROB damage in the Ozark Mountains. We categorized forest change using a normalized difference water index (NDWI) applied to multitemporal Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery (1990, 2001, and 2006). Levels of decline or growth were categorized using simple statistical thresholds of change in the NDWI over time. Corresponding decline and growth areas were then observed in situ where tree diameter, age, crown condition, and species composition were measured within variable radius plots. Using a machine learning decision tree classifier, remote sensing-derived decline and growth was characterized in terms of in situ observation. Plots with tree quadratic mean diameter at breast height ≥21.5 cm were categorized remotely as in severe decline. Landsat TM/ETM+-based NDWI derivatives reveal forest decline and regrowth in post-ROB outbreak surveys. Historical and future Landsat-based canopy change detection should be incorporated with existing landscape-based prediction of ROB hazard.

  15. Branch growth and leaf numbers of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and red oak (Quercus rubra L.): response to defoliation.

    PubMed

    Heichel, G H; Turner, Neil C

    1984-04-01

    Branch growth and leaf formation from terminal and from lateral buds of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were measured in response to simulated insect defoliation. A single large branch representative of the crown of each tree was used for enumeration of growth and of bud numbers throughout three successive years of 0, 50, 75, and 100% leaf removal for the entire tree. Leaf number per tree for both species after the last year of defoliation was reduced in direct proportion to the severity of defoliation, in comparison to the predefoliation status of the trees. Bud number per tree for red maple, but not for red oak, was also reduced in proportion to severity of defoliation.Averaged over all defoliation treatments, defoliation reduced branch growth more than leaf production. Furthermore, the reduction in branch growth and leaf production was greater in red oak than in red maple. Three years of successive defoliation reduced the mean lateral plus terminal branch growth by 40% in red oak and by 23% in red maple, while leaf number was reduced 22% in red oak and remained unchanged in red maple. In red maple, 100% defoliation caused greater branch death than the 50 or 75% defoliation treatments, and the amount of death was greater after each successive year of defoliation. In contrast to red maple, undefoliated red oak incurred a substantial amount of branch death throughout the study which was little affected by defoliation treatment.

  16. Effect of stand density and structure on the abundance of northern red oak advance reproduction

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Miller

    1997-01-01

    Regenerating northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) on high-quality growing sites is a continuing problem in the central Appalachian region. Competing species usually exhibit faster height growth after regeneration harvests compared to oak reproduction. The probability of advance oak reproduction becoming codominant in the new stand is positively...

  17. Influence of Variation in Physical and Chemical Properties of Southern Red Oak Lumber on Decay Resistance

    Treesearch

    E. Richard Toole; W. N. Darwin

    1970-01-01

    Although differences in decay resistance of the heartwood of various oak species have long been recognized, the effect of changes in physical and chemical wood properties on this decay resistance have not been well defined. Scheffer et al (5) studied the decay resistance of seven native oaks. They found that, within the species of the red oak group studied, there were...

  18. Northern Red Oak From Acorns to Acorns in 8 Years or Less

    Treesearch

    Paul P. Kormanik; Shi-Jean S. Sung; Taryn Kormanik; Tom Tibbs; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2004-01-01

    The intrinsic factors affecting acorn production in oak trees need further study. Common knowledge holds that an oak requires a minimum number of years to begin flowering, with 30 to 50 most frequently reported. Recently, the Institute of Tree Root Biology has been studying the development of northern red oak ( L.) in the nursery and in...

  19. Do chestnut, northern red, and white oak germinant seedlings respond similarly to light treatments? Growth and biomass

    Treesearch

    Joanne Rebbeck; Kurt Gottschalk; Amy. Scherzer

    2011-01-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedling growth has been extensively studied. White oak (Quercus alba L.) and chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.), however, are far less investigated despite their importance among upland oak species in eastern North American forests. We characterized white and chestnut oak...

  20. Do chestnut, northern red, and white oak germinant seedlings respond similary to light treatments? II. Gas exchange and chlorophyll responses

    Treesearch

    Joanne Rebbeck; Amy Scherzer; Kurt. Gottschalk

    2012-01-01

    Understanding differences in physiological and growth strategies in low-light environments among upland oak species may help managers address the challenges of oaks' poor regeneration. Gas exchange and chlorophyll content were measured for northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.), and white oak (...

  1. Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy of red oaks in eastern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, A.M.

    1983-04-01

    Identification of Quercus (oak) pollen taxa could enhance Quaternary palynological interpretations from eastern North America. A first step is to determine a morphological and taxonomic basis for such identifications. Scanning electron microscopy was utilized to examine exine-surface features of 266 specimens representing 21 red oak (subgen. Erythrobalanus) species from eastern North America, and two intermediate oak (subgen. Protobalanus) species from the desert southwest. Twenty pollen morphological characteristics defined previously were tabulated for each of 324 pollen grains. The data were subjected to cluster analyses. Cluster diagrams were compared with traditional oak systematics. Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy compared poorly with respect to series and species relationships among the red oaks, apparently due as much to high intraspecific and low interspecific variability in pollen-morphological characters as to the uncertain taxonomy of red oaks. Pollen morphology, however, does support the hypothesis of subgeneric oak evolution from intermediate oaks to the series Virentes of white oaks, and from more advanced white oaks to the red oak species. 19 references, 25 figures, 1 table.

  2. Northern red oak volume growth on four northern Wisconsin habitat types

    Treesearch

    Michael Demchik; Kevin M. Schwartz; Rory Braun; Eric. Scharenbrock

    2014-01-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra) grows across much of Wisconsin. Using site factors to aid in prediction of volume and basal area increment facilitates management of red oak and other species of interest. Currently, habitat type (Wisconsin Habitat Type Classification System) is often determined when stands are inventoried. If habitat type were...

  3. Evaluating desiccation sensitivity of northern red oak acorns using x-ray image analysis

    Treesearch

    Rosa C. Goodman; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2005-01-01

    Desiccation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) acorns can have a major influence on seed viability. Recalcitrant behavior of northern red oak acorns was studied to examine the effects of moisture content (MC) on germination and early growth. Because it is rapid and non-destructive, X-ray image analysis was chosen to assess cotyledon damage in...

  4. Anthropogenic fire history and red oak forests in south-central Ontario

    Treesearch

    Daniel C. Dey; Richard P. Guyette

    2000-01-01

    The regeneration and dominance of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) has been associated with fire throughout eastern North America. Red oak in central Ontario grows near the northern edge of its distribution in mixed hardwood - coniferous forests under mesic conditions where it competes with more shade-tolerant species. We hypothesized that the...

  5. Role of Predators on an Artificially Planted Red Oak Borer Population

    Treesearch

    Jimmy R. Galford; Jimmy R. Galford

    1985-01-01

    Adult survival of first-instar red oak borer larvae, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), implanted into red oak trees, Quercus rubra L., was 4 times greater when the larvae were protected from predators. Nitidulids, ants, and woodpeckers accounted for 40 to 60 percent of the mortality in unprotected larvae. Most mortality in protected larvae occurred from unknown causes...

  6. Is seedling grading beneficial to artificial regeneration of northern red oaks?

    Treesearch

    Paul P. Kormanik; Shi-Jean S. Sung; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2005-01-01

    Effective and consistent success with artificial regeneration of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) has been achieved on many sites using 1-0 graded seedlings produced with the nursery protocol developed by the USDA Forest Service at the Institute of Tree Root Biology in cooperation with the Georgia Forestry Commission. Small northern red oak (NRO)...

  7. Impact of elliptical shaped red oak logs on lumber grade and volume recovery

    Treesearch

    Patrick M. Rappold; Brian H. Bond; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Roncs Ese-Etame

    2007-01-01

    This research examined the grade and volume of lumber recovered from red oak logs with elliptical shaped cross sections. The volume and grade of lumber recovered from red oak logs with low (e ≤ 0.3) and high (e ≥ 0.4) degrees of ellipticity was measured at four hardwood sawmills. There was no significant difference (...

  8. Five-year radial growth of red oaks in mixed bottomland hardwood stands

    Treesearch

    Luben D. Dimov; Jim L. Chambers; Brian Roy Lockhart

    2008-01-01

    We studied the relationships among 5-year radial (diameter and basal area) growth of red oak (genus Quercus, subgenus Erythrobalanus) crop trees and predictor variables representing individual tree vigor, distance-dependant competition measures, and distance-independent competition measures. The red oaks we examined are...

  9. Visual Grading and Quality of 1-0 Northern Red Oak Seedlings

    Treesearch

    S.L. Clark; S.E. Scblarbaum; Paul P. Kormanik

    2000-01-01

    Past research has used detailed measurements of various growth characteristics to determine seedling grades and quality of northern red oak nursery stock This study evaluates the effectiveness ofa visual grading process. similar to thosefound in commercial nursery operations, to distinguish high quality seedlings. Northern red oak (Quercus rubra...

  10. The effect of small rodents on northern red oak acorns in north-central West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Linda S. Gribko; David M. Hix

    1993-01-01

    The effects of small mammals on surface-sown northern red oak (Quercus rubra) acorns was assessed in highly productive Appalachian hardwood stands. Study plots were established in October 1990 on excellent (average site index of 89 feet for red oak) and good (average site index of 72 feet) sites. Each plot included: 1) a rodent-proof exclosure, 2) an exclosure...

  11. Crop tree release improves competitiveness of northern red oak growing in association with black cherry

    Treesearch

    Thomas M. Schuler

    2006-01-01

    In 1993, a crop tree study was established in a pole-sized stand consisting of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.). Black cherry was the predominant species in the stand and appeared to be on the verge of virtually eliminating northern red oak based on its greater height growth potential. To assess crop tree management for...

  12. Molecular differentiation and diversity among the California red oaks (Fagaceae; Quercus section Lobatae).

    PubMed

    Dodd, Richard S; Kashani, Nasser

    2003-09-01

    A recent epidemic of Phytopthora (Sudden Oak Death) in coastal woodlands of California is causing severe mortality in some oak species belonging to the red oak (Lobatae) group. To predict the risks of spread of this disease, an understanding of the relationships among California's red oak species and of their population genetic structure is needed. We focus here on relationships among the four species of red oak. Whereas morphological distinction of Quercus wislizeni and Quercus parvula can pose problems, Quercus kelloggii and Quercus agrifolia in pure forms are easily distinguishable from one another and from Q. wislizeni and Q. parvula in the field. However, hybrids among all species combinations are known to occur in nature and these can confound data from ecological studies. Our results revealed greatest differentiation of the deciduous Q. kelloggii, with only weak AFLP fragment differentiation of the three remaining evergreen species. The molecular data suggest a closer affinity of Q. agrifolia with Q. wislizeni and Q. parvula contrary to earlier suggestions that its origins are likely to have been with northern deciduous oaks probably through a common ancestor with Q. kelloggii. Interior and coastal populations of Q. wislizeni separated in dendrograms based on phenetic and genetic distances suggesting probable isolation in different glacial refugia. The position of Q. parvula remains ambiguous, having a closer affinity with interior populations of Q. wislizeni and with Q. agrifolia, than with coastal populations of Q. wislizeni. Mean population differentiation in Q. wislizeni was 0.18, which is somewhat higher than the average for other oak species, suggesting that range fragmentation has occurred in the past, resulting in a metapopulation structure. Our results provide evidence that introgression among these species may be causing reticulation, further confounding species separation. Whereas Phytopthora has been reported on Q. agrifolia, Q. parvula and Q

  13. Crop tree release increases growth of red oak sawtimber in southern New England: 12-year results

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey S. Ward

    2008-01-01

    In winter 1995, five crop tree thinning plots were established in central Connecticut. Stands were mature red oak sawtimber (74-94 years old) with no history of prior management. Crop trees were upper canopy red oaks (northern red, black, and scarlet) with a potential grade 1 or 2 butt log. Growth of crop trees was monitored for the next 12 years. Diameter, cubic-foot...

  14. Attempt at concentrating red oak borer eggs by providing artificial oviposition sites

    Treesearch

    Jimmy R. Galford

    1977-01-01

    Thirty-eight scarlet and 14 black oaks were spirally wrapped to a height of about 2 m with black or white cotton tape 2.5 cm wide in an attempt to increase oviposition of the red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), on selected trap trees. However only 57 eggs were laid under tape on 17 of the trees, all scarlet oaks. Attacks but no eggs were...

  15. Volume Relationships in Slicing Northern Red Oak and Black Cherry Logs

    Treesearch

    Everette D. Rast

    1978-01-01

    Veneer quality logs of black cherry and northern red oak from northern Pennsylvania were converted into sliced face veneer. The percentage yield of veneer for cherry was greater than oak due to tree form. Thirty-four percent of the total log volume of oak became chippable or fuel residue, but only 29 percent of cherry. Where and how this loss of material occurs in the...

  16. Effects of flood duration and season on germination of black, cherrybark, northern red, and water oak acorns

    Treesearch

    Yanfei Guo; Michael G. Shelton; Brian R. Lockhart

    1998-01-01

    Effects of flood duration (0, 10, 20, and 30 days) and season (winter and spring) on acorn germination were tested for two upland oaks [black and northern red oak (Quercus velutina Lam. and Q. rubra L.)] and two bottomland oaks [cherrybark and water oak (Q. pagoda Raf. and Q. nigra L.)]. Acorns...

  17. Regeneration of upper-elevation red oak in the White Mountains of New Hampshire

    Treesearch

    William B. Leak; Mariko. Yamasaki

    2013-01-01

    Northern red oak occurs in limited amounts with a mixture of softwoods on the shallow soils at upper elevations in northern New England. These stands are important for wildlife habitat and forest diversity as well as a modest amount of timber harvesting. Little experience or research is available on how to regenerate upper-elevation oak. However, an examination of a 35...

  18. Responses of northern red oak seedlings to lime and deer exclosure fencing in Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    Robert P. Long; Patrick H. Brose; Stephen B. Horsley

    2012-01-01

    In Pennsylvania, two hypotheses compete to explain the chronic oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration problem: excessive deer browsing and soil cation depletion. We tested these hypotheses by evaluating the effect of forest liming and deer exclosure fencing on northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedling growth and nutrition in five...

  19. Effects of tree shelters on planted red oaks after six growing seasons

    Treesearch

    Douglas O. Lantagne

    1995-01-01

    A 22 year-old shelterwood treatment that failed to regenerate oaks on an upland site in Michigan was clearcut in the fall of 1986 and planted with 2-0 northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings the following spring. The four planting treatments included: control (clearcut harvest only), brush control only, 48 inch tree shelters only, and brush...

  20. First-year results of a prescribed burn in a high-elevation red oak stand

    Treesearch

    Peter Bates; Dean Simon

    2009-01-01

    In March 2007, a prescribed burn was conducted on approximately 70 acres in a high-elevation red oak stand located on the Cold Mountain Game Land in western North Carolina. This burn was the first in a series of treatments designed to increase oak and hickory regeneration in this stand.

  1. Biotic and abiotic mechanisms in the establishment of northern red oak seedlings: a review

    Treesearch

    Linda S. Gribko; Thomas M. Schuler; W. Mark Ford

    2002-01-01

    This review of literature pertaining to the biotic and abiotic mechanisms in the establishment of northern red oak seedlings is designed to aid forest managers and researchers interested in sustaining the oak component of the eastern and central hardwood forest regions. Recommendations for future research are presented.

  2. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Weeviled Acorns within a Northern Red oak Seedling Orchard

    Treesearch

    D.R. Miller; S.E. Scharbaum

    2004-01-01

    Acorn insects can have a severe impact on mass production and regeneration. Gibson (1972) reported losses of 10 to 100 percent of acorn crops in stands of white oak, whereas Gibson (1982) reported losses of up to 96 percent in stands of northern red oak. Acorn insects can be divided into two groups: primary and secondary insects. The primary insects include the...

  3. Effects of late rotation thinning on light availability and red oak regeneration within a minor stream bottom in Mississippi

    Treesearch

    Ellen M. Boerger; Brent R. Frey; Andrew W. Ezell; Tracy Hawkins

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest a troubling decline in the abundance of red oak species (Quercus spp., Section Erythrobalanus) in bottomland forests of the southeastern United States. We assessed red oak advance regeneration and associated tree species in relation to light availability in a 77-year-old oak-dominated stand 5 years after late rotation thinning. Residual basal...

  4. Survival and Growth of Northern Red Oak Seedlings Following a Prescribed Burn

    Treesearch

    Paul S. Johnson

    1974-01-01

    Mortality of northern red oak seedlings in a spring prescribed burn was related to temperature near the root collar. Most of the 42 percent of seedlings that survived the burn developed new shoots from the root collar.

  5. How to estimate weights of northern red oak crowns in a stand.

    Treesearch

    Robert M. Loomis; Richard W. Blank

    1982-01-01

    Describes how to estimate the weights of northern red oak and other hardwood tree crowns that could become fuels after storms, logging, or insect epidemics. Presents tables, sample worksheets, and examples.

  6. Millipede damage to germinating acorns of northern red oak

    Treesearch

    Jimmy R. Galford; L. R. Auchmoody; Russell S. Walters; H. Clay. Smith; H. Clay. Smith

    1992-01-01

    Millipedes have not been reported as pests of germinating acorns. Studies in Pennsylvania on the impact of insects on northern red (Quercus rubra L. seedling establishment revealed that the millipede Ptyoiulus impressus (Say) damaged the radicles of germinating acorns. Up to 17 percent of the acorn radicles in areas with heavy acorn crops were damaged in 1'991....

  7. A preliminary study about the influence of high hydrostatic pressure processing in parallel with oak chip maceration on the physicochemical and sensory properties of a young red wine.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yang; Sun, Da-Wen; Górecki, Adrian; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Lamparski, Grzegorz; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Fornal, Józef; Jeliński, Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    The influence of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing in parallel with oak chip maceration on the physicochemical and sensory properties of a young red wine was investigated preliminarily. Wines were treated by HHP at 250, 450 and 650MPa for up to 45min and French oak chips (5g/L) were added. HHP enhanced the extraction of phenolics from oak chips. The phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of the wine increased after HHP processing in the presence of oak chips. Meanwhile, the anthocyanin content and wine color intensity decreased in the first 5min of pressure treatment and then increased gradually. The multivariate analysis revealed that "pressure holding time" was the key factor affecting wine physicochemical characteristics during HHP processing in the presence of oak chips. Furthermore, oak chip maceration with and without HHP processing weakened the intensities of several sensory attributes and provided the wine with an artificial taste.

  8. Fertilization Increases Growth of Sawlog-Size Yellow-Poplar and Red Oak in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    N. I. Lamson

    1978-01-01

    Sawlog-size even-aged hardwood stands in north-central West Virginia were fertilized with N, P, and K, singly and in combinations. Applications of N alone increased the annual basal area growth of yellow-poplar more than that of red oak during the first 7 years after fertilization, whereas P alone increased the annual basal area growth of red oak more than that of...

  9. Lignin-derived oak phenolics: a theoretical examination of additional potential health benefits of red wine.

    PubMed

    Setzer, William N

    2011-08-01

    Lignin-derived phenolic compounds can be extracted from oak barrels during the aging of red wine, and it is hypothesized that these compounds may contribute to the health benefits of red wine by their antioxidant, radical-scavenging, or chemopreventive activities. Density functional calculations (B3LYP/6-311++G) support the radical-scavenging abilities of the oak phenolics. Sinapaldehyde, syringaldehyde, syringol, and syringylacetone all have bond dissociation energies that are lower than resveratrol and comparable to the flavonoid catechin. Molecular docking studies of the oak phenolics with known resveratrol protein targets also show that these compounds dock favorably to the protein targets. Thus, lignin-derived oak phenolics, although found in small concentrations, may contribute to the beneficial antioxidant, chemopreventive, and cardioprotective effects of red wine.

  10. Energy investment in leaves of red maple and co-occurring oaks within a forested watershed.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Jennifer M; Griffin, Kevin L; Schuster, William S F; Tissue, David T; Turnbull, Matthew H; Brown, Kim J; Whitehead, David

    2002-08-01

    Despite its recent expansion in eastern US forests, red maple (Acer rubrum L.) generally exhibits a low leaf photosynthetic rate, leaf mass per unit area (LMA) and leaf nitrogen concentration ([N]) relative to co-occurring oaks (Quercus spp.). To evaluate these differences from the perspective of leaf energy investment, we compared leaf construction cost (CC) and leaf maintenance cost (MC) with leaf photosynthetic rate at saturating photon flux density and ambient CO2 partial pressure (Amax) in red maple and co-occurring red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.). We also examined relationships among leaf physiological, biochemical and structural characteristics of upper-canopy leaves of these three species at lower (wetter) and upper (drier) elevation sites of a watershed in the Black Rock Forest, Cornwall, NY, USA. Although A(max), leaf [N], leaf carbon concentration ([C]) and LMA were significantly less in red maple than in either oak species at both sites, CC per unit leaf area of red maple was 28.2 and 35.4% less than that of red oak at the lower and upper site, respectively, and 38.8 and 32% less than that of chestnut oak at the lower and upper site, respectively. Leaf MC per unit leaf area, which was positively associated with leaf CC (r2 = 0.95), was also significantly lower in red maple than in either oak species at both sites. When expressed per unit leaf area, A(max) was positively correlated with both CC (r2 = 0.65) and MC (r2 = 0.59). The cost/benefit ratio of CC/Amax of red maple was significantly less than that of chestnut oak at the lower site, however, CC/A(max) did not exhibit any significant interspecific differences at the upper site. Expressed per unit leaf area, CC was correlated positively with LMA (r2 = 0.90), leaf [N] (r2 = 0.97), and leaf [C] (r2 = 0.89), and negatively correlated with leaf molar carbon to nitrogen ratio (r2 = 0.92). Combined with red maple's general success in many oak-dominated forests, our findings

  11. Impact of concentration of ellagitannins in oak wood on their levels and organoleptic influence in red wine.

    PubMed

    Michel, Julien; Jourdes, Michael; Silva, Maria A; Giordanengo, Thomas; Mourey, Nicolas; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2011-05-25

    Some wood substances such as ellagitannins can be extracted during wine aging in oak barrels. The level of these hydrolyzable tannins in wine depends of some parameters of oak wood. Their impact on the organoleptic perception of red wine is poorly known. In our research, oak staves were classified in three different groups according to their level of ellagitannins estimated by NIRS (near infrared spectroscopy) online procedure (Oakscan). First, the ellagitannin level and composition were determine for each classified stave and an excellent correlation between the NIRS classification (low, medium and high potential level of ellagitannin) and the ellagitannin content estimated by HPLC-UV was found. Each different group of NIRS classified staves was then added to red wine during its aging in a stainless tank, and the extraction and evolution of the ellagitannins were monitored. A good correlation between the NIRS classification and the concentration of ellagitannins in red wine aging in contact with the classified staves was observed. The influence of levels of ellagitannins on the resulting wine perception was estimated by a trained judge's panel, and it reveals that the level of ellagitannins in wine has an impact on the roundness and amplitude of the red wine.

  12. Seasonal variation in the structure of red reflectance of leaves from yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakke, Thomas W.; Wergin, William P.; Erbe, Eric F.; Harnden, Joann M.

    1993-01-01

    The light scattered from leaves was measured as a function of view angle in the principal plane for yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple. The source was a parallel-polarized helium-neon laser. Yellow poplar leaves had the highest reflectance of the three species, which may have been due to its shorter palisade cells and more extensive spongy mesophyll. Prior to senescence, there was a significant decrease, but not total extinction, in the reflectance of the beam incident at 60 deg from nadir on the adaxial side of the leaves of all three species. Low-temperature SEM observations showed differences in the surface wax patterns among the three species but did not indicate a cause of the reflectance changes other than possibly the accumulation and aging of the wax.

  13. Artificial regeneration of northern red oak and white oak on high-quality sites: effect of root morphology and relevant biological characteristics

    Treesearch

    Paul P. Kormanik; Shi-Jean S. Sung; Stanley J. Zarnoch; G. Thomas Tibbs

    2002-01-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra) and white oak (Quercus alba) are important components of high-quality mesic sites and are essential as lumber species and hard mast producers. Regeneration of these species has been difficult, and their absence in newly regenerated stands is a major concern of foresters and wildlife biologists....

  14. Synthesis of ectomycorrhizae on northern red oak seedlings in a Michigan nursery

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, R.K.; Johnson, P.S.

    1993-01-01

    Vegetative inoculum of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus was thoroughly mixed into fumigated nursery soil, and northern red oak seedlings of four families were evaluated one and two years after sowing for ectomycorrhizal development, growth, and nutrition. At the end of year one, treated seedlings were successfully inoculated with S. luteus, but the percentage varied significantly with family. Suillus luteus persisted on lateral roots two years following sowing. Two of four seedling families inoculated with S. luteus were significantly larger in size than control plants. These results suggest that the fungal symbiont S. luteus can be successfully introduced into nurseries and that early ectomycorrhizal development improves the growth of northern red oak seedlings.

  15. Development of red oak seedlings using plastic shelters on hardwood sites in West Virginia. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.C.

    1993-04-01

    Plastic shelters were used to grow red oak seedlings on good-to-excellent Appalachian hardwood growing sites in north central West Virginia. Preliminary results indicate that shelters have the potential to stimulate development of red oak seedlingheight growth, especially if height growth continues once the seedling tops are above the 5-foot-tall shelters.

  16. Development of red oak seedlings using plastic shelters on good-to- excellent hardwood sites in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1993-01-01

    Plastic shelters were used to grow red oak seedlings on good-to-excellent Appalachian hardwood growing sites in north central West Virginia. Preliminary results indicate that shelters have the potential to stimulate development of red oak seedling height growth, especially if height growth continues once the seedling tops are above the 5-foot-tall shelters.

  17. Artificial regeneration of northern red oak in the Lake States with a light shelterwood: a departure from tradition

    Treesearch

    Ronald M. Teclaw; J. G. Isebrands

    1993-01-01

    Artificial regeneration of northern red oak is difficult to achieve in the Lake States. A replicated study was established in northern Wisconsin in 1990 to determine the effect of overstory density and understory competition on the performance of bareroot and containerized northern red oak seedlings on a dry-mesic site. The relationship between seedling performance and...

  18. Relationships between biotic and abiotic factors and regeneration of chestnut oak, white oak, and northern red oak

    Treesearch

    Songlin Fei; Kim C. Steiner; James C. Finley; Marc E. McDill

    2003-01-01

    A series of substantial field surveys of 38 mixed-oak stands in central Pennsylvania were carried out during 1996-2000. All the stands were surveyed 1 year prior to harvest, and 16 stands have been surveyed 1 year after harvest. Three abiotic factors at stand scale, four abiotic factors at plot scale, and two biotic factors and one abiotic factor at subplot scale was...

  19. Jupiter's Great Red Spot Revealed

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-12

    This enhanced-color image of Jupiter's Great Red Spot was created by citizen scientist Kevin Gill using data from the JunoCam imager on NASA's Juno spacecraft. The image was taken on July 10, 2017 at 07:07 p.m. PDT (10:07 p.m. EDT), as the Juno spacecraft performed its 7th close flyby of Jupiter. At the time the image was taken, the spacecraft was about 6,130 miles (9,866 kilometers) from the tops of the clouds of the planet. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21395

  20. Influence of overstory density on ecophysiology of red oak (Quercus rubra) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) seedlings in central Ontario shelterwoods

    Treesearch

    William C. Parker; Daniel C. Dey

    2008-01-01

    A field experiment was established in a secondgrowth hardwood forest dominated by red oak (Quercus rubra L.) to examine the effects of shelterwood overstory density on leaf gas exchange and seedling water status of planted red oak, naturally regenerated red oak and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) seedlings during the first...

  1. Interactive effects of resource availabilities and defoliation on photosynthesis, growth, and mortality of red oak seedlings

    Treesearch

    James B. McGraw; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Milan C. Vavrek; A.L. Chester

    1990-01-01

    Responses of forest trees to defoliation by insects such as gypsy moth vary greatly from site to site and from individual to individual. To determine whether some of this variation could be explained by variation in other stress factors, red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings were exposed to low and high light, water, mineral nutrient, and defoliation...

  2. Effects of fertilizer-nutrient interactions on red oak seedling growth

    Treesearch

    L.R. Auchmoody; L.R. Auchmoody

    1972-01-01

    Growth of red oak seedlings was examined in relationship to various levels of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) supplied singly and in all combinations to forest soils from the Barbour series. Results showed that seedling growth was significantly affected by NxP and NxPxK interactions; and that, without nitrogen, P and K alone or in combination with each...

  3. Steaming of Red Oak Prior to Kiln-Drying: Effects on Moisture Movement

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Harris; James G. Schroeder; Stan C. Addis

    1989-01-01

    Red oak boards were steamed prior to kiln-drying to determine the effect of steaming on initial moisture content (MC), moisture distribution, and drying rate. Four hours of steaming in a saturated steam atmosphere caused a drop of approximately 10 percent in initial MC, a reduced moisture gradient through the thickness of the boards, and an increase in drying rate...

  4. Field response of red oak, pin cherry and black cherry seedlings to a light gradient

    Treesearch

    M.R. Roberts

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between light conditions and the growth of natural seedlings of red oak (Quercus rubra L.), pin cherry (Prunus pensylvanica L.) and black cherry (P. serotina Ehrh.) growing under a range of canopy densities in northwestern Pennsylvania.

  5. Northern Red Oak Seedling Growth Varies by Light Intensity and Seed Source

    Treesearch

    Charles E. McGee

    1968-01-01

    Northern red oak seedlings from each of three seed sources were subjected for one growing season to one of four intensities of light: full light, 70 percent light, 37 percent light, and 8 percent light. Seedlings grown in the open were taller than those grown in the shade and had more, generally heavier leaves. Height and leaf growth decreased as the amount of light...

  6. Examination of the Arborsonic Decay Detector for Detecting Bacterial Wetwood in Red Oaks

    Treesearch

    Zicai Xu; Theodor D. Leininger; James G. Williams; Frank H. Tainter

    2000-01-01

    The Arborsonic Decay Detector (ADD; Fujikura Europe Limited, Wiltshire, England) was used to measure the time it took an ultrasound wave to cross 280 diameters in red oak trees with varying degrees of bacterial wetwood or heartwood decay. Linear regressions derived from the ADD readings of trees in Mississippi and South Carolina with wetwood and heartwood decay...

  7. Estimating northern red oak crown component weights in the Northeastern United States.

    Treesearch

    Robert M. Loomis; Richard W. Blank

    1981-01-01

    Equations are described for estimating crown weights for northern red oak trees. These estimates are for foliage and branchwood weights. Branchwood (wood plus bark) amounts are subdivided by living and dead material into four size groups. Applicability of the equations for other species is examined.

  8. Research and management in a young northern red oak seedling seed orchard

    Treesearch

    S.E. Schlarbaum; J.L. McConnell; L.R. Barber; R.A. Cox; J.F. Grant; Paul P. Kormanik; T. La Farge; P.L. Lambdin; S.W. Oak; C.K. Proffitt; J.R. Rhea; T. Tibbs

    1994-01-01

    A northern red oak progeny test was thinned at age 15 to produce a seedling seed orchard. Studies were initiated to determine relationships between acorn production and seed source. Acorn production was observed in 1984-1986 and 1989-1992.Family differences were observed in reproductive maturity. Large differences in size of acorns from the same tree were observed...

  9. Survival and growth of planted northern red oak in northern West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Charles A. McNeel; David M. Hix; Edwin C. Townsend

    1993-01-01

    The survival and growth of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings planted beneath a shelterwood in northern West Virginia were evaluated one year after planting. The use of 1.5 m (5 ft) tall TUBEX tree shelters on planted seedlings was also examined. The study was conducted on both excellent and good sites (site indices of 27 m (89 ft) and 22...

  10. Field Performance of High-Quality and Standard Northern Red Oak Seedlings in Tennessee

    Treesearch

    David S. Buckley

    2002-01-01

    First-year performance of high-quality (HQ), high-quality cull (HQC) and standard (ST) northern red oak (Quercus rubra) nursery seedlings was compared in a study established in a recent clearcut in mid-March, 2000. Objectives were to test effects of 1) seedling type, 2) planting treatment, and 3) control of competitors on the growth, browsing, and...

  11. Phenology, dichogamy, and floral synchronization in a northern red oak (Quercus Rubra L.) seed orchard

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We developed a novel scoring system to assess spring phenology in a northern red oak clonal seed orchard. The system was used to score between 304 and 364 ramets for three reproductive seasons and place clones into early, middle, and late phenology groups. While the absolute number of clones in ea...

  12. Red Oak Research and Demonstration Area in Phelps Township, North Bay, Ontario-2004 to 2005

    Treesearch

    Dave Deugo; Andrée Morneault; Dianne Othmer; Megan Smith; Al Stinson; Murray Woods; Ian Kovacs; Ian Aho; Bill Parker; Rob Baker; Marinus Verwey; Guylaine Thauvette; Don Willis; Jeff Dech

    2006-01-01

    In July 2004, a large stand of red oak (Quercus rubra) was harvested in Phelps Township, North Bay District, North Bay, Ontario using the uniform shelterwood system. Most of the stand was harvested to retain 40 percent crown closure, while a very small portion was harvested to retain 70 percent crown closure. During tree marking, an active Northern...

  13. Herbivore-induced shifts in carbon and nitrogen allocation in red oak seedlings

    Treesearch

    Christopher J. Frost; Mark D. Hunter

    2008-01-01

    A dual-isotope, microcosm experiment was conducted with Quercus rubra (red oak) seedlings to test the hypothesis that foliar herbivory would increase belowground carbon allocation (BCA), carbon (C) rhizodeposition and nitrogen (N) uptake. Plant BCA links soil ecosystems to aboveground processes and can be affected by insect herbivores, though the...

  14. KINETICS OF LEAF TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATION AFFECT ISOPRENE EMISSION FROM RED OAK (QUERCUS RUBRA) LEAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because the rate of isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) emission from plants is highly temperature-dependent, we investigated the natural fluctuations on leaf temperature and the effects of rapid temperature change on isoprene emission of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) leaves at the to...

  15. Differentiating defects in red oak lumber by discriminant analysis using color, shape, and density

    Treesearch

    B. H. Bond; D. Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman

    2002-01-01

    Defect color, shape, and density measures aid in the differentiation of knots, bark pockets, stain/mineral streak, and clearwood in red oak, (Quercus rubra). Various color, shape, and density measures were extracted for defects present in color and X-ray images captured using a color line scan camera and an X-ray line scan detector. Analysis of variance was used to...

  16. Seasonality and abundance of truffles from oak woodlands to red fir forests

    Treesearch

    Malcolm P. North

    2002-01-01

    Truffles are an important food source for many small mammals in forest ecosystems; however, we know little about the seasonality, abundance, or diversity of the truffle community in the Sierra Nevada. This study examined how truffle abundance and diversity varied between oak woodland, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), mixed-conifer, and red fir (

  17. Elevated CO2 compensates for water stress in northern red oak

    Treesearch

    Patricia T. Tomlinson; Paul D. Anderson

    1996-01-01

    Global climate change models predict decreased rainfall in association with elevated CO2 in the western Lakes States region. Currently, the western edge of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) distribution coincides with the most xeric conditions of its ecological range. Decreased rainfall and water availability could alter...

  18. Management and prediction of red oak decline in the Missouri Ozarks

    Treesearch

    James J. Wetteroff; John P. Dwyer

    1993-01-01

    In 1990, 72, 0.50-acre permanent plots were laid out and tree and regeneration data was collected on four sites which showed evidence of red oak decline in the Missouri Ozarks. In the fall of 1990, three treatments were applied; a control, selection cutting, and clearcutting.

  19. Understanding that red oak lumber has a better and worse end

    Treesearch

    Charles J. Gatchell; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Elizabeth S.; Elizabeth S.

    1995-01-01

    We have found that the majority of red oak boards generally have one end that is distinctly better than the other and believe this finding applies to hardwoods, in general. Application of this knowledge can have important implications for lumber processing, particularly in gang-rip-first operations. The better ends produce better overall yield, more primary yield, less...

  20. Ectomycorrhizal Colonization of Container-Grown Northern Red Oak as Affected by Fertility

    Treesearch

    John L. Ruehle

    1980-01-01

    Abstract - The effects of different fertility regimes on Pisolithus tinctorius ectomycorrhizal development on northern red oak grown in containers was tested in the greenhouse. Artificial infestation of a milled pine bark-sewage sludge growing medium produced the best ectomycorrhizal development (63 percent) when a nutrient solution with 100pg/ml N...

  1. The effect of storage temperature and duration on northern red oak acorn viability and vigour

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Noland; Andree E. Morneault; Daniel C. Dey; Dave. Deugo

    2013-01-01

    Three separate collections of Ontario sources of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) acorns were made to determine the effects of long-term cold storage at +2°C, -1°C, and -2°C on their viability and vigour. We measured acorn moisture content, percent germination during storage, speed of germination and total germination...

  2. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.)

    Treesearch

    G. Vengadesan; Paula M. Pijut

    2009-01-01

    A somatic embryogenesis protocol for plant regeneration of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) was established from immature cotyledon explants. Embryogenic callus cultures were induced on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) containing 3% sucrose, 0.24% Phytagel™, and various concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) after 4 weeks of...

  3. Overstory density affects field performance of underplanted red oak (Quercus rubra L.) in Ontario

    Treesearch

    Daniel C. Dey; William C. Parker

    1997-01-01

    Red oak seedlings were underplanted in a closed-canopy mature northern hardwood stand and an adjacent shelterwood in central Ontario. Overstory density effects on seedling survival and growth were assessed 2 yr after planting. After 2 yr, seedling survival was 90% in the uncut stand and over 99% in the shelterwood. Seedlings in the uncut stand experienced negligible or...

  4. Predicting Post-Harvest Performance of Advance Red Oak Reproduction in the Southern Appalachians

    Treesearch

    David L. Loftis

    1990-01-01

    Models are presented for predicting: (1) height growth of red oak advance reproduction after clearcutting, and (2) the probability of stems becoming dominants or codominants in new stands as a function of preharvest size of advance reproduction andsitequafity. The second model permits silviculturists to predict, prior to harvest, the contribution to a new stand of an...

  5. The phenolic extractives in southern red oak (Quercus falcata Michx. var. falcata)

    Treesearch

    Seiji Ohara; Richard W. Hemingway

    1989-01-01

    The bark of southern red oak (Quercus falcala Michx. var. falcala) is a rich source of quercitrin (quercetin-3-rhamnoside). It contains only low concentrations of (+)-catechin and no significant amounts of epicatechin or gallocatechin. The three major dimeric proanthocyanidins present are epicatechin-(4β→8)-...

  6. Relationship of stump diameter to d.b.h. for northern red oak in the Northeast

    Treesearch

    Frederick E. Hampf

    1955-01-01

    This is the fifth report on a series of studies to show the relationship of stump diameter to diameter breast high (d.b.h.) for commercially important tree species in the Northeast. This report is for northern red oak (Quercus rubra).

  7. Growth and development of planted northern red oak on bulldozed skidroads after clearcutting in Appalachian hardwoods

    Treesearch

    James N. Kochenderfer; Mary Beth Adams; Gary W. Miller; Frederica Wood

    2006-01-01

    Artificial regeneration of northern red oak in Appalachian clearcuts on mesic sites is hindered by accessibility and competition from developing vegetation. The use of skidroads as a planting medium was evaluated on two clearcuts with contrasting aspects in north central West Virginia. Stratified acorns were planted in tree shelters at three positions (cut, middle,...

  8. Multivariate regression model for predicting lumber grade volumes of northern red oak sawlogs

    Treesearch

    Daniel A. Yaussy; Robert L. Brisbin

    1983-01-01

    A multivariate regression model was developed to predict green board-foot yields for the seven common factory lumber grades processed from northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) factory grade logs. The model uses the standard log measurements of grade, scaling diameter, length, and percent defect. It was validated with an independent data set. The model...

  9. Lumber grade-yields for factory-grade northern red oak sawlogs

    Treesearch

    James G. Schroeder; Leland F. Hanks

    1967-01-01

    A report on results of sawing 556 northern red oak sawlogs at four sawmills in West Virginia and Virginia, and the distribution of grades for the standard factory lumber produced. Tabular data on actual yield and curved grade-yield percentages.

  10. Advance reproduction and other stand characteristics in Pennsylvania and French stands of northern red oak

    Treesearch

    Kim C. Steiner; Marc D. Abrams; Todd W. Bowersox

    1993-01-01

    The frequent scarcity of northern red oak (NRO) advance reproduction raises questions about its regeneration potential under prevailing stand conditions in eastern North America. In contrast, NRO plantations in France typically contain abundant advance reproduction. The purpose of this study was to document stand conditions in Pennsylvania (PA) and southwestern France...

  11. Effect of acorn size on development of northern red oak 1-0 seedlings

    Treesearch

    Paul P. Kormanik; Shi-Jean S. Sung; T.L. Kormanik; S.E. Schlarbaum; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    1998-01-01

    The effect of acorn size on seedling development was determined for 20 northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) mother tree selections from the USDA Forest Service's Eastern Tennessee Watauga seed orchard. Acorns from each mother tree were visually separated into three size groups, weighed, and sown separately in forest nurseries located in Georgia,...

  12. Effects of Fertilization on Shoot Growth of Defoliated and Undefoliated Red Oak Seedlings

    Treesearch

    Johnson Parker

    1978-01-01

    Fertilization of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings increased their terminal shoot growth. Dry, liquid, and liquid + dry fertilizer was applied to groups of undefoliated, once-defoliated, and twice-defoliated seedlings. Terminal shoot growth was measured after the first and second growing season and compared to that of a similar group of...

  13. Selection for a nondiapausing strain of artificially reared red oak borers

    Treesearch

    Jimmy R. Galford

    1984-01-01

    The incidence of nondiapause in artificially reared red oak borers increased from 4 to 61 percent in five generations. Fecundity dropped by more than 50 percent, but fertility was unaffected. Sixty percent of the nondiapausing larvae formed prepupa by the 12th week of development in the F1 and in the F4 generations.

  14. Variation among northern red oak provenances in bark thickness:dbh ratios

    Treesearch

    Matthew S. Russell; Jeffrey O. Dawson

    1995-01-01

    Differences in bark thickness in relation to diameter at breast height were observed in a 30-32 year old Illinois planting of 32 provenances of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) from throughout its natural range. Bark thickness by itself is often a good indication of relative cambial insulation from fire. Fire resistance in trees can largely be...

  15. KINETICS OF LEAF TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATION AFFECT ISOPRENE EMISSION FROM RED OAK (QUERCUS RUBRA) LEAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because the rate of isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) emission from plants is highly temperature-dependent, we investigated the natural fluctuations on leaf temperature and the effects of rapid temperature change on isoprene emission of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) leaves at the to...

  16. Establishment of northern red oak genetic tests with nursery-graded seedlings

    Treesearch

    S. A. Lay; M. A. Remaley; S. E. Schlarbaum; P. P. Kormanik; T. Tibbs; R. A. Cox; T. LaFarge; A. M. Saxton

    1997-01-01

    Artificial regeneration of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) has had variable success over time. Current nursery practices generally involve the growth of seedlings to a standardized height and form with little regard to seed source, seedling quality, or subsequent field performance. Additionally, there is not an accepted culling criteria for...

  17. Product recovery from tree grade 1 northern red oak on Menominee tribal lands

    Treesearch

    John P. Dwyer; Daniel C. Dey

    2007-01-01

    Since 1854 the Menominee Tribal people have practiced some level of forest management on their lands. In April of 2000, Menominee Tribal Enterprises (MTE) forestry staff along with federal, state, and university researchers began a comprehensive study of value in northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.). One of the objectives of this study was to relate...

