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Sample records for red spectral edge

  1. Red edge spectral measurements from sugar maple leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogelmann, J. E.; Rock, B. N.; Moss, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    Many sugar maple stands in the northeastern United States experienced extensive insect damage during the 1988 growing season. Chlorophyll data and high spectral resolution spectrometer laboratory reflectance data were acquired for multiple collections of single detached sugar maple leaves variously affected by the insect over the 1988 growing season. Reflectance data indicated consistent and diagnostic differences in the red edge portion (680-750 nm) of the spectrum among the various samples and populations of leaves. These included differences in the red edge inflection point (REIP), a ratio of reflectance at 740-720 nm (RE3/RE2), and a ratio of first derivative values at 715-705 nm (D715/D705). All three red edge parameters were highly correlated with variation in total chlorophyll content. Other spectral measures, including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Simple Vegetation Index Ratio (VI), also varied among populations and over the growing season, but did not correlate well with total chlorophyll content. Leaf stacking studies on light and dark backgrounds indicated REIP, RE3/RE2 and D715/D705 to be much less influenced by differences in green leaf biomass and background condition than either NDVI or VI.

  2. SENTINEL-2A red-edge spectral indices suitability for discriminating burn severity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Manso, Alfonso; Fernández-Manso, Oscar; Quintano, Carmen

    2016-08-01

    Fires are a problematic and recurrent issue in Mediterranean ecosystems. Accurate discrimination between burn severity levels is essential for the rehabilitation planning of burned areas. Sentinel-2A MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) record data in three red-edge wavelengths, spectral domain especially useful on agriculture and vegetation applications. Our objective is to find out whether Sentinel-2A MSI red-edge wavelengths are suitable for burn severity discrimination. As study area, we used the 2015 Sierra Gata wildfire (Spain) that burned approximately 80 km2. A Copernicus Emergency Management Service (EMS)-grading map with four burn severity levels was considered as reference truth. Cox and Snell, Nagelkerke and McFadde pseudo-R2 statistics obtained by Multinomial Logistic Regression showed the superiority of red-edge spectral indices (particularly, Modified Simple Ratio Red-edge, Chlorophyll Index Red-edge, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Red-edge) over conventional spectral indices. Fisher's Least Significant Difference test confirmed that Sentinel-2A MSI red-edge spectral indices are adequate to discriminate four burn severity levels.

  3. Vegetation Red-edge Spectral Modeling for Solar-induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence Retrieval at O2-B Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.; Zhang, L.; Qiao, N.; Zhang, X.; Li, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Remotely sensed solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) has been considered an ideal probe in monitoring global vegetation photosynthesis. However, challenges in accurate estimate of faint SIF (less than 5% of the total reflected radiation in near infrared bands) from the observed apparent reflected radiation greatly limit its wide applications. Currently, the telluric O2-B (~688nm) and O2-A (~761nm) have been proved to be capable of SIF retrieval based on Fraunhofer line depth (FLD) principle. They may still work well even using conventional ground-based commercial spectrometers with typical spectral resolutions of 2~5 nm and high enough signal-to-noise ratio (e.g., the ASD spectrometer). Nevertheless, almost all current FLD based algorithms were mainly developed for O2-A, a few concentrating on the other SIF emission peak in O2-B. One of the critical reasons is that it is very difficult to model the sudden varying reflectance around O2-B band located in the red-edge spectral region (about 680-800 nm). This study investigates a new method by combining the established inverted Gaussian reflectance model (IGM) and FLD principle using diurnal canopy spectra with relative low spectral resolutions of 1 nm (FluorMOD simulations) and 3 nm (measured by ASD spectrometer) respectively. The IGM has been reported to be an objective and good method to characterize the entire vegetation red-edge reflectance. Consequently, the proposed SIF retrieval method (hereinafter called IGMFLD) could exploit all the spectral information along the whole red-edge (680-800 nm) to obtain more reasonable reflectance and fluorescence correction coefficients than traditional FLD methods such as the iFLD. Initial results show that the IGMFLD can better capture the spectrally non-linear characterization of the reflectance in 680-800 nm and thereby yields much more accurate SIFs in O2-B than typical FLD methods, including sFLD, 3FLD and iFLD (see figure 1). Finally, uncertainties and prospect

  4. Red-Edge Spectral Reflectance as an Indicator of Surface Moisture Content in an Alaskan Peatland Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPartland, M.; Kane, E. S.; Turetsky, M. R.; Douglass, T.; Falkowski, M. J.; Montgomery, R.; Edwards, J.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic and boreal peatlands serve as major reservoirs of terrestrial organic carbon (C) because Net Primary Productivity (NPP) outstrips C loss from decomposition over long periods of time. Peatland productivity varies as a function of water table position and surface moisture content, making C storage in these systems particularly vulnerable to the climate warming and drying predicted for high latitudes. Detailed spatial knowledge of how aboveground vegetation communities respond to changes in hydrology would allow for ecosystem response to environmental change to be measured at the landscape scale. This study leverages remotely sensed data along with field measurements taken at the Alaska Peatland Experiment (APEX) at the Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research site to examine relationships between plant solar reflectance and surface moisture. APEX is a decade-long experiment investigating the effects of hydrologic change on peatland ecosystems using water table manipulation treatments (raised, lowered, and control). Water table levels were manipulated throughout the 2015 growing season, resulting in a maximum separation of 35 cm between raised and lowered treatment plots. Water table position, soil moisture content, depth to seasonal ice, soil temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), CO2 and CH4 fluxes were measured as predictors of C loss through decomposition and NPP. Vegetation was surveyed for percent cover of plant functional types. Remote sensing data was collected during peak growing season, when the separation between treatment plots was at maximum difference. Imagery was acquired via a SenseFly eBee airborne platform equipped with a Canon S110 red-edge camera capable of detecting spectral reflectance from plant tissue at 715 nm band center to within centimeters of spatial resolution. Here, we investigate empirical relationships between spectral reflectance, water table position, and surface moisture in relation to peat carbon balance.

  5. Benefits of Red-Edge Spectral Band and Texture Features for the Object-based Classification using RapidEye sSatellite Image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. O.; Yeom, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Space-based remote sensing in agriculture is particularly relevant to issues such as global climate change, food security, and precision agriculture. Recent satellite missions have opened up new perspectives by offering high spatial resolution, various spectral properties, and fast revisit rates to the same regions. Here, we examine the utility of broadband red-edge spectral information in multispectral satellite image data for classifying paddy rice crops in South Korea. Additionally, we examine how object-based spectral features affect the classification of paddy rice growth stages. For the analysis, two seasons of RapidEye satellite image data were used. The results showed that the broadband red-edge information slightly improved the classification accuracy of the crop condition in heterogeneous paddy rice crop environments, particularly when single-season image data were used. This positive effect appeared to be offset by the multi-temporal image data. Additional texture information brought only a minor improvement or a slight decline, although it is well known to be advantageous for object-based classification in general. We conclude that broadband red-edge information derived from conventional multispectral satellite data has the potential to improve space-based crop monitoring. Because the positive or negative effects of texture features for object-based crop classification could barely be interpreted, the relationships between the textual properties and paddy rice crop parameters at the field scale should be further examined in depth.

  6. Comparing Broad-Band and Red Edge-Based Spectral Vegetation Indices to Estimate Nitrogen Concentration of Crops Using Casi Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanjie; Liao, Qinhong; Yang, Guijun; Feng, Haikuan; Yang, Xiaodong; Yue, Jibo

    2016-06-01

    In recent decades, many spectral vegetation indices (SVIs) have been proposed to estimate the leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC) of crops. However, most of these indices were based on the field hyperspectral reflectance. To test whether they can be used in aerial remote platform effectively, in this work a comparison of the sensitivity between several broad-band and red edge-based SVIs to LNC is investigated over different crop types. By using data from experimental LNC values over 4 different crop types and image data acquired using the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) sensor, the extensive dataset allowed us to evaluate broad-band and red edge-based SVIs. The result indicated that NDVI performed the best among the selected SVIs while red edge-based SVIs didn't show the potential for estimating the LNC based on the CASI data due to the spectral resolution. In order to search for the optimal SVIs, the band combination algorithm has been used in this work. The best linear correlation against the experimental LNC dataset was obtained by combining the 626.20nm and 569.00nm wavebands. These wavelengths correspond to the maximal chlorophyll absorption and reflection position region, respectively, and are known to be sensitive to the physiological status of the plant. Then this linear relationship was applied to the CASI image for generating an LNC map, which can guide farmers in the accurate application of their N fertilization strategies.

  7. The red edge of plant leaf reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horler, D. N. H.; Dockray, M.; Barber, J.

    1983-01-01

    A detailed study of the red edge spectral feature of green vegetation based on laboratory reflectance spectrophotometry is presented. A parameter lambda is defined as the wavelength is defined as the wavelength of maximum slope and found to be dependent on chlorophyll concentration. Species, development stage, leaf layering, and leaf water content of vegetation also influences lambda. The maximum slope parameter is found to be independent of simulated ground area coverage. The results are interpreted in terms of Beer's Law and Kubelka-Munk theory. The chlorophyll concentration dependence of lambda seems to be explained in terms of a pure absorption effect, and it is suggested that the existence of two lambda components arises from leaf scattering properties. The results indicate that red edge measurements will be valuable for assessment of vegetative chlorophyll status and leaf area index independently of ground cover variations, and will be particularly suitable for early stress detection.

  8. The Red Edge Problem in asteroid band parameter analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Sean S.; Dunn, Tasha L.; Emery, Joshua P.; Bowles, Neil E.

    2016-04-01

    Near-infrared reflectance spectra of S-type asteroids contain two absorptions at 1 and 2 μm (band I and II) that are diagnostic of mineralogy. A parameterization of these two bands is frequently employed to determine the mineralogy of S(IV) asteroids through the use of ordinary chondrite calibration equations that link the mineralogy to band parameters. The most widely used calibration study uses a Band II terminal wavelength point (red edge) at 2.50 μm. However, due to the limitations of the NIR detectors on prominent telescopes used in asteroid research, spectral data for asteroids are typically only reliable out to 2.45 μm. We refer to this discrepancy as "The Red Edge Problem." In this report, we evaluate the associated errors for measured band area ratios (BAR = Area BII/BI) and calculated relative abundance measurements. We find that the Red Edge Problem is often not the dominant source of error for the observationally limited red edge set at 2.45 μm, but it frequently is for a red edge set at 2.40 μm. The error, however, is one sided and therefore systematic. As such, we provide equations to adjust measured BARs to values with a different red edge definition. We also provide new ol/(ol+px) calibration equations for red edges set at 2.40 and 2.45 μm.

  9. Vegetation's red edge: a possible spectroscopic biosignature of extraterrestrial plants.

    PubMed

    Seager, S; Turner, E L; Schafer, J; Ford, E B

    2005-06-01

    Earth's deciduous plants have a sharp order-of-magnitude increase in leaf reflectance between approximately 700 and 750 nm wavelength. This strong reflectance of Earth's vegetation suggests that surface biosignatures with sharp spectral features might be detectable in the spectrum of scattered light from a spatially unresolved extrasolar terrestrial planet. We assess the potential of Earth's step-function-like spectroscopic feature, referred to as the "red edge," as a tool for astrobiology. We review the basic characteristics and physical origin of the red edge and summarize its use in astronomy: early spectroscopic efforts to search for vegetation on Mars and recent reports of detection of the red edge in the spectrum of Earthshine (i.e., the spatially integrated scattered light spectrum of Earth). We present Earthshine observations from Apache Point Observatory (New Mexico) to emphasize that time variability is key to detecting weak surface biosignatures such as the vegetation red edge. We briefly discuss the evolutionary advantages of vegetation's red edge reflectance, and speculate that while extraterrestrial "light-harvesting organisms" have no compelling reason to display the exact same red edge feature as terrestrial vegetation, they might have similar spectroscopic features at different wavelengths than terrestrial vegetation. This implies that future terrestrial-planet-characterizing space missions should obtain data that allow time-varying, sharp spectral features at unknown wavelengths to be identified. We caution that some mineral reflectance edges are similar in slope and strength to vegetation's red edge (albeit at different wavelengths); if an extrasolar planet reflectance edge is detected care must be taken with its interpretation. PMID:15941381

  10. New applications of Spectral Edge image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Alex E.; Montagna, Roberto; Finlayson, Graham D.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present new applications of the Spectral Edge image fusion method. The Spectral Edge image fusion algorithm creates a result which combines details from any number of multispectral input images with natural color information from a visible spectrum image. Spectral Edge image fusion is a derivative-based technique, which creates an output fused image with gradients which are an ideal combination of those of the multispectral input images and the input visible color image. This produces both maximum detail and natural colors. We present two new applications of Spectral Edge image fusion. Firstly, we fuse RGB-NIR information from a sensor with a modified Bayer pattern, which captures visible and near-infrared image information on a single CCD. We also present an example of RGB-thermal image fusion, using a thermal camera attached to a smartphone, which captures both visible and low-resolution thermal images. These new results may be useful for computational photography and surveillance applications.

  11. On the Red Edge an Optical Biomarker for Detecting Extrateresstrial Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, E. B.; Seager, S.; Turner, E. L.

    2005-12-01

    Earth's deciduous plants have a sharp order-of-magnitude increase in leaf reflectance between approximately 700 and 750 nm wavelength. This strong reflectance of Earth's vegetation suggests that surface biosignatures with sharp spectral features might be detectable in the spectrum of scattered light from a spatially unresolved extrasolar terrestrial planet. We assess the potential of Earth's step-function-like spectroscopic feature, referred to as the ``red edge,'' as a tool for astrobiology. First, we review the basic characteristics and physical origin of the red edge. Then, we discuss the challenges involved in detecting the red edge in Earthshine (i.e., a spatially integrated scattered light spectrum of the Earth), as evidenced by recent attempts to detect the red edge using spectroscopic observations of the dark side of the moon (which is illuminated by Eartshine). We present Earthshine observations from Apache Point Observatory (New Mexico) to emphasize that time variability is key to detecting weak surface biosignatures such as the vegetation red edge. We briefly discuss the evolutionary advantages of vegetation's red edge reflectance, and speculate that while extraterrestrial ``light-harvesting organisms'' have no compelling reason to display the exact same red edge feature as terrestrial vegetation, they might have similar spectroscopic features at different wavelengths than terrestrial vegetation. This implies that future terrestrial-planet characterizing space missions should obtain data that allow time-varying, sharp spectral features at unknown wavelengths to be identified. We caution that some mineral reflectance edges are similar in slope and strength to vegetation's red edge (albeit at different wavelengths). Due to the small amplitude of the terrestrial red edge, the temporal variability of atmospheric water vapor, and the potential for similar mineralogical features, we conclude that great care must be taken in the interpretation of any

  12. Evaluating the impact of red-edge band from Rapideye image for classifying insect defoliation levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelabu, Samuel; Mutanga, Onisimo; Adam, Elhadi

    2014-09-01

    The prospect of regular assessments of insect defoliation using remote sensing technologies has increased in recent years through advances in the understanding of the spectral reflectance properties of vegetation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of the red edge channel of Rapideye imagery to discriminate different levels of insect defoliation in an African savanna by comparing the results of obtained from two classifiers. Random Forest and Support vector machine classification algorithms were applied using different sets of spectral analysis involving the red edge band. Results show that the integration of information from red edge increases classification accuracy of insect defoliation levels in all analysis performed in the study. For instance, when all the 5 bands of Rapideye imagery were used for classification, the overall accuracies increases about 19% and 21% for SVM and RF, respectively, as opposed to when the red edge channel was excluded. We also found out that the normalized difference red-edge index yielded a better accuracy result than normalized difference vegetation index. We conclude that the red-edge channel of relatively affordable and readily available high-resolution multispectral satellite data such as Rapideye has the potential to considerably improve insect defoliation classification especially in sub-Saharan Africa where data availability is limited.

  13. The effect of a red leaf pigment on the relationship between red edge and chlorophyll concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Paul J.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Macler, Bruce A.; Plummer, Stephen E.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of a leaf pigment - red amaranthin - on red edge and chlorophyll concentration is investigated in amaranth leaves by means of treatments with nitrate and salts. A near-linear relationship between red edge and chlorophyll concentration is observed for leaves with low amaranthin concentration, and no relationship is noted at high concentrations. The study demonstrates the limitation inherent in estimating chlorophyll concentration by using remotely sensed red edge.

  14. Exploring the Relationship Between Reflectance Red Edge and Chlorophyll Content in Slash Pine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Paul J.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Gholz, Henry L.

    1990-01-01

    Chlorophyll is a key indicator of the physiological status of a forest canopy. However, its distribution may vary greatly in time and space, so that the estimation of chlorophyll content of canopies or branches by extrapolation from leaf values obtained by destructive sampling is labor intensive and potentially inaccurate. Chlorophy11 content is related positively to the point of maximum slope in vegetation reflectance spectra which occurs at wavelengths between 690-740 nm and is known as the "red edge." The red edge of needles on individual slash pine (Piniis elliottii Engelm.) branches and in whole forest canopies was measured with a spectroradiometer. Branches were measured on the ground against a spectrally flat reflectance target and canopies were measured from observation towers against a spectrally variable understory and forest floor. There was a linear relationship between red edge and chlorophyll content of branches (R(exp 2) = 0.91). Measurements of the red edge and this relationship were used to estimate the chlorophyll content of other branches with an error that was lower than that associated with the colorimetric (laboratory) method. There was no relationship between the red edge and the chlorophyll content of whole canopies. This can be explained by the overriding influence of the understory and forest floor, an influence that was illustrated by spectral mixture modeling. The results suggest that the red edge could be used to estimate the chlorophyll content in branches but it is unlikely to be of value for the estimation of chlorophyll content in canopies unless the canopy cover is high.

  15. Monitoring plant response to phenanthrene using the red edge of canopy hyperspectral reflectance.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linhai; Chen, Zhongxin; Wang, Jianjian; Ding, Jinzhi; Yu, Yunjiang; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Jiang, Lianhe; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M

    2014-09-15

    To investigate the mechanisms and potential for the remote sensing of phenanthrene-induced vegetation stress, we measured field canopy spectra, and associated plant and soil parameters in the field controlled experiment in the Yellow River Delta of China. Two widely distributed plant communities, separately dominated by reed (Phragmites australis) and glaucous seepweed (Suaeda salsa), were treated with different doses of phenanthrene. The canopy spectral changes of plant community resulted from the decreases of biomass and foliar projective coverage, while leaf photosynthetic pigment concentrations showed no significance difference among treatments. The spectral response to phenanthrene included a flattened red edge, with decreased first derivative of reflectance. The red edge slope and area consistently responded to phenanthrene, showing a strong relationship with aboveground biomass, coverage and canopy pigments density. These results suggest the potential of remote sensing and the importance of field validation to correctly interpret the causes of the spectral changes. PMID:25038982

  16. Red-edge excitation fluorescence measurements of several two-tryptophan-containing proteins.

    PubMed

    Wasylewski, Z; Kołoczek, H; Waśniowska, A; Slizowska, K

    1992-05-15

    The dependence of the fluorescence emission maximum of the tryptophan residues in several two-tryptophan-containing proteins (horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase, yeast 3-phosphoglycerate kinase, Staphylococcus aureus metalloprotease and bee venom phospholipase A2) on the excitation wavelengths has been studied. Using fluorescence-resolved spectroscopy, we have dissected the contributions of particular tryptophan residues located in different parts of the protein molecule. The results demonstrate that dipolar structural relaxation can occur in the environment of tryptophan residues buried within protein molecules. The observed spectral shifts upon red-edge excitation of these residues can depend on temperature or ligand binding, as demonstrated in case of metalloprotease and alcohol dehydrogenase. No spectral shifts upon red-edge excitation have been observed for tryptophan residues totally exposed to the rapidly relaxing aqueous solvent.

  17. [Study of red tide spectral characteristics and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Cui, Ting-Wei; Zhang, Jie; Ma, Yi; Sun, Ling

    2006-05-01

    In situ spectral data of different red tide, whose dominant species are leptocylindrus danicus, chattonella marina, skeletonema costatum, and mesodinium rubrum, were acquired by above water method utilizing spectrometer manufactured by FieldSpec Dual VNIR (USA). It is emphasized that the characteristic reflectance peak lying between 687 and 728 nm can be used to distinguish between red tide and normal sea water. Also the spectral discrepancy between different dominant species of red tide is pointed out, which could be utilized to identify certain red tide species by remote sensing technique. Mechanisms of phytoplankton red tide spectra peaks and vales are given. Spectral characteristics of mesodinium rubrum, a kind of protozoan, may be related to its symbiotic alga in its body and phytoplankton pigment crumb. So, research on ingestion preference, symbiotic property with algae, and fluorescence emission character of such symbiotic algae under normal temperature may be helpful for the deep understanding of mechanism of mesodinium rubrum spectra.

  18. Spectral characteristics analysis of red tide water in mesocosm experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Tingwei; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Hongliang; Ma, Yi; Gao, Xuemin

    2003-05-01

    Mesocosm ecosystem experiment with seawater enclosed of the red tide was carried out from July to September 2001. We got four species of biology whose quantities of bion are dominant in the red tide. During the whole process from the beginning to their dying out for every specie, in situ spectral measurements were carried out. After data processing, characteristic spectra of red tide of different dominant species are got. Via comparison and analysis of characteristics of different spectra, we find that in the band region between 685 and 735 nanometers, spectral characteristics of red tide is apparently different from that of normal water. Compared to spectra of normal water, spectra of red tide have a strong reflectance peak in the above band region. As to spectra of red tide dominated by different species, the situations of reflectance peaks are also different: the second peak of Mesodinium rubrum spectrum lies between 726~732 nm, which is more than 21nm away from the other dominant species spectra"s Leptocylindrus danicus"s second spectral peak covers 686~694nm; that of Skeletonema costatum lies between 691~693 nm. Chattonella marina"s second spectral peak lies about 703~705 nm. Thus we can try to determine whether red tide has occurred according to its spectral data. In order to monitor the event of red tide and identify the dominant species by the application of the technology of hyperspectral remote sensing, acquiring spectral data of different dominant species of red tide as much as possible becomes a basic work to be achieved for spectral matching, information extraction and so on based on hyperspectral data.

  19. Spectral CT Using Multiple Balanced K-Edge Filters

    PubMed Central

    Rakvongthai, Yothin; Worstell, William; Fakhri, Georges El; Bian, Junguo; Lorsakul, Auranuch; Ouyang, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Our goal is to validate a spectral CT system design that uses a conventional X-ray source with multiple balanced K-edge filters. By performing a simultaneously synthetic reconstruction in multiple energy bins, we obtained a good agreement between measurements and model expectations for a reasonably complex phantom. We performed simulation and data acquisition on a phantom containing multiple rods of different materials using a NeuroLogica CT scanner. Five balanced K-edge filters including Molybdenum, Cerium, Dysprosium, Erbium, and Tungsten were used separately proximal to the X-ray tube. For each sinogram bin, measured filtered vector can be defined as a product of a transmission matrix, which is determined by the filters and is independent of the imaging object, and energy-binned intensity vector. The energy-binned sinograms were then obtained by inverting the transmission matrix followed by a multiplication of the filter measurement vector. For each energy bin defined by two consecutive K-edges, a synthesized energy-binned attenuation image was obtained using filtered back-projection reconstruction. The reconstructed attenuation coefficients for each rod obtained from the experiment was in good agreement with the corresponding simulated results. Furthermore, the reconstructed attenuation coefficients for a given energy bin, agreed with National Institute of Standards and Technology reference values when beam hardening within the energy bin is small. The proposed cost-effective system design using multiple balanced K-edge filters can be used to perform spectral CT imaging at clinically relevant flux rates using conventional detectors and integrating electronics. PMID:25252276

  20. The red edge in arid region vegetation: 340-1060 nm spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Terrill W.; Murray, Bruce C.; Chehbouni, A.; Njoku, Eni

    1993-01-01

    The remote sensing study of vegetated regions of the world has typically been focused on the use of broad-band vegetation indices such as NDVI. Various modifications of these indices have been developed in attempts to minimize the effect of soil background, e.g., SAVI, or to reduce the effect of the atmosphere, e.g., ARVI. Most of these indices depend on the so-called 'red edge,' the sharp transition between the strong absorption of chlorophyll pigment in visible wavelengths and the strong scattering in the near-infrared from the cellular structure of leaves. These broadband indices tend to become highly inaccurate as the green canopy cover becomes sparse. The advent of high spectral resolution remote sensing instrument such as the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) has allowed the detection of narrow spectral features in vegetation and there are reports of detection of the red edge even for pixels with very low levels of green vegetation cover by Vane et al. and Elvidge et al., and to characterize algal biomass in coastal areas. Spectral mixing approaches similar to those of Smith et al. can be extended into the high spectral resolution domain allowing for the analysis of more endmembers, and potentially, discrimination between material with narrow spectral differences. Vegetation in arid regions tends to be sparse, often with small leaves such as the creosote bush. Many types of arid region vegetation spend much of the year with their leaves in a senescent state, i.e., yellow, with lowered chlorophyll pigmentation. The sparseness of the leaves of many arid region plants has the dual effect of lowering the green leaf area which can be observed and of allowing more of the sub-shrub soil to be visible which further complicates the spectrum of a region covered with arid region vegetation. Elvidge examined the spectral characteristics of dry plant materials showing significant differences in the region of the red edge and the diagnostic ligno

  1. [Effects of water stress on red-edge parameters and yield in wheat cropping].

    PubMed

    He, Ke-Xun; Zaho, Shu-He; Lai, Jian-Bin; Luo, Yun-Xiao; Qin, Zhi-Hao

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the present paper is to study the influence of water stress on wheat spectrum red edge parameters by using field wheat spectrum data obtained from water stress experiment. Firstly, the authors analyzed the influence of water stress on wheat spectrum reflectance. Then the authors got the wheat red edge position and red edge peak through calculating wheat spectrum first-order differential and analyzed the influence of water stress on wheat red edge parameters. Finally the authors discussed the relationship between red peak and wheat yield. The results showed that the wheat red edge position shows "red shift" at the beginning of the wheat growth period and "blue shift" at the later period of the wheat growth period under the water stress experiment. Also, the red edge peak of the wheat showed that red edge peak increased with the water stress sharpening at the beginning of the wheat growth period, and then the red edge peak reduced with the water stress sharpening. The wheat red edge peak presented positive correlation with the wheat yield before the elongation period, and exhibited negative correlation after that period.

  2. [Using the distance between hyperspectral red edge position and yellow edge position to identify wheat yellow rust disease].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jin-Bao; Chen, Yun-Hao; Huang, Wen-Jiang

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the present paper is to identify healthy wheat and disease wheat by using hyeprspectral remote sensing as soon as possible. The canopy spectral reflectance of winter wheat infected by different severity yellow rust was measured and the disease indices (DI) were investigated in the field respectively. Smoothing the canopy spectra and calculating the first derivative values, the two methods were used to calculate the red edge position (REP) and yellow edge position (YEP) of the first derivative values: (a) maximum of the first derivative value; (b) Cho and Skidmore method. The result showed that REP gradually shifted to short-wave band, and the YEP gradually shifted to long-wave band with disease severity increasing, however, REP-YEP quickly became smaller. Analyzing and comparing the prediction precision of REP, YEP and REP-YEP for DI, the result indicated that the model REP-YEP as variable has the best estimation precision for DI than REP and YEP, the model estimation error is 6.22, and relative error is 14.3%, and it could identify healthy and disease wheat 12 days before the disease symptom apparently appeared. Therefore, this study not only can provide theory and technology for large areas monitoring of wheat disease by using hyperspectral remote sensing in the future, but also has the important meaning and practical application value for implementing precision agriculture. PMID:20707161

  3. Estimating fresh grass/herb biomass from HYMAP data using the red edge position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Moses A.; Sobhan, Istiak M.; Skidmore, Andrew K.

    2006-08-01

    Remote sensing of grass/herb quantity is essential for rangeland management of livestock and wildlife. Spectral indices such as NDVI, determined from red and near infrared bands are affected by variable soil and atmospheric conditions and saturate in dense vegetation. Alternatively, the wavelength of maximum slope in the red-NIR transition, termed the red edge position (REP) has potential to mitigate these effects. But the utility of the REP using air- and space-borne imagery is determined by the availability of narrow bands in the region of the red edge and the simplicity of the extraction method. Very recently, we proposed a simple technique for extracting the REP called the linear extrapolation method [Cho and Skidmore, Remote Sens. Environ., 101(2006)118.]. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of the linear extrapolation method for estimating fresh grass/herb biomass and compare its performance with the four-point linear interpolation and three-point Lagrangian interpolation methods. The REPs were derived from atmospherically corrected HYMAP images collected over Majella National Park, Italy in July 2004. The predictive capabilities of various REP linear regression models were evaluated using leave-one-out cross validation and test set validation methods. For both validation methods, the linear extrapolation REP models produced higher correlations with grass/herb biomass and lower prediction errors compared with the linear interpolation and Lagrangian REP models. This study demonstrates the potential of REPs extracted by the linear extrapolation method using HYMAP data for estimating fresh grass/herb biomass.

  4. Joint spatio-spectral based edge detection for multispectral infrared imagery.

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, Sanjay; Hayat, Majeed M.; Bender, Steven C.; Sharma, Yagya D.; Jang, Woo-Yong; Paskalva, Biliana S.

    2010-06-01

    Image segmentation is one of the most important and difficult tasks in digital image processing. It represents a key stage of automated image analysis and interpretation. Segmentation algorithms for gray-scale images utilize basic properties of intensity values such as discontinuity and similarity. However, it is possible to enhance edge-detection capability by means of using spectral information provided by multispectral (MS) or hyperspectral (HS) imagery. In this paper we consider image segmentation algorithms for multispectral images with particular emphasis on detection of multi-color or multispectral edges. More specifically, we report on an algorithm for joint spatio-spectral (JSS) edge detection. By joint we mean simultaneous utilization of spatial and spectral characteristics of a given MS or HS image. The JSS-based edge-detection approach, termed Spectral Ratio Contrast (SRC) edge-detection algorithm, utilizes the novel concept of matching edge signatures. The edge signature represents a combination of spectral ratios calculated using bands that enhance the spectral contrast between the two materials. In conjunction with a spatial mask, the edge signature give rise to a multispectral operator that can be viewed as a three-dimensional extension of the mask. In the extended mask, the third (spectral) dimension of each hyper-pixel can be chosen independently. The SRC is verified using MS and HS imagery from a quantum-dot in a well infrared (IR) focal plane array, and the Airborne Hyperspectral Imager.

  5. NIMS Spectral Maps of Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) instrument looks at Jupiter's Great Red Spot, in these views from June 26, 1996. NIMS studies infrared wavelengths of light that our eye cannot see. These maps are at four different infrared wavelengths, each one picked to reveal something different about the atmosphere.

    The top image is a false color map of a wavelength that is at the red edge of our ability to see. It shows the shapes of features that we would see with our eyes.

