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Sample records for red oils dans

  1. Acaricidal activities of clove bud oil and red thyme oil using microencapsulation against HDMs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Ran; Sharma, Suraj

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce a safer microcapsule loaded with clove bud oil and red thyme oil to reduce the population of house dust mites (HDMs). Gelatin-based microcapsules 4-85 µm in size were created, with agitation speed and type of oil playing a critical role in governing their size. Microcapsules made up of single spherical units less than 30 µm in diameter remained separate on the fibre, whereas larger microcapsules of over 30 µm ruptured or aggregated. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrated that microcapsules containing red thyme oil showed a more consistent range of oil loading, from 50 to 80%, than microcapsules containing clove bud oil, which ranged from 30 to 80% (more deviated). Mortality tests on Dermatophagoides farinae conducted on fabric with attached microcapsules showed that clove bud oil, containing a more phenolic monoterpenoid (eugenol), was more effective at reducing the live HDMs (94% mortality).

  2. Overview of ''Red Oil'' Frequency Analyses for F-Canyon

    SciTech Connect

    Lux, C.R.

    2000-07-19

    A very small potential exists in the Savannah River Site (SRS) separations operations for an uncontrolled reaction between tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and nitric acid that could result in unacceptable damage to separations facilities and a significant release of radioactive materials. The recent ''red oil'' (TBP and nitric acid) accident in Tomsk, Russia, resulted in considerable damage and radioactive release. Explosions have also occurred at SRS during the early years of operations. While the SRS separations facilities have operated without incident for many years, it is prudent to revisit the SRS defense-in-depth approach to preventing such an accident and to upgrade preventive procedures and hardware as appropriate.

  3. In vitro red blood cell assay for oxidant toxicity of petroleum oil

    SciTech Connect

    Couillard, C.M.; Leighton, F.A. )

    1993-05-01

    Petroleum oil has caused hemolytic anemia in birds and mammals. In birds, an oxidant damage on circulating red cells has been identified as the primary toxic effect of ingested petroleum oils. An in vitro red blood cell assay was developed to discriminate among the oxidant activities of different petroleum oils. The assay used rabbit red blood cells with a rat liver enzyme system and formation of methemoglobin was measured as an indicator of oxidant damage to the red cells. The assay was applied to five different petroleum oils and to naphthalene, a petroleum hydrocarbon known to cause hemolytic anemia. Different petroleum oils differed in their capacity to induce methemoglobin formation. Methemoglobin levels varied from 2.9% with Arabian light crude oil to 6.2% with South Louisiana crude oil. Naphthalene induced formation of up to 37% methemoglobin. Naphthalene and the five petroleum oils generated methemoglobin only in the presence of liver enzymes.

  4. Chicken meat nutritional value when feeding red palm oil, palm oil or rendered animal fat in combinations with linseed oil, rapeseed oil and two levels of selenium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Chicken meat nutritional value with regard to fatty acid composition and selenium content depends on the choice of dietary oil and selenium level used in the chickens’ feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of replacing commonly used rendered animal fat as a dietary source of saturated fatty acids and soybean oil as a source of unsaturated fatty acids, with palm oil and red palm oil in combinations with rapeseed oil, linseed oil and two levels of selenium enriched yeast on chicken breast meat nutritional value. The study also wished to see whether red palm oil had a cholesterol lowering effect on chicken plasma. 204 male, newly hatched broiler chickens were randomly divided into twelve dietary treatment groups, and individually fed one out of six dietary fat combinations combined with either low (0.1 mg Se /kg feed) or high (1 mg Se/kg feed) dietary selenium levels. Linseed oil, independent of accompanying dietary fat source, lead to increased levels of the n-3 EPA, DPA and DHA and reduced levels of the n-6 arachidonic acid (AA). The ratio between AA/EPA was reduced from 19/1 in the soybean oil dietary groups to 1.7/1 in the linseed oil dietary groups. Dietary red palm oil reduced total chicken plasma cholesterol levels. There were no differences between the dietary groups with regard to measured meat antioxidant capacity or sensory evaluation. Chicken meat selenium levels were clearly influenced by dietary selenium levels, but were not influenced by feed fatty acid composition. High dietary selenium level lead to marginally increased n-3 EPA and higher meat fat % in breast muscle but did not influence the other LC PUFA levels. Chicken breast meat nutritional value from the soybean oil and low selenium dietary groups may be regarded as less beneficial compared to the breast meat from the linseed oil and high selenium dietary groups. Replacing rendered animal fat with palm oil and red palm oil had no negative effects on chicken muscle

  5. Chicken meat nutritional value when feeding red palm oil, palm oil or rendered animal fat in combinations with linseed oil, rapeseed oil and two levels of selenium.

    PubMed

    Nyquist, Nicole F; Rødbotten, Rune; Thomassen, Magny; Haug, Anna

    2013-05-09

    Chicken meat nutritional value with regard to fatty acid composition and selenium content depends on the choice of dietary oil and selenium level used in the chickens' feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of replacing commonly used rendered animal fat as a dietary source of saturated fatty acids and soybean oil as a source of unsaturated fatty acids, with palm oil and red palm oil in combinations with rapeseed oil, linseed oil and two levels of selenium enriched yeast on chicken breast meat nutritional value. The study also wished to see whether red palm oil had a cholesterol lowering effect on chicken plasma.204 male, newly hatched broiler chickens were randomly divided into twelve dietary treatment groups, and individually fed one out of six dietary fat combinations combined with either low (0.1 mg Se /kg feed) or high (1 mg Se/kg feed) dietary selenium levels. Linseed oil, independent of accompanying dietary fat source, lead to increased levels of the n-3 EPA, DPA and DHA and reduced levels of the n-6 arachidonic acid (AA). The ratio between AA/EPA was reduced from 19/1 in the soybean oil dietary groups to 1.7/1 in the linseed oil dietary groups. Dietary red palm oil reduced total chicken plasma cholesterol levels. There were no differences between the dietary groups with regard to measured meat antioxidant capacity or sensory evaluation. Chicken meat selenium levels were clearly influenced by dietary selenium levels, but were not influenced by feed fatty acid composition. High dietary selenium level lead to marginally increased n-3 EPA and higher meat fat % in breast muscle but did not influence the other LC PUFA levels. Chicken breast meat nutritional value from the soybean oil and low selenium dietary groups may be regarded as less beneficial compared to the breast meat from the linseed oil and high selenium dietary groups. Replacing rendered animal fat with palm oil and red palm oil had no negative effects on chicken muscle

  6. Safety of red ginseng oil for single oral administration in Sprague–Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Min-Ji; Kim, Kyu-Bong; Jun, Mira; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2013-01-01

    The single oral administration of red ginseng oil (5000 mg/kg) to Sprague–Dawley rats induced no changes in behavioral patterns, clinical signs, and body weight, and hepatotoxicity parameters such as aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase for 14 d. Therefore, these results suggest that the red ginseng oil is safe and nontoxic acutely. PMID:24558315

  7. Concentration dependent red shift: qualitative and quantitative investigation of motor oils by synchronous fluorescence scan.

    PubMed

    Patra, D; Mishra, A K

    2001-01-05

    Synchronous fluorescence scan (SFS) has been described as a successful technique to characterize Motor oils like diesel, petrol, kerosene, 2T oil and Mobil. The concentration dependent investigation of Motor oils shows a red shift in lambda(SFS)(max). Using red shift of lambda(SFS)(max), a method has been developed to quantify Motor oil in the concentration range 5-100% v/v. The concentration dependent overall rate of energy transfer of Motor oil gives a unique behavioral change according to the oil type and SFS is a simpler spectroscopic method to qualitatively differentiate between heavy and light oil. The molecular interaction of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in fluorophoric mixtures like resonance energy transfer and self-quenching via solvent collision has been clearly explained by SFS method. Effect of solvent and external quencher molecule on Motor oils has also been studied. Nitrobenzene is found to be a selective quencher for PACs of Motor oils.

  8. Integrated utilization of red radish seeds for the efficient production of seed oil and sulforaphene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Xing; Fu, Min

    2016-02-01

    Supercritical CO2 was used to obtain seed oil from red radish seeds. The influence of pressure, temperature, CO2 flow rate and time on extraction yield of oil were investigated in detail. The maximum extraction yield of oil was 92.07 ± 0.76% at the optimal extraction conditions. The physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of oil indicated that the seed oil can be used as a dietary oil. Meanwhile, the high purity sulforaphene (96.84 ± 0.17%) was separated by solvent extraction coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography from red radish seed meal. The initial pH, R, extraction temperature and extraction time for each cycle had a considerable influence both on the extraction yield and purity of sulforaphene of crude product. The extraction of oil was directly responsible for an increase of 18.32% in the yield of sulforaphene.

  9. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Red Sea Basin Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 5 billion barrels of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and 112 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas in the Red Sea Basin Province using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  10. Effect of Red Yeast Rice and Coconut, Rice Bran or Sunflower Oil Combination in Rats on Hypercholesterolemic Diet

    PubMed Central

    Vellingiri, Kishore

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dietary supplements provide a novel population based health approach for treating hyperlipidemias. Red yeast rice is known to have lipid lowering effects. Combination of red yeast rice with various oils is taken by different population around the world. Aim In this present work, we aimed to compare the effects of red yeast rice with different oil (coconut, rice bran and sunflower oil) supplementations on lipid levels and oxidative stress in rats fed on hypercholesterolemic diet. Materials and Methods A Randomized controlled study was conducted on 28 male Sprague Dawley rats. It included 4 arms-Control arm (hypercholesterolemic diet), Test arm A (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Rice bran oil), arm B (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Coconut oil) and arm C (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Sunflower oil). At the end of one month, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, MDA and paraoxonase was measured. The mean values of analytes between the different groups were compared using student ‘t-’ test. Results The rats fed with red yeast rice and rice bran oil combination showed significantly lower levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides and MDA when compared to the controls. The serum paraoxonase levels were significantly higher in this group when compared to the controls. The rats fed with red yeast rice and coconut oil combination showed significantly lower serum cholesterol and MDA levels when compared to the controls. The mean triglyceride and paraoxonase levels did not show any statistically significant difference from the controls. The rats on red yeast rice and sunflower oil combination did not show any statistically significant difference in the lipid levels and oxidative stress parameters. Conclusion The food combination which had best outcome in preventing the development of hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in rats fed with hypercholesterolemic diet was red yeast rice and rice bran oil. Combining red yeast rice

  11. Anti-complement activity of essential oils from red and black rice bran.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Yeo, Min-A; Kim, Sun-Jin; Moon, Hyung-In

    2011-05-01

    The volatile essential oils from red and black rice bran were obtained by hydrodistillation using a clevenger-type apparatus, and the components of that oil were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The present study involved characterizing the chemical compositions, their amounts and the anti-complement activities of red and black rice bran. The red rice bran essential oils yield was 0.031%, and GC-MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were (E)-β-ocimene (3.12%), nonanal (11.32%), (2E, 4E)-decadienal (2.54%), myristic acid (41.32%), geranyactone (2.41%) and methyl oleate (2.46%). The black rice bran essential oils yield was 0.053%, and GC-MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were nonanal (8.31%), acrylic acid (3.21%), 2-hydroxy-6-methylbenzaldehyde (2.81%), pelargonic acid (4.21%) and myrisitc acid (28.07%). The essential oils showed inhibitory activity against complement system with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) values of 246 ppm (red rice bran) and 193 ppm (black rice bran). Also, myristic acid, nonanal, (E)-β-ocimene and pelargonic acid were tested against complement system. Pelargonic acid was shown to moderate activity (50% inhibitory concentration = 132 μM).

  12. Red palm oil as an intervention food to prevent vitamin A deficiency.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is an important cause of blindness. Red palm oil (RPO) is the richest food source of VA-forming carotenoids. We evaluated RPO carotenoid concentration and bioavailability, and used this data to estimate the amount of RPO needed to meet VA requirements. Amounts ranged fr...

  13. Oil Red O-positive lipid in peritoneal fluid from a horse with a rectal tear.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jennifer S; Johnson, Mark C; Sims, Will P; Boone, Lindsey H; Swor, Tamara M; Weeks, Bradley R

    2011-06-01

    A 4-year-old Quarter Horse mare was presented to the Texas A&M University Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital for evaluation of a rectal tear. On initial evaluation, rectal palpation and colonoscopy revealed a grade IIIb rectal tear. Analysis of peritoneal fluid revealed a modified transudate. Preliminary supportive care included fluid therapy and mineral oil administration via nasogastric tube. Approximately 48 hours after presentation, a second abdominocentesis was performed, and cytologic examination of the fluid revealed a marked suppurative exudate. Round clear nonrefractile material observed within neutrophils and macrophages and in the background stained bright pink to red with Oil Red O, confirming the material as lipid, likely from leakage of mineral oil through the rectal tear. The condition of the mare deteriorated and euthanasia was elected due to the poor prognosis. At necropsy, gross and histologic findings included peritoneal effusion and a full-thickness rectal tear with transmural necrotizing pyogranulomatous colitis and fibrinous peritonitis. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of Oil Red O-positive lipid vacuoles in the peritoneal fluid of a horse from presumed leakage of mineral oil through a transmural rectal perforation. The frequency of this occurrence in horses is unknown, but it is important for cytopathologists to be familiar with the appearance and significance of lipid-type droplets in phagocytic cells in cytologic fluid analysis specimens.

  14. Red Mud Catalytic Pyrolysis of Pinyon Juniper and Single-Stage Hydrotreatment of Oils

    SciTech Connect

    Agblevor, Foster A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Burton, Sarah D.; Swita, Marie; Beis, Sedat H.; Christian, Kyle; Sargent, Brandon

    2016-10-20

    Pinyon juniper biomass feedstocks, which cover a large acreage of rangeland in the western United States, are being eradicated and, therefore, considered as a convenient biomass feedstock for biofuel production. Pinyon juniper whole biomass (wood, bark, and leaves) were pyrolyzed in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidized-bed reactor at 450 °C, and the noncondensable gases were recycled to fluidize the reactor. Red mud was used as the in situ catalyst for the pyrolysis of the pinyon juniper biomass. The pyrolysis products were condensed in three stages, and products were analyzed for physicochemical properties. The condenser oil formed two phases with the aqueous fraction, whereas the electrostatic precipitator oils formed a single phase. The oil pH was 3.3; the higher heating value (HHV) was 28 MJ/kg; and the viscosity was less than 100 cP. There was a direct correlation between the viscosity of the oils and the alcohol/ether content of the oils, and this was also related to the aging rate of the oils. The catalytic pyrolysis oils were hydrotreated in a continuous single-stage benchtop hydrotreater to produce hydrocarbon fuels with a density of 0.80$-$0.82 cm3/g. The hydrotreater ran continuously for over 300 h with no significant catalyst deactivation or coke formation. This is the first time that such a long single-stage hydrotreatment has been demonstrated on biomass catalytic pyrolysis oils.

  15. Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Grading System Using Red, Green and Blue Digital Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfatni, Meftah Salem M.; Shariff, Abdul Rashid Mohamed; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Ben Saaed, Osama M.; Eshanta, Omar M.

    This research deals with the ripeness grading of oil palm fruit bunches. The current practice in the oil palm mills is to grade the oil palm bunches manually using human graders. This method is subjective and subject to disputes. In this research, we developed an automated grading system for oil palm bunches using the RGB color model. This grading system was developed to distinguish between the three different categories of oil palm fruit bunches. The maturity or color ripening index was based on different color intensity. Our grading system employs a computer and camera to analyze and interpret images equivalent to the human eye and brain. The colors namely Red, Green and Blue (RGB) of the palm oil fruit bunch were investigated using this grading system. The computer program developed and used the mean color intensity to differentiate between the different color and ripeness of the fruits such as oil palm FFB. The program results showed that the ripeness of fruit bunch could be differentiated between different categories of fruit bunches based on RGB intensity.

  16. Environmental interactions with the toxicity of plant essential oils to the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    George, D R; Sparagano, O A E; Port, G; Okello, E; Shiel, R S; Guy, J H

    2010-03-01

    The toxicity of a range of plant essential oils to the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (Acari: Dermanyssidae), a serious ectoparasitic pest of laying hens throughout Europe and elsewhere, was assessed in the laboratory. Dermanyssus gallinae may cause losses in egg production, anaemia and, in extreme cases, death of hens. With changes in legislation and consumer demand, alternatives to synthetic acaricides are needed to manage this pest. Fifty plant essential oils were selected for their toxicity to arthropods reported in the literature. Twenty-four of these essential oils were found to kill > 75% of adult D. gallinae in contact toxicity tests over a 24-h period at a rate of 0.21 mg/cm(2). Subsequent testing at lower rates showed that the essential oils of cade, manuka and thyme were especially toxic to adult D. gallinae. The toxicity of the seven most acaricidal essential oils was found to be stable at different temperatures likely to be encountered in commercial poultry housing (15 degrees C, 22 degrees C and 29 degrees C), although results suggest that humidity and dust might influence the toxicity of some of the oils tested. The toxicity of clove bud essential oil to D. gallinae, for example, was increased at high humidity and dust levels compared with ambient levels. The results suggest that certain essential oils may make effective botanical pesticides for use against D. gallinae, although it is likely that issues relating to the consistency of the toxic effect of some oils will determine which oils will be most effective in practice.

  17. Cardiac function and survival are affected by crude oil in larval red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Khursigara, Alexis J; Perrichon, Prescilla; Martinez Bautista, Naim; Burggren, Warren W; Esbaugh, Andrew J

    2017-02-01

    Following exposure to weathered and non-weathered oil, lethal and sub-lethal impacts on red drum larvae were assessed using survival, morphological, and cardiotoxicity assays. The LC50 for red drum ranged from 14.6 (10.3-20.9) to 21.3 (19.1-23.8) μgl(-1) ΣPAH with no effect of exposure timing during the pre-hatch window or oil weathering. Similarly, morphological deformities showed dose responses in the low ppb range. Cardiac output showed similar sensitivity resulting in a major 70% reduction after exposure to 2.6μgl(-1) ΣPAH. This cardiac failure was driven by reduced stroke volume rather than bradycardia, meaning that in some species, cardiac function is more sensitive than previously thought. After the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, much of this type of work has primarily focused on pelagic species with little known about fast developing estuarine species. These results demonstrate similarity sensitivity of the red drum as their pelagic counter parts, and more importantly, that cardiac function is dramatically reduced in concert with pericardial edema.

  18. [A brief textual research on circulated versions of Dan tai yu an (Jade Case Records of Red Stage].

    PubMed

    Xu, Gao; Zhu, Jianping

    2014-03-01

    Dan tai yu an (Jade Case Records of Red Stage) was compiled by a doctor of the Ming Dynasty Sun Wenyin, including 6 volumes. This book involves Chinese internal medicine, paediatrics, gynaecology, external medicine, and Department of the sense organs (ENT) classified into 73 categories, each of which contains 80 kinds of disease. The total number of disease was 157. Each kind of disease is discussed under the order of etiology, syndrome, pulse condition and treatment. The range of traditional Chinese prescriptions in this book is rather extensive with its indications, administrations and modification of main prescriptions given concretely. Both internal and external treatment are included, and the individual drug and proved recipe are practical and effective, which is a significant reference to clinical practice. There are many versions of this book extant. According to our investigation and research, we replenished some information to the"General Catalogue of TCM Ancient Books", and at the same time, correct some mistakes, providing the basis for further collation and publishing.

  19. Preliminary Study of Water Repellent Properties of Red Pepper Seed Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawan, F.; Madurani, K. A.; Wahyulis, N. C.

    2017-03-01

    The water-repellent properties of red pepper seed oil (capsicol) have been studied. The oil was coated on the glass surface by spray technique. Water repellent properties were performed by measuring the contact angle of water droplets. The measurement was conducted by varying the drying time of the oil coating at room temperature. The optimum contact angle of the droplets on the glass with capsicol coating is 46.77°, which can be achieved in 30 min of drying time. It also obtained the smallest diameter of the droplets (0.47 cm). The longer drying time decrease the contact angles and increases the diameter. The results were compared with the bare glass and commercial water repellent. The contact angle of the droplets on the glass surface with capsicol coating is higher than bare glass, but lower than glass with commercial water repellent coating. It means that capsicol has the water-repellent properties.

  20. The repellent and persistent toxic effects of essential oils against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Nechita, I S; Poirel, M T; Cozma, V; Zenner, L

    2015-12-15

    The economic impact of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, the lack of new acaricides, the occurrence of resistance and tighter legislation have all led to the need to find new ways to control this pest. One promising alternative method of control focuses on employing repellent and/or toxic effects of selected plant essential oils against D. gallinae. Ten essential oils (basil, thyme, coriander, eucalyptus, lavender, lemon, fir tree, oregano, mint, and juniper) were tested for the persistence of toxic and repellent effects. In filter-paper toxicity bioassays against D. gallinae, the best results were observed for lavender (more than 97% mortality after 48 and 72 h) and thyme (84% at 72 h) at a dose of 0.12 mg/cm(2). In addition, two oils showed significant persistent toxic effects 15 and 30 days post application to filter papers. Thyme was the most effective (100% mortality at 72 h), followed by lavender (nearly 80% mortality after 72 h). Out of the ten oils tested for their repellent effect, thyme was the strongest, with nearly 80% of the tested area avoided by mites; oregano caused a 60% avoidance and lavender exhibited an effect close to 40%. All other oils exhibited a repellent effect of less than 30%. None of the experiments showed a repellent effect for HM (commercial alimentary oil) or negative controls. We found that the thyme and lavender essential oils exhibited promising results when tested in vitro for toxic and repellent effects against D. gallinae; thus, we suggest that future experiments focus on in vivo tests using these oils in farm units.

  1. In vitro efficacies of oils, silicas and plant preparations against the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Veronika; Perler, Erika; Heckendorn, Felix

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of physically acting substances (oils and silicas) and plant preparations for the control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer 1778). Reproduction and survival of fed D. gallinae females were evaluated in vitro for a total of 168 h using the "area under the survival curve" (AUC) to compare survival of the mites between treatments. Four oils (two plant oils, one petroleum spray oil and diesel), one soap, three silicas (one synthetic amorphous silica, one diatomaceous earth (DE) and one DE with 2% pyrethrum extract) and seven plant preparations (derived from Chrysanthemum cineariaefolium, Allium sativum, Tanacetum vulgare, Yucca schidigera, Quillaja saponaria, Dryopteris filix-mas, and Thuja occidentalis) were tested at various concentrations. All the oils, diesel and soap significantly reduced D. gallinae survival. All silicas tested inhibited reproduction. DE significantly reduced mite survival, but amorphous silica was less effective in vitro. Except for pure A. sativum juice and the highest concentration of C. cineariaefolium extract, the plant preparations tested resulted in statistically insignificant control of D. gallinae.

  2. Influence of oil content on physicochemical properties and skin distribution of Nile red-loaded NLC.

    PubMed

    Teeranachaideekul, Veerawat; Boonme, Prapaporn; Souto, Eliana Barbosa; Müller, Rainer Helmut; Junyaprasert, Varaporn Buraphacheep

    2008-06-04

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of the oil content on the physicochemical properties of NLC and to elucidate the potential of NLC for skin targeting. The obtained results showed that an increase in the oil content did not affect the mean particle size of NLC but impacted on the zeta potential. The inner structure of NLC was influenced by the increasing proportion of oil towards the less ordered structure as confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), particularly for the higher medium chain triglycerides (MCT) loading. The data from proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) revealed that cetyl palmitate nanoparticles did not completely recrystallize after cooling down to room temperature. 1H NMR and DSC results indicate that MCT molecules were restricted in the NLC as compared to the nanoemulsions (NE). Nile red distribution and penetration into skin from NLC were pronounced as compared to NE and dependent on the MCT loading. The deep penetration and high amount of Nile red were related to the occlusion factor. Moreover, the epidermal targeting was achieved by NLC applications, particularly those containing 5% MCT (NLC-5) depending on the amount of MCT loading.

  3. Effect of four different vegetable oils (red palm olein, palm olein, corn oil, coconut oil) on antioxidant enzymes activity of rat liver.

    PubMed

    Dauqan, Eqbal; Sani, Halimah Abdullah; Abdullah, Aminah; Kasim, Zalifah Mohd

    2011-03-15

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of four different vegetable oils [red palm olein (RPO), palm olein (PO), corn oil (CO), coconut oil (COC)] on antioxidant enzymes activity of rat liver. Sixty six Sprague Dawley male rats which were randomly divided into eleven groups of 6 rats per group and were treated with 15% of RPO, PO, CO and COC for 4 and 8 weeks. Rats in the control group were given normal rat pellet only while in treated groups, 15% of additional different vegetable oils were given. After 4 weeks of treatment the catalase (CAT) activity results showed that there was no significance difference (p > or = 0.05) between the control group and treated groups while after 8 weeks of treatment showed that there was no significant different (p > or = 0.05) between control group and RPO group but the treated rat liver with PO, CO and COC groups were the lowest and it were significantly lower (> or = 0.05) than control group. For superoxide dismutase (SOD) there was no significance difference (p > or = 0.05) between the control group and treated groups of vegetable oils after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Thus the study indicated that there was no significant (p > or = 0.05) effect on antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase) but there was significant effect (p > or = 0.05) on catalase in rat liver.

  4. Lipid metabolism and potentials of biofuel and high added-value oil production in red algae.

    PubMed

    Sato, Naoki; Moriyama, Takashi; Mori, Natsumi; Toyoshima, Masakazu

    2017-04-01

    Biomass production is currently explored in microalgae, macroalgae and land plants. Microalgal biofuel development has been performed mostly in green algae. In the Japanese tradition, macrophytic red algae such as Pyropia yezoensis and Gelidium crinale have been utilized as food and industrial materials. Researches on the utilization of unicellular red microalgae such as Cyanidioschyzon merolae and Porphyridium purpureum started only quite recently. Red algae have relatively large plastid genomes harboring more than 200 protein-coding genes that support the biosynthetic capacity of the plastid. Engineering the plastid genome is a unique potential of red microalgae. In addition, large-scale growth facilities of P. purpureum have been developed for industrial production of biofuels. C. merolae has been studied as a model alga for cell and molecular biological analyses with its completely determined genomes and transformation techniques. Its acidic and warm habitat makes it easy to grow this alga axenically in large scales. Its potential as a biofuel producer is recently documented under nitrogen-limited conditions. Metabolic pathways of the accumulation of starch and triacylglycerol and the enzymes involved therein are being elucidated. Engineering these regulatory mechanisms will open a possibility of exploiting the full capability of production of biofuel and high added-value oil. In the present review, we will describe the characteristics and potential of these algae as biotechnological seeds.

  5. Comparing terpenes from plant essential oils as pesticides for the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae).

    PubMed

    Sparagano, O; Khallaayoune, K; Duvallet, G; Nayak, S; George, D

    2013-11-01

    Resistance to conventional synthetic pesticides has been widely reported in ticks, parasitic mites and other pests of veterinary and medical significance. New and novel approaches to manage these pests are therefore needed to ensure efficient control programmes that can be implemented now and in the future. Recent research in this area has focused on the pesticidal potential of plant essential oils. These products are attractive as pesticide candidates on the grounds of low mammalian toxicity, short environmental persistence and complex chemistries (limiting the development of pest resistance against them). Although issues may exist concerning reliability in efficacy of essential oils, these may be overcome by identifying and developing bioactive oil components for use in pest management. In the current work, three such components (terpenes) found in essential oils (eugenol, geraniol and citral) were tested against the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. All provided 100% mortality in toxicity tests when undiluted. Even at 1% of this dose, eugenol was 20% effective against experimental pest populations, although the remaining terpenes were largely ineffective at this concentration.

  6. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; Whitmer, Lysle; Smith, Ryan; Brown, Robert C.

    2015-04-13

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreating the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.

  7. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via Catalytic Hydroprocessing of Phenolic Oils Fractionated from Fast Pyrolysis of Red Oak and Corn Stover

    DOE PAGES

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; Rover, Majorie; ...

    2015-04-13

    Phenolic oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of two different biomass feedstocks, red oak and corn stover and evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. The phenolic oils were produced with a bio-oil fractionating process in combination with a simple water wash of the heavy ends from the fractionating process. Phenolic oils derived from the pyrolysis of red oak and corn stover were recovered with yields (wet biomass basis) of 28.7 wt% and 14.9 wt%, respectively, and 54.3% and 58.6% on a carbon basis. Both precious metal catalysts and sulfided base metal catalyst were evaluated for hydrotreatingmore » the phenolic oils, as an extrapolation from whole bio-oil hydrotreatment. They were effective in removing heteroatoms with carbon yields as high as 81% (unadjusted for the 90% carbon balance). There was nearly complete heteroatom removal with residual O of only 0.4% to 5%, while N and S were reduced to less than 0.05%. Use of the precious metal catalysts resulted in more saturated products less completely hydrotreated compared to the sulfided base metal catalyst, which was operated at higher temperature. The liquid product was 42-52% gasoline range molecules and about 43% diesel range molecules. Particulate matter in the phenolic oils complicated operation of the reactors, causing plugging in the fixed-beds especially for the corn stover phenolic oil. This difficulty contrasts with the catalyst bed fouling and plugging, which is typically seen with hydrotreatment of whole bio-oil. This problem was substantially alleviated by filtering the phenolic oils before hydrotreating. More thorough washing of the phenolic oils during their preparation from the heavy ends of bio-oil or on-line filtration of pyrolysis vapors to remove particulate matter before condensation of the bio-oil fractions is recommended.« less

  8. Evaluation of Ocimum americanum essential oil as an additive in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) diets.

    PubMed

    Sutili, Fernando J; Velasquez, Alejandro; Pinheiro, Carlos G; Heinzmann, Berta M; Gatlin, Delbert M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated productive parameters, whole-body composition, non-specific immune responses and pH and microbiota of digestive tract contents of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fed diets supplemented with Ocimum americanum essential oil (OAEO) (0 - control, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg diet). After 7 weeks no significant differences in productive parameters and whole-body composition were observed. Plasma and intestinal lysozyme measurements and pH of the stomach and intestine (6 h after feeding) did not show significant differences among groups. Intestinal microbial community in fish fed the basal and OAEO diets (all concentrations) were identical. However, red drum fed the diet with OAEO at 1.0 g/kg had significantly increased intraperitoneal fat deposition and stomach pH (2 h after feeding) and decreased superoxide ion production (NBT-test) compared to the control group. Hemolytic activity of the complement system increased in fish fed diets containing OAEO. Red blood cells from fish fed the lowest OAEO concentration (0.25 g/kg) showed significant lower fragility in erythrocyte osmotic fragility assay, but fish fed 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg showed significant higher erythrocyte fragility. Lysozyme measurement in the supernatant of stomach content was significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented at 0.5 g/kg. Based on these various results, OAEO at different supplementation levels did not influence growth performance and intestinal microbial community; however, the EO added to the diet showed effects on immunological responses of red drum.

  9. Estimation of ground and excited state dipole moments of Oil Red O by solvatochromic shift methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sıdır, İsa; Gülseven Sıdır, Yadigar

    2015-01-01

    Absorption and fluorescence spectra of Oil Red O (abbreviated as ORO) are recorded in various solvents with different polarity in the range of 250-900 nm, at room temperature. The solvatochromic shift methods have been used to determine the ground state (μg) and excited state (μe) dipole moments depending on dielectric constant and refractive index functions. It is observed that fluorescence spectra show positive solvatochromism whereas absorption spectra do not indicates sensitive behavior to solvent polarity. Excited state dipole moment is found as higher than those of ground state for all of the used methods and it is attributed to more polar excited state of ORO. Theoretical μg has been determined by quantum chemical calculations using DFT and semi empirical methods. HOMO, LUMO, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and solvent accessible surface of ORO are calculated by using DFT-B3LYP method.

  10. Evaluation of replacement thread lubricants for red lead and graphite in mineral oil

    SciTech Connect

    Jungling, T.L.; Rauth, D.R.; Goldberg, D.

    1998-04-30

    Eight commercially available thread lubricants were evaluated to determine the best replacement for Red Lead and Graphite in Mineral Oil (RLGMO). The evaluation included coefficient of friction testing, high temperature anti-seizing testing, room temperature anti-galling testing, chemical analysis for detrimental impurities, corrosion testing, off-gas testing, and a review of health and environmental factors. The coefficient of friction testing covered a wide variety of factors including stud, nut, and washer materials, sizes, manufacturing methods, surface coatings, surface finishes, applied loads, run-in cycles, and relubrication. Only one lubricant, Dow Corning Molykote P37, met all the criteria established for a replacement lubricant. It has a coefficient of friction range similar to RLGMO. Therefore, it can be substituted directly for RLGMO without changing the currently specified fastener torque values for the sizes, materials and conditions evaluated. Other lubricants did not perform as well as Molykote P37 in one or more test or evaluation categories.

  11. Estimation of ground and excited state dipole moments of Oil Red O by solvatochromic shift methods.

    PubMed

    Sıdır, İsa; Gülseven Sıdır, Yadigar

    2015-01-25

    Absorption and fluorescence spectra of Oil Red O (abbreviated as ORO) are recorded in various solvents with different polarity in the range of 250-900 nm, at room temperature. The solvatochromic shift methods have been used to determine the ground state (μg) and excited state (μe) dipole moments depending on dielectric constant and refractive index functions. It is observed that fluorescence spectra show positive solvatochromism whereas absorption spectra do not indicates sensitive behavior to solvent polarity. Excited state dipole moment is found as higher than those of ground state for all of the used methods and it is attributed to more polar excited state of ORO. Theoretical μg has been determined by quantum chemical calculations using DFT and semi empirical methods. HOMO, LUMO, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and solvent accessible surface of ORO are calculated by using DFT-B3LYP method.

  12. Studies on reaction runaways for Urex/Purex solvent-nitric acid and red-oil synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Shekhar; Kumar, Rajnish; Koganti, S.B.

    2008-07-01

    In PUREX/UREX processes for recycling of spent nuclear fuels, 30% TBP solvent is used, This solvent has a small solubility in the aqueous phase. During concentration of the process solutions by an evaporation route, a runaway reaction between TBP and nitric acid is initiated at above 130 deg. C, leading to rapid pressurization and finally containment failure if proper venting is not provided. Red oil was synthesized for the first time in India, and its physical properties as well as thermodynamic parameters for the reaction were determined. It was experimentally established that the presence of metallic nitrates was not essential for red-oil formation as thought earlier. Various experiments have been completed for single-phase as well as two-phase runs. The most important finding of this work was lowering of the limiting acid concentration from the conventional values. In fact, in these experiments, red oil could be formed even at 2 N aqueous acidity. Thus, safety guidelines based on the classical literature are obsolete. New guidelines for the red-oil-safety are required. (authors)

  13. Coconut oil and beef tallow, but not tricaprylin, can replace menhaden oil in the diet of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) without adversely affecting growth or fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Craig, S R; Gatlin, D M

    1995-12-01

    The ability of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) to utilize medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) and other saturated dietary lipids was investigated in two 6-wk feeding experiments. Diets contained solvent-extracted menhaden fish meal to which menhaden fish oil (control), coconut oil, corn oil, beef tallow or various levels of MCT as tricaprylin (30, 46, 65 and 80% of total lipid) were added. Diets were fed to triplicate groups of juvenile red drum in aquaria containing brackish (6%) water. In the first feeding experiment, red drum fed the control diet had the greatest weight gains and feed efficiencies. Weight gain, but not feed was slightly, of fish fed corn oil and fish fed coconut oil was slightly (P < 0.05) lower. In the second feeding experiment, fish fed coconut oil and those fed beef tallow had significantly higher weight gains and feed efficiencies than did fish fed the control diet. Fish fed the diets containing tricaprylin at all inclusion levels in both feeding experiments had significantly lower weight gains and feed efficiencies and higher levels of beta-hydroxybutyric acid in plasma. Fish fed diets with high levels of MCT also had lower (n-3) and greater (n-6) fatty acid levels in the neutral lipid fraction of muscle tissue compared with fish fed the control diet. Coconut oil and beef tallow consistently resulted in greater liver lipid deposition but had variable effects on other tissue indices. Saturated dietary lipids had variable effects on fatty acid composition of muscle polar and neutral lipid fractions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Inhibitory Effects of Red Wine on Lipid Oxidation in Fish Oil Emulsion and Angiogenesis in Zebrafish Embryo.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haiyan; Zhang, Yulin; Shen, Yixiao; Zhu, Yongchao; Wang, Hua; Xu, Zhimin

    2017-03-01

    The capabilities of red wine against lipid oxidation and angiogenesis were evaluated by using a fish oil emulsion system and an in vivo zebrafish embryos model, respectively. The red wine contained 12 different antioxidant phenolics which levels were led by anthocyanins (140.46 mg/L), catechin (55.08 mg/L), and gallic acid (46.76 mg/L). The diversity of the phenolics in red wine was greater than the tea, coffee, or white wine selected as a peer control in this study. The total phenolics concentration of red wine was 305.53 mg/L, although the levels of tea, coffee, and white wine were 85.59, 76.85, and 26.57 mg/L, respectively. The activity of red wine in scavenging DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radicals was approximately 4 times higher than the tea and 8 times than the coffee or white wine. The red wine showed the highest capability in preventing long chain PUFA oxidation in the fish oil emulsion. Because of the outstanding antioxidant activity of red wine, the red wine dried extract was used to monitor its inhibitory effect against angiogenesis by using transgenic zebrafish embryos (Tg[fli1:egfp](y1) ) with fluorescent blood vessels. After incubated in 100 μg/mL of the extract solution for 26 h pf, each of the embryos had a lower number of intersegmental vessel than the control embryo. The inhibition rate of red wine extract against growing of angiogenic blood vessel reached 100%.

  15. Public health nutrition concerns on consumption of red palm-oil (RPO): the scientific facts from literature.

    PubMed

    Oyewole, O E; Amosu, A M

    2010-12-01

    There appears to be a state of uncertainty as far as the health benefits of consumption of Red Palm Oil (RPO) is concerned from public health point of view globally. Literatures are replete with conflicting information on saturated fatty acid content of palm-oil, with caution on the possibility of increasing low density lipoprotein (LDL) in the blood. The implication of this may be subsequent elevation of serum cholesterol when the oil is consumed. This review paper is aimed at providing scientific facts from well referenced journal articles on public health nutrition benefits of RPO. It considers findings from animal and human experiments, to arrive at conclusion based on scientific evidence on the potential health benefits associated with consumption of RPO. Although, the level of saturated fatty acids content may suggest health risk, the presence of carotenoids and other powerful anti-oxidants in RPO makes it one of the best cooking vegetable oils with health promoting properties.

  16. Mode of action and variability in efficacy of plant essential oils showing toxicity against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    George, D R; Smith, T J; Shiel, R S; Sparagano, O A E; Guy, J H

    2009-05-12

    This paper describes a series of experiments to examine the mode of action and toxicity of three plant essential oils (thyme, manuka and pennyroyal) to the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer), a serious ectoparasitic pest of laying hens. All three oils were found to be toxic to D. gallinae in laboratory tests with LC(50), LC(90) and LC(99) values below 0.05, 0.20 and 0.30mg/cm(3), respectively, suggesting that these products may make for effective acaricides against this pest. Further experiments demonstrated that when mites were exposed to only the vapour phase of the essential oil without contact with the oil itself, mortality was consistently higher in closed arenas than in arenas open to the surrounding environment, or in control arenas. This suggests that all three essential oils were toxic to D. gallinae by fumigant action. In addition, in an experiment where mites were allowed contact with the essential oil in either open or closed arenas, mortality was always reduced in the open arenas where this was comparable to control mortality for thyme and pennyroyal essential oil treatments. This supports the findings of the previous experiment and also suggests that, with the possible exception of manuka, the selected essential oils were not toxic to D. gallinae on contact. Statistical comparisons were made between the toxicity of the selected essential oils to D. gallinae in the current work and in a previous study conducted in the same laboratory. The results demonstrated considerable variation in LC(50), LC(90) and LC(99) values. Since both the essential oils and the mites were obtained from identical sources in the two studies, it is hypothesized that this variation resulted from the use of different 'batches' of essential oil, which could have varied in chemistry and hence acaricidal activity.

  17. Marine pollution as indicated by oil accumulated on clams collected from the western coasts of the Red Sea, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Shimy, T.M.

    1997-02-01

    In order to save the environment from pollution, many techniques are used for identifying oil accumulated on clams along the western coast of the Red Sea. Gas chromatography (GC), infrared (IR), and ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrophotometry are three different techniques used to analyze the collected samples, GC chromatograms for oil extracted from these animals indicate that the source of pollution is petroleum, and a few peaks reveal a mixture of biogenic and petrogenic hydrocarbons. These results are confirmed by the characteristic IR spectra profiles, high concentrations of the aromatic compounds, and the UV absorption spectra of these samples.

  18. Oil Red O and Hematoxylin and Eosin Staining for Quantification of Atherosclerosis Burden in Mouse Aorta and Aortic Root.

    PubMed

    Andrés-Manzano, M Jesús; Andrés, Vicente; Dorado, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Methods for staining tissues with Oil Red O and hematoxylin-eosin are classical histological techniques that are widely used to quantify atherosclerotic burden in mouse tissues because of their ease of use, reliability, and the large amount of information they provide. These stains can provide quantitative data about the impact of a genetic or environmental factor on atherosclerotic burden and on the initiation, progression, or regression of the disease, and can also be used to evaluate the efficacy of drugs designed to prevent or treat atherosclerosis. This chapter provides protocols for quantifying atherosclerotic burden in mouse aorta and aortic root, including methods for dissection, Oil Red O staining, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and image analysis.

  19. Red Palm Oil Attenuates Lead Acetate Induced Testicular Damage in Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Jegede, A I; Offor, U; Azu, O O; Akinloye, O

    2015-01-01

    To study the protective effect of Red Palm Oil (RPO) on testicular damage induced by administration of lead acetate on male Sprague-Dawley rats, 28 rats divided into four groups of 7 animals each were used. They were administered orally with RPO (1 mL and 2 mL) and lead acetate (i.p.) 6 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Treatment was conducted for 8 weeks, and 24 hrs after the last treatment the rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation. Sperms collected from epididymis were used for seminal fluid analyses; while the testes sample was used for ROS and oxidative enzyme activities assessment. Statistical analysis was carried out using GraphPad Prism 5.02 statistical analysis package. Administration of lead acetate increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) significantly (p < 0.05) as evidenced by the elevated value of H2O2 and LPO and decreased GSH level. Also there was reduced epididymal sperm count, poor grade of sperm motility, and lower percentage of normal sperm morphology significantly. Coadministration with RPO, however, has a protective effect against lead toxicity by decreasing H2O2 production, increased GSH level, and increased sperm qualities especially. This shows that RPO has a potential to attenuate the toxic effect of lead on testicular cells preventing possible resultant male infertility.

  20. Red Palm Oil Attenuates Lead Acetate Induced Testicular Damage in Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jegede, A. I.; Offor, U.; Azu, O. O.; Akinloye, O.

    2015-01-01

    To study the protective effect of Red Palm Oil (RPO) on testicular damage induced by administration of lead acetate on male Sprague-Dawley rats, 28 rats divided into four groups of 7 animals each were used. They were administered orally with RPO (1 mL and 2 mL) and lead acetate (i.p.) 6 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Treatment was conducted for 8 weeks, and 24 hrs after the last treatment the rats were sacrificed using cervical dislocation. Sperms collected from epididymis were used for seminal fluid analyses; while the testes sample was used for ROS and oxidative enzyme activities assessment. Statistical analysis was carried out using GraphPad Prism 5.02 statistical analysis package. Administration of lead acetate increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) significantly (p < 0.05) as evidenced by the elevated value of H2O2 and LPO and decreased GSH level. Also there was reduced epididymal sperm count, poor grade of sperm motility, and lower percentage of normal sperm morphology significantly. Coadministration with RPO, however, has a protective effect against lead toxicity by decreasing H2O2 production, increased GSH level, and increased sperm qualities especially. This shows that RPO has a potential to attenuate the toxic effect of lead on testicular cells preventing possible resultant male infertility. PMID:26516332

  1. Fish oil diet affects on oxidative senescence of red blood cells linked to degeneration of spleen cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Oarada, M; Furukawa, H; Majima, T; Miyazawa, T

    2000-08-24

    The effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and alpha-tocopherol supplementation on erythrocyte lipid peroxidation and immunocompetent cells in mice was studied comparatively using seven dietary oils (15% oil/diet, w/w) including fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3). A 43% increase in spleen weight, about twice as many spleen cells and no change in the subpopulations of spleen cells, as well as a significant depression of mitogen-induced blastogenesis of both T and B cells in the spleen were observed in mice fed fish oil for 30 days in comparison with soybean oil diet-fed mice. In the fish oil diet-fed mice, membranous lipid hydroperoxide (hydroperoxides of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine) accumulation as a marker of oxidative senescence in red blood cells (RBC) was 2.7-3.5 times higher than that in mice fed soybean oil, although there was no difference in the plasma phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide concentration. In spite of the supplementation of alpha-tocopherol to up to 10 times the level in the basal diet, the degeneration of spleen cells and the stimulated oxidative senescence of RBC found by the fish oil feeding could not be prevented. The results suggest that oral intake of excess polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e. EPA and DHA, in a fish oil diet can lead to acceleration of membrane lipid peroxidation resulting in RBC senescence linked to the lowering of immune response of spleen cells, and that supplementation of alpha-tocopherol as antioxidant does not always effectively prevent such oxidative degeneration as observed in spleen cells and RBC in vivo.