  18. Early Survival and Growth of Planted Northern Red Oak in the Southern Appalachians

    Treesearch

    David F. Olson; Ralph M. Hooper

    1968-01-01

    This paper presents a-year survival and growth data for six northern red oak plantings, each containing three morphological seedling grades, over a range of site indexes from 76 to 98 feet at age 50.Seedling survival averaged 94 percent, with no important differences due to seedling grade or site index. Height growth has averaged only 3 inches a year. There...

  19. Adaptability of black walnut, black cherry, and Northern red oak to Northern California

    Treesearch

    Philip M. McDonald

    1987-01-01

    When planted in sheltered sites in northern California, only 49% of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) and 58% of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) survived for 15 years, and 20% of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) survived for 10 years. The black walnut trees averaged 0.6 inches diameter at breast...

  20. Within-population variation in response of red oak seedlings to herbivory by gypsy moth larvae

    Treesearch

    T. Scott Byington; Kurt W. Gottschalk; James B. McGraw

    1994-01-01

    The potential for an evolutionary response to gypsy moth (Lymantna dispar L.) herbivory was investigated in red oak (Quercus rubra L.), a preferred host. Seedlings of nine open-pollinated families were grown in a greenhouse and experimentally defoliated by fourth instar larvae in the summer of 1991 to assay for intraspecific...

  1. Releasing sheltered northern red oak during the early stem exclusion stage

    Treesearch

    Thomas M. Schuler; Gary W. Miller

    1999-01-01

    The utility of releasing sheltered northern red oak was examined in mesic hardwood stands in north central West Virginia. Different levels of release were applied in the spring of 1996 - six growing seasons after planting 2-0 seedlings that were protected with 5 ft corrugated plastic shelters. The planting was done in a 7.77 acre forest opening that developed abundant...

  2. Species mixture effects in northern red oak-eastern white pine stands in Maine, USA

    Treesearch

    Justin Waskiewicz; Laura Kenefic; Aaron Weiskittel; Robert. Seymour

    2013-01-01

    Growth and yield studies of mixed-species stands lack generality, though mixture effects appear to be most likely in stands of species with contrasting traits and/or with vertical stratification. The northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) - eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) forest type of the US Northeast is dominated by species...

  3. Stand and individual tree growth of mature red oak after crop tree management in southern New England: 5-year results

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey S. Ward

    2011-01-01

    In winter 2003-04, four oak management study areas were established in Connecticut. Each study area had three 0.62-acre treatment plots: B-level thinning, crop tree, and unmanaged. Each plot was located within a 3- to 5-acre area with similar treatment. The mature red oak sawtimber stands had no prior management and were 80 to 112 years old; upper canopy oaks averaged...

  4. Barrel maturation, oak alternatives and micro-oxygenation: influence on red wine aging and quality.

    PubMed

    Oberholster, A; Elmendorf, B L; Lerno, L A; King, E S; Heymann, H; Brenneman, C E; Boulton, R B

    2015-04-15

    The impact of micro-oxygenation (MOX) in conjunction with a variety of oak alternatives on phenolic composition and red wine aging was investigated and compared with traditional barrel aging. Although several studies concluded that MOX give similar results to barrel aging, few have compared them directly and none directly compared MOX with and without wood alternatives and barrel aging. Results confirmed that MOX had a positive effect on colour density, even after 5 months of bottle aging. This is supported by an increase in polymeric phenol and pigment content not only with aging but in the MOX compared to barrel matured wine treatments. Descriptive analysis showed that MOX in combination with wood alternatives such as oak chips and staves could mimic short term (six months) barrel aging in new American and French oak barrels in regards to sensory characteristics.

  5. Changes in amine concentrations during aging of red wine in oak barrels.

    PubMed

    Jiménez Moreno, Nerea; Torrea Goñi, Diego; Ancín Azpilicueta, Carmen

    2003-09-10

    This investigation studied the evolution of amines in red wines made with Merlot variety, during aging in American oak barrels (Quercus alba) and in French oak barrels (Quercus sessilis) from the Allier and Nevers regions. From the results obtained it was observed that the evolutions of the amines were similar in all three types of oak woods. Histamine and tyramine were produced at the beginning of the aging process, although they were not accumulated in the wines, probably due to their degradation. Putrescine was the most abundant amine in the wines; its concentration increased to an important extent during aging as it did not undergo degradation. The concentration of cadaverine increased slightly at the first stage of aging and, like putrescine, did not degrade at all. The volatile amines showed slight variations during aging, although in no cases were high accumulations observed in the wines. Dimethylamine and isobutylamine were degraded during storage in the barrels.

  6. Effect of Pre-Harvest Shade Control and Fencing on Northern Red oak Seedling Development in the Central Appalachians

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Miller; James N. Kochenerfer; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    2004-01-01

    Successful oak regeneration is related to the size and number of advanced seedlings present when harvests occur. This study was installed to quantify the effect of microsite light availability and deer on the development of advanced northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) reproduction in mesic Appalachian hardwood stands. Microsite light was manipulated...

  7. Litter Decomposition in Low and High Mortality Northern Red Oak Stands on Extremely Acidic Southwestern Pennsylvania Soils

    Treesearch

    Michael C. Demchik; William E. Sharpe

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has shown that decomposition of organic matter is slower in soils with high levels of soil acidity and available aluminum (Al). The objective of this experiment was to determine if differences in decomposition rates of northern red oak leaves occurred between extremely acidic and less acidic sites that also differed in oak mortality. Leaf litter from...

  8. Establishing northern red oak on a degraded upland site in northeastern Pennsylvania: Influence of seedling pedigree and quality

    Treesearch

    Cornelia C. Pinchot; Thomas J. Hall; Scott E. Schlarbaum; Arnold M. Saxton; James. Bailey

    2017-01-01

    Enrichment plantings using large oak seedlings of regional sources may promote superior survival and growth compared to direct seeding or standard nursery seedling material. This study evaluated the survival and growth of planted 1-0 northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings among 11 families and 3 seedling size classes (small, average, and...

  9. Oak Growth and Response to Thinning

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley

    2004-01-01

    Oak growth and yield is simultaneously influenced by tree-, stand-, and landscape-scale factors. At the tree scale oak diameter growth varies by tree species (typically n. red oak >= scarlet oak > black oak > white oak > chestnut oak > chinkapin oak > post oak), but oak diameter growth is even more strongly influenced by crown class. Oak stands go...

  10. Acorn fall and weeviling in a northern red oak seedling orchard

    Treesearch

    Daniel R. Miller; Scott E. Schlarbaum

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, we determined levels of damage by acorn weevils (Curculio spp.) and patterns of acorn fall in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedling orchard in eastern Tennessee. The mean (±SE) production of acorns among 43 selected trees was 5,930 ± 586 acorns per tree with a maximum production level of 16,969 acorns for one tree...

  11. Fuel values of stems and branches in post oak and red maple

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    In red maple (Acer rubrum), there was n.s.d. in higher heating value (HHV) between stem wood and branch wood or between stem bark and branch bark. In post oak (Quercus stellata) the HHV of stem bark was significantly higher than that of branch bark, but there was n.s.d. between stem wood and branch wood. For both species the wood had a significantly higher HHV than the bark. 1 reference.

  12. Computation of drying stresses in red oak using equilibrium and non-equilibrium creep models

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.; Kyanka, G.H.; Smith, W.B.

    1995-12-31

    A comprehensive model which shows the development of drying stresses in red oak is presented. The elastic, visco-elastic and mechano-sorptive mechanisms of strain behavior are all included. The results show the dominant effects of mechano-sorptive creep on stress relaxation and give insights on the effects of temperature on stress. Some of the results indicate that model has value for people who are involved with commerical drying systems.

  13. Survival of northern red oak acorns after fall burning. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Auchmoody, L.R.; Smith, H.C.

    1993-01-01

    The survival of recently fallen northern red oak acorns after exposure to a cool fall burn was evaluated in northwestern Pennsylvania. Although no acorns were consumed by the fire, some were charred. Between 40 and 49 percent of the acorns in the litter were destroyed. The fire was not hot enough to kill Curculio larvae within the acorns. Burned acorns infested with Curculio that survived the fire had 20 percent lower germination rates than unburned acorns.

  14. Stocktype and harvest gap size influence northern red oak regeneration success

    Treesearch

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Ron A. Rathfon; Anthony S. Davis; Don E. Carlson

    2006-01-01

    Four different northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) stocktypes (standard- or low-nursery-density bareroot seedlings and 11.4 or 18.9 L container seedlings) were outplanted into large-, medium-, and small-harvested gap openings (0.400, 0.024, and 0.100 ha, respectively) and closed-canopy control plots in southern Indiana. Two-year survival, height, and...

  15. Underplanting northern red oak in Missouri without herbicides. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.S.

    1992-01-01

    The report describes a provisional assessment of the effectiveness of applying herbicides to woody competitors between 0.5- and 1.5-inches d.b.h. before underplanting northern red oak. Results suggest that no weed control, i.e., not using herbicides, would require only modest increases in the numbers or initial size of nursery stock needed to obtain a given future stocking goal.

  16. Data bank for short-length red oak lumber. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedenbeck, J.K.; Gatchell, C.J.; Walker, E.S.

    1994-10-01

    The data bank for short-length lumber (less than 8 feet long) contains information on board outlines and defect size and quality for 426 4/4-inch-thick red oak boards. The Selects, 1 Common, 2A Common, and 3A Common grades are represented in the data bank. The data bank provides the kind of detailed lumber description that is required as input by computer programs that analyze rough mill yield.

  17. A Red Oak Data Bank for Computer Simulations of Secondary Processing

    Treesearch

    Charles J. Gatchell; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1993-01-01

    An extensive data bank for red oak lumber that is compatible with most secondary manufacturing computer simulator tools is now available. Currently, the data bank contains 10,718 board feet in 1,578 boards. The National Hardwood Lumber Associations (NHLA) Special Kiln Dried Rule was used to grade the boards. The percentage of a boardâs surface measure contained in...

  18. Influence of extractives on bonding properties of white and southern red oak

    Treesearch

    Mon-Lin. Kuo; Daniel DiCarlo; Chung-Yun Hse

    1984-01-01

    White and southern red oak veneer were subjected to four methods of drying followed by five surface treatments. The four drying methods were mill drying at 350°F, laboratory drying at 350 and 212°F, and air drying. The five surface treatments were no treatment, surface scraping, soaking and dipping in 1% NaOH aqueous solution, and water extraction. Plywood panels were...

  19. Performance of northern red oak seedlings across a pH gradient

    Treesearch

    Anthony S. Davis; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2005-01-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings were grown from acorns in 4-gallon containers in a greenhouse. Growing medium was amended to a pH of 3.50, 4.25, 5.00, and 5.75 using tri-weekly applications of aluminum sulfate. In addition, seedlings were subjected to either: (1) addition of a 16- to 18-month controlled release fertilizer (CRF), (2)...

  20. Protecting red oak seedlings with tree shelters in northwestern Pennsylvania. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, R.S.

    1993-10-01

    The report examines the growth and survival of planted and natural red oak seedlings and seedlings from planted acorns within translucent tan tree shelters, fences, and unprotected controls under a shelterwood seed-cut stand. Seedlings planted within tree shelters and fences were inside tree shelters. Natural seedlings grew very little and their height inside and outside of tree shelters did not differ. Recommendations based on these results should improve results from the use of tree shelters.

  1. Release and retention patterns of organic compounds and nutrients after the cold period in foliar litterfall of pure European larch, common beech and red oak plantations in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čiuldienė, D.; Aleinikovienė, J.; Muraškienė, M.; Marozas, V.; Armolaitis, K.

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out in alien warmth-tolerant forest plantations of red oak ( Quercus rubra), common beech ( Fagus sylvatica) and European larch ( Larix decidua). We compared the changes in foliar litterfall mass and biochemical composition after five months of cold period. The mean mass of fresh foliar litterfall collected in late autumn was 30% higher in red oak compared to the larch and beech plantations. After the cold period, the reduction of foliar litterfall mass did not exceed 10% in any of the studied plantations. The fresh foliar litterfall of red oak was the richest in cellular fibre and easily decomposable glucose and nutrients such as P and Mg, larch was distinguished by the highest lignin, N, K and Ca concentrations, while beech fresh foliar litterfall was the poorest in the aforementioned nutrients. After the cold period, the changes in the biochemical composition of foliar litterfall revealed different patterns. In the spring, the beech and red oak foliar litterfall was the richest in N, P and Ca, meanwhile the larch foliar litterfall still had the highest concentration of lignin but, in contrast to the autumn, was the poorest in nutrients. After the cold period Lignin: N, C: N and C: P ratios reached critical values indicating that the foliar litterfall of beech and red oak had started to decompose. The highest lignin concentration and the highest and most stable Lignin: N, C: N, C: P and N: P ratios after the cold period indicated that the slowest foliar litterfall decomposition took place in the larch plantation.

  2. Optimization of sampling methods for within-tree populations of red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Crook, D J; Fierke, M K; Mauromoustakos, A; Kinney, D L; Stephen, F M

    2007-06-01

    In the Ozark Mountains of northern Arkansas and southern Missouri, an oak decline event, coupled with epidemic populations of red oak borer (Enaphalodes rufulus Haldeman), has resulted in extensive red oak (Quercus spp., section Lobatae) mortality. Twenty-four northern red oak trees, Quercus rubra L., infested with red oak borer, were felled in the Ozark National Forest between March 2002 and June 2003. Infested tree boles were cut into 0.5-m sample bolts, and the following red oak borer population variables were measured: current generation galleries, live red oak borer, emergence holes, and previous generation galleries. Population density estimates from sampling plans using varying numbers of samples taken randomly and systematically were compared with total census measurements for the entire infested tree bole. Systematic sampling consistently yielded lower percent root mean square error (%RMSE) than random sampling. Systematic sampling of one half of the tree (every other 0.5-m sample along the tree bole) yielded the lowest values. Estimates from plans systematically sampling one half the tree and systematic proportional sampling using seven or nine samples did not differ significantly from each other and were within 25% RMSE of the "true" mean. Thus, we recommend systematically removing and dissecting seven 0.5-m samples from infested trees as an optimal sampling plan for monitoring red oak borer within-tree population densities. This optimal sampling plan should allow for collection of acceptably accurate within-tree population density data for this native wood-boring insect and reducing labor and costs of dissecting whole trees.

  3. Gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) consumption and utilization of northern red oak and white oak foliage exposed to simulated acid rain and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, W.N. Jr. )

    1993-06-01

    Two-year-old seedlings of white oak, Quercus alba L., and red oak, Q. rubra L., were exposed to ozone (O[sub 3]) fumigations in four continuously stirred tank reactor chambers in the greenhouse for 8 h/d, 3 d/wk for 6 wk. Fumigation treatments were charcoal-filtered air (CFA) and CFA + 0.15 ppm O[sub 3]. Two simulated rain treatments, pH 4.2 and pH 3.0, of-1.25 cm were applied once each week in rain-simulation chambers. Gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), third instars were allowed to feed on leaf disks from treated seedlings for 24 h. Leaf area consumed, food assimilated, weight gain, and relative growth rate (RGR) were examined. Overall, larvae fed white oak foliage consumed more foliage and gained more weight than those fed red oak foliage. Response to the fumigation and rain treatments was different for each oak species. On white oak foliage, larvae consumed significantly less foliage treated with CFA + pH 3.0 rain, but the lowest RGR occurred with the 0.15 ppm O[sub 3] + pH 4.2 rain treatment. The most food assimilated, greatest weight gain, and highest RGR occurred with the CFA + pH 4.2 rain control. Red oak foliage consumed was equivalent for all treatments, but foliage exposed to CFA + pH 3.0 rain resulted in more food assimilated, greater weight gain, and higher RGR for that species.

  4. Oak Decline and Red Oak Borer in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas an Missouri: Natural Phenomena, Severe Occurrences

    Treesearch

    Dale A. Starkey; Forrest Oliveria; Alexander Mangini; Manfred Mielke

    2004-01-01

    Oak decline is a complex disease resulting in dieback and mortality of oaks. A number of factors are involved and can be classified as predisposing, inciting, or contributing, according to their roles. Decline events have been noted repeatedly during the past century in the eastern U.S. A severe episode of oak decline is occurring in the Interior Highlands region of...

  5. Survival and growth of direct-seeded and natural northern red oak after c1earcutting a mature red pine plantation

    Treesearch

    R.D. Shipman; D.B. Dimarcello

    1991-01-01

    Initiated in 1985, a study was designed to evaluate the effects of site preparation (rototilling) and logging slash on 5-year survival and growth of natural and direct-seeded northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) after clearcutting a mature, 45-year-old red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) plantation in central Pennsylvania.

  6. Isolation studies reveal a shift in the cultivable microbiome of oak affected with Acute Oak Decline.

    PubMed

    Denman, Sandra; Plummer, Sarah; Kirk, Susan; Peace, Andrew; McDonald, James E

    2016-10-01

    Acute Oak Decline is a syndrome within the Oak Decline complex in Britain. Profuse stem bleeding and larval galleries of the native buprestid, Agrilus biguttatus characterize the disease. A systematic study comparing healthy with diseased trees was undertaken. This work reports the result of isolations from healthy trees, diseased and non-symptomatic tissue within AOD affected trees, at five sites in England. Bacteria and fungi were identified using the DNA gyrase B gene, or ITS 1 sequencing. A significantly higher proportion of diseased tissues (82%) yielded more bacteria than either healthy (18%) or non-symptomatic tissue in diseased trees (33%). Overall bacterial community compositions varied at each site, but significant similarities were evident in diseased tissues at all sites. Enterobacteriaceae dominated in diseased trees whereas Pseudomonadaceae dominated healthy trees. Significant associations between diseased tissues and certain bacterial species occurred, implying that the cause of tissue necrosis was not due to random microbiota. Brenneria goodwinii and Gibbsiella quercinecans were key species consistently isolated from diseased tissue; Rahnella victoriana and an un-named Pseudomonas taxon were also frequently isolated from both healthy and diseased trees. Most fungi isolated were from the outer bark and had no significant association with tree health status. It was concluded that there was a shift in the cultivatable bacterial microbiome of diseased trees, with Enterobacteriaceae strongly represented in symptomatic but not healthy tissues. No single species dominated the isolations from diseased tissues and the tissue degradation in AOD is therefore likely to have a polymicrobial cause. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Butt log quality of trees in Pennsylvania oak stands

    Treesearch

    Martin E. Dale; Robert L. Brisbin; Robert L. Brisbin

    1985-01-01

    Describes the distribution of sawtimber trees by diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) and grade for eight hardwood species in upland oak stands of Pennsylvania. The proportion of trees by d.b.h. and grade revealed differences between species. The quality of northern red oak, white oak, and yellow-poplar appeared inherently better than that of red maple, chestnut oak, and...

  8. Dielectric Detection of Knots in Green Red Oak and Southern Pine Lumber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Jerome E.; Steele, Philip H.; Mitchell, Brian

    2007-03-01

    Forest products industry automation requires accurate detection of knots in lumber. A radio frequency system has been patented and commercialized that relies on signal attenuation to detect knots in green softwood lumber. Signal attenuation has proven less reliable for hardwood species and for application to green lumber where moisture content may range from 60 to 150 percent. This paper reports on knot detection in green southern yellow pine and red oak lumber with a system that utilizes phase shift data to supplement attenuation data. Phase shift was found to be considerably more reliable than signal attenuation for knot detection in green lumber.

  9. Planting northern red oak acorns: Is size and planting depth important. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Auchmoody, L.R.; Smith, H.C.; Walters, R.S.

    1994-10-27

    A study was conducted in northern Pennsylvania to determine whether predation by small mammals and insects is related to the size of red oak acorns. Three sizes of acorns were used along with two planting techniques and three levels of overstory shading. Three-year results indicated that acorn size is not a factor in mammal and insect predation. Acorn size did not affect 3-year survival. Although 3-year total height growth was statistically different after 3 years, the differences were too small for practical use.

  10. Effects of visual grading on northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings planted in two shelterwood stands on the Cumberland Plateau of Tennessee, USA

    Treesearch

    Stacy Clark; Scott Schlarbaum; Callie Schweitzer

    2015-01-01

    Artificial regeneration of oak has been generally unsuccessful in maintaining the oak component in productive upland forests of eastern North America. We tested visual grading effects on quality-grown northern red oak (Quercus rubra) seedlings planted in two submesic stands on the Cumberland Plateau escarpment of Tennessee, USA. Seedlings were grown for one year using...

  11. Silvical characteristics of the five upland oaks

    Treesearch

    Earl L. Core

    1971-01-01

    The five most important upland oaks of eastern North America are white oak (Quercus alba), chestnut oak (Q. prinus), northern red oak (Q. rubra), black oak (Q. velutina), and scarlet oak (Q. coccinea). Of these, white oak and northern red oak are most characteristic of...

  12. Three Colopterus beetle species carry the oak wilt fungus to fresh wounds on red oak in Missouri

    Treesearch

    Maya Hayslett; Jennifer Juzwik; Bruce Moltzan

    2008-01-01

    Beetles in the family Nitidulidae can transmit the oak wilt fungus, Ceratocystis fagacearum, to fresh wounds on healthy oak trees, leading to infection and disease development. Historically, nitidulid beetles have not been considered important vectors of the pathogen in Missouri. Studies were conducted in the spring of 2005 and 2006 to determine...

  13. Volatile compounds in a spanish red wine aged in barrels made of Spanish, French, and American oak wood.

    PubMed

    De Simón, Brígida Fernández; Cadahía, Estrella; Jalocha, Jerzy

    2003-12-17

    A red Rioja wine was aged in barrels made of Spanish oak wood (Quercus robur, Quercus petraea,Quercus pyrenaica, and Quercus faginea) during 21 months. The concentrations of some volatile compounds [syringaldehyde, vanillin, eugenol, maltol, guaiacol, 4-ethylphenol, cis and trans isomers of beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, 2-furfuraldehyde, 5-methyl-2-furfuraldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfuraldehyde, and furfuryl alcohol] were studied in these wines and compared with those of the same wine aged in barrels made from French oak of Q. robur (Limousin, France) and Q. petraea (Allier, France) and American oak of Quercus alba (Missouri). Similar concentrations of these compounds were found in wines aged in Spanish and French oak wood barrels, and significantly different concentrations were found with respect to wines aged in barrels made of American oak wood, indicating a different behavior. Thus, wines with different characteristics were obtained, depending on the kind of wood. Also, the kind of wood had an important influence on sensory characteristics of wine during the aging process. Spanish oak wood from Q. robur, Q. petraea, and Q. pyrenaica can be considered to be suitable for barrel production for quality wines, because a wine aged in barrels made of these Spanish oak woods showed similar and intermediate characteristics to those of the same wine aged in French and American oak woods usually used in cooperage.

  14. Thinning to improve growth and bole quality in an Inonotus hispidus-infected, red oak-sweetgum stand in the Mississippi Delta: sixth-year results

    Treesearch

    James S. Meadows; Theodor D. Leininger; T. Evan Nebeker

    2006-01-01

    Thinning was applied to a 55-year-old red oak-sweetgum (Quercus spp.-Liquidambar styraciflua L.) stand in the Delta region of western Mississippi in 1997. Special emphasis was placed on removing all red oaks infected with Inonotus hispidus (Bull.) P. Karst, a canker decay fungus that causes serious degrade and...

  15. Thinning to improve growth, bole quality, and forest health in an Inonotus hispidus-infected, red oak-sweetgum stand in the Mississippi Delta: 10-year results

    Treesearch

    James S. Meadows; Theodor D. Leininger; David Montwé; T. Evan Nebeker

    2013-01-01

    A 55-year-old red oak-sweetgum (Quercus spp.- Liquidambar styraciflua) stand on the Delta National Forest in western Mississippi was subjected to a combination of low thinning and improvement cutting in 1997. Special emphasis was placed on removing all red oaks infected with Inonotus hispidus, a canker decay...

  16. Distance and phenology influence pollen gene flow, male reproductive success, and female mate choice in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seed orchard

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Northern red oak is a high-value hardwood used for lumber, furniture and veneer. Intensively managed northern red oak orchards require genetic gain for trait improvement. Data from conifer seed orchards and natural and managed stands of hardwood trees have shed light on the distance over which polle...

  17. Survival and growth for the first-growing season of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings underplanted in mixed upland hardwood stands in South Central Iowa

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Bardon; David W. Countryman

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the first year survival and growth of red oak seedlings underplanted in two mixed upland hardwood stands in south central Iowa. The underplanted seedlings were undercut and not undercut 1-0 red oak stock. Fifteen blocks were laid out in 1990, with seven of the blocks receiving a foliar application of glyphosate herbicide. In the winter of 1990-1991,...

  18. Response to Crop-Tree Release: Sugar Maple, Red Oak, Black Cherry, and Yellow-Poplar Saplings in a 9-Year-Old Stand

    Treesearch

    Neil I. Lamson; H. Clay Smith

    1978-01-01

    Crop trees were released in an Appalachian hardwood stand (site index 70 for northern red oak) that had been clearcut 9 years earlier. We released 134 yellow-poplar, red oak, black cherry, and sugar maple stems of seedling origin to a 5-foot radius around the bole of each study tree; 140 comparable stems were not released. These trees were dominant, codominant, or...

  19. Pollen gene flow, male reproductive success, and genetic correlations among offspring in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seed orchard

    Treesearch

    Lisa Alexander; Keith Woeste

    2017-01-01

    Northern red oak is a high-value hardwood used for lumber, furniture and veneer. Intensively managed northern red oak seed orchards are required to obtain genetic gain for trait improvement. Data from conifer seed orchards and natural and managed stands of hardwood trees have shed light on the distance over which pollen can move, and underscore the need for managerial...

  20. Whole-tree silvic identifications and the microsatellite genetic structure of a red oak species complex in an Indiana old-growth forest

    Treesearch

    Preston R. Aldrich; George R. Parker; Charles H. Michler; Jeanne Romero-Severson

    2003-01-01

    The red oaks (Quercus section Lobatae) include important timber species, but we know little about their gene pools. Red oak species can be difficult to identify, possibly because of extensive interspecific hybridization, although most evidence of this is morphological. We used 15 microsatellite loci to examine the genetic...

  1. Response of sun-grown and shade-grown northern red oak seedlings to outplanting in clearcuts and shelterwoods in North Alabama

    Treesearch

    Callie Jo Schweitzer; Emile S. Gardiner; David L. Loftis

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine if greenhouse light environment would affect outplanting success for northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) in clearcuts and shelterwoods. In 2002, northern red oak seedlings were grown from acorns under full-ambient (sun) and half-ambient (shade) light conditions in a greenhouse. Seedlings grown...

  2. Morphological indicators of stock quality and field performance of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedling underplanted in a central Ontario shelterwood

    Treesearch

    Daniel C. Dey; William C. Parker

    1997-01-01

    Initial stem diameter of bareroot red oak planting stock was a better morphological indicator of future height and diameter growth in a shelterwood underplanting than were initial shoot length and number of first-order lateral roots. Stem diameter near the root collar provides an integrated measure of the growth potential of red oak planting stock because of its strong...

  3. Relationship between resistance to Phytophthora ramorum and constitutive phenolic chemistry in coast live oaks and northern red oaks

    Treesearch

    Annemarie M. Nagle; Matteo Garbelotto; Brice McPherson; David L. Wood; Pierluigi. Bonello

    2010-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum causes lethal canker diseases and extensive mortality in coast live oak (CLO) (Quercus agrifolia) and tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus). No practical controls are available for this disease in non-urban environments. Therefore, characterization of natural resistance is highly...

  4. A comparative study of physiological and morphological seedling traits associated with shade tolerance in introduced red oak (Quercus rubra) and native hardwood tree species in southwestern Germany.

    PubMed

    Kuehne, Christian; Nosko, Peter; Horwath, Tobias; Bauhus, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), a moderately shade-tolerant tree species, is failing to regenerate throughout its native North American range, while successful recruitment in Central Europe has been observed since its introduction. To examine whether comparative photosynthetic performance could explain the regeneration success of this non-native species in Central Europe, we compared the physiological and morphological seedling traits of red oak with three co-occurring tree species under three canopy types in southwestern Germany. Native species included a moderately shade-tolerant native oak (Quercus robur L.) and two shade-tolerant species (Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Carpinus betulus L.). The photosynthetic traits of non-native red oak seedlings were similar to those reported for this species in the native range, where shade-tolerant competitors readily outperform red oak under low light conditions. However, compared with native shade-tolerant species in Europe, red oak seedlings photosynthesized efficiently, especially under closed canopies and in small canopy gaps, exhibiting high photosynthetic capacity, low leaf dark respiration and leaf-level light compensation points that were similar to the more shade-tolerant species. The superior net carbon gain of red oak seedlings at low and moderate light levels was likely facilitated by high leaf areas and reflected by seedling dry masses that were greater than the observed native European species. A competitive advantage for red oak was not evident because relative height growth was inferior to seedlings of co-occurring species. In North America, the inability of seedlings to compete with shade-tolerant tree species in deeply shaded understories is central to the problem of poor oak recruitment. Our study suggests that the ability of non-native red oak to perform equally well to native shade-tolerant species under a variety of light conditions could contribute to the consistent success of red oak regeneration

  5. Effect of pulsed electric field processing of red grapes on wine chromatic and phenolic characteristics during aging in oak barrels.

    PubMed

    Puértolas, E; Saldaña, G; Alvarez, I; Raso, J

    2010-02-24

    The influence of a pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment of grape berries at pilot-plant scale on the evolution of the chromatic and phenolic characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon red wines during aging in American oak barrels and subsequent storage in bottle has been studied. Results obtained in this investigation confirm that the better chromatic characteristics and higher phenolic content obtained due to the PEF treatment after the fermentation process remain or even increase during aging in oxidative conditions in American oak barrels and their subsequent storage in bottle. No sensory differences in color and bouquet were detected after 8 months of aging in bottle by triangle tests. According to the results, PEF is a promising enological technology to obtain wines with the high phenolic content necessary for the production of high quality oak aged red wines.

  6. Mechanical Damage Incurred by Underplanted Northern Red Oak Following Six Overstory Treatments: First-Year Results

    Treesearch

    Matthew G. Olson; Wayne K. Clatterbuck; Scott E. Schlarbaum

    2004-01-01

    Regenerating oak, on recently harvested sites, continues to be a silvicultural challenge in the Central Hardwood Region. Enrichment planting can increase oak regeneration potential and success during the early stages of cohort develop-ment. In April of 2002, a replicated oak silviculture study using artificial regeneration was established near Oak Ridge, TN. Nursery-...

  7. Effect of Seedling Size and First-Order-Lateral Roots on Early Development of Northern Red Oak on Mesic Sites

    Treesearch

    Paul P. Kormanik; Shi-Jean S. Sung; Donald J. Kass; Scott Schlarbaum

    1997-01-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra) seedlings were placed in three grades based on number of first-order-lateral roots. The grades were poor, medium, and good and had numbers of 0 to 6, 7 to 11, 12, and > 12, respectively. Eighty seedlings from each group were either underplanted or established in an adjacent clearcut on a high-quality mesic site in...

  8. Introduction of black walnut and northern red oak seedlings in an upland hardwood forest in southeastern Ohio

    Treesearch

    Donald E. Hilt

    1977-01-01

    Black walnut and northern red oak seedlings were planted on a clearcut area in 1964. Three cultural treatments were applied to seedlings to control competing trees. Average height and survival were analyzed 13 growing seasons after planting. Results indicated that black walnut seedlings can be effectively established on good sites if cultural treatments are applied....

  9. Using X-Ray Image Analysis to Assess the Viability of Northern Red Oak Acorns: Implications for Seed Handlers

    Treesearch

    Rosa C. Goodman; Douglass F. Jacobs; Robert P. Karrfalt

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential to use X-ray image analysis as a rapid and nondestructive test of viability of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) acorns and the methodology to do so. Acorns are sensitive to desiccation and lose viability as moisture content (MC) decreases, so we examined X-ray images for cotyledon damage in dried acorns to...

  10. Decay detection in red oak trees using a combination of visual inspection, acoustic testing, and resistance microdrilling

    Treesearch

    Xiping Wang; R. Bruce Allison

    2008-01-01

    Arborists are often challenged to identify internal structural defects hidden from view within tree trunks. This article reports the results of a study using a trunk inspection protocol combining visual observation, single-path stress wave testing, acoustic tomography, and resistance microdrilling to detect internal defects. Two century-old red oak (Quercus rubra)...

  11. Response of northern red oak, black walnut, and white ash seedlings to various levels of simulated summer deer browsing

    Treesearch

    Robert C. Morrissey; Douglass F. Jacobs; John R. Seifert

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the response of tree seedlings to browsing by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman) is critical to the management of high value hardwood plantations in the Central Hardwood Forest Region. One-year-old black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and white ash...

  12. Ectomycorrhiza communities of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) of different age in the Lusatian lignite mining district, East Germany.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, S; Neubert, K; Wöllecke, J; Münzenberger, B; Hüttl, R F

    2007-06-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) communities were assessed on a 720 m(2) plot along a chronosequence of red oak (Quercus rubra) stands on a forest reclamation site with disturbed soil in the lignite mining area of Lower Lusatia (Brandenburg, Germany). Adjacent to the mining area, a red oak reference stand with undisturbed soil was investigated reflecting mycorrhiza diversity of the intact landscape. Aboveground, sporocarp surveys were carried out during the fruiting season in a 2-week interval in the years 2002 and 2003. Belowground, ECM morphotypes were identified by comparing sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions from nuclear rDNA with sequences from the GenBank database. Fifteen ECM fungal species were identified as sporocarps and 61 belowground as determined by morphological/anatomical and molecular analysis of their ectomycorrhizas. The number of ECM morphotypes increased with stand age along the chronosequence. However, the number of morphotypes was lower in stands with disturbed soil than with undisturbed soil. All stands showed site-specific ECM communities with low similarity between the chronosequence stands. The dominant ECM species in nearly all stands was Cenococcum geophilum, which reached an abundance approaching 80% in the 21-year-old chronosequence stand. Colonization rate of red oak was high (>95%) at all stands besides the youngest chronosequence stand where colonization rate was only 15%. This supports our idea that artificial inoculation with site-adapted mycorrhizal fungi would enhance colonization rate of red oak and thus plant growth and survival in the first years after outplanting.

  13. Response of potted northern red oak and hay-scented fern to additions of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus

    Treesearch

    David H. Hart; William E. Sharpe

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if addition of Ca, Mg, K, and P to an extremely acidic forest soil would increase early northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedling growth. The O through B2 horizon of a Dekalb soil from Pennsylvania's Bald Eagle State Forest was placed in plastic cores and utilized as a growth medium for northern...

  14. Effect of simulated insect damage on growth and survival of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings

    Treesearch

    Susan L. Wright; Richard W. Hall; John W. Peacock

    1989-01-01

    Effects of simulated insect damage—artificial defoliation and root damage in combination with two levels of watering—were studied to determine the potential effect on northern red oak seedlings (Quercus rubra L.). Treatments and treatment combinations caused significant differences in stem diameter, percentage of stem dieback, and mortality....

  15. Early stand development in a red oak-paper birch stand regenerated through the shelterwood system in northern Wisconsin

    Treesearch

    Terry F. Strong

    2005-01-01

    A study was established 20 years ago in northern Wisconsin to examine the minimum size of seedlings to ensure seedling survival after the overstory was removed in a red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) stand. About 65 percent of the site was scarified in 1985 with a woods disc. The overstory was...

  16. Rooting stem cuttings of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) utilizing hedged stump sprouts formed on recently felled trees

    Treesearch

    Matthew H. Gocke; Daniel J. Robinson

    2010-01-01

    The ability to root stem cuttings collected from hedged stump sprouts formed on recently felled trees was evaluated for 26 codominant northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) trees growing in Durham County, NC. Sprouting occurred, the same year as felling, on 23 of the 26 tree stumps and sprout number was significantly and positively correlated with stump diameter. The...

  17. Response to crop-tree release by 7-year-old stems of red maple stump sprouts and northern red oak advance reproduction

    Treesearch

    G. R., Jr. Trimble

    1974-01-01

    This paper deals with crop-tree release sf two species typical of a fair site: red maple stump sprouts and northern red oak advance reproduction. A study was made to test the feasibility of doing a crop-tree release immediately after the canopy closed and crown classes could be distinguished. The study was made in a 7-year-old even-aged hardwood stand on the Fernow...

  18. Volatile compounds of red wines macerated with Spanish, American, and French oak chips.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; González-Huerta, Carlos

    2009-07-22

    The volatile composition of a red wine aged for 2 months with three different Spanish oak chips (Quercus pyrenaica and Quercus petraea) from different regions of Castilla y León was compared with that of wines aged with American and French chips. In general, the extraction kinetics showed that the maximum concentration of the volatile compounds extracted from wood can be reached in only 1 month. In the final wines, the levels of furanic aldehydes and eugenol were higher in the wines macerated with Spanish chips, whereas cis-whiskey-lactone, vanillin, and methyl vanillate showed higher levels in wines treated with American chips. Among the wines treated with the different Spanish chips, the differences observed in the volatile composition were more related to the geographical origin of the forest than to the botanical species. In general, the wines macerated with Spanish chips showed levels of oak-related volatile compounds that were more similar to those macerated with French chips than to those macerated with American chips.

  19. Contrasting the effects of organic matter removal and soil compaction on root biomass of 9-year-old red oak, white oak, and shortleaf pine in a Missouri Ozark forest

    Treesearch

    Felix Jr. Ponder

    2011-01-01

    Nine-year old artificially regenerated red oak (Quercus rubra L.), white oak (Q. alba L.), and shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) trees were excavated from plot borders of a U.S. Forest Service long-term soil productivity study in the Carr Creek State Forest near Ellington, MO, to quantify treatment effects on...

  20. Properties related to drying defects in red oak wetwood. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Verkasalo, E.; Ross, R.J.; TenWolde, A.; Youngs, R.L.

    1993-02-01

    Bacterially infected wood, called wetwood, is often not visually apparent in logs or green lumber. When dried, lumber containing wetwood is prone to develop defects. The study had two objectives: (1) to show the potential of using moisture content, green and basic density, stress wave travel time, and tensile strength across the grain as indicators of bacterial infection in green lumber and (2) to evaluate the relative susceptibility of infected and uninfected lumber to checking during drying and the level of actual drying degrade. Bacterially infected and uninfected green, flat-sawn, 1-1/8-in.-thick red oak (Quercus spp.) lumber was used in the study. The relative susceptibility of infected and uninfected wood to check during drying was examined by comparing tensile strength across the grain.

  1. Hydraulic Analysis of Water Flow through Leaves of Sugar Maple and Red Oak1

    PubMed Central

    Sack, Lawren; Streeter, Christopher M.; Holbrook, N. Michele

    2004-01-01

    Leaves constitute a substantial fraction of the total resistance to water flow through plants. A key question is how hydraulic resistance within the leaf is distributed among petiole, major veins, minor veins, and the pathways downstream of the veins. We partitioned the leaf hydraulic resistance (Rleaf) for sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and red oak (Quercus rubra) by measuring the resistance to water flow through leaves before and after cutting specific vein orders. Simulations using an electronic circuit analog with resistors arranged in a hierarchical reticulate network justified the partitioning of total Rleaf into component additive resistances. On average 64% and 74% of the Rleaf was situated within the leaf xylem for sugar maple and red oak, respectively. Substantial resistance—32% and 49%— was in the minor venation, 18% and 21% in the major venation, and 14% and 4% in the petiole. The large number of parallel paths (i.e. a large transfer surface) for water leaving the minor veins through the bundle sheath and out of the leaf resulted in the pathways outside the venation comprising only 36% and 26% of Rleaf. Changing leaf temperature during measurement of Rleaf for intact leaves resulted in a temperature response beyond that expected from changes in viscosity. The extra response was not found for leaves with veins cut, indicating that water crosses cell membranes after it leaves the xylem. The large proportion of resistance in the venation can explain why stomata respond to leaf xylem damage and cavitation. The hydraulic importance of the leaf vein system suggests that the diversity of vein system architectures observed in angiosperms may reflect variation in whole-leaf hydraulic capacity. PMID:15064368

  2. Impact of acorn moisture content at sowing on germination and seedling growth of white oak and northern red oak

    Treesearch

    Shi-Jean Susana Sung; Paul P. Kormanik; Taryn L. Kormanik; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2005-01-01

    Acorn quality is an integral part of artificial oak regeneration. Progeny from individual mother trees of similar geographic areas frequently exhibited a wide range of germination percentage. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the impact of acorn moisture content (MC) at sowing on germination and subsequent seedling growth.

  3. Sensory-directed identification of taste-active ellagitannins in American (Quercus alba L.) and European oak wood (Quercus robur L.) and quantitative analysis in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines.

    PubMed

    Glabasnia, Arne; Hofmann, Thomas

    2006-05-03

    Aimed at increasing our knowledge on the sensory-active nonvolatiles migrating from oak wood into alcoholic beverages upon cooperaging, an aqueous ethanolic extract prepared from oak wood chips (Quercus alba L.) was screened for its key taste compounds by application of the taste dilution analysis. Purification of the compounds perceived with the highest sensory impacts, followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry as well as one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments, revealed the ellagitannins vescalagin, castalagin, and grandinin, the roburins A-E, and 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin as the key molecules imparting an astringent oral sensation. To the best of our knowledge, 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin has as yet not been reported as a phytochemical in Q. alba L. In addition, the sensory activity of these ellagitannins was determined for the first time on the basis of their human threshold concentrations and dose/response functions. Furthermore, the ellagitannins have been quantitatively determined in extracts prepared from Q. alba L. and Quercus robur L., respectively, as well as in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines, and the sensory contribution of the individual compounds has been evaluated for the first time on the basis of dose/activity considerations.

  4. Influence of overstory density on ecophysiology of red oak (Quercus rubra) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) seedlings in central Ontario shelterwoods.

    PubMed

    Parker, William C; Dey, Daniel C

    2008-05-01

    A field experiment was established in a second-growth hardwood forest dominated by red oak (Quercus rubra L.) to examine the effects of shelterwood overstory density on leaf gas exchange and seedling water status of planted red oak, naturally regenerated red oak and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) seedlings during the first growing season following harvest. Canopy cover of uncut control stands and moderate and light shelterwoods averaged 97, 80 and 49%, respectively. Understory light and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) strongly influenced gas exchange responses to overstory reduction. Increased irradiance beneath the shelterwoods significantly increased net photosynthesis (P(n)) and leaf conductance to water vapor (G(wv)) of red oak and maple seedlings; however, P(n) and G(wv) of planted and naturally regenerated red oak seedlings were two to three times higher than those of sugar maple seedlings in both partial harvest treatments, due in large part to decreased stomatal limitation of gas exchange in red oak as a result of increased VPD in the shelterwoods. In both species, seedling water status was higher in the partial harvest treatments, as reflected by the higher predawn leaf water potential and seedling water-use efficiency in seedlings in shelterwoods than in uncut stands. Within a treatment, planted and natural red oak seedlings exhibited similar leaf gas exchange rates and water status, indicating little adverse physiological effect of transplanting. We conclude that the use of shelterwoods favors photosynthetic potential of red oak over sugar maple, and should improve red oak regeneration in Ontario.