    The second map is of ammonia ice, red showing where the most ice is, blue where none exists. The differences between this and the first image are due to the amount and size of ammonia ice crystals.

    The third map down is from a wavelength that shows cloud heights, with the highest clouds in red, and the lowest in blue.

    The bottom map uses a wavelength that shows the hot Jupiter shining through the clouds. Red represents the thinnest clouds, and blue is thickest where it is more difficult to see below. Comparing the bottom two images, note that the highest clouds are in the center of the Great Red Spot, while there are relatively few clouds around the edges.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  6. Dynamic insight into protein structure utilizing red edge excitation shift.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Amitabha; Haldar, Sourav

    2014-01-21

    Proteins are considered the workhorses in the cellular machinery. They are often organized in a highly ordered conformation in the crowded cellular environment. These conformations display characteristic dynamics over a range of time scales. An emerging consensus is that protein function is critically dependent on its dynamics. The subtle interplay between structure and dynamics is a hallmark of protein organization and is essential for its function. Depending on the environmental context, proteins can adopt a range of conformations such as native, molten globule, unfolded (denatured), and misfolded states. Although protein crystallography is a well established technique, it is not always possible to characterize various protein conformations by X-ray crystallography due to transient nature of these states. Even in cases where structural characterization is possible, the information obtained lacks dynamic component, which is needed to understand protein function. In this overall scenario, approaches that reveal information on protein dynamics are much appreciated. Dynamics of confined water has interesting implications in protein folding. Interfacial hydration combines the motion of water molecules with the slow moving protein molecules. The red edge excitation shift (REES) approach becomes relevant in this context. REES is defined as the shift in the wavelength of maximum fluorescence emission toward higher wavelengths, caused by a shift in the excitation wavelength toward the red edge of absorption spectrum. REES arises due to slow rates (relative to fluorescence lifetime) of solvent relaxation (reorientation) around an excited state fluorophore in organized assemblies such as proteins. Consequently, REES depends on the environment-induced motional restriction imposed on the solvent molecules in the immediate vicinity of the fluorophore. In the case of a protein, the confined water in the protein creates a dipolar field that acts as the solvent for a fluorophore

  7. Dynamic insight into protein structure utilizing red edge excitation shift.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Amitabha; Haldar, Sourav

    2014-01-21

    Proteins are considered the workhorses in the cellular machinery. They are often organized in a highly ordered conformation in the crowded cellular environment. These conformations display characteristic dynamics over a range of time scales. An emerging consensus is that protein function is critically dependent on its dynamics. The subtle interplay between structure and dynamics is a hallmark of protein organization and is essential for its function. Depending on the environmental context, proteins can adopt a range of conformations such as native, molten globule, unfolded (denatured), and misfolded states. Although protein crystallography is a well established technique, it is not always possible to characterize various protein conformations by X-ray crystallography due to transient nature of these states. Even in cases where structural characterization is possible, the information obtained lacks dynamic component, which is needed to understand protein function. In this overall scenario, approaches that reveal information on protein dynamics are much appreciated. Dynamics of confined water has interesting implications in protein folding. Interfacial hydration combines the motion of water molecules with the slow moving protein molecules. The red edge excitation shift (REES) approach becomes relevant in this context. REES is defined as the shift in the wavelength of maximum fluorescence emission toward higher wavelengths, caused by a shift in the excitation wavelength toward the red edge of absorption spectrum. REES arises due to slow rates (relative to fluorescence lifetime) of solvent relaxation (reorientation) around an excited state fluorophore in organized assemblies such as proteins. Consequently, REES depends on the environment-induced motional restriction imposed on the solvent molecules in the immediate vicinity of the fluorophore. In the case of a protein, the confined water in the protein creates a dipolar field that acts as the solvent for a fluorophore

  8. Evaluation of Sentinel-2 Red-Edge Bands for Empirical Estimation of Green LAI and Chlorophyll Content

    PubMed Central

    Delegido, Jesús; Verrelst, Jochem; Alonso, Luis; Moreno, José

    2011-01-01

    ESA’s upcoming satellite Sentinel-2 will provide Earth images of high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution and aims to ensure continuity for Landsat and SPOT observations. In comparison to the latter sensors, Sentinel-2 incorporates three new spectral bands in the red-edge region, which are centered at 705, 740 and 783 nm. This study addresses the importance of these new bands for the retrieval and monitoring of two important biophysical parameters: green leaf area index (LAI) and chlorophyll content (Ch). With data from several ESA field campaigns over agricultural sites (SPARC, AgriSAR, CEFLES2) we have evaluated the efficacy of two empirical methods that specifically make use of the new Sentinel-2 bands. First, it was shown that LAI can be derived from a generic normalized difference index (NDI) using hyperspectral data, with 674 nm with 712 nm as best performing bands. These bands are positioned closely to the Sentinel-2 B4 (665 nm) and the new red-edge B5 (705 nm) band. The method has been applied to simulated Sentinel-2 data. The resulting green LAI map was validated against field data of various crop types, thereby spanning a LAI between 0 and 6, and yielded a RMSE of 0.6. Second, the recently developed “Normalized Area Over reflectance Curve” (NAOC), an index that derives Ch from hyperspectral data, was studied on its compatibility with simulated Sentinel-2 data. This index integrates the reflectance curve between 643 and 795 nm, thereby including the new Sentinel-2 bands in the red-edge region. We found that these new bands significantly improve the accuracy of Ch estimation. Both methods emphasize the importance of red-edge bands for operational estimation of biophysical parameters from Sentinel-2. PMID:22164004

  9. Evaluation of Sentinel-2 red-edge bands for empirical estimation of green LAI and chlorophyll content.

    PubMed

    Delegido, Jesús; Verrelst, Jochem; Alonso, Luis; Moreno, José

    2011-01-01

    ESA's upcoming satellite Sentinel-2 will provide Earth images of high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution and aims to ensure continuity for Landsat and SPOT observations. In comparison to the latter sensors, Sentinel-2 incorporates three new spectral bands in the red-edge region, which are centered at 705, 740 and 783 nm. This study addresses the importance of these new bands for the retrieval and monitoring of two important biophysical parameters: green leaf area index (LAI) and chlorophyll content (Ch). With data from several ESA field campaigns over agricultural sites (SPARC, AgriSAR, CEFLES2) we have evaluated the efficacy of two empirical methods that specifically make use of the new Sentinel-2 bands. First, it was shown that LAI can be derived from a generic normalized difference index (NDI) using hyperspectral data, with 674 nm with 712 nm as best performing bands. These bands are positioned closely to the Sentinel-2 B4 (665 nm) and the new red-edge B5 (705 nm) band. The method has been applied to simulated Sentinel-2 data. The resulting green LAI map was validated against field data of various crop types, thereby spanning a LAI between 0 and 6, and yielded a RMSE of 0.6. Second, the recently developed "Normalized Area Over reflectance Curve" (NAOC), an index that derives Ch from hyperspectral data, was studied on its compatibility with simulated Sentinel-2 data. This index integrates the reflectance curve between 643 and 795 nm, thereby including the new Sentinel-2 bands in the red-edge region. We found that these new bands significantly improve the accuracy of Ch estimation. Both methods emphasize the importance of red-edge bands for operational estimation of biophysical parameters from Sentinel-2. PMID:22164004

  10. Regional estimation of savanna grass nitrogen using the red-edge band of the spaceborne RapidEye sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramoelo, A.; Skidmore, A. K.; Cho, M. A.; Schlerf, M.; Mathieu, R.; Heitkönig, I. M. A.

    2012-10-01

    The regional mapping of grass nutrients is of interest in the sustainable planning and management of livestock and wildlife grazing. The objective of this study was to estimate and map foliar and canopy nitrogen (N) at a regional scale using a recent high resolution spaceborne multispectral sensor (i.e. RapidEye) in the Kruger National Park (KNP) and its surrounding areas, South Africa. The RapidEye sensor contains five spectral bands in the visible-to-near infrared (VNIR), including a red-edge band centered at 710 nm. The importance of the red-edge band for estimating foliar chlorophyll and N concentrations has been demonstrated in many previous studies, mostly using field spectroscopy. The utility of the red-edge band of the RapidEye sensor for estimating grass N was investigated in this study. A two-step approach was adopted involving (i) vegetation indices and (ii) the integration of vegetation indices with environmental or ancillary variables using a stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) and a non-linear spatial least squares regression (PLSR). The model involving the simple ratio (SR) index (R805/R710) defined as SR54, altitude and the interaction between SR54 and altitude (SR54 * altitude) yielded the highest accuracy for canopy N estimation, while the non-linear PLSR yielded the highest accuracy for foliar N estimation through the integration of remote sensing (SR54) and environmental variables. The study demonstrated the possibility to map grass nutrients at a regional scale provided there is a spaceborne sensor encompassing the red edge waveband with a high spatial resolution.

  11. Edge detection of red hind grouper vocalizations in the littorals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Cameron A.; Beaujean, Pierre-Philippe

    2016-05-01

    Littoral regions typically present to passive sensors as a high noise acoustic environment, particularly with respect to port and harbor regions where tidal variation, often characterized as pink, mixes with reverberation from on-shore business and commercial shipping, often characterized as white. Some fish in these regions, in particular epiphenalius Guttatus or more commonly the red hind grouper, emit relatively narrowband tones in low frequencies to communicate with other fish in such regions. The impact of anthropogenic noise sources on the red Hind and other fish is a topical area of interest for wildlife fisheries, private sportsmen and military offices that is not considered here; the fact that fish species continue to populate and communicate in these regions in the presence of high noise content lends some study to the signal content and modeling of a potential biologically inspired receiver structure.

  12. Spectral Comparison and Stability of Red Regions on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, A. A.; Carlson, R. W.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2013-01-01

    A study of absolute color on Jupiter from Hubble Space Telescope imaging data shows that the Great Red Spot (GRS) is not the reddest region of the planet. Rather, a transient red cyclone visible in 1995 and the North Equatorial Belt both show redder spectra than the GRS (i.e., more absorption at blue and green wavelengths). This cyclone is unique among vortices in that it is intensely colored yet low altitude, unlike the GRS. Temporal analysis shows that the darkest regions of the NEB are relative constant in color from 1995 to 2008, while the slope of the GRS core may vary slightly. Principal component analysis shows several spectral components are needed, in agreement with past work, and further highlights the differences between regions. These color differences may be indicative of the same chromophore(s) under different conditions, such as mixing with white clouds, longer UV irradiation at higher altitude, and thermal processing, or may indicate abundance variations in colored compounds. A single compound does not fit the spectrum of any region well and mixes of multiple compounds including NH4SH, photolyzed NH3, hydrocarbons, and possibly P4, are likely needed to fully match each spectrum.

  13. Dynamic representation of spectral edges in guinea pig primary auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Montejo, Noelia

    2015-01-01

    The central representation of a given acoustic motif is thought to be strongly context dependent, i.e., to rely on the spectrotemporal past and present of the acoustic mixture in which it is embedded. The present study investigated the cortical representation of spectral edges (i.e., where stimulus energy changes abruptly over frequency) and its dependence on stimulus duration and depth of the spectral contrast in guinea pig. We devised a stimulus ensemble composed of random tone pips with or without an attenuated frequency band (AFB) of variable depth. Additionally, the multitone ensemble with AFB was interleaved with periods of silence or with multitone ensembles without AFB. We have shown that the representation of the frequencies near but outside the AFB is greatly enhanced, whereas the representation of frequencies near and inside the AFB is strongly suppressed. These cortical changes depend on the depth of the AFB: although they are maximal for the largest depth of the AFB, they are also statistically significant for depths as small as 10 dB. Finally, the cortical changes are quick, occurring within a few seconds of stimulus ensemble presentation with AFB, and are very labile, disappearing within a few seconds after the presentation without AFB. Overall, this study demonstrates that the representation of spectral edges is dynamically enhanced in the auditory centers. These central changes may have important functional implications, particularly in noisy environments where they could contribute to preserving the central representation of spectral edges. PMID:25744885

  14. Simulation of spectral stabilization of high-power broad-area edge emitting semiconductor lasers.

    PubMed

    Holly, Carlo; Hengesbach, Stefan; Traub, Martin; Hoffmann, Dieter

    2013-07-01

    The simulation of spectral stabilization of broad-area edge-emitting semiconductor diode lasers is presented in this paper. In the reported model light-, temperature- and charge carrier-distributions are solved iteratively in frequency domain for transverse slices along the semiconductor heterostructure using wide-angle finite-difference beam propagation. Depending on the operating current the laser characteristics are evaluated numerically, including near- and far-field patterns of the astigmatic laser beam, optical output power and the emission spectra, with central wavelength and spectral width. The focus of the model lies on the prediction of influences on the spectrum and power characteristics by frequency selective feedback from external optical resonators. Results for the free running and the spectrally stabilized diode are presented.

  15. Active-Optical Sensors Using Red NDVI Compared to Red Edge NDVI for Prediction of Corn Grain Yield in North Dakota, U.S.A.

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Lakesh K.; Bu, Honggang; Denton, Anne; Franzen, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Active-optical sensor readings from an N non-limiting area standard established within a farm field are used to predict yield in the standard. Lower yield predictions from sensor readings obtained from other parts of the field outside of the N non-limiting standard area indicate a need for supplemental N. Active-optical sensor algorithms for predicting corn (Zea mays, L.) yield to direct in-season nitrogen (N) fertilization in corn utilize red NDVI (normalized differential vegetative index). Use of red edge NDVI might improve corn yield prediction at later growth stages when corn leaves cover the inter-row space resulting in “saturation” of red NDVI readings. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of red edge NDVI in two active-optical sensors (GreenSeeker™ and Holland Scientific Crop Circle™) improved corn yield prediction. Nitrogen rate experiments were established at 15 sites in North Dakota (ND). Sensor readings were conducted at V6 and V12 corn. Red NDVI and red edge NDVI were similar in the relationship of readings with yield at V6. At V12, the red edge NDVI was superior to the red NDVI in most comparisons, indicating that it would be most useful in developing late-season N application algorithms. PMID:26540057

  16. A novel edge-preserving nonnegative matrix factorization method for spectral unmixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Wenxing; Ma, Ruishi

    2015-12-01

    Spectral unmixing technique is one of the key techniques to identify and classify the material in the hyperspectral image processing. A novel robust spectral unmixing method based on nonnegative matrix factorization(NMF) is presented in this paper. This paper used an edge-preserving function as hypersurface cost function to minimize the nonnegative matrix factorization. To minimize the hypersurface cost function, we constructed the updating functions for signature matrix of end-members and abundance fraction respectively. The two functions are updated alternatively. For evaluation purpose, synthetic data and real data have been used in this paper. Synthetic data is used based on end-members from USGS digital spectral library. AVIRIS Cuprite dataset have been used as real data. The spectral angle distance (SAD) and abundance angle distance(AAD) have been used in this research for assessment the performance of proposed method. The experimental results show that this method can obtain more ideal results and good accuracy for spectral unmixing than present methods.

  17. Coupling an ICRF core spectral solver to an edge FEM code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J. C.; Shiraiwa, S.

    2015-12-01

    The finite element method (FEM) and the spectral approaches to simulation of ion cyclotron (IC) waves in toroidal plasmas each have strengths and weaknesses. For example, the spectral approach (eg TORIC) has a natural algebraic representation of the parallel wavenumber and hence the wave dispersion but does not easily represent complex geometries outside the last closed flux surface, whereas the FEM approach (eg LHEAF) naturally represents arbitrary geometries but does not easily represent thermal corrections to the plasma dispersion. The two domains: thermal core with flux surfaces and cold edge plasma with open field lines may be combined in such as way that each approach is used where it works naturally. Among the possible ways of doing this, we demonstrate the method of mode matching. This method provides an easy way of combining the two linear systems without significant modifications to the separate codes. We will present proof of principal cases and initial applications to minority heating.

  18. Coupling an ICRF core spectral solver to an edge FEM code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, John; Shirwaiwa, Syunichi; RF SciDAC Team

    2015-11-01

    The finite element method (FEM) and the spectral approaches to simulation of ion cyclotron (IC) waves in toroidal plasmas each have strengths and weaknesses. For example, the spectral approach (eg TORIC) has a natural algebraic representation of the parallel wavenumber and hence the wave dispersion but does not easily represent complex geometries outside the last closed flux surface, whereas the FEM approach (eg LHEAF) naturally represents arbitrary geometries but does not easily represent thermal corrections to the plasma dispersion. The two domains: thermal core with flux surfaces and cold edge plasma with open field lines may be combined in such as way that each approach is used where it works naturally. Among the possible ways of doing this, we demonstrate the method of mode matching. This method provides an easy way of combining the two linear systems without significant modifications to the separate codes. We will present proof of principal cases and initial applications to minority heating.

  19. Red and near-infrared spectral reflectance of snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, H. W.; Munis, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    The spectral reflectance of snow in the range of 0.60 to 2.50 microns wavelengths was studied in a cold laboratory using natural snow and simulated preparations of snow. A white barium sulfate powder was used as the standard for comparison. The high reflectance (usually nearly 100%) of fresh natural snow in visible wavelengths declines rapidly at wavelengths longer than the visible, as the spectral absorption coefficients of ice increase. Aging snow becomes only somewhat less reflective than fresh snow in the visible region and usually retains a reflectance greater than 80%. In the near infrared, aging snow tends to become considerably less reflective than fresh snow.

  20. Hybrid integrated photodetector with flat-top steep-edge spectral response.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xinye; Huang, Yongqing; Ren, Xiaomin; Duan, Xiaofeng; Hu, Fuquan; Wang, Qi; Cai, Shiwei; Zhang, Xia

    2012-08-20

    Hybrid integrated photodetectors with flat-top steep-edge spectral responses that consist of an Si-based multicavity Fabry-Perot (F-P) filter and an InP-based p-i-n absorption structure (with a 0.2 μm In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As absorption layer), have been designed and fabricated. The performance of the hybrid integrated photodetectors is theoretically investigated by including key factors such as the thickness of each cavity, the pairs of each reflecting mirror, and the thickness of the benzocyclobutene bonding layer. The device is fabricated by bonding an Si-based multicavity F-P filter with an InP-based p-i-n absorption structure. A hybrid integrated photodetector with a peak quantum efficiency of 55% around 1549.2 nm, the -0.5 dB band of 0.43 nm, the 25 dB band of 1.06 nm, and 3 dB bandwidth more than 16 GHz, is simultaneously obtained. Based on multicavity F-P structure, this device has good flat-top steep-edge spectral response.

  1. Organization and dynamics of membrane probes and proteins utilizing the red edge excitation shift.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Sourav; Chaudhuri, Arunima; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2011-05-19

    Dynamics of confined water has interesting implications in the organization and function of molecular assemblies such as membranes. A direct consequence of this type of organization is the restriction imposed on the mobility of the constituent structural units. Interestingly, this restriction (confinement) of mobility couples the motion of solvent (water) molecules with the slow moving molecules in the assembly. It is in this context that the red edge excitation shift (REES) represents a sensitive approach to monitor the environment and dynamics around a fluorophore in such organized assemblies. A shift in the wavelength of maximum fluorescence emission toward higher wavelengths, caused by a shift in the excitation wavelength toward the red edge of the absorption band, is termed REES. REES relies on slow solvent reorientation in the excited state of a fluorophore that can be used to monitor the environment and dynamics around a fluorophore in a host assembly. In this article, we focus on the application of REES to monitor organization and dynamics of membrane probes and proteins.

  2. Hybrid orbital deformation (HOD) effect and spectral red-shift property of nonplanar porphyrin.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zaichun; Cao, Chenzhong; Liu, Qiuhua; Jiang, Rongqing

    2010-04-16

    A series of 5,15-meso,meso-strapped nonplanar porphyrins with different degrees of ruffling distortion, as a model system, have been synthesized and characterized. The spectral red-shift of the nonplanar porphyrins was experimentally demonstrated to mainly originate from the hybrid orbital deformation (HOD) effect due to the distortion in the tetrapyrrole macrocycle, which confirmed previous explanations to the red-shift phenomenon.

  3. Spectrally narrowed leaky waveguide edge emission and transient electrluminescent dynamics of OLEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhengqing, Gan

    2010-01-01

    In summary, there are two major research works presented in this dissertation. The first research project (Chapter 4) is spectrally narrowed edge emission from Organic Light Emitting Diodes. The second project (Chapter 5) is about transient electroluminescent dynamics in OLEDs. Chapter 1 is a general introduction of OLEDs. Chapter 2 is a general introduction of organic semiconductor lasers. Chapter 3 is a description of the thermal evaporation method for OLED fabrication. The detail of the first project was presented in Chapter 4. Extremely narrowed spectrum was observed from the edge of OLED devices. A threshold thickness exists, above which the spectrum is narrow, and below which the spectrum is broad. The FWHM of spectrum depends on the material of the organic thin films, the thickness of the organic layers, and length of the OLED device. A superlinear relationship between the output intensity of the edge emission and the length of the device was observed, which is probably due to the misalignment of the device edge and the optical fiber detector. The original motivation of this research is for organic semiconductor laser that hasn't been realized due to the extremely high photon absorption in OLED devices. Although we didn't succeed in fabricating an electrically pumped organic laser diode, we made a comprehensive research in edge emission of OLEDs which provides valuable results in understanding light distribution and propagation in OLED devices. Chapter 5 focuses on the second project. A strong spike was observed at the falling edge of a pulse, and a long tail followed. The spike was due to the recombination of correlated charge pair (CCP) created by trapped carriers in guest molecules of the recombination zone. When the bias was turned off, along with the decreasing of electric field in the device, the electric field induced quenching decreases and the recombination rate of the CCP increases which result in the spike. This research project provides a

  4. Living on the edge: Space use of Eurasian red squirrels in marginal high-elevation habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, Claudia; Wauters, Lucas A.; Preatoni, Damiano; Tosi, Guido; Martinoli, Adriano

    2010-11-01

    In marginal habitats located at the edge of a species' range, environmental conditions are frequently extreme and individuals may be subject to different selective pressures compared to central populations. These so-called edge or marginal populations tend to have lower densities and reproductive rates than populations located in more suitable habitats, but little is known about local adaptations in spacing behavior. We studied space use and social organization in a population of Eurasian red squirrels ( Sciurus vulgaris) in a high-elevation marginal habitat of dwarf mountain pine ( Pinus mugo) and compared it with spacing patterns in high-quality Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) forest at lower-elevation. Home ranges and core areas were larger in the marginal habitat. In both habitats, males used larger home ranges than females, but sex differences in core area size were significant only in the edge population. Patterns of core area overlap were similar in both habitats with intra-sexual territoriality among adult females and higher degrees of inter-sexual overlap, typical for the species throughout its range. However, low densities in the edge population resulted in higher female by males overlap in spring-summer, suggesting males increased home ranges and core areas during mating season to augment access to estrus females. Thus, in the marginal habitat, with low food abundance and low population densities, linked with extreme winter conditions, squirrels, especially males, used large home ranges. Finally, squirrels responded more strongly to variation in food availability (inverse relation between home range size and seed abundance), and even to fluctuations in density (inverse relation between core area size and density of animals of the same sex), in the marginal than in the high-quality habitat, suggesting high behavioral plasticity to respond to the ecological constraints in marginal habitats.

  5. Photon counting spectral CT: improved material decomposition with K-edge-filtered x-rays.

    PubMed

    Shikhaliev, Polad M

    2012-03-21

    Photon counting spectral computed tomography (PCSCT) provides material selective CT imaging at a single CT scan and fixed tube voltage. The PCSCT data are acquired in several energy ranges (bins) arranged over the x-ray spectrum. The quasi-monoenergetic CT images are acquired in these energy bins and are used for material decomposition. The PCSCT exhibits inherent limitations when material decomposition is performed using energy bins. For effective material decomposition, the energy bins used for material decomposition should be sufficiently narrow and well separated. However, when narrow bins are used, a large fraction of the detected x-ray counts is lost and statistical noise is increased. Alternatively, the x-ray spectrum can be split into a few larger bins with no gap in between and all detected x-ray photons can be used for material decomposition. However, in this case the energy bins are too wide and not well separated, which results in suboptimal material decomposition. The above contradictory requirements can be resolved if the x-ray photons are physically removed from the regions of the energy spectrum between the energy bins. Such a selective removal can be performed using filtration of the x-ray beam by high-Z filter materials with appropriate positions of K-edge energies. The K-edge filtration of x-rays can, therefore, provide necessary gaps between the energy bins with no dose penalty to the patient. In the current work, we proposed using selective K-edge filtration of x-rays in PCSCT and performed the first experimental investigation of this approach. The PCSCT system included a cadmium zinc telluride semiconductor detector with 2 × 256 pixels and 1 × 1 mm(2) pixel size, and five energy bins. The CT phantom had 14 cm diameter and included contrast elements of iodine, gold and calcifications with clinically relevant concentrations. The tube voltages of 60, 90 and 120 kVp were used. K-edge filters based on Ba (E(k) = 37.44 keV) were used for a 60 k

  6. Room-temperature ionic liquids: slow dynamics, viscosity, and the red edge effect.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhonghan; Margulis, Claudio J

    2007-11-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have recently attracted significant attention from academic and industrial sources. This is because, while their vapor pressures are negligible, many of them are liquids at room temperature and can dissolve a wide range of polar and nonpolar organic and inorganic molecules. In this Account, we discuss the progress of our laboratory in understanding the dynamics, spectroscopy, and fluid dynamics of selected imidazolium-based ILs using computational and analytical tools that we have recently developed. Our results indicate that the red edge effect, the non-Newtonian behavior, and the existence of locally heterogeneous environments on a time scale relevant to chemical and photochemical reactivity are closely linked to the viscosity and highly structured character of these liquids.

  7. Small Pitch Transition-Edge Sensors with Broadband High Spectral Resolution for Solar Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. J.; Adams, J. S.; Eckart, M. E.; Smith, Adams; Bailey, C. N.; Bandler, S. R.; Chevenak, J. A.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing small pitch transition-edge sensor (TES) X-ray detectors optimized for solar astronomy. These devices are fabricated on thick Si substrates with embedded Cu heat-sink layer. We use 35 x 35 square micrometers Mo/Au TESs with 4.5 micrometer thick Au absorbers. We have tested devices with different geometric absorber stem contact areas with the TES and surrounding substrate area. This allows us to investigate the loss of athermal phonons to the substrate. Results show a correlation between thc stem contact area and a broadening in the spectral line shape indicative of athermal phonon loss. When the contact area is minimized we have obtained exceptional broadband spectral resolution of 1.28 plus or minus 0.03 eV at an energy of 1.5 keV, 1.58 plus or minus 0.07 eV at 5.9 keV and 1.96 plus or minus 0.08 eV at 8 keV. The linearity in the measured gain scale is understood in the context of the longitudinal proximity effect from the electrical bias leads resulting in transition characteristics that are strongly dependent upon TES size.

  8. Spectral Characterization of Suspected Acid Deposition Damage in Red Spruce (picea Rubens) Stands from Vermont

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogelmann, J. E.; Rock, B. N.

    1985-01-01

    In an attempt to demonstrate the utility of remote sensing systems to monitor sites of suspected acid rain deposition damage, intensive field activities, coupled with aircraft overflights, were centered on red spruce stands in Vermont during August and September of 1984. Remote sensing data were acquired using the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer, Thematic Mapper Simulator, Barnes Model 12 to 1000 Modular Multiband Radiometer and Spectron Engineering Spectrometer (the former two flown on the NASA C-130; the latter two on A Bell UH-1B Iroquois Helicopter). Field spectral data were acquired during the week of the August overflights using a high spectral resolution spectrometer and two broad-band radiometers. Preliminary analyses of these data indicate a number of spectral differences in vegetation between high and low damage sites. Some of these differences are subtle, and are observable only with high spectral resolution sensors; others are less subtle and are observable using broad-band sensors.

  9. Spectral fluorescent properties of tissues in vivo with excitation in the red wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Klimov, D. V.; Edinac, N. E.; Wolnukhin, V. A.; Strashkevich, I. A.

    1997-12-01

    The spectral fluorescence analysis is a promising method for differential tissue diagnostic. Usually the UV and visible light is used for fluorescence excitation with emission registration in the visible wavelength range. The light penetration length in this wavelength range is very small allowing one to analyze only the surface region of the tissue. Here we present the tissue fluorescent spectra in vivo excited in the red wavelength region. As excitation light source we used compact He-Ne laser (632.8 nm) and observed the fluorescence in 650 - 800 nm spectral range. The various tissues including normal skin, psoriasis, tumors, necrosis as well as photosensitized tissues have been measured.

  10. Field and airborne spectral characterization of suspected damage in red spruce (picea rubens) from Vermont

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.; Vogelmann, J. E.; Williams, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    The utilization of remote sensing to monitor forest damage due to acid deposition is investigated. Spectral and water measurements and aircraft radiance data of red spruce and balsam fir, collected in Camels Hump Mountain and Ripton, Vermont between August 13-20, 1984, are analyzed to evaluate the damage levels of the trees. Variations in reflectance features and canopy moisture content are studied. It is observed that damage correlates with elevation (greater damage at higher elevations); xylem water column tension is greater at higher damage sites; and a 'blue shift' is indicated in the spectral data at high damage sites.

