Science.gov

Sample records for red sea urchin

  1. [Juvenile production of the red sea urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) in Baja California, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Salas-Garza, A; Carpizo-Ituarte, E; Parés-Sierra, G; Martínez-López, R; Quintana-Rodríguez, R

    2005-12-01

    The red sea urchin Strongylocentrotusfranciscanus (Agassiz 1863) is harvested commercially in Baja California, Mexico, since 1970; however, in the last ten years the capture per unit effort (CPUE) has decreased from 310 kg/fishing unit/day to 120 kg/fishing unit/day. For this reason, actions were taken to develop a culture technology allowing massive production of juveniles for re-stocking natural populations or for growing them commercially. We summarize some of the basic studies and main achievements in this effort. In Baja California, considerably faster larval development (approximately 21 days) has been attained than in the US northwest coast (62 days). Spawning of red sea urchins was routinely induced with KCI while egg fertilization was performed using a 100,000-sperm/ml solution. Six microalgae species were tested and Rhodomonas sp. produced the best larval development. The mean survival rate at the end of the larval period was 25%, but results varied widely with bactch. From the feed ratios tested, best results were obtained using 7000 cel/ml during the first week of larval development, followed by 10,000 cel/ml during the second and 15,000 cel/ml during the third week. KCl proved the most consistent metamorphic inducer, regularly yielding metamorphosis percentages higher than 90%. Metamorphosis was considered complete when the functional jaw that juveniles use for first benthic feeding appeared (as soon as 20 days after induction). With this method several thousands of red sea urchin juveniles were produced. They reached up to 1.5 mm in size during the first 50 days of culture after metamorphosis, showing the great potential for mass production of this species in the laboratory. PMID:17469265

  2. Ecological role of purple sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Pearse, John S

    2006-11-10

    Sea urchins are major components of marine communities. Their grazing limits algal biomass, and they are preyed upon by many predators. Purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) are among the best studied species. They live in environments that alternate between two stable states: luxuriant, species-rich kelp forests and sea urchin-dominated "barrens." The transition from one state to the other can be initiated by several factors, including the abundance of algal food, predators, storm intensities, and incidence of disease. Purple sea urchins compete with other grazers, some of which are important fishery resources (such as abalones and red sea urchins), and they are harvested for scientific research. Revelations from their genome will lead to a better understanding of how they maintain their ecological importance, and may in turn enhance their economic potential. PMID:17095690

  3. Sea-urchin envenomation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Ling; Chou, Shang-Lin; Huang, Tzu-Yu; Deng, Jou-Fang

    2003-12-01

    Sea-urchin stings may produce injurious and venomous wounds. Although numerous writers refer to the danger of pedicellarial stings, there is little worth-while clinical data. We report a case of sea-urchin injury with severe local reaction and acute hepatitis. A 47-y-o Taiwanese woman accidentally stepped on a sea urchin while scuba diving on a beach in Palau Islands. The puncture wounds were numerous and she felt faintness, and immediate and intense pain. Initial management included partial spine removal, betadine immersion, intravenous fluid and analgesics. She developed fever, chills, nausea, and persistent serous discharge and tenderness from the sites of stings in the following days. She was admitted due to right foot cellulitis, sea-urchin injuries of both soles and suspected toxic hepatitis on the 7th day after envenomation. Serum alanine transaminase was 810 U/L and aspartate transaminase 320 U/L; she received i.v. antibiotics and wound debridement for removal of residual stings. She recovered gradually and was discharged 2 w later. Travel related marine animal injury has an increasing tendency throughout the world. This case had the unusual presentation of severe local reaction and hepatitis; immediate and more aggressive spine removal might have lessened the degree of injury.

  4. Sea Urchin Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    McClay, David R

    2016-01-01

    In the sea urchin morphogenesis follows extensive molecular specification. The specification controls the many morphogenetic events and these, in turn, precede patterning steps that establish the larval body plan. To understand how the embryo is built it was necessary to understand those series of molecular steps. Here an example of the historical sequence of those discoveries is presented as it unfolded over the last 50 years, the years during which major progress in understanding development of many animals and plants was documented by CTDB. In sea urchin development a rich series of experimental studies first established many of the phenomenological components of skeletal morphogenesis and patterning without knowledge of the molecular components. The many discoveries of transcription factors, signals, and structural proteins that contribute to the shape of the endoskeleton of the sea urchin larva then followed as molecular tools became available. A number of transcription factors and signals were discovered that were necessary for specification, morphogenesis, and patterning. Perturbation of the transcription factors and signals provided the means for assembling models of the gene regulatory networks used for specification and controlled the subsequent morphogenetic events. The earlier experimental information informed perturbation experiments that asked how patterning worked. As a consequence it was learned that ectoderm provides a series of patterning signals to the skeletogenic cells and as a consequence the skeletogenic cells secrete a highly patterned skeleton based on their ability to genotypically decode the localized reception of several signals. We still do not understand the complexity of the signals received by the skeletogenic cells, nor do we understand in detail how the genotypic information shapes the secreted skeletal biomineral, but the current knowledge at least outlines the sequence of events and provides a useful template for future

  5. Sea Urchin Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    McClay, David R

    2016-01-01

    In the sea urchin morphogenesis follows extensive molecular specification. The specification controls the many morphogenetic events and these, in turn, precede patterning steps that establish the larval body plan. To understand how the embryo is built it was necessary to understand those series of molecular steps. Here an example of the historical sequence of those discoveries is presented as it unfolded over the last 50 years, the years during which major progress in understanding development of many animals and plants was documented by CTDB. In sea urchin development a rich series of experimental studies first established many of the phenomenological components of skeletal morphogenesis and patterning without knowledge of the molecular components. The many discoveries of transcription factors, signals, and structural proteins that contribute to the shape of the endoskeleton of the sea urchin larva then followed as molecular tools became available. A number of transcription factors and signals were discovered that were necessary for specification, morphogenesis, and patterning. Perturbation of the transcription factors and signals provided the means for assembling models of the gene regulatory networks used for specification and controlled the subsequent morphogenetic events. The earlier experimental information informed perturbation experiments that asked how patterning worked. As a consequence it was learned that ectoderm provides a series of patterning signals to the skeletogenic cells and as a consequence the skeletogenic cells secrete a highly patterned skeleton based on their ability to genotypically decode the localized reception of several signals. We still do not understand the complexity of the signals received by the skeletogenic cells, nor do we understand in detail how the genotypic information shapes the secreted skeletal biomineral, but the current knowledge at least outlines the sequence of events and provides a useful template for future

  6. Do genes lie? Mitochondrial capture masks the Red Sea collector urchin's true identity (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: Tripneustes).

    PubMed

    Bronstein, Omri; Kroh, Andreas; Haring, Elisabeth

    2016-11-01

    Novel COI and bindin sequences of the Red Sea collector echinoid Tripneustes gratilla elatensis are used to show that (1) discordance between mitochondrial and nuclear loci exists in this echinoid genus, (2) Tripneustes gratilla as currently defined possibly comprises a complex of cryptic species, and (3) Red Sea Tripneustes form a genetically distinct clade in the bindin tree, which diverged from other Tripneustes clades at least 2-4million years ago. Morphological reassessment of T. gratilla elatensis shows perfect congruence between identification based on skeletal features and genetic data based on a nuclear marker sequence. Hence the Red Sea Tripneustes subspecies established by Dafni in 1983 is a distinct biological unit. All T. g. elatensis samples analyzed are highly similar to or share mtDNA haplotypes with Philippine T. g. gratilla, as do representatives from other edge-of-range occurrences. This lack of genetic structure in Indo-Pacific Tripneustes is interpreted as a result of wide-spread mitochondrial introgression. New fossil specimens from the Red Sea area confirm the sympatric occurrence of T. g. elatensis and T. g. gratilla in the northern Red Sea during Late Pleistocene, identifying a possible timing for the introgression. In addition, present-day distribution shows a contact zone in the Southern Red Sea (in the Dahlak Archipelago). T. g. elatensis, is yet another example of a Red Sea taxon historically identified as conspecific with its Indo-Pacific relatives, but which turned out to be a morphologically and genetically distinct endemic taxon, suggesting that the level of endemism in the Red Sea may still be underestimated. PMID:27475495

  7. Do genes lie? Mitochondrial capture masks the Red Sea collector urchin's true identity (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: Tripneustes).

    PubMed

    Bronstein, Omri; Kroh, Andreas; Haring, Elisabeth

    2016-11-01

    Novel COI and bindin sequences of the Red Sea collector echinoid Tripneustes gratilla elatensis are used to show that (1) discordance between mitochondrial and nuclear loci exists in this echinoid genus, (2) Tripneustes gratilla as currently defined possibly comprises a complex of cryptic species, and (3) Red Sea Tripneustes form a genetically distinct clade in the bindin tree, which diverged from other Tripneustes clades at least 2-4million years ago. Morphological reassessment of T. gratilla elatensis shows perfect congruence between identification based on skeletal features and genetic data based on a nuclear marker sequence. Hence the Red Sea Tripneustes subspecies established by Dafni in 1983 is a distinct biological unit. All T. g. elatensis samples analyzed are highly similar to or share mtDNA haplotypes with Philippine T. g. gratilla, as do representatives from other edge-of-range occurrences. This lack of genetic structure in Indo-Pacific Tripneustes is interpreted as a result of wide-spread mitochondrial introgression. New fossil specimens from the Red Sea area confirm the sympatric occurrence of T. g. elatensis and T. g. gratilla in the northern Red Sea during Late Pleistocene, identifying a possible timing for the introgression. In addition, present-day distribution shows a contact zone in the Southern Red Sea (in the Dahlak Archipelago). T. g. elatensis, is yet another example of a Red Sea taxon historically identified as conspecific with its Indo-Pacific relatives, but which turned out to be a morphologically and genetically distinct endemic taxon, suggesting that the level of endemism in the Red Sea may still be underestimated.

  8. The sea urchin's siren.

    PubMed

    Pederson, Thoru

    2006-12-01

    This issue of Developmental Biology features articles that constitute a new wave of insights into how a genome interacts with itself (as DNA) and with effectors-proteins and probably RNAs, collectively operating as a kind of "cis-trans" dualism. We learned a test for allelism in genetics class that bore that Latin name but now it comes as a new day for biological science-a welcome era in which a phenomenon as complex as development can be envisioned from principles of chemical binding energy and specificity. The buzzword (the term is just-as there is deserved buzz) is that the genome is hard-wired, in the sense that it has been shaped to both encode and react to a regulatory network, of which it is itself a part. I here review some of the milestones of embryology in which the sea urchin was the key player, segueing into the modern era in which this organism launched an entirely new intellectual construct of genome organization and gene expression during development. This essay also contains a number of personal perspectives as well as some views on the overall epistemological fabric of developmental biology. Like all of us, I am excited to see the S. purpuratus genome appear and heartily congratulate, by writing this essay, the trailblazers whose intellectual courage and persistence has brought us to this happy position. PMID:17113576

  9. Photoperiod, temperature, and food availability as drivers of the annual reproductive cycle of the sea urchin Echinometra sp. from the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronstein, Omri; Loya, Yossi

    2015-03-01

    In spite of the efforts invested in the search for the environmental factors that regulate discrete breeding periods in marine invertebrates, they remain poorly understood. Here, we present the first account of the annual reproductive cycle of the pantropical sea urchin Echinometra sp. from the Gulf of Aqaba/Eilat (Red Sea) and explore some of the main environmental variables that drive echinoid reproduction. Monthly measurements of gonado-somatic indexes and histological observations of 20 specimens revealed a single seasonal reproductive cycle, with gametogenesis in males and females being highly synchronized. Gametogenesis commenced in June and peak spawning occurred between September and October. Gonado-somatic indexes were significantly correlated with seawater temperatures but not with photoperiod. The latter cycle lagged behind the gonado-somatic cycle by two months, suggesting that the onset of gametogenesis corresponds to shortening day length, while spawning may be driven by warming seawater temperatures. Gonads remained quiescent throughout the winter and spring (January through May) when temperatures were at their lowest. Chlorophyll- a concentrations increased significantly in the months following spawning (October through January). These high concentrations are indicative of high phytoplankton abundance and may reflect the increase in food availability for the developing larvae. Of the external test dimensions, length presented the highest correlation to body weight, indicating length as the best predictor for body size in Echinometra. Neither sexual dimorphism nor size differences between males and females were detected, and the sex ratios were approximately 1:1 in three distant Echinometra populations. Environmentally regulated reproduction, as occurs in sea urchins, might face severe outcomes due to anthropogenic disturbances to the marine environment. Consequently, there is a need to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms that drive and

  10. Micromechanics of Sea Urchin Spines

    PubMed Central

    Tsafnat, Naomi; Fitz Gerald, John D.; Le, Hai N.; Stachurski, Zbigniew H.

    2012-01-01

    The endoskeletal structure of the Sea Urchin, Centrostephanus rodgersii, has numerous long spines whose known functions include locomotion, sensing, and protection against predators. These spines have a remarkable internal microstructure and are made of single-crystal calcite. A finite-element model of the spine’s unique porous structure, based on micro-computed tomography (microCT) and incorporating anisotropic material properties, was developed to study its response to mechanical loading. Simulations show that high stress concentrations occur at certain points in the spine’s architecture; brittle cracking would likely initiate in these regions. These analyses demonstrate that the organization of single-crystal calcite in the unique, intricate morphology of the sea urchin spine results in a strong, stiff and lightweight structure that enhances its strength despite the brittleness of its constituent material. PMID:22984468

  11. Tools for sea urchin genomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Cameron, R Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The Sea Urchin Genome Project Web site, SpBase ( http://SpBase.org ), in association with a suite of publicly available sequence comparison tools provides a platform from which to analyze genes and genomic sequences of sea urchin. This information system is specifically designed to support laboratory bench studies in cell and molecular biology. In particular these tools and datasets have supported the description of the gene regulatory networks of the purple sea urchin S. purpuratus. This chapter details methods to undertake in the first steps to find genes and noncoding regulatory sequences for further analysis.

  12. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium ...

  13. Phylogenomics of strongylocentrotid sea urchins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Strongylocentrotid sea urchins have a long tradition as model organisms for studying many fundamental processes in biology including fertilization, embryology, development and genome regulation but the phylogenetic relationships of the group remain largely unresolved. Although the differing isolating mechanisms of vicariance and rapidly evolving gamete recognition proteins have been proposed, a stable and robust phylogeny is unavailable. Results We used a phylogenomic approach with mitochondrial and nuclear genes taking advantage of the whole-genome sequencing of nine species in the group to establish a stable (i.e. concordance in tree topology among multiple lies of evidence) and robust (i.e. high nodal support) phylogenetic hypothesis for the family Strongylocentrotidae. We generated eight draft mitochondrial genome assemblies and obtained 13 complete mitochondrial genes for each species. Consistent with previous studies, mitochondrial sequences failed to provide a reliable phylogeny. In contrast, we obtained a very well-supported phylogeny from 2301 nuclear genes without evidence of positive Darwinian selection both from the majority of most-likely gene trees and the concatenated fourfold degenerate sites: ((P. depressus, (M. nudus, M. franciscanus), (H. pulcherrimus, (S. purpuratus, (S. fragilis, (S. pallidus, (S. droebachiensis, S. intermedius)). This phylogeny was consistent with a single invasion of deep-water environments followed by a holarctic expansion by Strongylocentrotus. Divergence times for each species estimated with reference to the divergence times between the two major clades of the group suggest a correspondence in the timing with the opening of the Bering Strait and the invasion of the holarctic regions. Conclusions Nuclear genome data contains phylogenetic signal informative for understanding the evolutionary history of this group. However, mitochondrial genome data does not. Vicariance can explain major patterns observed in the

  14. Sea urchin egg fertilization and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of subgravity (much less than unit gravity) on fertilization, cell division, differentiation, and growth of a relatively simple biological system (eggs of the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata) were considered. The experiment was flown on Gemini 3 and recovered as scheduled. However, the experiment objectives were not achieved, primarily for mechanical reasons.

  15. The impact of rising sea temperature on innate immune parameters in the tropical subtidal sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus and the intertidal sea urchin Echinometra lucunter.

    PubMed

    Branco, Paola Cristina; Borges, João Carlos Shimada; Santos, Marinilce Fagundes; Jensch Junior, Bernard Ernesto; da Silva, José Roberto Machado Cunha

    2013-12-01

    Ocean temperatures are rising throughout the world, making it necessary to evaluate the impact of these temperature changes on sea urchins, which are well-known bioindicators. This study evaluated the effect of an increase in temperature on the immune response of the subtidal Lytechinus variegatus and the intertidal Echinometra lucunter sea urchins. Both species were exposed to 20 (control), 25 and 30 °C temperatures for 24 h, 2, 7 and 14 days. Counting of coelomocytes and assays on the phagocytic response, adhesion and spreading of coelomocytes were performed. Red and colorless sphere cells were considered biomarkers for heat stress. Moreover, a significant decrease in the phagocytic indices and a decrease in both cell adhesion and cell spreading were observed at 25 and 30 °C for L. variegatus. For E. lucunter, the only alteration observed was for the cell proportions. This report shows how different species of sea urchins respond immunologically to rising temperatures.

  16. Movement of sea urchin sperm flagella.

    PubMed

    Rikmenspoel, R

    1978-02-01

    The motion of the sea urchin sperm flagellum was analyzed from high-speed cinemicrographs. At all locations on the flagellum the transversal motion and the curvature were found to vary sinusoidally in time. The curvatures of the flagella increase strongly near the proximal junction. Two sperm are described in transient from rest to normal motion. The full wave motion developed in both sperm within 40 ms.

  17. Sulfated glycans in sea urchin fertilization.

    PubMed

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2015-02-01

    Fertilization is a controlled cell-cell interaction event that ultimately leads to the union of the gametes involved in reproduction. Fertilization is characterized by three major steps: (i) sperm binding to the extracellular matrix that coats the egg, inducing thereby the acrosome reaction; (ii) penetration of the acrosome-reacted sperm through the egg coat until its contact with the egg plasma membrane; and (iii) adhesion and fusion of the cell membranes of both gametes and the interchange of genetic materials. The acrosome reaction in the first step is important because it ensures that fertilization occurs only between gametes of homologous species. This specificity is primarily driven by the structure of egg jelly coat glycans recognized by a lectin-like binding protein (receptor) in the sperm membrane. Sea urchin fertilization is the best model utilized for understanding carbohydrate-mediated acrosome reactions. This report aims at describing the biochemical basis of regulatory mechanisms exerted by sea urchin sulfated fucans and galactans of well-defined chemical structures on the egg-sperm recognition process during fertilization of this invertebrate. Flagellasialin, a sulfated polysialic acid-containing glycoprotein found in sea urchin sperm flagella, is another sulfated glycan example also involved in fertilization of the echinoderm.

  18. The ancestral complement system in sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Smith, L C; Clow, L A; Terwilliger, D P

    2001-04-01

    The origin of adaptive immunity in the vertebrates can be traced to the appearance of the ancestral RAG genes in the ancestral jawed vertebrate; however, the innate immune system is more ancient. A central subsystem within innate immunity is the complement system, which has been identified throughout and seems to be restricted to the deuterostomes. The evolutionary history of complement can be traced from the sea urchins (members of the echinoderm phylum), which have a simplified system homologous to the alternative pathway, through the agnathans (hagfish and lamprey) and the elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) to the teleosts (bony fish) and tetrapods, with increases in the numbers of complement components and duplications in complement pathways. Increasing complexity in the complement system parallels increasing complexity in the deuterostome animals. This review focuses on the simplest of the complement systems that is present in the sea urchin. Two components have been identified that show significant homology to vertebrate C3 and factor B (Bf), called SpC3 and SpBf, respectively. Sequence analysis from both molecules reveals their ancestral characteristics. Immune challenge of sea urchins indicates that SpC3 is inducible and is present in coelomic fluid (the body fluids) in relatively high concentrations, while SpBf expression is constitutive and is present in much lower concentrations. Opsonization of foreign cells and particles followed by augmented uptake by phagocytic coelomocytes appears to be a central function for this simpler complement system and important for host defense in the sea urchin. These activities are similar to some of the functions of the homologous proteins in the vertebrate complement system. The selective advantage for the ancestral deuterostome may have been the amplification feedback loop that is still of central importance in the alternative pathway of complement in higher vertebrates. Feedback loop functions would quickly coat

  19. Evolutionary crossroads in developmental biology: sea urchins.

    PubMed

    McClay, David R

    2011-07-01

    Embryos of the echinoderms, especially those of sea urchins and sea stars, have been studied as model organisms for over 100 years. The simplicity of their early development, and the ease of experimentally perturbing this development, provides an excellent platform for mechanistic studies of cell specification and morphogenesis. As a result, echinoderms have contributed significantly to our understanding of many developmental mechanisms, including those that govern the structure and design of gene regulatory networks, those that direct cell lineage specification, and those that regulate the dynamic morphogenetic events that shape the early embryo.

  20. Evolutionary crossroads in developmental biology: sea urchins

    PubMed Central

    McClay, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Embryos of the echinoderms, especially those of sea urchins and sea stars, have been studied as model organisms for over 100 years. The simplicity of their early development, and the ease of experimentally perturbing this development, provides an excellent platform for mechanistic studies of cell specification and morphogenesis. As a result, echinoderms have contributed significantly to our understanding of many developmental mechanisms, including those that govern the structure and design of gene regulatory networks, those that direct cell lineage specification, and those that regulate the dynamic morphogenetic events that shape the early embryo. PMID:21652646

  1. Diel patterns in sea urchin activity and predation on sea urchins on the Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. A. L.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2011-09-01

    Understanding diel patterns in sea urchin activity is important when assessing sea urchin populations and when interpreting their interactions with predators. Here we employ a combination of surveys and a non-invasive tethering technique to examine these patterns in an intact coral reef system on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). We also assess local scale variation in relative diurnal predation pressure. Surveys revealed that sea urchins were active and exposed at night. Echinometra mathaei and Echinothrix calamaris were the most abundant species with significantly higher night densities (0.21 and 0.03 ind. m-2, respectively), than daytime densities (0.05 and 0.001, respectively). Bioassays revealed that exposed adult E. mathaei (the most abundant sea urchin species) were 30.8 times more likely to be eaten during the day than at night when controlling for sites. This observation concurs with widely held assumptions that nocturnal activity is a risk-related adaptive response to diurnal predation pressure. Despite relatively intact predator communities on the GBR, potential predation pressure on diurnally exposed E. mathaei assays was variable at a local scale and the biomass of potential fish predators at each site was a poor predictive measure of this variation. Patterns in predation appear to be more complex and variable than we may have assumed.

  2. Can sea urchins beat the heat? Sea urchins, thermal tolerance and climate change.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The massive die-off of the long-spined sea urchin, Diadema antillarum, a significant reef grazer, in the mid 1980s was followed by phase shifts from coral dominated to macroalgae dominated reefs in the Caribbean. While Diadema populations have recovered in some reefs with concomitant increases in coral cover, the additional threat of increasing temperatures due to global climate change has not been investigated in adult sea urchins. In this study, I measured acute thermal tolerance of D. antillarum and that of a sympatric sea urchin not associated with coral cover, Echinometra lucunter, over winter, spring, and summer, thus exposing them to substantial natural thermal variation. Animals were taken from the wild and placed in laboratory tanks in room temperature water (∼22 °C) that was then heated at 0.16-0.3 °C min(-1) and the righting behavior of individual sea urchins was recorded. I measured both the temperature at which the animal could no longer right itself (T LoR) and the righting time at temperatures below the T LoR. In all seasons, D. antillarum exhibited a higher mean T LoR than E. lucunter. The mean T LoR of each species increased with increasing environmental temperature revealing that both species acclimatize to seasonal changes in temperatures. The righting times of D. antillarum were much shorter than those of E. lucunter. The longer relative spine length of Diadema compared to that of Echinometra may contribute to their shorter righting times, but does not explain their higher T LoR. The thermal safety margin (the difference between the mean collection temperature and the mean T LoR) was between 3.07-3.66 °C for Echinometra and 3.79-5.67 °C for Diadema. While these thermal safety margins exceed present day temperatures, they are modest compared to those of temperate marine invertebrates. If sea temperatures increase more rapidly than can be accommodated by the sea urchins (either by genetic adaptation, phenotypic plasticity, or both), this

  3. Can sea urchins beat the heat? Sea urchins, thermal tolerance and climate change

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The massive die-off of the long-spined sea urchin, Diadema antillarum, a significant reef grazer, in the mid 1980s was followed by phase shifts from coral dominated to macroalgae dominated reefs in the Caribbean. While Diadema populations have recovered in some reefs with concomitant increases in coral cover, the additional threat of increasing temperatures due to global climate change has not been investigated in adult sea urchins. In this study, I measured acute thermal tolerance of D. antillarum and that of a sympatric sea urchin not associated with coral cover, Echinometra lucunter, over winter, spring, and summer, thus exposing them to substantial natural thermal variation. Animals were taken from the wild and placed in laboratory tanks in room temperature water (∼22 °C) that was then heated at 0.16–0.3 °C min−1 and the righting behavior of individual sea urchins was recorded. I measured both the temperature at which the animal could no longer right itself (TLoR) and the righting time at temperatures below the TLoR. In all seasons, D. antillarum exhibited a higher mean TLoR than E. lucunter. The mean TLoR of each species increased with increasing environmental temperature revealing that both species acclimatize to seasonal changes in temperatures. The righting times of D. antillarum were much shorter than those of E. lucunter. The longer relative spine length of Diadema compared to that of Echinometra may contribute to their shorter righting times, but does not explain their higher TLoR. The thermal safety margin (the difference between the mean collection temperature and the mean TLoR) was between 3.07–3.66 °C for Echinometra and 3.79–5.67 °C for Diadema. While these thermal safety margins exceed present day temperatures, they are modest compared to those of temperate marine invertebrates. If sea temperatures increase more rapidly than can be accommodated by the sea urchins (either by genetic adaptation, phenotypic plasticity, or both), this

  4. Can sea urchins beat the heat? Sea urchins, thermal tolerance and climate change.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The massive die-off of the long-spined sea urchin, Diadema antillarum, a significant reef grazer, in the mid 1980s was followed by phase shifts from coral dominated to macroalgae dominated reefs in the Caribbean. While Diadema populations have recovered in some reefs with concomitant increases in coral cover, the additional threat of increasing temperatures due to global climate change has not been investigated in adult sea urchins. In this study, I measured acute thermal tolerance of D. antillarum and that of a sympatric sea urchin not associated with coral cover, Echinometra lucunter, over winter, spring, and summer, thus exposing them to substantial natural thermal variation. Animals were taken from the wild and placed in laboratory tanks in room temperature water (∼22 °C) that was then heated at 0.16-0.3 °C min(-1) and the righting behavior of individual sea urchins was recorded. I measured both the temperature at which the animal could no longer right itself (T LoR) and the righting time at temperatures below the T LoR. In all seasons, D. antillarum exhibited a higher mean T LoR than E. lucunter. The mean T LoR of each species increased with increasing environmental temperature revealing that both species acclimatize to seasonal changes in temperatures. The righting times of D. antillarum were much shorter than those of E. lucunter. The longer relative spine length of Diadema compared to that of Echinometra may contribute to their shorter righting times, but does not explain their higher T LoR. The thermal safety margin (the difference between the mean collection temperature and the mean T LoR) was between 3.07-3.66 °C for Echinometra and 3.79-5.67 °C for Diadema. While these thermal safety margins exceed present day temperatures, they are modest compared to those of temperate marine invertebrates. If sea temperatures increase more rapidly than can be accommodated by the sea urchins (either by genetic adaptation, phenotypic plasticity, or both), this

  5. Cellular and biochemical responses to environmental and experimentally induced stress in sea urchin coelomocytes

    PubMed Central

    Matranga, Valeria; Toia, Giuseppe; Bonaventura, Rosa; Müller, Werner E.G.

    2000-01-01

    Coelomocytes are considered to be immune effectors of sea urchins. Subpopulations of coelomocytes can be purified from a total cell suspension. The proportion of each cell type can vary not only among species, but also between individuals of the same species, according to their size and physiological conditions. We tested the hypothesis that coelomocytes play a role in defense mechanisms activated by adverse external conditions. Total coelomocytes from control and stressed (temperature, pollution, and injuries) sea urchins were analyzed for their expression of the 70 kDa heat shock protein (hsp70), a well recognized stress marker. Further analysis was performed by separation of coelomocytes into subpopulations by step gradients. We demonstrated that sea urchin coelomocytes respond to temperature shock and to polluted seawater by the upregulation of hsp70. Among coelomocytes certain cells, known as red spherula cells, showed a great increase in number in animals collected from polluted seawaters or subjected to “accidental” injury. The present study confirms the immunological function of sea urchin coelomocytes, as indicated by the upregulation of the hsp70 molecular marker, and suggests that sea urchin coelomocytes can be utilized as sensitive bio-indicators of environmental stress. PMID:11147962

  6. The Sea Urchin Embryo: A Remarkable Classroom Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are the uses of sea urchins in research and their usefulness and advantages in the classroom investigation of embryology. Ideas for classroom activities and student research are presented. Lists 25 references. (CW)

  7. For the Classroom: The Sea Urchin Fertilization and Embryology Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevoort, Douglas

    1984-01-01

    The sea urchin provides an ideal embryology laboratory because it is visually representative of the fertilization process in higher animals. Procedures for conducting such a laboratory (including methods for securing specimens) are provided. (JN)

  8. Sea urchin puncture resulting in PIP joint synovial arthritis: case report and MRI study.

    PubMed

    Liram, N; Gomori, M; Perouansky, M

    2000-01-01

    Of the 600 species of sea urchins, approximately 80 may be venomous to humans. The long spined or black sea urchin, Diadema setosum may cause damage by the breaking off of its brittle spines after they penetrate the skin. Synovitis followed by arthritis may be an unusual but apparently not a rare sequel to such injury, when implantation occurs near a joint. In this case report, osseous changes were not seen by plain x-rays. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to expose the more salient features of both soft tissue and bone changes of black sea urchin puncture injury 30 months after penetration. In all likelihood, this type of injury may be more common than the existing literature at present suggests. It is believed to be the first reported case in this part of the world as well as the first MRI study describing this type of joint pathology. Local and systemic reactions to puncture injuries from sea urchin spines have been described previously. These may range from mild, local irritation lasting a few days to granuloma formation, infection and on occasions systemic illness. The sea urchin spines are composed of calcium carbonate with proteinaceous covering. The covering tends to cause immune reactions of variable presentation. There are only a handful of reported cases with sea urchin stings on record, none of them from the Red Sea. However, this condition is probably more common than is thought and can present difficulty in diagnosis. In this case report, the inflammation responded well to heat treatment, mobilization and manipulation of the joint in its post acute and chronic stages. As some subtle changes in soft tissues and the changes in bone were not seen either on plain x-rays or ultrasound scan, gadolinium-enhanced MRI was used to unveil the marked changes in the joint.

  9. Effects of five southern California macroalgal diets on consumption, growth, and gonad weight, in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Jarrett E.K.; Reed, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Consumer growth and reproductive capacity are direct functions of diet. Strongylocentrotid sea urchins, the dominant herbivores in California kelp forests, strongly prefer giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera), but are highly catholic in their ability to consume other species. The biomass of Macrocystis fluctuates greatly in space and time, and the extent to which urchins can use alternate species of algae or a mixed diet of multiple algal species to maintain fitness when giant kelp is unavailable is unknown. We experimentally examined the effects of single and mixed species diets on consumption, growth and gonad weight in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Urchins were fed single species diets consisting of one of four common species of macroalgae (the kelps Macrocystis pyrifera and Pterygophora californica, and the red algae Chondracanthus corymbiferus and Rhodymenia californica (hereafter referred to by genus)) or a mixed diet containing all four species ad libitum over a 13-week period in a controlled laboratory setting. Urchins fed Chondracanthus, Macrocystis and a mixed diet showed the highest growth (in terms of test diameter, wet weight and jaw length) and gonad weight, while urchins fed Pterygophora and Rhodymenia showed the lowest. Urchins consumed their preferred food, Macrocystis, at the highest rate when offered a mixture, but consumed Chondracanthus or Macrocystis at similar rates when the two algae were offered alone. The differences in urchin feeding behavior and growth observed between these diet types suggest the relative availability of the algae tested here could affect urchin populations and their interactions with the algal assemblage. The fact that the performance of urchins fed Chondracanthus was similar or higher than those fed the preferred Macrocystis suggests that the availability of the former could could sustain growth and reproduction of purple sea urchins during times of low Macrocystis abundance as is common following

  10. Mineralization of the Sea Urchin Skeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilt, F.

    2001-12-01

    The sea urchin possess a calcareous skeleton composed of over 99% magnesian calcite,an enveloping extracellular matrix, and an occluded protein matrix. The most intensively studied skeletal element is the spicule of the embryo. At the 32 cell stage of development a cohort of 4 cells becomes irrevocably dedicated to spicule formation. At the early gastrula stage the descendants of these founder cells form the primary mesenchyme (PMC). The PMCs fuse to form a multinucleated syncytium connected by cytoplasmic cables, and the calcitic skeleton is formed within these cables. Our primary concern is with the cellular and molecular mechanisms that support the formation of the mineralized spicules. The import of calcium into the PMCs results in appearance of intracellular vesicles containing precipitated calcium, which is neither very stable nor birefringent, and could be amorphous. The precipitated calcium is vectorially secreted into an extracellular space. This space is almost completely enclosed by cytoplasmic strands, and the mineral is encased in an extracellular matrix. Proteins destined for the extracellular matrix, and for inclusion in the spicule, are present in the Golgi membranes and in small intracellular vesicles. These vesicles apparently deliver the matrix proteins to the growing spicule. Our current view is that the matrix molecules are much more than a passive armature, but are actively involved in precipitation, secretion, and organization of the mineral phase.

  11. Motility and centrosomal organization during sea urchin and mouse fertilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Heide; Schatten, Gerald

    1986-01-01

    It is noted that microfilaments are essential for incorporation of sperm in sea urchins and for pronuclear apposition in mice. The ability of sea urchin sperm to fertilize eggs is lowered by latrunculin, giving evidence that acrosomal microfilaments are of importance to the process of fertilization. Due to the uncertainty regarding the presence of microfilaments in various mammalian sperm, it is interesting that latrunculin does not noticeably affect the ability of mouse sperm to fertilize oocytes. The movements of the sperm and egg nuclei at the time of sea urchin fertilization are dependent on microtubules arranged into a radial monastral array (the sperm aster). In the mouse egg, microtubule activity is also required during pronuclear apposition, but they are arranged by a number of egg cytoplasmic sites. Results of the investigations show that both microtubules and microfilaments are necessary for the successful completion of fertilization in both mice and sea urchins, but at different stages. Also, it is demonstrated that centrosomes are contributed by the sperm in the process of sea urchin fertilization, but in mammals they may be inherited maternally.

  12. Innate immune response in the sea urchin Echinometra lucunter (Echinodermata).

    PubMed

    de Faria, Marcos Tucunduva; da Silva, José Roberto Machado Cunha

    2008-05-01

    Echinometra lucunter, (Pindá) is a sea urchin encountered in the Brazilian coast and exposed to high and low temperatures related to low and high tides. Despite their great distribution and importance, few studies have been done on the biological function of their coelomocytes. Thus, Echinometra lucunter perivisceral coelomocytes were characterized under optical and transmission electron microscopy. Phagocytic amoebocytes in the perivisceral coelom were labelled by injecting ferritin, and ferritin labelled phagocytic amoebocytes were found in the peristomial connective tissue after injecting India ink into the tissue, indicating the amoebocytes ability to respond to an inflammatory stimulus. Results showed that the phagocytic amoebocytes were the main inflammatory cells found in the innate immune response of E. lucunter. While other works have recorded these phenomena in sea urchins found in moderate and constant temperature, this study reports on these same phenomena in a tropical sea urchin under great variation of temperature, thus providing new data to inflammatory studies in invertebrate pathology. PMID:17988681

  13. Fish predation on sea urchins on the Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. A. L.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2012-09-01

    Predators are important for regulating adult sea urchin densities. Here, we employ remote underwater video cameras to record diurnal predation on tethered sea urchins at Lizard Island on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). We identified four fish predators of adult sea urchins ( Balistoides viridescens, Balistapus undulatus, Lethrinus atkinsoni and Choerodon schoenleinii). Predator activity appeared to be site-specific. Balistoides viridescens and B. undulatus (f: Balistidae) were the two most important predators of Echinometra mathaei with the former handling E. mathaei significantly faster (mean 0.7 min) than B. undulatus (5.2 min). Balistoides viridescens also successfully preyed on 70 % of detections, while C. schoenleinii, B. undulatus and L. atkinsoni preyed on just 33, 17 and <1 %, respectively. Additionally, B. viridescens were behaviourally dominant among predator species and were observed as aggressors in 30 encounters with B. undulatus and 8 encounters with L. atkinsoni. In only one encounter was B. viridescens the recipient of any aggression (from B. undulatus). In terms of relative vulnerability, of the three sea urchin species examined, E. mathaei were more vulnerable to predation than Diadema setosum or Echinothrix calamaris, with mean handling times of 1.2, 4.8 and 10.3 min, respectively. Balistoides viridescens and B. undulatus both appear to be able to play an important role as predators of sea urchins on the relatively intact coral reefs of Lizard Island. However, B. viridescens emerge as the most efficient predator in terms of handling speed and the proportion of detections preyed upon. They were also the behaviourally dominant predator. This preliminary study of the predators of sea urchins on the GBR highlights the potential significance of relatively scarce but functionally important species.

  14. Global regime shift dynamics of catastrophic sea urchin overgrazing

    PubMed Central

    Ling, S. D.; Scheibling, R. E.; Rassweiler, A.; Johnson, C. R.; Shears, N.; Connell, S. D.; Salomon, A. K.; Norderhaug, K. M.; Pérez-Matus, A.; Hernández, J. C.; Clemente, S.; Blamey, L. K.; Hereu, B.; Ballesteros, E.; Sala, E.; Garrabou, J.; Cebrian, E.; Zabala, M.; Fujita, D.; Johnson, L. E.

    2015-01-01

    A pronounced, widespread and persistent regime shift among marine ecosystems is observable on temperate rocky reefs as a result of sea urchin overgrazing. Here, we empirically define regime-shift dynamics for this grazing system which transitions between productive macroalgal beds and impoverished urchin barrens. Catastrophic in nature, urchin overgrazing in a well-studied Australian system demonstrates a discontinuous regime shift, which is of particular management concern as recovery of desirable macroalgal beds requires reducing grazers to well below the initial threshold of overgrazing. Generality of this regime-shift dynamic is explored across 13 rocky reef systems (spanning 11 different regions from both hemispheres) by compiling available survey data (totalling 10 901 quadrats surveyed in situ) plus experimental regime-shift responses (observed during a total of 57 in situ manipulations). The emergent and globally coherent pattern shows urchin grazing to cause a discontinuous ‘catastrophic’ regime shift, with hysteresis effect of approximately one order of magnitude in urchin biomass between critical thresholds of overgrazing and recovery. Different life-history traits appear to create asymmetry in the pace of overgrazing versus recovery. Once shifted, strong feedback mechanisms provide resilience for each alternative state thus defining the catastrophic nature of this regime shift. Importantly, human-derived stressors can act to erode resilience of desirable macroalgal beds while strengthening resilience of urchin barrens, thus exacerbating the risk, spatial extent and irreversibility of an unwanted regime shift for marine ecosystems.

  15. Quantitative developmental transcriptomes of the Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    PubMed

    Gildor, Tsvia; Malik, Assaf; Sher, Noa; Avraham, Linor; Ben-Tabou de-Leon, Smadar

    2016-02-01

    Embryonic development progresses through the timely activation of thousands of differentially activated genes. Quantitative developmental transcriptomes provide the means to relate global patterns of differentially expressed genes to the emerging body plans they generate. The sea urchin is one of the classic model systems for embryogenesis and the models of its developmental gene regulatory networks are of the most comprehensive of their kind. Thus, the sea urchin embryo is an excellent system for studies of its global developmental transcriptional profiles. Here we produced quantitative developmental transcriptomes of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (P. lividus) at seven developmental stages from the fertilized egg to prism stage. We generated de-novo reference transcriptome and identified 29,817 genes that are expressed at this time period. We annotated and quantified gene expression at the different developmental stages and confirmed the reliability of the expression profiles by QPCR measurement of a subset of genes. The progression of embryo development is reflected in the observed global expression patterns and in our principle component analysis. Our study illuminates the rich patterns of gene expression that participate in sea urchin embryogenesis and provide an essential resource for further studies of the dynamic expression of P. lividus genes.

  16. Sea urchin immune cells as sentinels of environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Pinsino, Annalisa; Matranga, Valeria

    2015-03-01

    Echinoderms, an ancient and very successful phylum of marine invertebrates, play a central role in the maintenance of ecosystem integrity and are constantly exposed to environmental pressure, including: predation, changes in temperature and pH, hypoxia, pathogens, UV radiation, metals, toxicants, and emerging pollutants like nanomaterials. The annotation of the sea urchin genome, so closely related to humans and other vertebrate genomes, revealed an unusually complex immune system, which may be the basis for why sea urchins can adapt to different marine environments and survive even in hazardous conditions. In this review, we give a brief overview of the morphological features and recognized functions of echinoderm immune cells with a focus on studies correlating stress and immunity in the sea urchin. Immune cells from adult Paracentrotus lividus, which have been introduced in the last fifteen years as sentinels of environmental stress, are valid tools to uncover basic molecular and regulatory mechanisms of immune responses, supporting their use in immunological research. Here we summarize laboratory and field studies that reveal the amenability of sea urchin immune cells for toxicological testing.

  17. Toxicity of bauxite manufacturing by-products in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Giovanni; Meriç, Süreyya; De Biase, Antonella; laccarino, Mario; Petruzzelli, Domenico; Tünay, Olcay; Warnau, Michel

    2002-01-01

    By-products from a bauxite manufacturing plant located in Seydişehir, Turkey, were investigated for their composition and any toxicity to sea urchin embryogenesis. Samples from three other bauxite plants located in France, Greece, and Italy were simultaneously tested for toxicity in sea urchin embryos. Samples included sludge and solid residues in the plant and sediment and water columns from two holding ponds (red sludge or cryolite residues). Samples were analyzed for their inorganic content by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Analyses were carried out either following strong acid extraction or after release of soluble components from seawater-suspended pellets. Toxicity was tested by sea urchin bioassays, to evaluate the following endpoints: (a) acute and/or developmental toxicity, (b) changes in fertilization success, and (c) transmissible damage from sperm to offspring. The results revealed the following: (1) inorganic analysis, following strong acid extraction, showed a prevalence of Al and Fe; (2) seawater release of soluble contaminants was confined to Fe and Mn, whereas Al levels were not changed by suspending increasing sample amounts in seawater; (3) the most severe toxicity to sea urchin embryos was exerted by a 2% water column from the red sludge holding pond and by soil and sludge collected near the plant reactor; (4) sludge supernatant was the most toxic sample to sperm and offspring. The data showed a prevailing association of free Fe (and possibly Mn) levels with Seydişehir sample toxicity. The water column of the red sludge holding pond showed both excess levels of free Al and high pH, thus suggesting a combined effect. The differences in sample toxicity in the Seydişehir plant compared with other bauxite manufacturing plants suggest a possible variable toxicity as related to bauxite ore composition and/or manufacturing processes.

  18. Microgravity effects of sea urchin fertilization and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, S.; Simerly, C.; Schatten, H.; Schatten, G.; Fiser, R.

    1992-01-01

    Gravity has been a pervasive influence on all living systems and there is convincing evidence to suggest that it alters fertilization and embryogenesis in several developmental systems. Notwithstanding the global importance of gravity on development, it has only been recently possible to begin to design experiments which might directly investigate the specific effects of this vector. The goal of this research program is to explore and understand the effects of gravity on fertilization and early development using sea urchins as a model system. Sea urchin development has several advantages for this project including the feasibility of maintaining and manipulating these cells during spaceflight, the high percentage of normal fertilization and early development, and the abundant knowledge about molecular, biochemical, and cellular events during embryogenesis which permits detailed insights into the mechanism by which gravity might interfere with development. Furthermore, skeletal calcium is deposited into the embryonic spicules within a day of fertilization permitting studies of the effects of gravity on bone calcium deposition.

  19. The sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus immunological response to chemical pollution exposure: The case of lindane.

    PubMed

    Stabili, Loredana; Pagliara, Patrizia

    2015-09-01

    In the marine environment organochlorine insecticides can be broadly detected in water, sediments, and biota. These pollutants may have major ecological consequences since they may affect marine organisms and endanger organismal growth, reproduction or survival. In this study we investigated the modification of some sea urchin immunological parameters in response to subchronic lindane (γ-HCH) exposure. Adult specimens of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus were exposed to two different concentrations (0.1 and 0.5 mg L(-1)) of lindane. After 24 and 48h of treatment, we examined the lindane influence on coelomocytes vitality and enumeration as well on some humoral parameters. Our results showed that the presence of the pesticide affected both cellular and humoral components of the immune system. In particular, P. lividus coelomocytes vitality did not change but a decrease of the total cell number and an increase of the red cells was recorded. Haemolytic and lysozyme-like activities as well as antibacterial activity on Vibrio alginolyticus of treated animals decreased. Sea urchin immunological competence modifications might represent a tool for monitoring disease susceptibility thus providing biological criteria for the implementation of water quality standards to protect marine organisms.

  20. Management of sea urchin spines in the hand.

    PubMed

    Newmeyer, W L

    1988-05-01

    The left palm of a 43-year-old woman was penetrated by sea urchin spines. Localization of the spines by soft tissue technique x-ray films proved to be the key to their easy removal. A review of the literature shows this to be an uncommon problem and that spine removal may be important to avoid long-term sequelae of pain and loss of function.

  1. Sea Urchins Predation Facilitates Coral Invasion in a Marine Reserve

    PubMed Central

    Coma, Rafel; Serrano, Eduard; Linares, Cristina; Ribes, Marta; Díaz, David; Ballesteros, Enric

    2011-01-01

    Macroalgae is the dominant trophic group on Mediterranean infralittoral rocky bottoms, whereas zooxanthellate corals are extremely rare. However, in recent years, the invasive coral Oculina patagonica appears to be increasing its abundance through unknown means. Here we examine the pattern of variation of this species at a marine reserve between 2002 and 2010 and contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms that allow its current increase. Because indirect interactions between species can play a relevant role in the establishment of species, a parallel assessment of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, the main herbivorous invertebrate in this habitat and thus a key species, was conducted. O. patagonica has shown a 3-fold increase in abundance over the last 8 years and has become the most abundant invertebrate in the shallow waters of the marine reserve, matching some dominant erect macroalgae in abundance. High recruitment played an important role in this increasing coral abundance. The results from this study provide compelling evidence that the increase in sea urchin abundance may be one of the main drivers of the observed increase in coral abundance. Sea urchins overgraze macroalgae and create barren patches in the space-limited macroalgal community that subsequently facilitate coral recruitment. This study indicates that trophic interactions contributed to the success of an invasive coral in the Mediterranean because sea urchins grazing activity indirectly facilitated expansion of the coral. Current coral abundance at the marine reserve has ended the monopolization of algae in rocky infralittoral assemblages, an event that could greatly modify both the underwater seascape and the sources of primary production in the ecosystem. PMID:21789204

  2. Sea urchin fertilization during a KC-135 parabolic flight.

    PubMed

    Schatten, H; Zoran, S; Levine, H G; Anderson, K; Chakrabarti, A

    1999-07-01

    For long-term exposure to space it is crucial to understand the underlying mechanisms for altered physiological functions. We have chosen the sea urchin system to study the effects of microgravity on various cellular processes visible during fertilization and subsequent development. We report here on experiments performed on NASA's KC-135 during parabolic flight trajectories to validate procedures to be implemented as part of the first Aquatic Research Facility Space Shuttle experiment on STS-77. PMID:11543042

  3. Fatalities associated with harvesting of sea urchins--Maine, 1993.

    PubMed

    1994-04-01

    During 1992-1993, six persons died while diving for sea urchins in Maine waters--two during 1992 and four during August-November 1993. The four 1993 deaths were investigated by the Maine Department of Marine Resources, the U.S. Coast Guard, the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner in Maine, and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA); each of the deaths was attributed to drowning. This report describes the results of the investigations of these cases.

  4. Using sea urchin gametes and zygotes to investigate centrosome duplication.

    PubMed

    Sluder, Greenfield

    2016-01-01

    Centriole structure and function in the sea urchin zygote parallel those in mammalian somatic cells. Here, I briefly introduce the properties and attributes of the sea urchin system that make it an attractive platform for the study of centrosome and centriole duplication. These attributes apply to all echinoderms readily available from commercial suppliers: sea urchins, sand dollars, and starfish. I list some of the practical aspects of the system that make it a cost- and time-effective system for experimental work and then list properties that are a "tool kit" that can be used to conduct studies that would not be practical, or in some cases not possible, with mammalian somatic cells. Since centrioles organize and localize the pericentriolar material that nucleates the astral arrays of microtubules (Bobinnec et al. in J Cell Biol 143(6):1575-1589, 1998), the pattern of aster duplication over several cell cycles can be used as a reliable measure for centriole duplication (Sluder and Rieder in J Cell Biol 100(3):887-896, 1985). Descriptions of the methods my laboratory has used to handle and image echinoderm zygotes are reviewed in Sluder et al. (Methods Cell Biol 61:439-472, 1999). Also included is a bibliography of papers that describe additional methods.

  5. Using sea urchin gametes and zygotes to investigate centrosome duplication.

    PubMed

    Sluder, Greenfield

    2016-01-01

    Centriole structure and function in the sea urchin zygote parallel those in mammalian somatic cells. Here, I briefly introduce the properties and attributes of the sea urchin system that make it an attractive platform for the study of centrosome and centriole duplication. These attributes apply to all echinoderms readily available from commercial suppliers: sea urchins, sand dollars, and starfish. I list some of the practical aspects of the system that make it a cost- and time-effective system for experimental work and then list properties that are a "tool kit" that can be used to conduct studies that would not be practical, or in some cases not possible, with mammalian somatic cells. Since centrioles organize and localize the pericentriolar material that nucleates the astral arrays of microtubules (Bobinnec et al. in J Cell Biol 143(6):1575-1589, 1998), the pattern of aster duplication over several cell cycles can be used as a reliable measure for centriole duplication (Sluder and Rieder in J Cell Biol 100(3):887-896, 1985). Descriptions of the methods my laboratory has used to handle and image echinoderm zygotes are reviewed in Sluder et al. (Methods Cell Biol 61:439-472, 1999). Also included is a bibliography of papers that describe additional methods. PMID:27602205

  6. Toxic Diatom Aldehydes Affect Defence Gene Networks in Sea Urchins

    PubMed Central

    Varrella, Stefano; Ruocco, Nadia; Ianora, Adrianna; Bentley, Matt G.; Costantini, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Marine organisms possess a series of cellular strategies to counteract the negative effects of toxic compounds, including the massive reorganization of gene expression networks. Here we report the modulated dose-dependent response of activated genes by diatom polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. PUAs are secondary metabolites deriving from the oxidation of fatty acids, inducing deleterious effects on the reproduction and development of planktonic and benthic organisms that feed on these unicellular algae and with anti-cancer activity. Our previous results showed that PUAs target several genes, implicated in different functional processes in this sea urchin. Using interactomic Ingenuity Pathway Analysis we now show that the genes targeted by PUAs are correlated with four HUB genes, NF-κB, p53, δ-2-catenin and HIF1A, which have not been previously reported for P. lividus. We propose a working model describing hypothetical pathways potentially involved in toxic aldehyde stress response in sea urchins. This represents the first report on gene networks affected by PUAs, opening new perspectives in understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying the response of benthic organisms to diatom exposure. PMID:26914213

  7. Robustness and Accuracy in Sea Urchin Developmental Gene Regulatory Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Tabou de-Leon, Smadar

    2016-01-01

    Developmental gene regulatory networks robustly control the timely activation of regulatory and differentiation genes. The structure of these networks underlies their capacity to buffer intrinsic and extrinsic noise and maintain embryonic morphology. Here I illustrate how the use of specific architectures by the sea urchin developmental regulatory networks enables the robust control of cell fate decisions. The Wnt-βcatenin signaling pathway patterns the primary embryonic axis while the BMP signaling pathway patterns the secondary embryonic axis in the sea urchin embryo and across bilateria. Interestingly, in the sea urchin in both cases, the signaling pathway that defines the axis controls directly the expression of a set of downstream regulatory genes. I propose that this direct activation of a set of regulatory genes enables a uniform regulatory response and a clear cut cell fate decision in the endoderm and in the dorsal ectoderm. The specification of the mesodermal pigment cell lineage is activated by Delta signaling that initiates a triple positive feedback loop that locks down the pigment specification state. I propose that the use of compound positive feedback circuitry provides the endodermal cells enough time to turn off mesodermal genes and ensures correct mesoderm vs. endoderm fate decision. Thus, I argue that understanding the control properties of repeatedly used regulatory architectures illuminates their role in embryogenesis and provides possible explanations to their resistance to evolutionary change. PMID:26913048

  8. Toxic Diatom Aldehydes Affect Defence Gene Networks in Sea Urchins.

    PubMed

    Varrella, Stefano; Romano, Giovanna; Costantini, Susan; Ruocco, Nadia; Ianora, Adrianna; Bentley, Matt G; Costantini, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Marine organisms possess a series of cellular strategies to counteract the negative effects of toxic compounds, including the massive reorganization of gene expression networks. Here we report the modulated dose-dependent response of activated genes by diatom polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. PUAs are secondary metabolites deriving from the oxidation of fatty acids, inducing deleterious effects on the reproduction and development of planktonic and benthic organisms that feed on these unicellular algae and with anti-cancer activity. Our previous results showed that PUAs target several genes, implicated in different functional processes in this sea urchin. Using interactomic Ingenuity Pathway Analysis we now show that the genes targeted by PUAs are correlated with four HUB genes, NF-κB, p53, δ-2-catenin and HIF1A, which have not been previously reported for P. lividus. We propose a working model describing hypothetical pathways potentially involved in toxic aldehyde stress response in sea urchins. This represents the first report on gene networks affected by PUAs, opening new perspectives in understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying the response of benthic organisms to diatom exposure. PMID:26914213

  9. Juvenile skeletogenesis in anciently diverged sea urchin clades.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Thompson, Jeffrey R; Petsios, Elizabeth; Erkenbrack, Eric; Moats, Rex A; Bottjer, David J; Davidson, Eric H

    2015-04-01

    Mechanistic understanding of evolutionary divergence in animal body plans devolves from analysis of those developmental processes that, in forms descendant from a common ancestor, are responsible for their morphological differences. The last common ancestor of the two extant subclasses of sea urchins, i.e., euechinoids and cidaroids, existed well before the Permian/Triassic extinction (252 mya). Subsequent evolutionary divergence of these clades offers in principle a rare opportunity to solve the developmental regulatory events underlying a defined evolutionary divergence process. Thus (i) there is an excellent and fairly dense (if yet incompletely analyzed) fossil record; (ii) cladistically confined features of the skeletal structures of modern euechinoid and cidaroid sea urchins are preserved in fossils of ancestral forms; (iii) euechinoids and cidaroids are among current laboratory model systems in molecular developmental biology (here Strongylocentrotus purpuratus [Sp] and Eucidaris tribuloides [Et]); (iv) skeletogenic specification in sea urchins is uncommonly well understood at the causal level of interactions of regulatory genes with one another, and with known skeletogenic effector genes, providing a ready arsenal of available molecular tools. Here we focus on differences in test and perignathic girdle skeletal morphology that distinguish all modern euechinoid from all modern cidaroid sea urchins. We demonstrate distinct canonical test and girdle morphologies in juveniles of both species by use of SEM and X-ray microtomography. Among the sharply distinct morphological features of these clades are the internal skeletal structures of the perignathic girdle to which attach homologous muscles utilized for retraction and protraction of Aristotles׳ lantern and its teeth. We demonstrate that these structures develop de novo between one and four weeks after metamorphosis. In order to study the underlying developmental processes, a method of section whole mount in

  10. Using molecular prey detection to quantify rock lobster predation on barrens-forming sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Redd, K S; Ling, S D; Frusher, S D; Jarman, S; Johnson, C R

    2014-08-01

    We apply qPCR molecular techniques to detect in situ rates of consumption of sea urchins (Centrostephanus rodgersii and Heliocidaris erythrogramma) by rock lobsters (Jasus edwardsii). A non-lethal method was used to source faecal samples from trap-caught lobsters over 2 years within two no-take research reserves. There was high variability in the proportion of lobsters with faeces positive for sea urchin DNA across years and seasons dependent on lobster size. Independent estimates of lobster predation rate on sea urchins (determined from observed declines in urchin abundances in the reserves relative to control sites) suggest that rates of molecular prey detection generally overestimated predation rates. Also, small lobsters known to be incapable of directly predating emergent sea urchins showed relatively high rates of positive tests. These results indicate that some lobsters ingest non-predatory sources of sea urchin DNA, which may include (i) ingestion of C. rodgersii DNA from the benthos (urchin DNA is detectable in sediments and some lobsters yield urchin DNA in faeces when fed urchin faeces or sediment); (ii) scavenging; and/or predation by rock lobsters on small pre-emergent urchins that live cryptically within the reef matrix (although this possibility could not be assessed). While the DNA-based approach and direct monitoring of urchin populations both indicate high predation rates of large lobsters on emergent urchins, the study shows that in some cases absolute predation rates and inferences of predator-prey interactions cannot be reliably estimated from molecular signals obtained from the faeces of benthic predators. At a broad semi-quantitative level, the approach is useful to identify relative magnitudes of predation and temporal and spatial variability in predation.

  11. Red sea drillings.

    PubMed

    Ross, D A; Whitmarsh, R B; Ali, S A; Boudreaux, J E; Coleman, R; Fleisher, R L; Girdler, R; Manheim, F; Matter, A; Nigrini, C; Stoffers, P; Supko, P R

    1973-01-26

    Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered. PMID:17843766

  12. Red sea drillings.

    PubMed

    Ross, D A; Whitmarsh, R B; Ali, S A; Boudreaux, J E; Coleman, R; Fleisher, R L; Girdler, R; Manheim, F; Matter, A; Nigrini, C; Stoffers, P; Supko, P R

    1973-01-26

    Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered.

  13. The Genome of the Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We report the sequence and analysis of the 814-megabase genome of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a model for developmental and systems biology. The sequencing strategy combined whole-genome shotgun and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences. This use of BAC clones, aided by a pooling strategy, overcame difficulties associated with high heterozygosity of the genome. The genome encodes about 23,300 genes, including many previously thought to be vertebrate innovations or known only outside the deuterostomes. This echinoderm genome provides an evolutionary outgroup for the chordates and yields insights into the evolution of deuterostomes. PMID:17095691

  14. Regeneration of cilia in heavily irradiated sea urchin embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Rustad, R.C.

    1981-12-01

    Cilia were removed from blastulae, gastrulae, and plutei of the sea urchins Arbacia punctulata and Lytechinus variegatus by shaking the embryos in hypertonic media. Exposure to 50 krad (and in some experiments 100 krad) of ..gamma.. radiation either before or after deciliation had no effect on the time of appearance of regenerating cilia. There were no visually obvious differences in the rate of growth of the cilia in control and irradiated embryos. The cilia commenced beating at the same time, but the initial beating sometimes seemed less vigorous following irradiation. The data support the hypothesis that radiation has no major effect on the assembly from mature basal bodies of the microtubules of cilia.

  15. Messenger RNA in early sea-urchin embryos: size classes.

    PubMed

    Nemer, M; Infante, A A

    1965-10-01

    Rapidly labeled RNA from four-cell embryos and blastulae of sea urchins was analyzed by sedimentation and for ability to form DNA-RNA hybrids. The RNA was derived from polyribosomes and from the "gel interphase," an extraction compartment resulting from treatment of whole embryos with phenol and known to be enriched with nuclei. The RNA from both sources displayed a high degree of structural complementarity to DNA. This DNA-like RNA of the polyribosomes sedimented in discrete classes, rather than in the sedimentation continuum demonstrable for the labeled RNA of the gel interphase. Thus messenger RNA appears to emerge in the cytoplasm in discrete size classes. PMID:5837338

  16. Macroalgal assemblage type affects predation pressure on sea urchins by altering adhesion strength.

    PubMed

    Gianguzza, P; Bonaviri, C; Milisenda, G; Barcellona, A; Agnetta, D; Vega Fernández, T; Badalamenti, F

    2010-07-01

    In the Mediterranean, sea breams are the most effective Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula predators. Generally, seabreams dislodge adult urchins from the rocky substrate, turn them upside down and crush their tests. Sea urchins may respond to fish attacks clinging tenaciously to the substratum. This study is the first attempt to investigate sea urchin adhesion strength in two alternative algal assemblages of the rocky infralittoral and valuated its possible implication for fish predation. We hypothesized that (1) sea urchin adhesion strength is higher in rocky shores dominated by encrusting macroalgae (ECA) than in erected macroalgae (EMA); (2) predation rates upon sea urchins are lower in ECA than in EMA; and (3) predation rate on A. lixula is lower than that on P. lividus. We observed that attachment tenacity of both sea urchins was higher in ECA than EMA and that A. lixula exhibited a stronger attachment tenacity than P. lividus in ECA. Results supported the importance of adhesion strength, as efficient defence against sea bream attacks, only for, P. lividus. A. lixula adhesion strength does not seem to be an important factor in avoiding fish predation, possibly because of the low palatability of the species. These patterns may deserve particular interest in understanding the processes responsible for the maintenance of sea urchin barrens that are dominated by ECA assemblage. PMID:20382419

  17. Gene regulatory network analysis in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Oliveri, Paola; Davidson, Eric H

    2004-01-01

    It may safely be predicted that GRN analysis will become increasingly important. It will come to underlie the causal study of development, the major effort underway to understand the regulatory code built into animal genomes and also the evolution of these genomes. Partly by serendipity, sea urchin embryos turn out to be a superb experimental material for GRN analysis. Their natural properties have, in turn, influenced the predilections of those who work on them, and between them and us, so to speak, this is now a developmental system of which we are rapidly gaining an unusually complete understanding. The causal linkages that control development of the whole embryo will be revealed, leading all the way from the heritable genomic regulatory code to the events of embryology. The fundamental experimental operation is the perturbation analysis: Here is where causality permeates the exploration. We have in this chapter summarized in some detail the requirements for perturbation GRN analysis in sea urchin embryos. But that is not all, nor is it enough to enable the assembly of a GRN: What is required is the combined application of elegant computational methods, of gene regulation molecular biology, of genomic sequence data, and of experimental embryology. As the results crystallize together, we can begin to see how far this powerful combination of methods and ideas is going to carry us. PMID:15575631

  18. Mechanisms of cytotoxicity by cosmetic ingredients in sea urchin eggs.

    PubMed

    Amouroux, I; Pesando, D; Noël, H; Girard, J P

    1999-01-01

    The acute cytotoxicities of four cosmetic ingredients: a preservative, imidazolidinylurea (IU) and three mild surfactants, cocamido propyl hydroxy sultaine (CAS), magnesium laureth sulfate (Mg LES), and decyl glucoside (APG) were studied using sea urchin eggs. The cellular targets of these compounds were identified by studying the effects on calcium homeostasis, intracellular pH, sodium and potassium contents, protein and DNA synthesis, and protein phosphorylation. These compounds inhibited the first cleavage of sea urchin eggs in a dose-dependent fashion with half maximal doses (IC50) from 30 microg/ml for Mg LES, 60 microg/ml for IU, 83 microg/ml for CAS, to above 400 microg/ml for APG. The time at which a compound showed the greatest toxicity to the cell cycle was definable for APG (between 20 and 50 min postfertilization) and IU (from fertilization to 50 min later); the other compounds being toxic throughout division. Compounds exhibited toxicity to a wide range of cellular targets. IU, the least toxic, mainly operates through inhibition of protein and DNA syntheses. CAS and Mg LES produced nonspecific cytotoxicity related to alterations of membrane and endomembrane permeabilities resulting in ionic disequilibrium (Na+, K+, Ca2+) and inhibition of intracellular storage of Ca2+. The APG effect mainly involved intracellular pH and DNA synthesis, a hypothesis suggested by the narrow postfertilization period of maximal toxicity. PMID:9828259

  19. Neurogenic gene regulatory pathways in the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zheng; Angerer, Lynne M; Angerer, Robert C

    2016-01-15

    During embryogenesis the sea urchin early pluteus larva differentiates 40-50 neurons marked by expression of the pan-neural marker synaptotagmin B (SynB) that are distributed along the ciliary band, in the apical plate and pharyngeal endoderm, and 4-6 serotonergic neurons that are confined to the apical plate. Development of all neurons has been shown to depend on the function of Six3. Using a combination of molecular screens and tests of gene function by morpholino-mediated knockdown, we identified SoxC and Brn1/2/4, which function sequentially in the neurogenic regulatory pathway and are also required for the differentiation of all neurons. Misexpression of Brn1/2/4 at low dose caused an increase in the number of serotonin-expressing cells and at higher dose converted most of the embryo to a neurogenic epithelial sphere expressing the Hnf6 ciliary band marker. A third factor, Z167, was shown to work downstream of the Six3 and SoxC core factors and to define a branch specific for the differentiation of serotonergic neurons. These results provide a framework for building a gene regulatory network for neurogenesis in the sea urchin embryo.

  20. Sea urchin sperm antigens mediating the acrosome reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Trimmer, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    The study of sea urchin sperm antigens mediating the acrosome reactions (AR) has been undertaken. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been isolated reacting with a number of sperm surface antigens. These mAbs have been used in functional assays to attempt to infer the roles of these proteins in the induction of the AR. These mAbs have also been used to isolate protein for biochemical characterization and reconstitution studies. mAbs reacting with a 210 kD protein of the sea urchin sperm plasma membrane have been used to identify this protein as playing a role in the regulation of ion fluxes during the induction of the AR. mAbs reacting with certain extracellular regions inhibit the induction of: the AR, the long duration {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} uptake into the mitochondrion, and H{sup +} efflux. Addition of these same mAbs, however, induces an increase in sperm (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} to levels much higher than those induced by FSG, as monitored by the fluorescent Ca{sup 2+} indicators fura 2 and indo 1. This (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} increase occurs without an increase in pH{sub i}, and thus allows for the first time the analysis of the effects of increasing sperm (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} ion the absence of increased pH{sub i}.

  1. Neurogenic gene regulatory pathways in the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zheng; Angerer, Lynne M; Angerer, Robert C

    2016-01-15

    During embryogenesis the sea urchin early pluteus larva differentiates 40-50 neurons marked by expression of the pan-neural marker synaptotagmin B (SynB) that are distributed along the ciliary band, in the apical plate and pharyngeal endoderm, and 4-6 serotonergic neurons that are confined to the apical plate. Development of all neurons has been shown to depend on the function of Six3. Using a combination of molecular screens and tests of gene function by morpholino-mediated knockdown, we identified SoxC and Brn1/2/4, which function sequentially in the neurogenic regulatory pathway and are also required for the differentiation of all neurons. Misexpression of Brn1/2/4 at low dose caused an increase in the number of serotonin-expressing cells and at higher dose converted most of the embryo to a neurogenic epithelial sphere expressing the Hnf6 ciliary band marker. A third factor, Z167, was shown to work downstream of the Six3 and SoxC core factors and to define a branch specific for the differentiation of serotonergic neurons. These results provide a framework for building a gene regulatory network for neurogenesis in the sea urchin embryo. PMID:26657764

  2. Toxicity and DNA methylation changes induced by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guanghui; Wang, Luyan; Zhang, Jing; Wei, Yuanyuan; Wei, Lie; Li, Yang; Shao, Mihua; Xiong, Deqi

    2015-06-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an ubiquitous persistent organic pollutant, which can be bioaccumulated and cause adverse effects on organisms. However, there is very limited information about the toxic effects of PFOS to marine organisms and its mechanisms. Therefore, in the present study, adult sea urchins Glyptocidaris crenularis were exposed to PFOS for 21 d, followed by a 7-d depuration period, in order to investigate the toxicity of PFOS to sea urchin and its potential epigenetic mechanisms. Sea urchins dropped spines, and lowered down the motor ability and feeding ability after the PFOS exposure. Superoxide dismutase activities in supernatant of coelomic fluid of sea urchin increased firstly and then dropped down, while the change of the catalase activity took an opposite trend during the exposure period. They both approached to the corresponding activity of the control after the depuration period. The DNA methylation polymorphism, methylation rate and demethylation rate in sea urchin gonad all increased following the prolonged exposure time, and then decreased after the depuration period. The demethylation rates were lower than the corresponding methylation rates, therefore methylation events were dominant during the whole experimental period. This might suggest that sea urchin have strong self-protection mechanisms and can survive from the PFOS exposure presented in this study. Further efforts are needed to more precisely investigate the DNA methylation effects of PFOS and the self-protection mechanism of sea urchin.

  3. Toxicity and DNA methylation changes induced by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guanghui; Wang, Luyan; Zhang, Jing; Wei, Yuanyuan; Wei, Lie; Li, Yang; Shao, Mihua; Xiong, Deqi

    2015-06-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an ubiquitous persistent organic pollutant, which can be bioaccumulated and cause adverse effects on organisms. However, there is very limited information about the toxic effects of PFOS to marine organisms and its mechanisms. Therefore, in the present study, adult sea urchins Glyptocidaris crenularis were exposed to PFOS for 21 d, followed by a 7-d depuration period, in order to investigate the toxicity of PFOS to sea urchin and its potential epigenetic mechanisms. Sea urchins dropped spines, and lowered down the motor ability and feeding ability after the PFOS exposure. Superoxide dismutase activities in supernatant of coelomic fluid of sea urchin increased firstly and then dropped down, while the change of the catalase activity took an opposite trend during the exposure period. They both approached to the corresponding activity of the control after the depuration period. The DNA methylation polymorphism, methylation rate and demethylation rate in sea urchin gonad all increased following the prolonged exposure time, and then decreased after the depuration period. The demethylation rates were lower than the corresponding methylation rates, therefore methylation events were dominant during the whole experimental period. This might suggest that sea urchin have strong self-protection mechanisms and can survive from the PFOS exposure presented in this study. Further efforts are needed to more precisely investigate the DNA methylation effects of PFOS and the self-protection mechanism of sea urchin. PMID:25723714

  4. Polysaccharide Constituents of Three Types of Sea Urchin Shells and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activities.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Heng; Shang, Xiaohui; Dong, Qi; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zheng, Heng; Lu, Xiaoling

    2015-09-16

    As a source of potent anti-inflammatory traditional medicines, the quantitative chromatographic fingerprints of sea urchin shell polysaccharides were well established via pre-column derivatization high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Based on the quantitative results, the content of fucose and glucose could be used as preliminary distinguishing indicators among three sea urchin shell species. Besides, the anti-inflammatory activities of the polysaccharides from sea urchin shells and their gonads were also determined. The gonad polysaccharide of Anthocidaris crassispina showed the most potent anti-inflammatory activity among all samples tested.

  5. Polysaccharide Constituents of Three Types of Sea Urchin Shells and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activities

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Heng; Shang, Xiaohui; Dong, Qi; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zheng, Heng; Lu, Xiaoling

    2015-01-01

    As a source of potent anti-inflammatory traditional medicines, the quantitative chromatographic fingerprints of sea urchin shell polysaccharides were well established via pre-column derivatization high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Based on the quantitative results, the content of fucose and glucose could be used as preliminary distinguishing indicators among three sea urchin shell species. Besides, the anti-inflammatory activities of the polysaccharides from sea urchin shells and their gonads were also determined. The gonad polysaccharide of Anthocidaris crassispina showed the most potent anti-inflammatory activity among all samples tested. PMID:26389925

  6. Pulses of phytoplanktonic productivity may enhance sea urchin abundance and induce state shifts in Mediterranean rocky reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Luis; Moranta, Joan; Reñones, Olga; Hereu, Bernat

    2013-11-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that increased planktonic primary productivity may enhance sea urchin recruitment and trigger changes in the structure of benthic communities in oligotrophic temperate regions. Underwater surveys were conducted in the marine reserve of northern Minorca (Balearic Archipelago, western Mediterranean) and an adjoining control area in 2005 and 2012 to assess the abundance of fishes and sea urchins and the cover of macroalgae before and after a natural pulse of planktonic primary productivity. The biomass of most fishes, including that of sea urchin predators, increased significantly in the whole area two years after the productivity pulse, without any effect of management or depth. The abundance of sea urchins also increased throughout the whole area two years after the productivity pulse, but the average test diameter decreased, thus revealing improved recruitment. The aggregated cover of erect algae and that of Cystoseira brachycarpa did not change significantly from 2005 to 2012, but the cover of turf-forming algae was negatively correlated with the biomass of sea urchins, whereas the cover of coralline barren was positively correlated with the biomass of sea urchins. The overall evidence indicates that planktonic primary productivity is a key factor in the dynamics of sea urchin populations in oligotrophic regions and that improved sea urchin recruitment after productivity pulses in spring and early summer may result in sea urchin populations sufficiently dense to result in the development of coralline barrens independently on the density of sea urchin predators.

  7. Genomes of Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and Lytechinus variegatus: are there any genomic explanations for the two order of magnitude difference in the lifespan of sea urchins?

    PubMed Central

    Sergiev, Petr V.; Artemov, Artem A.; Prokhortchouk, Egor B.; Dontsova, Olga A.; Berezkin, Grigory V.