  5. Response of planted northern red oak seedlings to regeneration harvesting, Midstory removal, and prescribed burning

    Treesearch

    Stacy L. Clark; Scott E. Schlarbaum; Tara L. Keyser; Callie J. Schweitzer; Marty Spetich; Dean Simon; Gordon S. Warburton

    2016-01-01

    Oak (Quercus) is difficult to naturally regenerate in many mature oak stands on productive sites in the southeastern United States, and artificial regeneration alternatives should be considered. Artificial regeneration can potentially restore or enrich the oak component at the stand level. We examined genetic and silvicultural effects on...

  6. Artificial regeneration of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) on high quality mesic sites: early results characterizing nursery production, early juvenile growth, and acorn production

    Treesearch

    Paul P. Kormanik; Shi-Jean S. Sung; Taryn L. Kormanik; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Scott E. Schlarbaum; Tom Tibbs

    2002-01-01

    There is intense concern among forest resource managers about the rapid decline in the northern red oak (NRO) component of high quality mesic sites throughout the United States. Currently this versatile oak species, so important for its lumber value as well as its dietary staple status for hundreds of wildlife species, is being replaced by hardwood species that lack...

  7. Preliminary appraisal of the hydrology of the Red Oak area, Latimer County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcher, M.V.; Bergman, D.L.; Stoner, J.D.; Blumer, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Bed rock in the Red Oak area consists of shale, siltstone, and sandstone of the McAlester and Savanna Formations of Pennsylvanian age. Water in bedrock occurs in bedding planes, joints, and fractures and is confined. The potentiometric surface generally is less than 20 feet below the land surface. Wells yield enough water for domestic and stock use, but larger amounts of ground water are not available. Ground water commonly is a sodium or mixed cation carbonate/bicarbonate type with dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from 321 to 714 milligrams per liter. Although variable in quality, ground water generally is suitable for domestic use. No relationship between water chemistry and well depth or location is apparent. Brazil Creek, the principal stream in the area, has no flow 15 percent of the time, and flow is less than 1 cubic foot per second about 25 percent of the time. Water in Brazil Creek is a mixed cation carbonate/bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations in Brazil Creek upstream from areas of old and recent mining ranged from 31 to 99 milligrams per liter with a mean of 58 milligrams per liter, whereas concentrations downstream from the mine areas ranged from 49 to 596 milligrams per liter with a mean of 132 milligrams per liter. Water in Brazil and Rock Creeks had concentrations of cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury that exceeded maximum contaminant levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency at least once during the 1979-81 water years. Maximum suspended-sediment discharge, in tons per day, was 2,500 for Brazil Creek and 3,318 for Rock Creek. Silt-clay particles (diameters less than 0.062 millimeter) were the dominant sediment size. A significant hydrologic effect of surface mining is creation of additional water storage in mine ponds; one such pond supplies water for the town of Red Oak. Other effects or potential effects of surface mining include changes in rock permeability and ground-water storage, changes in drainage

  8. Differential effects of sugar maple, red oak, and hemlock tannins on carbon and nitrogen cycling in temperate forest soils.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Jennifer M; Finzi, Adrien C

    2008-03-01

    Tannins are abundant secondary chemicals in leaf litter that are hypothesized to slow the rate of soil-N cycling by binding protein into recalcitrant polyphenol-protein complexes (PPCs). We studied the effects of tannins purified from sugar maple, red oak, and eastern hemlock leaf litter on microbial activity and N cycling in soils from northern hardwood-conifer forests of the northeastern US. To create ecologically relevant conditions, we applied tannins to soil at a concentration (up to 2 mg g(-1) soil) typical of mineral soil horizons. Sugar maple tannins increased microbial respiration significantly more than red oak or hemlock tannins. The addition of sugar maple tannins also decreased gross N mineralization by 130% and, depending upon the rate of application, decreased net rates of N mineralization by 50-290%. At low concentrations, the decrease in mineralization appeared to be driven by greater microbial-N immobilization, while at higher concentrations the decrease in mineralization was consistent with the formation of recalcitrant PPCs. Low concentrations of red oak and hemlock tannins stimulated microbial respiration only slightly, and did not significantly affect fluxes of inorganic N in the soil. When applied to soils containing elevated levels of protein, red oak and hemlock tannins decreased N mineralization without affecting rates of microbial respiration, suggesting that PPC formation decreased substrate availability for microbial immobilization. Our results indicate that tannins from all three species form recalcitrant PPCs, but that the degree of PPC formation and its attendant effect on soil-N cycling depends on tannin concentration and the pool size of available protein in the soil.

  9. System 6 used to make kitchen cabinet C2F blanks from small-diameter, low-grade red oak

    Treesearch

    Hugh W. Reynolds; Philip A. Araman; Charles J. Gatchell; Bruce G. Hansen

    1983-01-01

    Hardwood dimension manufacturers can make profitable use of plentiful small-diameter, low-grade timber when System 6 technology is used. We describe a System 6 plant designed to make clear-two-face (C2F) blanks for the kitchen cabinet industry. Data for plant operation are taken from a study in which red oak bolts (from a reforestation clearcut) were used to make 33-,...

  10. The effects of crosscutting before gang-ripping on dimension part yields from no. 1 and 2A common red oak lumber

    Treesearch

    Charles, J. Gatchell; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Elizabeth S. Walker; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1996-01-01

    Mills should have the option to crosscut red oak lumber prior to gang-ripping to remove crook and worthless material and to take advantage of the quality differences between board ends. At least half of No: 1 and 2A Common red oak boards will have end-to-end yield differences of at least 10 percent. Preprocessing will cause a slight decrease in overall yield but will...

  11. Estimating northern red oak site-index class from total height and diameter of dominant and codominant trees in central Appalachian hardwood stands

    Treesearch

    Neil I. Lamson; Neil I. Lamson

    1987-01-01

    Northern red oak site-index (SI) class is estimated using height and diameter of dominant and codominant trees for five Appalachian hardwood species. Methods for predicting total height as a function of diameter are presented. Because total height of 4- and 6-inch trees varies less than 5 feet for the three northern red oak SI classes, use trees that are at least 8...

  12. Flush Development Dynamics in First-Year Nursery-Grown Seedlings of Eight Oak Species

    Treesearch

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; Paul P. Kormanik; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to follow flush development dynamics exhibited by various oak species. In experiment I, southern red oak acorns were sown in mid-March 2001 at Whitehall Nursery (Athens, GA). In experiment II, acorns of black oak, cherrybark oak, Nuttall oak, Shumard oak, southern red oak, swamp chestnut oak, white oak, and willow oak were sown in...

  13. Frost tolerance and bud dormancy of container-grown yellow birch, red oak and sugar maple seedlings.

    PubMed

    Calmé, S; Bigras, F J; Margolis, H A; Hébert, C

    1994-12-01

    Container-grown seedlings of red oak (Quercus rubra L.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton) in their first year of growth were overwintered outdoors. Tolerance of roots and stems to freezing was compared from late summer to the following spring. Mitotic activity in the apical bud was related more closely to air temperature than to bud dormancy as defined by days to bud break. In all species, stem hardening was observed before days to bud break reached a maximum. Dormancy release (days to bud break equal to zero) of yellow birch coincided with loss of stem hardening in the spring. Roots hardened more slowly, had a lower frost tolerance than stems in fall and winter, and dehardened earlier than stems in the spring. There were differences in stem and root hardiness among the species, with yellow birch being the most tolerant, followed by sugar maple and red oak. Primarily because of root sensitivity to frost, winter was a critical period for all three species, but particularly for red oak.

  14. Analysing branching pattern in plantations of young red oak trees (Quercus rubra L., Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Heuret, Patrick; Guédon, Yann; Guérard, Natacha; Barthélémy, Daniel

    2003-03-01

    Branching patterns of the growth units of monocyclic or bicyclic annual shoots on the main axis of 5-year-old red oaks were studied in a plantation in south-western France. For each growth unit, the production of axillary structures associated with each node was described in the form of a sequence. For a given category of growth units, homogeneous zones (i.e. zones in which composition in terms of type of axillary production does not change substantially) were identified on such sequences using a dedicated statistical model called a hidden semi-Markov chain. For instance, on the first growth unit of bicyclic annual shoots, a zone with 1-year-delayed branches was found systematically below a zone with buds and one-cycle-delayed branches. Branching patterns shown by the growth unit of monocyclic annual shoots and on the second growth unit of bicyclic annual shoots were very similar. Branches with a 1-year delay in development tended to be polycyclic at the top of the growth unit and monocyclic lower down. The number of nodes shown by the branched zone of the growth unit of monocyclic annual shoots was stable, irrespective of the total number of nodes of the growth unit. In contrast, the second growth unit of bicyclic annual shoots exhibited a correlation between the number of nodes in the branching zone and the total number of nodes. The contribution made by this method to understanding plant functioning is discussed.

  15. Analysing Branching Pattern in Plantations of Young Red Oak Trees (Quercus rubra L., Fagaceae)

    PubMed Central

    HEURET, PATRICK; GUÉDON, YANN; GUÉRARD, NATACHA; BARTHÉLÉMY, DANIEL

    2003-01-01

    Branching patterns of the growth units of monocyclic or bicyclic annual shoots on the main axis of 5‐year‐old red oaks were studied in a plantation in south‐western France. For each growth unit, the production of axillary structures associated with each node was described in the form of a sequence. For a given category of growth units, homogeneous zones (i.e. zones in which composition in terms of type of axillary production does not change substantially) were identified on such sequences using a dedicated statistical model called a hidden semi‐Markov chain. For instance, on the first growth unit of bicyclic annual shoots, a zone with 1‐year‐delayed branches was found systematically below a zone with buds and one‐cycle‐delayed branches. Branching patterns shown by the growth unit of monocyclic annual shoots and on the second growth unit of bicyclic annual shoots were very similar. Branches with a 1‐year delay in development tended to be polycyclic at the top of the growth unit and monocyclic lower down. The number of nodes shown by the branched zone of the growth unit of monocyclic annual shoots was stable, irrespective of the total number of nodes of the growth unit. In contrast, the second growth unit of bicyclic annual shoots exhibited a correlation between the number of nodes in the branching zone and the total number of nodes. The contribution made by this method to understanding plant functioning is discussed. PMID:12588728

  16. Insect damage to oaks

    Treesearch

    Charles O. Rexrode

    1971-01-01

    In terms of mortality caused by insects, defoliators are the most serious enemies of oaks at the present time. An oak leaf tier, Croesia semipurprana, is one of the principal defoliators of trees in the red oak group. Oak leaf rollers, primarily Archips semiferana, have been responsible for widespread mortality in white and...

  17. Evidence for selection on a CONSTANS-like gene between two red oak species

    PubMed Central

    Lind-Riehl, Jennifer F.; Sullivan, Alexis R.; Gailing, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Hybridizing species such as oaks may provide a model to study the role of selection in speciation with gene flow. Discrete species' identities and different adaptations are maintained among closely related oak species despite recurrent gene flow. This is probably due to ecologically mediated selection at a few key genes or genomic regions. Neutrality tests can be applied to identify so-called outlier loci, which demonstrate locus-specific signatures of divergent selection and are candidate genes for further study. Methods Thirty-six genic microsatellite markers, some with putative functions in flowering time and drought tolerance, and eight non-genic microsatellite markers were screened in two population pairs (n = 160) of the interfertile species Quercus rubra and Q. ellipsoidalis, which are characterized by contrasting adaptations to drought. Putative outliers were then tested in additional population pairs from two different geographic regions (n = 159) to support further their potential role in adaptive divergence. Key Results A marker located in the coding sequence of a putative CONSTANS-like (COL) gene was repeatedly identified as under strong divergent selection across all three geographically disjunct population pairs. COL genes are involved in the photoperiodic control of growth and development and are implicated in the regulation of flowering time. Conclusions The location of the polymorphism in the Quercus COL gene and given the potential role of COL genes in adaptive divergence and reproductive isolation makes this a promising candidate speciation gene. Further investigation of the phenological characteristics of both species and flowering time pathway genes is suggested in order to elucidate the importance of phenology genes for the maintenance of species integrity. Next-generation sequencing in multiple population pairs in combination with high-density genetic linkage maps could reveal the genome-wide distribution of outlier genes

  18. New approaches to the biogeography and areas of endemism of red oaks (Quercus L., section Lobatae).

    PubMed

    Torres-Miranda, Andrés; Luna-Vega, Isolda; Oyama, Ken

    2013-07-01

    An area of endemism is defined by the spatial congruence among two or more species with distributions that are limited by barriers. In this study, we explored and discussed the use of the network analysis method (NAM) and neighbor-joining (NJ) to analyze the areas of endemism of Quercus sect. Lobatae (red oak species) in Mexico and Central America. We compared the NAM and NJ with other methods commonly used in biogeographic studies to show the advantages of these new approaches and to identify the shortcomings of other approaches. The NAM used in this study is based on notions of centrality measures, such as betweenness. We incorporated the strength of the ties within the internal networks through p-cores and aggregate constraints in iterative analyses. The NAM based on betweenness is ideal for recognizing completely allopatric areas of endemism. The iterative NAMs increase the number of possible areas of endemism because they minimize the effect of minimal overlap, and the p-core is efficient at identifying the closest relationships among species in the cases in which betweenness is not informative. The number of areas of endemism increases when the sympatry matrix minimizes the dispersal effect and the sample effort is maximized, allowing the identification of the greatest number of these areas. The NJ method supports the idea that areas diverge among themselves in a differential way; the long branches correspond to zones with high speciation rates and complex histories (biotic and tectonic), and the short branches correspond to zones with low speciation rates and simple histories. In a classification scheme, NJ was capable of identifying the areas that are considered biotically complex because of their high speciation rates. The results obtained with the NAM and NJ showed that the physiographic regions of Mexico are not natural units and that many of them are composed of at least two different biotic components.

  19. Ecosystem warming increases sap flow rates of northern red oak trees

    DOE PAGES

    Juice, Stephanie M.; Templer, Pamela H.; Phillips, Nathan G.; ...

    2016-03-17

    Over the next century, air temperature increases up to 5°C are projected for the northeastern United States. As evapotranspiration strongly influences water loss from terrestrial ecosystems, the ecophysiological response of trees to warming will have important consequences for forest water budgets. We measured growing season sap flow rates in mature northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) trees in a combined air (up to 5.5°C above ambient) and soil (up to 1.85°C above ambient at 6-cm depth) warming experiment at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, United States. Through principal components analysis, we found air and soil temperatures explained the largest amount of variancemore » in environmental variables associated with rates of sap flow, with relative humidity, photosynthetically active radiation and vapor pressure deficit having significant, but smaller, effects. On average, each 1°C increase in temperature increased sap flow rates by approximately 1100 kg H2O m-2 sapwood area day-1 throughout the growing season and by 1200 kg H2O m-2 sapwood area day-1 during the early growing season. Reductions in the number of cold winter days correlated positively with increased sap flow during the early growing season (a decrease in 100 heating-degree days was associated with a sapflow increase in approximately 5 kg H2O m-2 sapwood area day-1). Soil moisture declined with increased treatment temperatures, and each soil moisture percentage decrease resulted in a decrease in sap flow of approximately 360 kg H2O m-22 sapwood area day-1. At night, soil moisture correlated positively with sap flow. Finally, these results demonstrate that warmer air and soil temperatures in winter and throughout the growing season lead to increased sap flow rates, which could affect forest water budgets throughout the year.« less

  20. Genetic stratigraphy and reservoir characterization of the Spiro sandstone, Red Oak Field, Arkoma Basin, southeastern Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, B.W. )

    1996-01-01

    The Lower Atokan Spiro sandstone is a mixed carbonate-silicilastic reservoir that produces hydrocarbons from three discrete stratigraphic intervals at the Red Oak Field. Reservoir-quality sandstones develop in the seaward stepping sub-Spiro sequence (highstand system tract), landward stepping Foster [open quote]channel,[close quotes] and upper Spiro depositional sequences (transgressive and highstand system tract). The sub-Spiro and Foster [open quote]channel[close quote] sequences are separated by regional unconformity interpreted as a sequence boundary. Regressive marine shoreface cycles, genetically related to the sub-Spiro shale, comprise the lowermost producing interval. Fluvial/estuarine valley-fill (Foster channel) sandstones progressively onlap the sequence boundary overlying the regressive shoreface cycles and juxtapose reservoir-quality sandstones of different sequences, creating a complex reservoir architecture. Upper Spiro reservoir sandstones are developed within marine shoreface cycles that are deposited in a landward-stepping succession (highstand systems tract) following the drowning of incised paleovalleys. These aggradational / retrogradational successions downlap onto the valley-fill and sub-Spiro sequences representing the final stages of Spiro deposition prior to the high stand of sea level during Middle Atokan time. Regional stratigraphic correlations demonstrate progressive basinward truncation of the sub-Spiro regressive shoreface cycles by an erosional surface, creating a network of incised paleovalleys across the Pennsylvanian shelf. Based on core, well log, and outcrop interpretations, the magnitude of the facies offset across this sequence boundary indicates that a significant volume of reservoir-quality sediment has been partitioned basinward of the current producing areas.

  1. Correlation of isolability of the oak wilt pathogen with leaf wilt and vascular water flow resistance

    Treesearch

    Garold F. Gregory

    1971-01-01

    Isolations and water flow-rate measurements made on short stem sections of young red oak seedlings inoculated with the oak wilt pathogen, Ceratocystis fagacearum, about 1 to 2 inches above the soil line, revealed that the oak wilt pathogen was isolable first near the inoculation site. As time after inoculation increased, the pathogen was isolated...

  2. Propiconazole distribution and effects on Ceratocystis fagacearum survival in roots of treated red oaks

    Treesearch

    Ryan A. Blaedow; Jennifer Juzwik; Brian. Barber

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the interaction between the oak wilt pathogen (Ceratocystis fagacearum) and propiconazole in lower stems and roots of Quercus rubra to better understand published reports of fungicide failure after 2 years.

  3. Base Cations In Northern Red Oak Trees, Soils and Surface Waters of Shenandoah National Park, VA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosby, B. J.; Blankinship, J. C.; Webb, J. R.; Welsch, D. L.; Deviney, F. A.

    2002-05-01

    Depletion of exchangeable base cations (especially calcium and magnesium) in soils is recognized as a problem for the health of forest ecosystems as well as for the acid-base balance of drainage streams. Factors that may reduce base-cation supplies in forest soils include uptake associated with forest regeneration and leaching associated with acidic deposition. We examine here the linkages between the base status of forest soils, base content of wood in trees, and streamwater acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) in the watersheds of western Virginia's Shenandoah National Park. Prior to establishment of the park in the late 1920s, the forest in the park area was intensively harvested and much of the land was cleared for agriculture. At present, most of the park is protected from direct human disturbance and occupied by a regenerating mixed hardwood forest of about 70-years age. The park does, however, receive an indirect anthropogenic impact in the form of acidic deposition. We analyzed quarterly streamwater samples taken from 14 catchments in SNP over the period 1988-1999, data from seventy-nine soil pits sampled throughout SNP in 2000, cores of bole wood from northern red oak trees at 28 sites (also sampled in 2000), and the species - water quality relationships derived from a previous study of fish populations in the SNP (1998). Contemporary ecosystem attributes in the park, including forest-cover type and fish species distributions, are closely associated with the distribution of the park's three major bedrock types: siliciclastic rocks (sandstones and shales), granitic rocks, and basaltic rocks. Areas underlain by basaltic bedrock have a greater capacity for export of base cations in streamwater (higher stream ANC and greater fish species richness), have higher soil base saturations, and have trees with higher bole wood content of the important nutrient cations Ca and Mg. Granitic areas are intermediate, and siliciclastic areas have the lowest base cation

  4. The chemodiversity of wines can reveal a metabologeography expression of cooperage oak wood

    PubMed Central

    Gougeon, Régis D.; Lucio, Marianna; Frommberger, Moritz; Peyron, Dominique; Chassagne, David; Alexandre, Hervé; Feuillat, François; Voilley, Andrée; Cayot, Philippe; Gebefügi, Istvan; Hertkorn, Norbert; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Wine chemical compositions, which result from a complex interplay between environmental factors, genetic factors, and viticultural practices, have mostly been studied using targeted analyses of selected families of metabolites. Detailed studies have particularly concerned volatile and polyphenolic compounds because of their acknowledged roles in the organoleptic and therapeutic properties. However, we show that an unprecedented chemical diversity of wine composition can be unraveled through a nontargeted approach by ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry, which provides an instantaneous image of complex interacting processes, not easily or possibly resolvable into their unambiguous individual contributions. In particular, the statistical analysis of a series of barrel-aged wines revealed that 10-year-old wines still express a metabologeographic signature of the forest location where oaks of the barrel in which they were aged have grown. PMID:19470460

  5. Water use and carbon exchange of red oak- and eastern hemlock-dominated forests in the northeastern USA: implications for ecosystem-level effects of hemlock woolly adelgid.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Julian L; Kuzeja, Paul S; Daley, Michael J; Phillips, Nathan G; Mulcahy, Thomas; Singh, Safina

    2008-04-01

    Water use and carbon exchange of a red oak-dominated (Quercus rubra L.) forest and an eastern hemlock-dominated (Tsuga canadensis L.) forest, each located within the Harvard Forest in north-central Massachusetts, were measured for 2 years by the eddy flux method. Water use by the red oak forest reached 4 mm day(-1), compared to a maximum of 2 mm day(-1) by the eastern hemlock forest. Maximal carbon (C) uptake rate was also higher in the red oak forest than in the eastern hemlock forest (about 25 versus 15 micromol m(-2) s(-1)). Sap flux measurements indicated that transpiration of red oak, and also of black birch (Betula lenta L.), which frequently replaces eastern hemlock killed by hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand.), were almost twice that of eastern hemlock. Despite the difference between species in maximum summertime C assimilation rate, annual C storage of the eastern hemlock forest almost equaled that of the red oak forest because of net C uptake by eastern hemlock during unusually warm fall and spring weather, and a near-zero C balance during the winter. Thus, the effect on C storage of replacing eastern hemlock forest with a forest dominated by deciduous species is unclear. Carbon storage by eastern hemlock forests during fall, winter and spring is likely to increase in the event of climate warming, although this may be offset by C loss during hotter summers. Our results indicate that, although forest water use will decrease immediately following eastern hemlock mortality due to the hemlock woolly adelgid, the replacement of eastern hemlock by deciduous species such as red oak will likely increase summertime water use over current rates in areas where hemlock is a major forest species.

  6. Site preparation for red oak plantation establishment on old field sites in southern Indiana

    Treesearch

    Ron A. Rathfon; Don J. Kaczmarek; Phil E. Pope

    1995-01-01

    Little research has been conducted on the use of mechanical site preparation or fertilization in the Central Hardwood Region. Many hardwood plantings, particularly oak plantings, on old field sites in the region have resulted in high rates of mortality, stem die-back, and slow early-growth rates. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of mechanical...

  7. Insects affecting establishment of northern red oak seedlings in central Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    J. Galford; L.R. Auchmoody; H.C. Smith; R.S. Walters

    1991-01-01

    Studies to evaluate the impact of insects on the establishment of advance oak regeneration in Pennsylvania were initiated in 1989. The populations and species of insects feeding on germinating acorns and new seedlings, their activity periods, and the damage caused by these insects were studied in relation to overstory-density (40, 60, and 100 percent relative density)...

  8. Between-Site Differences in the Scale of Dispersal and Gene Flow in Red Oak

    Treesearch

    Emily V Moran; James S. Clark

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nut-bearing trees, including oaks (Quercus spp.), are considered to be highly dispersal limited, leading to concerns about their ability to colonize new sites or migrate in response to climate change. However, estimating seed dispersal is challenging in species that are secondarily dispersed by animals, and differences in...

  9. Phenolic compounds in red oak and sugar maple leaves have prooxidant activities in the midgut fluids of Malacosoma disstria and Orgyia leucostigma caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Barbehenn, Raymond; Cheek, Susannah; Gasperut, Adrian; Lister, Emma; Maben, Rosalyn

    2005-05-01

    Phenolic compounds are generally believed to be key components of the oxidative defenses of plants against pathogens and herbivores. However, phenolic oxidation in the gut fluids of insect herbivores has rarely been demonstrated, and some phenolics could act as antioxidants rather than prooxidants. We compared the overall activities of the phenolic compounds in red oak (Quercus rubra) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) leaves in the midgut fluids of two caterpillar species, Malacosoma disstria (phenolic-sensitive) and Orgyia leucostigma (phenolic-tolerant). Three hypotheses were examined: (1) ingested sugar maple leaves produce higher levels of semiquinone radicals (from phenolic oxidation) in caterpillar midgut fluids than do red oak leaves; (2) O. leucostigma maintains lower levels of phenolic oxidation in its midgut fluids than does M. disstria; and (3) phenolic compounds in tree leaves have overall prooxidant activities in the midgut fluids of caterpillars. Sugar maple leaves had significantly lower ascorbate: phenolic ratios than did red oak leaves, suggesting that phenolics in maple would oxidize more readily than those in oak. As expected, semiquinone radicals were at higher steady-state levels in the midgut fluids of both caterpillar species when they fed on sugar maple than on red oak, consistent with the first hypothesis. Higher semiquinone radical levels were also found in M. disstria than in O. leucostigma, consistent with the second hypothesis. Finally, semiquinone radical formation was positively associated with two markers of oxidation (protein carbonyls and total peroxides). These results suggest that the complex mixtures of phenolics in red oak and sugar maple leaves have overall prooxidant activities in the midgut fluids of M. disstria and O. leucostigma caterpillars. We conclude that the oxidative defenses of trees vary substantially between species, with those in sugar maple leaves being especially active, even in phenolic-tolerant herbivore

  10. CO2 assimilation of primary and regrowth foliage of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and red oak (Quercus rubra L.): response to defoliation.

    PubMed

    Heichel, G H; Turner, N C

    1983-03-01

    The CO2 assimilation of primary foliage of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and of regrowth foliage produced in response to simulated insect defoliation, was measured throughout the season by infrared gas analysis: parallel measurements of leaf conductance were obtained by ventilated diffusion porometry. The rate of net photosynthesis, measured at a quantum flux density of 1,150 μmol m(-2)s(-1), of primary foliage of both species increased from slightly negative values to about 5 μmol m(-2)s(-1) by early June. Thereafter the rate of photosynthesis of maple slowly declined to about 4 μmol m(-2)s(-1) before onset of a senescent decline in early September, while that of oak slowly increased to about 8 μmol m(-2)s(-1) before onset of senescence. Manual defoliation to simulate insect attack in mid-June elicited refoliation proportional to the severity of defoliation in early July. After 100% defoliation, fully expanded regrowth foliage of maple, but not of oak, had a rate of net photosynthesis from mid-July through September that was about 50% higher than in the primary foliage of undefoliated trees. A 30 to 60% enhancement of photosynthesis of residual primary foliage remaining on 50 and 75% defoliated trees during July was also observed. The seasonal patterns of CO2 exchange of primary and regrowth foliage, and the enhancement of CO2 assimilation in residual foliage, was paralleled by similar changes in leaf conductance to water vapour.Carbon budgets of leaf canopies of each species showed that the net assimilation of the leaf canopy of both species ranged from 19 to 67% more than what would have been expected solely from replacement of leaf area. This response was greater in maple than in oak, presumably a reflection of the high rate of CO2 assimilation of regrowth maple foliage compared with that of the undefoliated control in maple.The increased CO2 assimilation of regrowth maple foliage and the increases in CO2 assimilation of

  11. Development of a fractionation method for the detection and identification of oak ellagitannins in red wines.

    PubMed

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina

    2010-02-15

    During maturation and ageing in oak barrels wines improve their organoleptic properties. Ellagitannins can be released from wood to the wine and be involved in oxidation reactions and seem to influence the astringency and colour properties of the wine. Nevertheless, the ellagitannins levels are lower than those of other wine constituents and, consequently, they are not easily detected. This study has developed a two-step fractionation method consisting of a solid phase extraction in C-18 Sep-Pak cartridges followed by size exclusion chromatography in hand-packed Sephadex LH-20 minicolumn for the detection of oak ellagitannins in different types of wines. An HPLC method has also been developed which allows the separation of compounds with the same m/z ratios, facilitating the ellagitannin identification by means of the mass spectrometric analyses. The main oak ellagitannins (grandinin, vescalagin, roburin E and castalagin) were isolated, detected separately and identified in a spiked wine and in three real ones, proving the usefulness of the fractionation method.

  12. Stand-level growth and yield component models for red oak-sweetgum forests on Mid-South minor stream bottoms

    Treesearch

    Emily B. Schultz; J. Clint Iles; Thomas G. Matney; Andrew W. Ezell; James S. Meadows; Theodor D. Leininger; al. et.

    2010-01-01

    Greater emphasis is being placed on Southern bottomland hardwood management, but relatively few growth and yield prediction systems exist that are based on sufficient measurements. We present the aggregate stand-level expected yield and structural component equations for a red oak (Quercus section Lobatae)-sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) growth and yield model....

  13. Thinning To Improve Growth And Control The Canker Decay Fungus Inonotus Hispidus In A Red Oak-Sweetgum Stand In The Mississippi Delta

    Treesearch

    James S. Meadows; Theodor D. Leininger; T. Evan Nebeker

    2002-01-01

    Abstract - Thinning was applied to a 55-year-old, red oak-sweetgum (Quercus spp.-Liquidambar styraciflua L.) stand in the Delta region of western Mississippi in late summer 1997. The thinning operation was a combination of low thinning and improvement cutting to remove most of the pulpwood-sized trees as well as...

  14. Log-grade volume distribution prediction models for tree species in red oak-sweetgum stands on US mid-south minor stream bottoms

    Treesearch

    George M. Banzhaf; Thomas G. Matney; Emily B. Schultz; James S. Meadows; J. Paul Jeffreys; William C. Booth; Gan Li; Andrew W. Ezell; Theodor D. Leininger

    2016-01-01

    Red oak (Quercus section Labatae)-sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) stands growing on mid-south bottomland sites in the United States are well known for producing high-quality grade hardwood logs, but models for estimating the quantity and quality of standing grade wood in these stands have been unavailable. Prediction...

  15. The Effects of Lime, Fertilizer, and Herbicide on Forest Soil Solution Chemistry and Northern Red Oak Radial Growth Following Shelterwood Harvest

    Treesearch

    Angela M Happel; William E. Sharpe

    2004-01-01

    Soil acidity, nutrient deficient soils, lack of light penetration, herbivory, and understory competition are the major obstacles encountered in regenerating and sustaining northern red oak. Changes in soils that may occur during soil acidifi- cation include: reduced soil pH, increased availability of aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn), loss of base cations due to...

  16. Diameter-Growth and Epicormic Branching Response of an East Texas Bottomland Red Oak Stand 3 Years After Thinning and Fertilization

    Treesearch

    Alexander J. Michalek; Brian Roy Lockhart; Matthew W. Lowe; Richard A. Williams

    2004-01-01

    To determine the effects of intermediate silvicultural treatments on bottomland hardwoods, two types of thinning (crown thinning and low thinning) and one level of fertilizer (200 pounds per acre N + 50 pounds per acre P) were applied to a predominantly red oak stand in southeastern Texas. Treatments were applied in a 3 by 2 factorial arrangement as a random-ized...

  17. Fourth-Year Effects of Thinning on Growth and Epicormic Branching in a Red Oak-Sweetgum Stand on a Minor Streambottom Site in West-Central Alabama

    Treesearch

    James S. Meadows; J.C.G. Goelz

    2002-01-01

    Abstract - Four thinning treatments were applied to a 60-year-old, red oak-sweetgum (Quercus spp.-Liquidambar styraciflua L.) stand on a minor streambottom site in west-central Alabama in late summer 1994: (1) unthinned control; (2) light thinning to 70-75 percent residual stocking; (3) heavy thinning to 50-55...

  18. Partitioning of current photosynthate to different chemical fractions in leaves, stems, and roots of northern red oak seedlings during episodic growth

    Treesearch

    Richard E. Dickson; Patricia T. Tomlinson; J. G. Isebrands

    2000-01-01

    The episodic or flushing growth habit of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.,) has a significant influence on carbon fixation, carbon transport from source leaves, and carbon allocation within the plant; however, the impact of episodic growth on carbon parciprioning among chemical fractions is unknown. Median-flush leaves of the first and second flush...

  19. Growth and bole quality responses to thinning in a red oak-sweetgum stand in southeastern Arkansas: nine-year results

    Treesearch

    James S. Meadows

    2012-01-01

    Science-based guidelines for thinning in southern bottomland hardwood stands are inadequate. To address this need, we established a series of thinning studies based on stand density management in hardwood stands on minor streambottom sites across the South. In the third study in this series, four thinning treatments were applied to a poletimber-sized, red oak-sweetgum...

  20. Third-year growth and bole-quality responses to thinning in a late-rotation red oak-sweetgum stand in East Texas

    Treesearch

    James S. Meadows; Daniel A. Skojac

    2006-01-01

    Three thinning treatments were applied to an 80- to 90-year-old stand dominated by red oaks (Quercus spp.) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) along the Neches River in East Texas: (1) unthinned control, (2) light thinning (70 to 75 percent residual stocking), and (3) heavy thinning (50 to 55 percent residual stocking). Three...

  1. Third-Year Growth and Bole Quality Responses to Thinning in a Red Oak-Sweetgum Stand on a Minor Streambottom Site in West-Central Alabama

    Treesearch

    James S. Meadows; J.C.G. Goelz

    1999-01-01

    Four thinning treatments were applied to a red oak-sweetgum (Quercus spp.-Liquidambar styraciflua L.) stand on a minor streambottom site in west-central Alabama in 1994: (1) unthinned control; (2) light thinning to 70-75 percent residual stocking; (3) heavy thinning to 50-55 percent residual stocking; and (4) B-line thinning to...

  2. Effect of seed position and media on germination of black walnut and northern red oak: implications for nursery production and direct seeding

    Treesearch

    Anthony S. Davis; Barrett C. Wilson; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2004-01-01

    Germination of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) prior to sowing into containers or bareroot nursery beds can help maintain desired crop density and reduce nursery costs. Recommended techniques for germination of black walnut are labor intensive and require that walnuts be completely covered...

  3. Effect Of Seedling Size And First-Order Lateral Roots On Early Development Of Northern Red Oak On A Mesic Site: Eleventh-Year Results

    Treesearch

    Paul P. Kormanik; Shi-Jean S. Sung; Donald Kass; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2002-01-01

    Abstract - The effect of initial first-order lateral root (FOLR) groupings of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) seedlings on a high quality mesic site was followed for eleven years on a shelterwood and a clearcut area. The initial FOLR number groups were empirically determined as low (0 to 6) medium (7 to 12) and high (12). The...

  4. No. 1 and No. 2 Common red oak yields: similar part sizes when gang-ripping is used to process boards with crook

    Treesearch

    Charles J. Gatchell; Charles J. Gatchell

    1990-01-01

    Computer simulation was used to gang rip No. 1 and No. 2 Common red oak boards before and after removal of crook. While No. 1 Common produced slightly more total yield, the part yields were very similar. No. 1 Common was superior only in yielding 75-inch-long pieces. Either grade is an excellent choice for the furniture and cabinet industries.

  5. The effect of acorn insects on the establishment and vigor of northern red oak seedlings in north-central West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Linda S. Gribko

    1995-01-01

    During a 2-year investigation into the effect of small mammals on northern red oak (Quercus rubra) acorn survival and germination, widespread germination failure and lack of seedling vigor was apparent in control quadrats on one of two watersheds under study. Insects were present in and on the failed acorns but it was unknown whether they were...

  6. Morphological and RAPD analysis of hybridization between Quercus affinis and Q. laurina (fagaceae), two Mexican red oaks.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, Antonio; Arias, Dulce M; Valencia, Susana; Oyama, Ken

    2004-03-01

    Quercus affinis and Q. laurina are two closely related Mexican red oaks with partially overlapping distributions. Within the area of overlap, there are localities where morphological intergradation occurs. A previous hypothesis explained this pattern as a result of secondary contact between the two species, followed by hybridization and introgression. This possibility was analyzed here by examining foliar and genetic variation in 16 localities situated along a macrogeographic gradient, which included morphologically representative populations of both species and populations from within the area of overlap. Maximum-likelihood hybrid index scores calculated from nine semi-diagnostic RAPD markers indicated a shift in the genetic composition of populations from one species to the other along the macrogeographic gradient, with genetically intermediate populations situated in the area of overlap. Foliar variation followed a partially congruent pattern, but Q. laurina-like morphology predominated in some of the genetically intermediate populations. There were several instances of correlated frequency changeovers of single RAPD markers and morphological characters along the macrogeographic gradient and a few cases of markedly parallel patterns between markers. The results were interpreted as consistent with a hypothesis of secondary contact between the two oak species that has resulted in some differential introgression among markers.

  7. Oak mortality associated with crown dieback and oak borer attack in the Ozark Highlands

    Treesearch

    Zhaofei Fan; John M. Kabrick; Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley; Randy G. Jensen

    2008-01-01

    Oak decline and related mortality have periodically plagued upland oak–hickory forests, particularly oak species in the red oak group, across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma since the late 1970s. Advanced tree age and periodic drought, as well as Armillaria root fungi and oak borer attack are believed to contribute to oak decline and mortality....

  8. Oak mortality associated with crown dieback and oak borer attack in the Ozark Highlands

    Treesearch

    Zhaofei Fan; John M. Kabrick; Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley; Randy G. Jensen

    2008-01-01

    Oak decline and related mortality have periodically plagued upland oak-hickory forests, particularly oak species in the red oak group, across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma since the late 1970s. Advanced tree age and periodic drought, as well as Armillaria root fungi and oak borer attack are believed to contribute to oak decline and mortality....

  9. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; Whitmer, Lysle; Smith, Ryan; Brown, Robert C.

    2015-04-13

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreating the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.

  10. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    DOE PAGES

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; ...

    2015-04-13

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreatingmore » the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.« less

  11. Impact of alternative technique to ageing using oak chips in alcoholic or in malolactic fermentation on volatile and sensory composition of red wines.

    PubMed

    Gómez García-Carpintero, E; Gómez Gallego, M A; Sánchez-Palomo, E; González Viñas, M A

    2012-09-15

    This paper reports on a complete study of the effect of wood, in the form of oak chips, on the volatile composition and sensory characteristics of Moravia Agria wines added at different stages of the fermentation process. Aroma compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sensory profile was evaluated by experienced wine-testers. Oak chips were added to wines in two dose rates at different stages of the winemaking process: during alcoholic fermentation (AF), during malolactic fermentation (MLF) and in young, red Moravia Agria wine. Wines fermented with oak chips during AF showed higher concentrations of the ethyl esters of straight-chain fatty acids, ethyl, hexyl, isoamyl acetates and superior alcohols than the control wines. The higher concentrations of benzene compound, oak lactones and furanic compounds were found in wines in contact with oak chips during MLF. The use of oak chips gives rise to a different sensorial profile of wines depending of the point of addition. Higher intensities of woody, coconut, vanilla and sweet spices descriptors were obtained when a large dose rate of chips was employed.

  12. Prospects of barcoding the Italian wild dendroflora: oaks reveal severe limitations to tracking species identity.

    PubMed

    Piredda, Roberta; Simeone, Marco C; Attimonelli, Marcella; Bellarosa, Rosanna; Schirone, Bartolomeo

    2011-01-01

    DNA barcoding may be particularly important in influencing ecology, economic issues, and the fundamental crisis facing biodiversity as a standardized, species-level identification tool for taxonomy assessment. Trees play important roles in the conservation of many land ecosystems, the wood trade, and the definition of biogeographical processes; nevertheless, peculiar biological, evolutionary and taxonomical features will probably constitute an intriguing challenge to barcoders. We examined whether four marker regions (trnh-psba, rbcL, rpoc1, matK) proposed by the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) matched species taxonomy in a preliminary tree biodiversity survey of Italian forested land. Our objective was to provide a test of future in situ applications of DNA barcodes by evaluating the efficacy of species discrimination under the criteria of uniformity of methods and natural co-occurrence of the species in the main forest ecosystems. Fifty-two species were included in a floristic study. We obtained 73% total discrimination success, with trnH-psbA as the best performing marker and oaks as the least responsive plants to the markers used. A further taxon-based study of Quercus (thirty specimens, 12 species) revealed that this genus is refractory to barcoding (0% discrimination success), a probable consequence of low variation rate at the plastid genome level, hybridization, and the incidence of biogeography. We conclude that some species-rich tree genera in small geographical regions may prove exceptionally difficult to barcode. Until more efficient markers are developed, we recommend that improved and diversified sampling (multiple locations of sympatric and co-occurring congenerics) be embraced as a timely and important goal for the precise assessment of haplotype specificity to facilitate the productive application of barcoding in practice. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Field performance of graded northern red oak seedlings planted under four overstory treatments in Tennessee: two-year results

    Treesearch

    Christopher M. Oswalt; Wayne K. Clatterbuck

    2005-01-01

    Oak replacement persists as an obstacle to high quality hardwood management, especially on highly productive sites. Difficulties in naturally regenerating oak can be viewed as the result of social and economic constraints imposed by the biological solution, not the lack of a solution. As a result, economically viable alternatives are being explored to maintain oak as...

  14. Two-year survival and growth of artificial northern red oak regeneration at Gettysburg National Military Park

    Treesearch

    David S. Larrick; Todd W. Bowersox; Gerald L. Storm; Walter M. Tzilkowski

    1997-01-01

    Overstory competition and foraging by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and small mammals are cited as reasons for regeneration failure in mixed-oak stands of Pennsylvania. At Gettysburg National Military Park, deer densities are high (>0.6 deer/ha), and the mixed-oak woodlots were lacking in seedling- and sapling-sized natural oak...

  15. Polyphenols in red wine aged in acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) and oak (Quercus petraea) wood barrels.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Miriam; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Cadahía, Estrella; Hernández, Ma Teresa; Estrella, Isabel; Martinez, Juana

    2012-06-30

    Polyphenolic composition of two Syrah wines aged during 6 or 12 months in medium toasting acacia and oak 225L barrels was studied by LC-DAD-ESI/MS. A total of 43 nonanthocyanic phenolic compounds were found in all wines, and other 15 compounds only in the wines from acacia barrels. Thus, the nonanthocyanic phenolic profile could be a useful tool to identify the wines aged in acacia barrels. Among all of them the dihydrorobinetin highlights because of its high levels, but also robinetin, 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, a tetrahydroxydihydroflavonol, fustin, butin, a trihydroxymethoxydihydroflavonol and 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid were detected at appreciable levels in wines during aging in acacia barrels, and could be used as phenolic markers for authenticity purposes. Although longer contact time with acacia wood mean higher concentrations of phenolic markers found in wines, the identification of these wines will also be easy after short aging times due the high levels reached by these compounds, even after only 2 months of aging.