  2. Effect of plant essential oils as acaricides against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, with special focus on exposure time.

    PubMed

    George, D R; Olatunji, G; Guy, J H; Sparagano, O A E

    2010-04-19

    Essential oils from thyme and cade have been shown to be effective acaricides against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) when tested over a 24h period. Data on the actual rate of knock-down achieved with these products is lacking and potentially important as essential oils are likely to display only short-term toxicity. When tested over periods of less than 24h, thyme essential oil killed D. gallinae relatively quickly and so may make for an effective acaricide even if the residual toxicity of this product is low. However, cade essential oil did not display such a high level of mite knock-down, suggesting it may hold less promise in D. gallinae management. Comparison of the results with those obtained elsewhere using alternative D. gallinae products further confirms the possibility that thyme essential may be useful in control of this pest. This might be especially true if thyme essential oil were employed as part of an integrated pest management approach.

  3. In vitro effects of plant essential oils on non-specific immune parameters of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus L.

    PubMed

    Sutili, F J; Gatlin, D M; Rossi, W; Heinzmann, B M; Baldisserotto, B

    2016-12-01

    Phytochemicals such as plant essential oils (EOs) have been reported to favour various activities in the innate immune system of fish. Thus, the aim of this study was to verify the in vitro effect of three different plant EOs (Ocimum americanum, Cymbopogon flexuosus and Melaleuca alternifolia) on non-specific immune parameters and erythrocyte osmotic fragility of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. Concentrations of each plant EO evaluated in preparations of head-kidney macrophages, blood leucocytes and blood plasma were as follows: 0.0 (control), 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, and 16.0 μg/ml. Red drum head-kidney macrophages significantly increased extracellular superoxide anion production when exposed (20 h) to O. americanum EO (1.0-8.0 μg/ml) and C. flexuosus EO (2.0 and 4.0 μg/ml). The respiratory burst of blood leucocytes (NBT test) significantly increased in all concentrations when compared to the respective control group, for all EOs. At the highest concentration (16.0 μg/ml), C. flexuosus EO significantly inhibited the haemolytic activity of complement system in red drum blood after 1 h exposure. None of the tested concentrations significantly altered plasma lysozyme activity or erythrocyte osmotic fragility after exposing (1 h) red drum whole blood to each EO. This study demonstrated that these plant EOs are capable of triggering superoxide anion production in red drum leucocytes (head-kidney macrophages and/or blood leucocytes). In vivo studies are warranted to address their potential as immunostimulants in the diet of red drum and other aquacultured species.

  4. Co-exposure to sunlight enhances the toxicity of naturally weathered Deepwater Horizon oil to early lifestage red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and speckled seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus).

    PubMed

    Alloy, Matthew; Garner, Thomas Ross; Bridges, Kristin; Mansfield, Charles; Carney, Michael; Forth, Heather; Krasnec, Michelle; Lay, Claire; Takeshita, Ryan; Morris, Jeffrey; Bonnot, Shane; Oris, James; Roberts, Aaron

    2017-03-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in the accidental release of millions of barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Photo-induced toxicity following co-exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is 1 mechanism by which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from oil spills may exert toxicity. Red drum and speckled seatrout are both important fishery resources in the Gulf of Mexico. They spawn near-shore and produce positively buoyant embryos that hatch into larvae in approximately 24 h. The goal of the present study was to determine whether exposure to UV as natural sunlight enhances the toxicity of crude oil to early lifestage red drum and speckled seatrout. Larval fish were exposed to several dilutions of high-energy water-accommodated fractions (HEWAFs) from 2 different oils collected in the field under chain of custody during the 2010 spill and 3 gradations of natural sunlight in a factorial design. Co-exposure to natural sunlight and oil significantly reduced larval survival compared with exposure to oil alone. Although both species were sensitive at PAH concentrations reported during the Deepwater Horizon spill, speckled seatrout demonstrated a greater sensitivity to photo-induced toxicity than red drum. These data demonstrate that even advanced weathering of slicks does not ameliorate the potential for photo-induced toxicity of oil to these species. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:780-785. © 2016 SETAC.

  5. Potential biodegradation of crude petroleum oil by newly isolated halotolerant microbial strains from polluted Red Sea area.

    PubMed

    Shetaia, Yousseria M H; El Khalik, Wafaa A A; Mohamed, Tarek M; Farahat, Laila A; ElMekawy, Ahmed

    2016-10-15

    Two microbial isolates from oil polluted Red Sea water in Egypt, designated as RS-Y1 and RS-F3, were found capable of degrading Belayim mix (BX) crude oil. Strains RS-Y1 and RS-F3 were assigned to the genera Lipomyces tetrasporus and Paecilomyces variotii based on their morphological and physiological characteristics. Both isolates were compared for the biodegradation of crude petroleum-oil hydrocarbons in basal salt medium supplemented with 5% (w/v) of BX-crude oil. Gas chromatography profile showed that the biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) inoculated with L. tetrasporus (68.3%) and P. variotii (58.15%) along with their consortium (66%) significantly reduced TPHs levels as compared to the control after 30days. L. tetrasporus (44.5%) was more effective than P. variotii strain (32.89%) in reducing the unresolved complex mixtures (UCM) content from the medium. Both isolates exhibited a strong growth over a wide range of salinity (5-45g/L NaCl).

  6. Low cytotoxicity of creams and lotions formulated with Buriti oil (Mauritia flexuosa) assessed by the neutral red release test.

    PubMed

    Zanatta, Cinthia Fernanda; Ugartondo, Vanessa; Mitjans, Montserrat; Rocha-Filho, Pedro A; Vinardell, María Pilar

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate possible cytotoxic effects of topical creams and lotions produced with Buriti oil and commercial surfactants on human keratinocytes HaCat and 3T3 embryonic mouse fibroblast cultures. We also aimed to assess the cytotoxicity of the surfactants used to produce the emulsions. The neutral red release (NRR) assay was performed as an in vitro method to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the emulsions in HaCat and 3T3 cell lines and predict potential skin irritation. The Buriti oil emulsions presented low cytotoxicity to the cells at high concentrations and the addition of Vitamin E increased cell viability. Among the surfactant tested, Unitol CE 200F proved to be the most cytotoxic, presenting an IC(50) significantly lower than the others. Emulsions formulated with Buriti oil and commercial surfactants could be non irritant to the skin due to their low cytotoxicity, especially when enhanced with vitamin E. When emulsified with Buriti oil, water and Brij 72, Unitol CE 200F showed less cytotoxic effects than when tested alone.

  7. Thymus Vulgaris (Red Thyme) and Caryophyllus Aromaticus (Clove) Essential Oils to Control Spoilage Microorganisms in Pork Under Modified Atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    D’Amato, Serena; Mazzarrino, Giovanni; Rossi, Chiara; Serio, Annalisa; López, Clemencia Chaves; Celano, Gaetano Vitale; Paparella, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, it has been confirmed that essential oils (EOs) exert antimicrobial activity as they are able to inhibit cell growth and inactivate microbial cells. The application of biopreservation strategies by means of EOs opens up interesting perspectives in the food industry, including meat production. The paper aims to evaluate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (red thyme) and Caryophyllus aromaticus (cloves) EOs on the development of the spoilage population of fresh pork packaged under modified atmosphere (MAP). In particular, the research was focused on Brochothrix thermosphacta, a specific spoilage microorganism of fresh meat packed in anaerobic conditions or under MAP. Amongst seven EOs, those that showed the highest antimicrobial activity on 5 B. thermosphacta strains in vitro were: cloves [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.6-2.5 mg/mL], savory (MIC 2.5-5.0 mg/mL), and red thyme (MIC 2.5 to 20 mg/mL). Red thyme and cloves EOs were selected for meat treatment, by increasing the dose at 20 and 40 mg/mL respectively, to take into account the matrix effect that can reduce EO availability. In spite of the minor efficacy observed in vitro, 40 mg/mL red thyme EO strongly limited the growth of B. thermosphacta in pork samples up to day 6 of storage [below 3.0 Log colony forming unit (CFU)/g, starting from 2.0 Log CFU/g at time 0], and exerted an antimicrobial effect also on the aerobic mesophilic count. Good results were obtained also with 20 mg/mL red thyme EO. The control of B. thermosphacta growth through EOs encourages research on alternative methods for extending the shelf life of fresh meat under MAP. PMID:27853710

  8. Thymus Vulgaris (Red Thyme) and Caryophyllus Aromaticus (Clove) Essential Oils to Control Spoilage Microorganisms in Pork Under Modified Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, Serena; Mazzarrino, Giovanni; Rossi, Chiara; Serio, Annalisa; López, Clemencia Chaves; Celano, Gaetano Vitale; Paparella, Antonello

    2016-06-03

    In recent years, it has been confirmed that essential oils (EOs) exert antimicrobial activity as they are able to inhibit cell growth and inactivate microbial cells. The application of biopreservation strategies by means of EOs opens up interesting perspectives in the food industry, including meat production. The paper aims to evaluate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (red thyme) and Caryophyllus aromaticus (cloves) EOs on the development of the spoilage population of fresh pork packaged under modified atmosphere (MAP). In particular, the research was focused on Brochothrix thermosphacta, a specific spoilage microorganism of fresh meat packed in anaerobic conditions or under MAP. Amongst seven EOs, those that showed the highest antimicrobial activity on 5 B. thermosphacta strains in vitro were: cloves [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.6-2.5 mg/mL], savory (MIC 2.5-5.0 mg/mL), and red thyme (MIC 2.5 to 20 mg/mL). Red thyme and cloves EOs were selected for meat treatment, by increasing the dose at 20 and 40 mg/mL respectively, to take into account the matrix effect that can reduce EO availability. In spite of the minor efficacy observed in vitro, 40 mg/mL red thyme EO strongly limited the growth of B. thermosphacta in pork samples up to day 6 of storage [below 3.0 Log colony forming unit (CFU)/g, starting from 2.0 Log CFU/g at time 0], and exerted an antimicrobial effect also on the aerobic mesophilic count. Good results were obtained also with 20 mg/mL red thyme EO. The control of B. thermosphacta growth through EOs encourages research on alternative methods for extending the shelf life of fresh meat under MAP.

  9. Randomized controlled trial examining the effects of fish oil and multivitamin supplementation on the incorporation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Pipingas, Andrew; Cockerell, Robyn; Grima, Natalie; Sinclair, Andrew; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew; Myers, Stephen; Croft, Kevin; Sali, Avni; Pase, Matthew P

    2014-05-14

    The present randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-groups clinical trial examined the effects of fish oil and multivitamin supplementation on the incorporation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into red blood cells. Healthy adult humans (n = 160) were randomized to receive 6 g of fish oil, 6 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin, 3 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin or a placebo daily for 16 weeks. Treatment with 6 g of fish oil, with or without a daily multivitamin, led to higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) composition at endpoint. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) composition was unchanged following treatment. The long chain LC n-3 PUFA index was only higher, compared to placebo, in the group receiving the combination of 6 g of fish oil and the multivitamin. Analysis by gender revealed that all treatments increased EPA incorporation in females while, in males, EPA was only significantly increased by the 6 g fish oil multivitamin combination. There was considerable individual variability in the red blood cell incorporation of EPA and DHA at endpoint. Gender contributed to a large proportion of this variability with females generally showing higher LC n-3 PUFA composition at endpoint. In conclusion, the incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA into red blood cells was influenced by dosage, the concurrent intake of vitamin/minerals and gender.

  10. Condition of larval red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) relative to environmental variability and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, F. J., Jr.; Filbrun, J. E.; Fang, J.; Ransom, J. T.

    2016-09-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWHOS) spatially and temporally overlapped with the spawning of many fish species, including Red Snapper, one of the most economically important reef fish in the Gulf of Mexico. To investigate potential impacts of the DWHOS on larval Red Snapper, data from a long-term ichthyoplankton survey off the coast of Alabama were used to examine: (1) larval abundances among pre-impact (2007-2009), impact (2010), and post-impact (2011, 2013) periods; (2) proxies for larval condition (size-adjusted morphometric relationships and dry weight) among the same periods; and (3) the effects of background environmental variation on larval condition. We found that larval Red Snapper were in poorer body condition during 2010, 2011, and 2013 as compared to the 2007-2009 period, a trend that was strongly (and negatively) related to variation in Mobile Bay freshwater discharge. However, larvae collected during and after 2010 were in relatively poor condition even after accounting for variation in freshwater discharge and other environmental variables. By contrast, no differences in larval abundance were detected during these survey years. Taken together, larval supply did not change relative to the timing of the DWHOS, but larval condition was negatively impacted. Even small changes in condition can affect larval survival, so these trends may have consequences for recruitment of larvae to juvenile and adult life stages.

  11. Inhibitory Effect of Black and Red Pepper and Thyme Extracts and Essential Oils on Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and DNase Activity of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Zarringhalam, Maryam; Zaringhalam, Jalal; Shadnoush, Mehdi; Safaeyan, Firouzeh; Tekieh, Elaheh

    2013-01-01

    In this study, extracts and essential oils of Black and Red pepper and Thyme were tested for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus. Black and Red pepper and Thyme were provided from Iranian agricultural researches center. 2 g of each plant powder was added to 10 cc ethanol 96°. After 24 h, the crude extract was separated as an alcoholic extract and concentrated by distillation method. Plants were examined for determining their major component and essential oils were separated. Phytochemical analyses were done for detection of some effective substances in extracts. The antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus was tested and the results showed that all extracts and essential oils were effective and essential oils were more active. The extracts and oils that showed antimicrobial activity were later tested to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Dilution (MID) for those bacteria. They were also effective on the inhibition of DNase activity. This study was indicated that extracts and essential oils of Black and Red pepper and Thyme can play a significant role in inhibition of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus.

  12. Oil pollution in the Red Sea — Environmental monitoring of an oilfield in a coral area, Gulf of Suez

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicks, Brian

    The Red Sea is rapidly developing as one of the world's largest offshore oil production areas. It also comprises a wide range of tropical marine habitats, many of which are internationally recognised for their conservation, scientific, economic or recreational value. Past oil production, refining and transport have resulted in chronic pollution of some areas, and environmental programmes to protect new areas of development from pollution damage are assuming increasing importance. At the initiative of an Egyptian oil company operating in the Gulf of Suez, an environmental protection and management scheme has been prepared for a new offshore oilfield and marine terminal at Ras Budran. This paper describes the form of the scheme and the results of its component environmental surveys. The development area comprises rich and diverse marine communities of fringing coral reefs, nearshore lagoons, seagrass beds, sandy beaches and fine sediments offshore. A baseline survey was designed following detailed discussion of the scope of the development with the company and a preliminary site visit, and the fieldwork was completed in October 1980. On the basis of the findings of the survey, a series of recommendations was made to the company, aimed at reducing environmental impacts during construction and operation to a minimum and acceptable level. These were subsequently implemented and the results of a post-construction survey in February 1983 are reported which show that environmental damage to the nearshore habitats during the construction phase had been relatively small and localised. Recently, the biological information obtained from the two surveys has also been incorporated into oil spill contingency plans.

  13. Imaging of neutral lipids by oil red O for analyzing the metabolic status in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Mehlem, Annika; Hagberg, Carolina E; Muhl, Lars; Eriksson, Ulf; Falkevall, Annelie

    2013-06-01

    Excess lipid accumulation in peripheral tissues is a key feature of many metabolic diseases. Therefore, techniques for imaging and quantifying lipids in various tissues are important for understanding and evaluating the overall metabolic status of a research subject. Here we present a protocol that detects neutral lipids and lipid droplet (LD) morphology by oil red O (ORO) staining of sections from frozen tissues. The method allows for easy estimation of tissue lipid content and distribution using only basic laboratory and computer equipment. Furthermore, the procedure described here is well suited for the comparison of different metabolically challenged animal models. As an example, we include data on muscular and hepatic lipid accumulation in diet-induced and genetically induced diabetic mice. The experimental description presents details for optimal staining of lipids using ORO, including tissue collection, sectioning, staining, imaging and measurements of tissue lipids, in a time frame of less than 2 d.

  14. A Comparison of Retinyl Palmitate and Red Palm Oil β-Carotene as Strategies to Address Vitamin A Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Souganidis, Ellie; Laillou, Arnaud; Leyvraz, Magali; Moench-Pfanner, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency continues to be an international public health problem with several important health consequences including blindness and overall increased rates of morbidity and mortality. To address this widespread issue, a series of strategies have been put into place from dietary diversification to supplementation and fortification programs. Retinyl palmitate has been used successfully for decades as a supplement as well as a way to fortify numerous foods, including vegetable oil, rice, monosodium glutamate, cereal flours and sugar. Recently, there has been rising interest in using a natural source of carotenoids, β-carotene from red palm oil (RPO), for fortification. Although RPO interventions have also been shown to effectively prevent Vitamin A deficiency, there are numerous challenges in using beta-carotene from RPO as a fortification technique. β-Carotene can induce significant changes in appearance and taste of the fortified product. Moreover, costs of fortifying with beta-carotene are higher than with retinyl palmitate. Therefore, RPO should only be used as a source of Vitamin A if it is produced and used in its crude form and regularly consumed without frying. Furthermore, refined RPO should be fortified with retinyl palmitate, not β-carotene, to ensure that there is adequate Vitamin A content. PMID:23955382

  15. Assessment of the phototoxic hazard of some essential oils using modified 3T3 neutral red uptake assay.

    PubMed

    Dijoux, Nathalie; Guingand, Yannick; Bourgeois, Caroline; Durand, Sandrine; Fromageot, Claude; Combe, Corinne; Ferret, Pierre-Jacques

    2006-06-01

    When substances are developed in the aim to be a constituent of personal care products, and to be applied on the skin, it is necessary to carry out an assessment of potential phototoxic hazard. Phototoxicity is skin reaction caused by concurrent topical or systemic exposure to specific molecule and ultraviolet radiation. Most phototoxic compounds absorb energy particularly from UVA light leading to the generation of activated derivatives which can induce cellular damage. This type of adverse cutaneous response can be reproduced in vitro using different models of phototoxicity such as the validated 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) phototoxicity assay. In the present study we utilised two different cell lines (the murine fibroblastic cell line 3T3 and the rabbit cornea derived cell line SIRC) to compare the photo-irritation potential of a strong phototoxic compound, chlorpromazine, to a weaker composite, such as 8-methoxypsoralen and Bergamot oil. After comparison of the different systems, five other essential oils were tested with both cell lines. Cellular damage was evaluated by the NRU cytotoxicity test or by MTT conversion test.

  16. Combined SERS and Raman analysis for the identification of red pigments in cross-sections from historic oil paintings.

    PubMed

    Frano, Kristen A; Mayhew, Hannah E; Svoboda, Shelley A; Wustholz, Kristin L

    2014-12-21

    The analysis of paint cross-sections can reveal a remarkable amount of information about the layers and materials in a painting without visibly altering the artwork. Although a variety of analytical approaches are used to detect inorganic pigments as well as organic binders, proteins, and lipids in cross-sections, they do not provide for the unambiguous identification of natural, organic colorants. Here, we develop a novel combined surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), light microscopy, and normal Raman scattering (NRS) approach for the identification of red organic and inorganic pigments in paint cross-sections obtained from historic 18th and 19th century oil paintings. In particular, Ag nanoparticles are directly applied to localized areas of paint cross-sections mounted in polyester resin for SERS analysis of the organic pigments. This combined extractionless non-hydrolysis SERS and NRS approach provides for the definitive identification of carmine lake, madder lake, and vermilion in multiple paint layers. To our knowledge, this study represents the first in situ identification of natural, organic pigments within paint cross-sections from oil paintings. Furthermore, the combination of SERS and normal Raman, with light microscopy provides conservators with a more comprehensive understanding of a painting from a single sample and without the need for sample pretreatment.

  17. Protection of polyunsaturated oils against ruminal biohydrogenation and oxidation during storage using a polyphenol oxidase containing extract from red clover.

    PubMed

    Gadeyne, F; Van Ranst, G; Vlaeminck, B; Vossen, E; Van der Meeren, P; Fievez, V

    2015-03-15

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) are to a large extent subject to biohydrogenation in a ruminal environment, which results to the healthy value of these PUFA being lost upon dietary addition to ruminants. PUFA are also prone to lipid oxidation upon storage. Therefore, it was tested whether emulsions could be protected against in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation and oxidation during storage by using protein extracts rich in polyphenol oxidase, an enzyme responsible for browning of plant tissues. PUFA rich emulsions were made with a protein extract from red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) before adding a synthetic diphenol (4-methylcatechol) to induce protection. Results after in vitro incubation confirmed the hypothesis and indicated the potential to prevent PUFA in linseed or fish oil from ruminal biohydrogenation and oxidation during storage through addition of 4-methylcatechol to the emulsions. Protection depended on the amount of oil present and protein concentrations in the emulsions. Protection efficiency increased with increasing the amounts of diphenol present in the emulsion per unit interfacial surface area. It is suggested that protection is caused by an effective encapsulation by cross-linking of the protein layer at the emulsion interface. For the first time, a method is described to protect PUFA using an enzyme abundantly available in nature, polyphenol oxidase, in combination with 4-methylcatechol.

  18. Synthesis of Polymer-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles from Red Mud Waste for Enhanced Oil Recovery in Offshore Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. P.; Le, U. T. P.; Ngo, K. T.; Pham, K. D.; Dinh, L. X.

    2016-07-01

    Buried red mud waste from groundwater refineries can cause pollution. The aim of this paper is to utilize this mud for the synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Then, MNPs are encapsulated by a copolymer of methyl methacrylate and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonate via oleic acid linker. MNPs are prepared by a controlled co-precipitation method in the presence of a dispersant and surface-modified agents to achieve a high hydrophobic or hydrophilic surface. Mini-emulsion polymerization was conducted to construct a core-shell structure with MNPs as core and the copolymer as shell. The core-shell structure of the obtained particles enables them to disperse well in brine and to stabilize at high-temperature environments. The chemical structures and morphology of this nanocomposite were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The thermal stability of the nanocomposite was evaluated via a thermogravimetric analysis method for the solid state and an annealing experiment for the liquid state. The nanocomposite is about 14 nm, disperses well in brine and is thermally stable in the solid state. The blends of synthesized nanocomposite and carboxylate surfactant effectively reduced the interfacial tension between crude oil and brine, and remained thermally stable after 31 days annealed at 100°C. Therefore, a nanofluid of copolymer/magnetic nanocomposite can be applied as an enhanced oil recovery agent for harsh environments in offshore reservoirs.

  19. Toxicity of plant essential oils to different life stages of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, and non-target invertebrates.

    PubMed

    George, D R; Sparagano, O A E; Port, G; Okello, E; Shiel, R S; Guy, J H

    2010-03-01

    Seven essential oils with potential as acaricides for use against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (Acari: Dermanyssidae), were selected for study. These products (essential oils of manuka, cade, pennyroyal, thyme, garlic, clove bud and cinnamon bark) were deployed against different life stages of D. gallinae in laboratory tests at the (lethal concentration) LC(50) level for adult mites. For all essential oils tested, toxicity to D. gallinae juveniles was as high as toxicity to adults, if not higher. However, at the LC(50) level determined for adults, some oils were ineffective in preventing hatching of D. gallinae eggs. The essential oils were also tested under laboratory conditions at their LC(90) levels for D. gallinae adults on two model non-target species, the brine shrimp, Artemia salina (L.), and the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (L.). Results showed that not all essential oils were as toxic to A. salina and T. molitor as they were to D. gallinae, suggesting that it may be possible to select certain oils for development as acaricides against D. gallinae that would have minimal impact on non-target organisms. However, the level of toxicity to A. salina and T. molitor was not consistent across the selected essential oils.

  20. Acute toxicity of smoke screen materials to aquatic organisms, white phosphorus-felt, red phosphorus-butyl rubber and SGF No. 2 fog oil. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.; McFadden, K.M.; Bean, R.M.; Clark, M.L.; Thomas, B.L.; Killand, B.W.; Prohammer, L.A.; Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1986-04-01

    The acute toxicity of three obscurants was determined for nine freshwater organisms. The materials tested were white phosphorus-felt smoke, red phosphorus-butyl rubber (RP-BR) smoke, and smoke generator fuel (SGF) No. 2 fog oil (bulk and vaporized). The chemistry of WP-F and RP-BR smoke in water and the resulting effects on aquatic organisms are similar. Combustion of these two obscurants and their deposition in water leads to the formation of many complex oxy-phosphoric acids. Rates of hydrolysis of these complex products to ortho-phosphate were inconsistent and unpredictable over time. These products acidify water and produce toxic effects after exhausting the buffering capacity of the water. Acute 96 hr tests using Daphnia magna with neutralized and nonneutralized exposure solutions indicated that the presence of unidentified toxic component(s) acted independently of pH. At pH levels of 6.0 to 7.0, phosphorus combustion products precipitated out of solution leading to a bimodal toxic response in extended 96-hr tests with Daphnia magna. Most components of fog oil had low solubility in water. Saturation was apparent at approximately 0.1 to 0.3 mg/L total oil. Vaporization had no demonstrable effect on the chemistry or toxicity of the fog oil. Neither the bulk fog oil nor the vaporized fog oil was acutely toxic to freshwater animals at concentrations less than 10 mg/L total oil. In oil-water mixes in excess of 1.0 mg/L total oil, fog oil quickly separated and floated to the surface. The primary hazard associated with vaporized and bulk fog oil was the physical effect of oil fouling the organisms. Photolysis increased the concentration of water-soluble components of the fog oil. Acute toxicity was demonstrated in oil-water mixes (approx.10 mg/L total oil) of photolyzed bulk and vaporized fog oil. No difference in toxicity was observed between photolyzed and non-photolyzed dilutions of OWM at comparable levels of total oil.

  1. The influence of 'time since last blood meal' on the toxicity of essential oils to the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae).

    PubMed

    George, D R; Smith, T J; Sparagano, O A E; Guy, J H

    2008-08-17

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) is a serious ectoparasitic pest of layer hens that can survive for long periods in the poultry house sub-structure without taking a blood meal from its host. The research undertaken in this study found that 'time since last blood meal' had a notable effect on how toxic a selection of plant essential oils were to D. gallinae under laboratory conditions. In general, the essential oils had a greater toxic effect on D. gallinae if mites had been starved of a blood meal for around 3 weeks, than if they had been more recently fed 3-13 days prior to tests. This result was consistent across the four essential oils used (thyme, palmarosa, caraway and juniper leaf). This suggests that plant essential oils may be of use in management schemes for D. gallinae, particularly if used to sanitise houses between flocks, when mites will have been starved.

  2. Supplementation with red palm oil increases β-carotene and vitamin A blood levels in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Sommerburg, Olaf; De Spirt, Silke; Mattern, Annett; Joachim, Cornelia; Langhans, Claus-Dieter; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi; Siems, Werner; Stahl, Wilhelm; Mall, Marcus A

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) show decreased plasma concentrations of antioxidants due to malabsorption of lipid soluble vitamins and consumption by chronic pulmonary inflammation. β-Carotene is a major source of retinol and therefore is of particular significance in CF. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of daily intake of red palm oil (RPO) containing high amounts of β-carotene on the antioxidant levels in CF patients. Sixteen subjects were recruited and instructed to enrich their food with 2 to 3 tablespoons of RPO (~1.5 mg of β-carotene) daily over 8 weeks. Carotenoids, retinol, and α-tocopherol were measured in plasma at baseline and after intervention. In addition β-carotene, lycopene, α-tocopherol, and vitamin C were measured in buccal mucosa cells (BMC) to determine the influence of RPO on antioxidant tissue levels. Eleven subjects completed the study properly. Plasma β-carotene, retinol, and α-carotene of these patients increased, but plasma concentrations of other carotenoids and α-tocopherol as well as concentrations of β-carotene, lycopene, α-tocopherol, and vitamin C in BMC remained unchanged. Since RPO on a daily basis did not show negative side effects the data suggest that RPO may be used to elevate plasma β-carotene in CF.

  3. In vitro cytocidal effects of the essential oil from Croton cajucara (red sacaca) and its major constituent 7- hydroxycalamenene against Leishmania chagasi

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis is the most serious form of leishmaniasis and can be lethal if left untreated. Currently available treatments for these parasitic diseases are frequently associated to severe side effects. The leaves of Croton cajucara are used as an infusion in popular medicine to combat several diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that the linalool-rich essential oil from C. cajucara (white sacaca) is extremely efficient against the tegumentary specie Leishmania amazonensis. In this study, we investigated the effects of the 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich essential oil from the leaves of C. cajucara (red sacaca) against Leishmania chagasi, as well as on the interaction of these parasites with host cells. Methods Promastigotes were treated with different concentrations of the essential oil for determination of its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). In addition, the effects of the essential oil on parasite ultrastructure were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. To evaluate its efficacy against infected cells, mouse peritoneal macrophages infected with L. chagasi promastigotes were treated with the inhibitory and sub-inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil. Results The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil and its purified component 7-hydroxycalamenene against L. chagasi were 250 and 15.6 μg/mL, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed important nuclear and kinetoplastic alterations in L. chagasi promastigotes. Pre-treatment of macrophages and parasites with the essential oil reduced parasite/macrophage interaction by 52.8%, while it increased the production of nitric oxide by L. chagasi-infected macrophages by 80%. Conclusion These results indicate that the 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich essential oil from C. cajucara is a promising source of leishmanicidal compounds. PMID:24088644

  4. Consumption of Red Meat, but Not Cooking Oils High in Polyunsaturated Fat, Is Associated with Higher Arachidonic Acid Status in Singapore Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Seah, Jowy Yi Hoong; Gay, Gibson Ming Wei; Su, Jin; Tai, E-Shyong; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; Ong, Choon Nam; van Dam, Rob M

    2017-01-31

    High arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 n - 6) status may have adverse effects on inflammation and risk of cardiovascular diseases. Concerns about high intake of n - 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are based on the premise that endogenous conversion from linoleic acid (LA; 18:2 n - 6) is an important source of AA, but few population-based studies have investigated dietary determinants of AA status. In this study, we examined habitual food consumption in relation to plasma concentrations of AA and other PUFAs in population-based studies. We used cross-sectional data from 269 healthy, ethnic Chinese participants (25-80 years old) with contrasting intakes of fish and red meat from the Singapore Prospective Study Program and 769 healthy participants (44-74 years old) from the Singapore Chinese Health Study as a validation set. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine PUFA intake (% energy) and food sources of PUFA (fish, red meat, poultry, soy and cooking oils) in relation to plasma PUFAs (AA, LA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3 n - 6), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 n - 3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n - 3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n - 3)) concentrations. Higher intake of red meat was associated with higher plasma AA concentrations. High intake of PUFA or PUFA-rich oils was associated with higher plasma ALA but not with plasma AA. Higher intakes of soy were associated with higher ALA and fish with higher DHA and EPA concentrations. These associations were statistically significant (p < 0.05) in both studies. Red meat consumption, but not PUFA or PUFA-rich cooking oil, was associated with circulating AA suggesting that intake of pre-formed AA rather than LA is an important determinant of AA status. A diet high in fish, soy products and polyunsaturated cooking oil, and low in red meat may be associated with an optimal plasma profile of PUFA in this Chinese population.

  5. Consumption of Red Meat, but Not Cooking Oils High in Polyunsaturated Fat, Is Associated with Higher Arachidonic Acid Status in Singapore Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Seah, Jowy Yi Hoong; Gay, Gibson Ming Wei; Su, Jin; Tai, E-Shyong; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; Ong, Choon Nam; van Dam, Rob M.

    2017-01-01

    High arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) status may have adverse effects on inflammation and risk of cardiovascular diseases. Concerns about high intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are based on the premise that endogenous conversion from linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6) is an important source of AA, but few population-based studies have investigated dietary determinants of AA status. In this study, we examined habitual food consumption in relation to plasma concentrations of AA and other PUFAs in population-based studies. We used cross-sectional data from 269 healthy, ethnic Chinese participants (25–80 years old) with contrasting intakes of fish and red meat from the Singapore Prospective Study Program and 769 healthy participants (44–74 years old) from the Singapore Chinese Health Study as a validation set. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine PUFA intake (% energy) and food sources of PUFA (fish, red meat, poultry, soy and cooking oils) in relation to plasma PUFAs (AA, LA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3n-6), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3)) concentrations. Higher intake of red meat was associated with higher plasma AA concentrations. High intake of PUFA or PUFA-rich oils was associated with higher plasma ALA but not with plasma AA. Higher intakes of soy were associated with higher ALA and fish with higher DHA and EPA concentrations. These associations were statistically significant (p < 0.05) in both studies. Red meat consumption, but not PUFA or PUFA-rich cooking oil, was associated with circulating AA suggesting that intake of pre-formed AA rather than LA is an important determinant of AA status. A diet high in fish, soy products and polyunsaturated cooking oil, and low in red meat may be associated with an optimal plasma profile of PUFA in this Chinese population. PMID:28146136

  6. Eco-friendly control of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Dermanyssidae), using the α-thujone-rich essential oil of Artemisia sieberi (Asteraceae): toxic and repellent potential.

    PubMed

    Tabari, Mohaddeseh Abouhosseini; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-04-05

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, represents a key threat for the poultry industry worldwide. The control of D. gallinae is mainly achieved by continuous applications of acaricides. However, the fast-growing development of resistance, and the strict laws concerning chemicals admitted for treatments on food animals, highlighted the importance of alternative control tools. Here, we explored the potential of Artemisia sieberi essential oil against D. gallinae. In this study, the A. sieberi essential oil was analyzed using GC and GC-MS. The oil toxicity through contact and fumigant assays on adult mites was evaluated. The oil repellent activity was assessed on adult mites over different time intervals. Lastly, the residual toxicity of various doses of the oil was evaluated on D. gallinae until 14 days post treatment. GC and GC-MS showed that the oil was rich in α-thujone (31.5%), β-thujone (11.92%), camphor (12.3%), and 1,8-cineole (10.09%). Contact toxicity on adult mites showed 50% lethal concentration (LC50), LC90, and LC99 of 15.85, 26.63, and 35.42 μg/cm(3), respectively. In fumigant assays, the oil was toxic on D. gallinae, and mortality was significantly higher in open containers over closed ones, underlining the key role of highly volatile constituents. Repellent assays showed that after 24 h from the treatment, all doses of the A. sieberi essential oil led to significant repellent activity over the control, except for 2 μg/cm(3). After 48 h, A. sieberi essential oil tested at all doses led to significant repellent activity, if compared to the control. Residual toxicity assays showed that time exposure and concentration tested had a significant impact on mite mortality after 1, 2, 5, and 7 days from the treatment. Notably, mortality remained significantly higher over the control for 7 days after spraying with oil at 2%. Further field assays with selected molecules from the A. sieberi essential oil are ongoing, testing them in synergistic

  7. Influence of metals on essential oil content and composition of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf.) grown under different levels of red mud in sewage sludge amended soil.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Meenu; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2017-05-01

    Lemongrass is a commercially important perennial herb with medicinal value and ability to tolerate high alkaline and saline conditions. Essential oil bearing plants can grow safely in soil contaminated with heavy metals without severe effects on morphology and oil yield. The present study was aimed to assess the essential oil content and composition in lemongrass in response to elevated metals in above-ground plant parts. Pot experiment was conducted for six months using sewage sludge as soil amendment (soil: sludge: 2:1 w/w) followed by red mud treatments (0, 5, 10 and 15% w/w). Garden soil without sludge and red mud was control and there were ten replicates of each treatment. Oil content in leaves was differently affected due to presence of metals in soil under different treatments. Oil content under SRM5 (5% red mud) treatment was raised by 42.9 and 11.5% compared to the control and SRM0 treatment, respectively. Among identified compounds in oil under red mud treatments, 17 compounds contributed more than 90% of total volatiles (citral contributing approximately 70%). Under SRM10 treatment, essential oil showed maximum citral content (75.3%). Contents of Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni and Pb in above-ground plant parts exceeded, whereas Mn was detected within WHO permissible limits for medicinal plants. However, metal contents in essential oil were well within FSSAI limits for food. The study suggests utilization of 5 and 10% red mud in sludge amended soil for lemongrass cultivation to have better oil yield and quality, without metal contamination.

  8. Ecological Risk Assessment of the Effects of Military Fog Oil Obscurant Smoke on the Red-cockaded Woodpecker

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    grasses transfer and accumulate fog oil constituents to below-ground plant tissues (Cataldo et al. 1989). Although acute exposure to fog oil may...not appear to affect seed germination or soil nutrient levels (Cataldo et al. 1989). However, resi- dues on soils can have indirect effects on plant ...damage or parasitic infection. Habitat quality and quantity may be altered if some plant species are susceptible to fog oil aerosol dam- age

  9. Dietary menhaden and corn oils and the red blood cell membrane lipid composition and fluidity in hyper- and normocholesterolemic miniature swine.

    PubMed

    Berlin, E; Bhathena, S J; McClure, D; Peters, R C

    1998-09-01

    Fatty acids in the diet are readily incorporated into lipids in various tissues. However, it is not clear whether all tissues have the same level of incorporation. Second, (n-6) unsaturated fatty acids increase the fluidity of membranes, but this has not been shown for (n-3) fatty acids. In this study, we measured the incorporation of (n-6) and (n-3) fatty acids into erythrocyte membrane lipids and studied their effects on the fluidity of erythrocyte membranes. One group of female miniature swine was made hypercholesterolemic by feeding the swine cholesterol and lard for 2 mo; the other group served as controls and was fed a stock diet. Both groups were then fed either corn oil or menhaden oil or a mixture of the two for 23 additional weeks. Blood was collected at 0, 2, 4, 12 and 23 wk after initialization of the experimental diets, and fatty acid composition of phospholipids was assessed. Membrane phospholipids of pigs fed menhaden oil had elevated (n-3) fatty acids (20:5 and 22:6), and lower 18:2 than those fed corn oil. There was no difference in 20:4 content. The fatty acid changes occurred as early as 2 wk after consumption of the corn oil or menhaden oil in pigs previously fed a stock diet, but it took longer in pigs previously fed lard + cholesterol, indicating residual effects of pretreatment. Menhaden oil increased anisotropy (indicating decreased fluidity) more than corn oil for the nonpolar probe diphenylhexatriene (DPH) at earlier time points, but not at 23 wk. Erythrocyte membrane fluidity was significantly related to membrane polyunsaturate content, with (n-6) fatty acids having a greater influence than (n-3) fatty acids. A comparison of the present red blood cell fatty acid compositions with brain synaptosome fatty acid compositions for the same animals showed poor correlations for some of the fatty acids. There was no significant direct relationship between docosahexaenoate (DHA) concentrations in erythrocyte membranes with DHA concentrations in

  10. [Changes in vitamin A intake following the social marketing of red palm oil among children and women in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Zagré, No l-Marie; Delisle, Hélène; Tarini, Ann; Delpeuch, Francis

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on changes in vitamin A (VA) intakes as part of the evaluation of a pilot project on social marketing of red palm oil (RPO) as a VA supplement for mothers and children in central-north Burkina Faso. The objectives of the 30-month project are to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of introducing RPO in non-consuming areas. RPO is collected from women in the South-West region and it is sold in project sites by village volunteers. RPO is promoted by community workers trained in persuasive communication and social marketing. The target population is free to buy and consume RPO. Evaluation design includes data collected at onset, then 12 and 24 months later, from the same sample of 210 mothers and their children randomly selected in seven project sites. Children were 1 to 3 years old at onset. Blood samples were collected at baseline from mothers and children for serum retinol determination by HPLC. VA intakes are estimated by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, using the conventional beta-carotene to retinol conversion factors and the newly revised lower factors. VA deficiency is a major public health problem in the area: 64% of mothers and 85% of children had serum retinol concentrations < 0,70 mumol/l at baseline. VA came mainly from plant foods, particularly fruits and dark green vegetables which provided more than 90% of the dietary VA at onset of the project. Mean vitamin A intakes are low. We found 138 106 mug ER for the children and 302 +/- 235 microg ER for the mothers with conventional factors and 64 +/- 58 microg ER and 133 +/- 162 microg ER, respectively, with the revised factors. One year later, one third of respondents had consumed RPO in the previous week, and it supplied around 56% of the VA intake of children and 67% of mothers (36% and 46% respectively for the whole group). VA intakes were significantly increased at 510 +/- 493 microg ER and 801 +/- 913 microg ER for the children and their mothers respectively

  11. Insecticidal, fumigant, and repellent activities of sweet wormwood oil and its individual components against red imported fire ant workers (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Tang, Liang; Hu, Wei; Wang, Kun; Zhou, You; Li, Hong; Huang, Congling; Chun, Jiong; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2014-01-01

    In total, 29 compounds from sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua L.) oil were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The five active components were D-camphor, linalool, cineole, α-terpineol, and L(-)-borneol. The effectiveness of A. annua oil, as well as d-camphor, linalool, cineole, α-terpineol, and L(-)-borneol, as fumigants, contact insecticides, and repellents, were tested on the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren. The results indicated that A. annua oil has no significant topical toxicity; however, the spray contact test revealed that it has strong insecticidal activity and the inhibitory effect is stronger during closed exposure than during open exposure. In the fumigant test, cineole and D-camphor exhibited strong fumigant toxicity on minor and major S. invicta workers. They also caused 100% mortality at 5, 3, 2, and 1 mg/centrifuge tube but not at 0.5 mg/centrifuge tube. The mortality rates of linalool, α-terpineol, and L(-)-borneol exceeded 80% at 5, 3, and 2 mg/centrifuge tube. In the repellent test, cineole and d-camphor showed significant repellency at 100, 10, and 1 mg/kg. However, linalool, α-terpineol, and L(-)-borneol significantly facilitated digging at 10 and 1 mg/kg.

  12. Archive of bacterial community in anhydrite crystals from a deep-sea basin provides evidence of past oil-spilling in a benthic environment in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Li, Tie Gang; Wang, Meng Ying; Lai, Qi Liang; Li, Jiang Tao; Gao, Zhao Ming; Shao, Zong Ze; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2016-11-01

    In deep-sea sediment, the microbes present in anhydrite crystals are potential markers of the past environment. In the Atlantis II Deep, anhydrite veins were produced by mild mixture of calcium-rich hydrothermal solutions and sulfate in the bottom water, which had probably preserved microbial inhabitants in the past seafloor of the Red Sea. In this study, this hypothesis was tested by analyzing the metagenome of an anhydrite crystal sample from the Atlantis II Deep. The estimated age of the anhydrite layer was between 750 and 770 years, which might span the event of hydrothermal eruption into the benthic floor. The 16S/18S rRNA genes in the metagenome were assigned to bacteria, archaea, fungi and even invertebrate species. The dominant species in the crystals was an oil-degrading Alcanivorax borkumensis bacterium, which was not detected in the adjacent sediment layer. Fluorescence microscopy using 16S rRNA and marker gene probes revealed intact cells of the Alcanivorax bacterium in the crystals. A draft genome of A. borkumensis was binned from the metagenome. It contained all functional genes for alkane utilization and the reduction of nitrogen oxides. Moreover, the metagenomes of the anhydrites and control sediment contained aromatic degradation pathways, which were mostly derived from Ochrobactrum sp. Altogether, these results indicate an oxic, oil-spilling benthic environment in the Atlantis II basin of the Red Sea in approximately the 14th century. The original microbial inhabitants probably underwent a dramatic selection process via drastic environmental changes following the formation of an overlying anoxic brine pool in the basin due to hydrothermal activities.

  13. Effect of fish oil on ruminal biohydrogenation of C18 unsaturated fatty acids in steers fed grass or red clover silages.