  11. [Comparison of red edge parameters of winter wheat canopy under late frost stress].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong-feng; Hu, Xin; Lü, Guo-hua; Ren, De-chao; Jiang, Wei-guo; Song, Ji-qing

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, late frost experiments were implemented under a range of subfreezing temperatures (-1 - -9 degrees C) by using a field movable climate chamber (FMCC) and a cold climate chamber, respectively. Based on the spectra of winter wheat canopy measured at noon on the first day after the frost experiments, red edge parameters REP, Dr, SDr, Dr(min), Dr/Dr(min) and Dr/SDr were extracted using maximum first derivative spectrum method (FD), linear four-point interpolation method (FPI), polynomial fitting method (POLY), inverted Gaussian fitting method (IG) and linear extrapolation technique (LE), respectively. The capacity of the red edge parameters to detect late frost stress was explicated from the aspects of the early, sensitivity and stability through correlation analysis, linear regression modeling and fluctuation analysis. The result indicates that except for REP calculated from FPI and IG method in Experiment 1, REP from the other methods was correlated with frost temperatures (P < 0.05). Thereinto, significant levels (P) of POLY and LE methods all reached 0.01. Except for POLY method in Experiment 2, Dr/SDr from the other methods were all significantly correlated with frost temperatures (P < 0.01). REP showed a trend to shift to short-wave band with decreasing temperatures. The lower the temperature, the more obvious the trend is. Of all the REP, REP calculated by LE method had the highest correlation with frost temperatures which indicated that LE method is the best for REP extraction. In Experiment 1 and 2, only Dr(min) and Dr/Dr(min), calculated by FD method simultaneously achieved the requirements for the early (their correlations with frost temperatures showed a significant level P < 0.01), sensitivity (abso- lute value of the slope of fluctuation coefficient is greater than 2.0) and stability (their correlations with frost temperatures al- ways keep a consistent direction). Dr/SDr calculated from FD and IG methods always had a low sensitivity

  12. [Comparison of red edge parameters of winter wheat canopy under late frost stress].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong-feng; Hu, Xin; Lü, Guo-hua; Ren, De-chao; Jiang, Wei-guo; Song, Ji-qing

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, late frost experiments were implemented under a range of subfreezing temperatures (-1 - -9 degrees C) by using a field movable climate chamber (FMCC) and a cold climate chamber, respectively. Based on the spectra of winter wheat canopy measured at noon on the first day after the frost experiments, red edge parameters REP, Dr, SDr, Dr(min), Dr/Dr(min) and Dr/SDr were extracted using maximum first derivative spectrum method (FD), linear four-point interpolation method (FPI), polynomial fitting method (POLY), inverted Gaussian fitting method (IG) and linear extrapolation technique (LE), respectively. The capacity of the red edge parameters to detect late frost stress was explicated from the aspects of the early, sensitivity and stability through correlation analysis, linear regression modeling and fluctuation analysis. The result indicates that except for REP calculated from FPI and IG method in Experiment 1, REP from the other methods was correlated with frost temperatures (P < 0.05). Thereinto, significant levels (P) of POLY and LE methods all reached 0.01. Except for POLY method in Experiment 2, Dr/SDr from the other methods were all significantly correlated with frost temperatures (P < 0.01). REP showed a trend to shift to short-wave band with decreasing temperatures. The lower the temperature, the more obvious the trend is. Of all the REP, REP calculated by LE method had the highest correlation with frost temperatures which indicated that LE method is the best for REP extraction. In Experiment 1 and 2, only Dr(min) and Dr/Dr(min), calculated by FD method simultaneously achieved the requirements for the early (their correlations with frost temperatures showed a significant level P < 0.01), sensitivity (abso- lute value of the slope of fluctuation coefficient is greater than 2.0) and stability (their correlations with frost temperatures al- ways keep a consistent direction). Dr/SDr calculated from FD and IG methods always had a low sensitivity

  13. [Comparison of red edge parameters of winter wheat canopy under late frost stress].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong-feng; Hu, Xin; Lü, Guo-hua; Ren, De-chao; Jiang, Wei-guo; Song, Ji-qing

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, late frost experiments were implemented under a range of subfreezing temperatures (-1 - -9 degrees C) by using a field movable climate chamber (FMCC) and a cold climate chamber, respectively. Based on the spectra of winter wheat canopy measured at noon on the first day after the frost experiments, red edge parameters REP, Dr, SDr, Dr(min), Dr/Dr(min) and Dr/SDr were extracted using maximum first derivative spectrum method (FD), linear four-point interpolation method (FPI), polynomial fitting method (POLY), inverted Gaussian fitting method (IG) and linear extrapolation technique (LE), respectively. The capacity of the red edge parameters to detect late frost stress was explicated from the aspects of the early, sensitivity and stability through correlation analysis, linear regression modeling and fluctuation analysis. The result indicates that except for REP calculated from FPI and IG method in Experiment 1, REP from the other methods was correlated with frost temperatures (P < 0.05). Thereinto, significant levels (P) of POLY and LE methods all reached 0.01. Except for POLY method in Experiment 2, Dr/SDr from the other methods were all significantly correlated with frost temperatures (P < 0.01). REP showed a trend to shift to short-wave band with decreasing temperatures. The lower the temperature, the more obvious the trend is. Of all the REP, REP calculated by LE method had the highest correlation with frost temperatures which indicated that LE method is the best for REP extraction. In Experiment 1 and 2, only Dr(min) and Dr/Dr(min), calculated by FD method simultaneously achieved the requirements for the early (their correlations with frost temperatures showed a significant level P < 0.01), sensitivity (abso- lute value of the slope of fluctuation coefficient is greater than 2.0) and stability (their correlations with frost temperatures al- ways keep a consistent direction). Dr/SDr calculated from FD and IG methods always had a low sensitivity

  14. Ranging, activity budget, and diet composition of red titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus) in primary forest and forest edge.

    PubMed

    Kulp, Jenna; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2015-07-01

    Deforestation and fragmentation of tropical rainforests are increasingly creating forest edges and corresponding edge effects. Furthermore, primary forest is increasingly being replaced by secondary forest. The presence of high population densities of titi monkeys in fragmented and secondary forests suggests that they are capable of adapting to such habitat alterations. The aim of our study was to examine the ability of the red titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus) to adapt to forest edges and secondary forest. We compared home-range use, activity budgets, and diet composition in two groups of monkeys: one in primary forest and the other in primary forest with a long edge bordering secondary forest. The latter group avoided the secondary forest and used the edge in proportion to its availability. Groups did not differ in activity budgets but did show slight differences in diet composition. Taken together, our results suggest that there are no major effects of forest edges and secondary forest on red titi monkeys; however, given the relatively short study period, generalizations should be avoided until more comparative data become available. Furthermore, the age or successional stage of the secondary forest must be taken into consideration when drawing conclusions about its suitability as a primate habitat.

  15. Spectral Types of Red Supergiants in NGC 6822 and the Wolf-Lundmark-Melotte Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, Emily M.; Massey, Philip

    2012-07-01

    We present moderate-resolution spectroscopic observations of red supergiants (RSGs) in the low-metallicity Local Group galaxies NGC 6822 (Z = 0.4 Z ⊙) and Wolf-Lundmark-Melotte (WLM; Z = 0.1 Z ⊙). By combining these observations with reduction techniques for multislit data reduction and flux calibration, we are able to analyze spectroscopic data of 16 RSGs in NGC 6822 and spectrophotometric data of 11 RSGs in WLM. Using these observations, we determine spectral types for these massive stars, comparing them to Milky Way and Magellanic Cloud RSGs and thus extending observational evidence of the abundance-dependent shift of RSG spectral types to lower metallicities. In addition, we have uncovered two RSGs with unusually late spectral types (J000158.14-152332.2 in WLM, with a spectral type of M3 I, and J194453.46-144552.6 in NGC 6822, with a spectral type of M4.5 I) and a third RSG (J194449.96-144333.5 in NGC 6822) whose spectral type has varied from an M2.5 in 1997 to a K5 in 2008. All three of these stars could potentially be members of a recently discovered class of extreme RSG variables. This paper is based on data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan telescopes located at Las Campanas, Chile.

  16. SPECTRAL TYPES OF RED SUPERGIANTS IN NGC 6822 AND THE WOLF-LUNDMARK-MELOTTE GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, Emily M.; Massey, Philip

    2012-07-15

    We present moderate-resolution spectroscopic observations of red supergiants (RSGs) in the low-metallicity Local Group galaxies NGC 6822 (Z = 0.4 Z{sub Sun} ) and Wolf-Lundmark-Melotte (WLM; Z = 0.1 Z{sub Sun} ). By combining these observations with reduction techniques for multislit data reduction and flux calibration, we are able to analyze spectroscopic data of 16 RSGs in NGC 6822 and spectrophotometric data of 11 RSGs in WLM. Using these observations, we determine spectral types for these massive stars, comparing them to Milky Way and Magellanic Cloud RSGs and thus extending observational evidence of the abundance-dependent shift of RSG spectral types to lower metallicities. In addition, we have uncovered two RSGs with unusually late spectral types (J000158.14-152332.2 in WLM, with a spectral type of M3 I, and J194453.46-144552.6 in NGC 6822, with a spectral type of M4.5 I) and a third RSG (J194449.96-144333.5 in NGC 6822) whose spectral type has varied from an M2.5 in 1997 to a K5 in 2008. All three of these stars could potentially be members of a recently discovered class of extreme RSG variables.

  17. Quantitative Spectral Morphology Analysis of Unusually Red and Blue L Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camnasio, Sara; Alam, Munazza Khalida; Rice, Emily L.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Mace, Gregory N.; Martin, Emily; Logsdon, Sarah E.; McLean, Ian S.; Brown Dwarfs in New York City (BDNYC)

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to constrain the properties of photometric color outliers, we present a quantitative spectral morphology analysis of medium-resolution NIRSPEC (R~2,000), SpeX cross-dispersed (R~2,000), Palomar TripleSpec (R~2600), and Magellan FIRE (R~6000) J-band spectra for a sample of unusually red and blue L dwarfs. Some red L dwarfs are low surface gravity, young objects whose spectra present weak Na I doublets and FeH absorption bands, but strong VO features (Cruz et al. 2009). Some blue L dwarfs are subdwarfs with low metallicity spectral features such as greater H2 absorption, stronger metal hydride bands, and enhanced TiO absorption (Burgasser et al 2008c). We fit 3rd order polynomials to the pseudo-continuum in order to provide a quantitative comparison of spectral morphology with other peculiar L dwarfs, field standards, young L dwarfs, and L subdwarf. The results indicated that the coefficients of the fit correlate with spectral type, but are independent of color. This newly found trend provides a parameter which can be utilized as an additional tool in characterizing quantifiable differences in the spectra of brown dwarfs. Furthermore, this method can be applied in studying the atmospheric properties of exoplanets, given their similarities with brown dwarfs in mass and photospheric properties.

  18. A cautionary (spectral) tail: red-shifted fluorescence by DAPI-DAPI interactions.

    PubMed

    Omelon, Sidney; Georgiou, John; Habraken, Wouter

    2016-02-01

    The fluorescent dye DAPI is useful for its association with and consequent amplification of an ∼460 nm emission maximum upon binding to dsDNA. Labelling with higher DAPI concentrations is a technique used to reveal Pi polymers [polyphosphate (polyP)], with a red-shift to ∼520-550 nm fluorescence emission. DAPI-polyP emissions of ∼580 nm are also generated upon 415 nm excitation. Red-shifted DAPI emission has been associated with polyP and RNA and has more recently been reported with polyadenylic acid (polyA), specific inositol phosphates (IPs) and heparin. We find that amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) also demonstrates red-shifted DAPI emission at high DAPI concentrations. This DAPI spectral shift has been attributed to DAPI-DAPI electrostatic interactions enabled by molecules with high negative charge density that increase the local DAPI concentration and favour DAPI molecular proximity, as observed by increasing the dye/phosphate ratio. Excitation of dry DAPI (∼360 nm) confirmed a red-shifted DAPI emission. Whereas enzymatic approaches to modify substrates can help define the nature of DAPI fluorescence signals, multiple approaches beyond red-shifted DAPI excitation/emission are advised before conclusions are drawn about DAPI substrate identification. PMID:26862187

  19. A cautionary (spectral) tail: red-shifted fluorescence by DAPI-DAPI interactions.

    PubMed

    Omelon, Sidney; Georgiou, John; Habraken, Wouter

    2016-02-01

    The fluorescent dye DAPI is useful for its association with and consequent amplification of an ∼460 nm emission maximum upon binding to dsDNA. Labelling with higher DAPI concentrations is a technique used to reveal Pi polymers [polyphosphate (polyP)], with a red-shift to ∼520-550 nm fluorescence emission. DAPI-polyP emissions of ∼580 nm are also generated upon 415 nm excitation. Red-shifted DAPI emission has been associated with polyP and RNA and has more recently been reported with polyadenylic acid (polyA), specific inositol phosphates (IPs) and heparin. We find that amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) also demonstrates red-shifted DAPI emission at high DAPI concentrations. This DAPI spectral shift has been attributed to DAPI-DAPI electrostatic interactions enabled by molecules with high negative charge density that increase the local DAPI concentration and favour DAPI molecular proximity, as observed by increasing the dye/phosphate ratio. Excitation of dry DAPI (∼360 nm) confirmed a red-shifted DAPI emission. Whereas enzymatic approaches to modify substrates can help define the nature of DAPI fluorescence signals, multiple approaches beyond red-shifted DAPI excitation/emission are advised before conclusions are drawn about DAPI substrate identification.

  20. Spectral Resolution of a Second Binding Site for Nile Red on Cytochrome P450 3A4

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Abhinav; Fernández, Cristina; Lampe, Jed N.; Atkins, William M.

    2008-01-01

    Nile Red is sequentially metabolized by Cytochrome P4503A4 to the N-monoethyl and N-desethyl products, which typifies the metabolism of many amine-containing drugs. Sequential metabolism of a single substrate results in complex kinetics that confound predictive models of drug clearance. As a fluorescent model for drugs which undergo sequential metabolism, Nile Red provides the opportunity to monitor drug-CYP interactions wherein the fluorescent properties of Nile Red could, in principle, be exploited to determine individual rate and equilibrium constants for the individual reactions. Previously, it was shown that Nile Red binds at the active site and fluoresces (KD = 50 nM) with maximum emission at ~620 nm, but it was unclear whether a red-shifted emission, at ~660 nm, consisted of only free Nile Red or Nile Red bound at a second site on the protein. Here, equilibrium binding studies, including ‘reverse titrations’ spanning low ratios of CYP3A4/Nile Red, indicate two binding sites for Nile Red with a contribution to the ‘red emission’ greater than can be accounted for by free Nile Red. Singular value decomposition affords basis spectra for both spectral components and fits well to the experimentally determined concentration dependence of Nile Red emission. In addition, the red spectral component, with an apparent KD = 2.2 µM, is selectively eliminated by titration with the known allosteric effectors of CYP3A4, α-napthoflavone and testosterone. Furthermore, the double mutant L2311F/D214E, previously demonstrated to perturb a peripheral allosteric site, lacks the red-emitting Nile Red binding site, but retains the blue-emitting site. Together these data indicate that a second Nile Red site competes with other effectors of CYP3A4 at a site that results in Nile Red emission at 660 nm. PMID:18395506

  1. Land cover classification in Ukrainian Carpathians using the MERIS Terrestrial Chlorophyl Index and red edge position from ENVISAT MERIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyalko, V. I.; Shportyuk, Z. M.; Sakhatskyi, O. L.; Sybirtseva, O. M.

    We present some results of a preliminary study of the possibility to use MERIS data for land cover classification in the Ukrainian Carpathians. The ENVISAT MERIS data (16 April 2004) with a rough space resolution of 1200m are used to calculate the red edge indices: the Red Edge Position (REP), MERIS Terrestrial Chlorophyll Index (MTCI) and NDVI. The classification using REP and MTCI images gives better results than with reflectance by the method of minimum distance to means (MMDM). The calculation results showed that the MERIS image with a rough space resolution provided moderate classification results: only coniferous forests and snow are well classified. MTCI is sensitive to a broad range of the chlorophyll contents and much less sensitive to topographical effect in mountain region. The investigation results show a good correlation between REP and MTCI and a high potential for monitoring for the ecosystems in mountain regions using a combination of both indices.

  2. Spectrally resolved fluorescence lifetime imaging of Nile red for measurements of intracellular polarity.

    PubMed

    Levitt, James A; Chung, Pei-Hua; Suhling, Klaus

    2015-09-01

    Spectrally resolved confocal microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging have been used to measure the polarity of lipid-rich regions in living HeLa cells stained with Nile red. The emission peak from the solvatochromic dye in lipid droplets is at a shorter wavelength than other, more polar, stained internal membranes, and this is indicative of a low polarity environment. We estimate that the dielectric constant, ϵ , is around 5 in lipid droplets and 25<ϵ<40 in other lipid-rich regions. Our spectrally resolved fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) data show that intracellular Nile red exhibits complex, multiexponential fluorescence decays due to emission from a short lifetime locally excited state and a longer lifetime intramolecular charge transfer state. We measure an increase in the average fluorescence lifetime of the dye with increasing emission wavelength, as shown using phasor plots of the FLIM data. We also show using these phasor plots that the shortest lifetime decay components arise from lipid droplets. Thus, fluorescence lifetime is a viable contrast parameter for distinguishing lipid droplets from other stained lipid-rich regions. Finally, we discuss the FLIM of Nile red as a method for simultaneously mapping both polarity and relative viscosity based on fluorescence lifetime measurements.

  3. Molar absorptivity (ε) and spectral characteristics of cyanidin-based anthocyanins from red cabbage.

    PubMed

    Ahmadiani, Neda; Robbins, Rebecca J; Collins, Thomas M; Giusti, M Monica

    2016-04-15

    Red cabbage extract contains mono and di-acylated cyanidin (Cy) anthocyanins and is often used as food colorants. Our objectives were to determine the molar absorptivity (ε) of different red cabbage Cy-derivatives and to evaluate their spectral behaviors in acidified methanol (MeOH) and buffers pH 1-9. Major red cabbage anthocyanins were isolated using a semi-preparatory HPLC, dried and weighed. Pigments were dissolved in MeOH and diluted with either MeOH (0.1% HCl) or buffers to obtain final concentrations between 5×10(-5) and 1×10(-3) mol/L. Spectra were recorded and ε calculated using Lambert-Beer's law. The ε in acidified MeOH and buffer pH 1 ranged between ~16,000-30,000 and ~13,000-26,000 L/mol cm, respectively. Most pigments showed higher ε in pH 8 than pH 2, and lowest ε between pH 4 and 6. There were bathochromic shifts (81-105 nm) from pH 1 to 8 and hypsochromic shifts from pH 8 to 9 (2-19 nm). Anthocyanins molecular structures and the media were important variables which greatly influenced their ε and spectral behaviors. PMID:26617032

  4. Molar absorptivity (ε) and spectral characteristics of cyanidin-based anthocyanins from red cabbage.

    PubMed

    Ahmadiani, Neda; Robbins, Rebecca J; Collins, Thomas M; Giusti, M Monica

    2016-04-15

    Red cabbage extract contains mono and di-acylated cyanidin (Cy) anthocyanins and is often used as food colorants. Our objectives were to determine the molar absorptivity (ε) of different red cabbage Cy-derivatives and to evaluate their spectral behaviors in acidified methanol (MeOH) and buffers pH 1-9. Major red cabbage anthocyanins were isolated using a semi-preparatory HPLC, dried and weighed. Pigments were dissolved in MeOH and diluted with either MeOH (0.1% HCl) or buffers to obtain final concentrations between 5×10(-5) and 1×10(-3) mol/L. Spectra were recorded and ε calculated using Lambert-Beer's law. The ε in acidified MeOH and buffer pH 1 ranged between ~16,000-30,000 and ~13,000-26,000 L/mol cm, respectively. Most pigments showed higher ε in pH 8 than pH 2, and lowest ε between pH 4 and 6. There were bathochromic shifts (81-105 nm) from pH 1 to 8 and hypsochromic shifts from pH 8 to 9 (2-19 nm). Anthocyanins molecular structures and the media were important variables which greatly influenced their ε and spectral behaviors.

  5. Dipolar relaxation within the protein matrix of the green fluorescent protein: a red edge excitation shift study.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Sourav; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2007-12-27

    The fluorophore in green fluorescent protein (GFP) is localized in a highly constrained environment, protected from the bulk solvent by the barrel-shaped protein matrix. We have used the wavelength-selective fluorescence approach (red edge excitation shift, REES) to monitor solvent (environment) dynamics around the fluorophore in enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under various conditions. Our results show that EGFP displays REES in buffer and glycerol, i.e., the fluorescence emission maxima exhibit a progressive shift toward the red edge, as the excitation wavelength is shifted toward the red edge of the absorption spectrum. Interestingly, EGFP displays REES when incorporated in reverse micelles of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT), independent of the hydration state. We interpret the observed REES to the constrained environment experienced by the EGFP fluorophore in the rigid protein matrix, rather than to the dynamics of the bulk solvent. These results are supported by the temperature dependence of REES and characteristic wavelength-dependent changes in fluorescence anisotropy.

  6. Hand-held radiometer red and photographic infrared spectral measurements of agricultural crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Fan, C. J.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1978-01-01

    Red and photographic infrared radiance data, collected under a variety of conditions at weekly intervals throughout the growing season using a hand-held radiometer, were used to monitor crop growth and development. The vegetation index transformation was used to effectively compensate for the different irradiational conditions encountered during the study period. These data, plotted against time, compared the different crops measured by comparing their green leaf biomass dynamics. This approach, based entirely upon spectral inputs, closely monitors crop growth and development and indicates the promise of ground-based hand-held radiometer measurements of crops.

  7. Self-similar spectral structures and edge-locking hierarchy in open-boundary spin chains

    SciTech Connect

    Haque, Masudul

    2010-07-15

    For an anisotropic Heisenberg (XXZ) spin chain, we show that an open boundary induces a series of approximately self-similar features at different energy scales, high up in the eigenvalue spectrum. We present a nonequilibrium phenomenon related to this fractal structure, involving states in which a connected block near the edge is polarized oppositely to the rest of the chain. We show that such oppositely polarized blocks can be 'locked' to the edge of the spin chain and that there is a hierarchy of edge-locking effects at various orders of the anisotropy. The phenomenon enables dramatic control of quantum-state transmission and magnetization control.

  8. Space station image captures a red tide ciliate bloom at high spectral and spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Dierssen, Heidi; McManus, George B; Chlus, Adam; Qiu, Dajun; Gao, Bo-Cai; Lin, Senjie

    2015-12-01

    Mesodinium rubrum is a globally distributed nontoxic ciliate that is known to produce intense red-colored blooms using enslaved chloroplasts from its algal prey. Although frequent enough to have been observed by Darwin, blooms of M. rubrum are notoriously difficult to quantify because M. rubrum can aggregate into massive clouds of rusty-red water in a very short time due to its high growth rates and rapid swimming behavior and can disaggregate just as quickly by vertical or horizontal dispersion. A September 2012 hyperspectral image from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean sensor aboard the International Space Station captured a dense red tide of M. rubrum (10(6) cells per liter) in surface waters of western Long Island Sound. Genetic data confirmed the identity of the chloroplast as a cryptophyte that was actively photosynthesizing. Microscopy indicated extremely high abundance of its yellow fluorescing signature pigment phycoerythrin. Spectral absorption and fluorescence features were related to ancillary photosynthetic pigments unique to this organism that cannot be observed with traditional satellites. Cell abundance was estimated at a resolution of 100 m using an algorithm based on the distinctive yellow fluorescence of phycoerythrin. Future development of hyperspectral satellites will allow for better enumeration of bloom-forming coastal plankton, the associated physical mechanisms, and contributions to marine productivity.

  9. Modelling the spectral energy distribution of the red giant in RS Ophiuchi: evidence for irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenko, Ya. V.; Kaminsky, B.; Rushton, M. T.; Evans, A.; Woodward, C. E.; Helton, L. A.; O'Brien, T. J.; Jones, D.; Elkin, V.

    2016-02-01

    We present an analysis of optical and infrared spectra of the recurrent nova RS Oph obtained during between 2006 and 2009. The best fit to the optical spectrum for 2006 September 28 gives Teff = 3900 K for log g = 2.0, while for log g = 0.0 we find Teff = 4700 K, and a comparison with template stellar spectra provides Teff ˜ 4500 K. The observed spectral energy distribution (SED), and the intensities of the emission lines, vary on short (≲1 d) time-scales, due to disc variability. We invoke a simple one-component model for the accretion disc, and a model with a hot boundary layer, with high (˜3.9 × 10-6 M⊙ yr-1) and low (˜2 × 10-8 M⊙ yr-1) accretion rates, respectively. Fits to the accretion disc-extracted infrared spectrum (2008 July 15) yield effective temperatures for the red giant of {T_eff}= 3800 ± 100 K (log g = 2.0) and {T_eff}= 3700 ± 100 K (log g = 0.0). Furthermore, using a more sophisticated approach, we reproduced the optical and infrared SEDs of the red giant in the RS Oph system with a two-component model atmosphere, in which 90 per cent of the surface has Teff = 3600 K and 10 per cent has Teff = 5000 K. Such structure could be due to irradiation of the red giant by the white dwarf.

  10. Space station image captures a red tide ciliate bloom at high spectral and spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Dierssen, Heidi; McManus, George B; Chlus, Adam; Qiu, Dajun; Gao, Bo-Cai; Lin, Senjie

    2015-12-01

    Mesodinium rubrum is a globally distributed nontoxic ciliate that is known to produce intense red-colored blooms using enslaved chloroplasts from its algal prey. Although frequent enough to have been observed by Darwin, blooms of M. rubrum are notoriously difficult to quantify because M. rubrum can aggregate into massive clouds of rusty-red water in a very short time due to its high growth rates and rapid swimming behavior and can disaggregate just as quickly by vertical or horizontal dispersion. A September 2012 hyperspectral image from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean sensor aboard the International Space Station captured a dense red tide of M. rubrum (10(6) cells per liter) in surface waters of western Long Island Sound. Genetic data confirmed the identity of the chloroplast as a cryptophyte that was actively photosynthesizing. Microscopy indicated extremely high abundance of its yellow fluorescing signature pigment phycoerythrin. Spectral absorption and fluorescence features were related to ancillary photosynthetic pigments unique to this organism that cannot be observed with traditional satellites. Cell abundance was estimated at a resolution of 100 m using an algorithm based on the distinctive yellow fluorescence of phycoerythrin. Future development of hyperspectral satellites will allow for better enumeration of bloom-forming coastal plankton, the associated physical mechanisms, and contributions to marine productivity. PMID:26627232

  11. Space station image captures a red tide ciliate bloom at high spectral and spatial resolution

    PubMed Central

    Dierssen, Heidi; McManus, George B.; Chlus, Adam; Qiu, Dajun; Gao, Bo-Cai; Lin, Senjie

    2015-01-01

    Mesodinium rubrum is a globally distributed nontoxic ciliate that is known to produce intense red-colored blooms using enslaved chloroplasts from its algal prey. Although frequent enough to have been observed by Darwin, blooms of M. rubrum are notoriously difficult to quantify because M. rubrum can aggregate into massive clouds of rusty-red water in a very short time due to its high growth rates and rapid swimming behavior and can disaggregate just as quickly by vertical or horizontal dispersion. A September 2012 hyperspectral image from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean sensor aboard the International Space Station captured a dense red tide of M. rubrum (106 cells per liter) in surface waters of western Long Island Sound. Genetic data confirmed the identity of the chloroplast as a cryptophyte that was actively photosynthesizing. Microscopy indicated extremely high abundance of its yellow fluorescing signature pigment phycoerythrin. Spectral absorption and fluorescence features were related to ancillary photosynthetic pigments unique to this organism that cannot be observed with traditional satellites. Cell abundance was estimated at a resolution of 100 m using an algorithm based on the distinctive yellow fluorescence of phycoerythrin. Future development of hyperspectral satellites will allow for better enumeration of bloom-forming coastal plankton, the associated physical mechanisms, and contributions to marine productivity. PMID:26627232

  12. [Impacts of different alkaline soil on canopy spectral characteristics of overlying vegetation].

    PubMed

    Jia, Ke-Li; Zhang, Jun-Hua

    2014-03-01

    The relationship between alkalinity and pH of the soil, reflectance spectra and red-edge parameters of the sunflower canopy in different growth periods under different alkalinity soil were analyzed, respectively. The results showed that the spectral reflectance of the sunflower canopy in different stage under different alkalinity soil is the same as the spectral reflectance characters of the other greenery canopy. Along with the advancement of the sunflower growth period, sunflower canopy spectral reflectance increases gradually at different stages, the spectral reflectance is higher at flowering stage than 7-leaf stage and budding stage, and there exists a high reflection peak at 809nm at flowering period. At the same time, the spectral reflectance is affected by salinity-alkalinity stress at different stages, in the near infrared shortwave band, the spectral reflectance of the sunflower canopy in different stage increases with the decreases in soil alkalinity. When the derivatives are applied to determine the wavelength of the red-edge, there is a shift phenomenon of the red edge. The red edges were at 702-720 nm during every growth period of the sunflower. The "blue shift" phenomenon is also emerged for red edge position and red edge sloped with the increase in the soil alkalinity. Conversely, at the same growth periods, the red edge positions and red edge slope move to longer wave bands with the decrease in soil alkalinity. There is a "red shift" phenomenon before flowering period and "blue shift" phenomenon after flowering period for the red edge position and red edge slope of canopy spectrum at the same soil alkalinity. Respectively. The red edges at different growth stages of the sunflower show very significant positive correlation and quadratic polynomial to alkalinity and pH of the soil. Therefore, we thought used the red edge features of greenery could indicate the soil alkalization degree, it providing scientific basis for monitoring soil alkalization

  13. Integration of environmental and spectral data for sunflower stress determination. [Red River Valley, Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillesand, T.; Seeley, M.

    1983-01-01

    Stress in sunflowers was assessed in western and northwestern Minnesota. Weekly ground observations (acquired in 1980 and 1981) were analyzed in concert with large scale aerial photography and concurrent LANDSAT data. Using multidate supervised and unsupervised classification procedures, it was found that all crops grown in association with sunflowers in the study area are spectrally separable from one another. Under conditions of extreme drought, severely stressed plants were differentiable from those not severely stressed, but between-crop separation was not possible. Initial regression analyses to estimate sunflower seed yield showed a sensitivity to environmental stress during the flowering and seed development stages. One of the most important biological factors related to sunflower production in the Red River Valley area was found to be the extent and severity of insect infestations.

  14. Evolution of the stellar-merger red nova V1309 Scorpii: Spectral energy distribution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylenda, R.; Kamiński, T.

    2016-08-01

    Context. One very important object for understanding the nature of red novae is V1309 Sco. Its pre-outburst observations showed that, before its red-nova eruption in 2008, it was a contact binary quickly evolving to the merger of the components. It thus provided us with a direct evidence that the red novae result from stellar mergers. Aims: We will study the evolution of the post-merger remnant of V1309 Sco over time. Methods: We analyse the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the object and its evolution with time. From various optical and infrared surveys and observing programmes carried out with OGLE, HST, VVV, Gemini South, WISE, Spitzer, and Herschel we constructed observed SED in 2010 and 2012. Some limited data are also available for the red-nova progenitor in 2007. We analyse the data with our model of a dusty envelope surrounding a central star. Results: Dust was present in the pre-outburst state of V1309 Sco. Its high temperature (900-1000 K) suggests that this was a freshly formed dust in a presumable mass-loss from the spiralling-in binary. Shortly after its 2008 eruption, V1309 Sco became almost completely embedded in dust. The parameters (temperature, dimensions) of the dusty envelope in 2010 and 2012 evidence that we then observed matter lost by the object during the 2008 outburst. Its mass is at least 10-3M⊙. The object remains quite luminous, although since its maximum brightness in September 2008, it has faded in luminosity by a factor of ~50 (in 2012). Far infrared data from Herschel reveal presence of a cold (~30 K) dust at a distance of a few thousand AU from the object. Conclusions: Similarly to other red novae, V1309 Sco formed a slowly-expanding, dense, and optically-thick dusty envelope during its 2008 outburst. The main remnant is thus hidden for us. Far infrared data suggests that the object passed an episode of intense mass loss in its recent history. This conclusion could be verified by submillimeter interferometric observations.

  15. Use of IRS-P4 Ocean Color Monitor (OCM) images for tracing the red edge of the terrestrial vegetation reflectance spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raychaudhuri, B.