    2016-01-01

    Sea urchins are marine invertebrates of extreme diversity of life span. Red sea urchin S. franciscanus is among the longest living creatures of the Ocean. Its lifetime is estimated to exceed a century, while the green sea urchin L. variegatus hardly survives more than four years. We sequenced and compared the genomes of these animals aiming at determination of the genetic basis of their longevity difference. List of genes related to the longevity of other animal species was created and used for homology search among the genomic data obtained in this study. Aminoacid sequences of longevity related proteins of S. franciscanus and L. variegatus as well as from a set of model species, were aligned and grouped on the basis of the species lifespan. Aminoacid residues specific for a longevity group were identified. Proteins containing aminoacids whose identity correlated with the lifespan were clustered on the basis of their function. PMID:26851889

  8. Community-level destruction of hard corals by the sea urchin Diadema setosum.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jian-Wen; Lau, Dickey C C; Cheang, Chi-chiu; Chow, Wing-kuen

    2014-08-30

    Sea urchins are common herbivores and bioeroders of coral ecosystems, but rarely have they been reported as corallivores. We determined the spatial pattern of hard coral damage due to corallivory and bioerosion by the sea urchin Diadema setosum Leske in Hong Kong waters. Coral damage was common at the northeastern sites, with 23.7 - 90.3% colonies being either collapsed or severely damaged with >25% tissue loss. Many genera of corals were impacted by the sea urchin but the damage was most obvious for the structure forming genus Platygyra. The percentage of severely damaged and collapsed coral had significant positive correlation with the abundance of D. setosum, which ranged from 0.01 to 5.2 individuals per coral head or 0.1 - 21.1 individuals m(-2) across the study sites. Remedial management actions such as sea urchin removal are urgently needed to save these fringing coral communities.

  9. Embryotoxicity of the antifouling biocide zinc pyrithione to sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) and mussel (Mytilus edulis).

    PubMed

    Bellas, Juan; Granmo, Ke; Beiras, Ricardo

    2005-11-01

    The effects of the new antifouling compound zinc pyrithione (Zpt) on the embryonic development of sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) and mussel (Mytilus edulis) were investigated in laboratory toxicity tests. The median effective concentrations (EC50) were 7.7 nM for sea urchin embryos and 8 nM for mussel embryos. Toxic effects of Zpt on the larval growth of the sea urchin were detected at 0.5 nM. Predicted environmental concentrations of Zpt in pleasure craft harbours are higher than the predicted no effect concentrations for sea urchin and mussel embryos, indicating that Zpt may pose a threat to those species from exposure in the field. PMID:16023145

  10. Effects of a Range-Expanding Sea Urchin on Behaviour of Commercially Fished Abalone

    PubMed Central

    Strain, Elisabeth M. A.; Johnson, Craig R.; Thomson, Russell J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Global climate change has resulted in a southerly range expansion of the habitat modifying sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii to the east coast of Tasmania, Australia. Various studies have suggested that this urchin outcompetes black-lipped abalone (Haliotis rubra) for resources, but experiments elucidating the mechanisms are lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings We outline a new framework involving experimental manipulations and Markov chain and Pareto modelling to examine the effects of interspecific competition between urchins and abalone and the effect of intraspecific competition in abalone, assessed as effects on behaviour. Manipulations of abalone densities had no detectable effect on urchin behavioural transitions, movement patterns or resightability through time. In contrast, additions of urchins resulted in abalone shifting microhabitats from exposed to sheltered positions, an increase in the proportion of mobile abalone, and declines in abalone resightability through time relative to controls without the urchins. Our results support the hypothesis of asymmetrical competitive interactions between urchins and abalone. Conclusions/Significance The introduction of urchins to intact algal beds causes abalone to flee and seek shelter in cryptic microhabitat which will negatively impact both their accessibility to such microhabitats, and productivity of the abalone fishery, and will potentially affect their growth and survival, while the presence of the abalone has no detectable effect on the urchin. Our approach involving field-based experiments and modelling could be used to test the effects of other invasive species on native species behaviour. PMID:24073195

  11. Quantitative developmental transcriptomes of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Qiang; Cameron, R. Andrew; Davidson, Eric H.

    2014-01-01

    Development depends on the precise control of gene expression in time and space. A critical step towards understanding the global gene regulatory networks underlying development is to obtain comprehensive information on gene expression. In this study, we measured expression profiles for the entire expressed gene set during sea urchin embryonic development. We confirmed the reliability of these profiles by comparison with NanoString measurements for a subset of genes and with literature values. The data show that ~16,500 genes have been activated by the end of embryogenesis, and for half of them the transcript abundance changes more than 10-fold during development. From this genome scale expression survey, we show that complex patterns of expression by many genes underlie embryonic development, particularly during the early stages before gastrulation. An intuitive web application for data query and visualization is presented to facilitate use of this large dataset. PMID:24291147

  12. Sea urchin coelomic fluid agglutinin mediates coelomocyte adhesion.

    PubMed

    Canicattì, C; Pagliara, P; Stabili, L

    1992-08-01

    The sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus coelomic fluid was found to contain agglutinin which agglutinates animal erythrocytes and promotes adhesion of autologous coelomocytes. Hemagglutinating activity depended upon the presence of calcium ions and was relatively heat-stable. Through a combination of methods including ammonium sulfate precipitation and both size exclusion and ion exchange chromatographies, we purified the anti-rabbit agglutinating factor. The intact agglutinin migrates as a single band with an apparent M(r) of over 200,000. Three distinct protein bands with a calculated M(r) of 174,000, 137,000, and 76,000, respectively were observed under reducing conditions. The purified agglutinin strongly promoted the in vitro adhesion of autologous coelomocytes. PMID:1425767

  13. Digestion in sea urchin larvae impaired under ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumpp, Meike; Hu, Marian; Casties, Isabel; Saborowski, Reinhard; Bleich, Markus; Melzner, Frank; Dupont, Sam

    2013-12-01

    Larval stages are considered as the weakest link when a species is exposed to challenging environmental changes. Reduced rates of growth and development in larval stages of calcifying invertebrates in response to ocean acidification might be caused by energetic limitations. So far no information exists on how ocean acidification affects digestive processes in marine larval stages. Here we reveal alkaline (~pH 9.5) conditions in the stomach of sea urchin larvae. Larvae exposed to decreased seawater pH suffer from a drop in gastric pH, which directly translates into decreased digestive efficiencies and triggers compensatory feeding. These results suggest that larval digestion represents a critical process in the context of ocean acidification, which has been overlooked so far.

  14. Influence of 60-Hz magnetic fields on sea urchin development

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, S.; Zimmerman, A.M.; Winters, W.D.; Cameron, I.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Continuous exposure of sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) embryos at 18 degrees C to a cyclic 60-Hz magnetic field at 0.1 mT rms beginning 4 min after insemination caused a significant developmental delay during the subsequent 23 hours. No delay in development was recorded for periods up to 18 hours after fertilization. At 18 h, most embryos were in the mesenchyme blastula stage. At 23 h, most control embryos were in mid-gastrula whereas most magnetic-field-exposed embryos were in the early gastrula stage. Thus an estimated 1-h delay occurred between these developmental stages. The results are discussed in terms of possible magnetic-field modification of transcription as well as interference with cell migration during gastrulation. The present study extends and supports the growing body of information about potential effects of exposures to extremely-low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields on developing organisms.

  15. Activation of maternal centrosomes in unfertilized sea urchin eggs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, H.; Walter, M.; Biessmann, H.; Schatten, G.

    1992-01-01

    Centrosomes are undetectable in unfertilized sea urchin eggs, and normally the sperm introduces the cell's microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) at fertilization. However, artificial activation or parthenogenesis triggers microtubule assembly in the unfertilized egg, and this study explores the reappearance and behavior of the maternal centrosome. During activation with A23187 or ammonia, microtubules appear first at the cortex; centrosomal antigen is detected diffusely throughout the entire cytoplasm. Later, the centrosome becomes more distinct and organizes a radial microtubule shell, and eventually a compact centrosome at the egg center organizes a monaster. In these activated eggs, centrosomes undergo cycles of compaction and decompaction in synchrony with the chromatin, which also undergoes cycles of condensation and decondensation. Parthenogenetic activation with heavy water (50% D2O) or the microtubule-stabilizing drug taxol (10 microM) induces numerous centrosomal foci in the unfertilized sea urchin egg. Within 15 min after incubation in D2O, numerous fine centrosomal foci are detected, and they organize a connected network of numerous asters which fill the entire egg. Taxol induces over 100 centrosomal foci by 15 min after treatment, which organize a corresponding number of asters. The centrosomal material in either D2O- or taxol-treated eggs aggregates with time to form fewer but denser foci, resulting in fewer and larger asters. Fertilization of eggs pretreated with either D2O or taxol shows that the paternal centrosome is dominant over the maternal centrosome. The centrosomal material gradually becomes associated with the enlarged sperm aster. These experiments demonstrate that maternal centrosomal material is present in the unfertilized egg, likely as dispersed undetectable material, which can be activated without paternal contributions. At fertilization, paternal centrosomes become dominant over the maternal centrosomal material.

  16. Identification of protein components from the mature ovary of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).

    PubMed

    Sewell, Mary A; Eriksen, Soren; Middleditch, Martin J

    2008-06-01

    The gonads of sea urchins are a high value seafood product, with considerable research being undertaken worldwide on the development of sea urchin aquaculture. As the best prices are obtained for specific gonad attributes, research has also focused on the development of artificial diets that enhance gonad quality and quantity. Total protein has been used as a measure of gonad quality; yet no studies to date have applied proteomics technology to diet development. Here we use a MudPIT and 2-DE approach to describe the major proteins in mature ovaries of a New Zealand sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus. This tissue, which is a target seafood product, contained 138 proteins that were identified from the recently completed sea urchin genome (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) with high confidence. The majority of these proteins had general functions, with only 12 related to ovarian reproductive function. Eighteen proteins were located on the 2-DE; four of these were directly identified from S. purpuratus protein sequences. In combination this paper shows that the genome resources of S. purpuratus can be used to identify proteins in sea urchins from different families; describes the proteome of E. chloroticus mature ovary; and, provides proteomic tools for analysis of gonads from other edible sea urchins. PMID:18563751

  17. Trophic ecology of sea urchins in coral-rocky reef systems, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Cabanillas-Terán, Nancy; Loor-Andrade, Peggy; Rodríguez-Barreras, Ruber; Cortés, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Sea urchins are important grazers and influence reef development in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP). Diadema mexicanum and Eucidaris thouarsii are the most important sea urchins on the Ecuadorian coastal reefs. This study provided a trophic scenario for these two species of echinoids in the coral-rocky reef bottoms of the Ecuadorian coast, using stable isotopes. We evaluated the relative proportion of algal resources assimilated, and trophic niche of the two sea urchins in the most southern coral-rocky reefs of the ETP in two sites with different disturbance level. Bayesian models were used to estimate the contribution of algal sources, niche breadth, and trophic overlap between the two species. The sea urchins behaved as opportunistic feeders, although they showed differential resource assimilation. Eucidaris thouarsii is the dominant species in disturbed environments; likewise, their niche amplitude was broader than that of D. mexicanum when conditions were not optimal. However, there was no niche overlap between the species. The Stable Isotope Analysis in R (SIAR) indicated that both sea urchins shared limiting resources in the disturbed area, mainly Dictyota spp. (contributions of up to 85% for D. mexicanum and up to 75% for E. thouarsii). The Stable Isotope Bayesian Ellipses in R (SIBER) analysis results indicated less interspecific competition in the undisturbed site. Our results suggested a trophic niche partitioning between sympatric sea urchin species in coastal areas of the ETP, but the limitation of resources could lead to trophic overlap and stronger habitat degradation.

  18. Trophic ecology of sea urchins in coral-rocky reef systems, Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Loor-Andrade, Peggy; Rodríguez-Barreras, Ruber; Cortés, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Sea urchins are important grazers and influence reef development in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP). Diadema mexicanum and Eucidaris thouarsii are the most important sea urchins on the Ecuadorian coastal reefs. This study provided a trophic scenario for these two species of echinoids in the coral-rocky reef bottoms of the Ecuadorian coast, using stable isotopes. We evaluated the relative proportion of algal resources assimilated, and trophic niche of the two sea urchins in the most southern coral-rocky reefs of the ETP in two sites with different disturbance level. Bayesian models were used to estimate the contribution of algal sources, niche breadth, and trophic overlap between the two species. The sea urchins behaved as opportunistic feeders, although they showed differential resource assimilation. Eucidaris thouarsii is the dominant species in disturbed environments; likewise, their niche amplitude was broader than that of D. mexicanum when conditions were not optimal. However, there was no niche overlap between the species. The Stable Isotope Analysis in R (SIAR) indicated that both sea urchins shared limiting resources in the disturbed area, mainly Dictyota spp. (contributions of up to 85% for D. mexicanum and up to 75% for E. thouarsii). The Stable Isotope Bayesian Ellipses in R (SIBER) analysis results indicated less interspecific competition in the undisturbed site. Our results suggested a trophic niche partitioning between sympatric sea urchin species in coastal areas of the ETP, but the limitation of resources could lead to trophic overlap and stronger habitat degradation. PMID:26839748

  19. Micropredation on sea urchins as a potential stabilizing process for rocky reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaviri, Chiara; Gianguzza, Paola; Pipitone, Carlo; Hereu, Bernat

    2012-10-01

    Rocky reefs can shift from forest, a state dominated by erect algae with high biodiversity, to barren, an impoverished state dominated by encrusting algae. Sea urchins, abundant in barrens, are usually held responsible for the maintenance of this state. Predation by large fish can revert the barren state to forest by controlling sea urchin populations. However, the persistence of a community state sometimes seems to be independent from the presence of such large predators, suggesting the existence of other unknown mechanisms ensuring their stability. Theoretical studies suggest that the settler stage of sea urchins is determinant for maintaining a given rocky reef state. In this study, we have identified several potential invertebrate micropredators of settlers of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and measured their predation activity. Predation rates showed marked differences among species, possibly due to morphological and/or behavioral traits. Micropredators were more abundant in the forest than in barren, and their potential impact on the sea urchin community differed between the two states by two orders of magnitude. These findings suggest a novel self-perpetuating mechanism stabilizing rocky reef systems, where the abundance of micropredators may contribute to shape the sea urchin population, which in turn is responsible for the persistence of the state.

  20. Overgrazing of a large seagrass bed by the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus in Outer Florida Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, C.D.; Sharp, W.C.; Kenworthy, W.J.; Hunt, J.H.; Lyons, W.G.; Prager, E.J.; Valentine, J.F.; Hall, M.O.; Whitfield, P.E.; Fourqurean, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Unusually dense aggregations of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus overgrazed at least 0.81 km2 of seagrass habitat in Outer Florida Bay (USA) between August 1997 and May 1998. Initially, sea-urchin densities were as high as 364 sea urchins m-2, but they steadily declined to within a range of 20 to 50 sea urchins m-2 by December 1998. Prior to this event, sea-urchin densities were 95% of the short-shoot apical meristems were removed by sea-urchin grazing in our study area. Such extensive loss may severely limit recovery of this seagrass community by vegetative reproduction. Effects of the removal of seagrass biomass have already resulted in the depletion of epifaunal-infaunal mollusk assemblages and resuspension of fine-grained (<64 ??m) surface sediments - which have caused significant changes in community structure and in the physical properties of the sediments. These changes, coupled with the loss of essential fishery habitat, reductions in primary and secondary production, and degradation of water quality, may lead to additional, longer-term, indirect effects that may extend beyond the boundaries of the grazed areas and into adjacent coastal ecosystems.

  1. Trophic ecology of sea urchins in coral-rocky reef systems, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Cabanillas-Terán, Nancy; Loor-Andrade, Peggy; Rodríguez-Barreras, Ruber; Cortés, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Sea urchins are important grazers and influence reef development in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP). Diadema mexicanum and Eucidaris thouarsii are the most important sea urchins on the Ecuadorian coastal reefs. This study provided a trophic scenario for these two species of echinoids in the coral-rocky reef bottoms of the Ecuadorian coast, using stable isotopes. We evaluated the relative proportion of algal resources assimilated, and trophic niche of the two sea urchins in the most southern coral-rocky reefs of the ETP in two sites with different disturbance level. Bayesian models were used to estimate the contribution of algal sources, niche breadth, and trophic overlap between the two species. The sea urchins behaved as opportunistic feeders, although they showed differential resource assimilation. Eucidaris thouarsii is the dominant species in disturbed environments; likewise, their niche amplitude was broader than that of D. mexicanum when conditions were not optimal. However, there was no niche overlap between the species. The Stable Isotope Analysis in R (SIAR) indicated that both sea urchins shared limiting resources in the disturbed area, mainly Dictyota spp. (contributions of up to 85% for D. mexicanum and up to 75% for E. thouarsii). The Stable Isotope Bayesian Ellipses in R (SIBER) analysis results indicated less interspecific competition in the undisturbed site. Our results suggested a trophic niche partitioning between sympatric sea urchin species in coastal areas of the ETP, but the limitation of resources could lead to trophic overlap and stronger habitat degradation. PMID:26839748

  2. Fishing for lobsters indirectly increases epidemics in sea urchins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2004-01-01

    Two ecological paradigms, the trophic cascade and the host-density threshold in disease, interact in the kelp-forest ecosystem to structure the community. To investigate what happens when a trophic cascade pushes a host population over a host-threshold density, I analyzed a 20-year data set of kelp forest communities at 16 sites in the region of the Channel Islands National Park, California, USA. Historically, lobsters, and perhaps other predators, kept urchin populations at low levels and kelp forests developed a community-level trophic cascade. In geographic areas where the main predators on urchins were fished, urchin populations increased to the extent that they overgrazed algae and starvation eventually limited urchin-population growth. Despite the limitation of urchin population size by food availability, urchin densities, at times, well exceeded the host-density threshold for epidemics. An urchin-specific bacterial disease entered the region after 1992 and acted as a density-dependent mortality source. Dense populations were more likely to experience epidemics and suffer higher mortality. Disease did not reduce the urchin population at a site to the density that predators previously did. Therefore, disease did not fully replace predators in the trophic cascade. These results indicate how fishing top predators can indirectly favor disease transmission in prey populations.

  3. Sea urchin coelomocytes as a novel cellular biosensor of environmental stress: a field study in the Tremiti Island Marine Protected Area, Southern Adriatic Sea, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pinsino, A; Della Torre, C; Sammarini, V; Bonaventura, R; Amato, E; Matranga, V

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate on the suitability of the sea urchin as a sentinel organism for the assessment of the macro-zoobenthos health state in bio-monitoring programmes. A field study was carried out during two oceanographic campaigns using immuno-competent cells, the coelomocytes, from sea urchins living in a marine protected area. In particular, coelomocytes subpopulations ratio and heat shock protein 70 (HSC70) levels were measured in specimens of Paracentrotus lividus (Lamark, 1816) collected in two sampling sites, namely Pianosa and Caprara Islands, both belonging to the Tremiti Island Marine Protected Area (MPA) in the Southern Adriatic Sea, Italy. By density gradients separation performed on board the Astrea boat, we found an evident increase in red amoebocytes, a subpopulation increasing upon stress, in those specimens collected around Pianosa (strictly protected area with no human activities allowed), unlike those collected around Caprara (low restrictions for human activities). Likewise, we found higher HSC70 protein levels in the low impacted site (Pianosa) by Western blots on total coelomocyte lysates. The apparent paradox could be explained by the presence in the Pianosa sampling area of contaminating remains from Second World War conventional ammunitions and a merchant boat wreck. Metal determination performed using sea urchin gonads by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) revealed higher Fe and lower Zn levels around Pianosa with respect to Caprara, in accordance with the persistent contaminating metal sources, and thus calling for remediation measures. Taken all together, our results confirm the feasibility of using sea urchin coelomocytes as biosensors of environmental stress. PMID:18228151

  4. Regulation of protein synthesis during sea urchin early development

    SciTech Connect

    Kelso, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    Fertilization of the sea urchin egg results in a 20-40 fold increase in the rate of protein synthesis. The masked message hypothesis proposes that mRNAs are masked or unavailable for translation in the egg. We devised an in vivo assay to test this hypothesis. Our results show that masked mRNAs limit protein synthesis in the unfertilized egg. In addition, we show that protein synthesis is also regulated at the level of translational machinery. Following fertilization is a period of rapid cell divisions. This period, known as the rapid cleavage stage, is characterized by the transient synthesis of a novel set of proteins. The synthesis of these proteins is programmed by maternal mRNAs stored in the unfertilized egg. To study the behavior of these mRNAs, we prepared a cDNA library from polysomal poly (A+) RNA from 2-hour embryos. ({sup 32}P) labeled probes, prepared from the cDNA library, were used to monitor the levels of individual mRNAs in polysomes at fertilization and during early development.

  5. The dynamics of secretion during sea urchin embryonic skeleton formation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, Fred H.

    2008-05-01

    Skeleton formation involves secretion of massive amounts of mineral precursor, usually a calcium salt, and matrix proteins, many of which are deposited on, or even occluded within, the mineral. The cell biological underpinnings of this secretion and subsequent assembly of the biomineralized skeletal element is not well understood. We ask here what is the relationship of the trafficking and secretion of the mineral and matrix within the primary mesenchyme cells of the sea urchin embryo, cells that deposit the endoskeletal spicule. Fluorescent labeling of intracellular calcium deposits show mineral precursors are present in granules visible by light microscopy, from whence they are deposited in the endoskeletal spicule, especially at its tip. In contrast, two different matrix proteins tagged with GFP are present in smaller post-Golgi vesicles only seen by electron microscopy, and the secreted protein are only incorporated into the spicule in the vicinity of the cell of origin. The matrix protein, SpSM30B, is post-translationally modified during secretion, and this processing continues after its incorporation into the spicule. Our findings also indicate that the mineral precursor and two well characterized matrix proteins are trafficked by different cellular routes.

  6. Development of cell junctions in sea-urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, E; Howard, L

    1983-07-01

    The development of cell junctions in sea-urchin embryos has been investigated using thin sections, lanthanum-tracer and freeze-fracture techniques. Three types of desmosomes are present: belt desmosomes and spot desmosomes, which attach cells to each other, and hemi-desmosomes, which attach cells to the basement membrane. Two types of septate junctions are present: the straight, unbranched, double-septum septate, which is present in epithelial cells throughout embryogenesis, and the pleated, anastomosing, single-septum septate. The latter is formed only on cells that have invaginated to the interior of the embryo to form the digestive tract. The pleated junctions are shown to replace the straight junctions that were originally present before the cells migrated to the interior. It is suggested that these pleated septates may be specialized for digestive processes, since they are developed just prior to feeding and are retained in the adult intestine. Tricellular junctions, which join the bicellular junctions of three adjoining cells, have been identified in the embryo and in the adult intestine. Evidence for the presence of gap junctions was not obtained, but there are indications of their presence.

  7. Sperm chemotaxis promotes individual fertilization success in sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Yasmeen H; Guasto, Jeffrey S; Zimmer, Richard K; Stocker, Roman; Riffell, Jeffrey A

    2016-05-15

    Reproductive success fundamentally shapes an organism's ecology and evolution, and gamete traits mediate fertilization, which is a critical juncture in reproduction. Individual male fertilization success is dependent on the ability of sperm from one male to outcompete the sperm of other males when searching for a conspecific egg. Sperm chemotaxis, the ability of sperm to navigate towards eggs using chemical signals, has been studied for over a century, but such studies have long assumed that this phenomenon improves individual male fitness without explicit evidence to support this claim. Here, we assessed fertilization changes in the presence of a chemoattractant-digesting peptidase and used a microfluidic device coupled with a fertilization assay to determine the effect of sperm chemotaxis on individual male fertilization success in the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus We show that removing chemoattractant from the gametic environment decreases fertilization success. We further found that individual male differences in chemotaxis to a well-defined gradient of attractant correlate with individual male differences in fertilization success. These results demonstrate that sperm chemotaxis is an important contributor to individual reproductive success. PMID:26994183

  8. Nuclear lamins and peripheral nuclear antigens during fertilization and embryogenesis in mice and sea urchins

    SciTech Connect

    Schatten, G.; Schatten, H.; Simerly, C.; Maul, G.G.; Chaly, N.

    1985-07-01

    Nuclear structural changes during fertilization and embryogenesis in mice and sea urchins are traced using four antibodies. The oocytes from virgin female mice, morulae and blastocytes from mated females, and gametes from the sea urchin Lytechnius variegatis are studied using mouse monoclonal antibodies to nuclear lamin A/C, monoclonal antibody to P1, human autoimmune antibodies to lamin A/C, and to lamin B. The mouse fertilization data reveal no lamins on the oocyte; however, lamins are present on the pronuclei, and chromosomes are found on the oocytes and pronuclei. It is detected that on the sea urchin sperm the lamins are reduced to acrosomal and centriolar fossae and peripheral antigens are around the sperm nucleus. The mouse sperm bind lamin antibodies regionally and do not contain antigens. Lamins and antigens are observed on both pronuclei and chromosomes during sea urchin fertilization. Mouse embryogenesis reveals that lamin A/C is not recognized at morula and blastocyst stages; however, lamin B stains are retained. In sea urchin embryogenesis lamin recognition is lost at the blastrula, gastrula, and plutei stages. It is noted that nuclear lamins lost during spermatogenesis are restored at fertilization and peripheral antigens are associated with the surface of chromosomes during meiosis and mitosis and with the periphery of the pronuclei and nuclei during interphase. 32 references.

  9. Nuclear lamins and peripheral nuclear antigens during fertilization and embryogenesis in mice and sea urchins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, G.; Schatten, H.; Simerly, C.; Maul, G. G.; Chaly, N.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear structural changes during fertilization and embryogenesis in mice and sea urchins are traced using four antibodies. The oocytes from virgin female mice, morulae and blastocytes from mated females, and gametes from the sea urchin Lytechnius variegatis are studied using mouse monoclonal antibodies to nuclear lamin A/C, monoclonal antibody to P1, human autoimmune antibodies to lamin A/C, and to lamin B. The mouse fertilization data reveal no lamins on the oocyte; however, lamins are present on the pronuclei, and chromosomes are found on the oocytes and pronuclei. It is detected that on the sea urchin sperm the lamins are reduced to acrosomal and centriolar fossae and peripheral antigens are around the sperm nucleus. The mouse sperm bind lamin antibodies regionally and do not contain antigens. Lamins and antigens are observed on both pronuclei and chromosomes during sea urchin fertilization. Mouse embryogenesis reveals that lamin A/C is not recognized at morula and blastocyst stages; however, lamin B stains are retained. In sea urchin embryogenesis lamin recognition is lost at the blastrula, gastrula, and plutei stages. It is noted that nuclear lamins lost during spermatogenesis are restored at fertilization and peripheral antigens are associated with the surface of chromosomes during meiosis and mitosis and with the periphery of the pronuclei and nuclei during interphase.

  10. Influence of potentially confounding factors on sea urchin porewater toxicity tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, R.S.; Biedenbach, J.M.; Nipper, M.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of potentially confounding factors has been identified as a concern for interpreting sea urchin porewater toxicity test data. The results from >40 sediment-quality assessment surveys using early-life stages of the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata were compiled and examined to determine acceptable ranges of natural variables such as pH, ammonia, and dissolved organic carbon on the fertilization and embryological development endpoints. In addition, laboratory experiments were also conducted with A. punctulata and compared with information from the literature. Pore water with pH as low as 6.9 is an unlikely contributor to toxicity for the fertilization and embryological development tests with A. punctulata. Other species of sea urchin have narrower pH tolerance ranges. Ammonia is rarely a contributing factor in pore water toxicity tests using the fertilization endpoint, but the embryological development endpoint may be influenced by ammonia concentrations commonly found in porewater samples. Therefore, ammonia needs to be considered when interpreting results for the embryological development test. Humic acid does not affect sea urchin fertilization at saturation concentrations, but it could have an effect on the embryological development endpoint at near-saturation concentrations. There was no correlation between sediment total organic carbon concentrations and porewater dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Because of the potential for many varying substances to activate parthenogenesis in sea urchin eggs, it is recommended that a no-sperm control be included with every fertilization test treatment. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  11. Influence of potentially confounding factors on sea urchin porewater toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Carr, R S; Biedenbach, J M; Nipper, M

    2006-11-01

    The influence of potentially confounding factors has been identified as a concern for interpreting sea urchin porewater toxicity test data. The results from >40 sediment-quality assessment surveys using early-life stages of the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata were compiled and examined to determine acceptable ranges of natural variables such as pH, ammonia, and dissolved organic carbon on the fertilization and embryological development endpoints. In addition, laboratory experiments were also conducted with A. punctulata and compared with information from the literature. Pore water with pH as low as 6.9 is an unlikely contributor to toxicity for the fertilization and embryological development tests with A. punctulata. Other species of sea urchin have narrower pH tolerance ranges. Ammonia is rarely a contributing factor in pore water toxicity tests using the fertilization endpoint, but the embryological development endpoint may be influenced by ammonia concentrations commonly found in porewater samples. Therefore, ammonia needs to be considered when interpreting results for the embryological development test. Humic acid does not affect sea urchin fertilization at saturation concentrations, but it could have an effect on the embryological development endpoint at near-saturation concentrations. There was no correlation between sediment total organic carbon concentrations and porewater dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Because of the potential for many varying substances to activate parthenogenesis in sea urchin eggs, it is recommended that a no-sperm control be included with every fertilization test treatment.

  12. Preparation and use of sea urchin egg homogenates.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Anthony J; Galione, Antony

    2014-01-01

    Cell homogenates provide a simple and yet powerful means of investigating the actions of Ca(2+)-mobilizing second messengers and their target Ca(2+) stores. The sea urchin egg homogenate is particularly useful and almost unique in retaining robust Ca(2+) responses to all three major messengers, i.e., inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), cyclic ADP-ribose, and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) (Lee and Aarhus. J Biol Chem 270: 2152-2172, 1995). It is not only invaluable for probing the pharmacology and mechanism of action of these messengers, but can also be used to assay Ca(2+) uptake mechanisms (Churchill et al. Cell 111: 703-708, 2002), second messenger production (Morgan et al. Methods in cADPR and NAADP research. In: Putney JW Jr (ed) Methods in calcium signalling, CRC: Boca Raton, FL, 2006), and dynamics of luminal pH (pHL) changes within acidic Ca(2+) stores (Lee and Epel. Dev Biol 98: 446-454, 1983; Morgan and Galione. Biochem J 402: 301-310, 2007). Here, we detail the protocols for preparing and using egg homogenates, wherein eggs are shed and collected into artificial sea water (ASW), dejellied, washed several times in Ca(2+)-free ASW, and then finally washed and resuspended in an intracellular-like medium. Homogenization is effected with a Dounce glass tissue homogenizer (at 50 % (v/v)) and aliquots frozen and stored at -80 °C. For Ca(2+) (or pHL) measurements, homogenate is thawed and sequentially diluted in an intracellular-like medium and the fluorescence of Ca(2+)- or pHL-sensitive dyes monitored in a standard fluorimeter or plate-reader. PMID:24567213

  13. Analysis of Cytoskeletal and Motility Proteins in the Sea Urchin Genome Assembly

    PubMed Central

    RL, Morris; MP, Hoffman; RA, Obar; SS, McCafferty; IR, Gibbons; AD, Leone; J, Cool; EL, Allgood; AM, Musante; KM, Judkins; BJ, Rossetti; AP, Rawson; DR, Burgess

    2007-01-01

    The sea urchin embryo is a classical model system for studying the role of the cytoskeleton in such events as fertilization, mitosis, cleavage, cell migration and gastrulation. We have conducted an analysis of gene models derived from the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome assembly and have gathered strong evidence for the existence of multiple gene families encoding cytoskeletal proteins and their regulators in sea urchin. While many cytoskeletal genes have been cloned from sea urchin with sequences already existing in public databases, genome analysis reveals a significantly higher degree of diversity within certain gene families. Furthermore, genes are described corresponding to homologs of cytoskeletal proteins not previously documented in sea urchins. To illustrate the varying degree of sequence diversity that exists within cytoskeletal gene families, we conducted an analysis of genes encoding actins, specific actin-binding proteins, myosins, tubulins, kinesins, dyneins, specific microtubule-associated proteins, and intermediate filaments. We conducted ontological analysis of select genes to better understand the relatedness of urchin cytoskeletal genes to those of other deuterostomes. We analyzed developmental expression (EST) data to confirm the existence of select gene models and to understand their differential expression during various stages of early development. PMID:17027957

  14. Nanoantenna-like properties of sea-urchin shaped ZnO as a nanolight filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husn Su, Yen; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2012-09-01

    A light scattering peak of ZnO rods is presented at 543.2 nm. The radiation peaks of ZnO nanospines correspond to 496.6 nm and 630.6 nm due to the breaking of the symmetry of the ZnO rods. The radiation peaks of sea-urchin shaped ZnO was observed and confirmed by utilizing the dipole approximation. Sea-urchin shaped ZnO can tune and then filter different frequencies of light by utilizing incident light to illuminate at the different positions of sea-urchin shaped ZnO which works like a nanolight filter device and has potential applications in photonic computers, bio-light emission device, and solar cells.

  15. Effects of light and covering behavior on PAX6 expression in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chong; Ji, Nanjing; Sun, Ping; Feng, Wenping; Wei, Jing; Chang, Yaqing

    2014-01-01

    We studied the diel expression pattern of PAX6 (a structural gene that is commonly involved in the eye development and photoreception of eye forming animals) and the effects of light and covering behavior on PAX6 expression in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius. We confirmed that aphotic condition significantly reduced covering behavior in S. intermedius. The diel expression pattern of PAX6 was significantly different in S. intermedius under photic and aphotic conditions. The gene expression of PAX6 significantly deceased in covered S. intermedius both under natural light and in darkness. The present finding provides valuable insight into the probable link between covering and PAX6 expression of sea urchins. Further studies are required to investigate the detailed expression network of light detection involved genes in order to fully reveal the molecular mechanism of the light-induced covering behavior of sea urchins.

  16. Streamlining behaviour of the red urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus in response to flow.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Hannah L; Britton-Simmons, Kevin H

    2011-08-15

    This work was motivated by subtidal observations of red urchins (Strongylocentrotus franciscanus) moving their spines into streamlined positions as water current increased in the field. Trials in a flume across flow speeds from 0 to 65 cm s(-1) enabled us to observe the change in overall shape of the urchins and quantify the decrease in spine angle that occurred as flow speeds increased. The effect of this behaviour on drag and lift was measured with physical models made from urchin tests with spines in the `up' position (typical in stagnant and slow velocities) and in the `down' position (typical of posture in high velocities). Streamlining spines decreased the drag, but increased the lift experienced by urchin models at flow speeds between 10 and 40 cm s(-1), current velocities that are commonly encountered by these animals in the field in Washington, USA. Total force (combination of drag and lift) was similar for `up' and `down' models at all flow speeds, lift comprising the majority of the force for `down' models, and drag slightly higher for `up' models. Live urchins in the field routinely adopt a streamlined `down' posture in flow, suggesting that they may be better able to cope with lift than drag. This behaviour, although affecting hydrodynamic forces and enabling S. franciscanus to remain attached to the substratum in high currents, may lead to reduced capture of drift kelp, which is entrapped on upright spines and then eaten, delivery of which is positively related to flow speed. Urchins living in deep subtidal habitats rely on drift kelp capture but must stay attached to the substratum to be successful in a habitat. Therefore, this streamlining behaviour may be an important factor enabling S. franciscanus to persist in deep, high-current areas. PMID:21795560

  17. The contribution of apoptosis and necrosis in freezing injury of sea urchin embryonic cells.

    PubMed

    Boroda, Andrey V; Kipryushina, Yulia O; Yakovlev, Konstantin V; Odintsova, Nelly A

    2016-08-01

    Sea urchins have recently been reported to be a promising tool for investigations of oxidative stress, UV light perturbations and senescence. However, few available data describe the pathway of cell death that occurs in sea urchin embryonic cells after cryopreservation. Our study is focused on the morphological and functional alterations that occur in cells of these animals during the induction of different cell death pathways in response to cold injury. To estimate the effect of cryopreservation on sea urchin cell cultures and identify the involved cell death pathways, we analyzed cell viability (via trypan blue exclusion test, MTT assay and DAPI staining), caspase activity (via flow cytometry and spectrophotometry), the level of apoptosis (via annexin V-FITC staining), and cell ultrastructure alterations (via transmission electron microscopy). Using general caspase detection, we found that the level of caspase activity was low in unfrozen control cells, whereas the number of apoptotic cells with activated caspases rose after freezing-thawing depending on cryoprotectants used, also as the number of dead cells and cells in a late apoptosis. The data using annexin V-binding assay revealed a very high apoptosis level in all tested samples, even in unfrozen cells (about 66%). Thus, annexin V assay appears to be unsuitable for sea urchin embryonic cells. Typical necrotic cells with damaged mitochondria were not detected after freezing in sea urchin cell cultures. Our results assume that physical cell disruption but not freezing-induced apoptosis or necrosis is the predominant reason of cell death in sea urchin cultures after freezing-thawing with any cryoprotectant combination.

  18. A carbohydrate-based mechanism of species recognition in sea urchin fertilization.

    PubMed

    Mourão, P A S

    2007-01-01

    In the present review, we describe a systematic study of the sulfated polysaccharides from marine invertebrates, which led to the discovery of a carbohydrate-based mechanism of sperm-egg recognition during sea urchin fertilization. We have described unique polymers present in these organisms, especially sulfated fucose-rich compounds found in the egg jelly coat of sea urchins. The polysaccharides have simple, linear structures consisting of repeating units of oligosaccharides. They differ among the various species of sea urchins in specific patterns of sulfation and/or position of the glycosidic linkage within their repeating units. These polysaccharides show species specificity in inducing the acrosome reaction in sea urchin sperm, providing a clear-cut example of a signal transduction event regulated by sulfated polysaccharides. This distinct carbohydrate-mediated mechanism of sperm-egg recognition coexists with the bindin-protein system. Possibly, the genes involved in the biosynthesis of these sulfated fucans did not evolve in concordance with evolutionary distance but underwent a dramatic change near the tip of the Strongylocentrotid tree. Overall, we established a direct causal link between the molecular structure of a sulfated polysaccharide and a cellular physiological event - the induction of the sperm acrosome reaction in sea urchins. Small structural changes modulate an entire system of sperm-egg recognition and species-specific fertilization in sea urchins. We demonstrated that sulfated polysaccharides - in addition to their known function in cell proliferation, development, coagulation, and viral infection - mediate fertilization, and respond to evolutionary mechanisms that lead to species diversity.

  19. The contribution of apoptosis and necrosis in freezing injury of sea urchin embryonic cells.

    PubMed

    Boroda, Andrey V; Kipryushina, Yulia O; Yakovlev, Konstantin V; Odintsova, Nelly A

    2016-08-01

    Sea urchins have recently been reported to be a promising tool for investigations of oxidative stress, UV light perturbations and senescence. However, few available data describe the pathway of cell death that occurs in sea urchin embryonic cells after cryopreservation. Our study is focused on the morphological and functional alterations that occur in cells of these animals during the induction of different cell death pathways in response to cold injury. To estimate the effect of cryopreservation on sea urchin cell cultures and identify the involved cell death pathways, we analyzed cell viability (via trypan blue exclusion test, MTT assay and DAPI staining), caspase activity (via flow cytometry and spectrophotometry), the level of apoptosis (via annexin V-FITC staining), and cell ultrastructure alterations (via transmission electron microscopy). Using general caspase detection, we found that the level of caspase activity was low in unfrozen control cells, whereas the number of apoptotic cells with activated caspases rose after freezing-thawing depending on cryoprotectants used, also as the number of dead cells and cells in a late apoptosis. The data using annexin V-binding assay revealed a very high apoptosis level in all tested samples, even in unfrozen cells (about 66%). Thus, annexin V assay appears to be unsuitable for sea urchin embryonic cells. Typical necrotic cells with damaged mitochondria were not detected after freezing in sea urchin cell cultures. Our results assume that physical cell disruption but not freezing-induced apoptosis or necrosis is the predominant reason of cell death in sea urchin cultures after freezing-thawing with any cryoprotectant combination. PMID:27364314

  20. Effects of low-intensity pulsed electromagnetic fields on the early development of sea urchins

    SciTech Connect

    Falugi, C.; Grattarola, M.; Prestipino, G.

    1987-06-01

    The effects of weak electromagnetic signals on the early development of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus have been studied. The duration and repetition of the pulses were similar to those used for bone healing in clinical practice. A sequence of pulses, applied for a time ranging from 2 to 4 h, accelerates the cleavages of sea urchin embryo cells. This effect can be quantitatively assessed by determining the time shifts induced by the applied electromagnetic field on the completion of the first and second cleavages in a population of fertilized eggs. The exposed embryos were allowed to develop up to the pluteus stage, showing no abnormalities.

  1. Behavior of centrosomes during fertilization and cell division in mouse oocytes and in sea urchin eggs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Heide; Schatten, Gerald; Balczon, Ron; Simerly, Calvin; Mazia, Daniel

    1986-01-01

    The behavior of centrosomes during the stages of fertilization and cell division in mouse oocytes and in sea urchin eggs was monitored in an immunofluorescence microscope, using autoimmune centrosomal antiserum derived from a patient with scleroderma to label the centrosomal material. These observations showed that centrosomes reproduce during the interphase and aggregate and separate during cell mitosis. Results supported the hypothesis of Mazia (1984), who proposed that centrosomes are 'flexible bodies'. It was also found that, while the sea urchin centrosomes are paternally inherited as was initially proposed by Bovery (1904), the mouse centrosomes are of maternal origin.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Arctic green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (Strongylocentrotidae, Echinoidea).

    PubMed

    Rhee, Jae-Sung; Ki, Jang-Seu; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Park, Hyun; Ahn, In-Young; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2012-10-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome was obtained from the assembled genome data sequenced by next-generation sequencing technology from the Arctic green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. The mitochondrial genome sequence was 15,710 bp in size, and the gene order and contents were identical with previously reported sea urchin mitochondrial genomes. Of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 1 gene (Cytb) had an incomplete stop codon. The base composition of the mitogenome of Arctic S. droebachiensis showed high A+T (58.36%) and anti-G bias (14.86%) on the third position of PCGs. PMID:22803709

  3. Specification process of animal plate in the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroki; Kominami, Tetsuya

    2008-09-01

    The most animal part of the ciliated band of sea urchin larvae, the animal plate, is a specialized region in which elongated cells form long and non-beating cilia. To learn how this region is specified, animal halves were isolated from the early cleavage to pregastrulation stages. As is well known, the animal half that is isolated at the eight-cell stage develops into a 'dauerblastula', which forms long and non-beating cilia all around the surface. The region with long cilia, however, became restricted toward the animal pole when separation was delayed. If separated before primary mesenchyme ingression, even a small animal-pole-side fragment formed a normal-sized animal plate. Thus, the prospective animal plate region is gradually restricted by some signal from the vegetal hemisphere, and the specification process terminates before the mesenchyme blastula stage. It was also known that a normal-sized animal plate was formed in micromere-less embryos, indicating that the signal does not depend on micromeres or their descendants. Further, the animal-pole-side fragments were isolated from embryos in which the third cleavage plane was shifted toward the vegetal pole. They formed a normal-sized animal plate, containing more than 75% of the egg volume from the animal pole. This indicates that the egg cytoplasm delivered to veg1-lineage blastomeres plays an important role in the animal plate specification. Interestingly, the an1-less embryo formed long and non-beating cilia at its top region, but thickening did not occur. The cytoplasm near the animal pole might contain some factors necessary for the animal plate to become thick.

  4. Mechanical properties of the passive sea urchin sperm flagellum.

    PubMed

    Pelle, Dominic W; Brokaw, Charles J; Lesich, Kathleen A; Lindemann, Charles B

    2009-09-01

    In this study we used Triton X-100 extracted sea urchin spermatozoa to investigate the mechanical behavior of the basic 9+2 axoneme. The dynein motors were disabled by vanadate so that the flagellum is rendered a passive structure. We find that when a proximal portion of the flagellum is bent with a glass microprobe, the remainder of the flagellum distal to the probe exhibits a bend in the opposite direction (a counterbend). The counterbend can be understood from the prevailing sliding doublet model of axoneme mechanics, but does require the existence of elastic linkages between the outer doublets. Analysis of the shapes of counterbends provides a consensus value of 0.03-0.08/microm(2) for the ratio of the interdoublet shear resistance (E(S)) to the bending resistance (E(B)) and we find that the ratio E(S)/E(B) is relatively conserved for both passive flagella and transiently quiescent live flagella. This ratio expresses a fundamental mechanical property of the eukaryotic axoneme. It defines the contributions to total bending resistance derived from bending the microtubules and from stretching the interdoublet linkages, respectively. Using this ratio, and computer simulations of earlier experiments that measured the total stiffness of the flagellum, we obtain estimates of approximately 1 x 10(8) pN nm(2)/rad for E(B) and 6 pN/rad for E(S), assuming that both elasticities are linear. Our results indicate that the behavior of the flagellum is close to that predicted by a linear model for shear elasticity. PMID:19536829

  5. Origin and evolutionary plasticity of the gastric caecum in sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The digestive tract of many metazoan invertebrates is characterized by the presence of caeca or diverticula that serve secretory and/or absorptive functions. With the development of various feeding habits, distinctive digestive organs may be present in certain taxa. This also holds true for sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea), in which a highly specialized gastric caecum can be found in members of a derived subgroup, the Irregularia (cake urchins, sea biscuits, sand dollars, heart urchins, and related forms). As such a specialized caecum has not been reported from "regular" sea urchin taxa, the aim of this study was to elucidate its evolutionary origin. Results Using morphological data derived from dissection, magnetic resonance imaging, and extensive literature studies, we compare the digestive tract of 168 echinoid species belonging to 51 extant families. Based on a number of characters such as topography, general morphology, mesenterial suspension, and integration into the haemal system, we homologize the gastric caecum with the more or less pronounced dilation of the anterior stomach that is observed in most "regular" sea urchin taxa. In the Irregularia, a gastric caecum can be found in all taxa except in the Laganina and Scutellina. It is also undeveloped in certain spatangoid species. Conclusions According to our findings, the sea urchin gastric caecum most likely constitutes a synapomorphy of the Euechinoidea. Its occurrence in "regular" euechinoids is linked to the presence of an additional festoon of the anterior stomach in ambulacrum III. Both structures, the additional festoon and the gastric caecum, are absent in the sister taxon to the Euechinoidea, the Cidaroida. Since the degree of specialization of the gastric caecum is most pronounced in the predominantly sediment-burrowing irregular taxa, we hypothesize that its evolution is closely linked to the development of more elaborate infaunal lifestyles. We provide a comprehensive study of

  6. Effects of protracted cadmium exposure on gametes of the purple sea urchin, Arbacia punctulata

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, W.J. III; Engel, D.W.

    1996-03-01

    Gametes and larvae of sea urchins and more specifically Arbacia punctulata have been used extensively in embryological studies and toxicity bioassay testing. Most of the experiments and bioassays have used the fertilized eggs of different sea urchin species and measured abnormal growth, malformations, or changes in the rates of growth as a function of contaminant exposure. Guida demonstrated that cupric ion activities of <10{sup -10.5} M caused reductions in the rates of growth of Arbacia Punctulata larvae and caused incomplete or malformed pluteal skeletons. These effects occurred at cupric ion concentrations that were in the same ranges as some measured in the more contaminated estuaries in the northeastern U.S. Sunda and coworkers also used sea urchin embryonic development to test potential trace metal toxicity in water samples collected from those same estuaries, and demonstrated toxicity potentially attributable to dissolved trace metals in the water column. The purpose of these experiments was to determine if protracted sublethal exposure of sexually mature sea urchins to dissolved cadmium in sea water would affect the viability of eggs and sperm, and whether it would affect fertilization and embryonic development and ultimately the larvae. The results of the experiments support the hypothesis that spermatogenesis and oogenesis were affected by cadmium exposure.

  7. Ecological genomics for coral and sea urchin conservation in times of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpizo-Ituarte, E.; Hofmann, G.; Fangue, N.; Cupul-Magaña, A.; Rodríguez-Troncoso, A. P.; Díaz-Pérez, L.; Olivares Bañuelos, T.; Escobar Fernández, R.

    2010-03-01

    If atmospheric CO2 levels continue to increase, it is predicted that the average ocean sea surface temperature will also increase and ocean pH will decrease to levels not experienced by marine organisms for millions of years. Understanding the impact of these stressors will require the study of several marine organisms, and this knowledge will be fundamental to our ability to predict possible effects along large geographical regions and across phyla. Ecological genomics, defined as the use of molecular techniques to answer ecological questions, offers a set of tools that can help us better understand the responses of marine organisms to changes in their environment. In the present work we are using genomic tools to characterize the response of corals and sea urchins to environmental stress. On one side, coral species represent a useful model due to its functions as "environmental sentinels" in tropical ecosystems; on the other hand, species of sea urchins, with the recent sequence of the genome of the purple sea urchin S. purpuratus, offers important genomic resources. Recent results in corals and in sea urchins have shown that the response to stressful conditions can be detected using molecular genomic markers. Continued study of the mRNA expression patterns of several important gene families including calcification genes as well as genes involved in the cellular stress response such as heat shock proteins, will be valuable index of ecological stress in marine systems. These data can be integrated into better strategies of conservation and management of the oceans.

  8. Distribution and abundance of sea urchins in Singapore reefs and their potential ecological impacts on macroalgae and coral communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, Beverly P. L.; Lim, Dawn Y. F.

    2015-06-01

    The sea urchin Diadema setosum is often encountered in the coral reefs in the Southern Islands of Singapore. While sea urchins have been known to play a role in regulating algal communities and influencing coral recruitment in other parts of the world, their role in Singapore reefs has not been determined. This study was conducted to determine the distribution and abundance of sea urchins in Singapore reefs, to examine algal cover, algal biomass, algal species and live coral cover, and to determine any interactions between urchin density and algal communities that may impact coral cover. Several reefs in Singapore were surveyed using belt transects measuring 20 m by 2 m, laid down on the reef crest. Abundance of urchins, algal species, biomass, and live coral cover were determined by the use of quadrats within each belt transect. This study revealed an increasing abundance of the sea urchin Diadema setosum in reefs progressing southwards away from mainland Singapore with low density of urchins occurring in Sisters' Island, St John's Island, Pulau Tekukor, and Kusu Island, and the highest density observed at Raffles Lighthouse. A significant negative linear relationship between algal cover and live coral cover (P < 0.05) was established. The results of this study indicate that sea urchins may not be an important component of the herbivore guild in Singapore.

  9. Hierarchically assembled Au microspheres and sea urchin-like architectures: formation mechanism and SERS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiansong; Yang, Da-Peng; Huang, Peng; Li, Min; Li, Chao; Chen, Di; Cui, Daxiang

    2012-11-01

    The hierarchically assembled Au microspheres/sea urchin-like structures have been synthesized in aqueous solution at room temperature with and without proteins (bovine serum albumin, BSA) as mediators. The average diameter of an individual Au microsphere is 300-600 nm, which is composed of some compact nanoparticles with an average diameter of about 15 nm. Meanwhile, the sea urchin-like Au architecture exhibits an average diameter of 600-800 nm, which is made up of some nanopricks with an average length of 100-200 nm. These products are characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). It is found that the BSA and ascorbic acid (AA) have great effects on the morphology of the resulting products. Two different growth mechanisms are proposed. The study on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activities is also carried out between Au microspheres and Au sea urchin-like architectures. It is found that Au urchin-like architectures possess much higher SERS activity than the Au microspheres. Our work may shed light on the design and synthesis of hierarchically self-assembled 3D micro/nano-architectures for SERS, catalysis and biosensors.The hierarchically assembled Au microspheres/sea urchin-like structures have been synthesized in aqueous solution at room temperature with and without proteins (bovine serum albumin, BSA) as mediators. The average diameter of an individual Au microsphere is 300-600 nm, which is composed of some compact nanoparticles with an average diameter of about 15 nm. Meanwhile, the sea urchin-like Au architecture exhibits an average diameter of 600-800 nm, which is made up of some nanopricks with an average length of 100-200 nm. These products are characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). It is found that the BSA and ascorbic acid (AA) have great effects on the morphology of

  10. Effects of oil pollution on the development of sex cells in sea urchins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vashchenko, M. A.

    1980-03-01

    The sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus is highly sensitive to oil pollution. Experiments were performed in winter, spring and summer over periods of 15 to 45 days. Experimental urchins were kept in water with hydrocarbon concentrations of 10 to 30 mg l-1, and control urchins in pure sea water. Thermal stimulation by Evdokimov's method was applied to obtain mature sexual products during winter and spring tests. Summer investigations were conducted at temperatures of 17 to 18 °C. The gonads were studied histologically and morphometrically, and the sexual cells obtained were analyzed at the embryological level. No histological and morphometrical differences were recorded between sexual cells of controls and experimentals. However, marked hydrocarbon effects were observed in the embryonic development of artificially fertilized cells from experimental urchins. Control embryos developed normally. Embryogenesis of artificially fertilized gametes from control females and experimental males, and vice versa, was found to be distinctly abnormal. Many abnormalities were identified at the first cleavage stage, as well as in blastula, gastrula and pluteus. Fertilization of experimental eggs with experimental sperm resulted in serious disturbances of embryos, followed by the development of non-viable larvae. On the whole, embryogenesis of sexual cells from experimental urchins was characterized by prominent delay, asynchronism and presence of abnormal non-viable larvae. Consequently, long-term effects of sublethal hydrocarbon concentrations resulted in the formation of defective sex cells and high larval mortality.

  11. Changes in sea urchins and kelp following a reduction in sea otter density as a result of the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, T.A.; Bodkin, J.L.; Jewett, S.C.; Monson, D.H.; Jung, D.

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between sea otters Enhydra lutris, sea urchins Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and kelp were investigated following the reduction in sea otter density in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. At northern Knight Island, a heavily oiled portion of the sound, sea otter abundance was reduced by a minimum of 50% by the oil spill, and from 1995 through 1998 remained at an estimated 66% lower than in 1973. Where sea otter densities were reduced, there were proportionally more large sea urchins. However, except in some widely scattered aggregations, both density and biomass of sea urchins were similar in an area of reduced sea otter density compared with an area where sea otters remained about 10 times more abundant. Furthermore, there was no change in kelp abundance in the area of reduced sea otter density. This is in contrast to greatly increased biomass of sea urchins and greatly reduced kelp density observed following an approximate 90% decline in sea otter abundance in the western Aleutian Islands. The variation in community response to a reduction in sea otters may be related to the magnitude of the reduction and the non-linear response by sea urchins to changes in predator abundance. The number of surviving sea otters may have been high enough to suppress sea urchin populations in Prince William Sound, but not in the Aleutians. Alternatively, differences in response may have been due to differences in the frequency or magnitude of sea urchin recruitment. Densities of small sea urchins were much higher in the Aleutian system even prior to the reduction in sea otters, suggesting a higher rate of recruitment.

  12. Solvothermal synthesis and high optical performance of three-dimensional sea-urchin-like TiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yi Wang, Yutang; Li, Mengyao; Li, Xuzhi; Yi, Qin; Deng, Pan; Wu, Hongyan

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: I–V characteristics of different TiO{sub 2} microspheres based DSSCs (a) 3D sphere-like, (b) 3D flower-like, (c) 3D sea-urchin-like. - Highlights: • 3D sea-urchin-like TiO{sub 2} was synthesized by solvothermal method. • The effects of preparation parameters on the microstructure of the microspheres were investigated. • The photoelectric properties of 3D sea-urchin-like TiO{sub 2} were studied upon DSSCs. • The PCE of the 3D sea-urchin-like TiO{sub 2} was higher than that of other morphologies. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) sea-urchin-like TiO{sub 2} microspheres were successfully synthesised by solvothermal method. The effects of preparation parameters including reaction temperature, concentration and mass fraction of precursor, and solvent volume on the microstructure of the microspheres were investigated. Results of scanning electron microscopy showed that the preparation parameters played a critical role in the morphology of 3D sea-urchin-like TiO{sub 2}. In addition, when the sea-urchin-like TiO{sub 2} nanostructures were used as the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) anode, the power-conversion efficiency was higher than that of other morphologies, which was due to the special 3D hierarchical nanostructure, large specific surface area, and enhanced absorption of UV–vis of the TiO{sub 2} nanostructures.

  13. MORPHOLOGY OF GAMETE MEMBRANE FUSION AND OF SPERM ENTRY INTO OOCYTES OF THE SEA URCHIN

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Luther E.

    1965-01-01

    Sea urchin gametes predominate in molecular studies of fertilization, yet relatively little is known of the subcellular aspects of sperm entry in this group. Accordingly, it seemed desirable to make a detailed examination of sperm entry phenomena in sea urchins with the electron microscope. Gametes of the sea urchins Arbacia punctulata and Lytechinus variegatus were used in this study. Samples of eggs containing 2 to 8 per cent oocytes were selected and fixed with osmium tetroxide in sea water at various intervals after insemination. Fixed specimens were embedded in Epon 812, sectioned, and examined with an electron microscope. An apical vesicle was observed at the anterior end of the acrosome. The presence of this structure, together with other observations, suggested that initiation of the acrosome reaction in sea urchin sperm involves dehiscence of the acrosomal region with the subsequent release of the acrosomal granule. Contact and initial fusion of gamete membranes was observed in mature eggs and oocytes and invariably involved the extended acrosomal tubule of the spermatozoon. Only one spermatozoon normally enters the mature egg. The probability of locating such a sperm in ultrathin sections is exceedingly low. Several sperm do normally enter oocytes. Consequently, observations of sperm entry were primarily restricted to the latter. The manner of sperm entry into oocytes did not resemble phagocytosis. Organelles of the spermatozoon were progressively divested of their plasma membrane as they entered the ground cytoplasm of the oocyte fertilization cone. Initiation of the acrosome reaction, contact and initial fusion of gamete membranes, and sperm entry into oocytes of sea urchins conform to the Hydroides-Saccoglossus pattern of early fertilization events as described by Colwin and Colwin (13). PMID:19866669

  14. In vivo exposure to northern diatoms arrests sea urchin embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Gudimova, Elena; Eilertsen, Hans C; Jørgensen, Trond Ø; Hansen, Espen

    2016-01-01

    There are numerous reports indicating that marine diatoms may act harmful to early developmental stages of invertebrates. It is believed that the compounds responsible for these detrimental effects are oxylipins resulting from oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids, and that they may function as grazing deterrents. Most studies reporting these effects have exposed test organisms to diatom extracts or purified toxins, but data from in vivo exposure to intact diatoms are scarce. We have conducted sea urchin egg incubation and plutei feeding experiments to test if intact diatom cells affected sea urchin embryo development and survival. This was done by exposing the common northern sea urchins Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis and Echinus acutus to northern strains of the diatoms Chaetoceros socialis, Skeletonema marinoi, Chaetoceros furcellatus, Attheya longicornis, Thalassiosira gravida and Porosira glacialis. The intact diatom cell suspensions were found to inhibit sea urchin egg hatching and embryogenesis. S. marinoi was the most potent one as it caused acute mortality in S. droebachiensis eggs after only four hours exposure to high (50 μg/L Chla) diatom concentrations, as well as 24 h exposure to normal (20 μg/L Chla) and high diatom concentrations. The second most potent species was T. gravida that caused acute mortality after 24 h exposure to both diatom concentrations. A. longicornis was the least harmful of the diatom species in terms of embryo development arrestment, and it was the species that was most actively ingested by S. droebachiensis plutei.

  15. Involvement of l(-)-rhamnose in sea urchin gastrulation. Part II: α-l-Rhamnosidase.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jing; Aleksanyan, Heghush; Metzenberg, Stan; Oppenheimer, Steven B

    2016-06-01

    The sea urchin embryo is recognized as a model system to reveal developmental mechanisms involved in human health and disease. In Part I of this series, six carbohydrates were tested for their effects on gastrulation in embryos of the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus. Only l-rhamnose caused dramatic increases in the numbers of unattached archenterons and exogastrulated archenterons in living, swimming embryos. It was found that at 30 h post-fertilization the l-rhamnose had an unusual inverse dose-dependent effect, with low concentrations (1-3 mM) interfering with development and higher concentrations (30 mM) having little to no effect on normal development. In this study, embryos were examined for inhibition of archenteron development after treatment with α-l-rhamnosidase, an endoglycosidase that removes terminal l-rhamnose sugars from glycans. It was observed that the enzyme had profound effects on gastrulation, an effect that could be suppressed by addition of l-rhamnose as a competitive inhibitor. The involvement of l-rhamnose-containing glycans in sea urchin gastrulation was unexpected, since there are no characterized biosynthetic pathways for rhamnose utilization in animals. It is possible there exists a novel l-rhamnose-containing glycan in sea urchins, or that the enzyme and sugar interfere with the function of rhamnose-binding lectins, which are components of the innate immune system in many vertebrate and invertebrate species.

  16. Rapid aquatic toxicity assay utilizing labeled thymidine incorporation in sea urchin embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Jackim, E.; Nacci, D.

    1984-01-01

    Aquatic toxicity was evaluated in the sea urchin embryo (Arbacea punctulata) by the inhibition of tritiated thymidine incorporation after a brief exposure to toxic chemicals. Arbacia is a useful surrogate species for assay: well-studied, easily cultured and fertile virtually year round. The simplicity and speed of this test system lends itself to screening large numbers of compounds, mixtures or water samples.

  17. Functional diversification of sea urchin ABCC1 (MRP1) by alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Gökirmak, Tufan; Campanale, Joseph P; Reitzel, Adam M; Shipp, Lauren E; Moy, Gary W; Hamdoun, Amro

    2016-06-01

    The multidrug resistance protein (MRP) family encodes a diverse repertoire of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters with multiple roles in development, disease, and homeostasis. Understanding MRP evolution is central to unraveling their roles in these diverse processes. Sea urchins occupy an important phylogenetic position for understanding the evolution of vertebrate proteins and have been an important invertebrate model system for study of ABC transporters. We used phylogenetic analyses to examine the evolution of MRP transporters and functional approaches to identify functional forms of sea urchin MRP1 (also known as SpABCC1). SpABCC1, the only MRP homolog in sea urchins, is co-orthologous to human MRP1, MRP3, and MRP6 (ABCC1, ABCC3, and ABCC6) transporters. However, efflux assays revealed that alternative splicing of exon 22, a region critical for substrate interactions, could diversify functions of sea urchin MRP1. Phylogenetic comparisons also indicate that while MRP1, MRP3, and MRP6 transporters potentially arose from a single transporter in basal deuterostomes, alternative splicing appears to have been the major mode of functional diversification in invertebrates, while duplication may have served a more important role in vertebrates. These results provide a deeper understanding of the evolutionary origins of MRP transporters and the potential mechanisms used to diversify their functions in different groups of animals.

  18. Characterization of the Sounds Produced by Temperate and Tropical Sea Urchins During Feeding (Diadematidae and Echinometridae).

    PubMed

    Soars, Natalie; Byrne, Maria; Cato, Douglas H

    2016-01-01

    Despite the abundance and ecological importance of sea urchins in eastern Australia, it is not known how they may contribute to ambient noise. The sounds of feeding of two temperate and two tropical species were recorded in captivity. Most sound was produced between 2.3 and 9.2 kHz, but there were differences between species and substrate types. PMID:26611070

  19. Sea urchin coelomocyte arylsulfatase: a modulator of the echinoderm clotting pathway.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea-Winslow, Lisanne; Radke, David W; Utecht, Tim; Kaneko, Takuya; Akasaka, Koji

    2012-03-01

    Sea urchin petalloid coelomocytes effectuate the clotting pathway by undergoing a rapid and dynamic cellular transformation that leads to cellular adhesion and wounds closure. We have identified high levels of activity of arylsulfatase (Ars) associated with coelomocytes of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck, 1816). Ars activity was extracted from clotted coelomocytes with EDTA and showed high levels of activity up to a 1:100 dilution. Clot formation from isolated coelomic fluid was significantly inhibited by the ARS inhibitor, p-nitrophenyl phosphate. Ars activity was collected by 80% ethanol precipitation, a diagnostic test previously used in Ars isolation. Cellular extraction studies in the presence and absence of the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 indicated that some Ars activity was present intracellularly, possibly in intracellular membrane-bound compartments, however the majority of Ars activity was extracted from the extracellular coelomocyte membrane. Polyclonal anti-sea urchin embryo Ars antibodies recognized a single protein band with an approximate molecular weight of 75 kDa on western blots. Immunofluorescence using the anti-sea urchin Ars antibody revealed an intracellular and extracellular staining of Ars in both petalloid and filopodial coelomocytes. Taken together, these data indicate that coelomocyte Ars might be involved in cell-to-cell crosslinking of surface sulfated polysaccharides vital for clot formation.

  20. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of negligible senescence: insight from the sea urchin

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Andrea G.

    2015-01-01

    Sea urchins exhibit a very different life history from humans and short-lived model animals and therefore provide the opportunity to gain new insight into the complex process of aging. Sea urchins grow indeterminately, regenerate damaged appendages, and reproduce throughout their lifespan. Some species show no increase in mortality rate at advanced ages. Nevertheless, different species of sea urchins have very different reported lifespans ranging from 4 to more than 100 years, thus providing a unique model to investigate the molecular, cellular, and physiological mechanisms underlying both lifespan determination and negligible senescence. Studies to date have demonstrated maintenance of telomeres, maintenance of antioxidant and proteasome enzyme activities, and little accumulation of oxidative cellular damage with age in tissues of sea urchin species with different lifespans. Gene expression studies indicate that key cellular pathways involved in energy metabolism, protein homeostasis, and tissue regeneration are maintained with age. Taken together, these studies suggest that long-term maintenance of mechanisms that sustain tissue homeostasis and regenerative capacity is essential for indeterminate growth and negligible senescence, and a better understanding of these processes may suggest effective strategies to mitigate the degenerative decline in human tissues with age. PMID:26136616

  1. Identification of purple sea urchin telomerase RNA using a next-generation sequencing based approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Podlevsky, Joshua D; Marz, Manja; Qi, Xiaodong; Hoffmann, Steve; Stadler, Peter F; Chen, Julian J-L

    2013-06-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) enzyme essential for telomere maintenance and chromosome stability. While the catalytic telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) protein is well conserved across eukaryotes, telomerase RNA (TR) is extensively divergent in size, sequence, and structure. This diversity prohibits TR identification from many important organisms. Here we report a novel approach for TR discovery that combines in vitro TR enrichment from total RNA, next-generation sequencing, and a computational screening pipeline. With this approach, we have successfully identified TR from Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (purple sea urchin) from the phylum Echinodermata. Reconstitution of activity in vitro confirmed that this RNA is an integral component of sea urchin telomerase. Comparative phylogenetic analysis against vertebrate TR sequences revealed that the purple sea urchin TR contains vertebrate-like template-pseudoknot and H/ACA domains. While lacking a vertebrate-like CR4/5 domain, sea urchin TR has a unique central domain critical for telomerase activity. This is the first TR identified from the previously unexplored invertebrate clade and provides the first glimpse of TR evolution in the deuterostome lineage. Moreover, our TR discovery approach is a significant step toward the comprehensive understanding of telomerase RNP evolution.

  2. Determinants of Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin recruitment under oligotrophic conditions: Implications for conservation management.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Silvia; Farina, Simone; Pinna, Stefania; Guala, Ivan; Agnetta, Davide; Ariotti, Pierre Antoine; Mura, Francesco; Ceccherelli, Giulia

    2016-06-01

    Sea urchins may deeply shape the structure of macrophyte-dominated communities and require the implementation of sustainable management strategies. In the Mediterranean, the identification of the major recruitment determinants of the keystone sea urchin species Paracentrotus lividus is required, so that source areas of the populations can be identified and exploitation or programmed harvesting can be spatially managed. In this study a collection of eight possible determinants, these encompassing both the biotic (larvae, adult sea urchins, fish, encrusting coralline algae, habitat type and spatial arrangement of habitats) and abiotic (substrate complexity and nutritional status) realms was considered at different spatial scales (site, area, transect and quadrat). Data from a survey including sites subject to different levels of human influence (i.e. from urbanized to protected areas), but all corresponding to an oligotrophic and low-populated region were fitted by means of a generalized linear mixed model. Despite the extensive sampling effort of benthic quadrats, an overall paucity of recruits was found, recruits being aggregated in a very small number of quadrats and in few areas. The analysis of data detected substrate complexity, and adult sea urchin and predatory fish abundances as the momentous determinants of Paracentrotus lividus recruitment. Possible mechanisms of influence are discussed beyond the implications of conservation management. PMID:27043483

  3. Functional diversification of sea urchin ABCC1 (MRP1) by alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Gökirmak, Tufan; Campanale, Joseph P; Reitzel, Adam M; Shipp, Lauren E; Moy, Gary W; Hamdoun, Amro

    2016-06-01

    The multidrug resistance protein (MRP) family encodes a diverse repertoire of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters with multiple roles in development, disease, and homeostasis. Understanding MRP evolution is central to unraveling their roles in these diverse processes. Sea urchins occupy an important phylogenetic position for understanding the evolution of vertebrate proteins and have been an important invertebrate model system for study of ABC transporters. We used phylogenetic analyses to examine the evolution of MRP transporters and functional approaches to identify functional forms of sea urchin MRP1 (also known as SpABCC1). SpABCC1, the only MRP homolog in sea urchins, is co-orthologous to human MRP1, MRP3, and MRP6 (ABCC1, ABCC3, and ABCC6) transporters. However, efflux assays revealed that alternative splicing of exon 22, a region critical for substrate interactions, could diversify functions of sea urchin MRP1. Phylogenetic comparisons also indicate that while MRP1, MRP3, and MRP6 transporters potentially arose from a single transporter in basal deuterostomes, alternative splicing appears to have been the major mode of functional diversification in invertebrates, while duplication may have served a more important role in vertebrates. These results provide a deeper understanding of the evolutionary origins of MRP transporters and the potential mechanisms used to diversify their functions in different groups of animals. PMID:27053522

  4. Determinants of Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin recruitment under oligotrophic conditions: Implications for conservation management.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Silvia; Farina, Simone; Pinna, Stefania; Guala, Ivan; Agnetta, Davide; Ariotti, Pierre Antoine; Mura, Francesco; Ceccherelli, Giulia

    2016-06-01

    Sea urchins may deeply shape the structure of macrophyte-dominated communities and require the implementation of sustainable management strategies. In the Mediterranean, the identification of the major recruitment determinants of the keystone sea urchin species Paracentrotus lividus is required, so that source areas of the populations can be identified and exploitation or programmed harvesting can be spatially managed. In this study a collection of eight possible determinants, these encompassing both the biotic (larvae, adult sea urchins, fish, encrusting coralline algae, habitat type and spatial arrangement of habitats) and abiotic (substrate complexity and nutritional status) realms was considered at different spatial scales (site, area, transect and quadrat). Data from a survey including sites subject to different levels of human influence (i.e. from urbanized to protected areas), but all corresponding to an oligotrophic and low-populated region were fitted by means of a generalized linear mixed model. Despite the extensive sampling effort of benthic quadrats, an overall paucity of recruits was found, recruits being aggregated in a very small number of quadrats and in few areas. The analysis of data detected substrate complexity, and adult sea urchin and predatory fish abundances as the momentous determinants of Paracentrotus lividus recruitment. Possible mechanisms of influence are discussed beyond the implications of conservation management.

  5. Functional traits of two co-occurring sea urchins across a barren/forest patch system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnetta, D.; Bonaviri, C.; Badalamenti, F.; Scianna, C.; Vizzini, S.; Gianguzza, P.

    2013-02-01

    Temperate rocky reefs may occur in two alternative states (coralline barrens and erect algal forests), whose formation and maintenance are often determined by sea urchin grazing. The two sea urchin species Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula are considered to play a similar ecological role despite their differing morphological traits and diets. The patchy mosaic areas of Ustica Island, Italy, offer an ideal environment in which to study differences in the performance of P. lividus and A. lixula in barren versus forest states. Results show that the two sea urchin species differ in diet, trophic position, grazing adaptation, movement ability and fitness in both barren and forest patches. We confirmed herbivory in P. lividus and omnivory with a strong tendency to carnivory in A. lixula. When the sea urchin escape response to a predator was triggered, P. lividus responded faster in barren and forest patches. Forest patch restricted movement, especially in A. lixula (velocity in barren ≈ 10-fold greater than in forest). A large Aristotle's lantern, indicative of durophagy, confirmed adaptation of A. lixula to barren state.

  6. Spatial vision in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinoidea).

    PubMed

    Yerramilli, D; Johnsen, S

    2010-01-15

    Recent evidence that echinoids of the genus Echinometra have moderate visual acuity that appears to be mediated by their spines screening off-axis light suggests that the urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, with its higher spine density, may have even more acute spatial vision. We analyzed the movements of 39 specimens of S. purpuratus after they were placed in the center of a featureless tank containing a round, black target that had an angular diameter of 6.5 deg. or 10 deg. (solid angles of 0.01 sr and 0.024 sr, respectively). An average orientation vector for each urchin was determined by testing the animal four times, with the target placed successively at bearings of 0 deg., 90 deg., 180 deg. and 270 deg. (relative to magnetic east). The urchins showed no significant unimodal or axial orientation relative to any non-target feature of the environment or relative to the changing position of the 6.5 deg. target. However, the urchins were strongly axially oriented relative to the changing position of the 10 deg. target (mean axis from -1 to 179 deg.; 95% confidence interval +/- 12 deg.; P<0.001, Moore's non-parametric Hotelling's test), with 10 of the 20 urchins tested against that target choosing an average bearing within 10 deg. of either the target center or its opposite direction (two would be expected by chance). In addition, the average length of the 20 target-normalized bearings for the 10 deg. target (each the vector sum of the bearings for the four trials) were far higher than would be expected by chance (P<10(-10); Monte Carlo simulation), showing that each urchin, whether it moved towards or away from the target, did so with high consistency. These results strongly suggest that S. purpuratus detected the 10 deg. target, responding either by approaching it or fleeing it. Given that the urchins did not appear to respond to the 6.5 deg. target, it is likely that the 10 deg. target was close to the minimum detectable size for this species. Interestingly

  7. Sulfated polysaccharides from the egg jelly layer are species-specific inducers of acrosomal reaction in sperms of sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Alves, A P; Mulloy, B; Diniz, J A; Mourão, P A

    1997-03-14

    We have characterized the fine structure of sulfated polysaccharides from the egg jelly layer of three species of sea urchins and tested the ability of these purified polysaccharides to induce the acrosome reaction in spermatozoa. The sea urchin Echinometra lucunter contains a homopolymer of 2-sulfated, 3-linked alpha-L-galactan. The species Arbacia lixula and Lytechinus variegatus contain linear sulfated alpha-L-fucans with regular tetrasaccharide repeating units. Each of these sulfated polysaccharides induces the acrosome reaction in conspecific but not in heterospecific spermatozoa. These results demonstrate that species specificity of fertilization in sea urchins depends in part on the fine structure of egg jelly sulfated polysaccharide.