    PubMed

    Lee, M R F; Shingfield, K J; Tweed, J K S; Toivonen, V; Huws, S A; Scollan, N D

    2008-12-01

    Red clover and fish oil (FO) are known to alter ruminal lipid biohydrogenation leading to an increase in the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of ruminant-derived foods, respectively. The potential to exploit these beneficial effects were examined using eight Hereford × Friesian steers fitted with rumen and duodenal cannulae. Treatments consisted of grass silage or red clover silage fed at 90% of ad libitum intake and FO supplementation at 0, 10, 20 or 30 g/kg diet dry matter (DM). The experiment was conducted with two animals per FO level and treatments formed extra-period Latin squares. Flows of fatty acids at the duodenum were assessed using ytterbium acetate and chromium ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid as indigestible markers. Intakes of DM were higher (P < 0.001) for red clover silage than grass silage (5.98 v. 5.09 kg/day). There was a linear interaction effect (P = 0.004) to FO with a reduction in DM intake in steers fed red clover silage supplemented with 30 g FO/kg diet DM. Apparent ruminal biohydrogenation of C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 were lower (P < 0.001) for red clover silage than grass silage (0.83 and 0.79 v. 0.87 and 0.87, respectively), whilst FO increased the extent of biohydrogenation on both diets. Ruminal biohydrogenation of C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 was extensive on both silage diets, averaging 0.94 and 0.97, respectively. Inclusion of FO in the diet enhanced the flow of total CLA leaving the rumen with an average across silages of 0.22, 0.31, 0.41 and 0.44 g/day for 0, 10, 20 or 30 g FO/kg, respectively, with a linear interaction effect between the two silages (P = 0.03). FO also showed a dose-dependent increase in the flow of trans-C18:1 intermediates at the duodenum from 4.6 to 15.0 g/day on grass silage and from 9.4 to 22.5 g/day for red clover silage. Concentrations of trans-C18:1 with double bonds from Δ4-16 in duodenal digesta were all elevated in response to FO in both diets, with trans-11 being

  14. Protective Effects of Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and/or Red Palm Oil (Elaeis guineensis) Supplementation on tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Ajuwon, Olawale R; Katengua-Thamahane, Emma; Van Rooyen, Jacques; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O; Marnewick, Jeanine L

    2013-01-01

    The possible protective effects of an aqueous rooibos extract (Aspalathus linearis), red palm oil (RPO) (Elaeis guineensis), or their combination on tert-butyl-hydroperoxide-(t-BHP-)induced oxidative hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats were investigated. tert-butyl hydroperoxide caused a significant (P < 0.05) elevation in conjugated dienes (CD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, significantly (P < 0.05) decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH : GSSG ratio, and induced varying changes in activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in the blood and liver. This apparent oxidative injury was associated with histopathological changes in liver architecture and elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Supplementation with rooibos, RPO, or their combination significantly (P < 0.05) decreased CD and MDA levels in the liver and reduced serum level of ALT, AST, and LDH. Likewise, changes observed in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and impairment in redox status in the erythrocytes and liver were reversed. The observed protective effects when rooibos and RPO were supplemented concomitantly were neither additive nor synergistic. Our results suggested that rooibos and RPO, either supplemented alone or combined, are capable of alleviating t-BHP-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity, and the mechanism of this protection may involve inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of antioxidants enzymes and glutathione status.

  15. Volatile compounds and antioxidant capacity of the bio-oil obtained by pyrolysis of Japanese red pine (pinus densiflora siebold and zucc.).

    PubMed

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Kim, Sung Hong; Hwang, Hyewon; Choi, Joon Weon; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-03-02

    In the present study, sawdust bio-oil (SBO) manufactured by fast pyrolysis of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Siebold and Zucc.) sawdust was analyzed for its volatile chemical compound composition and evaluated for its free radical scavenging potential, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing power. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy revealed 29 volatile compounds, comprising 97.6% of the total volatile compounds in SBO. The antioxidant potential of SBO in terms of IC50 values was 48.44 µg/mL for hydroxyl radical scavenging, 89.52 µg/mL for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydraxyl radical scavenging, 94.23 µg/mL for 2,2'-azino-bis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] radical scavenging, and 136.06 µg/mL for superoxide radical scavenging activity. The total phenol content in SBO was 5.7% gallic acid equivalent. Based on the composition of its volatile compounds, high free radical scavenging potential and antioxidant properties, SBO could be used as a source of antioxidant compounds, flavoring agents and nutraceuticals in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

  16. Meet EPA's Dan Nelson

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s Dan Nelson is the Director of the Human Research Protocol Office at the National Health and Environmental Effect Research Laboratory, Dan works to protect the rights and welfare of EPA’s research participants.

  17. Inhalation Toxicity of Cogenerated Graphite Flake and Fog Oil Smoke in the Brown-Headed Cowbird and the Red-Winged Blackbird, Size-Specific Inhalation Surrogates for the Red-Cockaged Woodpecker

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Test Animals ........................................................................................................................ 5 Source and...Husbandry of Test Animals ......................................................................................... 7 Bird Identification and Group...and terminal tissue pathology and hematological status evaluated. Test Animals Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) were selected as test

  18. Eye redness

    MedlinePlus

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral injection; Conjunctival injection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies. Others are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Many are nothing to worry about. Eye ...

  19. Analysis of spectral identifier of fatty acid functional group of packaging frying oil and bulk frying oil with the effect of repeated heating using FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, Vinda Dwi Dini; Nasution, Aulia M. T.

    2016-11-01

    Frying oil is a cooking medium that is commonly used in Indonesia. Frying process can lead changes in the properties of frying oil. Heating oil with high temperature and many repetition will cause degradation in oil and may cause health problems, such as cholesterol, induces heart disease, and cancer. Degradation of the frying oil can be determined based on changes in the cluster function of fatty acids due to the heating influence. Therefore, it is necessary to test the frying oil under treatments with variety of time heating using a spectrometer Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Spectra from FTIR was processed using derivative spectroscopy method to clearly see the difference in the measured spectra. Range spectra of interest is at wavelength of 13,500 to 14,200 nm i.e. indicating the double bond of carbon in molecule HC = CH. The analysis was performed by calculating the area of the spectral curve from the respected 2nd order derivative. Result show that the absorbance of packaging frying oil is higher than the bulk frying oil. In addition, heating of frying oil can decrease the area of respected 2nd order derivative. Packaging frying oil heating on 30 minutes which has the area of spectral curve of 0.904217 decrease become 0.881394 after 3 times heating. While the bulk frying oil heating 30 minutes, in the first heating which has area of spectral curve of 0.916089 decrease become 0.865379 after 3 times heating. The decline in the area of the curve occurs due to breakdown of the double bond of carbon in the molecule HC = CH that caused by heating at high temperatures and repeated heating.

  20. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of ... 2000 - The Red Sea between the East Africa coast and Saudi Arabian peninsula. project:  MISR category:  ...

  1. Effects of Fog Oil Smoke on Immune Responses in the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) and Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    1987. “Enhanced immune responses in broiler chicks fed methionine-supplemented diets.” Poultry Sci. 66:1147-1154. White, J. 1992. “Protocol for the...Biol. Lab. 17:40-42. Miller, D. S., D. B. Peakall, and W. B. Kinter. 1978. “Ingestion of crude oil: sublethal effects in herring gull chicks

  2. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  3. Red Hill

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the Red Hill Bulk Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii Administrative Order on Consent (AOC), an enforceable agreement of the Hawaii Department of Health, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Navy -- Defense Logistics Agency.

  4. Encapsulation of essential oils in zein nanosperical particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Essential oils, oregano, red thyme, and cassia (100% pure oil), were encapsulated by phase separation into zein particles. Typical yields were between 65% and 75% of product. Encapsulation efficiency of all oils was 87% except for cassia oil which was 49%. Loading efficiency of all oils was 22% exce...

  5. Toxicity and repellency of Hoslundia opposita Vahl (Lamiaceae) leaves' essential oil against rust-red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Babarinde, Samuel Adelani; Akinyemi, Adeyemi Oluseye; Usman, Lamidi Ajao; Odewole, Adeola Foluke; Sangodele, Abraham Opeola; Iyiola, Oluwaseun Olasupo; Olalere, Oluwatoyin Deborah

    2014-01-01

    The insecticidal properties of Hoslundia opposita Vahl (Lamiaceae) leaves' essential oil (EO) against Tribolium castaneum were investigated using contact toxicity and repellency bioassays. Mortality progressed with exposure period and ranged from 61.13% observed at 24 h after treatment (HAT) to 88.86% at 168 HAT. The LT50 (lethal time for 50% of treated adults) of H. opposita EO against T. castaneum was 10.42 h. Application of EO at 20-30 μL/30 cm(2) caused significantly (P < 0.05) higher percentage repellency than what was observed in control, 10 and 15 μL/30 cm(2) at 1 and 3 HAT, with significant repellency at 24 HAT regardless of dosage. Repellency class increased with EO dosage, with class V observed at 30 μL/30 cm(2), regardless of exposure duration. The RD50 (repellency dose for 50% of treated adults) of 15.88 and 13.37 μL/30 cm(2) for 1 and 2 HAT, respectively, was significantly higher than 0.09 μL/30 cm(2) at 24 HAT.

  6. American Red Cross

    MedlinePlus

    ... Espanol Local Red Cross ( ) Change Chapter Edit Zip Code Edit Zip Code Shop the Red Cross Store Toggle Navigation Menu ... Espanol Local Red Cross ( ) Change Chapter Edit Zip Code Edit Zip Code Shop the Red Cross Store ...

  7. Linseed oil supplementation to dairy cows fed diets based on red clover silage or corn silage: Effects on methane production, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Martineau, R; Gervais, R

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation to red clover silage (RCS)- or corn silage (CS)-based diets on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production. Twelve rumen-cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (35-d periods) with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed (ad libitum) RCS- or CS-based diets [forage:concentrate ratio 60:40; dry matter (DM) basis] without or with LO (4% of DM). Supplementation of LO to the RCS-based diet reduced enteric CH4 production (-9%) and CH4 energy losses (-11%) with no adverse effects on DM intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoa numbers, or milk production. The addition of LO to the CS-based diet caused a greater decrease in CH4 production (-26%) and CH4 energy losses (-23%) but was associated with a reduction in DM intake, total-tract fiber digestibility, protozoa numbers, acetate:propionate ratio, and energy-corrected milk yield. Urinary N excretion (g/d) decreased with LO supplementation to RCS- and CS-based diets, suggesting reduced potential of N2O emissions. Results from this study show that the depressive effect of LO supplementation on enteric CH4 production is more pronounced with the CS- than with the RCS-based diet. However, because of reduced digestibility with the CS-based diet, the reduction in enteric CH4 production may be offset by higher CH4 emissions from manure storage. Thus, the type of forage of the basal diet should be taken into consideration when using fat supplementation as a dietary strategy to reduce enteric CH4 production from dairy cows.

  8. Renewable Energy Can Help Reduce Oil Dependency

    ScienceCinema

    Arvizu, Dan

    2016-07-12

    In a speech to the Economic Club of Kansas City on June 23, 2010, NREL Director Dan Arvizu takes a realistic look at how renewable energy can help reduce America's dependence on oil, pointing out that the country gets as much energy from renewable sources now as it does from offshore oil production. For a transcript, visit http://www.nrel.gov/director/pdfs/energy_overview_06_10.pdf

  9. Seeing Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This New Horizons image of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io was taken at 13:05 Universal Time during the spacecraft's Jupiter flyby on February 28, 2007. It shows the reddish color of the deposits from the giant volcanic eruption at the volcano Tvashtar, near the top of the sunlit crescent, as well as the bluish plume itself and the orange glow of the hot lava at its source. The relatively unprocessed image on the left provides the best view of the volcanic glow and the plume deposits, while the version on the right has been brightened to show the much fainter plume, and the Jupiter-lit night side of Io.

    New Horizons' color imaging of Io's sunlit side was generally overexposed because the spacecraft's color camera, the super-sensitive Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), was designed for the much dimmer illumination at Pluto. However, two of MVIC's four color filters, the blue and 'methane' filter (a special filter designed to map methane frost on the surface of Pluto at an infrared wavelength of 0.89 microns), are less sensitive than the others, and thus obtained some well-exposed views of the surface when illumination conditions were favorable. Because only two color filters are used, rather than the usual three, and because one filter uses infrared light, the color is only a rough approximation to what the human eye would see.

    The red color of the Tvashtar plume fallout is typical of Io's largest volcanic plumes, including the previous eruption of Tvashtar seen by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft in 2000, and the long-lived Pele plume on the opposite side of Io. The color likely results from the creation of reddish three-atom and four-atom sulfur molecules (S3 and S4) from plume gases rich in two-atom sulfur molecules (S2 After a few months or years, the S3 and S4 molecules recombine into the more stable and familiar yellowish form of sulfur consisting of eight-atom molecules (S8), so these red deposits are only seen around recently-active Io

  10. NPPy With Dan DeVito

    NASA Video Gallery

    The NPP mission mascot NPPy was found by the NPP Ground Project Manager Dan DeVito in a place called Svalbard, located 600 miles from the North Pole. Since then, Dan and other people on the NPP pro...

  11. Optical detection of oil on water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Arvesen, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Three radiometric techniques utilizing sunlight reflected and backscattered from water bodies have potential application for remote sensing of oil spills. Oil on water can be detected by viewing perpendicular polarization component of reflected light or difference between polarization components. Best detection is performed in ultraviolet or far-red portions of spectrum and in azimuth directions toward or opposite sun.

  12. Airborne optical detection of oil on water.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Arvesen, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Airborne measurements were made over controlled oil-spill test sites to evaluate various techniques, utilizing reflected sunlight, for detecting oil on water. The results of these measurements show that (1) maximum contrast between oil and water is in the UV and red portions of the spectrum; (2) minimum contrast is in the blue-green; (3) differential polarization appears to be a very promising technique; (4) no characteristic absorption bands, which would permit one oil to be distinguished from another, were discovered in the spectral regions measured; (5) sky conditions greatly influence the contrast between oil and water; and (6) highest contrast was achieved under overcast sky conditions.

  13. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil spills ...

  14. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill in 2010. (NOAA) Oil Spills During an oil spill in coastal ... Shoreline Assessment Manual , and the FOSC 's Guide to NOAA Scientific Support . Response Tools To better prepare response ...

  15. 27 CFR 21.98 - Bone oil (Dipple's oil).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... below 90 °C. (c) Pyrrol reaction. Prepare a 1.0 percent solution of bone oil in 95 percent alcohol... show a distinct red coloration. (d) Reaction with mercuric chloride. Add 5 ml of the 1.0 percent...

  16. Red blood cell production

    MedlinePlus

    ... hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming a cell called a proerythroblast, it will develop into a new red blood cell. The formation of a red ...

  17. RED-LETTER DAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

  18. Cardiovascular effects of edible oils: a comparison between four popular edible oils.

    PubMed

    Bester, D; Esterhuyse, A J; Truter, E J; van Rooyen, J

    2010-12-01

    Edible oils form an essential part of the modern diet. These oils play a role as an energy source, and provide the diet with many beneficial micronutrients. Although a popular conception may be that fat should be avoided, certain edible oils as a dietary supplement may play an important role in the improvement of cardiovascular health. CVD has become one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Dietary supplementation with different oils may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. While olive oil and sunflower-seed oil are known to reduce serum cholesterol, fish oil has become well known for reducing potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Recently, red palm oil research has shown beneficial effects on cardiac recovery from ischaemia-reperfusion injury. It is clear that dietary supplementation with edible oils may play a vital role in reducing the mortality rate due to heart disease. The specific benefits and disadvantages of these oils should, however, be explored in greater depth. The present review will attempt to identify the benefits and shortcomings of four popular edible oils, namely olive oil, sunflower-seed oil, fish oil and palm oil. Additionally the present review will aim to reveal potential areas of research which could further enhance our understanding of the effects of edible oils on cardiovascular health.

  19. Oil Spill!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansberry, Karen Rohrich; Morgan, Emily

    2005-01-01

    An oil spill occurs somewhere in the world almost every day of the year, and the consequences can be devastating. In this month's column, students explore the effects of oil spills on plants, animals, and the environment and investigate oil spill clean-up methods through a simulated oil spill. The activities described in this article give students…

  20. Corner Office: Google's Dan Clancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albanese, Andrew Richard; Oder, Norman

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Dan Clancy, engineering director for Google Book Search. In this interview, Clancy talks about the pending Google Book Search settlement, involving millions of volumes digitized from libraries, which drew a lawsuit from the Association of American Publishers and the Authors Guild. He also discusses pricing,…

  1. All About Oils

    MedlinePlus

    ... corn oil, cottonseed oil, olive oil, safflower oil, soybean oil, and sunflower oil. Some oils are used ... such as canola, corn, cottonseed, olive, peanut, safflower, soybean, and sunflower) 1 Tbsp 3 tsp/14 g ...

  2. Red blood cell oleic acid levels reflect olive oil intake while omega-3 levels reflect fish intake and the use of omega-3 acid ethyl esters: The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico-Heart Failure trial.

    PubMed

    Harris, William S; Masson, Serge; Barlera, Simona; Milani, Valentina; Pileggi, Silvana; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Marchioli, Roberto; Tognoni, Gianni; Tavazzi, Luigi; Latini, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico-Heart Failure (GISSI-HF) study reported benefits of n-3 fatty acid (FA) treatment on cardiovascular (CV) events, but the effects of treatment on a putative CV disease risk factor, the red blood cell (RBC) n-3 FA level (the omega-3 index), have not been examined in this context. We hypothesized that treatment with prescription omega-3 acid ethyl esters (O3AEE) would increase the omega-3 index to the proposed cardioprotective value of 8%. RBCs were collected from a subset of patients participating in the GISSI-HF study (n=461 out of 6975 randomized), at baseline and after 3 months of treatment with either an olive oil placebo or O3AEE (1 g/d). RBC FA levels were expressed as a percentage of total FA. Patients also reported their typical olive oil and fish intakes. RBC oleic acid levels were directly correlated with reported frequency of olive oil consumption, and the omega-3 index was correlated with reported fish intake (P for trends <0.001 for both). After treatment, the omega-3 index increased from 4.8±1.7% to 6.7±1.9% but was unchanged in the placebo group (4.7±1.7 to 4.8±1.5%) (P<.0001 for changes between groups). At 3 months, more patients reached the proposed target omega-3 index level of 8%-12% in the treated vs placebo group (22.6% vs. 1.3%, P<.0001), however, what omega-3 index levels were ultimately achieved after four years in this trial are unknown.

  3. The Red Sea Modeling and Forecasting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoteit, Ibrahim; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Latif, Hatem; Toye, Habib; Zhan, Peng; Kartadikaria, Aditya R.; Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Yao, Fengchao; Triantafyllou, George; Langodan, Sabique; Cavaleri, Luigi; Guo, Daquan; Johns, Burt

    2015-04-01

    Despite its importance for a variety of socio-economical and political reasons and the presence of extensive coral reef gardens along its shores, the Red Sea remains one of the most under-studied large marine physical and biological systems in the global ocean. This contribution will present our efforts to build advanced modeling and forecasting capabilities for the Red Sea, which is part of the newly established Saudi ARAMCO Marine Environmental Research Center at KAUST (SAMERCK). Our Red Sea modeling system compromises both regional and nested costal MIT general circulation models (MITgcm) with resolutions varying between 8 km and 250 m to simulate the general circulation and mesoscale dynamics at various spatial scales, a 10-km resolution Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the atmospheric conditions, a 4-km resolution European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) to simulate the Red Sea ecosystem, and a 1-km resolution WAVEWATCH-III model to simulate the wind driven surface waves conditions. We have also implemented an oil spill model, and a probabilistic dispersion and larval connectivity modeling system (CMS) based on a stochastic Lagrangian framework and incorporating biological attributes. We are using the models outputs together with available observational data to study all aspects of the Red Sea circulations. Advanced monitoring capabilities are being deployed in the Red Sea as part of the SAMERCK, comprising multiple gliders equipped with hydrographical and biological sensors, high frequency (HF) surface current/wave mapping, buoys/ moorings, etc, complementing the available satellite ocean and atmospheric observations and Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The Red Sea models have also been equipped with advanced data assimilation capabilities. Fully parallel ensemble-based Kalman filtering (EnKF) algorithms have been implemented with the MITgcm and ERSEM for assimilating all available multivariate satellite and in-situ data sets. We

  4. Coconut Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... oil comes from the nut (fruit) of the coconut palm. The oil of the nut is used to ... Gras de Noix de Coco, Coconut Fatty Acid, Coconut Palm, Coco Palm, Coconut, Cocos nucifera, Cocotier, Cold Pressed ...

  5. SYNTHETIC OIL,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The patent concerns a dicarboxylate-base synthetic oil with antiwear and antioxidation additives. The oil is prepared from the esterification of 2- or 3-methylcyclohexanol and 2-ethylhexanol with adipic acid. (Author)

  6. Petroleum Oils

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  7. Mineral oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  8. Cobb's Red Cabbage Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an indicator made from the pigment in red cabbage. Cabbage is grated then soaked in water. When the water is a strong red, the cabbage is strained out. The cabbage-juice indicator is then used to test for acids and bases. Includes a list of good foods to test for acidity and alkalinity. (PVD)

  9. High Red Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  10. Radiations cosmiques : danger dans l'Espace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.; Dzitko, H.

    2000-06-01

    Au sol, l'atmosphere nous protege plus ou moins bien. Mais dans l'espace ou a bord des avions de ligne, l'homme est directement expose aux rayonnements cosmiques qui peuvent etre mortels. Un veritable frein a la presence humaine prolongee dans l'espace. Une menace que les agences spatiales prennent tres au serieux.

  11. Effects of crude oil, oil components, and bioremediation on plant growth.

    PubMed

    Baek, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Hee-Sik; Oh, Hee-Mock; Yoon, Byung-Dae; Kim, Jaisoo; Lee, In-Sook

    2004-01-01

    The phytotoxic effects of crude oil and oil components on the growth of red beans (Phaseolus nipponesis OWH1) and corn (Zea mays) was investigated. In addition, the beneficial effects of bioremediation with the oil-degrading microorganism, Nocardia sp. H17-1, on corn and red bean growth in oil-contaminated soil was also determined. It was found that crude oil-contaminated soil (10,000mg/kg) was phytotoxic to corn and red beans. In contrast, obvious phytotoxicity was not observed in soils contaminated with 0-1000 mg/kg of aliphatic hydrocarbons such as decane (C10) and eicosane (C20). Phytotoxicity was observed in soils contaminated with 10-1000mg/kg of the poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. It was observed that phytotoxicity increased with the number of aromatic rings, and that corn was more sensitive than red beans to PAH-contaminated soil. Bioremediation with Nocardia sp. H17-1 reduced phytotoxicity more in corn than in red bean, suggesting that this microbial species might degrade PAHs to some degree.

  12. Fuel oil quality task force

    SciTech Connect

    Laisy, J.; Turk, V.

    1997-09-01

    In April, 1996, the R.W. Beckett Corporation became aware of a series of apparently unrelated symptoms that made the leadership of the company concerned that there could be a fuel oil quality problem. A task force of company employees and industry consultants was convened to address the topic of current No. 2 heating oil quality and its effect on burner performance. The task force studied changes in fuel oil specifications and trends in properties that have occurred over the past few years. Experiments were performed at Beckett and Brookhaven National Laboratory to understand the effect of changes in some fuel oil properties. Studies by other groups were reviewed, and field installations were inspected to gain information about the performance of fuel oil that is currently being used in the U.S. and Canada. There was a special concern about the use of red dye in heating oils and the impact of sulfur levels due to the October, 1993 requirement of low sulfur (<0.05%) for on-highway diesel fuel. The results of the task force`s efforts were published in July, 1996. The primary conclusion of the task force was that there is not a crisis or widespread general problem with fuel oil quality. Localized problems that were seen may have been related to refinery practices and/or non-traditional fuel sources. System cleanliness is very important and the cause of many oil burner system problems. Finally, heating oil quality should get ongoing careful attention by Beckett engineering personnel and heating oil industry groups.

  13. Shifting environmental baselines in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Price, A R G; Ghazi, S J; Tkaczynski, P J; Venkatachalam, A J; Santillan, A; Pancho, T; Metcalfe, R; Saunders, J

    2014-01-15

    The Red Sea is among the world's top marine biodiversity hotspots. We re-examined coastal ecosystems at sites surveyed during the 1980s using the same methodology. Coral cover increased significantly towards the north, mirroring the reverse pattern for mangroves and other sedimentary ecosystems. Latitudinal patterns are broadly consistent across both surveys and with results from independent studies. Coral cover showed greatest change, declining significantly from a median score of 4 (1000-9999 m(2)) to 2 (10-99m(2)) per quadrat in 2010/11. This may partly reflect impact from coastal construction, which was evident at 40% of sites and has significantly increased in magnitude over 30 years. Beach oil has significantly declined, but shore debris has increased significantly. Although substantial, levels are lower than at some remote ocean atolls. While earlier reports have suggested that the Red Sea is generally healthy, shifting environmental baselines are evident from the current study.

  14. Red Bull Stratos Presentation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Red Bull Stratos High Performance Director Andy Walshe & Technical Project Director Art Thompson share the Stratos story with JSC. Supported by a team of experts, Felix Baumgartner reached 128,100 ...

  15. Red Hill Updates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This and other periodic updates are intended to keep the public informed on major progress being made to protect public health and the environment at the Red Hill Underground Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii.

  16. Aurora Australis, Red Crown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Aurora Australis or Southern Lights (location unknown) shows a spiked band of red airglow called a 'Red Crown' above the Earth Limb. Calculated to be in the 80 - 120 km altitude region, auroral activity is due to exitation of atomic oxygen in the upper atmosphere by radiation from the van Allen Radiation Belts and is most common above the 65 degree north and south latitude range during the spring and fall of the year.

  17. Whence the red panda?

    PubMed

    Flynn, J J; Nedbal, M A; Dragoo, J W; Honeycutt, R L

    2000-11-01

    The evolutionary history of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher-level phylogeny of the "bear-like" arctoid carnivoran mammals. Characters from morphology and molecules have provided inconsistent evidence for placement of the red panda. Whereas it certainly is an arctoid, there has been major controversy about whether it should be placed with the bears (ursids), ursids plus pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, walrus), raccoons (procyonids), musteloids (raccoons plus weasels, skunks, otters, and badgers [mustelids]), or as a monotypic lineage of uncertain phylogenetic affinities. Nucleotide sequence data from three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear intron were analyzed, with more complete taxonomic sampling of relevant taxa (arctoids) than previously available in analyses of primary molecular data, to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the red panda to other arctoid carnivorans. This study provides detailed phylogenetic analyses (both parsimony and maximum-likelihood) of primary character data for arctoid carnivorans, including bootstrap and decay indices for all arctoid nodes, and three statistical tests of alternative phylogenetic hypotheses for the placement of the red panda. Combined phylogenetic analyses reject the hypotheses that the red panda is most closely related to the bears (ursids) or to the raccoons (procyonids). Rather, evidence from nucleotide sequences strongly support placement of the red panda within a broad Musteloidea (sensu lato) clade, including three major lineages (the red panda, the skunks [mephitids], and a clearly monophyletic clade of procyonids plus mustelids [sensu stricto, excluding skunks]). Within the Musteloidea, interrelationships of the three major lineages are unclear and probably are best considered an unresolved trichotomy. These data provide compelling evidence for the relationships of the red panda and demonstrate that small taxonomic sample sizes can result in misleading or possibly erroneous

  18. Egypt and Red Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A panaramic view of eastern Egypt, The Red Sea and Saudi Arabia beyond (24.0N, 33.0E). In this desert country, where water is life, the high Aswan Dam and the impounded waters of the Nile River in the foreground assure water availability into the next century. The Red Sea beyond, part of the Suez Canal seaway, serves as a commercial link to the world and separates Egypt from Saudi Arabia.

  19. Antimicrobial activities of red wine-based formulations containing plant extracts against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Hadar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the bactericidal activities of red wine and red wine solutions containing a commercial olive extract called Hydrox-12, oregano oil, or a mixture of both in red wine against the following foodborne pathogens: Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, and Stap...

  20. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of the Terpene "[beta]"-Thujone from Cedar Leaf Oil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Larry G.

    2011-01-01

    Western red cedar leaf affords an essential oil characterized by high thujone content. Students in an advanced organic chemistry lab course isolate a single thujone diastereoisomer from commercially available cedar leaf oil. Treatment of crude oil, containing roughly 70% thujone, predominately as [alpha]-thujone (6.5:1), with ethanolic sodium…

  1. Barley Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an ancient grain that has was domesticated for use as a food. Currently only about 2% is used for food, about two thirds is used for animal feed and one third for malting. Because the oil content of most barley cultivars is low (<2%), obtaining oil from whole barley gra...

  2. Red-based cumulus.

    PubMed

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    2015-02-01

    Observations and model simulations of cumulus clouds whose bases are tinted red when the Sun is well above the horizon are presented. Conditions for seeing red bases include (1) a red underlying surface (which may consist of dust clouds, as from haboobs) with high albedo, (2) small fractional cloud cover when the Sun is far enough below the zenith for direct sunlight to illuminate much of the surface directly below and around cloud base, (3) optically thick clouds so that the bases are dark, and (4) clouds with bases that are near enough to the observer to appear high in the sky so that the admixture of scattered light from the intervening atmosphere is minimized.

  3. Thermal deterioration of oil and frying foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Totani, Nagao; Ojiri, Yuko

    2007-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks a powdered diet (AIN93G; no fat) containing 7 wt% of fresh oil (control), and frying oils heated for 20 h at 180 degrees C with amino acids, gluten, sugar, and wheat starch, respectively. The rats were subjected to anthropometric measurements, hematological analyses, and observations of the liver and kidneys. All of the rats grew well, and no gross symptoms attributable to the experimental oils were observed. The serum of all the experimental groups showed a tendency toward lower levels of triacylglycerol and free fatty acids and higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) than that of the control group. Among experimental groups, the rats fed a diet containing oil heated with gluten were least influenced by thermally deteriorated oil in terms of serum levels of glucose, triacylglycerol, phospholipids, cholesterol, and insulin; histological evaluations; and number of dark-red patches found on the surface of the liver.

  4. Automated oil spill detection with multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Brian N.; Sanchez-Reyes, Pedro J.

    2011-06-01

    In this publication we present an automated detection method for ocean surface oil, like that which existed in the Gulf of Mexico as a result of the April 20, 2010 Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion. Regions of surface oil in airborne imagery are isolated using red, green, and blue bands from multispectral data sets. The oil shape isolation procedure involves a series of image processing functions to draw out the visual phenomenological features of the surface oil. These functions include selective color band combinations, contrast enhancement and histogram warping. An image segmentation process then separates out contiguous regions of oil to provide a raster mask to an analyst. We automate the detection algorithm to allow large volumes of data to be processed in a short time period, which can provide timely oil coverage statistics to response crews. Geo-referenced and mosaicked data sets enable the largest identified oil regions to be mapped to exact geographic coordinates. In our simulation, multispectral imagery came from multiple sources including first-hand data collected from the Gulf. Results of the simulation show the oil spill coverage area as a raster mask, along with histogram statistics of the oil pixels. A rough square footage estimate of the coverage is reported if the image ground sample distance is available.

  5. Canadian Red Cross.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Red Cross is guided by its Fundamental Principles--humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity, and universality--and organized in a traditional geographic hierarchical structure. Among the characteristics that have contributed to its success are a budgeting process that starts at the local level, measurement of program outcomes, and coordinated fundraising activities at the regional level.

  6. Red Emitting VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetter, Michael; Roßbach, Robert; Michler, Peter

    This chapter describes the progress in development of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) emitting in the red spectral region around 650 nm for data transmission over polymer optical fibers (POF). First, growth issues of red VCSEL using two different material systems, namely AlGaAs and AlGaInP, are introduced. In particular, the optical and electrical state-of-the-art characteristics as low threshold currents ({≤} 1 mA) and high output powers (several mW) are presented with a special focus on emission wavelength. Also the thermal budget and heat removal in the devices are pointed out with regard to the geometry of the VCSEL. Small-signal modulation response in terms of maximum resonance frequency in dependance on temperature behavior are discussed. Applications of these devices in optical interconnects are described and digital data transmission at data rates up to 2.1 Gbit/s over step-index POF is reported. These properties make red emitting VCSEL perfectly suited for high-speed low power consuming light sources for optical data communication via POF. By introducing InP quantum dots as gain material in red emitting VCSEL nearly temperature independent record low threshold current densities of around 10 A/cm2 could be observed.

  7. 'Vintage' Red Raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Vintage' is a new primocane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA–ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR released in cooperation with the Oregon State Agricultural Experiment Station and the Washington State University Agricu...

  8. Red sea drillings.

    PubMed

    Ross, D A; Whitmarsh, R B; Ali, S A; Boudreaux, J E; Coleman, R; Fleisher, R L; Girdler, R; Manheim, F; Matter, A; Nigrini, C; Stoffers, P; Supko, P R

    1973-01-26

    Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered.

  9. Red Cross Swimming Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlasich, Cynthia

    1989-01-01

    Six new aquatic courses, developed by the Red Cross, are described. They are: Infant and Preschool Aquatics, Longfellow's Whale Tales (classroom water safety lessons for K-Six), Basic Water Safety, Emergency Water Safety, Lifeguard Training, and Safety Training for Swim Coaches. (IAH)

  10. RED2TEX: A TRIX RED to LATEX converter

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, L.; Langdon, A.B.

    1987-05-20

    A summary of RED2TEX is presented. RED2TEX converts standard TRIX RED format commands to TEX or LATEX commands for subsequent LATEX formatting. LATEX is a special version of the TEX document preparation system. LATEX adds to TEX a collection of commands that simplifies formatting. LATEX runs on the J-Vax and the LLL-LCC Pyramid machines. RED2TEX resides in Unix directory CHASE/TEX.

  11. OIL BOND®

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical product bulletin: this miscellaneous oil spill control agent is a solidifier used in cleanups. It absorbs and solidifies hydrocarbon spills on freshwater and saltwater or land applications. Ring spill with booms or pillows before treatment.

  12. Peanut Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... are pregnant or breast-feeding. Allergy to peanuts, soybeans, and related plants: Peanut oil can cause serious ... reactions in people who are allergic to peanuts, soybeans, and other members of the Fabaceae plant family.

  13. Palm Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... treating malaria, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss ... to decrease symptoms of malaria. High blood pressure. Cyanide poisoning. Weight loss agent. Cancer. Anti-aging. Brain ...

  14. A CHAT with Dan Johnson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Robert A.

    2003-04-01

    Dan's preoccupation with preventing NIHL is well known. For those of us who had the occasion to CHAT with him, we often heard him say ``if ears would bleed when exposed to noise, people would pay more attention to the harmful effect of noise upon hearing.'' His objective, as he often stated, was to eradicate NIHL so that in a few decades, it would become a historical footnote. Among his many preoccupations in his illustrious career, approaches and techniques to prevent NIHL were of primordial importance. One approach he advocated is the use of TTS instead of the STS in HCP's. His intention was to use the identification of TTS as an easy approach to introduce appropriate measures to prevent NIHL at a stage of reversibility rather than waiting for a confirmed permanent hearing loss, as noted with a confirmed STS. One of his last projects was developing the CHAT (Change of Hearing Audio Test) for easy use both in industrial and environmental settings to identify subjects with a TTS. Several groups are interested in pursuing his aim of using the TTS in HCP's, hoping to fulfill his comment that in a few decades, NIHL will become a historical footnote.

  15. The effect of red palm olein and refined palm olein on lipids and haemostatic factors in hyperfibrinogenaemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Scholtz, Susanna C; Pieters, Marlien; Oosthuizen, Welma; Jerling, Johann C; Bosman, Magdalena J C; Vorster, Hester H

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the physiological effects of red palm olein (RPO). The effects of red palm olein and palm olein (POL) compared to sunflower oil (SFO), on lipids, haemostatic factors and fibrin network characteristics in hyperfibrinogenaemic volunteers were investigated. Fifty-nine free-living, hyperfibrinogenaemic volunteers participated in this randomized, controlled, single blind parallel study. After a 4-week run-in, during which subjects received sunflower oil products, they were paired and randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups receiving products containing 25 g/day ( approximately 12% of total energy intake) of either red palm olein, palm olein or sunflower oil for another 4 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, blood samples and dietary intakes were measured before run-in, and before and after intervention. The differences in changes in total serum cholesterol response between palm olein and red palm olein (+0.59 vs. +0.18 mmol/l; p=0.053), and between palm olein and sunflower oil (+0.59 vs. -0.003 mmol/l; p < or =0.01) were significant. The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) response in the palm olein-and sunflower oil-groups also differed significantly (+0.42 vs. -0.11 mmol/l; p < or =0.01). Tissue plasminogen activator antigen (tPA(ag)) decreased significantly in the red palm olein group compared to the palm olein-and sunflower oil-groups. No effects were found in other haemostatic variables. Palm olein and red palm olein had no independent effect on fibrin network characteristics. In conclusion, compared to palm olein, red palm olein had less detrimental effects on the lipid profile and decreased tissue plasminogen activator antigen. Studies in larger groups are advised for confirmation of results, elucidation of mechanisms and effects of nonglyceride constituents of red palm oil (PO).

  16. The great red flashlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halbach, Edward A.

    After fifty years of fighting with flashlights which persisted in rolling to the ground, being mislaid, or stashed in a pocket, the author designed a unit which was always on hand and needed no search for the switch. A normally closed switch, internal to the bottom of the flashlight case, is opened by the weight of the unit suspended on a cord about the neck. Lifting the unit with two fingers turns on the red light, while releasing the unit automatically turns it off. A felt covering around the flashlight provides comfort on cold nights. Because this red light would be a welcome tool for other variable star observers, more units were assembled and brought to the AAVSO meeting in Houston for distribution to observers who agreed to give each unit a workout and report on its performance. The author is waiting to hear from these observers.

  17. Myristica oil poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Nutmeg oil; Myristicin ... Myristica oil ( Myristica fragrans ) can be harmful. It comes from the seed of a nutmeg. ... Myristica oil is found in: Aromatherapy products Mace Nutmeg Other products may also contain myristica oil.

  18. Science: Oil Slick.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2000-01-01

    Presents a science experiment about oil spills and oil pollution for 7th- and 8th-grade science students. This variation on a method used by pollution control experts to clean up oil spills shows students how oil is collected after an oil spill, explaining that with this method, much of the damage from an oil spill can be averted. (SM)

  19. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2008-06-01

    Les Antennes se rapprochent; Matière manquante; Galaxies trapues; Fusion de trous noirs; Thermomètre moléculaire; Supernova récente dans la Voie Lactée; Naine blanche particulière; L'étoile à neutrons 4U 1636-53; Pulsar étrange; Hubble; Fin du monde; Lunes; Extinction KT; L'axe changeant d'Europe; Ondes dans la haute atmosphère de Saturne; Anneau de Mars; Mars plus froid;

  20. Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This brief movie shows counterclockwise atmospheric motion around Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The clip was made from blue-filter images taken with the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft during seven separate rotations of Jupiter between Oct. 1 and Oct. 5, 2000.

    The clip also shows the eastward and westward motion of the zonal jets, seen as the horizontal stripes flowing in opposite directions. The zonal jets circle the planet. As far as can be determined from both Earth-based and spacecraft measurements, the positions and speeds of the jets have not changed for 100 years. Since Jupiter is a fluid planet without a solid boundary, the jet speeds are measured relative to Jupiter's magnetic field, which rotates, wobbling like a top because of its tilt, every 9 hours 55.5 minutes. The movie shows motions in the magnetic reference frame, so winds to the west correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than the magnetic field, and eastward winds correspond to features rotating a little faster.

    Because the Red Spot is in the southern hemisphere, the direction of motion indicates it is a high-pressure center. Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Scientists suspect these small white features are lightning storms. The storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for the large-scale features.

    The smallest features in the movie are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across. The spacing of the movie frames in time is not uniform; some consecutive images are separated by two Jupiter rotations, and some by one. The images have been re-projected using a simple cylindrical map projection. They show an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east-west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet

  1. The Egyptian Red Sea coastal microbiome: A study revealing differential microbial responses to diverse anthropogenic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Ghada A; Abd-Elgawad, Amr; Ouf, Amged; Siam, Rania

    2016-07-01

    The Red Sea is considered one of the youngest oceanic systems, with unique physical, geochemical and biological characteristics. Tourism, industrialization, extensive fishing, oil processing and shipping are extensive sources of pollution in the Red Sea. We analyzed the geochemical characteristics and microbial community of sediments along the Egyptian coast of the Red Sea. Our sites mainly included 1) four ports used for shipping aluminum, ilmenite and phosphate; 2) a site previously reported to have suffered extensive oil spills; and 3) a site impacted by tourism. Two major datasets for the sediment of ten Red Sea coastal sites were generated; i) a chemical dataset included measurements of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur, metals and selected semi-volatile oil; and ii) a 16S rRNA Pyrotags bacterial metagenomic dataset. Based on the taxonomic assignments of the 16S rRNA Pyrotags to major bacterial groups, we report 30 taxa constituting an Egyptian Red Sea Coastal Microbiome. Bacteria that degrade hydrocarbons were predominant in the majority of the sites, particularly in two ports where they reached up to 76% of the total identified genera. In contrast, sulfate-reducing and sulfate-oxidizing bacteria dominated two lakes at the expense of other hydrocarbon metabolizers. Despite the reported "Egyptian Red Sea Coastal Microbiome," sites with similar anthropogenic pollutants showed unique microbial community abundances. This suggests that the abundance of a specific bacterial community is an evolutionary mechanism induced in response to selected anthropogenic pollutants.

  2. Vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is a technically competitive alternative to petroleum-derived diesel fuel. It can be obtained from commodity oils and fats such as soybean, sunflower, canola or tallow. However, the available amounts of these biodiesel feedstocks do not suffice to satisfy the long-term need for biodiesel...

  3. The red ear syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Red Ear Syndrome (RES) is a very rare disorder, with approximately 100 published cases in the medical literature. Red ear (RE) episodes are characterised by unilateral or bilateral attacks of paroxysmal burning sensations and reddening of the external ear. The duration of these episodes ranges from a few seconds to several hours. The attacks occur with a frequency ranging from several a day to a few per year. Episodes can occur spontaneously or be triggered, most frequently by rubbing or touching the ear, heat or cold, chewing, brushing of the hair, neck movements or exertion. Early-onset idiopathic RES seems to be associated with migraine, whereas late-onset idiopathic forms have been reported in association with trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs). Secondary forms of RES occur with upper cervical spine disorders or temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction. RES is regarded refractory to medical treatments, although some migraine preventative treatments have shown moderate benefit mainly in patients with migraine-related attacks. The pathophysiology of RES is still unclear but several hypotheses involving peripheral or central nervous system mechanisms have been proposed. PMID:24093332

  4. Oil Fire Plumes Over Baghdad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Dark smoke from oil fires extend for about 60 kilometers south of Iraq's capital city of Baghdad in these images acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) on April 2, 2003. The thick, almost black smoke is apparent near image center and contains chemical and particulate components hazardous to human health and the environment.

    The top panel is from MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Vegetated areas appear red here because this display is constructed using near-infrared, red and blue band data, displayed as red, green and blue, respectively, to produce a false-color image. The bottom panel is a combination of two camera views of the same area and is a 3-D stereo anaglyph in which red band nadir camera data are displayed as red, and red band data from the 60-degree backward-viewing camera are displayed as green and blue. Both panels are oriented with north to the left in order to facilitate stereo viewing. Viewing the 3-D anaglyph with red/blue glasses (with the red filter placed over the left eye and the blue filter over the right) makes it possible to see the rising smoke against the surface terrain. This technique helps to distinguish features in the atmosphere from those on the surface. In addition to the smoke, several high, thin cirrus clouds (barely visible in the nadir view) are readily observed using the stereo image.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbit 17489. The panels cover an area of about 187 kilometers x 123 kilometers, and use data from blocks 63 to 65 within World Reference System-2 path 168.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory,Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight

  5. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2010-03-01

    P/2010 A2 (LINEAR): astéroïde ou comète?; Astéroïdes au lavage; Trou noir stellaire lontain; Quasar double SDSS J1254+0846; Supernovae; Un nouveau regard sur Orion; Un petit berceau d'étoiles dans l'univers primitif; L'origine des galaxies spirales; Pluton; Spirit; NGC 6334

  6. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2002-12-01

    XMM à la recherche de la matière exotique; Ancienne étoile; Le Trou noir volant; Magnétar; Stardust et Annefrank; Le centre de la galaxie; Deux trous noirs dans la même galaxie; Eruption géante sur Io; Le Soleil;

  7. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2008-04-01

    Jets stellaires; Structure géante et matière noire; Un mini-système solaire; Arcs gravitationnels et images multiples; Choc frontal dans notre Galaxie; Avalanches martiennes; Du sable autour de KH 15D; Le cratère de Carancas; Smart-1;

  8. Depositional environments, reservoir trends, and diagenesis of Red Fork sandstones in parts of Blaine, Caddo, and Custer counties, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.L.

    1984-04-01

    The Red Fork sandstone was divided into the upper and lower Red Fork which are separated by a consistent marker bed. The Red Fork interval thickens markedly across the study area from 250 ft (75 m) in the northeast to over 1300 ft (400 m) in the southwest. Most of the thickening is within the lower Red Fork. The lower Red Fork is believed to have been deposited in shelf-to-basin transitional terrain. Sands were located in delta-front, submarine-channel-fill, and possible submarine-fan terrain. The upper Red Fork is believed to represent the maximum progradation of a deltaic complex. Sandstones of the lower Red Fork are sublithic to lithic arenites; the upper Red Fork is sublithic arenite. The dominant lithic fraction is mudstone fragments. The main diagenetic alterations of both the upper and lower Red Fork sandstones were destruction of primary porosity by compaction and cementation. Dissolution chiefly of mud fragments has produced well-developed secondary porosity. Clays of the lower Red Fork mainly are authigenic chlorite; clays of the upper Red Fork primarily are authigenic kaolinite. Present oil and gas production from Red Fork sandstones is most abundant from localities on the paleoshelf.