  16. Pollen gene flow, male reproductive success, and genetic correlations among offspring in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seed orchard.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Lisa; Woeste, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Northern red oak is a high-value hardwood used for lumber, furniture and veneer. Intensively managed northern red oak seed orchards are required to obtain genetic gain for trait improvement. Data from conifer seed orchards and natural and managed stands of hardwood trees have shed light on the distance over which pollen can move, and underscore the need for managerial attention to seed orchard design, placement, and maintenance. We used eleven microsatellite markers to investigate pollen gene flow, female mate choice, and male reproductive success in a clonal seed orchard of northern red oak based on paternity analysis of seed orchard offspring in progeny tests. Nearly all (93%) offspring were sired by a male parent within the seed orchard. The mean number of male parents per year was 69.5, or 47.6% of all clones in the seed orchard. Female clones in the early phenology group had more offspring sired from extra-orchard pollen (13%) than clones in the intermediate (5%) and late (1%) phenology groups. Distance was the largest influence on pollination success, and pollination occurred most often by male trees in the same subline as the maternal tree. Males in the early phenology group sired more offspring overall in the progeny pool and more offspring per mother tree than males in the intermediate or late phenology groups. Average genetic correlations among all OP progeny ranged between 0.2557 and 0.3529 with a mean of 0.28±0.01. The importance of progeny test genotyping for northern red oak improvement likely is increasing with the demand for improved varieties. The current study demonstrated the feasibility of post hoc assembly of full-sib families for genetic analysis.

  17. Survival, growth, and acornet production of artificially regenerated northern red oak on two high-quality mesic sites at year seven

    Treesearch

    Paul P. Kormanik; Shi-Jean Susana Sung; Taryn L. Kormanik; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Catharine D. Cook; Tom Tibbs; Scott E. Schlarbaum

    2006-01-01

    Open-pollinated, half-sib northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) 1-0 seedlings were grown under an improved nursery protocol. Minimum seedling grading standards for this test were six first-order lateral roots, 8-cm root-collar diameter, and 0.7-m height. At the Brasstown site on a salvage clearcut in North Georgia, we spot-applied glyphosate herbicide...

  18. Pollen gene flow, male reproductive success, and genetic correlations among offspring in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seed orchard

    PubMed Central

    Woeste, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Northern red oak is a high-value hardwood used for lumber, furniture and veneer. Intensively managed northern red oak seed orchards are required to obtain genetic gain for trait improvement. Data from conifer seed orchards and natural and managed stands of hardwood trees have shed light on the distance over which pollen can move, and underscore the need for managerial attention to seed orchard design, placement, and maintenance. We used eleven microsatellite markers to investigate pollen gene flow, female mate choice, and male reproductive success in a clonal seed orchard of northern red oak based on paternity analysis of seed orchard offspring in progeny tests. Nearly all (93%) offspring were sired by a male parent within the seed orchard. The mean number of male parents per year was 69.5, or 47.6% of all clones in the seed orchard. Female clones in the early phenology group had more offspring sired from extra-orchard pollen (13%) than clones in the intermediate (5%) and late (1%) phenology groups. Distance was the largest influence on pollination success, and pollination occurred most often by male trees in the same subline as the maternal tree. Males in the early phenology group sired more offspring overall in the progeny pool and more offspring per mother tree than males in the intermediate or late phenology groups. Average genetic correlations among all OP progeny ranged between 0.2557 and 0.3529 with a mean of 0.28±0.01. The importance of progeny test genotyping for northern red oak improvement likely is increasing with the demand for improved varieties. The current study demonstrated the feasibility of post hoc assembly of full-sib families for genetic analysis. PMID:28166543

  19. Evaluation of propiconazole operational treatments of oaks for oak wilt control

    Treesearch

    Jordan Eggers; Jennifer Juzwik; Shawn Bernick; Lori Mordaunt

    2005-01-01

    Oaks commercially treated with propiconazole on 29 sites in Minnesota in 1998 were evaluated for efficacy in controlling oak wilt. Root graft spread occurred in 39 percent of preventively treated red oaks over 5 years; spread in white oaks occurred only once. Propiconazole generally prevented further disease symptom development in white oaks.

  20. How to identify and manage oak wilt in Texas

    Treesearch

    D.N. Appel; R.S. Cameron; A.D. Wilson; J.D. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    Transporting unseasoned firewood from diseased red oaks is a potential means of spreading the oak wilt fungus. Oak wilt cannot be transmitted by burning infected firewood, but fungal mats may form on firewood in storage. Presently, no vectors have been proven to transmit the fungus from live oaks to other oak trees, but diseased wood fromany oak species should never be...

  1. The chemical composition of dust transported in red rains—its contribution to the biogeochemical cycle of a holm oak forest in Catalonia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, A.; Alarcón, M.; Queralt, I.

    The chemistry of North African dust reaching NE Spain with red rains is here described to (1) characterize the red dust elemental composition, (2) analyze the relative contribution of dissolved and particulate forms to the total element inputs for the period 1983-1994, and (3) study the role of the particulate and dissolved inputs in red rains to the forest nutrient cycle. Five dust samples, obtained from the filtration of five red rain events, have been considered as representative of the dust reaching NE Spain as they include dust from the main source regions in North Africa. Enrichment factors were lower than four for all elements and samples, indicating the crustal character of the red dusts and their scarce mixing with anthropogenic pollutants. Back trajectory analysis of the red rain air masses computed at various isentropic surfaces showed northward fluxes at all altitudes in four out of five events. The remaining event, which presented a lower layer from European origin contacting upper layers of North African provenance, had higher trace metal concentrations in the dust (still lower than reported values for the circum-Mediterranean area) and higher S and N concentrations in dissolved form. The occurrence of red rains introduced high interannual variability in the input fluxes for the major elements. Phosphorus inputs occurred mostly in particulate form linked to red dust deposition. Red dust particulate inputs were also important for K + and Mg 2+. For Ca 2+, dissolved inputs in red rains equalled and sometimes overuled particulate inputs in red dust, due to the calcite dissolution. Sodium and S inputs in red rains were mostly in dissolved form. The amounts of base cations delivered by red rains are important contributors to the holm oak forest needs at Montseny, by providing 27% of K +, 45% of Ca 2+ and 84% of Mg 2+ fluxes needed for the above ground biomass annual increment. For Ca 2+ this is specially relevant because of the calcium-poor lithology of

  2. Changing Climate and Wind Patterns Revealed in Indiana's Fair Oaks Dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilibarda, Z.

    2004-12-01

    Fair Oak Dunes (FOD) cover over 1100 square miles in north-central Indiana. Careful study of dune morphology reveals three types of dunes in regards to their size. The first order forms are compound parabolic dunes that reach over five miles in length and have the apex of parabola pointing in a southwesterly direction. The spacing between these dunes is three to five miles. The second order dune ridges are compound parabolic dunes that range in size from one to three miles in length with spacing of about one mile between the ridges. Both, the second order and the third order dunes have the apex of parabola pointing in northeasterly direction, opposite of the first order dunes. The third order dune ridges are simple parabolic dunes that reach up to half mile in length and are 25 to 30 feet tall in western part to over 45 feet in the eastern part of the FOD. All dunes are fixed by lush vegetation. Preliminary grain size analyses indicate that north part of FOD has coarser sand (0.283 mm) than southern part (0.197 mm), while eastern part (0.271 mm) is coarser than the western part (0.223 mm). This grain size distribution is in accordance with initial interpretation of dune morphology. Strong northeasterly winds associated with anticyclone were prevalent in early dune formation about 14,000 years ago near the end of last glacial. The finest particles were blown south and southwest from the source area which was north and east of the present dunes. Cyclonic southwesterly winds become dominant in Holocene and caused a reworking of the original large dunes into smaller forms as well as removal of some of the finest particles back to the original source to the northeast. Limited vertical dune profiles indicate that below the 5 feet of bioturbated surface layer are alternating light layers (3 to 5 inch thick) and dark laminae (1-2 inches thick). Dark laminae consist of quartz grains with `hairy' surfaces covered with reddish iron oxides or clays. They contain twice as much

  3. Characterization of phenolic compounds in green and red oak-leaf lettuce cultivars by UHPLC-DAD-ESI-QToF/MS using MS(E) scan mode.

    PubMed

    Viacava, Gabriela E; Roura, Sara I; Berrueta, Luis A; Iriondo, Carmen; Gallo, Blanca; Alonso-Salces, Rosa M

    2017-08-22

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the most popular leafy vegetables in the world and constitutes a major dietary source of phenolic compounds with health promoting properties. In particular, the demand for green and red oak-leaf lettuces have considerably increased in the last years but few data on their polyphenol composition is available. Moreover, the utilization of analytical edge technology can provide new structural information and allow the identification of unknown polyphenols. In the present study the phenolic profiles of green and red oak-leaf lettuce cultivars were exhaustively characterized by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled online to diode array detection (DAD), electrospray ionization (ESI) and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QToF/MS), using the MS(E) instrument acquisition mode for recording simultaneously exact masses of precursor and fragment ions. One hundred fifteen phenolic compounds were identified in the acidified hydromethanolic extract of freeze-dried lettuce leaves. Forty eight of these compounds were tentatively identified for the first time in lettuce, and only twenty of them have been previously reported in oak leaf lettuce cultivars in literature. Both oak leaf lettuce cultivars presented similar phenolic composition, except for apigenin-glucuronide and dihydroxybenzoic acid, only detected in the green cultivar; and for luteolin-hydroxymalonylhexoside, an apigenin conjugate with molecular formula C40 H54 O19 (monoisotopic MW = 838.3259 u), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-(3"-O-malonyl)glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-(6"-O-malonyl)glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-(6"-O-acetyl)glucoside, only found in the red cultivar. The UHPLC-DAD-ESI-QToF/MS(E) approach demonstrated to be a useful tool for the characterization of phenolic compounds in complex plant matrices. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Interactive effects of defoliation and low resource levels on photosynthesis, growth, and gypsy moth larval response to red oak seedlings

    Treesearch

    James B. McGraw; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1991-01-01

    The potential for defoliation of oak seedlings by gypsy moth is quite high. We were interested in examining the interactions between various natural stresses and resulting gypsy moth feeding preferences and the results of defoliation stress on the growth and photosynthetic responses of the oak seedlings.

  5. Genetic differentiation of two California red oak species, Quercus parvula var. shreveii and Q. wislizeni, based on AFLP genetic markers

    Treesearch

    Nasser Kashani; Richard S. Dodd

    2002-01-01

    Oaks are renowned for posing problems in defining species boundaries. One example is the case of the interior live oak complex that is usually taken to include two varieties of Quercus wislizeni from the Coast Ranges of California and the Sierra Nevada, and Q. parvula var. shreveii from the central coast of...

  6. The phenolic chemistry and spectrochemistry of red sweet wine-making and oak-aging.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo-González, M; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J; Teixeira, N; Mateus, N; De Freitas, V

    2014-01-01

    A natural sweet wine (NSW) was made with dried grapes from Vitis vinifera L. cv Garnacha Tintorera. A fortified sweet wine (FSW) was also obtained: the maceration-alcoholic fermentation of Garnacha Tintorera must was stopped by addition of ethanol 96% (v/v). UV/Vis spectrophotometry and HPLC/DAD-ESI/MS were applied to determine, respectively, the evolution of colour and phenolic compounds in Garnacha Tintorera based-sweet wines during aging. In sweet wines, aging decreased a(∗) (red/green), colour saturation and lightness and increased b(∗) (yellow/blue), and hue angle. Most of the phenolic compounds determined, such as anthocyanins, esters of hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan-3-ols monomers, oligomers and polymers decreased in both sweet wines during aging. On the contrary, hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and vitisins increased after one year of aging. Despite that both terminal and extension subunit compositions show very small changes, mean degree of polymerisation of proanthocyanidins decline slightly as aging progressed in both sweet wines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phylogeography of red muntjacs reveals three distinct mitochondrial lineages.

    PubMed

    Martins, Renata F; Fickel, Jörns; Le, Minh; van Nguyen, Thanh; Nguyen, Ha M; Timmins, Robert; Gan, Han Ming; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine J; Lenz, Dorina; Förster, Daniel W; Wilting, Andreas

    2017-01-26

    The members of the genus Muntiacus are of particular interest to evolutionary biologists due to their extreme chromosomal rearrangements and the ongoing discussions about the number of living species. Red muntjacs have the largest distribution of all muntjacs and were formerly considered as one species. Karyotype differences led to the provisional split between the Southern Red Muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak) and the Northern Red Muntjac (M. vaginalis), but uncertainties remain as, so far, no phylogenetic study has been conducted. Here, we analysed whole mitochondrial genomes of 59 archival and 16 contemporaneous samples to resolve uncertainties about their taxonomy and used red muntjacs as model for understanding the evolutionary history of other species in Southeast Asia. We found three distinct matrilineal groups of red muntjacs: Sri Lankan red muntjacs (including the Western Ghats) diverged first from other muntjacs about 1.5 Mya; later northern red muntjacs (including North India and Indochina) and southern red muntjacs (Sundaland) split around 1.12 Mya. The diversification of red muntjacs into these three main lineages was likely promoted by two Pleistocene barriers: one through the Indian subcontinent and one separating the Indochinese and Sundaic red muntjacs. Interestingly, we found a high level of gene flow within the populations of northern and southern red muntjacs, indicating gene flow between populations in Indochina and dispersal of red muntjacs over the exposed Sunda Shelf during the Last Glacial Maximum. Our results provide new insights into the evolution of species in South and Southeast Asia as we found clear genetic differentiation in a widespread and generalist species, corresponding to two known biogeographical barriers: The Isthmus of Kra and the central Indian dry zone. In addition, our molecular data support either the delineation of three monotypic species or three subspecies, but more importantly these data highlight the conservation

  8. Oak mortality risk factors and mortality estimation

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; Zhaofei Fan; John M. Kabrick; Randy G. Jensen

    2006-01-01

    Managers are often concerned about oak mortality in maturing mixed-oak forests, but they often lack explicit information about mortality risk for oaks that differ in species, size, crown class, competitive status, and growth rate. In eastern North America, tree species in the red oak group (Quercus Section Lobatae) are typically...

  9. Effectiveness of two-sided UV-C treatments in inhibiting natural microflora and extending the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce.

    PubMed

    Allende, Ana; McEvoy, James L; Luo, Yaguang; Artes, Francisco; Wang, Chien Y

    2006-05-01

    The use of UV-C radiation treatments to inhibit the microbial growth and extend the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce was investigated. Initially, UV-C resistance of 20 bacterial strains from different genera often associated with fresh produce (Enterobacter, Erwinia, Escherichia, Leuconostoc, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Rahnela, Salmonella, Serratia and Yersinia) were tested in vitro. Most of the bacterial strains were inhibited with the minimum dose (30 J m(-2)). Erwinia carotovora, Leuconostoc carnosum, Salmonella typhimurium, and Yersinia aldovae were the most resistant strains requiring a UV-C dose of 85 J m(-2) to completely inhibit growth. An in vivo study consisted of treating minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce (Lactuca sativa) with UV-C at three radiation doses (1.18, 2.37 and 7.11 kJ m(-2)) on each side of the leaves and storing the product under passive MAP conditions at 5 degrees C for up to 10 days. The gas composition inside packages varied significantly among the treatments, with CO2 concentrations positively and O2 concentrations negatively correlating with the radiation dose. All the radiation doses were effective in reducing the natural microflora of the product, although the highest doses showed the greatest microbial inhibitions. Taking into account the microbial limit set by Spanish legislation [Boletín Oficial del Estado (BOE), 2001. Normas de higiene para la elaboración, distribución y comercio de comidas preparadas, Madrid, Spain, Real Decreto 3484/2000, pp. 1435-1441], all UV-C treatments extended the shelf-life of the product. However, the 7.11 kJ m(-2) dose induced tissue softening and browning after 7 days of storage at 5 degrees C. Therefore, the use of two sided UV-C radiation, at the proper dose, is effective in reducing the natural microflora and extending the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce.

  10. Clemson Researchers Find Prescribed Fire Regenerates Oak Forests

    Treesearch

    David van Lear; Patrick Brose

    1999-01-01

    Fire is being prescribed by Clemson University forestry researchers to regenerate oak forests. Regenerating oaks following timber harvests is a major challenge because faster growing yellow polar and red maple trees crowd out hte more valuable oak seedlings.

  11. Foliar retention of 15N-nitrate and 15N-ammonium by red maple (Acer rubrum) and white oak (Quercus alba) leaves from simulated rain

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T; Hanson, Paul J

    1990-07-01

    Studies of nitrogen cycling in forests indicate that trees assimilate atmospheric nitrate and ammonium and that differences between atmospheric deposition to the forest canopy and deposition measured in forest throughfall can be attributed to the removal of these ions from rain by tree leaves. Red maple and white oak leaves were exposed to artificial rain solutions (pH 4.1) containing {sup 15}N-labeled nitrate (3.5 {micro}g N/ml) or ammonium (2.2 {micro}g N/ml). At two time intervals after exposure (2 hr and 2 days) an exposed leaf and a control (non-exposed) leaf were removed from replicate seedlings. Based on results from {sup 15}N analysis, most of the nitrate applied to tree leaves was removed by washing with water; the mean per cent removal ({+-} standard error, N = 4) was 87 {+-} 1 and 73 {+-} 4% of the {sup 15}NO-N Applied to red maple and white oak leaves, respectively. Relative retention of {sup 15}NH{sub 4}-N by the leaves was greater than that observed for {sup 15}NO{sub 3}-N. In red maple and white oak leaves, 58 {+-} 9 and 84 {+-} 7% (mean {+-} standard error, N = 4), respectively, of the applied ammonium was not removed by washing treatments. Our results show that the foliar uptake of {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} from simulated rain by deciduous tree leaves is greater than that for {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup -}. Greater retention of NH{sub 4}{sup +} than NO{sub 3}{sup -} ions by red maple and white oak leaves from simulated rainfall is consistent with field observations showing a preferential retention of ammonium from rainfall by forest canopies. As nitrogen chemistry and the relative importance of nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere change in response to proposed emission reductions (and possibly climate change), an improved understanding of the fate of airborne nitrogen compounds in forest biogeochemical cycles will be necessary.

  12. Risk analysis and guidelines for harvest activities in wisconsin oak timberlands to minimize oak wilt threat

    Treesearch

    Jennifer Juzwik; Jane Cummings-Carlson; Kyoko Scanlon

    2010-01-01

    Oaks (Quercus spp.) are an important species group in the forests of Wisconsin. The State’s timberland typed as oak-hickory forest was estimated at 2.9 million acres in 1996. Growing stock volume for red oak was estimated at 2.4 billion cubic feet, whereas select white oak volume was estimated to be 927 million cubic feet. Oak wilt, the oak disease...

  13. Changes in forest structure associated with oak decline in severely impacted areas of northern Arkansas

    Treesearch

    Eric Heitzman; Adrian Grell; Martin Spetich; Dale Starkey

    2007-01-01

    Four mature northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.)–white oak (Quercus alba L.) stands in the Boston Mountains of northern Arkansas were studied to describe the vegetation dynamics of forests heavily impacted by oak decline. Northern red oak was the species most susceptible to decline. Across the four stands, 51–75% of red oak density...

  14. Oak Decline

    Treesearch

    Philip M. Wargo; David R. Houston; Leon A. LaMadeleine

    1983-01-01

    Periodic occurrences of decline and death of oaks over widespread areas have been recorded since 1900. These outbreaks, variously named oak decline, oak dieback, or oak mortality, are caused by a complex interaction of environmental stresses and pests and given the name oak decline.

  15. 11C-PET imaging reveals transport dynamics and sectorial plasticity of oak phloem after girdling

    PubMed Central

    De Schepper, Veerle; Bühler, Jonas; Thorpe, Michael; Roeb, Gerhard; Huber, Gregor; van Dusschoten, Dagmar; Jahnke, Siegfried; Steppe, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Carbon transport processes in plants can be followed non-invasively by repeated application of the short-lived positron-emitting radioisotope 11C, a technique which has rarely been used with trees. Recently, positron emission tomography (PET) allowing 3D visualization has been adapted for use with plants. To investigate the effects of stem girdling on the flow of assimilates, leaves on first order branches of two-year-old oak (Quercus robur L.) trees were labeled with 11C by supplying 11CO2-gas to a leaf cuvette. Magnetic resonance imaging gave an indication of the plant structure, while PET registered the tracer flow in a stem region downstream from the labeled branches. After repeated pulse labeling, phloem translocation was shown to be sectorial in the stem: leaf orthostichy determined the position of the phloem sieve tubes containing labeled 11C. The observed pathway remained unchanged for days. Tracer time-series derived from each pulse and analysed with a mechanistic model showed for two adjacent heights in the stem a similar velocity but different loss of recent assimilates. With either complete or partial girdling of bark within the monitored region, transport immediately stopped and then resumed in a new location in the stem cross-section, demonstrating the plasticity of sectoriality. One day after partial girdling, the loss of tracer along the interrupted transport pathway increased, while the velocity was enhanced in a non-girdled sector for several days. These findings suggest that lateral sugar transport was enhanced after wounding by a change in the lateral sugar transport path and the axial transport resumed with the development of new conductive tissue. PMID:23785380

  16. Effect of the aging on lees and other alternative techniques on the low molecular weight phenols of Tempranillo red wine aged in oak barrels.

    PubMed

    Del Barrio-Galán, Rubén; Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; Ortega-Heras, Miriam

    2012-06-30

    The effect of different alternative techniques to the traditional aging on lees on the low molecular weight phenolic compounds of red wines was study as well as their evolution during the aging in oak wood barrels for six months. The study was carried out with Tempranillo red grapes from two consecutive vintages. The techniques assayed were the traditional aging on lees with or without the addition of exogenous β-glucanase enzymes, the use of yeast derivative preparations also with or without the addition of exogenous β-glucanase enzymes, the micro-oxygenation applied together with the aging on lees, and the use of non-toasted oak wood chips. Hydroxycinnamic acids were the compounds most affected by these treatments, mainly in the wines treated with chips and commercial yeast derivative products, which showed higher concentrations of the free acids, compounds that play an important role in wine stabilization color since they can act as anthocyanin copigments. The differences found between the assayed treatments were more important in the 2007 vintage than in the 2008. However, a more significant effect of micro-oxygenation in the 2008 vintage was observed, which could be related to the fact that in this vintage the treatment was longer. In the 2008 vintage, the differences between treatments decreased along the aging in barrel. This vintage effect could be associated to the differences in the phenolic concentration of the initial wines. In this sense more research should be done to corroborate this fact.

  17. Effects of different management regimes on survival of northern red oak underplantings in the Ridge and Valley Province

    Treesearch

    Adam E. Regula; David W. McGill; Cynthia D. Huebner

    2015-01-01

    While dominant throughout much of the eastern United States, a recent decline in oak regeneration has merited substantial research. Ultimately, successful regeneration entails the establishment of advance reproduction of sufficient size and density to provide a high probability of ascendancy to dominant or co-dominant status. Potential prescriptions for achieving this...

  18. Molecular and optical properties of tree-derived dissolved organic matter in throughfall and stemflow from live oaks and eastern red cedar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbins, Aron; Silva, Leticia M.; Dittmar, Thorsten; Van Stan, John T.

    2017-03-01

    Studies of dissolved organic matter (DOM) transport through terrestrial aquatic systems usually start at the stream. However, the interception of rainwater by vegetation marks the beginning of the terrestrial hydrological cycle making trees the headwaters of aquatic carbon cycling. Rainwater interacts with trees picking up tree-DOM, which is then exported from the tree in stemflow and throughfall. Stemflow denotes water flowing down the tree trunk, while throughfall is the water that drips through the leaves of the canopy. We report the concentrations, optical properties (light absorbance) and molecular signatures (ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry) of tree-DOM in throughfall and stemflow from two tree species (live oak and eastern red cedar) with varying epiphyte cover on Skidaway Island, Savannah, Georgia, USA. Both stemflow and throughfall were enriched in DOM compared to rainwater, indicating trees were a significant source of DOM. The optical and molecular properties of tree-DOM were broadly consistent with those of DOM in other aquatic ecosystems. Stemflow was enriched in highly colored DOM compared to throughfall. Elemental formulas identified clustered the samples into three groups: oak stemflow, oak throughfall and cedar. The molecular properties of each cluster are consistent with an autochthonous aromatic-rich source associated with the trees, their epiphytes and the microhabitats they support. Elemental formulas enriched in oak stemflow were more diverse, enriched in aromatic formulas, and of higher molecular mass than for other tree-DOM classes, suggesting greater contributions from fresh and partially modified plant-derived organics. Oak throughfall was enriched in lower molecular weight, aliphatic and sugar formulas, suggesting greater contributions from foliar surfaces. While the optical properties and the majority of the elemental formulas within tree-DOM were consistent with vascular plant-derived organics, condensed aromatic formulas were

  19. Volatile compounds and sensorial characterisation of red wine aged in cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood barrels.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Simón, B; Martínez, J; Sanz, M; Cadahía, E; Esteruelas, E; Muñoz, A M

    2014-03-15

    The wood-related volatile profile of wines aged in cherry, acacia, ash, chestnut and oak wood barrels was studied by GC-MS, and could be a useful tool to identify the wood specie used. Thus, 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde in wines aged in acacia barrels, and ethyl-2-benzoate in cherry barrels could be used as chemical markers of these wood species, for authenticity purposes. Also, the quantitative differences obtained in the volatile profiles allow a good classification of all wines regarding wood species of barrels, during all aging time, and they contributed with different intensities to aromatic and gustative characteristics of aged wines. Wines aged in oak were the best valuated during all aging time, but the differences were not always significant. The lowest scores were assigned to wines aged in cherry barrels from 6 months of aging, so this wood could be more suitable in short aging times.

  20. Oak wilt

    Treesearch

    Robert, Jr. Lewis

    1989-01-01

    Oak wilt, a major disease of oak trees in North America, is caused by a fungus. It infects the sapwood and stops sap flow to the branches, twigs, and leaves. When sap flow is restricted during the growing season, trees wilt and soon die. In addition to killing trees, oak wilt makes it more difficult to export oak logs to other countries. Logs must be free of oak wilt...

  1. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities of edible red oak (Quercus spp.) infusions in rat colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Jimenez, Martha Rocío; Trujillo-Esquivel, Fátima; Gallegos-Corona, Marco A; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalia; González-Laredo, Rubén Francisco; Gallegos-Infante, José Alberto; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria Elizabeth; Ramos-Gomez, Minerva

    2015-06-01

    Red oak (Quercus spp.) leaves are traditionally used as food in Mexico, and some of their infusions have potential anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects; however, these properties have not yet been scientifically tested. The aim of this work was to explore the anti-inflammatory activity in HT-29 cells and anticarcinogenic effect in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis of red oak infusions. Quercus infusions were prepared and administered as the sole source of drink to male Sprague-Dawley rats (1% w/v) for the entire 26-week experimental period. On week 4, rats received 8 subcutaneous injections of DMH (21 mg/kg body weight) once a week. The results showed that mean tumor (0.9 ± 0.2 vs. 2.6 ± 0.3) and multiplicity (1.2 ± 0.1 vs. 2.0 ± 0.23), and β-catenin protein level (2.2-fold) in adenocarcinomas were significantly lower in Quercus  sideroxyla-treated group compared with DMH group. By contrast, Quercus  durifolia and Quercus  eduardii infusions had no protective effect. Additionally, the experiments in HT-29 cells confirmed that Q. sideroxyla infusion effectively decreased the levels of the inflammatory markers COX-2 and IL-8 by modulating the expression of NF-κB. These results highlight some of the molecular mechanisms related to the chemopreventive effect of Q. sideroxyla infusion and its potential value as a source of bioactive compounds.

  2. Accelerating the kiln drying of oak

    Treesearch

    William T. Simpson

    1980-01-01

    Reducing kiln-drying time for oak lumber can reduce energy requirements as well as reduce lumber inventories. In this work, l-inch northern red oak and white oak were kiln dried from green by a combination of individual accelerating techniques– presurfacing, presteaming, accelerated and smooth schedule, and high-temperature drying below 18 percent moisture content....

  3. Quercus kelloggii Newb., California black oak

    Treesearch

    P.M. McDonald

    1990-01-01

    California black oak (Quercus kelloggii) exceeds all other California oaks in volume, distribution, and altitudinal range. Yet this deciduous hardwood has had little sustained commercial use and almost no management, even though its wood closely resembles that of its valuable, managed, and heavily used counterpart-northern red oak (...

  4. Micro-oxygenation strategy depends on origin and size of oak chips or staves during accelerated red wine aging.

    PubMed

    Del Alamo, María; Nevares, Ignacio; Gallego, Laura; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella

    2010-02-15

    The practice of wine aging in stainless steel tank involves storing wine in contact with wood and dosing it with small oxygen quantities in order to obtain a final wine more stable in time and with the same characteristics of barrel-aged wines. Oxygen dosing is a key factor and, to achieve a correct development of wine, needs to be applied according to wine necessities and to the kind of wood chosen. This paper shows the results obtained from the study of oxygen required by a same wine aged in tanks with different alternative products (chips and staves) made of American (Q. alba), French (Q. petraea) and Spanish oak (Q. pyrenaica), with a strategy of micro-oxygenation as required. The results indicate that the size and origin of the wood used determine the oxygen management during the process. In fact, wine treated with big pieces (staves) consumes more oxygen and, with regard to wood origin, wine aged with French oak (Q. petraea) products needs of a higher oxygen dosage.

  5. Oak Wilt

    Treesearch

    Charles O. Rexrode; Daniel Brown

    1983-01-01

    Oak wilt, caused by the fungus Ceratocystis fagacearum (Bretz) Hunt, kills oak trees. It has been found in 21 States, with considerable damage occurring in the Midwest. It was first recognized as an important disease in 1944 in Wisconsin where, in localized areas (less than 100 acres (40.4 ha)), over half the oaks have been killed. Surveys in eight Wisconsin counties...

  6. Growth and Development of Outplanted High-Quality Northern Red Oak Seedlings and the Effects of Competing Herbaceous Productions Within Four Overstory Treatments -- First-Year Results

    Treesearch

    Christopher M. Oswalt; Wayne K. Clatterbuck; Scott E. Scharbaum; Allan E. Houston

    2004-01-01

    Historically, oak (Quercus spp .) regeneration success on highly productive hardwood sites can be described as highly variable. Research has shown that establishing large advance oak regeneration prior to overstory removal is neces-sary to maintain oak populations in future stands. However, experience indicates that forest landowners are typically...

  7. Auger planting of oak seedlings in northern Arkansas

    Treesearch

    Eric Heitzman; Adrian Grell

    2003-01-01

    Planting oak seedlings to regenerate upland oak forests is a promising but untested silvicultural practice in the Ozark Mountains of northern Arkansas. The stony (cherty) soils of the region make it difficult to dig deep planting holes using conventional hand planting tools. In 2001, we planted 1-0 northern red oak and white oak seedlings in 0.5 to 1 acre group...

  8. Using stable isotopes to reconcile differences in nitrogen uptake efficiency relative to late season fertilization of northern red oak seedlings in Wisconsin bare-root nurseries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujinuma, R.; Balster, N. J.

    2009-12-01

    Cultural applications (e.g., timing, amount) of nitrogen (N) fertilizer in bareroot tree nurseries have been assessed for some time. However, the use of different metrologies to quantify the efficient use of fertilizer N and its allocation within biomass has confounded comparisons between fertilization regimes. This inconsistency is especially problematic when quantifying N fertilizer uptake efficiency (NFUE) of late season N fertilization in northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) (NRO) seedlings characterized by episodic flushes in growth and N storage in perennial tissue to support spring growth. The use of isotopic tracers could help elucidate these differences. We therefore hypothesized that: 1) calculations of NFUE using isotopically enriched fertilizer would yield lower, more precise estimates of NFUE relative to traditional methods due to differences in the accounting of mineralized and reabsorbed N, and 2) a significant fraction of leaf N in older leaves (early flushes) would be reabsorbed into root and shoot tissue before abscission relative to leaves produced toward the end of the growing season (late flushes). To test these hypotheses, we conducted an experiment in two-year old NRO seedlings at two bare-root nurseries in Wisconsin. We applied a total of 147 mg N seedling-1 in pulses from early July after the seedlings completed their second leaf flush until late August. The treatments consisted of three replicated plots of 15N enriched (1.000 atom%) ammonium sulfate, three non-enriched plots, and three unfertilized plots (controls) at each nursery. Subsequent changes in plant N uptake and N allocation were quantified from destructively harvested samples taken at 40, 60, and 120 days after the fertilization began. We evaluated three common methods currently used to estimate NFUE (total N without control, total N with control, and isotopic difference). The total N without control method overestimated mean NFUE by 3.2 times relative to the isotope method

  9. Effects of Flood Duration and Depth on Germination of Cherrybark, Post, Southern, White and Willow Oak Acorns

    Treesearch

    Yanfei Guo; Michael G. Shelton; Eric Heitzman

    2002-01-01

    Effects of flood duration (0, 10, 20, and 30 days) and depth (10 and 100 centimeters below a water surface) on acorn germination were tested for two bottomland oaks (cherrybark oak [Quercus pagoda Raf.] and willow oak [Q. phellos L.]) and three upland oaks (post oak [Q. stellata Wang.], southern red oak [

  10. Volatile compounds as markers of ageing in Tempranillo red wines from La Mancha D.O. stored in oak wood barrels.

    PubMed

    Castro-Vázquez, Lucía; Alañón, M Elena; Calvo, Elena; Cejudo, M Jesús; Díaz-Maroto, M Consuelo; Pérez-Coello, M Soledad

    2011-07-29

    Solid-phase extraction cartridges (SPE)-GC/MS method was used to analyse red wines aromas. The matrix effect was studied with chemicals standard prepared in synthetic wines with water/alcohol solutions (12% ethanol, v/v) following the procedure proposed. The method offers good reproducibility since the relative standard deviations (RSD%) for the volatile compounds levels were less than 9%. This method was used to differentiate the aroma of one hundred mono-varietal young, crianza, reserva and gran reserva La Mancha D.O. wines (cv. Tempranillo) on the basis of oak barrel contact period. Samples were checked at ten time points over 36 months. Sixty important wine odorants, such as volatile phenols, vanillin derivatives, lactones, norisoprenoids, benzene compounds, esters and terpenols, can be quantitatively determined in a single run. Results showed significant quantitative differences in the volatile profiles of wines depending on the length of time in contact with wood, even in wines belonging to the same commercial category. Stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) was used to obtain a model that predicted the time of barrel ageing to which wines were submitted in relation with the wine volatile composition. A successful function based on eight compounds with a mean deviation of 0.37 months in the predictions, was obtained.

  11. A review of oak wilt management: a summary of treatment options and their efficacy

    Treesearch

    Karrie A. Koch; Gina L. Quiram; Robert C. Venette

    2010-01-01

    Oak wilt, caused by the invasive fungal pathogen Ceratocystis fagacearum (Bretz) Hunt, is a serious and fatal disease of oaks, Quercus spp., with red oaks (section Lobatae) generally being more susceptible than white oaks (section Quercus). Oak wilt was first recognized in North America in 1944...

  12. Reducing borer damage in oak regeneration and sawtimber

    Treesearch

    Jimmy R. Galford

    1989-01-01

    Borers cause millions of dollars in damaged wood annually to oak stands, and adversely affect the form and vigor of oak regeneration. A moth and four species of beetles cause most of the damage; the carpenterworm moth, the oak timberworm, the red oak borer, the living-beech borer, and the white oak borer. The larvae of these insects chew holes in the wood ranging from...

  13. Fertilization Increases Growth of Thinned and Nonthinned Upland Oak Stands in the Boston Mountains of Arkansas

    Treesearch

    D.L. Graney; P.E. Pope

    1978-01-01

    Thinning and fertilization tests with pole-sized red oaks (northern red oak Quercus rubra L. and black oak Q. velutina Lam.) and white oak (Q. alba L.) were begun in the Boston Mountains of Arkansas in the spring of 1975. Fertilizer treatments of either (1) no fertilization, (2) 200 Ibs N + 45 Ibs P per acre, or...

  14. Development of secondary woodland in oak wood pastures reduces the richness of rare epiphytic lichens.

    PubMed

    Paltto, Heidi; Nordberg, Anna; Nordén, Björn; Snäll, Tord

    2011-01-01

    Wooded pastures with ancient trees were formerly abundant throughout Europe, but during the last century, grazing has largely been abandoned often resulting in dense forests. Ancient trees constitute habitat for many declining and threatened species, but the effects of secondary woodland on the biodiversity associated with these trees are largely unknown. We tested for difference in species richness, occurrence, and abundance of a set of nationally and regionally red-listed epiphytic lichens between ancient oaks located in secondary woodland and ancient oaks located in open conditions. We refined the test of the effect of secondary woodland by also including other explanatory variables. Species occurrence and abundance were modelled jointly using overdispersed zero-inflated Poisson models. The richness of the red-listed lichens on ancient oaks in secondary woodland was half of that compared with oaks growing in open conditions. The species-level analyses revealed that this was mainly the result of lower occupancy of two of the study species. The tree-level abundance of one species was also lower in secondary woodland. Potential explanations for this pattern are that the study lichens are adapted to desiccating conditions enhancing their population persistence by low competition or that open, windy conditions enhance their colonisation rate. This means that the development of secondary woodland is a threat to red-listed epiphytic lichens. We therefore suggest that woody vegetation is cleared and grazing resumed in abandoned oak pastures. Importantly, this will also benefit the vitality of the oaks.

  15. Development of Secondary Woodland in Oak Wood Pastures Reduces the Richness of Rare Epiphytic Lichens

    PubMed Central

    Paltto, Heidi; Nordberg, Anna; Nordén, Björn; Snäll, Tord

    2011-01-01

    Wooded pastures with ancient trees were formerly abundant throughout Europe, but during the last century, grazing has largely been abandoned often resulting in dense forests. Ancient trees constitute habitat for many declining and threatened species, but the effects of secondary woodland on the biodiversity associated with these trees are largely unknown. We tested for difference in species richness, occurrence, and abundance of a set of nationally and regionally red-listed epiphytic lichens between ancient oaks located in secondary woodland and ancient oaks located in open conditions. We refined the test of the effect of secondary woodland by also including other explanatory variables. Species occurrence and abundance were modelled jointly using overdispersed zero-inflated Poisson models. The richness of the red-listed lichens on ancient oaks in secondary woodland was half of that compared with oaks growing in open conditions. The species-level analyses revealed that this was mainly the result of lower occupancy of two of the study species. The tree-level abundance of one species was also lower in secondary woodland. Potential explanations for this pattern are that the study lichens are adapted to desiccating conditions enhancing their population persistence by low competition or that open, windy conditions enhance their colonisation rate. This means that the development of secondary woodland is a threat to red-listed epiphytic lichens. We therefore suggest that woody vegetation is cleared and grazing resumed in abandoned oak pastures. Importantly, this will also benefit the vitality of the oaks. PMID:21961041

  16. Natural hybridisation between kermes (Quercus coccifera L.) and holm oaks (Q. ilex L.) revealed by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Ortego, Joaquín; Bonal, Raúl

    2010-01-01

    Hybridisation between species of the genus Quercus is a common phenomenon as a result of weak reproductive isolation mechanisms between phylogenetically close species that frequently co-occur in mixed stands. In this study, we use microsatellite markers to analyse introgression between kermes (Quercus coccifera L.) and holm (Q. ilex L.) oak, two closely related taxa that frequently dominate the landscape in extensive areas in the Mediterranean region. All tested microsatellites amplified and were polymorphic in both kermes and holm oaks. Bayesian admixture analyses showed a good correspondence between each species and one of the two inferred genetic clusters. Five sampled individuals were a priori tentatively identified as hybrids on the basis of intermediate morphological characteristics, and it was confirmed that they also presented mixed genotypes. However, we also detected different levels of genetic introgression among morphologically pure individuals, suggesting that successful backcrossing and/or reduced phenotypic expression of genetic variance in certain individuals may have resulted in strong convergence towards a single species phenotype.

  17. Oak Tatters

    Treesearch

    Linda Haugen; Phil Marshall; Jane Cummings Carlson; Mark Vitosh; Ed Hayes

    2000-01-01

    Oak tatters is a relatively new condition that affects emerging oak leaves, causing them to appear lacy or tattered. It has been observed throughout the Midwestern United States, including Minnesota, Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Missouri. This disorder was first reported during the 1980's in Iowa, Indiana and Ohio, but has been observed...

  18. Application of the differential colorimetry and polyphenolic profile to the evaluation of the chromatic quality of Tempranillo red wines elaborated in warm climate. Influence of the presence of oak wood chips during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gordillo, Belén; Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; González-Miret, M Lourdes; Heredia, Francisco J

    2013-12-01

    The effect of adding American oak wood chips during fermentation on Tempranillo red wines elaborates in a warm climate has been studied. Our attention was focused on the tristimulus colorimetry, differential colorimetry and phenolic compounds related to wine colour. This technique was applied as an oenological alternative to the conventional winemaking for avoiding the common fall of colour of red wines elaborated in warm climates. The addition of oak wood chips promoted the colour enhancement and stabilisation, producing wines with a notably darker colour and with more bluish tonality. This fact was also related to the significantly higher content of some phenolic compounds. On the basis of the results, it could be affirmed that the addition of oak wood chips during fermentation induced visually perceptible colour changes (by the analysis of ΔEab(*), %Δ(2)L, %Δ(2)C and %Δ(2)H), mainly in a quantitative way, and also a lower percentage of diminution of colour. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative X-ray Diffraction (QXRD) analysis for revealing thermal transformations of red mud.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chang-Zhong; Zeng, Lingmin; Shih, Kaimin

    2015-07-01

    Red mud is a worldwide environmental problem, and many authorities are trying to find an economic solution for its beneficial application or/and safe disposal. Ceramic production is one of the potential waste-to-resource strategies for using red mud as a raw material. Before implementing such a strategy, an unambiguous understanding of the reaction behavior of red mud under thermal conditions is essential. In this study, the phase compositions and transformation processes were revealed for the Pingguo red mud (PRM) heat-treated at different sintering temperatures. Hematite, perovskite, andradite, cancrinite, kaolinite, diaspore, gibbsite and calcite phases were observed in the samples. However, unlike those red mud samples from the other regions, no TiO2 (rutile or anatase) or quartz were observed. Titanium was found to exist mainly in perovskite and andradite while the iron mainly existed in hematite and andradite. A new silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) phase was found in samples treated at temperatures above 1100°C, and two possible formation pathways for SFCA were suggested. This is the first SFCA phase to be reported in thermally treated red mud, and this finding may turn PRM waste into a material resource for the iron-making industry. Titanium was found to be enriched in the perovskite phase after 1200°C thermal treatment, and this observation indicated a potential strategy for the recovery of titanium from PRM. In addition to noting these various resource recovery opportunities, this is also the first study to quantitatively summarize the reaction details of PRM phase transformations at various temperatures.

  20. Deposition of H15NO3 vapour to white oak, red maple and loblolly pine foliage: experimental observations and a generalized model

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Paul J; Garten Jr, Charles T

    1992-10-01

    Nitric acid vapour enriched with {sup 15}N (H{sup 15}NO{sub 3}) was volatilized into the cuvette of an open-flow gas exchange system containing red maple (Acer rubrum L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), or loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedling shoots to facilitate direct measurements of total foliar deposition, and subsequent assessments of the rate of HNO{sub 3} movement across the cuticle (transcuticular uptake). Total H{sup 15}NO{sub 3} vapour deposition to foliar surfaces ranged from <5 to 27 nmol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} the variability being largely accounted for by differences in HNO{sub 3} concentrations and leaf conductance. Mean whole-leaf conductance to HNO{sub 3} ranged between 0.9 and 3.4 mm s{sup -1} for hardwoods and between 6 and 34 mm s{sup -1} for loblolly pine. Of the total H{sup 15}NO{sub 3} vapour deposited to leaves, an average of 39 to 48% was immediately 'bound' into hardwood foliage whereas only 3% was bound to loblolly pine needles. This implies that rain events might extract greater amounts of HNO{sub 3}-derived nitrate in throughfall from conifer canopies as compared to hardwood canopies. Post-exposure H{sup 15}NO{sub 3} uptake rates across the leaf cuticle increased with surface nitrate concentrations, but were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower (O06 to 0.24 nmol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) than total HNO{sub 3}, deposition during exposures. A generalized leaf-level model of HNO{sub 3} deposition to foliage capable of simulating deposition pathways to sorption sites on the leaf surface, and to the metabolically active leaf interior via transcuticular or stomatal pathways is formulated and suggested for use in planning future work on HNO{sub 3} deposition.