  8. Genome editing in sea urchin embryos by using a CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Che-Yi; Su, Yi-Hsien

    2016-01-15

    Sea urchin embryos are a useful model system for investigating early developmental processes and the underlying gene regulatory networks. Most functional studies using sea urchin embryos rely on antisense morpholino oligonucleotides to knockdown gene functions. However, major concerns related to this technique include off-target effects, variations in morpholino efficiency, and potential morpholino toxicity; furthermore, such problems are difficult to discern. Recent advances in genome editing technologies have introduced the prospect of not only generating sequence-specific knockouts, but also providing genome-engineering applications. Two genome editing tools, zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), have been utilized in sea urchin embryos, but the resulting efficiencies are far from satisfactory. The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas9 (CRISPR-associated nuclease 9) system serves as an easy and efficient method with which to edit the genomes of several established and emerging model organisms in the field of developmental biology. Here, we apply the CRISPR/Cas9 system to the sea urchin embryo. We designed six guide RNAs (gRNAs) against the well-studied nodal gene and discovered that five of the gRNAs induced the expected phenotype in 60-80% of the injected embryos. In addition, we developed a simple method for isolating genomic DNA from individual embryos, enabling phenotype to be precisely linked to genotype, and revealed that the mutation rates were 67-100% among the sequenced clones. Of the two potential off-target sites we examined, no off-target effects were observed. The detailed procedures described herein promise to accelerate the usage of CRISPR/Cas9 system for genome editing in sea urchin embryos.

  9. Proteomic dataset of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus adhesive organs and secreted adhesive.

    PubMed

    Lebesgue, Nicolas; da Costa, Gonçalo; Ribeiro, Raquel Mesquita; Ribeiro-Silva, Cristina; Martins, Gabriel G; Matranga, Valeria; Scholten, Arjen; Cordeiro, Carlos; Heck, Albert J R; Santos, Romana

    2016-06-01

    Sea urchins have specialized adhesive organs called tube feet, which mediate strong but reversible adhesion. Tube feet are composed by a disc, producing adhesive and de-adhesive secretions for substratum attachment, and a stem for movement. After detachment the secreted adhesive remains bound to the substratum as a footprint. Recently, a label-free quantitative proteomic approach coupled with the latest mass-spectrometry technology was used to analyze the differential proteome of Paracentrotus lividus adhesive organ, comparing protein expression levels in the tube feet adhesive part (the disc) versus the non-adhesive part (the stem), and also to profile the proteome of the secreted adhesive (glue). This data article contains complementary figures and results related to the research article "Deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying sea urchin reversible adhesion: a quantitative proteomics approach" (Lebesgue et al., 2016) [1]. Here we provide a dataset of 1384 non-redundant proteins, their fragmented peptides and expression levels, resultant from the analysis of the tube feet differential proteome. Of these, 163 highly over-expressed tube feet disc proteins (>3-fold), likely representing the most relevant proteins for sea urchin reversible adhesion, were further annotated in order to determine the potential functions. In addition, we provide a dataset of 611 non-redundant proteins identified in the secreted adhesive proteome, as well as their functional annotation and grouping in 5 major protein groups related with adhesive exocytosis, and microbial protection. This list was further analyzed to identify the most abundant protein groups and pinpoint putative adhesive proteins, such as Nectin, the most abundant adhesive protein in sea urchin glue. The obtained data uncover the key proteins involved in sea urchins reversible adhesion, representing a step forward to the development of new wet-effective bio-inspired adhesives.

  10. Modifications to the translational apparatus which affect the regulation of protein synthesis in sea urchin embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Scalise, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Protein synthesis can be regulated at a number of cellular levels. I have examined how modifications to specific components of the protein synthetic machinery are involved in regulating the efficiency of initiation of translation during early sea urchin embryogenesis. It is demonstrated that Ca{sup 2+} concentrations exceeding 500 uM cause the inhibition of protein synthesis in cell-free translation lysates prepared from sea urchin embryos. Specific changes in the state of phosphorylation of at least 8 proteins occur during this Ca{sup 2+}-mediated repression of translation. Analysis of these proteins has indicated that, unlike mammalian systems, there is no detectable level of Ca{sup 2+}-dependent phosphorylation of the {alpha}subunit eIF-2. Two of the proteins which do become phosphorylated in response to Ca{sup 2+} are calmodulin and an isoelectric form of sea urchin eIF-4D. In addition, 2 proteins which share similarities with kinases involved in the regulation of protein synthesis in mammalian cells, also become phosphorylated. I have investigated the consequences of changes in eIF-4D during sea urchin embryogenesis because it has been proposed that a polyamine-mediated conversion of lysine to hypusine in this factor may enhance translational activity. It is demonstrated that ({sup 3}H) spermidine-derived radioactivity is incorporated into a number of proteins when sea urchin embryos are labeled in vivo, and that the pattern of individual proteins that become labeled changes over the course of the first 30 hr of development.

  11. Proteomic dataset of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus adhesive organs and secreted adhesive.

    PubMed

    Lebesgue, Nicolas; da Costa, Gonçalo; Ribeiro, Raquel Mesquita; Ribeiro-Silva, Cristina; Martins, Gabriel G; Matranga, Valeria; Scholten, Arjen; Cordeiro, Carlos; Heck, Albert J R; Santos, Romana

    2016-06-01

    Sea urchins have specialized adhesive organs called tube feet, which mediate strong but reversible adhesion. Tube feet are composed by a disc, producing adhesive and de-adhesive secretions for substratum attachment, and a stem for movement. After detachment the secreted adhesive remains bound to the substratum as a footprint. Recently, a label-free quantitative proteomic approach coupled with the latest mass-spectrometry technology was used to analyze the differential proteome of Paracentrotus lividus adhesive organ, comparing protein expression levels in the tube feet adhesive part (the disc) versus the non-adhesive part (the stem), and also to profile the proteome of the secreted adhesive (glue). This data article contains complementary figures and results related to the research article "Deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying sea urchin reversible adhesion: a quantitative proteomics approach" (Lebesgue et al., 2016) [1]. Here we provide a dataset of 1384 non-redundant proteins, their fragmented peptides and expression levels, resultant from the analysis of the tube feet differential proteome. Of these, 163 highly over-expressed tube feet disc proteins (>3-fold), likely representing the most relevant proteins for sea urchin reversible adhesion, were further annotated in order to determine the potential functions. In addition, we provide a dataset of 611 non-redundant proteins identified in the secreted adhesive proteome, as well as their functional annotation and grouping in 5 major protein groups related with adhesive exocytosis, and microbial protection. This list was further analyzed to identify the most abundant protein groups and pinpoint putative adhesive proteins, such as Nectin, the most abundant adhesive protein in sea urchin glue. The obtained data uncover the key proteins involved in sea urchins reversible adhesion, representing a step forward to the development of new wet-effective bio-inspired adhesives. PMID:27182547

  12. Genome editing in sea urchin embryos by using a CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Che-Yi; Su, Yi-Hsien

    2016-01-15

    Sea urchin embryos are a useful model system for investigating early developmental processes and the underlying gene regulatory networks. Most functional studies using sea urchin embryos rely on antisense morpholino oligonucleotides to knockdown gene functions. However, major concerns related to this technique include off-target effects, variations in morpholino efficiency, and potential morpholino toxicity; furthermore, such problems are difficult to discern. Recent advances in genome editing technologies have introduced the prospect of not only generating sequence-specific knockouts, but also providing genome-engineering applications. Two genome editing tools, zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), have been utilized in sea urchin embryos, but the resulting efficiencies are far from satisfactory. The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas9 (CRISPR-associated nuclease 9) system serves as an easy and efficient method with which to edit the genomes of several established and emerging model organisms in the field of developmental biology. Here, we apply the CRISPR/Cas9 system to the sea urchin embryo. We designed six guide RNAs (gRNAs) against the well-studied nodal gene and discovered that five of the gRNAs induced the expected phenotype in 60-80% of the injected embryos. In addition, we developed a simple method for isolating genomic DNA from individual embryos, enabling phenotype to be precisely linked to genotype, and revealed that the mutation rates were 67-100% among the sequenced clones. Of the two potential off-target sites we examined, no off-target effects were observed. The detailed procedures described herein promise to accelerate the usage of CRISPR/Cas9 system for genome editing in sea urchin embryos. PMID:26632489

  13. Habitat-dependent growth in a Caribbean sea urchin Tripneustes ventricosus: the importance of food type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciá, Silvia; Robinson, Michael P.

    2008-12-01

    The sea urchin Tripneustes ventricosus is a common, yet relatively poorly known, grazer of seagrass beds and coral reefs throughout the Caribbean. We compared the size and abundance of urchins between adjacent seagrass and coral reef habitats (where macroalgae are the dominant primary producers). We also conducted a laboratory experiment comparing the growth rate of juvenile urchins fed a diet of either macroalgae or seagrass. Reef urchins had significantly larger test diameter than those in the seagrass on some sampling dates. This size difference may be at least partially explained by diet, because laboratory-reared urchins fed macroalgae grew significantly faster than those fed seagrass. The seagrass population, however, was stable over time, whereas the reef population exhibited strong fluctuations in abundance. Overall, our study indicates that both the seagrass and coral reef habitats are capable of supporting healthy, reproductive populations of T. ventricosus. Each, however, appears to offer a distinct advantage: faster growth on the reef and greater population stability in the seagrass.

  14. Fertilization envelope assembly in sea urchin eggs inseminated in Cl- deficient sea water: I. Morphological effects.

    PubMed

    Lynn, J W; Goddard, R L; Glas, P; Green, J D

    1988-10-01

    Elevation and hardening of the fertilization envelope (FE) occur within 15 min following insemination of the sea urchin egg. When chloride ions were replaced in the media with various anion substitutes, including methyl sulfonate, nitrates, bromide, and isethionate, the fertilization envelope failed to harden and collapsed back to the surface of the egg of Lytechinus variegatus, L. pictus, and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. At the light microscopy level, the collapse of the envelope was accompanied by a decrease in birefringence, compared with controls. When examined with electron microscopy, the FEs of eggs inseminated in reduced Cl- solutions failed to transform from an amorphous layer into the more robust laminar structure observed around eggs incubated in normal sea water. Furthermore, in the case of S. purpuratus, the I-T transformation of the FE did not occur. When transfer of the inseminated eggs from the Cl- -deficient sea water to normal sea water was carried out before 10 min elapsed, the envelope did not collapse, and the birefringence of the envelope was similar to that of controls. Partial envelope collapse was also observed in a dose-dependent manner, varying with the concentration of the Cl- in the sea water solution. The results suggest that lack of Cl- in the media may interfere with proper fertilization envelope assembly. Possible mechanisms, including proper incorporation of the cortical granule exudate into the nascent envelope structure, are discussed. PMID:3229726

  15. Juvenile growth of the tropical sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus exposed to near-future ocean acidification scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Rebecca; Bland, Charnelle; Gillette, Phillip; Serafy, Joseph E.; Langdon, Chris; Capo, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of elevated pCO2 exposure on the juvenile growth of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus, we reared individuals for three months in one of three target pCO2 levels: ambient seawater (380 µatm) and two scenarios that are projected to occur by the middle (560 µatm) and end (800 µatm) of this century. At the end of 89 days, urchins reared at ambient pCO2 weighed 12% more than those reared at 560 µatm and 28% more than those reared at 800 µatm. Skeletons were analyzed using scanning electron miscroscopy, revealing degradation of spines in urchins reared at elevated pCO2 (800 µatm). Our results indicate that elevated pCO2 levels projected to occur this century may adversely affect the development of juvenile sea urchins. Acidification-induced changes to juvenile urchin development would likely impair performance and functioning of juvenile stages with implications for adult populations. PMID:22833691

  16. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Pigment Echinochrome A from Sea Urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Ryul; Pronto, Julius Ryan D.; Sarankhuu, Bolor-Erdene; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Nari; Mishchenko, Natalia P.; Fedoreyev, Sergey A.; Stonik, Valentin A.; Han, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Echinochrome A (EchA) is a dark-red pigment of the polyhydroxynaphthoquinone class isolated from sea urchin Scaphechinus mirabilis. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are used in the treatment of various neuromuscular disorders, and are considered as strong therapeutic agents for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although EchA is clinically used to treat ophthalmic diseases and limit infarct formation during ischemia/reperfusion injury, anti-AChE effect of EchA is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-AChE effect of EchA in vitro. EchA and its exhausted form which lost anti-oxidant capacity did not show any significant cytotoxicy on the H9c2 and A7r5 cells. EchA inhibited AChE with an irreversible and uncompetitive mode. In addition, EchA showed reactive oxygen species scavenging activity, particularly with nitric oxide. These findings indicate new therapeutic potential for EchA in treating reduced acetylcholine-related diseases including AD and provide an insight into developing new AChE inhibitors. PMID:24918454

  17. Complete mitogenome of the edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus: genetic structure and comparative genomics within Echinozoa.

    PubMed

    Cea, Graciela; Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Cárdenas, Leyla

    2015-06-01

    The edible Chilean red sea urchin, Loxechinus albus, is the only species of its genus and endemic to the Southeastern Pacific. In this study, we reconstructed the mitochondrial genome of L. albus by combining Sanger and pyrosequencing technologies. The mtDNA genome had a length of 15,737 bp and encoded the same 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and two ribosomal RNA genes as other animal mtDNAs. The size of this mitogenome was similar to those of other Echinodermata species. Structural comparisons showed a highly conserved structure, composition, and gene order within Echinoidea and Holothuroidea, and nearly identical gene organization to that found in Asteroidea and Crinoidea, with the majority of differences explained by the inversions of some tRNA genes. Phylogenetic reconstruction supported the monophyly of Echinozoa and recovered the monophyletic relationship of Holothuroidea and Echinoidea. Within Holothuroidea, Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses recovered a sister-group relationship between Dendrochirotacea and Aspidochirotida. Similarly within Echinoidea, these analyses revealed that L. albus was closely related to Paracentrotus lividus, both being part of a sister group to Strongylocentrotidae and Echinometridae. In addition, two major clades were found within Strongylocentrotidae. One of these clades comprised all of the representative species Strongylocentrotus and Hemicentrotus, whereas the other included species of Mesocentrotus and Pseudocentrotus.

  18. Dermatan sulfate formation in gastrulae of the sea urchin Clypeaster japonicus.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, M; Kinoshita, S; Suzuki, N

    1989-07-01

    Gastrullation of sea urchin embryos is arrested in sulfate-free sea water. This developmental arrest has been considered to be due to lack of sulfation of glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular matrix of the embryos. In the present study, we characterized a dermatan sulfate type component formed in gastrula-stage embryos of the sea urchin Clypeaster japonicus and examined the effects of sulfate deprivation on the formation. Glycosamino-glycans were prepared from gastrula-stage embryos incubated with [3H]acetate in normal and sulfate-free sea water. Enzymatic analyses indicated that embryos formed a glycosaminoglycan of the dermatan sulfate type which contained an N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate-containing disaccharide as a major unit, plus a minor unidentified component. Under sulfate-free conditions, embryos formed an under-sulfated chondroitin/dermatan sulfate copolymer which mainly consisted of non-sulfate, glucuronic acid-containing (chondroitin) disaccharide units. These results suggest that sulfate deprivation diminishes not only the degree of sulfation but also the formation of L-iduronic acid-containing (dermatan) disaccharide units in dermatan sulfate in sea urchin embryos.

  19. Ca2+-transport in sea urchin unfertilized eggs: regulation by endogenous sulfated polysaccharides and K+.

    PubMed

    Landeira-Fernandez, Ana M; Aquino, Rafael S; Mourão, Paulo A S; de Meis, Leopoldo

    2006-10-01

    Previous data from our laboratory showed that the reticulum of the sea cucumber smooth muscle body wall retains both a sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) and a sulfated polysaccharide. In this invertebrate, the transport of Ca(2+) by the SERCA is naturally inhibited by these endogenous sulfated polysaccharides. The inhibition is reverted by K(+) leading to an enhancement of the Ca(2+) transport rate. We now show that vesicles derived from the endoplasmic reticulum of unfertilized eggs from the sea urchin Arbacia lixula retain a SERCA that is able to transport Ca(2+) at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. As described for the sea cucumber SERCA isoform, the enzyme from the sea urchin is activated by K(+) but not by Li(+) and is inhibited by thapsigargin, a specific inhibitor of SERCA. A new sulfated polysaccharide was identified in the sea urchin eggs reticulum composed mainly by galactose, glucose, hexosamine and manose. After extraction and purification, this sulfated polysaccharide was able to inhibit the mammal SERCA isoform found in rabbit skeletal muscle and the inhibition is reversed by K(+). These data suggest that the regulation of the SERCA pump by K(+) and sulfated polysaccharides is not restricted to few marine invertebrates but is widespread.

  20. [Diameter-weight relationship and chromatic proportion of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Echinoidea: Toxopneustidae) in the islands of Margarita and Cubagua, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gaspar, Alfredo

    2003-06-01

    In Margarita and Cabagua Islands, Venezuela, the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus is consumed as food but few studies concern its biology. Between January 1999 and September 2000, 25 localities of Margarita and Cubagua islands we visited to determinate the relationship between diameter and weight of living urchins according to their coloration green or white. A total of 5 066 urchins (3 421 captured in Margarita and 1 645 in Cubagua) were measured. There is no significant difference in the weight-diameter relations of green or white sea urchins of both islands. The weight-diameter equation is P = 0.00246 D252. Utilizing a quadrant (0.5 x 0.5 m) monthly samples of urchins living in a 2 m2 of surface were taken to estimate the abundance of the specimens according their color (N = 6 948 urchins). The green urchins were more abundant than the white urchins, in a 3:2 proportion. PMID:15264557

  1. Effects of food origin and availability on sea urchin condition and feeding behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livore, Juan P.; Connell, Sean D.

    2012-02-01

    The origin of food is recognised to be an important trait for sedentary consumers that have little control over the source of their food. Elevated herbivory in sea urchins is often linked to poor gonad condition as provoked by reduced food availability, but there is little recognition of the possibility that the origin of food may contribute to their poor condition and elevated feeding. This study assesses the possibility that variation in food availability and origin may together affect urchin condition and feeding rates such that they account for more intensive grazing (by Heliocidaris erythrogramma) on sheltered than exposed coasts (South Australia). We experimentally tested the hypothesis that reduced food availability from sheltered coasts would result in poor gonad condition and greater feeding rate; whilst enhanced food availability from exposed coasts would result in better condition and reduced feeding rates. We found that reduced food had negative effects on condition and positive effects on feeding rates independently of coastal source. Greater food availability did not equate to better condition, rather it was the delivery of more food from exposed than sheltered coasts that translated into the better gonad condition and lower feeding rates. These results suggest that plant origin and availability could help explain the greater impacts of these urchins on sheltered coasts. Whilst other factors such as water energy and sea urchin density may contribute to variation in herbivory our results suggest that origin of food may also play a role in sea urchin condition and behaviour. Understanding how such traits link to large scale features of the environment may improve models that account for variation in strength of consumer effects across landscapes.

  2. Nickel and Copper Toxicity to Embryos of the Long-Spined Sea Urchin, Diadema savignyi.

    PubMed

    Rosen, G; Rivera-Duarte, I; Colvin, M A; Dolecal, R E; Raymundo, L J; Earley, P J

    2015-07-01

    The sensitivity of long-spined sea urchins (Diadema savignyi) collected from Guam (Northern Marianas Islands), USA, to nickel and copper in seawater was explored using 48-h embryo-larval development toxicity tests. The median effective concentrations (EC50) averaged 94 µg L(-1) for nickel, and 19 µg L(-1) from a single exposure to copper, and suggest relatively high sensitivity of this species to nickel compared with other sea urchin genera, but similar sensitivity to copper. Ambient nickel and copper concentrations concurrently sampled from 16 near-shore locations around Guam were one to two orders of magnitude lower than those that would be expected to result in adverse effects to D. savignyi embryos. Although nationally recommended chronic ambient water quality criteria, currently 8.2 and 3.1 µg L(-1) for nickel and copper, respectively, were not exceeded, recently derived qualifying toxicity data should be considered for updating these criteria to ensure protectiveness of sensitive tropical species.

  3. Time course proteomic profiling of cellular responses to immunological challenge in the sea urchin, Heliocidaris erythrogramma.

    PubMed

    Dheilly, Nolwenn M; Haynes, Paul A; Raftos, David A; Nair, Sham V

    2012-06-01

    Genome sequences and high diversity cDNA arrays have provided a detailed molecular understanding of immune responses in a number of invertebrates, including sea urchins. However, complementary analyses have not been undertaken at the level of proteins. Here, we use shotgun proteomics to describe changes in the abundance of proteins from coelomocytes of sea urchins after immunological challenge and wounding. The relative abundance of 345 reproducibly identified proteins were measured 6, 24 and 48 h after injection. Significant changes in the relative abundance of 188 proteins were detected. These included pathogen-binding proteins, such as the complement component C3 and scavenger receptor cysteine rich proteins, as well as proteins responsible for cytoskeletal remodeling, endocytosis and intracellular signaling. An initial systemic reaction to wounding was followed by a more specific response to immunological challenge involving proteins such as apolipophorin, dual oxidase, fibrocystin L, aminopeptidase N and α-2-macroglobulin.

  4. High ordered biomineralization induced by carbon nanoparticles in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manno, Daniela; Carata, Elisabetta; Tenuzzo, Bernadetta A.; Panzarini, Elisa; Buccolieri, Alessandro; Filippo, Emanuela; Rossi, Marco; Serra, Antonio; Dini, Luciana

    2012-12-01

    A surprising and unexpected biomineralization process was observed during toxicological assessment of carbon nanoparticles on Paracentrotus lividus (sea urchin) pluteus larvae. The larvae activate a process of defense against external material, by incorporating the nanoparticles into microstructures of aragonite similarly to pearl oysters. Aiming at a better understanding of this phenomenon, the larvae were exposed to increasing concentrations of carbon nanoparticles and the biomineralization products were analyzed by electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. In order to evaluate the possible influence of Sp-CyP-1 expression on this biomineralization process by larvae, analyses of gene expression (Sp-CyP-1) and calcein labeling were performed. Overall, we report experimental evidence about the capability of carbon nanoparticles to induce an increment of Sp-CyP-1 expression with the consequent activation of a biomineralization process leading to the production of a new pearl-like biomaterial never previously observed in sea urchins.

  5. Effects of metal ions and CCl/sub 4/ on sea urchin embryo (Paracentrotus lividus)

    SciTech Connect

    Congiu, A.M.; Calendi, E.; Ugazio, G.

    1984-02-01

    The determination of embryotoxicity is an experimental tool for detecting the risks of environmental pollutants. In this study, fertilized eggs of sea urchin have been observed morphologically during exposure to heavy metal salts or carbon tetrachloride, with the purpose of testing possible differences in toxicity of various classes of poisons. Mercuric chloride is the most active salt, still harmful at 0.25 x 10(-6) M, while potassium dichromate, cadmium chloride and lead nitrate block embryo development at concentrations ranging between 0.25 x 10(-4) and 0.25 x 10(-5) M. Carbon tetrachloride per se does not affect the gastrulation at concentrations up to 3,520 ppm, and fails in potentiating the toxicity of the studied metal salts. The selective susceptibility of the development phases of sea urchin embryos to different compounds renders this simple morphological study a sensitive and reliable model for predicting the toxicity of environmental pollutants.

  6. Spermidine is bound to a unique protein in early sea urchin embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Canellakis, Z.N.; Bondy, P.K.; Infante, A.A.

    1985-11-01

    Spermidine is rapidly taken up and becomes bound to protein during the very early hours of sea urchin embryogenesis. During the first 6 hr after fertilization of freshly obtained sea urchin eggs (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), which are incubated in the presence of exogenous (/sup 3/H)-spermidine, up to 7% of the total cell-associated spermidine appears uniquely as spermidine bound in macromolecular form. This unique protein containing spermidine migrates as a single radioactive band in gel electrophoresis. It has a Mr of approximately equal to 30,000 and is readily distinguishable from the protein initiation factor eIF-4D, which has a Mr of 18,000, the only other identifiable protein known to date to be posttranslationally modified by polyamines.

  7. Swimming speed alteration in the early developmental stages of Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin as ecotoxicological endpoint.

    PubMed

    Morgana, Silvia; Gambardella, Chiara; Falugi, Carla; Pronzato, Roberto; Garaventa, Francesca; Faimali, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Behavioral endpoints have been used for decades to assess chemical impacts at concentrations unlikely to cause mortality. With recently developed techniques, it is possible to investigate the swimming behavior of several organisms under laboratory conditions. The aims of this study were: i) assessing for the first time the feasibility of swimming speed analysis of the early developmental stage sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus by an automatic recording system ii) investigating any Swimming Speed Alteration (SSA) on P. lividus early stages exposed to a chemical reference; iii) identifying the most suitable stage for SSA test. Results show that the swimming speed of all the developmental stages was easily recorded. The swimming speed was inhibited as a function of toxicant concentration. Pluteus were the most appropriate stage for evaluating SSA in P. lividus as ecotoxicological endpoint. Finally, swimming of sea urchin early stages represents a sensitive endpoint to be considered in ecotoxicological investigations.

  8. Characteristics of palindromic sequences in DNA of the sea urchin Stronglyocentrotus intermedius

    SciTech Connect

    Brykov, V.A.; Kukhlevskii, A.D.

    1986-03-20

    The fraction of palindromic sequences in the nuclear DNA of the sea urchin S. intermedius was characterized. Using chromatography on hydroxyapatite and treatment with S1 nuclease, it was shown that the fraction of palindromic sequences more than doubles when the sodium concentration in solution is increased or the temperature of reassociation is lowered. The increase is due to the involvement of inverted repeats in reassociation, which are characterized by a substantial nonhomologous character and/or the presence of an extended intervening DNA sequence. It was found by the method of reassociation of a nicked palindrome fraction with an excess of total homologous DNA that most of the inverted repeats in the sea urchin genome are unique sequences. The complexity of the palindrome fraction was estimated at 8.2 x 10/sup 7/ nucleotide pairs, and the number of palindromes per haploid genome approx. 500,000.

  9. RNA-Seq identifies SPGs as a ventral skeletal patterning cue in sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Piacentino, Michael L; Zuch, Daniel T; Fishman, Julie; Rose, Sviatlana; Speranza, Emily E; Li, Christy; Yu, Jia; Chung, Oliver; Ramachandran, Janani; Ferrell, Patrick; Patel, Vijeta; Reyna, Arlene; Hameeduddin, Hajerah; Chaves, James; Hewitt, Finnegan B; Bardot, Evan; Lee, David; Core, Amanda B; Hogan, John D; Keenan, Jessica L; Luo, Lingqi; Coulombe-Huntington, Jasmin; Blute, Todd A; Oleinik, Ekaterina; Ibn-Salem, Jonas; Poustka, Albert J; Bradham, Cynthia A

    2016-02-15

    The sea urchin larval skeleton offers a simple model for formation of developmental patterns. The calcium carbonate skeleton is secreted by primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) in response to largely unknown patterning cues expressed by the ectoderm. To discover novel ectodermal cues, we performed an unbiased RNA-Seq-based screen and functionally tested candidates; we thereby identified several novel skeletal patterning cues. Among these, we show that SLC26a2/7 is a ventrally expressed sulfate transporter that promotes a ventral accumulation of sulfated proteoglycans, which is required for ventral PMC positioning and skeletal patterning. We show that the effects of SLC perturbation are mimicked by manipulation of either external sulfate levels or proteoglycan sulfation. These results identify novel skeletal patterning genes and demonstrate that ventral proteoglycan sulfation serves as a positional cue for sea urchin skeletal patterning. PMID:26755701

  10. Genetic diversity and population structure of the commercially harvested sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata, Echinoidea).

    PubMed

    Duran, Sandra; Palacín, Cruz; Becerro, Mikel A; Turon, Xavier; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2004-11-01

    The population structure of the edible Atlanto-Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus is described by analysing sequence variation in a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I in 127 individuals from 12 localities across south-west Europe. The study revealed high levels of genetic diversity but low levels of genetic structure, suggesting a large degree of gene flow between populations and panmixis within each, the Mediterranean and Atlantic basins. However, we found significant genetic differentiation between the two basins probably due to restricted gene flow across the geographical boundary imposed by the area of the Strait of Gibraltar. Populations of P. lividus appeared to have experienced a recent demographic expansion in the late Pleistocene. We provide new evidence on the population structure of this commercial species, predicting a healthy stock of this sea urchin on the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts. PMID:15487992

  11. Evidence for a secretory pathway Ca2+-ATPase in sea urchin spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Gunaratne, Herath Jayantha; Vacquier, Victor D

    2006-07-10

    Plasma membrane, sarco-endoplasmic reticulum and secretory pathway Ca2+-ATPases (designated PMCA, SERCA and SPCA) regulate intracellular Ca2+ in animal cells. The presence of PMCA, and the absence of SERCA, in sea urchin sperm is known. By using inhibitors of Ca2+-ATPases, we now show the presence of SPCA and Ca2+ store in sea urchin sperm, which refills by SPCA-type pumps. Immunofluorescence shows SPCA localizes to the mitochondrion. Ca2+ measurements reveal that approximately 75% of Ca2+ extrusion is by Ca2+ ATPases and 25% by Na+ dependent Ca2+ exchanger/s. Bisphenol, a Ca2+ ATPase inhibitor, completely blocks the acrosome reaction, indicating the importance of Ca2+-ATPases in fertilization. PMID:16797550

  12. RNA-Seq identifies SPGs as a ventral skeletal patterning cue in sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Piacentino, Michael L; Zuch, Daniel T; Fishman, Julie; Rose, Sviatlana; Speranza, Emily E; Li, Christy; Yu, Jia; Chung, Oliver; Ramachandran, Janani; Ferrell, Patrick; Patel, Vijeta; Reyna, Arlene; Hameeduddin, Hajerah; Chaves, James; Hewitt, Finnegan B; Bardot, Evan; Lee, David; Core, Amanda B; Hogan, John D; Keenan, Jessica L; Luo, Lingqi; Coulombe-Huntington, Jasmin; Blute, Todd A; Oleinik, Ekaterina; Ibn-Salem, Jonas; Poustka, Albert J; Bradham, Cynthia A

    2016-02-15

    The sea urchin larval skeleton offers a simple model for formation of developmental patterns. The calcium carbonate skeleton is secreted by primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) in response to largely unknown patterning cues expressed by the ectoderm. To discover novel ectodermal cues, we performed an unbiased RNA-Seq-based screen and functionally tested candidates; we thereby identified several novel skeletal patterning cues. Among these, we show that SLC26a2/7 is a ventrally expressed sulfate transporter that promotes a ventral accumulation of sulfated proteoglycans, which is required for ventral PMC positioning and skeletal patterning. We show that the effects of SLC perturbation are mimicked by manipulation of either external sulfate levels or proteoglycan sulfation. These results identify novel skeletal patterning genes and demonstrate that ventral proteoglycan sulfation serves as a positional cue for sea urchin skeletal patterning.

  13. Extraction and analysis of carotenoids from the New Zealand sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus gonads.

    PubMed

    Garama, Daniel; Bremer, Phil; Carne, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Sea urchin gonad (roe) is a highly valued food in Japan and North America. Gonad price is strongly influenced by quality, with appearance, especially colour being a major determinant. Previous attempts to extract a carotenoid profile from the New Zealand sea urchin species Evechinus chloroticus have been challenging due to the large amount of lipid present in the gonad. A carotenoid extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis method was developed to reduce lipid contamination by incorporating a saponification and lipid cold precipitation in the extraction procedure. This method enabled greater carotenoid purity and enhanced analysis by HPLC. Echinenone was found to be the main carotenoid present in all E. chloroticus gonads. Dark coloured gonads contained higher levels of fucoxanthin/fucoxanthinol, β-carotene and xanthophylls such as astaxanthin and canthaxanthin. This information on the modification and deposition of carotenoids will help in the development of diets to enhance gonad colour.

  14. Developmental gene regulatory networks in sea urchins and what we can learn from them.

    PubMed

    Martik, Megan L; Lyons, Deirdre C; McClay, David R

    2016-01-01

    Sea urchin embryos begin zygotic transcription shortly after the egg is fertilized.  Throughout the cleavage stages a series of transcription factors are activated and, along with signaling through a number of pathways, at least 15 different cell types are specified by the beginning of gastrulation.  Experimentally, perturbation of contributing transcription factors, signals and receptors and their molecular consequences enabled the assembly of an extensive gene regulatory network model.  That effort, pioneered and led by Eric Davidson and his laboratory, with many additional insights provided by other laboratories, provided the sea urchin community with a valuable resource.  Here we describe the approaches used to enable the assembly of an advanced gene regulatory network model describing molecular diversification during early development.  We then provide examples to show how a relatively advanced authenticated network can be used as a tool for discovery of how diverse developmental mechanisms are controlled and work. PMID:26962438

  15. In the beginning...animal fertilization and sea urchin development.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Elissa; Wessel, Gary M

    2006-12-01

    What I most wished to discover [in my study] was the role that spermatozoids play in fertilization. In order to determine this, I put a droplet of red liquid, and at a small distance, a similar droplet of white liquid in a little trough on the viewing slide of the microscope; then, after covering all of this with a thin strip of glass, I added a drop of sea water. I was then able to watch the spermatozoids advance progressively towards the eggs. Some of [the eggs] were soon encircled by a compact mass of moving corpuscles; others, farther away, only found themselves in contact with a very small number [of sperm]; in both cases, I saw the signs of fertilization. The first apparent effect of this union is the almost immediate appearance of a perfectly transparent envelope that encircles the yolk at a certain distance, which is manifested by the appearance of a circular line. I saw this envelope manifest when in contact with a very small number of spermatozoids (three or four, sometimes even one only). PMID:17070796

  16. Characterization of microsatellite loci for the Australian sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma.

    PubMed

    Binks, Rachel M; Lukehurst, Sherralee S; García-González, Francisco; Evans, Jonathan P

    2009-07-01

    We report 16 polymorphic microsatellite loci from Heliocidaris erythrogramma, a common sea urchin endemic to temperate Australian waters. These microsatellites were tested in a minimum of 30 individuals, which yielded between five and 14 alleles per locus. Expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.52 to 0.92 with four loci deviating from Hardy-Weinberg expectations. These markers are expected to be useful for experimental studies involving paternity analysis and for quantifying population structure in H. erythrogramma across its geographic range.

  17. Novel origins of lineage founder cells in the direct-developing sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma.

    PubMed

    Wray, G A; Raff, R A

    1990-09-01

    The lineage and fate of each blastomere in the 32-cell embryo of the direct-developing sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma have been traced by microinjection of tetramethylrhodamine-dextran. The results reveal substantive evolutionary modifications of the ancestral cell lineage pattern of indirect sea urchin development. Significant among these modifications are changes in the time and order of cell lineage segregation: vegetal ectodermal founder cells consistently arise earlier than during indirect development, while internal founder cells generally segregate later and in a different sequence. Modifications have also arisen in proportions of the embryo fated to become various cell types and larval structures. Ectodermal fates, particularly vestibular ectoderm, comprise a greater proportion of the total cellular volume in H. erythrogramma. Among internal cell types, coelom consumes more and endoderm less of the remaining cellular volume than during indirect sea urchin development. Evolutionary modifications are also apparent in the positional origin of larval cell types and structures in H. erythrogramma. These include an apparent tilt in the axis of prospective cell fate relative to the animal-vegetal axis as defined by cleavage planes. Together these evolutionary changes in the cell lineage of H. erythrogramma produce an accelerated loss of dorsoventral symmetry in cell fate relative to indirect development. The extent and diversity of rearrangements in its cell lineage indicate that the non-feeding larva of H. erythrogramma is a highly modified, novel form rather than a degenerate pluteus larva. These same modifications underscore the evolutionarily flexible relationship between cell lineage, gene expression, and larval morphology in sea urchin development.

  18. The "lecithotrophic" sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma lacks typical yolk platelets and yolk glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Scott, L B; Lennarz, W J; Raff, R A; Wray, G A

    1990-03-01

    The sea urchin Heliocidaris tuberculata undergoes typical development, forming an echinoid pluteus larva, whereas H. erythrogramma undergoes direct development via a highly modified, nonfeeding larva. Using a polyclonal antibody prepared against yolk glycoproteins from the typical developer Stronglyocentrotus purpuratus, we found that H. tuberculata contains cross-reactive proteins in abundance, but H. erythrogramma does not. In addition, we used immunoelectron microscopy to demonstrate that unfertilized eggs of H. tuberculata contain yolk platelets, but those of H. erythrogramma do not.

  19. Base excision DNA repair in the embryonic development of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Torgasheva, Natalya A; Menzorova, Natalya I; Sibirtsev, Yurii T; Rasskazov, Valery A; Zharkov, Dmitry O; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2016-06-21

    In actively proliferating cells, such as the cells of the developing embryo, DNA repair is crucial for preventing the accumulation of mutations and synchronizing cell division. Sea urchin embryo growth was analyzed and extracts were prepared. The relative activity of DNA polymerase, apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease, uracil-DNA glycosylase, 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase, and other glycosylases was analyzed using specific oligonucleotide substrates of these enzymes; the reaction products were resolved by denaturing 20% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. We have characterized the profile of several key base excision repair activities in the developing embryos (2 blastomers to mid-pluteus) of the grey sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus intermedius. The uracil-DNA glycosylase specific activity sharply increased after blastula hatching, whereas the specific activity of 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase steadily decreased over the course of the development. The AP-endonuclease activity gradually increased but dropped at the last sampled stage (mid-pluteus 2). The DNA polymerase activity was high at the first cleavage division and then quickly decreased, showing a transient peak at blastula hatching. It seems that the developing sea urchin embryo encounters different DNA-damaging factors early in development within the protective envelope and later as a free-floating larva, with hatching necessitating adaptation to the shift in genotoxic stress conditions. No correlation was observed between the dynamics of the enzyme activities and published gene expression data from developing congeneric species, S. purpuratus. The results suggest that base excision repair enzymes may be regulated in the sea urchin embryos at the level of covalent modification or protein stability.

  20. Multidisciplinary screening of toxicity induced by silica nanoparticles during sea urchin development.

    PubMed

    Gambardella, Chiara; Morgana, Silvia; Bari, Gaetano Di; Ramoino, Paola; Bramini, Mattia; Diaspro, Alberto; Falugi, Carla; Faimali, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential toxicity of Silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) in seawater by using the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus as biological model. SiO2 NPs exposure effects were identified on the sperm of the sea urchin through a multidisciplinary approach, combining developmental biology, ecotoxicology, biochemistry, and microscopy analyses. The following responses were measured: (i) percentage of eggs fertilized by exposed sperm; (ii) percentage of anomalies and undeveloped embryos and larvae; (iii) enzyme activity alterations (acetylcholinesterase, AChE) in the early developmental stages, namely gastrula and pluteus. Sperms were exposed to seawater containing SiO2 NPs suspensions ranging from 0.0001mg/L to 50mg/L. Fertilization ability was not affected at any concentration, whereas a significant percentage of anomalies in the offspring were observed and quantified by means of EC50 at gastrula stage, including undeveloped and anomalous embryos (EC50=0.06mg/L), and at pluteus stage, including skeletal anomalies and delayed larvae (EC50=0.27mg/L). Moreover, morphological anomalies were observed in larvae at pluteus stage, by immunolocalizing molecules involved in larval development and neurotoxicity effects - such as acetylated tubulin and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) - and measuring AChE activity. Exposure of sea urchins to SiO2 NPs caused neurotoxic damage and a decrease of AChE expression in a non-dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, through the multidisciplinary approach used in this study SiO2 NPs toxicity in sea urchin offspring could be assessed. Therefore, the measured responses are suitable for detecting embryo- and larval- toxicity induced by these NPs.

  1. An anterior signaling center patterns and sizes the anterior neuroectoderm of the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Range, Ryan C; Wei, Zheng

    2016-05-01

    Anterior signaling centers help specify and pattern the early anterior neuroectoderm (ANE) in many deuterostomes. In sea urchin the ANE is restricted to the anterior of the late blastula stage embryo, where it forms a simple neural territory comprising several types of neurons as well as the apical tuft. Here, we show that during early development, the sea urchin ANE territory separates into inner and outer regulatory domains that express the cardinal ANE transcriptional regulators FoxQ2 and Six3, respectively. FoxQ2 drives this patterning process, which is required to eliminate six3 expression from the inner domain and activate the expression of Dkk3 and sFRP1/5, two secreted Wnt modulators. Dkk3 and low expression levels of sFRP1/5 act additively to potentiate the Wnt/JNK signaling pathway governing the positioning of the ANE territory around the anterior pole, whereas high expression levels of sFRP1/5 antagonize Wnt/JNK signaling. sFRP1/5 and Dkk3 levels are rigidly maintained via autorepressive and cross-repressive interactions with Wnt signaling components and additional ANE transcription factors. Together, these data support a model in which FoxQ2 initiates an anterior patterning center that implements correct size and positions of ANE structures. Comparisons of functional and expression studies in sea urchin, hemichordate and chordate embryos reveal striking similarities among deuterostome ANE regulatory networks and the molecular mechanism that positions and defines ANE borders. These data strongly support the idea that the sea urchin embryo uses an ancient anterior patterning system that was present in the common ambulacrarian/chordate ancestor.

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Altererythrobacter troitsensis JCM 17037, Isolated from the Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Wu, Yue-Hong; Cheng, Hong; Wang, Chun-Sheng; Xu, Xue-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The habitats of the genus Altererythrobacter are various, including marine sediment, seawater, rhizosphere of wild rice, desert sand, etc. The genome of the type strain of Altererythrobacter troitsensis JCM 17037, isolated from sea urchin, was sequenced. This study would not only facilitate the understanding of the physiology, adaptation, and evolution of the Altererythrobacter species, but also provide a good resource for the study of synthesis of astaxanthin, since several enzymes involved in the production of astaxanthin were predicted.

  3. An ultrastructural study of testes permeability in sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Kalachev, Alexander V

    2015-01-01

    Permeability of testes in sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus intermedius, was investigated by using an electron-opaque tracer, lanthanum nitrate. This tracer is able to enter the basal compartment of germinative epithelium, where developing germ cells are located. However, its ability to penetrate the gonadal lumen was reduced. An incomplete permeability barrier between the basal compartment and the gonadal lumen is supposed to exist in testes of S. intermedius.

  4. An anterior signaling center patterns and sizes the anterior neuroectoderm of the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Range, Ryan C; Wei, Zheng

    2016-05-01

    Anterior signaling centers help specify and pattern the early anterior neuroectoderm (ANE) in many deuterostomes. In sea urchin the ANE is restricted to the anterior of the late blastula stage embryo, where it forms a simple neural territory comprising several types of neurons as well as the apical tuft. Here, we show that during early development, the sea urchin ANE territory separates into inner and outer regulatory domains that express the cardinal ANE transcriptional regulators FoxQ2 and Six3, respectively. FoxQ2 drives this patterning process, which is required to eliminate six3 expression from the inner domain and activate the expression of Dkk3 and sFRP1/5, two secreted Wnt modulators. Dkk3 and low expression levels of sFRP1/5 act additively to potentiate the Wnt/JNK signaling pathway governing the positioning of the ANE territory around the anterior pole, whereas high expression levels of sFRP1/5 antagonize Wnt/JNK signaling. sFRP1/5 and Dkk3 levels are rigidly maintained via autorepressive and cross-repressive interactions with Wnt signaling components and additional ANE transcription factors. Together, these data support a model in which FoxQ2 initiates an anterior patterning center that implements correct size and positions of ANE structures. Comparisons of functional and expression studies in sea urchin, hemichordate and chordate embryos reveal striking similarities among deuterostome ANE regulatory networks and the molecular mechanism that positions and defines ANE borders. These data strongly support the idea that the sea urchin embryo uses an ancient anterior patterning system that was present in the common ambulacrarian/chordate ancestor. PMID:26952978

  5. New N-acyl taurine from the sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuefeng; Xu, Tunhai; Wen, Kewei; Yang, Xian-Wen; Xu, Shi-Hai; Liu, Yonghong

    2010-01-01

    A new N-acyl taurine (1), together with a new natural product, l-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-1,2,4-triazole (4), and two known compounds (2 and 3), were isolated from the sea urchin, Glyptocidaris crenularis. The new N-acyl taurine was elucidated as 2-(5R,15S-dihydroxyeicosanoylamino) ethanesulfonic acid on the basis of spectroscopic (NMR, MS) analyses and the modified Mosher ester method. Compound 2 showed significant toxicity against brine shrimp larvae.

  6. Base excision DNA repair in the embryonic development of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Torgasheva, Natalya A; Menzorova, Natalya I; Sibirtsev, Yurii T; Rasskazov, Valery A; Zharkov, Dmitry O; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2016-06-21

    In actively proliferating cells, such as the cells of the developing embryo, DNA repair is crucial for preventing the accumulation of mutations and synchronizing cell division. Sea urchin embryo growth was analyzed and extracts were prepared. The relative activity of DNA polymerase, apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease, uracil-DNA glycosylase, 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase, and other glycosylases was analyzed using specific oligonucleotide substrates of these enzymes; the reaction products were resolved by denaturing 20% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. We have characterized the profile of several key base excision repair activities in the developing embryos (2 blastomers to mid-pluteus) of the grey sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus intermedius. The uracil-DNA glycosylase specific activity sharply increased after blastula hatching, whereas the specific activity of 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase steadily decreased over the course of the development. The AP-endonuclease activity gradually increased but dropped at the last sampled stage (mid-pluteus 2). The DNA polymerase activity was high at the first cleavage division and then quickly decreased, showing a transient peak at blastula hatching. It seems that the developing sea urchin embryo encounters different DNA-damaging factors early in development within the protective envelope and later as a free-floating larva, with hatching necessitating adaptation to the shift in genotoxic stress conditions. No correlation was observed between the dynamics of the enzyme activities and published gene expression data from developing congeneric species, S. purpuratus. The results suggest that base excision repair enzymes may be regulated in the sea urchin embryos at the level of covalent modification or protein stability. PMID:27158700

  7. Kenyan coral reef lagoon fish: effects of fishing, substrate complexity, and sea urchins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClanahan, T. R.

    1994-11-01

    Population density, number of species, diversity, and species-area relationships of fish species in eight common coral reef-associated families were studied in three marine parks receiving total protection from fishing, four sites with unregulated fishing, and one reef which recently received protection from fishing (referred to as a transition reef). Data on coral cover, reef topographic complexity, and sea urchin abundance were collected and correlated with fish abundance and species richness. The most striking result of this survey is a consistent and large reduction in the population density and species richness of 5 families (surgeonfish, triggerfish, butterflyfish, angelfish, and parrotfish). Poor recovery of parrotfish in the transition reef, relative to other fish families, is interpreted as evidence for competitive exclusion of parrotfish by sea urchins. Reef substrate complexity is significantly associated with fish abundance and diversity, but data suggest different responses for protected versus fished reefs, protected reefs having higher species richness and numbers of individuals than unprotected reefs for the same reef complexity. Sea urchin abundance is negatively associated with numbers of fish and fish species but the interrelationship between sea urchins, substrate complexity, coral cover, and management make it difficult to attribute a set percent of variance to each factor-although fishing versus no fishing appears to be the strongest variable in predicting numbers of individuals and species of fish, and their community similarity. Localized species extirpation is evident for many species on fished reefs (for the sampled area of 1.0 ha). Fifty-two of 110 species found on protected reefs were not found on unprotected reefs.

  8. Monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons influence spicule formation in the early development of sea urchins (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nobuo; Ogiso, Shouzo; Yachiguchi, Koji; Kawabe, Kimi; Makino, Fumiya; Toriba, Akira; Kiyomoto, Masato; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Takashi; Kitamura, Kei-ichiro; Hong, Chun-Sang; Srivastav, Ajai K; Oshima, Yuji; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2015-05-01

    We previously demonstrated that monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OHPAHs), which are metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), act on calcified tissue and suppress osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity in the scales of teleost fish. The compounds may possibly influence other calcified tissues. Thus, the present study noted the calcified spicules in sea urchins and examined the effect of both PAHs and OHPAHs on spicule formation during the embryogenesis of sea urchins. After fertilization, benz[a]anthracene (BaA) and 4-hydroxybenz[a]anthracene (4-OHBaA) were added to seawater at concentrations of 10(-8) and 10(-7) M and kept at 18 °C. The influence of the compound was given at the time of the pluteus larva. At this stage, the length of the spicule was significantly suppressed by 4-OHBaA (10(-8) and 10(-7) M). BaA (10(-7) M) decreased the length of the spicule significantly, while the length did not change with BaA (10(-8) M). The expression of mRNAs (spicule matrix protein and transcription factors) in the 4-OHBaA (10(-7) M)-treated embryos was more strongly inhibited than were those in the BaA (10(-7) M)-treated embryos. This is the first study to demonstrate that OHPAHs suppress spicule formation in sea urchins.

  9. Primary cell cultures from sea urchin ovaries: a new experimental tool.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Silvia; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Sugni, Michela; Candia Carnevali, M Daniela

    2014-02-01

    In the present work, primary cell cultures from ovaries of the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus were developed in order to provide a simple and versatile experimental tool for researches in echinoderm reproductive biology. Ovary cell phenotypes were identified and characterized by different microscopic techniques. Although cell cultures could be produced from ovaries at all stages of maturation, the cells appeared healthier and viable, displaying a higher survival rate, when ovaries at early stages of gametogenesis were used. In terms of culture medium, ovarian cells were successfully cultured in modified Leibovitz-15 medium, whereas poor results were obtained in minimum essential medium Eagle and medium 199. Different substrates were tested, but ovarian cells completely adhered only on poly-L-lysine. To improve in vitro conditions and stimulate cell proliferation, different serum-supplements were tested. Fetal calf serum and an originally developed pluteus extract were detrimental to cell survival, apparently accelerating processes of cell death. In contrast, cells cultured with sea urchin egg extract appeared larger and healthier, displaying an increased longevity that allowed maintaining them for up to 1 month. Overall, our study provides new experimental bases and procedures for producing successfully long-term primary cell cultures from sea urchin ovaries offering a good potential to study echinoid oogenesis in a controlled system and to investigate different aspects of echinoderm endocrinology and reproductive biology.

  10. [Genome sequencing in the sea urchin embryo: what is new concerning the cell cycle?].

    PubMed

    Genevière, Anne-Marie; Aze, Antoine; Even, Yasmine

    2007-01-01

    Sea urchin is a classical research model system in developmental biology; moreover, the external fertilization and growth of embryos, their rapid division cycle, their transparency and the accessibility of these embryos to molecular visualization methods, made them good specimens to analyze the regulatory mechanisms of cell division. These features as well as the phylogenetic position of sea urchin, close to vertebrates but in an outgroup within the deuterostomes, led scientists working on this model to sequence the genome of the species S. purpuratus. The genome contains a full repertoire of cell cycle control genes. A comparison of this toolkit with those from vertebrates, nematodes, drosophila, as well as tunicates, provides new insight into the evolution of cell cycle control. While some gene subtypes have undergone lineage-specific expansions in vertebrates (i.e. cyclins, mitotic kinases,...), others seem to be lost in vertebrates, for instance the novel cyclin B identified in S. purpuratus. On the other hand, some genes which were previously thought to be vertebrate innovations, are also found in sea urchins (i.e. MCM9). To note is also the absence of cell cycle inhibitors of the INK type, which are apparently confined to vertebrates. The uncovered genomic repertoire of cell-cycle regulators will thus provide molecular tools that should further enhance future research on cell cycle control and developmental regulation in this model. PMID:17762822

  11. Different migration patterns of sea urchin and mouse sperm revealed by a microfluidic chemotaxis device.

    PubMed

    Chang, Haixin; Kim, Beum Jun; Kim, Yoon Soo; Suarez, Susan S; Wu, Mingming

    2013-01-01

    Chemotaxis refers to a process whereby cells move up or down a chemical gradient. Sperm chemotaxis is known to be a strategy exploited by marine invertebrates such as sea urchins to reach eggs efficiently in moving water. Less is understood about how or whether chemotaxis is used by mammalian sperm to reach eggs, where fertilization takes place within the confinement of a reproductive tract. In this report, we quantitatively assessed sea urchin and mouse sperm chemotaxis using a recently developed microfluidic model and high-speed imaging. Results demonstrated that sea urchin Arbacia punctulata sperm were chemotactic toward the peptide resact with high chemotactic sensitivity, with an average velocity Vx up the chemical gradient as high as 20% of its average speed (238 μm/s), while mouse sperm displayed no statistically significant chemotactic behavior in progesterone gradients, which had been proposed to guide mammalian sperm toward eggs. This work demonstrates the validity of a microfluidic model for quantitative sperm chemotaxis studies, and reveals a biological insight that chemotaxis up a progesterone gradient may not be a universal strategy for mammalian sperm to reach eggs.

  12. The conserved genetic background for pluteus arm development in brittle stars and sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Morino, Yoshiaki; Koga, Hiroyuki; Wada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Echinoderm pluteus larvae are considered a classical example of convergent evolution that occurred in sea urchins and brittle stars. Several genes are known to be involved in the development of pluteus arms in sea urchins, including fgfA, pax2/5/8, pea3, otp, wnt5, and tet. To determine whether the convergent evolution of larval arms also involves these genes in brittle stars, their expression patterns were determined in brittle star. We found that all genes showed similar expression in the arms of ophiopluteus to that seen in echinopluteus, suggesting that convergent evolution of pluteus arms occurred by recruitment of a similar set of genes. This may be explained by our observation that some of these genes are also expressed in the spine rudiment of direct-type development sea urchins. We propose an evolutionary scenario wherein the pluteus arms of both echinopluteus and ophiopluteus were acquired by independent co-options of the genetic module responsible for the projection of the adult skeleton.

  13. Morphogenetic mechanisms of coelom formation in the direct-developing sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma.

    PubMed

    Smith, Margaret S; Collins, Steve; Raff, Rudolf A

    2009-01-01

    Indirect development via a feeding pluteus larva represents the ancestral mode of sea urchin development. However, some sea urchin species exhibit a derived form of development, called direct development, in which features of the feeding larva are replaced by accelerated development of the adult. A major difference between these two developmental modes is the timing of the formation of the left coelom and initiation of adult development. These processes occur much earlier in developmental and absolute time in direct developers and may be underlain by changes in morphogenetic processes. In this study, we explore whether differences in the cellular mechanisms responsible for the development of the left coelom and adult structures are associated with the change in the timing of their formation in the direct-developing sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma. We present evidence that left coelom formation in H. erythrogramma, which differs in major aspects of coelom formation in indirect developers, is not a result of cell division. Further, we demonstrate that subsequent development of adult structures requires cell division.

  14. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) desensitization increases sea urchin spermatozoa fertilization rate.

    PubMed

    Torrezan-Nitao, Elis; Boni, Raianna; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) is a protein complex whose opening promotes an abrupt increase in mitochondrial inner membrane permeability. Calcium signaling pathways are described in gametes and are involved in the fertilization process. Although mitochondria may act as Ca(2+) store and have a fast calcium-releasing mechanism through MPTP, its contribution to fertilization remains unclear. The work aimed to investigate the MPTP phenomenon in sea urchin spermatozoa and its role on the fertilization. Several pharmacological tools were used to evaluate the MPTP's physiology. Our results demonstrated that MPTP occurs in male gametes in a Ca(2+) - and voltage-dependent manner and it is sensitive to cyclosporine A. Additionally, our data show that MPTP opening does not alter ROS generation in sperm cells. Inhibition of MPTP in spermatozoa strongly improved the fertilization rate, which may involve mechanisms that increase the spermatozoa lifespan. The present work is the first report of the presence of a voltage- and Ca(2+) -dependent MPTP in gametes of invertebrates and indicates MPTP opening as another evolutionary feature shared by sea urchins and mammals. Studies about MPTP in sea urchin male gametes may contribute to the elucidation of several mechanisms involved in sperm infertility.

  15. Cell mediated immune response of the Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus after PAMPs stimulation.

    PubMed

    Romero, A; Novoa, B; Figueras, A

    2016-09-01

    The Mediterranean sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) is of great ecological and economic importance for the European aquaculture. Yet, most of the studies regarding echinoderm's immunological defense mechanisms reported so far have used the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus as a model, and information on the immunological defense mechanisms of Paracentrotus lividus and other sea urchins, is scarce. To remedy this gap in information, in this study, flow cytometry was used to evaluate several cellular immune mechanisms, such as phagocytosis, cell cooperation, and ROS production in P. lividus coelomocytes after PAMP stimulation. Two cell populations were described. Of the two, the amoeboid-phagocytes were responsible for the phagocytosis and ROS production. Cooperation between amoeboid-phagocytes and non-adherent cells resulted in an increased phagocytic response. Stimulation with several PAMPs modified the phagocytic activity and the production of ROS. The premise that the coelomocytes were activated by the bacterial components was confirmed by the expression levels of two cell mediated immune genes: LPS-Induced TNF-alpha Factor (LITAF) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). These results have helped us understand the cellular immune mechanisms in P. lividus and their modulation after PAMP stimulation.

  16. Microgravity Effecs During Fertilization, Cell Division, Development, and Calcium Metabolism in Sea Urchins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Heide

    1999-01-01

    Calcium loss and muscle atrophy are two of the main metabolic changes experienced by astronauts and crew members during exposure to microgravity in space. For long-term exposure to space it is crucial to understand the underlying mechanisms for altered physiological functions. Fundamental occurrences in cell biology which are likely to depend on gravity include cytoskeletal dynamics, chromatin and centrosome cycling, and ion immobilization. These events can be studied during fertilization and embryogenesis within invertebrate systems. We have chosen the sea urchin system to study the effects of microgravity on cytoskeletal processes and calcium metabolism during fertilization, cell division, development, and embryogenesis. Experiments during an aircraft parabolic flight (KC-135) demonstrated: (1) the viability of sea urchin eggs prior to fertilization, (2) the suitability of our specimen containment system, (3) the feasibility of fertilization in a reduced gravity environment (which was achieved during 25 seconds of reduced gravity under parabolic flight conditions). Two newly developed pieces of spaceflight hardware made further investigations possible on a spaceflight (STS-77); (1) the Aquatic Research Facility (ARF), and (2) the Fertilization Syringe Unit (FSU). The Canadian Space Agency developed ARF to conduct aquatic spaceflight experiments requiring controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, illumination, and fixation at predetermined time points. It contained a control centrifuge which simulated the 1 g environment of earth during spaceflight. The FSU was developed at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) by the Bionetics Corporation specifically to enable the crew to perform sea urchin fertilization operations in space.

  17. Two kinase activities are sufficient for sea urchin sperm chromatin decondensation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Stephens, S; Beyer, B; Balthazar-Stablein, U; Duncan, R; Kostacos, M; Lukoma, M; Green, G R; Poccia, D

    2002-08-01

    Decondensation of compact and inactive sperm chromatin by egg cytoplasm at fertilization is necessary to convert the male germ cell chromatin to an active somatic form. We studied decondensation of sea urchin sperm nuclei in a cell-free extract of sea urchin eggs to define conditions promoting decondensation. We find that egg cytosol specifically phosphorylates two sperm-specific (Sp) histones in vitro in the same regions as in vivo. This activity is blocked by olomoucine, an inhibitor of cdc2-like kinases, but not by chelerythrine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC). PKC phosphorylates and solubilizes the sperm nuclear lamina, one requirement for decondensation. Olomoucine, which does not inhibit lamina removal, blocks sperm nuclear decondensation in the same concentration range over which it is effective in blocking Sp histone phosphorylation. In a system free of other soluble proteins, neither PKC nor cdc2 alone elicit sperm chromatin decondensation, but the two act synergistically to decondense sperm nuclei. We conclude that two kinases activities are sufficient for sea urchin male pronuclear decondensation in vitro, a lamin kinase (PKC) and a cdc2-like Sp histone kinase.

  18. Echinometrin: a novel mast cell degranulating peptide from the coelomic liquid of Echinometra lucunter sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Sciani, Juliana Mozer; Sampaio, Marlos Cortez; Zychar, Bianca Cestari; Gonçalves, Luis Roberto de Camargo; Giorgi, Renata; Nogueira, Thiago de Oliveira; de Melo, Robson Lopes; Teixeira, Catarina de Fátima Pereira; Pimenta, Daniel Carvalho

    2014-03-01

    Echinometra lucunter is an abundant sea urchin found in Brazilian waters. Accidents caused by this animal are common and are characterized by the penetration of the spines in the skin, which raises an inflammatory reaction through mechanical trauma as well as by the presumable action of toxins. Additionally, there have been reports of inflammatory reaction after the consumption of raw sea urchin eggs. In this work, we have isolated a peptide from E. lucunter coelomic fluid that could elicit inflammatory reactions, such as paw edema, leukocyte recruitment and diminishment of the pain threshold. This peptide was termed Echinometrin. Moreover, the peptide administration was able to produce in vivo degranulation of mouse mast cells, in a dose-response manner. The peptide was 'de novo' sequenced by mass spectrometry and its synthetic analog could reproduce all the observed effects. Sequence alignment indicates that this peptide is comprised in vitellogenin, an abundant nutrient protein present in the gametogenic cells of sea urchins, making it possible that echinometrin would be a cryptide with pro-inflammatory effects.

  19. Involvement of ABCB1 and ABCC1 transporters in sea urchin Echinometra lucunter fertilization.

    PubMed

    Silva-Neta, Helena Lima; Torrezan, Elis; de Araújo Leite, Jocelmo Cássio; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando

    2012-12-01

    Fertilization is an ordered sequence of cellular interactions that promotes gamete fusion to form a new individual. Since the pioneering work of Oskar Hertwig conducted on sea urchins, echinoderms have contributed to the understanding of cellular and molecular aspects of the fertilization processes. Studies on sea urchin spermatozoa reported the involvement of a plasma membrane protein that belongs to the ABC proteins superfamily in the acrosome reaction. ABC transporters are expressed in membranes of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, and are associated with the transport of several compounds or ions across biomembranes. We aimed to investigate ABCB1 and ABCC1 transporter activity in sea urchin spermatozoa and their involvement in fertilization. Our results indicate that Echinometra lucunter spermatozoa exhibit a low intracellular calcein accumulation (18.5% stained cells); however, the ABC blockers reversin205, verapamil, and MK571 increased dye accumulation (93.0-96.6% stained cells). We also demonstrated that pharmacologically blocking ABCB1 and ABCC1 decreased spermatozoa fertilizing capacity (70% inhibition), and this phenotype was independent of extracellular calcium. These data suggest that functional spermatozoa ABCB1 and ABCC1 transporters are crucial for a successful fertilization. Additional studies must be performed to investigate the involvement of membrane lipid homeostasis in the fertilization process.

  20. Sea urchin tooth mineralization: calcite present early in the aboral plumula.

    PubMed

    Stock, Stuart R; Veis, Arthur; Xiao, Xianghui; Almer, Jonathan D; Dorvee, Jason R

    2012-11-01

    In both vertebrate bone, containing carbonated hydroxyapatite as the mineral phase, and in invertebrate hard tissue comprised of calcium carbonate, a popular view is that the mineral phase develops from a long-lived amorphous precursor which later transforms into crystal form. Important questions linked to this popular view are: when and where is the crystallized material formed, and is amorphous solid added subsequently to the crystalline substrate? Sea urchin teeth, in which the earliest mineral forms within isolated compartments, in a time and position dependent manner, allow direct investigation of the timing of crystallization of the calcite primary plates. Living teeth of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus, in their native coelomic fluid, were examined by high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The diffraction data show that calcite is present in the most aboral portions of the plumula, representing the very earliest stages of mineralization, and that this calcite has the same crystal orientation as in the more mature adoral portions of the same tooth. Raman spectroscopy of the aboral plumula confirms the initial primary plate mineral material is calcite and does not detect amorphous calcium carbonate; in the more mature adoral incisal flange, it does detect a broader calcite peak, consistent with two or more magnesium compositions. We hypothesize that some portion of each syncytial membrane in the plumula provides the information for nucleation of identically oriented calcite crystals that subsequently develop to form the complex geometry of the single crystal sea urchin tooth.

  1. Mapping sea urchins tube feet proteome--a unique hydraulic mechano-sensory adhesive organ.

    PubMed

    Santos, Romana; Barreto, Angela; Franco, Catarina; Coelho, Ana Varela

    2013-02-21

    Marine organisms secrete adhesives for substrate attachment that to be effective require functional assembly underwater and displacement of water, ions, and weakly bound polyions that are ubiquitous in seawater. Therefore, understanding the characteristics of these protein/carbohydrate-based marine adhesives is imperative to decipher marine adhesion and also, to accelerate the development of new biomimetic underwater adhesives and anti-fouling agents. The present study, aims at mapping the proteome of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus adhesive organs using a combination of complementary protein separation techniques (1-D-nanoLC and 2-DE), databases and search algorithms. This strategy resulted in the identification of 328 non-redundant proteins, constituting the first comprehensive list of sea urchin tube feet proteins. Given the known importance of phosphorylation and glycosylation in marine adhesion, the 2DE proteome was re-analyzed with specific fluorescent stains for these two PTMs, resulting in the identification of 69 non-redundant proteins. The obtained results demonstrate that tube feet are unique mechano-sensory adhesive organs and highlight putative adhesive proteins, that although requiring further confirmation, constitute a step forward in the quest to decipher sea urchins temporary adhesion. PMID:23247468

  2. Sea urchin arylsulfatase, an extracellular matrix component, is involved in gastrulation during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mitsunaga-Nakatsubo, Keiko; Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Kawakami, Hayato; Akasaka, Koji

    2009-06-01

    Arylsulfatases (Arses) have been regarded as lysosomal enzymes because of their hydrolytic activities on synthetic aromatic substrates and their lysosomal localization of their enzymatic activities. Using sea urchin embryos, we previously demonstrated that the bulk of Hemicentrotus Ars (HpArs) does not exhibit enzyme activity and is located on the apical surface of the epithelial cells co-localizing with sulfated polysaccharides. Here we show that HpArs strongly binds to sulfated polysaccharides and that repression of the synthesis by HpArs-morpholino results in retardation of gastrulation in the sea urchin embryo. Accumulation of HpArs protein and sulfated polysaccharides on the apical surface of the epithelial cells in sea urchin larvae is repressed by treatment with beta-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), suggesting that deposition of HpArs and sulfated polysaccharides is dependent on the crosslinking of proteins such as collagen-like molecules. We suggest that HpArs functions by binding to components of the extracellular matrix.

  3. Seminal fluid from sea urchin (Lytechinus variegatus) contains complex sulfated polysaccharides linked to protein.

    PubMed

    Cinelli, Leonardo P; Vilela-Silva, Ana-Cristina E S; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2009-09-01

    The eggs of sea urchins are covered by a jelly coat, which contains high concentrations of sulfated polysaccharides. These carbohydrates show species-specificity in inducing the sperm acrosome reaction. Several studies about the egg jelly of sea urchins have been published, but there is no information about the composition of the seminal fluid of these echinoderms. Here we report for the first time the occurrence of complex sulfated polysaccharides in the seminal fluid of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. These polysaccharides occur as three fractions that differ mostly in their carbohydrate/protein ratios. The native molecular masses of the polymers are very high (> or = 200 kDa) but, after digestion with papain the size decreases to approximately 8 kDa. All fractions have a similar carbohydrate composition, containing mostly galactose, glucosamine and mannose. The heterogeneous sulfated polysaccharides differ from vertebrate glycosaminoglycans and also from all previously described polysaccharides from invertebrates. The physiological role of the sulfated carbohydrates from seminal fluid is not yet determined. However, by analogy with the effects proposed for some glycoproteins found in vertebrate seminal fluid, it may be possible that the sulfated polysaccharides from invertebrate are also involved in fertilization process.

  4. Pigment Cell Differentiation in Sea Urchin Blastula-Derived Primary Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Ageenko, Natalya V.; Kiselev, Konstantin V.; Dmitrenok, Pavel S.; Odintsova, Nelly A.

    2014-01-01

    The quinone pigments of sea urchins, specifically echinochrome and spinochromes, are known for their effective antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, and antitumor activities. We developed in vitro technology for inducing pigment differentiation in cell culture. The intensification of the pigment differentiation was accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in cell proliferation. The number of pigment cells was two-fold higher in the cells cultivated in the coelomic fluids of injured sea urchins than in those intact. The possible roles of the specific components of the coelomic fluids in the pigment differentiation process and the quantitative measurement of the production of naphthoquinone pigments during cultivation were examined by MALDI and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Echinochrome A and spinochrome E were produced by the cultivated cells of the sand dollar Scaphechinus mirabilis in all tested media, while only spinochromes were found in the cultivated cells of another sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus intermedius. The expression of genes associated with the induction of pigment differentiation was increased in cells cultivated in the presence of shikimic acid, a precursor of naphthoquinone pigments. Our results should contribute to the development of new techniques in marine biotechnology, including the generation of cell cultures producing complex bioactive compounds with therapeutic potential. PMID:24979272

  5. Cell mediated immune response of the Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus after PAMPs stimulation.

    PubMed

    Romero, A; Novoa, B; Figueras, A

    2016-09-01

    The Mediterranean sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) is of great ecological and economic importance for the European aquaculture. Yet, most of the studies regarding echinoderm's immunological defense mechanisms reported so far have used the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus as a model, and information on the immunological defense mechanisms of Paracentrotus lividus and other sea urchins, is scarce. To remedy this gap in information, in this study, flow cytometry was used to evaluate several cellular immune mechanisms, such as phagocytosis, cell cooperation, and ROS production in P. lividus coelomocytes after PAMP stimulation. Two cell populations were described. Of the two, the amoeboid-phagocytes were responsible for the phagocytosis and ROS production. Cooperation between amoeboid-phagocytes and non-adherent cells resulted in an increased phagocytic response. Stimulation with several PAMPs modified the phagocytic activity and the production of ROS. The premise that the coelomocytes were activated by the bacterial components was confirmed by the expression levels of two cell mediated immune genes: LPS-Induced TNF-alpha Factor (LITAF) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). These results have helped us understand the cellular immune mechanisms in P. lividus and their modulation after PAMP stimulation. PMID:27113124

  6. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) desensitization increases sea urchin spermatozoa fertilization rate.

    PubMed

    Torrezan-Nitao, Elis; Boni, Raianna; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) is a protein complex whose opening promotes an abrupt increase in mitochondrial inner membrane permeability. Calcium signaling pathways are described in gametes and are involved in the fertilization process. Although mitochondria may act as Ca(2+) store and have a fast calcium-releasing mechanism through MPTP, its contribution to fertilization remains unclear. The work aimed to investigate the MPTP phenomenon in sea urchin spermatozoa and its role on the fertilization. Several pharmacological tools were used to evaluate the MPTP's physiology. Our results demonstrated that MPTP occurs in male gametes in a Ca(2+) - and voltage-dependent manner and it is sensitive to cyclosporine A. Additionally, our data show that MPTP opening does not alter ROS generation in sperm cells. Inhibition of MPTP in spermatozoa strongly improved the fertilization rate, which may involve mechanisms that increase the spermatozoa lifespan. The present work is the first report of the presence of a voltage- and Ca(2+) -dependent MPTP in gametes of invertebrates and indicates MPTP opening as another evolutionary feature shared by sea urchins and mammals. Studies about MPTP in sea urchin male gametes may contribute to the elucidation of several mechanisms involved in sperm infertility. PMID:27449751

  7. New Aminonaphthoquinone from the Sea Urchins Strongylocentrotus pallidus and Mesocentrotus nudus.

    PubMed

    Vasileva, Elena A; Mishchenko, Natalia P; Zadorozhny, Pavel A; Fedoreyev, Sergey A

    2016-06-01

    The aminonaphthoquinone, spinamine E (5), was isolated for the first time from the sea urchins Strongylocentrotus pallidus (Sars G.O., 1872) and Mesocentrotus nudus (A. Agassiz, 1864). The structure of 5 was elucidated as 2-amino-3,5,6,7,8-pentahydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone using ID 1H-, 13C- and 2D NMR procedures, and HR-ESI mass-spectrometric data of 5 and its trimethyl ether. Spinamine E, as well as two other aminonaphthoquinones of sea urchins, echinamines A (2) and B (3), along with their hydroxylated analogues, spinochrome E (4) and echinochrome A (1), were tested for their ability to scavenge the stable DPPH radical and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. All investigated naphthoquinones obtained from the sea urchins showed a high antiradical activity, which was up to 1.5 times higher than that of α-tocopherol. Echinamine B showed the highest scavenging effect (EC50 = 6.5-10(-6) M); this effect decreases in the series 3>5>1>2>4>α-tocopherol. In a lipid peroxidation inhibition testing model, echinamine B and spinamine E showed the highest inhibitory effect. The stability of compounds 1-5 in weakly alkaline solutions was evaluated. PMID:27534126

  8. Sea urchin tooth mineralization: Calcite present early in the aboral plumula

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Stuart R.; Veis, Arthur; Xiao, Xianghui; Almer, Jonathan D.; Dorvee, Jason R.