  9. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  10. Fade to Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Infrared Andromeda Galaxy (M31) Poster [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stars Dust

    This animation shows the Andromeda galaxy, first as seen in visible light by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, then as seen in infrared by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

    The visible-light image highlights the galaxy's population of about one trillion stars. The stars are so crammed into its core that this region blazes with bright starlight.

    In contrast, the false-colored Spitzer view reveals red waves of dust against a more tranquil sea of blue stars. The dust lanes can be seen twirling all the way into the galaxy's center. This dust is warmed by young stars and shines at infrared wavelengths , which are represented in red. The blue color signifies shorter-wavelength infrared light primarily from older stars.

    The Andromeda galaxy, also known affectionately by astronomers as Messier 31, is located 2.5 million light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. It is the closest major galaxy to the Milky Way, making it the ideal specimen for carefully examining the nature of galaxies. On a clear, dark night, the galaxy can be spotted with the naked eye as a fuzzy blob.

    Andromeda's entire disk spans about 260,000 light-years, which means that a light beam would take 260,000 years to travel from one end of the galaxy to the other. By comparison, the Milky Way is about 100,000 light-years across. When viewed from Earth, Andromeda occupies a portion of the sky equivalent to seven full moons.

    Because this galaxy is so large, the infrared images had to be stitched together out of about 3,000 separate Spitzer exposures. The light detected by Spitzer's infrared array camera at 3.6 and 4.5 microns is sensitive mostly to starlight and is shown in blue and green, respectively. The 8-micron light shows warm dust and is shown in red. The

  11. Oil damage

    SciTech Connect

    Helm, R.C.

    1995-03-31

    This book presents the results of a series of studies designed to determine the extent and magnitude of the effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on marine mammals, particularly sea otters. A third of the book focuses on studies that quantify population-level impacts, with much of the remainder focusing on behavioral, pathologic, or toxicologic studies designed to understand how petroleum hydrocarbons negatively affect free ranging marine animals.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of polyacids from palm acid oil and sunflower oil via addition reaction.

    PubMed

    Zeimaran, Ehsan; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul; Nor, Hussin Mohd; Kamarul, Tunku; Djordjevic, Ivan

    2013-12-15

    In this study aliphatic polyacids were synthesized using palm acid oil (PAO) and sunflower oil (SFO) via addition reaction technique. The synthesized materials were characterized using Fourier-transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF-MS) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Mixing formic acid and hydrogen peroxide with PAO or SFO at the ratio 3:10:1 produced the lowest iodine value of 10.57 and 9.24 respectively, indicating the increase in epoxidization of both oils. Adding adipic acid to the epoxidized oils at a ratio of 1:10 increases the acid values of SFO and PAO to 11.22 and 6.73 respectively. The existence of multi-acid groups present in synthesized polyacid was confirmed by MALD-ToF-MS. This feature indicates a possible value to the biomaterials development.

  13. Oxygen delivery from red cells.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, A; Federspiel, W J; Clark, P A; Cokelet, G R

    1985-01-01

    This paper deals with the theoretical analysis of the unloading of oxygen from a red cell. A scale analysis of the governing transport equations shows that the solutions have a boundary layer structure near the red-cell membrane. The boundary layer is a region of chemical nonequilibrium, and it owes its existence to the fact that the kinetic time scales are shorter than the diffusion time scales in the red cell. The presence of the boundary layer allows an analytical solution to be obtained by the method of matched asymptotic expansions. A very useful result from the analysis is a simple, lumped-parameter description of the oxygen delivery from a red cell. The accuracy of the lumped-parameter description has been verified by comparing its predictions with results obtained by numerical integration of the full equations for a one-dimensional slab. As an application, we calculate minimum oxygen unloading times for red cells. PMID:3978198

  14. Polysaccharides of the red algae.

    PubMed

    Usov, Anatolii I

    2011-01-01

    Red algae (Rhodophyta) are known as the source of unique sulfated galactans, such as agar, agarose, and carrageenans. The wide practical uses of these polysaccharides are based on their ability to form strong gels in aqueous solutions. Gelling polysaccharides usually have molecules built up of repeating disaccharide units with a regular distribution of sulfate groups, but most of the red algal species contain more complex galactans devoid of gelling ability because of various deviations from the regular structure. Moreover, several red algae may contain sulfated mannans or neutral xylans instead of sulfated galactans as the main structural polysaccharides. This chapter is devoted to a description of the structural diversity of polysaccharides found in the red algae, with special emphasis on the methods of structural analysis of sulfated galactans. In addition to the structural information, some data on the possible use of red algal polysaccharides as biologically active polymers or as taxonomic markers are briefly discussed.

  15. Distribution of larval and juvenile red king crabs (Paralithodes camtschatica) in Bristol Bay. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McMurray, G.; Vogel, A.H.; Fishman, P.A.; Armstrong, D.A.; Jewett, S.C.

    1984-02-01

    The goal of the present study is to provide sufficient information on larval and juvenile red king crab distributions and associated environmental variables to reasonably describe the potential effects of oil and gas development on the crab population and its fishery in Bristol Bay.

  16. Gastrointestinal parasites in an isolated Norwegian population of wild red deer (Cervus elaphus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen red deer, culled from the isolated population at the Mongstad Oil Refinery, were investigated for gastrointestinal helminths. These animals, enclosed by the refinery fence, do not have contact with other ruminants and have a high population density considering the available browsing area (1...

  17. Dan Marino Helping Those with Autism Spectrum Disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marino Foundation. Photo: Dan Marino Foundation Former NFL star quarterback Dan Marino and his wife Claire experienced ... to succeed in life,'" says the former NFL star. "That's where the focus for The Dan Marino ...

  18. Effects of vegetable oils on biochemical and biophysical properties of membrane retinal pigment epithelium cells.

    PubMed

    Said, Toihiri; Tremblay-Mercier, Jennifer; Berrougui, Hicham; Rat, Patrice; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vegetable oil enrichment of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells on their biochemical and biophysical properties. For this, RPE cells were incubated with 4 different vegetables oils (olive oil, corn oil, argan oil, and camelina oil). The cytotoxicity of these vegetable oils was assessed in vivo on 8-week-old mice and in vitro by using the neutral red and YO-PRO-1 tests. Membrane fluidity was evaluated by fluorescence anisotropy using the fluorescent probe diphenylhexatriene, and membrane fatty acid composition was assessed by gas chromatography. None of the oils tested displayed cytotoxic effects. In vitro, omega-3 rich oils improved membrane fluidity by 47% compared with the control cells. The omega-3 PUFA content within membranes decreased by 38% to 55% when cells were incubated separately with olive oil, corn oil, or argan oil, and increased when cells were incubated with a mixture of those oils, or with camelina oil alone (50% and 103% increase, respectively). Our results show that the fatty acids in vegetable oil incorporate into retinal cells and increase the plasma membrane fluidity.

  19. Effects of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) Oleocanthal and Oleacein Content on Platelet Reactivity in Healthy Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) Oleocanthal and Oleacein Content on Platelet Reactivity in Healthy Adults. Roberta R Holt1, Karan Agarwal1, Xuequi Li2, Eleni Melliou3, Theresa Pedersen1, Selina Wang2, Dan Flynn2, Prokopios Magiatis3, John W Newman1,4 1Department of Nutrition, and 2UC Davis ...

  20. Red Marks the Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This hematite abundance index map helps geologists choose hematite-rich locations to visit around Opportunity's landing site. Blue dots equal areas low in hematite and red dots equal areas high in hematite.

    Why Hematite Geologists are eager to reach the hematite-rich area in the upper left to closely examine the soil, which may reveal secrets about how the hematite got to this location. Knowing how the hematite on Mars was formed may help scientists characterize the past environment and determine whether that environment provided favorable conditions for life.

    The Plan Over the next few sols, engineers and scientists plan to drive Opportunity to the hematite-rich area then attempt a 'pre-trench' sequence, taking measurements with the Moessbauer spectrometer, alpha particle X-ray spectrometer and microscopic imager. Next, the plan is to trench the hematite rich area by spinning one wheel in place to 'dig' a shallow hole. Finally, scientists will aim the instrument arm back at the same area where it pre-trenched to get post-trench data with the same instruments to compare and contrast the levels of hematite and revel how deep the hematite lays in the dirt.

    Index Map Details The hematite abundance index map was created using data from the miniature thermal emission instrument. The first layer is a mosaic of panoramic camera images taken prior to egress, when Opportunity was still on the lander. The colored dots represent data collected by the miniature thermal emission spectrometer on sol 11, after Opportunity had rolled off of the lander and the rover was located at the center of the blue semi-circle.

    The spectrometer is located on the panoramic camera mast. On sol 11, it took a low-angle 180-degree panorama of the area in front of the rover, indicated by the blue shaded dots. The instrument then raised the angle of its field of view a few degrees higher to sweep around behind the rover, indicated by the red and yellow dots offset at the far sides of the

  1. Turpentine oil poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Turpentine oil comes from a substance in pine trees. Turpentine oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows turpentine oil or breathes in the fumes. Breathing these fumes on purpose is sometimes called " ...

  2. Exploring Oil Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses damages of oil tanker spillage to the marine organisms and scientists' research in oil pollution removal techniques. Included is a list of learning activities concerning the causes and effects of oil pollution and methods of solving the problem. (CC)

  3. Proceedings of the 1998 oil heat technology conference

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.J.

    1998-04-01

    The 1998 Oil Heat Technology Conference was held on April 7--8 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under sponsorship by the US Department of Energy, Office of Building Technologies, State and Community Programs (DOE/BTS). The meeting was held in cooperation with the Petroleum Marketers Association of America (PMAA). Fourteen technical presentations was made during the two-day program, all related to oil-heat technology and equipment, these will cover a range of research, developmental, and demonstration activities being conducted within the United States and Canada, including: integrated oil heat appliance system development in Canada; a miniature heat-actuated air conditioner for distributed space conditioning; high-flow fan atomized oil burner (HFAB) development; progress in the development of self tuning oil burners; application of HFAB technology to the development of a 500 watt; thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power system; field tests of the Heat Wise Pioneer oil burner and Insight Technologies AFQI; expanded use of residential oil burners to reduce ambient ozone and particulate levels by conversion of electric heated homes to oilheat; PMAA`s Oil Heat Technician`s Manual (third edition); direct venting concept development; evolution of the chimney; combating fuel related problems; the effects of red dye and metal contamination on fuel oil stability; new standard for above ground and basement residential fuel oil storage; plastic and steel composite secondary contained tanks; and money left on the table: an economic analysis of tank cleaning.

  4. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2003-09-01

    Système solaire poussiéreux; Combien d'étoiles dans le ciel?; Distance d'un pulsar; Planètes poussières et métaux; Un amateur belge bat les professionnels; Matière sombre; Supernova asymétrique; Anneau liégeois; Amas globulaires; Amas globulaires vagabonds; Baptême de satellites; Champ de gravité terrestre; Début de l'univers; XMM et Geminga; Carte neutrinos du ciel; Galaxies et trous noirs; Univers X; SMART-1: signal de départ pour l'aventure lunaire; Les saisons de Pluton; Planète dans M4; Rotation des pulsars; Un jumeau de Jupiter?; Le satellite ISO; Mars Express~:dernier clin d'oeil à la Terre; Waterworld: une réalité?

  5. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  6. Apport de la modélisation à la compréhension de la genèse et de la migration des hydrocarbures dans le bassin de Qasbat Tadla (Maroc central)Contribution of modelling to the reconstitution of the oil history of the Qasbat Tadla basin (Central Morocco).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Er-Raioui, Hassan; Belayouni, Habib; Bouabdelli, Mohamed

    2000-09-01

    The simulation of the organic matter evolution of Silurian source rocks buried in the Qasbat Tadla basin using the Genex model permitted a knowledge of the petroleum history of the basin. The process allowed us to determine the main periods of formation and extrusion of hydrocarbons. Compared with the age of existing traps (Visean), the generation and the extrusion of hydrocarbons that spread from Tournaisian to the Jurassic emphasises the interest of the basin as an oil objective thereby encouraging the resumption of exploration.

  7. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2004-11-01

    EF Eridani; Du sucre dans l'espace; Miras à la baisse; Eau et méthane sur Mars; Toutatis à l'ESO; SMART-1; Pollution globale; L'univers en 3D : symposium Gaia à Paris; Découverte du plus grand champ de cratères de météorites sur Terre; Cratère mystérieux; Minimum solaire

  8. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2005-03-01

    Trou noir glouton, Matière noire, Integral et le centre de notre Galaxie, Essaim de trous noirs, Carrousel autour de trous noirs, Érosion de trous noirs, Un quasar dans NGC 7319?, Distance de T Tauri, Chai non manquant, Des planètes autour d'une naine brune?, Titan, Une quatrième planète pour le pulsar PSR B1257+12, Smart 1, Aurores de Saturne

  9. Red Yeast Rice

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thu; Karl, Mitchell; Santini, Antonello

    2017-01-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR), produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterol-reducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, non-augmented, standardized amount of monacolins. PMID:28257063

  10. Pediatric red cell disorders and pure red cell aplasia.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Sherrie L

    2004-12-01

    Anemia in children may arise from a wide variety of pathogenetic mechanisms that include congenital and acquired disorders. Often the diagnostic considerations include disorders that are not seen commonly in adults and lifelong disorders that arise in children and persist throughout life. Consideration of diverse causes of anemia such as red cell membrane disorders, red cell enzymopathies, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, congenital sideroblastic anemias, and hereditary pure red cell aplasia (Diamond-Blackfan anemia), as well as infectious causes such as parvovirus B19 infection, often is required when diagnosing anemia in an infant or young child. Knowledge of these entities that are important causes of anemia in the pediatric population, including clinical manifestations and laboratory workup, will aid in recognition of the specific disease entities and effective workup of pediatric red cell disorders.

  11. Romantic red: red enhances men's attraction to women.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Andrew J; Niesta, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness of other women, nor men's perceptions of women's overall likeability, kindness, or intelligence. The findings have clear practical implications for men and women in the mating game and, perhaps, for fashion consultants, product designers, and marketers. Furthermore, the findings document the value of extending research on signal coloration to humans and of considering color as something of a common language, both within and across species.

  12. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Aykan, Nuri Faruk

    2015-02-10

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented.

  13. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  14. Dietary choline requirement of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Craig, S R; Gatlin, D M

    1996-06-01

    A 6-wk feeding experiment was conducted to determine the maximal dietary choline requirement of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Diets were formulated to provide 35 g crude protein/ 100 g dry weight from solvent-extracted lyophilized red drum muscle and an amino acid premix. This premix provided methionine precisely at the minimum requirement determined for red drum so that potential synthesis of choline from methionine would be limited. Menhaden oil and dextrin were added to all diets to provide 13.8 kJ metabolizable energy/g diet as estimated by physiological fuel values. The diets were supplemented with choline chloride to provide 0, 250, 500, 750, 1000 and 1500 mg choline/kg diet. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of red drum initially averaging 5.5 g/fish in a closed, recirculating system consisting of 110-L glass aquaria. Dietary choline concentration significantly (P < 0.05) affected weight gain, feed efficiency, total lipid in liver and plasma, as well as plasma cholesterol ester, triglyceride, cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine concentrations. Least-squares regression of these responses yielded requirements ranging from 330 to 676 mg choline/kg diet. Based on weight gain data, a maximal requirement estimate (+/- SEM) of 588 (+/- 35) mg choline/kg diet was established. Red drum appear to differ from other animals in regard to the response of total lipid in liver because fish fed choline-deficient diets had reduced liver lipid rather than lipid accumulation. Cultured red drum normally store high levels of lipid in the liver.

  15. Red River of the North Reconnaissance Report: Red Lake River.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    The two lakes are remnants of glacial Lake Agassiz and together comprise the largest lake area wholly contained in Minnesota. Biology The principal...Red River Valley Laku Plain, Glacial Lake Agassiz Beachlines, Aspen Parklands, Glacial Lake Agassiz Lowlands, Border-Prairie Transition, and North...Areas of particular aesthetic appeal include Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge, seven state forests, Upper and Lower Red Lakes, and the natural wooded

  16. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  17. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

    1994-03-29

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. 62 figures.

  18. Effects of palm and sunflower oils on serum cholesterol and fatty liver in rats.

    PubMed

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Kim, Ye-Seul; Kim, Seung-Hee; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2015-03-01

    Palm oil is a common cooking ingredient used in the commercial food industry as the second largest consumed vegetable oil in the world. Because of its lower cost and highly saturated nature, it usually maintains a solid form at room temperature and is used as a cheap substitute for butter. However, there has been a growing health concern about palm oil because of the link between dietary fats and coronary heart disease. Palm oil contains ∼49% saturated fat, a relatively high concentration compared with other vegetable oils. Consequently, high intakes of saturated fat from palm oil induce a larger increase in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins. In the present study, we examined the hyperlipidemia of palm oil and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using a rat model in comparison with sunflower oil with a relatively low level of saturated fat. On in vivo examination using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 22 days, there were no significant differences in serum lipid levels, suggesting that palm oil may not cause hyperlipidemia and elevate CVD risk. However, liver samples obtained from SD rats fed with palm oil showed a lot of large lipid inclusions stained with the Oil Red O working solution, but not much lipid accumulation was observed in rats treated with sunflower oil. In addition, lipid accumulation in the mixed oil group fed the combination of palm and sunflower (1:1) oil was shown to be at an intermediary level between the palm oil group and sunflower oil group. Taken together, these results indicate that palm oil, a highly saturated form of vegetable oil, may induce dysfunction of the liver lipid metabolism before affecting serum lipid levels. On the other hand, sunflower oil, a highly unsaturated vegetable oil, was shown to be well metabolized in liver.

  19. [MICROBIAL DESTRUCTION MINERAL (OIL) MOTOR OIL].

    PubMed

    Homenko, L A; Nogina, T M

    2015-01-01

    In a review information is presented about composition of mineral motor oils and their negative impact on the environment and the ability of microorganisms, in particular actinobacteria, to assimilate hydrocarbon oil components. The role of bacteria is described in the process of cleaning up polluted environments motor oils and the prospect of their use in biotechnology, environmental clean-up of these pollutants.

  20. Red blood cells, spherocytosis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Spherocytosis is a hereditary disorder of the red blood cells (RBCs), which may be associated with a mild anemia. Typically, the affected RBCs are small, spherically shaped, and lack the light centers seen ...

  1. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    MedlinePlus

    ... name: Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin Test ; RBC Antibody Screen ; Blood Typing ; Type ... a positive RBC antibody screen or a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) . It is used to identify ...

  2. USING CABLE SUSPENDED SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS TO REDUCE PRODUCTION COSTS TO INCREASE ULTIMATE RECOVERY IN THE RED MOUNTAIN FIELD IN SAM JUAN BASIN REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Don L. Hanosh

    2004-08-01

    A joint venture between Enerdyne LLC, a small independent oil and gas producer, and Pumping Solutions Inc., developer of a low volume electric submersible pump, suspended from a cable, both based in Albuquerque, New Mexico, has re-established marginal oil production from the Red Mountain Oil Field, located in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico by working over 17 existing wells and installing submersible pumps.

  3. [Acidity and temperature effect on the fluorescence characteristics of hydraulic oils and lubricants].

    PubMed

    Deng, Hu; Zhou, Xun; Shang, Li-ping; Zhang, Ze-lin; Wang, Shun-li

    2014-12-01

    By analyzing HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil environmental impacts (oil, etc.) and confounding factors (pH, temperature, etc.), the feasibility was studied for the fluorescence detection of aircraft hydraulic oil leaks. By using the fluorescence spectrophotometer at various acidities and temperatures, the fluorescence properties of HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil, Jet Oil II lubricant and 2197 lubricant were gained. The experimental results are shown as following: The fluorescence peaks of HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil, Jet Oil II lubricant and 2197 lubricant are at 362, 405 and 456 nm, respectively. The impact of temperature on HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil is less effective; Jet Oil II lubricant and 2197 lubricant fluorescence intensity decreases with increasing temperature. When acidity increases, the fluorescence peak of HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil gradient shifts from 370 to 362 nm, and the fluorescence intensity decreases; the fluorescence peak of Jet Oil II lubricant is always 405 nm, while the fluorescence intensity decreases; the fluorescence peak of 2197 lubricant at 456 nm red shifts to 523 nm, and double fluorescence peaks appeare. The results are shown as following: under the influence of the environment and interference factors, the fluorescence characteristics of HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil remain unchanged, and distinguish from Jet Oil II lubricant and 2197 lubricant. Therefore, the experiments indicate that the detection of HyJet V phosphate ester hydraulic oil leak is feasible by using fluorescence method.

  4. Transient Photochemistry of Neutral Red.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    ascorbic acid system to 50 successive flashes, indicating that no ground state neutral red is permanently converted to leuco dye . Since leuco neutral...complete regeneration of ground state neutral red in this pH range in the present study suggests that formation of leuco dye is not significant. The second...radical disproportionation step is followed by a slower step which converts leuco dye to semireduced radical. Because coupling the two steps

  5. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  6. Non-Petroleum Oils

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  7. Volatility-dependent 2D IR correlation analysis of traditional Chinese medicine ‘Red Flower Oil’ preparation from different manufacturers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan-Wen; Sun, Su-Qin; Zhou, Qun; Tao, Jia-Xun; Noda, Isao

    2008-06-01

    As a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), 'Red Flower Oil' preparation is widely used as a household remedy in China and Southeast Asia. Usually, the preparation is a mixture of several plant essential oils with different volatile features, such as wintergreen oil, turpentine oil and clove oil. The proportions of these plant essential oils in 'Red Flower Oil' vary from different manufacturers. Thus, it is important to develop a simple and rapid evaluation method for quality assurance of the preparations. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) was applied and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D IR) based on the volatile characteristic of samples was used to enhance the resolution of FT-IR spectra. 2D IR technique could, not only easily provide the composition and their volatile sequences in 'Red flower Oil' preparations, but also rapidly discriminate the subtle differences in products from different manufacturers. Therefore, FT-IR combined with volatility-dependent 2D IR correlation analysis provides a very fast and effective method for the quality control of essential oil mixtures in TCM.

  8. Vegetable oil fuel standards

    SciTech Connect

    Pryde, E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Suggested standards for vegetable oils and ester fuels, as well as ASTM specifications for No. 2 diesel oil are given. The following physical properties were discussed: cetane number, cloud point, distillation temperatures, flash point, pour point, turbidity, viscosity, free fatty acids, iodine value, phosphorus, and wax. It was apparent that vegetable oils and their esters cannot meet ASTM specifications D975 for No. 2 diesel oil for use in the diesel engine. Vegetable oil modification or engine design modification may make it possible eventually for vegetable oils to become suitable alternative fuels. Vegetable oils must be recognized as experimental fuels until modifications have been tested thoroughly and generally accepted. 1 table. (DP)

  9. 8. Wabash Ave. North. View of Loop and Dan Ryan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Wabash Ave. North. View of Loop and Dan Ryan Line. Curve at Van Buren St. and Wabash Ave. at center. Dan Ryan line starts at center and runs south (toward bottom of picture). Photo by Jet Lowe. - Union Elevated Railroad, Union Loop, Wells, Van Buren, Lake Streets & Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  10. Direct use of sunflower oil as a heating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Kurt, G.

    1998-11-01

    Vegetable oils in particular have exceptional importance since they can be used as a fuel oil (heating oil type) alternative. In this research evaluation, the possibilities of sunflower oil as a heating oil candidate have been investigated. The fuel oil property tests of sunflower oil were performed according to standard methods. An overall evaluation of data indicates that sunflower oil can be proposed as a possible substitute for heating oil.

  11. Tea tree oil.

    PubMed

    Hartford, Orville; Zug, Kathryn A

    2005-09-01

    Tea tree oil is a popular ingredient in many over-the-counter healthcare and cosmetic products. With the explosion of the natural and alternative medicine industry, more and more people are using products containing tea tree oil. This article reviews basic information about tea tree oil and contact allergy, including sources of tea tree oil, chemical composition, potential cross reactions, reported cases of allergic contact dermatitis, allergenic compounds in tea tree oil, practical patch testing information, and preventive measures.

  12. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2014-06-01

    Future lune ? - L'âge de la Lune - Des volcans actifs sur Vénus - Un lac dans le cratère Gusev ? - Météorites et atmosphère martiennes - L’hexagone de Saturne - Pluton - Exo-Terre - Bêta Pictoris b - Cérès et Vesta depuis Mars - Naine froide - Parallaxes par Hubble - L2 Puppis et le sort du Soleil - Supernova et lentille gravitationnelle - Champ magnétique galactique - L’objet de Sakurai - Fermi et la matière noire - Lentille naine

  13. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2013-12-01

    ISON; (3200) Phaéton; Titan, lacs et hydrocarbures; Titan et le Soleil; Jets; z8_GND_5296; La nébuleuse de la Crevette; Planète isolée; Nébuleuse Toby Jug; Le pulsar du Crabe; Le bulbe de la Voie lactée; ALMA au grand complet; APEX, ArTéMiS; Sgr A*; Première détection de l’acétate de méthyle dans l’espace

  14. STS-105 Crew Interview: Dan Barry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    STS-105 Mission Specialist Dan Barry is seen during a prelaunch interview. He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut, his career path, training for the mission, and his role in the mission's activities. He gives details on the mission's goals, which include the transfer of supplies from the Discovery Orbiter to the International Space Station (ISS) and the change-over of the Expedition 2 and Expedition 3 crews (the resident crews of ISS). Barry discusses the importance of the ISS in the future of human spaceflight.

  15. Expedition 4 Crew Interviews: Dan Bursch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Expedition 4 Flight Engineer Dan Bursch is seen during a prelaunch interview. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, his role in the mission, what his responsibilities will be, what the crew exchange will be like (transferring the Expedition 4 crew in place of the Expedition 3 crew on the International Space Station (ISS)), the day-to-day life on an extended stay mission, the experiments he will be conducting on board, and what the S0 truss will mean to ISS. Bursch ends with his thoughts on the short-term and long-term future of the International Space Station.

  16. Mixtures of wine, essential oils, and plant polyphenolics do not act synergistically against Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella enterica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red wine or fortified red wine formulations containing some various essential oils from oregano or thyme or their pure active components, and a mixture of plant extract powders from apple skin, green tea, and olive, were evaluated for inhibitory activity against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia c...

  17. Red cell metabolism studies on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengel, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    Blood samples from Spacelab crewmembers were studied for possible environment effects on red cell components. Analysis involved peroxidation of red cell lipids, enzymes of red cell metabolism, and levels of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid and adenosine triphosphate. Results show that there is no evidence of lipid peroxidation, that biochemical effect known to be associated with irreversible red cell damage. Changes observed in glycolytic intermediates and enzymes cannot be directly implicated as indicating evidence of red cell damage.

  18. Recycled palm oil spoilage: Correlation between physicochemical properties and oleophilicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, Ili Afiqa Ab; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan; Jurid, Lailatul Syema

    2016-11-01

    Palm oil is widely used for domestic and commercial frying due to its techno-economic advantages as compared to other vegetable oils. However, if the oil is used beyond its recommended usage cycle, it might lead to oil spoilage. Therefore this study focuses on the comprehensive analysis of chemical and physical properties of recycled palm oil. Recycled palm oil was prepared by frying potato strips up to 4 batches; 5 cycles for each batch) was carried out with potato (g)-to-oil (ml) ratio of 3/20 prior to physico-chemical analysis (moisture content, color measurement, viscosity, density and iodine value. From 5 tests used to indicate physico-chemical properties of recycled palm oil, only color measurement, viscosity and IV shows results accordingly to theories. Whereas moisture content and density were not comply to theories. With increasing frying times, recycled palm oil color has been darker due to chemical reaction that occurs during frying. The trend line illustrates that with increasing frying times, recycled palm oil lightness decreases. It also means that its color has been darker. Meanwhile, b* rate increase indicating that recycled palm oil show tendency towards green color. Whereas, a* rate decreased, showing low tendency towards red color. Viscosity and moisture content increase with frying cycle. This situation occurred might be due to formation of hydrolysis products which are volatile while frying process. But the remaining non-volatile compounds among the hydrolysis products might also accumulate in palm oil and thus affect the total oil/fat chemical changes. Meanwhile the density of palm oil was quite constant at 0.15 g/cm3 except for cycle 2 with 0.17 g/cm3. The result obtained from this experiment were comply with previous study that stated frying batch number is a significant variable (a = 0.05) affecting the density of oil only after 20 frying batch. The contact angle of recycled palm oil on PHBV thin film was more than 90 °. Hence it shows

  19. Characterizing warfare in red teaming.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ang; Abbass, Hussein A; Sarker, Ruhul

    2006-04-01

    Red teaming is the process of studying a problem by anticipating adversary behaviors. When done in simulations, the behavior space is divided into two groups; one controlled by the red team which represents the set of adversary behaviors or bad guys, while the other is controlled by the blue team which represents the set of defenders or good guys. Through red teaming, analysts can learn about the future by forward prediction of scenarios. More recently, defense has been looking at evolutionary computation methods in red teaming. The fitness function in these systems is highly stochastic, where a single configuration can result in multiple different outcomes. Operational, tactical and strategic decisions can be made based on the findings of the evolutionary method in use. Therefore, there is an urgent need for understanding the nature of these problems and the role of the stochastic fitness to gain insight into the possible performance of different methods. This paper presents a first attempt at characterizing the search space difficulties in red teaming to shed light on the expected performance of the evolutionary method in stochastic environments.

  20. Variation in chemical composition and acaricidal activity against Dermanyssus gallinae of four eucalyptus essential oils.

    PubMed

    George, David R; Masic, Dino; Sparagano, Olivier A E; Guy, Jonathan H

    2009-06-01

    The results of this study suggest that certain eucalyptus essential oils may be of use as an alternative to synthetic acaricides in the management of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae. At a level of 0.21 mg/cm(2), the essential oil from Eucalyptus citriodora achieved 85% mortality in D. gallinae over a 24 h exposure period in contact toxicity tests. A further two essential oils from different eucalyptus species, namely E. globulus and E. radiata, provided significantly (P < 0.05) lower mite mortality (11 and 19%, respectively). Notable differences were found between the eucalyptus essential oils regarding their chemical compositions. There appeared to be a trend whereby the essential oils that were composed of the fewer chemical components were the least lethal to D. gallinae. It may therefore be the case that the complexity of an essential oil's chemical make up plays an important role in dictating the toxicity of that oil to pests such as D. gallinae.

  1. Growth declines in red spruce

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B. ); Adams, H.S. )

    1987-10-01

    In this letter, the authors take issue with Zedaker, Hyink, and Smith who have indicated that observed red spruce growth declines can be expected based on growth trends for even-aged stands of red spruce as documented in Meyer (1929). Recently, an examination was made of stand stocking levels at 750 sites where red spruce were cored and neither the rate of growth decline nor the extent of mortality were found to be related to stand stocking levels or previous disturbance history. The authors conclude that the Meyer data do not represent an appropriate model for stand dynamics of old-growth, high-elevation stands and no not adequately explain the growth declines observed at many of those sites.

  2. Electrowetting-on-dielectrics for manipulation of oil drops and gas bubbles in aqueous-shell compound drops.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang; Wang, Yixuan; Chen, Haosheng; Wan, Jiandi

    2014-11-21

    We present the manipulation of oil, organic and gaseous chemicals by electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) technology using aqueous-shell compound drops. We demonstrate that the transport and coalescence of viscous oil drops, the reaction of bromine with styrene in benzene solution, and the reaction of red blood cells with carbon monoxide bubbles can be accomplished using this method.

  3. Marine oil seeps

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.F. )

    1991-03-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons of both biogenic and thermogenic origin are common constituents of the marine water column and sediment of the continental shelves. Approximately 0.25 million metric tons of oil per year, constituting about 8% of the oil input into the sea, is derived from natural seeps, the rest being anthropogenic. Seepage has occurred world-wide for millions of years and must have been many times greater in the past, when enormous oil deposits, such as the Orinoco Oil Belt, were first exposed to erosion. Although the amount varies from site to site with time, seepage is pervasive in polar and temperate seas. Marine-seep oil is intensely weathered and thus can be distinguished chemically from recent biogenic or undegraded crude oil. The degraded oil from seeps appears to have little deleterious effect on many marine organisms, which ingest and discharge the oil mostly unmetabolized. Chemical analyses suggest that a very large oil-rich layer in the Sargasso Sea originated from a large and as yet undetected seep. Oil seeps have long been used as guides for oil exploration onshore but have been underutilized for this purpose offshore because of oil-plume drift from the site of the seep and because natural oil slicks may be masked by spilled oil. At least one marine seep, in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, is producing oil and natural gas into two hollow steel pyramids from which the oil is collected by work boats and the natural gas is transported to shore by pipeline. This facility effectively reduces atmospheric pollution, controls marine oil pollution from the largest seep in the area, provides emission credits, and yields a modest economic benefit, but the seep is not known to have been used directly in oil exploration.

  4. Red facts: Ethylene. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    EPA is directed by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act as amended in 1988 (FIFRA '88) to review all pesticide products containing active ingredients initially registered before November 1, 1984, and to reregister those products that have a substantially complete data base and do not pose unreasonable adverse effects to people or the environment. The pesticide reregistration program is to be completed by the late 1990's. The RED FACTS fact sheet summarizes EPA's conclusion, as set forth in the Reregistration Eligibility Document (or RED), that products containing a pesticide do not pose unreasonable risks when used as directed by Agency-approved labeling, and are eligible for reregistration.

  5. Red Plague Control Plan (RPCP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    SCOPE: Prescribes the minimum requirements for the control of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) of silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. PURPOSE: Targeted for applications where exposure to assembly processes, environmental conditions, and contamination may promote the development of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) in silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. Does not exclude any alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes that meet or exceed the baseline of requirements established by this document. Use of alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes shall require review and prior approval of the procuring NASA activity.

  6. Monitoring of oil pollution at Gemsa Bay and bioremediation capacity of bacterial isolates with biosurfactants and nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    El-Sheshtawy, H S; Khalil, N M; Ahmed, W; Abdallah, R I

    2014-10-15

    Fifteen crude oil-degrading bacterial isolates were isolated from an oil-polluted area in Gemsa Bay, Red Sea, Egypt. Two bacterial species showed the highest growth rate on crude oil hydrocarbons. From an analysis of 16S rRNA sequences, these isolates were identified as Pseudomonas xanthomarina KMM 1447 and Pseudomonas stutzeri ATCC 17588. Gas Chromatographic (GC) analysis of the crude oil remaining in the culture medium after one week at 30°C showed that the optimum biodegradation of crude petroleum oil was demonstrated at 50% in medium containing biosurfactant with two types of nanoparticles separately and two bacterial species. The complete degradation of some different members of polyaromatics and the percentage biodegradation of other polyaromatics increased in microcosm containing two different types of nanoparticles with biosurfactant after 7 days. In conclusion, these bacterial strains may be useful for the bioremediation process in the Gemsa Bay, Red Sea decreasing oil pollution in this marine ecosystem.

  7. Libyan oil industry

    SciTech Connect

    Waddams, F.C.

    1980-01-01

    Three aspects of the growth and progress of Libya's oil industry since the first crude oil discovery in 1961 are: (1) relations between the Libyan government and the concessionary oil companies; (2) the impact of Libyan oil and events in Libya on the petroleum markets of Europe and the world; and (3) the response of the Libyan economy to the development of its oil industry. The historical review begins with Libya's becoming a sovereign nation in 1951 and traces its subsequent development into a position as a leading world oil producer. 54 references, 10 figures, 55 tables.

  8. Gluten binds cytotoxic compounds generated in heated frying oil.

    PubMed

    Totani, Nagao; Burenjargal, Munkhjargal

    2008-01-01

    Male Wistar rats, age 10 weeks, were fed for 11 weeks a commercial powdered diet (no fat) containing 7 wt% fresh frying oil and 0.1 wt% gluten heated in oil at 180 degrees C for 10 h followed by filtration. The animals appeared to grow normally and had the same serum levels of glucose, triacylglycerol, phospholipids, and cholesterol as those of a control group fed a diet containing 7 wt% fresh oil. However, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were significantly higher in the test group, and many dark-red patches due to bleeding were observed on the livers of this group. In contrast, rats fed for 11 weeks a diet containing 7 wt% of oil obtained by filtration after the heating described above did not show any damage to the liver or kidneys and showed no gross symptoms. Rats fed a diet containing 7 wt% fresh frying oil and 0.1 wt% gluten heated in a tube at 180 degrees C for 10 h did not show any differences from the control group. Analyses of low-molecular-weight compounds in the filtered oil revealed that gluten obviously reduced the level of all the low-molecular-weight compounds (except ethanol) of the oil heated at 180 degrees C for 10 h. Thus, it was suggested that gluten reacted with/adsorbed thermally oxidized oil/decomposition products and kept the cytotoxic low-molecular-weight compounds in the chemical structure even after filtration.

  9. Butter, margarine, and cooking oils

    MedlinePlus

    ... margarine are not the best choices. Choose liquid vegetable oils or margarines made from these oils when possible. ... over harder stick forms. Choose margarines with liquid vegetable oil, such as olive oil, as the first ingredient. ...

  10. Heinz-body hemolytic anemia from the ingestion of crude oil: a primary toxic effect in marine birds.

    PubMed

    Leighton, F A; Peakall, D B; Butler, R G

    1983-05-20

    Hemolytic anemia developed in young herring gulls and Atlantic puffins given daily oral doses of a Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Anemia developed 4 to 5 days after the initiation of oil ingestion and was accompanied by Heinz-body formation and a strong regenerative response. The data evince a toxic effect on circulating red blood cells involving an oxidative biochemical mechanism and the first clear evidence of a primary mechanism of toxicity from the ingestion of crude oil by birds.

  11. Heinz-body hemolytic anemia from the ingestion of crude oil: a primary toxic effect in marine birds

    SciTech Connect

    Leighton, F.A.; Peakall, D.B.; Butler, R.G.

    1983-05-20

    Hemolytic anemia developed in young herring gulls and Atlantic puffins given daily oral doses of a Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Anemia developed 4 to 5 days after the initiation of oil ingestion and was accompainied by Heinz-body formation and a strong regenerative response. The data evince a toxic effect on circulating red blood cells involving an oxidative biochemical mechanism and the first clear evidence of a primary mechanism of toxicity from the ingestion of crude oil by birds.

  12. Clusters rich in red supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, Ignacio

    In the past few years, several clusters containing large numbers of red supergiants have been discovered. These clusters are amongst the most massive young clusters known in the Milky Way, with stellar masses reaching a few 104 M ⊙. They have provided us, for the first time, with large homogeneous samples of red supergiants of a given age. These large populations make them, despite heavy extinction along their sightlines, powerful laboratories to understand the evolutionary status of red supergiants. While some of the clusters, such as the eponymous RSGC1, are so obscured that their members are only observable in the near-IR, some of them are easily accessible, allowing for an excellent characterisation of cluster and stellar properties. The information gleaned so far from these clusters gives strong support to the idea that late-M type supergiants represent a separate class, characterised by very heavy mass loss. It also shows that the spectral-type distribution of red supergiants in the Milky Way is very strongly peaked towards M1, while suggesting a correlation between spectral type and evolutionary stage.

  13. Infra-red soft universality

    SciTech Connect

    Jack, I.

    1997-06-15

    In a special class of supersymmetric grand unified theories, the commonly assumed universal form of the soft supersymmetry-breaking terms is approached in the infra-red limit. The resulting universal scalar mass and trilinear coupling are predicted in terms of the gaugino mass.

  14. Growth declines in red spruce

    SciTech Connect

    Zedaker, S.M.; Hyink, D.M.; Smith, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past two decades second-growth red spruce stands in the Northeast have demonstrated declines in radial increment. Some observers are implicating air pollution as a primary cause of the declines, based on recently acquired increment cores from dominant trees. Various forms of air pollution (O/sub 3/, NO/sub x/, SO/sub 2/, and trace metals) are known to reduce growth and development of tree species, but few studies have provided concrete evidence of regional pollution-caused declines in forest ecosystems. Recently published evidence of a synchronous, consistent, and unprecedented regional decline in red spruce should be weighed against the realization that radial increment in red spruce declines naturally as stands age. Separating anthropogenic stress-caused growth patterns from natural stand dynamics requires an in-depth knowledge of forest growth and yield, tree silvics, and forest ecosystem processes. Detailed analyses of growth by stand characteristics - site index, density, elevation, stand history - will be necessary to implicate air pollution as a primary cause of red spruce decline.

  15. Chemical Contamination of Red Meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical residues have been present in red meat products since meat eating began. Only in the last few decades, however has man been able to identify and quantify these residues in meat products and to ascribe to them specific risks to human health. For some residues, uncertainties with respect to q...

  16. Pesa Large Red Dry Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Released in 2006, Pesa was derived from the single cross Rojo x Kablanketi made in Dec-Jan 1992-93. The parent ‘Rojo’ is a large red-seeded cultivar released by SUA in 1997. It has I bc-12 resistance to BCMV and BCMNV, resistance to the prevalent races of ALS, and moderate resistance to CBB, and H...

  17. Lipid metabolism and tissue composition in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)--effects of capelin oil, palm oil, and oleic acid-enriched sunflower oil as dietary lipid sources.

    PubMed

    Torstensen, B E; Lie, O; Frøyland, L

    2000-06-01

    Triplicate groups of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) were fed four diets containing different oils as the sole lipid source, i.e., capelin oil, oleic acid-enriched sunflower oil, a 1:1 (w/w) mixture of capelin oil and oleic acid-enriched sunflower oil, and palm oil (PO). The beta-oxidation capacity, protein utilization, digestibility of dietary fatty acids and fatty acid composition of lipoproteins, plasma, liver, belly flap, red and white muscle were measured. Further, the lipid class and protein levels in the lipoproteins were analyzed. The different dietary fatty acid compositions did not significantly affect protein utilization or beta-oxidation capacity in red muscle. The levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and protein in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and plasma were not significantly affected by the dietary fatty acids. VLDL, LDL, and HDL fatty acid compositions were decreasingly affected by dietary fatty acid composition. Dietary fatty acid composition significantly affected both the relative fatty acid composition and the amount of fatty acids (mg fatty acid per g tissue, wet weight) in belly flap, liver, red and white muscle. Apparent digestibility of the fatty acids, measured by adding yttrium oxide as inert marker, was significantly lower in fish fed the PO diet compared to the other three diets.

  18. EPA OIL FIELD SOLUTION

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical product bulletin: aka HYDRO-CLEAN, GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANER, AWAN PRA, this surface washing agent for oil spill cleanups is sprayed full strength on oiled rocky surfaces at shorelines, mangroves, and seagrasses. Allow at least 30 minute soak.

  19. OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical product bulletin: aka OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER, SPILL GREEN LS, this miscellaneous oil spill control agent used in cleanups initially behaves like a synthetic sorbent, then as a solidifier as the molecular microencapsulating process occurs.

  20. Vegetable Oil-Biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Pudel, Frank; Wiesen, Sebastian

    2017-03-07

    Conventional vegetable oil mills are complex plants, processing oil, fruits, or seeds to vegetable fats and oils of high quality and predefined properties. Nearly all by-products are used. However, most of the high valuable plant substances occurring in oil fruits or seeds besides the oil are used only in low price applications (proteins as animal feeding material) or not at all (e.g., phenolics). This chapter describes the state-of-the-art of extraction and use of oilseed/oil fruit proteins and phyto-nutrients in order to move from a conventional vegetable oil processing plant to a proper vegetable oil-biorefinery producing a wide range of different high value bio-based products.

  1. Measurements in support of the Deepwater Horizon (MC-252) oil spill response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crout, Richard L.

    2011-06-01

    The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon (MC-252) drilling platform on 20 April 2010 began a long response by the United Area Command. Previous responses to oil spills were limited in time due to the amount of oil spilled and were generally confined to the surface. Some of the oil from the Deepwater Horizon wellhead in 1500 meters of water broke into smaller droplets, whose density caused much of the oil to stay within a zone from 1000 to 1300 meters depth. The remainder of the oil rose to the surface. The two primary locations of oil required a broad collection of remote sensing techniques to locate and monitor the oil spill. Surface oil was monitored primarily from the air using aircraft and satellite assets. Satellite visible, infra-red, and radar satellite imagery helped to locate oil in the northern Gulf of Mexico and help predict its movement away from the spill site. Daily over-flights by aircraft provided higher spatial and temporal resolution data that were assimilated into daily products. These remote sensing assets were able to track the surface oil, but the subsurface oil required different techniques. In addition to salinity and temperature profiles to determine the subsurface structure, fluorometry and dissolved oxygen measurements provided information related to oil and its consumption by microorganisms. Water samples collected from CTD casts were analyzed on-board and returned to on-shore laboratories.