  1. The taxonomy of the Japanese oak red scale insect, Kuwania quercus (Kuwana) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Kuwaniidae), with a generic diagnosis, a key to species and description of a new species from California.

    PubMed

    San'An, Wu; Nan, Nan; Gullan, Penny; Deng, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The oak red scale insect, Kuwania quercus (Kuwana), was described from specimens collected from the bark of oak trees (Quercus species) in Japan. More recently, the species has been identified from California and China, but Californian specimens differ morphologically from Japanese material and are considered here to be a new species based on both morphological and molecular data. In this paper, an illustrated redescription of K. quercus is provided based on type specimens consisting of adult females, first-instar nymphs and intermediate-stage females, and a lectotype is designated for Sasakia quercus Kuwana. The new Californian species, Kuwania raygilli Wu & Gullan, is described and illustrated based on the adult female, first-instar nymph and intermediate-stage female. A new generic diagnosis for Kuwania Cockerell based on adult females and first-instar nymphs, and a key to species based on adult females are included.

  2. Expression differences of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes reveal regulation patterns for red pear coloration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-nan; Yao, Gai-fang; Zheng, Danman; Zhang, Shao-ling; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Ming-yue; Wu, Jun

    2015-02-01

    This research reveals the different expression patterns of anthocyanin biosynthesis enzyme genes and transcription factors in six red-skinned pear cultivars with different genetic backgrounds. Skin color is an important feature of pear fruits, with red skin generally attracting consumers. However, great differences of coloration exist in different pear cultivars. To elucidate the characteristics of pigmentation in pear cultivars with different genetic backgrounds, six cultivars, belonging to P. communis, P. pyrifolia, P. ussuriensis, P. bretschneideri, and a hybrid of P. communis × P. pyrifolia, were used to detect pigment concentrations, expressions of seven anthocyanin biosynthesis enzyme genes, and three related transcription factor genes. Results showed that the occidental pears 'Starkrimson' and 'Red Bartlett' colored at the beginning of fruit setting, but color decreased with fruit maturity; the other four cultivars showed low anthocyanin accumulations and the contents increased during fruit development, but also decreased at later stages. The expression patterns of genes encoding enzymes indicated that ANS and UFGT were decisive genes for anthocyanin biosynthesis for red-skinned pear, and their different expressions led to the coloration differences between occidental and oriental pears. The expression patterns of transcription factors indicated that the different co-expression of MYB10 and bHLH33 genes and the different expressions of WD40 are involved in the differential regulation mechanisms of anthocyanin biosynthesis and coloration pattern between occidental and oriental pears.

  3. Pyrosequencing reveals highly diverse and species-specific microbial communities in sponges from the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Lee, On On; Wang, Yong; Yang, Jiangke; Lafi, Feras F; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2011-04-01

    Marine sponges are associated with a remarkable array of microorganisms. Using a tag pyrosequencing technology, this study was the first to investigate in depth the microbial communities associated with three Red Sea sponges, Hyrtios erectus, Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria. We revealed highly diverse sponge-associated bacterial communities with up to 1000 microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and richness estimates of up to 2000 species. Altogether, 26 bacterial phyla were detected from the Red Sea sponges, 11 of which were absent from the surrounding sea water and 4 were recorded in sponges for the first time. Up to 100 OTUs with richness estimates of up to 300 archaeal species were revealed from a single sponge species. This is by far the highest archaeal diversity ever recorded for sponges. A non-negligible proportion of unclassified reads was observed in sponges. Our results demonstrated that the sponge-associated microbial communities remained highly consistent in the same sponge species from different locations, although they varied at different degrees among different sponge species. A significant proportion of the tag sequences from the sponges could be assigned to one of the sponge-specific clusters previously defined. In addition, the sponge-associated microbial communities were consistently divergent from those present in the surrounding sea water. Our results suggest that the Red Sea sponges possess highly sponge-specific or even sponge-species-specific microbial communities that are resistant to environmental disturbance, and much of their microbial diversity remains to be explored.

  4. Pyrosequencing reveals highly diverse and species-specific microbial communities in sponges from the Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, On On; Wang, Yong; Yang, Jiangke; Lafi, Feras F; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Marine sponges are associated with a remarkable array of microorganisms. Using a tag pyrosequencing technology, this study was the first to investigate in depth the microbial communities associated with three Red Sea sponges, Hyrtios erectus, Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria. We revealed highly diverse sponge-associated bacterial communities with up to 1000 microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and richness estimates of up to 2000 species. Altogether, 26 bacterial phyla were detected from the Red Sea sponges, 11 of which were absent from the surrounding sea water and 4 were recorded in sponges for the first time. Up to 100 OTUs with richness estimates of up to 300 archaeal species were revealed from a single sponge species. This is by far the highest archaeal diversity ever recorded for sponges. A non-negligible proportion of unclassified reads was observed in sponges. Our results demonstrated that the sponge-associated microbial communities remained highly consistent in the same sponge species from different locations, although they varied at different degrees among different sponge species. A significant proportion of the tag sequences from the sponges could be assigned to one of the sponge-specific clusters previously defined. In addition, the sponge-associated microbial communities were consistently divergent from those present in the surrounding sea water. Our results suggest that the Red Sea sponges possess highly sponge-specific or even sponge-species-specific microbial communities that are resistant to environmental disturbance, and much of their microbial diversity remains to be explored. PMID:21085196

  5. Genetic signatures of adaptation revealed from transcriptome sequencing of Arctic and red foxes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikas; Kutschera, Verena E; Nilsson, Maria A; Janke, Axel

    2015-08-07

    The genus Vulpes (true foxes) comprises numerous species that inhabit a wide range of habitats and climatic conditions, including one species, the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) which is adapted to the arctic region. A close relative to the Arctic fox, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), occurs in subarctic to subtropical habitats. To study the genetic basis of their adaptations to different environments, transcriptome sequences from two Arctic foxes and one red fox individual were generated and analyzed for signatures of positive selection. In addition, the data allowed for a phylogenetic analysis and divergence time estimate between the two fox species. The de novo assembly of reads resulted in more than 160,000 contigs/transcripts per individual. Approximately 17,000 homologous genes were identified using human and the non-redundant databases. Positive selection analyses revealed several genes involved in various metabolic and molecular processes such as energy metabolism, cardiac gene regulation, apoptosis and blood coagulation to be under positive selection in foxes. Branch site tests identified four genes to be under positive selection in the Arctic fox transcriptome, two of which are fat metabolism genes. In the red fox transcriptome eight genes are under positive selection, including molecular process genes, notably genes involved in ATP metabolism. Analysis of the three transcriptomes and five Sanger re-sequenced genes in additional individuals identified a lower genetic variability within Arctic foxes compared to red foxes, which is consistent with distribution range differences and demographic responses to past climatic fluctuations. A phylogenomic analysis estimated that the Arctic and red fox lineages diverged about three million years ago. Transcriptome data are an economic way to generate genomic resources for evolutionary studies. Despite not representing an entire genome, this transcriptome analysis identified numerous genes that are relevant to arctic

  6. Release of suppressed oak advance regeneration

    Treesearch

    Dylan Dillaway; Jeffrey W. Stringer

    2006-01-01

    Oaks are not consistently regenerating on intermediate- and high-quality sites due to the lack of well-developed advance regeneration. Studies of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedling cohorts have shown that when grown under well-developed canopies and mid-stories, height growth is suppressed, and seedling mortality increases with time resulting in a sparsely...

  7. To live or to die? Evidence of variable drivers of wood d13C reveal different responses to disturbance in co-occurring oaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, A. S.; Stephen, F. M.; Billings, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    A major oak decline event in recent decades in Northwest Arkansas permits insight into disturbance impacts on forests, which is important for understanding global carbon, nutrient and climate cycles given projections of increasing disturbance event frequency in the future. The decline event, associated with an increase in population of a native, wood-boring insect, followed a cycle of droughts and resulted in a mosaic of apparently healthy red oaks (Quercus rubra) neighboring severely declining trees of the same species. Tree-ring evidence suggests decreased growth rates following increases in the insect's population decades prior to visible external decline symptoms (i.e. decreased crown coverage, mortality), but only in trees destined to die during the insect outbreak. Reasons why some trees experienced mortality and some remained healthy are unclear. Through analysis of stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) in wood and leaf δ13C and nitrogen among co-occurring trees, we can infer differential responses of red oaks to disturbance and associated resilience to mortality. Tree-ring a-cellulose δ13C varied from -27.3to -23.0%, and δ18O values varied from 27.5 to 31.8%. Neither δ13C nor δ18O exhibited signficant differences between healthy and declining trees. However, declining trees exhibited a significant, positive relationship between δ13C and δ18O (p <0.05, r2=0.15) prior to peak insect infestation. In contrast, apparently healthy individuals did not exhibit a significant relationship between these parameters, but exhibited significant, positive relationships between current year leaf δ13C and nitrogen content (p<0.05, r2=0.77). These results suggest that healthy and declining trees had different strategies for coping with insect infestation. Correlation between tree-ring δ13C and δ18O in dying trees suggests that trees destined to die during the infestation regulated their δ13C values primarily via stomatal conductance, a mechanism that

  8. Planting oaks in the Central Hardwood Region: a shelterwood approach

    Treesearch

    Dale R. Weigel; Paul S. Johnson

    1997-01-01

    The success of oak seedlings planted under shelterwoods depends on where they are planted, initial seedling size, nursery undercutting treatments, and whether they are top-clipped before planting. These conclusions are based on planting northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and white oak (Q. alba L.) under shelterwoods in Indiana and...

  9. Acorn Production Characteristics of Southern Appalachian Oaks: A Simple Method to Predict Within-Year Crop Size

    Treesearch

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Bernard R. Parresol

    2000-01-01

    We examined acorn production from 1993-97 by black oak (Quercus velutina Lam.), northern red oak (Q. rubra L.), scarlet oak (Q. coccinea Muenchh.), chestnut oak (Q. prinus L.), and white oak (Q. alba L.) in the Southern Appalichians to determine how frequency of acorn...

  10. Higher growth temperatures decreased net carbon assimilation and biomass accumulation of northern red oak seedlings near the southern limit of the species range.

    PubMed

    Wertin, Timothy M; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O

    2011-12-01

    If an increase in temperature will limit the growth of a species, it will be in the warmest portion of the species distribution. Therefore, in this study we examined the effects of elevated temperature on net carbon assimilation and biomass production of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings grown near the southern limit of the species distribution. Seedlings were grown in chambers in elevated CO(2) (700 µmol mol(-1)) at three temperature conditions, ambient (tracking diurnal and seasonal variation in outdoor temperature), ambient +3 °C and ambient +6 °C, which produced mean growing season temperatures of 23, 26 and 29 °C, respectively. A group of seedlings was also grown in ambient [CO(2)] and ambient temperature as a check of the growth response to elevated [CO(2)]. Net photosynthesis and leaf respiration, photosynthetic capacity (V(cmax), J(max) and triose phosphate utilization (TPU)) and chlorophyll fluorescence, as well as seedling height, diameter and biomass, were measured during one growing season. Higher growth temperatures reduced net photosynthesis, increased respiration and reduced height, diameter and biomass production. Maximum net photosynthesis at saturating [CO(2)] and maximum rate of electron transport (J(max)) were lowest throughout the growing season in seedlings grown in the highest temperature regime. These parameters were also lower in June, but not in July or September, in seedlings grown at +3 °C above ambient, compared with those grown in ambient temperature, indicating no impairment of photosynthetic capacity with a moderate increase in air temperature. An unusual and potentially important observation was that foliar respiration did not acclimate to growth temperature, resulting in substantially higher leaf respiration at the higher growth temperatures. Lower net carbon assimilation was correlated with lower growth at higher temperatures. Total biomass at the end of the growing season decreased in direct proportion to the

  11. Genome-wide association study revealed genomic regions related to white/red earlobe color trait in the Rhode Island Red chickens.

    PubMed

    Nie, Changsheng; Zhang, Zebin; Zheng, Jiangxia; Sun, Hongyan; Ning, Zhonghua; Xu, Guiyun; Yang, Ning; Qu, Lujiang

    2016-08-05

    Earlobe color is a naturally and artificially selected trait in chicken. As a head furnishing trait, it has been selected as a breed characteristic. Research has demonstrated that white/red earlobe color was related to at least three loci and sex-linked. However, there has been little work to date to identify the specific genomic regions and genes response to earlobe color in Rhode Island Red chickens. Currently, it is possible to identify the genomic regions responsible for white/red earlobe in Rhode Island Red chicken to eliminate this gap in knowledge by using genome-wide association (GWA) analysis. In the present study, genome-wide association (GWA) analysis was conducted to explore the candidate genomic regions response to chicken earlobe color phenotype. Hens with red dominant and white dominant earlobe was used for case-control analysis by Illumina 600 K SNP arrays. The GWA results showed that 2.38 Mb genomic region (50.13 to 52.51 Mb) with 282 SNPs on chromosome Z were significantly correlated to earlobe color, including sixteen known genes and seven anonymous genes. The sixteen genes were PAM, SLCO4C1, ST8SIA4, FAM174A, CHD1, RGMB, RIOK2, LIX1, LNPEP, SHB, RNF38, TRIM14, NANS, CLTA, GNE, and CPLX1. The study has revealed the white/red earlobe trait is polygenic and sex-linked in Rhode Island Red chickens. In the genome significant ~2.38 Mb region, twenty-three genes were found and some of them could play critical roles in the formation of white/red earlobe color, especially gene SLCO4C1. Taken together, the candidate genes findings herein can help elucidate the genomic architecture of response to white/red earlobe and provide a new insight on mechanisms underlying earlobe color in Rhode Island Red chickens and other breeds.

  12. Site Index Curves For Upland Oak in the Southeast

    Treesearch

    David J. Olson

    1959-01-01

    These site index curves are based on 697 observations of height on age for white, northern red, southern red, scarlet, black, and chestnut oak in the Virginia- Carolina Piedmont and the Southern Appalachian Mountains.

  13. Oak decline across the Ozark Highlands- from stand to landscape and regional scale processes

    Treesearch

    Marty Spetich; Zhaofei Fan; Hong S. He; Wen J. Wang; Michael K. Crosby; Stephen R. Shifley

    2016-01-01

    Oak decline has been a problem in forests of the Ozark Highlands (OzH) for decades. It has impacted upland oak-hickory forests, particularly species in the red oak group (Quercus section Lobatae) across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas, and Oklahoma. The oak decline complex is often described in terms of predisposing...

  14. Modeling 9-Year Survival Of Oak Advance Regeneration Under Shelterwood Overstories

    Treesearch

    Martin A. Spetich; David L. Graney

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Survival of white oak (Quercus alba L.), northern red oak (Q. rubra L.), and black oak (Q. velutina Lam.) on upland oak stands was modeled 9 years after shelterwood treatment. Stands represented a range of site quality, overstory stocking, and understory treatments. There were three...

  15. Diagnosis and Management of Phytophthora ramorum canker in canyon live oak, an atypical bole canker host

    Treesearch

    Tedmund J. Swiecki; Elizabeth Bernhardt; Kamyar Aram; David Rizzo

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of sudden oak death (SOD) in tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. & Arn.) Manos, Cannon & S.H. Oh) and susceptible red/black oak species (coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née; Shreve oak, Q. parvula Greene var. shrevei (C.H. Mull.) Nixon; California...

  16. How to identify common nitidulid beetles associated with oak wilt mats in Minnesota

    Treesearch

    Valerie J. Cervenka; Thomas C. Skalbeck; John F. Kyhl; Darren C. Blackford; Jennifer J. Juzwik; Steven J. Seybold

    2001-01-01

    Oak wilt, caused by the fungus Ceratocystis fagacearum (Bretz) Hunt, is an important disease of oaks throughout the Eastern United States. Thousands of native oaks, particularly those in the red oak group succumb to the disease each year across the midwest.

  17. Diatom Phytochromes Reveal the Existence of Far-Red-Light-Based Sensing in the Ocean.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Antonio Emidio; Jaubert, Marianne; Enomoto, Gen; Bouly, Jean-Pierre; Raniello, Raffaella; Thaler, Michael; Malviya, Shruti; Bernardes, Juliana Silva; Rappaport, Fabrice; Gentili, Bernard; Huysman, Marie J J; Carbone, Alessandra; Bowler, Chris; d'Alcalà, Maurizio Ribera; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Falciatore, Angela

    2016-03-01

    The absorption of visible light in aquatic environments has led to the common assumption that aquatic organisms sense and adapt to penetrative blue/green light wavelengths but show little or no response to the more attenuated red/far-red wavelengths. Here, we show that two marine diatom species, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana, possess a bona fide red/far-red light sensing phytochrome (DPH) that uses biliverdin as a chromophore and displays accentuated red-shifted absorbance peaks compared with other characterized plant and algal phytochromes. Exposure to both red and far-red light causes changes in gene expression in P. tricornutum, and the responses to far-red light disappear in DPH knockout cells, demonstrating that P. tricornutum DPH mediates far-red light signaling. The identification of DPH genes in diverse diatom species widely distributed along the water column further emphasizes the ecological significance of far-red light sensing, raising questions about the sources of far-red light. Our analyses indicate that, although far-red wavelengths from sunlight are only detectable at the ocean surface, chlorophyll fluorescence and Raman scattering can generate red/far-red photons in deeper layers. This study opens up novel perspectives on phytochrome-mediated far-red light signaling in the ocean and on the light sensing and adaptive capabilities of marine phototrophs. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  18. Oak Decline

    Treesearch

    Vernon Ammon; T. Evan Nebeker; Ted H. Filer; Francis I. McCracken; J. D. Solomon; H. E. Kennedy

    1989-01-01

    Occurrence of decline and mortality in this nation's hardwood forests has been documented in reports for the past 130 years. From 1856 through 1981, more than 26 decline events were reported from eight eastern states affecting almost all species of oaks. Fourteen factors have been implicated as either primary or secondary agents responsible for decline and...

  19. Impacts of Oak Decline on Forest Structure in Arkansas and Oklahoma: Preliminary Results

    Treesearch

    Eric Heitzman; James M. Guldin

    2004-01-01

    We established field plots in the Ouachita and Ozark Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma to quantify the impacts of oak decline on forest structure. Plots were identified as either high risk (red oak basal area > 20 square feet per acre) or low risk (red oak basal area

  20. Impacts of Potential Oak Forest Change on Breeding Birds in Northwestern Arkansas

    Treesearch

    Douglas A. James

    2004-01-01

    Birds found on existing census routes in the Ozark region of northwestern Arkansas were used to predict avifaunal changes that could occur in the area due to oak-hickory forest degradation caused by red oak borer beetle infestations. The two census routes used passed through high elevation forests where red oaks thrive the best. Analysis showed that 21 bird species...

  1. The role of environmental factors in oak decline and mortality in the Ozark Highlands

    Treesearch

    John M. Kabrick; Daniel C. Dey; Randy G. Jensen; Michael Wallendorf

    2008-01-01

    Oak decline is a chronic problem in Missouri Ozark forests. Red oak group species are most susceptible and decline is reportedly more severe on droughty, nutrient-poor sites. However, it was not clear whether greater decline severity was caused by poor site conditions or is simply due to the greater abundance of red oak group species found on poorer sites. We conducted...

  2. REVEALING PROBABLE UNIVERSAL FEATURES IN THE LOWER RED GIANT BRANCH LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kravtsov, V. V.

    2009-06-15

    This paper aims at demonstrating, for the first time, very probable universal peculiarities of the evolution of stars in the lower red giant branch (RGB) of Galactic globular clusters (GCs), reflected in two corresponding dips in the luminosity functions (LFs). By relying on the database of Hubble Space Telescope photometry of GCs, we analyze the lower RGB LFs of a sample of 18 GCs in a wide metallicity range, {delta}[Fe/H] {approx} 1.9 dex. We first show that in the F555W-(F439W-F555W) color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), the lower RGB of GCs, except for the most metal-poor of them, frequently shows an apparent 'knee'. It reveals itself as a fairly abrupt change of the RGB slope. At the same luminosity level, the RGB LFs show a feature in the form of a more or less pronounced dip. We find that the magnitude difference between the RGB base and the given feature is, on average, around {delta} F555W{sup dip} {sub base}{approx} 1.4 mag. It shows a marginal variation with metallicity, if any, comparable to the error. At the same time, the magnitude difference between the dip and the RGB bump, {delta} F555W{sup bump} {sub dip}, decreases with increasing metallicity and falls within the range 0.8 {approx}< {delta} F555W{sup bump} {sub dip} {approx}< 1.7 mag. Generalized LFs (GLFs) have been obtained for three subsamples of GCs within limited metallicity ranges and with different horizontal branch (HB) morphology. They reproduce the 'knee-related' dip that is statistically significant in two of the GLFs. This feature turns out to be more pronounced in the GLFs of GCs with either the blue or red HB morphology than with the intermediate one. The same GLFs also reveal an additional probable universal dip. It shows up below the RGB bump at {delta} F555W slightly increasing from {approx}0.3 to {approx}0.5 mag with increasing metallicity. Also, the statistical significance of this 'prebump' dip increases, on average, toward higher metallicity. Except for the well known RGB bump, no

  3. Novel Features of Eukaryotic Photosystem II Revealed by Its Crystal Structure Analysis from a Red Alga.

    PubMed

    Ago, Hideo; Adachi, Hideyuki; Umena, Yasufumi; Tashiro, Takayoshi; Kawakami, Keisuke; Kamiya, Nobuo; Tian, Lirong; Han, Guangye; Kuang, Tingyun; Liu, Zheyi; Wang, Fangjun; Zou, Hanfa; Enami, Isao; Miyano, Masashi; Shen, Jian-Ren

    2016-03-11

    Photosystem II (PSII) catalyzes light-induced water splitting, leading to the evolution of molecular oxygen indispensible for life on the earth. The crystal structure of PSII from cyanobacteria has been solved at an atomic level, but the structure of eukaryotic PSII has not been analyzed. Because eukaryotic PSII possesses additional subunits not found in cyanobacterial PSII, it is important to solve the structure of eukaryotic PSII to elucidate their detailed functions, as well as evolutionary relationships. Here we report the structure of PSII from a red alga Cyanidium caldarium at 2.76 Å resolution, which revealed the structure and interaction sites of PsbQ', a unique, fourth extrinsic protein required for stabilizing the oxygen-evolving complex in the lumenal surface of PSII. The PsbQ' subunit was found to be located underneath CP43 in the vicinity of PsbV, and its structure is characterized by a bundle of four up-down helices arranged in a similar way to those of cyanobacterial and higher plant PsbQ, although helices I and II of PsbQ' were kinked relative to its higher plant counterpart because of its interactions with CP43. Furthermore, two novel transmembrane helices were found in the red algal PSII that are not present in cyanobacterial PSII; one of these helices may correspond to PsbW found only in eukaryotic PSII. The present results represent the first crystal structure of PSII from eukaryotic oxygenic organisms, which were discussed in comparison with the structure of cyanobacterial PSII. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Novel Features of Eukaryotic Photosystem II Revealed by Its Crystal Structure Analysis from a Red Alga*

    PubMed Central

    Ago, Hideo; Adachi, Hideyuki; Umena, Yasufumi; Tashiro, Takayoshi; Kawakami, Keisuke; Kamiya, Nobuo; Tian, Lirong; Han, Guangye; Kuang, Tingyun; Liu, Zheyi; Wang, Fangjun; Zou, Hanfa; Enami, Isao; Miyano, Masashi; Shen, Jian-Ren

    2016-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) catalyzes light-induced water splitting, leading to the evolution of molecular oxygen indispensible for life on the earth. The crystal structure of PSII from cyanobacteria has been solved at an atomic level, but the structure of eukaryotic PSII has not been analyzed. Because eukaryotic PSII possesses additional subunits not found in cyanobacterial PSII, it is important to solve the structure of eukaryotic PSII to elucidate their detailed functions, as well as evolutionary relationships. Here we report the structure of PSII from a red alga Cyanidium caldarium at 2.76 Å resolution, which revealed the structure and interaction sites of PsbQ′, a unique, fourth extrinsic protein required for stabilizing the oxygen-evolving complex in the lumenal surface of PSII. The PsbQ′ subunit was found to be located underneath CP43 in the vicinity of PsbV, and its structure is characterized by a bundle of four up-down helices arranged in a similar way to those of cyanobacterial and higher plant PsbQ, although helices I and II of PsbQ′ were kinked relative to its higher plant counterpart because of its interactions with CP43. Furthermore, two novel transmembrane helices were found in the red algal PSII that are not present in cyanobacterial PSII; one of these helices may correspond to PsbW found only in eukaryotic PSII. The present results represent the first crystal structure of PSII from eukaryotic oxygenic organisms, which were discussed in comparison with the structure of cyanobacterial PSII. PMID:26757821

  5. Relationships between advance oak regeneration and biotic and abiotic factors.

    PubMed

    Fei, Songlin; Steiner, Kim C

    2008-07-01

    Relationships between advance regeneration of four tree species (red maple (Acer rubrum L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), chestnut oak (Q. montana Willd.) and northern red oak (Q. rubra L.)) and biotic (non-tree vegetation and canopy composition) and abiotic (soil series and topographic variables) factors were investigated in 52, mature mixed-oak stands in the central Appalachians. Aggregate height was used as a composite measure of regeneration abundance. Analyses were carried out separately for two physiographic provinces. Associations with tree regeneration were found for all biotic and abiotic factors both in partial models and full models. Red maple was abundant on most of the sites, but high red maple abundance was commonly associated with wet north-facing slopes with little or no cover of mountain-laurel (Kalmia latifolia L.) and hay-scented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula (Michx.) Moore). Regeneration of the three oak species was greatly favored by the abundance of overstory trees of their own kind. White oak regeneration was most abundant on south-facing, gentle, lower slopes with soils in the Buchanan series. Chestnut oak regeneration was more common on south-facing, steep upper slopes with stony soils. There was a positive association between chestnut oak and huckleberry (Gaylussacia baccata (Wangh.) Koch) cover classes. Northern red oak was more abundant on north-facing wet sites with Hazleton soil, and was associated with low occurrence of mountain-laurel and hay-scented fern.

  6. Metabolomics comparison of red cells stored in four additive solutions reveals differences in citrate anticoagulant permeability and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rolfsson, Ó; Sigurjonsson, Ó E; Magnusdottir, M; Johannsson, F; Paglia, G; Guðmundsson, S; Bordbar, A; Palsson, S; Brynjólfsson, S; Guðmundsson, S; Palsson, B

    2017-05-01

    Metabolomics studies have revealed transition points in metabolic signatures of red cells during storage in SAGM, whose clinical significance is unclear. We set out to investigate whether these transition points occur independent of storage media and define differences in the metabolism of red cells in additive solutions. Red cell concentrates were stored in SAGM, AS-1, AS-3 or PAGGSM, and sampled fourteen times spanning Day 1-46. Following quality control, the samples were split into extracellular and intracellular aliquots. These were analysed with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry analysis affording quantitative metabolic profiles of both intra- and extracellular red cell metabolites. Differences were observed in glycolysis, purine salvage, glutathione synthesis and citrate metabolism on account of the storage solutions. Donor variability however hindered the accurate characterization of metabolic transition time-points. Intracellular citrate concentrations were increased in red cells stored in AS-3 and PAGGSM media. The metabolism of citrate in red cells in SAGM was subsequently confirmed using (13) C citrate isotope labelling and shown to originate from citrate anticoagulant. Metabolic signatures that discriminate between 'fresh' and 'old' stored red cells are dependent upon additive solutions. Specifically, the incorporation and metabolism of citrate in additive solutions with lower chloride ion concentration is altered and impacts glycolysis. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  7. Iowa's oldest oaks. [Quercus alba

    SciTech Connect

    Duvick, D.N.; Blasing, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    Tree-ring analysis revealed 33 living white oaks (Quercus alba) in Iowa that began growing before 1700. Core of wood 4 mm in diameter, each extracted from a radius of a tree trunk were analyzed. The oldest white oak, found in northeastern Warren County, began growing about 1570 and is thus over 410 years old. A chinkapin oak (Quercus muehlenbergii) was also found which was more than 300 years old. Ring widths from the white oaks are well correlated with total precipitation for the twelve months preceding completion of ring formation in July. Reconstructions of annual (August-July) precipitation for 1680-1979, based on the tree rings, indicate that the driest annual period in Iowa was August 1799-July 1800, and that the driest decade began about 1816. Climatic information of this kind, pre-dating written weather records, can be used to augment those records and provide a longer baseline of information for use by climatologists and hydrologic planners.

  8. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Candidate Genes Related to Color Fading of 'Red Bartlett' (Pyrus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhigang; Du, Hong; Zhai, Rui; Song, Linyan; Ma, Fengwang; Xu, Lingfei

    2017-01-01

    The red color of fruit is an attractive plant trait for consumers. Plants with color-faded fruit have a lower commercial value, such as 'Red Bartlett' pears (Pyrus communis L.) that have dark-red fruit in the early stages of fruit development that subsequently fade to red-green at maturity. To identify the reason for color fading, we first analyzed the anthocyanin content of peel from 'Red Bartlett,' which displays the color fading phenomenon, and 'Starkrimson,' which has no color fading. Results showed that the anthocyanin content of 'Red Bartlett' peel decreased significantly late in fruit development, while in 'Starkrimson' there was no significant decrease. Next, RNA-Sequencing was used to identify 947 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between 'Red Bartlett' and 'Starkrimson.' Among them, 471 genes were upregulated and 476 genes were downregulated in 'Red Bartlett' at the late development stage relative to 'Starkrimson.' During 'Red Bartlett' color fading, the structural gene LDOX and six GST family genes were downregulated, while FLS, LAC, POD, and five light-responding genes were significantly upregulated. Additionally, 45 genes encoding transcription factors MYB, bHLH, WRKY, NAC, ERF, and zinc finger were identified among 947 DEGs. Changes in the expression of these genes may be responsible for the decrease in anthocyanin accumulation in 'Red Bartlett' fruit. Taken together, this study demonstrated that color fading of 'Red Bartlett' was closely linked to reduced anthocyanin biosynthesis, increased anthocyanin degradation and suppression of anthocyanin transport. It also provided novel evidence for the involvement of light signals in the color fading of red-skinned pears.

  9. Endoscopic exploration of Red Sea coral reefs reveals dense populations of cavity-dwelling sponges.

    PubMed

    Richter, C; Wunsch, M; Rasheed, M; Kötter, I; Badran, M I

    2001-10-18

    Framework cavities are the largest but least explored coral reef habitat. Previous dive studies of caverns, spaces below plate corals, rubble and artificial cavities suggest that cavity-dwelling (coelobite) filter-feeders are important in the trophodynamics of reefs. Quantitative community data are lacking, however, as the bulk of the narrow crevices interlacing the reef framework are inaccessible to conventional analysis methods. Here we have developed endoscopic techniques to explore Red Sea framework crevices up to 4 m into the carbonate rock, revealing a large internal surface (2.5-7.4 m2 per projected m2 reef) dominated by encrusting filter-feeders. Sponges alone provided up to 60% of coelobite cover, outweighing epi-reefal filter-feeder biomass by two orders of magnitude. Coelobite community filtration removed more than 60% of the phytoplankton in the course of its less than 5-minute passage through the crevices, corresponding to an uptake of roughly 0.9 g carbon m-2 d-1. Mineralization of the largely allochthonous organic material is a principal source of nutrients supporting coral and algal growth. The supply of new material by coelobites may provide a key to understanding the 'coral reef paradox'-a rich ecosystem thriving in nutrient-poor water.

  10. Effect of size, seasoning and toasting in the volatile compounds in toasted oak wood and in a red wine treated with them.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Simón, B; Cadahía, E; del Alamo, M; Nevares, I

    2010-02-15

    The increasing demand for wood for barrel-making in addition to the rapid extension of alternative aging system, have led to looking into the possibility of utilizing Spanish oak. Quercus pyrenaica is the species that predominates in Spain, and the chemical composition of its heartwood (ellagitannins, low molecular weight phenolic and volatile compounds) and its incidence in characteristics of wine are similar to that of other species that are of recognized oenological quality for barrel-making, showing only quantitative differences with respect to French (Quercus petraea) and American (Quercus alba) species. However, at present, the quantity of good quality wood that we can obtain from the Q. pyrenaica Spanish forest is limited. Hence, in the short term, and considering the high chemical oenological quality of Q. pyrenaica wood, we propose the utilizing of chips, segments, staves, and other oak alternatives for wine aging, which would be obtained from wooden remnants from barrel-making as well as from trees with small diameters or physical defects which would normally be inappropriate for cooperage. With regards to the latter idea, studies on special chip-making processes, and other oak wood pieces are being carried out, especially focused on reducing seasoning time, and to toasting optimization as a function of wood piece size, in addition to its behaviour when incorporated into the different alternative aging systems. We present in this study the effect of seasoning way (traditional or unconventional) on volatile composition of Q. pyrenaica chips and staves at three toasting levels (light, medium and heavy), and the evolution of the wood-released aromatic composition of a Spanish artificially aged wine, using these alternative products. The wines showed in general small differences in their oak-derived characteristics, which were more related to the wood piece size and the toasting intensity than to the seasoning way, and they could be linked with the

  11. Accelerating oak air drying by presurfacing

    Treesearch

    W. T. Simpson; R. C. Baltes

    1972-01-01

    A comparison was made between the air-drying rates of rough and presurfaced northern red oak and white oak. In both species, the presurfaced material was about 1/8 inch thinner than the rough material and dried faster than the rough material. The reduction in drying time depends on the method of analyzing the drying curves, but is slightly less than 10 percent.

  12. Oak Leaftier and Oak Leafroller (Pest Alert)

    Treesearch

    USDA Forest Service

    1998-01-01

    The oak leaftier, Croesia semipurpurana (Kearfott), and the oak leafroller, Archips semiferanus (Walker), are important Tortricidae moths in a complex of native species feeding in the early spring on oak foliage throughout the forests of Eastern North America. Outbreaks periodically develop with frequent and severe defoliation resulting in tree mortality. The last...

  13. Oak Tree Preservation in Thousand Oaks, California

    Treesearch

    William F. Elmendorf

    1991-01-01

    The City of Thousand Oaks over the last 20 years has taken aggressive steps to preserve and protect the City's namesake, the oak tree. First adopted in 1972 as an Emergency City Council Proclamation, the City's Oak Tree Ordinance has been considered by some, to be one of the first and toughest municipal native tree preservation ordinances within the State of...

  14. Risk factors of oak decline and regional mortality patterns in the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and Missouri

    Treesearch

    Martin A. Spetich; Zhaofei Fan; Xiuli Fan; Hong He; Stephen R. Shifley; W. Keith Moser

    2011-01-01

    Since the late 1970s, oak decline and mortality have plagued Midwestern-upland oak-hickory forests, particularly species in the red oak group (Quercus Section Lobatae) across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas, and Oklahoma (Dwyer and others 1995). Drought is a common inciting factor in oak decline, while advanced tree age is considered a...

  15. Solvatochromic Nile Red probes with FRET quencher reveal lipid order heterogeneity in living and apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Kreder, Rémy; Pyrshev, Kyrylo A; Darwich, Zeinab; Kucherak, Oleksandr A; Mély, Yves; Klymchenko, Andrey S

    2015-06-19

    Detecting and imaging lipid microdomains (rafts) in cell membranes remain a challenge despite intensive research in the field. Two types of fluorescent probes are used for this purpose: one specifically labels a given phase (liquid ordered, Lo, or liquid disordered, Ld), while the other, being environment-sensitive (solvatochromic), stains the two phases in different emission colors. Here, we combined the two approaches by designing a phase-sensitive probe of the Ld phase and a quencher of the Ld phase. The former is an analogue of the recently developed Nile Red-based probe NR12S, bearing a bulky hydrophobic chain (bNR10S), while the latter is based on Black Hole Quencher-2 designed as bNR10S (bQ10S). Fluorescence spectroscopy of large unilamellar vesicles and microscopy of giant vesicles showed that the bNR10S probe can partition specifically into the Ld phase, while bQ10S can specifically quench the NR12S probe in the Ld phase so that only its fraction in the Lo phase remains fluorescent. Thus, the toolkit of two probes with quencher can specifically target Ld and Lo phases and identify their lipid order from the emission color. Application of this toolkit in living cells (HeLa, CHO, and 293T cell lines) revealed heterogeneity in the cell plasma membranes, observed as distinct probe environments close to the Lo and Ld phases of model membranes. In HeLa cells undergoing apoptosis, our toolkit showed the formation of separate domains of the Ld-like phase in the form of blebs. The developed tools open new possibilities in lipid raft research.

  16. Oak Symposium Proceedings

    Treesearch

    Northeastern Forest Experiment Station

    1971-01-01

    As "tall oaks from little acorns grow", the germ of an idea blossomed into this symposium on the five upland oaks. Called simply the "Oak Symposium", that's what it's all about - a meeting to bring together a summation of the advances made on the silviculture, management, and utilization of the upland oaks. Part of this process is the...

  17. The Egyptian Red Sea coastal microbiome: A study revealing differential microbial responses to diverse anthropogenic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Ghada A; Abd-Elgawad, Amr; Ouf, Amged; Siam, Rania

    2016-07-01

    The Red Sea is considered one of the youngest oceanic systems, with unique physical, geochemical and biological characteristics. Tourism, industrialization, extensive fishing, oil processing and shipping are extensive sources of pollution in the Red Sea. We analyzed the geochemical characteristics and microbial community of sediments along the Egyptian coast of the Red Sea. Our sites mainly included 1) four ports used for shipping aluminum, ilmenite and phosphate; 2) a site previously reported to have suffered extensive oil spills; and 3) a site impacted by tourism. Two major datasets for the sediment of ten Red Sea coastal sites were generated; i) a chemical dataset included measurements of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur, metals and selected semi-volatile oil; and ii) a 16S rRNA Pyrotags bacterial metagenomic dataset. Based on the taxonomic assignments of the 16S rRNA Pyrotags to major bacterial groups, we report 30 taxa constituting an Egyptian Red Sea Coastal Microbiome. Bacteria that degrade hydrocarbons were predominant in the majority of the sites, particularly in two ports where they reached up to 76% of the total identified genera. In contrast, sulfate-reducing and sulfate-oxidizing bacteria dominated two lakes at the expense of other hydrocarbon metabolizers. Despite the reported "Egyptian Red Sea Coastal Microbiome," sites with similar anthropogenic pollutants showed unique microbial community abundances. This suggests that the abundance of a specific bacterial community is an evolutionary mechanism induced in response to selected anthropogenic pollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Red antenna states of Photosystem I trimers from Arthrospira platensis revealed by single-molecule spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Brecht, Marc; Hussels, Martin; Schlodder, Eberhard; Karapetyan, Navassard V

    2012-03-01

    Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy at 1.4K was used to investigate the spectral properties of red (long-wavelength) chlorophylls in trimeric Photosystem I (PSI) complexes from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis. Three distinct red antenna states could be identified in the fluorescence spectra of single PSI trimers from A. platensis in the presence of oxidized P700. Two of them are responsible for broad emission bands centered at 726 and 760nm. These bands are similar to those found in bulk fluorescence spectra measured at cryogenic temperatures. The broad fluorescence bands at ≅726 and ≅760nm belong to individual emitters that are broadened by strong electron-phonon coupling giving rise to a large Stokes-shift of about 20nm and rapid spectral diffusion. An almost perpendicular orientation of the transition dipole moments of F726 and F760 has to be assumed because direct excitation energy transfer does not occur between F726 and F760. For the first time a third red state assigned to the pool absorbing around 708nm could be detected by its zero-phonon lines. The center of the zero-phonon line distribution is found at ≅714nm. The spectral properties of the three red antenna states show a high similarity to the red antenna states found in trimeric PSI of Thermosynechoccocus elongatus. Based on these findings a similar organization of the red antenna states in PSI of these two cyanobacteria is discussed.

  19. Utility of wire cages, tree shelters, and repellants to minimize herbivory to oak by white-tailed deer

    Treesearch

    James N. Kochenderfer; W.Mark Ford

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of exclusion cages and commercially available repellants in deterring white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herbivory on northern red oak (Quercus rubra) and chestnut oak (Q. montana) stump sprouts and planted red oak seedlings following a commercial clearcut harvest in West...

  20. Shumard Oaks Successfully Planted on High pH Soils

    Treesearch

    Harvey E. Kennedy; Roger M. Krinard

    1985-01-01

    Shumard oak was successfully planted on high pH (7.8-8.0) Mississippi River alluvium soils where some other planted red oaks had failed. Survival and growth have been good through ages 10, 11, and 25 years in three separate plantings. Shumard oak on high pH soils, in addition to producing timber, would allow a consistent mast-producing tree on sites normally void of...

  1. How to identify and manage oak wilt in Texas

    Treesearch

    D. N. Appel; R. S. Cameron; A. D. Wilson; J. D. Johnson.

    2008-01-01

    Measures can be taken to break root connections between live oaks or dense groups of red oaks to reduce or stop root transmission of the oak wilt fungus. The most common technique is to sever roots by trenching at least 4 ft deep with trenching machines, rock saws, or ripper bars. Trenches more than 4 ft deep may be needed to assure control in deeper soils. Although...

  2. High resolution mass spectrometry imaging reveals the occurrence of phenylphenalenone-type compounds in red paracytic stomata and red epidermis tissue of Musa acuminata ssp. zebrina cv. 'Rowe Red'.

    PubMed

    Hölscher, Dirk; Fuchser, Jens; Knop, Katrin; Menezes, Riya C; Buerkert, Andreas; Svatoš, Aleš; Schubert, Ulrich S; Schneider, Bernd

    2015-08-01

    The banana epidermis and in particular their stomata are conducive sites for the penetration of pathogenic fungi which can severely limit global banana production. The red pseudostem of the ornamental banana Musa acuminata ssp. zebrina cv. 'Rowe Red' was used to study the chemical constituents of the epidermal cell layer using matrix-free laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometric imaging (LDI-FT-ICR-MSI). The high resolution of this technique allowed phenylphenalenone-type compounds to be located in single plant cells. Some of these secondary metabolites were identified as constitutive compounds and found in specialized epidermal cells in banana pseudostem tissue. Especially the red paracytic stomata revealed higher signal intensities of certain phenylphenalenones than normal epidermis cells. The ease of detection of polycyclic aromatic compounds on the cellular level is discussed with regard to future investigations of plant-pathogen interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Parapoxvirus (PPV) of red deer reveals subclinical infection and confirms a unique species.