    2016-04-01

    A methodology is put forward to retrieve the red edge for terrestrial vegetated regions of IRS P4 Ocean Color Monitor (OCM) images. The objective is to utilize land-related portions of the archived OCM images that contain a significant amount of digital information on land cover. OCM band data were simulated from spectroradiometric reflectance of fresh green leaves and hyperspectral reflectance of vegetated regions derived from EO-1 Hyperion images. The red edge recovered from these model data using numerical techniques of Lagrange interpolation and inverted Gaussian was compared with the original one and reasonable accuracy was obtained. The technique was then applied to the actual red and near-infrared bands of OCM images, and red edge reflectance curves were computed for evergreen, deciduous and mangrove forest regions of the images for winter and spring seasons. Consistent results were obtained for seasonal changes, and vegetated and non-vegetated areas could be distinguished.

  16. Using the fluorescence red edge effect to assess the long-term stability of lyophilized protein formulations.

    PubMed

    Qian, Ken K; Grobelny, Pawel J; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Cicerone, Marcus T

    2015-04-01

    Nanosecond relaxation processes in sugar matrices are causally linked through diffusional processes to protein stability in lyophilized formulations. Long-term protein degradation rates track mean-squared displacement (⟨u(2)⟩) of hydrogen atoms in sugar glasses, a parameter describing dynamics on a time scale of picoseconds to nanoseconds. However, measurements of ⟨u(2)⟩ are usually performed by neutron scattering, which is not conducive to rapid formulation screening in early development. Here, we present a benchtop technique to derive a ⟨u(2)⟩ surrogate based on the fluorescence red edge effect. Glycerol, lyophilized trehalose, and lyophilized sucrose were used as model systems. Samples containing 10(-6) mole fraction of rhodamine 6G, a fluorophore, were excited at either 532 nm (main peak) or 566 nm (red edge), and the ⟨u(2)⟩ surrogate was determined based the corresponding Stokes shifts. Results showed reasonable agreement between ⟨u(2)⟩ from neutron scattering and the surrogate from fluorescence, although deviations were observed at very low temperatures. We discuss the sources of the deviations and suggest technique improvements to ameliorate these. We expect that this method will be a valuable tool to evaluate lyophilized sugar matrices with respect to their ability to protect proteins from diffusion-limited degradation processes during long-term storage. Additionally, the method may have broader applications in amorphous pharmaceutical solids. PMID:25786057

  17. Site-selective red-edge spectroscopy of disordered materials and microheterogeneous systems: polymers, phospholipid membranes and proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demchenko, Alexander P.; Ercelen, Sebnem; Klymchenko, Andriy S.

    2002-12-01

    For aromatic fluorophores embedded into different rigid and highly viscous media with low structural order the spectroscopic properties do not conform to classical rules. The fluorescence spectra can depend on excitation wavelength, and the excited-state energy transfer, if present, fails at the 'red' excitation edge. These Red-Edge effects are observed due to the existence of excited-state distribution of fluorophores on their interaction energy with the environment and the slow rate of dielectric relaxations. In these conditions the site-selection can be provided by variation of energy of illuminating light quanta, and the behavior of selected species can be followed as a function of time and other variables. These observations foudn extensive application in different areas of research: colloid and polymer science, photophysics and molecular biophysics. Site-selection effects were discovered for electron-transfer and proton-transfer reactions if they depend on the dynamics of the environment. In this report we concentrate on fluroescence of 3-hydroxyflavone derivatives as the probes that exhibit the excited-state proton transfer reaction. The studies in polymer films, phospholipid membranes and in complexes with proteins allow characterizing the static and dynamic disorder in these systems.

  18. Effects of spectral parameters on the light properties of red-green-blue white light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mingsheng; Zhang, Haoxiang; Zhou, Quanbin; Wang, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Red-green-blue white light-emitting diodes (RGB-WLEDs) have great potential as commercial solid-state lighting devices, as well as visible light communication because of their high color-rendering index (CRI) and high response frequency. The quality of light of an RGB-WLED strongly depends on its spectral parameters. In this study, we fabricated RGB-WLEDs with red, blue, and green LEDs and measured the spectral power distribution (SPD). The experimental SPD is consistent with the calculated spectrum. We also measured the SPDs of LEDs with different peak wavelengths and extracted the spectral parameters, which were then used for modeling. We studied the effect of the wavelength and the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) on both the color rendering index and the luminous efficiency (LE) of the RGB-WLED using simulations. We find that the LE improves as the wavelength of the blue LED increases and the wavelength of the red LED decreases. When the wavelength of the green LED increases, the LE increases first, but later decreases. The CRI of the RGB-WLED increases with the wavelengths of the red, blue, and green LEDs first, but then decreases. The optimal wavelengths and FWHMs for maximum color-rendering and LE of the blue, green, and red LEDs are 466, 536, 606 nm; and 26.0, 34.0, and 19.5 nm, respectively. PMID:27411203

  19. Cutting Edge of Traumatic Maculopathy with Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Sílvia; Campos, António; Campos, Joana; Neves, Arminda; Beselga, Diana; Fernandes, Cristina; Castro Sousa, João Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews clinically relevant data regarding traumatic maculopathy (TM), frequently observed in clinical practice, especially due to sport or traffic accident injuries. It is characterized by transient gray-whitish retinal coloration and reduction of visual acuity (VA) with closed, blunt object globe trauma of their prior. It may be limited to the posterior pole (Berlin’s edema), or peripheral areas of the retina. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) provides detail insight using high resolution cross-sectional tomographs of the ocular tissue. It is a potent non-invasive tool for the clinician to follow-up. Clinicians are, thereby empowered with a tool that enables evaluation of the retinal status and allows for prediction of the prognosis. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography supports the idea that the major site of injury is in the photoreceptor and layers of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Depending on the severity of the trauma, SD-OCT may reveal differential optical densities of intraretinal spaces ranging from disappearance of the thin hyporeflective optical space in mild lesions, or areas of disruption of the inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction and hyperreflectivity of the overlying retina, pigment disorders and retinal atrophy, in more severe cases. The prognosis for recovery of vision is generally good, and improvement occurs within 3-4 weeks. PMID:26060831

  20. Spectral relationships for atmospheric correction. II. Improving NASA's standard and MUMM near infra-red modeling schemes.

    PubMed

    Goyens, C; Jamet, C; Ruddick, K G

    2013-09-01

    Spectral relationships, reflecting the spectral dependence of water-leaving reflectance, ρw(λ), can be easily implemented in current AC algorithms with the aim to improve ρw(λ) retrievals where the algorithms fail. The present study evaluates the potential of spectral relationships to improve the MUMM [Ruddick et al., 2006, Limnol. Oceanogr. 51, 1167-1179] and standard NASA [Bailey et al., 2010, Opt. Express 18, 7521-7527] near infra-red (NIR) modeling schemes included in the AC algorithm to account for non-zero ρw(λNIR), based on in situ coastal ρw(λ) and simulated Rayleigh corrected reflectance data. Two modified NIR-modeling schemes are investigated: (1) the standard NASA NIR-modeling scheme is forced with bounding relationships in the red spectral domain and with a NIR polynomial relationship and, (2) the constant NIR ρw(λ) ratio used in the MUMM NIR-modeling scheme is replaced by a NIR polynomial spectral relationship. Results suggest that the standard NASA NIR-modeling scheme performs better for all turbidity ranges and in particular in the blue spectral domain (percentage bias decreased by approximately 50%) when it is forced with the red and NIR spectral relationships. However, with these new constraints, more reflectance spectra are flagged due to non-physical Chlorophyll-a concentration estimations. The new polynomial-based MUMM NIR-modeling scheme yielded lower ρw(λ) retrieval errors and particularly in extremely turbid waters. However, including the polynomial NIR relationship significantly increased the sensitivity of the algorithm to errors on the selected aerosol model from nearby clear water pixels. PMID:24103991

  1. Spectral relationships for atmospheric correction. II. Improving NASA's standard and MUMM near infra-red modeling schemes.

    PubMed

    Goyens, C; Jamet, C; Ruddick, K G

    2013-09-01

    Spectral relationships, reflecting the spectral dependence of water-leaving reflectance, ρw(λ), can be easily implemented in current AC algorithms with the aim to improve ρw(λ) retrievals where the algorithms fail. The present study evaluates the potential of spectral relationships to improve the MUMM [Ruddick et al., 2006, Limnol. Oceanogr. 51, 1167-1179] and standard NASA [Bailey et al., 2010, Opt. Express 18, 7521-7527] near infra-red (NIR) modeling schemes included in the AC algorithm to account for non-zero ρw(λNIR), based on in situ coastal ρw(λ) and simulated Rayleigh corrected reflectance data. Two modified NIR-modeling schemes are investigated: (1) the standard NASA NIR-modeling scheme is forced with bounding relationships in the red spectral domain and with a NIR polynomial relationship and, (2) the constant NIR ρw(λ) ratio used in the MUMM NIR-modeling scheme is replaced by a NIR polynomial spectral relationship. Results suggest that the standard NASA NIR-modeling scheme performs better for all turbidity ranges and in particular in the blue spectral domain (percentage bias decreased by approximately 50%) when it is forced with the red and NIR spectral relationships. However, with these new constraints, more reflectance spectra are flagged due to non-physical Chlorophyll-a concentration estimations. The new polynomial-based MUMM NIR-modeling scheme yielded lower ρw(λ) retrieval errors and particularly in extremely turbid waters. However, including the polynomial NIR relationship significantly increased the sensitivity of the algorithm to errors on the selected aerosol model from nearby clear water pixels.

  2. Primer on Use of Multi-Spectral and Infra Red Imaging for On-Site Inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, J R

    2010-10-26

    The purpose of an On-Site Inspection (OSI) is to determine whether a nuclear explosion has occurred in violation of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and to gather information which might assist in identifying the violator (CTBT, Article IV, Paragraph 35) Multi-Spectral and Infra Red Imaging (MSIR) is allowed by the treaty to detect observables which might help reduce the search area and thus expedite an OSI and make it more effective. MSIR is permitted from airborne measurements, and at and below the surface to search for anomalies and artifacts (CTBT, Protocol, Part II, Paragraph 69b). The three broad types of anomalies and artifacts MSIR is expected to be capable of observing are surface disturbances (disturbed earth, plant stress or anomalous surface materials), human artifacts (man-made roads, buildings and features), and thermal anomalies. The purpose of this Primer is to provide technical information on MSIR relevant to its use for OSI. It is expected that this information may be used for general background information, to inform decisions about the selection and testing of MSIR equipment, to develop operational guidance for MSIR use during an OSI, and to support the development of a training program for OSI Inspectors. References are provided so readers can pursue a topic in more detail than the summary information provided here. The following chapters will provide more information on how MSIR can support an OSI (Section 2), a short summary what Multi-Spectral Imaging and Infra Red Imaging is (Section 3), guidance from the CTBT regarding the use of MSIR (Section 4), and a description of several nuclear explosion scenarios (Section 5) and consequent observables (Section 6). The remaining sections focus on practical aspects of using MSIR for an OSI, such as specification and selection of MSIR equipment, operational considerations for deployment of MISR equipment from an aircraft, and the conduct of field exercises to mature MSIR for an OSI

  3. Observation of the "Red Edge" Effect in the Luminescence of Water Suspensions of Detonation Nanodiamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolenko, T. A.; Burikov, S. A.; Vervald, A. M.; Khomich, A. A.; Kudryavtsev, O. S.; Shenderova, O. A.; Vlasov, I. I.

    2016-05-01

    The variations in the luminescence spectra of detonation nanodiamond (DND) with probe light wavelength are studied and these dependences are compared for water suspensions of DND and graphene oxide (GO). It is found that changing the laser excitation wavelength from 405 to 532 nm shifts the broad-band luminescence peaks of DND and GO from 530 to 615 nm and from 490 to 580 nm. The observed dependences are explained by the luminescence ″red edge″ effect, which shows up when the electrostatic interaction (solvation) times of a luminophore with a polar solvent are comparable to the luminescence lifetime. These data confirm the common origin of luminescence in nanodiamonds and oxidized graphene nanoclusters.

  4. Red/blue spectral shifts of laser-induced fluorescence emission due to different nanoparticle suspensions in various dye solutions.

    PubMed

    Bavali, A; Parvin, P; Mortazavi, S Z; Mohammadian, M; Mousavi Pour, M R

    2014-08-20

    Red/blue shifts of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) are investigated using several guest dielectric nanoscatterers, such as TiO2, ZnO, Al2O3, and SiO2, in the host Rd6G, RdB, Coumarin 4, and Coumarin 7 ethanolic solutions. A couple of inflection points are identified varying nanoparticle (NP) density into dye solutions based on LIF spectroscopy. The inflection of the spectral shift exhibits that the suspension of NPs in dye solutions significantly involves a couple of competitive chemical and optical mechanisms during photon traveling in scattering media regarding ballistic and diffusive transport. It is shown that the low, medium, and high NP additives in fluorescent suspension induce blue, red, and blue spectral shifts, respectively.

  5. Selection for nutrients by red deer hinds feeding on a mixed forest edge.

    PubMed

    Verheyden-Tixier, Hélène; Renaud, Pierre-Cyril; Morellet, Nicolas; Jamot, Jacqueline; Besle, Jean-Michel; Dumont, Bertrand

    2008-06-01

    We studied the nutritional behaviour of hinds foraging on a mixed-forest edge by direct observation of their choices at each season and by measuring nutrient concentration in the plants. We compared nutrient concentrations in the observed diets with those in the total available vegetation, and with those of 1,000 randomly simulated diets in which we included only those plants that were actually eaten by the animal. Whether the available or the consumed feeds were used as the basis for comparisons had important consequences due to the presence of conifers and ferns, which were high in soluble sugars but were never eaten by the animals (potentially due to their toxicity). The selected diets were lower in sugars than the total available vegetation in summer, but were actually higher in sugars than the random diets generated from consumed forage species only. Hind diets contained more soluble sugars but not more protein than simulated diets in all seasons. Contrary to our prediction, anti-nutritional compounds (ADL and tannins) were avoided only in winter. Compared to simulated diets, hinds consumed more tannins in spring and summer and more ADL in summer and autumn. We suggest that this was a consequence of selection for soluble sugars, because the preferred plant species, which had high soluble sugar concentrations, also contained a large proportion of the anti-nutritional compounds eaten. In winter, the grass-dominated diets contained more fibre (NDF) and less ADL than the simulated diets, indicating that hinds orient their feeding towards digestible fibres. The switch from a browser to a grazer diet was related to a change in the availability of the nutrients, mainly soluble sugars. In our study, grasses contained more soluble sugars and proteins than deciduous browse during winter. This calls into question the dichotomy usually assumed in the literature between grass and browse in terms of nutrient content.

  6. Retrieval of red spectral albedo and bidirectional reflectance using AVHRR HRPT and GOES satellite observations of the New England region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Entremont, Robert P.; Schaaf, Crystal Barker; Lucht, Wolfgang; Strahler, Alan H.

    1999-03-01

    As a prototyping exercise for the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) albedo/BRDF product, we demonstrate the retrieval of bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) and red spectral albedo measures for the New England region, United States, from merged AVHRR and GOES radiances at a 1 km2 (nominal) spatial scale. These data were acquired during a 25-day period in early fall 1995. The spatial pattern of BRDF retrievals shows that urban, suburban, and interurban regions exhibit directional scattering that is well modeled by the geometric optics of shadow casting. The directional reflectance of more continuous forest areas is better described by volume-scattering mechanisms. Spectral albedos are larger in urban and suburban areas than in forested regions, as might be expected from the strong absorption of leaves in the red wave band. The red spectral albedo generally increases with solar zenith angle, as has been noted in ground measurements of broadband albedo. A number of technical limitations discussed constrain the absolute accuracy of retrieved albedos presented here, although the spatial patterns of albedo and the consistency of the BRDF shapes inspire confidence. These limitations will largely be overcome with application of our algorithm to data from the MODIS and MISR instruments on the EOS AM-1 platform.

  7. Effect of Spectral Transmittance through Red-Tinted Rodent Cages on Circadian Metabolism and Physiology in Nude Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dauchy, Robert T; Wren, Melissa A; Dauchy, Erin M; Hanifin, John P; Jablonski, Michael R; Warfield, Benjamin; Brainard, George C; Hill, Steven M; Mao, Lulu; Dupepe, Lynell M; Ooms, Tara G; Blask, David E

    2013-01-01

    Light entrains normal circadian rhythms of physiology and metabolism in all mammals. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that spectral transmittance (color) of light passing through cages affects these responses in rats. Here, we addressed the hypothesis that red tint alters the circadian nocturnal melatonin signal and circadian oscillation of other metabolic and physiologic functions. Female nude rats (Hsd:RH-Foxn1rnu; n = 12 per group) were maintained on a 12:12-h light (300 lx; 123.0 μW/cm2; lights on 0600):dark regimen in standard polycarbonate translucent clear or red-tinted cages. After 1 wk, rats underwent 6 low-volume blood draws via cardiocentesis over a 4-wk period. Plasma melatonin levels were low during the light phase (1.0 ± 0.2 pg/mL) in rats in both types of cages but were significantly lower in red-tinted (105.0 ± 2.4 pg/mL) compared with clear (154.8 ± 3.8 pg/mL) cages during the dark. Normal circadian rhythm of plasma total fatty acid was identical between groups. Although phase relationships of circadian rhythms in glucose, lactic acid, pO2, and pCO2 were identical between groups, the levels of these analytes were lower in rats in red-tinted compared with clear cages. Circadian rhythms of plasma corticosterone, insulin, and leptin were altered in terms of phasing, amplitude, and duration in rats in red-tinted compared with clear cages. These findings indicate that spectral transmittance through red-colored cages significantly affects circadian regulation of neuroendocrine, metabolic, and physiologic parameters, potentially influencing both laboratory animal health and wellbeing and scientific outcomes. PMID:24351763

  8. The Relationship of Red and Photographic Infrared Spectral Data to Grain Yield Variation Within a Winter Wheat Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Holben, B. N.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1979-01-01

    Two band hand-held radiometer data from a winter wheat field, collected on 21 dates during the spring growing season, were correlated within field final grain yield. Significant linear relationships were found between various combinations of the red and photographic infrared radiance data collected and the grain yield. The spectral data explained approximately 64 percent of the within field grain yield variation. This variation in grain yield could not be explained using meteorological data as these were similar for all areas of the wheat field. Most importantly, data collected early in the spring were highly correlated with grain yield, a five week time window existed from stem elongation through antheses in which the spectral data were most highly correlated with grain yield, and manifestations of wheat canopy water stress were readily apparent in the spectral data.

  9. The dynamic atmospheres of red giant stars. Spectral synthesis in high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowotny, W.

    2005-11-01

    giant stars generally have extremely extended atmospheres with extensions on the same order as the radii of the stars themselves (a few 100 R_sol). Within these cool and relatively dense environments, molecules can efficiently form. They have many internal degrees of freedom leading to a large number of possible transitions (electronic, vibrational, and rotational) and numerous absorption lines/bands. Thus, molecules significantly determine the spectral appearance of late-type stars which have characteristic line-rich spectra in the visual and infrared. At the upper part of the AGB, the stars become unstable to strong radial pulsations (e.g. Mira variables). Due to the large size variations of the stellar interior, the outer layers are levitated and the atmospheric structure is periodically modulated. Triggered by the pulsation, shock waves emerge and propagate outwards through the atmosphere. Efficient dust condensation can take place in the wake of the shock waves ( post-shock regions). Due to the large absorptivity of the formed dust grains, radiation pressure results in an outwards directed acceleration with the outflowing dust particles dragging along the surrounding gas. This leads to the development of a rather slow but dense stellar wind. The just mentioned dynamic effects -- pulsations of the stellar interior and dust-driven winds -- have substantial influence on the evolution of the outer layers of these red giants. As a consequence, the atmospheres of evolved AGB stars can eventually become even more extended. Being time-dependently changed on global and local scales, the resulting atmospheric structure strongly deviates from a hydrostatic configuration (e.g. shock fronts). Especially important in the context of this thesis are the complex, non-monotonic velocity fields with macroscopic motions on the order of 10 km/s, severly affecting the shapes of individual spectral lines (Doppler effect). Observational studies have demonstrated that time series high

  10. Chemical Abundances in Field Red Giants from High-resolution H-band Spectra Using the APOGEE Spectral Linelist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Verne V.; Cunha, Katia; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Meszaros, Szabolcs; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Garcìa Pèrez, Ana; Majewski, Steven R.; Schiavon, Ricardo; Holtzman, Jon; Johnson, Jennifer A.

    2013-03-01

    High-resolution H-band spectra of five bright field K, M, and MS giants, obtained from the archives of the Kitt Peak National Observatory Fourier transform spectrometer, are analyzed to determine chemical abundances of 16 elements. The abundances were derived via spectrum synthesis using the detailed linelist prepared for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Apache Point Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), which is a high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic survey to derive detailed chemical abundance distributions and precise radial velocities for 100,000 red giants sampling all Galactic stellar populations. The red giant sample studied here was chosen to probe which chemical elements can be derived reliably from the H-band APOGEE spectral region. These red giants consist of two K-giants (α Boo and μ Leo), two M-giants (β And and δ Oph), and one thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) star of spectral type MS (HD 199799). Measured chemical abundances include the cosmochemically important isotopes 12C, 13C, 14N, and 16O, along with Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu. The K and M giants exhibit the abundance signature of the first dredge-up of CN-cycle material, while the TP-AGB star shows clear evidence of the addition of 12C synthesized during 4He-burning thermal pulses and subsequent third dredge-up. A comparison of the abundances derived here with published values for these stars reveals consistent results to ~0.1 dex. The APOGEE spectral region and linelist is thus well suited for probing both Galactic chemical evolution, as well as internal nucleosynthesis and mixing in populations of red giants via high-resolution spectroscopy.

  11. Heterogeneity in a room-temperature ionic liquid: persistent local environments and the red-edge effect.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhonghan; Margulis, Claudio J

    2006-01-24

    In this work, we investigate the slow dynamics of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, a very popular room-temperature ionic solvent. Our study predicts the existence of heterogeneity in the liquid and shows that this heterogeneity is the underlying microscopic cause for the recently reported "red-edge effect" (REE) observed in the study of fluorescence of the organic probe 2-amino-7-nitrofluorene. This theoretical work explains in microscopic terms the relation between REE and dynamic heterogeneity in a room-temperature ionic liquid (IL). The REE is typical of micellar or colloidal systems, which are characterized by microscopic environments that are structurally very different. In contrast, in the case of this room-temperature IL, the REE occurs because of the long period during which molecules are trapped in quasistatic local solvent cages. This trapping time, which is longer than the lifetime of the excited-state probe, together with the inability of the surroundings to adiabatically relax, induces a set of site-specific spectroscopic responses. Subensembles of fluorescent molecules associated with particular local environments absorb and emit at different frequencies. We describe in detail the absorption wavelength-dependent emission spectra of 2-amino-7-nitrofluorene and show that this dependence on lambda(ex) is characteristic of the IL and, as is to be expected, is absent in the case of a normal solvent such as methanol.

  12. Heterogeneity in a room-temperature ionic liquid: Persistent local environments and the red-edge effect

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhonghan; Margulis, Claudio J.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the slow dynamics of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, a very popular room-temperature ionic solvent. Our study predicts the existence of heterogeneity in the liquid and shows that this heterogeneity is the underlying microscopic cause for the recently reported “red-edge effect” (REE) observed in the study of fluorescence of the organic probe 2-amino-7-nitrofluorene. This theoretical work explains in microscopic terms the relation between REE and dynamic heterogeneity in a room-temperature ionic liquid (IL). The REE is typical of micellar or colloidal systems, which are characterized by microscopic environments that are structurally very different. In contrast, in the case of this room-temperature IL, the REE occurs because of the long period during which molecules are trapped in quasistatic local solvent cages. This trapping time, which is longer than the lifetime of the excited-state probe, together with the inability of the surroundings to adiabatically relax, induces a set of site-specific spectroscopic responses. Subensembles of fluorescent molecules associated with particular local environments absorb and emit at different frequencies. We describe in detail the absorption wavelength-dependent emission spectra of 2-amino-7-nitrofluorene and show that this dependence on λex is characteristic of the IL and, as is to be expected, is absent in the case of a normal solvent such as methanol. PMID:16418271

  13. Heterogeneity in a room-temperature ionic liquid: persistent local environments and the red-edge effect.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhonghan; Margulis, Claudio J

    2006-01-24

    In this work, we investigate the slow dynamics of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, a very popular room-temperature ionic solvent. Our study predicts the existence of heterogeneity in the liquid and shows that this heterogeneity is the underlying microscopic cause for the recently reported "red-edge effect" (REE) observed in the study of fluorescence of the organic probe 2-amino-7-nitrofluorene. This theoretical work explains in microscopic terms the relation between REE and dynamic heterogeneity in a room-temperature ionic liquid (IL). The REE is typical of micellar or colloidal systems, which are characterized by microscopic environments that are structurally very different. In contrast, in the case of this room-temperature IL, the REE occurs because of the long period during which molecules are trapped in quasistatic local solvent cages. This trapping time, which is longer than the lifetime of the excited-state probe, together with the inability of the surroundings to adiabatically relax, induces a set of site-specific spectroscopic responses. Subensembles of fluorescent molecules associated with particular local environments absorb and emit at different frequencies. We describe in detail the absorption wavelength-dependent emission spectra of 2-amino-7-nitrofluorene and show that this dependence on lambda(ex) is characteristic of the IL and, as is to be expected, is absent in the case of a normal solvent such as methanol. PMID:16418271

  14. Flow injection mass spectral fingerprints demonstrate chemical differences in rio red grapefruit with respect to year, harvest time, and conventional versus organic farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spectral fingerprints were acquired for Ruby Red grapefruit using direct injection-electrospray ionization with time-of-flight and ion trap mass spectrometry (DI-ESI-TOF-MS and DI-ESI-IT-MS). Rio Red grapefruits were harvested 3 times a year (early, mid, and late harvests) in 2005 and 2006 from con...

  15. Efficient frequency downconversion at the single photon level from the red spectral range to the telecommunications C-band.

    PubMed

    Zaske, Sebastian; Lenhard, Andreas; Becher, Christoph

    2011-06-20

    We report on single photon frequency downconversion from the red part of the spectrum (738 nm) to the telecommunications C-band. By mixing attenuated laser pulses with an average photon number per pulse < 1 with a strong continuous light field at 1403 nm in a periodically poled Zn:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide an internal conversion efficiency of ∼ 73% is achieved. We further investigate the noise properties of the process by measuring the output spectrum. Our results indicate that by narrow spectral filtering a quantum interface should be feasible which bridges the wavelength gap between quantum emitters like color centers in diamond emitting in the red part of the spectrum and low-loss fiber-optic telecommunications wavelengths.

  16. Relationship of red and photographic infrared spectral radiances to alfalfa biomass, forage water content, percentage canopy cover, and severity of drought stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1979-01-01

    Red and photographic infrared spectral data were collected using a handheld radiometer for two cuttings of alfalfa. Significant linear and non-linear correlation coefficients were found between the spectral variables and plant height, biomass, forage water content, and estimated canopy cover for the earlier alfalfa cutting. The alfalfa of later cutting experienced a period of severe drought stress which limited growth. The spectral variables were found to be highly correlated with the estimated drought scores for this alfalfa cutting.

  17. The red edge excitation shift phenomenon can be used to unmask protein structural ensembles: implications for NEMO-ubiquitin interactions.

    PubMed

    Catici, Dragana A M; Amos, Hope E; Yang, Yi; van den Elsen, Jean M H; Pudney, Christopher R

    2016-06-01

    To understand complex molecular interactions, it is necessary to account for molecular flexibility and the available equilibrium of conformational states. Only a small number of experimental approaches can access such information. Potentially steady-state red edge excitation shift (REES) spectroscopy can act as a qualitative metric of changes to the protein free energy landscape (FEL) and the equilibrium of conformational states. First, we validate this hypothesis using a single Trp-containing protein, NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO). We provide detailed evidence from chemical denaturation studies, macromolecular crowding studies, and the first report of the pressure dependence of the REES effect. Combination of these data demonstrate that the REES effect can report on the 'ruggedness' of the FEL and we present a phenomenological model, based on realistic physical interpretations, for fitting steady-state REES data to allow quantification of this aspect of the REES effect. We test the conceptual framework we have developed by correlating findings from NEMO ligand-binding studies with the REES data in a range of NEMO-ligand binary complexes. Our findings shed light on the nature of the interaction between NEMO and poly-ubiquitin, suggesting that NEMO is differentially regulated by poly-ubiquitin chain length and that this regulation occurs via a modulation of the available equilibrium of conformational states, rather than gross structural change. This study therefore demonstrates the potential of REES as a powerful tool for tackling contemporary issues in structural biology and biophysics and elucidates novel information on the structure-function relationship of NEMO and key interaction partners. PMID:27028374

  18. The red edge excitation shift phenomenon can be used to unmask protein structural ensembles: implications for NEMO-ubiquitin interactions.

    PubMed

    Catici, Dragana A M; Amos, Hope E; Yang, Yi; van den Elsen, Jean M H; Pudney, Christopher R

    2016-06-01

    To understand complex molecular interactions, it is necessary to account for molecular flexibility and the available equilibrium of conformational states. Only a small number of experimental approaches can access such information. Potentially steady-state red edge excitation shift (REES) spectroscopy can act as a qualitative metric of changes to the protein free energy landscape (FEL) and the equilibrium of conformational states. First, we validate this hypothesis using a single Trp-containing protein, NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO). We provide detailed evidence from chemical denaturation studies, macromolecular crowding studies, and the first report of the pressure dependence of the REES effect. Combination of these data demonstrate that the REES effect can report on the 'ruggedness' of the FEL and we present a phenomenological model, based on realistic physical interpretations, for fitting steady-state REES data to allow quantification of this aspect of the REES effect. We test the conceptual framework we have developed by correlating findings from NEMO ligand-binding studies with the REES data in a range of NEMO-ligand binary complexes. Our findings shed light on the nature of the interaction between NEMO and poly-ubiquitin, suggesting that NEMO is differentially regulated by poly-ubiquitin chain length and that this regulation occurs via a modulation of the available equilibrium of conformational states, rather than gross structural change. This study therefore demonstrates the potential of REES as a powerful tool for tackling contemporary issues in structural biology and biophysics and elucidates novel information on the structure-function relationship of NEMO and key interaction partners.

  19. Limitations and design considerations for donor–acceptor systems in luminescent solar concentrators: the effect of coupling-induced red-edge absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacQueen, Rowan W.; Tayebjee, Murad J. Y.; Webb, James E. A.; Falber, Alexander; Thordarson, Pall; Schmidt, Timothy W.

    2016-06-01

    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) use luminescence and waveguiding to concentrate photons within thin dielectric slabs for use in photovoltaic, lighting, and photobioreactor applications. Donor–acceptor systems of organic chromophores are widely used in LSCs to broaden the sunlight absorption range and attempt to reduce loss-inducing reabsorption by the emitting chromophore. We use raytrace simulations across a large parameter space to model the performance of LSCs containing two novel donor–acceptor trimers based on the perylene moiety. We find that under certain conditions, trimers outperform single-dye LSCs as expected. However, at higher concentrations, a slight increase in red-edge absorption by the trimers increases reabsorption and has a deleterious effect on LSC performance. This underscores the large effect that even small changes in the red edge can have, and may discourage the use of donor–acceptor schemes with high interchromophore coupling that promotes red-edge absorption. Finally, we show that for a LSC-PV pair, selecting a PV cell that is well-matched with the LSC emission spectrum has a large effect on the flux gain of the system, and that the systems studied here are well-matched to emerging PV technologies.