    2012-01-01

    In both vertebrate bone, containing carbonated hydroxyapatite as the mineral phase, and in invertebrate hard tissue comprised of calcium carbonate, a popular view is that the mineral phase develops from a long-lived amorphous precursor which later transforms into crystal form. Important questions linked to this popular view are: When and where is the crystallized material formed, and is amorphous solid added subsequently to the crystalline substrate? Sea urchin teeth, in which the earliest mineral forms within isolated compartments, in a time and position dependent manner, allow direct investigation of the timing of crystallization of the calcite primary plates. Living teeth of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus, in their native coelomic fluid, were examined by high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The diffraction data show that calcite is present in the most aboral portions of the plumula, representing the very earliest stages of mineralization, and that this calcite has the same crystal orientation as in the more mature adoral portions of the same tooth. Raman spectroscopy of the aboral plumula confirms the initial primary plate mineral material is calcite and does not detect amorphous calcium carbonate; in the more mature adoral incisal flange, it does detect a broader calcite peak, consistent with two or more magnesium compositions. We hypothesize that some portion of each syncytial membrane in the plumula provides the information for nucleation of identically oriented calcite crystals that subsequently develop to form the complex geometry of the single crystal sea urchin tooth. PMID:22940703

  9. The test skeletal matrix of the black sea urchin Arbacia lixula.

    PubMed

    Kanold, Julia M; Immel, Francoise; Broussard, Cédric; Guichard, Nathalie; Plasseraud, Laurent; Corneillat, Marion; Alcaraz, Gérard; Brümmer, Franz; Marin, Frédéric

    2015-03-01

    In the field of biomineralization, the past decade has been marked by the increasing use of high throughput techniques, i.e. proteomics, for identifying in one shot the protein content of complex macromolecular mixtures extracted from mineralized tissues. Although crowned with success, this approach has been restricted so far to a limited set of key-organisms, such as the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, the pearl oyster or the abalone, leaving in the shadow non-model organisms. As a consequence, it is still unknown to what extent the calcifying repertoire varies, from group to group, at high (phylum, class), median (order, family) or low (genus, species) taxonomic rank. The present paper shows the first biochemical and proteomic characterization of the test matrix of the Mediterranean black sea urchin Arbacia lixula (Arbacioida). Our work suggests that the skeletal repertoire of A. lixula exhibits some similarities but also several differences with that of the few sea urchin species (S. purpuratus, Paracentrotus lividus), for which molecular data are already available. The differences may be attributable to the taxonomic position of the species considered: A. lixula belongs to an order - Arbacioida - that diverged more than one hundred million years ago from the Camarodonta, which includes the two species S. purpuratus and P. lividus. For the echinoid class, we suggest that large-scale proteomic screening should be performed in order to understand which molecular functions related to calcification are conserved and which ones have been co-opted for biomineralization in particular lineages. PMID:25617706

  10. The tube feet of sea urchins and sea stars contain functionally different mutable collagenous tissues.

    PubMed

    Santos, Romana; Haesaerts, Delphine; Jangoux, Michel; Flammang, Patrick

    2005-06-01

    Echinoderms possess mutable collagenous tissues (MCTs), which are capable of undergoing rapid changes in their passive mechanical properties mediated by secretions from a specific cell type, the juxtaligamental cell. In this study, the possible presence of MCTs in the tube feet of the echinoid Paracentrotus lividus and the asteroid Marthasterias glacialis was investigated by measuring their extensibility, tensile strength, stiffness and toughness after different treatments known to influence the physiological state of MCTs. Calcium removal reversibly induced a significant plasticization of the tube feet of both species. When exposed to cell-disrupting solutions, the tube foot stem of sea urchins and sea stars showed a significant increase in strength, stiffness and toughness in the absence of calcium. This response, combined with the ultrastructural observation of juxtaligamental-like cells in the connective tissue, confirms that an MCT is present in both echinoid and asteroid tube feet. It was observed, however, that the tube foot stems of P. lividus and M. glacialis are affected differently by exposure to cell-disrupting solutions in the presence of calcium, indicating that their MCTs could be functionally different. In their soft state, MCTs could assist the muscles in tube foot protraction, bending and retraction; in their stiff state, they could play a role in the energy-sparing maintenance of position; for example, during strong attachment to the substratum to resist hydrodynamically generated loads.

  11. Effect of diets supplemented with different sources of astaxanthin on the gonad of the sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina.

    PubMed

    Peng, Juan; Yuan, Jian-Ping; Wang, Jiang-Hai

    2012-08-01

    The effect of the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis and Chorella zofingiensis, and synthetic astaxanthin on the gonad of the sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina was studied. The basal diet was supplemented with H. pluvialis, C. zofingiensis, or synthetic astaxanthin, at two levels of astaxanthin (approximately 400 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg), to obtain the experimental diets HP1, HP2, CZ1, CZ2, AST1, and AST2, respectively, for two months of feeding experiment. The results showed that the concentrations of astaxanthin in the gonads of the sea urchins fed these experimental diets ranged from 0.15 to 3.01 mg/kg dry gonad weight. The higher astaxanthin levels (>2.90 mg/kg) were found in the gonads of the sea urchins fed the diets HP1 (containing 380 mg/kg of astaxanthins, mostly mono- and diesters) and AST1 (containing 385 mg/kg of synthetic astaxanthin). The lowest astaxanthin level (0.15 mg/kg) was detected in the gonads of the sea urchins fed the diet CZ2 (containing 98 mg/kg of astaxanthins, mostly diesters). Furthermore, the highest canthaxanthin level (7.48 mg/kg) was found in the gonads of the sea urchins fed the diet CZ1 (containing 387 mg/kg of astaxanthins and 142 mg/kg of canthaxanthin), suggesting that astaxanthins, especially astaxanthin esters, might not be assimilated as easily as canthaxanthin by the sea urchins. Our results show that sea urchins fed diets containing astaxanthin pigments show higher incorporation of these known antioxidant constituents, with the resultant seafood products therefore being of potential higher nutritive value.

  12. Embryonic, Larval, and Early Juvenile Development of the Tropical Sea Urchin, Salmacis sphaeroides (Echinodermata: Echinoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. Aminur; Yusoff, Fatimah Md.; Arshad, A.; Shamsudin, Mariana Nor; Amin, S. M. N.

    2012-01-01

    Salmacis sphaeroides (Linnaeus, 1758) is one of the regular echinoids, occuring in the warm Indo-West Pacific, including Johor Straits, between Malaysia and Singapore. In order to investigate the developmental basis of morphological changes in embryos and larvae, we documented the ontogeny of S. sphaeroides in laboratory condition. Gametes were obtained from adult individuals by 0.5 M KCl injection into the coelomic cavity. Fertilization rate at limited sperm concentration (10−5 dilution) was 96.6 ± 1.4% and the resulting embryos were reared at 24°C. First cleavage (2-cell), 4-cell, 8-cell, 16-cell, 32-cell, and multicell (Morulla) stages were achieved 01.12, 02.03, 02.28, 02.51, 03.12, and 03.32 h postfertilization. Ciliated blastulae with a mean length of 174.72 ± 4.43 μm hatched 08.45 h after sperm entry. The gastrulae formed 16.15 h postfertilization and the archenteron elongated constantly while ectodermal red-pigmented cells migrated synchronously to the apical plate. Pluteus larva started to feed unicellular algae in 2 d, grew continuously, and finally attained metamorphic competence in 35 d after fertilization. Metamorphosis took approximately 1 h 30 min from attachment to the complete resorption of larval tissues and the development of complete juvenile structure with adult spines, extended tubefeet and well-developed pedicellaria, the whole event of which usually took place within 1 d postsettlement. This study represents the first successful investigation on embryonic, larval, and early juvenile development of S. sphaeroides. The findings would greatly be helpful towards the understanding of ontogeny and life-history strategies, which will facilitate us to develop the breeding, seed production, and culture techniques of sea urchins in captive condition. PMID:23055824

  13. Embryonic, larval, and early juvenile development of the tropical sea urchin, Salmacis sphaeroides (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Aminur; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Arshad, A; Shamsudin, Mariana Nor; Amin, S M N

    2012-01-01

    Salmacis sphaeroides (Linnaeus, 1758) is one of the regular echinoids, occuring in the warm Indo-West Pacific, including Johor Straits, between Malaysia and Singapore. In order to investigate the developmental basis of morphological changes in embryos and larvae, we documented the ontogeny of S. sphaeroides in laboratory condition. Gametes were obtained from adult individuals by 0.5 M KCl injection into the coelomic cavity. Fertilization rate at limited sperm concentration (10(-5) dilution) was 96.6 ± 1.4% and the resulting embryos were reared at 24°C. First cleavage (2-cell), 4-cell, 8-cell, 16-cell, 32-cell, and multicell (Morulla) stages were achieved 01.12, 02.03, 02.28, 02.51, 03.12, and 03.32 h postfertilization. Ciliated blastulae with a mean length of 174.72 ± 4.43 μm hatched 08.45 h after sperm entry. The gastrulae formed 16.15 h postfertilization and the archenteron elongated constantly while ectodermal red-pigmented cells migrated synchronously to the apical plate. Pluteus larva started to feed unicellular algae in 2 d, grew continuously, and finally attained metamorphic competence in 35 d after fertilization. Metamorphosis took approximately 1 h 30 min from attachment to the complete resorption of larval tissues and the development of complete juvenile structure with adult spines, extended tubefeet and well-developed pedicellaria, the whole event of which usually took place within 1 d postsettlement. This study represents the first successful investigation on embryonic, larval, and early juvenile development of S. sphaeroides. The findings would greatly be helpful towards the understanding of ontogeny and life-history strategies, which will facilitate us to develop the breeding, seed production, and culture techniques of sea urchins in captive condition. PMID:23055824

  14. Embryonic, larval, and early juvenile development of the tropical sea urchin, Salmacis sphaeroides (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Aminur; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Arshad, A; Shamsudin, Mariana Nor; Amin, S M N

    2012-01-01

    Salmacis sphaeroides (Linnaeus, 1758) is one of the regular echinoids, occuring in the warm Indo-West Pacific, including Johor Straits, between Malaysia and Singapore. In order to investigate the developmental basis of morphological changes in embryos and larvae, we documented the ontogeny of S. sphaeroides in laboratory condition. Gametes were obtained from adult individuals by 0.5 M KCl injection into the coelomic cavity. Fertilization rate at limited sperm concentration (10(-5) dilution) was 96.6 ± 1.4% and the resulting embryos were reared at 24°C. First cleavage (2-cell), 4-cell, 8-cell, 16-cell, 32-cell, and multicell (Morulla) stages were achieved 01.12, 02.03, 02.28, 02.51, 03.12, and 03.32 h postfertilization. Ciliated blastulae with a mean length of 174.72 ± 4.43 μm hatched 08.45 h after sperm entry. The gastrulae formed 16.15 h postfertilization and the archenteron elongated constantly while ectodermal red-pigmented cells migrated synchronously to the apical plate. Pluteus larva started to feed unicellular algae in 2 d, grew continuously, and finally attained metamorphic competence in 35 d after fertilization. Metamorphosis took approximately 1 h 30 min from attachment to the complete resorption of larval tissues and the development of complete juvenile structure with adult spines, extended tubefeet and well-developed pedicellaria, the whole event of which usually took place within 1 d postsettlement. This study represents the first successful investigation on embryonic, larval, and early juvenile development of S. sphaeroides. The findings would greatly be helpful towards the understanding of ontogeny and life-history strategies, which will facilitate us to develop the breeding, seed production, and culture techniques of sea urchins in captive condition.

  15. Sea urchins have teeth? A review of their microstructure, biomineralization, development and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Stock, Stuart R

    2014-01-01

    Sea urchins possess a set of five teeth which are self-sharpening and which continuously replace material lost through abrasion. The continuous replacement dictates that each tooth consists of the range of developmental states from discrete plates in the plumula, the least mineralized and least mature portion, to plates and needle-prisms separated by cellular syncytia at the beginning of the tooth shaft to a highly dense structure at the incisal end. The microstructures and their development are reviewed prior to a discussion of current understanding of the biomineralization processes operating during tooth formation. For example, the mature portions of each tooth consist of single crystal calcite but the early stages of mineral formation (e.g. solid amorphous calcium carbonate, ions in solution) continue to be investigated. The second stage mineral that cements the disparate plates and prisms together has a much higher Mg content than the first stage prisms and needles and allows the tooth to be self-sharpening. Mechanically, the urchin tooth's calcite performs better than inorganic calcite, and aspects of tooth functionality that are reviewed include the materials properties themselves and the role of the orientations of the plates and prisms relative to the axes of the applied loads. Although the properties and microarchitecture of sea urchin teeth or other mineralized tissues are often described as optimized, this view is inaccurate because these superb solutions to the problem of constructing functional structures are intermediaries not endpoints of evolution.

  16. Limpets compensate sea urchin decline and enhance the stability of rocky subtidal barrens.

    PubMed

    Piazzi, Luigi; Bulleri, Fabio; Ceccherelli, Giulia

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that regulate shifts among alternative ecosystems has become a priority for ecologists and environmental scientists. This study assessed the relative importance of different herbivorous invertebrates (urchins and limpets) in regulating transitions from barren to vegetated states on Mediterranean rocky reefs, under different levels of nutrient availability. Nutrient concentration and the herbivore assemblage were manipulated to test i) whether limpets can compensate for the decline or loss of sea urchin populations, thereby contributing to the persistence of barrens, ii) whether limpet effects vary according to nutrient availability and iii) whether limpets affect the structure of the algal assemblage. The complete removal of sea urchins was not sufficient to trigger the recovery of erect and turf-forming macroalgae if limpets were left at natural density, suggesting that these herbivores play an important role in the stability of the barren state. The effect of these mesograzers was particularly important under oligotrophic conditions. This suggests that limpets play an important role in sustaining the stability of the barren state. A more comprehensive assessment of top-down forces, implying the quantification of the relative effect of different herbivore guilds, is therefore necessary to estimate the strength of hysteresis and to identify critical thresholds at which shifts back to the vegetated state are initiated. PMID:26874891

  17. Sea urchin overgrazing of seagrasses: A review of current knowledge on causes, consequences, and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eklöf, J. S.; de la Torre-Castro, M.; Gullström, M.; Uku, J.; Muthiga, N.; Lyimo, T.; Bandeira, S. O.

    2008-09-01

    Sea urchins are one of the most common seagrass macro-grazers in contemporary seagrass systems. Occasionally their grazing rates exceed seagrass growth rates, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as overgrazing. Because of a reported increasing frequency of overgrazing events, concomitant with loss of seagrass-associated ecosystem services, it has been suggested that overgrazing is one of the key threats to tropical and subtropical seagrasses. In light of this, we review the current knowledge on causes, consequences, and management of sea urchin overgrazing of seagrasses. Initially we argue that the definition of overgrazing must include scale and impairment of ecosystem services, since this is the de facto definition used in the literature, and will highlight the potential societal costs of seagrass overgrazing. A review of 16 identified cases suggests that urchin overgrazing is a global phenomenon, ranging from temperate to tropical coastal waters and involving at least 11 seagrass and 7 urchin species. Even though most overgrazing events seem to affect areas of <0.5 km 2, and recovery often occurs within a few years, overgrazing can have a range of large, long-term indirect effects such as loss of associated fauna and decreased sediment stabilization. A range of drivers behind overgrazing have been suggested, including bottom-up (nutrient enrichment), top-down (reduced predation control due to e.g. overfishing), "side-in" mechanisms (e.g. changes in water temperature) and natural population fluctuations. Based on recent studies, there seems to be fairly strong support for the top-down and bottom-up hypotheses. However, many potential drivers often co-occur and interact, especially in areas with high anthropogenic pressure, suggesting that multiple disturbances—by simultaneously reducing predation control, increasing urchin recruitment and reducing the resistance of seagrasses—could pave the way for overgrazing. In management, the most common response to

  18. MicroRaman, PXRD, EDS and microscopic investigation of magnesium calcite biomineral phases. The case of sea urchin biominerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borzęcka-Prokop, B.; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, A.; Koszowska, E.

    2007-02-01

    This study concerns Mg-calcite characterization (and in particular molecular structure and microstructural studies of mineral phases) of a sea urchin mineralised test and spines. Sea urchins are spiny sea animals (kingdom Animalia, phylum Echinodermata, class Echinoidea). Microscopic observations, SEM, EDS, PXRD and spectroscopic microRaman methods have been applied to characterize the biomineral parts of the sea urchin. The latter technique is very useful in research of biological systems and especially suitable for monitoring differences within biomineral phases exhibiting varieties of morphological forms. Crystalline magnesium calcium carbonate, Mg xCa 1- xCO 3 (magnesian calcite; space group R-3 cH; a = 4.9594(8) Å, c = 16.886(6) Å), has been identified as the predominant biomineral component.

  19. Multiple Processes Regulate Long-Term Population Dynamics of Sea Urchins on Mediterranean Rocky Reefs

    PubMed Central

    Hereu, Bernat; Linares, Cristina; Sala, Enric; Garrabou, Joaquim; Garcia-Rubies, Antoni; Diaz, David; Zabala, Mikel

    2012-01-01

    We annually monitored the abundance and size structure of herbivorous sea urchin populations (Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula) inside and outside a marine reserve in the Northwestern Mediterranean on two distinct habitats (boulders and vertical walls) over a period of 20 years, with the aim of analyzing changes at different temporal scales in relation to biotic and abiotic drivers. P. lividus exhibited significant variability in density over time on boulder bottoms but not on vertical walls, and temporal trends were not significantly different between the protection levels. Differences in densities were caused primarily by variance in recruitment, which was less pronounced inside the MPA and was correlated with adult density, indicating density-dependent recruitment under high predation pressure, as well as some positive feedback mechanisms that may facilitate higher urchin abundances despite higher predator abundance. Populations within the reserve were less variable in abundance and did not exhibit the hyper-abundances observed outside the reserve, suggesting that predation effects maybe more subtle than simply lowering the numbers of urchins in reserves. A. lixula densities were an order of magnitude lower than P. lividus densities and varied within sites and over time on boulder bottoms but did not differ between protection levels. In December 2008, an exceptionally violent storm reduced sea urchin densities drastically (by 50% to 80%) on boulder substrates, resulting in the lowest values observed over the entire study period, which remained at that level for at least two years (up to the present). Our results also showed great variability in the biological and physical processes acting at different temporal scales. This study highlights the need for appropriate temporal scales for studies to fully understand ecosystem functioning, the concepts of which are fundamental to successful conservation and management. PMID:22606306

  20. Multiple processes regulate long-term population dynamics of sea urchins on Mediterranean rocky reefs.

    PubMed

    Hereu, Bernat; Linares, Cristina; Sala, Enric; Garrabou, Joaquim; Garcia-Rubies, Antoni; Diaz, David; Zabala, Mikel

    2012-01-01

    We annually monitored the abundance and size structure of herbivorous sea urchin populations (Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula) inside and outside a marine reserve in the Northwestern Mediterranean on two distinct habitats (boulders and vertical walls) over a period of 20 years, with the aim of analyzing changes at different temporal scales in relation to biotic and abiotic drivers. P. lividus exhibited significant variability in density over time on boulder bottoms but not on vertical walls, and temporal trends were not significantly different between the protection levels. Differences in densities were caused primarily by variance in recruitment, which was less pronounced inside the MPA and was correlated with adult density, indicating density-dependent recruitment under high predation pressure, as well as some positive feedback mechanisms that may facilitate higher urchin abundances despite higher predator abundance. Populations within the reserve were less variable in abundance and did not exhibit the hyper-abundances observed outside the reserve, suggesting that predation effects maybe more subtle than simply lowering the numbers of urchins in reserves. A. lixula densities were an order of magnitude lower than P. lividus densities and varied within sites and over time on boulder bottoms but did not differ between protection levels. In December 2008, an exceptionally violent storm reduced sea urchin densities drastically (by 50% to 80%) on boulder substrates, resulting in the lowest values observed over the entire study period, which remained at that level for at least two years (up to the present). Our results also showed great variability in the biological and physical processes acting at different temporal scales. This study highlights the need for appropriate temporal scales for studies to fully understand ecosystem functioning, the concepts of which are fundamental to successful conservation and management. PMID:22606306

  1. Ultrastructural and biochemical characterization of mechanically adaptable collagenous structures in the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    PubMed

    Barbaglio, Alice; Tricarico, Serena; Ribeiro, Ana R; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Barbato, Marta; Dessì, Desirèe; Fugnanesi, Valeria; Magni, Stefano; Mosca, Fabio; Sugni, Michela; Bonasoro, Francesco; Barbosa, Mario A; Wilkie, Iain C; Candia Carnevali, M Daniela

    2015-06-01

    The viscoelastic properties of vertebrate connective tissues rarely undergo significant changes within physiological timescales, the only major exception being the reversible destiffening of the mammalian uterine cervix at the end of pregnancy. In contrast to this, the connective tissues of echinoderms (sea urchins, starfish, sea cucumbers, etc.) can switch reversibly between stiff and compliant conditions in timescales of around a second to minutes. Elucidation of the molecular mechanism underlying such mutability has implications for the zoological, ecological and evolutionary field. Important information could also arise for veterinary and biomedical sciences, particularly regarding the pathological plasticization or stiffening of connective tissue structures. In the present investigation we analyzed aspects of the ultrastructure and biochemistry in two representative models, the compass depressor ligament and the peristomial membrane of the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, compared in three different mechanical states. The results provide further evidence that the mechanical adaptability of echinoderm connective tissues does not necessarily imply changes in the collagen fibrils themselves. The higher glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content registered in the peristomial membrane with respect to the compass depressor ligament suggests a diverse role of these molecules in the two mutable collagenous tissues. The possible involvement of GAG in the mutability phenomenon will need further clarification. During the shift from a compliant to a standard condition, significant changes in GAG content were detected only in the compass depressor ligament. Similarities in terms of ultrastructure (collagen fibrillar assembling) and biochemistry (two alpha chains) were found between the two models and mammalian collagen. Nevertheless, differences in collagen immunoreactivity, alpha chain migration on SDS-PAGE and BLAST alignment highlighted the uniqueness of sea urchin

  2. [Abundance of sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck) on North, East and West coasts of Margarita Island (Venezuela) ].

    PubMed

    Gómez Gaspar, Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    The sea urchin roe reach a very high price in the international fish product market favoring the increase in the catches of this resource and overfishing in some countries. In the Island of Margarita (Venezuela) some species, Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck) among others, are consumed as food but studies to determine abundance of the resource are unknown. Nine sample stations (depth less than 2 m) on the North, East and West coast of Margarita Island were visited in six different occasions between February/1998 and February/1999 to study the population density (urchins/m2) of L. variegatus. Using a quadrat (0.25 m2) thrown 8 times over seagrasses (Thalassia testudinum) beds and over submerged rocks and the urchins removed by dive. The diameter of each specimen was measured and returned to the sea. The water temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen of each site was measured. Were collected a total of 2,073 urchins with a diameter ranging from 11.0 to 84.5 mm and population density between 1 to 52 urchins/m2. The mean size of specimens collected in the stations was between 30.44 and 55.09 mm and average density fluctuated between 3.2 to 43.2 urchins/m2. The station where sea urchins were found to be most abundant was the North coast (Manzanillo fishing villae) where they live on rocks with a density (38 a 52/m2) far over the values previously cited for the Caribbean sea and Florida.

  3. Oral-aboral patterning and gastrulation of sea urchin embryos depend on sulfated glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Karl-Frederik; Xu, Xing; Brandhorst, Bruce P

    2011-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a heavily sulfated component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) implicated in a variety of cell signaling events involved in patterning of embryos. Embryos of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus were exposed to several inhibitors that disrupt GAG function during development. Treatment with chlorate, a general inhibitor of sulfation that leads to undersulfated GAGs, reduced sulfation of the urchin blastocoelar ECM. It also prevented correct specification of the oral-aboral axis and mouth formation, resulting in a radialized phenotype characterized by the lack of an oral field, incomplete gastrulation and formation of multiple skeletal spicule rudiments. Oral markers were initially expressed in most of the prospective ectoderm of chlorate-treated early blastulae, but then declined as aboral markers became expressed throughout most of the ectoderm. Nodal expression in the presumptive oral field is necessary and sufficient to specify the oral-aboral axis in urchins. Several lines of evidence suggest a deregulation of Nodal signaling is involved in the radialization caused by chlorate: (1) Radial embryos resemble those in which Nodal expression was knocked down. (2) Chlorate disrupted localized nodal expression in oral ectoderm, even when applied after the oral-aboral axis is specified and expression of other oral markers is resistant to treatment. (3) Inhibition with SB-431542 of ALK-4/5/7 receptors that mediate Nodal signaling causes defects in ectodermal patterning similar to those caused by chlorate. (4) Intriguingly, treatment of embryos with a sub-threshold dose of SB-431542 rescued the radialization caused by low concentrations of chlorate. Our results indicate important roles for sulfated GAGs in Nodal signaling and oral-aboral axial patterning, and in the cellular processes necessary for archenteron extension and mouth formation during gastrulation. We propose that interaction of the Nodal ligand with sulfated GAGs limits

  4. Substituting mouse transcription factor Pou4f2 with a sea urchin orthologue restores retinal ganglion cell development.

    PubMed

    Mao, Chai-An; Agca, Cavit; Mocko-Strand, Julie A; Wang, Jing; Ullrich-Lüter, Esther; Pan, Ping; Wang, Steven W; Arnone, Maria Ina; Frishman, Laura J; Klein, William H

    2016-03-16

    Pou domain transcription factor Pou4f2 is essential for the development of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the vertebrate retina. A distant orthologue of Pou4f2 exists in the genome of the sea urchin (class Echinoidea) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (SpPou4f1/2), yet the photosensory structure of sea urchins is strikingly different from that of the mammalian retina. Sea urchins have no obvious eyes, but have photoreceptors clustered around their tube feet disc. The mechanisms that are associated with the development and function of photoreception in sea urchins are largely unexplored. As an initial approach to better understand the sea urchin photosensory structure and relate it to the mammalian retina, we asked whether SpPou4f1/2 could support RGC development in the absence of Pou4f2. To answer this question, we replaced genomic Pou4f2 with an SpPou4f1/2 cDNA. In Pou4f2-null mice, retinas expressing SpPou4f1/2 were outwardly identical to those of wild-type mice. SpPou4f1/2 retinas exhibited dark-adapted electroretinogram scotopic threshold responses, indicating functionally active RGCs. During retinal development, SpPou4f1/2 activated RGC-specific genes and in S. purpuratus, SpPou4f2 was expressed in photoreceptor cells of tube feet in a pattern distinct from Opsin4 and Pax6. Our results suggest that SpPou4f1/2 and Pou4f2 share conserved components of a gene network for photosensory development and they maintain their conserved intrinsic functions despite vast morphological differences in mouse and sea urchin photosensory structures. PMID:26962139

  5. Substituting mouse transcription factor Pou4f2 with a sea urchin orthologue restores retinal ganglion cell development.

    PubMed

    Mao, Chai-An; Agca, Cavit; Mocko-Strand, Julie A; Wang, Jing; Ullrich-Lüter, Esther; Pan, Ping; Wang, Steven W; Arnone, Maria Ina; Frishman, Laura J; Klein, William H

    2016-03-16

    Pou domain transcription factor Pou4f2 is essential for the development of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the vertebrate retina. A distant orthologue of Pou4f2 exists in the genome of the sea urchin (class Echinoidea) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (SpPou4f1/2), yet the photosensory structure of sea urchins is strikingly different from that of the mammalian retina. Sea urchins have no obvious eyes, but have photoreceptors clustered around their tube feet disc. The mechanisms that are associated with the development and function of photoreception in sea urchins are largely unexplored. As an initial approach to better understand the sea urchin photosensory structure and relate it to the mammalian retina, we asked whether SpPou4f1/2 could support RGC development in the absence of Pou4f2. To answer this question, we replaced genomic Pou4f2 with an SpPou4f1/2 cDNA. In Pou4f2-null mice, retinas expressing SpPou4f1/2 were outwardly identical to those of wild-type mice. SpPou4f1/2 retinas exhibited dark-adapted electroretinogram scotopic threshold responses, indicating functionally active RGCs. During retinal development, SpPou4f1/2 activated RGC-specific genes and in S. purpuratus, SpPou4f2 was expressed in photoreceptor cells of tube feet in a pattern distinct from Opsin4 and Pax6. Our results suggest that SpPou4f1/2 and Pou4f2 share conserved components of a gene network for photosensory development and they maintain their conserved intrinsic functions despite vast morphological differences in mouse and sea urchin photosensory structures.

  6. Cloning, Characterization, and Expression Levels of the Nectin Gene from the Tube Feet of the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus Lividus.

    PubMed

    Toubarro, Duarte; Gouveia, Analuce; Ribeiro, Raquel Mesquita; Simões, Nélson; da Costa, Gonçalo; Cordeiro, Carlos; Santos, Romana

    2016-06-01

    Marine bioadhesives perform in ways that manmade products simply cannot match, especially in wet environments. Despite their technological potential, bioadhesive molecular mechanisms are still largely understudied, and sea urchin adhesion is no exception. These animals inhabit wave-swept shores, relying on specialized adhesive organs, tube feet, composed by an adhesive disc and a motile stem. The disc encloses a duo-gland adhesive system, producing adhesive and deadhesive secretions for strong reversible substratum attachment. The disclosure of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus tube foot disc proteome led to the identification of a secreted adhesion protein, Nectin, never before reported in adult adhesive organs but, that given its adhesive function in eggs/embryos, was pointed out as a putative substratum adhesive protein in adults. To further understand Nectin involvement in sea urchin adhesion, Nectin cDNA was amplified for the first time from P. lividus adhesive organs, showing that not only the known Nectin mRNA, called Nectin-1 (GenBank AJ578435), is expressed in the adults tube feet but also a new mRNA sequence, called Nectin-2 (GenBank KT351732), differing in 15 missense nucleotide substitutions. Nectin genomic DNA was also obtained for the first time, indicating that both Nectin-1 and Nectin-2 derive from a single gene. In addition, expression analysis showed that both Nectins are overexpressed in tube feet discs, its expression being significantly higher in tube feet discs from sea urchins just after collection from the field relative to sea urchin from aquarium. These data further advocate for Nectin involvement in sea urchin reversible adhesion, suggesting that its expression might be regulated according to the hydrodynamic conditions.

  7. Cloning, Characterization, and Expression Levels of the Nectin Gene from the Tube Feet of the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus Lividus.

    PubMed

    Toubarro, Duarte; Gouveia, Analuce; Ribeiro, Raquel Mesquita; Simões, Nélson; da Costa, Gonçalo; Cordeiro, Carlos; Santos, Romana

    2016-06-01

    Marine bioadhesives perform in ways that manmade products simply cannot match, especially in wet environments. Despite their technological potential, bioadhesive molecular mechanisms are still largely understudied, and sea urchin adhesion is no exception. These animals inhabit wave-swept shores, relying on specialized adhesive organs, tube feet, composed by an adhesive disc and a motile stem. The disc encloses a duo-gland adhesive system, producing adhesive and deadhesive secretions for strong reversible substratum attachment. The disclosure of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus tube foot disc proteome led to the identification of a secreted adhesion protein, Nectin, never before reported in adult adhesive organs but, that given its adhesive function in eggs/embryos, was pointed out as a putative substratum adhesive protein in adults. To further understand Nectin involvement in sea urchin adhesion, Nectin cDNA was amplified for the first time from P. lividus adhesive organs, showing that not only the known Nectin mRNA, called Nectin-1 (GenBank AJ578435), is expressed in the adults tube feet but also a new mRNA sequence, called Nectin-2 (GenBank KT351732), differing in 15 missense nucleotide substitutions. Nectin genomic DNA was also obtained for the first time, indicating that both Nectin-1 and Nectin-2 derive from a single gene. In addition, expression analysis showed that both Nectins are overexpressed in tube feet discs, its expression being significantly higher in tube feet discs from sea urchins just after collection from the field relative to sea urchin from aquarium. These data further advocate for Nectin involvement in sea urchin reversible adhesion, suggesting that its expression might be regulated according to the hydrodynamic conditions. PMID:27194026

  8. Macro- and microstructural diversity of sea urchin teeth revealed by large-scale mircro-computed tomography survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Alexander; Stock, Stuart R.; Menze, Björn H.; Smith, Andrew B.

    2012-10-01

    Sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) generally possess an intricate jaw apparatus that incorporates five teeth. Although echinoid teeth consist of calcite, their complex internal design results in biomechanical properties far superior to those of inorganic forms of the constituent material. While the individual elements (or microstructure) of echinoid teeth provide general insight into processes of biomineralization, the cross-sectional shape (or macrostructure) of echinoid teeth is useful for phylogenetic and biomechanical inferences. However, studies of sea urchin tooth macro- and microstructure have traditionally been limited to a few readily available species, effectively disregarding a potentially high degree of structural diversity that could be informative in a number of ways. Having scanned numerous sea urchin species using micro-computed tomography µCT) and synchrotron µCT, we report a large variation in macro- and microstructure of sea urchin teeth. In addition, we describe aberrant tooth shapes and apply 3D visualization protocols that permit accelerated visual access to the complex microstructure of sea urchin teeth. Our broad survey identifies key taxa for further in-depth study and integrates previously assembled data on fossil species into a more comprehensive systematic analysis of sea urchin teeth. In order to circumvent the imprecise, word-based description of tooth shape, we introduce shape analysis algorithms that will permit the numerical and therefore more objective description of tooth macrostructure. Finally, we discuss how synchrotron µCT datasets permit virtual models of tooth microstructure to be generated as well as the simulation of tooth mechanics based on finite element modeling.

  9. Habitat and density-dependent growth of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in Galicia (NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouréns, Rosana; Flores, Luis; Fernández, Luis; Freire, Juan

    2013-02-01

    We studied the small-scale spatial variability in the growth of Paracentrotus lividus in two populations in Galicia (NW Spain) by reading growth rings. A tetracycline marking experiment was carried out to verify that the rings form annually. The growth rings were read by two independent readers in order to estimate the uncertainty involved in assigning the age. Of the six growth models evaluated (Tanaka, von Bertalanffy, Gompertz, Richards, logistic and Jolicoeur) the Tanaka function obtained the best fit to the data. This function predicts unlimited growth and a maximum growth rate of 15.00 (± 0.97 SE) mm·year- 1 at 3.09 ± 0.10 years old, which progressively decreases at older ages. However, habitat characteristics lead to intrapopulation variations in this general function. Recruitment seems to occur mainly in shallow waters (≤ 4 m) and when the sea urchins reach 50 mm (approximately 4 years old) they migrate to deeper areas. Sea urchins larger than 50 mm that stayed in shallow waters grew at a rate between 0.41 and 0.43 mm·year- 1 less than the sea urchins that moved to depths of 8 and 12 m. The population density also influenced the growth, and individuals older than 4 years had higher growth rates in high-density patches than in low-density areas. This could be due to the better environmental conditions in aggregation areas, that is, better protection against waves and predators and/or more abundant food.

  10. Early events of fertilization in sea urchin eggs are sensitive to actin-binding organic molecules.

    PubMed

    Chun, Jong T; Limatola, Nunzia; Vasilev, Filip; Santella, Luigia

    2014-08-01

    We previously demonstrated that many aspects of the intracellular Ca(2+) increase in fertilized eggs of starfish are significantly influenced by the state of the actin cytoskeleton. In addition, the actin cytoskeleton appeared to play comprehensive roles in modulating cortical granules exocytosis and sperm entry during the early phase of fertilization. In the present communication, we have extended our work to sea urchin which is believed to have bifurcated from the common ancestor in the phylogenetic tree some 500 million years ago. To corroborate our earlier findings in starfish, we have tested how the early events of fertilization in sea urchin eggs are influenced by four different actin-binding drugs that promote either depolymerization or stabilization of actin filaments. We found that all the actin drugs commonly blocked sperm entry in high doses and significantly reduced the speed of the Ca(2+) wave. At low doses, however, cytochalasin B and phalloidin increased the rate of polyspermy. Overall, certain aspects of Ca(2+) signaling in these eggs were in line with the morphological changes induced by the actin drugs. That is, the time interval between the cortical flash and the first Ca(2+) spot at the sperm interaction site (the latent period) was significantly prolonged in the eggs pretreated with cytochalasin B or latrunculin A, whereas the Ca(2+) decay kinetics after the peak was specifically attenuated in the eggs pretreated with jasplakinolide or phalloidin. In addition, the sperm interacting with the eggs pretreated with actin drugs often generated multiple Ca(2+) waves, but tended to fail to enter the egg. Thus, our results indicated that generation of massive Ca(2+) waves is neither indicative of sperm entry nor sufficient for cortical granules exocytosis in the inseminated sea urchin eggs, whereas the structure and functionality of the actin cytoskeleton are the major determining factors in the two processes.

  11. A genome-wide analysis of biomineralization-related proteins in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    PubMed

    Livingston, B T; Killian, C E; Wilt, F; Cameron, A; Landrum, M J; Ermolaeva, O; Sapojnikov, V; Maglott, D R; Buchanan, A M; Ettensohn, C A

    2006-12-01

    Biomineralization, the biologically controlled formation of mineral deposits, is of widespread importance in biology, medicine, and engineering. Mineralized structures are found in most metazoan phyla and often have supportive, protective, or feeding functions. Among deuterostomes, only echinoderms and vertebrates produce extensive biomineralized structures. Although skeletons appeared independently in these two groups, ancestors of the vertebrates and echinoderms may have utilized similar components of a shared genetic "toolkit" to carry out biomineralization. The present study had two goals. First, we sought to expand our understanding of the proteins involved in biomineralization in the sea urchin, a powerful model system for analyzing the basic cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this process. Second, we sought to shed light on the possible evolutionary relationships between biomineralization in echinoderms and vertebrates. We used several computational methods to survey the genome of the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus for gene products involved in biomineralization. Our analysis has greatly expanded the collection of biomineralization-related proteins. We have found that these proteins are often members of small families encoded by genes that are clustered in the genome. Most of the proteins are sea urchin-specific; that is, they have no apparent homologues in other invertebrate deuterostomes or vertebrates. Similarly, many of the vertebrate proteins that mediate mineral deposition do not have counterparts in the S. purpuratus genome. Our findings therefore reveal substantial differences in the primary sequences of proteins that mediate biomineral formation in echinoderms and vertebrates, possibly reflecting loose constraints on the primary structures of the proteins involved. On the other hand, certain cellular and molecular processes associated with earlier events in skeletogenesis appear similar in echinoderms and vertebrates

  12. Oxidative Damage and Cellular Defense Mechanisms in Sea Urchin Models of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Du, Colin; Anderson, Arielle; Lortie, Mae; Parsons, Rachel; Bodnar, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The free radical or oxidative stress theory of aging proposes that the accumulation of oxidative cellular damage is a major contributor to the aging process and a key determinant of species longevity. This study investigates the oxidative stress theory in a novel model for aging research, the sea urchin. Sea urchins present a unique model for the study of aging due to the existence of species with tremendously different natural life spans including some species with extraordinary longevity and negligible senescence. Cellular oxidative damage, antioxidant capacity and proteasome enzyme activities were measured in the tissues of three sea urchin species: short-lived Lytechinus variegatus, long-lived Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus which has an intermediate lifespan. Levels of protein carbonyls and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) measured in tissues (muscle, nerve, esophagus, gonad, coelomocytes, ampullae) and 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) measured in cell-free coelomic fluid showed no general increase with age. The fluorescent age-pigment lipofuscin measured in muscle, nerve and esophagus, increased with age however it appeared to be predominantly extracellular. Antioxidant mechanisms (total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase) and proteasome enzyme activities were maintained with age. In some instances, levels of oxidative damage were lower and antioxidant activity higher in cells or tissues of the long-lived species compared to the short-lived species, however further studies are required to determine the relationship between oxidative damage and longevity in these animals. Consistent with the predictions of the oxidative stress theory of aging, the results suggest that negligible senescence is accompanied by a lack of accumulation of cellular oxidative damage with age and maintenance of antioxidant capacity and proteasome enzyme activities may be important mechanisms to mitigate damage. PMID:23707327

  13. Characterization of an Alpha Type Carbonic Anhydrase from Paracentrotus lividus Sea Urchin Embryos.

    PubMed

    Karakostis, Konstantinos; Costa, Caterina; Zito, Francesca; Brümmer, Franz; Matranga, Valeria

    2016-06-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CA) are zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate. In the sea urchin, CA has a role in the formation of the calcitic skeleton during embryo development. Here, we report a newly identified mRNA sequence from embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, referred to as Pl-can. The complete coding sequence was identified with the aid of both EST databases and experimental procedures. Pl-CAN is a 447 aa-long protein, with an estimated molecular mass of 48.5 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.83. The in silico study of functional domains showed, in addition to the alpha type CA-specific domain, the presence of an unexpected glycine-rich region at the N-terminal of the molecule. This is not found in any other species described so far, but probably it is restricted to the sea urchins. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that Pl-CAN is evolutionarily closer to human among chordates than to other species. The putative role(s) of the identified domains is discussed. The Pl-can temporal and spatial expression profiles, analyzed throughout embryo development by comparative qPCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WMISH), showed that Pl-can mRNA is specifically expressed in the primary mesenchyme cells (PMC) of the embryo and levels increase along with the growth of the embryonic skeleton, reaching a peak at the pluteus stage. A recombinant fusion protein was produced in E. coli and used to raise specific antibodies in mice recognized the endogenous Pl-CAN by Western blot in embryo extracts from gastrula and pluteus. PMID:27230618

  14. Cyclin E in centrosome duplication and reduplication in sea urchin zygotes.

    PubMed

    Schnackenberg, Bradley J; Marzluff, William F; Sluder, Greenfield

    2008-12-01

    When protein synthesis is completely blocked from before fertilization, the sea urchin zygote arrests in first S phase and the paternal centrosome reduplicates multiple times. However, when protein synthesis is blocked starting in prophase of first mitosis, the zygote divides and the blastomeres arrest in a G1-like state. The centrosome inherited from this mitosis duplicates only once in each blastomere for reasons that are not understood. The late G1 rise in cyclin E/cdk2 kinase activity initiates centrosome duplication in mammalian cells and its activity is needed for centrosome duplication in Xenopus egg extracts. Since the half-time for cyclin E turnover is normally approximately 1 h in sea urchin zygotes, the different behaviors of centrosomes during G1 and S phase arrests could be due to differential losses of cyclin E and its associated kinase activities at these two arrest points. To better understand the mechanisms that limit centrosome duplication, we characterize the levels of cyclin E and its associated kinase activity at the S phase and G1 arrest points. We first demonstrate that cyclin E/cdk2 kinase activity is required for centrosome duplication and reduplication in sea urchin zygotes. Next we find that cyclin E levels and cyclin E/cdk2 kinase activities are both constitutively and equivalently elevated during both the S phase and G1 arrests. This indicates that centrosome duplication during the G1 arrest is limited by a block to reduplication under conditions permissive for duplication. The cytoplasmic conditions of S phase, however, abrogate this block to reduplication.

  15. Cyclin E in Centrosome Duplication and Reduplication in Sea Urchin Zygotes

    PubMed Central

    Schnackenberg, Bradley J.; Marzluff, William F.; Sluder, Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    When protein synthesis is completely blocked from before fertilization, the sea urchin zygote arrests in first S phase and the paternal centrosome reduplicates multiple times. However, when protein synthesis is blocked starting in prophase of first mitosis, the zygote divides and the blastomeres arrest in a G1-like state. The centrosome inherited from this mitosis duplicates only once in each blastomere for reasons that are not understood. The late G1 rise in cyclin E/cdk2 kinase activity initiates centrosome duplication in mammalian cells and its activity is needed for centrosome duplication in Xenopus egg extracts. Since the half-time for cyclin E turnover is normally ~1 hour in sea urchin zygotes, the different behaviors of centrosomes during G1 and S phase arrests could be due to differential losses of cyclin E and its associated kinase activities at these two arrest points. To better understand the mechanisms that limit centrosome duplication, we characterize the levels of cyclin E and its associated kinase activity at the S phase and G1 arrest points. We first demonstrate that cyclin E/cdk2 kinase activity is required for centrosome duplication and reduplication in sea urchin zygotes. Next we find that cyclin E levels and cyclin E/cdk2 kinase activities are both constitutively and equivalently elevated during both the S phase and G1 arrests. This indicates that centrosome duplication during the G1 arrest is limited by a block to reduplication under conditions permissive for duplication. The cytoplasmic conditions of S phase, however, abrogate this block to reduplication. PMID:18651565

  16. Freezing tolerance of sea urchin embryonic cells: Differentiation commitment and cytoskeletal disturbances in culture.

    PubMed

    Odintsova, Nelly A; Ageenko, Natalya V; Kipryushina, Yulia O; Maiorova, Mariia A; Boroda, Andrey V

    2015-08-01

    This study focuses on the freezing tolerance of sea urchin embryonic cells. To significantly reduce the loss of physiological activity of these cells that occurs after cryopreservation and to study the effects of ultra-low temperatures on sea urchin embryonic cells, we tested the ability of the cells to differentiate into spiculogenic or pigment directions in culture, including an evaluation of the expression of some genes involved in pigment differentiation. A morphological analysis of cytoskeletal disturbances after freezing in a combination of penetrating (dimethyl sulfoxide and ethylene glycol) and non-penetrating (trehalose and polyvinylpyrrolidone) cryoprotectants revealed that the distribution pattern of filamentous actin and tubulin was similar to that in the control cultures. In contrast, very rare spreading cells and a small number of cells with filamentous actin and tubulin were detected after freezing in the presence of only non-penetrating cryoprotectants. The largest number of pigment cells was found in cultures frozen with trehalose or trehalose and dimethyl sulfoxide. The ability to induce the spicule formation was lost in the cells frozen only with non-penetrating cryoprotectants, while it was maximal in cultures frozen in a cryoprotective mixture containing both non-penetrating and penetrating cryoprotectants (particularly, when ethylene glycol was present). Using different markers for cell state assessment, an effective cryopreservation protocol for sea urchin cells was developed: three-step freezing with a low cooling rate (1-2°C/min) and a combination of non-penetrating and penetrating cryoprotectants made it possible to obtain a high level of cell viability (up to 65-80%).

  17. Rapid identification of lectin receptors and their possible function in sea urchin cell systems.

    PubMed

    Latham, V H; Herrera, S; Rostamiani, K; Chun, H H; Oppenheimer, S B

    1995-10-01

    An assay using lectin derivatized agarose beads to rapidly and inexpensively identify cell surface lectin receptors was recently described by Latham et al. (1995). In this earlier study, the assay was tested on large, early stage sea urchin embryo cells. In this study this assay was used to examine lectin receptors on small, later stage sea urchin embryo cells that are more typical of cells that most investigators deal with, to ascertain if cell size is a determining factor in the assay's validity. The results indicated that the assay is a valid method to identify lectin receptors on small as well as large cells. Twenty-three hour Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryo cells strongly bound Triticum vulgaris, concanavalin A, Artocarpus integrifolia and Vicia villosa using both the agarose bead and fluorescence assays, while three other lectins, Ulex europaeus I, Lotus tetragonolobus and Lens culinaris did not strongly bind to the cells using these two assays. As in earlier studies agglutinability results did not correlate well with results using the two other assays. In all cases where lectin bead binding, fluorescent lectin binding or lectin-mediated agglutination occurred, specific sugars reduced the observed binding. The second part of this study examined the putative role of concanavilin A receptors in a specific cellular interaction: sperm-egg binding. Concanavalin A inhibited fertilization of dejellied sea urchin eggs when their vitelline layers were intact and to a lesser extent when their vitelline layers were removed. This effect was counteracted by alpha methyl glucose. The major differences between these studies and previous work is that here concanavalin A was washed out after incubation with eggs, making it more likely that results reflect binding to cell surface lectin receptors rather than toxicity. In addition, performing the experiments on eggs with or without vitelline layers provided information on the location of concanavalin A receptors that may

  18. The sea urchin embryo as a model for studying efflux transporters: Roles and energy cost

    PubMed Central

    Epel, David; Cole, Bryan; Hamdoun, Amro; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2011-01-01

    We describe the use of the sea urchin as a model for studying efflux transporters and estimating energy cost for the cytotoxin protective system provided by these transporters. The unfertilized egg has low transport activity, which increases to a new steady state shortly after fertilization. Activity results from p-glycoprotein (p-gp) and MRP type transporters which protect the embryo from cytotoxic drugs that can disrupt cell division or induce apoptosis. The energy cost is estimated from a novel use of calcein-AM as a substrate; keeping 0.25 μM substrate levels out of the cell utilizes only 0.023% of steady state respiration. PMID:16740304

  19. The role of advection and diffusion in waste disposal by sea urchin embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Aaron; Licata, Nicholas

    2014-03-01

    We determine the first passage probability for the absorption of waste molecules released from the microvilli of sea urchin embryos. We calculate a perturbative solution of the advection-diffusion equation for a linear shear profile similar to the fluid environment which the embryos inhabit. Rapid rotation of the embryo results in a concentration boundary layer of comparable thickness to the length of the microvilli. A comparison of the results to the regime of diffusion limited transport indicates that fluid flow is advantageous for efficient waste disposal.

  20. Comparative toxicities of benzene, chlorobenzene, and dichlorobenzenes to sea urchin embryos and sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, G.; Cipollaro, M.; Corsale, G.; Esposito, A.; Giordano, G.G.; Ragucci, E.; Trieff, N.M.

    1988-04-01

    The leukemogenicity and myelotoxicity of benzene are well-known and the major cause of benzene's banning from most industrial applications. Various benzene derivatives such as alkylbenzenes and chlorobenzenes, however, continue to be used as chemical intermediates, solvents, pesticides, etc. in spite of incomplete knowledge of their chronic toxicity. This study was designed to obtain comparative data on developmental, genetic and reproductive toxicities of benzene (B), chlorobenzene (CB) and dichlorobenzenes (o-, m-, and p-DCB) in the sea urchin bioassay. This test system, permits observation of a number of biological endpoints on mitotic activity, embryogenesis and fertilization, and thus provides multi-parametric toxicological data on xenobiotics.

  1. Purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus gamete manipulation using optical trapping and microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Shi, Linda Z.; Zhu, Qingyuan; Berns, Michael W.

    2013-04-01

    A system has been developed that allows for optical and fluidic manipulation of gametes. The optical manipulation is performed by using a single-point gradient trap with a 40× oil immersion PH3 1.3 NA objective on a Zeiss inverted microscope. The fluidic manipulation is performed by using a custom microfluidic chamber designed to fit into the short working distance between the condenser and objective. The system is validated using purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus gametes and has the potential to be used for mammalian in vitro fertilization and animal husbandry.

  2. Effect of trichloroacetic acid on the isolation of tropomyosin from sea urchin lantern muscle.

    PubMed

    Ishimoda-Takagi, T; Ozaki, S

    1983-03-01

    Sea urchin lantern muscle tropomyosin showed two components in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gel electrophoresis in the presence of 5 M urea, although the molecular weights of these components were apparently identical. One of these components seemed to have been digested with an enzyme such as carboxypeptidase, and the tropomyosin had lost the abilities to polymerize and to bind to actin. A crude extract prepared from the lantern muscle treated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) contained predominantly tropomyosin. Tropomyosin purified from TCA-treated lantern muscle seemed to be intact and retained the ability to bind to actin.

  3. Sea urchin embryos as a model system for studying autophagy induced by cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Chiarelli, Roberto; Agnello, Maria; Roccheri, Maria Carmela

    2011-09-01

    It is well known that sea urchin embryos are able to activate different defense strategies against stress. We previously demonstrated that cadmium treatment triggers the accumulation of metal in embryonic cells and the activation of defense systems depending on concentration and exposure time, through the synthesis of heat shock proteins and/or the initiation of apoptosis. Here we show that Paracentrotus lividus embryos exposed to Cd adopt autophagy as an additional stratagem to safeguard the developmental program. At present, there are no data focusing on the role of this process in embryo development of marine organisms. PMID:21628995

  4. Aggregation of Sea Urchin Phagocytes Is Augmented In Vitro by Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Majeske, Audrey J.; Bayne, Christopher J.; Smith, L. Courtney

    2013-01-01

    Development of protocols and media for culturing immune cells from marine invertebrates has not kept pace with advancements in mammalian immune cell culture, the latter having been driven by the need to understand the causes of and develop therapies for human and animal diseases. However, expansion of the aquaculture industry and the diseases that threaten these systems creates the need to develop cell and tissue culture methods for marine invertebrates. Such methods will enable us to better understand the causes of disease outbreaks and to develop means to avoid and remedy epidemics. We report a method for the short-term culture of phagocytes from the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, by modifying an approach previously used to culture cells from another sea urchin species. The viability of cultured phagocytes from the purple sea urchin decreases from 91.6% to 57% over six days and phagocyte morphology changes from single cells to aggregates leading to the formation of syncytia-like structures. This process is accelerated in the presence of lipopolysaccharide suggesting that phagocytes are capable of detecting this molecular pattern in culture conditions. Sea urchin immune response proteins, called Sp185/333, are expressed on the surface of a subset of phagocytes and have been associated with syncytia-like structures. We evaluated their expression in cultured phagocytes to determine their possible role in cell aggregation and in the formation of syncytia-like structures. Between 0 and 3 hr, syncytia-like structures were observed in cultures when only ∼10% of the cells were positive for Sp185/333 proteins. At 24 hr, ∼90% of the nuclei were Sp185/333-positive when all of the phagocytes had aggregated into syncytia-like structures. Consequently, we conclude that the Sp185/333 proteins do not have a major role in initiating the aggregation of cultured phagocytes, however the Sp185/333 proteins are associated with the clustered nuclei within the

  5. Elimination of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl by the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, following single exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Tjeerdema, R.S.; Jacobs, R.S.

    1987-06-01

    Understanding the fate of a single PCB isomer in a resident species may aid in assessing the risk to the marine community. Therefore, the elimination of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCBP) by the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, following a single exposure, was investigated. The purple sea urchin was chosen because of its economic importance and ability to proliferate in certain polluted conditions. Single exposure may best mimic the effects of intermittent oceanic incineration or disposal, and 2,4,5,2',4',5'-HCBP was chosen due to its presence in common PCB mixtures and high chlorine content, thus strong lipophilicity.

  6. Presence of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, calreticulin, and calsequestrin in eggs of sea urchins and Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Parys, J B; McPherson, S M; Mathews, L; Campbell, K P; Longo, F J

    1994-02-01

    The presence of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (InsP3R), calreticulin, and calsequestrin was demonstrated in eggs of sea urchins (Lytechinus pictus, Lytechinus variegatus, and Strongylocentroutus purpuratus) and Xenopus laevis. Binding of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) to microsomes of L. pictus eggs was inhibited by heparin and NaCl. An affinity-purified antibody against the C-terminal of the type I InsP3R, which recognizes InsP3R isoforms of rabbit brain (273 kDa) and Xenopus oocytes and eggs (256 kDa), reacted with a 373-kDa protein in sea urchin eggs. The 373-kDa protein was tentatively identified as the sea urchin egg InsP3R. Observations with fluorescence microscopy indicated that the InsP3R is present throughout the cytoplasm of sea urchin eggs in a pattern consistent with the distribution of endoplasmic reticulum. Small differences in the relative amount of reaction deposits in cortex vs subcortex were noted among the species of sea urchins examined. Reaction product was also localized to the periphery of female pronuclei in eggs of all three sea urchins. InsP3R reactivity was present in the perinuclear region, along the periphery of the germinal vesicle, and throughout the animal and vegetal hemispheres of Xenopus oocytes. A similar cytoplasmic staining pattern was also observed in eggs, although islands of reactivity, much larger than those in oocytes, were present in the animal hemisphere of eggs. Calreticulin and calsequestrin in sea urchin eggs had the same molecular mass as in rabbit brain (56 and 60 kDa, respectively), but differed from those present in Xenopus oocytes/eggs (61 and 57 kDa, respectively). The distribution of calreticulin and calsequestrin in both sea urchin and Xenopus oocytes and eggs was similar to that observed for the InsP3R. These results are discussed in relation to previous studies of Ca2+ regulation during egg development and fertilization and suggest that in the oocytes and eggs of the species examined, InsP3

  7. Differential toxicity of three PCB congeners in developing sea urchin embryos and implication of TEQ approach

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, L.; Suffet, I.; Hose, J.; Bay, S.

    1995-12-31

    The relationship between body burden and toxicity of three individual PCB congeners in developing sea urchin embryos was investigated to evaluate the validity of current predictive models of PCB toxicity in an invertebrate system. The uptake and accumulation of radiolabeled PCB congeners from sea water was measured in the sea urchin embryo tissues and the relative toxicity determined. According to the toxic equivalents (TEQ) approach of assessing risk to mammals, congener 77, a nonortho-substituted congener, is predicted to be more toxic than the diortho-substituted congeners 47 and 153. Using a 72 hour embryo development assay, congener 47 was found to be at least four times as toxic as congener 77, with EC50s of 15.7 and > 72.5 mmol/kg, respectively. Congener 153, a hexachlorobiphenyl, was virtually nontoxic even at the highest dose used. Cytologic and cytogenetic anomalies were studied to find a possibly more sensitive endpoint and to suggest a mechanism of toxicity. The cytogenetic analysis revealed that the PCBs inhibited mitosis. At the highest doses, complete mitotic arrest was observed. Congener 77 was found to be at least two times more toxic than congener 153 but not as toxic as congener 47 using mitotic activity as the endpoint. Thus, the two endpoints of toxicity did not change the order in which the congeners are toxic, but established different EC50s. The relative toxicities of these congeners in this study contradict the structure-activity prediction of the mammalian-based TEQ approach.

  8. Polysaccharides sulfated at the time of gastrulation in embryos of the sea urchin Clypeaster japonicus.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, M; Kinoshita, S

    1985-08-01

    Based on the fact that the development of sea urchin embryos is arrested at the blastula stage in sulfate-free sea water (SFSW), we attempted in the present study to elucidate the nature of sulfated polysaccharides (PSs) which appear at the time of gastrulation in embryos of the sea urchin Clypeaster japonicus. Electrophoretic analysis of PSs prepared from embryos at different developmental stages revealed that three kinds of PSs (3A, 3B, 3C) appear de novo at the gastrula stage, and that these PSs are not found in embryos at the hatching blastula stage, nor are they found in permanent blastula reared in SFSW. These, three PSs were mostly of extracellular matrix origin. Among them, 3C was identified as dermatan sulfate on the basis of its electrophoretic mobility and sensitivity to enzymatic digestion. 3A and 3B remained to be identified. Further, a plausible precursor of 3C, which was sulfated under normal conditions, was detected as 6D in the embryos reared in SFSW. Autoradiographic analysis using [35S]sulfate revealed that these three PSs, accounted for more than 90% of [35S]sulfate incorporated into the acid PS fraction during gastrulation.

  9. Day Pass Down the Red Sea

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video over the southeastern Mediterranean Sea and down the coastline of the Red Sea was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was ta...

  10. Aryl sulfate formation in sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) ingesting marine algae (Fucus distichus) containing 2,6-dimethylnapthalene

    SciTech Connect

    Malins, D.C.; Roubal, W.T.

    1982-04-01

    The metabolism of tritiated 2,6-dimethylnapthalene (2,6-DMN) was studied in sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) feeding on marine algae (Fucus distichus). The Fucus accumulated this hydrocarbon from sea water without converting it to metabolites. Most of the tritium accumulated by the sea urchins (e.g., 70.8% after 3 days) from feeding on 2,6-DMN-exposed Fucus was present in the exoskeleton (shell and spines). Moreover, after 3 days feeding, about 90% of the tritium in the total metabolite fraction of the gonads and digestive tract of the sea urchin was present as sulfate derivatives. These metabolites were identified through hydrolysis with aryl sulfatase, followed by thin-layer chromatography of the products. After 14 days of feeding, the tritium associated with the sulfate derivatives decreased in the gonads and digestive tract to 61 and 65%, respectively, of the total metabolite fraction. Hydroxy compounds from sulfatase hydrolysis were chromatographed using multiple elutions with toluene. The hydroxy isomers were separated and the R/sub f/ values were compared to those of pure reference compounds. The data indicated that 80% of the 2,6-dimethylnaphtyl sulfate contained the sulfate on the 1 and/or 3 position of the aromatic ring. Moreover, 6-methyl-2-naphthalenemethanol was not detected, which implies that sea urchins, unlike fish, metabolize alkyl-substituted aromatic hydrocarbons primarily through aromatic ring oxidations.

  11. Bioerosion caused by the sea urchin Diadema Mexicanum (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) at Bahías de Huatulco, Western Mexico.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Escalante, T; López-Pérez, R A; Leyte-Morales, G E

    2005-12-01

    Mexican Pacific sea urchin studies have been focused mainly on species distribution, ecology and fisheries. Reef degradation by sea urchin bioerosion has not been studied previously en these reefs. We investigate the importance of Diadema mexicanum as a bioerosive agent of coral carbonate at Bahias de Huatulco, and the relative magnitude of coral accretion and bioerosion. At each of five localities in Bahias de Huatulco, sea urchin density, feeding and mechanical (spine) erosion was determined for three size class intervals. In general, D. mexicanum do not exert any significant role on coral reef community structure (live coral, dead coral or algal coverage) at the Huatulco area, probably because they are generally small (2.9-4 cm test size) and few in number (1.0-6.8 ind.m-2). Mean bioerosion rates are consistent with those measured for other diadematoids, as well as other urchin species in various eastern Pacific localities. However, the degree of bioerosive impact depends on species, test size, and population density of urchins. Coral carbonate removal by D. mexicanum erosion varies from 0.17 to 3.28 kgCaCO3m(-2)yr(-1). This represents a carbonate loss of < 5% of the annual coral carbonate production at Jicaral Chachacual, San Agustín and Isla Cacaluta, but 16 and 27% at Isla Montosa and La Entrega. On balance, coral accretion exceeds sea urchin erosion at all sites examined at Huatulco. At Bahias de Huatulco coral reef communities are actively growing, though in the coming years, it might be necessary to investigate the local effects of the interaction among erosion, and environmental and human induced perturbations. PMID:17469255

  12. H(+)/K(+) ATPase activity is required for biomineralization in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Schatzberg, Daphne; Lawton, Matthew; Hadyniak, Sarah E; Ross, Erik J; Carney, Tamara; Beane, Wendy S; Levin, Michael; Bradham, Cynthia A

    2015-10-15

    The bioelectrical signatures associated with regeneration, wound healing, development, and cancer are changes in the polarization state of the cell that persist over long durations, and are mediated by ion channel activity. To identify physiologically relevant bioelectrical changes that occur during normal development of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus, we tested a range of ion channel inhibitors, and thereby identified SCH28080, a chemical inhibitor of the H(+)/K(+) ATPase (HKA), as an inhibitor of skeletogenesis. In sea urchin embryos, the primary mesodermal lineage, the PMCs, produce biomineral in response to signals from the ectoderm. However, in SCH28080-treated embryos, aside from randomization of the left-right axis, the ectoderm is normally specified and differentiated, indicating that the block to skeletogenesis observed in SCH28080-treated embryos is PMC-specific. HKA inhibition did not interfere with PMC specification, and was sufficient to block continuing biomineralization when embryos were treated with SCH28080 after the initiation of skeletogenesis, indicating that HKA activity is continuously required during biomineralization. Ion concentrations and voltage potential were abnormal in the PMCs in SCH28080-treated embryos, suggesting that these bioelectrical abnormalities prevent biomineralization. Our results indicate that this effect is due to the inhibition of amorphous calcium carbonate precipitation within PMC vesicles. PMID:26282894

  13. Nitric Oxide Mediates the Stress Response Induced by Diatom Aldehydes in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Giovanna; Costantini, Maria; Buttino, Isabella; Ianora, Adrianna; Palumbo, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Diatoms are ubiquitous and abundant primary producers that have been traditionally considered as a beneficial food source for grazers and for the transfer of carbon through marine food webs. However, many diatom species produce polyunsaturated aldehydes that disrupt development in the offspring of grazers that feed on these unicellular algae. Here we provide evidence that production of the physiological messenger nitric oxide increases after treatment with the polyunsaturated aldehyde decadienal in embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. At high decadienal concentrations, nitric oxide mediates initial apoptotic events leading to loss of mitochondrial functionality through the generation of peroxynitrite. At low decadienal concentrations, nitric oxide contributes to the activation of hsp70 gene expression thereby protecting embryos against the toxic effects of this aldehyde. When nitric oxide levels were lowered by inhibiting nitric oxide synthase activity, the expression of hsp70 in swimming blastula decreased and the proportion of abnormal plutei increased. However, in later pluteus stages nitric oxide was no longer able to exert this protective function: hsp70 and nitric oxide synthase expression decreased with a consequent increase in the expression of caspase-8. Our findings that nitric oxide production increases rapidly in response to a toxic exogenous stimulus opens new perspectives on the possible role of this gas as an important messenger to environmental stress in sea urchins and for understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying toxicity during diatom blooms. PMID:22022485

  14. H(+)/K(+) ATPase activity is required for biomineralization in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Schatzberg, Daphne; Lawton, Matthew; Hadyniak, Sarah E; Ross, Erik J; Carney, Tamara; Beane, Wendy S; Levin, Michael; Bradham, Cynthia A

    2015-10-15

    The bioelectrical signatures associated with regeneration, wound healing, development, and cancer are changes in the polarization state of the cell that persist over long durations, and are mediated by ion channel activity. To identify physiologically relevant bioelectrical changes that occur during normal development of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus, we tested a range of ion channel inhibitors, and thereby identified SCH28080, a chemical inhibitor of the H(+)/K(+) ATPase (HKA), as an inhibitor of skeletogenesis. In sea urchin embryos, the primary mesodermal lineage, the PMCs, produce biomineral in response to signals from the ectoderm. However, in SCH28080-treated embryos, aside from randomization of the left-right axis, the ectoderm is normally specified and differentiated, indicating that the block to skeletogenesis observed in SCH28080-treated embryos is PMC-specific. HKA inhibition did not interfere with PMC specification, and was sufficient to block continuing biomineralization when embryos were treated with SCH28080 after the initiation of skeletogenesis, indicating that HKA activity is continuously required during biomineralization. Ion concentrations and voltage potential were abnormal in the PMCs in SCH28080-treated embryos, suggesting that these bioelectrical abnormalities prevent biomineralization. Our results indicate that this effect is due to the inhibition of amorphous calcium carbonate precipitation within PMC vesicles.

  15. Influence of modularity and regularity on disparity of atelostomata sea urchins.

    PubMed

    López-Sauceda, Juan; Malda-Barrera, Juan; Laguarda-Figueras, Alfredo; Solís-Marín, Francisco; Aragón, José L

    2014-01-01

    A modularity approach is used to study disparity rates and evolvability of sea urchins belonging to the Atelostomata superorder. For this purpose, the pentameric sea urchin architecture is partitioned into modular spatial components and the interference between modules is quantified using areas and a measurement of the regularity of the spatial partitions. This information is used to account for the variability through time (disparity) and potential for morphological variation and evolution (evolvability) in holasteroid echinoids. We obtain that regular partitions of the space produce modules with high modular integrity, whereas irregular partitions produce low modular integrity; the former ones are related with high morphological disparity (facilitation hypothesis). Our analysis also suggests that a pentameric body plan with low regularity rates in Atelostomata reflects a stronger modular integration among modules than within modules, which could favors bilaterality against radial symmetry. Our approach constitutes a theoretical platform to define and quantify spatial organization in partitions of the space that can be related to modules in a morphological analysis.

  16. Sea urchin (Anthocidaris crassispina) egg zinc-binding protein. Cellular localization, purification and characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Ohtake, H; Suyemitsu, T; Koga, M

    1983-01-01

    Gel-filtration analysis of cytosol fraction obtained from unfertilized sea-urchin (Anthocidaris crassispina) eggs on Sephadex G-75 revealed the presence of two Zn-binding-protein fractions. The major Zn-binding protein fraction had a low molecular weight and a low absorbance at 280 nm, properties similar to those of the metallothionein found in the regenerating rat liver. These fractions were further purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-50 chromatography. Homogeneity of the Zn-binding protein was judged by polyacrylamide-disc-gel electrophoresis and gel-permeation chromatography in the presence of 6 M-guanidinium chloride. The molecular weight determined by gel-permeation chromatography was 3900. This value is in good agreement with the minimum molecular weight calculated from the amino acid composition, which was 3655. Zn-binding protein is composed of 36 amino acid residues and the distinctive features include an extremely high content of cysteine, which accounted for one-third of the total amino acid residues, and a complete absence of aromatic amino acids, as well as of methionine, histidine and arginine. Zn-binding protein contained 4.1 g-atoms of zinc per mol and a trace of cadmium, but no copper, iron or calcium. The molar ratio of reactive thiol groups to metal ion was calculated to be 2.73:1. Possible roles of this Zn-binding protein in the homoeostasis of zinc in unfertilized sea-urchin eggs are discussed. Images Fig. 3. PMID:6870816

  17. Speract, a sea urchin egg peptide that regulates sperm motility, also stimulates sperm mitochondrial metabolism.

    PubMed

    García-Rincón, Juan; Darszon, Alberto; Beltrán, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Sea urchin sperm have only one mitochondrion, that in addition to being the main source of energy, may modulate intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) to regulate their motility and possibly the acrosome reaction. Speract is a decapeptide from the outer jelly layer of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus egg that upon binding to its receptor in the sperm, stimulates sperm motility, respiration and ion fluxes, among other physiological events. Altering the sea urchin sperm mitochondrial function with specific inhibitors of this organelle, increases [Ca(2+)]i in an external Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]ext)-dependent manner (Ardón, et al., 2009. BBActa 1787: 15), suggesting that the mitochondrion is involved in sperm [Ca(2+)]i homeostasis. To further understand the interrelationship between the mitochondrion and the speract responses, we measured mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ) and NADH levels. We found that the stimulation of sperm with speract depolarizes the mitochondrion and increases the levels of NADH. Surprisingly, these responses are independent of external Ca(2+) and are due to the increase in intracellular pH (pHi) induced by speract. Our findings indicate that speract, by regulating pHi, in addition to [Ca(2+)]i, may finely modulate mitochondrial metabolism to control motility and ensure that sperm reach the egg and fertilize it. PMID:26772728

  18. Unusual Gene Order and Organization of the Sea Urchin Hox Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, R A; Rowen, L; Nesbitt, R; Bloom, S; Rast, J P; Berney, K; Arenas-Mena, C; Martinez, P; Lucas, S; Richardson, P M; Davidson, E H; Peterson, K J; Hood, L

    2005-10-11

    The highly consistent gene order and axial colinear expression patterns found in vertebrate hox gene clusters are less well conserved across the rest of bilaterians. We report the first deuterostome instance of an intact hox cluster with a unique gene order where the paralog groups are not expressed in a sequential manner. The finished sequence from BAC clones from the genome of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, reveals a gene order wherein the anterior genes (Hox1, Hox2 and Hox3) lie nearest the posterior genes in the cluster such that the most 3 gene is Hox5. (The gene order is : 5-Hox1, 2, 3, 11/13c, 11/13b, 11/13a, 9/10, 8, 7, 6, 5 - 3). The finished sequence result is corroborated by restriction mapping evidence and BAC-end scaffold analyses. Comparisons with a putative ancestral deuterostome Hox gene cluster suggest that the rearrangements leading to the sea urchin gene order were many and complex.

  19. Unusual Gene Order and Organization of the Sea Urchin HoxCluster

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Paul M.; Lucas, Susan; Cameron, R. Andrew; Rowen,Lee; Nesbitt, Ryan; Bloom, Scott; Rast, Jonathan P.; Berney, Kevin; Arenas-Mena, Cesar; Martinez, Pedro; Davidson, Eric H.; Peterson, KevinJ.; Hood, Leroy

    2005-05-10

    The highly consistent gene order and axial colinear expression patterns found in vertebrate hox gene clusters are less well conserved across the rest of bilaterians. We report the first deuterostome instance of an intact hox cluster with a unique gene order where the paralog groups are not expressed in a sequential manner. The finished sequence from BAC clones from the genome of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, reveals a gene order wherein the anterior genes (Hox1, Hox2 and Hox3) lie nearest the posterior genes in the cluster such that the most 3' gene is Hox5. (The gene order is : 5'-Hox1,2, 3, 11/13c, 11/13b, '11/13a, 9/10, 8, 7, 6, 5 - 3)'. The finished sequence result is corroborated by restriction mapping evidence and BAC-end scaffold analyses. Comparisons with a putative ancestral deuterostome Hox gene cluster suggest that the rearrangements leading to the sea urchin gene order were many and complex.

  20. Cloning of the sea urchin mitochondrial RNA polymerase and reconstitution of the transcription termination system

    PubMed Central

    Polosa, Paola Loguercio; Deceglie, Stefania; Falkenberg, Maria; Roberti, Marina; Di Ponzio, Barbara; Gadaleta, Maria Nicola; Cantatore, Palmiro

    2007-01-01

    Termination of transcription is a key process in the regulation of mitochondrial gene expression in animal cells. To investigate transcription termination in sea urchin mitochondria, we cloned the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (mtRNAP) of Paracentrotus lividus and used a recombinant form of the enzyme in a reconstituted transcription system, in the presence of the DNA-binding protein mtDBP. Cloning of mtRNAP was performed by a combination of PCR with degenerate primers and library screening. The enzyme contains 10 phage-like conserved motifs, two pentatricopeptide motifs and a serine-rich stretch. The protein expressed in insect cells supports transcription elongation in a promoter-independent assay. Addition of recombinant mtDBP caused arrest of the transcribing mtRNAP when the enzyme approached the mtDBP-binding site in the direction of transcription of mtDNA l-strand. When the polymerase encountered the protein-binding site in the opposite direction, termination occurred in a protein-independent manner, inside the mtDBP-binding site. Pulse-chase experiments show that mtDBP caused true transcription termination rather than pausing. These data indicate that mtDBP acts as polar termination factor and suggest that transcription termination in sea urchin mitochondria could take place by two alternative modes based on protein-mediated or sequence-dependent mechanisms. PMID:17392338

  1. Cilia play a role in breaking left-right symmetry of the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Ayumi; Miyamoto, Tatsuo; Simono, Fumie; Kurogi, Nao; Shirae-Kurabayashi, Maki; Awazu, Akinori; Suzuki, Ken-Ichi T; Yamamoto, Takashi; Sakamoto, Naoaki

    2016-06-01

    Left-right asymmetry of bilaterian animals is established during early development. In mice, frogs and fishes, the ciliated left-right organizer plays an essential role in establishing bilateral asymmetry, and leftward flow of extracellular fluid generated by ciliary motion results in Nodal activity on the left side. However, H(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity is also involved in the determination of left-right asymmetry in a variety of animals, and it has been thought to be an ancestral mechanism in deuterostomes. In sea urchin, the determination of the left-right asymmetry based on H(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity was already clarified, but it remains to be uncovered whether ciliary motion is involved in the left-right asymmetry of the embryo. Here, we show evidence that ciliary motion is involved in the establishment of left-right asymmetry of sea urchin embryo. Furthermore, we show that the initial cilia generated on small micromeres during the early stage of embryogenesis may be involved in this process. These results suggest that the cilia-mediated mechanism for the determination of left-right asymmetry may be acquired at the base of the deuterostomes.