    PubMed

    Friederichs, Schirin; Krebs, Stefan; Blum, Helmut; Lang, Heike; Büttner, Mathias

    2015-06-01

    Parapoxvirus (PPV) infections are of worldwide importance, particularly in sheep and goat herds. Owing to the zoonotic potential of all PPV species, they are a permanent threat to human health as well. The virus is also known to affect wildlife, as reported for pinnipeds, red deer and several other wild ruminants. PPVs found in red deer have been claimed as a unique species according to certain genomic features. So far infection of wildlife has been recognized because of clinical manifestation such as inflammation, stomatitis or typical pox-like lesions in the skin or mucous membranes. Here we report the use of targeted molecular diagnostics for the presence of PPV genomes in tonsil swabs of apparently healthy red deer in the Bavarian Alps. Out of 1764 swabs, 0.79 % tested positive for PPV genome presence. From one sample, PPV was successfully isolated in cell culture. This virus became the subject of complete genome characterization using next generation sequencing and various subsidiary PCR protocols. Strikingly, about a quarter of all ORFs were found to be larger than the corresponding ORFs in the reference PPV genome sequences used for comparison. To our knowledge this is the first genome-wide analysis that confirms red deer PPV as a unique species within the genus Parapoxvirus in Europe. Persistence of PPV in Alpine red deer indicates a source for virus transmission to susceptible livestock and hunters. The findings provide a further example of wildlife animals playing an important role as an inconspicuous reservoir of zoonotic diseases.

  4. Genetic footprints reveal geographic patterns of expansion in Fennoscandian red foxes.

    PubMed

    Norén, Karin; Statham, Mark J; Ågren, Erik O; Isomursu, Marja; Flagstad, Øystein; Eide, Nina E; Berg, Thomas Bjørneboe G; Bech-Sanderhoff, Lene; Sacks, Benjamin N

    2015-09-01

    Population expansions of boreal species are among the most substantial ecological consequences of climate change, potentially transforming both structure and processes of northern ecosystems. Despite their importance, little is known about expansion dynamics of boreal species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are forecasted to become a keystone species in northern Europe, a process stemming from population expansions that began in the 19th century. To identify the relative roles of geographic and demographic factors and the sources of northern European red fox population expansion, we genotyped 21 microsatellite loci in modern and historical (1835-1941) Fennoscandian red foxes. Using Bayesian clustering and Bayesian inference of migration rates, we identified high connectivity and asymmetric migration rates across the region, consistent with source-sink dynamics, whereby more recently colonized sampling regions received immigrants from multiple sources. There were no clear clines in allele frequency or genetic diversity as would be expected from a unidirectional range expansion from south to north. Instead, migration inferences, demographic models and comparison to historical red fox genotypes suggested that the population expansion of the red fox is a consequence of dispersal from multiple sources, as well as in situ demographic growth. Together, these findings provide a rare glimpse into the anatomy of a boreal range expansion and enable informed predictions about future changes in boreal communities. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Population differentiation in the red-legged kittiwake (Rissa brevirostris) as revealed by mitochondrial DNA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patirana, A.; Hatcher, S.A.; Friesen, Vicki L.

    2002-01-01

    Population decline in red-legged kittiwakes (Rissa brevirostris) over recent decades has necessitated the collection of information on the distribution of genetic variation within and among colonies for implementation of suitable management policies. Here we present a preliminary study of the extent of genetic structuring and gene flow among the three principal breeding locations of red-legged kittiwakes using the hypervariable Domain I of the mitochondrial control region. Genetic variation was high relative to other species of seabirds, and was similar among locations. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that population genetic structure was statistically significant, and nested clade analysis suggested that kittiwakes breeding on Bering Island maybe genetically isolated from those elsewhere. However, phylogeographic structure was weak. Although this analysis involved only a single locus and a small number of samples, it suggests that red-legged kittiwakes probably constitute a single evolutionary significant unit; the possibility that they constitute two management units requires further investigation.

  6. AmeriFlux US-Oho Oak Openings

    DOE Data Explorer

    Chen, Jiquan [University of Toledo / Michigan State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Oho Oak Openings. Site Description - The Ohio Oak Openings site is located within the Oak Openings Preserve Metropark of northwest Ohio, one of the few remaining oak woodlands/savanna/prairie complexes in the Midwest. Declared one of the "One of America's Last Great Places" by the Nature Conservancy the area consists of four main vegetation types: Oak Woodlands, Oak Savanna, Floodplain Forests and Wet Prairies. The stand surrounding the tower is mainly Oak Woodlands dominated by red, white and black oaks with a relatively abundant population of red maples indicating high soil moisture retention and a history of limited fire disturbances. Most of the area was cleared for agriculture at the time of Euro-American settlements in the mid to late-19th century. A large fraction of the cleared land was later abandoned due to the poor sandy soils. These areas reverted to Oak Savannas and in cases where fire was limited progressively made the transition to Oak Woodlands. Today patches of the forest are burned every few years as part of prescribed burning cycle to control stand density.

  7. Age Distribution of Oak Forests in North-Central Arkansas

    Treesearch

    Rick Soucy; Eric Heitzman; Martin A. Spetich

    2004-01-01

    We used tree ring analysis to reconstruct the tree establishment patterns in four mature white oak (Quercus alba L.)-northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.)-hickory (Carya spp.) forests in the Ozark Mountains of north-central Arkasas. Cross sections were removed from the stumps of 321 recently harvested trees and...

  8. Masting characteristics of white oak: implications for management

    Treesearch

    Marcus A. Lashley; John M. McCord; Cathryn H. Greenberg; Craig A. Harper

    2009-01-01

    Acorn production is variable from year to year and among species. Weather, insect damage, and genetics are primary causes for variation. Silvicultural techniques have been recommended to improve acorn production; however, those recommendations primarily address variation among red oaks (Quercus rubra). Variability among individual white oaks (Quercus alba) has not been...

  9. A novel phototropic response to red light is revealed in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Millar, Katherine D L; Kumar, Prem; Correll, Melanie J; Mullen, Jack L; Hangarter, Roger P; Edelmann, Richard E; Kiss, John Z

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate phototropism in plants grown in microgravity conditions without the complications of a 1-g environment. Experiments performed on the International Space Station (ISS) were used to explore the mechanisms of both blue-light- and red-light-induced phototropism in plants. This project utilized the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), which has environmental controls for plant growth as well as centrifuges for gravity treatments used as a 1-g control. Images captured from video tapes were used to analyze the growth, development, and curvature of Arabidopsis thaliana plants that developed from seed in space. A novel positive phototropic response to red light was observed in hypocotyls of seedlings that developed in microgravity. This response was not apparent in seedlings grown on Earth or in the 1-g control during the space flight. In addition, blue-light-based phototropism had a greater response in microgravity compared with the 1-g control. Although flowering plants are generally thought to lack red light phototropism, our data suggest that at least some flowering plants may have retained a red light sensory system for phototropism. Thus, this discovery may have important implications for understanding the evolution of light sensory systems in plants.

  10. Chloroplast microsatellites reveal population genetic diversity in red pine, Pinus resinosa Ait

    Treesearch

    Craig S. Echt; L.L. DeVerno; M. Anzidei; G.G. Vendramin

    1998-01-01

    Variation in paternally inherited chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) DNA was used to study population genetic structure in red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.), a species characterized by morphological uniformity, no allozyme variation, and limited RAPD variation. Using nine cpSSR loci, a total of 23 chloroplast haplotypes and 25 cpSSR alleles were were...

  11. Impact of soil scarification on the composition of regeneration and species diversity in an oak shelterwood

    Treesearch

    James J. Zaczek; Joseph Harding; James Welfley

    1997-01-01

    This study was conducted in a fenced 1-yr-old 70-acre mixed-oak shelterwood to determine the impact of soil scarification on species composition and the production of oak regeneration from abundant northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) acorns. In October 1993, seven replicates were established and randomly divided into control and scarified plots....

  12. Ten-year response of competing vegetation after oak shelterwood treatments in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Miller; James N. Kochenderfer; Jeffrey D. Kochenderfer; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    2014-01-01

    Successful oak regeneration depends on the relative status of advanced oak reproduction and associated competing woody vegetation present when harvests or other stand-replacing disturbances occur. This study was installed to quantify the effect of microsite light availability and deer browsing on the development of advanced northern red oak (Quercus rubra...

  13. Predominant nitidulid species (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) associated with spring oak wilt mats in Minnesota

    Treesearch

    Kory R. Cease; Jennifer Juzwik

    2001-01-01

    Nitidulids are primary vectors of the oak wilt pathogen, Ceratocystis fagacearum (Bretz) Hunt, in the northcentral United States. Species of adult nitidulids associated with different ages of oak wilt fungus mats on red oaks (Quercus rubra L. and Quercus ellipsoidalis E.J. Hill) during spring in east-central...

  14. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals that Red and Blue Light Regulate Growth and Phytohormone Metabolism in Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst].

    PubMed

    OuYang, Fangqun; Mao, Jian-Feng; Wang, Junhui; Zhang, Shougong; Li, Yue

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which different light spectra regulate plant shoot elongation vary, and phytohormones respond differently to such spectrum-associated regulatory effects. Light supplementation can effectively control seedling growth in Norway spruce. However, knowledge of the effective spectrum for promoting growth and phytohormone metabolism in this species is lacking. In this study, 3-year-old Norway spruce clones were illuminated for 12 h after sunset under blue or red light-emitting diode (LED) light for 90 d, and stem increments and other growth traits were determined. Endogenous hormone levels and transcriptome differences in the current needles were assessed to identify genes related to the red and blue light regulatory responses. The results showed that the stem increment and gibberellin (GA) levels of the seedlings illuminated by red light were 8.6% and 29.0% higher, respectively, than those of the seedlings illuminated by blue light. The indoleacetic acid (IAA) level of the seedlings illuminated by red light was 54.6% lower than that of the seedlings illuminated by blue light, and there were no significant differences in abscisic acid (ABA) or zeatin riboside [ZR] between the two groups of seedlings. The transcriptome results revealed 58,736,166 and 60,555,192 clean reads for the blue-light- and red-light-illuminated samples, respectively. Illumina sequencing revealed 21,923 unigenes, and 2744 (approximately 93.8%) out of 2926 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found to be upregulated under blue light. The main KEGG classifications of the DEGs were metabolic pathway (29%), biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (20.49%) and hormone signal transduction (8.39%). With regard to hormone signal transduction, AUXIN-RESISTANT1 (AUX1), AUX/IAA genes, auxin-inducible genes, and early auxin-responsive genes [(auxin response factor (ARF) and small auxin-up RNA (SAUR)] were all upregulated under blue light compared with red light, which might have yielded the

  15. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals that Red and Blue Light Regulate Growth and Phytohormone Metabolism in Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.

    PubMed Central

    OuYang, Fangqun; Mao, Jian-Feng; Wang, Junhui; Zhang, Shougong; Li, Yue

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which different light spectra regulate plant shoot elongation vary, and phytohormones respond differently to such spectrum-associated regulatory effects. Light supplementation can effectively control seedling growth in Norway spruce. However, knowledge of the effective spectrum for promoting growth and phytohormone metabolism in this species is lacking. In this study, 3-year-old Norway spruce clones were illuminated for 12 h after sunset under blue or red light-emitting diode (LED) light for 90 d, and stem increments and other growth traits were determined. Endogenous hormone levels and transcriptome differences in the current needles were assessed to identify genes related to the red and blue light regulatory responses. The results showed that the stem increment and gibberellin (GA) levels of the seedlings illuminated by red light were 8.6% and 29.0% higher, respectively, than those of the seedlings illuminated by blue light. The indoleacetic acid (IAA) level of the seedlings illuminated by red light was 54.6% lower than that of the seedlings illuminated by blue light, and there were no significant differences in abscisic acid (ABA) or zeatin riboside [ZR] between the two groups of seedlings. The transcriptome results revealed 58,736,166 and 60,555,192 clean reads for the blue-light- and red-light-illuminated samples, respectively. Illumina sequencing revealed 21,923 unigenes, and 2744 (approximately 93.8%) out of 2926 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found to be upregulated under blue light. The main KEGG classifications of the DEGs were metabolic pathway (29%), biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (20.49%) and hormone signal transduction (8.39%). With regard to hormone signal transduction, AUXIN-RESISTANT1 (AUX1), AUX/IAA genes, auxin-inducible genes, and early auxin-responsive genes [(auxin response factor (ARF) and small auxin-up RNA (SAUR)] were all upregulated under blue light compared with red light, which might have yielded the

  16. Live Oaks, New Hosts for Odontocynips Nebulosa Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in North America

    Treesearch

    A. Dan Wilson; D.G. Lester; R.E. Edmonson

    2000-01-01

    A study of root-feeding insects as potential vectors of the oak wilt fungus Ceratocystis figaceurum (T. W. Bretz) J. Hunt in live oaks, revealed root galls induced by the cynipid gall wasp Odontocynips nebulosa Kieffer. The incidence of the wasp on roots of four oak species and natural live oak hybrids at 14 root excavation sites...

  17. Asteroseismology can reveal strong internal magnetic fields in red giant stars.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Jim; Cantiello, Matteo; Stello, Dennis; Garcia, Rafael A; Bildsten, Lars

    2015-10-23

    Internal stellar magnetic fields are inaccessible to direct observations, and little is known about their amplitude, geometry, and evolution. We demonstrate that strong magnetic fields in the cores of red giant stars can be identified with asteroseismology. The fields can manifest themselves via depressed dipole stellar oscillation modes, arising from a magnetic greenhouse effect that scatters and traps oscillation-mode energy within the core of the star. The Kepler satellite has observed a few dozen red giants with depressed dipole modes, which we interpret as stars with strongly magnetized cores. We find that field strengths larger than ~10(5) gauss may produce the observed depression, and in one case we infer a minimum core field strength of ≈10(7) gauss. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Asteroseismology can reveal strong internal magnetic fields in red giant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Jim; Cantiello, Matteo; Stello, Dennis; Garcia, Rafael A.; Bildsten, Lars

    2015-10-01

    Internal stellar magnetic fields are inaccessible to direct observations, and little is known about their amplitude, geometry, and evolution. We demonstrate that strong magnetic fields in the cores of red giant stars can be identified with asteroseismology. The fields can manifest themselves via depressed dipole stellar oscillation modes, arising from a magnetic greenhouse effect that scatters and traps oscillation-mode energy within the core of the star. The Kepler satellite has observed a few dozen red giants with depressed dipole modes, which we interpret as stars with strongly magnetized cores. We find that field strengths larger than ~105 gauss may produce the observed depression, and in one case we infer a minimum core field strength of ≈107 gauss.

  19. Fast core rotation in red-giant stars as revealed by gravity-dominated mixed modes.

    PubMed

    Beck, Paul G; Montalban, Josefina; Kallinger, Thomas; De Ridder, Joris; Aerts, Conny; García, Rafael A; Hekker, Saskia; Dupret, Marc-Antoine; Mosser, Benoit; Eggenberger, Patrick; Stello, Dennis; Elsworth, Yvonne; Frandsen, Søren; Carrier, Fabien; Hillen, Michel; Gruberbauer, Michael; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Miglio, Andrea; Valentini, Marica; Bedding, Timothy R; Kjeldsen, Hans; Girouard, Forrest R; Hall, Jennifer R; Ibrahim, Khadeejah A

    2011-12-07

    When the core hydrogen is exhausted during stellar evolution, the central region of a star contracts and the outer envelope expands and cools, giving rise to a red giant. Convection takes place over much of the star's radius. Conservation of angular momentum requires that the cores of these stars rotate faster than their envelopes; indirect evidence supports this. Information about the angular-momentum distribution is inaccessible to direct observations, but it can be extracted from the effect of rotation on oscillation modes that probe the stellar interior. Here we report an increasing rotation rate from the surface of the star to the stellar core in the interiors of red giants, obtained using the rotational frequency splitting of recently detected 'mixed modes'. By comparison with theoretical stellar models, we conclude that the core must rotate at least ten times faster than the surface. This observational result confirms the theoretical prediction of a steep gradient in the rotation profile towards the deep stellar interior.

  20. Red reveals branch die-back in Norway maple Acer platanoides.

    PubMed

    Sinkkonen, Aki

    2008-09-01

    Physiological data suggest that autumn leaf colours of deciduous trees are adaptations to environmental stress. Recently, the evolution of autumn colouration has been linked to tree condition and defence. Most current hypotheses presume that autumn colours vary between tree individuals. This study was designed to test if within-tree variation should be taken into account in experimental and theoretical research on autumn colouration. Distribution of red autumn leaf colours was compared between partially dead and vigorous specimens of Norway maple (Acer platanoides) in a 3-year study. In August, the amount of reddish foliage was estimated in pairs of partially dead and control trees. Within-tree variation in the distribution of reddish leaves was evaluated. Leaf nitrogen and carbon concentrations were analysed. Reddish leaf colours were more frequent in partially dead trees than in control trees. Reddish leaves were evenly distributed in control trees, while patchiness of red leaf pigments was pronounced in partially dead trees. Large patches of red leaves were found beneath or next to dead tree parts. These patches reoccurred every year. Leaf nitrogen concentration was lower in reddish than in green leaves but the phenomenon seemed similar in both partially dead and control trees. The results suggest that red leaf colouration and branch condition are interrelated in Norway maple. Early reddish colours may be used as an indication of leaf nitrogen and carbon levels but not as an indication of tree condition. Studies that concentrate on entire trees may not operate at an optimal level to detect the evolutionary mechanisms behind autumnal leaf colour variation.

  1. Red Reveals Branch Die-back in Norway Maple Acer platanoides

    PubMed Central

    Sinkkonen, Aki

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Physiological data suggest that autumn leaf colours of deciduous trees are adaptations to environmental stress. Recently, the evolution of autumn colouration has been linked to tree condition and defence. Most current hypotheses presume that autumn colours vary between tree individuals. This study was designed to test if within-tree variation should be taken into account in experimental and theoretical research on autumn colouration. Methods Distribution of red autumn leaf colours was compared between partially dead and vigorous specimens of Norway maple (Acer platanoides) in a 3-year study. In August, the amount of reddish foliage was estimated in pairs of partially dead and control trees. Within-tree variation in the distribution of reddish leaves was evaluated. Leaf nitrogen and carbon concentrations were analysed. Key Results Reddish leaf colours were more frequent in partially dead trees than in control trees. Reddish leaves were evenly distributed in control trees, while patchiness of red leaf pigments was pronounced in partially dead trees. Large patches of red leaves were found beneath or next to dead tree parts. These patches reoccurred every year. Leaf nitrogen concentration was lower in reddish than in green leaves but the phenomenon seemed similar in both partially dead and control trees. Conclusions The results suggest that red leaf colouration and branch condition are interrelated in Norway maple. Early reddish colours may be used as an indication of leaf nitrogen and carbon levels but not as an indication of tree condition. Studies that concentrate on entire trees may not operate at an optimal level to detect the evolutionary mechanisms behind autumnal leaf colour variation. PMID:18567914

  2. Equilibrium physics breakdown reveals the active nature of red blood cell flickering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turlier, Herve; Fedosov, Dmitry; Auth, Thorsten; Gov, Nir S.; Sykes, Cecile; Joanny, Jean-Francois; Gompper, Gerhard; Betz, Timo

    2015-03-01

    Red blood cell membrane flickering stimulated an abundant biological, biophysical and biochemical literature over the past 50 years. While the phenomenon has been interpreted as thermal fluctuations of the cell membrane, recent results suggest the involvement of metabolic processes. However, to date there is no direct and conclusive evidence that an active force drives membrane flickering. By comparing membrane undulations and active microrheology measurements on single human erythrocytes, we show that flickering is partly driven by an active metabolic process, as it does not satisfy the equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation on timescales slower than 100ms. Analytical and numerical models of the red blood cell reproduce experimental results. The analytical model assumes that membrane activity results from reversible binding of the elastic spectrin network to the lipid bilayer and predicts active fluctuations to increase with local curvature and extensional prestress in the cytoskeleton. Our mean-field calculation shows that the strength and kinetics of the binding activity regulates thereupon both passive and active mechanical properties of the red blood cell. Numerical simulations explore other possible origins of active forces on the membrane and predict coherent timescales for the molecular underlying metabolic processes.

  3. Better red than dead: carotenoid-based mouth coloration reveals infection in barn swallow nestlings.

    PubMed Central

    Saino, N; Ninni, P; Calza, S; Martinelli, R; De Bernardi, F; Møller, A P

    2000-01-01

    Nestling birds solicit food from their parents by displaying their open brightly coloured gapes. Carotenoids affect gape colour, but also play a central role in immunostimulation. Therefore, we hypothesize that, by differentially allocating resources to nestlings with more brightly coloured gapes, parents favour healthy offspring which are able to allocate carotenoids to gape coloration without compromising their immune defence. We demonstrated that, in the barn swallow Hirundo rustica, (i) parents differentially allocate food to nestlings with an experimentally brighter red gape, (ii) nestlings challenged with a novel antigen (sheep red blood cells, SRBCs) have less bright gape colour than their control siblings, (iii) nestlings challenged with SRBCs but also provided with the principal circulating carotenoid (lutein) have more brightly coloured red gapes than their challenged but unsupplemented siblings and (iv) the gape colour of nestlings challenged with SRBCs and provisioned with lutein exceeds that of siblings that were unchallenged. This suggests that parents may favour nestlings with superior health by preferentially feeding offspring with the brightest gapes. PMID:10670953

  4. Reuse of Organomineral Substrate Waste from Hydroponic Systems as Fertilizer in Open-Field Production Increases Yields, Flavonoid Glycosides, and Caffeic Acid Derivatives of Red Oak Leaf Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Much More than Synthetic Fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Dannehl, Dennis; Becker, Christine; Suhl, Johanna; Josuttis, Melanie; Schmidt, Uwe

    2016-09-28

    Effects of organic waste from a hydroponic system added with minerals (organomineral fertilizer) and synthetic fertilizer on major polyphenols of red oak leaf lettuce using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(3) were investigated. Interestingly, contents of the main flavonoid glycosides and caffeic acid derivatives of lettuce treated with organomineral fertilizer were equal to those synthesized without soil additives. This was found although soil nutrient concentrations, including that of nitrogen, were much lower without additives. However, lettuce treated with synthetic fertilizer showed a significant decrease in contents of caffeic acid derivatives and flavonoid glycosides up to 78.3 and 54.2%, respectively. It is assumed that a negative effect of a high yield on polyphenols as described in the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis can be counteracted by (i) a higher concentration of Mg or (ii) optimal physical properties of the soil structure. Finally, the organomineral substrate waste reused as fertilizer and soil improver resulted in the highest yield (+78.7%), a total fertilizer saving of 322 kg ha(-1) and waste reduction in greenhouses.

  5. Why is seed production so variable among individuals? A ten-year study with oaks reveals the importance of soil environment.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M; Aponte, Cristina; García, Luis V; Padilla-Díaz, Carmen M; Marañón, Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Mast-seeding species exhibit not only a large inter-annual variability in seed production but also considerable variability among individuals within the same year. However, very little is known about the causes and consequences for population dynamics of this potentially large between-individual variability. Here, we quantified seed production over ten consecutive years in two Mediterranean oak species - the deciduous Quercus canariensis and the evergreen Q. suber - that coexist in forests of southern Spain. First, we calibrated likelihood models to identify which abiotic and biotic variables best explain the magnitude (hereafter seed productivity) and temporal variation of seed production at the individual level (hereafter CVi), and infer whether reproductive effort results from the available soil resources for the plant or is primarily determined by selectively favoured strategies. Second, we explored the contribution of between-individual variability in seed production as a potential mechanism of satiation for predispersal seed predators. We found that Q. canariensis trees inhabiting moister and more fertile soils were more productive than those growing in more resource-limited sites. Regarding temporal variation, individuals of the two studied oak species inhabiting these resource-rich environments also exhibited larger values of CVi. Interestingly, we detected a satiating effect on granivorous insects at the tree level in Q. suber, which was evident in those years where between-individual variability in acorn production was higher. These findings suggest that individual seed production (both in terms of seed productivity and inter-annual variability) is strongly dependent on soil resource heterogeneity (at least for one of the two studied oak species) with potential repercussions for recruitment and population dynamics. However, other external factors (such as soil heterogeneity in pathogen abundance) or certain inherent characteristics of the tree might be

  6. Oak Tree Planting Project

    Treesearch

    Sherryl L. Nives; William D. Tietje; William H. Weitkamp

    1991-01-01

    An Oak Tree Planting Project was conducted during 1989/90 in San Luis Obispo County by the Integrated Hardwood Range Management Program (IHRMP)/Central Coast. The local media and an IHRMP workshop were used to publicize the Planting Project and give information on the status of oaks (Quercus spp.) in California and oak planting techniques. Outreach...

  7. Oaks and Environmental Education

    Treesearch

    Kay Antunez de Mayolo

    1991-01-01

    A number of educational projects which focus on youth awareness and involvement with California oaks have been developed during the last five years. Primarily used in urban areas where oak populations have declined, many of these programs promote seedling propagation, tree planting and help to develop student understanding of environmental issues involving oaks while...

  8. People and oaks

    Treesearch

    Paul F. Starrs

    2015-01-01

    While technical knowledge of oaks, acorns, habitat, wildlife, and woodland environments is evolving and a sought-after field of study, there are profound linkages, at once humanistic and artistic, where it comes to people and oaks. Looking at six distinct facets of humans and oak woodlands, this essay suggests that the bonds of people to place can be mediated by the...

  9. A comparison of the survival and development of the seedlings of four upland oak species grown in four different understory light environments

    Treesearch

    Patrick Brose; Joanne Rebbeck

    2016-01-01

    Oak (Quercus spp.) research and management often focus on northern red oak (Quercus rubra) and assume that associated upland oaks have similar growth patterns. To test this premise, we measured the survival and development of four species of acorn-origin oak seedlings growing in four different levels of understory sunlight for...

  10. Spatio-Temporal Trends of Oak Decline and Mortality under Periodic Regional Drought in the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and Missouri

    Treesearch

    Zhaofei Fan; Xiuli Fan; Michael K. Crosby; W. Keith Moser; Hong He; Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley

    2012-01-01

    At the forest landscape/region level, based on annual Forest Inventory and Analysis plot data from 1999 to 2010, oak decline and mortality trends for major oak species (groups) were examined in the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and Missouri. Oak decline has elevated cumulative mortality of red oak species to between 11 and 15 percent in terms of relative density and...

  11. Comparative genomics reveals convergent evolution between the bamboo-eating giant and red pandas.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yibo; Wu, Qi; Ma, Shuai; Ma, Tianxiao; Shan, Lei; Wang, Xiao; Nie, Yonggang; Ning, Zemin; Yan, Li; Xiu, Yunfang; Wei, Fuwen

    2017-01-31

    Phenotypic convergence between distantly related taxa often mirrors adaptation to similar selective pressures and may be driven by genetic convergence. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens) belong to different families in the order Carnivora, but both have evolved a specialized bamboo diet and adaptive pseudothumb, representing a classic model of convergent evolution. However, the genetic bases of these morphological and physiological convergences remain unknown. Through de novo sequencing the red panda genome and improving the giant panda genome assembly with added data, we identified genomic signatures of convergent evolution. Limb development genes DYNC2H1 and PCNT have undergone adaptive convergence and may be important candidate genes for pseudothumb development. As evolutionary responses to a bamboo diet, adaptive convergence has occurred in genes involved in the digestion and utilization of bamboo nutrients such as essential amino acids, fatty acids, and vitamins. Similarly, the umami taste receptor gene TAS1R1 has been pseudogenized in both pandas. These findings offer insights into genetic convergence mechanisms underlying phenotypic convergence and adaptation to a specialized bamboo diet.

  12. Comparative genomics reveals convergent evolution between the bamboo-eating giant and red pandas

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yibo; Wu, Qi; Ma, Shuai; Ma, Tianxiao; Shan, Lei; Wang, Xiao; Nie, Yonggang; Ning, Zemin; Yan, Li; Xiu, Yunfang; Wei, Fuwen

    2017-01-01

    Phenotypic convergence between distantly related taxa often mirrors adaptation to similar selective pressures and may be driven by genetic convergence. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens) belong to different families in the order Carnivora, but both have evolved a specialized bamboo diet and adaptive pseudothumb, representing a classic model of convergent evolution. However, the genetic bases of these morphological and physiological convergences remain unknown. Through de novo sequencing the red panda genome and improving the giant panda genome assembly with added data, we identified genomic signatures of convergent evolution. Limb development genes DYNC2H1 and PCNT have undergone adaptive convergence and may be important candidate genes for pseudothumb development. As evolutionary responses to a bamboo diet, adaptive convergence has occurred in genes involved in the digestion and utilization of bamboo nutrients such as essential amino acids, fatty acids, and vitamins. Similarly, the umami taste receptor gene TAS1R1 has been pseudogenized in both pandas. These findings offer insights into genetic convergence mechanisms underlying phenotypic convergence and adaptation to a specialized bamboo diet. PMID:28096377

  13. Global discovery of erythroid long noncoding RNAs reveals novel regulators of red cell maturation.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Dominguez, Juan R; Hu, Wenqian; Yuan, Bingbing; Shi, Jiahai; Park, Staphany S; Gromatzky, Austin A; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Lodish, Harvey F

    2014-01-23

    Erythropoiesis is regulated at multiple levels to ensure the proper generation of mature red cells under multiple physiological conditions. To probe the contribution of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) to this process, we examined >1 billion RNA-seq reads of polyadenylated and nonpolyadenylated RNA from differentiating mouse fetal liver red blood cells and identified 655 lncRNA genes including not only intergenic, antisense, and intronic but also pseudogene and enhancer loci. More than 100 of these genes are previously unrecognized and highly erythroid specific. By integrating genome-wide surveys of chromatin states, transcription factor occupancy, and tissue expression patterns, we identify multiple lncRNAs that are dynamically expressed during erythropoiesis, show epigenetic regulation, and are targeted by key erythroid transcription factors GATA1, TAL1, or KLF1. We focus on 12 such candidates and find that they are nuclear-localized and exhibit complex developmental expression patterns. Depleting them severely impaired erythrocyte maturation, inhibiting cell size reduction and subsequent enucleation. One of them, alncRNA-EC7, is transcribed from an enhancer and is specifically needed for activation of the neighboring gene encoding BAND 3. Our study provides an annotated catalog of erythroid lncRNAs, readily available through an online resource, and shows that diverse types of lncRNAs participate in the regulatory circuitry underlying erythropoiesis.

  14. rbcL sequences reveal multiple cryptic introductions of the Japanese red alga Polysiphonia harveyi.

    PubMed

    McIvor, L; Maggs, C A; Provan, J; Stanhope, M J

    2001-04-01

    In Europe, the last 20 years have seen a spectacular increase in accidental introductions of marine species, but it has recently been suggested that both the actual number of invaders and their impacts have been seriously underestimated because of the prevalence of sibling species in marine habitats. The red alga Polysiphonia harveyi is regarded as an alien in the British Isles and Atlantic Europe, having appeared in various locations there during the past 170 years. Similar or conspecific populations are known from Atlantic North America and Japan. To choose between three competing hypotheses concerning the origin of P. harveyi in Europe, we employed rbcL sequence analysis in conjunction with karyological and interbreeding data for samples and isolates of P. harveyi and various congeners from the Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. All cultured isolates of P. harveyi were completely interfertile, and there was no evidence of polyploidy or aneuploidy. Thus, this biological species is both morphologically and genetically variable: intraspecific rbcL divergences of up to 2.1% are high even for red algae. Seven rbcL haplotypes were identified. The four most divergent haplotypes were observed in Japanese samples from Hokkaido and south-central Honshu, which are linked by hypothetical 'missing' haplotypes that may be located in northern Honshu. These data are consistent with Japan being the centre of diversity and origin for P. harveyi. Two non-Japanese lineages were linked to Hokkaido and Honshu, respectively. A single haplotype was found in all North Atlantic and Mediterranean accessions, except for North Carolina, where the haplotype found was the same as that invading in New Zealand and California. The introduction of P. harveyi into New Zealand has gone unnoticed because P. strictissima is a morphologically indistinguishable native sibling species. The sequence divergence between them is 4-5%, greater than between some morphologically distinct red algal species. Two

  15. Eight-year performance of interplanted hardwoods in southern Wisconsin oak clearcuts.

    Treesearch

    Paul S. Johnson

    1976-01-01

    Of six species interplanted in oak clearcuttings, sugar maple, red maple, and white ash were the most successful. Other species planted were northern red oak, yellow-poplar, and American basswood. Gives numbers of trees that should be planted for each species and initial size of planting stock.

  16. Growth and Survival of Interplanted Hardwoods in Southern Wisconsin Oak Clearcuttings

    Treesearch

    Paul S. Johnson

    1971-01-01

    Four years after planting in oak clearcuttings, 1-1 white ash transplants had the best survival and growth of seven hardwood species. Other species tests were yellow-poplar, sugar maple, red maple, northern red oak, and American basswood. The relatively high success of white ash makes it the safest selection for Upper Mississippi Valley clearcut interplantings....

  17. Planting depth effects and water potential effects on oak seedling emergence and acorn germination

    Treesearch

    Wayne A. Smiles; Jeffrey O. Dawson

    1995-01-01

    The effects of four planting depths (0, 3, 7, 11 cm) and acorn size on the percentage seedling emergence of red, pin, and black oak were determined. In a complimentary study, the effects of five water potential treatments (0, -.2, -.4, -.6, -1.0 MPa) on the percentage germination of red, pin, and black oak acorns were measured.

  18. Rotation length based on a time series analysis of timber degrade cause by oak borers

    Treesearch

    Richard P. Guyette; Rose-Marie Muzika; Aaron Stevenson

    2007-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of red oak borer (Enaphalodes rufulus Haldeman) are causing unprecedented economic devaluation of red oak timber in many areas of the Ozarks in the Midwestern United States. Managers have few guidelines for coping with this problem in the long-term. Here we present a retrospective analysis of degrade in wood quality and value focused...

  19. Identification, amounts, and kinetics of extraction of C-glucosidic ellagitannins during wine aging in oak barrels or in stainless steel tanks with oak chips.

    PubMed

    Jourdes, Michaël; Michel, Julien; Saucier, Cédric; Quideau, Stéphane; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2011-09-01

    The C-glucosidic ellagitannins are found in wine as a result of its aging in oak barrels or in stainless steel tanks with oak chips. Once dissolved in this slightly acidic solution, the C-glucosidic ellagitannins vescalagin can react with nucleophilic entities present in red wine, such as ethanol, catechin, and epicatechin, to generate condensed hybrid products such as the β-1-O-ethylvescalagin and the flavano-ellagitannins (acutissimin A/B and epiacutissimin A/B), respectively. During this study, we first monitored the extraction kinetic and the evolution of the eight major oak-derived C-glucosidic ellagitannins in red wines aged in oak barrels or in stainless steel tank with oak chips. Their extraction rates appeared to be faster during red wine aging in stainless steel tanks with oak chips. However, their overall concentrations in wines were found higher in the wine aged in barrels. The formation rates of the vescalagin-coupled derivatives were also estimated for the first time under both red wine aging conditions (i.e., oak barrels or stainless steel tanks with oak chips). As observed for the oak-native C-glucosidic ellagitannins, the concentrations of these vescalagin derivatives were higher in the red wine aged in oak barrels than in stainless steel tanks with oak chips. Despite these differences, their relative composition was similar under both red wine aging conditions. Finally, the impact of the oak chips size and toasting level on the C-glucosidic ellagitannins concentration in wine was also investigated.

  20. THE NATURE OF EXTREMELY RED H - [4.5] > 4 GALAXIES REVEALED WITH SEDS AND CANDELS

    SciTech Connect

    Caputi, K. I.; Dunlop, J. S.; McLure, R. J.; Cirasuolo, M.; Huang, J.-S.; Fazio, G. G.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Almaini, O.; Bell, E. F.; Dickinson, M.; Donley, J. L.; Ferguson, H. C.; Grogin, N. A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Faber, S. M.; Kocevski, D. D.; Koo, D. C.; and others

    2012-05-01

    We have analyzed a sample of 25 extremely red H - [4.5] > 4 galaxies, selected using 4.5 {mu}m data from the Spitzer SEDS survey and deep H-band data from the Hubble Space Telescope CANDELS survey, over {approx}180 arcmin{sup 2} of the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey field. Our aim is to investigate the nature of this rare population of mid-infrared (mid-IR) sources that display such extreme near-to-mid-IR colors. Using up to 17-band photometry (U through 8.0 {mu}m), we have studied in detail their spectral energy distributions, including possible degeneracies in the photometric redshift/internal extinction (z{sub phot}-A{sub V} ) plane. Our sample appears to include sources of very different nature. Between 45% and 75% of them are dust-obscured, massive galaxies at 3 < z{sub phot} < 5. All of the 24 {mu}m detected sources in our sample are in this category. Two of these have S(24 {mu}m)>300 {mu}Jy, which at 3 < z{sub phot} < 5 suggests that they probably host a dust-obscured active galactic nucleus. Our sample also contains four highly obscured (A{sub V} > 5) sources at z{sub phot} < 1. Finally, we analyze in detail two z{sub phot} {approx} 6 galaxy candidates, and discuss their plausibility and implications. Overall, our red galaxy sample contains the tip of the iceberg of a larger population of z > 3 galaxies to be discovered with the future James Webb Space Telescope.

  1. Comprehensive Red List Assessment Reveals Exceptionally High Extinction Risk to Madagascar Palms

    PubMed Central

    Rakotoarinivo, Mijoro; Dransfield, John; Bachman, Steven P.; Moat, Justin; Baker, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of baseline IUCN Red List assessments for plants is a crucial step in conservation planning. Nowhere is this more important than in biodiversity hotspots that are subject to significant anthropogenic pressures, such as Madagascar. Here, all Madagascar palm species are assessed using the IUCN Red List categories and criteria, version 3.1. Our results indicate that 83% of the 192 endemic species are threatened, nearly four times the proportion estimated for plants globally and exceeding estimates for all other comprehensively evaluated plant groups in Madagascar. Compared with a previous assessment in 1995, the number of Endangered and Critically Endangered species has substantially increased, due to the discovery of 28 new species since 1995, most of which are highly threatened. The conservation status of most species included in both the 1995 and the current assessments has not changed. Where change occurred, more species have moved to lower threat categories than to higher categories, because of improved knowledge of species and their distributions, rather than a decrease in extinction risk. However, some cases of genuine deterioration in conservation status were also identified. Palms in Madagascar are primarily threatened by habitat loss due to agriculture and biological resource use through direct exploitation or collateral damage. The recent extension of Madagascar’s protected area network is highly beneficial for palms, substantially increasing the number of threatened species populations included within reserves. Notably, three of the eight most important protected areas for palms are newly designated. However, 28 threatened and data deficient species are not protected by the expanded network, including some Critically Endangered species. Moreover, many species occurring in protected areas are still threatened, indicating that threatening processes persist even in reserves. Definitive implementation of the new protected areas combined

  2. Comprehensive Red List assessment reveals exceptionally high extinction risk to Madagascar palms.

    PubMed

    Rakotoarinivo, Mijoro; Dransfield, John; Bachman, Steven P; Moat, Justin; Baker, William J

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of baseline IUCN Red List assessments for plants is a crucial step in conservation planning. Nowhere is this more important than in biodiversity hotspots that are subject to significant anthropogenic pressures, such as Madagascar. Here, all Madagascar palm species are assessed using the IUCN Red List categories and criteria, version 3.1. Our results indicate that 83% of the 192 endemic species are threatened, nearly four times the proportion estimated for plants globally and exceeding estimates for all other comprehensively evaluated plant groups in Madagascar. Compared with a previous assessment in 1995, the number of Endangered and Critically Endangered species has substantially increased, due to the discovery of 28 new species since 1995, most of which are highly threatened. The conservation status of most species included in both the 1995 and the current assessments has not changed. Where change occurred, more species have moved to lower threat categories than to higher categories, because of improved knowledge of species and their distributions, rather than a decrease in extinction risk. However, some cases of genuine deterioration in conservation status were also identified. Palms in Madagascar are primarily threatened by habitat loss due to agriculture and biological resource use through direct exploitation or collateral damage. The recent extension of Madagascar's protected area network is highly beneficial for palms, substantially increasing the number of threatened species populations included within reserves. Notably, three of the eight most important protected areas for palms are newly designated. However, 28 threatened and data deficient species are not protected by the expanded network, including some Critically Endangered species. Moreover, many species occurring in protected areas are still threatened, indicating that threatening processes persist even in reserves. Definitive implementation of the new protected areas combined with

  3. Oak seedling growth and ectomycorrhizal colonization are less in eastern hemlock stands infested with hemlock woolly adelgid than in adjacent oak stands.

    PubMed

    Lewis, James D; Licitra, Jeff; Tuininga, Amy R; Sirulnik, Abby; Turner, Gregory D; Johnson, Jacqui

    2008-04-01

    Invasive, non-indigenous, phytophagous insects have caused widespread declines in several dominant tree species. The decline in dominant tree species may lead to cascading effects on other tree and microbial species and their interactions, affecting forest recovery following the decline. In the eastern USA, eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr) is declining because of infestation by the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA; Adelges tsugae Annand). Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) is a common replacement species in declining hemlock stands, but reduced mycorrhizal inoculum potential in infested hemlock stands may cause oak to grow more slowly compared with oak in oak stands. We grew red oak seedlings for one growing season in declining hemlock-dominated stands infested with HWA and in adjacent oak-dominated stands. Ectomycorrhizal root tip density and morphotype richness in soil cores were 63 and 27% less, respectively, in declining hemlock stands than in oak stands. Similarly, ectomycorrhizal percent colonization and morphotype richness on oak seedlings were 33 and 30% less, respectively, in declining hemlock stands than in oak stands. In addition, oak seedlings in declining hemlock stands had 29% less dry mass than oak seedlings in oak stands. Analysis of covariance indicated that morphotype richness could account for differences in oak seedling dry mass between declining hemlock stands and oak stands. Additionally, oak seedling dry mass in declining hemlock stands significantly decreased with decreasing ectomycorrhizal percent colonization and morphotype richness. These results suggest that oak seedling growth in declining hemlock stands is affected by reduced ectomycorrhizal inoculum potential. Further, the rate of forest recovery following hemlock decline associated with HWA infestation may be slowed by indirect effects of HWA on the growth of replacement species, through effects on ectomycorrhizal colonization and morphotype richness.

  4. Mantle convection patterns reveal the enigma of the Red Sea rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrunin, Alexey; Kaban, Mikhail; El Khrepy, Sami; Al-Arifi, Nassir

    2017-04-01

    Initiation and further development of the Red Sea rift (RSR) is usually associated with the Afar plume at the Oligocene-Miocene separating the Arabian plate from the rest of the continent. Usually, the RSR is divided into three parts with different geological, tectonic and geophysical characteristics, but the nature of this partitioning is still debatable. To understand origin and driving forces responsible for the tectonic partitioning of the RSR, we have developed a global mantle convection model based on the refined density model and viscosity distribution derived from tectonic, rheological and seismic data. The global density model of the upper mantle is refined for the Middle East based on the high-resolution 3D model (Kaban et al., 2016). This model based on a joint inversion of the residual gravity and residual topography provides much better constraints on the 3D density structure compared to the global model based on seismic tomography. The refined density model and the viscosity distribution based on a homologous temperature approach provide an initial setup for further numerical calculations. The present-day snapshot of the mantle convection is calculated by using the code ProSpher 3D that allows for strong lateral variations of viscosity (Petrunin et al., 2013). The setup includes weak plate boundaries, while the measured GPS velocities are used to constrain the solution. The resulting mantle flow patterns show clear distinctions among the mantle flow patterns below the three parts of the RSR. According to the modeling results, tectonics of the southern part of the Red Sea is mainly determined by the Afar plume and the Ethiopian rift opening. It is characterized by a divergent mantle flow, which is connected to the East African Rift activity. The rising mantle flow is traced down to the transition zone and continues in the lower mantle for a few thousand kilometers south-west of Afar. The hot mantle anomaly below the central part of the RSR can be

  5. Systematic trend of water vapour absorption in red giant atmospheres revealed by high resolution TEXES 12 μm spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryde, N.; Lambert, J.; Farzone, M.; Richter, M. J.; Josselin, E.; Harper, G. M.; Eriksson, K.; Greathouse, T. K.