  20. Limitations and design considerations for donor-acceptor systems in luminescent solar concentrators: the effect of coupling-induced red-edge absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacQueen, Rowan W.; Tayebjee, Murad J. Y.; Webb, James E. A.; Falber, Alexander; Thordarson, Pall; Schmidt, Timothy W.

    2016-06-01

    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) use luminescence and waveguiding to concentrate photons within thin dielectric slabs for use in photovoltaic, lighting, and photobioreactor applications. Donor-acceptor systems of organic chromophores are widely used in LSCs to broaden the sunlight absorption range and attempt to reduce loss-inducing reabsorption by the emitting chromophore. We use raytrace simulations across a large parameter space to model the performance of LSCs containing two novel donor-acceptor trimers based on the perylene moiety. We find that under certain conditions, trimers outperform single-dye LSCs as expected. However, at higher concentrations, a slight increase in red-edge absorption by the trimers increases reabsorption and has a deleterious effect on LSC performance. This underscores the large effect that even small changes in the red edge can have, and may discourage the use of donor-acceptor schemes with high interchromophore coupling that promotes red-edge absorption. Finally, we show that for a LSC-PV pair, selecting a PV cell that is well-matched with the LSC emission spectrum has a large effect on the flux gain of the system, and that the systems studied here are well-matched to emerging PV technologies.

  1. Spectral characterization of Fabry-Perot etalon operating in Short Wave Infra-Red (SWIR) region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Moumita; Ankush, K.; Kumar, K. Ajay; Ghag, Prathmesh; Sarkar, S. S.

    2015-06-01

    A promising technique for precise spectral characterization of solid Etalon operating in SWIR wavelength is demonstrated using tunable laser with a minimum wavelength scan step interval of 1 picometer. Measurement is carried out for 1640nm - 1660nm, an important region containing greenhouse gas absorption spectra. The etalon considered for characterization is made of fused silica. The thickness is nearly 346 micron with physical diameter of 25.4 mm and clear aperture of 23 mm. The etalon has a finesse of 7.25 and extremely narrow bandwidth like 0.4 nm or 400 picometer. The measurement was as well carried out with an Optical Spectrum Analyzer (OSA). The conventional OSA instrument had a resolution of 80 picometer limiting the measurement capability to detect a spectral shift as fine as 50 picometer. Also the measured bandwidth had an error of ± 40 picometer over a spectral bandwidth of 400 picometer which is nearly ±10 %. This leads to the use of a tunable laser exhibiting a provision to vary the wavelength at a step of 1 picometer. This method provides measurement accuracy at least 4 times better than the earlier method. Accuracy may be further improved by making the wavelength scan step interval even finer. The absorption due to presence of greenhouse gas like methane is higher for the etalons with narrower bandwidth. This method can provide very good accuracy for characterization of etalons with spectral bandwidth as narrow as 50 picometer.

  2. Stress assessment and spectral characterization of suspected acid deposition damage in red spruce (Picea Rubens) from Vermont

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.; Vogelmann, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of acid deposition on Picea rubens are studied. The Picea rubens located at Camels Hump Mt., Mt. Ascutney, and Ripton, VT were analyzed using stress level evaluations, in situ spectral data, pressure bomb analysis, and aircraft sensors. Spruce stress per circular plot and percent spruce mortality are calculated. The relation between stress levels and elevation and exposure and weather patterns is examined. It is observed that variations in the reflectance curves of the foliage and branches are related to cellular health, the type of cellular arrangement, and the degree of leaf tissue hydration; the leaf and twig specimens from high stress sites are more reflective in the red portion of the visible and less reflective in the NIR portion of the spectrum. The pressure bomb data reveal that the xylem water tension is higher in specimens from high stress sites. It is noted that remote sensing permits discrimination and mapping of suspected acid deposition damage.

  3. Spectral Diversity and Regulation of Coral Fluorescence in a Mesophotic Reef Habitat in the Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Eyal, Gal; Wiedenmann, Jörg; Grinblat, Mila; D’Angelo, Cecilia; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Treibitz, Tali; Ben-Zvi, Or; Shaked, Yonathan; Smith, Tyler B.; Harii, Saki; Denis, Vianney; Noyes, Tim; Tamir, Raz; Loya, Yossi

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of coral fluorescence in mesophotic reefs, although well described for shallow waters, remains largely unstudied. We found that representatives of many scleractinian species are brightly fluorescent at depths of 50–60 m at the Interuniversity Institute for Marine Sciences (IUI) reef in Eilat, Israel. Some of these fluorescent species have distribution maxima at mesophotic depths (40–100 m). Several individuals from these depths displayed yellow or orange-red fluorescence, the latter being essentially absent in corals from the shallowest parts of this reef. We demonstrate experimentally that in some cases the production of fluorescent pigments is independent of the exposure to light; while in others, the fluorescence signature is altered or lost when the animals are kept in darkness. Furthermore, we show that green-to-red photoconversion of fluorescent pigments mediated by short-wavelength light can occur also at depths where ultraviolet wavelengths are absent from the underwater light field. Intraspecific colour polymorphisms regarding the colour of the tissue fluorescence, common among shallow water corals, were also observed for mesophotic species. Our results suggest that fluorescent pigments in mesophotic reefs fulfil a distinct biological function and offer promising application potential for coral-reef monitoring and biomedical imaging. PMID:26107282

  4. A study of the time-resolved fluorescence spectrum and red edge effect of ANF in a room-temperature ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhonghan; Margulis, Claudio J

    2006-06-15

    In a recent article, we have analyzed using molecular dynamics simulations the steady-state red edge effect (REE) observed by Samanta and co-workers when the fluorescent probe 2-amino-7-nitrofluorene (ANF) is photoexcited at different wavelengths in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ([BMIM+]) hexafluorophosphate ([PF6-]). In this letter, we predict the time- and wavelength-dependent emission spectra of ANF in the same ionic solvent. From the analysis of our simulated data, we are able to derive an approximate time scale for reorganization of the solvent around the solute probe. The effect that slow varying local liquid environments have on the overall time-dependent signal is also discussed.

  5. Master-oscillator power-amplifier in the red spectral range for holographic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, G.; Pohl, J.; Feise, D.; Wiedmann, J.; Ressel, P.; Eppich, B.; Sahm, A.; Ginolas, A.; Nedow, O.; Jendrzejewski, M.; Johne, P.; Hofmann, J.; Schiemangk, M.; Sumpf, B.; Erbert, G.; Paschke, K.

    2016-03-01

    RGB-light sources with a coherence length of several meters are required for holographic displays. Furthermore, these emitters must feature a high luminance and must be sufficiently small in size, to be employed in today's consumer market products. Therefore, an all-semiconductor based solution is preferred. We developed red-emitting semiconductor lasers at 635 nm and 647 nm with internal distributed Bragg reflectors and suitable amplifiers at these wavelengths to boost the lasers output power. We investigated tapered amplifiers containing a ridge-waveguide section as well as truncated tapered designs in master-oscillator power-amplifier configuration (MOPA). This allowed the generation of diffraction limited single mode emission by the MO-chip and subsequent amplification of the radiation by the PA-chip by more than 10 dB, without significantly degrading the coherence properties. We successfully demonstrated an optical output power of more than 300 mW at 635 nm and 500 mW at 647 nm. The radiation featured a linewidth below 10 MHz, which corresponds to a coherence length of at least several meters, well suited for a holographic system.

  6. Facile synthesis of Cu2CoSnS4 nanoparticles exhibiting red-edge-effect: Application in hybrid photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, Banavoth; Krupanidhi, S. B.

    2013-10-01

    Cu2CoSnS4 (CCTS) quaternary semiconducting nanoparticles with size distribution from 20 nm to 60 nm were synthesized by one-pot low temperature time and surfactant dependent hydrothermal route. Nanoparticles were characterized structurally and optically. Excitation dependent fluorescence exhibited a dynamic stoke shift referring to the Red-Edge-Effect with peak shifting by a greater magnitude (>100 nm) towards red side, in all the samples. Hybrid devices, fabricated from CCTS nanoparticle inorganic counterparts benefitting from the conjugation of organic P3HT polymer matrix, were demonstrated for photodetection under infra-red and A.M 1.5 solar light illuminations. Faster rise and decay constants of 37 ms and 166 ms, with one order photocurrent amplification from 1.6 × 10-6 A in the dark to 6.55 × 10-5 A, upon the 18.50 mW cm-2 IR lamp illumination, make CCTS a potential candidate for photodetector and photovoltaic applications.

  7. Spectral energy distribution simulations of a possible ring structure around the young, red brown dwarf G 196-3 B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakhozhay, Olga V.; Zapatero Osorio, María Rosa; Béjar, Víctor J. S.; Boehler, Yann

    2016-09-01

    The origin of the very red optical and infrared colours of intermediate-age (˜10-500 Myr) L-type dwarfs remains unknown. It has been suggested that low-gravity atmospheres containing large amounts of dust may account for the observed reddish nature. We explored an alternative scenario by simulating protoplanetary and debris discs around G 196-3 B, which is an L3 young brown dwarf with a mass of ˜15 MJup and an age in the interval 20-300 Myr. The best-fit solution to G 196-3 B's photometric spectral energy distribution from optical wavelengths through 24 μm corresponds to the combination of an unreddened L3 atmosphere (Teff ≈ 1870 K) and a warm (≈ 1280 K), narrow (≈ 0.07-0.11 R⊙) debris disc located at very close distances (≈ 0.12-0.20 R⊙) from the central brown dwarf. This putative, optically thick, dusty belt, whose presence is compatible with the relatively young system age, would have a mass ≥7 × 10-10 M⊕ comprised of sub-micron/micron characteristic dusty particles with temperatures close to the sublimation threshold of silicates. Considering the derived global properties of the belt and the disc-to-brown dwarf mass ratio, the dusty ring around G 196-3 B may resemble the rings of Neptune and Jupiter, except for its high temperature and thick vertical height (≈6 × 103 km). Our inferred debris disc model is able to reproduce G 196-3 B's spectral energy distribution to a satisfactory level of achievement.

  8. Monolithic integration of InGaN segments emitting in the blue, green, and red spectral range in single ordered nanocolumns

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, S.; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.

    2013-05-06

    This work reports on the selective area growth by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumnar heterostructures. The optimization of the In/Ga and total III/V ratios, as well as the growth temperature, provides control on the emission wavelength, either in the blue, green, or red spectral range. An adequate structure tailoring and monolithic integration in a single nanocolumnar heterostructure of three InGaN portions emitting in the red-green-blue colors lead to white light emission.

  9. A study of the time-resolved fluorescence spectrum and red edge effect of ANF in a room-temperature ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhonghan; Margulis, Claudio J

    2006-06-15

    In a recent article, we have analyzed using molecular dynamics simulations the steady-state red edge effect (REE) observed by Samanta and co-workers when the fluorescent probe 2-amino-7-nitrofluorene (ANF) is photoexcited at different wavelengths in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ([BMIM+]) hexafluorophosphate ([PF6-]). In this letter, we predict the time- and wavelength-dependent emission spectra of ANF in the same ionic solvent. From the analysis of our simulated data, we are able to derive an approximate time scale for reorganization of the solvent around the solute probe. The effect that slow varying local liquid environments have on the overall time-dependent signal is also discussed. PMID:16771357

  10. Large edge-excitation red-shift of the fluorescence of an ethanol solution of 4-amino-4'-nitrodiphenyl (and). The case of a solute with a dipole moment increase in the excited state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hassan, Khader A.; El-Bayoumi, M. Ashraf

    1987-08-01

    The observed large edge-excitation red-shift of the fluorescence of 4-amino-4'-nitrodiphenyl (AND) in a rigid ethanol medium and the red-shift of the absorption band as the temperature is lowered are explained in terms of a microscopic solvent heterogeneity. The AND results where the dipole moment is increased upon excitation are compared with the merocyanine dye results where the reverse is true.

  11. Comparability of Red/Near-Infrared Reflectance and NDVI Based on the Spectral Response Function between MODIS and 30 Other Satellite Sensors Using Rice Canopy Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weijiao; Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Xiuzhen; Wang, Fumin; Shi, Jingjing

    2013-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of regional and global environment changes often depends on the combined use of multi-source sensor data. The most widely used vegetation index is the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is a function of the red and near-infrared (NIR) spectral bands. The reflectance and NDVI data sets derived from different satellite sensor systems will not be directly comparable due to different spectral response functions (SRF), which has been recognized as one of the most important sources of uncertainty in the multi-sensor data analysis. This study quantified the influence of SRFs on the red and NIR reflectances and NDVI derived from 31 Earth observation satellite sensors. For this purpose, spectroradiometric measurements were performed for paddy rice grown under varied nitrogen levels and at different growth stages. The rice canopy reflectances were convoluted with the spectral response functions of various satellite instruments to simulate sensor-specific reflectances in the red and NIR channels. NDVI values were then calculated using the simulated red and NIR reflectances. The results showed that as compared to the Terra MODIS, the mean relative percentage difference (RPD) ranged from −12.67% to 36.30% for the red reflectance, −8.52% to −0.23% for the NIR reflectance, and −9.32% to 3.10% for the NDVI. The mean absolute percentage difference (APD) compared to the Terra MODIS ranged from 1.28% to 36.30% for the red reflectance, 0.84% to 8.71% for the NIR reflectance, and 0.59% to 9.32% for the NDVI. The lowest APD between MODIS and the other 30 satellite sensors was observed for Landsat5 TM for the red reflectance, CBERS02B CCD for the NIR reflectance and Landsat4 TM for the NDVI. In addition, the largest APD between MODIS and the other 30 satellite sensors was observed for IKONOS for the red reflectance, AVHRR1 onboard NOAA8 for the NIR reflectance and IKONOS for the NDVI. The results also indicated that AVHRRs onboard NOAA7

  12. Comparability of red/near-infrared reflectance and NDVI based on the spectral response function between MODIS and 30 other satellite sensors using rice canopy spectra.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weijiao; Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Xiuzhen; Wang, Fumin; Shi, Jingjing

    2013-11-26

    Long-term monitoring of regional and global environment changes often depends on the combined use of multi-source sensor data. The most widely used vegetation index is the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is a function of the red and near-infrared (NIR) spectral bands. The reflectance and NDVI data sets derived from different satellite sensor systems will not be directly comparable due to different spectral response functions (SRF), which has been recognized as one of the most important sources of uncertainty in the multi-sensor data analysis. This study quantified the influence of SRFs on the red and NIR reflectances and NDVI derived from 31 Earth observation satellite sensors. For this purpose, spectroradiometric measurements were performed for paddy rice grown under varied nitrogen levels and at different growth stages. The rice canopy reflectances were convoluted with the spectral response functions of various satellite instruments to simulate sensor-specific reflectances in the red and NIR channels. NDVI values were then calculated using the simulated red and NIR reflectances. The results showed that as compared to the Terra MODIS, the mean relative percentage difference (RPD) ranged from -12.67% to 36.30% for the red reflectance, -8.52% to -0.23% for the NIR reflectance, and -9.32% to 3.10% for the NDVI. The mean absolute percentage difference (APD) compared to the Terra MODIS ranged from 1.28% to 36.30% for the red reflectance, 0.84% to 8.71% for the NIR reflectance, and 0.59% to 9.32% for the NDVI. The lowest APD between MODIS and the other 30 satellite sensors was observed for Landsat5 TM for the red reflectance, CBERS02B CCD for the NIR reflectance and Landsat4 TM for the NDVI. In addition, the largest APD between MODIS and the other 30 satellite sensors was observed for IKONOS for the red reflectance, AVHRR1 onboard NOAA8 for the NIR reflectance and IKONOS for the NDVI. The results also indicated that AVHRRs onboard NOAA7-17 showed

  13. THE ASSEMBLY OF THE RED SEQUENCE AT z {approx} 1: THE COLOR AND SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF GALAXIES IN THE Cl1604 SUPERCLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Lemaux, B. C.; Gal, R. R.; Lubin, L. M.; Fassnacht, C. D.; and others

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the properties of the 525 spectroscopically confirmed members of the Cl1604 supercluster at z {approx} 0.9 as part of the Observations of Redshift Evolution in Large Scale Environments survey. In particular, we focus on the photometric, stellar mass, morphological, and spectral properties of the 305 member galaxies of the eight clusters and groups that comprise the Cl1604 supercluster. Using an extensive Keck Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS)/DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph (DEIMOS) spectroscopic database in conjunction with ten-band ground-based, Spitzer, and Hubble Space Telescope imaging, we investigate the buildup of the red sequence in groups and clusters at high redshift. Nearly all of the brightest and most massive red-sequence galaxies present in the supercluster environment are found to lie within the bounds of the cluster and group systems, with a surprisingly large number of such galaxies present in low-mass group systems. Despite the prevalence of these red-sequence galaxies, we find that the average cluster galaxy has a spectrum indicative of a star-forming galaxy, with a star formation rate between those of z {approx} 1 field galaxies and moderate-redshift cluster galaxies. The average group galaxy is even more active, exhibiting spectral properties indicative of a starburst. The presence of massive, red galaxies and the high fraction of starbursting galaxies present in the group environment suggest that significant processing is occurring in group environments at z {approx} 1 and earlier. There is a deficit of low-luminosity red-sequence galaxies in all Cl1604 clusters and groups, suggesting that such galaxies transition to the red sequence at later times. Extremely massive ({approx}10{sup 12} M{sub sun}) red-sequence galaxies routinely observed in rich clusters at z {approx} 0 are also absent from the Cl1604 clusters and groups. We suggest that such galaxies form at later times through merging processes. There are

  14. Red antenna states of photosystem I from cyanobacteria Synechocystis PCC 6803 and Thermosynechococcus elongatus: single-complex spectroscopy and spectral hole-burning study.

    PubMed

    Riley, Kerry J; Reinot, Tõnu; Jankowiak, Ryszard; Fromme, Petra; Zazubovich, Valter

    2007-01-11

    Hole-burning and single photosynthetic complex spectroscopy were used to study the excitonic structure and excitation energy-transfer processes of cyanobacterial trimeric Photosystem I (PS I) complexes from Synechocystis PCC 6803 and Thermosynechococcus elongatus at low temperatures. It was shown that individual PS I complexes of Synechocystis PCC 6803 (which have two red antenna states, i.e., C706 and C714) reveal only a broad structureless fluorescence band with a maximum near 720 nm, indicating strong electron-phonon coupling for the lowest energy C714 red state. The absence of zero-phonon lines (ZPLs) belonging to the C706 red state in the emission spectra of individual PS I complexes from Synechocystis PCC 6803 suggests that the C706 and C714 red antenna states of Synechocystis PCC 6803 are connected by efficient energy transfer with a characteristic transfer time of approximately 5 ps. This finding is in agreement with spectral hole-burning data obtained for bulk samples of Synechocystis PCC 6803. The importance of comparing the results of ensemble (spectral hole burning) and single-complex measurements was demonstrated. The presence of narrow ZPLs near 710 nm in addition to the broad fluorescence band at approximately 730 nm in Thermosynechococcus elongatus (Jelezko et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2000, 104, 8093-8096) has been confirmed. We also demonstrate that high-quality samples obtained by dissolving crystals of PS I of Thermosynechococcus elongatus exhibit stronger absorption in the red antenna region than any samples studied so far by us and other groups.

  15. Evaluation of spectral light management on growth of container-grown willow oak, nuttall oak and summer red maple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant response to blue, red, gray or black shade cloth was evaluated with willow oak (Quercus phellos L.), Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii Palmer, Nuttall) and Summer Red maple (Acer rubrum L. ‘Summer Red’) liners. Light transmitted through the colored shade cloth had no influence on germination of ...

  16. Fourier-spectral element approximation of the ion-electron Braginskii system with application to tokamak edge plasma in divertor configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minjeaud, Sebastian; Pasquetti, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Due to the extreme conditions required to produce energy by nuclear fusion in tokamaks, simulating the plasma behavior is an important but challenging task. We focus on the edge part of the plasma, where fluid approaches are probably the best suited, and our approach relies on the Braginskii ion-electron model. Assuming that the electric field is electrostatic, this yields a set of 10 strongly coupled and non-linear conservation equations that exhibit multiscale and anisotropy features. The computational domain is a torus of complex geometrical section, that corresponds to the divertor configuration, i.e. with an "X-point" in the magnetic surfaces. To capture the complex physics that is involved, high order methods are used: The time-discretization is based on a Strang splitting, that combines implicit and explicit high order Runge-Kutta schemes, and the space discretization makes use of the spectral element method in the poloidal plane together with Fourier expansions in the toroidal direction. The paper thoroughly describes the algorithms that have been developed, provides some numerical validations of the key algorithms and exhibits the results of preliminary numerical experiments. In particular, we point out that the highest frequency of the system is intermediate between the ion and electron cyclotron frequencies.

  17. Comparative study of Poincaré plot analysis using short electroencephalogram signals during anaesthesia with spectral edge frequency 95 and bispectral index.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, K; Yamada, T; Sawa, T

    2015-03-01

    The return or Poincaré plot is a non-linear analytical approach in a two-dimensional plane, where a timed signal is plotted against itself after a time delay. Its scatter pattern reflects the randomness and variability in the signals. Quantification of a Poincaré plot of the electroencephalogram has potential to determine anaesthesia depth. We quantified the degree of dispersion (i.e. standard deviation, SD) along the diagonal line of the electroencephalogram-Poincaré plot (named as SD1/SD2), and compared SD1/SD2 values with spectral edge frequency 95 (SEF95) and bispectral index values. The regression analysis showed a tight linear regression equation with a coefficient of determination (R(2) ) value of 0.904 (p < 0.0001) between the Poincaré index (SD1/SD2) and SEF95, and a moderate linear regression equation between SD1/SD2 and bispectral index (R(2)  = 0.346, p < 0.0001). Quantification of the Poincaré plot tightly correlates with SEF95, reflecting anaesthesia-dependent changes in electroencephalogram oscillation.

  18. Spectral kinetic modeling and long-term behavior assessment of Arthrospira platensis growth in photobioreactor under red (620 nm) light illumination.

    PubMed

    Farges, Bérangère; Laroche, Céline; Cornet, Jean-François; Dussap, Claude-Gilles

    2009-01-01

    The ability to cultivate the cyanobacterium Arhtrospira platensis in artificially lightened photobioreactors using high energetic efficiency (quasi-monochromatic) red LED was investigated. To reach the same maximal productivities as with the polychromatic lightening control conditions (red + blue, P/2e(-) = 1.275), the need to work with an optimal range of wavelength around 620 nm was first established on batch and continuous cultures. The long-term physiological and kinetic behavior was then verified in a continuous photobioreactor illuminated only with red (620 nm) LED, showing that the maximum productivities can be maintained over 30 residence times with only minor changes in the pigment content of the cells corresponding to a well-known adaptation mechanism of the photosystems, but without any effect on growth and stoichiometry. For both poly and monochromatic incident light inputs, a predictive spectral knowledge model was proposed and validated for the first time, allowing the calculation of the kinetics and stoichiometry observed in any photobioreactor cultivating A. platensis, or other cyanobacteria if the parameters were updated. It is shown that the photon flux (with a specified wavelength) must be used instead of light energy flux as a relevant control variable for the growth. The experimental and theoretical results obtained in this study demonstrate that it is possible to save the energy consumed by the lightening device of photobioreactors using red LED, the spectral range of which is defined according to the action spectrum of photosynthesis. This appears to be crucial information for applications in which the energy must be rationalized, as it is the case for life support systems in closed environments like a permanent spatial base or a submarine.

  19. Simple luminosity normalization of greenness, yellowness and redness/greenness for comparison of leaf spectral profiles in multi-temporally acquired remote sensing images.

    PubMed

    Doi, Ryoichi

    2012-09-01

    Observation of leaf colour (spectral profiles) through remote sensing is an effective method of identifying the spatial distribution patterns of abnormalities in leaf colour, which enables appropriate plant management measures to be taken. However, because the brightness of remote sensing images varies with acquisition time, in the observation of leaf spectral profiles in multi-temporally acquired remote sensing images, changes in brightness must be taken into account. This study identified a simple luminosity normalization technique that enables leaf colours to be compared in remote sensing images over time. The intensity values of green and yellow (green+red) exhibited strong linear relationships with luminosity (R2 greater than 0.926) when various invariant rooftops in Bangkok or Tokyo were spectralprofiled using remote sensing images acquired at different time points. The values of the coefficient and constant or the coefficient of the formulae describing the intensity of green or yellow were comparable among the single Bangkok site and the two Tokyo sites, indicating the technique's general applicability. For single rooftops, the values of the coefficient of variation for green, yellow, and red/green were 16% or less (n=6-11), indicating an accuracy not less than those of well-established remote sensing measures such as the normalized difference vegetation index. After obtaining the above linear relationships, raw intensity values were normalized and a temporal comparison of the spectral profiles of the canopies of evergreen and deciduous tree species in Tokyo was made to highlight the changes in the canopies' spectral profiles. Future aspects of this technique are discussed herein.

  20. Near-Infrared high resolution spectral survey of comets with GIANO/TNG: The CN red-system at 1.1 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faggi, Sara; Villanueva, Geronimo Luis; Mumma, Michael J.; Tozzi, Gian-Paolo; Brucato, John Robert

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution spectroscopy in the near-infrared spectral range is a powerful tool to investigate chemical composition and isotopic fractionation.Comets are the best preserved relic of the enfant stages of the solar system. By targeting biologically relevant species in cometary comae and retrieving isotopic (e.g. D/H) and spin isomeric (e.g., ortho- and para- water) ratios, we can study the formation and evolution of solar system matter, address the origin of Earth's oceans and characterize the delivery of organic matter that was essential for the appearance of life on early Earth. We initiated the first high resolution spectral survey of comets ever conducted in the 0.9-2.5 μm range, targeting C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy), C/2013 US10 (Catalina) and C/2013 X1 (Panstarrs) with GIANO - the near-IR high resolution spectrograph on Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG). In comet Lovejoy, we detected eight ro-vibrational bands of H2O (Faggi et al., 2016, ApJ in press), emission from the red-system of CN, and many other emission lines whose precursors are now being identified. In this talk we will present a new quantum mechanical solar fluorescence model for the CN red system and the retrievals obtained with it from our cometary spectra. These observations open new pathways for cometary science in the near-infrared spectral range (0.9-2.5 μm) and establish the feasibility of astrobiology-related scientific investigations with future high resolution IR spectrographs on 30-m class telescopes, e.g., the HIRES spectrograph on the E-ELT telescope. This work is part of Sara Faggi's Ph.D. thesis project. NASA's Planetary Astronomy Program supported GLV and MJM through funding awarded under proposal 11-PAST11-0045 (M. J. Mumma, PI ).

  1. [Study on the relationship between spectral properties of oilseed rape leaves and their chlorophyll content].

    PubMed

    Fang, Hui; Song, Hai-Yan; Cao, Fang; He, Yong; Qiu, Zheng-Jun

    2007-09-01

    Chlorophyll is the important factors of the crop in its growth stage, and it is the favorable indicator of nutrition stress and photosynthesis. Site-specific crop nutrition diagnosis is the basics of the scientific fertilizer management, and it is essential for the practice of precision agriculture. Spectral properties of the oilseed rape leaves in different nitrogenous fertilizer levels were measured using visible-near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (Vis-NIRS) with natural illumination in the present study. According to the unique spectral properties of the crop, multiple stepwise regression technique was used to find the relationships between chlorophyll content and red edge, green edge. The result shows that the model with two independent variables (red edge, green edge) was better than with the one independeot variable (red edge). The correlation coefficient was 0.863, 0.848, and SEC was 5.273, 5.459, respectively. It can be seen the combination of the red edge and green edge can accurately predict chlorophyll content.

  2. Accurate Spectral Fits of Jupiter's Great Red Spot: VIMS Visual Spectra Modelled with Chromophores Created by Photolyzed Ammonia Reacting with Acetyleneχ±

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, Kevin; Sromovsky, Lawrence A.; Fry, Patrick M.; Carlson, Robert W.; Momary, Thomas W.

    2016-10-01

    We report results incorporating the red-tinted photochemically-generated aerosols of Carlson et al (2016, Icarus 274, 106-115) in spectral models of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS). Spectral models of the 0.35-1.0-micron spectrum show good agreement with Cassini/VIMS near-center-meridian and near-limb GRS spectra for model morphologies incorporating an optically-thin layer of Carlson (2016) aerosols at high altitudes, either at the top of the tropospheric GRS cloud, or in a distinct stratospheric haze layer. Specifically, a two-layer "crème brûlée" structure of the Mie-scattering Carlson et al (2016) chromophore attached to the top of a conservatively scattering (hereafter, "white") optically-thick cloud fits the spectra well. Currently, best agreement (reduced χ2 of 0.89 for the central-meridian spectrum) is found for a 0.195-0.217-bar, 0.19 ± 0.02 opacity layer of chromophores with mean particle radius of 0.14 ± 0.01 micron. As well, a structure with a detached stratospheric chromophore layer ~0.25 bar above a white tropospheric GRS cloud provides a good spectral match (reduced χ2 of 1.16). Alternatively, a cloud morphology with the chromophore coating white particles in a single optically- and physically-thick cloud (the "coated-shell model", initially explored by Carlson et al 2016) was found to give significantly inferior fits (best reduced χ2 of 2.9). Overall, we find that models accurately fit the GRS spectrum if (1) most of the optical depth of the chromophore is in a layer near the top of the main cloud or in a distinct separated layer above it, but is not uniformly distributed within the main cloud, (2) the chromophore consists of relatively small, 0.1-0.2-micron-radius particles, and (3) the chromophore layer optical depth is small, ~ 0.1-0.2. Thus, our analysis supports the exogenic origin of the red chromophore consistent with the Carlson et al (2016) photolytic production mechanism rather than an endogenic origin, such as upwelling of material

  3. AMBER-NACO aperture-synthesis imaging of the half-obscured central star and the edge-on disk of the red giant L2 Puppis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnaka, K.; Schertl, D.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Weigelt, G.