  2. A laboratory approach for determining the effect of oils and dispersants on mangroves

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, B.J.

    1982-10-01

    An experimental approach was developed and applied to testing the effects of oil and dispersant combinations on the growth of mangrove seedlings (trees of the intertidal tropics). A controlled growth chamber was employed to test the effects of different oils and dispersed oils in an array of dosages applied to different parts of the plants. Preliminary test results are reported for two species of mangroves collected from five localities, including both oiled and unoiled estuaries. Differences occurred between species, substances, dosages, the part of the plant dosed, and the presence of chronic oil pollution at localities from which the stocks were collected. Avicennia germinans (L.) L. (black mangrove) was more sensitive than Rhizophora mangle L. (red mangrove) when exposed to almost all substances tested. Light Arabian crude oil (LA) and light Arabian crude oil dispersed (LAD) were the most toxic substances tested. No. 2 fuel oil (N2) and No. 2 fuel oil dispersed (N2D) were as toxic as LA and LAD, except for an increase (an enhancement effect) in foliage and stem growth in Avicennia at lower dosages. Bunker C oil (BC) was the least toxic of the oils tested, resulting in the reduction of foliage and stem growth only at the highest dosage tested in Avicennia. Bunker C oil dispersed (BCD) failed to show effects in either species at any dosage tested. The leaves of Rhizophora were the most sensitive part of the plant tested.

  3. Manitoba oil activity review, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Annual review is presented of Manitoba Crown oil and gas dispositions, mineral owner leasing and revenue, geophysical and drilling activity, areas of activity, oil production and markets, oil prices, value of production, provincial revenue from oil production, surface owners, spills and reclamation, municipal taxes, the Manitoba Drilling Incentive Program, oil reserves, oil industry expenditures, and industry employment. Highlights of the current year are included.

  4. Still red light for red light cameras? An update.

    PubMed

    Høye, Alena

    2013-06-01

    The present study has replicated the results from a previous meta-analysis by Erke (2009) [Erke, A., 2009. Red light for red-light cameras? A meta-analysis of the effects of red-light cameras on crashes. Accident Analysis & Prevention 41 (5), 897-905.] based on a larger sample of RLC-studies, and provides answers to the criticisms that were raised by Lund et al. (2009) [Lund, A.K., Kyrychenko, S.Y., Retting, R.A., 2009. Caution: a comment on Alena Erke's red light for red-light cameras? A meta-analysis of the effects of red-light cameras on crashes. Accident Analysis and Prevention 41, 895-896.] against the previous meta-analysis. The addition of recent studies to the meta-analysis and a more thorough investigation of potential moderator variables lead to a slight improvement of the estimated effects of RLC in the previous meta-analysis. The present study found a non-significant increase of all crashes by 6% and a non-significant decrease of all injury crashes by 13%. Right-angle collisions were found to decrease by 13% and rear-end collisions were found to increase by 39%. For right-angle injury collisions a decrease by 33% was found and for rear-end injury collisions a smaller increase was found (+19%). The effects of RLC are likely to be more favorable when RLC-warning signs are set up at main entrances to areas with RLC enforcement than when each RLC-intersection is signposted. The effects of RLC may become more favorable over time, this could however not be investigated empirically. Several results indicate that spillover effects may occur for right-angle collisions, but most likely not for rear-end and other crashes. If spillover effects do not occur for rear-end crashes, which increase at RLC intersection, this would be a positive result for RLC. However, the results seem to be affected to some degree by publication bias and the effects may therefore be somewhat less favorable than indicated by the results from meta-analysis.

  5. Automotive gear oil lubricant from soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of lubricants that are based on renewable materials is rapidly increasing. Vegetable oils have good lubricity, wear protection and low volatility which are desired properties for automotive gear lubricant applications. Soybean oil is used widely in the lubricant industry due to its properti...

  6. Genetic Basis for Red Coloration in Birds.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ricardo J; Johnson, James D; Toomey, Matthew B; Ferreira, Mafalda S; Araujo, Pedro M; Melo-Ferreira, José; Andersson, Leif; Hill, Geoffrey E; Corbo, Joseph C; Carneiro, Miguel

    2016-06-06

    The yellow and red feather pigmentation of many bird species [1] plays pivotal roles in social signaling and mate choice [2, 3]. To produce red pigments, birds ingest yellow carotenoids and endogenously convert them into red ketocarotenoids via an oxidation reaction catalyzed by a previously unknown ketolase [4-6]. We investigated the genetic basis for red coloration in birds using whole-genome sequencing of red siskins (Spinus cucullata), common canaries (Serinus canaria), and "red factor" canaries, which are the hybrid product of crossing red siskins with common canaries [7]. We identified two genomic regions introgressed from red siskins into red factor canaries that are required for red coloration. One of these regions contains a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP2J19. Transcriptome analysis demonstrates that CYP2J19 is significantly upregulated in the skin and liver of red factor canaries, strongly implicating CYP2J19 as the ketolase that mediates red coloration in birds. Interestingly, a second introgressed region required for red feathers resides within the epidermal differentiation complex, a cluster of genes involved in development of the integument. Lastly, we present evidence that CYP2J19 is involved in ketocarotenoid formation in the retina. The discovery of the carotenoid ketolase has important implications for understanding sensory function and signaling mediated by carotenoid pigmentation.

  7. Vegetable oils for tractors

    SciTech Connect

    Moroney, M.

    1981-11-14

    Preliminary tests by the Agricultural Institute, show that tractors can be run on a 50:50 rape oil-diesel mixture or on pure rape oil. In fact, engine power actually increased slightly with the 50:50 blend but decreased fractionally with pure rape oil. Research at the North Dakota State University on using sunflower oil as an alternative to diesel fuel is also noted.

  8. SRC Residual fuel oils

    DOEpatents

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  9. Crude oil desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Hsu, G. C.; Ernest, J. B. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High sulfur crude oil is desulfurized by a low temperature (25-80 C.) chlorinolysis at ambient pressure in the absence of organic solvent or diluent but in the presence of water (water/oil=0.3) followed by a water and caustic wash to remove sulfur and chlorine containing reaction products. The process described can be practiced at a well site for the recovery of desulfurized oil used to generate steam for injection into the well for enhanced oil recovery.

  10. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

  11. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing in organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed.

  12. Sassafras oil overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Sassafras oil comes from the root bark of the sassafras tree. Sassafras oil overdose occurs when someone swallows more than ... Safrole is the poisonous ingredient in sassafras oil. It is a clear or ... yellow oily liquid. It can be dangerous in large amounts.

  13. Enhanced oil recovery update

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.V

    1989-03-01

    Technology continues to grow in the realm of enhanced oil recovery. Since 1950 several processes have proven economic for oil recovery. Others are still in their infancy and must be custom designed for each reservoir. This paper gives a general overview of these processes. The author focuses on the latest technology and the outlook for enhanced oil recovery operations.

  14. On experimental oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Mackay, D.; Thornton, D. E.; Blackall, P. J.; Sergy, G. S.; Snow, N.; Hume, H.

    1980-09-01

    Experimental oil spills are an essential component of overall oil pollution research efforts. However, such experiments must be carefully designed and coordinated in order to cull the most information possible. Physical, biological, and ecological impacts must be examined simultaneously. Long-term monitoring of the multidisciplinary effects of experimental oil spills is recommended.

  15. Why Big Bad Oil?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olien, Diana Davids; Olien, Roger M.

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the negative and hostile public opinion towards the oil industry, in general, and Standard Oil, in particular. Discovers that those most responsible for criticizing Standard Oil had an economic interest in doing so. Defends the company's record and refutes its critics' charges. (MJP)

  16. Oil Spill Cleanup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  17. Cod Liver Oil

    MedlinePlus

    Cod liver oil can be obtained from eating fresh cod liver or by taking supplements. Cod liver oil is used for high cholesterol, high triglycerides, ... ear infections (otitis media). Some people put cod liver oil on their skin to speed wound healing. ...

  18. Natural oils as lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is currently an availability of vegetable oil lubricants, with the exception of engine oils. Vegetable oils are environmentally friendly, renewable, contribute to the reduction of our dependence on imported petroleum, and add value to the farmer. However, there are inherent weaknesses in veg...

  19. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2009-10-01

    Dunes de Titan; Lac Ontario; Titan; Anneaux de Saturne; Jupiter; Mars; Rotation de Saturne; Valles Marineris; Méthane martien; Epsilon Aurigae; Glycine cométaire; HD 87643; Pluton; Bételgeuse; Site astronomique; Andromède cannibale; Attaque de trou noir; BD+44 493; Formation d'étoiles; Gaz manquant; LIGO; M87; Naine blanche; Galaxie satellite; Galaxies naines sphéroïdales; Galaxies trapues; Cygnus X-1; L'avenir de la Voie Lactée; Naphtaline cosmique; Premiers trous noirs; Coup de foudre; Effet de serre; Glace lunaire; Impacts et extinctions; Exoplanètes rétrogrades; Kepler; Planète chaude; Collision planétaire; Disques dans le vent; Exoplanètes; Formation des planètes; Taches et transits

  20. STS-108 Crew Interviews: Dan Tani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    STS-108 Mission Specialist Dan Tani is seen during a prelaunch interview. He answers questions about the mission's goals and significance, explaining the meaning of 'utilization flight 1' (UF-1) as opposed to an 'assembly flight'. He gives details on the payload (Starshine Satellite, Avian Development Facility, and Rafaello Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM)), his role in the rendezvous, docking, and undocking of the Endeavour Orbiter to the International Space Station (ISS), how he will participate in the unloading and reloading of the MPLM, and the way in which the old and new resident crews of ISS will exchanged. Tani ends with his thoughts on the short-term and long-term future of the International Space Station.

  1. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). ... abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as seen in this photomicrograph.

  2. Pat Thiel talks about Nobel Prize winner Dan Shechtman

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Ames Laboratory senior scientist and Iowa State University Distinguished Professor of Chemistry Pat Thiel talks about her friend and colleague Dan Shechtman who received the 2011 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

  3. Pat Thiel talks about Nobel Prize winner Dan Shechtman

    ScienceCinema

    Thiel, Pat

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory senior scientist and Iowa State University Distinguished Professor of Chemistry Pat Thiel talks about her friend and colleague Dan Shechtman who received the 2011 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

  4. 15. View South on Wabash of Dan Ryan Line showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View South on Wabash of Dan Ryan Line showing curve from Harrison St. Photo by Jet Lowe. - Union Elevated Railroad, Union Loop, Wells, Van Buren, Lake Streets & Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  5. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Dan Leyrer, Photographer Summer 1964 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Dan Leyrer, Photographer Summer 1964 FRONT ELEVATION, OVERLOOKING BAYOU ST. JOHN - Michel-Pitot House, 1370 Moss Street (moved to 1440 Moss Street), New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  6. Environmental Scientist/Chemist Dan Gazda Speaks With Students

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, Environmental Scientist/Chemist Dan Gazda participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at from St. Peter's Pr...

  7. Development of a forward genetic screen to isolate oil mutants in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Oils produced by microalgae are precursors to biodiesel. To achieve a profitable production of biodiesel from microalgae, identification of factors governing oil synthesis and turnover is desirable. The green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is amenable to genetic analyses and has recently emerged as a model to study oil metabolism. However, a detailed method to isolate various types of oil mutants that is adapted to Chlamydomonas has not been reported. Results We describe here a forward genetic approach to isolate mutants altered in oil synthesis and turnover from C. reinhardtii. It consists of a three-step screening procedure: a primary screen by flow cytometry of Nile red stained transformants grown in 96-deep-well plates under three sequential conditions (presence of nitrogen, then absence of nitrogen, followed by oil remobilization); a confirmation step using Nile red stained biological triplicates; and a validation step consisting of the quantification by thin layer chromatography of oil content of selected strains. Thirty-one mutants were isolated by screening 1,800 transformants generated by random insertional mutagenesis (1.7%). Five showed increased oil accumulation under the nitrogen-replete condition and 13 had altered oil content under nitrogen-depletion. All mutants were affected in oil remobilization. Conclusion This study demonstrates that various types of oil mutants can be isolated in Chlamydomonas based on the method set-up here, including mutants accumulating oil under optimal biomass growth. The strategy conceived and the protocol set-up should be applicable to other microalgal species such as Nannochloropsis and Chlorella, thus serving as a useful tool in Chlamydomonas oil research and algal biotechnology. PMID:24295516

  8. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    SciTech Connect

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  9. Toxicity and repellency of compounds from clove (Syzygium aromaticum) to red imported fire ants Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Kafle, Lekhnath; Shih, Cheng Jen

    2013-02-01

    The toxicity and repellency of the bioactive chemicals of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) powder, eugenol, eugenol acetate, and beta-caryophyllene were evaluated against workers of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. Clove powder applied at 3 and 12 mg/cm2 provided 100% ant mortality within 6 h, and repelled 99% within 3 h. Eugenol was the fastest acting compound against red imported fire ant compared with eugenol acetate, beta-caryophyllene, and clove oil. The LT50 values inclined exponentially with the increase in the application rate of the chemical compounds tested. However, repellency did not increase with the increase in the application rate of the chemical compounds tested, but did with the increase in exposure time. Eugenol, eugenol acetate, as well as beta-caryophyllene and clove oil may provide another tool for red imported fire ant integrated pest management, particularly in situations where conventional insecticides are inappropriate.

  10. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis furcata, Porphyra...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  16. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  17. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  18. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  19. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  20. Neutral red staining for plant vacuoles.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Birgit; Hülskamp, Martin

    2010-06-01

    For almost 100 years, neutral red has been used to stain living cells and fixed tissue. It can be used as a general-purpose stain, a pH indicator (turning from red to yellow, as the medium becomes alkaline), or a nuclear stain. In this protocol, neutral red is used to stain plant vacuoles.

  1. Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Parks and Wildlife, Austin.

    This packet provides information on the balance between the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker and modern forestry in Texas. A set of classroom activities about the Red-cockaded Woodpecker and its habitat for grades 3-6, and a booklet, a pamphlet, and a poster are featured. Sections of the booklet include: (1) "The Red-cockaded…

  2. Oil shale commercialization study

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

  3. “AmaRosa,” a red skinned, red fleshed fingerling with high phytonutrient value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AmaRosa is a mid season specialty potato with red skin and red flesh. This selection is unique among commercially available potato varieties in that plants set a large number of smooth, small, fingerling-shaped tubers with red skin and red flesh. AmaRosa tubers have higher total anthocyanin and hyd...

  4. USING CABLE SUSPENDED SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS TO REDUCE PRODUCTION COSTS TO INCREASE ULTIMATE RECOVERY IN THE RED MOUNTAIN FIELD OF THE SAN JUAN BASIN REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Don L. Hanosh

    2004-11-01

    This report discusses: (1) being able to resume marginal oil production operations in the Red Mountain Oil Field, located in McKinley County, New Mexico by installing a cable suspended electric submersible pumping system (HDESP); (2) determining if this system can reduce life costs making it a more cost effective production system for similar oil fields within the region, and if warranted, drill additional wells to improve the economics. In April 2003, a cooperative 50% cost share agreement between Enerdyne and the DOE was executed to investigate the feasibility of using cable suspended electric submersible pumps to reduce the life costs and increase the ultimate oil recovery of the Red Mountain Oil Field, located on the Chaco Slope of the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. The field was discovered in 1934 and has produced approximately 55,650 cubic meters (m{sup 3}), (350,000 barrels, 42 gallons) of oil. Prior to April 2003, the field was producing only a few cubic meters of oil each month; however, the reservoir characteristics suggest that the field retains ample oil to be economic. This field is unique, in that, the oil accumulations, above fresh water, occur at depths from 88-305 meters, (290 feet to 1000 feet), and serves as a relatively good test area for this experiment.

  5. Essential fatty acid requirement of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Lochmann, R T; Gatlin, D M

    1993-10-01

    Feeding experiments and laboratory analyses were conducted to establish the essential fatty acid (EFA) requirement of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Juvenile red drum were maintained in aquaria containing brackish water (5 ± 2‰ total dissolved solids) for two 6-week experiments. Semipurified diets contained a total of 70% lipid consisting of different combinations of tristearin [predominantly 18:0] and the following fatty acid ethyl esters: oleate, linoleate, linolenate, and a mixture of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) containing approximately 60% eicosapentaenoate plus docosahexaenoate. EFA-deficient diets (containing only tristearin or oleate) rapidly reduced fish growth and feed efficiency, and increased mortality. Fin erosion and a "shock syndrome" also occurred in association with EFA deficiency. Of the diets containing fatty acid ethyl esters, those with 0.5-1% (n-3) HUFA (0.3-0.6% eicosapentaenoate plus docosahexaenoate) promoted the best growth, survival, and feed efficiency; however, the control diet containing 7% menhaden fish oil provided the best performance. Excess (n-3) HUFA suppressed fish weight gain; suppression became evident at 1.5% (n-3) HUFA, and was pronounced at 2.5%. Fatty acid compositions of whole-body, muscle and liver tissues from red drum fed the various diets generally reflected dietary fatty acids, but modifications of these patterns also were evident. Levels of saturated fatty acids appeared to be regulated independent of diet. In fish fed EFA-deficient diets (containing only tristearin or oleate), monoenes increased and (n-3) HUFA were preferentially conserved in polar lipid fractions. Eicosatrienoic acid [20:3(n-9)] was not elevated in EFA-deficient red drum, apparently due to their limited ability to transform fatty acids. Red drum exhibited some limited ability to elongate and desaturate linoleic acid [18:2(n-6)] and linolenic acid [18:3(n-3)]; however, metabolism of 18:3(n-3) did not generally result in increased

  6. Extremely red quasars in BOSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Fred; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Ross, Nicholas; Paris, Isabelle; Alexandroff, Rachael M.; Villforth, Carolin; Richards, Gordon T.; Herbst, Hanna; Brandt, W. Niel; Cook, Ben; Denney, Kelly D.; Greene, Jenny E.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Red quasars are candidate young objects in an early transition stage of massive galaxy evolution. Our team recently discovered a population of extremely red quasars (ERQs) in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) that has a suite of peculiar emission-line properties including large rest equivalent widths (REWs), unusual `wingless' line profiles, large N V/Lyα, N V/C IV, Si IV/C IV and other flux ratios, and very broad and blueshifted [O III] λ5007. Here we present a new catalogue of C IV and N V emission-line data for 216 188 BOSS quasars to characterize the ERQ line properties further. We show that they depend sharply on UV-to-mid-IR colour, secondarily on REW(C IV), and not at all on luminosity or the Baldwin Effect. We identify a `core' sample of 97 ERQs with nearly uniform peculiar properties selected via i-W3 ≥ 4.6 (AB) and REW(C IV) ≥ 100 Å at redshifts 2.0-3.4. A broader search finds 235 more red quasars with similar unusual characteristics. The core ERQs have median luminosity ˜ 47.1, sky density 0.010 deg-2, surprisingly flat/blue UV spectra given their red UV-to-mid-IR colours, and common outflow signatures including BALs or BAL-like features and large C IV emission-line blueshifts. Their SEDs and line properties are inconsistent with normal quasars behind a dust reddening screen. We argue that the core ERQs are a unique obscured quasar population with extreme physical conditions related to powerful outflows across the line-forming regions. Patchy obscuration by small dusty clouds could produce the observed UV extinctions without substantial UV reddening.

  7. Oil degradation in soil.

    PubMed

    Raymond, R L; Hudson, J O; Jamison, V W

    1976-04-01

    The environmental effects of adding certain selected petroleum products to field soils at widely separated geographical locations under optimum conditions for biodegradation were studied. The locations selected for study of soil biodegradation of six oils (used crankcase oil from cars, used crankcase oil from trucks, an Arabian Heavy crude oil, a Coastal Mix crude oil, a home heating oil no. 2, and a residual fuel oil no. 6) were Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania, Tulsa, Oklahoma, and Corpus Christi, Texas. The investigative process, covering a period of 1 year at each location, was conducted in 14 fields plots (1.7 by 3.0 m) to which the oils were added in a single application at a rate of 11.9 m3/4 X 10(3) m2. One-half of the plots at each location were fertilized, and the incorporation of the oils and fertilizers was accomplished with rototillers to a depth of 10 to 15 cm. Concentrations of all oils decreased significantly at all locations. The average reduction ranged from 48.5 to 90.0% depending upon the type of oil and location. Rates of degradation did not exceed 2.4 m3/4 X 10(3) m2 per month. Compositional changes in the oil with time were investigated using silica gel fractionation, gas chromatography, and ultraviolet absorbance. With the possible exception of the two fuel oils, the compositional changes were generally in the same direction for all of the oils. The silica gel fractionation and gravimetric data on residual oils show that all classes of compounds were degraded, but the more polar type degrade more slowly. Analysis of runoff water, leachate, and soils indicated that at the concentration applied no oil less was observed from these plots via water movement. No significant movement of lead compounds added to the soils in the used crankcase oils was observed. Significant increases in hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms were demonstrated in all treated plots using either the pure hydrocarbon, n-hexadecane, or the applied oils as the growth substrate

  8. Red cell DAMPs and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Rafaela; Silveira, Angélica A A; Conran, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Intravascular hemolysis, or the destruction of red blood cells in the circulation, can occur in numerous diseases, including the acquired hemolytic anemias, sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia, as well as during some transfusion reactions, preeclampsia and infections, such as those caused by malaria or Clostridium perfringens. Hemolysis results in the release of large quantities of red cell damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) into the circulation, which, if not neutralized by innate protective mechanisms, have the potential to activate multiple inflammatory pathways. One of the major red cell DAMPs, heme, is able to activate converging inflammatory pathways, such as toll-like receptor signaling, neutrophil extracellular trap formation and inflammasome formation, suggesting that this DAMP both activates and amplifies inflammation. Other potent DAMPs that may be released by the erythrocytes upon their rupture include heat shock proteins (Hsp), such as Hsp70, interleukin-33 and Adenosine 5' triphosphate. As such, hemolysis represents a major inflammatory mechanism that potentially contributes to the clinical manifestations that have been associated with the hemolytic diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension and leg ulcers, and likely plays a role in specific complications of sickle cell disease such as endothelial activation, vaso-occlusive processes and tissue injury.

  9. Mass stranding of marine birds caused by a surfactant-producing red tide.

    PubMed

    Jessup, David A; Miller, Melissa A; Ryan, John P; Nevins, Hannah M; Kerkering, Heather A; Mekebri, Abdou; Crane, David B; Johnson, Tyler A; Kudela, Raphael M

    2009-01-01

    In November-December 2007 a widespread seabird mortality event occurred in Monterey Bay, California, USA, coincident with a massive red tide caused by the dinoflagellate Akashiwo sanguinea. Affected birds had a slimy yellow-green material on their feathers, which were saturated with water, and they were severely hypothermic. We determined that foam containing surfactant-like proteins, derived from organic matter of the red tide, coated their feathers and neutralized natural water repellency and insulation. No evidence of exposure to petroleum or other oils or biotoxins were found. This is the first documented case of its kind, but previous similar events may have gone undetected. The frequency and amplitude of red tides have increased in Monterey Bay since 2004, suggesting that impacts on wintering marine birds may continue or increase.

  10. 27 CFR 21.98 - Bone oil (Dipple's oil).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bone oil (Dipple's oil....98 Bone oil (Dipple's oil). (a) Color. The color shall be a deep brown. (b) Distillation range. When... below 90 °C. (c) Pyrrol reaction. Prepare a 1.0 percent solution of bone oil in 95 percent...

  11. 27 CFR 21.98 - Bone oil (Dipple's oil).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bone oil (Dipple's oil....98 Bone oil (Dipple's oil). (a) Color. The color shall be a deep brown. (b) Distillation range. When... below 90 °C. (c) Pyrrol reaction. Prepare a 1.0 percent solution of bone oil in 95 percent...

  12. 27 CFR 21.98 - Bone oil (Dipple's oil).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bone oil (Dipple's oil....98 Bone oil (Dipple's oil). (a) Color. The color shall be a deep brown. (b) Distillation range. When... below 90 °C. (c) Pyrrol reaction. Prepare a 1.0 percent solution of bone oil in 95 percent...

  13. 27 CFR 21.98 - Bone oil (Dipple's oil).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bone oil (Dipple's oil....98 Bone oil (Dipple's oil). (a) Color. The color shall be a deep brown. (b) Distillation range. When... below 90 °C. (c) Pyrrol reaction. Prepare a 1.0 percent solution of bone oil in 95 percent...

  14. Understanding oil spills and oil spill response

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The volume contains individual sections that outline what oil spills are, their potential effects on the environment, how they are cleaned up, and how various agencies prepare for spills before they happen.

  15. Biodegradation of crude oils.

    PubMed

    Bosecker, K; Teschner, M; Wehner, H

    1989-01-01

    Petroleum from well sites in the Gifhorn Trough (Lower Saxony, NW-Germany) and the Maracaibo Basin (Venezuela) contained various types of microorganisms capable of degrading crude oils. Genetically related oils were inoculated with the isolated microorganisms and the degradation of the oils was followed by chromatographic techniques. Parameters important for the reactions (pH, supply of oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus, reaction medium) were monitored and optimized. The degradation of n-alkanes was followed closely. Microorganisms active in degradation (yeast, bacteria) easily survived a period of inactivity due to missing nutrients and were reactivated within hours to degrade newly added crude oil. Under substrate-limiting conditions selectivity of degradation was found, destroying medium-chain n-alkanes (C20, C21) at a faster rate than long-chain n-alkanes (C30, C31). During degradation the physical parameters of the crude oils (e.g. density, viscosity, average molecular weight) were altered and shifted into the direction of heavy oil. In vitro degraded oil is very similar to oil degraded in nature. Aromatic hydrocarbons and biomarker molecules (steranes and triterpanes) were not degraded under the conditions used. Pyrolysis-GC analysis of asphaltenes revealed no significant changes in the composition of pyrolyzates during biodegradation. There is sufficient evidence that heavy oils - besides some other effects - are generated by the in situ-biodegradation of conventional oils.

  16. Crude Oil Analysis Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shay, Johanna Y.

    The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.

  17. Does Red China Want War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    and other metals have been located in recent years. Although rich oil reserves are known to exist in Sinkiang province, the existing...The status of development of an MRBM is less clear. Since the Chinese have devel- oped a missile range in Sinkiang , it can be assumed that they...of Ladakh which dominates the strategic road from Tibet to Sinkiang . Second, they demonstrated to all Asians that China is a major power that

  18. Spectroscopic study of Mentha oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, A. K.; Singh, A. K.

    The visible fluorescence and excitation spectra of Mentha oils (Japanese mint oil, peppermint oil and spearmint oil) have been recorded. Different physical constants which are characteristic of the fluorescent molecules have been calculated for all three oils. Results reveal that the same group of organic compounds dominate in the oils of peppermint and spearmint, whereas some different compound is present in Japanese mint oil. It is also found that the fluorescence intensity of these oils is comparable to that of Rhodamine 6G dye in methanol solution. Our studies suggest that Mentha oils may be a useful lasing material in the 450-600 nm wavelength range.

  19. Isolation and identification of an ester from a crude oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, H.F.; Breger, I.A.

    1958-01-01

    A dioctylphthalate has been isolated from a crude oil by means of adsorption column chromatography. The ester was identified by means of elemental analysis, refractive index, and its infra-red absorption spectrum. Saponification of the isolate and examination of the resultant alcohol by means of infrared absorption spectra led to the conclusion that the ester is a branched chain dioctylphthalate. This is the first reported occurrence of an ester in crude petroleum. ?? 1958.

  20. Hydrocarbon Source Rocks in the Deep River and Dan River Triassic Basins, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Jeffrey C.; Milici, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents an interpretation of the hydrocarbon source rock potential of the Triassic sedimentary rocks of the Deep River and Dan River basins, North Carolina, based on previously unpublished organic geochemistry data. The organic geochemical data, 87 samples from 28 drill holes, are from the Sanford sub-basin (Cumnock Formation) of the Deep River basin, and from the Dan River basin (Cow Branch Formation). The available organic geochemical data are biased, however, because many of the samples collected for analyses by industry were from drill holes that contained intrusive diabase dikes, sills, and sheets of early Mesozoic age. These intrusive rocks heated and metamorphosed the surrounding sediments and organic matter in the black shale and coal bed source rocks and, thus, masked the source rock potential that they would have had in an unaltered state. In places, heat from the intrusives generated over-mature vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) profiles and metamorphosed the coals to semi-anthracite, anthracite, and coke. The maximum burial depth of these coal beds is unknown, and depth of burial may also have contributed to elevated thermal maturation profiles. The organic geochemistry data show that potential source rocks exist in the Sanford sub-basin and Dan River basin and that the sediments are gas prone rather than oil prone, although both types of hydrocarbons were generated. Total organic carbon (TOC) data for 56 of the samples are greater than the conservative 1.4% TOC threshold necessary for hydrocarbon expulsion. Both the Cow Branch Formation (Dan River basin) and the Cumnock Formation (Deep River basin, Sanford sub-basin) contain potential source rocks for oil, but they are more likely to have yielded natural gas. The organic material in these formations was derived primarily from terrestrial Type III woody (coaly) material and secondarily from lacustrine Type I (algal) material. Both the thermal alteration index (TAI) and vitrinite reflectance data

  1. Fluorescence Imaging in the Red and Far-Red Region during Growth of Sunflower Plantlets. Diagnosis of the Early Infection by the Parasite Orobanche cumana

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Bustos, Carmen M.; Pérez-Bueno, María L.; Barón, Matilde; Molinero-Ruiz, Leire

    2016-01-01

    Broomrape, caused by the root holoparasite Orobanche cumana, is the main biotic constraint to sunflower oil production worldwide. By the time broomrape emerges, most of the metabolic imbalance has been produced by O. cumana to sunflower plants. UV-induced multicolor fluorescence imaging (MCFI) provides information on the fluorescence emitted by chlorophyll (Chl) a of plants in the spectral bands with peaks near 680 nm (red, F680) and 740 nm (far-red, F740). In this work MCFI was extensively applied to sunflowers, either healthy or parasitized plants, for the first time. The distribution of red and far-red fluorescence was analyzed in healthy sunflower grown in pots under greenhouse conditions. Fluorescence patterns were analyzed across the leaf surface and throughout the plant by comparing the first four leaf pairs (LPs) between the second and fifth week of growth. Similar fluorescence patterns, with a delay of 3 or 4 days between them, were obtained for LPs of healthy sunflower, showing that red and far-red fluorescence varied with the developmental stage of the leaf. The use of F680 and F740 as indicators of sunflower infection by O. cumana during underground development stages of the parasite was also evaluated under similar experimental conditions. Early increases in F680 and F740 as well as decreases in F680/F740 were detected upon infection by O. cumana. Significant differences between inoculated and control plants depended on the LP that was considered at any time. Measurements of Chl contents and final total Chl content supported the results of MCFI, but they were less sensitive in differentiating healthy from inoculated plants. Sunflower infection was confirmed by the presence of broomrape nodules in the roots at the end of the experiment. The potential of MCFI in the red and far-red region for an early detection of O. cumana infection in sunflower was revealed. This technique might have a particular interest for early phenotyping in sunflower breeding

  2. Fluorescence Imaging in the Red and Far-Red Region during Growth of Sunflower Plantlets. Diagnosis of the Early Infection by the Parasite Orobanche cumana.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Bustos, Carmen M; Pérez-Bueno, María L; Barón, Matilde; Molinero-Ruiz, Leire

    2016-01-01

    Broomrape, caused by the root holoparasite Orobanche cumana, is the main biotic constraint to sunflower oil production worldwide. By the time broomrape emerges, most of the metabolic imbalance has been produced by O. cumana to sunflower plants. UV-induced multicolor fluorescence imaging (MCFI) provides information on the fluorescence emitted by chlorophyll (Chl) a of plants in the spectral bands with peaks near 680 nm (red, F680) and 740 nm (far-red, F740). In this work MCFI was extensively applied to sunflowers, either healthy or parasitized plants, for the first time. The distribution of red and far-red fluorescence was analyzed in healthy sunflower grown in pots under greenhouse conditions. Fluorescence patterns were analyzed across the leaf surface and throughout the plant by comparing the first four leaf pairs (LPs) between the second and fifth week of growth. Similar fluorescence patterns, with a delay of 3 or 4 days between them, were obtained for LPs of healthy sunflower, showing that red and far-red fluorescence varied with the developmental stage of the leaf. The use of F680 and F740 as indicators of sunflower infection by O. cumana during underground development stages of the parasite was also evaluated under similar experimental conditions. Early increases in F680 and F740 as well as decreases in F680/F740 were detected upon infection by O. cumana. Significant differences between inoculated and control plants depended on the LP that was considered at any time. Measurements of Chl contents and final total Chl content supported the results of MCFI, but they were less sensitive in differentiating healthy from inoculated plants. Sunflower infection was confirmed by the presence of broomrape nodules in the roots at the end of the experiment. The potential of MCFI in the red and far-red region for an early detection of O. cumana infection in sunflower was revealed. This technique might have a particular interest for early phenotyping in sunflower breeding

  3. Toxicity of plant essential oils and their components against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon; Kim, Junheo N; Lee, Yeon-Suk; Lee, Sang-Gil; Ahn, Young-Joon; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2008-02-01

    Plant essential oils from 20 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activity against larvae of Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) (Diptera: Sciaridae) by using a fumigation bioassay. Good insecticidal activity (>90%) against larvae of L. ingenua was achieved with essential oils of caraway seed Carum carvi (L.)], lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf.], mandarine (Citrus reticulate Blanco), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt), cade (Juniperus oxycedrus L.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), and thyme red [Thymus vulgaris (L.)] oils at 30 X 10-3 mg/1 air. Among them, caraway seed, spearmint, cumin, and thyme red essential oils were highly effective against L. ingenua at 20 x 10(-3) mg/ml air. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to identification of 4, 9, 8, and 17 compounds from caraway seed, spearmint, cumin, and thyme red oils, respectively. These compounds were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against larvae of L. ingenua, and compared with the toxicity of dichlorvos. Carvacrol, thymol, linalool, cuminaldehyde, p-cymen, terpinen-4-ol, and carvone was effective at 10 x 10(-3) mg/l. The insecticidal activity of dichlorvos was 60% at 10 x 10(-3) mg/ml. Effects of four selected plant essential oils on growth of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, also were investigated.

  4. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources.

  5. Utilization Chitosan-p-t-Butylcalix[4]Arene for Red MX 8B Adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, D. S.; Kusumaningsih, T.; Hak, L. A.

    2017-02-01

    Adsorption of Procion Red MX 8B using chitosan dan chitosan-linked p-t-butylcalix[4]arene has been done. The research aimed to understand the adsorption of Procion Red MX 8B using chitosan p-t-butylcalix[4]arene compared to ordinary chitosan. The research was conducted in a batch process varying in pH, contact time and initial concentration of the Procion Red MX 8B. The amount of dye adsorbed was determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and the adsorben was characterized using FTIR and SEM-EDX spectrophotometer. The result showed that the optimum condition was achieved when the pH was set at 4, contact time 135 minutes and initial concentration at 200 ppm. The kinetic analysis showed that the adsorption followed Ho kinetic model and pseudo second order with the adsorption rate constant was 3.69×10-3 g/mg.minute and 2.03×10-3 g/mg.minute. The isotherm analysis showed that the adsorption process tend to occur following the Langmuir model with maximum capacity for chitosan and chitosan-linked p-t-butylcalix[4]arene 136.09 mg/g and 147.35 mg/g respectively. The adsorption energy of chitosan and chitosan-linked p-t-butylcalix[4]arene at 30.53 kJ/mole and 33.65 kJ/mole.

  6. Biodegradation of diesel fuel hydrocarbons by mangrove fungi from Red Sea Coast of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Ameen, Fuad; Moslem, Mohamed; Hadi, Sarfaraz; Al-Sabri, Ahmed E.

    2015-01-01

    Mangrove sediments were collected from major mangrove stands on the Red Sea Coast of Saudi Arabia. Forty five isolates belonging to 12 genera were purified and five isolates as well as their consortium were found to be able to grow in association with petroleum oil as sole carbon source under in vitro conditions. The isolated strains were identified based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequence analysis. The fungal strains with the greatest potentiality to degrade diesel oil, without developing antagonistic activity, were identified as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus terreus, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Eupenicillium hirayamae and Paecilomyces variotii. As compared to the controls, these fungi accumulated significantly higher biomass, produced extracellular enzymes and liberated larger volumes of CO2. These observations with GC–MS data confirm that these isolates displayed rapid diesel oil bioremoval and when used together as a consortium, there was no antagonistic activity. PMID:26981002

  7. Tea tree oil.

    PubMed

    Larson, David; Jacob, Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    Tea tree oil is an increasingly popular ingredient in a variety of household and cosmetic products, including shampoos, massage oils, skin and nail creams, and laundry detergents. Known for its potential antiseptic properties, it has been shown to be active against a variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and mites. The oil is extracted from the leaves of the tea tree via steam distillation. This essential oil possesses a sharp camphoraceous odor followed by a menthol-like cooling sensation. Most commonly an ingredient in topical products, it is used at a concentration of 5% to 10%. Even at this concentration, it has been reported to induce contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis reactions. In 1999, tea tree oil was added to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group screening panel. The latest prevalence rates suggest that 1.4% of patients referred for patch testing had a positive reaction to tea tree oil.

  8. Red giants: then and now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, John

    Fred Hoyle's work on the structure and evolution of red giants, particularly his pathbreaking contribution with Martin Schwarzschild (Hoyle and Schwarzschild 1955), is both lauded and critically assessed. In his later lectures and work with students in the early 1960s, Hoyle presented more physical ways of understanding some of the approximations used, and results obtained, in that seminal paper. Although later ideas by other investigators will be touched upon, Hoyle's viewpoint - that low-mass red giants are essentially white dwarfs with a serious mass-storage problem - is still extremely fruitful. Over the years, I have further developed his method of attack. Relatively recently, I have been able to deepen and broaden the approach, finally extending the theory to provide a unifying treatment of the structure of low-mass stars from the main sequence though both the red-giant and horizontal-branch phases of evolution. Many aspects of these stars that had remained puzzling, even mysterious, for decades have now fallen into place, and some questions have been answered that were not even posed before. With low-mass red giants as the simplest example, this recent work emphasizes that stars, in general, may have at least two distinct but very important centres: (I) a geometrical centre, and (II) a separate nuclear centre, residing in a shell outside a zero-luminosity dense core for example. This two-centre perspective leads to an explicit, analytical, asymptotic theory of low-mass red-giant structure. It enables one to appreciate that the problem of understanding why such stars become red giants is one of anticipating a remarkable yet natural structural bifurcation that occurs in them. This bifurcation occurs because of a combination of known and understandable facts just summarized namely that, following central hydrogen exhaustion, a thin nuclear-burning shell does develop outside a more-or-less dense core. In the resulting theory, both ρsh/ρolinec and

  9. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2007-09-01

    Anions interstellaires; S Orionis; Altaîr; Courants stellaires; Etoiles jeunes; 2MASSW J1207334-393254; Alpha Andromède; Etoiles à neutrons (1); LH54-425; AGNs invisibles; Deux supernovae; Les GRBs seon Swift; Peser les trous noirs; Formation de trous noirs; Trou noir; ondes gravitationnelles : Virgo entre dans sa phase d'exploitation scientifique; Amas de galaxies actifs; Amas de galaxies; Galaxies actives d'amas; L'univers statique: le retour; Macho; Exoplanètes; Exoplanètes habitables?; Exoplanètes habitables? (suite); Une année d'un an; Une année de 31 heures; Valse des Jupiters; Disque de HD 15115; Impact majeur; Planètes isolées; Super-Jupiter; Impact et mini-extinction; L'effet Pioneer; Toungouska; Spéléo martienne; Autres lunes dactives; Encelade; Hypérion; Pluton dépassé; Satellites d'Uranus; Titan

  10. 19. LOWER OIL ROOM DIABLO POWERHOUSE: SHARPLES OIL CENTRIFUGE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. LOWER OIL ROOM DIABLO POWERHOUSE: SHARPLES OIL CENTRIFUGE AND OIL TANK, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  11. The Obtaining of Oil from an Oil Reservoir.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawe, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the mechanics of how an actual oil reservoir works and provides some technical background in physics. An experiment which simulates an oil reservoir and demonstrates quantitatively all the basic concepts of oil reservoir rock properties is also presented. (HM)

  12. Kuwait Oil Fires, Kuwait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Smoke from the burning oil fields to the north of Kuwait City, seen on the south shore of Kuwayt Bay, almost totally obscures the view of the tiny, but oil rich, nation of Kuwait (30.0N, 48.0E). During the brief war between Iraq and the Allied forces, many of the oil wells in Kuwait were destroyed and set afire. For several months, those fires burned out of control, spewing wind borne smoke and ash for hundreds of miles.

  13. Integrated palm oil processing

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Googin, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Tree palms are now one of the most efficient energy crops: the best modern varieties can provide up to 6 tonnes per hectare per year of mesocarp and kernal oils. Palms are particularly attractive in areas where more conventional farming would pose a significant threat of laterization of cause major ecological problems. Technology for palm oil production is can range between village level manual operations and highly industrialized mills. Process energy is often supplied by combustion of byproducts. Although palm oil is a good energy crop, its physical and combustion properties preclude most use in conventional diesel engines, although palm oil could be directly blended with residual fuel oils for use in some large engines. At present, two uses for palm oil as a diesel fuel extender or substitute appear attractive: microemulsion blends using palm soapstock and monoesters produced by exchanging small alcohols for the glycerol in triglycerides. The amount of alcohols required for conversion of a substantial fraction of palm oil or palm oil soapstock to fuel extenders or substitutes is proportionately small, and, to a major extent, can be supplied by palm processing waste materials. Fermentation and gasification produced alcohols in the one to four carbon range are suitable for use in formulating palm oil based fuels. On a stoichiometric basis, it appears that the value of the palm oil and alcohols are very close to their value as export items. Use of these palm oil fuels could help to decrease balance of payments problems for developing countries, as well as provide a secure market for agricultural products and improved rural employment.

  14. Vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Fifty contributions (presentations) involving more than one hundred people worldwide were given at the International Conference on Plant and Vegetable Oils as Fuels. The proceedings were in Fargo, North Dakota, from August 2-4, 1982. The conference helped to promote renewable fuels, bio-oils, from plant and vegetable oils. Separate abstracts were prepared for 44 items for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  15. Impeding movement of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, James; Küster, Tatiana; George, David; Sparagano, Olivier; Tomley, Fiona

    2016-07-30

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is an economically important hematophagous parasite of commercial egg laying hens, also affecting domesticated birds and companion animals. Conventional control of D. gallinae through acaricidal spraying is often ineffective, creating an urgent need to identify alternative management strategies for commercial and domestic infestations. Whilst integrated pest management is being considered for D. gallinae, the potential of impeding mite 'migration' routes, to either prevent initial infestation or manage established populations, has not been researched. Here we demonstrate that barriers of insecticidal glue, double sided sticky tape and thyme oil can contain D. gallinae within a specified area of a petri dish (78-88% of total mite population) and this level of containment was significantly greater than for negative controls (p values <0.05). Further studies in poultry houses are recommended to investigate the efficacy of these barriers in real world application and identity potential for barriers as a strategy for mite control.

  16. Nitric oxide scavenging by red cell microparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Zhao, Weixin; Christ, George J; Gladwin, Mark T; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B

    2013-12-01

    Red cell microparticles form during the storage of red blood cells and in diseases associated with red cell breakdown and asplenia, including hemolytic anemias such as sickle cell disease. These small phospholipid vesicles that are derived from red blood cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of transfusion of aged stored blood and hemolytic diseases, via activation of the hemostatic system and effects on nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Red cell microparticles react with the important signaling molecule NO almost as fast as cell-free hemoglobin, about 1000 times faster than red-cell-encapsulated hemoglobin. The degree to which this fast reaction with NO by red cell microparticles influences NO bioavailability depends on several factors that are explored here. In the context of stored blood preserved in ADSOL, we find that both cell-free hemoglobin and red cell microparticles increase as a function of duration of storage, and the proportion of extra erythrocytic hemoglobin in the red cell microparticle fraction is about 20% throughout storage. Normalized by hemoglobin concentration, the NO-scavenging ability of cell-free hemoglobin is slightly higher than that of red cell microparticles as determined by a chemiluminescence NO-scavenging assay. Computational simulations show that the degree to which red cell microparticles scavenge NO will depend substantially on whether they enter the cell-free zone next to the endothelial cells. Single-microvessel myography experiments performed under laminar flow conditions demonstrate that microparticles significantly enter the cell-free zone and inhibit acetylcholine, endothelial-dependent, and NO-dependent vasodilation. Taken together, these data suggest that as little as 5 μM hemoglobin in red cell microparticles, an amount formed after the infusion of one unit of aged stored packed red blood cells, has the potential to reduce NO bioavailability and impair endothelial-dependent vasodilation.

  17. Waste oil reduction: GKN

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, G.