    2015-01-01

    line-forming regions, are several hundred Kelvin lower than expected from a classical photospheric model. Conclusions: All stars in our sample show several photospheric features in their 12 μm spectra, which can be modelled with a classical model photosphere. However, in all stars showing water-vapour lines (stars cooler than ~4300 K), the water lines are found to be much deeper than expected. The line ratios of these pure-rotational lines reveal low excitation temperatures. This could either be due to lower temperatures than expected in the outer regions of the photospheres caused by for example extra cooling, or due to non-LTE level populations, affecting the source function and line opacities, but this needs further investigation. We have demonstrated that these diagnostically interesting water lines are a general feature of red giants across spectral types, and we argue for a general explanation of their formation rather than explanations requiring specific properties, such as dust. Since the water lines are neither weak (filled in by emission) nor do they appear in emission, as predicted by LTE MOLsphere models in their simplest forms, the evidence of the existence of such large optically-thick, molecular spheres enshrouding the stars is weakened. It is still a challenge to find a unifying picture of the outer regions of the atmospheres of red giants, but we have presented new empirical evidence that needs to be taken into account and explained in any model of these regions. Table 4 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. Transcriptome analysis of red swamp crawfish Procambarus clarkii reveals genes involved in gonadal development.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hucheng; Xing, Zhijun; Lu, Wei; Qian, Zhaojun; Yu, Hongwei; Li, Jiale

    2014-01-01

    The red swamp crawfish, Procambarus clarkii, has become one of the most economically important cultured species in China. Currently, little is known about the gonadal development of this species. Isolation and characterization of genes are an initial step towards understanding gonadal development of P. clarkii. Using the 454 pyrosequencing technology, we obtained a total of 1,134,993 high quality sequence reads from the crawfish testis and ovary libraries. We aimed to identify different genes with a potential role in gonad development. The assembly formed into 22,652 isotigs, distributed by GO analysis across 55 categories in the three ontologies, 'molecular function', 'cellular component', and 'biological processes'. Comparative transcript analysis showed that 1,720 isotigs in the ovary were up-regulated and 2138 isotigs were down-regulated. Several gonad development related genes, such as vitellogenin, cyclin B, cyclin-dependent kinases 2, Dmc1 and ubiquitin were identified. Quantitative real-time PCR verified the expression profiles of 14 differentially expressed genes, and confirmed the reliability of the 454 pyrosequencing. Our findings provide an archive for future research on gonadal development at a molecular level in P. clarkii and other crustacean. This data will be helpful to develop new ideas for artificial regulation of the reproductive process in crawfish aquaculture.

  7. Extracellular DNA amplicon sequencing reveals high levels of benthic eukaryotic diversity in the central Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Pearman, John K; Irigoien, Xabier; Carvalho, Susana

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to characterize the benthic eukaryotic biodiversity patterns at a coarse taxonomic level in three areas of the central Red Sea (a lagoon, an offshore area in Thuwal and a shallow coastal area near Jeddah) based on extracellular DNA. High-throughput amplicon sequencing targeting the V9 region of the 18S rRNA gene was undertaken for 32 sediment samples. High levels of alpha-diversity were detected with 16,089 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) being identified. The majority of the OTUs were assigned to Metazoa (29.2%), Alveolata (22.4%) and Stramenopiles (17.8%). Stramenopiles (Diatomea) and Alveolata (Ciliophora) were frequent in a lagoon and in shallower coastal stations, whereas metazoans (Arthropoda: Maxillopoda) were dominant in deeper offshore stations. Only 24.6% of total OTUs were shared among all areas. Beta-diversity was generally lower between the lagoon and Jeddah (nearshore) than between either of those and the offshore area, suggesting a nearshore-offshore biodiversity gradient. The current approach allowed for a broad-range of benthic eukaryotic biodiversity to be analysed with significantly less labour than would be required by other traditional taxonomic approaches. Our findings suggest that next generation sequencing techniques have the potential to provide a fast and standardised screening of benthic biodiversity at large spatial and temporal scales. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Red blood cells polarize green laser light revealing hemoglobin's enhanced non-fundamental Raman modes.

    PubMed

    Marzec, Katarzyna M; Perez-Guaita, David; de Veij, Marleen; McNaughton, Don; Baranska, Malgorzata; Dixon, Matthew W A; Tilley, Leann; Wood, Bayden R

    2014-12-15

    In general, the first overtone modes produce weak bands that appear at approximately twice the wavenumber value of the fundamental transitions in vibrational spectra. Here, we report the existence of a series of enhanced non-fundamental bands in resonance Raman (RR) spectra recorded for hemoglobin (Hb) inside the highly concentrated heme environment of the red blood cell (RBC) by exciting with a 514.5 nm laser line. Such bands are most intense when detecting parallel-polarized light. The enhancement is explained through excitonic theory invoking a type C scattering mechanism and bands have been assigned to overtone and combination bands based on symmetry arguments and polarization measurements. By using malaria diagnosis as an example, we demonstrate that combining the non-fundamental and fundamental regions of the RR spectrum improves the sensitivity and diagnostic capability of the technique. The discovery will have considerable implications for the ongoing development of Raman spectroscopy for blood disease diagnoses and monitoring heme perturbation in response to environmental stimuli.

  9. Equilibrium physics breakdown reveals the active nature of red blood cell flickering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turlier, H.; Fedosov, D. A.; Audoly, B.; Auth, T.; Gov, N. S.; Sykes, C.; Joanny, J.-F.; Gompper, G.; Betz, T.

    2016-05-01

    Red blood cells, or erythrocytes, are seen to flicker under optical microscopy, a phenomenon initially described as thermal fluctuations of the cell membrane. But recent studies have suggested the involvement of non-equilibrium processes, without definitively ruling out equilibrium interpretations. Using active and passive microrheology to directly compare the membrane response and fluctuations on single erythrocytes, we report here a violation of the fluctuation-dissipation relation, which is a direct demonstration of the non-equilibrium nature of flickering. With an analytical model of the composite erythrocyte membrane and realistic stochastic simulations, we show that several molecular mechanisms may explain the active fluctuations, and we predict their kinetics. We demonstrate that tangential metabolic activity in the network formed by spectrin, a cytoskeletal protein, can generate curvature-mediated active membrane motions. We also show that other active membrane processes represented by direct normal force dipoles may explain the observed membrane activity. Our findings provide solid experimental and theoretical frameworks for future investigations of the origin and function of active motion in cells.

  10. Transcriptome Analysis of Red Swamp Crawfish Procambarus clarkii Reveals Genes Involved in Gonadal Development

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hucheng; Xing, Zhijun; Lu, Wei; Qian, Zhaojun; Yu, Hongwei; Li, Jiale

    2014-01-01

    Background The red swamp crawfish, Procambarus clarkii, has become one of the most economically important cultured species in China. Currently, little is known about the gonadal development of this species. Isolation and characterization of genes are an initial step towards understanding gonadal development of P. clarkii. Results Using the 454 pyrosequencing technology, we obtained a total of 1,134,993 high quality sequence reads from the crawfish testis and ovary libraries. We aimed to identify different genes with a potential role in gonad development. The assembly formed into 22,652 isotigs, distributed by GO analysis across 55 categories in the three ontologies, ‘molecular function’, ‘cellular component’, and ‘biological processes’. Comparative transcript analysis showed that 1,720 isotigs in the ovary were up-regulated and 2138 isotigs were down-regulated. Several gonad development related genes, such as vitellogenin, cyclin B, cyclin-dependent kinases 2, Dmc1 and ubiquitin were identified. Quantitative real-time PCR verified the expression profiles of 14 differentially expressed genes, and confirmed the reliability of the 454 pyrosequencing. Conclusions Our findings provide an archive for future research on gonadal development at a molecular level in P. clarkii and other crustacean. This data will be helpful to develop new ideas for artificial regulation of the reproductive process in crawfish aquaculture. PMID:25118947

  11. Population genetic structure of the invasive red swamp crayfish in China revealed by ITS1 variation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Zhou, Lizhi; Li, Xiaohua; Lu, Dimiao

    2013-12-01

    The invasive red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) provides a valuable opportunity for studying the population genetics of invasive species that disperse rapidly. We analyzed the population genetic structure among 12 populations of the crayfish in China based on the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region. The ITS1 of 815 bp aligned across 34 haplotypes; the average GC content was 53.9%. AMOVA showed that intrapopulation variation (95.26%) was much higher than interpopulation variation (4.74%). Genetic differentiation between the Taiwan and mainland populations (Fst = 0.160) was moderate, but the Chinese population (Taiwan and the mainland combined) and an American population were highly differentiated (0.682 and 0.977, respectively). Gene flow between the Chinese and American populations (Nm = 0.006 and 0.117, respectively) was lower than that between Taiwan and the mainland (1.536). Phylogenetic trees showed that three major genealogical clusters matched the sample locations well, suggesting that genetic differentiation is created largely by geographic isolation.

  12. Diatom Phytochromes Reveal the Existence of Far-Red-Light-Based Sensing in the Ocean[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Enomoto, Gen; Bouly, Jean-Pierre; Thaler, Michael; Malviya, Shruti; Bernardes, Juliana Silva; Rappaport, Fabrice; Gentili, Bernard; Huysman, Marie J.J.; Carbone, Alessandra; Bowler, Chris; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Falciatore, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The absorption of visible light in aquatic environments has led to the common assumption that aquatic organisms sense and adapt to penetrative blue/green light wavelengths but show little or no response to the more attenuated red/far-red wavelengths. Here, we show that two marine diatom species, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana, possess a bona fide red/far-red light sensing phytochrome (DPH) that uses biliverdin as a chromophore and displays accentuated red-shifted absorbance peaks compared with other characterized plant and algal phytochromes. Exposure to both red and far-red light causes changes in gene expression in P. tricornutum, and the responses to far-red light disappear in DPH knockout cells, demonstrating that P. tricornutum DPH mediates far-red light signaling. The identification of DPH genes in diverse diatom species widely distributed along the water column further emphasizes the ecological significance of far-red light sensing, raising questions about the sources of far-red light. Our analyses indicate that, although far-red wavelengths from sunlight are only detectable at the ocean surface, chlorophyll fluorescence and Raman scattering can generate red/far-red photons in deeper layers. This study opens up novel perspectives on phytochrome-mediated far-red light signaling in the ocean and on the light sensing and adaptive capabilities of marine phototrophs. PMID:26941092

  13. Spatial and Species Variations in Bacterial Communities Associated with Corals from the Red Sea as Revealed by Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, On On; Yang, Jiangke; Bougouffa, Salim; Wang, Yong; Batang, Zenon; Tian, Renmao; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz

    2012-01-01

    Microbial associations with corals are common and are most likely symbiotic, although their diversity and relationships with environmental factors and host species remain unclear. In this study, we adopted a 16S rRNA gene tag-pyrosequencing technique to investigate the bacterial communities associated with three stony Scleractinea and two soft Octocorallia corals from three locations in the Red Sea. Our results revealed highly diverse bacterial communities in the Red Sea corals, with more than 600 ribotypes detected and up to 1,000 species estimated from a single coral species. Altogether, 21 bacterial phyla were recovered from the corals, of which Gammaproteobacteria was the most dominant group, and Chloroflexi, Chlamydiae, and the candidate phylum WS3 were reported in corals for the first time. The associated bacterial communities varied greatly with location, where environmental conditions differed significantly. Corals from disturbed areas appeared to share more similar bacterial communities, but larger variations in community structures were observed between different coral species from pristine waters. Ordination methods identified salinity and depth as the most influential parameters affecting the abundance of Vibrio, Pseudoalteromonas, Serratia, Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Achromobacter in the corals. On the other hand, bacteria such as Chloracidobacterium and Endozoicomonas were more sensitive to the coral species, suggesting that the host species type may be influential in the associated bacterial community, as well. The combined influences of the coral host and environmental factors on the associated microbial communities are discussed. This study represents the first comparative study using tag-pyrosequencing technology to investigate the bacterial communities in Red Sea corals. PMID:22865078

  14. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Ross R.; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N.; Nichols, David S.; Breadmore, Michael C.; Shellie, Robert A.; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 oC. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles. PMID:26610612

  15. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Ross R; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N; Nichols, David S; Breadmore, Michael C; Shellie, Robert A; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2015-11-27

    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 (o)C. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles.

  16. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Ross R.; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N.; Nichols, David S.; Breadmore, Michael C.; Shellie, Robert A.; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 oC. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles.

  17. A glimpse at future forests: predicting the effects of Phytophthora ramorum on oak forests of southern Appalachia

    Treesearch

    H.L. Spaulding; L.K. Rieske

    2011-01-01

    The highly pathogenic Phytophthora ramorum, causal organism of sudden oak death (SOD), is established in forests of the Pacific Northwest (USA) and is threatening invasion of other regions. Given the breadth of its host range, with dozens of asymptomatic ornamental hosts and with oaks, Quercus spp., in the red oak (Erythrobalanus) subgenus particularly susceptible, we...

  18. Repeated burning alters the structure and composition of hardwood regeneration in oak-dominated forests of eastern Kentucky, USA

    Treesearch

    Tara L. Keyser; Mary Arthur; David L. Loftis

    2017-01-01

    The exclusion of anthropogenic fire is a primary factor responsible for the ‘mesophication’ of eastern oak (Quercus) forests and resultant oak regeneration problems. Consequently, the reintroduction of fire is increasingly used to promote the establishment and growth of oak and hickory (Carya) and control competition from shade-tolerant species (e.g., red maple (Acer...

  19. Transcriptome analysis of bagging-treated red Chinese sand pear peels reveals light-responsive pathway functions in anthocyanin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Bai, Songling; Sun, Yongwang; Qian, Minjie; Yang, Fengxia; Ni, Junbei; Tao, Ruiyan; Li, Lin; Shu, Qun; Zhang, Dong; Teng, Yuanwen

    2017-12-01

    Bagging is an efficient method to improve fruit colour development. This work reported a transcriptome analysis using bagging-treated red Chinese sand pear peels. In total, 8,870 differentially expressed genes were further analysed by a weighted gene co-expression network analysis and early-, middle- and late light-responsive genes were identified. An annotation analysis revealed several pathways involved in the different responsive stages. The presence of LONG HYPOCOTLY 5, CRY-DASH and a CONSTANS-like transcription factors among the early light-responsive genes indicated the pivotal role of light, especially blue light, in the biological changes that occurred after bag removal. Other light-responsive transcription factors were also identified from the three light-responsive stages. In addition, the light-responsive pattern of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes differed among the biosynthetic steps. Although yeast-one hybrid assay showed that most of the structural genes were regulated by PpMYB10, their different temporal expressive pattern suggested that besides PpMYB10, other light-responsive transcriptional factors were also involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. In summary, our transcriptome analysis provides knowledge of the transcriptional regulatory network operating during light responses, which results in anthocyanin accumulation and other significant physiological changes in red Chinese sand pear peels after bag removal.

  20. Analysis of genetic diversity in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) breeding populations as revealed by RAPD genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Odeth; Ortega, Fernando; Campos, Hugo

    2003-08-01

    Red clover is an important forage legume species for temperate regions and very little is known about the genetic organization of its breeding populations. We used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) genetic markers to address the genetic diversity and the distribution of variation in 20 breeding populations and cultivars from Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, and Switzerland. Genetic distances were calculated for all possible pairwise combinations. A high level of polymorphism was found and the proportion of polymorphic loci across populations was 74.2%. A population derived from a non-certified seedlot displayed a higher proportion of polymorphic loci than its respective certified seedlot. Gene diversity values and population genetics parameters suggest that the populations analyzed are diverse. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that the largest proportion of variation (80.4%) resides at the within population level. RAPD markers are a useful tool for red clover breeding programs. A dendrogram based on genetic distances divided the breeding populations analyzed into three distinct groups. The amount and partition of diversity observed can be of value in identifying the populations that parents of synthetic cultivars are derived from and to exploit the variation available in the populations analyzed.

  1. Hg Isotopes Reveal Importance of In-Stream Processing and Legacy Inputs in East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, J. D.; Blum, J. D.; Brooks, S. C.; Donovan, P. M.; Gu, B.; Riscassi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how mercury (Hg) contaminated ecosystems will recover as atmospheric emissions and industrial point source discharges are controlled has become a driving motivation of mercury research. Key to predicting recovery of mercury contaminated ecosystems is an understanding of the mobilization of legacy Hg sources, and the subsequent bioavailability and biogeochemical cycling of mobilized Hg within aquatic ecosystems. Herein, we utilize natural abundance stable Hg isotope techniques to place new constraints on mercury sources, transport, and transformations along the flow path of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The isotopic composition of mercury in stream water and suspended sediment along the flow path suggest that: (1) physical processes such as dilution and sedimentation cannot fully explain decreases in total mercury concentrations along the flow path and that in-stream processes may be more important than previously realized; (2) in-stream processes include photochemical transformations (~20%), but microbial reduction is likely more dominant (~80%); and (3) additional sources of mercury inputs to EFPC at base-flow may predominantly arise from the hyporheic zone during the growing season, with adjacent riparian wetlands and non-point-source impacted tributaries increasing in importance during the dormant season when the stream channel is more hydrologically connected to the watershed.

  2. Metabolite profiling of red and blue potatoes revealed cultivar and tissue specific patterns for anthocyanins and other polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Oertel, Anne; Matros, Andrea; Hartmann, Anja; Arapitsas, Panagiotis; Dehmer, Klaus J; Martens, Stefan; Mock, Hans-Peter

    2017-08-01

    Metabolite profiling of tuber flesh and peel for selected colored potato varieties revealed cultivar and tissue specific profiles of anthocyanins and other polyphenols with variations in composition and concentration. Starchy tubers of Solanum tuberosum are a staple crop and food in many countries. Among cultivated potato varieties a huge biodiversity exists, including an increasing number of red and purple colored cultivars. This coloration relates to the accumulation of anthocyanins and is supposed to offer nutritional benefits possibly associated with the antioxidative capacity of anthocyanins. However, the anthocyanin composition and its relation to the overall polyphenol constitution in colored potato tubers have not been investigated closely. This study focuses on the phytochemical characterization of the phenolic composition of a variety of colored potato tubers, both for peel and flesh tissues. First, liquid chromatography (LC) separation coupled to UV and mass spectrometry (MS) detection of polyphenolic compounds of potato tubers from 57 cultivars was used to assign groups of potato cultivars differing in their anthocyanin and polyphenol profiles. Tissues from 19 selected cultivars were then analyzed by LC separation coupled to multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) to detect quantitative differences in anthocyanin and polyphenol composition. The measured intensities of 21 anthocyanins present in the analyzed potato cultivars and tissues could be correlated with the specific tuber coloration. Besides secondary metabolites well-known for potato tubers, the metabolic profiling led to the detection of two anthocyanins not described for potato tuber previously, which we tentatively annotated as pelargonidin feruloyl-xylosyl-glucosyl-galactoside and cyanidin 3-p-coumaroylrutinoside-5-glucoside. We detected significant correlations between some of the measured metabolites, as for example the negative correlation between the main anthocyanins of red and blue potato

  3. Metagenomic study of red biofilms from Diamante Lake reveals ancient arsenic bioenergetics in haloarchaea.

    PubMed

    Rascovan, Nicolás; Maldonado, Javier; Vazquez, Martín P; Eugenia Farías, María

    2016-02-01

    Arsenic metabolism is proposed to be an ancient mechanism in microbial life. Different bacteria and archaea use detoxification processes to grow under high arsenic concentration. Some of them are also able to use arsenic as a bioenergetic substrate in either anaerobic arsenate respiration or chemolithotrophic growth on arsenite. However, among the archaea, bioenergetic arsenic metabolism has only been found in the Crenarchaeota phylum. Here we report the discovery of haloarchaea (Euryarchaeota phylum) biofilms forming under the extreme environmental conditions such as high salinity, pH and arsenic concentration at 4589 m above sea level inside a volcano crater in Diamante Lake, Argentina. Metagenomic analyses revealed a surprisingly high abundance of genes used for arsenite oxidation (aioBA) and respiratory arsenate reduction (arrCBA) suggesting that these haloarchaea use arsenic compounds as bioenergetics substrates. We showed that several haloarchaea species, not only from this study, have all genes required for these bioenergetic processes. The phylogenetic analysis of aioA showed that haloarchaea sequences cluster in a novel and monophyletic group, suggesting that the origin of arsenic metabolism in haloarchaea is ancient. Our results also suggest that arsenite chemolithotrophy likely emerged within the archaeal lineage. Our results give a broad new perspective on the haloarchaea metabolism and shed light on the evolutionary history of arsenic bioenergetics.

  4. Metagenomic study of red biofilms from Diamante Lake reveals ancient arsenic bioenergetics in haloarchaea

    PubMed Central

    Rascovan, Nicolás; Maldonado, Javier; Vazquez, Martín P; Eugenia Farías, María

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic metabolism is proposed to be an ancient mechanism in microbial life. Different bacteria and archaea use detoxification processes to grow under high arsenic concentration. Some of them are also able to use arsenic as a bioenergetic substrate in either anaerobic arsenate respiration or chemolithotrophic growth on arsenite. However, among the archaea, bioenergetic arsenic metabolism has only been found in the Crenarchaeota phylum. Here we report the discovery of haloarchaea (Euryarchaeota phylum) biofilms forming under the extreme environmental conditions such as high salinity, pH and arsenic concentration at 4589 m above sea level inside a volcano crater in Diamante Lake, Argentina. Metagenomic analyses revealed a surprisingly high abundance of genes used for arsenite oxidation (aioBA) and respiratory arsenate reduction (arrCBA) suggesting that these haloarchaea use arsenic compounds as bioenergetics substrates. We showed that several haloarchaea species, not only from this study, have all genes required for these bioenergetic processes. The phylogenetic analysis of aioA showed that haloarchaea sequences cluster in a novel and monophyletic group, suggesting that the origin of arsenic metabolism in haloarchaea is ancient. Our results also suggest that arsenite chemolithotrophy likely emerged within the archaeal lineage. Our results give a broad new perspective on the haloarchaea metabolism and shed light on the evolutionary history of arsenic bioenergetics. PMID:26140530

  5. Variations in juvenile oak

    Treesearch

    Peter W. Garrett; Harry C. Kettlewood

    1975-01-01

    Data from research on 13-year-old trees in an oak planting in southeastern Pennsylvania indicate that survival and growth are not correlated with source latitude within all species tested. A complete listing of species and seed origins, along with performance of progenies, is presented for persons interested in oak improvement.

  6. An oak wilt primer

    Treesearch

    Jennifer Juzwik

    2000-01-01

    Oak wilt, caused by the fungus Ceratocystis fagacearum {Bretz} Hunt, is an important disease of oaks (Quercus spp.) in the eastern United States. the disease occurs in 22 states and is considered the most important forest disease problem in Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Texas and Wisconsin. The pathogen causes mortality of thousands...

  7. Goldspotted oak borer

    Treesearch

    M.L. Flint; M. I. Jones; T. W. Coleman; S.J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    The goldspotted oak borer (GSOB), Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a flatheaded borer introduced to San Diego County, California, in the late 1990s or early 2000s and also detected at one site in Riverside County in 2012. It was likely brought into the state on oak firewood collected and transported from the insect's native...

  8. California oaks: a bibliography

    Treesearch

    James R. Griffin; Philip M. McDonald; Pamela C. Muick

    1987-01-01

    Among natural resource professionals, California oaks continue to attract considerable attention. This report provides a comprehensive bibliography of the extensive but scattered oak literature. The 768 references are organized into two systems: (a) a topical outline, in which references are displayed under key word headings and subheadings, and author-date entries...

  9. Reconstituted products from oak

    Treesearch

    W. C. Lewis; B. G. Heebink

    1971-01-01

    "Reconstituted" describes a family of panel products made from fractionated oak, bonded with either a synthetic resin or a natural lignin bond. Several current commercial fiber panel products from oak are described, and the status of research on experimental products and processes is presented. Recent technological developments are removing the stigma...

  10. Photosynthesis and Biomass Allocation in Oak Seedlings Grown Under Shade

    Treesearch

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; Paul P. Kormanik; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    1998-01-01

    Abstract-Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) (NRO) and white oak (Q. alba L.) (WO) acorns were sown into wooden plots and grown under 30 percent shade screen (30 percent S) or 70 percent shade screen (70 percent S). Seedlings grown under full sun were the controls (C). At the end of the first year, the 30 percent S NRO had 30 percent greater seedling dry weight (DW...

  11. A Shelterwood Method for Regenerating Red Oakin the Southern Appalachians

    Treesearch

    David L. Loftis

    1990-01-01

    A shelterwood method is described that providesstand conditions that enhance the growth of established red oak advance reproduction, thereby improving the chances of maintaining an oak componentin the next stand. Stocking of a mature, fully stocked stand is reduced to 60%,65%, and 70% of initial stand basal area where oak site index is 70, 80, and 90 ft, respectively....

  12. Pyrosequencing reveals the microbial communities in the Red Sea sponge Carteriospongia foliascens and their impressive shifts in abnormal tissues.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhao-Ming; Wang, Yong; Lee, On On; Tian, Ren-Mao; Wong, Yue Him; Bougouffa, Salim; Batang, Zenon; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz; Lafi, Feras F; Bajic, Vladimir B; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Abnormality and disease in sponges have been widely reported, yet how sponge-associated microbes respond correspondingly remains inconclusive. Here, individuals of the sponge Carteriospongia foliascens under abnormal status were collected from the Rabigh Bay along the Red Sea coast. Microbial communities in both healthy and abnormal sponge tissues and adjacent seawater were compared to check the influences of these abnormalities on sponge-associated microbes. In healthy tissues, we revealed low microbial diversity with less than 100 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) per sample. Cyanobacteria, affiliated mainly with the sponge-specific species "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum," were the dominant bacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Intraspecies dynamics of microbial communities in healthy tissues were observed among sponge individuals, and potential anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria were found. In comparison with healthy tissues and the adjacent seawater, abnormal tissues showed dramatic increase in microbial diversity and decrease in the abundance of sponge-specific microbial clusters. The dominated cyanobacterial species Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum decreased and shifted to unspecific cyanobacterial clades. OTUs that showed high similarity to sequences derived from diseased corals, such as Leptolyngbya sp., were found to be abundant in abnormal tissues. Heterotrophic Planctomycetes were also specifically enriched in abnormal tissues. Overall, we revealed the microbial communities of the cyanobacteria-rich sponge, C. foliascens, and their impressive shifts under abnormality.

  13. Regal phylogeography: Range-wide survey of the marine angelfish Pygoplites diacanthus reveals evolutionary partitions between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Richard R; Eble, Jeffrey A; DiBattista, Joseph D; Rocha, Luiz A; Randall, John E; Berumen, Michael L; Bowen, Brian W

    2016-07-01

    The regal angelfish (Pygoplites diacanthus; family Pomacanthidae) occurs on reefs from the Red Sea to the central Pacific, with an Indian Ocean/Rea Sea color morph distinct from a Pacific Ocean morph. To assess population differentiation and evaluate the possibility of cryptic evolutionary partitions in this monotypic genus, we surveyed mtDNA cytochrome b and two nuclear introns (S7 and RAG2) in 547 individuals from 15 locations. Phylogeographic analyses revealed four mtDNA lineages (d=0.006-0.015) corresponding to the Pacific Ocean, the Red Sea, and two admixed lineages in the Indian Ocean, a pattern consistent with known biogeographic barriers. Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean had both Indian and Pacific lineages. Both S7 and RAG2 showed strong population-level differentiation between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean (ΦST=0.066-0.512). The only consistent population sub-structure within these three regions was at the Society Islands (French Polynesia), where surrounding oceanographic conditions may reinforce isolation. Coalescence analyses indicate the Pacific (1.7Ma) as the oldest extant lineage followed by the Red Sea lineage (1.4Ma). Results from a median-joining network suggest radiations of two lineages from the Red Sea that currently occupy the Indian Ocean (0.7-0.9Ma). Persistence of a Red Sea lineage through Pleistocene glacial cycles suggests a long-term refuge in this region. The affiliation of Pacific and Red Sea populations, apparent in cytochrome b and S7 (but equivocal in RAG2) raises the hypothesis that the Indian Ocean was recolonized from the Red Sea, possibly more than once. Assessing the genetic architecture of this widespread monotypic genus reveals cryptic evolutionary diversity that merits subspecific recognition. We recommend P.d. diacanthus and P.d. flavescens for the Pacific and Indian Ocean/Red Sea forms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrasonic propagation properties of red oak

    Treesearch

    Donald E. Yuhas; Bruce G. Isaacson; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Eugene Wengert

    1999-01-01

    This work was motivated by the need to identify ultrasonic parameters that exhibit the greatest sensitivity to wood degradation as the result of bacterial infection; the so-called ?wetwood? condition. Wetwood infection creates microscopic changes to the wood structure, which then surface as checks and shake following drying. Slower drying schedules can often mitigate...

  15. Effect of Habitat Size, Quality, and Isolation on Functional Groups of Beetles in Hollow Oaks.

    PubMed

    Pilskog, Hanne Eik; Birkemoe, Tone; Framstad, Erik; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest threats to biodiversity is land use change and habitat loss. Hollow oaks (Quercus spp. L.) are well-defined patches that are hotspots for biodiversity and red-listed species, but they are often rare and fragmented in the landscape. We investigated the effect of patch size, habitat quality, and isolation on functional groups and red-listed saproxylic beetles in hollow oaks (n = 40) in Norway. The groups were defined by host tree association, trophic grouping, and red-listed status. Habitat quality, represented by tree form was most important in explaining species richness for most groups. Patch size, represented by circumference and amount of dead branches, was most important in explaining abundance. Isolation, that is single oaks compared with oaks in groups, had a negative effect on the abundance of beetles feeding both on wood and fungi (xylomycethopagous), as well as on species associated with broadleaved trees (oak semi-specialists), but did not affect species richness. This indicates that at this scale and in this landscape, isolated oaks are as species rich and valuable for conservation as other oaks, although some functional groups may be more vulnerable to isolation than others. The red-listed species only responded to patch size, indicating that oaks with large circumference and many dead branches are especially important for red-listed species and for conservation.

  16. Effect of Habitat Size, Quality, and Isolation on Functional Groups of Beetles in Hollow Oaks

    PubMed Central

    Pilskog, Hanne Eik; Birkemoe, Tone; Framstad, Erik; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest threats to biodiversity is land use change and habitat loss. Hollow oaks (Quercus spp. L.) are well-defined patches that are hotspots for biodiversity and red-listed species, but they are often rare and fragmented in the landscape. We investigated the effect of patch size, habitat quality, and isolation on functional groups and red-listed saproxylic beetles in hollow oaks (n = 40) in Norway. The groups were defined by host tree association, trophic grouping, and red-listed status. Habitat quality, represented by tree form was most important in explaining species richness for most groups. Patch size, represented by circumference and amount of dead branches, was most important in explaining abundance. Isolation, that is single oaks compared with oaks in groups, had a negative effect on the abundance of beetles feeding both on wood and fungi (xylomycethopagous), as well as on species associated with broadleaved trees (oak semi-specialists), but did not affect species richness. This indicates that at this scale and in this landscape, isolated oaks are as species rich and valuable for conservation as other oaks, although some functional groups may be more vulnerable to isolation than others. The red-listed species only responded to patch size, indicating that oaks with large circumference and many dead branches are especially important for red-listed species and for conservation. PMID:26945089

  17. The paleohistory of California oaks

    Treesearch

    Scott Mensing

    2015-01-01

    Oak woodlands are a fixture of California geography, yet as recently as 10,000 years ago oaks were only a minor element in the landscape. The first fossil evidence for California's oaks is in the early Miocene (~20 million years ago) when oaks were present across the west, intermixed with deciduous trees typical of eastern North America. As climate became drier,...

  18. Fitting Fire into Oak Management

    Treesearch

    Patrick Brose

    2004-01-01

    In the past decade, the use of prescribed fire in the mixed-oak forests of the eastern United States has markedly increased to help overcome the chronic lack of abundant, vigorous oak regeneration (Yaussy 2000). However, pre- scribed burns implemented under inappropriate circum- stances can result in failure to establish oak regeneration and/or loss of existing oak...

  19. Radial shakes and "frost cracks" in living oak trees

    Treesearch

    Heinz Butin; Alex L. Shigo

    1981-01-01

    Dissections of hundreds of living, mature oak trees over a 25-year period revealed that radial shakes (or "frost cracks") and ring shakes are associated with a variety of wounds and stubs of branches and basal sprouts. A more intensive study of radial shakes that included dissections of more than 30 oaks confirmed the earlier finds, and provided additional...

  20. Stable oxygen isotope analysis reveal vegetation influence on soil water movement and ecosystem water fluxes in a semi-arid oak woodland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piayda, Arndt; Dubbert, Maren; Werner, Christiane; Cuntz, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Mechanistically disentangling the role and function of vegetation within the hydrological cycle is one of the key questions in the interdisciplinary field of ecohydrology. The presence of vegetation can have various impacts on soil water relations: transpiration of active vegetation causes great water losses, rainfall is intercepted, soil evaporation can be reduced and infiltration, hydraulic redistribution and translatory flow might be altered. In drylands, covering around 40% of the global land surface, the carbon cycle is closely coupled to water availability due to (seasonal) droughts. Specifically savannah type ecosystems, which cover large areas worldwide, are, due to their bi-layered structure, very suitable to study the effects of distinct vegetation types on the ecosystem water cycle. Oxygen isotope signatures (δ18O) have been used to partition ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET ) because of the distinct isotopic compositions of water transpired by leaves relative to soil evaporated vapor. Recent developments in laser spectroscopy enable measurements of δ18O in the vapor phase with high temporal resolution in the field and bear a novel opportunity to trace water movement within the ecosystem. In the present study, the effects of distinct vegetation layers (i.e. trees and herbaceous vegetation) on soil water infiltration and redistribution as well as ecosystem water fluxes in a Mediterranean cork-oak woodland are disentangled. An irrigation experiment was carried out using δ18O labeled water to quantify the distinct effects of trees and herbaceous vegetation on 1) infiltration and redistribution of water in the soil profile and 2) to disentangle the effects of tree cover on the contribution of unproductive soil evaporation and understory transpiration to total ET . First results proof that stable δ18O isotopes measured onsite with laser spectroscopy is a valuable tool to trace water movement in the soil showing a much higher sensitivity than common TDR

  1. Aroma potential of oak battens prepared from decommissioned oak barrels.

    PubMed

    Li, Sijing; Crump, Anna M; Grbin, Paul R; Cozzolino, Daniel; Warren, Peter; Hayasaka, Yoji; Wilkinson, Kerry L

    2015-04-08

    During barrel maturation, volatile compounds are extracted from oak wood and impart aroma and flavor to wine, enhancing its character and complexity. However, barrels contain a finite pool of extractable material, which diminishes with time. As a consequence, most barrels are decommissioned after 5 or 6 years. This study investigated whether or not decommissioned barrels can be "reclaimed" and utilized as a previously untapped source of quality oak for wine maturation. Oak battens were prepared from staves of decommissioned French and American oak barrels, and their composition analyzed before and after toasting. The oak lactone glycoconjugate content of untoasted reclaimed oak was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, while the concentrations of cis- and trans-oak lactone, guaiacol, 4-methlyguaiacol, vanillin, eugenol, furfural, and 5-methylfurfural present in toasted reclaimed oak were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aroma potential was then evaluated by comparing the composition of reclaimed oak with that of new oak. Comparable levels of oak lactone glycoconjugates and oak volatiles were observed, demonstrating the aroma potential of reclaimed oak and therefore its suitability as a raw material for alternative oak products, i.e., chips or battens, for the maturation of wine. The temperature profiles achieved during toasting were also measured to evaluate the viability of any yeast or bacteria present in reclaimed oak.

  2. Effects of restoring oak savannas on bird communities and populations.

    PubMed

    Brawn, Jeffrey D

    2006-04-01

    Efforts to restore and maintain oak savannas in North America, with emphasis on the use of prescribed fire, have become common. Little is known, however about how restoration affects animal populations, especially those of birds. I compared the breeding densities, community structure, and reproductive success of birds in oak savannas maintained by prescribed fire (12 sites) with those in closed-canopy forests (13 sites). All sampling was conducted in Illinois (U.S.A.). Of the 31 bird species analyzed, 12 were more common in savannas, 14 were not affected by habitat structure, and 5 were more common in forest habitat. The species favored by disturbance and restoration included Northern Bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura), Red-headed Woodpeckers (Melanerpes erythrocephalus), Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea), and Baltimore Orioles (Icterus galbula). Those more common in closed-canopy forest included Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla) and Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina). Few species were unique to one type of habitat, but overall avian community structure in oak savannas and closed-canopy forests was generally distinctive. Estimates of nesting success (derived from 785 nests) revealed that 6 of the 13 species considered experienced greater productivity in the savanna habitat. Rates of brood parasitism were unaffected by restoration and habitat structure. Within savannas, tract size had little effect on breeding abundances and reproductive success. My results illustrate that restoration techniques can significantly affect the ecology of constituent animal populations and communities and have key implications regarding avian conservation and the management of forest habitat in fragmented landscapes. Small patches of forest habitat that regularly function as population sinks may offer far better prospects for birds if they are subjected to disturbance and ecosystem restoration.

  3. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Candidate Genes Related to Color Fading of ‘Red Bartlett’ (Pyrus communis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhigang; Du, Hong; Zhai, Rui; Song, Linyan; Ma, Fengwang; Xu, Lingfei

    2017-01-01

    The red color of fruit is an attractive plant trait for consumers. Plants with color-faded fruit have a lower commercial value, such as ‘Red Bartlett’ pears (Pyrus communis L.) that have dark-red fruit in the early stages of fruit development that subsequently fade to red-green at maturity. To identify the reason for color fading, we first analyzed the anthocyanin content of peel from ‘Red Bartlett,’ which displays the color fading phenomenon, and ‘Starkrimson,’ which has no color fading. Results showed that the anthocyanin content of ‘Red Bartlett’ peel decreased significantly late in fruit development, while in ‘Starkrimson’ there was no significant decrease. Next, RNA-Sequencing was used to identify 947 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between ‘Red Bartlett’ and ‘Starkrimson.’ Among them, 471 genes were upregulated and 476 genes were downregulated in ‘Red Bartlett’ at the late development stage relative to ‘Starkrimson.’ During ‘Red Bartlett’ color fading, the structural gene LDOX and six GST family genes were downregulated, while FLS, LAC, POD, and five light-responding genes were significantly upregulated. Additionally, 45 genes encoding transcription factors MYB, bHLH, WRKY, NAC, ERF, and zinc finger were identified among 947 DEGs. Changes in the expression of these genes may be responsible for the decrease in anthocyanin accumulation in ‘Red Bartlett’ fruit. Taken together, this study demonstrated that color fading of ‘Red Bartlett’ was closely linked to reduced anthocyanin biosynthesis, increased anthocyanin degradation and suppression of anthocyanin transport. It also provided novel evidence for the involvement of light signals in the color fading of red-skinned pears. PMID:28408914

  4. Structure and dynamics of the Milky Way disk as revealed from the radial velocity distributions of APOGEE red clump stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyouchi, Daisuke; Chiba, Masashi

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the structure and dynamics of the Milky Way (MW) disk stars based on the analysis of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) data, to infer the past evolution histories of the MW disk component(s) possibly affected by radial migration and/or satellite accretions. APOGEE is the first near-infrared spectroscopic survey for a large number of the MW disk stars, providing their radial velocities and chemical abundances without significant dust extinction effects. We here adopt red-clump (RC) stars (Bovy et al. 2014), for which the distances from the Sun are determined precisely, and analyze their radial velocities and chemical abundances in the MW disk regions covering from the Galactocentric distance, R, of 5 kpc to 14 kpc. We investigate their dynamical properties, such as mean rotational velocities, and velocity dispersions, as a function of R, based on the MCMC Bayesian method. We find that at all radii, the dynamics of alpha-poor stars, which are candidates of young disk stars, is much different from that of alpha-rich stars, which are candidates of old disk stars. We find that our Jeans analysis for our sample stars reveals characteristic spatial and dynamical properties of the MW disk, which are generally in agreement with the recent independent work by Bovy et al. (2015) but with a different method from ours.

  5. Forest regeneration composition and development in upland, mixed-oak forests.

    PubMed

    Fei, Songlin; Gould, Peter J; Steiner, Kim C; Finley, James C; McDill, Marc E

    2005-12-01

    Advance regeneration in 52 mature mixed-oak stands was analyzed and described. Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) was the most abundant species in the study area. Among oak (Quercus) species, northern red oak (Q. rubra L.) was the most abundant within the Allegheny Plateau physiographic province, whereas chestnut oak (Q. montana L.) was the most abundant within the Ridge and Valley physiographic province. Sixteen stands, for which data are available through the fourth growing season following harvest, were used to describe stand development. Cumulative height, a composite measure of size and density, was used to describe early stand development. Black gum (Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.) and black birch (Betula lenta L.) had dramatic increases in stand density and cumulative height after overstory removal. Cumulative height of northern red oak and chestnut oak showed a faster positive response to overstory removal than red maple. Oak retained its dominance in cumulative height for at least 4 years after harvest. Red maple nevertheless remained the most abundant tree species after overstory removal. Our results suggest that the principal advantage of red maple regeneration is its ability to accumulate in large numbers prior to harvest.

  6. Oak Canyon Action Memo

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This memorandum requests approval for a time-critical removal action at the 27 residential properties that compose the Oak Canyon Site located in the Village of Paguate, Pueblo of Laguna, near Cibola County, New Mexico.

  7. Poison ivy - oak - sumac

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002886.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac To use the sharing features ... the plant, if known Amount swallowed (if swallowed) Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached ...

  8. SERS reveals the specific interaction of silver and gold nanoparticles with hemoglobin and red blood cell components.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Daniela; Büchner, Tina; McNaughton, Don; Kneipp, Janina

    2013-04-21

    The interaction of nanoparticles with hemoglobin (Hb), a major constituent of red blood cells, is important in nanotoxicity research. We report SERS spectra of Hb using gold and silver nanoparticles at very small nanoparticle : Hb molecule ratios, that is, under conditions relevant for SERS-based nanotoxicity experiments with red blood cells at high sensitivity. We show that the structural information obtained from the experiment is highly dependent on the type of SERS substrate and the conditions under which the interaction of nanoparticles with Hb molecules takes place. In experiments with isolated red blood cells, we demonstrate that the dependence of the spectra on the type of nanoparticle used as the SERS substrate extends to whole red blood cells and red blood cell components. Regarding the applicability of SERS to red blood cells in vivo, evidence is provided that the molecular information contained in the spectra is highly dependent on the material and size of the nanoparticles. The results indicate specific interactions of gold and silver nanoparticles with Hb and the red blood cell membrane, and reflect the hemolytic activity of silver nanoparticles. The results of this study help improve our understanding of the interactions of silver and gold nanoparticles with red blood cells.