  2. Control of protein synthesis in cell-free extracts of sea urchin embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, L.J.; Huang, W.I.; Jagus, R.

    1986-05-01

    Although the increase in protein synthesis that occurs after fertilization of sea urchin eggs results from increased utilization of stored maternal mRNA, the underlying mechanism is unknown. The authors have prepared cell-free extracts from S.purpuratus and A.puctulata unfertilized eggs and 2-cell embryos that retain the protein synthetic differences observed in vivo. The method is based on that of Dr. Alina Lopo. /sup 35/S methionine incorporation is linear during a 30 min incubation and is 10-20 fold higher in extracts from 2-cell embryos than unfertilized eggs. Addition of purified mRNA does not stimulate these systems, suggesting a regulatory mechanism other than mRNA masking. Addition of rabbit reticulocyte ribosomal salt wash stimulated protein synthesis in extracts from eggs but not embryos, suggesting deficiencies in translational components in unfertilized eggs. Mixing of egg and embryo lysates indicated the presence of a weak protein synthesis inhibitor in eggs. Translational control in developing sea urchin embryos thus appears to be complex, involving both stimulatory and inhibitory factors.

  3. Contribution of hedgehog signaling to the establishment of left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Warner, Jacob F; Miranda, Esther L; McClay, David R

    2016-03-15

    Most bilaterians exhibit a left-right asymmetric distribution of their internal organs. The sea urchin larva is notable in this regard since most adult structures are generated from left sided embryonic structures. The gene regulatory network governing this larval asymmetry is still a work in progress but involves several conserved signaling pathways including Nodal, and BMP. Here we provide a comprehensive analysis of Hedgehog signaling and it's contribution to left-right asymmetry. We report that Hh signaling plays a conserved role to regulate late asymmetric expression of Nodal and that this regulation occurs after Nodal breaks left-right symmetry in the mesoderm. Thus, while Hh functions to maintain late Nodal expression, the molecular asymmetry of the future coelomic pouches is locked in. Furthermore we report that cilia play a role only insofar as to transduce Hh signaling and do not have an independent effect on the asymmetry of the mesoderm. From this, we are able to construct a more complete regulatory network governing the establishment of left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin.

  4. Sea urchin-like cobalt-iron phosphide as an active catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Garcia, Adriana; Su, Dong; Sun, Shouheng

    2016-02-01

    Sea urchin-like (CoxFe1-x)2P shows Co/Fe-composition dependent catalysis for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in 0.1 M KOH. The (Co0.54Fe0.46)2P is the most efficient OER catalyst, reaching 10 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 0.37 V (vs. RHE). The report offers a new synergistic approach to tune and optimize the electrocatalysis of OER.Sea urchin-like (CoxFe1-x)2P shows Co/Fe-composition dependent catalysis for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in 0.1 M KOH. The (Co0.54Fe0.46)2P is the most efficient OER catalyst, reaching 10 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 0.37 V (vs. RHE). The report offers a new synergistic approach to tune and optimize the electrocatalysis of OER. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08763e

  5. Spatial expression of Hox cluster genes in the ontogeny of a sea urchin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arenas-Mena, C.; Cameron, A. R.; Davidson, E. H.

    2000-01-01

    The Hox cluster of the sea urchin Strongylocentrous purpuratus contains ten genes in a 500 kb span of the genome. Only two of these genes are expressed during embryogenesis, while all of eight genes tested are expressed during development of the adult body plan in the larval stage. We report the spatial expression during larval development of the five 'posterior' genes of the cluster: SpHox7, SpHox8, SpHox9/10, SpHox11/13a and SpHox11/13b. The five genes exhibit a dynamic, largely mesodermal program of expression. Only SpHox7 displays extensive expression within the pentameral rudiment itself. A spatially sequential and colinear arrangement of expression domains is found in the somatocoels, the paired posterior mesodermal structures that will become the adult perivisceral coeloms. No such sequential expression pattern is observed in endodermal, epidermal or neural tissues of either the larva or the presumptive juvenile sea urchin. The spatial expression patterns of the Hox genes illuminate the evolutionary process by which the pentameral echinoderm body plan emerged from a bilateral ancestor.

  6. Discovery of sea urchin NGFFFamide receptor unites a bilaterian neuropeptide family

    PubMed Central

    Semmens, Dean C.; Beets, Isabel; Rowe, Matthew L.; Blowes, Liisa M.; Oliveri, Paola; Elphick, Maurice R.

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides are ancient regulators of physiology and behaviour, but reconstruction of neuropeptide evolution is often difficult owing to lack of sequence conservation. Here, we report that the receptor for the neuropeptide NGFFFamide in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (phylum Echinodermata) is an orthologue of vertebrate neuropeptide-S (NPS) receptors and crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) receptors. Importantly, this has facilitated reconstruction of the evolution of two bilaterian neuropeptide signalling systems. Genes encoding the precursor of a vasopressin/oxytocin-type neuropeptide and its receptor duplicated in a common ancestor of the Bilateria. One copy of the precursor retained ancestral features, as seen in highly conserved vasopressin/oxytocin–neurophysin-type precursors. The other copy diverged, but this took different courses in protostomes and deuterostomes. In protostomes, the occurrence of a disulfide bridge in neuropeptide product(s) of the precursor was retained, as in CCAP, but with loss of the neurophysin domain. In deuterostomes, we see the opposite scenario—the neuropeptides lost the disulfide bridge, and neurophysin was retained (as in the NGFFFamide precursor) but was subsequently lost in vertebrate NPS precursors. Thus, the sea urchin NGFFFamide precursor and receptor are ‘missing links’ in the evolutionary history of neuropeptides that control ecdysis in arthropods (CCAP) and regulate anxiety in humans (NPS). PMID:25904544

  7. Submicrometer structure of sea urchin tooth via remote synchrotron microCT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Stuart R.; Rack, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Remote electron microscopy sessions are featured at a number of imaging centers. Similarly, many synchrotron light sources offer routine "mail-in" crystallography and powder diffractometry. At imaging beam lines, small numbers of (preliminary) scans are sometimes performed by staff, in the absence of the investigator, to demonstrate feasibility of the proposed study or as an industrial service. In the 1990s, one of us (SRS) participated in processing experiments where samples were couriered between Georgia Tech and SSRL and synchrotron microCT followed the spatial distribution of densification. Here, the authors report results of remote microCT experiments, i.e., where the investigator who knows the sample interacts via the web with the beam line scientist operating the apparatus and provides real-time feedback on where to scan based upon radiographs and on the most recent reconstructions. Local tomography imaged sea urchin teeth with 350 nm isotropic volume element (voxel) at beam line ID-19, ESRF. Sea urchin teeth form by growing parallel plates of high Mg calcite, each of which is 2-5 μm away from its neighbors, and very high Mg calcite columns later link the plates. The remote imaging session focused on tooth positions where the columns were just forming, and column shapes and dimensions were measured, something which has previously only been done with destructive sample preparation and scanning electron microscopy. The experiments were successful despite a separation of 4,400 miles and seven time zones.

  8. Present-day nearshore pH differentially depresses fertilization in congeneric sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Frieder, Christina A

    2014-02-01

    Ocean acidification impacts fertilization in some species of sea urchin, but whether sensitivity is great enough to be influenced by present-day pH variability has not been documented. In this study, fertilization in two congeneric sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and S. franciscanus, was found to be sensitive to reduced pH, <7.50, but only within a range of sperm-egg ratios that was species-specific. By further testing fertilization across a broad range of pH, pH-fertilization curves were generated and revealed that S. purpuratus was largely robust to pH, while fertilization in S. franciscanus was sensitive to even modest reductions in pH. Combining the pH-fertilization response curves with pH data collected from these species' habitat demonstrated that relative fertilization success remained high for S. purpuratus but could be as low as 79% for S. franciscanus during periods of naturally low pH. In order for S. franciscanus to maintain high fertilization success in the present and future, adequate adult densities, and thus sufficient sperm-egg ratios, will be required to negate the effects of low pH. In contrast, fertilization of S. purpuratus was robust to a broad range of pH, encompassing both present-day and future ocean acidification scenarios, even though the two congeners have similar habitats.

  9. Effects of spaceflight conditions on fertilization and embryogenesis in the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, H.; Chakrabarti, A.; Taylor, M.; Sommer, L.; Levine, H.; Anderson, K.; Runco, M.; Kemp, R.

    1999-01-01

    Calcium loss and muscle atrophy are two of the main metabolic changes experienced by astronauts and crew members during exposure to microgravity in space. Calcium and cytoskeletal events were investigated within sea urchin embryos which were cultured in space under both microgravity and 1 g conditions. Embryos were fixed at time-points ranging from 3 h to 8 days after fertilization. Investigative emphasis was placed upon: (1) sperm-induced calcium-dependent exocytosis and cortical granule secretion, (2) membrane fusion of cortical granule and plasma membranes; (3) microfilament polymerization and microvilli elongation; and (5) embryonic development into morula, blastula, gastrula, and pluteus stages. For embryos cultured under microgravity conditions, the processes of cortical granule discharge, fusion of cortical granule membranes with the plasma membrane, elongation of microvilli and elevation of the fertilization coat were reduced in comparison with embryos cultured at 1 g in space and under normal conditions on Earth. Also, 4% of all cells undergoing division in microgravity showed abnormalities in the centrosome-centriole complex. These abnormalities were not observed within the 1 g flight and ground control specimens, indicating that significant alterations in sea urchin development processes occur under microgravity conditions. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  10. Annual reversible plasticity of feeding structures: cyclical changes of jaw allometry in a sea urchin

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, Thomas A.; Hernández, José Carlos; Clemente, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of organisms show morphologically plastic responses to environmental stressors but in general these changes are not reversible. Though less common, reversible morphological structures are shown by a range of species in response to changes in predators, competitors or food. Theoretical analysis indicates that reversible plasticity increases fitness if organisms are long-lived relative to the frequency of changes in the stressor and morphological changes are rapid. Many sea urchin species show differences in the sizes of jaws (demi-pyramids) of the feeding apparatus, Aristotle's lantern, relative to overall body size, and these differences have been correlated with available food. The question addressed here is whether reversible changes of relative jaw size occur in the field as available food changes with season. Monthly samples of the North American Pacific coast sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus were collected from Gregory Point on the Oregon (USA) coast and showed an annual cycle of relative jaw size together with a linear trend from 2007 to 2009. Strongylocentrotus purpuratus is a long-lived species and under field conditions individuals experience multiple episodes of changes in food resources both seasonally and from year to year. Their rapid and reversible jaw plasticity fits well with theoretical expectations. PMID:24500161

  11. Synthesis of sea urchin-like carbon nanotubes on nano-diamond powder.

    PubMed

    Hwang, E J; Lee, S K; Jeong, M G; Lee, Y B; Lim, D S

    2012-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have unique atomic structure and properties, such as a high aspect ratio and high mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. On the other hand, the agglomeration and entanglement of CNTs restrict their applications. Sea urchin-like multiwalled carbon nanotubes, which have a small aspect ratio, can minimize the problem of dispersion. The high hardness, thermal conductivity and chemical inertness of the nano-diamond powder make it suitable for a wide range of applications in the mechanical and electronic fields. CNTs were synthesized on nano-diamond powder by thermal CVD to fabricate a filler with suitable mechanical properties and chemical stability. This paper reports the growth of CNTs with a sea urchin-like structure on the surface of the nano-diamond powder. Nano-diamond powders were dispersed in an attritional milling system using zirconia beads in ethanol. After the milling process, 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APS) was added as a linker. Silanization was performed between the nano-diamond particles and the metal catalyst. Iron chloride was used as a catalyst for the fabrication of the CNTs. After drying, catalyst-attached nano-diamond powders could be achieved. The growth of the carbon nanotubes was carried out by CVD. The CNT morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mean diameter and length of the CNTs were 201 nm and 3.25 microm, respectively. PMID:22966673

  12. A Protocol for Bioinspired Design: A Ground Sampler Based on Sea Urchin Jaws.

    PubMed

    Frank, Michael B; Naleway, Steven E; Wirth, Taylor S; Jung, Jae-Young; Cheung, Charlene L; Loera, Faviola B; Medina, Sandra; Sato, Kirk N; Taylor, Jennifer R A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Bioinspired design is an emerging field that takes inspiration from nature to develop high-performance materials and devices. The sea urchin mouthpiece, known as the Aristotle's lantern, is a compelling source of bioinspiration with an intricate network of musculature and calcareous teeth that can scrape, cut, chew food and bore holes into rocky substrates. We describe the bioinspiration process as including animal observation, specimen characterization, device fabrication and mechanism bioexploration. The last step of bioexploration allows for a deeper understanding of the initial biology. The design architecture of the Aristotle's lantern is analyzed with micro-computed tomography and individual teeth are examined with scanning electron microscopy to identify the microstructure. Bioinspired designs are fabricated with a 3D printer, assembled and tested to determine the most efficient lantern opening and closing mechanism. Teeth from the bioinspired lantern design are bioexplored via finite element analysis to explain from a mechanical perspective why keeled tooth structures evolved in the modern sea urchins we observed. This circular approach allows for new conclusions to be drawn from biology and nature.

  13. The effects of nonylphenol and octylphenol on embryonic development of sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus).

    PubMed

    Arslan, O Cakal; Parlak, H; Oral, R; Katalay, S

    2007-08-01

    In this study, embryotoxic and genotoxic effects of nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP), which are the derivates of alkylphenol (APs), were evaluated using the gametes and embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. The sperm and eggs of sea urchins were exposed to increasing concentrations of NP (0.937-18.74 microg/L) and OP (5-160 microg/L) under static conditions. The endpoints were sperm fertilization success, quantitative and morphologic changes in mitotic activity, larval malformations, developmental arrest, and embryonic/larval mortality. A dose-response-related reduction (approximately 20%) was observed in fertilization success and significant increases in the number of larvae with skeleton malformations at the pluteus stage of the contaminated sperms. The spermiotoxic and embryotoxic concentrations were determined as 0.937 microg/L for NP and 4.685 microg/L for OP for this species. The embryotoxicity of NP and OP is concentration dependent, and significant growth reduction at the early life stages and an increase in larval malformations as skeleton deformities at the pluteus stage were observed. Cytogenetic analysis of embryos showed a decreasing curve in mitotic indexes (number of mitosis per embryo) with increasing concentrations of NP and OP. It can be concluded that NP and OP adversely affect the reproduction and embryonic developmental stages of the P. lividus and this is of great ecological importance because of the hazard at the population level. PMID:17587143

  14. Importance of spatial population characteristics on the fertilization rates of sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Lauzon-Guay, Jean-Sébastien; Scheibling, Robert E

    2007-06-01

    We show that inclusion of population characteristics in coupled advection-diffusion and fertilization-kinetics models results in higher fertilization rates than those previously reported in theoretical studies. We incorporate parameters related to both individuals and populations by running simulations over a large spatial scale and incorporating sperm contribution from multiple males. We compare predictions for three subpopulations of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (those occupying kelp beds, barrens, and grazing fronts) to observations from small-scale experiments, and estimate effects of population size and current velocity in each subpopulation. Model outputs suggest that fertilization rates are low in kelp beds, intermediate in barrens, and high in grazing fronts. In all populations, increasing current velocity has a negative effect on the relationship between fertilization rate and downstream distance of gametes after release, but no effect on the relationship between fertilization rate and elapsed time since gamete release. Our model output was most sensitive to changes in the number of spawning males and the sperm release rate, suggesting that spawning synchrony and high gonadic index could greatly increase the fertilization success in sea urchins. PMID:17565109

  15. The genomic regulatory control of skeletal morphogenesis in the sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Kiran; Cheers, Melani S; Ettensohn, Charles A

    2012-02-01

    A central challenge of developmental and evolutionary biology is to understand how anatomy is encoded in the genome. Elucidating the genetic mechanisms that control the development of specific anatomical features will require the analysis of model morphogenetic processes and an integration of biological information at genomic, cellular and tissue levels. The formation of the endoskeleton of the sea urchin embryo is a powerful experimental system for developing such an integrated view of the genomic regulatory control of morphogenesis. The dynamic cellular behaviors that underlie skeletogenesis are well understood and a complex transcriptional gene regulatory network (GRN) that underlies the specification of embryonic skeletogenic cells (primary mesenchyme cells, PMCs) has recently been elucidated. Here, we link the PMC specification GRN to genes that directly control skeletal morphogenesis. We identify new gene products that play a proximate role in skeletal morphogenesis and uncover transcriptional regulatory inputs into many of these genes. Our work extends the importance of the PMC GRN as a model developmental GRN and establishes a unique picture of the genomic regulatory control of a major morphogenetic process. Furthermore, because echinoderms exhibit diverse programs of skeletal development, the newly expanded sea urchin skeletogenic GRN will provide a foundation for comparative studies that explore the relationship between GRN evolution and morphological evolution. PMID:22190640

  16. Effects of bisphenol A on the embryonic development of sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus).

    PubMed

    Ozlem, Cakal Arslan; Hatice, Parlak

    2008-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), is one of the most important industrial chemicals synthesized for diverse applications. In this study, tests for embryotoxic and spermiotoxic effects of BPA were utilized in the sperms and embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. The sperm and eggs of sea urchins were exposed to increasing concentrations of BPA (300-3500 microg/L) under static conditions. The endpoints were successful sperm fertilization, larval malformations, developmental arrest, and embryonic/larval mortality. BPA concentration (300 microg/L) had spermiotoxic and embryotoxic effects on this species. A dose-response related reduction was observed in fertilization success and significant increases in the number of larvae with skeleton malformations at the pluteus stage when the sperms were exposed BPA. The embryotoxicity of BPA is concentration-dependent and significant growth reduction at the early life stages and an increase in larval malformations as skeleton deformities at the pluteus stage were observed. It can be concluded that BPA adversely affects the reproduction and embryonic developmental stages of the P. lividus and this is of great ecological importance due to the hazard at the population level. PMID:18214894

  17. Plasma membrane calcium ATPase is concentrated in the head of sea urchin spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Gunaratne, Herath Jayantha; Neill, Anna T; Vacquier, Victor D

    2006-05-01

    Plasma membrane Ca2+ATPases (PMCAs) export Ca2+ from cells in a highly regulated manner, providing fine-tuning to the maintenance of intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. There are few studies of PMCAs in spermatozoa, which is surprising considering the importance of this enzyme in all cell types. Here we describe the primary structure and localization of the PMCA of sea urchin spermatozoa (suPMCA). The suPMCA is 1,154 amino acids and has 56% identity and 76% similarity to all 4 human PMCA isoforms. The suPMCA shares the features of a typical PMCA, including domains for calmodulin binding, ATP binding, ATPase phosphorylation, and 10 putative transmembrane segments with two large cytoplasmic loops. Southern blots show that suPMCA is a single copy gene. Treatment of live sea urchin sperm with the PMCA inhibitor, 5-(-6)-carboxyeosin, results in elevations of intracellular Ca2+ and loss of flagellar motility. Immunoblotting and immunoflorescence show that suPMCA is concentrated in the sperm head plasma membrane. In previous work, we showed that a plasma membrane K+ dependent Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (suNCKX), which also keeps Ca2+ low in these cells, is concentrated in the sperm flagellum. Thus, the sperm head and flagellum localize different gene products, both functioning to keep intracellular Ca2+ low, while the sperm swims in seawater containing 10 mM Ca2+. PMID:16358326

  18. Pattern and process during sea urchin gut morphogenesis: the regulatory landscape.

    PubMed

    Annunziata, Rossella; Perillo, Margherita; Andrikou, Carmen; Cole, Alison G; Martinez, Pedro; Arnone, Maria I

    2014-03-01

    The development of the endoderm is a multistage process. From the initial specification of the endodermal domain in the embryo to the final regionalization of the gut, there are multiple stages that require the involvement of complex gene regulatory networks. In one concrete case, the sea urchin embryo, some of these stages and their genetic control are (relatively) well understood. Several studies have underscored the relevance of individual transcription factor activities in the process, but very few have focused the attention on gene interactions within specific gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Sea urchins offer an ideal system to study the different factors involved in the morphogenesis of the gut. Here we review the knowledge gained over the last 10 years on the process and its regulation, from the early specification of endodermal lineages to the late events linked to the patterning of functional domains in the gut. A lesson of remarkable importance has been learnt from comparison of the mechanisms involved in gut formation in different bilaterian animals; some of these genetic mechanisms are particularly well conserved. Patterning the gut seems to involve common molecular players and shared interactions, whether we look at mammals or echinoderms. This astounding degree of conservation reveals some key aspects of deep homology that are most probably shared by all bilaterian guts. PMID:24376127

  19. Mechanism of Calcite Co-Orientation in the Sea Urchin Tooth

    SciTech Connect

    Killian, Christopher; Metzler, Rebecca; Gong, Y. U. T.; Olson, Ian; Aizenberg, Joanna; Politi, Yael; Wilt, Fred; Scholl, Andreas; Young, Anthony; Doran, Andrew; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Coppersmith, Susan; Gilbert, P. U. P. A.

    2009-12-01

    Sea urchin teeth are remarkable and complex calcite structures, continuously growing at the forming end and self-sharpening at the mature grinding tip. The calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) crystals of tooth components, plates, fibers, and a high-Mg polycrystalline matrix, have highly co-oriented crystallographic axes. This ability to co-orient calcite in a mineralized structure is shared by all echinoderms. However, the physico-chemical mechanism by which calcite crystals become co-oriented in echinoderms remains enigmatic. Here, we show differences in calcite c-axis orientations in the tooth of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), using high-resolution X-ray photoelectron emission spectromicroscopy (X-PEEM) and microbeam X-ray diffraction ({mu}XRD). All plates share one crystal orientation, propagated through pillar bridges, while fibers and polycrystalline matrix share another orientation. Furthermore, in the forming end of the tooth, we observe that CaCO{sub 3} is present as amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC). We demonstrate that co-orientation of the nanoparticles in the polycrystalline matrix occurs via solid-state secondary nucleation, propagating out from the previously formed fibers and plates, into the amorphous precursor nanoparticles. Because amorphous precursors were observed in diverse biominerals, solid-state secondary nucleation is likely to be a general mechanism for the co-orientation of biomineral components in organisms from different phyla.

  20. Developmental effects of two different copper oxide nanomaterials in sea urchin (Lytechinus pictus) embryos.

    PubMed

    Torres-Duarte, Cristina; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Pokhrel, Suman; Mädler, Lutz; Keller, Arturo A; Cherr, Gary N

    2016-08-01

    Copper oxide nanomaterials (nano-CuOs) are widely used and can be inadvertently introduced into estuarine and marine environments. We analyzed the effects of different nano-CuOs (a synthesized and a less-pure commercial form), as well as ionic copper (CuSO4) on embryo development in the white sea urchin, a well-known marine model. After 96 h of development with both nano-CuO exposures, we did not detect significant oxidative damage to proteins but did detect decreases in total antioxidant capacity. We show that the physicochemical characteristics of the two nano-CuOs play an essential role in their toxicities. Both nano-CuOs were internalized by embryos and their differential dissolution was the most important toxicological parameter. The synthesized nano-CuO showed greater toxicity (EC50 = 450 ppb of copper) and had increased dissolution (2.5% by weight over 96 h) as compared with the less-pure commercial nano-CuO (EC50 = 5395 ppb of copper, 0.73% dissolution by weight over 96 h). Copper caused specific developmental abnormalities in sea urchin embryos including disruption of the aboral-oral axis as a result in changes to the redox environment caused by dissolution of internalized nano-CuO. Abnormal skeleton formation also occurred.

  1. Triphenylphosphonium Cations of the Diterpenoid Isosteviol: Synthesis and Antimitotic Activity in a Sea Urchin Embryo Model.

    PubMed

    Strobykina, Irina Yu; Belenok, Mayya G; Semenova, Marina N; Semenov, Victor V; Babaev, Vasiliy M; Rizvanov, Ildar Kh; Mironov, Vladimir F; Kataev, Vladimir E

    2015-06-26

    A series of novel triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cations of the diterpenoid isosteviol (1, 16-oxo-ent-beyeran-19-oic acid) have been synthesized and evaluated in an in vivo phenotypic sea urchin embryo assay for antimitotic activity. The TPP moiety was applied as a carrier to provide selective accumulation of a connected compound into mitochondria. When applied to fertilized eggs, the targeted isosteviol TPP conjugates induced mitotic arrest with the formation of aberrant multipolar mitotic spindles, whereas both isosteviol and the methyltriphenylphosphonium cation were inactive. The structure-activity relationship study revealed the essential role of the TPP group for the realization of the isosteviol effect, while the chemical structure and the length of the linker only slightly influenced the antimitotic potency. The results obtained using the sea urchin embryo model suggested that TPP conjugates of isosteviol induced mitotic spindle defects and mitotic arrest presumably by affecting mitochondrial DNA. Since targeting mitochondria is considered as an encouraging strategy for cancer therapy, TPP-isosteviol conjugates may represent promising candidates for further design as anticancer agents.

  2. Use of specific glycosidases to probe cellular interactions in the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Idoni, Brian; Ghazarian, Haike; Metzenberg, Stan; Hutchins-Carroll, Virginia; Oppenheimer, Steven B; Carroll, Edward J

    2010-08-01

    We present an unusual and novel model for initial investigations of a putative role for specifically conformed glycans in cellular interactions. We have used alpha- and ss-amylase and alpha- and ss-glucosidase in dose-response experiments evaluating their effects on archenteron organization using the NIH designated sea urchin embryo model. In quantitative dose-response experiments, we show that defined activity levels of alpha-glucosidase and ss-amylase inhibited archenteron organization in living Lytechinus pictus gastrula embryos, whereas all concentrations of ss-glucosidase and alpha-amylase were without substantial effects on development. Product inhibition studies suggested that the enzymes were acting by their specific glycosidase activities and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggested that there was no detectable protease contamination in the active enzyme samples. The results provide evidence for a role of glycans in sea urchin embryo cellular interactions with special reference to the possible structural conformation of these glycans based on the differential activities of the alpha- and ss-glycosidases. PMID:20435035

  3. Cilia play a role in breaking left-right symmetry of the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Ayumi; Miyamoto, Tatsuo; Simono, Fumie; Kurogi, Nao; Shirae-Kurabayashi, Maki; Awazu, Akinori; Suzuki, Ken-Ichi T; Yamamoto, Takashi; Sakamoto, Naoaki

    2016-06-01

    Left-right asymmetry of bilaterian animals is established during early development. In mice, frogs and fishes, the ciliated left-right organizer plays an essential role in establishing bilateral asymmetry, and leftward flow of extracellular fluid generated by ciliary motion results in Nodal activity on the left side. However, H(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity is also involved in the determination of left-right asymmetry in a variety of animals, and it has been thought to be an ancestral mechanism in deuterostomes. In sea urchin, the determination of the left-right asymmetry based on H(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity was already clarified, but it remains to be uncovered whether ciliary motion is involved in the left-right asymmetry of the embryo. Here, we show evidence that ciliary motion is involved in the establishment of left-right asymmetry of sea urchin embryo. Furthermore, we show that the initial cilia generated on small micromeres during the early stage of embryogenesis may be involved in this process. These results suggest that the cilia-mediated mechanism for the determination of left-right asymmetry may be acquired at the base of the deuterostomes. PMID:27028068

  4. A Protocol for Bioinspired Design: A Ground Sampler Based on Sea Urchin Jaws.

    PubMed

    Frank, Michael B; Naleway, Steven E; Wirth, Taylor S; Jung, Jae-Young; Cheung, Charlene L; Loera, Faviola B; Medina, Sandra; Sato, Kirk N; Taylor, Jennifer R A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Bioinspired design is an emerging field that takes inspiration from nature to develop high-performance materials and devices. The sea urchin mouthpiece, known as the Aristotle's lantern, is a compelling source of bioinspiration with an intricate network of musculature and calcareous teeth that can scrape, cut, chew food and bore holes into rocky substrates. We describe the bioinspiration process as including animal observation, specimen characterization, device fabrication and mechanism bioexploration. The last step of bioexploration allows for a deeper understanding of the initial biology. The design architecture of the Aristotle's lantern is analyzed with micro-computed tomography and individual teeth are examined with scanning electron microscopy to identify the microstructure. Bioinspired designs are fabricated with a 3D printer, assembled and tested to determine the most efficient lantern opening and closing mechanism. Teeth from the bioinspired lantern design are bioexplored via finite element analysis to explain from a mechanical perspective why keeled tooth structures evolved in the modern sea urchins we observed. This circular approach allows for new conclusions to be drawn from biology and nature. PMID:27166636

  5. Contribution of hedgehog signaling to the establishment of left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Warner, Jacob F; Miranda, Esther L; McClay, David R

    2016-03-15

    Most bilaterians exhibit a left-right asymmetric distribution of their internal organs. The sea urchin larva is notable in this regard since most adult structures are generated from left sided embryonic structures. The gene regulatory network governing this larval asymmetry is still a work in progress but involves several conserved signaling pathways including Nodal, and BMP. Here we provide a comprehensive analysis of Hedgehog signaling and it's contribution to left-right asymmetry. We report that Hh signaling plays a conserved role to regulate late asymmetric expression of Nodal and that this regulation occurs after Nodal breaks left-right symmetry in the mesoderm. Thus, while Hh functions to maintain late Nodal expression, the molecular asymmetry of the future coelomic pouches is locked in. Furthermore we report that cilia play a role only insofar as to transduce Hh signaling and do not have an independent effect on the asymmetry of the mesoderm. From this, we are able to construct a more complete regulatory network governing the establishment of left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin. PMID:26872875

  6. Cloning of two sea urchin DNA-binding proteins involved in mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription.

    PubMed

    Loguercio Polosa, Paola; Megli, Fiammetta; Di Ponzio, Barbara; Gadaleta, Maria Nicola; Cantatore, Palmiro; Roberti, Marina

    2002-03-01

    The cloning of the cDNA for two mitochondrial proteins involved in sea urchin mtDNA replication and transcription is reported here. The cDNA for the mitochondrial D-loop binding protein (mtDBP) from the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus has been cloned by a polymerase chain reaction-based approach. The protein displays a very high similarity with the Paracentrotus lividus homologue as it contains also the two leucine zipper-like domains which are thought to be involved in intramolecular interactions needed to expose the two DNA binding domains in the correct position for contacting DNA. The cDNA for the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein (mtSSB) from P. lividus has been also cloned by a similar approach. The precursor protein is 146 amino acids long with a presequence of 16 residues. The deduced amino acid sequence shows the highest homology with the Xenopus laevis protein and the lowest with the Drosophila mtSSB. The computer modeling of the tertiary structure of P. lividus mtSSB shows a structure very similar to that experimentally determined for human mtSSB, with the conservation of the main residues involved in protein tetramerization and in DNA binding.

  7. Toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles in immune cells of the sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Falugi, C; Aluigi, M G; Chiantore, M C; Privitera, D; Ramoino, P; Gatti, M A; Fabrizi, A; Pinsino, A; Matranga, V

    2012-05-01

    The potential toxicity of stannum dioxide (SnO₂), cerium dioxide (CeO₂) and iron oxide (Fe₃O₄) nanoparticles (NPs) in the marine environment was investigated using the sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, as an in vivo model. We found that 5 days after force-feeding of NPs in aqueous solutions, the three NPs presented different toxicity degrees, depending on the considered biomarkers. We examined: 1) the presence of the NPs in the coelomic fluid and the uptake into the immune cells (coelomocytes); 2) the cholinesterase activity and the expression of the stress-related proteins HSC70 and GRP78; 3) the morphological changes affecting cellular compartments, such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and lysosomes. By Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) analysis, coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) we found that NPs were uptaken inside coelomocytes. The cholinesterases activity, a well known marker of blood intoxication in vertebrates, was greatly reduced in specimens exposed to NPs. We found that levels of stress proteins were down-regulated, matching the observed ER and lysosomes morphological alterations. In conclusion, this is the first study which utilizes the sea urchin as a model organism for biomonitoring the biological impact of NPs and supports the efficacy of the selected biomarkers. PMID:22104963

  8. Triphenylphosphonium Cations of the Diterpenoid Isosteviol: Synthesis and Antimitotic Activity in a Sea Urchin Embryo Model.

    PubMed

    Strobykina, Irina Yu; Belenok, Mayya G; Semenova, Marina N; Semenov, Victor V; Babaev, Vasiliy M; Rizvanov, Ildar Kh; Mironov, Vladimir F; Kataev, Vladimir E

    2015-06-26

    A series of novel triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cations of the diterpenoid isosteviol (1, 16-oxo-ent-beyeran-19-oic acid) have been synthesized and evaluated in an in vivo phenotypic sea urchin embryo assay for antimitotic activity. The TPP moiety was applied as a carrier to provide selective accumulation of a connected compound into mitochondria. When applied to fertilized eggs, the targeted isosteviol TPP conjugates induced mitotic arrest with the formation of aberrant multipolar mitotic spindles, whereas both isosteviol and the methyltriphenylphosphonium cation were inactive. The structure-activity relationship study revealed the essential role of the TPP group for the realization of the isosteviol effect, while the chemical structure and the length of the linker only slightly influenced the antimitotic potency. The results obtained using the sea urchin embryo model suggested that TPP conjugates of isosteviol induced mitotic spindle defects and mitotic arrest presumably by affecting mitochondrial DNA. Since targeting mitochondria is considered as an encouraging strategy for cancer therapy, TPP-isosteviol conjugates may represent promising candidates for further design as anticancer agents. PMID:26042548

  9. Syntaxin, VAMP, and Rab3 are selectively expressed during sea urchin embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Conner, S D; Wessel, G M

    2001-01-01

    SNARE and rab protein family members were originally identified in terminally differentiated cell types. These proteins are phylogenetically conserved and while compelling evidence demonstrates their involvement in the secretory pathway, their exact function is debated. We recently identified SNARE protein family members in the sea urchin egg and provided evidence that rab3 functions in the exocytosis of cortical granules. Here we tested the hypothesis that these same proteins might also be present throughout embryogenesis to mediate membrane fusion events. We provide evidence that the sea urchin possesses a low complexity of gene family members of syntaxin, VAMP, and rab3 and that these proteins are not only present during development, but are enriched in regions of the embryo with active secretory roles. We found accumulation of each family member in the apical and basal aspects of cleaving blastomeres, indicative of bidirectional secretion into the extraembryonic environment and blastocoel. Elevated levels of syntaxin, VAMP, and rab3 were also found in the mesodermally derived pigment cells that invade and move within the ectoderm. These cells likely rely on SNARE and rab proteins to enable mobility by mediating the secretion of enzymes that break adhesion to neighboring cells and the extracellular matrix. In addition, these secretory proteins are enriched in the gut following gastrulation. Thus, we conclude that VAMP, syntaxin, and rab3 mediate a variety of secretory events that is important for development.

  10. Developmental characterization of the gene for laminin alpha-chain in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Benson, S; Page, L; Ingersoll, E; Rosenthal, E; Dungca, K; Signor, D

    1999-03-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone encoding a region of the carboxy terminal globular domain (G domain) of the alpha-1 chain of laminin from the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Sequence analysis indicates that the 1.3 kb cDNA (spLAM-alpha) encodes the complete G2 and G3 subdomains of sea urchin a-laminin. The 11 kb spLAM-alpha mRNA is present in the egg and declines slightly in abundance during development to the pluteus larva. The spLAM-alpha gene is also expressed in a variety of adult tissues. Whole mount in situ hybridization of gastrula stage embryos indicates that ectodermal and endodermal epithelia and mesenchyme cells contain the spLAM-alpha mRNA. Immunoprecipitation experiments using an antibody made to a recombinant fusion protein indicates spLAM-alpha protein is synthesized continuously from fertilization as a 420 kDa protein which accumulates from low levels in the egg to elevated levels in the pluteus larva. Light and electron microscopy identify spLAM-alpha as a component of the basal lamina. Blastocoelic microinjection of an antibody to recombinant spLAM-alpha perturbs gastrulation and skeleton formation by primary mesenchyme cells suggesting an important role for laminin in endodermal and mesodermal morphogenesis. PMID:10330483

  11. Nickel and Copper Toxicity to Embryos of the Long-Spined Sea Urchin, Diadema savignyi.

    PubMed

    Rosen, G; Rivera-Duarte, I; Colvin, M A; Dolecal, R E; Raymundo, L J; Earley, P J

    2015-07-01

    The sensitivity of long-spined sea urchins (Diadema savignyi) collected from Guam (Northern Marianas Islands), USA, to nickel and copper in seawater was explored using 48-h embryo-larval development toxicity tests. The median effective concentrations (EC50) averaged 94 µg L(-1) for nickel, and 19 µg L(-1) from a single exposure to copper, and suggest relatively high sensitivity of this species to nickel compared with other sea urchin genera, but similar sensitivity to copper. Ambient nickel and copper concentrations concurrently sampled from 16 near-shore locations around Guam were one to two orders of magnitude lower than those that would be expected to result in adverse effects to D. savignyi embryos. Although nationally recommended chronic ambient water quality criteria, currently 8.2 and 3.1 µg L(-1) for nickel and copper, respectively, were not exceeded, recently derived qualifying toxicity data should be considered for updating these criteria to ensure protectiveness of sensitive tropical species. PMID:25573279

  12. Nitric oxide mediates the stress response induced by diatom aldehydes in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    PubMed

    Romano, Giovanna; Costantini, Maria; Buttino, Isabella; Ianora, Adrianna; Palumbo, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Diatoms are ubiquitous and abundant primary producers that have been traditionally considered as a beneficial food source for grazers and for the transfer of carbon through marine food webs. However, many diatom species produce polyunsaturated aldehydes that disrupt development in the offspring of grazers that feed on these unicellular algae. Here we provide evidence that production of the physiological messenger nitric oxide increases after treatment with the polyunsaturated aldehyde decadienal in embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. At high decadienal concentrations, nitric oxide mediates initial apoptotic events leading to loss of mitochondrial functionality through the generation of peroxynitrite. At low decadienal concentrations, nitric oxide contributes to the activation of hsp70 gene expression thereby protecting embryos against the toxic effects of this aldehyde. When nitric oxide levels were lowered by inhibiting nitric oxide synthase activity, the expression of hsp70 in swimming blastula decreased and the proportion of abnormal plutei increased. However, in later pluteus stages nitric oxide was no longer able to exert this protective function: hsp70 and nitric oxide synthase expression decreased with a consequent increase in the expression of caspase-8. Our findings that nitric oxide production increases rapidly in response to a toxic exogenous stimulus opens new perspectives on the possible role of this gas as an important messenger to environmental stress in sea urchins and for understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying toxicity during diatom blooms. PMID:22022485

  13. Trawling disturbance on the isotopic signature of a structure-building species, the sea urchin Gracilechinus acutus (Lamarck, 1816)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Irusta, José M.; Preciado, Izaskun; López-López, Lucia; Punzón, Antonio; Cartes, Joan E.; Serrano, Alberto

    2014-08-01

    Bottom trawling is one of the main sources of anthropogenic disturbance in benthic habitats with important direct and indirect effects on the ecosystem functional diversity. In this study, the effect of this impact on a structure-building species, the sea urchin Gracilechinus acutus, was studied in the Central Cantabrian Sea (southern Bay of Biscay) comparing its isotopic signature and additional population descriptors across different trawling pressures. Trawling disturbance had a significant effect on the studied descriptors. In trawling areas, this urchin showed significantly lower values of biomass and mean size and significantly higher values of fullness index. Moreover, the trawling disturbance effect was also significant in the isotopic signature of G. acutus. Urchins inhabiting untrawled areas showed significant lower values of δ15N than urchins dwelling areas under trawling pressure. The urchins' isotopic enrichment increased along the species ontogeny regardless of the trawling effort level. Stable isotope analyses are a suitable tool to detect trawling disturbance on the trophic pathways but do not suffice to explain these changes, especially if there is a lack of baseline information.

  14. The structure of sulfated polysaccharides ensures a carbohydrate-based mechanism for species recognition during sea urchin fertilization.

    PubMed

    Vilela-Silva, Ana-Cristina E S; Hirohashi, Noritaka; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of barriers to inter-specific hybridization is a crucial step in the fertilization of free spawning marine invertebrates. In sea urchins, molecular recognition between sperm and egg ensures species recognition. Here we review the sulfated polysaccharide-based mechanism of sperm-egg recognition in this model organism. The jelly surrounding sea urchin eggs is not a simple accessory structure; it is molecularly complex and intimately involved in gamete recognition. It contains sulfated polysaccharides, sialoglycans and peptides. The sulfated polysaccharides have unique structures, composed of repetitive units of alpha-L-fucose or alpha-L-galactose, which differ among species in the sulfation pattern and/or the position of the glycosidic linkage. The egg jelly sulfated polysaccharides show species-specificity in inducing the sperm acrosome reaction, which is regulated by the structure of the saccharide chain and its sulfation pattern. Other components of the egg jelly do not possess acrosome reaction inducing activity, but sialoglycans act in synergy with the sulfated polysaccharide, potentiating its activity. The system we describe establishes a new view of cell-cell interaction in the sea urchin model system. Here, structural changes in egg jelly polysaccharides modulate cell-cell recognition and species-specificity leading to exocytosis of the acrosome. Therefore, sulfated polysaccharides, in addition to their known functions as growth factors, coagulation factors and selectin binding partners, also function in fertilization. The differentiation of these molecules may play a role in sea urchin speciation.

  15. A network of 2-4 nm filaments found in sea urchin smooth muscle. Protein constituents and in situ localization.

    PubMed

    Pureur, R P; Coffe, G; Soyer-Gobillard, M O; de Billy, F; Pudles, J

    1986-01-01

    In this report the coisolation of two proteins from sea urchin smooth muscle of apparent molecular weights (Mr) 54 and 56 kD respectively, as determined on SDS-PAGE, is described. Like the intermediate filament proteins, these two proteins are insoluble in high ionic strength buffer solution. On two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and by immunological methods it is shown that these proteins are not related (by these criteria) to rat smooth muscle desmin (54 kD) or vimentin (56 kD). Furthermore, in conditions where both desmin and vimentin assemble in vitro into 10 nm filaments, the sea urchin smooth muscle proteins do not assemble into filaments. Ultrastructural studies on the sea urchin smooth muscle cell show that the thin and thick filaments organization resembles that described in the vertebrate smooth muscle. However, instead of 10 nm filaments, a network of filaments, 2-4 nm in diameter, is revealed, upon removal of the thin and thick filaments by 0.6 M KCl treatment. By indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, and in particular by immunocytochemical electron microscopy studies on the sea urchin smooth muscle cell, it is shown that the antibodies raised against both 54 and 56 kD proteins appear to specifically label these 2-4 nm filaments. These findings indicate that both the 54 and 56 kD proteins might be constituents of this category of filaments. The possible significance of this new cytoskeletal element, that we have named echinonematin filaments, is discussed. PMID:3509996

  16. Relationships between fish, sea urchins and macroalgae: The structure of shallow rocky sublittoral communities in the Cyclades, Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giakoumi, Sylvaine; Cebrian, Emma; Kokkoris, Giorgos D.; Ballesteros, Enric; Sala, Enric

    2012-08-01

    Historical overfishing is the most likely explanation for the depletion of the shallow sublittoral communities in many areas not least in the Cyclades Archipelago, Greece. The present study is the first quantitative study of the shallow rocky sublittoral of the Cyclades based on in situ underwater surveys of algal cover, and fish and sea urchin abundance at 181 sampling sites in 25 islands to provide a baseline and investigate the relationship between these communities. Algal turf was the most abundant algal functional group, and canopy algae of the genus Cystoseira were more abundant at the northern islands. A range in fish biomass of almost two orders of magnitude was found across islands, but overall the Cyclades displayed much lower values than fished areas of the Western Mediterranean. We observed apex predators only in 25% of our sampling sites, and their biomass was uncorrelated to total fish biomass, indicating a depleted ecosystem. Sea urchin biomass was also low but similar to values found in other Mediterranean islands and was positively correlated with barrens. We observed a gradient of benthic community complexity from sea urchin barrens to communities dominated by Cystoseira spp. There was no correlation between sea urchins and their predators Diplodus spp., which presented extremely low densities.

  17. EFFECTS OF TRIBUTYLTIN ON CA2+ HOMEOSTASIS AND MECHANISMS CONTROLLING CELL CYCLING IN SEA URCHIN EGGS (R823881)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Tributyltin (TBT) is one of the widespread organotins in the marine environment: we have investigated its cellular targets in the eggs of the marine invertebrate sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. TBT was used at concentrations ranging from 10-9

  18. A sea urchin lectin, SUL-1, from the Toxopneustid sea urchin induces DC maturation from human monocyte and drives Th1 polarization in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Takei, Masao . E-mail: mtakei@fz-borstel.de; Nakagawa, Hideyuki

    2006-05-15

    The sea urchin Toxopneustes pileolus belonging to the family Toxopneustidae, they have well-developed globiferous pedicellariae with pharmacologically active substances. We have purified a novel sea urchin lectin-1 (SUL-1) from the large globiferous pedicellariae of T. pileolus. Dendritic cells (DC) are professional APC and play a pivotal role in controlling immune responses. This study investigated whether SUL-1 can drive DC maturation from human immature monocyte-derived DC in vitro. Human monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for 6 days followed by another 1 day in the presence of SUL-1 or LPS. DC harvested on day 7 were examined using functional assays. The expression levels of CD1a, CD80, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR as expressed by mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) on DC differentiated from immature DC after culture with 1.0 {mu}g/ml of SUL-1 for 1 day were enhanced and decreased endocytic activity. SUL-1-treated DC also displayed enhanced T cell stimulatory capacity in an MLR, as measured by T cell proliferation. Cell surface expression of CD80, CD83 and CD86 on SUL-1-treated DC was inhibited by anti-DC-SIGN mAb, while anti-DC-SIGN mAb had no influence on allogeneic T cell proliferation by SUL-1-treated DC. DC differentiated with SUL-1 induced the differentiation of naive T cell towards a helper T cell type 1 (Th1) response at DC/T (1:5) cells ratio depending on IL-12 secretion. In CTL assay, the production of IFN-{gamma} and {sup 51}Cr release on SUL-1-treated DC were more augmented than of immature DC or LPS-treated DC. SUL-1-treated DC expressed CCR7 and had a high migration to MIP-3{beta}. Intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization in SUL-1-treated DC was also induced by MIP-3{beta}. These results suggest that SUL-1 bindings to DC-SIGN on surface of immature DC may lead to differentiate DC from immature DC. Moreover, it suggests that SUL-1 may be used on DC-based vaccines for cancer immunotherapy.

  19. Growth rates are related to production efficiencies in juveniles of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus

    PubMed Central

    Heflin, L.E.; Gibbs, V.K.; Jones, W.T.; Makowsky, R.; Lawrence, A.L.; Watts, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Growth rates of newly-metamorphosed urchins from a single spawning event (three males and three females) were highly variable, despite being held en masse under identical environmental and nutritional conditions. As individuals reached ~5 mm diameter (0.07–0.10 g wet weight), they were placed in growth trials (23 dietary treatments containing various nutrient profiles). Elapsed time from the first individual entering the growth trials to the last individual entering was 121 days (N = 170 individuals). During the five-week growth trials, urchins were held individually and proffered a limiting ration to evaluate growth rate and production efficiency. Growth rates among individuals within each dietary treatment remained highly variable. Across all dietary treatments, individuals with an initially high growth rate (entering the study first) continued to grow at a faster rate than those with an initially low growth rate (entering the study at a later date), regardless of feed intake. Wet weight gain (ranging from 0.13 −3.19 g, P < 0.0001, R2 = 0.5801) and dry matter production efficiency (ranging from 25.2–180.5%, P = 0.0003, R2 = 0.6162) were negatively correlated with stocking date, regardless of dietary treatment. Although canalization of growth rate during en masse early post-metamorphic growth is possible, we hypothesize that intrinsic differences in growth rates are, in part, the result of differences (possibly genetic) in production efficiencies of individual Lytechinus variegatus. That is, some sea urchins are more efficient in converting feed to biomass. We further hypothesize that this variation may have evolved as an adaptive response to selective pressure related to food availability. PMID:25435593

  20. The Seagrass Effect Turned Upside Down Changes the Prospective of Sea Urchin Survival and Landscape Implications

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Simone; Guala, Ivan; Oliva, Silvia; Piazzi, Luigi; Pires da Silva, Rodrigo; Ceccherelli, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Habitat structure plays an important mediating role in predator-prey interactions. However the effects are strongly dependent on regional predator pools, which can drive predation risk in habitats with very similar structure in opposite directions. In the Mediterranean Sea predation on juvenile sea urchins is commonly known to be regulated by seagrass structure. In this study we test whether the possibility for juvenile Paracentrotus lividus to be predated changes in relation to the fragmentation of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (four habitat classes: continuous, low-fragmentation, high-fragmentation and rocks), and to the spatial arrangement of such habitat classes at a landscape scale. Sea urchin predation risk was measured in a 20-day field experiment on tethered individuals placed in three square areas 35×35 m2 in size. Variability of both landscape and habitat structural attributes was assessed at the sampling grain 5×5 m2. Predation risk changed among landscapes, as it was lower where more ‘rocks’, and thus less seagrass, were present. The higher risk was found in the ‘continuous’ P. oceanica rather than in the low-fragmentation, high-fragmentation and rock habitats (p-values = 0.0149, 0.00008, and 0.0001, respectively). Therefore, the expectation that juvenile P. lividus survival would have been higher in the ‘continuous’ seagrass habitat, which would have served as shelter from high fish predation pressure, was not met. Predation risk changed across habitats due to different success between attack types: benthic attacks (mostly from whelks) were overall much more effective than those due to fish activity, the former type being associated with the ‘continuous’ seagrass habitat. Fish predation on juvenile sea urchins on rocks and ‘high-fragmentation’ habitat was less likely than benthic predation in the ‘continuous’ seagrass, with the low seagrass patch complexity increasing benthic activity. Future research should be aimed at

  1. A Unique 2-Sulfated β-Galactan from the Egg Jelly of the Sea Urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Michelle O.; Pomin, Vitor H.; Santos, Livia L.; Vilela-Silva, Ana-Cristina E. S.; Hirohashi, Noritaka; Pol-Fachin, Laércio; Verli, Hugo; Mourão, Paulo A. S.

    2009-01-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides from the egg jelly of sea urchins act as species-specific inducers of the sperm acrosome reaction, which is a rare molecular mechanism of carbohydrate-induced signal-transduction event in animal cells. The sea urchin polysaccharides differ in monosaccharide composition (l-fucose or l-galactose), glycosylation, and sulfation sites, but they are always in the α-anomeric configuration. Herein, structural analysis of the polysaccharide from the sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis surprisingly revealed a unique sulfated β-d-galactan composed by (3-β-d-Galp-2(OSO3)-1→3-β-d-Galp-1)n repeating units. Subsequently, we used the G. crenularis galactan to compare different 2-sulfated polysaccharides as inducers of the acrosome reaction using homologous and heterologous sperm. We also tested the effect of chemically over-sulfated galactans. Intriguingly, the anomeric configuration of the glycosidic linkage rather than the monosaccharide composition (galactose or fucose) is the preferential structural requirement for the effect of these polysaccharides on sea urchin fertilization. Nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics indicate that sulfated α-galactan or α-fucan have less dynamic structural behavior, exhibiting fewer conformational populations, with an almost exclusive conformational state with glycosidic dihedral angles Φ/Ψ = −102°/131°. The preponderant conformer observed in the sulfated α-galactan or α-fucan is not observed among populations in the β-form despite its more flexible structure in solution. Possibly, a proper spatial arrangement is required for interaction of the sea urchin-sulfated polysaccharides with the specific sperm receptor. PMID:19403528

  2. Effects of ocean acidification and diet on thickness and carbonate elemental composition of the test of juvenile sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Asnaghi, Valentina; Mangialajo, Luisa; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Francour, Patrice; Privitera, Davide; Chiantore, Mariachiara

    2014-02-01

    Continuous anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and uptake by the oceans will cause a reduction of seawater pH and saturation state (Ω) of CaCO3 minerals from which marine calcifiers build their shells and skeletons. Sea urchins use the most soluble form of calcium carbonate, high-magnesium calcite, to build their skeleton, spines and grazing apparatus. In order to highlight the effects of increased pCO2 on the test thickness and carbonate elemental composition of juvenile sea urchins and potential differences in their responses linked to the diet, we performed a laboratory experiment on juvenile Paracentrotus lividus, grazing on calcifying (Corallina elongata) and non-calcifying (Cystoseira amentacea, Dictyota dichotoma) macroalgae, under different pH (corresponding to pCO2 values of 390, 550, 750 and 1000 μatm). Results highlighted the importance of the diet in determining sea urchin size irrespectively of the pCO2 level, and the relevance of macroalgal diet in modulating urchin Mg/Ca ratio. The present study provides relevant clues both in terms of the mechanism of mineral incorporation and in terms of bottom-up processes (algal diet) affecting top-down ones (fish predation) in rocky subtidal communities. PMID:24050836

  3. Effects of ocean acidification and diet on thickness and carbonate elemental composition of the test of juvenile sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Asnaghi, Valentina; Mangialajo, Luisa; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre; Francour, Patrice; Privitera, Davide; Chiantore, Mariachiara

    2014-02-01

    Continuous anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and uptake by the oceans will cause a reduction of seawater pH and saturation state (Ω) of CaCO3 minerals from which marine calcifiers build their shells and skeletons. Sea urchins use the most soluble form of calcium carbonate, high-magnesium calcite, to build their skeleton, spines and grazing apparatus. In order to highlight the effects of increased pCO2 on the test thickness and carbonate elemental composition of juvenile sea urchins and potential differences in their responses linked to the diet, we performed a laboratory experiment on juvenile Paracentrotus lividus, grazing on calcifying (Corallina elongata) and non-calcifying (Cystoseira amentacea, Dictyota dichotoma) macroalgae, under different pH (corresponding to pCO2 values of 390, 550, 750 and 1000 μatm). Results highlighted the importance of the diet in determining sea urchin size irrespectively of the pCO2 level, and the relevance of macroalgal diet in modulating urchin Mg/Ca ratio. The present study provides relevant clues both in terms of the mechanism of mineral incorporation and in terms of bottom-up processes (algal diet) affecting top-down ones (fish predation) in rocky subtidal communities.

  4. Longevity, life history, and relative body wall size in sea urchins

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, T.A.

    1982-12-01

    Annual survival rates in 38 populations of 17 sea urchin species in the Indo-West Pacific were related to relative size of the body wall and exposure to the surf. Populations were studied at Hawaii, Enewetak Atok, Queensland, New South Wales and Western Australia, Sri Lanka, Seychelles, Kenya, Zanzibar, and Isaerl (Eilat). Live animals were dissected to determine the size of body components. Parameters of the Richards growth function were determined from animals tagged with tetracycline. Tagged animals were collected after they had been in the field for 1 yr. Growth parameters were used with parameters from size-frequency distributions to estimate Z, the mortality coefficient. Stepwise multiple regression was used to examine the relationship between annual survival probability (p) and two indepencent variables, ..cap alpha.. and E, where E is a subjective measure of exposure to surf (1 = most exposed). Survivorship increases with increased relative size of the body wall and with increased protection from the surf. The positive relationship between survival probability and relative body wall size supports the hypothesis that survival is related to allocation of resources to maintenance. The significane of longevity in urchins probably is that it is related to the predictability of survival of prereproductive individuals. The greater the unpredictability, the longer life must be. Long life requires a greater investment in maintenance mechanisms and hence, among other adaptations, a more massive body wall.

  5. Regulatory logic and pattern formation in the early sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengyang; Cheng, Xianrui; Socolar, Joshua E S

    2014-12-21

    We model the endomesoderm tissue specification process in the vegetal half of the early sea urchin embryo using Boolean models with continuous-time updating to represent the regulatory network that controls gene expression. Our models assume that the network interaction rules remain constant over time and the dynamics plays out on a predetermined program of cell divisions. An exhaustive search of two-node models, in which each node may represent a module of several genes in the real regulatory network, yields a unique network architecture that can accomplish the pattern formation task at hand--the formation of three latitudinal tissue bands from an initial state with only two distinct cell types. Analysis of an eight-gene model constructed from available experimental data reveals that it has a modular structure equivalent to the successful two-node case. Our results support the hypothesis that the gene regulatory network provides sufficient instructions for producing the correct pattern of tissue specification at this stage of development (between the fourth and tenth cleavages in the urchin embryo). PMID:25093827

  6. Sea urchin larvae decipher the epiphytic bacterial community composition when selecting sites for attachment and metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Shaun J; Harder, Tilmann; Steinberg, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    Most marine invertebrates have dispersive larvae and relatively immobile adults. These developmental stages are linked by a settlement event, which is often mediated by specific cues in bacterial biofilms. While larvae distinguish between biofilms from different environments, it remains unknown if they receive information from all, only a few or even just a single bacterial species in natural biofilms. Here we asked how specific is larval settlement to the bacterial community structure and/or taxonomically distinguishable groups of bacteria in epiphytic marine biofilms? We used novel multivariate statistical approaches to investigate if larval settlement of two sea urchins correlated with the microbial community composition. Larval settlement of Heliocidaris erythrogramma revealed a strong correlation with the community composition, highlighted by canonical analysis of principle components, a constrained ordination technique. Using this technique, the importance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) within communities relative to larval settlement was investigated. Larval settlement not only correlated, both positively and negatively, with the epiphytic bacterial community composition but also with the relative abundance of few OTUs within these communities. In contrast, no such correlation was observed for the other urchin, Holopneustes purpurascens, whose larvae likely respond to bacterial biofilms in a more general way and specifically respond to a defined settlement cue of algal origin. PMID:25764535

  7. Biogenic acidification reduces sea urchin gonad growth and increases susceptibility of aquaculture to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Mos, Benjamin; Byrne, Maria; Dworjanyn, Symon A

    2016-02-01

    Decreasing oceanic pH (ocean acidification) has emphasised the influence of carbonate chemistry on growth of calcifying marine organisms. However, calcifiers can also change carbonate chemistry of surrounding seawater through respiration and calcification, a potential limitation for aquaculture. This study examined how seawater exchange rate and stocking density of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla that were reproductively mature affected carbonate system parameters of their culture water, which in turn influenced growth, gonad production and gonad condition. Growth, relative spine length, gonad production and consumption rates were reduced by up to 67% by increased density (9-43 individuals.m(-2)) and reduced exchange rates (3.0-0.3 exchanges.hr(-1)), but survival and food conversion efficiency were unaffected. Analysis of the influence of seawater parameters indicated that reduced pH and calcite saturation state (ΩCa) were the primary factors limiting gonad production and growth. Uptake of bicarbonate and release of respiratory CO2 by T. gratilla changed the carbonate chemistry of surrounding water. Importantly total alkalinity (AT) was reduced, likely due to calcification by the urchins. Low AT limits the capacity of culture water to buffer against acidification. Direct management to counter biogenic acidification will be required to maintain productivity and reproductive output of marine calcifiers, especially as the ocean carbonate system is altered by climate driven ocean acidification.

  8. Phylogeography of the pantropical sea urchin Tripneustes: contrasting patterns of population structure between oceans.

    PubMed

    Lessios, H A; Kane, J; Robertson, D R

    2003-09-01

    To understand how allopatric speciation proceeds, we need information on barriers to gene flow, their antiquity, and their efficacy. For marine organisms with planktonic larvae, much of this information can only be obtained through the determination of divergence between populations. We evaluated the importance of ocean barriers by studying the mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of Tripneustes, a pantropical genus of shallow water sea urchin. A region of cytochrome oxidase I (COI) was sequenced in 187 individuals from locations around the globe. The COI phylogeny agreed with a previously published phylogeny of bindin that barriers important to the evolution of Tripneustes are: (1) the cold water upwelling close to the tip of South Africa, (2) the Isthmus of Panama, (3) the long stretch of deep water separating the eastern from the western Atlantic, and (4) the freshwater plume of the Orinoco and the Amazon rivers between the Caribbean and the coast of Brazil. These barriers have previously been shown to be important in at least a subset of the shallow water marine organisms in which phylogeography has been studied. In contrast, the Eastern Pacific Barrier, 5000 km of deep water between the central and the eastern Pacific that has caused the deepest splits in other genera of sea urchins, is remarkably unimportant as a cause of genetic subdivision in Tripneustes. There is also no discernible subdivision between the Pacific and Indian Ocean populations of this genus. The most common COI haplotype is found in the eastern, central, and western Pacific as well as the Indian Ocean. Morphology, COI, and bindin data agree that T. depressus from the eastern Pacific and T. gratilla from the western Pacific are, in fact, the same species. The distribution of haplotype differences in the Indo-Pacific exhibits characteristics expected from a sea urchin genus with ephemeral local populations, but with high fecundity, dispersal, and growth: there is little phylogenetic structure

  9. Dynamics of sea level variations in the coastal Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchill, James; Abulnaja, Yasser; Nellayaputhenpeedika, Mohammedali; Limeburner, Richard; Lentz, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Sea level variations in the central Red Sea coastal zone span a range of roughly 1.2 m. Though relatively small, these water level changes can significantly impact the environment over the shallow reef tops prevalent in the central Red Sea, altering the water depth by a factor or two or more. While considerable scientific work has been directed at tidal and seasonal variations of Red Sea water level, very little attention has been given to elevation changes in an 'intermediate' frequency band, with periods of 2-30 d, even though motions in this band account for roughly half of the sea level variance in central Red Sea. We examined the sea level signal in this band using AVISO sea level anomaly (SLA) data, COARDAS wind data and measurements from pressure sensors maintained for more than five years at a number of locations in Saudi Arabian coastal waters. Empirical orthogonal function analysis of the SLA data indicates that longer-period (10-30 d) sea level variations in the intermediate band are dominated by coherent motions in a single mode that extends over most of the Red Sea axis. Idealized model results indicate that this large-scale mode of sea level motion is principally due to variations in the large-scale gradient of the along-axis wind. Our analysis indicates that coastal sea level motions at shorter periods (2-10 d) are principally generated by a combination of direct forcing by the local wind stress and forcing associated with large-scale wind stress gradients. However, also contributing to coastal sea level variations in the intermediate frequency band are mesoscale eddies, which are prevalent throughout the Red Sea basin, have a sea level signal of 10's of cm and produce relatively small-scale (order 50 km) changes in coastal sea level.

  10. Exploitation and recovery of a sea urchin predator has implications for the resilience of southern California kelp forests

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Scott L.; Caselle, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Size-structured predator–prey interactions can be altered by the history of exploitation, if that exploitation is itself size-selective. For example, selective harvesting of larger sized predators can release prey populations in cases where only large individuals are capable of consuming a particular prey species. In this study, we examined how the history of exploitation and recovery (inside marine reserves and due to fisheries management) of California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher) has affected size-structured interactions with sea urchin prey in southern California. We show that fishing changes size structure by reducing sizes and alters life histories of sheephead, while management measures that lessen or remove fishing impacts (e.g. marine reserves, effort restrictions) reverse these effects and result in increases in density, size and biomass. We show that predation on sea urchins is size-dependent, such that the diet of larger sheephead is composed of more and larger sized urchins than the diet of smaller fish. These results have implications for kelp forest resilience, because urchins can overgraze kelp in the absence of top-down control. From surveys in a network of marine reserves, we report negative relationships between the abundance of sheephead and urchins and the abundance of urchins and fleshy macroalgae (including giant kelp), indicating the potential for cascading indirect positive effects of top predators on the abundance of primary producers. Management measures such as increased minimum size limits and marine reserves may serve to restore historical trophic roles of key predators and thereby enhance the resilience of marine ecosystems. PMID:25500572

  11. Exploitation and recovery of a sea urchin predator has implications for the resilience of southern California kelp forests.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Scott L; Caselle, Jennifer E

    2015-01-22

    Size-structured predator-prey interactions can be altered by the history of exploitation, if that exploitation is itself size-selective. For example, selective harvesting of larger sized predators can release prey populations in cases where only large individuals are capable of consuming a particular prey species. In this study, we examined how the history of exploitation and recovery (inside marine reserves and due to fisheries management) of California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher) has affected size-structured interactions with sea urchin prey in southern California. We show that fishing changes size structure by reducing sizes and alters life histories of sheephead, while management measures that lessen or remove fishing impacts (e.g. marine reserves, effort restrictions) reverse these effects and result in increases in density, size and biomass. We show that predation on sea urchins is size-dependent, such that the diet of larger sheephead is composed of more and larger sized urchins than the diet of smaller fish. These results have implications for kelp forest resilience, because urchins can overgraze kelp in the absence of top-down control. From surveys in a network of marine reserves, we report negative relationships between the abundance of sheephead and urchins and the abundance of urchins and fleshy macroalgae (including giant kelp), indicating the potential for cascading indirect positive effects of top predators on the abundance of primary producers. Management measures such as increased minimum size limits and marine reserves may serve to restore historical trophic roles of key predators and thereby enhance the resilience of marine ecosystems.

  12. Best Dressed Test: A Study of the Covering Behavior of the Collector Urchin Tripneustes gratilla.

    PubMed

    Ziegenhorn, Morgan A

    2016-01-01

    Many sea urchin genera exhibit cryptic covering behaviors. One such behavior has been documented in the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla, and previous studies have theorized that this behavior serves as protection from UV radiation. However, other hypotheses have been presented such as protection from predators or added weight to help T. gratilla resist strong currents. A field study was conducted in October-November 2015 in Moorea, French Polynesia to assess urchin covering behavior in natural habitats. The study found that urchins partially underneath rocks covered more, and with more algae, than urchins totally underneath rocks. To test if this behavior was driven by light intensity, a series of 30-minute experimental trials were run on 10 individuals in bright and dim conditions. Individuals were given red and clear plastic, and percent cover of each was recorded. These tests were repeated once fifty percent of spines had been removed from the urchin, in order to determine whether spine loss affects T. gratilla covering behavior. The study found that urchins had a distinct preference for cover that best protects them from UV radiation. Spine loss did not significantly affect urchin ability to cover, and urchins with removed spines still preferred opaque cover. Additionally, covering behavior was mapped onto a phylogeny of echinoderms to determine how it might have evolved. Understanding urchin covering behavior more fully is a step towards an understanding of the evolution of cryptic behavior across species. PMID:27073915

  13. Best Dressed Test: A Study of the Covering Behavior of the Collector Urchin Tripneustes gratilla

    PubMed Central

    Ziegenhorn, Morgan A.

    2016-01-01

    Many sea urchin genera exhibit cryptic covering behaviors. One such behavior has been documented in the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla, and previous studies have theorized that this behavior serves as protection from UV radiation. However, other hypotheses have been presented such as protection from predators or added weight to help T. gratilla resist strong currents. A field study was conducted in October-November 2015 in Moorea, French Polynesia to assess urchin covering behavior in natural habitats. The study found that urchins partially underneath rocks covered more, and with more algae, than urchins totally underneath rocks. To test if this behavior was driven by light intensity, a series of 30-minute experimental trials were run on 10 individuals in bright and dim conditions. Individuals were given red and clear plastic, and percent cover of each was recorded. These tests were repeated once fifty percent of spines had been removed from the urchin, in order to determine whether spine loss affects T. gratilla covering behavior. The study found that urchins had a distinct preference for cover that best protects them from UV radiation. Spine loss did not significantly affect urchin ability to cover, and urchins with removed spines still preferred opaque cover. Additionally, covering behavior was mapped onto a phylogeny of echinoderms to determine how it might have evolved. Understanding urchin covering behavior more fully is a step towards an understanding of the evolution of cryptic behavior across species. PMID:27073915

  14. Decadal stability of Red Sea mangroves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almahasheer, Hanan; Aljowair, Abdulaziz; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-02-01

    Across the Earth, mangroves play an important role in coastal protection, both as nurseries and carbon sinks. However, due to various human and environmental impacts, the coverage of mangroves is declining on a global scale. The Red Sea is in the northern-most area of the distribution range of mangroves. Little is known about the surface covered by mangroves at this northern limit or about the changes experienced by Red Sea mangroves. We sought to study changes in the coverage of Red Sea mangroves by using multi-temporal Landsat data (1972, 2000 and 2013). Interestingly, our results show that there has been no decline in mangrove stands in the Red Sea but rather a slight increase. The area covered by mangroves is about 69 Km2 along the African shore and 51 Km2 along the Arabian Peninsula shore. From 1972 to 2013, the area covered by mangroves increased by about 0.29% y-1. We conclude that the trend exhibited by Red Sea mangroves departs from the general global decline of mangroves. Along the Red Sea, mangroves expanded by 12% over the 41 years from 1972 to 2013. Losses to Red Sea mangroves, mostly due to coastal development, have been compensated by afforestation projects.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has failed to distinguish between smaller gut regions and larger haemal sinuses in sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).

    PubMed

    Holland, Nicholas D; Ghiselin, Michael T

    2009-01-01

    A response to Ziegler A, Faber C, Mueller S, Bartolomaeus T: Systematic comparison and reconstruction of sea urchin (Echinoidea) internal anatomy: a novel approach using magnetic resonance imaging. BMC Biol 2008, 6: 33. PMID:19594924

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has failed to distinguish between smaller gut regions and larger haemal sinuses in sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Nicholas D; Ghiselin, Michael T

    2009-01-01

    A response to Ziegler A, Faber C, Mueller S, Bartolomaeus T: Systematic comparison and reconstruction of sea urchin (Echinoidea) internal anatomy: a novel approach using magnetic resonance imaging. BMC Biol 2008, 6: 33. PMID:19594924

  17. In vitro translation of oogenetic messenger RNA of sea urchin eggs and picornavirus RNA with a cell-free system from sarcoma 180.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, N; Taylor, M W; Raff, R A

    1973-12-01

    A cell-free protein-synthesizing system prepared from mouse sarcoma 180 was characterized by use of RNA from mengo virus and sea urchin egg. In the presence of exogenous mammalian transfer RNA, total sea urchin egg RNA and mengo RNA direct incorporation of [(3)H]leucine into acid-insoluble material. The system is extremely efficient in that a stimulation of 100-times over background can be obtained. Studies with formylmethionyl-transfer RNA, as well as with inhibitors of initiation, indicate that multiple initiation occurs; further, 85-90% of all chains made in vitro are subsequently released from ribosomes. An average translation time of 3.5 min was determined with messenger RNA of sea urchin egg, and product analysis indicates that high-molecular-weight products (greater than 50,000 molecular weight) are being made in vitro. Sequences of sea urchin egg RNA containing poly(A) act as messenger RNA.

  18. Molecular Genetic Markers of Intra- and Interspecific Divergence within Starfish and Sea Urchins (Echinodermata).

    PubMed

    Petrov, N B; Vladychenskaya, I P; Drozdov, A L; Kedrova, O S

    2016-09-01

    A fragment of the mitochondrial COI gene from isolates of several echinoderm species was sequenced. The isolates were from three species of starfish from the Asteriidae family (Asterias amurensis and Aphelasterias japonica collected in the Sea of Japan and Asterias rubens collected in the White Sea) and from the sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum (family Loveniidae) collected in the Sea of Japan. Additionally, regions including internal transcribed spacers and 5.8S rRNA (ITS1 - 5.8S rDNA - ITS2) were sequenced for the three studied starfish species. Phylogenetic analysis of the obtained COI sequences together with earlier determined homologous COI sequences from Ast. forbesii, Ast. rubens, and Echinocardium laevigaster from the North Atlantic and E. cordatum from the Yellow and North Seas (GenBank) placed them into strictly conspecific clusters with high bootstrap support (99% in all cases). Only two exceptions - Ast. rubens DQ077915 sequence placed with the Ast. forbesii cluster and Aph. japonica DQ992560 sequence placed with the Ast. amurensis cluster - were likely results of species misidentification. The intraspecific polymorphism for the COI gene within the Asteriidae family varied within a range of 0.2-0.9% as estimated from the genetic distances. The corresponding intrageneric and intergeneric values were 10.4-12.1 and 21.8-29.8%, respectively. The interspecific divergence for the COI gene in the sea urchin of Echinocardium genus (family Loveniidae) was significantly higher (17.1-17.7%) than in the starfish, while intergeneric divergence (14.6-25.7%) was similar to that in asteroids. The interspecific genetic distances for the nuclear transcribed sequences (ITS1 - 5.8S rDNA - ITS2) within the Asteriidae family were lower (3.1-4.5%), and the intergeneric distances were significantly higher (32.8-35.0%), compared to the corresponding distances for the COI gene. These results suggest that the investigated molecular-genetic markers could be used for segregation

  19. Molecular Genetic Markers of Intra- and Interspecific Divergence within Starfish and Sea Urchins (Echinodermata).

    PubMed

    Petrov, N B; Vladychenskaya, I P; Drozdov, A L; Kedrova, O S

    2016-09-01

    A fragment of the mitochondrial COI gene from isolates of several echinoderm species was sequenced. The isolates were from three species of starfish from the Asteriidae family (Asterias amurensis and Aphelasterias japonica collected in the Sea of Japan and Asterias rubens collected in the White Sea) and from the sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum (family Loveniidae) collected in the Sea of Japan. Additionally, regions including internal transcribed spacers and 5.8S rRNA (ITS1 - 5.8S rDNA - ITS2) were sequenced for the three studied starfish species. Phylogenetic analysis of the obtained COI sequences together with earlier determined homologous COI sequences from Ast. forbesii, Ast. rubens, and Echinocardium laevigaster from the North Atlantic and E. cordatum from the Yellow and North Seas (GenBank) placed them into strictly conspecific clusters with high bootstrap support (99% in all cases). Only two exceptions - Ast. rubens DQ077915 sequence placed with the Ast. forbesii cluster and Aph. japonica DQ992560 sequence placed with the Ast. amurensis cluster - were likely results of species misidentification. The intraspecific polymorphism for the COI gene within the Asteriidae family varied within a range of 0.2-0.9% as estimated from the genetic distances. The corresponding intrageneric and intergeneric values were 10.4-12.1 and 21.8-29.8%, respectively. The interspecific divergence for the COI gene in the sea urchin of Echinocardium genus (family Loveniidae) was significantly higher (17.1-17.7%) than in the starfish, while intergeneric divergence (14.6-25.7%) was similar to that in asteroids. The interspecific genetic distances for the nuclear transcribed sequences (ITS1 - 5.8S rDNA - ITS2) within the Asteriidae family were lower (3.1-4.5%), and the intergeneric distances were significantly higher (32.8-35.0%), compared to the corresponding distances for the COI gene. These results suggest that the investigated molecular-genetic markers could be used for segregation

  20. Use of a free ocean CO₂ enrichment (FOCE) system to evaluate the effects of ocean acidification on the foraging behavior of a deep-sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Barry, James P; Lovera, Chris; Buck, Kurt R; Peltzer, Edward T; Taylor, Josi R; Walz, Peter; Whaling, Patrick J; Brewer, Peter G

    2014-08-19

    The influence of ocean acidification in deep-sea ecosystems is poorly understood but is expected to be large because of the presumed low tolerance of deep-sea taxa to environmental change. We used a newly developed deep-sea free ocean CO2 enrichment (dp-FOCE) system to evaluate the potential consequences of future ocean acidification on the feeding behavior of a deep-sea echinoid, the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus fragilis. The dp-FOCE system simulated future ocean acidification inside an experimental enclosure where observations of feeding behavior were performed. We measured the average movement (speed) of urchins as well as the time required (foraging time) for S. fragilis to approach its preferred food (giant kelp) in the dp-FOCE chamber (-0.46 pH units) and a control chamber (ambient pH). Measurements were performed during each of 4 trials (days -2, 2, 24, 27 after CO2 injection) during the month-long period when groups of urchins were continuously exposed to low pH or control conditions. Although urchin speed did not vary significantly in relation to pH or time exposed, foraging time was significantly longer for urchins in the low-pH treatment. This first deep-sea FOCE experiment demonstrated the utility of the FOCE system approach and suggests that the chemosensory behavior of a deep-sea urchin may be impaired by ocean acidification.