    2015-09-01

    Aims: The red giant L2 Pup started a dimming event in 1994, which is considered to be caused by the ejection of dust clouds. We present near-IR aperture-synthesis imaging of L2 Pup achieved by combining data from VLT/NACO and the AMBER instrument of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). Our aim is to spatially resolve the innermost region of the circumstellar environment. Methods: We carried out speckle interferometric observations at 2.27 μm with VLT/NACO and long-baseline interferometric observations with VLTI/AMBER at 2.2-2.35 μm with baselines of 15-81 m. We also extracted an 8.7 μm image from the mid-IR VLTI instrument MIDI. Results: The diffraction-limited image obtained by bispectrum speckle interferometry with NACO with a spatial resolution of 57 mas shows an elongated component. The aperture-synthesis imaging combining the NACO speckle data and AMBER data with a spatial resolution of 5.6 × 7.3 mas further resolves not only this elongated component, but also the central star. The reconstructed image reveals that the elongated component is a nearly edge-on disk with a size of ~180 × 50 mas lying in the E-W direction, and furthermore, that the southern hemisphere of the central star is severely obscured by the equatorial dust lane of the disk. The angular size of the disk is consistent with the distance that the dust clouds that were ejected at the onset of the dimming event should have traveled by the time of our observations, if we assume that the dust clouds moved radially. This implies that the formation of the disk may be responsible for the dimming event. The 8.7 μm image with a spatial resolution of 220 mas extracted from the MIDI data taken in 2004 (seven years before the AMBER and NACO observations) shows an approximately spherical envelope without a signature of the disk. This suggests that the mass loss before the dimming event may have been spherical. Based on AMBER, NACO, and MIDI observations made with the Very Large Telescope

  4. Cationic Silicon Nanocrystals with Colloidal Stability, pH‐Independent Positive Surface Charge and Size Tunable Photoluminescence in the Near‐Infrared to Red Spectral Range

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kenneth K.; Liao, Kristine; Casillas, Gilberto; Li, Yiying

    2016-01-01

    In this report, the synthesis of a novel class of cationic quaternary ammonium‐surface‐functionalized silicon nanocrystals (ncSi) using a novel and highly versatile terminal alkyl halide‐surface‐functionalized ncSi synthon is described. The distinctive features of these cationic ncSi include colloidal stability, pH‐independent positive surface charge, and size‐tunable photoluminescence (PL) in the biologically relevant near‐infrared‐to‐red spectral region. These cationic ncSi are characterized via a combination of high‐resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy‐dispersive X‐ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared, X‐ray photoelectron, and photoluminescence spectroscopies, and zeta potential measurements. PMID:27812459

  5. Influence of oxygen saturation on the optical scattering properties of human red blood cells in the spectral range 250 to 2,000 nm.

    PubMed

    Friebel, Moritz; Helfmann, Jürgen; Netz, Uwe; Meinke, Martina

    2009-01-01

    The intrinsic optical parameters absorption coefficient mu(a), scattering coefficient micros, anisotropy factor g, and effective scattering coefficient micros were determined for human red blood cell (RBC) suspensions of hematocrit 33.2% dependent on the oxygen saturation (SAT O(2)) in the wavelength range 250 to 2,000 nm, including the range above 1,100 nm, about which there are no data available in the literature. Integrating sphere measurements of light transmittance and reflectance in combination with inverse Monte Carlo simulation were carried out for SAT O(2) levels of 100 and 0%. In the wavelength range up to 1,200 nm, the absorption behavior is determined by the hemoglobin absorption. The spectral range above the cells' absorption shows no dependence on SAT O(2) and approximates the absorption of water with values 20 to 30% below the respective values for water. Parameters micros and g are significantly influenced by the SAT O(2)-induced absorption changes. Above 600 nm, micros decreases continuously from values of 85 mm(-1) to values of 30 mm(-1) at 2,000 nm. The anisotropy factor shows a slight decrease with wavelengths above 600 nm. In the spectral regions of 1,450 and 1,900 nm where water has local absorption maxima, g shows a significant decrease down to 0.85, whereas micros increases. PMID:19566295

  6. Cationic vacancies and anomalous spectral-weight transfer in Ti1-xTaxO2 thin films studied via polarization-dependent near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Dong-Chen; Barman, Arkajit Roy; Debbichi, Lamjed; Dhar, S.; Santoso, Iman; Asmara, Teguh Citra; Omer, Humair; Yang, Kesong; Krüger, Peter; Wee, Andrew T. S.; Venkatesan, T.; Rusydi, Andrivo

    2013-06-01

    We report the electronic structures of Ta-doped anatase TiO2 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with varying magnetization using a combination of first-principles calculations and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. The roles of Ta doping and Ti vacancies are clarified, and the observed room-temperature ferromagnetism is attributed to the localized magnetic moments at Ti vacancy sites ferromagnetically ordered by electron charge carriers. O K-edge spectra exhibit significant polarization dependence which is discussed and supported by first-principles calculations in relation to both the crystal symmetry and the formation of defects. In particular, anomalous spectral-weight transfer across the entire O K edge for the ferromagnetic thin film is associated exclusively with the occurrence of Ti vacancies and strong correlation effects, which result in the enhancement of the direct interaction between oxygen sites and of the anisotropy of the eg-pσ hybridizations in the out-of-plane component. Our results show that O K-edge NEXAFS spectra can provide reliable experimental probes capable of revealing cationic defects that are intimately related to the ferromagnetism in transition metal oxides.

  7. The characteristic analysis of spectral image for cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Li-bo; Li, Hong-ning; Cao, Peng-fei; Qin, Feng; Yang, Shu-ming; Feng, Jie

    2015-02-01

    Cabbage growth and health diagnosis are important parts for cabbage fine planting, spectral imaging technology with the advantages of obtaining spectrum and space information of the target at the same time, which has become a research hotspot at home and abroad. The experiment measures the reflection spectrum at different stages using liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) and monochromatic CMOS camera composed of spectral imaging system for cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests, and analyzes its feature bands and the change of spectral parameters. The study shows that the feature bands of cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests have a tendency to blue light direction, the red edge towards blue shift, and red valley raising in spectral characteristic parameters, which have a good indication in diagnosing the extent of cabbage damaged by pests. Therefore, it has a unique advantage of monitoring the cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests by combinating feature bands and spectral characteristic parameters in spectral imaging technology.

  8. Spectral downshifting from blue to near infer red region in Ce3+-Nd3+ co-doped YAG phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawala, N. S.; Omanwar, S. K.

    2016-07-01

    The YAG phosphors co-doped with Ce3+-Nd3+ ions by varying concentration of Nd3+ ion from 1 mol% to 15 mol% were successfully synthesized by conventional solid state reaction method. The phosphors were characterized by powder X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and surface morphology was studied by scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The photoluminescence (PL) properties were studied in near infra red (NIR) and ultra violet visible (UV-VIS) region. The synthesized phosphors can convert a blue region photon (453 nm) into photons of NIR region (1063 nm). The energy transfer (ET) process was studied by time decay curve and PL spectra. The theoretical value of energy transfer efficiency (ETE) was calculated from time decay luminescence measurement and the maximum efficiency approached up to 82.23%. Hence this phosphor could be prime candidate as a downshifting (DS) luminescent convertor (phosphor) in front of crystalline silicon solar cell (c-Si) panels to reduce thermalization loss in the solar cells.

  9. High-power high-brightness semiconductor tapered diode lasers for the red and near infrared spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumpf, B.; Wenzel, H.; Erbert, G.

    2010-02-01

    The most promising concept to achieve high-output power together with a good beam quality is the tapered laser consisting of a straight ridge waveguide (RW) section and a tapered gain-region. The RW section should support only the fundamental guided mode and should suppress higher order modes. The taper angle has to be selected with respect to the lateral divergence of the beam propagating from the RW to the tapered section. High brightness tapered devices in the wavelength range between 635 nm and 1085 nm will be presented. For red emitting tapered lasers around 650 nm, the output power is limited to about 1 W due to the properties of the laser material. At this output power a beam propagation ratio M2 of 1.3 and a brightness of 100 MW•cm-2•sr-1 will be shown. Devices made from laser structures with low vertical divergence down to 25° (95% power included) without a significant deterioration of device parameters will be presented for the longer wavelength range near 1 μm. For tapered lasers manufactured from these structures, nearly diffraction limited output powers larger than 10 W and a brightness of 1 GW•cm-2•sr-1 were measured.

  10. Infra-red spectral microscopy of standing-wave resonances in single metal-dielectric-metal thin-film cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Janardan; Panjwani, Deep; Khalilzadeh-Rezaie, Farnood; Yesiltas, Mehmet; Smith, Evan M.; Ginn, James C.; Shelton, David J.; Hirschmugl, Carol; Cleary, Justin W.; Peale, Robert E.

    2015-09-01

    Resonantly absorbing thin films comprising periodically sub-wavelength structured metal surface, dielectric spacer, and metal ground plane are a topic of current interest with important applications. These structures are frequently described as "metamaterials", where effective permittivity and permeability with dispersion near electric and magnetic resonances allow impedance matching to free space for maximum absorption. In this paper, we compare synchrotron-based infrared spectral microscopy of a single isolated unit cell and a periodic array, and we show that the resonances have little to do with periodicity. Instead, the observed absorption spectra of usual periodically structured thin films are best described as due to standing-wave resonances within each independent unit cell, rather than as due to effective optical constants of a metamaterial. The effect of having arrays of unit cells is mainly to strengthen the absorption by increasing the fill factor, and such arrays need not be periodic. Initial work toward applying the subject absorbers to room-temperature bolometer arrays is presented.

  11. Bimodal activation of different neuron classes with the spectrally red-shifted channelrhodopsin chimera C1V1 in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Erbguth, Karen; Prigge, Matthias; Schneider, Franziska; Hegemann, Peter; Gottschalk, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The C. elegans nervous system is particularly well suited for optogenetic analyses of circuit function: Essentially all connections have been mapped, and light can be directed at the neuron of interest in the freely moving, transparent animals, while behavior is observed. Thus, different nodes of a neuronal network can be probed for their role in controlling a particular behavior, using different optogenetic tools for photo-activation or -inhibition, which respond to different colors of light. As neurons may act in concert or in opposing ways to affect a behavior, one would further like to excite these neurons concomitantly, yet independent of each other. In addition to the blue-light activated Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), spectrally red-shifted ChR variants have been explored recently. Here, we establish the green-light activated ChR chimera C1V1 (from Chlamydomonas and Volvox ChR1's) for use in C. elegans. We surveyed a number of red-shifted ChRs, and found that C1V1-ET/ET (E122T; E162T) works most reliable in C. elegans, with 540-580 nm excitation, which leaves ChR2 silent. However, as C1V1-ET/ET is very light sensitive, it still becomes activated when ChR2 is stimulated, even at 400 nm. Thus, we generated a highly efficient blue ChR2, the H134R; T159C double mutant (ChR2-HR/TC). Both proteins can be used in the same animal, in different neurons, to independently control each cell type with light, enabling a further level of complexity in circuit analyses. PMID:23056472

  12. Spectral signatures of photosynthesis. I. Review of Earth organisms.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Nancy Y; Siefert, Janet; Govindjee; Blankenship, Robert E

    2007-02-01

    Why do plants reflect in the green and have a "red edge" in the red, and should extrasolar photosynthesis be the same? We provide (1) a brief review of how photosynthesis works, (2) an overview of the diversity of photosynthetic organisms, their light harvesting systems, and environmental ranges, (3) a synthesis of photosynthetic surface spectral signatures, and (4) evolutionary rationales for photosynthetic surface reflectance spectra with regard to utilization of photon energy and the planetary light environment. We found the "near-infrared (NIR) end" of the red edge to trend from blue-shifted to reddest for (in order) snow algae, temperate algae, lichens, mosses, aquatic plants, and finally terrestrial vascular plants. The red edge is weak or sloping in lichens. Purple bacteria exhibit possibly a sloping edge in the NIR. More studies are needed on pigment-protein complexes, membrane composition, and measurements of bacteria before firm conclusions can be drawn about the role of the NIR reflectance. Pigment absorbance features are strongly correlated with features of atmospheric spectral transmittance: P680 in Photosystem II with the peak surface incident photon flux density at approximately 685 nm, just before an oxygen band at 687.5 nm; the NIR end of the red edge with water absorbance bands and the oxygen A-band at 761 nm; and bacteriochlorophyll reaction center wavelengths with local maxima in atmospheric and water transmittance spectra. Given the surface incident photon flux density spectrum and resonance transfer in light harvesting, we propose some rules with regard to where photosynthetic pigments will peak in absorbance: (1) the wavelength of peak incident photon flux; (2) the longest available wavelength for core antenna or reaction center pigments; and (3) the shortest wavelengths within an atmospheric window for accessory pigments. That plants absorb less green light may not be an inefficient legacy of evolutionary history, but may actually satisfy

  13. A valence state evaluation of a positive electrode material in an Li-ion battery with first-principles K- and L-edge XANES spectral simulations and resonance photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubobuchi, Kei; Mogi, Masato; Matsumoto, Masashi; Baba, Teruhisa; Yogi, Chihiro; Sato, Chikai; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu; Imai, Hideto

    2016-10-01

    X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis is an element-specific method for proving electronic state mostly in the field of applied physics, such as battery and catalysis reactions, where the valence change plays an important role. In particular, many results have been reported for the analysis of positive electrode materials of Li-ion batteries, where multiple transition materials contribute to the reactions. However, XANES analysis has been limited to identifying the valence state simply in comparison with reference materials. When the shape of XANES spectra shows complicated changes, we were not able to identify the valence states or estimate the valence quantitatively, resulting in insufficient reaction analysis. To overcome such issues, we propose a valence state evaluation method using K- and L-edge XANES analysis with first-principles simulations. By using this method, we demonstrated that the complicated reaction mechanism of Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 can be successfully analyzed for distinguishing each contribution of Ni, Co, Mn, and O to the redox reactions during charge operation. In addition to the XANES analysis, we applied resonant photoelectron spectroscopy (RPES) and diffraction anomalous fine structure spectroscopy (DAFS) with first-principles calculations to the reaction analysis of Co and Mn, which shows no or very little contribution to the redox. The combination of RPES and first-principles calculations successfully enables us to confirm the contribution of Co at high potential regions by electively observing Co 3d orbitals. Through the DAFS analysis, we deeply analyzed the spectral features of Mn K-edges and concluded that the observed spectral shape change for Mn does not originate from the valence change but from the change in distribution of wave functions around Mn upon Li extraction.

  14. [The changes in spectral features of the staple-food bamboos of giant panda after flowering].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-Hua; Wu, Yan

    2012-12-01

    Large-area flowering of the giant pandas' staple food is an important factor which can influence their survival. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the bamboo flowering. Foping Nature Reserve was taken as the study area. The research selected the giant pandas' staple-food bamboos Bashania fargesii, Fargesia qinlingensis and Fargesia dracocephala with different flowering situations (i. e., flowering, potential flowering, non-flowering with far distance) to measure the spectral reflectance of bamboo leaves. We studied the influence of bamboo flowering on the spectral features of three bamboo species through analyzing the original spectral reflectance and their red edge parameters. The results showed that (1) the flowering changed the spectra features of bamboo species. The spectral reflectance of B. fargesii shows a pattern: flowering bamboo < potential flowering bamboo < non-flowering bamboo with far distance, while F. qinlingensis and F. dracocephala show the different pattern: flowering bamboo > or = potential flowering bamboo > non-flowering bamboo with far distance. Among three bamboo species, F. dracocephala showed the greatest change, and then F. qinlingensis. (2) After bamboo flowering, the red edge of B. fargesii has no obvious shifting, while the other two bamboos have distinctive shifting towards the shorter waves. The study found that the original spectral feature and the red edge all changed under various flowering states, which can be used to provide the experimental basis and theoretic support for the future prediction of bamboo flowering through remote sensing.

  15. [The changes in spectral features of the staple-food bamboos of giant panda after flowering].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-Hua; Wu, Yan

    2012-12-01

    Large-area flowering of the giant pandas' staple food is an important factor which can influence their survival. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the bamboo flowering. Foping Nature Reserve was taken as the study area. The research selected the giant pandas' staple-food bamboos Bashania fargesii, Fargesia qinlingensis and Fargesia dracocephala with different flowering situations (i. e., flowering, potential flowering, non-flowering with far distance) to measure the spectral reflectance of bamboo leaves. We studied the influence of bamboo flowering on the spectral features of three bamboo species through analyzing the original spectral reflectance and their red edge parameters. The results showed that (1) the flowering changed the spectra features of bamboo species. The spectral reflectance of B. fargesii shows a pattern: flowering bamboo < potential flowering bamboo < non-flowering bamboo with far distance, while F. qinlingensis and F. dracocephala show the different pattern: flowering bamboo > or = potential flowering bamboo > non-flowering bamboo with far distance. Among three bamboo species, F. dracocephala showed the greatest change, and then F. qinlingensis. (2) After bamboo flowering, the red edge of B. fargesii has no obvious shifting, while the other two bamboos have distinctive shifting towards the shorter waves. The study found that the original spectral feature and the red edge all changed under various flowering states, which can be used to provide the experimental basis and theoretic support for the future prediction of bamboo flowering through remote sensing. PMID:23427564

  16. [Research on the spectral characteristics of grassland in arid regions based on hyperspectral image].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-mei; Zhang, Jian-ming

    2012-02-01

    The grassland spectrum was got from Hyperion images of Shiyang River Basin using PPI, after FLAASH atmosphere correction, to understand the spectral characteristics quantitatively. The results show that red edge moves left, slope reduced, blue and yellow edge feature is abated, reflectance is higher in visible bands, and lower near-infrared bands when grassland is at decline stage relative to the spectrum characteristics of grassland at well growth. The red edge, green peaks, absorption valley location of blue and red light keep consistent for different coverage grassland, and spectrum absorption characteristics (band depth, width, area, symmetry) in visual bands change regularly as coverage increases, so it can be a basis for extraction or judgment of vegetation coverage. PMID:22512187

  17. [Research on the spectral characteristics of grassland in arid regions based on hyperspectral image].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-mei; Zhang, Jian-ming

    2012-02-01

    The grassland spectrum was got from Hyperion images of Shiyang River Basin using PPI, after FLAASH atmosphere correction, to understand the spectral characteristics quantitatively. The results show that red edge moves left, slope reduced, blue and yellow edge feature is abated, reflectance is higher in visible bands, and lower near-infrared bands when grassland is at decline stage relative to the spectrum characteristics of grassland at well growth. The red edge, green peaks, absorption valley location of blue and red light keep consistent for different coverage grassland, and spectrum absorption characteristics (band depth, width, area, symmetry) in visual bands change regularly as coverage increases, so it can be a basis for extraction or judgment of vegetation coverage.

  18. Use of a Remote Sensing Method to Estimate the Influence of Anthropogenic Factors on the Spectral Reflectance of Plant Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krezhova, Dora D.; Yanev, Tony K.

    2007-04-01

    Results from a remote sensing study of the influence of stress factors on the leaf spectral reflectance of wheat and tomato plants contaminated by viruses and pea plants treated with herbicides are presented and discussed. The changes arising in the spectral reflectance characteristics of control and treated plants are estimated through statistical methods as well as through derivative analysis to determine specific reflectance features in the red edge region.

  19. Close-packed arrays of transition-edge x-ray microcalorimeters with high spectral resolution at 5.9 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Iyomoto, N.; Bandler, S. R.; Brekosky, R. P.; Brown, A.-D.; Chervenak, J. A.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.

    2008-01-07

    We present measurements of high fill-factor arrays of superconducting transition-edge x-ray microcalorimeters designed to provide rapid thermalization of the x-ray energy. We designed an x-ray absorber that is cantilevered over the sensitive part of the thermometer itself, making contact only at normal-metal features. With absorbers made of electroplated gold, we have demonstrated an energy resolution between 2.4 and 3.1 eV at 5.9 keV on 13 separate pixels. We have determined the thermal and electrical parameters of the devices throughout the superconducting transition and, using these parameters, have modeled all aspects of the detector performance.

  20. Close-packed Arrays of Transition-edge X-ray Microcalorimeters with High Spectral Resolution at 5.9 keV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyomoto, N.; Bandler, S. R.; Brekosky, R. P.; Brown, A.-D.; Chervenak, J. A.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J. E.; Smith, S. J.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.

    2007-01-01

    We present measurements of high fill-factor arrays of superconducting transition-edge x-ray microcalorimeters designed to provide rapid thermalization of the x-ray energy. We designed an x-ray absorber that is cantilevered over the sensitive part of the thermometer itself, making contact only at normal metal-features. With absorbers made of electroplated gold, we have demonstrated an energy resolution between 2.4 and 3.1 eV at 5.9 keV on 13 separate pixels. We have determined the thermal and electrical parameters of the devices throughout the superconducting transition, and, using these parameters, have modeled all aspects of the detector performance.

  1. Adapting photosynthesis to the near-infrared: non-covalent binding of phycocyanobilin provides an extreme spectral red-shift to phycobilisome core-membrane linker from Synechococcus sp. PCC7335.

    PubMed

    Miao, Dan; Ding, Wen-Long; Zhao, Bao-Qing; Lu, Lu; Xu, Qian-Zhao; Scheer, Hugo; Zhao, Kai-Hong

    2016-06-01

    Phycobiliproteins that bind bilins are organized as light-harvesting complexes, phycobilisomes, in cyanobacteria and red algae. The harvested light energy is funneled to reaction centers via two energy traps, allophycocyanin B and the core-membrane linker, ApcE1 (conventional ApcE). The covalently bound phycocyanobilin (PCB) of ApcE1 absorbs near 660 nm and fluoresces near 675 nm. In cyanobacteria capable of near infrared photoacclimation, such as Synechococcus sp. PCC7335, there exist even further spectrally red shifted components absorbing >700 nm and fluorescing >710 nm. We expressed the chromophore domain of the extra core-membrane linker from Synechococcus sp. PCC7335, ApcE2, in E. coli together with enzymes generating the chromophore, PCB. The resulting chromoproteins, PCB-ApcE2(1-273) and the more truncated PCB-ApcE2(24-245), absorb at 700 nm and fluoresce at 714 nm. The red shift of ~40 nm compared with canonical ApcE1 results from non-covalent binding of the chromophore by which its full conjugation length including the Δ3,3(1) double bond is preserved. The extreme spectral red-shift could not be ascribed to exciton coupling: dimeric PCB-ApcE2(1-273) and monomeric-ApcE2(24-245) absorbed and fluoresced similarly. Chromophorylation of ApcE2 with phycoerythrobilin- or phytochromobilin resulted in similar red shifts (absorption at 615 and 711 nm, fluorescence at 628 or 726 nm, respectively), compared to the covalently bound chromophores. The self-assembled non-covalent chromophorylation demonstrates a novel access to red and near-infrared emitting fluorophores. Brightly fluorescent biomarking was exemplified in E. coli by single-plasmid transformation.

  2. Adapting photosynthesis to the near-infrared: non-covalent binding of phycocyanobilin provides an extreme spectral red-shift to phycobilisome core-membrane linker from Synechococcus sp. PCC7335.

    PubMed

    Miao, Dan; Ding, Wen-Long; Zhao, Bao-Qing; Lu, Lu; Xu, Qian-Zhao; Scheer, Hugo; Zhao, Kai-Hong

    2016-06-01

    Phycobiliproteins that bind bilins are organized as light-harvesting complexes, phycobilisomes, in cyanobacteria and red algae. The harvested light energy is funneled to reaction centers via two energy traps, allophycocyanin B and the core-membrane linker, ApcE1 (conventional ApcE). The covalently bound phycocyanobilin (PCB) of ApcE1 absorbs near 660 nm and fluoresces near 675 nm. In cyanobacteria capable of near infrared photoacclimation, such as Synechococcus sp. PCC7335, there exist even further spectrally red shifted components absorbing >700 nm and fluorescing >710 nm. We expressed the chromophore domain of the extra core-membrane linker from Synechococcus sp. PCC7335, ApcE2, in E. coli together with enzymes generating the chromophore, PCB. The resulting chromoproteins, PCB-ApcE2(1-273) and the more truncated PCB-ApcE2(24-245), absorb at 700 nm and fluoresce at 714 nm. The red shift of ~40 nm compared with canonical ApcE1 results from non-covalent binding of the chromophore by which its full conjugation length including the Δ3,3(1) double bond is preserved. The extreme spectral red-shift could not be ascribed to exciton coupling: dimeric PCB-ApcE2(1-273) and monomeric-ApcE2(24-245) absorbed and fluoresced similarly. Chromophorylation of ApcE2 with phycoerythrobilin- or phytochromobilin resulted in similar red shifts (absorption at 615 and 711 nm, fluorescence at 628 or 726 nm, respectively), compared to the covalently bound chromophores. The self-assembled non-covalent chromophorylation demonstrates a novel access to red and near-infrared emitting fluorophores. Brightly fluorescent biomarking was exemplified in E. coli by single-plasmid transformation. PMID:27045046

  3. Identification of Cyanobacteriochromes Detecting Far-Red Light.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, Nathan C; Martin, Shelley S; Lagarias, J Clark

    2016-07-19

    The opacity of mammalian tissue to visible light and the strong attenuation of infrared light by water at ≥900 nm have contributed to growing interest in the development of far-red and near-infrared absorbing tools for visualizing and actuating responses within live cells. Here we report the discovery of cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs) responsive to light in this far-red window. CBCRs are linear tetrapyrrole (bilin)-based light sensors distantly related to plant phytochrome sensors. Our studies reveal far-red (λmax = 725-755 nm)/orange (λmax = 590-600 nm) and far-red/red (λmax = 615-685 nm) photoswitches that are small (<200 amino acids) and can be genetically reconstituted in living cells. Phylogenetic analysis and characterization of additional CBCRs demonstrated that far-red/orange CBCRs evolved after a complex transition from green/red CBCRs known for regulating complementary chromatic acclimation. Incorporation of different bilin chromophores demonstrated that tuning mechanisms responsible for red-shifted chromophore absorption act at the A-, B-, and/or C-rings, whereas photoisomerization occurs at the D-ring. Two such proteins exhibited detectable fluorescence extending well into the near-infrared region. This work extends the spectral window of CBCRs to the edge of the infrared, raising the possibility of using CBCRs in synthetic biology applications in the far-red region of the spectrum.

  4. Spectral reflectance pattern in soybean for assessing yellow mosaic disease.

    PubMed

    Gazala, I F Saad; Sahoo, R N; Pandey, Rakesh; Mandal, Bikash; Gupta, V K; Singh, Rajendra; Sinha, P

    2013-09-01

    Remote sensing technique is useful for monitoring large crop area at a single time point, which is otherwise not possible by visual observation alone. Yellow mosaic disease (YMD) is a serious constraint in soybean production in India. However, hardly any basic information is available for monitoring YMD by remote sensing. Present study examines spectral reflectance of soybean leaves due to Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) infection in order to identify YMD sensitive spectral ratio or reflectance. Spectral reflectance measurement indicated significant (p < 0.001) change in reflectance in the infected soybean canopy as compared to the healthy one. In the infected canopy, reflectance increased in visible region and decreased in near infra-red region of spectrum. Reflectance sensitivity analysis indicated wavelength ~642, ~686 and ~750 nm were sensitive to YMD infection. Whereas, in yellow leaves induced due to nitrogen deficiency, the sensitive wavelength was ~589 nm. Due to viral infection, a shift occurred in red and infra-red slope (called red edge) on the left in comparison to healthy one. Red edge shift was a good indicator to discriminate yellow mosaic as chlorophyll gets degraded due to MYMIV infection. Correlation of reflectance at 688 nm (R688) and spectral reflectance ratio at 750 and 445 nm (R750/R445) with the weighted mosaic index indicated that detection of yellow mosaic is possible based on these sensitive bands. Our study for the first time identifies the yellow mosaic sensitive band as R688 and R750/R445, which could be utilized to scan satellite data for monitoring YMD affected soybean cropping regions.

  5. Characterization of red-near infrared transition for wheat and chickpea using 3 nm bandwidth data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R. K.; Vijayan, D.; Prasad, T. S.

    2001-01-01

    Enhancement of space based capabilities to discriminate different crops and different varieties of a particular crop needs measurement of (i) the shift in red edge and (ii) the slope of the sudden rise of reflectance in 680 - 760 nm spectral region as a function of Days After Sowing (DAS). To develop the knowledge base for catering to the analysis of future space-based hyperspectral measurements, ground based measurements in 3 nm bandwidth in visible - near Infrared region together with corresponding Leaf Area Index (LAI) observations were taken over the Crop Growth Cycle (CGC) of Wheat and Chickpea. The red edge for wheat crop was at 679 nm for 25 DAS and reached the upper limit i.e., 693.7 nm at 84 DAS and thereafter shifted backward to 679 nm at 108 DAS. There was no change in red edge value of 684.9 nm during 40 to 49 DAS and of 687.8 nm during 55 to 71 DAS. The slope of Red to NIR transition for wheat varied from 0.457 to peak value of 0.784 during 25 to 71 DAS and thereafter decreased to 0.073 at 108 DAS. The peak of Red to Near Infrared (NIR) transition slope and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) occurred at the same time i.e., 71 DAS. However, the upper most value of red edge shift occurred at 84 DAS. Paper discusses the above aspects including role of mid point of Red to NIR transition, interrelationships among the Red-NIR transition Slope, Red Edge, LAI and RVI for wheat and chickpea.

  6. The Spectral Energy Distribution of Dust Emission in the Edge-on Spiral Galaxy NGC 4631 as Seen with Spitzer and the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendo, George J.; Dale, Daniel A.; Draine, Bruce T.; Engelbracht, Charles W.; Kennicutt, Robert C., Jr.; Calzetti, Daniela; Gordon, Karl D.; Helou, George; Hollenbach, David; Li, Aigen; Murphy, Eric J.; Prescott, Moire K. M.; Smith, John-David T.

    2006-11-01

    We explore variations in dust emission within the edge-on Sd spiral galaxy NGC 4631 using 3.6-160 μm Spitzer Space Telescope data and 450-850 μm JCMT data with the goals of understanding the relation between PAHs and dust emission, studying the variations in the colors of the dust emission, and searching for possible excess submillimeter emission compared to what is expected from dust models extrapolated from far-infrared wavelengths. The 8 μm PAH emission correlates best with 24 μm hot dust emission on 1.7 kpc scales, but the relation breaks down on 650 pc scales, possibly because of differences in the mean free paths between photons that excite the PAHs and photons that heat the dust and possibly because the PAHs are destroyed by the hard radiation fields within some star formation regions. The ratio of 8 μm PAH emission to 160 μm cool dust emission appears to vary as a function of radius. The 70 μm/160 μm and 160 μm/450 μm flux density ratios are remarkably constant even though the surface brightnesses vary by factors of 25, which suggests that the emission is from dust heated by a nearly uniform radiation field. Globally, we find an excess of 850-1230 μm emission relative to what would be predicted by dust models. The 850 μm excess is highest in regions with low 160 μm surface brightnesses, although the magnitude depends on the model fit to the data. We rule out variable emissivity functions or ~4 K dust as the possible origins of this 850 μm emission, but we do discuss the other possible mechanisms that could produce the emission.