  9. Crystallographic study of red fluorescent protein eqFP578 and its far-red variant Katushka reveals opposite pH-induced isomerization of chromophore

    SciTech Connect

    Pletneva, Nadya V.; Pletnev, Vladimir Z.; Shemiakina, Irina I.; Chudakov, Dmitriy M.; Artemyev, Igor; Wlodawer, Alexander; Dauter, Zbigniew; Pletnev, Sergei

    2012-08-10

    The wild type red fluorescent protein eqFP578 (from sea anemone Entacmaea quadricolor, {lambda}{sub ex} = 552 nm, {lambda}{sub em} = 578 nm) and its bright far-red fluorescent variant Katushka ({lambda}{sub ex} = 588 nm, {lambda}{sub em} = 635 nm) are characterized by the pronounced pH dependence of their fluorescence. The crystal structures of eqFP578f (eqFP578 with two point mutations improving the protein folding) and Katushka have been determined at the resolution ranging from 1.15 to 1.85 {angstrom} at two pH values, corresponding to low and high level of fluorescence. The observed extinguishing of fluorescence upon reducing pH in eqFP578f and Katushka has been shown to be accompanied by the opposite trans-cis and cis-trans chromophore isomerization, respectively. Asn143, Ser158, His197 and Ser143, Leu174, and Arg197 have been shown to stabilize the respective trans and cis fluorescent states of the chromophores in eqFP578f and Katushka at higher pH. The cis state has been suggested as being primarily responsible for the observed far-red shift of the emission maximum of Katushka relative to that of eqFP578f.

  10. The establishment and development of oak forests in the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas

    Treesearch

    Rick D. Soucy; Eric Heitzman; Martin A. Spetich

    2005-01-01

    The disturbance history of six mature white oak (Quercus alba L.) - northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) - hickory (Carya spp.) stands in the Ozark Mountains of northern Arkansas were reconstructed using tree-ring and fire-scar analysis. Results indicate that all six stands originated in the early 1900s following...

  11. Does the shelterwood method to regenerate oak forests affect acorn production and predation?

    Treesearch

    M.I. Bellocq; C. Jones; D.C. Dey; J.J. Turgeon

    2005-01-01

    The shelterwood system is one of the primary methods currently used to encourage regeneration of oak forests; yet, little is known about its influence on acorn production and predation. We compared acorn production, and predation by insects and mammals in stands of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) that were regenerated by the shelterwood method (50% canopy...

  12. Individual variation in acorn production by five species of southern Appalachian oaks

    Treesearch

    Cathryn H. Greenberg

    2000-01-01

    Acorns are an important wildlife food resource and seed source for oak regeneration. Most acorn production studies note wide and consistent differences in acorn productivity among individuals, but none clearly demonstrate determinants of productivity. Acorn production by black, northern red, scarlet, chestnut, and white oak was measured from 1993 to 1997 in the...

  13. Wildlife diversity of restored shortleaf pine-oak woodlands in the northern Ozarks

    Treesearch

    Corinne S. Mann; Andrew R. Forbes

    2007-01-01

    Historic changes in land use have altered the plant composition and structure of shortleaf pine-oak woodlands in the northern Ozarks. As a result, the composition of wildlife communities in these landscapes has shifted to species that are more associated with closed canopy oak forests. For example, the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) has...

  14. Herbicide Release of 4 Year Old, Naturally Regenerated Bottomland Oaks -- 10 Year Results

    Treesearch

    Larry E. Nix

    2004-01-01

    In 1989 two clearcut, naturally regenerated bottomland hardwood stands near the Congaree River in South Carolina were found to contain nearly 2000 red oak (Quercus pagoda Raf. and Q. shumardii Buckley) seedlings per acre. By age 4, these oak seedlings were quickly being overtopped by competitive sprouts, vines, and fast growing...

  15. Protein digestion in red aak borer larvae, Enaphalodes rufulus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, a recent outbreak of red oak borer, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), contributed to the death of tens of thousands of red oaks. To better understand nutrient digestion in E. rufulus larvae, biochemical analyses were used to characterize dige...

  16. A 100%-complete sequence reveals unusually simple genomic features in the hot-spring red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae

    PubMed Central

    Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Takano, Hiroyoshi; Misumi, Osami; Terasawa, Kimihiro; Matsuzaki, Motomichi; Maruyama, Shinichiro; Nishida, Keiji; Yagisawa, Fumi; Yoshida, Yamato; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Takio, Susumu; Tamura, Katsunori; Chung, Sung Jin; Nakamura, Soichi; Kuroiwa, Haruko; Tanaka, Kan; Sato, Naoki; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Background All previously reported eukaryotic nuclear genome sequences have been incomplete, especially in highly repeated units and chromosomal ends. Because repetitive DNA is important for many aspects of biology, complete chromosomal structures are fundamental for understanding eukaryotic cells. Our earlier, nearly complete genome sequence of the hot-spring red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae revealed several unique features, including just three ribosomal DNA copies, very few introns, and a small total number of genes. However, because the exact structures of certain functionally important repeated elements remained ambiguous, that sequence was not complete. Obviously, those ambiguities needed to be resolved before the unique features of the C. merolae genome could be summarized, and the ambiguities could only be resolved by completing the sequence. Therefore, we aimed to complete all previous gaps and sequence all remaining chromosomal ends, and now report the first nuclear-genome sequence for any eukaryote that is 100% complete. Results Our present complete sequence consists of 16546747 nucleotides covering 100% of the 20 linear chromosomes from telomere to telomere, representing the simple and unique chromosomal structures of the eukaryotic cell. We have unambiguously established that the C. merolae genome contains the smallest known histone-gene cluster, a unique telomeric repeat for all chromosomal ends, and an extremely low number of transposons. Conclusion By virtue of these attributes and others that we had discovered previously, C. merolae appears to have the simplest nuclear genome of the non-symbiotic eukaryotes. These unusually simple genomic features in the 100% complete genome sequence of C. merolae are extremely useful for further studies of eukaryotic cells. PMID:17623057

  17. Comparative genomics reveals adaptations of a halotolerant thaumarchaeon in the interfaces of brine pools in the Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Kamanda Ngugi, David; Blom, Jochen; Alam, Intikhab; Rashid, Mamoon; Ba-Alawi, Wail; Zhang, Guishan; Hikmawan, Tyas; Guan, Yue; Antunes, Andre; Siam, Rania; El Dorry, Hamza; Bajic, Vladimir; Stingl, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    The bottom of the Red Sea harbors over 25 deep hypersaline anoxic basins that are geochemically distinct and characterized by vertical gradients of extreme physicochemical conditions. Because of strong changes in density, particulate and microbial debris get entrapped in the brine-seawater interface (BSI), resulting in increased dissolved organic carbon, reduced dissolved oxygen toward the brines and enhanced microbial activities in the BSI. These features coupled with the deep-sea prevalence of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in the global ocean make the BSI a suitable environment for studying the osmotic adaptations and ecology of these important players in the marine nitrogen cycle. Using phylogenomic-based approaches, we show that the local archaeal community of five different BSI habitats (with up to 18.2% salinity) is composed mostly of a single, highly abundant Nitrosopumilus-like phylotype that is phylogenetically distinct from the bathypelagic thaumarchaea; ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were absent. The composite genome of this novel Nitrosopumilus-like subpopulation (RSA3) co-assembled from multiple single-cell amplified genomes (SAGs) from one such BSI habitat further revealed that it shares ∼54% of its predicted genomic inventory with sequenced Nitrosopumilus species. RSA3 also carries several, albeit variable gene sets that further illuminate the phylogenetic diversity and metabolic plasticity of this genus. Specifically, it encodes for a putative proline-glutamate ‘switch' with a potential role in osmotolerance and indirect impact on carbon and energy flows. Metagenomic fragment recruitment analyses against the composite RSA3 genome, Nitrosopumilus maritimus, and SAGs of mesopelagic thaumarchaea also reiterate the divergence of the BSI genotypes from other AOA. PMID:25105904

  18. Comparative genomics reveals adaptations of a halotolerant thaumarchaeon in the interfaces of brine pools in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Kamanda Ngugi, David; Blom, Jochen; Alam, Intikhab; Rashid, Mamoon; Ba-Alawi, Wail; Zhang, Guishan; Hikmawan, Tyas; Guan, Yue; Antunes, Andre; Siam, Rania; El Dorry, Hamza; Bajic, Vladimir; Stingl, Ulrich

    2015-02-01

    The bottom of the Red Sea harbors over 25 deep hypersaline anoxic basins that are geochemically distinct and characterized by vertical gradients of extreme physicochemical conditions. Because of strong changes in density, particulate and microbial debris get entrapped in the brine-seawater interface (BSI), resulting in increased dissolved organic carbon, reduced dissolved oxygen toward the brines and enhanced microbial activities in the BSI. These features coupled with the deep-sea prevalence of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in the global ocean make the BSI a suitable environment for studying the osmotic adaptations and ecology of these important players in the marine nitrogen cycle. Using phylogenomic-based approaches, we show that the local archaeal community of five different BSI habitats (with up to 18.2% salinity) is composed mostly of a single, highly abundant Nitrosopumilus-like phylotype that is phylogenetically distinct from the bathypelagic thaumarchaea; ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were absent. The composite genome of this novel Nitrosopumilus-like subpopulation (RSA3) co-assembled from multiple single-cell amplified genomes (SAGs) from one such BSI habitat further revealed that it shares ∼54% of its predicted genomic inventory with sequenced Nitrosopumilus species. RSA3 also carries several, albeit variable gene sets that further illuminate the phylogenetic diversity and metabolic plasticity of this genus. Specifically, it encodes for a putative proline-glutamate 'switch' with a potential role in osmotolerance and indirect impact on carbon and energy flows. Metagenomic fragment recruitment analyses against the composite RSA3 genome, Nitrosopumilus maritimus, and SAGs of mesopelagic thaumarchaea also reiterate the divergence of the BSI genotypes from other AOA.

  19. Consort contact dermatitis due to oak moss.

    PubMed

    Held, J L; Ruszkowski, A M; Deleo, V A

    1988-02-01

    An allergic contact dermatitis in a woman was found to be due to oak moss in her husband's after-shave lotion. When routine patch testing reveals a positive reaction, the dermatologist should consider exposure to the antigen not only in the patient but also through contact with the patient's consort.

  20. Cynipid gall-wasp communities correlate with oak chemistry.

    PubMed

    Abrahamson, Warren G; Hunter, Mark D; Melika, George; Price, Peter W

    2003-01-01

    Host-plant association data, gathered from field surveys conducted throughout Florida and from the literature, were used to identify the specificity of cynipid gall inducers to one or more of six Quercus species that occur at Archbold Biological Station, Lake Placid, Florida, USA, including the red oaks Q. laevis, Q. myrtifolia, and Q. inopina, and the white oaks Q. chapmanii, Q. geminata, and Q. minima. Quercus myrtifolia had the highest cynipid richness and diversity (37 cynipid species, Shannon H' = 3.61, Simpson's D = 0.97), followed by Q. chapmanii, Q. laevis, Q. inopina, Q. geminata, and finally Q. minima (10 species, H' = 2.30, D = 0.90). All cynipid species showed strong fidelity to a particular host plant or a restricted set of host plants. An ordination of gall-wasp host associations indicated that the cynipid communities of each oak species were distinct and specific to a given oak species. Leaf samples taken from each oak species were analyzed for condensed and hydrolyzable tannins, total phenolics, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, nitrogen, and carbon. All of these chemical traits, with the exception of carbon, differed by oak species, and the differences were strongly correlated with the axes of the cynipid-species ordination. These results suggest that gall-wasp occurrence is influenced by oak chemistry and imply that experimental studies of cynipid gall inducers that examine host-plant chemistry and female oviposition choice and larval performance will yield useful insights.

  1. Conversion of an oak seed orchard to oak silvopasture

    Treesearch

    K. Connor; L. Dimov; R. Barlow; M. Smith; E. Kirkland

    2013-01-01

    The potential of hardwood silvopasture has yet to be realized in the Southeastern United States. The decommissioning of the Stauffer Nursery, Opelika, AL, provided the opportunity to intensively research hardwood silvopasture using various oak species. Average crown diameter ranged from 5.9 feet in white oak (Quercus alba) to 10.7 feet in Nuttall oak...

  2. Oak wilt and oak decline in the upper midwest USA

    Treesearch

    Jennifer Juzwik; Thomas L. Schmidt

    2000-01-01

    Oaks are a significant component of the hardwood forests of the Upper Midwest USA. Numerous species occur over vast areas in the region and are highly valued for a variety of reasons. Oak wilt caused by C. fagacearum, and oak decline associated with several factors are the major causes of the species, deterioration and death in the region....

  3. Sudden oak death disease progression in oaks and tanoaks

    Treesearch

    Brice A. McPherson; Sylvia R. Mori; David L. Wood; Andrew J. Storer; Pavel Svihra; N. Maggi Kelly; Richard B. Standiford

    2006-01-01

    In March 2000, we established twenty disease progression plots in Marin County to monitor the progress of sudden oak death symptoms in coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), California black oak (Q. kelloggii), and tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) (McPherson and others 2005). Plots were located to encompass a...

  4. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000027.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are plants that commonly ...

  5. Untargeted metabolomics of colonic digests reveals kynurenine pathway metabolites, dityrosine and 3-dehydroxycarnitine as red versus white meat discriminating metabolites.

    PubMed

    Rombouts, Caroline; Hemeryck, Lieselot Y; Van Hecke, Thomas; De Smet, Stefaan; De Vos, Winnok H; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2017-02-14

    Epidemiological research has demonstrated that the consumption of red meat is an important risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer (CRC), diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. However, there is no holistic insight in the (by-) products of meat digestion that may contribute to disease development. To address this hiatus, an untargeted mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics approach was used to create red versus white meat associated metabolic fingerprints following in vitro colonic digestion using the fecal inocula of ten healthy volunteers. Twenty-two metabolites were unequivocally associated with simulated colonic digestion of red meat. Several of these metabolites could mechanistically be linked to red meat-associated pathways including N'-formylkynurenine, kynurenine and kynurenic acid (all involved in tryptophan metabolism), the oxidative stress marker dityrosine, and 3-dehydroxycarnitine. In conclusion, the used MS-based metabolomics platform proved to be a powerful platform for detection of specific metabolites that improve the understanding of the causal relationship between red meat consumption and associated diseases.

  6. Untargeted metabolomics of colonic digests reveals kynurenine pathway metabolites, dityrosine and 3-dehydroxycarnitine as red versus white meat discriminating metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Rombouts, Caroline; Hemeryck, Lieselot Y.; Van Hecke, Thomas; De Smet, Stefaan; De Vos, Winnok H.; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological research has demonstrated that the consumption of red meat is an important risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer (CRC), diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. However, there is no holistic insight in the (by-) products of meat digestion that may contribute to disease development. To address this hiatus, an untargeted mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics approach was used to create red versus white meat associated metabolic fingerprints following in vitro colonic digestion using the fecal inocula of ten healthy volunteers. Twenty-two metabolites were unequivocally associated with simulated colonic digestion of red meat. Several of these metabolites could mechanistically be linked to red meat-associated pathways including N’-formylkynurenine, kynurenine and kynurenic acid (all involved in tryptophan metabolism), the oxidative stress marker dityrosine, and 3-dehydroxycarnitine. In conclusion, the used MS-based metabolomics platform proved to be a powerful platform for detection of specific metabolites that improve the understanding of the causal relationship between red meat consumption and associated diseases. PMID:28195169

  7. Implications of large oak seedlings on problematic deer herbivory

    Treesearch

    Christopher M. Oswalt; Wayne K. Clatterbuck; Allan E. Houston; Scott E. Schlarbaum

    2006-01-01

    Seedling herbivory by whitetail deer [Odocoileus virginianus (Boddaert)] can be a significant problem where artificial regeneration is attempted. We examined the relationship between deer herbivory and morphological traits of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings for two growing seasons for both browsed and non-browsed seedlings. Logistic...

  8. Silvicultural methods for regenerating oaks

    Treesearch

    F. Bryan Clark; Richard F. Watt

    1971-01-01

    Advance reproduction is the key to forming the new oak stand. However, the size or strength of the advance stems is just as important as number. Most oak stands approaching maturity have enough advance reproduction, but many do not. In such cases, harvest cuttings must be delayed and overstory densities regulated to favor the establishment and development of new oaks...

  9. The historical significance of oak

    Treesearch

    J. V. Thirgood

    1971-01-01

    A brief history of the importance of oak in Europe, contrasting the methods used in France and Britain to propagate the species and manage the forests for continued productivity. The significance of oak as a strategic resource during the sailing-ship era is stressed, and mention is made of the early development of oak management in North America. The international...

  10. Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac Print A A A The oil in poison ivy /oak/sumac plants (called urushiol ) can cause ...

  11. Upland Oak Regeneration and Management

    Treesearch

    David L. Loftis

    2004-01-01

    In oak-dominated plant communities and in other communities where oaks are important, the keys to natural regeneration of upland oak components are (1) to ensure presence of competitive regeneration sources, and (2) to provide timely, sufficient release of these sources. Regeneration sources vary significantly among different types of plant communities and disturbance...

  12. Scarlet Oak Sawfly (Pest Alert)

    Treesearch

    USDA Forest Service

    1998-01-01

    The scarlet oak sawfly, Caliroa quercuscoccineae (Dyar) skeletonizes leaves of scarlet, black, pin, and white oaks in eastern North America. It is also called the oak slug sawfly because of the fact that the larvae are covered with a coat of slime that helps them adhere to foliage.

  13. New Approach for Differentiating Sessile and Pedunculate Oak: Development of a LC-HRMS Method To Quantitate Triterpenoids in Wood.

    PubMed

    Marchal, Axel; Prida, Andréi; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2016-01-27

    Oak aging is a crucial step in winemaking during which the organoleptic properties of wine are modified. Various parameters affect the chemical composition of oak wood including botanical origin, which has been previously shown to be a determinant factor. This study focused on the development of a LC-HRMS method to assay four recently discovered taste-active triterpenes (three sweet and one bitter). The method was applied to evaluate the effect of oak species (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur) on the concentration of these molecules in wood. The results showed that sessile oak was richer in sweet triterpenes and poorer in the bitter one than pedunculate oak, with high interindividual variations within species. Furthermore, a triterpenoid index was calculated to reveal the triterpenoid composition of oak wood. This index appears to be a promising tool for the unambiguous discrimination of oak species and could offer new insights into oak wood selection by coopers and the monitoring of oak aging by winemakers.

  14. Range-wide multilocus phylogeography of the red fox reveals ancient continental divergence, minimal genomic exchange and distinct demographic histories

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Statham; James Murdoch; Jan Janecka; Keith B. Aubry; Ceiridwen J. Edwards; Carl D. Soulsbury; Oliver Berry; Zhenghuan Wang; David Harrison; Malcolm Pearch; Louise Tomsett; Judith Chupasko; Benjamin N. Sacks

    2014-01-01

    Widely distributed taxa provide an opportunity to compare biogeographic responses to climatic fluctuations on multiple continents and to investigate speciation. We conducted the most geographically and genomically comprehensive study to date of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), the world’s most widely distributed wild terrestrial carnivore. Analyses of 697 bp of...

  15. Range-wide multilocus phylogeography of the red fox reveals ancient continental divergence, minimal genomic exchange and distinct demographic histories.

    PubMed

    Statham, Mark J; Murdoch, James; Janecka, Jan; Aubry, Keith B; Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Soulsbury, Carl D; Berry, Oliver; Wang, Zhenghuan; Harrison, David; Pearch, Malcolm; Tomsett, Louise; Chupasko, Judith; Sacks, Benjamin N

    2014-10-01

    Widely distributed taxa provide an opportunity to compare biogeographic responses to climatic fluctuations on multiple continents and to investigate speciation. We conducted the most geographically and genomically comprehensive study to date of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), the world's most widely distributed wild terrestrial carnivore. Analyses of 697 bp of mitochondrial sequence in ~1000 individuals suggested an ancient Middle Eastern origin for all extant red foxes and a 400 kya (SD = 139 kya) origin of the primary North American (Nearctic) clade. Demographic analyses indicated a major expansion in Eurasia during the last glaciation (~50 kya), coinciding with a previously described secondary transfer of a single matriline (Holarctic) to North America. In contrast, North American matrilines (including the transferred portion of Holarctic clade) exhibited no signatures of expansion until the end of the Pleistocene (~12 kya). Analyses of 11 autosomal loci from a subset of foxes supported the colonization time frame suggested by mtDNA (and the fossil record) but, in contrast, reflected no detectable secondary transfer, resulting in the most fundamental genomic division of red foxes at the Bering Strait. Endemic continental Y-chromosome clades further supported this pattern. Thus, intercontinental genomic exchange was overall very limited, consistent with long-term reproductive isolation since the initial colonization of North America. Based on continental divergence times in other carnivoran species pairs, our findings support a model of peripatric speciation and are consistent with the previous classification of the North American red fox as a distinct species, V. fulva.

  16. Genetic Diversity in the U.S. Hard Red Winter Wheat Cultivars as Revealed by Microsatellite Markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Knowledge of the genetic diversity existing in previously released hard red winter wheat (HRWW, Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars in the Great Plains region, United States, is essential for effective utilization of these genetic resources in the various HRWW breeding programs. To ascertain a measure o...

  17. The range of the mange: Spatiotemporal patterns of sarcoptic mange in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as revealed by camera trapping.

    PubMed

    Carricondo-Sanchez, David; Odden, Morten; Linnell, John D C; Odden, John

    2017-01-01

    Sarcoptic mange is a widely distributed disease that affects numerous mammalian species. We used camera traps to investigate the apparent prevalence and spatiotemporal dynamics of sarcoptic mange in a red fox population in southeastern Norway. We monitored red foxes for five years using 305 camera traps distributed across an 18000 km2 area. A total of 6581 fox events were examined to visually identify mange compatible lesions. We investigated factors associated with the occurrence of mange by using logistic models within a Bayesian framework, whereas the spatiotemporal dynamics of the disease were analysed with space-time scan statistics. The apparent prevalence of the disease fluctuated over the study period with a mean of 3.15% and credible interval [1.25, 6.37], and our best logistic model explaining the presence of red foxes with mange-compatible lesions included time since the beginning of the study and the interaction between distance to settlement and season as explanatory variables. The scan analyses detected several potential clusters of the disease that varied in persistence and size, and the locations in the cluster with the highest probability were closer to human settlements than the other survey locations. Our results indicate that red foxes in an advanced stage of the disease are most likely found closer to human settlements during periods of low wild prey availability (winter). We discuss different potential causes. Furthermore, the disease appears to follow a pattern of small localized outbreaks rather than sporadic isolated events.

  18. Densities of Agrilus auroguttatus and Other Borers in California and Arizona Oaks

    PubMed Central

    Haavik, Laurel J.; Coleman, Tom W.; Flint, Mary Louise; Venette, Robert C.; Seybold, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated within-tree population density of a new invasive species in southern California, the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), with respect to host species and the community of other borers present. We measured emergence hole densities of A. auroguttatus and other borers on the lower stem (bole) of naïve oaks at 18 sites in southern California and on co-evolved oaks at seven sites in southeastern Arizona. We sampled recently dead oaks in an effort to quantify the community of primary and secondary borers associated with mortality—species that were likely to interact with A. auroguttatus. Red oaks (Section Lobatae) produced greater densities of A. auroguttatus than white oaks (Section Quercus). On red oaks, A. auroguttatus significantly outnumbered native borers in California (mean ± SE of 9.6 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 emergence holes per 0.09 m2 of bark surface), yet this was not the case in Arizona (0.9 ± 0.2 versus 1.1 ± 0.2 emergence holes per 0.09 m2). In California, a species that is taxonomically intermediate between red and white oaks, Quercus chrysolepis (Section Protobalanus), exhibited similar A. auroguttatus emergence densities compared with a co-occurring red oak, Q. kelloggii. As an invasive species in California, A. auroguttatus may affect the community of native borers (mainly Buprestidae and Cerambycidae) that feed on the lower boles of oaks, although it remains unclear whether its impact will be positive or negative. PMID:26462589

  19. Densities of Agrilus auroguttatus and Other Borers in California and Arizona Oaks.

    PubMed

    Haavik, Laurel J; Coleman, Tom W; Flint, Mary Louise; Venette, Robert C; Seybold, Steven J

    2014-03-21

    We investigated within-tree population density of a new invasive species in southern California, the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), with respect to host species and the community of other borers present. We measured emergence hole densities of A. auroguttatus and other borers on the lower stem (bole) of naïve oaks at 18 sites in southern California and on co-evolved oaks at seven sites in southeastern Arizona. We sampled recently dead oaks in an effort to quantify the community of primary and secondary borers associated with mortality-species that were likely to interact with A. auroguttatus. Red oaks (Section Lobatae) produced greater densities of A. auroguttatus than white oaks (Section Quercus). On red oaks, A. auroguttatus significantly outnumbered native borers in California (mean ± SE of 9.6 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 emergence holes per 0.09 m² of bark surface), yet this was not the case in Arizona (0.9 ± 0.2 versus 1.1 ± 0.2 emergence holes per 0.09 m²). In California, a species that is taxonomically intermediate between red and white oaks, Quercus chrysolepis (Section Protobalanus), exhibited similar A. auroguttatus emergence densities compared with a co-occurring red oak, Q. kelloggii. As an invasive species in California, A. auroguttatus may affect the community of native borers (mainly Buprestidae and Cerambycidae) that feed on the lower boles of oaks, although it remains unclear whether its impact will be positive or negative.

  20. Discoloration & decay in oak

    Treesearch

    Alex L. Shigo

    1971-01-01

    Diseases that result in discoloration and decay of wood are major problems affecting all species of oak. Wounds often start the processes that can lead to these diseases. The type and severity of the wound, the vigor of the tree, the environment, and the aggressiveness of microorganisms that infect are some of the most important factors that determine the nature of the...

  1. Oak management in California

    Treesearch

    Plumb. Timothy R.; Philip M. McDonald

    1981-01-01

    Native oak species grow on 15 to 20 million acres (6 to 8 million ha) of California land, and have an estimated net volume of about 3 billion ft3 (85 million m3). This resource, valuable not only for traditional wood products, but also for wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and recreational-esthetic values, is not...

  2. The oak wilt situation

    Treesearch

    William H. Gillespie

    1971-01-01

    Although oak wilt has been studied for more than 30 years, there are many facets of the disease that are little understood. Continuing Federal-State cooperative studies are geared to predicting the overall effects of the disease on future forest management programs, but much additional research is needed before present control programs can be expanded or discarded in a...

  3. Why sustain oak forests?

    Treesearch

    David Wm. Smith

    2006-01-01

    A brief overview and some personal thoughts are offered that deal with the implications of our social and political systems on the long-term sustainability of our forest resources. The connection of the most recent climatic events, in a geologic-time context, to the development of present day oak dominated forests of the Eastern United States is discussed. The impacts...

  4. An endangered longhorn beetle associated with old oaks and its possible role as an ecosystem engineer.

    PubMed

    Buse, J; Ranius, T; Assmann, T

    2008-04-01

    For more than 10 years, ecologists have been discussing the concept of ecosystem engineering (i.e., nontrophic interactions of an organism that alters the physical state of its environment and affects other species). In conservation biology, the functional role of species is of interest because persistence of some species may be necessary for maintaining an entire assemblage with many threatened species. The great capricorn (Cerambyx cerdo), an endangered beetle listed in the European Union's Habitats Directive, has suffered a dramatic decline in the number of populations and in population sizes in Central Europe over the last century. The damage caused by C. cerdo larvae on sound oak trees has considerable effects on the physiological characteristics of these trees. We investigated the impacts of these effects on the species richness and heterogeneity of the saproxylic beetle assemblage on oaks. We compared the catches made with flight interception traps on 10 oaks colonized and 10 oaks uncolonized by C. cerdo in a study area in Lower Saxony (Germany). Our results revealed a significantly more species-rich assemblage on the trees colonized by C. cerdo. Colonized trees also harbored more red-listed beetle species. Our results suggest that an endangered beetle species can alter its own habitat to create favorable habitat conditions for other threatened beetle species. Efforts to preserve C. cerdo therefore have a positive effect on an entire assemblage of insects, including other highly endangered species. On the basis of the impact C. cerdo seems to have on the saproxylic beetle assemblage, reintroductions might be considered in regions where the species has become extinct.

  5. Standing-wave-excited multiplanar fluorescence in a laser scanning microscope reveals 3D information on red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Amor, Rumelo; Mahajan, Sumeet; Amos, William Bradshaw; McConnell, Gail

    2014-12-08

    Standing-wave excitation of fluorescence is highly desirable in optical microscopy because it improves the axial resolution. We demonstrate here that multiplanar excitation of fluorescence by a standing wave can be produced in a single-spot laser scanning microscope by placing a plane reflector close to the specimen. We report here a variation in the intensity of fluorescence of successive planes related to the Stokes shift of the dye. We show by the use of dyes specific for the cell membrane how standing-wave excitation can be exploited to generate precise contour maps of the surface membrane of red blood cells, with an axial resolution of ≈90 nm. The method, which requires only the addition of a plane mirror to an existing confocal laser scanning microscope, may well prove useful in studying diseases which involve the red cell membrane, such as malaria.

  6. Standing-wave-excited multiplanar fluorescence in a laser scanning microscope reveals 3D information on red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amor, Rumelo; Mahajan, Sumeet; Amos, William Bradshaw; McConnell, Gail

    2014-12-01

    Standing-wave excitation of fluorescence is highly desirable in optical microscopy because it improves the axial resolution. We demonstrate here that multiplanar excitation of fluorescence by a standing wave can be produced in a single-spot laser scanning microscope by placing a plane reflector close to the specimen. We report here a variation in the intensity of fluorescence of successive planes related to the Stokes shift of the dye. We show by the use of dyes specific for the cell membrane how standing-wave excitation can be exploited to generate precise contour maps of the surface membrane of red blood cells, with an axial resolution of ~90 nm. The method, which requires only the addition of a plane mirror to an existing confocal laser scanning microscope, may well prove useful in studying diseases which involve the red cell membrane, such as malaria.

  7. STRUCTURAL GLITCHES NEAR THE CORES OF RED GIANTS REVEALED BY OSCILLATIONS IN G-MODE PERIOD SPACINGS FROM STELLAR MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Cunha, M. S.; Avelino, P. P.; Stello, D.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Townsend, R. H. D.

    2015-06-01

    With recent advances in asteroseismology it is now possible to peer into the cores of red giants, potentially providing a way to study processes such as nuclear burning and mixing through their imprint as sharp structural variations—glitches—in the stellar cores. Here we show how such core glitches can affect the oscillations we observe in red giants. We derive an analytical expression describing the expected frequency pattern in the presence of a glitch. This formulation also accounts for the coupling between acoustic and gravity waves. From an extensive set of canonical stellar models we find glitch-induced variation in the period spacing and inertia of non-radial modes during several phases of red giant evolution. Significant changes are seen in the appearance of mode amplitude and frequency patterns in asteroseismic diagrams such as the power spectrum and the échelle diagram. Interestingly, along the red giant branch glitch-induced variation occurs only at the luminosity bump, potentially providing a direct seismic indicator of stars in that particular evolution stage. Similarly, we find the variation at only certain post-helium-ignition evolution stages, namely, in the early phases of helium core burning and at the beginning of helium shell burning, signifying the asymptotic giant branch bump. Based on our results, we note that assuming stars to be glitch-free, while they are not, can result in an incorrect estimate of the period spacing. We further note that including diffusion and mixing beyond classical Schwarzschild could affect the characteristics of the glitches, potentially providing a way to study these physical processes.

  8. Different speciation for bromine in brown and red algae, revealed by in vivo X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Küpper, Frithjof C; Leblanc, Catherine; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Potin, Philippe; Feiters, Martin C

    2014-08-01

    Members of various algal lineages are known to be strong producers of atmospherically relevant halogen emissions, that is a consequence of their capability to store and metabolize halogens. This study uses a noninvasive, synchrotron-based technique, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, for addressing in vivo bromine speciation in the brown algae Ectocarpus siliculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum, and Fucus serratus, the red algae Gracilaria dura, G. gracilis, Chondrus crispus, Osmundea pinnatifida, Asparagopsis armata, Polysiphonia elongata, and Corallina officinalis, the diatom Thalassiosira rotula, the dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum and a natural phytoplankton sample. The results highlight a diversity of fundamentally different bromine storage modes: while most of the stramenopile representatives and the dinoflagellate store mostly bromide, there is evidence for Br incorporated in nonaromatic hydrocarbons in Thalassiosira. Red algae operate various organic bromine stores - including a possible precursor (by the haloform reaction) for bromoform in Asparagopsis and aromatically bound Br in Polysiphonia and Corallina. Large fractions of the bromine in the red algae G. dura and C. crispus and the brown alga F. serratus are present as Br(-) defects in solid KCl, similar to what was reported earlier for Laminaria parts. These results are discussed according to different defensive strategies that are used within algal taxa to cope with biotic or abiotic stresses.

  9. Vertical stratification of microbial communities in the Red Sea revealed by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Pei-Yuan; Wang, Yong; Lee, On On; Lau, Stanley C K; Yang, Jiangke; Lafi, Feras F; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz; Wong, Tim YH

    2011-01-01

    The ecosystems of the Red Sea are among the least-explored microbial habitats in the marine environment. In this study, we investigated the microbial communities in the water column overlying the Atlantis II Deep and Discovery Deep in the Red Sea. Taxonomic classification of pyrosequencing reads of the 16S rRNA gene amplicons showed vertical stratification of microbial diversity from the surface water to 1500 m below the surface. Significant differences in both bacterial and archaeal diversity were observed in the upper (2 and 50 m) and deeper layers (200 and 1500 m). There were no obvious differences in community structure at the same depth for the two sampling stations. The bacterial community in the upper layer was dominated by Cyanobacteria whereas the deeper layer harbored a large proportion of Proteobacteria. Among Archaea, Euryarchaeota, especially Halobacteriales, were dominant in the upper layer but diminished drastically in the deeper layer where Desulfurococcales belonging to Crenarchaeota became the dominant group. The results of our study indicate that the microbial communities sampled in this study are different from those identified in water column in other parts of the world. The depth-wise compositional variation in the microbial communities is attributable to their adaptations to the various environments in the Red Sea. PMID:20668490

  10. Foliar nutrients explain goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, adult feeding preference among four California oak species

    Treesearch

    Yigen. Chen; Tom. W. Coleman; Michael. I. Jones; Mary. L. Flint; Steven. J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Adults of the invasive goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), consumed foliar weight in no-choice feeding tests of, in descending order, California black oak Quercus kelloggii Newb., Engelmann oak, Quercus engelmannii Greene, coast live oak, Quercus...

  11. Giants reveal what dwarfs conceal: Li abundance in lower red giant branch stars as diagnostic of the primordial Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucciarelli, A.; Salaris, M.; Bonifacio, P.

    2012-01-01

    The discrepancy between cosmological Li abundance inferred from Population II dwarf stars and that derived from big bang nucleosynthesis calculations is still far from being satisfactorily solved. We investigated, as an alternative route, the use of Li abundances in Population II lower red giant branch stars as empirical diagnostic of the cosmological Li. Both theory and observations suggest that the surface Li abundance in metal-poor red giants after the completion of the first dredge-up and before the red giant branch bump is significantly less sensitive to the efficiency of atomic diffusion, compared with dwarf stars. The surface Li abundances in these objects - after the dilution caused by the first dredge-up - are predicted to be sensitive to the total Li content left in the star, i.e. they are affected only by the total amount of Li eventually burned during the previous main-sequence phase. Standard stellar models computed under different physical assumptions show that the inclusion of the atomic diffusion has an impact of about 0.07 dex in the determination of the primordial Li abundance - much smaller than the case of metal-poor main-sequence turnoff stars - and it is basically unaffected by reasonable variations of other parameters (overshooting, age, initial He abundance and mixing length). We have determined from spectroscopy the surface Li content of 17 halo lower red giant branch stars, in the metallicity range between [Fe/H] ˜- 3.4 and ˜- 1.4 dex, evolving before the extramixing episode that sets in at the red giant branch bump. The initial Li (customarily taken as estimate of the cosmological Li abundance A(Li)0) has then been inferred by accounting for the difference between initial and post-dredge-up Li abundances in the appropriate stellar models. It depends mainly on the Teff scale adopted in the spectroscopic analysis, and is only weakly sensitive to the efficiency of atomic diffusion in the models, so long as one neglects Li destruction

  12. Sudden Oak Death - Western (Pest Alert)

    Treesearch

    Susan Frankel

    2002-01-01

    Tens of thousands of tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus), coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), California black oak (Quercus kelloggii), Shreve oak (Quercus parvula var. shrevei), and madrone (Arbutus menziesii) have been killed by a newly identified species, Phytophthora ramorum, which causes Sudden Oak Death. Sudden Oak Death was first reported in 1995 in central coastal...

  13. Response of naturally regenerated and underplanted white oak (Quercus alba L.) seedlings 6 years following midstory removal

    Treesearch

    Jared M. Craig; John M. Lhotka; Jeffrey W. Stringer

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the abundance of red maple and shade-tolerant understory species was limited by fire and other disturbances. In the absence of periodic disturbance, regeneration of oaks with intermediate shade tolerance has been hindered due to inadequate light conditions created by shade-tolerant midstory trees. Research suggests that midstory removal in oak-dominated...

  14. Effect of site treatments on soil temperature and moisture and oak and pine growth and nutrient concentrations

    Treesearch

    Felix, Jr. Ponder

    2003-01-01

    Five years after planting, measurements of soil moisture and temperature, leaf nutrient concentrations and growth, were compared for plots of northern red oak, white oak, and shortleaf pine for treatment combinations that included two levels each of harvesting intensity (organic matter removal), site disturbance (soil compaction), and weed control (control of the...

  15. Effects of soil compaction, forest leaf litter and nitrogen fertilizer on two oak species and microbial activity

    Treesearch

    D. Jordan; F., Jr. Ponder; V. C. Hubbard

    2003-01-01

    A greenhouse study examined the effects of soil compaction and forest leaf litter on the growth and nitrogen (N) uptake and recovery of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea Muencch) seedlings and selected microbial activity over a 6-month period. The experiment had a randomized complete block design with...

  16. Population structures of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) on the Hokkaido Island, Japan, revealed by microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Takuya; Uraguchi, Kohji; Takahashi, Kenichi; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2011-01-01

    In order to examine the population structures of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) on the Hokkaido Island in Japan, we conducted analysis on 250 foxes from all over the island for 12 microsatellite loci. Assignment tests using the genotype data set showed that they were divided into 6 subpopulations. Of the 6, one was geographically isolated in the southern region and considered definitive subpopulation, whereas the other 5 were not. The slight differences among the latter 5 subpopulations were explained by the high adaptability and long dispersal of the red fox on the Hokkaido Island. Although there are few ecological data to explain the genetic differentiation of the southern population, we have proposed some hypotheses from the present ecological and geohistorical viewpoints. One convincing reason from the ecological viewpoint is the restriction of gene flow to southern Hokkaido from other areas due to geographical isolation resulting from the land shape. The other explanation is the geohistorical division of southern Hokkaido from other regions on the island during the last interglacial age, resulting in the isolation of the fox population.

  17. Purple martins in oak woodlands

    Treesearch

    Brian D. C. Williams

    2002-01-01

    Purple martins are cavity-nesting swallows that once nested fairly widely in California’s oak woodlands but are now rare in that habitat. The old oaks of the Tehachapi Range (southern Sierra Nevada) may now host the last martins that nest in oak woodlands, with approximately 100-200 pairs or about 15 percent of the California population. In summer of 2000, we found 57...

  18. The genome phylogeny of domestic cat, red panda and five mustelid species revealed by comparative chromosome painting and G-banding.

    PubMed

    Nie, Wenhui; Wang, Jinhuan; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Fu, Beiyuan; Ying, Tian; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Yang, Fengtang

    2002-01-01

    Genome-wide homology maps among stone marten (Martes foina, 2n = 38), domestic cat (Felis catus, 2n = 38), American mink (Mustela vison, 2n = 30), yellow-throated marten (Martes flavigula, 2n = 40), Old World badger (Meles meles, 2n = 44), ferret badger (Melogale moschata, 2n = 38) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens, 2n = 36) have been established by cross-species chromosome painting with a complete set of stone marten probes. In total, 18 stone marten autosomal probes reveal 20, 19, 21, 18 and 21 pairs of homologous chromosomal segments in the respective genomes of American mink, yellow-throated marten. Old World badger, ferret badger and red panda. Reciprocal painting between stone marten and cat delineated 21 pairs of homologous segments shared in both stone marten and cat genomes. The chromosomal painting results indicate that most chromosomes of these species are highly conserved and show one-to-one correspondence with stone marten and cat chromosomes or chromosomal arms, and that only a few interchromosomal rearrangements (Robertsonian fusions and fissions) have occurred during species radiation. By comparing the distribution patterns of conserved chromosomal segments in both these species and the putative ancestral carnivore karyotype, we have reconstructed the pathway of karyotype evolution of these species from the putative 2n = 42 ancestral carnivore karyotype. Our results support a close phylogenetic relationship between the red panda and mustelids. The homology data presented in these maps will allow us to transfer the cat gene mapping data to other unmapped carnivore species.

  19. LC-MS analysis of Hep-2 and Hek-293 cell lines treated with Brazilian red propolis reveals differences in protein expression.

    PubMed

    da Silva Frozza, Caroline O; da Silva Brum, Emyle; Alving, Anjali; Moura, Sidnei; Henriques, João A P; Roesch-Ely, Mariana

    2016-08-01

    Red propolis, an exclusive variety of propolis found in the northeast of Brazil has shown to present antitumour activity, among several other biological properties. This article aimed to help to evaluate the underlying molecular mechanisms of the potential anticancer effects of red propolis on tumour, Hep-2, and non-tumour cells, Hek-293. Differentially expressed proteins in human cell lines were identified through label-free quantitative MS-based proteomic platform, and cells were stained with Giemsa to show morphological changes. A total of 1336 and 773 proteins were identified for Hep-2 and Hek-293, respectively. Among the proteins here identified, 16 were regulated in the Hep-2 cell line and 04 proteins in the Hek-293 line. Over a total of 2000 proteins were identified under MS analysis, and approximately 1% presented differential expression patterns. The GO annotation using Protein Analysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships classification system revealed predominant molecular function of catalytic activity, and among the biological processes, the most prominent was associated to cell metabolism. The proteomic profile here presented should help to elucidate further molecular mechanisms involved in inhibition of cancer cell proliferation by red propolis, which remain unclear to date. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  20. Orientations between Red Antenna States of Photosystem I Monomers from Thermosynechococcus elongatus Revealed by Single-Molecule Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Skandary, Sepideh; Konrad, Alexander; Hussels, Martin; Meixner, Alfred J; Brecht, Marc

    2015-10-29

    Single-molecule spectroscopy at low temperature was used to study the spectral properties, heterogeneities, and spectral dynamics of the chlorophyll a (Chl a) molecules responsible for the fluorescence emission of photosystem I monomers (PS I-M) from the cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus. The fluorescence spectra of single PS I-M are dominated by several red-shifted chlorophyll a molecules named C708 and C719. The emission spectra show broad spectral distributions and several zero-phonon lines (ZPLs). Compared with the spectra of the single PS I trimers, some contributions are missing due to the lower number of C719 Chl's in monomers. Polarization-dependent measurements show an almost perpendicular orientation between the emitters corresponding to C708 and C719. These contributions can be assigned to chlorophyll dimers B18B19, B31B32, and B32B33.