  1. A presumptive developmental role for a sea urchin cyclin B splice variant.

    PubMed

    Lozano, J C; Schatt, P; Marquès, F; Peaucellier, G; Fort, P; Féral, J P; Genevière, A M; Picard, A

    1998-01-26

    We show that a splice variant-derived cyclin B is produced in sea urchin oocytes and embryos. This splice variant protein lacks highly conserved sequences in the COOH terminus of the protein. It is found strikingly abundant in growing oocytes and cells committed to differentiation during embryogenesis. Cyclin B splice variant (CBsv) protein associates weakly in the cell with Xenopus cdc2 and with budding yeast CDC28p. In contrast to classical cyclin B, CBsv very poorly complements a triple CLN deletion in budding yeast, and its microinjection prevents an initial step in MPF activation, leading to an important delay in oocyte meiosis reinitiation. CBsv microinjection in fertilized eggs induces cell cycle delay and abnormal development. We assume that CBsv is produced in growing oocytes to keep them in prophase, and during embryogenesis to slow down cell cycle in cells that will be committed to differentiation.

  2. Changes in subcellular elemental distributions accompanying the acrosome reaction in sea urchin sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Cantino, M.E.; Schackmann, R.W.; Johnson, D.E.

    1983-05-01

    Energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis was used to analyze changes in the subcellular distributions of Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, and Ca associated with the acrosome reaction of sea urchin sperm. Within 5 sec after induction of the acrosome reaction, nuclear Na and mitochondrial Ca increased and nuclear and mitochondrial K decreased. Uptake of mitochondrial P was detected after several minutes, and increases in nuclear Mg were detected only after 5-10 min of incubation following induction of the reaction. The results suggest that sudden permeability changes in the sperm plasma membrane are associated with the acrosome reaction, but that complete breakdown of membrane and cell function does not occur for several minutes.

  3. Morphogenesis in sea urchin embryos: linking cellular events to gene regulatory network states

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Deidre; Kaltenbach, Stacy; McClay, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Gastrulation in the sea urchin begins with ingression of the primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) at the vegetal pole of the embryo. After entering the blastocoel the PMCs migrate, form a syncitium, and synthesize the skeleton of the embryo. Several hours after the PMCs ingress the vegetal plate buckles to initiate invagination of the archenteron. That morphogenetic process occurs in several steps. The non-skeletogenic cells produce the initial inbending of the vegetal plate. Endoderm cells then rearrange and extend the length of the gut across the blastocoel to a target near the animal pole. Finally, cells that will form part of the midgut and hindgut are added to complete gastrulation. Later, the stomodeum invaginates from the oral ectoderm and fuses with the foregut to complete the archenteron. In advance of, and during these morphogenetic events an increasingly complex gene regulatory network controls the specification and the cell biological events that conduct the gastrulation movements. PMID:23801438

  4. Comparative structural analysis of eukaryotic flagella and cilia from Chlamydomonas, Tetrahymena, and sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Pigino, Gaia; Maheshwari, Aditi; Bui, Khanh Huy; Shingyoji, Chikako; Kamimura, Shinji; Ishikawa, Takashi

    2012-05-01

    Although eukaryotic flagella and cilia all share the basic 9+2 microtubule-organization of their internal axonemes, and are capable of generating bending-motion, the waveforms, amplitudes, and velocities of the bending-motions are quite diverse. To explore the structural basis of this functional diversity of flagella and cilia, we here compare the axonemal structure of three different organisms with widely divergent bending-motions by electron cryo-tomography. We reconstruct the 3D structure of the axoneme of Tetrahymena cilia, and compare it with the axoneme of the flagellum of sea urchin sperm, as well as with the axoneme of Chlamydomonas flagella, which we analyzed previously. This comparative structural analysis defines the diversity of molecular architectures in these organisms, and forms the basis for future correlation with their different bending-motions. PMID:22406282

  5. Preliminary observations on the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans in the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuji, N; Løvtrup, S

    1978-01-01

    A method based on the degradation by enzymes and nitrous acid of isotopically labelled glycosaminoglycans has been employed to study the synthesis of these compounds in normal, animalized and vegetalized sea urchin embryos. According to standard criteria, these organisms synthesize dermatan sulfate, heparan sulfate, hyaluronate and keratan sulfate. The hyaluronate seems to be slightly sulfated, it may thus be mucoitin sulfate. The preliminary results obtained suggest a conspicuous difference between animalized and vegetalized embryos: the synthesis of dermatan sulfate is suppressed in the former, while proceeding normally in the latter. The synthesis of heparan sulfate is not affected by our experimental conditions, but the isotope incorporation in hyaluronate and in keratan sulfate is decreased, more in the vegetalized than in the animalized embryos.

  6. Comparative structural analysis of eukaryotic flagella and cilia from Chlamydomonas, Tetrahymena, and sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Pigino, Gaia; Maheshwari, Aditi; Bui, Khanh Huy; Shingyoji, Chikako; Kamimura, Shinji; Ishikawa, Takashi

    2012-05-01

    Although eukaryotic flagella and cilia all share the basic 9+2 microtubule-organization of their internal axonemes, and are capable of generating bending-motion, the waveforms, amplitudes, and velocities of the bending-motions are quite diverse. To explore the structural basis of this functional diversity of flagella and cilia, we here compare the axonemal structure of three different organisms with widely divergent bending-motions by electron cryo-tomography. We reconstruct the 3D structure of the axoneme of Tetrahymena cilia, and compare it with the axoneme of the flagellum of sea urchin sperm, as well as with the axoneme of Chlamydomonas flagella, which we analyzed previously. This comparative structural analysis defines the diversity of molecular architectures in these organisms, and forms the basis for future correlation with their different bending-motions.

  7. Transformation mechanism of amorphous calcium carbonate into calcite in the sea urchin larval spicule.

    PubMed

    Politi, Yael; Metzler, Rebecca A; Abrecht, Mike; Gilbert, Benjamin; Wilt, Fred H; Sagi, Irit; Addadi, Lia; Weiner, Steve; Gilbert, P U P A; Gilbert, Pupa

    2008-11-11

    Sea urchin larval spicules transform amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) into calcite single crystals. The mechanism of transformation is enigmatic: the transforming spicule displays both amorphous and crystalline properties, with no defined crystallization front. Here, we use X-ray photoelectron emission spectromicroscopy with probing size of 40-200 nm. We resolve 3 distinct mineral phases: An initial short-lived, presumably hydrated ACC phase, followed by an intermediate transient form of ACC, and finally the biogenic crystalline calcite phase. The amorphous and crystalline phases are juxtaposed, often appearing in adjacent sites at a scale of tens of nanometers. We propose that the amorphous-crystal transformation propagates in a tortuous path through preexisting 40- to 100-nm amorphous units, via a secondary nucleation mechanism.

  8. Transformation mechanism of amorphous calcium carbonate into calcite in the sea urchin larval spicule

    PubMed Central

    Politi, Yael; Metzler, Rebecca A.; Abrecht, Mike; Gilbert, Benjamin; Wilt, Fred H.; Sagi, Irit; Addadi, Lia; Weiner, Steve; Gilbert, P. U. P. A.

    2008-01-01

    Sea urchin larval spicules transform amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) into calcite single crystals. The mechanism of transformation is enigmatic: the transforming spicule displays both amorphous and crystalline properties, with no defined crystallization front. Here, we use X-ray photoelectron emission spectromicroscopy with probing size of 40–200 nm. We resolve 3 distinct mineral phases: An initial short-lived, presumably hydrated ACC phase, followed by an intermediate transient form of ACC, and finally the biogenic crystalline calcite phase. The amorphous and crystalline phases are juxtaposed, often appearing in adjacent sites at a scale of tens of nanometers. We propose that the amorphous-crystal transformation propagates in a tortuous path through preexisting 40- to 100-nm amorphous units, via a secondary nucleation mechanism. PMID:18987314

  9. Hydrodynamism and its influence on the reproductive condition of the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    PubMed

    Gianguzza, Paola; Bonaviri, Chiara; Prato, Ermelinda; Fanelli, Giovanni; Chiantore, Mariachiara; Privitera, Davide; Luzzu, Filippo; Agnetta, Davide

    2013-04-01

    Despite the large body of work published in the last two decades on the reproduction of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, the reproductive aspects linked to hydrodynamic conditions and their influence on gonad production remain poorly understood. The present paper aims to evaluate the effect of hydrodynamism on the reproductive cycle of P. lividus. Variability in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) of P. lividus was estimated seasonally from 2007 to 2008 at two shallow sub-littoral flat basaltic areas at Ustica Island (Western Mediterranean). GSI was higher in the sites characterized by low hydrodynamism than in those with high hydrodynamism. Results also suggest a possible role for hydrodynamism in triggering processes of resource limitation (food shortage), probably by interfering with P. lividus feeding activity. PMID:23333347

  10. Major temporal and spatial patterns of gene expression during differentiation of the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, P D; Angerer, L M; Angerer, R C

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the temporal and spatial patterns of accumulation of mRNAs randomly selected from the sea urchin gastrula polyadenylated RNA population. Three different assays show that the predominant temporal pattern of expression, exhibited by about three-fourths of these messages, consists of a large (mean 80-fold) increase in mRNA abundance between egg and gastrula stages. Most mRNAs are present in the maternal population and are detectable on blots as single mature-sized messages; however, a large number of high-molecular-weight, heterodisperse transcripts containing these same sequences also exist in the egg cytoplasm. The majority of gastrula messages are not embryo specific but are present in total adult urchin RNA at concentrations similar to those in embryos. Fine-scale RNA blot analysis indicates that the majority of mRNAs begin to accumulate at very early blastula stages, although there is considerable diversity in the time when these messages reach peak abundance. Most gastrula mRNAs are also spatially regulated during development. The observed distributions can be categorized into three major functional or regulatory classes: (1) Forty percent of mRNAs accumulate in cells which are cycling or preparing for growth. (2) About one-third of the messages accumulate in one or more differentiating cell types. (3) Only slightly more than one-fourth of the messages are present in all cell types throughout development. Most tissue-specific messages are relatively abundant, indicating that the differentiated functions of cells are executed through mRNAs operating at the level of hundreds of copies per cell. In contrast, most rare messages are expressed in most or all cell types, in which they function at only a few copies per cell. All messages which begin to accumulate before hatching blastula stage are initially distributed broadly, and their distribution becomes progressively restricted during embryogenesis. In contrast, all messages which begin to

  11. Centrocins: isolation and characterization of novel dimeric antimicrobial peptides from the green sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun; Haug, Tor; Moe, Morten K; Styrvold, Olaf B; Stensvåg, Klara

    2010-09-01

    As immune effector molecules, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play an important role in the invertebrate immune system. Here, we present two novel AMPs, named centrocins 1 (4.5kDa) and 2 (4.4kDa), purified from coelomocyte extracts of the green sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. The native peptides are cationic and show potent activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The centrocins have an intramolecular heterodimeric structure, containing a heavy chain (30 amino acids) and a light chain (12 amino acids). The cDNA encoding the peptides and genomic sequences were cloned and sequenced. One putative isoform (centrocin 1b) was identified and one intron was found in the genes coding for the centrocins. The full length protein sequence of centrocin 1 consists of 119 amino acids, whereas centrocin 2 consists of 118 amino acids which both include a preprosequence of 51 or 50 amino acids for centrocins 1 and 2, respectively, and an interchain of 24 amino acids between the heavy and light chain. The difference of molecular mass between the native centrocins and the deduced sequences from cDNA indicates that the native centrocins contain a post-translational brominated tryptophan. In addition, two amino acids at the C-terminal, Gly-Arg, were removed from the light chains during the post-translational processing. The separate peptide chains of centrocin 1 were synthesized and the heavy chain alone was shown to be sufficient for antimicrobial activity. The genome of the closely related species, the purple sea urchin (S. purpuratus), was shown to contain two putative proteins with high similarity to the centrocins.

  12. Teratogenic Effects of Diatom Metabolites on Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Giovanna; Miralto, Antonio; Ianora, Adrianna

    2010-01-01

    The diatom-derived polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs), 2-trans,4-trans-decadienal, 2-trans,4-trans-octadienal, 2-trans,4-trans,7-octatrienal, 2-trans,4-trans-heptadienal, as well as tridecanal were tested on early and later larval development in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. We also tested the effect of some of the more abundant diatom polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on development, in particular 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), one of the main precursors of diatom PUAs, as well as 4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 6,9,12,15-octadecatetraenoic acid (stearidonic acid), 6,9,12-octadecatrienoic acid (γ-linolenic acid) and 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (linoleic acid). PUAs blocked sea urchin cell cleavage in a dose dependent manner and with increasing chain length from C7 to C10 PUAs, with arrest occurring at 27.27 μM with heptadienal, 16.13 μM with octadienal, 11.47 μM with octatrienal and 5.26 μM with decadienal. Of the PUFAs tested, only EPA and stearidonic acid blocked cleavage, but at much higher concentrations compared to PUAs (331 μM for EPA and 181 μM for stearidonic acid). Sub-lethal concentrations of decadienal (1.32–5.26 μM) delayed development of embryos and larvae which showed various degrees of malformations depending on the concentrations tested. Sub-lethal concentrations also increased the proportion of TUNEL-positive cells indicating imminent death in embryos and larvae. Using decadienal as a model PUA, we show that this aldehyde can be detected spectrophotometrically for up to 14 days in f/2 medium. PMID:20479962

  13. Regulation of membrane fusion and secretory events in the sea urchin embryo

    SciTech Connect

    Roe, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Membrane fusion and secretory events play a key role in fertilization and early development in the sea urchin embryo. To investigate the mechanism of membrane fusion, the effect of inhibitors of metalloendoprotease activity was studied on two model systems of cell fusion; fertilization and spiculogenesis by primary mesenchyme cells in the embryo. Both the zinc chelator, 1,10-phenanthroline, and peptide metalloprotease substrates were found to inhibit both fertilization and gamete fusion, while peptides that are not substrates of metalloproteases did not affect either process. Primary mesenchyme cells form the larval skeleton in the embryo by deposition of mineral and an organic matrix into a syncytial cavity formed by fusion of filopodia of these cells. Metalloprotease inhibitors were found to inhibit spiculogenesis both in vivo and in cultures of isolated primary mesenchyme cells, and the activity of a metalloprotease of the appropriate specificity was found in the primary mesenchyme cells. These two studies implicate the activity of a metalloprotease in a necessary step in membrane fusion. Following fertilization, exocytosis of the cortical granules results in the formation of the fertilization envelope and the hyaline layer, that surround the developing embryo. The hatching enzyme is secreted by the blastula stage sea urchin embryo, which proteolyzes the fertilization envelope surrounding the embryo, allowing the embryo to hatch. Using an assay that measures {sup 125}I-fertilization envelope degradation, the hatching enzyme was identified as a 33 kDa metalloprotease, and was purified by ion-exchange and affinity chromatography from the hatching media of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryos. The hatching enzyme showed a substrate preference for only a minor subset of fertilization envelope proteins.

  14. Functional analysis of the sea urchin U7 small nuclear RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmartin, G.M.; Schaufele, F.; Schaffner, G.; Birnstiel, M.L.

    1988-03-01

    U7 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) is an essential component of the RNA-processing machinery which generates the 3' end of mature histone mRNA in the sea urchin. The U7 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP) is classified as a member of the Sm-type U snRNP family by virtue of its recognition by both anti-trimethylguanosine and anti-Sm antibodies. The authors analyzed the function-structure relationship of the U7 snRNP by mutagenesis experiments. These suggested that the U7 snRNP of the sea urchin is composed of three important domains. The fist domain encompasses the 5'-terminal sequence, up to about nucleotides 7, which are accessible to micrococcal nuclease, while the remainder of the RNA is highly protected and hence presumably bound by proteins. This region contains the sequence complementarities between the U7 snRNA and the histone pre-mRNA which have previously been shown to be required for 3' processing. Nucleotides 9 to 20 constitute a second domain which includes sequences for Sm protein binding. The complementarities between the U7 snRNA sequences in this region and the terminal palindrome fo the historne mRNA appear to be fortuitous and play only a secondary, if any, role in 3' processing. The third domain is composed of the terminal palindrome of U7 snRNA, the secondary structure of which must be maintained for the U7 snRNP to function, but its sequence can be drastically altered without any observable effect on snRNP assembly or 3' processing.

  15. Neurogenesis in sea urchin embryos and the diversity of deuterostome neurogenic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Garner, Sarah; Zysk, Ivona; Byrne, Glynis; Kramer, Marabeth; Moller, Daniel; Taylor, Valerie; Burke, Robert D

    2016-01-15

    A single origin to the diverse mechanisms of metazoan neurogenesis is suggested by the involvement of common signaling components and similar classes of transcription factors. However, in many forms we lack details of where neurons arise, patterns of cell division, and specific differentiation pathway components. The sea urchin larval nervous system is composed of an apical organ, which develops from neuroepithelium and functions as a central nervous system, and peripheral neurons, which differentiate in the ciliary band and project axons to the apical organ. To reveal developmental mechanisms of neurogenesis in this basal deuterostome, we developed antibodies to SoxC, SoxB2, ELAV and Brn1/2/4 and used neurons that develop at specific locations to establish a timeline for neurogenesis. Neural progenitors express, in turn, SoxB2, SoxC, and Brn1/2/4, before projecting neurites and expressing ELAV and SynB. Using pulse-chase labeling of cells with a thymidine analog to identify cells in S-phase, we establish that neurons identified by location are in their last mitotic cycle at the time of hatching, and S-phase is coincident with expression of SoxC. The number of cells expressing SoxC and differentiating as neurons is reduced in embryos injected with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides to SoxC, SoxB2 or Six3. Injection of RNA encoding SoxC into eggs does not enhance neurogenesis. In addition, inhibition of FGF receptors (SU5402) or a morpholino to FGFR1 reduces expression of SoxC. These data indicate that there are common features of neurogenesis in deuterostomes, and that sea urchins employ developmental mechanisms that are distinct from other ambulacraria.

  16. Evolution of a novel muscle design in sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Alexander; Schröder, Leif; Ogurreck, Malte; Faber, Cornelius; Stach, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The sea urchin (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) masticatory apparatus, or Aristotle's lantern, is a complex structure composed of numerous hard and soft components. The lantern is powered by various paired and unpaired muscle groups. We describe how one set of these muscles, the lantern protractor muscles, has evolved a specialized morphology. This morphology is characterized by the formation of adaxially-facing lobes perpendicular to the main orientation of the muscle, giving the protractor a frilled aspect in horizontal section. Histological and ultrastructural analyses show that the microstructure of frilled muscles is largely identical to that of conventional, flat muscles. Measurements of muscle dimensions in equally-sized specimens demonstrate that the frilled muscle design, in comparison to that of the flat muscle type, considerably increases muscle volume as well as the muscle's surface directed towards the interradial cavity, a compartment of the peripharyngeal coelom. Scanning electron microscopical observations reveal that the insertions of frilled and flat protractor muscles result in characteristic muscle scars on the stereom, reflecting the shapes of individual muscles. Our comparative study of 49 derived "regular" echinoid species using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows that frilled protractor muscles are found only in taxa belonging to the families Toxopneustidae, Echinometridae, and Strongylocentrotidae. The onset of lobe formation during ontogenesis varies between species of these three families. Because frilled protractor muscles are best observed in situ, the application of a non-invasive imaging technique was crucial for the unequivocal identification of this morphological character on a large scale. Although it is currently possible only to speculate on the functional advantages which the frilled muscle morphology might confer, our study forms the anatomical and evolutionary framework for future analyses of this unusual muscle design among sea

  17. Evolution of a Novel Muscle Design in Sea Urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Alexander; Schröder, Leif; Ogurreck, Malte; Faber, Cornelius; Stach, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The sea urchin (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) masticatory apparatus, or Aristotle's lantern, is a complex structure composed of numerous hard and soft components. The lantern is powered by various paired and unpaired muscle groups. We describe how one set of these muscles, the lantern protractor muscles, has evolved a specialized morphology. This morphology is characterized by the formation of adaxially-facing lobes perpendicular to the main orientation of the muscle, giving the protractor a frilled aspect in horizontal section. Histological and ultrastructural analyses show that the microstructure of frilled muscles is largely identical to that of conventional, flat muscles. Measurements of muscle dimensions in equally-sized specimens demonstrate that the frilled muscle design, in comparison to that of the flat muscle type, considerably increases muscle volume as well as the muscle's surface directed towards the interradial cavity, a compartment of the peripharyngeal coelom. Scanning electron microscopical observations reveal that the insertions of frilled and flat protractor muscles result in characteristic muscle scars on the stereom, reflecting the shapes of individual muscles. Our comparative study of 49 derived “regular” echinoid species using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows that frilled protractor muscles are found only in taxa belonging to the families Toxopneustidae, Echinometridae, and Strongylocentrotidae. The onset of lobe formation during ontogenesis varies between species of these three families. Because frilled protractor muscles are best observed in situ, the application of a non-invasive imaging technique was crucial for the unequivocal identification of this morphological character on a large scale. Although it is currently possible only to speculate on the functional advantages which the frilled muscle morphology might confer, our study forms the anatomical and evolutionary framework for future analyses of this unusual muscle design among

  18. Perturbation of gut bacteria induces a coordinated cellular immune response in the purple sea urchin larva

    PubMed Central

    CH Ho, Eric; Buckley, Katherine M; Schrankel, Catherine S; Schuh, Nicholas W; Hibino, Taku; Solek, Cynthia M; Bae, Koeun; Wang, Guizhi; Rast, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    The purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) genome sequence contains a complex repertoire of genes encoding innate immune recognition proteins and homologs of important vertebrate immune regulatory factors. To characterize how this immune system is deployed within an experimentally tractable, intact animal, we investigate the immune capability of the larval stage. Sea urchin embryos and larvae are morphologically simple and transparent, providing an organism-wide model to view immune response at cellular resolution. Here we present evidence for immune function in five mesenchymal cell types based on morphology, behavior and gene expression. Two cell types are phagocytic; the others interact at sites of microbial detection or injury. We characterize immune-associated gene markers for three cell types, including a perforin-like molecule, a scavenger receptor, a complement-like thioester-containing protein and the echinoderm-specific immune response factor 185/333. We elicit larval immune responses by (1) bacterial injection into the blastocoel and (2) seawater exposure to the marine bacterium Vibrio diazotrophicus to perturb immune state in the gut. Exposure at the epithelium induces a strong response in which pigment cells (one type of immune cell) migrate from the ectoderm to interact with the gut epithelium. Bacteria that accumulate in the gut later invade the blastocoel, where they are cleared by phagocytic and granular immune cells. The complexity of this coordinated, dynamic inflammatory program within the simple larval morphology provides a system in which to characterize processes that direct both aspects of the echinoderm-specific immune response as well as those that are shared with other deuterostomes, including vertebrates. PMID:27192936

  19. Carbohydrate specificity of sea urchin sperm bindin: a cell surface lectin mediating sperm-egg adhesion.

    PubMed

    Glabe, C G; Grabel, L B; Vacquier, V D; Rosen, S D

    1982-07-01

    We have examined the carbohydrate specificity of bindin, a sperm protein responsible for the adhesion of sea urchin sperm to eggs, by investigating the interaction of a number of polysaccharides and glycoconjugates with isolated bindin. Several of these polysaccharides inhibit the agglutination of eggs by bindin particles. An egg surface polysaccharide was found to be the most potent inhibitor of bindin-mediated egg agglutination. Fucoidin, a sulfated fucose heteropolysaccharide, was the next most potent inhibitor, followed by the egg jelly fucan, a sulfated fucose homopolysaccharide, and xylan, a beta(1 leads to 4) linked xylose polysaccharide. A wide variety of other polysaccharides and glycoconjugates were found to have no effect on egg agglutination. We also report that isolated bindin has a soluble lectinlike activity which is assayed by agglutination of erythrocytes. The bindin lectin activity is inhibited by the same polysaccharides that inhibit egg agglutination by particulate bindin. This suggests that the egg adhesion activity of bindin is directly related to its lectin activity. We have established that fucoidin binds specifically to bindin particles with a high apparent affinity (Kd = 5.5 X 10(-8) M). The other polysaccharides that inhibit egg agglutination also inhibit the binding of 125I-fucoidin to bindin particles, suggesting that they compete for the same site on bindin. The observation that polysaccharides of different composition and linkage type interact with bindin suggests that the critical structural features required for binding may reside at a higher level of organization. Together, these findings strengthen the hypothesis that sperm-egg adhesion in sea urchins is mediated by a lectin-polysaccharide type of interaction.

  20. Toxicity of seabird guano to sea urchin embryos and interaction with Cu and Pb.

    PubMed

    Rial, Diego; Santos-Echeandía, Juan; Álvarez-Salgado, Xosé Antón; Jordi, Antoni; Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio; Bellas, Juan

    2016-02-01

    Guano is an important source of marine-derived nutrients to seabird nesting areas. Seabirds usually present high levels of metals and other contaminants because the bioaccumulation processes and biotic depositions can increase the concentration of pollutants in the receiving environments. The objectives of this study were to investigate: the toxicity of seabird guano and the joint toxicity of guano, Cu and Pb by using the sea urchin embryo-larval bioassay. In a first experiment, aqueous extracts of guano were prepared at two loading rates (0.462 and 1.952 g L(-1)) and toxicity to sea-urchin embryos was tested. Toxicity was low and not dependent of the load of guano used (EC50 0.42 ± 0.03 g L(-1)). Trace metal concentrations were also low either in guano or in aqueous extracts of guano and the toxicity of extracts were apparently related to dissolved organic matter. In a second experiment, the toxicity of Cu-Pb mixtures in artificial seawater and in extracts of guano (at two loadings: 0.015 and 0.073 g L(-1)), was tested. According to individual fittings, Cu added to extracts of guano showed less toxicity than when dissolved in artificial seawater. The response surfaces obtained for mixtures of Cu and Pb in artificial seawater, and in 0.015 g L(-1) and 0.073 g L(-1) of guano, were better described by Independent Action model adapted to describe antagonism, than by the other proposed models. This implied accepting that EC50 for Cu and Pb increased with the load of guano and with a greater interaction for Cu than for Pb.

  1. Toxicity of seabird guano to sea urchin embryos and interaction with Cu and Pb.

    PubMed

    Rial, Diego; Santos-Echeandía, Juan; Álvarez-Salgado, Xosé Antón; Jordi, Antoni; Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio; Bellas, Juan

    2016-02-01

    Guano is an important source of marine-derived nutrients to seabird nesting areas. Seabirds usually present high levels of metals and other contaminants because the bioaccumulation processes and biotic depositions can increase the concentration of pollutants in the receiving environments. The objectives of this study were to investigate: the toxicity of seabird guano and the joint toxicity of guano, Cu and Pb by using the sea urchin embryo-larval bioassay. In a first experiment, aqueous extracts of guano were prepared at two loading rates (0.462 and 1.952 g L(-1)) and toxicity to sea-urchin embryos was tested. Toxicity was low and not dependent of the load of guano used (EC50 0.42 ± 0.03 g L(-1)). Trace metal concentrations were also low either in guano or in aqueous extracts of guano and the toxicity of extracts were apparently related to dissolved organic matter. In a second experiment, the toxicity of Cu-Pb mixtures in artificial seawater and in extracts of guano (at two loadings: 0.015 and 0.073 g L(-1)), was tested. According to individual fittings, Cu added to extracts of guano showed less toxicity than when dissolved in artificial seawater. The response surfaces obtained for mixtures of Cu and Pb in artificial seawater, and in 0.015 g L(-1) and 0.073 g L(-1) of guano, were better described by Independent Action model adapted to describe antagonism, than by the other proposed models. This implied accepting that EC50 for Cu and Pb increased with the load of guano and with a greater interaction for Cu than for Pb. PMID:26692516

  2. MAP kinase activity increases during mitosis in early sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Philipova, R; Whitaker, M

    1998-09-01

    A MBP kinase activity increases at mitosis during the first two embryonic cell cycles of the sea urchin embryo. The activity profile of the MBP kinase is the same both in whole cell extracts and after immunoprecipitation with an anti-MAP kinase antibody (2199). An in-gel assay of MBP activity also shows the same activity profile. The activity is associated with the 44 kDa protein that cross-reacts with anti-MAP kinase antibodies. The 44 kDa protein shows cross-reactivity to anti-phosphotyrosine and MAP kinase-directed anti-phosphotyrosine/phosphothreonine antibodies at the times that MBP kinase activity is high. The 2199 antibody co-precipitates some histone H1 kinase activity, but the MBP kinase activity cannot be accounted for by histone H1 kinase-dependent phosphorylation of MBP. The MAP kinase 2199 antibody was used to purify the MBP kinase activity. Peptide sequencing after partial digestion shows the protein to be homologous to MAP kinases from other species. These data demonstrate that MAP kinase activation during nuclear division is not confined to meiosis, but also occurs during mitotic cell cycles. MAP kinase activity in immunoprecipitates also increases immediately after fertilization, which in the sea urchin egg occurs at interphase of the cell cycle. Treating unfertilized eggs with the calcium ionophore A23187 stimulates the increase in MAP kinase activity, demonstrating that a calcium signal can activate MAP kinase and suggesting that the activation of MAP kinase at fertilization is due to the fertilization-induced increase in cytoplasmic free calcium concentration. This signalling pathway must differ from the pathway responsible for calcium-induced inactivation of MAP kinase activity that is found in eggs that are fertilized in meiotic metaphase. PMID:9701549

  3. Evolution of a novel muscle design in sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Alexander; Schröder, Leif; Ogurreck, Malte; Faber, Cornelius; Stach, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The sea urchin (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) masticatory apparatus, or Aristotle's lantern, is a complex structure composed of numerous hard and soft components. The lantern is powered by various paired and unpaired muscle groups. We describe how one set of these muscles, the lantern protractor muscles, has evolved a specialized morphology. This morphology is characterized by the formation of adaxially-facing lobes perpendicular to the main orientation of the muscle, giving the protractor a frilled aspect in horizontal section. Histological and ultrastructural analyses show that the microstructure of frilled muscles is largely identical to that of conventional, flat muscles. Measurements of muscle dimensions in equally-sized specimens demonstrate that the frilled muscle design, in comparison to that of the flat muscle type, considerably increases muscle volume as well as the muscle's surface directed towards the interradial cavity, a compartment of the peripharyngeal coelom. Scanning electron microscopical observations reveal that the insertions of frilled and flat protractor muscles result in characteristic muscle scars on the stereom, reflecting the shapes of individual muscles. Our comparative study of 49 derived "regular" echinoid species using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows that frilled protractor muscles are found only in taxa belonging to the families Toxopneustidae, Echinometridae, and Strongylocentrotidae. The onset of lobe formation during ontogenesis varies between species of these three families. Because frilled protractor muscles are best observed in situ, the application of a non-invasive imaging technique was crucial for the unequivocal identification of this morphological character on a large scale. Although it is currently possible only to speculate on the functional advantages which the frilled muscle morphology might confer, our study forms the anatomical and evolutionary framework for future analyses of this unusual muscle design among sea

  4. Assessment of negative phototaxis in long-term fasted Glyptocidaris crenularis: a new insight into measuring stress responses of sea urchins in aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiaofei; Wei, Jing; Zhao, Chong; Feng, Wenping; Sun, Ping; Chang, Yaqing

    2014-09-01

    A cost-effective method was designed to measure the behavioral response of negative phototaxis to high-intensity illumination in the sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis. Ninety sea urchins were randomly and equally divided into two aquaculture environment groups: a fasted group, which was starved during the experiment, and a fed group. After 10 months, the total mortality of each group was recorded. Then, 15 sea urchins were randomly selected from each group and behavioral responses to high-intensity illumination were investigated for each sea urchin. After the behavioral experiment, body measurements of the trial sea urchins were taken. The results reveal that food deprivation significantly affected test diameter (P<0.01), body weight (P<0.01), gonad weight (P<0.01), and gut weight (P<0.01). Furthermore, food deprivation also affected negative phototaxis behaviors of time to rapid spine movement (P<0.01), time to the 1 cm position (P<0.05), and walking distance in 300 s (P<0.01), but not time to body reaction (P>0.05). The mortality rates of fasted and fed urchins were 6.7% and 0%, respectively. The present study provides evidence that food deprivation has a significant effect on phenotypic traits and behavioral responses to high-intensity illumination in the sea urchin G. crenularis. With this method, environmental stressors can be easily detected by measuring proper optional indicators. This study provides a new insight into measuring stress responses of sea urchins in aquaculture. However, further studies should be carried out to understand more environmental factors and to compare this potential behavioral method with immune, physiological, and epidemiological approaches.

  5. Assessment of negative phototaxis in long-term fasted Glyptocidaris crenularis: a new insight into measuring stress responses of sea urchins in aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiaofei; Wei, Jing; Zhao, Chong; Feng, Wenping; Sun, Ping; Chang, Yaqing

    2015-01-01

    A cost-effective method was designed to measure the behavioral response of negative phototaxis to high-intensity illumination in the sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis. Ninety sea urchins were randomly and equally divided into two aquaculture environment groups: a fasted group, which was starved during the experiment, and a fed group. After 10 months, the total mortality of each group was recorded. Then, 15 sea urchins were randomly selected from each group and behavioral responses to high-intensity illumination were investigated for each sea urchin. After the behavioral experiment, body measurements of the trial sea urchins were taken. The results reveal that food deprivation significantly affected test diameter ( P<0.01), body weight ( P<0.01), gonad weight ( P<0.01), and gut weight ( P<0.01). Furthermore, food deprivation also affected negative phototaxis behaviors of time to rapid spine movement ( P<0.01), time to the 1 cm position ( P<0.05), and walking distance in 300 s ( P<0.01), but not time to body reaction ( P>0.05). The mortality rates of fasted and fed urchins were 6.7% and 0%, respectively. The present study provides evidence that food deprivation has a significant effect on phenotypic traits and behavioral responses to high-intensity illumination in the sea urchin G. crenularis. With this method, environmental stressors can be easily detected by measuring proper optional indicators. This study provides a new insight into measuring stress responses of sea urchins in aquaculture. However, further studies should be carried out to understand more environmental factors and to compare this potential behavioral method with immune, physiological, and epidemiological approaches.

  6. Calcium transport into the cells of the sea urchin larva in relation to spicule formation

    DOE PAGES

    Vidavsky, Netta; Addadi, Sefi; Schertel, Andreas; Ben-Ezra, David; Shpigel, Muki; Addadi, Lia; Weiner, Steve

    2016-10-24

    We investigated the manner in which the sea urchin larva takes up calcium from its body cavity into the primary mesenchymal cells (PMCs) that are responsible for spicule formation. We used the membrane-impermeable fluorescent dye calcein and alexa-dextran, with or without a calcium channel inhibitor, and imaged the larvae in vivo with selective-plane illumination microscopy. Both fluorescent molecules are taken up from the body cavity into the PMCs and ectoderm cells, where the two labels are predominantly colocalized in particles, whereas the calcium-binding calcein label is mainly excluded from the endoderm and is concentrated in the spicules. The presence ofmore » vesicles and vacuoles inside the PMCs that have openings through the plasma membrane directly to the body cavity was documented using high-resolution cryo-focused ion beam-SEM serial imaging. Some of the vesicles and vacuoles are interconnected to form large networks. We suggest that these vacuolar networks are involved in direct sea water uptake. We conclude that the calcium pathway from the body cavity into cells involves nonspecific endocytosis of sea water with its calcium.« less

  7. Metagenomic studies of the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Ibarra, Martin Augusto; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Metagenomics has significantly advanced the field of marine microbial ecology, revealing the vast diversity of previously unknown microbial life forms in different marine niches. The tremendous amount of data generated has enabled identification of a large number of microbial genes (metagenomes), their community interactions, adaptation mechanisms, and their potential applications in pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based industries. Comparative metagenomics reveals that microbial diversity is a function of the local environment, meaning that unique or unusual environments typically harbor novel microbial species with unique genes and metabolic pathways. The Red Sea has an abundance of unique characteristics; however, its microbiota is one of the least studied among marine environments. The Red Sea harbors approximately 25 hot anoxic brine pools, plus a vibrant coral reef ecosystem. Physiochemical studies describe the Red Sea as an oligotrophic environment that contains one of the warmest and saltiest waters in the world with year-round high UV radiations. These characteristics are believed to have shaped the evolution of microbial communities in the Red Sea. Over-representation of genes involved in DNA repair, high-intensity light responses, and osmoregulation were found in the Red Sea metagenomic databases suggesting acquisition of specific environmental adaptation by the Red Sea microbiota. The Red Sea brine pools harbor a diverse range of halophilic and thermophilic bacterial and archaeal communities, which are potential sources of enzymes for pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based application. Understanding the mechanisms of these adaptations and their function within the larger ecosystem could also prove useful in light of predicted global warming scenarios where global ocean temperatures are expected to rise by 1-3°C in the next few decades. In this review, we provide an overview of the published metagenomic studies that were conducted in the Red Sea, and

  8. Metagenomic studies of the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Ibarra, Martin Augusto; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Metagenomics has significantly advanced the field of marine microbial ecology, revealing the vast diversity of previously unknown microbial life forms in different marine niches. The tremendous amount of data generated has enabled identification of a large number of microbial genes (metagenomes), their community interactions, adaptation mechanisms, and their potential applications in pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based industries. Comparative metagenomics reveals that microbial diversity is a function of the local environment, meaning that unique or unusual environments typically harbor novel microbial species with unique genes and metabolic pathways. The Red Sea has an abundance of unique characteristics; however, its microbiota is one of the least studied among marine environments. The Red Sea harbors approximately 25 hot anoxic brine pools, plus a vibrant coral reef ecosystem. Physiochemical studies describe the Red Sea as an oligotrophic environment that contains one of the warmest and saltiest waters in the world with year-round high UV radiations. These characteristics are believed to have shaped the evolution of microbial communities in the Red Sea. Over-representation of genes involved in DNA repair, high-intensity light responses, and osmoregulation were found in the Red Sea metagenomic databases suggesting acquisition of specific environmental adaptation by the Red Sea microbiota. The Red Sea brine pools harbor a diverse range of halophilic and thermophilic bacterial and archaeal communities, which are potential sources of enzymes for pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based application. Understanding the mechanisms of these adaptations and their function within the larger ecosystem could also prove useful in light of predicted global warming scenarios where global ocean temperatures are expected to rise by 1-3°C in the next few decades. In this review, we provide an overview of the published metagenomic studies that were conducted in the Red Sea, and

  9. Subtle reproductive impairment through nitric oxide-mediated mechanisms in sea urchins from an area affected by harmful algal blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliaccio, Oriana; Castellano, Immacolata; di Cioccio, Davide; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Negri, Armando; Cirino, Paola; Romano, Giovanna; Zingone, Adriana; Palumbo, Anna

    2016-05-01

    The health of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, a key species in the Mediterranean Sea, is menaced by several pressures in coastal environments. Here, we aimed at assessing the reproductive ability of apparently healthy P. lividus population in a marine protected area affected by toxic blooms of Ostreospsis cf. ovata. Wide-ranging analyses were performed in animals collected prior to and during the bloom, as well as at several times thereafter, during the reproductive season. Adults showed a low fertilization rate, along with high nitric oxide (NO) levels in the gonads and the nitration of the major yolk protein toposome, which is an important player in sea urchin development. Serious developmental anomalies were observed in the progeny, which persist several months after the bloom. NO levels were high in the different developmental stages, which also showed variations in the transcription of several genes that were found to be directly or indirectly modulated by NO. These results highlight subtle but important reproductive flaws transmitted from the female gonads to the offspring with the NO involvement. Despite a recovery along time after the bloom, insidious damages can be envisaged in the local sea urchin population, with possible reverberation on the whole benthic system.

  10. Subtle reproductive impairment through nitric oxide-mediated mechanisms in sea urchins from an area affected by harmful algal blooms

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, Oriana; Castellano, Immacolata; Di Cioccio, Davide; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Negri, Armando; Cirino, Paola; Romano, Giovanna; Zingone, Adriana; Palumbo, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The health of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, a key species in the Mediterranean Sea, is menaced by several pressures in coastal environments. Here, we aimed at assessing the reproductive ability of apparently healthy P. lividus population in a marine protected area affected by toxic blooms of Ostreospsis cf. ovata. Wide-ranging analyses were performed in animals collected prior to and during the bloom, as well as at several times thereafter, during the reproductive season. Adults showed a low fertilization rate, along with high nitric oxide (NO) levels in the gonads and the nitration of the major yolk protein toposome, which is an important player in sea urchin development. Serious developmental anomalies were observed in the progeny, which persist several months after the bloom. NO levels were high in the different developmental stages, which also showed variations in the transcription of several genes that were found to be directly or indirectly modulated by NO. These results highlight subtle but important reproductive flaws transmitted from the female gonads to the offspring with the NO involvement. Despite a recovery along time after the bloom, insidious damages can be envisaged in the local sea urchin population, with possible reverberation on the whole benthic system. PMID:27192939

  11. Subtle reproductive impairment through nitric oxide-mediated mechanisms in sea urchins from an area affected by harmful algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Migliaccio, Oriana; Castellano, Immacolata; Di Cioccio, Davide; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Negri, Armando; Cirino, Paola; Romano, Giovanna; Zingone, Adriana; Palumbo, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The health of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, a key species in the Mediterranean Sea, is menaced by several pressures in coastal environments. Here, we aimed at assessing the reproductive ability of apparently healthy P. lividus population in a marine protected area affected by toxic blooms of Ostreospsis cf. ovata. Wide-ranging analyses were performed in animals collected prior to and during the bloom, as well as at several times thereafter, during the reproductive season. Adults showed a low fertilization rate, along with high nitric oxide (NO) levels in the gonads and the nitration of the major yolk protein toposome, which is an important player in sea urchin development. Serious developmental anomalies were observed in the progeny, which persist several months after the bloom. NO levels were high in the different developmental stages, which also showed variations in the transcription of several genes that were found to be directly or indirectly modulated by NO. These results highlight subtle but important reproductive flaws transmitted from the female gonads to the offspring with the NO involvement. Despite a recovery along time after the bloom, insidious damages can be envisaged in the local sea urchin population, with possible reverberation on the whole benthic system. PMID:27192939

  12. Subtle reproductive impairment through nitric oxide-mediated mechanisms in sea urchins from an area affected by harmful algal blooms.

    PubMed

    Migliaccio, Oriana; Castellano, Immacolata; Di Cioccio, Davide; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Negri, Armando; Cirino, Paola; Romano, Giovanna; Zingone, Adriana; Palumbo, Anna

    2016-05-19

    The health of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, a key species in the Mediterranean Sea, is menaced by several pressures in coastal environments. Here, we aimed at assessing the reproductive ability of apparently healthy P. lividus population in a marine protected area affected by toxic blooms of Ostreospsis cf. ovata. Wide-ranging analyses were performed in animals collected prior to and during the bloom, as well as at several times thereafter, during the reproductive season. Adults showed a low fertilization rate, along with high nitric oxide (NO) levels in the gonads and the nitration of the major yolk protein toposome, which is an important player in sea urchin development. Serious developmental anomalies were observed in the progeny, which persist several months after the bloom. NO levels were high in the different developmental stages, which also showed variations in the transcription of several genes that were found to be directly or indirectly modulated by NO. These results highlight subtle but important reproductive flaws transmitted from the female gonads to the offspring with the NO involvement. Despite a recovery along time after the bloom, insidious damages can be envisaged in the local sea urchin population, with possible reverberation on the whole benthic system.

  13. Gene expression changes associated with the developmental plasticity of sea urchin larvae in response to food availability

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, Tyler J.; King, Benjamin L.; Coffman, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Planktotrophic sea urchin larvae are developmentally plastic: in response to food scarcity, development of the juvenile rudiment is suspended and larvae instead develop elongated arms, increasing feeding capacity and extending larval life. Here, data are presented on the effect of different feeding regimes on gene expression in larvae of the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. These data indicate that during periods of starvation, larvae down-regulate genes involved in growth and metabolic activity while up-regulating genes involved in lipid transport, environmental sensing and defense. Additionally, we show that starvation increases FoxO activity, and that in well-fed larvae rapamycin treatment impedes rudiment growth, indicating that the latter requires TOR activity. These results suggest that the developmental plasticity of echinoplutei is regulated by genes known to control aging and longevity in other animals. PMID:26124444

  14. Chromosomal localization and molecular characterization of three different 5S ribosomal DNA clusters in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    PubMed

    Caradonna, Fabio; Bellavia, Daniele; Clemente, Ann Maria; Sisino, Giorgia; Barbieri, Rainer

    2007-09-01

    In this paper the chromosomal localization and molecular cloning and characterization of three 5S rDNA clusters of 700 bp (base pairs), 900 bp, and 950 bp in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus are reported. Southern blot hybridization demonstrated the existence of three 5S rDNA repeats of differing length in the P. lividus genome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, performed in parallel on both haploid and diploid metaphases and interphase nuclei using different 5S rDNA units as probes, localized these 5S rDNA clusters in 3 different pairs of P. lividus chromosomes. This is the first complete gene mapping not only in a sea urchin but also in the phylum of echinoderms as a whole. PMID:17893727

  15. Regulative recovery in the sea urchin embryo and the stabilizing role of fail-safe gene network wiring.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joel; Davidson, Eric H

    2009-10-27

    Design features that ensure reproducible and invariant embryonic processes are major characteristics of current gene regulatory network models. New cis-regulatory studies on a gene regulatory network subcircuit activated early in the development of the sea urchin embryo reveal a sequence of encoded "fail-safe" regulatory devices. These ensure the maintenance of fate separation between skeletogenic and nonskeletogenic mesoderm lineages. An unexpected consequence of the network design revealed in the course of these experiments is that it enables the embryo to "recover" from regulatory interference that has catastrophic effects if this feature is disarmed. A reengineered regulatory system inserted into the embryo was used to prove how this system operates in vivo. Genomically encoded backup control circuitry thus provides the mechanism underlying a specific example of the regulative development for which the sea urchin embryo has long been famous.

  16. The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNAs from a sea-cucumber, a starfish and a sea-urchin.

    PubMed Central

    Ohama, T; Hori, H; Osawa, S

    1983-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNA from three echinoderms, a sea-cucumber Stichopus oshimae, a starfish Asterina pectinifera and a sea-urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus have been determined. These 5S rRNAs are all 120 nucleotides long. The echinoderm sequences are more related to the sequences of proterostomes animals such as mollusc, annelids and some others (87% identity on average) than to those of vertebrates (82% identity on average). PMID:6878041

  17. The Red Sea Modeling and Forecasting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoteit, Ibrahim; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Latif, Hatem; Toye, Habib; Zhan, Peng; Kartadikaria, Aditya R.; Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Yao, Fengchao; Triantafyllou, George; Langodan, Sabique; Cavaleri, Luigi; Guo, Daquan; Johns, Burt

    2015-04-01

    Despite its importance for a variety of socio-economical and political reasons and the presence of extensive coral reef gardens along its shores, the Red Sea remains one of the most under-studied large marine physical and biological systems in the global ocean. This contribution will present our efforts to build advanced modeling and forecasting capabilities for the Red Sea, which is part of the newly established Saudi ARAMCO Marine Environmental Research Center at KAUST (SAMERCK). Our Red Sea modeling system compromises both regional and nested costal MIT general circulation models (MITgcm) with resolutions varying between 8 km and 250 m to simulate the general circulation and mesoscale dynamics at various spatial scales, a 10-km resolution Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the atmospheric conditions, a 4-km resolution European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) to simulate the Red Sea ecosystem, and a 1-km resolution WAVEWATCH-III model to simulate the wind driven surface waves conditions. We have also implemented an oil spill model, and a probabilistic dispersion and larval connectivity modeling system (CMS) based on a stochastic Lagrangian framework and incorporating biological attributes. We are using the models outputs together with available observational data to study all aspects of the Red Sea circulations. Advanced monitoring capabilities are being deployed in the Red Sea as part of the SAMERCK, comprising multiple gliders equipped with hydrographical and biological sensors, high frequency (HF) surface current/wave mapping, buoys/ moorings, etc, complementing the available satellite ocean and atmospheric observations and Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The Red Sea models have also been equipped with advanced data assimilation capabilities. Fully parallel ensemble-based Kalman filtering (EnKF) algorithms have been implemented with the MITgcm and ERSEM for assimilating all available multivariate satellite and in-situ data sets. We

  18. Effects of an oil production effluent on gametogenesis and gamete performance in the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Stimpson)

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, P.R. . Dept. of Biological Sciences)

    1994-07-01

    Adult organisms subjected to chronic discharges from a point source of pollution may exhibit several sublethal responses. One such response is the impairment of gamete production. This may be expressed in the amount and/or quality of gametes produced by adults. In this study the effects of chronic exposure to produced water (an oil production effluent) on the gametogenesis and gamete performance of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Stimpson) were examined using an in situ caging experiment. Adult purple sea urchins were kept in benthic cages arrayed down-field from a discharging diffuser at 13 sites, with distances ranging from 5 to 1,000 m. Cage exposures were maintained in the field for eight weeks, and each cage held 25 animals. Gametogenesis was examined for each sex by comparing a size-independent measure of relative gonads ass as determined by analysis of covariance. Results showed that there was a significant negative relationship between these estimates of relative gonad mass and distance from the outfall for both sexes, indicating that sea urchins living closer to the outfall produced significantly larger gonads. Gamete performance was measured through a fertilization kinetics bioassay that held the concentration of eggs constant and varied the amount of sperm added. The proportion of eggs fertilized under each sperm concentration was determined and the response fit to a model of fertilizability showed a positive relationship with distance away from the outfall. These findings indicate that although adult sea urchins exposed to a produced water outfall exhibit larger gonads, they suffer a marked decrease in a gamete performance.

  19. Variation in sensitivity to. gamma. -ray-induced chromosomal aberrations during the mitotic cycle of the sea urchin egg

    SciTech Connect

    Ejima, Y.; Nakamura, I.; Shiroya, T.

    1982-11-01

    Sea urchin eggs were irradiated with /sup 137/Cs ..gamma.. rays at various stages of the mitotic cycle, and chromosomal aberrations at the first postirradiation mitosis and embryonic abnormalities at later developmental stages were examined. The radiosensitivity of the eggs to both endpoints varied in parallel with the mitotic stage at the time of irradiation, suggesting a possible relationship between chromosomal damage and embryonic abnormalities.

  20. [Distribution patterns and bioerosion of the sea urchin Centrostephanus coronatus (Diadematoida: Diadematidae), at the reef of Playa Blanca, Colombian Pacific].

    PubMed

    Toro-Farmer, Gerardo; Cantera, Jaime R; Londoño-Cruz, Edgardo; Orozco, Carlos; Neira, Raul

    2004-03-01

    Regular sea-urchins are one of the main bioeroding organisms affecting coral reefs around the world. The abundance, distribution and bioerosion rate of the sea-urchin Centrostephanus coronatus, were determined in different reef zones of Playa Blanca fringing reef (Gorgona Island, Colombian pacific coast) during 1997 and 1998. The erosion rates were determined calcinating the gut content of the sea-urchins to eliminate all organic components and preserve the inorganic portion of calcium carbonate. C. coronatus showed the highest densities towards the central zones of the reef (plain-crest and front) (12.4 ind/m2; range 0-48 ind/m2). The highest mean bioerosion rate was 0.103 kgCaCO3/m2/yr in the reef plain-crest (0-0.69 kgCaCO3/m2/yr). In the other zones, (back reef and reef front) the mean bioerosion rates were 0.071 (range 0-0.39) and 0.052 (range 0-0.31) kgCaCO3/m2/yr respectively. According to the present data, it can be seen that the destruction of coralline skeletons, produced in this reef by sea-urchins is rather low, compared with the abrasion caused by these organisms in other places of the world. However, the combined action of C. coronatus and other bioeroding organisms (borers and grazers). along with some adverse environmental factors to corals, can be causing a negative balance between normal processes of reef accretion-destruction in Gorgona Island reefs.

  1. First insights into the biochemistry of tube foot adhesive from the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Echinoidea, Echinodermata).

    PubMed

    Santos, R; da Costa, G; Franco, C; Gomes-Alves, P; Flammang, P; Coelho, A V

    2009-01-01

    Sea urchins are common inhabitants of wave-swept shores. To withstand the action of waves, they rely on highly specialized independent adhesive organs, the adoral tube feet. The latter are extremely well-designed for temporary adhesion being composed by two functional subunits: (1) an apical disc that produces an adhesive secretion to fasten the sea urchin to the substratum, as well as a deadhesive secretion to allow the animal to move and (2) a stem that bears the tensions placed on the animal by hydrodynamism. Despite their technological potential for the development of new biomimetic underwater adhesives, very little is known about the biochemical composition of sea urchin adhesives. A characterization of sea urchin adhesives is presented using footprints. The latter contain inorganic residues (45.5%), proteins (6.4%), neutral sugars (1.2%), and lipids (2.5%). Moreover, the amino acid composition of the soluble protein fraction revealed a bias toward six amino acids: glycine, alanine, valine, serine, threonine, and asparagine/aspartic acid, which comprise 56.8% of the total residues. In addition, it also presents higher levels of proline (6.8%) and half-cystine (2.6%) than average eukaryotic proteins. Footprint insolubility was partially overcome using strong denaturing and reducing buffers, enabling the visualization of 13 proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The conjugation of mass spectrometry with homology-database search allowed the identification of six proteins: alpha and beta tubulin, actin, and histones H2B, H3, H2A, and H4, whose location and function in the adhesive are discussed but require further investigation. For the remaining unidentified proteins, five de novo-generated peptide sequences were found that were not present in the available protein databases, suggesting that they might be novel or modified proteins. PMID:19221839

  2. [Distribution patterns and bioerosion of the sea urchin Centrostephanus coronatus (Diadematoida: Diadematidae), at the reef of Playa Blanca, Colombian Pacific].

    PubMed

    Toro-Farmer, Gerardo; Cantera, Jaime R; Londoño-Cruz, Edgardo; Orozco, Carlos; Neira, Raul

    2004-03-01

    Regular sea-urchins are one of the main bioeroding organisms affecting coral reefs around the world. The abundance, distribution and bioerosion rate of the sea-urchin Centrostephanus coronatus, were determined in different reef zones of Playa Blanca fringing reef (Gorgona Island, Colombian pacific coast) during 1997 and 1998. The erosion rates were determined calcinating the gut content of the sea-urchins to eliminate all organic components and preserve the inorganic portion of calcium carbonate. C. coronatus showed the highest densities towards the central zones of the reef (plain-crest and front) (12.4 ind/m2; range 0-48 ind/m2). The highest mean bioerosion rate was 0.103 kgCaCO3/m2/yr in the reef plain-crest (0-0.69 kgCaCO3/m2/yr). In the other zones, (back reef and reef front) the mean bioerosion rates were 0.071 (range 0-0.39) and 0.052 (range 0-0.31) kgCaCO3/m2/yr respectively. According to the present data, it can be seen that the destruction of coralline skeletons, produced in this reef by sea-urchins is rather low, compared with the abrasion caused by these organisms in other places of the world. However, the combined action of C. coronatus and other bioeroding organisms (borers and grazers). along with some adverse environmental factors to corals, can be causing a negative balance between normal processes of reef accretion-destruction in Gorgona Island reefs. PMID:17357401

  3. Augmentative Biocontrol in Natural Marine Habitats: Persistence, Spread and Non-Target Effects of the Sea Urchin Evechinus chloroticus

    PubMed Central

    Atalah, Javier; Hopkins, Grant A.; Forrest, Barrie M.

    2013-01-01

    Augmentative biocontrol aims to control established pest populations through enhancement of their indigenous enemies. To our knowledge, this approach has not been applied at an operational scale in natural marine habitats, in part because of the perceived risk of adverse non-target effects on native ecosystems. In this paper, we focus on the persistence, spread and non-target effects of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus when used as biocontrol agent to eradicate an invasive kelp from Fiordland, New Zealand. Rocky reef macrobenthic assemblages were monitored over 17 months in areas where the indigenous algal canopy was either removed or left intact prior to the translocation of a large number of urchins (>50 ind.·m−2). Urchin densities in treated areas significantly declined ∼9 months after transplant, and began spreading to adjacent sites. At the end of the 17-month study, densities had declined to ∼5 ind.·m−2. Compared to controls, treatment sites showed persistent shifts from kelp forest to urchin barrens, which were accompanied by significant reductions in taxa richness. Although these non-target effects were pronounced, they were considered to be localised and reversible, and arguably outweigh the irreversible and more profound ecological impacts associated with the establishment of an invasive species in a region of high conservation value. Augmentative biocontrol, used in conjunction with traditional control methods, represents a promising tool for the integrated management of marine pests. PMID:24260376

  4. Augmentative biocontrol in natural marine habitats: persistence, spread and non-target effects of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus.

    PubMed

    Atalah, Javier; Hopkins, Grant A; Forrest, Barrie M

    2013-01-01

    Augmentative biocontrol aims to control established pest populations through enhancement of their indigenous enemies. To our knowledge, this approach has not been applied at an operational scale in natural marine habitats, in part because of the perceived risk of adverse non-target effects on native ecosystems. In this paper, we focus on the persistence, spread and non-target effects of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus when used as biocontrol agent to eradicate an invasive kelp from Fiordland, New Zealand. Rocky reef macrobenthic assemblages were monitored over 17 months in areas where the indigenous algal canopy was either removed or left intact prior to the translocation of a large number of urchins (>50 ind.·m(-2)). Urchin densities in treated areas significantly declined ∼9 months after transplant, and began spreading to adjacent sites. At the end of the 17-month study, densities had declined to ∼5 ind.·m(-2). Compared to controls, treatment sites showed persistent shifts from kelp forest to urchin barrens, which were accompanied by significant reductions in taxa richness. Although these non-target effects were pronounced, they were considered to be localised and reversible, and arguably outweigh the irreversible and more profound ecological impacts associated with the establishment of an invasive species in a region of high conservation value. Augmentative biocontrol, used in conjunction with traditional control methods, represents a promising tool for the integrated management of marine pests.

  5. Production, Characterization and Biocompatibility of Marine Collagen Matrices from an Alternative and Sustainable Source: The Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus

    PubMed Central

    Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Barbaglio, Alice; Martinello, Tiziana; Alongi, Valentina; Fassini, Dario; Cullorà, Emanuele; Patruno, Marco; Bonasoro, Francesco; Barbosa, Mario Adolfo; Candia Carnevali, Maria Daniela; Sugni, Michela

    2014-01-01

    Collagen has become a key-molecule in cell culture studies and in the tissue engineering field. Industrially, the principal sources of collagen are calf skin and bones which, however, could be associated to risks of serious disease transmission. In fact, collagen derived from alternative and riskless sources is required, and marine organisms are among the safest and recently exploited ones. Sea urchins possess a circular area of soft tissue surrounding the mouth, the peristomial membrane (PM), mainly composed by mammalian-like collagen. The PM of the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus therefore represents a potential unexploited collagen source, easily obtainable as a food industry waste product. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to extract native collagen fibrils from the PM and produce suitable substrates for in vitro system. The obtained matrices appear as a homogeneous fibrillar network (mean fibril diameter 30–400 nm and mesh < 2 μm) and display remarkable mechanical properties in term of stiffness (146 ± 48 MPa) and viscosity (60.98 ± 52.07 GPa·s). In vitro tests with horse pbMSC show a good biocompatibility in terms of overall cell growth. The obtained results indicate that the sea urchin P. lividus can be a valuable low-cost collagen source for mechanically resistant biomedical devices. PMID:25255130

  6. Comparative proteomic analysis of a sea urchin (Heliocidaris erythrogramma) antibacterial response revealed the involvement of apextrin and calreticulin.

    PubMed

    Dheilly, Nolwenn M; Haynes, Paul A; Bove, Ulysse; Nair, Sham V; Raftos, David A

    2011-02-01

    Echinoderms evolved early in the deuterostome lineage, and as such constitute model organisms for comparative physiology and immunology. The sea urchin genome sequence (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) revealed a complex repertoire of genes with similarities to the immune response genes of other species. To complement these genomic data, we investigated the responses of sea urchins to the injection of bacteria using a comparative proteomics approach on a closely related species. In the sea urchin, Heliocidaris erythrogramma, the relative abundance of many proteins was altered in response to the injection of both bacteria and saline, suggesting their involvement in wounding responses, while others were differentially altered in response to bacteria only. The identities of 15 proteins that differed in relative abundance were determined by mass spectrometry. These proteins revealed a significant modification in energy metabolism in coelomocytes towards the consumption of glutamate and the production of NADPH after injection, as well as an increased concentration of cell signalling molecules, such as heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein. The injection of bacteria specifically increased the abundance of apextrin and calreticulin, suggesting that these two proteins are involved in the sequestration or inactivation of bacteria.

  7. Diatom-derived oxylipins induce cell death in sea urchin embryos activating caspase-8 and caspase 3/7.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Nadia; Varrella, Stefano; Romano, Giovanna; Ianora, Adrianna; Bentley, Matt G; Somma, Domenico; Leonardi, Antonio; Mellone, Stefano; Zuppa, Antonio; Costantini, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Diatoms are an important class of unicellular algae that produce bioactive secondary metabolites with cytotoxic activity collectively termed oxylipins, including polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs), hydroxyacids (HEPEs), oxo-acids and epoxyalcohols. Previous results showed that at higher concentrations, the PUA decadienal induced apoptosis on copepods and sea urchin embryos via caspase-3 activation; at lower concentrations decadienal affected the expression levels of the caspase-8 gene in embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. In the present work, we studied the effects of other common oxylipins produced by diatoms: two PUAs (heptadienal and octadienal) and four hydroxyacids (5-, 9- 11- and 15-HEPE) on P. lividus cell death and caspase activities. Our results showed that (i) at higher concentrations PUAs and HEPEs induced apoptosis in sea urchin embryos, detected by microscopic observation and through the activation of caspase-3/7 and caspase-8 measured by luminescent assays; (ii) at low concentrations, PUAs and HEPEs affected the expression levels of caspase-8 and caspase-3/7 (isolated for the first time here in P. lividus) genes, detected by Real Time qPCR. These findings have interesting implications from the ecological point of view, given the importance of diatom blooms in nutrient-rich aquatic environments.

  8. Autophagy as a defense strategy against stress: focus on Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryos exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Chiarelli, Roberto; Martino, Chiara; Agnello, Maria; Bosco, Liana; Roccheri, Maria Carmela

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is used by organisms as a defense strategy to face environmental stress. This mechanism has been described as one of the most important intracellular pathways responsible for the degradation and recycling of proteins and organelles. It can act as a cell survival mechanism if the cellular damage is not too extensive or as a cell death mechanism if the damage/stress is irreversible; in the latter case, it can operate as an independent pathway or together with the apoptotic one. In this review, we discuss the autophagic process activated in several aquatic organisms exposed to different types of environmental stressors, focusing on the sea urchin embryo, a suitable system recently included into the guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays to monitor autophagy. After cadmium (Cd) exposure, a heavy metal recognized as an environmental toxicant, the sea urchin embryo is able to adopt different defense mechanisms, in a hierarchical way. Among these, autophagy is one of the main responses activated to preserve the developmental program. Finally, we discuss the interplay between autophagy and apoptosis in the sea urchin embryo, a temporal and functional choice that depends on the intensity of stress conditions.

  9. Induction of DNA-protein cross-links in developing embryos of the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus

    SciTech Connect

    Garman, G.D.; Cherr, G.N.; Anderson, S.L.

    1994-12-31

    Exposure to environmental agents during embryonic development may result in DNA-protein cross-linking (DPC), as has been demonstrated for mammalian cell lines. In the latter, formation of DPC`s upon exposure to a wide variety of agents, including some metals, has been observed. To determine whether DPCs could be detected in the sea urchin embryo during development, the authors adapted a mammalian cell assay utilizing potassium-SDS precipitation and a DNA fluorochrome to quantify relative amounts of free and protein-bound DNA. Sea urchin embryos exposed to a known DPC agent, nickel, through gastrulation exhibited a dose-dependent increase in DPCs, as well as an increase in developmental abnormalities. Morphological studies demonstrated that stage-specific exposure to Ni prior to gastrulation resulted in similar levels of abnormal pluteus larval development as compared to embryos exposed through gastrulation. Sea urchin embryos exhibit temporal differences in DNA transcription and gene expression during development, and these could be affected by modifications in DNA-protein interactions. Therefore, the authors are investigating the hypothesis that the similarities in morphological responses observed may relate to susceptibility of a critical stage of development.

  10. Nodal and BMP2/4 signaling organizes the oral-aboral axis of the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Duboc, Véronique; Röttinger, Eric; Besnardeau, Lydia; Lepage, Thierry

    2004-03-01

    In the sea urchin embryo, the oral-aboral axis is specified after fertilization by mechanisms that are largely unknown. We report that early sea urchin embryos express Nodal and Antivin in the presumptive oral ectoderm and demonstrate that these genes control formation of the oral-aboral axis. Overexpression of nodal converted the whole ectoderm into oral ectoderm and induced ectopic expression of the orally expressed genes goosecoid, brachyury, BMP2/4, and antivin. Conversely, when the function of Nodal was blocked, by injection of an antisense Morpholino oligonucleotide or by injection of antivin mRNA, neither the oral nor the aboral ectoderm were specified. Injection of nodal mRNA into Nodal-deficient embryos induced an oral-aboral axis in a largely non-cell-autonomous manner. These observations suggest that the mechanisms responsible for patterning the oral-aboral axis of the sea urchin embryo may share similarities with mechanisms that pattern the dorsoventral axis of other deuterostomes.

  11. Isolation and characterization of a new class of acidic glycans implicated in sea urchin embryonal cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Papakonstantinou, E; Misevic, G N

    1993-10-01

    Three major glycan fractions of 580 kDa (g580), 150 kDa (g150), and 2 kDa (g2) were isolated and purified from Lytechinus pictus sea urchin embryos at the mesenchyme blastula stage by gel filtration and high pressure liquid chromatography. Chemical analysis, by gas chromatography, revealed that g580 is highly sulfated and rich in N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine, glucuronic acid, and fucose. The g150 fraction is less acidic than g580 and contains high amounts of amino sugars, xylose, and mannose. The g2 fraction is neutral, rich in N-acetylglucosamine, mannose, and galactose. The g580 and g150 fractions are resistant to glycosaminoglycan-degrading enzymes, indicating that they are distinct from the glycosaminoglycans. The g580 fraction resembles, with respect to chemical composition, a previously characterized 200 kDa sponge adhesion glycan (g200). The binding of the monoclonal antibody Block 2, which recognizes a repetitive epitope on g200, as well as of the anti-g580 polyclonal antibodies to both g580 and g200 indicated that these two glycans share similar antigenic determinants. The Fab fragments of the Block 2 antibody, which previously have been shown to inhibit cell adhesion in sponges, also blocked the reaggregation of dissociated sea urchin mesenchyme blastula cells. These results indicate that g580 carries a carbohydrate epitope, similar to the sponge adhesion epitope of g200, which is involved in sea urchin embryonal cell adhesion.

  12. Sulfated alpha-L-galactans from the sea urchin ovary: selective 6-desulfation as eggs are spawned.

    PubMed

    Cinelli, Leonardo P; Andrade, Leonardo; Valente, Ana Paula; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2010-06-01

    The sea urchin eggs are surrounded by a jelly coat, which contains sulfated polysaccharides with unique structures. These molecules are responsible for inducing the species-specific acrosome reaction, an obligatory event for the binding of sperm and fusion with the egg. The mechanism of biosynthesis of these sulfated polysaccharides is virtually unknown. The egg jelly of the sea urchin Echinometra lucunter contains a simple 2-sulfated, 3-linked alpha-L-galactan. Here, we pulse labeled the sea urchin ovary in vitro with (35)S-sulfate to follow the biosynthesis of the sulfated alpha-L-galactan. We found that the ovary contains a 2,6-disulfated, 3-linked alpha-L-galactan, which incorporates (35)S-sulfate more avidly than the 2-sulfated isoform. The 2,6-disulfated alpha-L-galactan was purified by anion exchange chromatography, analyzed by electrophoresis and characterized by 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. We also investigated the location of the sulfated polysaccharides on the oocytes using histochemical procedures. The stain revealed high amounts of sulfated polysaccharide in mature oocytes and accessory cells. The amount of intracellular sulfated polysaccharides decreased as oocytes are spawned. We speculate that 2,6-disulfated galactan is initially synthesized in the ovary and that 6-sulfate ester is removed when the polysaccharide is secreted into the egg jelly. Similar events related to remodeling of sulfated polysaccharides have been reported in other biological systems.

  13. Chemical Synthesis of Sea-Urchin Shaped 3D-MnO2 Nano Structures and Their Application in Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Singu, Bal Sydulu; Hong, Sang Eun; Yoon, Kuk Ro

    2016-06-01

    Sea-urchin shaped α-MnO2 hierarchical nano structures have been synthesized by facile thermal method without using any hard or soft template under the mild conditions. The structural and morphology of the 3D-MnO2 was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). From the XRD analysis indicates that MnO2 present in the α form. Morphology analysis shows that α-MnO2 sea-urchins are made by stacked nanorods, the diameter and length of the stacked nanorods present in the range of 50-120 nm and 200-400 nm respectively. The electrochemical behaviour of α-MnO2 has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and charge-discharge (CD). The specific capacitance, energy density and power density are 212.0 F g(-1), 21.2 Wh kg(-1) and 1200 W kg(-1) respectively at the current density of 2 A g(-1). The retention of the specific capacitance after completion of 1000 charge-discharge cycles is around 97%. The results reveal that the prepared Sea-urchin shaped α-MnO2 has high specific capacitance and exhibit excellent cycle life.

  14. Maintenance of somatic tissue regeneration with age in short- and long-lived species of sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Andrea G; Coffman, James A

    2016-08-01

    Aging in many animals is characterized by a failure to maintain tissue homeostasis and the loss of regenerative capacity. In this study, the ability to maintain tissue homeostasis and regenerative potential was investigated in sea urchins, a novel model to study longevity and negligible senescence. Sea urchins grow indeterminately, regenerate damaged appendages and reproduce throughout their lifespan and yet different species are reported to have very different life expectancies (ranging from 4 to more than 100 years). Quantitative analyses of cell proliferation and apoptosis indicated a low level of cell turnover in tissues of young and old sea urchins of species with different lifespans (Lytechinus variegatus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Mesocentrotus franciscanus). The ability to regenerate damaged tissue was maintained with age as assessed by the regrowth of amputated spines and tube feet (motor and sensory appendages). Expression of genes involved in cell proliferation (pcna), telomere maintenance (tert) and multipotency (seawi and vasa) was maintained with age in somatic tissues. Immunolocalization of the Vasa protein to areas of the tube feet, spines, radial nerve, esophagus and a sub-population of circulating coelomocytes suggests the presence of multipotent cells that may play a role in normal tissue homeostasis and the regenerative potential of external appendages. The results indicate that regenerative potential was maintained with age regardless of lifespan, contrary to the expectation that shorter lived species would invest less in maintenance and repair. PMID:27095483

  15. Diatom-derived oxylipins induce cell death in sea urchin embryos activating caspase-8 and caspase 3/7.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Nadia; Varrella, Stefano; Romano, Giovanna; Ianora, Adrianna; Bentley, Matt G; Somma, Domenico; Leonardi, Antonio; Mellone, Stefano; Zuppa, Antonio; Costantini, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Diatoms are an important class of unicellular algae that produce bioactive secondary metabolites with cytotoxic activity collectively termed oxylipins, including polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs), hydroxyacids (HEPEs), oxo-acids and epoxyalcohols. Previous results showed that at higher concentrations, the PUA decadienal induced apoptosis on copepods and sea urchin embryos via caspase-3 activation; at lower concentrations decadienal affected the expression levels of the caspase-8 gene in embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. In the present work, we studied the effects of other common oxylipins produced by diatoms: two PUAs (heptadienal and octadienal) and four hydroxyacids (5-, 9- 11- and 15-HEPE) on P. lividus cell death and caspase activities. Our results showed that (i) at higher concentrations PUAs and HEPEs induced apoptosis in sea urchin embryos, detected by microscopic observation and through the activation of caspase-3/7 and caspase-8 measured by luminescent assays; (ii) at low concentrations, PUAs and HEPEs affected the expression levels of caspase-8 and caspase-3/7 (isolated for the first time here in P. lividus) genes, detected by Real Time qPCR. These findings have interesting implications from the ecological point of view, given the importance of diatom blooms in nutrient-rich aquatic environments. PMID:27130972

  16. Chemical Synthesis of Sea-Urchin Shaped 3D-MnO2 Nano Structures and Their Application in Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Singu, Bal Sydulu; Hong, Sang Eun; Yoon, Kuk Ro

    2016-06-01

    Sea-urchin shaped α-MnO2 hierarchical nano structures have been synthesized by facile thermal method without using any hard or soft template under the mild conditions. The structural and morphology of the 3D-MnO2 was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). From the XRD analysis indicates that MnO2 present in the α form. Morphology analysis shows that α-MnO2 sea-urchins are made by stacked nanorods, the diameter and length of the stacked nanorods present in the range of 50-120 nm and 200-400 nm respectively. The electrochemical behaviour of α-MnO2 has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and charge-discharge (CD). The specific capacitance, energy density and power density are 212.0 F g(-1), 21.2 Wh kg(-1) and 1200 W kg(-1) respectively at the current density of 2 A g(-1). The retention of the specific capacitance after completion of 1000 charge-discharge cycles is around 97%. The results reveal that the prepared Sea-urchin shaped α-MnO2 has high specific capacitance and exhibit excellent cycle life. PMID:27427676

  17. High-Density Genetic Mapping with Interspecific Hybrids of Two Sea Urchins, Strongylocentrotus nudus and S. intermedius, by RAD Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zunchun; Liu, Shikai; Dong, Ying; Gao, Shan; Chen, Zhong; Jiang, Jingwei; Yang, Aifu; Sun, Hongjuan; Guan, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Bei; Wang, Bai

    2015-01-01

    Sea urchins have long been used as research model organisms for developmental biology and evolutionary studies. Some of them are also important aquaculture species in East Asia. In this work, we report the construction of RAD-tag based high-density genetic maps by genotyping F1 interspecific hybrids derived from a crossing between a female sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus and a male Strongylocentrotus intermedius. With polymorphisms present in these two wild individuals, we constructed a female meiotic map containing 3,080 markers for S. nudus, and a male meiotic map for S. intermedius which contains 1,577 markers. Using the linkage maps, we were able to anchor a total of 1,591 scaffolds (495.9 Mb) accounting for 60.8% of the genome assembly of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. A genome-wide scan resulted in the identification of one putative QTL for body size which spanned from 25.3 cM to 30.3 cM. This study showed the efficiency of RAD-Seq based high-density genetic map construction using F1 progenies for species with no prior genomic information. The genetic maps are essential for QTL mapping and are useful as framework to order and orientate contiguous scaffolds from sea urchin genome assembly. The integration of the genetic map with genome assembly would provide an unprecedented opportunity to conduct QTL analysis, comparative genomics, and population genetics studies.