  7. [Plant Spectral Discrimination Based on Phenological Features].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Jian-long; Jia, Kun; Li, Xiao-song

    2015-10-01

    Spectral analysis plays a significant role onplant characteristic identification and mechanism recognition, there were many papers published on the aspects of absorption features in the spectra of chlorophyll and moisture, spectral analysis onvegetation red edge effect, spectra profile feature extraction, spectra profile conversion, vegetation leaf structure and chemical composition impacts on the spectra in past years. However, fewer researches issued on spectral changes caused by plant seasonal changes of life form, chlorophyll, leaf area index. This paper studied on spectral observation of 11 plants of various life form, plant leaf structure and its size, phenological characteristics, they include deciduous forest with broad vertical leaf, needle leaf evergreen forest, needle leaf deciduous forest, deciduous forest with broadflat leaf, high shrub with big leaf, high shrub with little leaf, deciduous forest with broad little leaf, short shrub, meadow, steppe and grass. Field spectral data were observed with SVC-HR768 (Spectra Vista company, USA), the band width covers 350-2 500 nm, spectral resolution reaches 1-4 nm. The features of NDVI, spectral maximum absorption depth in green band, and spectral maximum absorption depth in red band were measured after continuum removal processing, the mean, amplitude and gradient of these features on seasonal change profile were analyzed, meanwhile, separability research on plant spectral feature of growth period and maturation period were compared. The paper presents a calculation method of separability of vegetation spectra which consider feature spatial distances. This index is carried on analysis of the vegetation discrimination. The results show that: the spectral features during plant growth period are easier to distinguish than them during maturation period. With the same features comparison, plant separability of growth period is 3 points higher than it during maturation period. The overall separabilityof vegetation

  8. [Plant Spectral Discrimination Based on Phenological Features].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Jian-long; Jia, Kun; Li, Xiao-song

    2015-10-01

    Spectral analysis plays a significant role onplant characteristic identification and mechanism recognition, there were many papers published on the aspects of absorption features in the spectra of chlorophyll and moisture, spectral analysis onvegetation red edge effect, spectra profile feature extraction, spectra profile conversion, vegetation leaf structure and chemical composition impacts on the spectra in past years. However, fewer researches issued on spectral changes caused by plant seasonal changes of life form, chlorophyll, leaf area index. This paper studied on spectral observation of 11 plants of various life form, plant leaf structure and its size, phenological characteristics, they include deciduous forest with broad vertical leaf, needle leaf evergreen forest, needle leaf deciduous forest, deciduous forest with broadflat leaf, high shrub with big leaf, high shrub with little leaf, deciduous forest with broad little leaf, short shrub, meadow, steppe and grass. Field spectral data were observed with SVC-HR768 (Spectra Vista company, USA), the band width covers 350-2 500 nm, spectral resolution reaches 1-4 nm. The features of NDVI, spectral maximum absorption depth in green band, and spectral maximum absorption depth in red band were measured after continuum removal processing, the mean, amplitude and gradient of these features on seasonal change profile were analyzed, meanwhile, separability research on plant spectral feature of growth period and maturation period were compared. The paper presents a calculation method of separability of vegetation spectra which consider feature spatial distances. This index is carried on analysis of the vegetation discrimination. The results show that: the spectral features during plant growth period are easier to distinguish than them during maturation period. With the same features comparison, plant separability of growth period is 3 points higher than it during maturation period. The overall separabilityof vegetation

  9. Arsenic- and selenium-induced changes in spectral reflectance and morphology of soybean plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milton, N.M.; Ager, C.M.; Eiswerth, B.A.; Power, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) plants were grown in hydroponic solutions treated with high concentrations of either arsenic or selenium. Spectral reflectance changes in arsenic-dosed plants included a shift to shorter wavelengths in the long-wavelength edge of the chlorophyll absorption band centered at 680 nm (the red edge) and higher reflectance in the 550-650 nm region. These results are consistent with vegetation reflectance anomalies observed in previous greenhouse experiments and in airborne radiometer studies. The selenium-dosed plants contrast, exhibited a shift to longer wavelengths of the red edge and lower reflectance between 550 nm and 650 wh when compared with control plants. Morphological effects of arsenic uptake included lower overall biomass, stunted and discolored roots, and smaller leaves oriented more vertically than leaves of control plants. Selenium-dosed plants also displayed morphological changes, but root and leaf biomass were less affected than were those of arsenic-dosed plants when compared to control plants. ?? 1989.

  10. Effect of phosphorus deficiency on spectral reflectance and morphology of soybean plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milton, N.M.; Eiswerth, B.A.; Ager, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Soybean plants were grown in hydroponic solutions having three concentration levels of phosphorus. Spectral reflectance changes included higher reflectance in the green and yellow portions of the electromagnetic spectrum in phosphorus-deficient plants and a difference in position of the long wavelength edge (the red edge) of the chlorophyll absorption band centered near 0.68 ??m. Plants having the least phosphorus in the growing medium did not show the normal shift of the red edge to longer wavelength which occurs as leaves mature. Shoot and root biomass were significantly lower in the phosphorus-deficient plants. These results are consistent with those obtained when soybean plants are dosed with elevated concentrations of metallic elements. We hypothesize that nutrient imbalances or anomalous metal concentrations in the soil set up physiological conditions at the soil/root interface that are responsible for the reflectance differences observed in laboratory and field studies of plants growing in substrates enriched in metallic elements. ?? 1991.

  11. Edge Bioinformatics

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Chien-Chi

    2015-08-03

    Edge Bioinformatics is a developmental bioinformatics and data management platform which seeks to supply laboratories with bioinformatics pipelines for analyzing data associated with common samples case goals. Edge Bioinformatics enables sequencing as a solution and forward-deployed situations where human-resources, space, bandwidth, and time are limited. The Edge bioinformatics pipeline was designed based on following USE CASES and specific to illumina sequencing reads. 1. Assay performance adjudication (PCR): Analysis of an existing PCR assay in a genomic context, and automated design of a new assay to resolve conflicting results; 2. Clinical presentation with extreme symptoms: Characterization of a known pathogen or co-infection with a. Novel emerging disease outbreak or b. Environmental surveillance

  12. Edge Bioinformatics

    2015-08-03

    Edge Bioinformatics is a developmental bioinformatics and data management platform which seeks to supply laboratories with bioinformatics pipelines for analyzing data associated with common samples case goals. Edge Bioinformatics enables sequencing as a solution and forward-deployed situations where human-resources, space, bandwidth, and time are limited. The Edge bioinformatics pipeline was designed based on following USE CASES and specific to illumina sequencing reads. 1. Assay performance adjudication (PCR): Analysis of an existing PCR assay in amore » genomic context, and automated design of a new assay to resolve conflicting results; 2. Clinical presentation with extreme symptoms: Characterization of a known pathogen or co-infection with a. Novel emerging disease outbreak or b. Environmental surveillance« less

  13. Zwitterionic [4]helicene: a water-soluble and reversible pH-triggered ECD/CPL chiroptical switch in the UV and red spectral regions.

    PubMed

    Pascal, Simon; Besnard, Céline; Zinna, Francesco; Di Bari, Lorenzo; Le Guennic, Boris; Jacquemin, Denis; Lacour, Jérôme

    2016-05-18

    The chiroptical switching properties of a readily accessible and water-soluble diaza [4]helicene are disclosed. This zwitterionic dye displays pH-dependent absorption and emission properties and this enables a reversible turn on/off of electronic circular dichroism at 300 nm and of circularly polarized luminescence in the red region upon protonation/deprotonation.

  14. [Research on spectral reflectance characteristics for Glycyrrhizae Radix].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Xie, Cai-Xiang; Li, Xiao-Jin; Wen, Mei-Jia; Jia, Guang-Lin; Shi, Ming-Hui; Guo, Bao-Lin; Jia, Xiao-Guang

    2014-02-01

    In order to study the spectral reflectance differences of Glycyrrhizae Radix under different growth conditions and lay the foundation for quantitative monitoring of Glycyrrhizae Radix remote sensing images, spectra of Glycyrrhiza species under different growth period and different varieties and different regions were measured by a portable spectrometer. The results showed that the reflectivity of annual G. uralensis was obviously higher than that of the two years plant in the visible light band own to the contents of crown layer chlorophyll. The reflectivity of two years G. pallidiflora was higher than that of G. uralensis in the near infrared band own to the leaf area index and the content of leaf water. The red edge spectrum of annual plant fluctuated largely than that of two years plant due to vegetation coverage and leaf area index. G. pallidiflora grew well than G. uralensis. Under different regions of the Glycyrrhiza species, spectral data analysis showed that within a certain range, the average annual precipitation and average annual evaporation were the major factors to affect the differences of Glycyrrhiza species spectral data under different regions owe to the leaf water content, the higher leaf water content, the lower spectral reflectance. The principal component analysis and continuum-removed method of the spectral data under different regions found that, within a certain range, the average annual precipitation and average annual evaporation were the major factors caused by the differences of Glycyrrhiza species spectral data under the different regions, Glycyrrhiza species spectral similarity related to the spatial distance. PMID:24946542

  15. Spectral edge: gradient-preserving spectral mapping for image fusion.

    PubMed

    Connah, David; Drew, Mark S; Finlayson, Graham D

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to image fusion for color display. Our goal is to generate an output image whose gradient matches that of the input as closely as possible. We achieve this using a constrained contrast mapping paradigm in the gradient domain, where the structure tensor of a high-dimensional gradient representation is mapped exactly to that of a low-dimensional gradient field which is then reintegrated to form an output. Constraints on output colors are provided by an initial RGB rendering. Initially, we motivate our solution with a simple "ansatz" (educated guess) for projecting higher-D contrast onto color gradients, which we expand to a more rigorous theorem to incorporate color constraints. The solution to these constrained optimizations is closed-form, allowing for simple and hence fast and efficient algorithms. The approach can map any N-D image data to any M-D output and can be used in a variety of applications using the same basic algorithm. In this paper, we focus on the problem of mapping N-D inputs to 3D color outputs. We present results in five applications: hyperspectral remote sensing, fusion of color and near-infrared or clear-filter images, multilighting imaging, dark flash, and color visualization of magnetic resonance imaging diffusion-tensor imaging. PMID:26831392

  16. [Spectral characteristics of Pinus tabulaeformis canopy with different damaged rates of needle leaf in western Liaoning Province, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Feng, Rui; Zhang, Yu-Shu; Yu, Wen-Ying; Wu, Jin-Wen; Wang, Pei-Juan; Ji, Rui-Peng; Che, Yu-Sheng; Zhu, Yong-Ning

    2012-07-01

    Through the measurement of the spectral reflectance of large areas Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. ) canopy in western Liaoning Province, this paper analyzed the difference of the spectral reflectance of the canopies with different damaged rates of needle leaf. In visible band, the characteristics of the spectral reflectance of P. tabulaeformis canopies with healthy and damaged needle leaf were in accordance with the spectral characteristics of green plants, but the position of red valley was not obvious when the damaged rate of needle leaf was higher than 60%. In near-infrared band, with the decrease of the damaged rate of needle leaf, the canopy spectral reflectance increased at 780-1350 nm, but decreased at 1450-1800 and 1950-2350 nm. With the increase of the damaged rate, the position of red-edge inflection moved to the short-wave direction. There were significant correlations between the damaged rate of needle leaf and the red edge feature variables and some vegetation indices. The model based on DVI (1470, 860) could be more reliable for predicting the damaged rate of needle leaf in P. tabulaeformis canopy in western Liaoning Province. PMID:23173448

  17. The spectral quality of light is a key driver of photosynthesis and photoadaptation in Stylophora pistillata colonies from different depths in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Mass, T; Kline, D I; Roopin, M; Veal, C J; Cohen, S; Iluz, D; Levy, O

    2010-12-01

    Depth zonation on coral reefs is largely driven by the amount of downwelling, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) that is absorbed by the symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) of corals. The minimum light requirements of zooxanthellae are related to both the total intensity of downwelling PAR and the spectral quality of the light. Here we used Stylophora pistillata colonies collected from shallow (3 m) and deep (40 m) water; colonies were placed in a respirometer under both ambient PAR irradiance and a filter that only transmits blue light. We found that the colonies exhibited a clear difference in their photosynthetic rates when illuminated under PAR and filtered blue light, with higher photosynthetic performance when deep colonies were exposed to blue light compared with full-spectrum PAR for the same light intensity and duration. By contrast, colonies from shallow water showed the opposite trend, with higher photosynthetic performances under full-spectrum PAR than under filtered blue light. These findings are supported by the absorption spectra of corals, with deeper colonies absorbing higher energy wavelengths than the shallow colonies, with different spectral signatures. Our results indicate that S. pistillata colonies are chromatically adapted to their surrounding light environment, with photoacclimation probably occurring via an increase in photosynthetic pigments rather than algal density. The spectral properties of the downwelling light are clearly a crucial component of photoacclimation that should be considered in future transplantation and photoacclimation studies.

  18. CW room temperature operation of praseodymium-doped fluorozirconate glass fibre lasers in the blue-green, green and red spectral regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, R. G.; Carter, J. N.; Tropper, A. C.; Hanna, D. C.; Davey, S. T.; Carter, S. F.; Szebesta, D.

    1991-11-01

    We report room temperature, continuous-wave oscillation of Pr 3+-doped fluorozirconate fibre lasers at around 491 nm, 520 nm, 605 nm, 635 nm and 715 nm. An output power of 250 mW has been obtained 635 nm for 800 mW of pump power from an argon ion laser operating at 476.5 nm. Tunable operation of the red transitions has been investigated, with output powers in excess of 30 mW being obtained. Q-switched pulses of 75 ns (fwhm) and 20 W peak power at 635 nm have also been generated.

  19. The potential of Sentinel-2 spectral configuration to assess rangeland quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramoelo, Abel; Cho, Moses; Mathieu, Renaud; Skidmore, Andrew K.

    2014-10-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has embarked on the development of the Sentinel constellation. Sentinel-2 is intended to improve vegetation assessment at local to global scale. Rangeland quality assessment is crucial for planning and management of grazing areas. Well managed and improved grazing areas lead to higher livestock production, which is a pillar of the rural economy and livelihoods, especially in many parts of the African continent. Leaf nitrogen (N) is an indicator of rangeland quality, and is crucial for understanding ecosystem function and services. Today, estimation of leaf N is possible using field and imaging spectroscopy. However, a few studies based on commercially available multispectral imageries such as WorldView-2 and RapidEye have shown the potential of a red-edge band for accurately predicting and mapping leaf N at the broad landscape scale. Sentinel-2 has two red edge bands. The objective of this study was to investigate the utility of the spectral configuration of Sentinel-2 for estimating leaf N concentration in rangelands and savannas of Southern Africa. Grass canopy reflectance was measured using the FieldSpec 3, Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) in concert with leaf sample collections for leaf N chemical analysis. ASD reflectances were resampled to the spectral bands of Sentinel-2 using published spectral response functions. Random Forest (RF) technique was used to predict leaf N using all thirteen bands. Using leave-one-out cross validation, the RF model explained 90% of leaf N variation, with the root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.04 (6% of the mean). Interestingly, spectral bands centred at 705 nm (red edge) and two shortwave infrared centred at 2190 and 1610 nm were found to be the most important bands in predicting leaf N. These findings concur with previous studies based on spectroscopy, airborne hyperspectral or multispectral imagery, e.g. RapidEye, on the importance of shortwave infrared and red-edge reflectance in the

  20. Edge detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildreth, E. C.

    1985-09-01

    For both biological systems and machines, vision begins with a large and unwieldly array of measurements of the amount of light reflected from surfaces in the environment. The goal of vision is to recover physical properties of objects in the scene such as the location of object boundaries and the structure, color and texture of object surfaces, from the two-dimensional image that is projected onto the eye or camera. This goal is not achieved in a single step: vision proceeds in stages, with each stage producing increasingly more useful descriptions of the image and then the scene. The first clues about the physical properties of the scene are provided by the changes of intensity in the image. The importance of intensity changes and edges in early visual processing has led to extensive research on their detection, description and use, both in computer and biological vision systems. This article reviews some of the theory that underlies the detection of edges, and the methods used to carry out this analysis.

  1. Defect correlated fluorescent quenching and electron phonon coupling in the spectral transition of Eu{sup 3+} in CaTiO{sub 3} for red emission in display application

    SciTech Connect

    Som, S. E-mail: swarthc@ufs.ac.za; Kumar, Vinod; Kumar, Vijay; Terblans, J. J.; Swart, H. C. E-mail: swarthc@ufs.ac.za; Kunti, A. K.; Dutta, S.; Chowdhury, M.; Sharma, S. K.

    2014-05-21

    This paper reports on the defect correlated self-quenching and spectroscopic investigation of calcium titanate (CaTiO{sub 3}) phosphors. A series of CaTiO{sub 3} phosphors doped with trivalent europium (Eu{sup 3+}) and codoped with potassium (K{sup +}) ions were prepared by the solid state reaction method. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that the obtained powder phosphors consisted out of a single-phase orthorhombic structure and it also indicated that the incorporation of the dopants/co-dopants did not affect the crystal structure. The scanning electron microscopy images revealed the irregular morphology of the prepared phosphors consisting out of μm sized diameter particles. The Eu{sup 3+} doped phosphors illuminated with ultraviolet light showed the characteristic red luminescence corresponding to the {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub J} transitions of Eu{sup 3+}. As a charge compensator, K{sup +} ions were incorporated into the CaTiO{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphors, which enhanced the photoluminescence (PL) intensities depending on the doping concentration of K{sup +}. The concentration quenching of Eu{sup 3+} in this host is discussed in the light of ion-ion interaction, electron phonon coupling, and defect to ion energy transfer. The spectral characteristics and the Eu-O ligand behaviour were determined using the Judd-Ofelt theory from the PL spectra instead of the absorption spectra. The CIE (International Commission on Illumination) parameters were calculated using spectral energy distribution functions and McCamy's empirical formula. Photometric characterization indicated the suitability of K{sup +} compensated the CaTiO{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphor for pure red emission in light-emitting diode applications.

  2. An ellipse detection algorithm based on edge classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Liu; Chen, Feng; Huang, Jianming; Wei, Xiangquan

    2015-12-01

    In order to enhance the speed and accuracy of ellipse detection, an ellipse detection algorithm based on edge classification is proposed. Too many edge points are removed by making edge into point in serialized form and the distance constraint between the edge points. It achieves effective classification by the criteria of the angle between the edge points. And it makes the probability of randomly selecting the edge points falling on the same ellipse greatly increased. Ellipse fitting accuracy is significantly improved by the optimization of the RED algorithm. It uses Euclidean distance to measure the distance from the edge point to the elliptical boundary. Experimental results show that: it can detect ellipse well in case of edge with interference or edges blocking each other. It has higher detecting precision and less time consuming than the RED algorithm.

  3. NLTE and LTE Lick Indices for Red Giants from [Fe/H] 0.0 to -6.0 at SDSS and IDS Spectral Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, C. Ian; Young, Mitchell E.; Layden, Nicholas

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the dependence of the complete system of 22 Lick indices on overall metallicity scaled from solar abundances, [{{M}}/{{H}}], from the solar value, 0.0, down to the extremely metal-poor (XMP) value of -6.0, for late-type giant stars (MK luminosity class III, {log}g=2.0) of MK spectral class late-K to late-F (3750\\lt {T}{eff}\\lt 6500 K) of the type that are detected as “fossils” of early galaxy formation in the Galactic halo and in extra-galactic structures. Our investigation is based on synthetic index values, I, derived from atmospheric models and synthetic spectra computed with PHOENIX in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) and Non-LTE (NLTE), where the synthetic spectra have been convolved to the spectral resolution, R, of both IDS and SDSS (and LAMOST) spectroscopy. We identify nine indices, that we designate “Lick-XMP,” that remain both detectable and significantly [{{M}}/{{H}}]-dependent down to [{{M}}/{{H}}] values of at least ˜ -5.0, and down to [{{M}}/{{H}}] ˜ -6.0 in five cases, while also remaining well-behaved (single-valued as a function of [{{M}}/{{H}}] and positive in linear units). For these nine indices, we study the dependence of I on NLTE effects, and on spectral resolution. For our LTE I values for spectra of SDSS resolution, we present the fitted polynomial coefficients, {C}{{n}}, from multi-variate linear regression for I with terms up to third order in the independent variable pairs ({T}{eff}, [{{M}}/{{H}}] ) and (V-K, [{{M}}/{{H}}]), and compare them to the fitted {C}{{n}} values of Worthey et al. at IDS spectral resolution. For this fitted I data-set we present tables of LTE partial derivatives, \\frac{\\partial I}{\\partial {T}{eff}}{| }[{{M}/{{H}}]}, \\frac{\\displaystyle \\partial I}{\\partial [{{M}}/{{H}}]}{| }{T{eff}}, \\frac{\\displaystyle \\partial I}{\\partial (V-K)}{| }[{{M}/{{H}}]}, and \\frac{\\partial I}{\\partial [{{M}}/{{H}}]}{| }(V-K), that can be used to infer the relation between a given

  4. Reduction of airfoil trailing edge noise by trailing edge blowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, T.; Erbslöh, S.; Carolus, T.

    2014-06-01

    The paper deals with airfoil trailing edge noise and its reduction by trailing edge blowing. A Somers S834 airfoil section which originally was designed for small wind turbines is investigated. To mimic realistic Reynolds numbers the boundary layer is tripped on pressure and suction side. The chordwise position of the blowing slot is varied. The acoustic sources, i.e. the unsteady flow quantities in the turbulent boundary layer in the vicinity of the trailing edge, are quantified for the airfoil without and with trailing edge blowing by means of a large eddy simulation and complementary measurements. Eventually the far field airfoil noise is measured by a two-microphone filtering and correlation and a 40 microphone array technique. Both, LES-prediction and measurements showed that a suitable blowing jet on the airfoil suction side is able to reduce significantly the turbulence intensity and the induced surface pressure fluctuations in the trailing edge region. As a consequence, trailing edge noise associated with a spectral hump around 500 Hz could be reduced by 3 dB. For that a jet velocity of 50% of the free field velocity was sufficient. The most favourable slot position was at 90% chord length.

  5. The Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    6 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the edge (running diagonally from the lower left to the upper right) of a trough, which is part of a large pit crater complex in Noachis Terra. This type of trough forms through the collapse of surface materials into the subsurface, and often begins as a series of individual pit craters. Over time, continued collapse increases the diameter of individual pits until finally, adjacent pits merge to form a trough such as the one captured in this image. The deep shadowed area is caused in part by an overhang; layered rock beneath this overhang is less resistant to erosion, and thus has retreated tens of meters backward, beneath the overhang. A person could walk up inside this 'cave' formed by the overhanging layered material.

    Location near: 47.0oS, 355.7oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  6. The association of the antenna system to photosystem I in higher plants. Cooperative interactions stabilize the supramolecular complex and enhance red-shifted spectral forms.

    PubMed

    Morosinotto, Tomas; Ballottari, Matteo; Klimmek, Frank; Jansson, Stefan; Bassi, Roberto

    2005-09-01

    We report on the association of the antenna system to the reaction center in Photosystem I. Biochemical analysis of mutants depleted in antenna polypeptides showed that the binding of the antenna moiety is strongly cooperative. The minimal building block for the antenna system was shown to be a dimer. Specific protein-protein interactions play an important role in antenna association, and the gap pigments, bound at the interface between core and antenna, are proposed to mediate these interactions Gap pigments have been characterized by comparing the spectra of the Photosystem I to those of the isolated antenna and core components. CD spectroscopy showed that they are involved in pigment-pigment interactions, supporting their relevance in energy transfer from antenna to the reaction center. Moreover, gap pigments contribute to the red-shifted emission forms of Photosystem I antenna. When compared with Photosystem II, the association of peripheral antenna complexes in PSI appears to be more stable, but far less flexible and functional implications are discussed.

  7. Edge-based correlation image registration for multispectral imaging

    DOEpatents

    Nandy, Prabal

    2009-11-17

    Registration information for images of a common target obtained from a plurality of different spectral bands can be obtained by combining edge detection and phase correlation. The images are edge-filtered, and pairs of the edge-filtered images are then phase correlated to produce phase correlation images. The registration information can be determined based on these phase correlation images.

  8. The phytochrome red/far-red photoreceptor superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Sharrock, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    Proteins of the phytochrome superfamily of red/far-red light receptors have a variety of biological roles in plants, algae, bacteria and fungi and demonstrate a diversity of spectral sensitivities and output signaling mechanisms. Over the past few years the first three-dimensional structures of phytochrome light-sensing domains from bacteria have been determined. PMID:18771590

  9. Unified EDGE

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-18

    UEDGE is an interactive suite of physics packages using the Python or BASIS scripting systems. The plasma is described by time-dependent 2D plasma fluid equations that include equations for density, velocity, ion temperature, electron temperature, electrostatic potential, and gas density in the edge region of a magnetic fusion energy confinement device. Slab, cylindrical, and toroidal geometries are allowed, and closed and open magnetic field-line regions are included. Classical transport is assumed along magnetic field lines, and anomalous transport is assumed across field lines. Multi-charge state impurities can be included with the corresponding line-radiation energy loss. Although UEDGE is written in Fortran, for efficient execution and analysis of results, it utilizes either Python or BASIS scripting shells. Python is easily available for many platforms (http://www.Python.org/). The features and availability of BASIS are described in “Basis Manual Set” by P.F. Dubois, Z.C. Motteler, et al., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory report UCRL-MA-1 18541, June, 2002 and http://basis.llnl.gov. BASIS has been reviewed and released by LLNL for unlimited distribution. The Python version utilizes PYBASIS scripts developed by D.P. Grote, LLNL. The Python version also uses MPPL code and MAC Perl script, available from the public-domain BASIS source above. The Forthon version of UEDGE uses the same source files, but utilizes Forthon to produce a Python-compatible source. Forthon has been developed by D.P. Grote at LBL (see http://hifweb.lbl.gov/Forthon/ and Grote et al. in the references below), and it is freely available. The graphics can be performed by any package importable to Python, such as PYGIST.

  10. Unified EDGE

    2007-06-18

    UEDGE is an interactive suite of physics packages using the Python or BASIS scripting systems. The plasma is described by time-dependent 2D plasma fluid equations that include equations for density, velocity, ion temperature, electron temperature, electrostatic potential, and gas density in the edge region of a magnetic fusion energy confinement device. Slab, cylindrical, and toroidal geometries are allowed, and closed and open magnetic field-line regions are included. Classical transport is assumed along magnetic field lines,more » and anomalous transport is assumed across field lines. Multi-charge state impurities can be included with the corresponding line-radiation energy loss. Although UEDGE is written in Fortran, for efficient execution and analysis of results, it utilizes either Python or BASIS scripting shells. Python is easily available for many platforms (http://www.Python.org/). The features and availability of BASIS are described in “Basis Manual Set” by P.F. Dubois, Z.C. Motteler, et al., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory report UCRL-MA-1 18541, June, 2002 and http://basis.llnl.gov. BASIS has been reviewed and released by LLNL for unlimited distribution. The Python version utilizes PYBASIS scripts developed by D.P. Grote, LLNL. The Python version also uses MPPL code and MAC Perl script, available from the public-domain BASIS source above. The Forthon version of UEDGE uses the same source files, but utilizes Forthon to produce a Python-compatible source. Forthon has been developed by D.P. Grote at LBL (see http://hifweb.lbl.gov/Forthon/ and Grote et al. in the references below), and it is freely available. The graphics can be performed by any package importable to Python, such as PYGIST.« less

  11. Edge detection of color images using the HSL color space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeks, Arthur R.; Felix, Carlos E.; Myler, Harley R.

    1995-03-01

    Various edge detectors have been proposed as well as several different types of adaptive edge detectors, but the performance of many of these edge detectors depends on the features and the noise present in the grayscale image. Attempts have been made to extend edge detection to color images by applying grayscale edge detection methods to each of the individual red, blue, and green color components as well as to the hue, saturation, and intensity color components of the color image. The modulus 2(pi) nature of the hue color component makes its detection difficult. For example, a hue of 0 and 2(pi) yields the same color tint. Normal edge detection of a color image containing adjacent pixels with hue of 0 and 2(pi) could yield the presence of an edge when an edge is really not present. This paper presents a method of mapping the 2(pi) modulus hue space to a linear space enabling the edge detection of the hue color component using the Sobel edge detector. The results of this algorithm are compared against the edge detection methods using the red, blue, and green color components. By combining the hue edge image with the intensity and saturation edge images, more edge information is observed.

  12. Fusion Of Edge Maps In Color Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delcroix, C. J.; Abidi, M. A.

    1988-10-01

    In this paper, a new analytic method for the detection, of edges in color images is presented. This method focuses on the integration of three edge maps in order to increase one's confidence about the presence/absence of edges in a depicted scene. The integration process utilizes an algorithm developed by the authors under a broader research topic: The integration of registered multisensory data. It is based on the interaction between the following two constraints: the principle of existence, which tends to maximize the value of the output edge map at a given location if one input edge map features an edge, and the principle of confirmability, which adjusts this value according to the edge contents in the other input edge map at the same location by maximiz-ing the similarity between them. The latter two maximizations are achieved using the Euler-Language Calculus of Variations equations. This algorithm, which fuses optimally two correlated edge maps with regard to the above principles is extended to the simultaneous fusion of three edge maps. Experiments were conducted using not only the red, green, and blue representation of color information but also other bases.

  13. Spectral changes in conifers subjected to air pollution and water stress: Experimental studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

    1988-01-01

    The roles of leaf anatomy, moisture and pigment content, and number of leaf layers on spectral reflectance in healthy, pollution-stressed, and water-stressed conifer needles were examined experimentally. Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) and giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron gigantea) were exposed to ozone and acid mist treatments in fumigation chambers; red pine (Pinus resinosa) needles were artificially dried. Infrared reflectance from stacked needles rose with free water loss. In an air-drying experiment, cell volume reductions induced by loss of turgor caused near-infrared reflectance (TM band 4) to drop after most free water was lost. Under acid mist fumigation, stunting of tissue development similarly reduced band 4 reflectance. Both artificial drying and pollutant fumigation caused a blue shift of the red edge of spectral reflectance curves in conifers, attributable to chlorophyll denaturation. Thematic mapper band ratio 4/3 fell and 5/4 rose with increasing pollution stress on artificial drying. Loss of water by air-drying, freeze-drying, or oven-drying enhanced spectral features, due in part to greater scattering and reduced water absorption. Grinding of the leaf tissue further enhanced the spectral features by increasing reflecting surfaces and path length. In a leaf-stacking experiment, an asymptote in visible and infrared reflectance was reached at 7-8 needle layers of red pine.

  14. [Change of LAI and spectral response for rice under flood and waterlogging stress].