    1995-08-01

    This report details the steps required to establish a waste oil management program. Such a program can reduce operational costs, cut wastewater treatment costs and produce a better quality wastewater effluent through such means as: reducing the volume of oils used; segregating oils at the source of generation for recovery and reuse; and reducing the quality of oily wastewater generated. It discusses the metal-working fluid recovery options available for such a program, namely settling, filtration, hydrocyclone, and centrifugation. Included are source lists for vendors of oil skimmer equipment and coolant recovery systems.

  18. Melaleuca oil poisoning.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, M R; Hornfeldt, C S

    1994-01-01

    A 23-month-old boy became confused and was unable to walk thirty minutes after ingesting less than 10 mL of T36-C7, a commercial product containing 100% melaleuca oil. The child was referred to a nearby hospital. His condition improved and he was asymptomatic within 5 hours of ingestion. He was discharged to home the following day. Melaleuca oil, extracted from the Melaleuca alternifolia, contains 50-60% terpenes and related alcohols. Clinical experience with products containing melaleuca oil is limited. This case report suggests that ingestion of a modest amount of a concentrated form of this oil may produce signs of toxicity.

  19. Pepper Oil Surprise

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronauts Cady Coleman and Paolo Nespoli perform the Pepper Oil Surprise experiment from Potlatch Elementary School in Potlatch, Idaho. This research investigates the interaction of liquid pepper/...

  20. Treatment of vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bessler, T.R.

    1986-05-13

    A process is described for preparing an injectable vegetable oil selected from the group consisting of soybean oil and sunflower oil and mixtures thereof which comprise: (a) first treating the vegetable oil at a temperature of 80/sup 0/C to about 130/sup 0/C with an acid clay; (b) deodorizing the vegetable oil with steam at a temperature of 220/sup 0/C to about 280/sup 0/C and applying a vacuum to remove volatilized components; (c) treating the deodorized vegetable oil, at a temperature of from about 10/sup 0/C to about 60/sup 0/C, with an acid clay to reduce the content of a member selected from the group consisting of diglycerides, tocopherol components, and trilinolenin and mixtures thereof, wherein the acid clay is added in a weight ratio to the deoderized vegetable oil of from about 1:99 to about 1:1; and (d) thereafter conducting a particulate filtration to remove a substantial portion of the acid clay from the vegetable oil, wherein the filtration is accomplished with filters having a pore size of from about 0.1 to 0.45 microns, thereby obtaining the injectable oil.

  1. Oil in the Arctic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    density of North Slope crude oil Is 0.89. After aging two weeks In the Arctic suimer, this density rises to about 0.95 . Hence the oil can be...the Ice. In that case, puddles form at the high points of the ice- water Interface. A third feature is the fact that crude oils are sticky, and...this section Is to develop equations which describe the boiling point distribution of crude oil as it ages on ice or water. We assume, firstly, that

  2. Hot Oil Removes Wax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzstock, James J.

    1991-01-01

    Mineral oil heated to temperature of 250 degrees F (121 degrees C) found effective in removing wax from workpieces after fabrication. Depending upon size and shape of part to be cleaned of wax, part immersed in tank of hot oil, and/or interior of part flushed with hot oil. Pump, fittings, and ancillary tooling built easily for this purpose. After cleaning, innocuous oil residue washed off part by alkaline aqueous degreasing process. Serves as relatively safe alternative to carcinogenic and environmentally hazardous solvent perchloroethylene.

  3. Les Abondances Chimiques dans les Galaxies Spirales de Type Precoce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutil, Yvan

    1998-09-01

    Les galaxies spriales presentent une distribution continue de formes et de proprietes physiques. A l'heure actuelle, il existe deux ecoles de pensee au sujet de la nature de ces proprietes morphologiques des galaxies. Pour certains elles sont innees, pour d'autres elles sont acquises. Les gradients d'abondance nebulaires, de par leur sensibilite aux mouvements a grande echelle du gaz et au taux de formation stellaire, offrent une possibilite de trancher dans ce debat. Toutefois, jusqu'ici, on a surtout observe les gradients d'abondance dans les galaxies de type tardif. Le premier objectif de cette these est d'enrichir l'echantillon de galaxies de type precoce observees. Le second objectif est de demontrer qu'il y a deja eu une barre dans les galaxies de type precoce et, si possible, de chercher des traces d'interactions dans ces galaxies. Dans le cadre de cette these, j'ai observe huit galaxies de type precoce. Mes observations indiquent que ces galaxies presentent des profils d'abondance dont les caracteristiques se rapprochent des galaxies barrees, meme si certaines ne presentent pas de barres. Ce resultat renforce l'hypothese selon laquelle les galaxies changent de type morphologique au cours du temps sous l'effet d'instabilites comme les barres.

  4. Different palm oil preparations reduce plasma cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol accumulation compared to coconut oil in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Kotyla, Timothy; Sundram, Kalyana; Kritchevsky, David

    2005-10-01

    Several studies have reported on the effect of refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBD-PO) incorporation into the diet on blood cholesterol concentrations and on the development of atherosclerosis. However, very little work has been reported on the influence of red palm oil (RPO), which is higher in carotenoid and tocopherol content than RBD-PO. Thus, we studied the influence of RPO, RBD-PO and a RBD-PO plus red palm oil extract (reconstituted RBD-PO) on plasma cholesterol concentrations and aortic accumulation vs. hamsters fed coconut oil. Forty-eight F1B Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) (BioBreeders, Watertown, MA) were group housed (three/cage) in hanging polystyrene cages with bedding in an air-conditioned facility maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. The hamsters were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) containing 10% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol for 2 weeks at which time they were bled after an overnight fast and segregated into four groups of 12 with similar plasma cholesterol concentrations. Group 1 continued on the HCD, Group 2 was fed the HCD containing 10% RPO in place of coconut oil, Group 3 was fed the HCD containing 10% RBD-PO in place of coconut oil and Group 4 was fed the HCD with 10% reconstituted RBD-PO for an additional 10 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (very low- and low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were significantly lower in the hamsters fed the RPO (-42% and -48%), RBD-PO (-32% and -36%) and the reconstituted RBD-PO (-37% and -41%) compared to the coconut oil-fed hamsters. Plasma HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher by 14% and 31% in hamsters fed the RBD-PO and RPO compared to the coconut oil-fed hamsters. Plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations were significantly lower in hamsters fed RBD-PO (-32%) and the reconstituted RBD-PO (-31%) compared to the coconut oil-fed hamsters. The plasma gamma-tocopherol concentrations were higher

  5. Red is romantic, but only for feminine females: sexual dimorphism moderates red effect on sexual attraction.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fangfang; Zuo, Bin; Wu, Yang; Sun, Shan; Liu, Ke

    2014-08-08

    Previous researchers have documented that the color red enhances one's sexual attraction to the opposite sex. The current study further examined the moderating role of sexual dimorphism in red effects. The results indicated that red enhanced men's sexual attraction to women with more feminine facial characteristics but had no effect on ratings of perceived general attractiveness. Red clothing also had a marginally significant effect on men's sexual attractiveness. In addition, regardless of sexual dimorphism cues, male participants rated women with red as warmer and more competent. The underlying mechanisms of the red effect, the limitations of the current study, and suggestions for future directions are discussed.

  6. Mineral oil soluble borate compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Dulat, J.

    1981-09-15

    Alkali metal borates are reacted with fatty acids or oils in the presence of a low hlb value surfactant to give a stable mineral oil-soluble product. Mineral oil containing the borate can be used as a cutting fluid.

  7. Still from Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is one of seven from the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft assembled as a brief movie of cloud movements on Jupiter. It was taken with a blue filter. The smallest features visible are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across.

    Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Based on data from NASA's Galileo spacecraft, scientists suspect that these small white features are lightning storms, where falling raindrops create an electrical charge. The lightning storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for these large-scale features. Imaging observations of the darkside of the planet in the weeks following Cassini's closest approach to Jupiter on Dec. 30, 2000 will search for lightning storms like these.

    This image was re-projected by cylindrical-map projection of an image taken in the first week of October 2000. It shows an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  8. Schubert edits JGR-Red

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    ‘As editor, my major concern will be to maintain and strengthen the Journal of Geophysical Research's position as the preeminent journal in solid earth and solid planet geophysics,’ asserted Gerald Schubert, the new editor of the red section of JGR. ‘I will endeavor to ensure that all major subject areas covered by JGR-Red are adequately represented among the published papers.’ Schubert, professor of geophysics and planetary physics at the University of California, Los Angeles, officially begins his 4-year term as editor on December 1, although he has been receiving manuscripts since October 1.The new editor brings to JGR enthusiasm and dedication. ‘I will try to make it the type of journal that the readers want it to be in terms of both rapid publication time and publication of the best papers.’ He expects to continue the traditions that his predecessor, Thomas J . Ahrens, has established. In particular, Schubert wants to continue publishing special issues that focus on specific research topics. He welcomes suggestions for such issues from the research community.

  9. Biodegradation of engine oil by fungi from mangrove habitat.

    PubMed

    Ameen, Fuad; Hadi, Sarfaraz; Moslem, Mohamed; Al-Sabri, Ahmed; Yassin, Mohamed A

    2015-01-01

    The pollution of land and water by petroleum compounds is a matter of growing concern necessitating the development of methodologies, including microbial biodegradation, to minimize the impending impacts. It has been extensively reported that fungi from polluted habitats have the potential to degrade pollutants, including petroleum compounds. The Red Sea is used extensively for the transport of oil and is substantially polluted, due to leaks, spills, and occasional accidents. Tidal water, floating debris, and soil sediment were collected from mangrove stands on three polluted sites along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia and forty-five fungal isolates belonging to 13 genera were recovered from these samples. The isolates were identified on the basis of a sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene fragment. Nine of these isolates were found to be able to grow in association with engine oil, as the sole carbon source, under in vitro conditions. These selected isolates and their consortium accumulated greater biomass, liberated more CO2, and produced higher levels of extracellular enzymes, during cultivation with engine oil as compared with the controls. These observations were authenticated by gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis, which indicated that many high mass compounds present in the oil before treatment either disappeared or showed diminished levels.

  10. Essential oil of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) augments the humoral immune response but decreases cell mediated immunity.

    PubMed

    Halder, Sumita; Mehta, Ashish K; Mediratta, Pramod K; Sharma, Krishna K

    2011-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the effect of the essential oil isolated from the buds of Eugenia caryophyllata on some immunological parameters. Humoral immunity was assessed by measuring the hemagglutination titre to sheep red blood cells and delayed type hypersensitivity was assessed by measuring foot pad thickness. Clove oil administration produced a significant increase in the primary as well as secondary humoral immune response. In addition, it also produced a significant decrease in foot pad thickness compared with the control group. Thus, these results suggest that clove oil can modulate the immune response by augmenting humoral immunity and decreasing cell mediated immunity.

  11. Is PZ MON a Red Dwarf or a Red Giant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondar', N. I.; Sergeev, S. G.

    Hipparcos data (ESA 1997) give for PZ Mon a parallax π = 0.71 +- 1.17 mas that is not in agreement with earlier estimations of distance to the star of 15-30 ps and with its status of K- dwarf. There are presented spectra of PZ Mon in the region 3750-6150 Α with resolution of 7 ≍ Α, which were carried out in the Nasmith focus of 2.6 m reflector in the Crimean Astrophysical observatory. Intensities of molecular absorptions in this spectral range are determined relative a nearby continuum and their relations between absolute magnitudes are considered. The calculated Mν =6.74 and r=29 ps correspond to an earlier classiffication of PZ Mon as a red dwarf.

  12. [Systematic evaluation of clinical application of Dingkun Dan].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-xia; Ma, Kun

    2015-10-01

    Dingkun Dan is a representative of the classic gynecological medicine. With Tonifying the liver and kidney, supplementing Qi and nourishing blood, regulating menstruation Shuyu, promoting the role of pain. Used in treatment of liver and kidney deficiency, deficiency of both qi and blood, Qi stagnation and blood stasis caused by irregular menstruation, menstrual pain, uterine bleeding, leukorrhea with reddish discharge, bruise blood removal, infertility, and various postpartum deficiency and bone steaming hot flashes of gynecological common disease. In recent years, Dingkun Dan's new uses have been reported, the clinical application value is worth further digging. In this paper, clinical application and research progress of Dingkun Dan since the founding of new China were briefly discussed, and summarize for the randomized controlled trials.

  13. Malignant Melanoma Arising in Red Tattoo Ink

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Gerald; McKenna, Dermot; Regan, Padraic James

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 33-year-old male who presented with a malignant melanoma on his anterior chest wall. The lesion was only found in the red ink pigment of the tattoo, as were several in-transit dermal metastases. Possible explanations include a pre-existing lesion which was seeded with red ink or the possibility of the red ink causing an inflammatory reaction leading to malignant transformation. This is the first reported case of a melanoma developing in the red ink pigment of a multi-colored tattoo. PMID:26217569

  14. Red cell transfusion "trigger": a review.

    PubMed

    Petrides, Marian

    2003-07-01

    Despite the publication of several consensus guidelines that set forth recommendations for the transfusion of red cells, actual clinical practice continues to vary widely. Animal data and studies in human volunteers and patients support a red cell transfusion threshold of 7 to 8 g/dl in most patients. However, conflicting data, particularly in cardiac patients and in the elderly, suggest that it may be impossible to define a single red cell "trigger" for all patients. A well-designed, randomized, controlled trial is still needed to establish a safe threshold for red cell transfusion in adults with coronary artery disease.

  15. Exploring Oil Spills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerniak, Charlene M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities in which elementary and middle school students work together to gain environmental awareness about oil spills. Involves students experiencing a simulated oil spill and attempting to clean it up. Discusses the use of children's literature after the activity in evaluation of the activity. (JRH)

  16. Tree nut oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major tree nuts include almonds, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachio nuts, and walnuts. Tree nut oils are appreciated in food applications because of their flavors and are generally more expensive than other gourmet oils. Research during the last de...

  17. Kapok oil methyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increased need for biodiesel feedstocks has caused various vegetable oils to be examined for this purpose. In the present work, the methyl esters of kapok (Ceiba pentandra) oil were prepared. The essential fuel properties were comprehensively determined and evaluated in comparison to specificati...

  18. Vegetable oil as fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    A review is presented of various experiments undertaken over the past few years in the U.S. to test the performance of vegetable oils in diesel engines, mainly with a view to on-farm energy self-sufficiency. The USDA Northern Regional Research Center in Peoria, Illinois, is screening native U.S. plant species as potential fuel oil sources.

  19. Multi Tasking Engine Oils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-21

    Petroleum Institute has standards for engine and gear oils but none for multipurpose lubricants of the type described above. The concept of...Transmission Oils (UTTOs) to satisfy this consumer market. Unfortunately, there are no industry-wide standards for these UTTOs as the American

  20. Fossil Energy: Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Detailed are the highlights of the history and technology of crude oil and its end products. Included also are some of the important programs that American industry and the Federal government are planning and undertaking in order to enhance the benefits of oil and make use of the limited available quantities as wisely as possible, both now and in…

  1. Leaching study of oil shale in Kentucky : with a section on Hydrologic reconnaissance of the oil shale outcrop in Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leung, Samuel S.; Leist, D.W.; Davis, R.W.; Cordiviola, Steven

    1984-01-01

    Oil shales in Kentucky are rocks of predominantly Devonian age. The most prominant are the Ohio, Chattanooga, and New Albany Shales. A leaching study was done on six fresh oil shale samples and one retorted oil shale sample. Leaching reagents were distilled water, 0.0005 N sulfuric acid, and 0.05 N sulfuric acid. The concentration of constituents in the leachates were highly variable. The concentration of sodium, manganese, and zinc in the retorted shale leachate was several orders of magnitude higher than those of the leachates of fresh shale samples. The major oil shale outcrop covers approximately 1,000 square miles in a horseshoe pattern from Vanceburg, Lewis County , in the east, to Louisville, Jefferson County, in the west. The Kentucky, Red, and Licking Rivers cross the outcrop belt, the Rolling Fork River flows along the strike of the shale in the southwest part of the outcrop, and the Ohio River flows past the outcrop at the ends of the horseshoe. Oil shale does not appear to significantly alter the water quality of these streams. Oil shale is not an aquifer, but seeps and springs found in the shale indicate that water moves through it. Ground water quality is highly variable. (USGS)

  2. Cooking with Healthier Fats and Oils

    MedlinePlus

    ... use fats and oils, choose those with less saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol. Choose Less Often Choose More Often Percent of Saturated Fat Canola Oil Safflower Oil Sesame Oil Sunflower Oil ...

  3. L’apport de la dermoscopie dans le carcinome basosquameux

    PubMed Central

    Elmahi, Hakima; Lahlou, Asmae; Baybay, Hanane; Gallouj, Salim; Mernissi, Fatima Zahra; Reggad, Fatima Zahra; Harmouch, Taoufik

    2016-01-01

    Le carcinome basosquameux (CBS) est un cancer cutané rare qui présente des zones de carcinome basocellulaire (CBC) et de carcinome épidermoïde (SCC) et une zone de transition entre elles. Cependant, les caractéristiques dermoscopiques du BSC ne sont pas bien décrites dans la littérature, sauf deux études. Le but du présent cas était de mieux identifier et clarifier la contribution de la dermoscopie dans le diagnostic du BSC, malgré que la confirmation reste toujours histologique. PMID:28293368

  4. Products from vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, M.O.

    1995-12-01

    Vegetable oils serve various industrial applications such as plasticizers, emulsifiers, surfactants, plastics and resins. Research and development approaches may take advantage of natural properties of the oils. More often it is advantageous to modify those properties for specific applications. One example is the preparation of ink vehicles using vegetable oils in the absence of petroleum. They are cost competitive with petroleum-based inks with similar quality factors. Vegetable oils have potential as renewable sources of fuels for the diesel engine. However, several characteristics can restrict their use. These include poor cold-engine startup, misfire and for selected fuels, high pour point and cloud point temperatures. Other characteristics include incomplete combustion causing carbon buildup, lube oil dilution and degradation, and elevated NO{sub x} emissions. Precombustion and fuel quality data are presented as a tool for understanding and solving these operational and durability problems.

  5. Intraventricular Silicone Oil

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Stéphane; Boissonnot, Michèle; Tasu, Jean-Pierre; Simonet, Charles; Ciron, Jonathan; Neau, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Intracranial silicone oil is a rare complication of intraocular endotamponade with silicone oil. We describe a case of intraventricular silicone oil fortuitously observed 38 months after an intraocular tamponade for a complicated retinal detachment in an 82 year-old woman admitted in the Department of Neurology for a stroke. We confirm the migration of silicone oil along the optic nerve. We discuss this rare entity with a review of the few other cases reported in the medical literature. Intraventricular migration of silicone oil after intraocular endotamponade is usually asymptomatic but have to be known of the neurologists and the radiologists because of its differential diagnosis that are intraventricular hemorrhage and tumor. PMID:26735537

  6. The effect of a red leaf pigment on the relationship between red edge and chlorophyll concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Paul J.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Macler, Bruce A.; Plummer, Stephen E.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of a leaf pigment - red amaranthin - on red edge and chlorophyll concentration is investigated in amaranth leaves by means of treatments with nitrate and salts. A near-linear relationship between red edge and chlorophyll concentration is observed for leaves with low amaranthin concentration, and no relationship is noted at high concentrations. The study demonstrates the limitation inherent in estimating chlorophyll concentration by using remotely sensed red edge.

  7. Corrosivity Of Pyrolysis Oils

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, James R; Bestor, Michael A; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Storey, John Morse

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oils from several sources have been analyzed and used in corrosion studies which have consisted of exposing corrosion coupons and stress corrosion cracking U-bend samples. The chemical analyses have identified the carboxylic acid compounds as well as the other organic components which are primarily aromatic hydrocarbons. The corrosion studies have shown that raw pyrolysis oil is very corrosive to carbon steel and other alloys with relatively low chromium content. Stress corrosion cracking samples of carbon steel and several low alloy steels developed through-wall cracks after a few hundred hours of exposure at 50 C. Thermochemical processing of biomass can produce solid, liquid and/or gaseous products depending on the temperature and exposure time used for processing. The liquid product, known as pyrolysis oil or bio-oil, as produced contains a significant amount of oxygen, primarily as components of water, carboxylic acids, phenols, ketones and aldehydes. As a result of these constituents, these oils are generally quite acidic with a Total Acid Number (TAN) that can be around 100. Because of this acidity, bio-oil is reported to be corrosive to many common structural materials. Despite this corrosive nature, these oils have the potential to replace some imported petroleum. If the more acidic components can be removed from this bio-oil, it is expected that the oil could be blended with crude oil and then processed in existing petroleum refineries. The refinery products could be transported using customary routes - pipelines, barges, tanker trucks and rail cars - without a need for modification of existing hardware or construction of new infrastructure components - a feature not shared by ethanol.

  8. Effects of dietary lipid and environmental salinity on growth, body composition, and cold tolerance of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Craig, S R; Neill, W H; Gatlin, D M

    1995-02-01

    Simultaneous, 6-week feeding trials were conducted in which diets containing menhaden, corn, coconut and hydrogenated menhaden oil at 7.0%, plus a diet containing 14% menhaden oil, were fed to triplicate groups of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) at two different salinities (5 and 32%.). Weight gain was significantly (p < 0.05) affected by diet and salinity. Fish fed the diet containing 14% menhaden oil had the greatest weight gain; whereas, fish fed the diet containing coconut oil gained the least weight. Fish in brackish water had significantly greater weight gain than fish in full-strength seawater over the 6-week period, although fish fed coconut and saturated menhaden oil in brackish water had reduced survival. Dietary lipid also significantly affected muscle and liver total lipid, hepatosomatic index (HSI), and intraperitoneal fat (IPF) ratio, as fish fed the diets containing 14% menhaden oil had higher values for all of these body condition indices.After the feeding trial, fish were subjected to a chronic cold tolerance assay. In the chronic trial, where temperature was gradually reduced over a 3-week period, fish fed the diets containing menhaden oil had significantly lower median lethal temperatures (MLT) than those fish fed the diets containing coconut, corn and saturated menhaden oils. No significant effects of cold exposure were observed on muscle and liver total lipid. Cold exposure prompted a modification in lipid metabolism by lowering total saturated fatty acids and raising (n - 3) highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) in the neutral lipid of liver. Fish with the lowest MLT in the chronic assay exhibited signs of conserving (n - 3) HUFA and depleting (n - 6) fatty acids [primarily 18:2 (n - 6)], resulting in higher (n - 3)/(n - 6) ratios in the polar lipid of liver. These data suggest that the lower lethal temperature of juvenile red drum can be reduced through dietary manipulation involving the inclusion of high levels of dietary lipid rich

  9. Field test for repellency of cedarwood oil and cedrol to little fire ants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eastern red cedars (ERC) (Juniperus virginiana L.) are an abundant renewable resource and represent a vast potential source of valuable natural products that may serve as natural biocides. The aromatic wood can be extracted to obtain cedarwood oil (CWO) and critical carbon dioxide (CO2) extraction o...

  10. Voyager 1 Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie shows the portion of Jupiter around the Great Red Spot as it swirls through more than 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storm shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  11. Demonstration project cuts red tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Results from a demonstration project aimed at cutting red tape in federal grants for basic research at universities are "very encouraging" so far, according to Don I. Phillips, executive director of the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable. The roundtable is coordinating the experimental effort, with the participation of five major federal agencies as well as the Florida state university system and the University of Miami (a private institution in Coral Gables, Fla.).Under the project, special conditions apply to grants from the participating agencies to individual researchers at the participating universities: Investigators do not have to ask the agency's permission for changes in budget allocations, purchases of permanent equipment, or foreign travel. Grant money can be spent up to a year after the grant ends without a special request. Under this plan, researchers, with agency approval, can also ask to have their entire research program covered as a single administrative entity, rather than as several individual projects.

  12. A red metallic oxide photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoxiang; Randorn, Chamnan; Efstathiou, Paraskevi; Irvine, John T. S.

    2012-07-01

    Light absorption across the bandgap in semiconductors is exploited in many important applications such as photovoltaics, light emitting diodes and photocatalytic conversion. Metals differ from semiconductors in that there is no energy gap separating occupied and unoccupied levels; however, it is still possible to excite electrons between bands. This is evidenced by materials with metallic properties that are also strongly coloured. An important question is whether such coloured metals could be used in light harvesting or similar applications. The high conductivity of a metal would preclude sufficient electric field being available to separate photocarriers; however, the high carrier mobility in a metal might also facilitate kinetic charge separation. Here we clearly demonstrate for the first time the use of a red metallic oxide, Sr1-xNbO3 as an effective photocatalyst. The material has been used under visible light to photocatalyse the oxidation of methylene blue and both the oxidation and reduction of water assisted by appropriate sacrificial elements.

  13. Chemical toxicity of red cells.

    PubMed Central

    Piomelli, S

    1981-01-01

    Exposure to toxic chemicals may result in alterations of red cell function. In certain cases, the toxic effect requires a genetic predisposition and thus affects only a restricted number of individuals; in other instances, the toxic effect is exerted on the hematopoietic system of every person. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is probably the most widespread genetic disorder. It is observed at highest frequency in populations from subtropical countries as a result of its selective advantage vis à vis falciparum malaria. The gene controlling this enzyme is located on the X-chromosome; thus, the defect is sex-linked. Individuals with a genetic defect of this enzyme are extremely susceptible to hemolysis, when exposed to oxidant drugs (such as certain antimalarials and sulfonamides) because of the inability of their red cells to regenerate NADPH. Lead poisoning result in profound effects on the process of heme synthesis. Among the steps most sensitive to lead toxicity are the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and the intramitochondrial step that leads to the incorporation of iron into protoporphyrin. By these mechanisms, in severe lead intoxication there is an accumulation of large amounts of delta-aminolevulinic acid (a compound with inherent neurotoxicity), and there are abnormalities of mitochondrial function in all cells of the body. Individuals living in an industrialized society are unavoidably exposed to some environmental lead. Recent evidence indicates that, even at levels of exposure which do not increase the blood lead level above values presently considered normal, abnormalities of heme synthesis are clearly detectable. PMID:7016524

  14. Review of oil families and their petroleum systems of the Williston Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lillis, Paul G.

    2013-01-01

    Oil bulk properties such as API gravity, sulfur content, and pour point are much underutilized in the recent geochemical literature and are found to be useful here in differentiating oil families. The Red River petroleum system has two oil families that can be differentiated based on pour point. The oils in the Madison petroleum system can be divided into two families based on API gravity-sulfur content relationships, with one family derived from Type II-S kerogen and the other family derived from Type II kerogen with medium sulfur content. The Tyler petroleum system of the Williston Basin may be distinguished from the Heath-Tyler petroleum system in central Montana based on differences in geology and petroleum geochemistry, with Tyler petroleum system oils having a higher pour point and lower sulfur content.

  15. Red Dirt Thinking on Aspiration and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Sam; Guenther, John

    2013-01-01

    This article sets the scene for the series of five articles on "red dirt thinking". It first introduces the idea behind red dirt thinking as opposed to "blue sky thinking". Both accept that there are any number of creative and expansive solutions and possibilities to identified challenges--in this case, the challenge of…

  16. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  17. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  18. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  19. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  20. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  1. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  2. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  3. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  4. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  5. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  6. Public perceptions of Florida red tide risks.

    PubMed

    Kuhar, Sara E; Nierenberg, Kate; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Tobin, Graham A

    2009-07-01

    This research integrates theoretical frameworks of risk perception, social amplification of risk, and the role of place-specific contexts in order to explore the various perceptions surrounding Florida red tides. Florida red tides are naturally occurring events that are increasing in frequency, duration, and severity. This has implications for public health, the local economy, and ecosystem health. While many of the negative impacts of Florida red tides are not easily controlled, some of the secondary impacts may be mitigated through individuals' responses. However, public perception and consequent reactions to Florida red tides have not been investigated. This research uses questionnaire surveys, and semi-structured interviews, to explore the various perceptions of the risk surrounding red tides. Surveys and interviews were conducted along two Florida west coast beaches. The results indicate that the underlying foundations of the social amplification of the risk framework are applicable to understanding how individuals form perceptions of risk relative to red tide events. There are key differences between the spatial locations of individuals and corresponding perceptions, indicating that place-specific contexts are essential to understanding how individuals receive and interpret risk information. The results also suggest that individuals may be lacking efficient and up-to-date information about Florida red tides and their impacts because of inconsistent public outreach. Overall, social and spatial factors appear to be influential as to whether individuals amplify or attenuate the risks associated with Florida red tides.

  7. Preparation of special cements from red mud

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.; Upadhayay, S.N.; Prasad, P.M.

    1996-12-31

    Red mud from HINDALCO (Hindustan Aluminium Corporation) Industries Limited, Renukoot, India, contains significant quantities of alumina, iron oxide and silica. Presence of the said constituents makes it a suitable ingredient for the preparation of special cements. Preparation of three varieties of cements was investigated, namely: (a) aluminoferrite (C{sub 4}AF)-belite ({beta}-C{sub 2}S) using lime + red mud + fly ash; (b) aluminoferrite-ferrite (C{sub 2}F)-aluminates (C{sub 3}A and C{sub 12}A{sub 7}) utilizing lime + red mud + bauxite; and (c) sulfoaluminate (C{sub 4}A{sub 3}{bar S})-aluminoferrite-ferrite using lime + red mud + bauxite + gypsum. The effects of composition (proportions of lime, red mud, fly ash, bauxite and gypsum), firing temperature and duration on the properties of cements produced were studied in detail. Cements made from lime + red mud + bauxite or lime + red mud + bauxite + gypsum exhibit strengths comparable or superior to ordinary Portland cement (OPC). On the other hand, those prepared using lime + red mud + fly ash did not have sufficient strength. Moreover, it was not possible to replace bauxite by fly ash (as a source of alumina) in any significant quantity.

  8. Parapoxvirus infections of red deer, Italy.

    PubMed

    Scagliarini, Alessandra; Vaccari, Francesca; Turrini, Filippo; Bianchi, Alessandro; Cordioli, Paolo; Lavazza, Antonio

    2011-04-01

    To characterize parapoxviruses causing severe disease in wild ruminants in Stelvio Park, Italy, we sequenced and compared the DNA of several isolates. Results demonstrated that the red deer isolates are closely related to the parapox of red deer in New Zealand virus.

  9. Parapoxvirus Infections of Red Deer, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Vaccari, Francesca; Turrini, Filippo; Bianchi, Alessandro; Cordioli, Paolo; Lavazza, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    To characterize parapoxviruses causing severe disease in wild ruminants in Stelvio Park, Italy, we sequenced and compared the DNA of several isolates. Results demonstrated that the red deer isolates are closely related to the parapox of red deer in New Zealand virus. PMID:21470460

  10. Grape (Vitis spp.)- Grapevine red blotch disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This disease is caused by Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV), which was first reported in 2012 from New York and subsequently in California, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and elsewhere in the United States The discovery occurred when grapevines with red leaf symptoms that tested negative for...

  11. Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in red cabbages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The color of red cabbage is due to the accumulation of large quantity of anthocyanins. To investigate the general regulatory control of anthocyanin production in red cabbages, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and regulators from eight commercial cultivars was examined. While the four...

  12. Unripe red fruits may be aposematic

    PubMed Central

    Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido

    2009-01-01

    The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Nerium oleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation. PMID:19847110

  13. Improving Mineral Nutrition of Micropropagated Red Raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vitro propagation is important for fast multiplication of a wide range of nursery crops, including red raspberry. The variation in genetic background of the many red raspberry cultivars makes it difficult to successfully use one growth medium for all. Although most cultivars will grow on Murashig...

  14. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  15. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  16. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  17. Red, Rank, and Romance in Women Viewing Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Niesta Kayser, Daniela; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Gramzow, Richard H.; Maier, Markus A.; Liu, Huijun

    2010-01-01

    In many nonhuman species of vertebrates, females are attracted to red on male conspecifics. Red is also a signal of male status in many nonhuman vertebrate species, and females show a mating preference for high-status males. These red-attraction and red-status links have been found even when red is displayed on males artificially. In the present…

  18. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  19. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  20. Marine Oil Biodegradation

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry C.; Prince, Roger; Mahmoudi, Nagissa

    2015-12-23

    Crude oil has been part of the marine environment for millions of years, and microbes that use its rich source of energy and carbon are found in seawater, sediments and shorelines from the tropics to the polar regions. Catastrophic oil spills stimulate these organisms to ‘bloom’ in a reproducible fashion, and although oil does not provide bioavailable nitrogen, phosphorus or iron, there are enough of these nutrients in the sea that when dispersed oil droplets dilute to low concentrations these low levels are adequate for microbial growth. Most of the hydrocarbons in dispersed oil are degraded in aerobic marine waters with a half-life of days to months. In contrast, oil that reaches shorelines is likely to be too concentrated, have lower levels of nutrients, and have a far longer residence time in the environment. Oil that becomes entrained in anaerobic sediments is also likely to have a long residence time, although it too will eventually be biodegraded. Thus, data that encompass everything from the ecosystem to the molecular level are needed for understanding the complicated process of petroleum biodegradation in marine environments.

  1. Marine Oil Biodegradation

    DOE PAGES

    Hazen, Terry C.; Prince, Roger; Mahmoudi, Nagissa

    2015-12-23

    Crude oil has been part of the marine environment for millions of years, and microbes that use its rich source of energy and carbon are found in seawater, sediments and shorelines from the tropics to the polar regions. Catastrophic oil spills stimulate these organisms to ‘bloom’ in a reproducible fashion, and although oil does not provide bioavailable nitrogen, phosphorus or iron, there are enough of these nutrients in the sea that when dispersed oil droplets dilute to low concentrations these low levels are adequate for microbial growth. Most of the hydrocarbons in dispersed oil are degraded in aerobic marine watersmore » with a half-life of days to months. In contrast, oil that reaches shorelines is likely to be too concentrated, have lower levels of nutrients, and have a far longer residence time in the environment. Oil that becomes entrained in anaerobic sediments is also likely to have a long residence time, although it too will eventually be biodegraded. Thus, data that encompass everything from the ecosystem to the molecular level are needed for understanding the complicated process of petroleum biodegradation in marine environments.« less

  2. Marine Oil Biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Hazen, Terry C; Prince, Roger C; Mahmoudi, Nagissa

    2016-03-01

    Crude oil has been part of the marine environment for millions of years, and microbes that use its rich source of energy and carbon are found in seawater, sediments, and shorelines from the tropics to the polar regions. Catastrophic oil spills stimulate these organisms to "bloom" in a reproducible fashion, and although oil does not provide bioavailable nitrogen, phosphorus or iron, there are enough of these nutrients in the sea that when dispersed oil droplets dilute to low concentrations these low levels are adequate for microbial growth. Most of the hydrocarbons in dispersed oil are degraded in aerobic marine waters with a half-life of days to months. In contrast, oil that reaches shorelines is likely to be too concentrated, have lower levels of nutrients, and have a far longer residence time in the environment. Oil that becomes entrained in anaerobic sediments is also likely to have a long residence time, although it too will eventually be biodegraded. Thus, data that encompass everything from the ecosystem to the molecular level are needed for understanding the complicated process of petroleum biodegradation in marine environments.

  3. Red blood cell decreases of microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    Postflight decreases in red blood cell mass (RBCM) have regularly been recorded after exposure to microgravity. These 5-25 percent decreases do not relate to the mission duration, workload, caloric intake or to the type of spacecraft used. The decrease is accompanied by normal red cell survivals, increased ferritin levels, normal radioactive iron studies, and increases in mean red blood cell volume. Comparable decreases in red blood cell mass are not found after bed rest, a commonly used simulation of the microgravity state. Inhibited bone marrow erythropoiesis has not been proven to date, although reticulocyte numbers in the peripheral circulation are decreased about 50 percent. To date, the cause of the microgravity induced decreases in RBCM is unknown. Increased splenic trapping of circulating red blood cells seem the most logical way to explain the results obtained.

  4. Inflight Assay of Red Blood Cell Deformability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingram, M.; Paglia, D. E.; Eckstein, E. C.; Frazer, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Studies on Soviet and American astronauts have demonstrated that red blood cell production is altered in response to low gravity (g) environment. This is associated with changes in individual red cells including increased mean cell volume and altered membrane deformability. During long orbital missions, there is a tendency for the red cell mass deficit to be at least partly corrected although the cell shape anomalies are not. Data currently available suggest that the observed decrease in red cell mass is the result of sudden suppression of erythropoieses and that the recovery trend observed during long missions reflects re-establishment of erythropoietic homeostasis at a "set point" for the red cell mass that is slightly below the normal level at 1 g.

  5. The Art of Red Tide Science.

    PubMed

    Hall, Emily R; Nierenberg, Kate; Boyes, Anamari J; Heil, Cynthia A; Flewelling, Leanne J; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2012-05-01

    Over the years, numerous outreach strategies by the science community, such as FAQ cards and website information, have been used to explain blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis that occur annually off the west coast of Florida to the impacted communities. Many state and federal agencies have turned to funded research groups for assistance in the development and testing of environmental outreach products. In the case of Florida red tide, the Fish and Wildlife Research Institute/Mote Marine Laboratory (MML) Cooperative Red Tide Agreement allowed MML to initiate a project aimed at developing innovative outreach products about Florida red tide. This project, which we coined "The Art of Red Tide Science," consisted of a team effort between scientists from MML and students from Ringling College of Art and Design. This successful outreach project focused on Florida red tide can be used as a model to develop similar outreach projects for equally complex ecological issues.

  6. [Characteristics of soil water movement using stable isotopes in red soil hilly region of northwest Hunan].

    PubMed

    Tian, Ri-Chang; Chen, Hong-Song; Song, Xian-Fang; Wang, Ke-Lin; Yang, Qing-Qing; Meng, Wei

    2009-09-15

    Stable isotope techniques provide a new approach to study soil water movement. The process of water movement in soils under two kinds of plant types (oil tea and corn) were studied based on the observed values of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of precipitation and soil water at different depths in red-soil sloping land. The results showed that stable isotopes of precipitation in this area had obvious seasonal effect and rainfall effect. The stable isotopes at 0-50 cm depth in oil tea forestland and at 0-40 cm depth in corn cropland increased with the increase in depth, respectively, but they had the opposite tendency after rainfall in arid time. The stable isotopes decreased with the increase in depth below 50 cm depth in oil tea forestland and below 40 cm depth in corn cropland where evaporation influence was weak. The infiltrate rate of soil in oil tea land was affected by precipitation obviously, and it was about 50-100 mm/d after 2-3 days in heavy rain, slowed sharply later, and soil water at 50 cm depth often became a barrier layer. The permeability of soil in corn land was poor and the infiltration rate was lower. The change of stable isotopes in soil water in red soil hilly region was mainly affected by the mixing water which was formed by the antecedent precipitation, and evaporation effect took the second place. The evaporation intensity in oil tea land was lower than that in corn land, but the evaporation depth was higher.

  7. Is red the colour of danger? Testing an implicit red-danger association.

    PubMed

    Pravossoudovitch, Karyn; Cury, Francois; Young, Steve G; Elliot, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Research using participant's self-reports has documented a link between red and danger. In this research, we used two different variants of a Stroop word evaluation task to test for the possibility of an implicit red-danger association using carefully controlled colour stimuli (equated on lightness and chroma). Experiment 1, using words as stimuli, yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger, and weaker evidence of a green-safety association. Experiment 2, using symbols as stimuli, again yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger; no green effects were observed. The findings were discussed in terms of the power and promise of red in signal communication.

  8. The Protective Role of Anise Oil in Oxidative Stress and Genotoxicity Produced in Favism.

    PubMed

    Koriem, Khaled M M; Arbid, Mahmoud S; El-Gendy, Nadia F

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic disease favism is an acute hemolytic anemia. Anise oil was obtained from Pimpinella anisum L. seeds (family Apiaceae). The objective of this study was to establish the protective effect of anise oil in favism disorders. Forty-eight male albino rats were divided into six groups: group 1 orally administrated 1 mL distilled water, group 2 orally received 300 mg/kg anise oil, and group 3 orally administrated 100 mg/kg anethole over a seven-day period, group 4 favism-induced rats, group 5 orally administrated 300 mg/kg anise oil and group 6 orally administrated 100 mg/kg anethole once a day over a seven-day period prior to favism induction. The result obtained revealed that oral administration of either anise oil or anethole into normal rats over a seven-day period did not induce any change. Following favism induction, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red and white blood cell counts, serum glucose, blood glutathione, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, total protein, globulin, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases levels were significantly decreased, while serum alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin showed significant increase. Pretreatment with either anise oil or anethole into favism-induced rats prevented these changes. Favism also induced deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and prior treatment of anise oil maintained liver DNA content. These results were supported by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, anise oil pretreatment into favism-induced rats decreased the favism disorders, and this effect was related to the anethole ingredient of the oil.

  9. Effects of garlic and ginger oils on hematological and biochemical variables of sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Sevdan; Ergün, Sebahattin

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of garlic and ginger oils on hematological and biochemical health characteristics of sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Fish were exposed to garlic oil (0.01 or 0.02 mL/L), ginger oil (0.01 or 0.02 mL/L), or a combination of the two oils (each oil at a concentration of 0.005 or 0.01 mL/L) for 96 h via bath immersion. Results showed that the red blood cell count, hematocrit (%), hemoglobin (Hb) concentration (g/dL), mean corpuscular volume (μm(3)), mean corpuscular Hb (pg), and mean corpuscular Hb concentration (%) were not significantly affected by herb oil exposure. However, some changes in biochemical variables were observed. Sea bass exposed to the 0.005-mL/L garlic oil-ginger oil mixture exhibited a significant increase in serum glucose. Serum total protein and albumin levels decreased in sea bass that were exposed to a garlic oil-ginger oil mixture (0.005 or 0.01 mL/L) or to garlic oil at 0.02 mL/L. Serum globulin levels decreased and triglyceride levels increased in sea bass exposed to 0.02-mL/L garlic oil or to the 0.01-mL/L mixture. The serum lipase level decreased and the cholesterol level increased in fish that were exposed to 0.02-mL/L garlic oil. In summary, ginger oil at 0.01-0.02 mL/L can be used without negative effects, while the garlic oil or garlic oil-ginger oil mixture should be applied at a concentration below 0.005 mL/L for bath immersion of sea bass. This is the first study to examine how garlic oil and ginger oil exposure via bath immersion affects the hematological and biochemical status of sea bass.

  10. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  11. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  12. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  13. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  14. Kuwait Oil Fires, Kuwait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Smoke from the burning oil fields to the north and south of Kuwait City, seen on the south shore of Kuwayt Bay almost totally obscures the view of the tiny, but oil rich, nation of Kuwait (29.0N, 48.0E). During the brief war between Iraq and the Allied forces, many of the oil wells in Kuwait were destroyed and set afire. For several months, those fires burned out of control, spewing wind borne smoke and ash for hundreds of miles.

  15. Kuwait Oil Fires, Kuwait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The number of oil well fires from the Kuwait Oil Fields (29.5N, 48.0E) set afire by the retreating Iraqi Army during the 1991 Persian Gulf War, has been measurably diminished since the last observation although the smoke plumes were still intact as far south as Qatar. Most of the remaining approximately 300 oil fires are in the two largest fields: Sibirayah, north of Kuwait Bay and the larger Magwas-Burgan-Al Ahmadi field south of Kuwait City.

  16. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Hoogenkamp, Michel A.; Krom, Bastiaan P.; Janus, Marleen M.; ten Cate, Jacob M.; de Soet, Johannes J.; Crielaard, Wim; van der Veen, Monique H.

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation) as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation). Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red) were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries. PMID:27997567

  17. Chemical modification of hygroscopic magnesium carbonate into superhydrophobic and oleophilic sorbent suitable for removal of oil spill in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patowary, Manoj; Ananthakrishnan, Rajakumar; Pathak, Khanindra

    2014-11-01

    The wettability of hygroscopic magnesium carbonate has been modified to develop a superhydrophobic and oleophilic sorbent for oil spill clean-ups via a simple chemical process using palmitic acid. The prepared material was characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Wettability test infers that the sorbent has a static water contact angle of 154 ± 1°, thereby indicating its superhydrophobic character. The sorbent was capable of scavenging oil for about three times its weight, as determined from oil sorption studies, carried out using the sorbent on model oil-water mixture. Interestingly, the chemically modified sorbent has high selectivity, buoyancy, and rate of uptake of oil. Further, the reusability studies confirm the repeatable usage of the sorbent and its efficacy in oil spill remediation.