  18. Comparative morphology of the axial complex and interdependence of internal organ systems in sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Alexander; Faber, Cornelius; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background The axial complex of echinoderms (Echinodermata) is composed of various primary and secondary body cavities that interact with each other. In sea urchins (Echinoidea), structural differences of the axial complex in "regular" and irregular species have been observed, but the reasons underlying these differences are not fully understood. In addition, a better knowledge of axial complex diversity could not only be useful for phylogenetic inferences, but improve also an understanding of the function of this enigmatic structure. Results We therefore analyzed numerous species of almost all sea urchin orders by magnetic resonance imaging, dissection, histology, and transmission electron microscopy and compared the results with findings from published studies spanning almost two centuries. These combined analyses demonstrate that the axial complex is present in all sea urchin orders and has remained structurally conserved for a long time, at least in the "regular" species. Within the Irregularia, a considerable morphological variation of the axial complex can be observed with gradual changes in topography, size, and internal architecture. These modifications are related to the growing size of the gastric caecum as well as to the rearrangement of the morphology of the digestive tract as a whole. Conclusion The structurally most divergent axial complex can be observed in the highly derived Atelostomata in which the reorganization of the digestive tract is most pronounced. Our findings demonstrate a structural interdependence of various internal organs, including digestive tract, mesenteries, and the axial complex. PMID:19508706

  19. Caught in the evolutionary act: precise cis-regulatory basis of difference in the organization of gene networks of sea stars and sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Hinman, Veronica F; Nguyen, Albert; Davidson, Eric H

    2007-12-15

    The regulatory control of otxbeta1/2 in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and the sea star Asterina miniata provides an exceptional opportunity to determine the genomic basis of evolutionary change in gene regulatory network (GRN) architectures. Network perturbation analyses in both taxa show that Otx regulates the transcription factors gatae and krox/blimp1 and both of these transcription factors also feed back and regulate otx. The otx gene also autoregulates. This three way interaction is an example of a GRN kernel. It has been conserved for 500 million years since these two taxa last shared a common ancestor. Amid this high level of conservation we show here one significant regulatory change. Tbrain is required for correct otxbeta1/2 expression in the sea star but not in the sea urchin. In sea urchin, tbrain is not co-expressed with otxbeta1/2 and instead has an essential role in specification of the embryonic skeleton. Tbrain in these echinoderms is thus a perfect example of an orthologous gene co-opted for entirely different developmental processes. We isolate and test the sea star otxbeta1/2 cis-regulatory module and demonstrate functional binding sites for each of the predicted inputs, including Tbrain. We compare it to the logic processing operating in the sea urchin otxbeta1/2 cis-regulatory module and present an evolutionary scenario of the change in Tbrain dependence. Finally, inter-specific gene transfer experiments confirm this scenario and demonstrate evolution occurring at the level of sequence changes to the cis-regulatory module.

  20. A Method for Preparation, Storage and Activation of Large Populations of Immotile Sea Urchin Sperm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bracho, Geracimo E.; Fritch, Jennifer J.; Tash, Joseph S.

    1997-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is associated with initiation and modulation of sperm flagellar motility. Many studies aimed at examining the signal transduction mechanisms underlying the expression of motility have relied on detergent-permeabilized sperm reactivated with exogenous 32 P-ATP. However, the reactivation conditions allow variable levels of motility to be expressed and phosphorylation of many proteins that appear to be unrelated to sperm motility. Thus, identification of the few relevant proteins is difficult. We have developed a method to collect and keep sperm immotile until reactivated for analysis to normal motility levels. Artificial sea water (ASW) buffered with 5 mM 2-[N-morpholino]ethanesulfonic acid at pH 6.0 and containing 50 mM KCI, allows collection and storage of immotile sea urchin sperm for up to 96 h at 4-5 C. Motility under these conditions is essentially zero, but sperm is rapidly reactivated to normal motility by diluting with ASW to standard pH (8.0) and KCI concentration (10 mM).

  1. Early life developmental effects of marine persistent organic pollutants on the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris.

    PubMed

    Anselmo, Henrique M R; Koerting, Lina; Devito, Sarah; van den Berg, Johannes H J; Dubbeldam, Marco; Kwadijk, Christiaan; Murk, Albertinka J

    2011-11-01

    A new 16-day echinoid early life stage (ELS) bioassay was developed to allow for prolonged observation of possible adverse effects during embryogenesis and larval development of the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris. Subsequently, the newly developed bioassay was applied to study the effects of key marine persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Mortality, morphological abnormalities and larval development stages were quantified at specific time points during the 16-day experimental period. In contrast to amphibians and fish, P. miliaris early life development was not sensitive to dioxin-like toxicity in the prolonged early life stage test. Triclosan (TCS) levels higher than 500 nM were acutely toxic during embryo development. Morphological abnormalities were induced at concentrations higher than 50 nM hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and 1000 nM tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Larval development was delayed above 25 nM HBCD and 500 nM TBBPA. Heptadecafluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) exposure slightly accelerated larval development at 9 days post-fertilization (dpf). However, the accelerated development was no longer observed at the end of the test period (16 dpf). The newly developed 16-day echinoid ELS bioassay proved to be sensitive to toxic effects of POPs that can be monitored for individual echinoid larvae. The most sensitive and dose related endpoint was the number of developmental penalty points. By manipulation of the housing conditions, the reproductive season could be extended from 3 to 9 months per year and the ELS experiments could be performed in artificial sea water as well.

  2. Physiological compensation for environmental acidification is limited in the deep-sea urchin Strongylocentrotus fragilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. R.; Lovera, C.; Whaling, P. J.; Buck, K. R.; Pane, E. F.; Barry, J. P.

    2013-05-01

    Anthropogenic CO2 is now reaching depths over 1000 m in the Eastern Pacific, overlapping the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ). Deep-sea animals - particularly, calcifiers - are suspected to be especially sensitive to environmental acidification associated with global climate change. We have investigated the effects of hypercapnia and hypoxia on the deep-sea urchin Strongylocentrotus fragilis, during two long-term exposure experiments (1 month and 4 month) at three levels of reduced pH at in situ O2 levels of approx. 10% saturation, and also to control pH at 100% O2 saturation. During the first experiment, internal acid-base balance was investigated during a one-month exposure; results show S. fragilis has limited ability to compensate for the respiratory acidosis brought on by reduced pH, due in part to low non-bicarbonate extracellular fluid buffering capacity. During the second experiment, longer-term effects of hypercapnia and variable O2 on locomotion, feeding, growth, and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were investigated; results show significant mortality and correlation of all measured parameters with environmental acidification at pH 6.6. Transient adverse effects on locomotion and feeding were seen at pH 7.2, without compromise of growth or GSI. Based on the expected changes in ocean pH and oxygen, results suggest extinction of S. fragilis in the eastern North Pacific is unlikely. Rather, we expect a shoaling and contraction of its bathymetric range.

  3. Halomonas zhanjiangensis sp. nov., a halophilic bacterium isolated from a sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Huang, Heng-Yu; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Tang, Shu-Kun; Huang, Ke; Chen, Qi-Hui; Cui, Xiao-Long; Li, Wen-Jun

    2009-11-01

    A novel Gram-negative, slightly halophilic, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, obligately aerobic, non-sporulating rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain JSM 078169(T), was isolated from a sea urchin (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus) collected from the South China Sea. Growth occurred with 1-20 % (w/v) total salts (optimum, 3-5 %), at pH 6.0-10.5 (optimum, pH 7.5) and at 4-40 degrees C (optimum, 25-30 degrees C). The major cellular fatty acids were C(18 : 1)omega7c, C(16 : 0) and C(12 : 0) 3-OH. The predominant respiratory quinone was Q-9 and the genomic DNA G+C content was 55.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JSM 078169(T) should be assigned to the genus Halomonas. The sequence similarities between the isolate and the type strains of members of the genus Halomonas were in the range 92.4-97.0 %. The combination of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data supported the view that strain JSM 078169(T) represents a novel species of the genus Halomonas, for which the name Halomonas zhanjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed, with JSM 078169(T) (=CCTCC AB 208031(T)=DSM 21076(T)=KCTC 22279(T)) as the type strain.

  4. The Influence of Physical Factors on Kelp and Sea Urchin Distribution in Previously and Still Grazed Areas in the NE Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Rinde, Eli; Christie, Hartvig; Fagerli, Camilla W.; Bekkby, Trine; Gundersen, Hege; Norderhaug, Kjell Magnus; Hjermann, Dag Ø.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of kelp (Laminaria hyperborea) and sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) in the NE Atlantic are highly related to physical factors and to temporal changes in temperature. On a large scale, we identified borders for kelp recovery and sea urchin persistence along the north-south gradient. Sea urchin persistence was also related to the coast-ocean gradient. The southern border corresponds to summer temperatures exceeding about 10°C, a threshold value known to be critical for sea urchin recruitment and development. The outer border along the coast-ocean gradient is related to temperature, wave exposure and salinity. On a finer scale, kelp recovery occurs mainly at ridges in outer, wave exposed, saline and warm areas whereas sea urchins still dominate in inner, shallow and cold areas, particularly in areas with optimal current speed for sea urchin foraging. In contrast to other studies in Europe, we here show a positive influence of climate change to presence of a long-lived climax canopy-forming kelp. The extent of the coast-ocean gradient varies within the study area, and is especially wide in the southern part where the presence of islands and skerries increases the area of the shallow coastal zone. This creates a large area with intermediate physical conditions for the two species and a mosaic of kelp and sea urchin dominated patches. The statistical models (GAM and BRT) show high performance and indicate recovery of kelp in 45–60% of the study area. The study shows the value of combining a traditional (GAM) and a more complex (BRT) modeling approach to gain insight into complex spatial patterns of species or habitats. The results, methods and approaches are of general ecological relevance regardless of ecosystems and species, although they are particularly relevant for understanding and exploring the corresponding changes between algae and grazers in different coastal areas. PMID:24949954

  5. The influence of physical factors on kelp and sea urchin distribution in previously and still grazed areas in the NE Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Rinde, Eli; Christie, Hartvig; Fagerli, Camilla W; Bekkby, Trine; Gundersen, Hege; Norderhaug, Kjell Magnus; Hjermann, Dag Ø

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of kelp (Laminaria hyperborea) and sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) in the NE Atlantic are highly related to physical factors and to temporal changes in temperature. On a large scale, we identified borders for kelp recovery and sea urchin persistence along the north-south gradient. Sea urchin persistence was also related to the coast-ocean gradient. The southern border corresponds to summer temperatures exceeding about 10°C, a threshold value known to be critical for sea urchin recruitment and development. The outer border along the coast-ocean gradient is related to temperature, wave exposure and salinity. On a finer scale, kelp recovery occurs mainly at ridges in outer, wave exposed, saline and warm areas whereas sea urchins still dominate in inner, shallow and cold areas, particularly in areas with optimal current speed for sea urchin foraging. In contrast to other studies in Europe, we here show a positive influence of climate change to presence of a long-lived climax canopy-forming kelp. The extent of the coast-ocean gradient varies within the study area, and is especially wide in the southern part where the presence of islands and skerries increases the area of the shallow coastal zone. This creates a large area with intermediate physical conditions for the two species and a mosaic of kelp and sea urchin dominated patches. The statistical models (GAM and BRT) show high performance and indicate recovery of kelp in 45-60% of the study area. The study shows the value of combining a traditional (GAM) and a more complex (BRT) modeling approach to gain insight into complex spatial patterns of species or habitats. The results, methods and approaches are of general ecological relevance regardless of ecosystems and species, although they are particularly relevant for understanding and exploring the corresponding changes between algae and grazers in different coastal areas. PMID:24949954

  6. Amelioration of endotoxin-induced uveitis treated with the sea urchin pigment echinochrome in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kitaichi, Nobuyoshi; Noda, Kousuke; Mizuuchi, Kazuomi; Ando, Ryo; Dong, Zhenyu; Fukuhara, Junichi; Kinoshita, Satoshi; Namba, Kenichi; Ohno, Shigeaki; Ishida, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Echinochrome is a pigment present in the shells and spines of sea urchins. It has been reported to have several biologic protective effects, including in experimental models of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, for which the proposed mechanisms are scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and chelating iron. Endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) is an animal model of acute anterior segment intraocular inflammation that is induced by the injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In this study, the therapeutic effect of echinochrome was examined in uveitis using the EIU model. Methods EIU was induced in Lewis rats via 200 μg subcutaneous injections of LPS from Escherichia coli. Echinochrome was administered intravenously in 10, 1, or 0.1 mg/kg doses suspended in PBS (controls were injected with PBS only). Twenty-four hours after LPS injection, the number of infiltrating cells and the protein concentration in aqueous humor were determined. Aqueous tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) concentration was quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, eyes were stained with nuclear factor (NF) κB antibodies, and ROS production was determined by dihydroethidium staining in fresh frozen samples. Results The number of inflammatory aqueous cells and protein levels were lower in the groups treated with 10 and 1 mg/kg of echinochrome than in the untreated LPS group (p<0.01). Treatment with 10 and 1 mg/kg of echinochrome significantly reduced TNF-α concentrations in aqueous humor (p<0.01). The numbers of NFκB-positive cells and ROS signals were also reduced by echinochrome administration (p<0.05). Conclusions Echinochrome ameliorated intraocular inflammation caused by EIU by reducing ROS production, thereby also decreasing the expression of NFκB and TNF-α. As a natural pigment, echinochrome may therefore be a promising candidate for the safe treatment of intraocular inflammation. The use of sea urchin shells and spines in health foods and medical products is thus

  7. Innate Immune Complexity in the Purple Sea Urchin: Diversity of the Sp185/333 System

    PubMed Central

    Smith, L. Courtney

    2012-01-01

    The California purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, is a long-lived echinoderm with a complex and sophisticated innate immune system. There are several large gene families that function in immunity in this species including the Sp185/333 gene family that has ∼50 (±10) members. The family shows intriguing sequence diversity and encodes a broad array of diverse yet similar proteins. The genes have two exons of which the second encodes the mature protein and has repeats and blocks of sequence called elements. Mosaics of element patterns plus single nucleotide polymorphisms-based variants of the elements result in significant sequence diversity among the genes yet maintains similar structure among the members of the family. Sequence of a bacterial artificial chromosome insert shows a cluster of six, tightly linked Sp185/333 genes that are flanked by GA microsatellites. The sequences between the GA microsatellites in which the Sp185/333 genes and flanking regions are located, are much more similar to each other than are the sequences outside the microsatellites suggesting processes such as gene conversion, recombination, or duplication. However, close linkage does not correspond with greater sequence similarity compared to randomly cloned and sequenced genes that are unlikely to be linked. There are three segmental duplications that are bounded by GAT microsatellites and include three almost identical genes plus flanking regions. RNA editing is detectible throughout the mRNAs based on comparisons to the genes, which, in combination with putative post-translational modifications to the proteins, results in broad arrays of Sp185/333 proteins that differ among individuals. The mature proteins have an N-terminal glycine-rich region, a central RGD motif, and a C-terminal histidine-rich region. The Sp185/333 proteins are localized to the cell surface and are found within vesicles in subsets of polygonal and small phagocytes. The coelomocyte proteome shows full

  8. Pharmacological properties of the Ca2+-release mechanism sensitive to NAADP in the sea urchin egg

    PubMed Central

    Genazzani, A A; Mezna, M; Dickey, D M; Michelangeli, F; Walseth, T F; Galione, A

    1997-01-01

    The sea urchin egg homogenate is an ideal model to characterize Ca2+-release mechanisms because of its reliability and high signal-to-noise-ratio. Apart from the InsP3- and ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+-release mechanisms, it has been recently demonstrated that this model is responsive to a third independent mechanism, that has the pyridine nucleotide, nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), as an endogenous agonist. The sea urchin egg homogenate was used to characterize the pharmacological and biochemical characteristics of the novel Ca2+-releasing agent, NAADP, compared to inositol trisphosphate (InsP3) and cyclic ADP ribose (cyclic ADPR), an endogenous activator of ryanodine receptors. NAADP-induced Ca2+-release was blocked by L-type Ca2+-channel blockers and by Bay K 8644, while InsP3- and cyclic ADPR-induced Ca2+-release were insensitive to these agents. L-type Ca2+-channel blockers did not displace [32P]-NAADP binding, suggesting that their binding site was different. Moreover, stopped-flow kinetic studies revealed that these agents blocked NAADP in a all-or-none fashion. Similarly, a number of K+-channel antagonists blocked NAADP-induced Ca2+-release selectively over InsP3- and cyclic ADPR-induced Ca2+-release. Radioligand studies showed that these agents were not competitive antagonists. As has been shown for InsP3 and ryanodine receptors, NAADP receptors were sensitive to calmodulin antagonists, suggesting that this protein could be a common regulatory feature of intracellular Ca2+-release mechanisms. The presence of K+ was not essential for NAADP-induced Ca2+-release, since substitution of K+ with other monovalent cations in the experimental media did not significantly alter Ca2+ release by NAADP. On the contrary, cyclic ADPR and InsP3-sensitive mechanisms were affected profoundly, although to a different extent depending on the monovalent cation which substituted for K+. Similarly, modifications of the pH in the experimental media from 7.2 to 6

  9. The substructure of isolated and in situ outer dynein arms of sea urchin sperm flagella

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Outer-arm dynein from the sperm of the sea urchin S. purpuratus was adsorbed to mica flakes and visualized by the quick-freeze, deep-etch technique. Replicas reveal particles comprised of two globular heads joined by two irregularly shaped stems which make contact along their length. One head is pear-shaped (18.5 X 12.5 nm) and the other is spherical (14.5-nm diam). The stems are decorated by a complex of bead- like subunits. The same two-headed protein is found in the 21S dynein-1 fraction of sucrose gradients. The beta-heavy chain/intermediate chain 1 (beta/IC-1) dynein subfraction, produced by low-salt dialysis and zonal centrifugation of the high-salt-extracted dynein-1, contains only single-headed molecules with single stems. These heads are predominantly pear-shaped (18.5 X 12.5 nm). Since 21S dynein-1 contains two heavy chains (alpha and beta), and the beta/IC-1 subfraction is comprised of only the beta-heavy chain (Tang et al., 1982, J. Biol. Chem. 257: 508-515), we conclude that each head is formed by a heavy chain, that the pear-shaped head contains the beta-heavy chain, and that the spherical head contains the alpha-heavy chain. The in situ outer dynein arms of demembranated sperm were also studied by the quick- freeze, deep-etch method. When frozen in reactivation buffer devoid of ATP, each arm consists of a large globular head that attaches to the A- microtubule by distally skewed subunits and attaches to the B- microtubule by a slender stalk. In ATP, this head shifts its orientation such that it can be seen to be constructed from two globular domains. We offer possible correlates between the in situ and the in vitro images, and we compare the structure of sea-urchin dynein with dynein previously described from Chlamydomonas and Tetrahymena. PMID:2931439

  10. [Abundance of the sea urchin Centrostephanus coronatus (Echinoidea: Diadematidae) in the Costa Rican Pacific].

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Juan José

    2004-12-01

    Centrostephanus coronatus reaches a density of 0.06 individuals/m2 in shallow reef waters in Parque Nacional Marino Ballena, Pacific of Costa Rica, in the same habitat occupied by the urchin Diadema mexicanum. It is the fourth species of diadematoid urchins reported for Costa Rican and a first new report for Central America. PMID:17354400

  11. [Abundance of the sea urchin Centrostephanus coronatus (Echinoidea: Diadematidae) in the Costa Rican Pacific].

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Juan José

    2004-12-01

    Centrostephanus coronatus reaches a density of 0.06 individuals/m2 in shallow reef waters in Parque Nacional Marino Ballena, Pacific of Costa Rica, in the same habitat occupied by the urchin Diadema mexicanum. It is the fourth species of diadematoid urchins reported for Costa Rican and a first new report for Central America.

  12. Conservation of the WD-repeat, microtubule-binding protein, EMAP, in sea urchins, humans, and the nematode C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Suprenant, K A; Tuxhorn, J A; Daggett, M A; Ahrens, D P; Hostetler, A; Palange, J M; VanWinkle, C E; Livingston, B T

    2000-01-01

    The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein (EMAP) is the most abundant microtubule-binding protein in the first cleavage mitotic apparatus in sea urchin embryos. The first goal of this study was to determine whether there is sufficient EMAP in the egg and embryo to modify microtubule dynamics during the early cleavages divisions and whether EMAP functions at a specific time or place in the embryo. To accomplish this goal, we examined the relative abundance, tissue distribution, and temporal pattern of EMAP expression during embryonic development. The second goal of this study was to identify important functional domains within the EMAP coding sequence. A conserved sequence might reveal a potential microtubule-binding domain. We cloned, sequenced and compared overlapping EMAP cDNAs from two different sea urchin species that diverged approximately 80 million years ago, and compared these with cDNA sequences from a vertebrate and nematode species. From quantitative immunoblots, we determined the EMAP concentration in eggs to be 4 microM. The steady-state levels of EMAP mRNA and protein accumulated during development, and all three germ layers expressed EMAP. During the early stages of development, EMAP and tubulin were both abundant in the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. However, during late gastrulation and the formation of the early pluteus larvae, EMAP was enriched in the mesoderm, while tubulin staining was most abundant in the archenteron. These results indicate that EMAP may have tissue-specific functions in the late stage embryo. To identify conserved functional domains, we compared the predicted amino acid sequence encoded by Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus variegatus EMAP cDNAs, and determined that these two sea urchin EMAPs were 95% conserved and shared an identical domain organization. A parsimonious analysis of these sea urchin protein sequences, as well as human and C. elegans EMAP sequences was used to construct a gene tree. Together

  13. Features of Red Sea Water Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartadikaria, Aditya; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Features of Red Sea water mass can be divided into three types but best to be grouped into two different classes that are split at the potential density line σθ=27.4. The surface water (0-50 m) and the intermediate water (50-200 m) have nearly identical types of water mass. They appear as a maxima salinity layer for the water mass that has σθ > 26.0, and as a minimum salinity layer for water mass that has σθ < 26.0. These types of water masses are strongly affected by mixing that is controlled by seasonal variability, fresh water intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water (GAIW), and eddies variability. Two types of mixing; isopycnal and diapycnal mixing are part of important physical phenomena that explain the change of water mass in the Red Sea. The isopycnal mixing occurs at the neutral potential density line, connecting the Red Sea with its adjacent channel, the Gulf of Aden. Diapycnal mixing is found as a dominant mixing mode in the surface of the Red Sea Water and mainly due to energetic eddy activity. Density gradients, across which diapycnal mixing occurs, in the Red Sea are mainly due to large variations in salinity. The isolation of an extreme haline water mass below the thermocline contributes to the generation of the latitudinal shift and low diapycnal mixing. This finding further explains the difference of spatial kinetic mixing between the RSW and the Indian Ocean basin.

  14. Cannabinoids inhibit fertilization in sea urchins by reducing the fertilizing capacity of sperm.

    PubMed

    Schuel, H; Chang, M C; Berkery, D; Schuel, R; Zimmerman, A M; Zimmerman, S

    1991-11-01

    Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabinol (CBN) inhibit fertilization in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus by reducing the fertilizing capacity of the sperm. Sperm fertility depends upon their motility, and their capacity to undergo the acrosome reaction upon encountering a specific ligand derived from the egg's jelly coat. The acrosome reaction involves exocytosis of the acrosomal granule at the apex of the sperm head and elongation of the acrosomal filament. This process exposes the sperm membrane that will attach to and fuse with the egg. Pretreatment of sperm with THC prevents the triggering of the acrosome reaction by solubilized egg jelly in a dose and time dependent manner. Motility of THC-treated sperm is not reduced compared to control sperm in sea water or vehicle dissolved in sea water. The adverse effects of THC on the acrosome reaction and sperm-fertilizing capacity are reversible. Studies with ionophores suggest that THC blocks the acrosome reaction by affecting event(s) in the stimulation-secretion coupling mechanism in the sperm preceding the opening of ion channels. Ultrastructural studies show that THC, CBD and CBN block the membrane fusion reaction between the sperm's plasma membrane and the acrosomal membrane that normally is elicited in response to stimulation by egg jelly to initiate the acrosome reaction. However, lipid deposits are found in the subacrosomal and centriolar fossae of cannabinoid treated sperm. The nuclear envelope is fragmented in close proximity to the lipid deposits within the subacrosomal fossa. These morphological observations suggest that cannabinoids may activate phospholipase(s) within the sperm. Biochemical studies show that THC activates phospholipase A2 activity in sperm homogenates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Applied DC magnetic fields cause alterations in the time of cell divisions and developmental abnormalities in early sea urchin embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, M.; Ernst, S.G.

    1997-05-01

    Most work on magnetic field effects focuses on AC fields. The present study demonstrates that exposure to medium-strength (10 mT--0.1 T) static magnetic fields can alter the early embryonic development of two species of sea urchin embryos. Batches of fertilized eggs from two species of urchin were exposed to fields produced by permanent magnets. Samples of the continuous cultures were scored for the timing of the first two cell divisions, time of hatching, and incidence of exogastrulation. It was found that static fields delay the onset of mitosis in both species by an amount dependent on the exposure timing relative to fertilization. The exposure time that caused the maximum effect differed between the two species. Thirty millitesla fields, but not 15 mT fields, caused an eightfold increase in the incidence of exogastrulation in Lytechinus pictus, whereas neither of these fields produced exogastrulation in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

  16. Maternal Exposure to Cadmium and Manganese Impairs Reproduction and Progeny Fitness in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, Oriana; Castellano, Immacolata; Cirino, Paola; Romano, Giovanna; Palumbo, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Metal contamination represents one of the major sources of pollution in marine environments. In this study we investigated the short-term effects of ecologically relevant cadmium and manganese concentrations (10-6 and 3.6 x 10-5 M, respectively) on females of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and their progeny, reared in the absence or presence of the metal. Cadmium is a well-known heavy metal, whereas manganese represents a potential emerging contaminant, resulting from an increased production of manganese-containing compounds. The effects of these agents were examined on both P. lividus adults and their offspring following reproductive state, morphology of embryos, nitric oxide (NO) production and differential gene expression. Here, we demonstrated that both metals differentially impaired the fertilization processes of the treated female sea urchins, causing modifications in the reproductive state and also affecting NO production in the ovaries. A detailed analysis of the progeny showed a high percentage of abnormal embryos, associated to an increase in the endogenous NO levels and variations in the transcriptional expression of several genes involved in stress response, skeletogenesis, detoxification, multi drug efflux processes and NO production. Moreover, we found significant differences in the progeny from females exposed to metals and reared in metal-containing sea water compared to embryos reared in non-contaminated sea water. Overall, these results greatly expanded previous studies on the toxic effects of metals on P. lividus and provided new insights into the molecular events induced in the progeny of sea urchins exposed to metals. PMID:26125595

  17. Assessment of the toxic effect exerted by fluorescent pseudomonads on embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus.

    PubMed

    Beleneva, I A; Shamshurina, E V; Eliseikina, M G

    2015-05-01

    Strains of bacteria capable of growing on artificial culture media were isolated from the fouling of brass plates submerged in Nha Trang Bay, South China Sea, and from tissues of the seastar Distolasterias nipon, caught in Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan. According to the complex of data of genetic and physiological/biochemical analyzes, two strains of cultivated bacteria were identified by us as the species Pseudomonas aeruginosa, two strains as Pseudomonas fluorescens, and one strain as Ruegeria sp. It was shown that the cultivated strains of P. aeruginosa released exotoxins, particularly phenazine pigments, into the environment. Production of the toxins did not depend on presence of a target organism in the system and was aimed at regulation of interactions in the microbial community. The toxicity of the studied natural isolates of fluorescent pseudomonads was analyzed by using embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus, which are the sensitive and dynamic toxicological sea-urchin embryo test (SET) system. As was established, exotoxins produced by the strains of P. aeruginosa inhibit activity of cilia in sea urchin larvae, as well as disturb processes of cell differentiation in embryos and larvae. Their toxic influence is accompanied by disturbances of protein synthesis and the disruptions of cytoskeleton in the course of zygote cleavage and larval development. Unlike P. aeruginosa, the strains of P. fluorescens and Ruegeria sp. did not exert the toxic effect on SET. The obtained data allow considering objects of the environment as the natural reservoir of opportunistic microorganisms posing a potential threat to human, whereas the use of SET for determination of toxicity of isolated bacteria provides an opportunity to study the mechanisms of their interactions with organisms in marine ecosystems.

  18. Mechanisms of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Katow, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Sea urchin mesenchyme is composed of the large micromere-derived spiculogenetic primary mesenchyme cells (PMC), veg2-tier macromere-derived non-spiculogenetic mesenchyme cells, the small micromere-derived germ cells, and the macro- and mesomere-derived neuronal mesenchyme cells. They are formed through the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and possess multipotency, except PMCs that solely differentiate larval spicules. The process of EMT is associated with modification of epithelial cell surface property that includes loss of affinity to the apical and basal extracellular matrices, inter-epithelial cell adherens junctions and epithelial cell surface-specific proteins. These cell surface structures and molecules are endocytosed during EMT and utilized as initiators of cytoplasmic signaling pathways that often initiate protein phosphorylation to activate the gene regulatory networks. Acquisition of cell motility after EMT in these mesenchyme cells is associated with the expression of proteins such as Lefty, Snail and Seawi. Structural simplicity and genomic database of this model will further promote detailed EMT research. PMID:26716069

  19. Deployment of a retinal determination gene network drives directed cell migration in the sea urchin embryo

    PubMed Central

    Martik, Megan L; McClay, David R

    2015-01-01

    Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) provide a systems-level orchestration of an organism's genome encoded anatomy. As biological networks are revealed, they continue to answer many questions including knowledge of how GRNs control morphogenetic movements and how GRNs evolve. The migration of the small micromeres to the coelomic pouches in the sea urchin embryo provides an exceptional model for understanding the genomic regulatory control of morphogenesis. An assay using the robust homing potential of these cells reveals a ‘coherent feed-forward’ transcriptional subcircuit composed of Pax6, Six3, Six1/2, Eya, and Dach1 that is responsible for the directed homing mechanism of these multipotent progenitors. The linkages of that circuit are strikingly similar to a circuit involved in retinal specification in Drosophila suggesting that systems-level tasks can be highly conserved even though the tasks drive unrelated processes in different animals. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08827.001 PMID:26402456

  20. Nutrient composition and antioxidant activity of gonads of sea urchin Stomopneustes variolaris.

    PubMed

    Archana, Ayyagari; Babu, K Ramesh

    2016-04-15

    The study investigated, for the first time, proximate nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of gonads from the sea urchin, Stomopneustes variolaris, inhabiting the coastal area of Visakhapatnam (India). Moisture, ash, proteins, lipids and carbohydrate content were 77.53%±0.80, 3.76%±0.25, 12.10%±0.41, 4.98%±0.36 and 1.63%±0.18, respectively, based on dry weight. The gonads were rich in essential amino acids (ca. 32.1% of total amino acids) with the most predominant being phenylalanine, lysine and valine. The essential to non-essential amino acid ratio was 0.5. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) constituted 22.01%±2.2 of total fatty acids. The ω6:ω3 ratio was 0.94. Total phenol content of the gonad was 9.90±0.01 mg GAE/g and the IC50 of the extract, using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, was 57.81 μg/ml. PMID:26616993

  1. Geometric control of ciliated band regulatory states in the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Barsi, Julius C; Li, Enhu; Davidson, Eric H

    2015-03-01

    The trapezoidal ciliated band (CB) of the postgastrular sea urchin embryo surrounds the oral ectoderm, separating it from adjacent embryonic territories. Once differentiated, the CB is composed of densely arranged cells bearing long cilia that endow the larva with locomotion and feeding capability. The spatial pattern from which the CB will arise is first evidenced during pregastrular stages by expression of the pioneer gene onecut. Immediately after gastrulation, the CB consists of four separate regulatory state domains, each of which expresses a unique set of transcription factors: (1) the oral apical CB, located within the apical neurogenic field; (2) the animal lateral CB, which bilaterally separates the oral from aboral ectoderm; (3) the vegetal lateral CB, which bilaterally serves as signaling centers; and (4) the vegetal oral CB, which delineates the boundary with the underlying endoderm. Remarkably, almost all of the regulatory genes specifically expressed within these domains are downregulated by interference with SoxB1 expression, implying their common activation by this factor. Here, we show how the boundaries of the CB subdomains are established, and thus ascertain the design principle by which the geometry of this unique and complex regulatory state pattern is genomically controlled. Each of these boundaries, on either side of the CB, is defined by spatially confined transcriptional repressors, the products of regulatory genes operating across the border of each subdomain. In total this requires deployment of about ten different repressors, which we identify in this work, thus exemplifying the complexity of information required for spatial regulatory organization during embryogenesis.

  2. Toxicity of binary mixtures of oil fractions to sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Rial, Diego; Vázquez, José A; Menduiña, Araceli; García, Ana M; González, M Pilar; Mirón, Jesús; Murado, Miguel A

    2013-12-15

    The assumption of additive toxicity for oil compounds is related to a narcotic mode of action. However, the joint toxicity of oil fractions has not been fully investigated. A fractionation of Maya crude oil into aliphatics, aromatics and polars was performed, fractions were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and subsequently toxicity of single fractions and binary mixtures was assessed using the sea urchin embryo test. The descriptive ability of Concentration Addition (CA), Independent Action (IA) and modifications of both models for describing the joint toxicity of mixtures has also been evaluated. The hydrocarbon content extractable with dichloromethane of the fractions dissolved in DMSO was: 12.0 ± 1.8 mg mL(-1), 39.0 ± 0.5 mg mL(-1) and 20.5 ± 2.5 mg mL(-1) for aliphatics, aromatics and polars, respectively. The toxicity of the extracts in DMSO of the fractions as EC50 (μLL(-1)) was: aliphatics (165.8-242.3)

  3. Ultraviolet radiation-specific DNA damage and embryonic viability in sea urchins from Kasitsna Bay, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Theodorakis, C.; Anderson, S.; Shugart, L.R.

    1995-12-31

    Ripe ova and sperm were obtained from Green Sea Urchins (Strongvlocentrotus drochbachiensis) collected from Kasitsna Bay, Alaska, and ova were fertilized in vitro. Embryos were immediately placed in plastic bags secured to floating racks deployed in the bay. The bags were suspended just below the surface of the water and at 1 and 2 meter depths for up to 120 hours. Bags were either left uncovered, covered with Mylar plastic (which blocks out UV-B but not UV-A radiations), or covered with dark plastic. The number of damaged DNA sites was determined by digesting the DNA with enzymes isolated from the bacterium Micrococcus luteus which cleave the DNA at damaged sites. It was found that DNA damage was present in a dose-dependent fashion with the amount of damage in embryos from the uncovered bags > Mylar covered bags > dark covered bags. No dimers were detected from embryos at 1 or 2 m. depths. Also, the number of damaged sites varied from day to day. Finally, the number of damaged sites was positively correlated with percent abnormal embryos in each bag. The results are discussed with relation to monitoring UV-B effects and ecological consequences of enhanced UV-B radiation.

  4. Genetic variation underlies temperature tolerance of embryos in the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma armigera.

    PubMed

    Lymbery, R A; Evans, J P

    2013-10-01

    Ocean warming can alter natural selection on marine systems, and in many cases, the long-term persistence of affected populations will depend on genetic adaptation. In this study, we assess the potential for adaptation in the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma armigera, an Australian endemic, that is experiencing unprecedented increases in ocean temperatures. We used a factorial breeding design to assess the level of heritable variation in larval hatching success at two temperatures. Fertilized eggs from each full-sibling family were tested at 22 °C (current spawning temperature) and 25 °C (upper limit of predicted warming this century). Hatching success was significantly lower at higher temperatures, confirming that ocean warming is likely to exert selection on this life-history stage. Our analyses revealed significant additive genetic variance and genotype-by-environment interactions underlying hatching success. Consistent with prior work, we detected significant nonadditive (sire-by-dam) variance in hatching success, but additionally found that these interactions were modified by temperature. Although these findings suggest the potential for genetic adaptation, any evolutionary responses are likely to be influenced (and possibly constrained) by complex genotype-by-environment and sire-by-dam interactions and will additionally depend on patterns of genetic covariation with other fitness traits.

  5. Evolutionary modification of cell lineage in the direct-developing sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma.

    PubMed

    Wray, G A; Raff, R A

    1989-04-01

    The sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma undergoes direct development, bypassing the usual echinoid pluteus larva. We present an analysis of cell lineage in H. erythrogramma as part of a definition of the mechanistic basis for this evolutionary change in developmental mode. Microinjection of fluoresceinated tracer dye and surface marking with vital dye are used to follow larval fates of 2-cell, 8-cell, and 16-cell blastomeres, and to examine axial specification. The animal-vegetal axis and adult dorsoventral axis are basically unmodified in H. erythrogramma. Animal cell fates are very similar to those of typically developing species; however, vegetal cell fates in H. erythrogramma are substantially altered. Radial differences exist among vegetal blastomere fates in the 8-cell embryo: dorsal vegetal blastomeres contribute proportionately more descendants to ectodermal and fewer to mesodermal fates, while ventral vegetal blastomeres have a complementary bias in fates. In addition, vegetal cell fates are more variable than in typical developers. There are no cells in H. erythrogramma with fates comparable to those of the micromeres and macromeres of typically developing echinoids. Instead, all vegetal cells in the 16-cell embryo can contribute progeny to ectoderm and gut. Alterations have thus arisen in cleavage patterns and timing of cell lineage partitioning during the evolution of direct development in H. erythrogramma.

  6. Differential Nanos 2 protein stability results in selective germ cell accumulation in the sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Wessel, Gary M

    2016-10-01

    Nanos is a translational regulator required for the survival and maintenance of primordial germ cells. In the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Sp), Nanos 2 mRNA is broadly transcribed but accumulates specifically in the small micromere (sMic) lineage, in part because of the 3'UTR element GNARLE leads to turnover in somatic cells but retention in the sMics. Here we found that the Nanos 2 protein is also selectively stabilized; it is initially translated throughout the embryo but turned over in the future somatic cells and retained only in the sMics, the future germ line in this animal. This differential stability of Nanos protein is dependent on the open reading frame (ORF), and is independent of the sumoylation and ubiquitylation pathways. Manipulation of the ORF indicates that 68 amino acids in the N terminus of the Nanos protein are essential for its stability in the sMics whereas a 45 amino acid element adjacent to the zinc fingers targets its degradation. Further, this regulation of Nanos protein is cell autonomous, following formation of the germ line. These results are paradigmatic for the unique presence of Nanos in the germ line by a combination of selective RNA retention, distinctive translational control mechanisms (Oulhen et al., 2013), and now also by defined Nanos protein stability.

  7. Temporal sequence and spatial distribution of early events of fertilization in single sea urchin eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Eisen, A.; Kiehart, D.P.; Wieland, S.J.; Reynolds, G.T.

    1984-11-01

    Measurements and observations of five early events of fertilization, singly and in pairs, from single sea urchin eggs have revealed the precise temporal sequence and spatial distribution of these events. In the Arbacia punctulata egg, a wave of surface contraction occurs coincident with membrane depolarization (t = 0). These two earliest events are followed by the onset of a rapid, propagated increase in cytoplasmic-free calcium at approx.23 s as measured by calcium-aequorin luminescence. The luminescence reaches its peak value by 40 s after the membrane depolarization. The luminescence remains uniformly elevated for some time before its decay over several minutes. The onset of an increase in the pyridin nucleotide (NAD(P)H) fluorescence follows the membrane depolarization at approx.51 s. The fertilization membrane begins its elevation in a wave-like fashion coincidentally with the increase in NAD(P)H fluorescence. Similar results are observed in the Lytechinus variegatus egg. The results suggest that while the increase in cytoplasmic-free calcium may be important for many changes occurring in the egg, the elevated-free calcium is not directly responsible for the propagated wave of cortical granule exocytosis. 32 references, 10 figures.

  8. Effect of phenol on embryo development and expression of metallothionein in the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Un-Ki; Lee, Ju-Wook; Ryu, Hyang-Mi; Kang, Ju-Chan; Kang, Han Seung

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we identified and cloned the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus MT (Hp-MT) mRNA. We examined the gameto- and embryo-toxic effects and the expression of Hp-MT mRNA at various concentrations of phenol in H. pulcherrimus. We found that the normal embryogenesis rate was significantly inhibited when H. pulcherrimus was exposed to phenol (EC50 = 1565.86 ppb, 95% Cl = 1183.47-2037.84 ppb). The no observed effective concentration (NOEC) and the lowest observed effective concentration (LOEC) of the normal embryogenesis rate were < 10 ppb and 100 ppb, respectively. Hp-MT cDNA is 651 bp in length and encodes a protein of 64 amino acids. We found that the expression of Hp-MT mRNA was significantly increased with phenol treatment in a concentrationdependent manner. These results suggest that phenol at greater than 100 ppb has a toxic effect during the early embryonic stages of H. pulcherrimus, and MT mRNA may be used as a biomarker for risk assessment of phenol contamination.

  9. Genotoxic and developmental effects in sea urchins are sensitive indicators of effects of genotoxic chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.L. . Energy and Environment Division); Hose, J.E. . Dept. of Biology); Knezovich, J.P. . Health and Ecological Assessment Division)

    1994-07-01

    Purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) gametes and embryos were exposed to three known mutagenic chemicals (phenol, benzidine,and pentachlorophenol) over concentration ranges bracketing the effect levels for fertilization success. Normal development and cytogenetic effects (anaphase aberrations) were assessed after the cultures were allowed to develop for 48 h. Using radiolabeled chemicals, the authors also characterized concentrations in the test water as well as doses in the embryos following 2- and 48-h exposures. The authors observed dose responses for all chemicals and all responses, except for phenol, which showed no significant effect on development. Fertilization success was never the most sensitive end point. anaphase aberrations were the most sensitive response for phenol, with an LOEC of 2.5 mg/L exposure concentration. Anaphase aberrations and development were equivalent in sensitivity for benzidine within the tested dose range, and an LOEC of <0.1 mg/L was observed. Development was the most sensitive reasons for pentachlorophenol (LOEC 1 mg/L). the LOEC values for this study were generally lower than comparable data for aquatic life or human health protection. The authors conclude that genotoxicity and development evaluations should be included in environmental management applications and that tests developed primarily for human health protection do not reliably predict the effects of toxic substances on aquatic life.

  10. Intercalation of sea urchin proteins in calcite: Study of a crystalline composite material

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, A.; Addadi, L.; Leiserowitz, L.; Weiner, S. ); Kvick, A.; Nelson, M. )

    1990-11-02

    Sea urchin skeletal elements are composed of single crystals of calcite. Unlike their synthetic counterparts, these crystals do not have well-developed cleavage and are consequently much more resistant to fracture. This phenomenon is due in part to the presence of acidic glycoproteins occluded within the crystals. By means of x-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation, it is shown that the presence of the protein in synthetic calcite only slightly decreases the coherence length but significantly increases the angular spread of perfect domains of the crystals. In biogenic calcite, the coherence length is 1/3 to 1/4 as much as that in synthetic calcite and the angular spread is 20 to 50 times as wide. It is proposed that the presence of macromolecules concentrated at mosaic boundaries that are oblique to cleavage planes is responsible for the change in fracture properties. These results may be important in the material sciences, because of the unusual nature of this material, namely, a composite based on the controlled intercalation of macromolecules inside single-crystal lattices. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Cell surface of sea urchin micromeres and primary mesenchyme. [Arbacia punctulata; Strongylocentrotus drobachiensis; Strongylocentrotus purpuratus

    SciTech Connect

    DeSimone, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    The cell surface and extracellular matrix (ECM) of the sea urchin embryo were studied during the early morphogenetic events involved in the differentiation of the micromere cell lineage. Sixteen-cell and early cleavage stage blastomeres were isolated and the protein composition of their cell surfaces examined by /sup 125/I-labelling followed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Micromere-specific cell surface proteins are reported for Arbacia punctulata, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Cell surface glycoproteins were characterized on the basis of lectin binding specificity with a novel lectin affinity transfer technique. Using this procedure, cell-type specific surface proteins, which are also lectin-binding specific, can be detected. In addition, fluorescein conjugated lectins were microinjected into the blastocoels of living S. drobachiensis and Lytechinus pictus embryos and the patterns of lectin bindings observed by fluorescence microscopy. The evidence presented in this thesis suggests that the differentiation of the primary mesenchyme cells is correlated with changes in the molecular composition of the cell-surface and the ECM.

  12. A sea urchin genome project: sequence scan, virtual map, and additional resources.

    PubMed

    Cameron, R A; Mahairas, G; Rast, J P; Martinez, P; Biondi, T R; Swartzell, S; Wallace, J C; Poustka, A J; Livingston, B T; Wray, G A; Ettensohn, C A; Lehrach, H; Britten, R J; Davidson, E H; Hood, L

    2000-08-15

    Results of a first-stage Sea Urchin Genome Project are summarized here. The species chosen was Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a research model of major importance in developmental and molecular biology. A virtual map of the genome was constructed by sequencing the ends of 76,020 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) recombinants (average length, 125 kb). The BAC-end sequence tag connectors (STCs) occur an average of 10 kb apart, and, together with restriction digest patterns recorded for the same BAC clones, they provide immediate access to contigs of several hundred kilobases surrounding any gene of interest. The STCs survey >5% of the genome and provide the estimate that this genome contains approximately 27,350 protein-coding genes. The frequency distribution and canonical sequences of all middle and highly repetitive sequence families in the genome were obtained from the STCs as well. The 500-kb Hox gene complex of this species is being sequenced in its entirety. In addition, arrayed cDNA libraries of >10(5) clones each were constructed from every major stage of embryogenesis, several individual cell types, and adult tissues and are available to the community. The accumulated STC data and an expanding expressed sequence tag database (at present including >12, 000 sequences) have been reported to GenBank and are accessible on public web sites.

  13. Early asymmetric cues triggering the dorsal/ventral gene regulatory network of the sea urchin embryo

    PubMed Central

    Cavalieri, Vincenzo; Spinelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Dorsal/ventral (DV) patterning of the sea urchin embryo relies on a ventrally-localized organizer expressing Nodal, a pivotal regulator of the DV gene regulatory network. However, the inceptive mechanisms imposing the symmetry-breaking are incompletely understood. In Paracentrotus lividus, the Hbox12 homeodomain-containing repressor is expressed by prospective dorsal cells, spatially facing and preceding the onset of nodal transcription. We report that Hbox12 misexpression provokes DV abnormalities, attenuating nodal and nodal-dependent transcription. Reciprocally, impairing hbox12 function disrupts DV polarity by allowing ectopic expression of nodal. Clonal loss-of-function, inflicted by blastomere transplantation or gene-transfer assays, highlights that DV polarization requires Hbox12 action in dorsal cells. Remarkably, the localized knock-down of nodal restores DV polarity of embryos lacking hbox12 function. Finally, we show that hbox12 is a dorsal-specific negative modulator of the p38-MAPK activity, which is required for nodal expression. Altogether, our results suggest that Hbox12 function is essential for proper positioning of the DV organizer. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04664.001 PMID:25457050

  14. Cyclin B Translation Depends on mTOR Activity after Fertilization in Sea Urchin Embryos.

    PubMed

    Chassé, Héloïse; Mulner-Lorillon, Odile; Boulben, Sandrine; Glippa, Virginie; Morales, Julia; Cormier, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The cyclin B/CDK1 complex is a key regulator of mitotic entry. Using PP242, a specific ATP-competitive inhibitor of mTOR kinase, we provide evidence that the mTOR signalling pathway controls cyclin B mRNA translation following fertilization in Sphaerechinus granularis and Paracentrotus lividus. We show that PP242 inhibits the degradation of the cap-dependent translation repressor 4E-BP (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-Binding Protein). PP242 inhibits global protein synthesis, delays cyclin B accumulation, cyclin B/CDK1 complex activation and consequently entry into the mitotic phase of the cell cycle triggered by fertilization. PP242 inhibits cyclin B mRNA recruitment into active polysomes triggered by fertilization. An amount of cyclin B mRNA present in active polysomes appears to be insensitive to PP242 treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that, following sea urchin egg fertilization, cyclin B mRNA translation is controlled by two independent mechanisms: a PP242-sensitive and an additional PP242-insentitive mechanism.

  15. Microgravity effects during fertilization, cell division, development, and calcium metabolism in sea urchins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Heide

    1996-01-01

    The overall objectives of this project are to explore the role of microgravity during fertilization, early development, cytoskeletal organization, and skeletal calcium deposition in a model development system: the sea urchin eggs and embryos. While pursuing these objectives, we have also helped to develop, test, and fly the Aquatic Research Facility (ARF) system. Cells were fixed at preselected time points to preserve the structures and organelles of interest with regards to cell biology events during development. The protocols used for the analysis of the results had been developed during the earlier part of this research and were applied for post-flight analysis using light and (immuno)fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The structures of interest are: microtubules during fertilization, cell division, and cilia movement; microfilaments during cell surface restructuring and cell division; centrosomes and centrioles during cell division, cell differentiation, and cilia formation and movement; membranes, Golgi, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and chromosomes at all stages of development; and calcium deposits during spicule formation in late-stage embryos. In addition to further explore aspects important or living in space, several aspects of this research are also aimed at understanding diseases that affect humans on Earth which may be accelerated in space.

  16. New insights into negative effects of lithium on sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruocco, Nadia; Costantini, Maria; Santella, Luigia

    2016-08-01

    The diffuse use of lithium in a number of industrial processes has produced a significant contamination of groundwater and surface water with it. The increased use of lithium has generated only scarce studies on its concentrations in ambient waters and on its effects on aquatic organisms. Only few contributions have focused on the toxicity of lithium in marine organisms (such as marine animals, algae and vegetables), showing that the toxic effect depends on the animal species. In the present study we describe the morphological and the molecular effects of lithium chloride (LiCl), using the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus as a model organism. We show that LiCl, if added to the eggs before fertilization, induces malformations in the embryos in a dose-dependent manner. We have also followed by RT qPCR the expression levels of thirty seven genes (belonging to different classes of functional processes, such as stress, development, differentiation, skeletogenesis and detoxifications) to identify the molecular targets of LiCl. This study opens new perspectives for the understanding of the mechanism of action of lithium on marine organisms. The findings may also have relevance outside the world of marine organisms since lithium is widely prescribed for the treatment of human bipolar disorders.

  17. Antimitotic activity of the pyrimidinone derivative py-09 on sea urchin embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Dalliane; Mendonça Júnior, Francisco Jaime Bezerra; de Moura, Ricardo Olimpio; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando

    2016-03-01

    Chemotherapy is the main cancer treatment and consists of drug administration that interferes with several metabolic pathways, leading to tumor cell death. Antimitotic drugs have a relevant role in chemotherapy. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a pyrimidinone derivative (6-(p-Anisyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-4-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidine-5-carbonitrile, Py-09) on sea urchin embryonic development model. The effects of the compound were analyzed on fertilization, embryonic development, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ABC transporter activity. Py-09 inhibited the fertilization and the embryonic development in a time and dose-dependent pattern, with the maximum effect at 50 μM (EC50=12.5 μM). Py-09 induced the loss of ΔΨm without altering ROS intracellular levels. Morphological changes were observed in the pattern of embryo cleavage (unequal cleavage) and at larval stages (fissures of spicules and pigment cell leakage). We also demonstrated that Py-09 is not an ABC transporter substrate and the derivative does not circumvent the MXR phenomenon. Our study reports--for the first time--the antimitotic activity of Py-09 and stimulates new research on the potential of Py-09 as a pharmacological tool for in vitro studies, as well as its use as a new anticancer drug.

  18. Photoprotective effect of coumarin and 3-hydroxycoumarin in sea urchin gametes and embryonic cells.

    PubMed

    de Araujo Leite, Jocelmo Cássio; de Castro, Tainá Myra Xavier; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; de Siqueira-Junior, José Pinto; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando

    2015-05-01

    Ultraviolet radiation B (UVB) represents 5% of all solar UV radiation and chronic exposure can induce harmful biological responses, including skin cancer. Prospection of new drugs with photoprotective properties and less toxic effects is constant and natural products have been the main options in this field. Coumarins are a group of natural phenolic compounds that shows several pharmacological activities. The aim of present work was to investigate the effect of coumarin and six derivatives in sea urchin gametes and zygotes exposed to UVB. Embryonic development assay was used to monitor UVB embryotoxicity. Firstly, we demonstrated that coumarin inhibited first embryonic cell division from 5 μM (EC50 = 52.9 μM) and its derivatives showed an embryotoxic effect ten times higher. Then, gametes or zygotes were treated with coumarin compounds before or after UVB exposure (UVB doses ranged from 0.056 to 0.9 kJm(-2)). Pretreatment of gametes or zygotes with coumarin or 3-hydroxycoumarin (1 μM, both) decreased UVB embryotoxic effect. Protective effect of the compounds was observed only when cells were treated previous to UVB exposure. Coumarin derivatives 4-hydroxycoumarin, 6-hydroxycoumarin, 7-hydroxycoumarin, 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin and 6-methoxy-7-hydroxycoumarin did not exhibit photoprotective activity. Our data provides evidences that coumarin and 3-hydroxycoumarin can be a promising class of photoprotective drugs.

  19. Sea urchin arylsulfatase insulator exerts its anti-silencing effect without interacting with the nuclear matrix.

    PubMed

    Hino, Shinjiro; Akasaka, Koji; Matsuoka, Masao

    2006-03-17

    Chromatin insulators have been shown to stabilize transgene expression. Although insulators have been suggested to regulate the subcellular localization of chromosomes, it is still unclear whether this property is important for their anti-silencing activity. To investigate the underlying mechanisms governing the anti-silencing function of insulators, we studied the association of sea urchin arylsulfatase insulator (ArsI) with the nuclear matrix, which is a key component of the subnuclear localization of the genome. ArsI did not potentiate the nuclear matrix association with the transgene, even though it showed strong anti-silencing activity. This observation was in clear contrast to the results of the experiment using a human interferon-beta scaffold attachment region, in which the anti-silencing effect coincided with the enhanced matrix association. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses suggested that the absence of the matrix binding by ArsI was due to a lack of its binding to CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), a protein known to be associated with matrix binding by chicken beta-globin insulator. Furthermore, ArsI maintained the nucleosome occupancy within the transgene at a constant level during long-term culture, although ArsI itself was not a nucleosome-excluding sequence. Taken together, these results suggest that this insulator exerts its anti-silencing activity by counteracting silencing-associated factors to maintain local chromatin environment, rather than by remodeling the subnuclear localization of the transgene locus.

  20. Sensitivity to UV radiation in early life stages of the Mediterranean sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis (Lamarck).

    PubMed

    Nahon, Sarah; Castro Porras, Viviana A; Pruski, Audrey M; Charles, François

    2009-03-01

    The sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis was used to investigate the impact of relevant levels of UV-B radiation on the early life stages of a common Mediterranean free spawning benthic species. Sperm, eggs and embryos were exposed to a range of UV radiation doses. The resulting endpoints were evaluated in terms of fertilisation success, development and survival rates. Above a weighted UV radiation dose of 0.0029 kJ m(-2), fertilisation capability of irradiated sperm decreased rapidly. The exposure of the eggs to 0.0175 kJ m(-2) and more led to delayed and inhibited development with ensuing embryonic morphological abnormalities. One-day old larvae remained strongly sensitive to UV radiation as shown by the 50% decrease of the larval survival rate for a dose of 0.025 kJ m(-2) UVR. The elevated sensitivity of embryos to experimental UVR went along with a lack of significant amount of sunscreen compounds (e.g., mycosporine-like amino acids) in the eggs. The present results demonstrated that gamete viability and embryonic development may be significantly impaired by solar UV radiation in S. granularis, compromising in this way the reproduction of the species. Unless adaptive behavioural reproductive strategies exist, the influence of ambient UV radiation appears as a selective force for population dynamics of broadcast spawners in the shallow benthic Mediterranean environment. PMID:19157510

  1. Terminal alpha-d-mannosides are critical during sea urchin gastrulation.

    PubMed

    Aleksanyan, Heghush; Liang, Jing; Metzenberg, Stan; Oppenheimer, Steven B

    2016-10-01

    The sea urchin embryo is a United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) designated model system to study mechanisms that may be involved in human health and disease. In order to examine the importance of high-mannose glycans and polysaccharides in gastrulation, Lytechinus pictus embryos were incubated with Jack bean α-mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.24), an enzyme that cleaves terminal mannose residues that have α1-2-, α1-3-, or α1-6-glycosidic linkages. The enzyme treatment caused a variety of morphological deformations in living embryos, even with α-mannosidase activities as low as 0.06 U/ml. Additionally, formaldehyde-fixed, 48-hour-old L. pictus embryos were microdissected and it was demonstrated that the adhesion of the tip of the archenteron to the roof of the blastocoel in vitro is abrogated by treatment with α-mannosidase. These results suggest that terminal mannose residues are involved in the adhesion between the archenteron and blastocoel roof, perhaps through a lectin-like activity that is not sensitive to fixation.

  2. Branching out: origins of the sea urchin larval skeleton in development and evolution.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Daniel C; Lyons, Deirdre C; Martik, Megan; McClay, David R

    2014-03-01

    It is a challenge to understand how the information encoded in DNA is used to build a three-dimensional structure. To explore how this works the assembly of a relatively simple skeleton has been examined at multiple control levels. The skeleton of the sea urchin embryo consists of a number of calcite rods produced by 64 skeletogenic cells. The ectoderm supplies spatial cues for patterning, essentially telling the skeletogenic cells where to position themselves and providing the factors for skeletal growth. Here, we describe the information known about how this works. First the ectoderm must be patterned so that the signaling cues are released from precise positions. The skeletogenic cells respond by initiating skeletogenesis immediately beneath two regions (one on the right and the other on the left side). Growth of the skeletal rods requires additional signaling from defined ectodermal locations, and the skeletogenic cells respond to produce a membrane-bound template in which the calcite crystal grows. Important in this process are three signals, fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and Wnt5. Each is necessary for explicit tasks in skeleton production.

  3. Information processing at the foxa node of the sea urchin endomesoderm specification network.

    PubMed

    de-Leon, Smadar Ben-Tabou; Davidson, Eric H

    2010-06-01

    The foxa regulatory gene is of central importance for endoderm specification across Bilateria, and this gene lies at an essential node of the well-characterized sea urchin endomesoderm gene regulatory network (GRN). Here we experimentally dissect the cis-regulatory system that controls the complex pattern of foxa expression in these embryos. Four separate cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) cooperate to control foxa expression in different spatial domains of the endomesoderm, and at different times. A detailed mutational analysis revealed the inputs to each of these cis-regulatory modules. The complex and dynamic expression of foxa is regulated by a combination of repressors, a permissive switch, and multiple activators. A mathematical kinetic model was applied to study the dynamic response of foxa cis-regulatory modules to transient inputs. This study shed light on the mesoderm-endoderm fate decision and provides a functional explanation, in terms of the genomic regulatory code, for the spatial and temporal expression of a key developmental control gene. PMID:20479235

  4. NAADP binding to its target protein in sea urchin eggs requires phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Churamani, Dev; Dickinson, George D; Patel, Sandip

    2005-03-15

    Mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ pools by NAADP (nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide phosphate) is becoming increasingly recognized as an important determinant of complex Ca2+ signals. However, the properties of the putative Ca2+ channel activated by NAADP are poorly defined. In the present study, we provide evidence that binding of NAADP to its target protein in sea urchin eggs requires phospholipids. Decreasing the level of protein-bound lipid in detergent extracts by either dilution of the preparation at a fixed detergent concentration or increasing the detergent concentration at a fixed protein concentration inhibited [32P]NAADP binding. These effects were prevented by the addition of phospholipids, but not other related molecules, were reversible and were associated with a marked decrease in the apparent affinity of the target protein for its ligand. Additionally, we show that the extent of dissociation of NAADP-receptor ligand complexes during gel filtration in the presence of detergent correlates well with the extent of delipidation. Our data highlight the importance of the lipid environment for interaction of NAADP with its target protein. PMID:15610067

  5. Histochemical studies of jelly coat of sea-urchin eggs during oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jondeung, A; Czihak, G

    1982-01-01

    Jelly coat of sea-urchin eggs consists of polysaccharides and glycoproteins. Some properties of jelly coat have already been investigated, but not histochemically. The oogenesis in Paracentrotus lividus was studied histologically and the oocytes were classified into six different stages. The extracellular jelly appeared first around the growing oocytes II which remained attached to the germinal epithelium. The jelly became thicker when the oocyte approached maturation. Histochemical analysis revealed that the jelly consists of mucopolysaccharide-protein-complexes. The polysaccharide component is composed of both neutral and acid mucopolysaccharides. The former are amylase-resistant. The acid mucopolysaccharides contain both carboxyl and sulfate groups, which are in close proximity to vicinal hydroxyl groups. Sulfated mucopolysaccharide is hyaluronidase-resistant. Sialic acid could not be clearly demonstrated, because it seems to be resistant to neuraminidase. Pepsin digestion indicated the masking of acidic groups by proteins which compete with basic dyes (Alcian blue, Azure A, coriphosphine etc.). Proteolytic digestion enhanced dye-binding ability of jelly, but removed also some of the periodate-reactive mucosubstances. Also a protein component could be demonstrated histochemically. No histochemical difference between jelly coat of oocytes and that of eggs has been found. The possible molecular structure of jelly coat is discussed.

  6. Carbohydrate-based species recognition in sea urchin fertilization: another avenue for speciation?

    PubMed

    Biermann, Christiane H; Marks, Jessica A; Vilela-Silva, Ana-Cristina E S; Castro, Michelle O; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2004-01-01

    Spawning marine invertebrates are excellent models for studying fertilization and reproductive isolating mechanisms. To identify variation in the major steps in sea urchin gamete recognition, we studied sperm activation in three closely related sympatric Strongylocentrotus species. Sperm undergo acrosomal exocytosis upon contact with sulfated polysaccharides in the egg-jelly coat. This acrosome reaction exposes the protein bindin and is therefore a precondition for sperm binding to the egg. We found that sulfated carbohydrates from egg jelly induce the acrosome reaction species specifically in S. droebachiensis and S. pallidus. There appear to be no other significant barriers to interspecific fertilization between these two species. Other species pairs in the same genus acrosome react nonspecifically to egg jelly but exhibit species-specific sperm binding. We thus show that different cell-cell communication systems mediate mate recognition among very closely related species. By comparing sperm reactions to egg-jelly compounds from different species and genera, we identify the major structural feature of the polysaccharides required for the specific recognition by sperm: the position of the glycosidic bond of the sulfated alpha-L-fucans. We present here one of the few examples of highly specific pure-carbohydrate signal transduction. In this system, a structural change in a polysaccharide has far-reaching ecological and evolutionary consequences.

  7. Isolation and identification of novel sulfated and nonsulfated oligosialyl glycosphingolipids from sea urchin sperm.

    PubMed

    Ijuin, T; Kitajima, K; Song, Y; Kitazume, S; Inoue, S; Haslam, S M; Morris, H R; Dell, A; Inoue, Y

    1996-06-01

    Novel sulfated and nonsulfated oligosialylglycosphingolipids were isolated from sperm of the sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, and their structures were established as follows: [formula: see text] This provides the first evidence for the natural occurrence of a tetrasialic acid structure in glycosphingolipids. The finding of sulfated oligosialyl chains is especially noteworthy in that the sulfate group exclusively resides on the C-8 of the nonreducing terminal residues of oligo/polysialyl chains and that sulfation appears to be a termination signal for elongation of oligosialyl chains. Sulfation at the nonreducing terminal Neu5Ac residues of oligosialyl chains was also found to facilitate the formation of an inter-residue lactone between the carboxyl group at the nonreducing terminal sulfated Neu5Ac and the hydroxyl group at C-9 of the penultimate Neu5Ac residue. The long chain base was 4-hydroxysphinganine (t18:0) and the major fatty acid species were identified as C20:1, C21:1, and C22:1.

  8. Specific recognition of sulfate esters by bindin, a sperm adhesion protein from sea urchins.

    PubMed

    DeAngelis, P L; Glabe, C G

    1990-01-19

    Bindin specifically binds to egg surface sulfated fucan polysaccharides and mediates the attachment of sperm to the egg during fertilization. Sulfate esters are critical for this interaction. We have examined the effect of different anionic groups on the relative binding affinities of a series of homologous anionic polymers for bindin to determine the extent to which other charged moieties can substitute for sulfate. We found that bindin displays a remarkable specificity for sulfate- or sulfonic acid-containing polymers. The relative affinities of poly(vinyl sulfate) and poly(styrenesulfonic acid) are four orders of magnitude higher than polymers containing phosphate esters or carboxyl groups. The bindin-mediated aggregation of sea urchin eggs was inhibited by the sulfated polymers but not the other anionic polymers. This high degree of selectivity for sulfated polymers is not observed for the binding of the polyanions to most other proteins and basic polypeptides. These results suggest that the binding is not due to the formation of simple salt bridges, and that all three non-ester oxygen atoms of the sulfate groups are involved in multiple bonding interactions with a complementary 'docking site' on the bindin polypeptide. The orientation of the polysaccharide sulfate oxygen atoms relative to the protein binding site may be an important determinant of the specificity of polysaccharide binding.

  9. Dual effect of procaine in sea urchin eggs. Inducer and inhibitor of microtubule assembly.

    PubMed

    Coffe, G; Foucault, G; Raymond, M N; Pudles, J

    1985-01-01

    An increase in the amount of cytoplasmic filamentous structures (cytoplasmic matrix and aster) which were recovered after hexylene glycol/Triton X-100 treatment of sea urchin eggs (Paracentrotus lividus) activated by 0.2-2.5 mM procaine was observed. At higher activator concentrations, an opposite effect was observed and formation of these cytoplasmic structures was inhibited in the presence of 10 mM procaine. This inhibitory effect was reversed by diluting the drug in the incubation medium. DNase I inhibition assays on egg homogenates which were performed at different time points of the activation process, show that the same amount of actin was induced to polymerize in eggs activated either by 2.5 or 10 mM procaine. However, colchicine-binding assays on the 100 000 g particulate fractions of these homogenates show that in eggs activated by 10 mM procaine, in contrast to those activated by 2.5 mM, tubulin polymerization was inhibited and microtubules were disassembled. These results show that the dual effect of procaine in the organization of the egg cytoskeleton appears to be related to its effect on the state of tubulin. PMID:4038386

  10. Antimitotic activity of the pyrimidinone derivative py-09 on sea urchin embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Dalliane; Mendonça Júnior, Francisco Jaime Bezerra; de Moura, Ricardo Olimpio; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando

    2016-03-01

    Chemotherapy is the main cancer treatment and consists of drug administration that interferes with several metabolic pathways, leading to tumor cell death. Antimitotic drugs have a relevant role in chemotherapy. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a pyrimidinone derivative (6-(p-Anisyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-4-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidine-5-carbonitrile, Py-09) on sea urchin embryonic development model. The effects of the compound were analyzed on fertilization, embryonic development, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ABC transporter activity. Py-09 inhibited the fertilization and the embryonic development in a time and dose-dependent pattern, with the maximum effect at 50 μM (EC50=12.5 μM). Py-09 induced the loss of ΔΨm without altering ROS intracellular levels. Morphological changes were observed in the pattern of embryo cleavage (unequal cleavage) and at larval stages (fissures of spicules and pigment cell leakage). We also demonstrated that Py-09 is not an ABC transporter substrate and the derivative does not circumvent the MXR phenomenon. Our study reports--for the first time--the antimitotic activity of Py-09 and stimulates new research on the potential of Py-09 as a pharmacological tool for in vitro studies, as well as its use as a new anticancer drug. PMID:26616279

  11. Direct membrane retrieval into large vesicles after exocytosis in sea urchin eggs

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    At fertilization in sea urchin eggs, elevated cytosolic Ca2+ leads to the exocytosis of 15,000-18,000 1.3-microns-diam cortical secretory granules to form the fertilization envelope. Cortical granule exocytosis more than doubles the surface area of the egg. It is thought that much of the added membrane is retrieved by subsequent endocytosis. We have investigated how this is achieved by activating eggs in the presence of aqueous- and lipid-phase fluorescent dyes. We find rapid endocytosis of membrane into 1.5-microns-diam vesicles starting immediately after cortical granule exocytosis and persisting over the following 15 min. The magnitude of this membrane retrieval can compensate for the changes in the plasma membrane of the egg caused by exocytosis. This membrane retrieval is not stimulated by PMA treatment which activates the endocytosis of clathrin-coated vesicles. When eggs are treated with short wave-length ultraviolet light, cortical granule exocytosis still occurs, but granule cores fail to disperse. After egg activation, large vesicles containing semi-intact cortical granule protein cores are observed. These data together with experiments using sequential pulses of fluid-phase markers support the hypothesis that the bulk of membrane retrieval immediately after cortical granule exocytosis is achieved through direct retrieval into large endocytotic structures. PMID:8522582

  12. Toxicity of spill-treating agents and oil to sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Rial, Diego; Vázquez, José A; Murado, Miguel A

    2014-02-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the joint toxicity of a Maya crude oil and four spill-treating agents (STAs) (CytoSol, Finasol OSR51, Agma OSD569 and OD4000). The acute toxicity of the binary mixtures of the water accommodated fractions (WAFs) obtained independently for the oil and each STA was assessed. The toxicity of the chemically enhanced WAF (CEWAF) of oil and Finasol OSR51 at several dispersant to oil ratios (1:2, 1:10 and 1:100) was also evaluated. The toxicity (EC50) obtained for the WAFs of the STAs was: CytoSol (15.1 mL/L)sea urchin embryo toward the dispersant.

  13. Eph and Ephrin function in dispersal and epithelial insertion of pigmented immunocytes in sea urchin embryos

    PubMed Central

    Krupke, Oliver A; Zysk, Ivona; Mellott, Dan O; Burke, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms that underlie directional cell migration are incompletely understood. Eph receptors usually guide migrations of cells by exclusion from regions expressing Ephrin. In sea urchin embryos, pigmented immunocytes are specified in vegetal epithelium, transition to mesenchyme, migrate, and re-enter ectoderm, distributing in dorsal ectoderm and ciliary band, but not ventral ectoderm. Immunocytes express Sp-Eph and Sp-Efn is expressed throughout dorsal and ciliary band ectoderm. Interfering with expression or function of Sp-Eph results in rounded immunocytes entering ectoderm but not adopting a dendritic form. Expressing Sp-Efn throughout embryos permits immunocyte insertion in ventral ectoderm. In mosaic embryos, immunocytes insert preferentially in ectoderm expressing Sp-Efn. We conclude that Sp-Eph signaling is necessary and sufficient for epithelial insertion. As well, we propose that immunocytes disperse when Sp-Eph enhances adhesion, causing haptotactic movement to regions of higher ligand abundance. This is a distinctive example of Eph/Ephrin signaling acting positively to pattern migrating cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16000.001 PMID:27474796

  14. New insights into negative effects of lithium on sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus embryos.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Nadia; Costantini, Maria; Santella, Luigia

    2016-01-01

    The diffuse use of lithium in a number of industrial processes has produced a significant contamination of groundwater and surface water with it. The increased use of lithium has generated only scarce studies on its concentrations in ambient waters and on its effects on aquatic organisms. Only few contributions have focused on the toxicity of lithium in marine organisms (such as marine animals, algae and vegetables), showing that the toxic effect depends on the animal species. In the present study we describe the morphological and the molecular effects of lithium chloride (LiCl), using the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus as a model organism. We show that LiCl, if added to the eggs before fertilization, induces malformations in the embryos in a dose-dependent manner. We have also followed by RT qPCR the expression levels of thirty seven genes (belonging to different classes of functional processes, such as stress, development, differentiation, skeletogenesis and detoxifications) to identify the molecular targets of LiCl. This study opens new perspectives for the understanding of the mechanism of action of lithium on marine organisms. The findings may also have relevance outside the world of marine organisms since lithium is widely prescribed for the treatment of human bipolar disorders.

  15. Antimitotic action of extracts of Petiveria alliacea on sea urchin egg development.

    PubMed

    Malpezzi, E L; Davino, S C; Costa, L V; Freitas, J C; Giesbrecht, A M; Roque, N F

    1994-03-01

    The hydroethanol extract of the roots of Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae) has been investigated previously as an antitumor agent against mouse Ehrlich ascites. The extract and its methanol, butanol and ether fractions exhibited an antimitotic effect on sea urchin egg development. The aqueous fraction did not produce inhibition of cell cleavage. At the first cleavage the inhibition, at the lowest concentration (10 micrograms/ml), produced by the ether fraction was 42%, whereas the inhibition produced by the total extract and by the other fractions was only 5 to 10% showing that the ether fraction was the most active. Even at higher concentrations the butanol and methanol fractions inhibit the cleavage about 30%. At the first cleavage, the ED50 of the hydroethanol extract and of the ether fraction were 45.02 and 12.40 micrograms/ml, respectively. Furthermore, in the second cleavage, the hydroethanol extract was about twice as potent as the methanol or butanol fractions (ED50 of 22.40, 44.80 and 54.10 micrograms/ml, respectively).

  16. Comparative biochemical analysis of the major yolk protein in the sea urchin egg and coelomic fluid.

    PubMed

    Dev, Shemul; Robinson, John J

    2014-08-01

    The major yolk protein (MYP) is localized to the egg and coelomic fluid of the adult sea urchin. While the egg-localized MYP has been extensively studied, much less is known about the coelomic fluid-localized protein. Therefore, we have conducted a comparative biochemical analysis of these proteins. Sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation revealed unique elution profiles for the MYP species present in the egg, 170- and 240 kDa, and the coelomic fluid, 180- and 250 kDa. Fractionation in polyacrylamide gels revealed that under reducing conditions both species were present in each location. However, in the absence of reducing agent only one species was present in each fraction: 240 kDa in the egg and 250 kDa in the coelomic fluid. In addition, V8 peptide mapping indicated that all four species have very similar primary structures. Circular dichroic spectral analysis and endogenous tryptophan measurements of the purified 170- and 180 kDa species revealed distinctive secondary and tertiary structural features with notable differences in their responses to calcium: apparent Kds of 245- and 475 μmol/L were measured for the 170- and 180 kDa species, respectively. Further analysis revealed that both species have differing calcium requirements for binding to membranes as well as protein-dependent, membrane-membrane interaction. We discuss the functional implications arising from the structural differences which exist between the egg and coelomic fluid resident MYPs.

  17. Terminal alpha-d-mannosides are critical during sea urchin gastrulation.

    PubMed

    Aleksanyan, Heghush; Liang, Jing; Metzenberg, Stan; Oppenheimer, Steven B

    2016-10-01

    The sea urchin embryo is a United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) designated model system to study mechanisms that may be involved in human health and disease. In order to examine the importance of high-mannose glycans and polysaccharides in gastrulation, Lytechinus pictus embryos were incubated with Jack bean α-mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.24), an enzyme that cleaves terminal mannose residues that have α1-2-, α1-3-, or α1-6-glycosidic linkages. The enzyme treatment caused a variety of morphological deformations in living embryos, even with α-mannosidase activities as low as 0.06 U/ml. Additionally, formaldehyde-fixed, 48-hour-old L. pictus embryos were microdissected and it was demonstrated that the adhesion of the tip of the archenteron to the roof of the blastocoel in vitro is abrogated by treatment with α-mannosidase. These results suggest that terminal mannose residues are involved in the adhesion between the archenteron and blastocoel roof, perhaps through a lectin-like activity that is not sensitive to fixation. PMID:27189235

  18. Central Spindle Self-Organization and Cytokinesis in Artificially Activated Sea Urchin Eggs.

    PubMed

    Henson, John H; Buckley, Mary W; Yeterian, Mesrob; Weeks, Richard M; Simerly, Calvin R; Shuster, Charles B

    2016-04-01

    The ability of microtubules of the mitotic apparatus to control the positioning and initiation of the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis was first established from studies on early echinoderm embryos. However, the identity of the microtubule population that imparts cytokinetic signaling is unclear. The two main--and not necessarily mutually exclusive--candidates are the central spindle and the astral rays. In the present study, we examined cytokinesis in ammonia-activated sea urchin eggs, which lack paternally derived centrosomes and undergo mitosis mediated by unusual anastral, bipolar mini-spindles. Live cell imaging and immunolabeling for microtubules and the centralspindlin constituent and kinesin-related protein, MKLP1, demonstrated that furrowing in ammonia-activated eggs was associated with aligned arrays of centralspindlin-linked, opposed bundles of antiparallel microtubules. These autonomous, zipper-like arrays were not associated with a mitotic apparatus, but did possess characteristics similar to the central spindle region of control, fertilized embryos. Our results highlight the self-organizing nature of the central spindle region and its ability to induce cytokinesis-like furrowing, even in the absence of a complete mitotic apparatus. PMID:27132131

  19. Effects of warm acclimation on physiology and gonad development in the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus.

    PubMed

    Delorme, Natalí J; Sewell, Mary A

    2016-08-01

    The physiology of the New Zealand sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus was evaluated through feeding, respiration, growth and gonad growth in adult animals acclimated for 90days at 18°C (annual mean temperature) and 24°C (ambient summer temperature (21°C) +3°C). Measured parameters with representative rates of assimilation efficiency were used to calculate scope for growth (SfG) for each treatment. All physiological parameters were negatively affected at 24°C, showing a decrease in feeding rate which coincided with negative growth and gonad development at the end of the acclimation period, and a decrease in respiration rate suggesting metabolic depression. Histology of gonad samples after the acclimation period also showed no gametic material in animals acclimated at 24°C. All animals acclimated at 24°C had negative growth, differing from the calculated SfG which indicated that the animals had sufficient energy for production. The results suggest that calculated SfG in echinoderms should be used together with actual measurements of growth in individuals as, by itself, SfG may underestimate the actual effect of ocean warming when animals are exposed to stressful conditions. Overall, considering the total loss of reproductive output observed in E. chloroticus at higher temperatures, an increase in seawater temperature could dramatically influence the persistence of northern populations of this species, leading to flow-on effects in the subtidal ecosystem. PMID:27043875

  20. Cyclin B Translation Depends on mTOR Activity after Fertilization in Sea Urchin Embryos.

    PubMed

    Chassé, Héloïse; Mulner-Lorillon, Odile; Boulben, Sandrine; Glippa, Virginie; Morales, Julia; Cormier, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The cyclin B/CDK1 complex is a key regulator of mitotic entry. Using PP242, a specific ATP-competitive inhibitor of mTOR kinase, we provide evidence that the mTOR signalling pathway controls cyclin B mRNA translation following fertilization in Sphaerechinus granularis and Paracentrotus lividus. We show that PP242 inhibits the degradation of the cap-dependent translation repressor 4E-BP (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-Binding Protein). PP242 inhibits global protein synthesis, delays cyclin B accumulation, cyclin B/CDK1 complex activation and consequently entry into the mitotic phase of the cell cycle triggered by fertilization. PP242 inhibits cyclin B mRNA recruitment into active polysomes triggered by fertilization. An amount of cyclin B mRNA present in active polysomes appears to be insensitive to PP242 treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that, following sea urchin egg fertilization, cyclin B mRNA translation is controlled by two independent mechanisms: a PP242-sensitive and an additional PP242-insentitive mechanism. PMID:26962866

  1. Eph and Ephrin function in dispersal and epithelial insertion of pigmented immunocytes in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Krupke, Oliver A; Zysk, Ivona; Mellott, Dan O; Burke, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms that underlie directional cell migration are incompletely understood. Eph receptors usually guide migrations of cells by exclusion from regions expressing Ephrin. In sea urchin embryos, pigmented immunocytes are specified in vegetal epithelium, transition to mesenchyme, migrate, and re-enter ectoderm, distributing in dorsal ectoderm and ciliary band, but not ventral ectoderm. Immunocytes express Sp-Eph and Sp-Efn is expressed throughout dorsal and ciliary band ectoderm. Interfering with expression or function of Sp-Eph results in rounded immunocytes entering ectoderm but not adopting a dendritic form. Expressing Sp-Efn throughout embryos permits immunocyte insertion in ventral ectoderm. In mosaic embryos, immunocytes insert preferentially in ectoderm expressing Sp-Efn. We conclude that Sp-Eph signaling is necessary and sufficient for epithelial insertion. As well, we propose that immunocytes disperse when Sp-Eph enhances adhesion, causing haptotactic movement to regions of higher ligand abundance. This is a distinctive example of Eph/Ephrin signaling acting positively to pattern migrating cells. PMID:27474796

  2. Differential Nanos 2 protein stability results in selective germ cell accumulation in the sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Wessel, Gary M

    2016-10-01

    Nanos is a translational regulator required for the survival and maintenance of primordial germ cells. In the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Sp), Nanos 2 mRNA is broadly transcribed but accumulates specifically in the small micromere (sMic) lineage, in part because of the 3'UTR element GNARLE leads to turnover in somatic cells but retention in the sMics. Here we found that the Nanos 2 protein is also selectively stabilized; it is initially translated throughout the embryo but turned over in the future somatic cells and retained only in the sMics, the future germ line in this animal. This differential stability of Nanos protein is dependent on the open reading frame (ORF), and is independent of the sumoylation and ubiquitylation pathways. Manipulation of the ORF indicates that 68 amino acids in the N terminus of the Nanos protein are essential for its stability in the sMics whereas a 45 amino acid element adjacent to the zinc fingers targets its degradation. Further, this regulation of Nanos protein is cell autonomous, following formation of the germ line. These results are paradigmatic for the unique presence of Nanos in the germ line by a combination of selective RNA retention, distinctive translational control mechanisms (Oulhen et al., 2013), and now also by defined Nanos protein stability. PMID:27424271

  3. New insights into negative effects of lithium on sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus embryos.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Nadia; Costantini, Maria; Santella, Luigia

    2016-01-01

    The diffuse use of lithium in a number of industrial processes has produced a significant contamination of groundwater and surface water with it. The increased use of lithium has generated only scarce studies on its concentrations in ambient waters and on its effects on aquatic organisms. Only few contributions have focused on the toxicity of lithium in marine organisms (such as marine animals, algae and vegetables), showing that the toxic effect depends on the animal species. In the present study we describe the morphological and the molecular effects of lithium chloride (LiCl), using the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus as a model organism. We show that LiCl, if added to the eggs before fertilization, induces malformations in the embryos in a dose-dependent manner. We have also followed by RT qPCR the expression levels of thirty seven genes (belonging to different classes of functional processes, such as stress, development, differentiation, skeletogenesis and detoxifications) to identify the molecular targets of LiCl. This study opens new perspectives for the understanding of the mechanism of action of lithium on marine organisms. The findings may also have relevance outside the world of marine organisms since lithium is widely prescribed for the treatment of human bipolar disorders. PMID:27562248

  4. THE FINE STRUCTURE OF PRONUCLEAR DEVELOPMENT AND FUSION IN THE SEA URCHIN, ARBACIA PUNCTULATA

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Frank J.; Anderson, Everett

    1968-01-01

    Fertilization events following coalescence of the gamete plasma membranes and culminating in the formation of the zygote nucleus were investigated by light and electron microscopy in the sea urchin, Arbacia punctulata. Shortly after the spermatozoon passes through the fertilization cone, it rotates approximately 180° and comes to rest lateral to its point of entrance. Concomitantly, the nonperforated nuclear envelope of the sperm nucleus undergoes degeneration followed by dispersal of the sperm chromatin and development of the pronuclear envelope. During this reorganization of the sperm nucleus, the sperm aster is formed. The latter is composed of ooplasmic lamellar structures and fasciles of microtubules. The male pronucleus, sperm mitochondrion, and flagellum accompany the sperm aster during its migration. As the pronuclei encounter one another, the surface of the female pronucleus proximal to the advancing male pronucleus becomes highly convoluted. Subsequently, the formation of the zygote nucleus commences with the fusion of the outer and the inner membranes of the pronuclear envelopes, thereby producing a small internuclear bridge and one continuous, perforated zygote nuclear envelope. PMID:5677969

  5. Effects of the dynein inhibitor ciliobrevin on the flagellar motility of sea urchin spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yuuko; Baba, Shoji A; Kamimura, Shinji

    2015-04-01

    Ciliobrevin has recently been found to be a membrane-permeable inhibitor that is specific to AAA+ molecular motors such as cytoplasmic dyneins. In this study, we investigated how ciliobrevin inhibited the motility of sperm from sea urchins: Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, Pseudocentrotus depressus, and Anthocidaris crassispina. After application of 100 μM of ciliobrevin A to live spermatozoa, swimming speed decreased gradually and flagellar motion stopped almost completely within 5 to 10 min. This inhibition was reversible and the frequency of flagellar beating was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Ciliobrevin had similar inhibitory effects on the flagellar beating of demembranated and reactivated sperm and the sliding disintegration of trypsin-treated axonemes. We also analyzed the curvature and shear angle of the beating flagella and found that the proximal region of the sperm flagellum was less sensitive to ciliobrevin compared with more distal regions, where bending motions were blocked completely. Interestingly, the shear angle analysis of flagellar motility showed that ciliobrevin induced highly asymmetric bends in the proximal region of the flagellum. These results suggest that there is heterogeneity in the inhibitory thresholds of dynein motors, which depend on the regions along the flagellar shaft (proximal or distal) and on the sites of doublets in the flagellar cross-section (doublet numbers). We expect that it will be possible to map the functional differences in dynein subtypes along and/or around the cross-sections of flagellar axonemes by analyzing the inhibitory effects of ciliobrevin.

  6. Preservation and visualization of the sea urchin embryo blastocoelic extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Cherr, G N; Summers, R G; Baldwin, J D; Morrill, J B

    1992-06-15

    Several methods were utilized to visualize the structure and orientation of the blastocoelic extracellular matrix (ECM) in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryos at the mesenchyme blastula stage. Rapid freezing in liquid propane cooled to LN2 temperatures followed by freeze substitution was used to preserve the ECM without shrinkage due to dehydration. Scanning, transmission, and light microscopy were employed to elucidate the ECMs' structure. The blastocoelic ECM consisted of parallel fibrillar sheets that were interconnected by finer filaments and oriented along the animal-vegetal axis. The ECM completely filled the blastocoelic cavity as viewed by scanning electron microscopy. The basal lamina could be distinguished from the blastocoelic ECM as a thin coat on the plasma membrane of epithelial cells; the ECM was in contact with this coat. In contrast, the blastocoelic ECM attached directly to the plasma membrane of primary mesenchyme cells (PMC) which did not possess a basal lamina. The blastocoelic ECM was isolated as an intact "bag" and probed in a hydrated state with Con A and alcian blue. Confocal microscopy confirmed that the entire blastocoel was filled with a fibrillar ECM. These approaches offer advantages for future studies of the ECMs of sea urchin embryos and their roles in gastrulation.

  7. Cyclin B Translation Depends on mTOR Activity after Fertilization in Sea Urchin Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Boulben, Sandrine; Glippa, Virginie; Morales, Julia; Cormier, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The cyclin B/CDK1 complex is a key regulator of mitotic entry. Using PP242, a specific ATP-competitive inhibitor of mTOR kinase, we provide evidence that the mTOR signalling pathway controls cyclin B mRNA translation following fertilization in Sphaerechinus granularis and Paracentrotus lividus. We show that PP242 inhibits the degradation of the cap-dependent translation repressor 4E-BP (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-Binding Protein). PP242 inhibits global protein synthesis, delays cyclin B accumulation, cyclin B/CDK1 complex activation and consequently entry into the mitotic phase of the cell cycle triggered by fertilization. PP242 inhibits cyclin B mRNA recruitment into active polysomes triggered by fertilization. An amount of cyclin B mRNA present in active polysomes appears to be insensitive to PP242 treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that, following sea urchin egg fertilization, cyclin B mRNA translation is controlled by two independent mechanisms: a PP242-sensitive and an additional PP242-insentitive mechanism. PMID:26962866

  8. Digitized precision measurements of the movements of sea urchin sperm flagella.

    PubMed

    Rikmenspoel, R; Isles, C A

    1985-03-01

    High speed cinemicrographs were made of sea urchin sperm at temperatures varying from 22 to 6 degrees C. Apparatus, combining a television camera and a video digitizer, was constructed to scan individual flagellar images and to digitize the flagellar waveforms. With appropriate smoothing and averaging procedures, the rough data were condensed by a microcomputer into the coordinates of 20 points along a flagellum, spaced 2 microns apart. The curvature of the flagellum at these points was also computed. The coordinates of the flagellar positions were obtained to an accuracy of approximately +/- 0.1 micron, flagellar curvature to an accuracy of approximately +/- 50 cm-1. At all temperatures the amplitude of the flagella was found to vary with time in a purely sinusoidal fashion to within +/- 2%. The local curvature of the flagella had basically a purely sinusoidal time course to within +/- 50 cm-1, but a varying amount of asymmetry was present in the distal and the proximal ends of the flagella. This asymmetry in the curvature was related to the radius of the circular path of the sperm. The flagellar waveforms can probably be summarized in simple algebraic functions.

  9. Scanning electron microscopy of high-pressure-frozen sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Walther, P; Chen, Y; Malecki, M; Zoran, S L; Schatten, G P; Pawley, J B

    1993-12-01

    High-pressure-freezing permits direct cryo-fixation of sea urchin embryos having a defined developmental state without the formation of large ice crystals. We have investigated preparation protocols for observing high-pressure-frozen and freeze-fractured samples in the scanning electron microscope. High-pressure-freezing was superior to other freezing protocols, because the whole bulk sample was reasonably well frozen and the overall three-dimensional shape of the embryos was well preserved. The samples were either dehydrated by freeze-substitution and critical-point-drying, or imaged in the partially hydrated state, using a cold stage in the SEM. During freeze-substitution the samples were stabilized by fixatives. The disadvantage of this method was that shrinking and extraction effects, caused by the removal of the water, could not be avoided. These disadvantages were avoided when the sample was imaged in the frozen-hydrated state using a cold-stage in the SEM. This would be the method of choice for morphometric studies. Frozen-hydrated samples, however, were very beam sensitive and many structures remained covered by the ice and were not visible. Frozen-hydrated samples were partially freeze-dried to make visible additional structures that had been covered by ice. However, this method also caused drying artifacts when too much water was removed. PMID:8023095

  10. New insights into negative effects of lithium on sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus embryos

    PubMed Central

    Ruocco, Nadia; Costantini, Maria; Santella, Luigia

    2016-01-01

    The diffuse use of lithium in a number of industrial processes has produced a significant contamination of groundwater and surface water with it. The increased use of lithium has generated only scarce studies on its concentrations in ambient waters and on its effects on aquatic organisms. Only few contributions have focused on the toxicity of lithium in marine organisms (such as marine animals, algae and vegetables), showing that the toxic effect depends on the animal species. In the present study we describe the morphological and the molecular effects of lithium chloride (LiCl), using the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus as a model organism. We show that LiCl, if added to the eggs before fertilization, induces malformations in the embryos in a dose-dependent manner. We have also followed by RT qPCR the expression levels of thirty seven genes (belonging to different classes of functional processes, such as stress, development, differentiation, skeletogenesis and detoxifications) to identify the molecular targets of LiCl. This study opens new perspectives for the understanding of the mechanism of action of lithium on marine organisms. The findings may also have relevance outside the world of marine organisms since lithium is widely prescribed for the treatment of human bipolar disorders. PMID:27562248

  11. Mechanisms of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in sea urchin embryos

    PubMed Central

    Katow, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Sea urchin mesenchyme is composed of the large micromere-derived spiculogenetic primary mesenchyme cells (PMC), veg2-tier macromere-derived non-spiculogenetic mesenchyme cells, the small micromere-derived germ cells, and the macro- and mesomere-derived neuronal mesenchyme cells. They are formed through the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and possess multipotency, except PMCs that solely differentiate larval spicules. The process of EMT is associated with modification of epithelial cell surface property that includes loss of affinity to the apical and basal extracellular matrices, inter-epithelial cell adherens junctions and epithelial cell surface-specific proteins. These cell surface structures and molecules are endocytosed during EMT and utilized as initiators of cytoplasmic signaling pathways that often initiate protein phosphorylation to activate the gene regulatory networks. Acquisition of cell motility after EMT in these mesenchyme cells is associated with the expression of proteins such as Lefty, Snail and Seawi. Structural simplicity and genomic database of this model will further promote detailed EMT research. PMID:26716069

  12. Structure and expression of the polyubiquitin gene in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Gong, Z Y; Cserjesi, P; Wessel, G M; Brandhorst, B P

    1991-02-01

    A cloned Lytechinus pictus cDNA has been identified, which includes seven direct repeats of a 228 bp sequence encoding ubiquitin and about 450 bp of 3' noncoding sequence. The deduced amino acid sequence is identical to that of ubiquitins of other animals (though repeats 3 and 5 each have single amino acid substitutions at different positions). Southern blot analysis revealed that the sea urchin genome contains a single copy of the polyubiquitin gene, and the number of 228 bp repeat units appears to vary from seven to ten among different alleles; no other ubiquitin coding sequences were detected. The size distribution of polyubiquitin mRNA is polymorphic among different individuals, probably corresponding to the differences in copy number of the repetitive coding sequence. The abundance of cytoplasmic polyubiquitin RNA is constant throughout embryogenesis and is similar in ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm cells. The constant prevalence of polyubiquitin mRNA apparently results from a balance between ontogenetic changes in its rate of synthesis and its stability in the presence of actinomycin D. Accumulation of polyubiquitin RNA was not heat shock-inducible during embryogenesis. PMID:1848768

  13. Metallic nickel nanoparticles and their effect on the embryonic development of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    PubMed

    Kanold, Julia Maxi; Wang, Jiabin; Brümmer, Franz; Šiller, Lidija

    2016-05-01

    The presence of nanoparticles in many industrial applications and daily products is making it nowadays crucial to assess their impact when exposed to the environment. Metallic nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) are of high industrial interest due to their ability to catalyze the reversible hydration of CO2 to carbonic acid at ambient conditions. We characterized metallic Ni NPs by XRD, HRTEM and EDS and determined the solubility of free nickel ions from 3 mg/L metallic Ni NPs in seawater by ICP-MS over 96 h, which was below 3%. Further, embryonic development of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus was investigated for 48 h in the presence of metallic Ni NPs (0.03 mg/L to 3 mg/L), but no lethal effects were observed. However, 3 mg/L metallic Ni NPs caused a size reduction similar to 1.2 mg/L NiCl2*6 H2O. The obtained results contribute to current studies on metallic Ni NPs and point to their consequences for the marine ecosystem. PMID:26849528

  14. Nutrient composition and antioxidant activity of gonads of sea urchin Stomopneustes variolaris.

    PubMed

    Archana, Ayyagari; Babu, K Ramesh

    2016-04-15

    The study investigated, for the first time, proximate nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of gonads from the sea urchin, Stomopneustes variolaris, inhabiting the coastal area of Visakhapatnam (India). Moisture, ash, proteins, lipids and carbohydrate content were 77.53%±0.80, 3.76%±0.25, 12.10%±0.41, 4.98%±0.36 and 1.63%±0.18, respectively, based on dry weight. The gonads were rich in essential amino acids (ca. 32.1% of total amino acids) with the most predominant being phenylalanine, lysine and valine. The essential to non-essential amino acid ratio was 0.5. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) constituted 22.01%±2.2 of total fatty acids. The ω6:ω3 ratio was 0.94. Total phenol content of the gonad was 9.90±0.01 mg GAE/g and the IC50 of the extract, using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, was 57.81 μg/ml.

  15. Select microRNAs are essential for early development in the sea urchin

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jia L.; Stoeckius, Marlon; Maaskola, Jonas; Friedländer, Marc; Stepicheva, Nadezda; Juliano, Celina; Lebedeva, Svetlana; Thompson, William; Rajewsky, Nikolaus; Wessel, Gary M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary microRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that mediate post-transcriptional gene regulation and have emerged as essential regulators of many developmental events. The transcriptional network during early embryogenesis of the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, is well described and would serve as an excellent model to test functional contributions of miRNAs in embryogenesis. We examined the loss of function phenotypes of the major components of the miRNA biogenesis pathway. Inhibition of de novo synthesis of Drosha and Dicer in the embryo led to consistent developmental defects, a failure to gastrulate, and embryonic lethality, including changes in the steady state levels of transcription factors and signaling molecules involved in germ layer specification. We annotated and profiled small RNA expression from the ovary and several early embryonic stages by deep sequencing followed by computational analysis. All miRNAs have dynamic accumulation profiles through early development as do a large population of putative piRNAs (piwi-interacting RNAs). Defects in morphogenesis caused by loss of Drosha can be rescued with four miRNAs which permits a strong miRNA functional assay. Taken together our results indicate that post-transcriptional gene regulation directed by miRNAs is functionally important for early embryogenesis and is an integral part of the early embryonic gene regulatory network in S. purpuratus. PMID:22155525

  16. T-1, a mitotic arrester, alters centrosome configurations in fertilized sea urchin eggs.

    PubMed

    Itoh, T J; Schatten, H; Schatten, G; Mazia, D; Kobayashi, A; Sato, H

    1990-01-01

    T-1 induces modifications in the shape of the centrosome at division in fertilized eggs of the North American sea urchin, Lytechinus pictus. Phase contrast microscopy observations of mitotic apparatus isolated from T-1-treated (1.7-8.5 microM) eggs at first division shows that the centrosomes already begin to spread or to separate by prophase and that the mitotic spindle is barrel-shaped. When eggs are fertilized with sperm that have been preteated with T-1, the centrosomes become flattened; the spindles are of normal length. Immunofluorescence microscopy using an anti-centrosomal monoclonal antibody reveals that T-1 modifies the structure of the centrosome so that barrel-shaped spindles with broad centrosomes are observed at metaphase, rather than the expected focused poles and fusiform spindle. Higher concentrations of T-1 induce fragmentation of centrosomes, causing abnormal accumulation of microtubules in polar regions. These results indicate that T-1 directly alters centrosomal configuration from a compact structure to a flattened or a spread structure. T-1 can be classified as a new category of mitotic drugs that may prove valuable in dissecting the molecular nature of centrosomes.

  17. Bacillus hemicentroti sp. nov., a moderate halophile isolated from a sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Qin; He, Jian-Wu; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Xiao, Jian-Qing; Zhu, Hong-Yi; Tang, Shu-Kun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2011-12-01

    A novel Gram-staining-positive, moderately halophilic, facultatively alkaliphilic, non-motile, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, endospore-forming, facultatively anaerobic rod, designated JSM 076093(T), was isolated from a sea urchin (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus) collected from Naozhou Island in the South China Sea. Growth occurred with 0.5-25% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 5-8%) and at pH 6.0-10.5 (optimum pH 8.0) and 5-40 °C (optimum 30-35 °C). meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone 7 and the polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and one unidentified phospholipid. The major cellular fatty acids (>10% of the total) were anteiso-C(15:0), anteiso-C(17:0), iso-C(16:0) and iso-C(14:0). The genomic DNA G+C content was 38.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JSM 076093(T) belonged to the genus Bacillus and was related most closely to Bacillus hwajinpoensis SW-72(T) (99.1% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Bacillus algicola KMM 3737(T) (97.3%). The combination of results from the phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization and phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characterization supported the conclusion that strain JSM 076093(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus hemicentroti sp. nov. is proposed, with JSM 076093(T) (=DSM 23007(T)=KCTC 13710(T)) as the type strain.

  18. Do hatchery-reared sea urchins pose a threat to genetic diversity in wild populations?

    PubMed

    Segovia-Viadero, M; Serrão, E A; Canteras-Jordana, J C; Gonzalez-Wangüemert, M

    2016-04-01

    In salmonids, the release of hatchery-reared fish has been shown to cause irreversible genetic impacts on wild populations. However, although responsible practices for producing and releasing genetically diverse, hatchery-reared juveniles have been published widely, they are rarely implemented. Here, we investigated genetic differences between wild and early-generation hatchery-reared populations of the purple sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (a commercially important species in Europe) to assess whether hatcheries were able to maintain natural levels of genetic diversity. To test the hypothesis that hatchery rearing would cause bottleneck effects (that is, a substantial reduction in genetic diversity and differentiation from wild populations), we compared the levels and patterns of genetic variation between two hatcheries and four nearby wild populations, using samples from both Spain and Ireland. We found that hatchery-reared populations were less diverse and had diverged significantly from the wild populations, with a very small effective population size and a high degree of relatedness between individuals. These results raise a number of concerns about the genetic impacts of their release into wild populations, particularly when such a degree of differentiation can occur in a single generation of hatchery rearing. Consequently, we suggest that caution should be taken when using hatchery-reared individuals to augment fisheries, even for marine species with high dispersal capacity, and we provide some recommendations to improve hatchery rearing and release practices. Our results further highlight the need to consider the genetic risks of releasing hatchery-reared juveniles into the wild during the establishment of restocking, stock enhancement and sea ranching programs. PMID:26758187

  19. Physiological effects of environmental acidification in the deep-sea urchin Strongylocentrotus fragilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. R.; Lovera, C.; Whaling, P. J.; Buck, K. R.; Pane, E. F.; Barry, J. P.

    2014-03-01

    Anthropogenic CO2 is now reaching depths over 1000 m in the Eastern Pacific, overlapping the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ). Deep-sea animals are suspected to be especially sensitive to environmental acidification associated with global climate change. We have investigated the effects of elevated pCO2 and variable O2 on the deep-sea urchin Strongylocentrotus fragilis, a species whose range of 200-1200 m depth includes the OMZ and spans a pCO2 range of approx. 600-1200 μatm (approx. pH 7.6 to 7.8). Individuals were evaluated during two exposure experiments (1-month and 4 month) at control and three levels of elevated pCO2 at in situ O2 levels of approx. 10% air saturation. A treatment of control pCO2 at 100% air saturation was also included in experiment two. During the first experiment, perivisceral coelomic fluid (PCF) acid-base balance was investigated during a one-month exposure; results show S. fragilis has limited ability to compensate for the respiratory acidosis brought on by elevated pCO2, due in part to low non-bicarbonate PCF buffering capacity. During the second experiment, individuals were separated into fed and fasted experimental groups, and longer-term effects of elevated pCO2 and variable O2 on righting time, feeding, growth, and gonadosomatic index (GSI) were investigated for both groups. Results suggest that the acidosis found during experiment one does not directly correlate with adverse effects during exposure to realistic future pCO2 levels.

  20. Do hatchery-reared sea urchins pose a threat to genetic diversity in wild populations?

    PubMed

    Segovia-Viadero, M; Serrão, E A; Canteras-Jordana, J C; Gonzalez-Wangüemert, M

    2016-04-01

    In salmonids, the release of hatchery-reared fish has been shown to cause irreversible genetic impacts on wild populations. However, although responsible practices for producing and releasing genetically diverse, hatchery-reared juveniles have been published widely, they are rarely implemented. Here, we investigated genetic differences between wild and early-generation hatchery-reared populations of the purple sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (a commercially important species in Europe) to assess whether hatcheries were able to maintain natural levels of genetic diversity. To test the hypothesis that hatchery rearing would cause bottleneck effects (that is, a substantial reduction in genetic diversity and differentiation from wild populations), we compared the levels and patterns of genetic variation between two hatcheries and four nearby wild populations, using samples from both Spain and Ireland. We found that hatchery-reared populations were less diverse and had diverged significantly from the wild populations, with a very small effective population size and a high degree of relatedness between individuals. These results raise a number of concerns about the genetic impacts of their release into wild populations, particularly when such a degree of differentiation can occur in a single generation of hatchery rearing. Consequently, we suggest that caution should be taken when using hatchery-reared individuals to augment fisheries, even for marine species with high dispersal capacity, and we provide some recommendations to improve hatchery rearing and release practices. Our results further highlight the need to consider the genetic risks of releasing hatchery-reared juveniles into the wild during the establishment of restocking, stock enhancement and sea ranching programs.

  1. Jeotgalicoccus marinus sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from a sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Shi, Jin-Xiao; Xiao, Huai-Dong; Tang, Shu-Kun; Liu, Zhu-Xiang; Huang, Ke; Cui, Xiao-Long; Li, Wen-Jun

    2009-07-01

    A novel non-sporulating, non-motile, catalase- and oxidase-positive, facultatively anaerobic, moderately halophilic, Gram-positive coccus, designated JSM 076033(T), was isolated from a sea urchin (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus) collected from the South China Sea. Strain JSM 076033(T) was able to grow in the presence of 0.5-25.0 % (w/v) total salts and at pH 6.0-10.0 and 10-45 degrees C; optimum growth was observed with 5.0-10.0 % (w/v) total salts and at pH 7.0-8.0 and 25-30 degrees C. The major amino acid constituents of the cell wall were glycine, lysine and alanine. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0). The respiratory quinones were MK-7 (60.7 %) and MK-6 (39.3 %) and the polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified phospholipid. The DNA G+C content was 40.3 mol%. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain JSM 076033(T) should be assigned to the genus Jeotgalicoccus. The sequence similarities between the novel isolate and the type strains of recognized Jeotgalicoccus species were in the range 95.2-97.2 %. The results of the phylogenetic analysis, combined with DNA-DNA relatedness data, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic information, support the view that strain JSM 076033(T) represents a novel species of the genus Jeotgalicoccus, for which the name Jeotgalicoccus marinus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JSM 076033(T) (=CCTCC AA 207028(T) =DSM 19772(T) =KCTC 13189(T)).

  2. Pontibacillus halophilus sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from a sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Xiao, Huai-Dong; Liu, Zhu-Xiang; Yi, Lang-Bo; Shi, Jin-Xiao; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Cui, Xiao-Long; Li, Wen-Jun

    2009-07-01

    A Gram-positive-staining, moderately halophilic, strictly aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain JSM 076056(T), was isolated from a sea urchin collected from the South China Sea. Cells were motile by means of peritrichous flagella and formed ellipsoidal endospores lying in subterminal swollen sporangia. Strain JSM 076056(T) was able to grow at salinities of 2-25 % (w/v) total salts and at pH 6.0-10.0 and 15-40 degrees C; optimum growth was observed with 5-10 % (w/v) total salts and at pH 7.0-8.0 and 25-30 degrees C. It was incapable of growing with NaCl as the sole salt. meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0), iso-C(14 : 0,) anteiso-C(15 : 0) and C(16 : 1)omega7c alcohol. The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7 and the genomic DNA G+C content was 45.5 mol%. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain JSM 076056(T) belonged to the family Bacillaceae and was related most closely to the type strains of the two recognized species of the genus Pontibacillus, namely Pontibacillus chungwhensis BH030062(T) (96.4 % sequence similarity) and Pontibacillus marinus BH030004(T) (96.2 %); these three strains formed a robust cluster in the phylogenetic tree. In combination, the phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data indicate that strain JSM 076056(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pontibacillus, for which the name Pontibacillus halophilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JSM 076056(T) (=CCTCC AA 207029(T) =DSM 19796(T) =KCTC 13190(T)).

  3. Macrofaunal involvement in the sublittoral decay of kelp debris: The sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris (Gmelin) (Echinodermata: Echinoidea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedford, A. P.; Moore, P. G.

    1985-01-01

    Psammechinus miliaris occurs in the Clyde Sea area in large numbers (<18 individuals per 100 g -1 weed dry wt) on sublittoral beds of detached Laminaria saccharina. Its rôle in weed decomposition has been examined by comparing its responses (behavioural choice, growth rate, absorption efficiencies of both carbon and protein, gut retention times and rate of faecal output) to fresh and rotting weed. Younger urchins grew faster than older individuals on a diet of rotting weed but not on fresh weed. Large seasonal variation existed, however, with fast growth occurring in June-August and little, or no, growth in December-February, irrespective of diet. Starved controls did not grow. Correcting for seasonality, rotting kelp still promoted faster growth of young urchins than did fresh weed. Larger (older) individuals showed no difference. Urchins fed fresh weed had significantly longer gut retention times. Protein absorption efficiency was higher on fresh than rotting weed, varying with weed protein content and size of urchin. Very young individuals can only digest high protein weed efficiently, eg. material derived from near the frond meristem. Organic carbon content of rotting weed was significantly lower than fresh weed. Carbon absorption efficiencies were significantly higher on fresh weed which related to organic carbon content. Standard-sized urchins fed rotting weed produced larger dry weights of faeces per day, reflecting increased ingestion rate. In closed-system choice experiments urchins preferred rotting weed kinetically. Size-frequency analysis of field populations suggested that weed beds are principally colonized by larval settlement from the plankton. Mature Psammechinus have evolved different 'strategies' for exploiting fresh and rotting weed. Fresh weed is relatively difficult to digest and long gut retention times allow high protein absorption efficiencies to be attained. Rotting weed has microbial protein in quantities and a lower organic carbon

  4. Habitat traits and patterns of abundance of the purple sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816), at multiple scales along the north Portuguese coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez, Rula; Domínguez Godino, Jorge; Freitas, Cristiano; Machado, Inês; Bertocci, Iacopo

    2015-03-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of abundance and distribution of sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus) from intertidal rockpools of the north Portuguese coast were examined in relation to physical (surface, altitude, depth, topographic complexity and exposure) and biological (substrate cover by dominant organisms) habitat traits. The methodology was based on a multi-factorial design where the total number and the abundance of urchins in each of six size classes were sampled over a range of spatial scales, from 10s of cm to kms, and a temporal scale of five months. The results highlighted three main features of the studied system: (1) the largest proportion of variability of sea urchins occurred at the smallest scale examined; (2) urchins from different size classes showed different patterns of abundance in relation to habitat traits; (3) variables normally invoked as potential drivers of distribution of urchins at a range of scales, such as hydrodynamics and shore height, were relatively less important than other abiotic (i.e. pool area, pool mean depth calculated over five replicate measures and sand cover) and biological (i.e. space occupancy by the reef-forming polychaete Sabellaria alveolata and mussels vs. availability of bare rock) variables to provide a considerable contribution to the variability of sea urchins. Intertidal populations of sea urchins are abundant on many rocky shores, where they are socially and economically important as food resource and ecologically key as habitat modelers. This study provides new clues on relatively unstudied populations, with relevant implications for possible management decisions, including the implementation of protection schemes able to preserve the main recruitment, settlement and development areas of P. lividus.

  5. Correlation analyses of covering and righting behaviors to fitness related traits of the sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis in diff erent environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jing; Zhang, Lisheng; Zhao, Chong; Feng, Wenping; Sun, Ping; Chang, Yaqing

    2016-03-01

    Complex marine benthic environments shape a number of ecologically important behaviors in sea urchins, including covering and righting behaviors. The present study correlated covering and righting behaviors to a series of fitness-related traits in sea urchins. Righting response time of Glyptocidaris crenularis was significantly positively correlated with body size, but significantly negatively correlated with food consumption. Covering behavior was not significantly correlated with test diameter, test height or body weight, but covering response time was negatively correlated with body weight. A significantly negative correlation was found between righting response time and covering response time. Glyptocidaris crenularis showed a significantly positive correlation in covering response time with and without exposure to poured sand, but no significance in covering ability (number of shells used to cover). The present study provides new insight into internal mechanisms and evolutionary drives of covering and righting behaviors of sea urchins.

  6. Correlation analyses of covering and righting behaviors to fitness related traits of the sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis in different environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jing; Zhang, Lisheng; Zhao, Chong; Feng, Wenping; Sun, Ping; Chang, Yaqing

    2016-11-01

    Complex marine benthic environments shape a number of ecologically important behaviors in sea urchins, including covering and righting behaviors. The present study correlated covering and righting behaviors to a series of fitness-related traits in sea urchins. Righting response time of Glyptocidaris crenularis was significantly positively correlated with body size, but significantly negatively correlated with food consumption. Covering behavior was not significantly correlated with test diameter, test height or body weight, but covering response time was negatively correlated with body weight. A significantly negative correlation was found between righting response time and covering response time. Glyptocidaris crenularis showed a significantly positive correlation in covering response time with and without exposure to poured sand, but no significance in covering ability (number of shells used to cover). The present study provides new insight into internal mechanisms and evolutionary drives of covering and righting behaviors of sea urchins.

  7. Observations of the summer Red Sea circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofianos, Sarantis S.; Johns, William E.

    2007-06-01

    Aiming at exploring and understanding the summer circulation in the Red Sea, a cruise was conducted in the basin during the summer of 2001 involving hydrographic, meteorological, and direct current observations. The most prominent feature, characteristic of the summer circulation and exchange with the Indian Ocean, is a temperature, salinity, and oxygen minimum located around a depth of 75 m at the southern end of the basin, associated with Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water inflowing from the Gulf of Aden during the summer season as an intruding subsurface layer. Stirring and mixing with ambient waters lead to marked increases in temperature (from 16.5 to almost 33°C) and salinity (from 35.7 to more than 38 psu) in this layer by the time it reaches midbasin. The observed circulation presents a very vigorous pattern with strong variability and intense features that extend the width of the basin. A permanent cyclone, detected in the northern Red Sea, verifies previous observations and modeling studies, while in the central sector of the basin a series of very strong anticyclones were observed with maximum velocities exceeding 1 m/s. The three-layer flow pattern, representative of the summer exchange between the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, is observed in the strait of Bab el Mandeb. In the southern part of the basin the layer flow is characterized by strong banking of the inflows and outflows against the coasts. Both surface and intermediate water masses involved in the summer Red Sea circulation present prominent spatial variability in their characteristics, indicating that the eddy field and mixing processes play an important role in the summer Red Sea circulation.

  8. Unraveling estradiol metabolism and involvement in the reproductive cycle of non-vertebrate animals: The sea urchin model.

    PubMed

    Silvia, Mercurio; Paolo, Tremolada; Nobile, Maria; Denise, Fernandes; Cinta, Porte; Michela, Sugni

    2015-12-01

    Estradiol (E2) is a well-known hormone in vertebrates whereas in invertebrates its unambiguous presence was verified only in some species. Weather this presence is also associated to similarly conserved roles in animal phylogeny is similarly uncertain. Due to their phylogenetic position, echinoderms represent ideal experimental models to provide evolutionary insights into estrogen appearance and function. Therefore, in this research, we investigated if E2 is truly present and has a role in the reproductive biology of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Presence of 17β estradiol in body fluids was confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. By immunological methods (RIA) we evaluated the physiological circulating E2 levels of adult specimens and, on the basis of these, we directly administered E2 to study its metabolism and its putative effects on gonad development at physiological doses. Although different E2 tested concentrations, a correspondent dose-dependent increase of hormone levels was not found in both body fluids and gonads, suggesting the presence of potent homeostatic/detoxification mechanisms. These latter do not involve enzymes such as aromatase-like, sulfotransferase-like and acyltransferase-like, whose activities were not affected by E2 administration. Despite the increase of endogenous E2, the treatment did not induce significant variations in none of the considered reproductive parameters. Overall, this research (1) provides definitive evidence of E2 presence in sea urchin tissues and (2) demonstrate that, differently from vertebrates and starfish, E2 does not play a key role in sea urchins reproductive processes. Intra-phylum differences suggest the existence of class-specific hormonal mechanisms and highlight the risk of Phylum generalization.

  9. Evolution of OTP-independent larval skeleton patterning in the direct-developing sea urchin, Heliocidaris erythrogramma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Na; Wilson, Keen A; Andrews, Mary E; Kauffman, Jeffery S; Raff, Rudolf A

    2003-12-15

    Heliocidaris erythrogramma is a direct-developing sea urchin that has evolved a modified ontogeny, a reduced larval skeleton, and accelerated development of the adult skeleton. The Orthopedia gene (Otp) encodes a homeodomain transcription factor crucial in patterning the larval skeleton of indirect-developing sea urchins. We compare the role of Otp in larvae of the indirect-developing sea urchin Heliocidaris tuberculata and its direct-developing congener H. erythrogramma. Otp is a single-copy gene with an identical protein sequence in these species. Expression of Otp is initiated by the late gastrula, initially in two cells of the oral ectoderm in H. tuberculata. These cells are restricted to oral ectoderm and exhibit left-right symmetry. There are about 266 copies of Otp mRNA per Otp- expressing cell in H. tuberculata. We tested OTP function in H. tuberculata and H. erythrogramma embryos by microinjection of Otp mRNA. Mis-expression of Otp mRNA in H. tuberculata radialized the embryos and caused defects during larval skeletogenesis. Mis-expression of Otp mRNA in H. erythrogramma embryos did not affect skeleton formation. This is consistent with the observation by in situ hybridization of no concentration of Otp transcript in any particular cells or region of the H. erythrogramma larva, and measurement of a level of less than one copy of endogenous Otp mRNA per cell in H. erythrogramma. OTP plays an important role in patterning the larval skeleton of H. tuberculata, but this role apparently has been lost in the evolution of the H. erythrogramma larva, and replaced by a new patterning mechanism.

  10. An abundance of Epsilonproteobacteria revealed in the gut microbiome of the laboratory cultured sea urchin, Lytechinus variegatus

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Joseph A.; Koo, Hyunmin; Dennis, Lacey N.; Kumar, Ranjit; Ptacek, Travis; Morrow, Casey D.; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Powell, Mickie L.; Bej, Asim K.; Watts, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have examined the bacterial community composition of the laboratory cultured sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus gut microbiome and its culture environment using NextGen amplicon sequencing of the V4 segment of the 16S rRNA gene, and downstream bioinformatics tools. Overall, the gut and tank water was dominated by Proteobacteria, whereas the feed consisted of a co-occurrence of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes at a high abundance. The gut tissue represented Epsilonproteobacteria as dominant, with order Campylobacterales at the highest relative abundance (>95%). However, the pharynx tissue was dominated by class Alphaproteobacteria. The gut digesta and egested fecal pellets had a high abundance of class Gammaproteobacteria, from which Vibrio was found to be the primary genus, and Epsilonproteobacteria, with genus Arcobacter occurring at a moderate level. At the class level, the tank water was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, and the feed by Alphaproteobacteria. Multi-Dimensional Scaling analysis showed that the microbial community of the gut tissue clustered together, as did the pharynx tissue to the feed. The gut digesta and egested fecal pellets showed a similarity relationship to the tank water. Further analysis of Campylobacterales at a lower taxonomic level using the oligotyping method revealed 37 unique types across the 10 samples, where Oligotype 1 was primarily represented in the gut tissue. BLAST analysis identified Oligotype 1 to be Arcobacter sp., Sulfuricurvum sp., and Arcobacter bivalviorum at an identity level >90%. This study showed that although distinct microbial communities are evident across multiple components of the sea urchin gut ecosystem, there is a noticeable correlation between the overall microbial communities of the gut with the sea urchin L. variegatus culture environment. PMID:26528245

  11. Identification of sulfated oligosialic acid units in the O-linked glycan of the sea urchin egg receptor for sperm.

    PubMed

    Kitazume-Kawaguchi, S; Inoue, S; Inoue, Y; Lennarz, W J

    1997-04-15

    The Strongylocentrotus purpuratus sea urchin egg receptor for sperm is a cell surface glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 350 kDa. Recent studies indicate that the sulfated O-linked glycans isolated from the receptor bind to acrosome-reacted sperm. The purified receptor was analyzed with respect to amino acid and carbohydrate content and shown to be composed of 70% carbohydrate by weight. Compositional analysis indicated that both N- and O-linked oligosaccharide chains were present. After peptide:N-glycanase treatment of the receptor to remove most of the N-linked glycan chains, the majority of the sialic acid residues remained associated with the receptor and were shown by several types of experiments to be composed of sulfated oligosialic acid units attached to the O-linked glycan chains of the receptor. Chemical and physical studies on oligosialic chains discovered earlier in the Pronase-generated glycopeptide fraction isolated from the egg cell surface complex of another species of sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, established that these molecules had the structure: (SO(4)-)-9Neu5Gc alpha2(-->5-O(glycolyl)Neu5Gc alpha2-->)n. Based on comparative and analytical studies, it was concluded that this sulfated oligosaccharide is a component of a GalNAc-containing chain that is O-linked to the polypeptide chain of the sea urchin egg receptor for sperm. Using a competitive inhibition of fertilization bioassay it was shown that the sulfated oligosialic acid chains derived from the S. purpuratus egg cell surface complex inhibited fertilization; the nonsulfated form of this oligosialic chain had little inhibitory activity.

  12. Mature maternal mRNAs are longer than zygotic ones and have complex degradation kinetics in sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Gildor, Tsvia; Malik, Assaf; Sher, Noa; Ben-Tabou de-Leon, Smadar

    2016-06-01

    Early in embryogenesis, maternally deposited transcripts are degraded and new zygotic transcripts are generated during the maternal to zygotic transition. Recent works have shown that early zygotic transcripts are short compared to maternal transcripts, in zebrafish and Drosophila species. The reduced zygotic transcript length was attributed to the short cell cycle in these organisms that prevents the transcription of long primary transcripts (intron delay). Here we study the length of maternal mRNAs and their degradation kinetics in two sea urchin species to further the understanding of maternal gene usage and processing. Early zygotic primary transcripts and mRNAs are shorter than maternal ones in the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Yet, while primary transcripts length increases when cell cycle lengthens, typical for intron delay, the relatively short length of zygotic mRNAs is consistent. The enhanced mRNA length is due to significantly longer maternal open reading frames and 3'UTRs compared to the zygotic lengths, a ratio that does not change with developmental time. This implies unique usage of both coding sequences and regulatory information in the maternal stage compared to the zygotic stages. We extracted the half-lifetimes due to maternal and zygotic degradation mechanisms from high-density time course of a set of maternal mRNAs in Paracentrotus lividus. The degradation rates due to maternal and zygotic degradation mechanisms are not correlated, indicating that these mechanisms are independent and relay on different regulatory information. Our studies illuminate specific structural and kinetic properties of sea urchin maternal mRNAs that might be broadly shared by other organisms. PMID:27085752

  13. Understanding the Red Sea nutrient cycle - a first look into nitrogen fixation in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Roslinda; Arrieta, Jesus; Alam, Intikhab; Duarte, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The Red Sea is an elongated and semi-enclosed system bordered by Africa and Saudi Arabia. Positioned in an arid, tropical zone, the system receives high solar irradiance and heat flux, extensive evaporation, low rainfall and therefore high salinity. These harsh environmental conditions has set the Red Sea to be one of the fastest warming and saltiest ecosystem in the world. Although nutrients are known to be at very low concentrations, the ultimately limiting nutrient in the system is still undefined. Therefore, like most other oligotrophic systems, we regard the Red Sea as being nitrogen-limited and we foresee nitrogen fixation as the most probable bottleneck in the Red Sea nitrogen budget. On the basis of metagenomes from pelagic microbial communities along the Red Sea, we looked into the distribution of nitrogenase, an enzyme involved in nitrogen fixation, in this system and provide a first insight into the microbial community that is involved in the process. The implications of this study will not only help improve our understanding of the Red Sea nutrient regime, but may also hint on future ocean responses to rising climates.

  14. POPULATION PHARMACOKINETICS OF ENROFLOXACIN AND ITS METABOLITE CIPROFLOXACIN IN THE GREEN SEA URCHIN (STRONGYLOCENTROTUS DROEBACHIENSIS) FOLLOWING INTRACOELOMIC AND IMMERSION ADMINISTRATION.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Brianne E; Harms, Craig A; Lewbart, Gregory A; Lahner, Lesanna L; Haulena, Martin; Rosenberg, Justin F; Papich, Mark G

    2016-03-01

    Sea urchin mass mortality events have been attributed to both infectious and noninfectious etiologies. Bacteria, including Vibrio spp. and Pseudoalteromonas spp., have been isolated during specific mortality events. Aquarium collection sea urchins are also subject to bacterial infections and could benefit from antimicrobial treatment, but pharmacokinetic studies have been lacking for this invertebrate group until recently. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin in the green sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) after intracoelomic injection and medicated bath immersion administration. The utility of a population pharmacokinetic method using nonlinear mixed effects modeling (NLME) was also evaluated. Thirty sea urchins were assigned to either the injection or immersion group. Twelve study animals and three untreated controls were utilized for each administration method: enrofloxacin 10 mg/kg intracoelomic injection or a 6-hr enrofloxacin 10 mg/L immersion. Each animal was sampled four times from 0 to 120 hr. Water samples were collected during immersion treatment and posttreatment time points in both groups. Hemolymph and water sample drug concentrations were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using an NLME population pharmacokinetic method. Enrofloxacin concentrations were fit to a two-compartment model with first-order input for the intracoelomic injection group. The enrofloxacin elimination half-life (t½), peak hemolymph concentration (CMAX), and area under the curve (AUC) were 38.82 hr, 90.92 μg/ml, and 1,199 hr·μg/ml, respectively. Enrofloxacin was modeled to a one-compartment model with first-order input for the immersion treatment. The enrofloxacin t½, CMAX, and AUC were 33.46 hr, 0.48 μg/ml, and 32.88 hr·μg/ml, respectively. Ciprofloxacin was detected in trace concentrations in all hemolymph samples, indicating

  15. Polyribosome targeting to microtubules: enrichment of specific mRNAs in a reconstituted microtubule preparation from sea urchin embryos

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    A subset of mRNAs, polyribosomes, and poly(A)-binding proteins copurify with microtubules from sea urchin embryos. Several lines of evidence indicate that the interaction of microtubules with ribosomes is specific: a distinct stalk-like structure appears to mediate their association; ribosomes bind to microtubules with a constant stoichiometry through several purification cycles; and the presence of ribosomes in these preparations depends on the presence of intact microtubules. Five specific mRNAs are enriched with the microtubule- bound ribosomes, indicating that translation of specific proteins may occur on the microtubule scaffolding in vivo. PMID:7962079

  16. POPULATION PHARMACOKINETICS OF ENROFLOXACIN AND ITS METABOLITE CIPROFLOXACIN IN THE GREEN SEA URCHIN (STRONGYLOCENTROTUS DROEBACHIENSIS) FOLLOWING INTRACOELOMIC AND IMMERSION ADMINISTRATION.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Brianne E; Harms, Craig A; Lewbart, Gregory A; Lahner, Lesanna L; Haulena, Martin; Rosenberg, Justin F; Papich, Mark G

    2016-03-01

    Sea urchin mass mortality events have been attributed to both infectious and noninfectious etiologies. Bacteria, including Vibrio spp. and Pseudoalteromonas spp., have been isolated during specific mortality events. Aquarium collection sea urchins are also subject to bacterial infections and could benefit from antimicrobial treatment, but pharmacokinetic studies have been lacking for this invertebrate group until recently. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin in the green sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) after intracoelomic injection and medicated bath immersion administration. The utility of a population pharmacokinetic method using nonlinear mixed effects modeling (NLME) was also evaluated. Thirty sea urchins were assigned to either the injection or immersion group. Twelve study animals and three untreated controls were utilized for each administration method: enrofloxacin 10 mg/kg intracoelomic injection or a 6-hr enrofloxacin 10 mg/L immersion. Each animal was sampled four times from 0 to 120 hr. Water samples were collected during immersion treatment and posttreatment time points in both groups. Hemolymph and water sample drug concentrations were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using an NLME population pharmacokinetic method. Enrofloxacin concentrations were fit to a two-compartment model with first-order input for the intracoelomic injection group. The enrofloxacin elimination half-life (t½), peak hemolymph concentration (CMAX), and area under the curve (AUC) were 38.82 hr, 90.92 μg/ml, and 1,199 hr·μg/ml, respectively. Enrofloxacin was modeled to a one-compartment model with first-order input for the immersion treatment. The enrofloxacin t½, CMAX, and AUC were 33.46 hr, 0.48 μg/ml, and 32.88 hr·μg/ml, respectively. Ciprofloxacin was detected in trace concentrations in all hemolymph samples, indicating

  17. microRNA-31 modulates skeletal patterning in the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Stepicheva, Nadezda A; Song, Jia L

    2015-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that repress the translation and reduce the stability of target mRNAs in animal cells. microRNA-31 (miR-31) is known to play a role in cancer, bone formation and lymphatic development. However, studies to understand the function of miR-31 in embryogenesis have been limited. We examined the regulatory role of miR-31 in early development using the sea urchin as a model. miR-31 is expressed at all stages of development and its knockdown (KD) disrupts the patterning and function of primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs), which form the embryonic skeleton spicules. We identified that miR-31 directly represses Pmar1, Alx1, Snail and VegfR7 within the PMC gene regulatory network using reporter constructs. Further, blocking the miR-31-mediated repression of Alx1 and/or VegfR7 in the developing embryo resulted in defects in PMC patterning and skeletogenesis. The majority of the mislocalized PMCs in miR-31 KD embryos did not express VegfR10, indicating that miR-31 regulates VegfR gene expression within PMCs. In addition, miR-31 indirectly suppresses Vegf3 expression in the ectoderm. These results indicate that miR-31 coordinately suppresses genes within the PMCs and in the ectoderm to impact PMC patterning and skeletogenesis. This study identifies the novel function and molecular mechanism of miR-31-mediated regulation in the developing embryo. PMID:26400092

  18. X-ray microCT study of pyramids of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus.

    PubMed

    Stock, S R; Nagaraja, S; Barss, J; Dahl, T; Veis, A

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports results of a novel approach, X-ray microCT, for quantifying stereom structures applied to ossicles of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. MicroCT, a high resolution variant of medical CT (computed tomography), allows noninvasive mapping of microstructure in 3-D with spatial resolution approaching that of optical microscopy. An intact pyramid (two demipyramids, tooth epiphyses, and one tooth) was reconstructed with 17 microm isotropic voxels (volume elements); two individual demipyramids and a pair of epiphyses were studied with 9-13 microm isotropic voxels. The cross-sectional maps of a linear attenuation coefficient produced by the reconstruction algorithm showed that the structure of the ossicles was quite heterogeneous on the scale of tens to hundreds of micrometers. Variations in magnesium content and in minor elemental constitutents could not account for the observed heterogeneities. Spatial resolution was insufficient to resolve the individual elements of the stereom, but the observed values of the linear attenuation coefficient (for the 26 keV effective X-ray energy, a maximum of 7.4 cm(-1) and a minimum of approximately 2 cm(-1) away from obvious voids) could be interpreted in terms of fractions of voxels occupied by mineral (high magnesium calcite). The average volume fraction of mineral determined for a transverse slice of the demipyramid near where it joins an epiphysis was 0.46; for a slice 3.3 mm adoral it was 0.70. Local volume fractions of mineral approached 1, and, away from resolvable voids, considerable portions of the demipyramids had volume fractions of calcite at or below approximately 0.33. MicroCT imaging of a demipyramid before and after infiltration with a high absorptivity fluid (sodium polytungstate) confirmed the determination of the volume fractions of minerals. PMID:12576016

  19. Geometric control of ciliated band regulatory states in the sea urchin embryo

    PubMed Central

    Barsi, Julius C.; Li, Enhu; Davidson, Eric H.

    2015-01-01

    The trapezoidal ciliated band (CB) of the postgastrular sea urchin embryo surrounds the oral ectoderm, separating it from adjacent embryonic territories. Once differentiated, the CB is composed of densely arranged cells bearing long cilia that endow the larva with locomotion and feeding capability. The spatial pattern from which the CB will arise is first evidenced during pregastrular stages by expression of the pioneer gene onecut. Immediately after gastrulation, the CB consists of four separate regulatory state domains, each of which expresses a unique set of transcription factors: (1) the oral apical CB, located within the apical neurogenic field; (2) the animal lateral CB, which bilaterally separates the oral from aboral ectoderm; (3) the vegetal lateral CB, which bilaterally serves as signaling centers; and (4) the vegetal oral CB, which delineates the boundary with the underlying endoderm. Remarkably, almost all of the regulatory genes specifically expressed within these domains are downregulated by interference with SoxB1 expression, implying their common activation by this factor. Here, we show how the boundaries of the CB subdomains are established, and thus ascertain the design principle by which the geometry of this unique and complex regulatory state pattern is genomically controlled. Each of these boundaries, on either side of the CB, is defined by spatially confined transcriptional repressors, the products of regulatory genes operating across the border of each subdomain. In total this requires deployment of about ten different repressors, which we identify in this work, thus exemplifying the complexity of information required for spatial regulatory organization during embryogenesis. PMID:25655703

  20. Arthrobacter echini sp. nov., isolated from the gut of a purple sea urchin, Heliocidaris crassispina.

    PubMed

    Lee, June-Young; Hyun, Dong-Wook; Soo Kim, Pil; Sik Kim, Hyun; Shin, Na-Ri; Yun, Ji-Hyun; Jung, Mi-Ja; Kim, Min-Soo; Woong Whon, Tae; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2016-04-01

    A novel strain, designated AM23T, was isolated from the gut of a purple sea urchin Heliocidaris crassispina collected from the coastal waters of the Korean island Dokdo. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain AM23T belonged to the genus Arthrobacter in the family Micrococcaceae and shared highest sequence similarity with Arthrobacter agilis DSM 20550T (98.77%). Strain AM23T was catalase-positive, oxidase-negative and grew optimally at 20 °C, in the presence of 1% (w/v) NaCl and at pH 7. The isolate was a Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, strictly aerobic and coccus-shaped bacterium. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C15:0. The polar lipids of strain AM23T were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, one unidentified glycolipid and four unidentified lipids. The components of the cell-wall peptidoglycan were lysine, glutamic acid and alanine and the predominant cell-wall sugars were galactose, mannose, rhamnose and ribose. The major respiratory quinone was identified as menaquinone MK-9(H2). The genomic DNA G+C content was 67.3 mol% and the DNA-DNA hybridization values showed the strain shared less than 29% genomic relatedness with A. agilis DSM 20550T. The results of the phylogenetic, phenotypic and genotypic analysis indicate that strain AM23T represents a novel species in the genus Arthrobacter, for which the name Arthrobacter echini sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AM23T (=KACC 18260T=DSM 29493T). PMID:26868361

  1. ABCC5 is required for cAMP-mediated hindgut invagination in sea urchin embryos

    PubMed Central

    Shipp, Lauren E.; Hill, Rose Z.; Moy, Gary W.; Gökırmak, Tufan; Hamdoun, Amro

    2015-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are evolutionarily conserved proteins that pump diverse substrates across membranes. Many are known to efflux signaling molecules and are extensively expressed during development. However, the role of transporters in moving extracellular signals that regulate embryogenesis is largely unexplored. Here, we show that a mesodermal ABCC (MRP) transporter is necessary for endodermal gut morphogenesis in sea urchin embryos. This transporter, Sp-ABCC5a (C5a), is expressed in pigment cells and their precursors, which are a subset of the non-skeletogenic mesoderm (NSM) cells. C5a expression depends on Delta/Notch signaling from skeletogenic mesoderm and is downstream of Gcm in the aboral NSM gene regulatory network. Long-term imaging of development reveals that C5a knockdown embryos gastrulate, but ∼90% develop a prolapse of the hindgut by the late prism stage (∼8 h after C5a protein expression normally peaks). Since C5a orthologs efflux cyclic nucleotides, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (Sp-CAPK/PKA) is expressed in pigment cells, we examined whether C5a could be involved in gastrulation through cAMP transport. Consistent with this hypothesis, membrane-permeable pCPT-cAMP rescues the prolapse phenotype in C5a knockdown embryos, and causes archenteron hyper-invagination in control embryos. In addition, the cAMP-producing enzyme soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is expressed in pigment cells, and its inhibition impairs gastrulation. Together, our data support a model in which C5a transports sAC-derived cAMP from pigment cells to control late invagination of the hindgut. Little is known about the ancestral functions of ABCC5/MRP5 transporters, and this study reveals a novel role for these proteins in mesoderm-endoderm signaling during embryogenesis. PMID:26395488

  2. Hyperlensing at NIR frequencies using a hemispherical metallic nanowire lens in a sea-urchin geometry.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Ankit; He, Wei; Wang, Xiaotian; Wu, Linda Y L; Chen, Xiaodong; Li, Shuzhou

    2016-05-19

    Label-free and real time far-field super-resolution imaging (hyperlensing) at the nanoscale is of significant interest where sub-λ imaging remains a constraint because of Abbe's diffraction limit. Though by utilizing anisotropic permittivities, metal-dielectric multilayers have been successful in reconstructing high-frequency components of sub-λ objects, yet they remain cumbersome and expensive to make. Most of the multilayer structures require multiple vacuum deposition cycles and are plagued by stringent requirements on the surface roughness of metallic layers. In contrast to the multilayer structure here we propose a 3D hyperbolic metamaterial model composed of metallic nanorods arranged in a sea-urchin geometry as a hyper-lensing device, which is capable of projecting and magnifying diffraction limited information into the far-field at Near-infrared (NIR) frequencies. The hyperlens generates a band of flat hyperbolic dispersions in spherical coordinates, which in turn supports the propagation of high wave-vector spatial harmonics leading to far-field super-resolution imaging. Using full-wave finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations with diffraction limited trimer, quadrumer and ringed objects etched on thin perfect electric conductor (PEC) films, we show that the hyperlens model can achieve magnification factors of up to 10× in the far-field (∼4.5λ from the object's surface) under a light source with a wavelength of 1 μm, with successful resolution down to 220 nm (∼λ/5). The magnified image field distribution projected into the far-field is shown to follow the object under a reduction in the symmetry. These results are important for making progress in the realization of real-time biomolecular imaging systems, eliminating the need for near-field scanning, destructive electron microscopy and various image post-processing techniques. PMID:27149522

  3. Differential toxicity of three polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in developing sea urchin embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, L.E.; Suffet, I.H.; Hose, J.E.; Bay, S.M.

    1997-07-01

    The relationship between body burden and toxicity of three individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in developing sea urchin embryos was investigated to evaluate the validity of current predictive models of PCB toxicity in an invertebrate system. Body burdens of radiolabeled PCB congeners (IUPAC-47, 77, and 153) accumulated from a seawater were used to determine median effective concentrations (EC50s) for developmental and cytogenetic effects following a 72-h exposure. Congener 47, a di-ortho-substituted tetrachlorobiphenyl, was found to be at least four times more toxic than congener 77, a non-ortho-substituted (coplanar) tetrachlorobiphenyl, with EC50s of 47 and >218 mmol/kg, respectively, using an embryo development assay. This result contradicts the structure-activity prediction of the mammalian-based toxic equivalents (TEQs) approach, demonstrating the need for an ecotoxicologic model. Congener 153, a di-ortho-substituted hexachlorobiphenyl, was virtually nontoxic in terms of developmental effects at the highest dose achievable at its limit of water solubility. Cytogenetic analysis was a more sensitive method for assessing toxicity than the embryo development assay. Dose-response relationships were established with mitotic activity being the most sensitive endpoint because the PCBs appeared to inhibit mitosis. At the highest doses, complete mitotic arrest was observed. Congener 77 was found to be at least two times more toxic than congener 153 but not as toxic as congener 47 using mitotic activity as the endpoint for toxicity. Thus, the developmental and cytogenetic endpoints ranked the toxicity of the congeners similarly, but established different EC50s.

  4. Cell-surface proteoglycan in sea urchin primary mesenchyme cell migration

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    Early in the development of the sea urchin embryo, the primary mesenchyme cells (PMC) migrate along the basal lamina of the blastocoel. Migration is inhibited in L. pictus embryos cultured in sulfate-free seawater and in S. purpuratus embryos exposed to exogenous {beta}-D-xylosides. An in vitro assay was developed to test the migratory capacity of normal PMC on normal and treated blastocoelic matrix. Sulfate deprivation and exposure to exogenous xyloside render PMC nonmotile on either matrix. Materials removed from the surface of normal PMC by treatment with 1 M urea restored migratory ability to defective cells, whereas a similar preparation isolated from the surface of epithelial cells at the same stage did not. Migration also resumed when cells were removed from the xyloside or returned to normal seawater. The urea extract was partially purified and characterized by radiolabeling, gel electrophoresis, fluorography, ion exchange chromatography, and western blotting. The PMC synthesize a large chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan that is present in an active fraction isolated by chromatography. Chondroitinase ABC digestion of live cells blocked migration reversibly, further supporting the identification of the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan as the active component in the urea extract. Much of the incorporated sulfate was distributed along the filopodia in {sup 35}SO{sub 4}-labelled PMC by autoradiography. The morphology of normal and treated S. purpuratus PMC was examined by scanning electron microscopy, and differences in spreading, particularly of the extensive filopodia present on the cells, was observed. A model for the role of the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan in cell detachment during migration is proposed.

  5. Sequence heterogeneity, multiplicity, and genomic organization of. cap alpha. - and. beta. -tubulin genes in Sea Urchins

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandraki, D.; Ruderman, J.V.

    1981-12-01

    The authors analyzed the multiplicity, heterogeneity, and organization of the genes encoding the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. tubulins in the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus by using cloned complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) and genomic tubulin sequences. cDNA clones were constructed by using immature spermatogenic testis polyadenylic acid-containing ribonucleic acid as a template. ..cap alpha.. and ..beta..-tubulin clones were identified by hybrid selection and in vitro translation of the corresponding messenger ribonucleic acids, followed by immunoprecipitation and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the translation products. The ..cap alpha.. cDNA clone contains a sequence that encodes the 48 C-terminal amino acids of ..cap alpha.. tubulin and 104 base pairs of the 3' nontranslated portion of the messenger ribonucleic acid. The ..beta.. cDNA insertion contains the coding sequence for the 100 C-terminal amino acids of ..beta.. tubulin and 83 base pairs of the 3' noncoding sequence. Hybrid selections performed at different criteria demonstrated the presence of several heterogeneous, closely related tubulin messenger ribonucleic acids, suggesting the existence of heterogeneous ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-tubulin genes. Hybridization analyses indicated that there are at least 9 to 13 sequences for each of the two tubulin gene families per haploid genome. Hybridization of the cDNA probes to both total genomic DNA and cloned germline DNA fragments gave no evidence for close physical linkage of ..cap alpha..-tubulin genes with ..beta..-tubulin genes at the DNA level. In contrast, these experiments indicated that some genes within the same family are clustered.

  6. Calcium-mediated release of glucanase activity from cortical granules of sea urchin eggs.

    PubMed

    Moy, G W; Kopf, G S; Gache, C; Vacquier, V D

    1983-12-01

    Confluent monolayers of sea urchin eggs were bonded to culture dishes coated with protamine sulfate. The cytoplasm was then sheared away by a jet of isosmotic buffer. About 326,000 circular fragments of individual egg cortices (430 micrograms protein) remained bound to each dish. The fragments are composed of cortical granules (CG), plasma membrane, and vitelline layer. A single dish contains 7.7 X 10(8) CG and is referred to as a CG lawn (CGL). Ca2+-EGTA buffers of estimated free-Ca2+ concentrations (0.06-25.7 microM) were applied to CGL and samples removed and assayed for the CG marker enzyme exo-beta (1 leads to 3)-glucanohydrolase (glucanase). Estimated free-Ca2+ concentrations above 2.75 microM caused the total release of the glucanase to the supernatant within 4 min. The half-maximal rate of appearance of glucanase occurred in 2.5 microM Ca2+. At all Ca2+ concentrations tested, the appearance of enzyme activity exhibited sigmoidal kinetics. The visual disappearance of CG correlated with the appearance of glucanase in the Ca2+ buffer. In response to Ca2+ the CG probably lyse, fuse with adjacent CG, or fuse with the underlying plasma membrane. The calmodulin antagonist trifluoperazine inhibited Ca2+-mediated glucanase release from CGL (I50 8 microM). The sensitivity of the CGL to Ca2+ in the 1-10 microM range is rapidly lost during incubation of CGL in the isolation buffer. ATP and low temperature retard the rate of loss of Ca2+ sensitivity. These secretory granules are a model for studying the mechanism of Ca2+-induced secretion. In addition, they contain structural proteins and enzymes which function in the fertilization process. CGL preparations should be useful in studies dealing with the processing of CG components after their release in response to micromolar concentrations of Ca2+.

  7. Acidified seawater impacts sea urchin larvae pH regulatory systems relevant for calcification

    PubMed Central

    Stumpp, Meike; Hu, Marian Y.; Melzner, Frank; Gutowska, Magdalena A.; Dorey, Narimane; Himmerkus, Nina; Holtmann, Wiebke C.; Dupont, Sam T.; Thorndyke, Michael C.; Bleich, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Calcifying echinoid larvae respond to changes in seawater carbonate chemistry with reduced growth and developmental delay. To date, no information exists on how ocean acidification acts on pH homeostasis in echinoderm larvae. Understanding acid–base regulatory capacities is important because intracellular formation and maintenance of the calcium carbonate skeleton is dependent on pH homeostasis. Using H+-selective microelectrodes and the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye BCECF, we conducted in vivo measurements of extracellular and intracellular pH (pHe and pHi) in echinoderm larvae. We exposed pluteus larvae to a range of seawater CO2 conditions and demonstrated that the extracellular compartment surrounding the calcifying primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) conforms to the surrounding seawater with respect to pH during exposure to elevated seawater pCO2. Using FITC dextran conjugates, we demonstrate that sea urchin larvae have a leaky integument. PMCs and spicules are therefore directly exposed to strong changes in pHe whenever seawater pH changes. However, measurements of pHi demonstrated that PMCs are able to fully compensate an induced intracellular acidosis. This was highly dependent on Na+ and HCO3−, suggesting a bicarbonate buffer mechanism involving secondary active Na+-dependent membrane transport proteins. We suggest that, under ocean acidification, maintained pHi enables calcification to proceed despite decreased pHe. However, this probably causes enhanced costs. Increased costs for calcification or cellular homeostasis can be one of the main factors leading to modifications in energy partitioning, which then impacts growth and, ultimately, results in increased mortality of echinoid larvae during the pelagic life stage. PMID:23077257

  8. Ocean acidification and fertilization in the antarctic sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri: the importance of polyspermy.

    PubMed

    Sewell, Mary A; Millar, Russell B; Yu, Pauline C; Kapsenberg, Lyd