  18. Fish oil supplementation in the treatment of major depression: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Grenyer, Brin F S; Crowe, Trevor; Meyer, Barbara; Owen, Alice J; Grigonis-Deane, Elizabeth M; Caputi, Peter; Howe, Peter R C

    2007-10-01

    Dietary deficiencies in essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from fish are associated with depression and some fish oils may have therapeutic benefits. We aimed to determine whether taking tuna fish oil confers any additional benefit to conventional outpatient treatment for major depression. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled four-month trial comparing tuna fish oil versus placebo was conducted on 83 outpatients with major depression. Despite large reductions in depression there were no significant differences at any assessment time point between patients receiving fish oil compared to placebo. Red blood cell incorporation of fatty acids indicated good compliance with oil supplementation, although this sample was not initially deficient in omega-3s. This particular dose and type of fish oil conferred no additional benefit to conventional treatment of depression in this sample. Future studies could target participants with pre-existing omega-3 deficiency and appraise alternate enriched types and higher doses of omega-3 supplementation.

  19. Relationship between volatile components of citrus fruit essential oils and antimicrobial action on Penicillium digitatum and penicillium italicum.

    PubMed

    Caccioni, D R; Guizzardi, M; Biondi, D M; Renda, A; Ruberto, G

    1998-08-18

    This study examined the effect of volatile components of citrus fruit essential oils on P. digitatum and P. italicum growth. The hydrodistilled essential oils of orange (Citrus sinensis cvv. "Washington navel", "Sanguinello", "Tarocco", "Moro", "Valencia late", and "Ovale"), bitter (sour) orange (C. aurantium), mandarin (C. deliciosa cv. "Avana"), grapefruit (C. paradisi cvv. "Marsh seedless" and "Red Blush"), citrange (C. sinensis x Poncirus trifoliata cvv. "Carrizo" and "Troyer"), and lemon (C. limon cv. "Femminello", collected in three periods), were characterized by a combination of GC and GC/MS analyses. The antifungal efficacy of the oils was then examined at progressively reduced rates. Findings showed a positive correlation between monoterpenes other than limonene and sesquiterpene content of the oils and the pathogen fungi inhibition. The best results were shown by the citrange oils, whose chemical composition is reported for the first time, and lemon. Furthermore P. digitatum was found to be more sensitive to the inhibitory action of the oils.

  20. La distribution radiale de L'UO 2 dans la phase vitreuse dans des crayons D'UO 2-SiO 2 obtenus par injection dans des moules de cuivre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goran, Maria

    1980-11-01

    Une méthode d'analyse rationnelle a été mise au point qui doit permettre de déterminer la quantité de phase cristalline UO 2 dans les masses vitrocéramiques et la variation de cette quantité en fonction de la distance á la surface de l'échantillon. Cette méthode a été utilisée pour déterminer la distribution radiale de l'UO 2 dans la phase vitreuse dans des aiguilles d'UO 2-SiO 2 obtenus par injection dans des moules de cuivre. La teneur en d'UO 2 dans la phase vitreuse présente une variation très importante dans une couche périphérique de l'échantillon de 60 μm d'épaisseur environ; la valeur moyenne dans cette couche dépasse d'un ordre de grandeur la valeur moyenne dans tout la section. Cette région correspond á une vitesse de refroidissement qui dépasse 10 6°C/s.

  1. Modeling and simulation of Red Teaming. Part 1, Why Red Team M&S?

    SciTech Connect

    Skroch, Michael J.

    2009-11-01

    Red teams that address complex systems have rarely taken advantage of Modeling and Simulation (M&S) in a way that reproduces most or all of a red-blue team exchange within a computer. Chess programs, starting with IBM's Deep Blue, outperform humans in that red-blue interaction, so why shouldn't we think computers can outperform traditional red teams now or in the future? This and future position papers will explore possible ways to use M&S to augment or replace traditional red teams in some situations, the features Red Team M&S should possess, how one might connect live and simulated red teams, and existing tools in this domain.

  2. Bacterial population and biodegradation potential in chronically crude oil-contaminated marine sediments are strongly linked to temperature.

    PubMed

    Bargiela, Rafael; Mapelli, Francesca; Rojo, David; Chouaia, Bessem; Tornés, Jesús; Borin, Sara; Richter, Michael; Del Pozo, Mercedes V; Cappello, Simone; Gertler, Christoph; Genovese, María; Denaro, Renata; Martínez-Martínez, Mónica; Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Amer, Ranya A; Bigazzi, David; Han, Xifang; Chen, Jianwei; Chernikova, Tatyana N; Golyshina, Olga V; Mahjoubi, Mouna; Jaouanil, Atef; Benzha, Fatima; Magagnini, Mirko; Hussein, Emad; Al-Horani, Fuad; Cherif, Ameur; Blaghen, Mohamed; Abdel-Fattah, Yasser R; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Barbas, Coral; Malkawi, Hanan I; Golyshin, Peter N; Yakimov, Michail M; Daffonchio, Daniele; Ferrer, Manuel

    2015-06-29

    Two of the largest crude oil-polluted areas in the world are the semi-enclosed Mediterranean and Red Seas, but the effect of chronic pollution remains incompletely understood on a large scale. We compared the influence of environmental and geographical constraints and anthropogenic forces (hydrocarbon input) on bacterial communities in eight geographically separated oil-polluted sites along the coastlines of the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The differences in community compositions and their biodegradation potential were primarily associated (P < 0.05) with both temperature and chemical diversity. Furthermore, we observed a link between temperature and chemical and biological diversity that was stronger in chronically polluted sites than in pristine ones where accidental oil spills occurred. We propose that low temperature increases bacterial richness while decreasing catabolic diversity and that chronic pollution promotes catabolic diversification. Our results further suggest that the bacterial populations in chronically polluted sites may respond more promptly in degrading petroleum after accidental oil spills.

  3. Transport de paires EPR dans des structures mesoscopiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, Emilie

    Dans cette these, nous nous sommes particulierement interesses a la propagation de paires EPR1 delocalisees et localisees, et a l'influence d'un supraconducteur sur le transport de ces paires. Apres une introduction de cette etude, ainsi que du cadre scientifique qu'est l'informatique quantique dans lequel elle s'inscrit, nous allons dans le chapitre 1 faire un rappel sur le systeme constitue de deux points quantiques normaux entoures de deux fils supraconducteurs. Cela nous permettra d'introduire une methode de calcul qui sera reutilisee par la suite, et de trouver egalement le courant Josephson produit par ce systeme transforme en SQUID-dc par l'ajout d'une jonction auxiliaire. Le SQUID permet de mesurer l'etat de spin (singulet ou triplet), et peut etre forme a partir d'autres systemes que nous etudierons ensuite. Dans le chapitre 2, nous rappellerons l'etude detaillee d'un intricateur d'Andreev faite par un groupe de Bale. La matrice T, permettant d'obtenir le courant dans les cas ou les electrons sont separes spatialement ou non, sera etudiee en detail afin d'en faire usage au chapitre suivant. Le chapitre 3 est consacre a l'etude de l'influence du bruit sur le fonctionnement de l'intricateur d'Andreev. Ce bruit modifie la forme du courant jusqu'a aboutir a d'autres conditions de fonctionnement de l'intricateur. En effet, le bruit present sur les points quantiques peut perturber le transport des paires EPR par l'intermediaire des degres de liberte. Nous montrerons que, du fait de l'"intrication" entre la charge de la paire et le bruit, la paire est detruite pour des temps longs. Cependant, le resultat le plus important sera que le bruit perturbe plus le transport des paires delocalisees, qui implique une resonance de Breit-Wigner a deux particules. Le transport parasite n'implique pour sa part qu'une resonance de Breit-Wigner a une particule. Dans le chapitre 4, nous reviendrons au systeme constitue de deux points quantiques entoures de deux fils

  4. Aroma constituents and alkylamides of red and green huajiao (Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Zanthoxylum schinifolium).

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaogen

    2008-03-12

    Huajiao denotes the fruits of various species of Zanthoxylum in the plant family Rutaceare used for cooking. The two most commercially popular species are bungeanum (red huajiao) and schinifolium (green huajiao). Fresh huajiao has a very high content of essential oil, up to 11%, which is described as having fresh, spicy, floral, cooling, and green aroma notes. A comprehensive analysis of the essential oils by GC-MS using advanced peak deconvolution and data processing software, revealed many overlapping components. A total of 120 aroma compounds for each species has been found. In the essential oils, linalyl acetate (15%), linalool (13%), and limonene (12%) are the major components of red huajiao, whereas linalool (29%), limonene (14%), and sabinene (13%) are the major components of green huajiao. For estimation of the aroma contribution of individual components, a new concept, "aroma character impact value" (ACI), is introduced as the percentage of the ratio of the concentration of an aroma component to its odor threshold value. Despite the differences in major components, both species have six common compounds of top aroma character impact: linalool, alpha-terpineol, myrcene, 1,8-cineole, limonene, and geraniol. The tingling sensation of huajiao is caused mainly by the alkylamide hydroxy-alpha-sanshool. The tingling compound decomposes easily under hydrolytic conditions or under UV light.

  5. Recycling red mud from the production of aluminium as a red cement-based mortar.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaojie; Zhao, Jianfeng; Li, Haoxin; Zhao, Piqi; Chen, Qin

    2017-01-01

    Current management for red mud is insufficient and a new method is needed. A series of experiments have been carried out to develop a new approach for effective management of red mud. Mortars without or with 3%, 6% and 9% red mud were prepared and their fresh and hardened properties were measured to access the possibility of recycling the red mud in the production of red cement-based mortar. The mechanisms corresponding to their mechanical performance variations were explored by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the fresh mortars with red mud present an increase of viscosity as compared with the control. However, little difference is found when the content of red mud is altered. It also can be seen that red mud increases flow time and reduces the slump flow of the mortar. Meanwhile, it is found that mortar with red mud is provided with higher air content. Red mud is eligible to adjust the decorative mortar colour. Compressive strength of mortar is improved when less than 6% red mud is added. However, overall it has a slightly negative effect on tensile bond strength. It decreases the Ca(OH)2 content and densifies the microstructure of hardened paste. The heavy metal concentrations in leachates of mortars with red mud are much lower than the values required in the standard, and it will not do harm to people's health and the environment. These results are important to recycle and effectively manage red mud via the production of red cement-based mortar.

  6. Processing sunflower oil for fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Backer, L.F.; Jacobsen, L.; Olson, C.

    1982-05-01

    Research on processing of sunflower seed for oil was initiated to evaluate the equipment that might adapt best to on-farm or small factory production facilities. The first devices identified for evaluation were auger press expeller units, primary oil cleaning equipment, and final filters. A series of standard finishing filtration tests were carried out on sunflower oil and sunflower oil - diesel fuel blends using sunflower oil from four different sources.

  7. Fuel properties of cottonseed oil

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Tueter, M.; Goellue, E.; Yanmaz, S.; Altintig, E.

    1999-11-01

    The use of vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has an exceptional importance in the field of research. In this study, evaluation possibilities of cottonseed oil have been investigated as an alternative candidate for diesel fuel and fuel oil. The fuel property tests were performed according to standard analysis methods for oil and fuel. An overall evaluation of the results indicates that cottonseed oil can be proposed as a possible green substitute for fuel.

  8. Influence of modified soils on the removal of diesel fuel oil from water and the growth of oil degradation micro-organism.

    PubMed

    Gao, B; Yang, L; Wang, X; Zhao, J; Sheng, G

    2000-08-01

    Three soils were modified with two kinds of cationic surfactants in order to increase their sorptive capabilities for organic contaminants. Sorption of diesel fuel oil in water by these modified soils had been investigated. Modified soils can effectively sorb diesel fuel oil from water. The sorption capability of modified soils is: HDTMA-black soil > HDTMA-yellow brown soil > HDTMA-red soil > TMA-black soil > TMA-yellow brown soil > TMA-red soil. Sorption of diesel fuel oil by natural soils and HDTMA modified soils is via partition, the sorption isotherms can be expressed by Henry equation, and logK(SOM) is 2.42-2.80, logK(HDTMA) is 3.37-3.60. Sorption isotherms of TMA modified soils can be expressed by Langmuir equation, the saturation sorption capacities are 1150 (TMA-black soil), 750 (TMA-yellow-brown soil), 171 mg/kg (TMA-red soil), respectively. A diesel fuel oil degradation micro-organism (Pseudomonas sp.) was isolated in the lab. To test the influence of the modified soils on the micro-organism, various growth curves of Pseudomonas in different conditions were drawn. Pseudomonas can grow very well with natural soils and TMA modified soils. The acclimation period of Pseudomonas is reduced. As to HDTMA modified soils, HDTMA loading amount is very important. When HDTMA loading amount is no higher than 0.5 CEC, the micro-organism can grow very well after a long acclimation period.

  9. Errors When Extracting Oil from Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, E.; Treat, R.; Ichiuji, T.

    2014-12-01

    Oil is in popular demand, but the worldwide amount of oil is decreasing and prices for it are steadily increasing. Leading scientists have been working to find a solution of attaining oil in an economically and environmentally friendly way. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have determined that "a small mixture of algae and water can be turned into crude oil in less than an hour" (Sheehan, Duhahay, Benemann, Poessler). There are various ways of growing the algae, such as closed loop and open loop methods, as well as processes of extracting oil, such as hydrothermal liquefaction and the hexane-solvent method. Our objective was to grow the algae (C. reinhardtii) and extract oil from it using NaOH and HCl, because we had easy access to those specific chemicals. After two trials of attempted algae growth, we discovered that a bacteria was killing off the algae. This led us to further contemplation on how this dead algae and bacteria are affecting our environment, and the organisms within it. Eutrophication occurs when excess nutrients stimulate rapid growth of algae in an aquatic environment. This can clog waterways and create algal blooms in blue-green algae, as well as neurotoxic red tide phytoplankton. These microscopic algae die upon consumption of the nutrients in water and are degraded by bacteria. The bacteria respires and creates an acidic environment with the spontaneous conversion of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid in water. This process of degradation is exactly what occurred in our 250 mL flask. When the phytoplankton attacked our algae, it created a hypoxic environment, which eliminated any remaining amounts of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients in the water, resulting in a miniature dead zone. These dead zones can occur almost anywhere where there are algae and bacteria, such as the ocean, and make it extremely difficult for any organism to survive. This experiment helped us realize the

  10. Elastohydrodynamic properties of heat-bodied oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat-bodied oils are biobased oils obtained via thermal treatment of vegetable oils under inert (N2) atmospheric conditions. Most heat-bodied oils are based on soybean oil, but other vegetable oils and blends of vegetable oils can also be utilized to obtain specific properties. Depending on the temp...

  11. Essential Oils, Part VI: Sandalwood Oil, Ylang-Ylang Oil, and Jasmine Absolute.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton C; Schmidt, Erich

    In this article, some aspects of sandalwood oil, ylang-ylang oil, and jasmine absolute are discussed including their botanical origin, uses of the plants and the oils and absolute, chemical composition, contact allergy to and allergic contact dermatitis from these essential oils and absolute, and their causative allergenic ingredients.

  12. Eugenol oil overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Below are symptoms of a eugenol oil overdose in different parts of the body. AIRWAYS AND LUNGS Shallow breathing Rapid breathing Coughing up blood BLADDER AND KIDNEYS Blood in the urine No urine output Pain when you urinate EYES, EARS, ...

  13. Peppermint oil overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 101. Murray MT. Mentha piperita (peppermint). In: Pizzorno JE, Murray MT, eds. ... B. Final report on the safety assessment of mentha piperita (peppermint) oil, mentha piperita (peppermint) leaf extract, ...

  14. UAVSAR_Gulf_Oil

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Gulfstream III research aircraft carrying the Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s sophisticated UAVSAR synthetic aperture radar under its belly surveyed the spread of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill du...

  15. Oil Spills Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA monitors impacts and mitigates the effects of spilled oil, which threatens public health and safety, contaminates drinking water, causes fire and explosion, diminishes air and water quality, harms ecosystems, and more.

  16. Synthetic Eelgrass Oil Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, T. G.

    2013-05-01

    Although surviving in situ micro-organisms eventually consume spilled oil, extensive inundation of shore biota by oil requires cleanup to enable ecological recovery within normal time scales. Although effective in calm seas and quiet waters, oil is advected over and under conventional curtain oil booms by wave actions and currents when seas are running. Most sorbent booms are not reusable, and are usually disposed of in landfills, creating excessive waste. A new concept is proposed for a floating oil barrier, to be positioned off vulnerable coasts, to interdict, contain, and sequester spilled oil, which can then be recovered and the barrier reused. While conventional oil boom designs rely principally on the immiscibility of oil in water and its relative buoyancy, the new concept barrier avoids the pitfalls of the former by taking advantage of the synergistic benefits of numerous fluid and material properties, including: density, buoyancy, elasticity, polarity, and surface area to volume ratio. Modeled after Zostera marina, commonly called eelgrass, the new barrier, referred to as synthetic eelgrass (SE), behaves analogously. Eelgrass has very long narrow, ribbon-like, leaves which support periphyton, a complex matrix of algae and heterotrophic microbes, which position themselves there to extract nutrients from the seawater flowing past them. In an analogous fashion, oil on, or in, seawater, which comes in contact with SE, is adsorbed on the surface and sequestered there. Secured to the bottom, in shoal waters, SE rises to the surface, and, if the tide is low enough, floats on the sea surface down wind, or down current to snare floating oil. The leaves of SE, called filaments, consist of intrinsically buoyant strips of ethylene methyl acrylate, aka EMA. EMA, made of long chain, saturated, hydrocarbon molecules with nearly homogeneous electron charge distributions, is a non-polar material which is oleophilic and hydrophobic. Oil must be in close proximity to the

  17. Fuel oil poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Substances called hydrocarbons are the harmful ingredients in fuel oil. ... Gummin DD. Hydrocarbons. In: Adams JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 152. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. ...

  18. World oil shale deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, C.O.; Russell, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    The article estimates resources in-place and their oil equivalent. The major deposits are described in the U.S., Australia, USSR, Peoples Republic of China, Morocco, Israel, Jordan, Syria, Europe and South America. 2 refs.

  19. Oil Discharge Reporting Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    If a facility or vessel discharges oil to navigable waters or adjoining shorelines, the owner/operator is required to follow certain federal reporting requirements. This fact sheet outlines those reporting requirements.

  20. Oil-shale program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, B. E.

    1981-10-01

    The principal activities of the Sandia National Laboratories in the Department of Energy Oil shale program during the period April 1 to June 30, 1981 are discussed. Currently, Sandia's activities are focused upon: the development and use of analytical and experimental modeling techniques to describe and predict the retort properties and retorting process parameters that are important to the preparation, operation, and stability of in situ retorts, and the development, deployment, and field use of instrumentation, data acquisition, and process monitoring systems to characterize and evaluate in site up shale oil recovery operations. In-house activities and field activities (at the Geokinetics Oil Shale Project and the Occidental Oil Shale Project) are described under the headings: bed preparation, bed characterization, retorting process, and structural stability.

  1. Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

  2. Red Wine and Resveratrol: Good for Your Heart?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Red wine and something in red wine called resveratrol might be heart healthy. Find out the facts, ... antioxidants, such as flavonoids or a substance called resveratrol, have heart-healthy benefits. Red wine seems to ...

  3. Reaching for the red planet

    PubMed

    David, L

    1996-05-01

    The distant shores of Mars were reached by numerous U.S. and Russian spacecraft throughout the 1960s to mid 1970s. Nearly 20 years have passed since those successful missions which orbited and landed on the Martian surface. Two Soviet probes headed for the planet in July, 1988, but later failed. In August 1993, the U.S. Mars Observer suddenly went silent just three days before it was to enter orbit around the planet and was never heard from again. In late 1996, there will be renewed activity on the launch pads with three probes departing for the red planet: 1) The U.S. Mars Global Surveyor will be launched in November on a Delta II rocket and will orbit the planet for global mapping purposes; 2) Russia's Mars '96 mission, scheduled to fly in November on a Proton launcher, consists of an orbiter, two small stations which will land on the Martian surface, and two penetrators that will plow into the terrain; and finally, 3) a U.S. Discovery-class spacecraft, the Mars Pathfinder, has a December launch date atop a Delta II booster. The mission features a lander and a microrover that will travel short distances over Martian territory. These missions usher in a new phase of Mars exploration, setting the stage for an unprecedented volley of spacecraft that will orbit around, land on, drive across, and perhaps fly at low altitudes over the planet.

  4. Synthetic biology as red herring.

    PubMed

    Preston, Beth

    2013-12-01

    It has become commonplace to say that with the advent of technologies like synthetic biology the line between artifacts and living organisms, policed by metaphysicians since antiquity, is beginning to blur. But that line began to blur 10,000 years ago when plants and animals were first domesticated; and has been thoroughly blurred at least since agriculture became the dominant human subsistence pattern many millennia ago. Synthetic biology is ultimately only a late and unexceptional offshoot of this prehistoric development. From this perspective, then, synthetic biology is a red herring, distracting us from more thorough philosophical consideration of the most truly revolutionary human practice-agriculture. In the first section of this paper I will make this case with regard to ontology, arguing that synthetic biology crosses no ontological lines that were not crossed already in the Neolithic. In the second section I will construct a parallel case with regard to cognition, arguing that synthetic biology as biological engineering represents no cognitive advance over what was required for domestication and the new agricultural subsistence pattern it grounds. In the final section I will make the case with regard to human existence, arguing that synthetic biology, even if wildly successful, is not in a position to cause significant existential change in what it is to be human over and above the massive existential change caused by the transition to agriculture. I conclude that a longer historical perspective casts new light on some important issues in philosophy of technology and environmental philosophy.

  5. Red Giant Plunging Through Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version

    This image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope (left panel) shows the 'bow shock' of a dying star named R Hydrae, or R Hya, in the constellation Hydra.

    Bow shocks are formed where the stellar wind from a star are pushed into a bow shape (illustration, right panel) as the star plunges through the gas and dust between stars. Our own Sun has a bow shock, but prior to this image one had never been observed around this particular class of red giant star.

    R Hya moves through space at approximately 50 kilometers per second. As it does so, it discharges dust and gas into space. Because the star is relatively cool, that ejecta quickly assumes a solid state and collides with the interstellar medium. The resulting dusty nebula is invisible to the naked eye but can be detected using an infrared telescope. This bow shock is 16,295 astronomical units from the star to the apex and 6,188 astronomical units thick (an astronomical unit is the distance between the sun and Earth). The mass of the bow shock is about 400 times the mass of the Earth.

    The false-color Spitzer image shows infrared emissions at 70 microns. Brighter colors represent greater intensities of infrared light at that wavelength. The location of the star itself is drawn onto the picture in the black 'unobserved' region in the center.

  6. Prospecting for oil.

    PubMed

    Shields, David S

    2010-01-01

    From the 1770s to the 1880s agriculturists and cooks sought to develop culinary oils from plants. Thomas Jefferson's attempts to introduce the olive into the agriculture of the United States, as a partial substitute for lard in cookery and as a cheap oleo for the consumption of slaves, met with limited success, even in the southeast, because periodic freezes and high humidity thwarted the development of groves. Southern slaves from West Africa supplied their own oil, derived from benne (Sesamum indicum). Benne oil was merely one feature of an elaborate African-American cuisine employing sesame that included benne soup, benne and greens, benne and hominy, benne candy, and benne wafers. Only the last item has survived as a feature of regional and ethnic cookery. In the first decades of the nineteenth century, planter experimentalists began the commercial scale production of benne oil, establishing it as the primary salad oil and the second favored frying medium in the southern United States. It enjoyed acceptance and moderate commercial success until the refinement of cottonseed oil in the 1870s and 1880s. Cotton seed, a waste product of the south's most vital industry, was turned into a revenue stream as David Wesson and other scientists created a salad oil and frying medium designedly tasteless and odorless, and a cooking fat, hydrogenated cottonseed oil (Cottonlene or Crisco) that could cheaply substitute for lard in baking. With the recent recovery of regional foodways, both the olive and sesame are being revived for use in the neo-southern cookery of the twenty-first century.

  7. Colombian export oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, K. ); Enright, B. )

    1989-06-01

    The authors discuss how bringing crude oil to market often requires extraordinary determination and effort to overcome the obstacles of terrain and time. They describe a pipeline project on a 53-week suicide schedule to get oil across the Colombian Andes. After confronting setbacks, they completed a job that included 304 miles of pipeline, 497 miles of telecommunications and a major offshore terminal in only 47 weeks.

  8. Redox alters yellow dragonflies into red.

    PubMed

    Futahashi, Ryo; Kurita, Ryoji; Mano, Hiroaki; Fukatsu, Takema

    2012-07-31

    Body color change associated with sexual maturation--so-called nuptial coloration--is commonly found in diverse vertebrates and invertebrates, and plays important roles for their reproductive success. In some dragonflies, whereas females and young males are yellowish in color, aged males turn vivid red upon sexual maturation. The male-specific coloration plays pivotal roles in, for example, mating and territoriality, but molecular basis of the sex-related transition in body coloration of the dragonflies has been poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that yellow/red color changes in the dragonflies are regulated by redox states of epidermal ommochrome pigments. Ratios of reduced-form pigments to oxidized-form pigments were significantly higher in red mature males than yellow females and immature males. The ommochrome pigments extracted from the dragonflies changed color according to redox conditions in vitro: from red to yellow in the presence of oxidant and from yellow to red in the presence of reductant. By injecting the reductant solution into live insects, the yellow-to-red color change was experimentally reproduced in vivo in immature males and mature females. Discontinuous yellow/red mosaicism was observed in body coloration of gynandromorphic dragonflies, suggesting a cell-autonomous regulation over the redox states of the ommochrome pigments. Our finding extends the mechanical repertoire of pigment-based body color change in animals, and highlights an impressively simple molecular mechanism that regulates an ecologically important color trait.

  9. Redox alters yellow dragonflies into red

    PubMed Central

    Futahashi, Ryo; Kurita, Ryoji; Mano, Hiroaki; Fukatsu, Takema

    2012-01-01

    Body color change associated with sexual maturation—so-called nuptial coloration—is commonly found in diverse vertebrates and invertebrates, and plays important roles for their reproductive success. In some dragonflies, whereas females and young males are yellowish in color, aged males turn vivid red upon sexual maturation. The male-specific coloration plays pivotal roles in, for example, mating and territoriality, but molecular basis of the sex-related transition in body coloration of the dragonflies has been poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that yellow/red color changes in the dragonflies are regulated by redox states of epidermal ommochrome pigments. Ratios of reduced-form pigments to oxidized-form pigments were significantly higher in red mature males than yellow females and immature males. The ommochrome pigments extracted from the dragonflies changed color according to redox conditions in vitro: from red to yellow in the presence of oxidant and from yellow to red in the presence of reductant. By injecting the reductant solution into live insects, the yellow-to-red color change was experimentally reproduced in vivo in immature males and mature females. Discontinuous yellow/red mosaicism was observed in body coloration of gynandromorphic dragonflies, suggesting a cell-autonomous regulation over the redox states of the ommochrome pigments. Our finding extends the mechanical repertoire of pigment-based body color change in animals, and highlights an impressively simple molecular mechanism that regulates an ecologically important color trait. PMID:22778425

  10. Uptake of carnitine by red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Campa, M.; Borum, P.

    1986-05-01

    A significant amount of blood carnitine (70% of cord blood and 40% of blood from healthy adults) is partitioned into the red blood cell compartment of whole blood. Data indicate that the plasma compartment and the red blood cell compartment of whole blood represent different metabolic pools of carnitine. There are no data to indicate that red blood cells synthesize carnitine, but our understanding of the uptake of carnitine by red blood cells is negligible. Red blood cells were obtained from healthy adults, washed twice with normal saline, and used for uptake experiments. When the cells were incubated at 37/sup 0/C in the presence of /sup 14/C-carnitine, radioactivity was found both in the soluble cytosolic and membrane fractions of the cells following lysis. The uptake was dependent upon the time of incubation, temperature of incubation, and carnitine concentration in the incubation medium. Washed red blood cell membranes incubated with /sup 14/C-carnitine showed specific binding of radioactivity. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that red blood cells have an uptake mechanism for L-carnitine.

  11. Red supergiants as type II supernova progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, Ignacio; Dorda, Ricardo; González-Fernández, Carlos; Marco, Amparo

    2015-08-01

    Recent searches for supernova IIp progenitors in external galaxies have led to the identification of red objects with magnitudes and colours indicative of red supergiants, in most cases implying quite low luminosities and hence masses well below 10Msol. Stellar models, on the other hand, do not predict explosions from objects below 9 Msol. What does our knowledge of local red supergiants tells us about the expected properties of such objects?We have carried out a comprehensive spectroscopic and photometric study of a sample of hundreds of red supergiants in the Milky Way and both Magellanic Clouds. We have explored correlations between different parameters and the position of stars in the HR diagrams of open clusters. At solar metallicty, there is strong evidence for a phase of very heavy mass loss at the end of the red supergiant phase, but the existence of such a phase is still not confirmed at SMC metallicities. Objects of ~ 7Msol, on the other hand, become very dusty in the SMC, and appear as very luminous Miras.Among Milky Way clusters, we find a surprising lack of objects readily identifiable as the expected 7 to 10 Msol red supergiants or AGB stars. We are carrying out an open cluster survey aimed at filling this region of the HR diagram with reliable data. Finally, we will discuss the implications of all this findings for the expected properties of supernova progenitors, as it looks unlikely that typical red supergiants may explode without undergoing further evolution.

  12. Shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Zachary; Zengel, Scott; Baker, Mary; Steinhoff, Marla; Fricano, Gail; Rouhani, Shahrokh; Michel, Jacqueline

    2016-06-15

    We build on previous work to construct a comprehensive database of shoreline oiling exposure from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill by compiling field and remotely-sensed datasets to support oil exposure and injury quantification. We compiled a spatial database of shoreline segments with attributes summarizing habitat, oiling category and timeline. We present new simplified oil exposure classes for both beaches and coastal wetland habitats derived from this database integrating both intensity and persistence of oiling on the shoreline over time. We document oiling along 2113km out of 9545km of surveyed shoreline, an increase of 19% from previously published estimates and representing the largest marine oil spill in history by length of shoreline oiled. These data may be used to generate maps and calculate summary statistics to assist in quantifying and understanding the scope, extent, and spatial distribution of shoreline oil exposure as a result of the DWH incident.

  13. Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, C.D.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an oil/gas collector/separator for recovery of oil leaking, for example, from an offshore or underwater oil well. The separator is floated over the point of the leak and tethered in place so as to receive oil/gas floating, or forced under pressure, toward the water surface from either a broken or leaking oil well casing, line, or sunken ship. The separator is provided with a downwardly extending skirt to contain the oil/gas which floats or is forced upward into a dome wherein the gas is separated from the oil/water, with the gas being flared (burned) at the top of the dome, and the oil is separated from water and pumped to a point of use. Since the density of oil is less than that of water it can be easily separated from any water entering the dome.

  14. Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    DOEpatents

    Henning, Carl D.

    1993-01-01

    An oil/gas collector/separator for recovery of oil leaking, for example, from an offshore or underwater oil well. The separator is floated over the point of the leak and tethered in place so as to receive oil/gas floating, or forced under pressure, toward the water surface from either a broken or leaking oil well casing, line, or sunken ship. The separator is provided with a downwardly extending skirt to contain the oil/gas which floats or is forced upward into a dome wherein the gas is separated from the oil/water, with the gas being flared (burned) at the top of the dome, and the oil is separated from water and pumped to a point of use. Since the density of oil is less than that of water it can be easily separated from any water entering the dome.

  15. Process for preparing lubricating oil from used waste lubricating oil

    DOEpatents

    Whisman, Marvin L.; Reynolds, James W.; Goetzinger, John W.; Cotton, Faye O.

    1978-01-01

    A re-refining process is described by which high-quality finished lubricating oils are prepared from used waste lubricating and crankcase oils. The used oils are stripped of water and low-boiling contaminants by vacuum distillation and then dissolved in a solvent of 1-butanol, 2-propanol and methylethyl ketone, which precipitates a sludge containing most of the solid and liquid contaminants, unspent additives, and oxidation products present in the used oil. After separating the purified oil-solvent mixture from the sludge and recovering the solvent for recycling, the purified oil is preferably fractional vacuum-distilled, forming lubricating oil distillate fractions which are then decolorized and deodorized to prepare blending stocks. The blending stocks are blended to obtain a lubricating oil base of appropriate viscosity before being mixed with an appropriate additive package to form the finished lubricating oil product.

  16. Oil Saving Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Driven under difficult field conditions, the Army Jeep shown went more than 22,000 miles without an oil change in a test conducted by the U.S. Army Mobility Equipment Research and Development Command. Key to this exceptionally long oil life was a set of piston ring seals made of a new synthetic rubber formula called RC-34; the seal pictured, photographed after its arduous Army trial, shows no signs of deterioration. The seal and the RC-34 material, which may soon be available for use in the family auto, were developed by Ramsey Corporation, St. Louis, Missouri, a division of TRW Automotive Worldwide. The oil in an automobile engine must be I replaced every few thousand miles not because it wears out but because it becomes contaminated. The contamination sources are gasoline and combustion gases which blow by the piston rings to mix with the oil, reducing the oil's ability to lubricate properly. Seeking to prolong oil life by eliminating "blowby," Ramsey Corporation looked for a better way to seal piston rings and used NASA technology as a departure point. The parent company TRW, under contract to NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, had developed seals and bladders from a type of material called elastomers which where designed to withstand the environmental extremes of interplanetary flight. That effort formed a knowledge base for research which culminated in Ramsey's RC-34 elastomer.

  17. Anti-aromatase chemicals in red wine.

    PubMed

    Eng, E T; Williams, D; Mandava, U; Kirma, N; Tekmal, R R; Chen, S

    2002-06-01

    Estrogen synthesized in situ plays a more important role in breast cancer cell proliferation than does circulating estrogen. Aromatase is the enzyme that converts androgen to estrogen and is expressed at a higher level in breast cancer tissue than in surrounding noncancer tissue. A promising route of chemoprevention against breast cancer may be through the suppression of in situ estrogen formation using aromatase inhibitors. A diet high in fruits and vegetables may reduce the incidence of breast cancer, because they contain phytochemicals that can act as aromatase inhibitors. In our previous studies, we found that grapes and wine contain potent phytochemicals that can inhibit aromatase. We show that red wine was more effective than white wine in suppressing aromatase activity. Interestingly, our results from white wine studies suggest a weak inductive effect of alcohol on aromatase activity. On the other hand, the potent effect of anti-aromatase chemicals in red wine overcomes the weak inductive effect of alcohol in wine. Several purification procedures were performed on whole red wine to separate active aromatase inhibitors from non-active compounds. These techniques included liquid-liquid extraction, silica gel chromatography, various solid phase extraction (SPE) columns, and high performance liquid chromatography. An active Pinot Noir red wine SPE C18 column fraction (20% acetonitrile:water) was more effective than complete Pinot Noir wine in suppressing aromatase assay. This red wine extract was further analyzed in a transgenic mouse model in which aromatase was over-expressed in mammary tissue. Our gavaged red wine extract completely abrogated aromatase-induced hyperplasia and other neoplastic changes in mammary tissue. These results suggest that red wine or red wine extract may be a chemopreventive diet supplement for postmenopausal women who have a high risk of breast cancer. Further research is underway to purify and characterize the active compounds in red

  18. Florida Red Tide Perception: Residents versus Tourists

    PubMed Central

    Nierenberg, Kate; Byrne, Margaret; Fleming, Lora E.; Stephan, Wendy; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C.; Tanga, Elvira; Dalpra, Dana R.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The west coast of Florida has annual blooms of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis with Sarasota, FL considered the epicenter for these blooms. Numerous outreach materials, including Frequently Asked Question (FAQ) cards, exhibits for local museums and aquaria, public beach signs, and numerous websites have been developed to disseminate information to the public about this natural hazard. In addition, during intense onshore blooms, a great deal of media attention, primarily via newspaper (print and web) and television, is focused on red tide. However to date, the only measure of effectiveness of these outreach methods has been counts of the number of people exposed to the information, e.g., visits to a website or number of FAQ cards distributed. No formal assessment has been conducted to determine if these materials meet their goal of informing the public about Florida red tide. Also, although local residents have the opinion that they are very knowledgeable about Florida red tide, this has not been verified empirically. This study addressed these issues by creating and administering an evaluation tool for the assessment of public knowledge about Florida red tide. A focus group of Florida red tide outreach developers assisted in the creation of the evaluation tool. The location of the evaluation was the west coast of Florida, in Sarasota County. The objective was to assess the knowledge of the general public about Florida red tide. This assessment identified gaps in public knowledge regarding Florida red tides and also identified what information sources people want to use to obtain information on Florida red tide. The results from this study can be used to develop more effective outreach materials on Florida red tide. PMID:20824108

  19. Florida Red Tide Perception: Residents versus Tourists.

    PubMed

    Nierenberg, Kate; Byrne, Margaret; Fleming, Lora E; Stephan, Wendy; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C; Tanga, Elvira; Dalpra, Dana R; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2010-09-01

    The west coast of Florida has annual blooms of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis with Sarasota, FL considered the epicenter for these blooms. Numerous outreach materials, including Frequently Asked Question (FAQ) cards, exhibits for local museums and aquaria, public beach signs, and numerous websites have been developed to disseminate information to the public about this natural hazard. In addition, during intense onshore blooms, a great deal of media attention, primarily via newspaper (print and web) and television, is focused on red tide. However to date, the only measure of effectiveness of these outreach methods has been counts of the number of people exposed to the information, e.g., visits to a website or number of FAQ cards distributed. No formal assessment has been conducted to determine if these materials meet their goal of informing the public about Florida red tide. Also, although local residents have the opinion that they are very knowledgeable about Florida red tide, this has not been verified empirically. This study addressed these issues by creating and administering an evaluation tool for the assessment of public knowledge about Florida red tide. A focus group of Florida red tide outreach developers assisted in the creation of the evaluation tool. The location of the evaluation was the west coast of Florida, in Sarasota County. The objective was to assess the knowledge of the general public about Florida red tide. This assessment identified gaps in public knowledge regarding Florida red tides and also identified what information sources people want to use to obtain information on Florida red tide. The results from this study can be used to develop more effective outreach materials on Florida red tide.

  20. The second-order gravitational red shift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, J.

    1973-01-01

    The direct measurement of the nonlinear term of the gravitational field equations by using very stable clocks is discussed along with measuring the perhelion advance of a planet or satellite. These are considered measurements of the second-order gravitational red shift. The exact expression for the frequency shift of light in a gravitational field is derived. Other topics discussed include: The Doppler-cancelling technique; the second-order red shift in a spherically symmetric gravitational field; finite signal transit time; and the reality and interpretation of coordinates in the second-order red shift experiment.

  1. Phytochromes are the sole photoreceptors for perceiving red/far-red light in rice

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Makoto; Inagaki, Noritoshi; Xie, Xianzhi; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Baba-Kasai, Akiko; Tanabata, Takanari; Shinomura, Tomoko

    2009-01-01

    Phytochromes are believed to be solely responsible for red and far-red light perception, but this has never been definitively tested. To directly address this hypothesis, a phytochrome triple mutant (phyAphyBphyC) was generated in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Nipponbare) and its responses to red and far-red light were monitored. Since rice only has three phytochrome genes (PHYA, PHYB and PHYC), this mutant is completely lacking any phytochrome. Rice seedlings grown in the dark develop long coleoptiles while undergoing regular circumnutation. The phytochrome triple mutants also show this characteristic skotomorphogenesis, even under continuous red or far-red light. The morphology of the triple mutant seedlings grown under red or far-red light appears completely the same as etiolated seedlings, and they show no expression of the light-induced genes. This is direct evidence demonstrating that phytochromes are the sole photoreceptors for perceiving red and far-red light, at least during rice seedling establishment. Furthermore, the shape of the triple mutant plants was dramatically altered. Most remarkably, triple mutants extend their internodes even during the vegetative growth stage, which is a time during which wild-type rice plants never elongate their internodes. The triple mutants also flowered very early under long day conditions and set very few seeds due to incomplete male sterility. These data indicate that phytochromes play an important role in maximizing photosynthetic abilities during the vegetative growth stage in rice. PMID:19706555

  2. Satellite and airborne oil spill remote sensing: State of the art and application to the BP DeepWater Horizon oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leifer, I.; Clark, R.; Jones, C.; Holt, B.; Svejkovsky, J.; Swayze, G.

    2011-01-01

    The vast, persistent, and unconstrained oil release from the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) challenged the spill response, which required accurate quantitative oil assessment at synoptic and operational scales. Experienced observers are the mainstay of oil spill response. Key limitations are weather, scene illumination geometry, and few trained observers, leading to potential observer bias. Aiding the response was extensive passive and active satellite and airborne remote sensing, including intelligent system augmentation, reviewed herein. Oil slick appearance strongly depends on many factors like emulsion composition and scene geometry, yielding false positives and great thickness uncertainty. Oil thicknesses and the oil to water ratios for thick slicks were derived quantitatively with a new spectral library approach based on the shape and depth of spectral features related to C-H vibration bands. The approach used near infrared, imaging spectroscopy data from the AVIRIS (Airborne Visual/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer) instrument on the NASA ER-2 stratospheric airplane. Extrapolation to the total slick used MODIS satellite visual-spectrum broadband data, which observes sunglint reflection from surface slicks; i.e., indicates the presence of oil and/or surfactant slicks. Oil slick emissivity is less than seawater's allowing MODIS thermal infrared (TIR) nighttime identification; however, water temperature variations can cause false positives. Some strong emissivity features near 6.7 and 9.7 ??m could be analyzed as for the AVIRIS short wave infrared features, but require high spectral resolution data. TIR spectral trends can allow fresh/weathered oil discrimination. Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SSAR) provided synoptic data under all-sky conditions by observing oil dampening of capillary waves; however, SSAR typically cannot discriminate thick from thin oil slicks. Airborne UAVSAR's significantly greater signal-to-noise ratio and fine spatial resolution allowed

  3. Analysis of components and study on antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of oil in apple seeds.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hong-Lei; Zhan, Ping; Li, Kai-Xiong

    2010-06-01

    In order to improve the comprehensive utilization of major by-products in apple-juice processing, the components, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of oil in two species apple seeds, Fuji and New Red Star, were investigated. The Soxhlet extracted oil content of apple seeds raged from 20.69 to 24.32 g/100 g. The protein, fiber and ash contents were found to be 38.85-49.55 g/100 g, 3.92-4.32 g/100 g and 4.31-5.20 g/100 g, respectively; the extracted oils exhibited an iodine value of 94.14-101.15 g I/100 g oil; refractive index (40 degrees C) was 1.465-1.466; density (25 degrees C) was 0.902-0.903 mg/ml; saponification value was 179.01-197.25 mg KOH/g oil; and the acid value was 4.036-4.323 mg KOH/g oil. The apple seed oils mainly consisted of linoleic acid (50.7-51.4 g/100 g) and oleic acid (37.49-38.55 g/100 g). Other prominent fatty acids were palmitic acid (6.51-6.60 g/100 g), stearic acid (1.75-1.96 g/100 g) and arachidic acid (1.49-1.54 g/100 g). Apple seed oil was proven to possess interesting properties, emerging from its chemical composition and from the evaluation of its in vitro biological activities. The apple seed oil was almost completely active against bacteria, mildews were less sensitive to apple seed oil than yeasts, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of apple seed oil ranged from 0.3 to 0.6 mg/ml. The observed biological activities showed that the oil had a good potential for use in the food industry and pharmacy.

  4. Red Lake and Clearwater Rivers, Red Lake County, Minnesota. Reconnaissance Report for Red Lake and Clearwater Rivers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    the -stbbasin. These are the result of efforts by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (e.g., Agassiz Lake Project and Goose Lake Project), U.S. Soil...by glacial Lake Agassiz . Upper and Lower Red Lakes are remnants of this glacial lake. The topography of the subbasin ranges from 800 feet above mean...glacial Lake Agassiz and together comprise thelargest lake area wholly contained in Minnesota. The watershed drained by the Red Lake River lies within

  5. "Shawthan Dan," "Shawthan Kwanje": Good People, Good Words--Creating a "dan k'e" Speech Community in an Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Jenanne

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates how the processes of language transmission among speakers of Southern Tutchone ("dan k'e"), an indigenous Athapaskan language of the southern Yukon Territory, Canada, bear out an emerging theoretical interest in how bottom-up communicative practices shape language policy. An examination of "dan k'e"…

  6. Egypt's Red Sea coast: phylogenetic analysis of cultured microbial consortia in industrialized sites

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Ghada A.; Abd-Elgawad, Amr; Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M.; Siam, Rania

    2014-01-01

    The Red Sea possesses a unique geography, and its shores are rich in mangrove, macro-algal and coral reef ecosystems. Various sources of pollution affect Red Sea biota, including microbial life. We assessed the effects of industrialization on microbes along the Egyptian Red Sea coast at eight coastal sites and two lakes. The bacterial communities of sediment samples were analyzed using bacterial 16S rDNA pyrosequencing of V6-V4 hypervariable regions. The taxonomic assignment of 131,402 significant reads to major bacterial taxa revealed five main bacterial phyla dominating the sampled sites: Proteobacteria (68%), Firmicutes (13%), Fusobacteria (12%), Bacteriodetes (6%), and Spirochetes (0.03%). Further analysis revealed distinct bacterial consortia that primarily included (1) marine Vibrio spp.—suggesting a “marine Vibrio phenomenon”; (2) potential human pathogens; and (3) oil-degrading bacteria. We discuss two divergent microbial consortia that were sampled from Solar Lake West near Taba/Eilat and Saline Lake in Ras Muhammad; these consortia contained the highest abundance of human pathogens and no pathogens, respectively. Our results draw attention to the effects of industrialization on the Red Sea and suggest the need for further analysis to overcome the hazardous effects observed at the impacted sites. PMID:25157243

  7. Predominant bacteria associated with red snapper from the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Arias, Covadonga R; Koenders, Kevin; Larsen, Andrea M

    2013-12-01

    Since the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, anecdotal observations of Red Snapper Lutjanus campechanus from the northern Gulf of Mexico exhibiting unusual external lesions have been reported. Two opportunistic bacterial fish pathogens, Vibrio vulnificus and Photobacterium damselae, were recovered from the fish and were deemed responsible for the abnormalities. However, the culturable microbiota of healthy Red Snapper has not yet been characterized. We analyzed the heterotrophic bacteria associated with healthy Red Snapper caught off the Louisiana coast. In total, 179 isolates from 60 fish were recovered from skin and mucus, and 43 isolates were obtained from anterior kidney. All isolates were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. The Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum in both external and internal samples, followed by the Firmicutes and the Actinobacteria. Within the Proteobacteria, most isolates were members of the genera Vibrio and Photobacterium, and V. natriegens and P. damselae were the predominant species. The results of this study suggest that both Vibrio spp. and Photobacterium spp. are associated with the normal microbiota of healthy Red Snapper. Thus, the opportunistic fish pathogens recovered in previous studies cannot be deemed lesion-forming until Koch's postulates are fulfilled.

  8. Predicting a Luminous Red Nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Noord, Daniel; Molnar, Larry; Kinemuchi, Karen; Steenwyk, Steven; Alexander, Cara; Spedden, Chris; Kobulnicky, Henry

    2016-05-01

    Luminous Red Novae (LRN) are rare transient events believed to be caused by the merger of a main sequence contact binary. Since the discovery of the prototype, V838 Mon, only a handful of LRN events have been observed. Tylenda et al. (2011) analyzed the OGLE data preceding the 2008 Novae of V1309 Sco and found that it exhibited a similar light curve to that of a contact binary with one interesting exception, the orbital period of V1309 Sco showed exponential period change going to zero. Unfortunately the system was discovered to be a binary after the merger, preventing any targeted observations to narrow down how the system entered this unusual state. However the extreme period change observed in V1309 Sco gives us a signature to look for in other contact binaries, allowing the discovery of merger candidates for follow up. We will present an analysis of light curves and spectra of KIC 9832227 (NSVS 5597755) that show it is a contact binary system with a negative period derivative that is becoming more extreme with time. These data span more than 15 years and are taken from the NSVS, ASAS, WASP, and Kepler surveys, with ongoing measurements from the Calvin College Observatory and the Apache Point Observatory. The ongoing period change observed in the system is consistent with the exponential model fit from V1309 Sco and the rate of period change has surpassed that of all other measured contact binaries with the exception of V1309 Sco. If the exponential period decay continues the system will likely merge between 2019 and 2022 resulting in a naked eye nova. If this event occurs, this star will present the unprecedented opportunity to study a LRN progenitor and to follow the evolution of the merger.

  9. Oils and cancer.

    PubMed

    Tolbert, P E

    1997-05-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between mineral oil exposure and cancer is reviewed. The review is restricted to occupations involving substantial dermal and inhalational exposure and for which an epidemiologic literature exists: metal machining, print press operating, and cotton and jute spinning. Mineral oils are complex mixtures of aliphatic hydrocarbons, naphthenics, and aromatics, the relative distribution of which depends on the source of the oil and the method of refinement. End-use products contain a variety of additives, and contamination by other agents generally occurs during use. Suspect agents include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (particularly benz[a]pyrene), nitrosamines, chlorinated paraffins, long-chain aliphatics, sulfur, N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine, and formaldehyde. The heterogeneity of this exposure makes epidemiologic study difficult and meta-analysis inappropriate. Nonetheless, several associations emerge from the literature with varying degrees of support. There is clear evidence that early formulations of mineral oils used in cotton and jute spinning and in metal machining were carcinogenic to the skin. Associations of mineral oil exposure with laryngeal and rectal cancer have received some support in the literature, particularly with respect to straight oils. Evidence is suggestive that grinding operations (which can entail either mineral oil-based or ethanolamine-based fluids) are associated with excess risk of cancer of the esophagus, stomach, and pancreas. A number of bladder cancer case-control studies have noted an association with work as a machinist. There is limited evidence of an association with cancer of the colon, prostate, and sinonasal region. Several studies of printers have yielded positive findings for lung cancer, whereas studies in metal machinists have been generally negative. The PAH and nitrosamine content of current formulations is lower than in the past and the implications of these changes in

  10. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... such as those caused by floods, tornados, hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, explosions, etc., and not to... and community planning for disasters. (5) When appropriate, the Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  11. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... such as those caused by floods, tornados, hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, explosions, etc., and not to... and community planning for disasters. (5) When appropriate, the Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  12. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... such as those caused by floods, tornados, hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, explosions, etc., and not to... and community planning for disasters. (5) When appropriate, the Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  13. Variable Red Giants--The MACHO View

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, S C; Cook, K H

    2003-01-03

    The authors present a study of the MACHO red variable population in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This study reveals six period-luminosity relations among the red variable population. Only two of these were known prior to MACHO. The results are consistent with Mira pulsation in the fundamental mode. A sequence comprising 26% of the red variable population can not be explained by pulsation. They propose a dust {kappa}-mechanism in the circumstellar environment is responsible for the long period variation of these objects. The luminosity function of the variables shows a sharp edge at the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). This is the first clear indication of a population of variable stars within the immediate vicinity of the TRGB. The results indicate this population amounts to 8% of the RGB population near the TRGB.

  14. Doppler interpretation of quasar red shifts.

    PubMed

    Zapolsky, H S

    1966-08-05

    The hypothesis that the quasistellar sources (quasars) are local objects moving with velocities close to the speed of light is examined. Provided there is no observational cutoff on apparent bolometric magnitude for the quasars, the transverse Doppler effect leads to the expectation of fewer blue shifts than red shifts for an isotropic distribution of velocities. Such a distribution also yields a function N(z), the number of objects with red shift less than z which is not inconsistent with the present data. On the basis of two extreme assumptions concerning the origin of such rapidly moving sources, we computed curves of red shift plotted against magnitude. In particular, the curve obtained on the assumption that the quasars originated from an explosion in or nearby our own galaxy is in as good agreement with the observations as the curve of cosmological red shift plotted against magnitude.

  15. Red wine polyphenols for cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2008-05-01

    Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin.

  16. Human spleen and red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivkin, Igor; Peng, Zhangli; Karniadakis, George; Buffet, Pierre; Dao, Ming

    2016-11-01

    Spleen plays multiple roles in the human body. Among them is removal of old and altered red blood cells (RBCs), which is done by filtering cells through the endothelial slits, small micron-sized openings. There is currently no experimental technique available that allows us to observe RBC passage through the slits. It was previously noticed that people without a spleen have less deformable red blood cells, indicating that the spleen may play a role in defining the size and shape of red blood cells. We used detailed RBC model implemented within the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) simulation framework to study the filter function of the spleen. Our results demonstrate that spleen indeed plays major role in defining the size and shape of the healthy human red blood cells.

  17. Red Shifts with Obliquely Approaching Light Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, C. E.; Moore-Head, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    Refutes the Doppler effect as the explanation of large red shifts in the spectra of distant galaxies and explains the relativistic effects in which the light sources approach the observer obliquely. Provides several diagrams and graphs. (YP)

  18. The Red School House: An Alternative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Founded in 1971 in St. Paul, Minnesota, the Red School House offers a model curriculum which blends academics and American Indian culture assembled by the students, staff, parents, and the director, Eddie Benton Banai. (JC)

  19. California Red-legged Frog - Stipulated Injunction

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA will make effects determinations and initiate consultation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, regarding the potential effects of 66 pesticide active ingredient registrations on the California red-legged frog.

  20. Host compounds for red phosphorescent OLEDs

    DOEpatents

    Xia, Chuanjun; Cheon, Kwang -Ohk

    2015-08-25

    Novel compounds containing a triphenylene moiety linked to an .alpha..beta. connected binaphthyl ring system are provided. These compounds have surprisingly good solubility in organic solvents and are useful as host compounds in red phosphorescent OLEDs.

  1. [Red yeast rice: An unsafe food supplement?

    PubMed

    Steffen, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Red yeast rice is the fermentation product of the mould Monascus ruber and is traditionally used in East Asia to dye and conserve food. Its main pharmacologically active compound, monakolin K, was isolated from red yeast rice and is used as an inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis under the INN lovastatin. Lovastatin and several other statins are marketed as drugs whereas red yeast rice is offered as a food supplement. As statins can cause severe side effects, such as muscle damage and kidney failure, the dosing and information about interactions with drugs and food is essential for the use of these products. Furthermore, red yeast rice can contain the mycotoxin citrinin and several other substances that are not yet toxicologically evaluated.

  2. Day Pass Down the Red Sea

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video over the southeastern Mediterranean Sea and down the coastline of the Red Sea was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was ta...

  3. Movie Trailer: 'Road to the Red Planet'

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA and the European Space Agency have announced three new joint science missions to Mars, including one that will return to Earth with a sample taken from the Martian surface. "Road to the Red Pl...

  4. Territoriality in the Red-winged Blackbird

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhouse, Chris

    1977-01-01

    Reports findings on research in Red-winged Blackbird territoriality and describes the educational potential of use of similar studies in the classroom. Territorial mapping and observational techniques are explained. (CS)

  5. Li'l Red Schoolhouse workshops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Education specialists at Stennis conduct staff development workshops for elementary and secondary teachers of math, science and technology and other subjects as well as specialized workshops conducted in the NASA Li'l Red Schoolhouse.

  6. Evaluation of the in vivo genotoxicity of Allura Red AC (Food Red No. 40).

    PubMed

    Honma, Masamitsu

    2015-10-01

    Allura Red AC (Food Red No. 40) is a red azo dye that is used for food coloring in beverage and confectionary products. However, its genotoxic properties remain controversial. To clarify the in vivo genotoxicity, we treated mice with Allura Red AC and investigated the induction of DNA damage (liver, glandular stomach), clastogenicity/anuegenicity (bone marrow), and mutagenicity (liver, glandular stomach) using Comet assays, micronucleus tests, and transgenic gene mutation assays, respectively. All studies were conducted in accordance with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guideline. Although Allura Red AC was administered up to the maximum doses recommended by the OECD guideline, no genotoxic effect was observed in any of the genotoxic endpoints. These data clearly show no evidence of in vivo genotoxic potential of Allura Red AC administered up to the maximum doses in mice.

  7. Metagenomic studies of the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Ibarra, Martin Augusto; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Metagenomics has significantly advanced the field of marine microbial ecology, revealing the vast diversity of previously unknown microbial life forms in different marine niches. The tremendous amount of data generated has enabled identification of a large number of microbial genes (metagenomes), their community interactions, adaptation mechanisms, and their potential applications in pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based industries. Comparative metagenomics reveals that microbial diversity is a function of the local environment, meaning that unique or unusual environments typically harbor novel microbial species with unique genes and metabolic pathways. The Red Sea has an abundance of unique characteristics; however, its microbiota is one of the least studied among marine environments. The Red Sea harbors approximately 25 hot anoxic brine pools, plus a vibrant coral reef ecosystem. Physiochemical studies describe the Red Sea as an oligotrophic environment that contains one of the warmest and saltiest waters in the world with year-round high UV radiations. These characteristics are believed to have shaped the evolution of microbial communities in the Red Sea. Over-representation of genes involved in DNA repair, high-intensity light responses, and osmoregulation were found in the Red Sea metagenomic databases suggesting acquisition of specific environmental adaptation by the Red Sea microbiota. The Red Sea brine pools harbor a diverse range of halophilic and thermophilic bacterial and archaeal communities, which are potential sources of enzymes for pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based application. Understanding the mechanisms of these adaptations and their function within the larger ecosystem could also prove useful in light of predicted global warming scenarios where global ocean temperatures are expected to rise by 1-3°C in the next few decades. In this review, we provide an overview of the published metagenomic studies that were conducted in the Red Sea, and

  8. Oil and Gas Supply Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gass, S. I.

    1982-05-01

    The theoretical and applied state of the art of oil and gas supply models was discussed. The following areas were addressed: the realities of oil and gas supply, prediction of oil and gas production, problems in oil and gas modeling, resource appraisal procedures, forecasting field size and production, investment and production strategies, estimating cost and production schedules for undiscovered fields, production regulations, resource data, sensitivity analysis of forecasts, econometric analysis of resource depletion, oil and gas finding rates, and various models of oil and gas supply.

  9. Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome with Red Cell Aplasia.

    PubMed

    Meena, K R; Bisht, Supriya; Tamaria, K C

    2015-12-01

    Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS) is a rare inherited disorder of abnormal lymphocyte apoptosis, leading to chronic lymphoproliferation. It presents as lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly and autoimmune phenomena. Pure red cell aplasia is characterized by normochromic normocytic anemia, reticulocytopenia, and absence of erythroblasts from a normal bone marrow. Only few lymphoproliferative disorders have been associated with erythroid aplasia. The authors are reporting a case of ALPS associated with red cell aplasia in a 7-y-old girl.

  10. Diphenylhydantoin-induced pure red cell aplasia.

    PubMed

    Rusia, Usha; Malhotra, Purnima; Joshi, Panul

    2006-01-01

    Pure red cell aplasia is an uncommon complication of diphenylhydantoin therapy. It has not been reported in Indian literature. Awareness of the entity helps in establishing the cause of anaemia in these patients and alerts the physicians to the need of comprehensive haematological monitoring in these patients. A case of 58-year-old male who developed pure red cell aplasia following three months of diphenylhydantoin therapy is reported here.

  11. Missions and Mobility Configurations for RED HORSE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    use in other research reports or educational pursuits contingent upon the following stipulations: - Reproduction rights do not extend to any copyrighted...MOBILITY CONFIGURATIONS FOR RED HORSE AUTHOR(S) MAJOR JAMES T. RYBURN, USAF FACULTY ADVISOR LT COL ROBERT L. PETERS, ACSC/3823 STUS SPONSOR COL ROBERT J...Classification) MISSIONS AND MOBILITY CONFIGURATIONS FOR RED HORSE 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Ryburn, James T., Maj or, USAF 13a. TYPE OF REPORT J13b. TIME

  12. Dust Storm, Red Sea and Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Outlined against the dark blue water of the Red Sea, a prominent dust storm is making its way across the Red Sea into Saudi Arabia (22.0N, 39.0E) between the Islamic holy cities of Medinah and Mecca. Funneled through a gap in the coastal ranges of southern Sudan near the Ethiopian border, dust storms frequently will blow counter to the prevailing tropical easterly winds of the region.

  13. Red Teaming of Advanced Information Assurance Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    DUGGAN,RUTH A.; WOOD,BRADLEY

    1999-10-07

    Red Teaming is an advanced form of assessment that can be used to identify weaknesses in a variety of cyber systems. it is especially beneficial when the target system is still in development when designers can readily affect improvements. This paper discusses the red team analysis process and the author's experiences applying this process to five selected Information Technology Office (ITO) projects. Some detail of the overall methodology, summary results from the five projects, and lessons learned are contained within this paper.

  14. Beta-carotene from red carrot maintains vitamin A status, but lycopene bioavailability is lower relative to tomato paste in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jordan P; Simon, Philipp W; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2007-06-01

    Red carrots contain lycopene in addition to alpha- and beta-carotene. The utility of red carrot as a functional food depends in part on the bioavailability of its constituent carotenoids. Lycopene bioavailability was compared in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) fed freeze-dried red carrot and tomato paste (Study 1, n = 47) and whole food extracts dissolved in cottonseed oil (Study 2, n = 39). Diets and supplements were equalized for lycopene and intakes did not differ. Both studies utilized negative (oil) and positive [purified lycopene (Lyc)] controls. In Study 1, vitamin A liver stores (0.68 +/- 0.13 micromol/liver) of the red carrot group did not differ from baseline (0.63 +/- 0.13 micromol/liver) and were greater than those of the tomato paste (0.43 +/- 0.12 micromol/liver), Lyc (0.51 +/- 0.14 micromol/liver), and control (0.38 +/- 0.17 micromol/liver) groups (P < 0.003). A similar pattern was observed in Study 2. In both studies, hepatic lycopene was higher in the tomato paste (82.7 +/- 26.7 and 80.7 +/- 20.2 nmol/liver) groups compared with red carrot groups (59.3 +/- 21.9 and 39.5 +/- 14.1 nmol/liver, P < 0.0001). Hepatic lycopene from tomato paste was higher than Lyc in Study 1, but tomato paste extract and Lyc did not differ in Study 2, when both were dissolved in oil. Red carrot maintains vitamin A status, but constituent beta-carotene may interfere with lycopene bioavailability. These results confirm prior studies in humans on the relative bioavailability of lycopene from red carrots and tomato paste and expand them by suggesting the mechanism and determining vitamin A value.

  15. Open clusters rich in red supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, Ignacio

    2015-08-01

    In the past few years, several clusters containing large numbers of red supergiants have been discovered. These clusters are amongst the most massive young clusters known in the Milky Way, with stellar masses reaching a few tens of thousands of solar masses. They have provided us, for the first time, with large homogeneous samples of red supergiants of a given age. These large populations make them, despite heavy extinction along their sightlines, powerful laboratories to understand the evolutionary status of red supergiants. While some of the clusters, such as the eponymous RSGC1, are so obscured that their members are only observable in the near-IR, at least van der Bergh-Hagen 222 is observable even in the U band, allowing for an excellent characterisation of cluster and stellar properties. The information gleaned so far from these clusters gives strong support to the idea that late-M type supergiants represent a separate class, characterised by very heavy mass loss. It also shows that the spectral-type distribution of red supergiants in the Milky Way is very strongly peaked towards M1, while providing strong hints about the possible evolutionary sequence of red supergiants. In addition, the clusters of red supergiants represent ideal tools to study metallicity in the inner regions of the Milky Way.

  16. Red cell membrane: past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of natural selection driven by severe forms of malaria, 1 in 6 humans in the world, more than 1 billion people, are affected by red cell abnormalities, making them the most common of the inherited disorders. The non-nucleated red cell is unique among human cell type in that the plasma membrane, its only structural component, accounts for all of its diverse antigenic, transport, and mechanical characteristics. Our current concept of the red cell membrane envisions it as a composite structure in which a membrane envelope composed of cholesterol and phospholipids is secured to an elastic network of skeletal proteins via transmembrane proteins. Structural and functional characterization of the many constituents of the red cell membrane, in conjunction with biophysical and physiologic studies, has led to detailed description of the way in which the remarkable mechanical properties and other important characteristics of the red cells arise, and of the manner in which they fail in disease states. Current studies in this very active and exciting field are continuing to produce new and unexpected revelations on the function of the red cell membrane and thus of the cell in health and disease, and shed new light on membrane function in other diverse cell types. PMID:18988878

  17. The Junior Red Cross goes to Healthland.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, J F

    1997-01-01

    An amusing reminder of earnest attempts to teach the principles of public health, Junior Red Cross Time brought plays and games about "Healthland" to schoolchildren in the 1920s. Explaining why health education became part of the mission of the Junior Red Cross raises larger issues, such as the ideology and practice of the American Red Cross in war and peace, the place of health in the moral education of children, and the transition from the activism of the Progressive Era to the markedly different social climate of the 1920s. The Junior Red Cross promoted Healthland largely because it was an innocuous concept that had been stripped of potentially controversial features to adapt it to the conservative mood of postwar America. This process of dilution mirrored the fate of the adult Red Cross, which briefly and unsuccessfully sought to reinvent itself as a national (and international) agency for the promotion of public health. The unreality of Healthland is no mere coincidence; its separation from the real world was a crucial part of its appeal to the Red Cross in the 1920s. PMID:9366639

  18. Malaria and human red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli

    2012-11-01

    Invasion by the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, brings about extensive changes in the host red cells. These include loss of the normal discoid shape, increased rigidity of the membrane, elevated permeability to a wide variety of ionic and other species and increased adhesiveness, most notably to endothelial surfaces. These effects facilitate survival of the parasite within the host cell and tend to increase the virulence of disease that includes cerebral malaria and anemia. Numerous proteins secreted by the internalized parasite and interacting with red cell membrane proteins are responsible for the changes occurring to the host cell. Anemia, a serious clinical manifestation of malaria, is due to increased destruction of both infected and uninfected red cells due to membrane alterations, as well as ineffective erythropoiesis. There is very good evidence that various red cell disorders including hemoglobinopathies and hereditary ovalocytosis decrease the virulence of disease following parasite infection. A number of mechanism(s) are likely responsible for the protective effect of various red cell abnormalities including decreased invasion, impaired intraerythrocytic development of the parasites and altered interaction between exported parasite proteins and the red cell membrane skeleton.

  19. Red cell membrane: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Mohandas, Narla; Gallagher, Patrick G

    2008-11-15

    As a result of natural selection driven by severe forms of malaria, 1 in 6 humans in the world, more than 1 billion people, are affected by red cell abnormalities, making them the most common of the inherited disorders. The non-nucleated red cell is unique among human cell type in that the plasma membrane, its only structural component, accounts for all of its diverse antigenic, transport, and mechanical characteristics. Our current concept of the red cell membrane envisions it as a composite structure in which a membrane envelope composed of cholesterol and phospholipids is secured to an elastic network of skeletal proteins via transmembrane proteins. Structural and functional characterization of the many constituents of the red cell membrane, in conjunction with biophysical and physiologic studies, has led to detailed description of the way in which the remarkable mechanical properties and other important characteristics of the red cells arise, and of the manner in which they fail in disease states. Current studies in this very active and exciting field are continuing to produce new and unexpected revelations on the function of the red cell membrane and thus of the cell in health and disease, and shed new light on membrane function in other diverse cell types.

  20. The Red Book through the ages.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Larry K; Peter, Georges; Shulman, Stanford T

    2013-11-01

    The first edition of the Red Book was published in 1938. Since then, there have been numerous advances in the fields of infectious diseases and public health that have decreased morbidity and mortality of infants, children, and adolescents. Over the years, emerging pathogens and disease complexes have been described, sophisticated diagnostic techniques developed, advances in antimicrobial therapy have occurred, and immunizations have been implemented to prevent previously deadly diseases. Of the 18 diseases or organisms in the 1938 edition, 13 are now vaccine-preventable. Since inception of the Red Book, the aims of the editors have been to keep pace with these innovations and to continue to inform the medical community. These goals have made the Red Book a fundamental resource for pediatricians and other health care professionals in terms of guiding diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of infectious diseases. The list of 18 diseases or organisms originally described in the 1938 Red Book has expanded to include over 160 diseases or organisms in the 2012 edition. The pace of biomedical discovery, as well as the amount of information available and the number of methods for its delivery, will continue to accelerate in the future. Integration of information into future editions of the Red Book will ensure that practitioners continue to rely on the Red Book in its various electronic formats for clinical guidance and support.

  1. Process for producing lubricating oils and white oils

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, G.L.; Hu, W.C.

    1982-04-20

    The preparation of high quality, e.g., high viscosity index, base lubricating oils and white oils, particularly food grade white mineral oils, of suitable viscosity in high yield from a mineral oil distillate of suitable lubricating oil viscosity comprises contacting the distillate with hydrogen in four catalytic stages. The first reaction stage employs hydrocracking conditions. Subsequent reaction stages employ hydrogenation conditions. The second reaction stage, preferably employs a sulfur-resistant hydrogenation catalyst and produces a product suitable as a high quality lubricating oil base stock. The third reaction stage preferably employs a sulfur-resistant hydrogenation catalyst to obtain further aromatic saturation. The final stage employs a selective hydrogenation catalyst, optionally activated with a halogen, and produces a product suitable as a white oil, preferably a food grade white oil.

  2. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  3. Oil detection in the coastal marshes of Louisiana using MESMA applied to band subsets of AVIRIS data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Seth H.; Roberts, Dar A.; Beland, Michael; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Ustin, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    We mapped oil presence in the marshes of Barataria Bay, Louisiana following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill using Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data. Oil and non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) have very similar spectra, differing only in two narrow hydrocarbon absorption regions around 1700 and 2300 nm. Confusion between NPV and oil is expressed as an increase in oil fraction error with increasing NPV, as shown by Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) applied to synthetic spectra generated with known endmember fractions. Significantly, the magnitude of error varied depending upon the type of NPV in the mixture. To reduce error, we used stable zone unmixing to identify a nine band subset that emphasized the hydrocarbon absorption regions, allowing for more accurate detection of oil presence using MESMA. When this band subset was applied to post-spill AVIRIS data acquired over Barataria Bay on several dates following the 2010 oil spill, accuracies ranged from 87.5% to 93.3%. Oil presence extended 10.5 m into the marsh for oiled shorelines, showing a reduced oil fraction with increasing distance from the shoreline.

  4. The oil spill in ageing Bruch membrane

    PubMed Central

    Curcio, Christine A; Johnson, Mark; Rudolf, Martin; Huang, Jiahn-Dar

    2013-01-01

    Ageing is the largest risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and soft drusen and basal linear deposits are lipid-rich extracellular lesions specific to AMD. Oil red O binding neutral lipid represents a major age-related deposition in the Bruch membrane (BrM) and the first identified druse component. Decades after these seminal observations, a natural history of neutral lipid deposition has been articulated and a biochemical model proposed. Results obtained with multiple biochemical, histochemical, and ultrastructural methods, and supported indirectly by epidemiology, suggest that the RPE secretes apolipoprotein B (apoB)-lipoprotein particles of unusual composition into BrM, where they accumulate with age eventually forming a lipid wall, a precursor of basal linear deposit. The authors propose that constituents of these lesions interact with reactive oxygen species to form pro-inflammatory peroxidised lipids that elicit neovascularisation. Here, the authors summarise key evidence supporting both accumulation of BrM lipoproteins leading to lesion formation and lipoprotein production by the RPE. The authors update their model with genetic associations between AMD and genes historically associated with plasma HDL metabolism, and suggest future directions for research and therapeutic strategies based on an oil-spill analogy. PMID:21890786

  5. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.861 Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil,...

  6. USING CABLE SUSPENDED SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS TO REDUCE PRODUCTION COSTS TO INCREASE ULTIMATE RECOVERY IN THE RED MOUNTAIN FIELD IN SAN JUAN BASIN REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Pat Fort; Don L. Hanosh

    2003-11-01

    A joint venture between Enerdyne LLC, a small independent oil and gas producer, and Pumping Solutions Inc., developer of a low volume electric submersible pump, suspended from a cable, both based in Albuquerque, New Mexico, has re-established marginal oil production from the Red Mountain Oil Field, located in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico by working over 17 existing wells and installing submersible pumps. Resume marginal oil production operations in the Red Mountain oil fields located in McKinley County, New Mexico by installing a cable suspended electric submersible pumping system (HDESP), determine if this system can reduce lift costs making it a more cost effective production system for similar oil fields within the region, and if warranted, drill additional wells to improved the economics. Three Phases of work have been defined in the DOE Form 4600.1 Notice of Financial Assistance Award for this project, in which the project objectives are to be attained through a joint venture between Enerdyne LLC (Enerdyne), owner and operator of the fields and Pumping Solutions Inc. (PSI), developer of the submersible pumping system. Upon analysis of the results of each Phase, the DOE will determine if the results justify the continuation of the project and approve the next Phase to proceed or terminate the project and request that the wells be plugged. This topical report shall provide the DOE with Phase I results and conclusions reached by Enerdyne and PSI.

  7. [Academic thinking on Cheng Dan-an's theory of acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-jian

    2011-11-01

    Academic thinking on Cheng Dan-an's theory of acupuncture is analyzed. It is stated that Cheng's theory of acupuncture has put exceptional emphasis and efforts on inheriting the tradition and learning from the west by pursuing truth. He concisely reinterpretes the traditional theory of acupuncture and practically improves the acupuncture instruments according to clinical experiences. Meanwhile, he introduces the advanced achievements of anatomy and neurophysiology into acupuncture teaching and research, which plays an important role for modernization of acupuncture.

  8. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin talks with STS-78 crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (left) chats with STS-78 Mission Commander Terence 'Tom' Henricks (center) and KSC Director Jay Honeycutt underneath the orbiter Columbia. Columbia and her seven-member crew touched down on Runway 33 of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 8:36 a.m. EDT, July 7, bringing to a close the longest Shuttle flight to date. STS-78, which also was the 78th Shuttle flight, lasted 16 days, 21 minutes and 47 seconds.

  9. Subsalt source rock maturity in the Sudanese Red Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, C. |; Pigott, J.; Forgotson, J.M. Jr.

    1995-08-01

    Thermal modeling can demonstrate that stratal salt deposits may provide a significant heat conduit and conceptually provide a basis for hypothermal fairways of hydrocarbon aspiration in regions of dominant thermal overmaturity. However, accurate evaluation of thermal maturity suppression by modeling must be geologically constrained. With respect to the Tertiary Tokar Delta of offshore Sudan, ID tectonic subsidence analysis of boreholes in the region reveals at least two major pu1ses of crustal extension and associated heating (24-20 m.a. and 5.4-2.7 m.a.). Integrating the borehole geochemical information with a Tokar Delta seismic stratigraphic interpretation allows the construction of constrained 2D thermal basin models through time using Procom BMT. The best match between the observed and modelled vitrinite reflectance values is achieved by using a two phase tectonic stretching model with pulses at 22{+-}2 m.a. and 4{+-}1.5 m.a. and incremental subcrustal stretching factors which vary between 2.65-2.75. Utilizing these parameters suggests the top of the oil window to occur within the Zeit Formation and bottom of the oil window to exist at the base of the Dungunab Salt. As only subsalt source rocks are observed, this model would tend to negate the possibility of the occurrence of liquid hydrocarbons. For the Tokar Delta the presently observed general high heat flow is so high that it leads in all cases to overcooked organics for a subsalt source. However, that hydrocarbons in the post-salt Zeit Formation of the Tokar Delta have been discovered suggests significant secondary hydrocarbon migration to have occurred within the late Miocene (15.4 - 5.4 m.a.). Potential migration pathways would be a1ong basement-induced fault conduits. If true, similar secondary migration play concepts may be applicable elsewhere in the Red Sea.

  10. Engine wear and lubricating oil contamination from plant oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Darcey, C.L.; LePori, W.A.; Yarbrough, C.M.

    1982-12-01

    Engine disassembly with wear measurements, and lubricating oil analysis were used to determine wear rates on a one cylinder diesel engine. Results are reported from short duration tests on the wear rates of various levels of processed sunflower oil, a 25% blend with diesel fuel, and processed cottonseed oil.

  11. 27. DIABLO POWERHOUSE UPPER OIL ROOM: OBSOLETE WESTINGHOUSE DIELECTRIC OIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. DIABLO POWERHOUSE UPPER OIL ROOM: OBSOLETE WESTINGHOUSE DIELECTRIC OIL TESTING SET. OIL IS USED AS AN INSULATOR IN TRANSFORMERS AND ITS CONDUCTIVITY USED TO BE TESTED USING EQUIPMENT SUCH AS THIS, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  12. The red meat allergy syndrome in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Apostolovic, Danijela; Tran, Thi Anh Thu; Starkhammar, Maria; Sánchez-Vidaurre, Sara; Hamsten, Carl; Van Hage, Marianne

    In the last decade, a novel type of food allergy presenting with severe allergic reactions several hours after consumption of red meat has been recognized. The allergic responses are due to IgE antibodies directed against the carbohydrate epitope galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) found in mammalian meat. This review presents the red meat allergy syndrome in Sweden, discusses the features of the immune response to carbohydrates, and highlights the presence of heat stable α-Gal-containing proteins in meat. The number of diagnosed red meat allergy cases in Sweden has increased significantly over the past few years. All patients have been tick bitten. Our recent work has shown that α-Gal is present in the European tick Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus), thus potentially explaining the strong association between anti-α-Gal IgE and tick bites, with development of red meat allergy as a secondary phenomenon. Further studies using immunoproteomics have identified novel α-Gal-containing meat proteins that bound IgE from red meat allergic patients. Four of these proteins were stable to thermal processing pointing to the fact that the allergenicity of red meat proteins is preserved in cooked meat. In keeping with the fact that the α-Gal epitope is structurally related to the blood group B antigen, a positive association with the B-negative blood groups among our red meat allergic patients was noted. A selective IgE reactivity to the pure carbohydrate moiety was observed when investigating the specificity of the α-Gal immune response. IgE from red meat allergic patients does not recognize the other major mammalian carbohydrate, N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), also present in high amounts in red meat. Furthermore, neither common cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) from plants nor venoms are targets of the IgE response in these patients. Taken together, the α-Gal carbohydrate has shown to be a potentially clinically relevant allergen that should be taken into

  13. Potential health hazards of eating red meat.

    PubMed

    Wolk, A

    2017-02-01

    Red meat (beef, veal, pork, lamb and mutton) consumption contributes several important nutrients to the diet, for example essential amino acids, vitamins (including B12) and minerals (including iron and zinc). Processed red meat (ham, sausages, bacon, frankfurters, salami, etc.) undergoes treatment (curing, smoking, salting or the use of chemical preservatives and additives) to improve its shelf life and/or taste. During recent decades, consumption of red meat has been increasing globally, especially in developing countries. At the same time, there has been growing evidence that high consumption of red meat, especially of processed meat, may be associated with an increased risk of several major chronic diseases. Here, a comprehensive summary is provided of the accumulated evidence based on prospective cohort studies regarding the potential adverse health effects of red meat consumption on major chronic diseases, such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke and cancer at several sites, and mortality. Risk estimates from pooled analyses and meta-analyses are presented together with recently published findings. Based on at least six cohorts, summary results for the consumption of unprocessed red meat of 100 g day(-1) varied from nonsignificant to statistically significantly increased risk (11% for stroke and for breast cancer, 15% for cardiovascular mortality, 17% for colorectal and 19% for advanced prostate cancer); for the consumption of 50 g day(-1) processed meat, the risks were statistically significantly increased for most of the studied diseases (4% for total prostate cancer, 8% for cancer mortality, 9% for breast, 18% for colorectal and 19% for pancreatic cancer, 13% for stroke, 22% for total and 24% for cardiovascular mortality and 32% for diabetes). Potential biological mechanisms underlying the observed risks and the environmental impact of red meat production are also discussed. The evidence-based integrated message is that it is

  14. Seed storage oil mobilization.

    PubMed

    Graham, Ian A

    2008-01-01

    Storage oil mobilization starts with the onset of seed germination. Oil bodies packed with triacylglycerol (TAG) exist in close proximity with glyoxysomes, the single membrane-bound organelles that house most of the biochemical machinery required to convert fatty acids derived from TAG to 4-carbon compounds. The 4-carbon compounds in turn are converted to soluble sugars that are used to fuel seedling growth. Biochemical analysis over the last 50 years has identified the main pathways involved in this process, including beta-oxidation, the glyoxylate cycle, and gluconeogenesis. In the last few years molecular genetic dissection of the overall process in the model oilseed species Arabidopsis has provided new insight into its complexity, particularly with respect to the specific role played by individual enzymatic steps and the subcellular compartmentalization of the glyoxylate cycle. Both abscisic acid (ABA) and sugars inhibit storage oil mobilization and a substantial degree of the control appears to operate at the transcriptional level.

  15. Integrated palm oil processing

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1983-12-01

    Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Because palms are an important crop in many areas of Asia, Africa, and South America, considerable attention has been given to palm genetic improvement, with the result that tree palms are one of the most efficient energy crops, providing much better solar energy capture than, for example, sugar cane and cassava. Tree palms are particularly attractive in areas where more conventional farming would pose a significant threat of laterization or cause major ecological problems. Technology for palm oil production, including harvest, tree management, and oil pressing are generally suited to village or plantation use, and, for the most part, have been directed toward supplying process energy through the combustion of process waste products, such as palm fruit residue and palm bunch fibers.

  16. DAnCER: disease-annotated chromatin epigenetics resource.

    PubMed

    Turinsky, Andrei L; Turner, Brian; Borja, Rosanne C; Gleeson, James A; Heath, Michael; Pu, Shuye; Switzer, Thomas; Dong, Dong; Gong, Yunchen; On, Tuan; Xiong, Xuejian; Emili, Andrew; Greenblatt, Jack; Parkinson, John; Zhang, Zhaolei; Wodak, Shoshana J

    2011-01-01

    Chromatin modification (CM) is a set of epigenetic processes that govern many aspects of DNA replication, transcription and repair. CM is carried out by groups of physically interacting proteins, and their disruption has been linked to a number of complex human diseases. CM remains largely unexplored, however, especially in higher eukaryotes such as human. Here we present the DAnCER resource, which integrates information on genes with CM function from five model organisms, including human. Currently integrated are gene functional annotations, Pfam domain architecture, protein interaction networks and associated human diseases. Additional supporting evidence includes orthology relationships across organisms, membership in protein complexes, and information on protein 3D structure. These data are available for 962 experimentally confirmed and manually curated CM genes and for over 5000 genes with predicted CM function on the basis of orthology and domain composition. DAnCER allows visual explorations of the integrated data and flexible query capabilities using a variety of data filters. In particular, disease information and functional annotations are mapped onto the protein interaction networks, enabling the user to formulate new hypotheses on the function and disease associations of a given gene based on those of its interaction partners. DAnCER is freely available at http://wodaklab.org/dancer/.

  17. Extracting Oil From Tar Sands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

    1984-01-01

    Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

  18. Oil-based paint poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as ... Gummin DD. Hydrocarbons. In: Nelson LS, Lewin NA, Howland MA, Hoffman RS, Goldfrank LR, Flomenbaum NE, eds. Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies . 9th ...

  19. Crude Oil Spills and Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety and Health Administration Best Practices for Migratory Bird Care During Oil Spill Response (PDF, 3.6 ... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Best Practices for Migratory Bird Care During Oil Spill Response (PDF, 3.6 ...

  20. Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    non-petroleum oils are also regulated under CFR 112. Like petroleum oils, they can cause devastating physical effects, be toxic, destroy food supplies and habitats, produce rancid odors, foul shorelines and treatment plants, be flammable, and linger.

  1. Crude Oil Characterization Data Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A computer program has been written which allows rapid retrieval and selection of CONUS and OCONUS crude oil characterization data. The computer... crude oil characterization data, including geographic location, production rate, reserves quantity and physical properties.

  2. 21 CFR 864.5300 - Red cell indices device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red cell indices device. 864.5300 Section 864.5300....5300 Red cell indices device. (a) Identification. A red cell indices device, usually part of a larger... corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The red cell...

  3. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells...

  4. 21 CFR 864.5300 - Red cell indices device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red cell indices device. 864.5300 Section 864.5300....5300 Red cell indices device. (a) Identification. A red cell indices device, usually part of a larger... corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The red cell...

  5. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells...

  6. 21 CFR 864.5300 - Red cell indices device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red cell indices device. 864.5300 Section 864.5300....5300 Red cell indices device. (a) Identification. A red cell indices device, usually part of a larger... corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The red cell...

  7. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells...

  8. 15 CFR 754.4 - Unprocessed western red cedar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unprocessed western red cedar. 754.4... CONTROLS § 754.4 Unprocessed western red cedar. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the letters “SS... the export of unprocessed western red cedar covered by ECCN 1C988 (Western red cedar (thuja...

  9. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells...

  10. 21 CFR 864.5300 - Red cell indices device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red cell indices device. 864.5300 Section 864.5300....5300 Red cell indices device. (a) Identification. A red cell indices device, usually part of a larger... corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The red cell...

  11. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells...

  12. 21 CFR 864.5300 - Red cell indices device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red cell indices device. 864.5300 Section 864.5300....5300 Red cell indices device. (a) Identification. A red cell indices device, usually part of a larger... corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The red cell...

  13. Oil pollution increases plasma antioxidants but reduces coloration in a seabird.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Cristóbal; Lores, Marta; Velando, Alberto

    2010-08-01

    It has been suggested that condition-dependent signals may be a useful measure of environmental quality. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that oil pollution enhances oxidative stress and impairs expression of a carotenoid-based signal in a wild population of the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis). During the courtship period, a group of gulls were fed a supplementary diet containing heavy fuel oil from the Prestige oil spill and were compared with control gulls fed a similar supplementary diet without fuel oil. Blood levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the most toxic components of crude oils, were higher (30%) in the Prestige oil-fed gulls than in the control gulls. Plasma concentrations of vitamin E and carotenoids were also significantly higher in the Prestige oil-fed gulls (31 and 27%, respectively). Although, the plasma levels of lipid peroxidation markers were higher (13%) in gulls fed with Prestige oil than in the control gulls, these differences were not significant, possibly because of the small number of gulls analyzed. The red bill spot was significantly smaller (16%) in the oil-fed gulls than in the control individuals. This study provides the first experimental evidence that a carotenoid-based signal in a free-living seabird is affected by exposure to oil pollution and is hence indicative of environmental quality. Since the yellow-legged gull belongs to a complex of species widely distributed throughout the northern hemisphere, the method described may constitute a useful tool for evaluating sub-lethal effects of oil spills in seabirds.

  14. Krill Oil Improves Mild Knee Joint Pain: A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Minoru; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Sawaki, Keisuke; Sekigawa, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    Background Krill oil is an edible oil extracted from krill, a small red-colored crustacean found in the Antarctic Ocean. The administration of krill oil is reported to mitigate inflammation in patients with cardiac disease, rheumatoid arthritis, or osteoarthritis. However, the effect of krill oil on mild knee pain has not yet been determined. Objective To assess the effect of krill oil on mild knee pain. Design A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial of fifty adults (38–85 years old) with mild knee pain attending the Fukushima Orthopedic Clinic (Tochigi, Japan) between September 2014 and March 2015. Interventions Participants were randomized to receive 2 g per day of either krill oil or an identical placebo for 30 days. Outcomes The primary outcome was improvement in subjective symptoms of knee pain as assessed by the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM) and Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (JOA). Secondary outcomes included blood and urine biochemical parameters. Results Both the placebo and krill oil groups showed significant improvements in the questions in the JKOM and JOA questionnaires after administration. After the intervention, krill oil group showed more improvements than placebo group in two questions regarding the pain and stiffness in knees in JKOM. Controlling for age, sex, weight, and smoking and drinking habits, krill oil significantly mitigated knee pain in sleeping (P < 0.001), standing (P < 0.001) and the range of motion of both right and left knees (both P = 0.011) compared to placebo. Krill oil administration raised plasma EPA (P = 0.048) and EPA/AA ratio (P = 0.003). Conclusion This study indicates that krill oil administration (2 g/day, 30 days) improved the subjective symptoms of knee pain in adults with mild knee pain. Trial registration UMIN-CTR; ID UMIN000014413 PMID:27701428

  15. Oil Spill Cleanup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum Remediation Product (PRP) is a new way of cleaning up oil spills. It consists of thousands of microcapsules, tiny balls of beeswax with hollow centers, containing live microorganisms and nutrients to sustain them. As oil flows through the microcapsule's shell, it is consumed and digested by the microorganisms. Pressure buildup causes the PRP to explode and the enzymes, carbon dioxide and water are released into the BioBoom used in conjunction with PRP, preventing contaminated water from spreading. The system incorporates technology originally developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Marshall Space Flight Center.

  16. Oil and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kipling, M D

    1974-01-01

    A relatively high incidence of cancer of the skin, especially of the scrotum, due to occupational contact with mineral oil has been observed among shale oil workers and cotton mule spinners and, since the Second World War, among machine operators in the Birmingham region. A study has been made of the factors causing this high incidence and evidence is given that the respiratory and digestive tracts as well as the skin may be affected. The preventive measures are described and the suggestion made that they appear at the present time to be effective. PMID:4858528

  17. Oil and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kipling, M D

    1974-08-01

    A relatively high incidence of cancer of the skin, especially of the scrotum, due to occupational contact with mineral oil has been observed among shale oil workers and cotton mule spinners and, since the Second World War, among machine operators in the Birmingham region. A study has been made of the factors causing this high incidence and evidence is given that the respiratory and digestive tracts as well as the skin may be affected. The preventive measures are described and the suggestion made that they appear at the present time to be effective.

  18. 7 CFR 985.4 - Spearmint oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spearmint oil. 985.4 Section 985.4 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.4 Spearmint oil. Spearmint oil, hereinafter referred to as oil, means essential oil extracted by distillation...

  19. 7 CFR 985.4 - Spearmint oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spearmint oil. 985.4 Section 985.4 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.4 Spearmint oil. Spearmint oil, hereinafter referred to as oil, means essential oil extracted by distillation...

  20. 7 CFR 985.4 - Spearmint oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spearmint oil. 985.4 Section 985.4 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.4 Spearmint oil. Spearmint oil, hereinafter referred to as oil, means essential oil extracted by distillation...