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Gu, Xiao-He; Meng, Lu-Min; Qiu, He; Wang, Hui-Fang

    2013-12-01

    In order to provide the foundational theoretical support for flood loss estimation of rice with RS, the change of leaf area index (LAI) and canopy spectral response during four developmental stages and three waterlogging depths were studied, and the LAI estimation model was established with spectra characteristics parameter using regression analysis method. The results show that LAI value decreases as water depth increases in tillering, jointing and heading stages, and LAI value under complete submergence decreased by 36. 36% than CK in jointing stages. "Double-Peak" presented in the canopy first derivative spectra of 680-760 nm where the red edge parameters existed, and the main peak is located in the 724-737 nm with 701 and 718 nm exhibiting secondary peak. With water depth increasing, "Triple-Peak" emerges especially. The red edge position moves to long-wavelength direction in each developmental stage. Blue shift of red edge amplitude and red edge area was detected in tillering, jointing and filling stages, while red shift appeared in heading stage. The relationship between spectra characteristics parameters and LAI were investigated during 4 growth stages, results were not consistently significant at any wavelengths, and the leaf area indices were significantly correlative to the spectra parameters before heading stage, so the spectra parameters before heading stage can be used to estimate the leaf area indices, and a regression model based on parameter D(lambda737)/D(lambda718) was recommended. Therefore the variation range of LAI for rice could response to the stress intensity directly, and the regression model LAI= 3. 138(D(lambda737)/D(lambda718))-0. 806 can precisely estimate the leaf area index under flooding and waterlogging stress.

  15. TCT measurements with slim edge strip detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandić, Igor; Cindro, Vladimir; Gorišek, Andrej; Kramberger, Gregor; Mikuž, Marko; Zavrtanik, Marko; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Sadrozinski, Hartmut F.-W.; Christophersen, Marc; Phlips, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Transient current technique (TCT) measurements with focused laser light on miniature silicon strip detectors (n+-type strips on p-type bulk) with one inactive edge thinned to about 100 μm using the Scribe-Cleave-Passivate (SCP) method are presented. Pulses of focused IR (λ=1064 nm) laser light were directed to the surface of the detector and charge collection properties near the slim edge were investigated. Measurements before and after irradiation with reactor neutrons up to 1 MeV equivalent fluence of 1.5×1015 neq/cm2 showed that SCP thinning of detector edge does not influence its charge collection properties. TCT measurements were done also with focused red laser beam (λ=640 nm) directed to the SCP processed side of the detector. The absorption length of red light in silicon is about 3 μm so with this measurement information about the electric field at the edge can be obtained. Observations of laser induced signals indicate that the electric field distribution along the depth of the detector at the detector edge is different than in the detector bulk: electric field is higher near the strip side and lower at the back side. This is a consequence of negative surface charge caused by passivation of the cleaved edge with Al2O3. The difference between bulk and edge electric field distributions gets smaller after irradiation.

  16. Spectral Reflectance and Vegetation Index Changes in Deciduous Forest Foliage Following Tree Removal: Potential for Deforestation Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, D.; Hu, Y.; Li, Z.

    2016-05-01

    It is important to detect and quantify deforestation to guide strategic decisions regarding environment, socioeconomic development, and climate change. In the present study, we conducted a field experiment to examine spectral reflectance and vegetation index changes in poplar and locust tree foliage with different leaf area indices over the course of three sunny days, following tree removal from the canopy. The spectral reflectance of foliage from harvested trees was measured using an ASD FieldSpec Prospectroradiometer; synchronous meteorological data were also obtained. We found that reflectance in short-wave infrared and red-edge reflectance was more time sensitive after tree removal than reflectance in other spectral regions, and that the normalized difference water index (NDWI) and the red-edge chlorophyll index (CIRE) were the preferred indicators of these changes from several indices evaluated. Synthesized meteorological environments were found to influence water and chlorophyll contents after tree removal, and this subsequently changed the spectral canopy reflectance. Our results indicate the potential for such tree removal to be detected with NDWI or CIRE from the second day of a deforestation event.

  17. [Discrimination and spectral response characteristic of stress leaves infected by rice Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhan-Yu; Shi, Jing-Jing; Wang, Da-Cheng; Huang, Jing-Feng

    2010-03-01

    An ASD Field Spec Pro Full Range spectrometer was used to acquire the spectral reflectance of healthy and diseased leaves infected by rice Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie, which were cut from rice individuals in the paddy field. Firstly, foliar pigment content was investigated. As compared with healthy leaves, the total chlorophyll and carotene contents (mg x g(-1)) of diseased leaves decreased 18% and 22%, respectively. The diseased foliar content ratio of total chlorophyll to carotene was nearly 82% of the healthy ones. Secondly, the response characteristics of hyperspectral reflectance of diseased leaves were analyzed. The spectral reflectance in the blue (450-520 nm), green (520-590 nm) and red (630-690 nm) regions were 2.5, 2 and 3.3 times the healthy ones respectively due to the decrease in foliar pigment content, whereas in the near infrared (NIR, 770-890 nm) region was 71.7 of the healthy ones because of leaf twist, and 73.7% for shortwave infrared (SWIR, 1 500-2 400 nm) region, owing to water loss. Moreover, the hyperspectral feature parameters derived from the raw spectra and the first derivative spectra were analyzed. The red edge position (REP) and blue edge position (BEP) shifted about 8 and 10 nm toward the short wavelengths respectively. The green peak position (GPP) and red trough position (RTP) shifted about 8.5 and 6 nm respectively toward the longer wavelengths. Finally, the area of the red edge peak (the sum of derivative spectra from 680 to 740 nm) and red edge position (REP) as the input vectors entered into C-SVC, which was an soft nonlinear margin classification method of support vector machine, to recognize the healthy and diseased leaves. The kernel function was radial basis function (RBF) and the value of punishment coefficient (C) was obtained from the classification model of training data sets (n = 138). The performance of C-SVC was examined with the testing sample (n = 126), and healthy and diseased leaves could be successfully

  18. Microcomputer Controlled MTF Measuring Equipment for Infra-red and Visible Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauveau, J. P.; Perrin, J. C.

    1986-05-01

    An operational MTF measuring bench operating in both visible and infra-red regions is described. Measurements can be made at both room and climatic chamber temperatures. The basic mathematics for measuring the MTF from the edge spread function (ESF) or from the line spread function (LSF) are given. Optimal criteria for the measurement are derived taking into account the spatial sampling frequency and spectral resolution. The results obtained with standard lenses are compared with theoretical calculations. The microcomputer software has been optimized in order to give the result in form of graphs in a few seconds. If also provides options for measuring focal lengths or magnification, distortion, field curvature and transmission.

  19. Spectral characterization of the LANDSAT thematic mapper sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, B. L.; Barker, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Data collected on the spectral characteristics of the LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-4 backup thematic mapper instruments, the protoflight (TM/PF) and flight (TM/F) models, respectively, are presented and analyzed. Tests were conducted on the instruments and their components to determine compliance with two sets of spectral specifications: band-by-band spectral coverage and channel-by-channel within-band spectral matching. Spectral coverage specifications were placed on: (1) band edges--points at 50% of peak response, (2) band edge slopes--steepness of rise and fall-off of response, (3) spectral flatness--evenness of response between edges, and (4) spurious system response--ratio of out-of-band response to in-band response. Compliance with the spectral coverage specifications was determined by analysis of spectral measurements on the individual components contributing to the overall spectral response: filters, detectors, and optical surfaces.

  20. The edges of graphene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuyun; Xin, John; Ding, Feng

    2013-04-01

    The edge of two dimensional (2D) graphene, as the surface of a three dimensional (3D) crystal, plays a crucial role in the determination of its physical, electronic and chemical properties and thus has been extensively studied recently. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the study of graphene edges, including edge formation energy, edge reconstruction, method of graphene edge synthesis and the recent progress on metal-passivated graphene edges and the role of edges in graphene CVD growth. We expect this review to provide a guideline for readers to gain a clear picture of graphene edges from several aspects, especially the catalyst-passivated graphene edges and their role in graphene CVD growth.

  1. Seeing Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    volcanos. Though the plume deposits are red, the plume itself is blue, because it is composed of very tiny particles that preferentially scatter blue light, like smoke. Also faintly visible in the left image is the pale-colored Prometheus plume, almost on the edge of the disk on the equator at the 9 o'clock position.

    Io was 2.4 million kilometers from the spacecraft when the picture was taken, and the center of Io's disk is at 77 degrees West longitude, 5 degrees South latitude. The solar phase angle was 107 degrees.

  2. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium ...

  3. Spectral and Spread Spectral Teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S

    2010-01-01

    We report how quantum information encoded into the spectral degree of freedom of a single-photon state is teleported using a finite spectrally entangled biphoton state. We further demonstrate how the bandwidth of a teleported waveform can be controllably and coherently dilated using a spread spectral variant of teleportation. We present analytical fidelities for spectral and spread spectral teleportation when complex-valued Gaussian states are prepared using a proposed experimental approach, and we discuss the utility of these techniques for integrating broad-bandwidth photonic qubits with narrow-bandwidth receivers in quantum communication systems.

  4. Effect of spectrally varying albedo of vegetation surfaces on shortwave radiation fluxes and direct aerosol forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Martins, J. V.; Yu, H.

    2012-06-01

    This study develops an algorithm for the representation of large spectral variations of albedo over vegetation surfaces based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) observations at 7 discrete channels centered at 0.47, 0.55, 0.67, 0.86, 1.24, 1.63, and 2.11 μm. The MODIS 7-channel observations miss several major features of vegetation albedo including the vegetation red edge near 0.7 μm and vegetation absorption features at 1.48 and 1.92 μm. We characterize these features by investigating aerosol forcing in different spectral ranges. We show that the correction at 0.7 μm is the most sensitive and important due to the presence of the red edge and strong solar radiation; the other two corrections are less sensitive due to the weaker solar radiation and strong atmospheric water absorption. Four traditional approaches for estimating the reflectance spectrum and the MODIS enhanced vegetation albedo (MEVA) are tested against various vegetation types: dry grass, green grass, conifer, and deciduous from the John Hopkins University (JHU) spectral library; aspens from the US Geological Survey (USGS) digital spectral library; and Amazon vegetation types. Compared to traditional approaches, MEVA improves the accuracy of the outgoing flux at the top of the atmosphere by over 60 W m-2 and aerosol forcing by over 10 W m-2. Specifically, for Amazon vegetation types, MEVA can improve the accuracy of daily averaged aerosol forcing at equator at equinox by 3.7 W m-2 (about 70% of the aerosol forcing calculated with high spectral resolution surface reflectance). These improvements indicate that MEVA can contribute to vegetation covered regional climate studies, and help to improve understanding of climate processes and climate change.

  5. Spectral response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) leaves to Fe(2+) stress.

    PubMed

    Chi, GuangYu; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi; Liu, XinHui

    2009-08-01

    In the management of lake eutrophication, the regulation effect of Fe is considered, in addition to the controlling nitrogen- and phosphorus input. Based on the "Fe hypothesis", this paper tentatively applied plant spectral response to the remote sensing early-warning mechanism of lake eutrophication. A laboratory water culture experiment with rice (Oryza sativa L.) was conducted to study Fe uptake by plants and the chlorophyll concentration and visible-near infrared spectrum of vegetable leaves as well as their interrelations under Fe(2+) stress. Three spectral indices, i.e., A (1) (integral value of the changes of spectral reflectivity in the range 460-670 nm under Fe(2+) stress), A (2) (integral value of the changes of spectral reflectivity in the range of 760-1000 nm under Fe(2+) stress) and S (blue-shift range of red edge curve under Fe(2+) stress), were used to establish quantitative models about the relationships between the rice leaf spectrum and Fe(2+) stress. With the increase of Fe(2+) in a culture solution, the Fe content in rice plants increased, while the chlorophyll concentration in vegetative leaves decreased. The spectral reflectivity of vegetable leaves increased in the visible light band but decreased in the near infrared band, and the blue-shift range of the red edge curve increased. The indices A (1), A (2) and S all had significant correlations with the Fe content in rice leaves, the correlation coefficient being respectively 0.951 (P < 0.01), -0.988 (P < 0.01) and 0.851 (P < 0.01), and simulated (multiple correlation coefficients R (2) > 0.96) and predict the Fe level in rice leaves.

  6. Brown and green LAI mapping through spectral indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delegido, Jesús; Verrelst, Jochem; Rivera, Juan P.; Ruiz-Verdú, Antonio; Moreno, José

    2015-03-01

    When crops senescence, leaves remain until they fall off or are harvested. Hence, leaf area index (LAI) stays high even when chlorophyll content degrades to zero. Current LAI approaches from remote sensing techniques are not optimized for estimating LAI of senescent vegetation. In this paper a two-step approach has been proposed to realize simultaneous LAI mapping over green and senescent croplands. The first step separates green from brown LAI by means of a newly proposed index, 'Green Brown Vegetation Index (GBVI)'. This index exploits two shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectral bands centred at 2100 and 2000 nm, which fall right in the dry matter absorption regions, thereby providing positive values for senescent vegetation and negative for green vegetation. The second step involves applying linear regression functions based on optimized vegetation indices to estimate green and brown LAI estimation respectively. While the green LAI index uses a band in the red and a band in the red-edge, the brown LAI index uses bands located in the same spectral region as GBVI, i.e. an absorption band located in the region of maximum absorption of cellulose and lignin at 2154 nm, and a reference band at 1635 nm where the absorption of both water and dry matter is low. The two-step approach was applied to a HyMap image acquired over an agroecosystem at the agricultural site Barrax, Spain.

  7. The spectral and image characteristics of vegetation in the presence of heavy metals in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fengjie; Li, Na; Zhou, Guangzhu; Song, Cuiyu; Li, Qingting

    2008-10-01

    The principle and methodology to monitor the heavy metal pollution using hyperspectral remote sensing are put forward based on the study areas, copper mine in De-Xing and tin ore in GeJiu, and selected plants, China Sumac, Sweet Wormwood Herb, and Nephrolepis Cordifolia. In the areas defined by former information, vegetation samples and corresponding spectral data are gathered. The samples are then analyzed in chemical lab, telling us to what extent the vegetation is polluted by heavy metal. The spectral curves are also processed, and some spectral parameters are extracted, such as reflectance, blue-shift extent, position of red-edge, vegetation index, band-depth. Then the regression model from spectral characteristic parameters to heavy metal content can be built. At last, the conclusion can be attained. In copper mine area, the vegetation is polluted by seven kinds of heavy metals. As far as China Sumac, the reflectance of red band correlates the Pb content well. The reflectance of all study plants at 1240nm and 725/675(nm) correlates heavy metal content well. The reflectance of 450nm, 550nm, 670nm, 760nm, and 1240nm can be liner combined as a parameter to monitor heavy metal pollution. Besides, some band-depth can also be combined as parameters using "Enter". In a word, as an advanced technique to monitor environmental pollution, hyperspectral remote sensing has wild perspective.

  8. Spectroscopy of red dravite from northern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taran, Michail N.; Dyar, M. Darby; Naumenko, Ievgen V.; Vyshnevsky, Olexij A.

    2015-07-01

    Low-Fe dravite with a formula of Na0.66Ca0.16Mg2.62Fe0.33Mn0.02Ti0.02Al5.95B3Si6.04O27(OH)4 is described from Engusero Sambu, northern Tanzania (On maps, Engusero Sambu may be found to be marked as belonging to Kenya, but in reality, it is located near the border in northern Tanzania). The sample has an unusual red color that is distinctly different from the red dravite from the Osarara, Narok district, in Kenya that was formerly studied by Mattson and Rossman (Phys Chem Miner 14:225-234, 1984) and Taran and Rossman (Am Mineral 87:1148-1153, 2002). This unique sample has been characterized by optical and Mössbauer spectral measurements to investigate underlying cause of the intense bands in absorption spectra that give rise to the red color. These features are shown to be caused by exchange-coupled Fe3+-Fe3+ interactions. Thermal annealing of the samples causes an increase in Fe3+ contents due to oxidation of [Y]Fe2+. However, heat treatment does not change the high-energy absorption edge, which is probably caused by intense ligand-to-Fe3+ charge-transfer UV bands. In fact, Mössbauer results show that high-temperature annealing initiates breakdown of the tourmaline into an Fe oxide and causes accompanying redistribution of Fe3+ within the structure. Because of the popularity of tourmaline as a gemstone, this work has implications for understanding the causes of color in tourmaline, facilitating recognition of the distinctions between naturally occurring and treated tourmalines in the gem industry and enabling heat treatments for color enhancement.

  9. Species Discrimination of Mangroves using Derivative Spectral Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, K. Arun; Gnanappazham, L.

    2014-11-01

    Mangroves are salt tolerant trees or shrubs commonly seen in mudflats of intertidal regions of tropical and subtropical coastlines. Recent advances in field spectroscopic techniques enabled the species level discrimination among closely related vegetation types. In this study we have analysed the laboratory spectroscopy data collected from eight species of Rhizophoraceaea family of mangroves. The spectral data ranges between the wavelength of 350 nm and 2500 nm at a very narrow bandwidth of 1 nm. Preprocessing techniques including smoothing were done on the spectra to remove the noise before compiling it to a spectral library. Derivative analysis of the spectra was done and its corresponding first and second derivatives were obtained. Statistical analysis such as parametric and non-parametric tests were implemented on the original processed spectra as well as their respective first and second order derivatives for the identification of significant bands for species discrimination. Results have shown that red edge region (680 nm - 720 nm) and water vapour absorption region around 1150 nm and 1400 nm are optimal as they were consistent in discriminating species in reflectance spectra as well as in its first and second derivative spectra. C. decandra species is found to be discriminable from other species while reflectance and its derivative spectra were used. Non-parametric statistical analysis gave better results than that of parametric statistical analysis especially in SWIR 2 spectral region (1831 nm - 2500 nm).

  10. [Vegetation index estimation by chlorophyll content of grassland based on spectral analysis].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Han; Chen, Xiu-Wan; Yang, Zhen-Yu; Li, Huai-Yu; Zhu, Han

    2014-11-01

    Comparing the methods of existing remote sensing research on the estimation of chlorophyll content, the present paper confirms that the vegetation index is one of the most practical and popular research methods. In recent years, the increasingly serious problem of grassland degradation. This paper, firstly, analyzes the measured reflectance spectral curve and its first derivative curve in the grasslands of Songpan, Sichuan and Gongger, Inner Mongolia, conducts correlation analysis between these two spectral curves and chlorophyll content, and finds out the regulation between REP (red edge position) and grassland chlorophyll content, that is, the higher the chlorophyll content is, the higher the REIP (red-edge inflection point) value would be. Then, this paper constructs GCI (grassland chlorophyll index) and selects the most suitable band for retrieval. Finally, this paper calculates the GCI by the use of satellite hyperspectral image, conducts the verification and accuracy analysis of the calculation results compared with chlorophyll content data collected from field of twice experiments. The result shows that for grassland chlorophyll content, GCI has stronger sensitivity than other indices of chlorophyll, and has higher estimation accuracy. GCI is the first proposed to estimate the grassland chlorophyll content, and has wide application potential for the remote sensing retrieval of grassland chlorophyll content. In addition, the grassland chlorophyll content estimation method based on remote sensing retrieval in this paper provides new research ideas for other vegetation biochemical parameters' estimation, vegetation growth status' evaluation and grassland ecological environment change's monitoring.

  11. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  12. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-14

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  13. Eye redness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blepharitis : Swelling along the edge of the eyelid. Conjunctivitis : Swelling or infection of the clear tissue that ... Alvarenga LS, Ginsberg B, Mannis MJ.. Bacterial conjunctivitis. In: ... Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 4, chap 5. Rubenstein JB, Tannan ...

  14. Red Capes, Red Herrings, and Red Flags.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Donald W.

    The argument that the personality structures obtained from retrospective ratings reflect semantic similarity structures has been as provocative as a red cape in the bull ring. High congruence between those two kinds of structures seems well established. What is less clear is how and why those structures differ from that for immediate judgments of…

  15. Edge-on Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has imaged an unusual edge-on galaxy, revealing remarkable details of its warped dusty disc and showing how colliding galaxies trigger the birth of new stars.

    The image, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), is online at http://heritage.stsci.edu and http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc. The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. During observations of the galaxy, the camera passed a milestone, taking its 100,000th image since shuttle astronauts installed it in Hubble in 1993.

    The dust and spiral arms of normal spiral galaxies, like our Milky Way, look flat when seen edge- on. The new image of the galaxy ESO 510-G13 shows an unusual twisted disc structure, first seen in ground-based photographs taken at the European Southern Observatory in Chile. ESO 510-G13 lies in the southern constellation Hydra, some 150 million light-years from Earth. Details of the galaxy's structure are visible because interstellar dust clouds that trace its disc are silhouetted from behind by light from the galaxy's bright, smooth central bulge.

    The strong warping of the disc indicates that ESO 510-G13 has recently collided with a nearby galaxy and is in the process of swallowing it. Gravitational forces distort galaxies as their stars, gas, and dust merge over millions of years. When the disturbances die out, ESO 510-G13 will be a single galaxy.

    The galaxy's outer regions, especially on the right side of the image, show dark dust and bright clouds of blue stars. This indicates that hot, young stars are forming in the twisted disc. Astronomers believe star formation may be triggered when galaxies collide and their interstellar clouds are compressed.

    The Hubble Heritage Team used WFPC2 to observe ESO 510-G13 in April 2001. Pictures obtained through blue, green, and red filters were combined to make this color-composite image, which emphasizes the contrast between the dusty

  16. Power spectrum weighted edge analysis for straight edge detection in images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karvir, Hrishikesh V.; Skipper, Julie A.

    2007-04-01

    Most man-made objects provide characteristic straight line edges and, therefore, edge extraction is a commonly used target detection tool. However, noisy images often yield broken edges that lead to missed detections, and extraneous edges that may contribute to false target detections. We present a sliding-block approach for target detection using weighted power spectral analysis. In general, straight line edges appearing at a given frequency are represented as a peak in the Fourier domain at a radius corresponding to that frequency, and a direction corresponding to the orientation of the edges in the spatial domain. Knowing the edge width and spacing between the edges, a band-pass filter is designed to extract the Fourier peaks corresponding to the target edges and suppress image noise. These peaks are then detected by amplitude thresholding. The frequency band width and the subsequent spatial filter mask size are variable parameters to facilitate detection of target objects of different sizes under known imaging geometries. Many military objects, such as trucks, tanks and missile launchers, produce definite signatures with parallel lines and the algorithm proves to be ideal for detecting such objects. Moreover, shadow-casting objects generally provide sharp edges and are readily detected. The block operation procedure offers advantages of significant reduction in noise influence, improved edge detection, faster processing speed and versatility to detect diverse objects of different sizes in the image. With Scud missile launcher replicas as target objects, the method has been successfully tested on terrain board test images under different backgrounds, illumination and imaging geometries with cameras of differing spatial resolution and bit-depth.

  17. Use of spectral analogy to evaluate canopy reflectance sensitivity to leaf optical property

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baret, Frederic; Vanderbilt, Vern C.; Steven, Michael D.; Jacquemoud, Stephane

    1993-01-01

    The spectral variation of canopy reflectance is mostly governed by the absorption properties of the elements, hence the leaves, since their intrinsic scattering properties show very little spectral variation. The relationship between canopy reflectance and leaf reflectance measured at the red edge over sugar beet canopies was used to simulate canopy reflectance from leaf reflectance spectra measured over the whole spectral domain. The results show that the spectral analogies found allows accurate reconstruction of canopy reflectance spectra. Explicit assumptions about the very low spectral variation of leaf intrinsic scattering properties are thus indirectly justified. The sensitivity of canopy reflectance (rho(sub c)) to leaf optical properties can then be investigated from concurrent spectral variations of canopy (delta rho(sub c)/delta lambda) and leaf reflectance (delta rho(sub l)/delta lambda): (delta rho(sub c))/(delta rho(sub l)) = ((delta rho(sub c))/(delta lambda) ((delta rho( sub l))/(delta lambda))(sup -1)). This expression is strictly valid only when the optical properties of the soil background or the other vegetation elements such as bark are either spectrally flat or do not contribute significantly to canopy reflectance. Simulations using the SAIL and PROSPECT models demonstrate that the sensitivity of canopy reflectance to leaf reflectance is significant for large vegetation cover fractions in spectral domains where absorption is low. In these conditions, multiple, scattering enhances the leaf absorption features by a factor that can be greater than 2.0. To override the limitations of the SAIL model for the description of the canopy architecture, we tested the previous findings on experimental data. Concurrent canopy and leaf reflectance spectra were measured for a range of sugar beet canopies. The results show good agreement with the theoretical findings. Conclusions are drawn about the applicability of these findings, with particular attention to

  18. Red Blood Cell Count Automation Using Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging Technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingli; Zhou, Mei; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Yiting; Guo, Fangmin

    2015-12-01

    Red blood cell counts have been proven to be one of the most frequently performed blood tests and are valuable for early diagnosis of some diseases. This paper describes an automated red blood cell counting method based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging technology. Unlike the light microscopy-based red blood count methods, a combined spatial and spectral algorithm is proposed to identify red blood cells by integrating active contour models and automated two-dimensional k-means with spectral angle mapper algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance than spatial based algorithm because the new algorithm can jointly use the spatial and spectral information of blood cells.

  19. The Edge, Fall 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, 1999

    1999-01-01

    "The Edge" is a Canadian publication for youth. The mandate of the Edge is to support and celebrate all career journeys embraced by youth. This issue contains career profile articles covering three jobs: crane operator, indoor climbing instructor, and product certification tester. Career trends and the state of today's workplace are also…

  20. Supersonic Leading Edge Receptivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maslov, Anatoly A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes experimental studies of leading edge boundary layer receptivity for imposed stream disturbances. Studies were conducted in the supersonic T-325 facility at ITAM and include data for both sharp and blunt leading edges. The data are in agreement with existing theory and should provide guidance for the development of more complete theories and numerical computations of this phenomena.

  1. Birthmarks - red

    MedlinePlus

    Strawberry mark; Vascular skin changes; Angioma cavernosum; Capillary hemangioma; Hemangioma simplex ... There are two main categories of birthmarks: Red birthmarks are ... are called vascular birthmarks. Pigmented birthmarks are areas ...

  2. Images of Edge Turbulence in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    S.J. Zweben; C.E. Bush; R. Maqueda; T. Munsat; D. Stotler; J. Lowrance; V. Mastracola; G. Renda

    2004-07-16

    The 2-D structure of edge plasma turbulence has been measured in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) by viewing the emission of the Da spectral line of deuterium. Images have been made at framing rates of up to 250,000 frames/sec using an ultra-high speed CCD camera developed by Princeton Scientific Instruments. A sequence of images showing the transition between L-mode and H-mode states is shown.

  3. Tunneling Spectroscopy of the Edge in Quantum Hall Systems in Cleaved-Edge Overgrowth Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, J. H.; Hilke, M.; Tsui, D. C.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.

    2004-03-01

    We present experimental results on the tunneling into the edge of a two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) obtained with a GaAs/AlGaAs cleaved edge overgrown structure in a strong perpendicular magnetic field. While the 2DEG shows typical fractional quantum Hall features of a very high mobility system, the tunneling into the edge exhibits a cross-over from a many-particle behavior (Luttinger liquid) at low tunneling voltages to a single particle characteristic at high voltages, which reflects absence of a many-body state away from the Fermi level. At high enough voltages, the single particle characteristic induces an asymmetry when tunneling into the 2DEG compared to tunneling out of it, which can be understood in the context of the single particle Landau level spectral distribution at the edge.

  4. Edge Detection By Differences Of Gaussians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marthon, Ph.; Thiesse, B.; Bruel, A.

    1986-06-01

    The Differences of Gaussians (DOGs) are of fundamental importance in edge detection. They belong to the human vision system as shown by Enroth-Cugell and Robson [ENR66]. The zero-crossings of their outputs mark the loci of the intensity changes. The set of descriptions from different operator sizes forms the input for later visual processes, such as stereopsis and motion analysis. We show that DOGs uniformly converge to the Laplacian of a Gaussian (ΔG2,σ) when both the inhibitory and excitatory variables converge to σ. Spatial and spectral properties of DOGs and ΔGs are compared: width and height of their central positive regions, bandiwidths... Finally, DOGs' responses to some features such as ideal edge, right angle corner, general corner..., are presented and magnitudes of error on edge position are given.

  5. Changes in spectral properties of detached leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    1984-01-01

    If leaf senescence can be delayed for several days without significant changes in spectral properties, then samples of leaves at remote test sites could be prepared and shipped to laboratories to measure spectral properties. The changes in spectral properties of detached leaves were determined. Leaves from red birch and red pine were immersed in water or 0.001 M benzylaminopurine (BAP) and stored in plastic bags in the dark at either 5 or 25 C. Total directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance of the adaxial surface of birch leaves were measured over the 400 to 1100 nm wavelength region with a spectroradiometer and integrating sphere. Pine needles were taped together and reflectance of the mat of needles was measured. Spectral properties changed less than 5% of initial values during the first week when leaves were stored at 5 C. Storage at 25 C promoted rapid senescence and large changes in spectral properties. BAP delayed, but did not stop, senescence at 25 C.

  6. Polychromator for the edge Thomson scattering system in ITER.

    PubMed

    Yatsuka, E; Hatae, T; Fujie, D; Kurokawa, A; Kusama, Y

    2012-10-01

    A new type polychromator has been designed for the edge Thomson scattering system in ITER. Signal light is parallelly dispersed into two parts at the first interference filter. Spectral transmissivities for some spectral channels may enhance better than the conventional type polychromator. In the new type polychromator, the misalignment due to the machine accuracy is expected to be within the margin of APD area. In order to calibrate the spectral transmissivity using the dual-laser injection method during the plasma discharge, it is preferred that the spectral channels are separated at the geometric mean of the injected two wavelengths.

  7. Flap Edge Aeroacoustic Measurements and Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    An aeroacoustic model test has been conducted to investigate the mechanisms of sound generation on high-lift wing configurations. This paper presents an analysis of flap side-edge noise, which is often the most dominant source. A model of a main element wing section with a half-span flap was tested at low speeds of up to a Mach number of 0.17, corresponding to a wing chord Reynolds number of approximately 1.7 million. Results are presented for flat (or blunt), flanged, and round flap-edge geometries, with and without boundary-layer tripping, deployed at both moderate and high flap angles. The acoustic database is obtained from a Small Aperture Directional Array (SADA) of microphones, which was constructed to electronically steer to different regions of the model and to obtain farfield noise spectra and directivity from these regions. The basic flap-edge aerodynamics is established by static surface pressure data, as well as by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations and simplified edge flow analyses. Distributions of unsteady pressure sensors over the flap allow the noise source regions to be defined and quantified via cross-spectral diagnostics using the SADA output. It is found that shear layer instability and related pressure scatter is the primary noise mechanism. For the flat edge flap, two noise prediction methods based on unsteady-surface-pressure measurements are evaluated and compared to measured noise. One is a new causality spectral approach developed here. The other is a new application of an edge-noise scatter prediction method. The good comparisons for both approaches suggest that much of the physics is captured by the prediction models. Areas of disagreement appear to reveal when the assumed edge noise mechanism does not fully define, the noise production. For the different edge conditions, extensive spectra and directivity are presented. Significantly, for each edge configuration, the spectra for different flow speeds, flap angles, and

  8. [Visible-NIR spectral feature of citrus greening disease].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-hua; Li, Min-zan; Won Suk, Lee; Reza, Ehsani; Ashish, Ratn Mishra

    2014-06-01

    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing, or HLB) is a devastating disease caused by Candidatus liberibacter which uses psyllids as vectors. It has no cure till now, and poses a huge threat to citrus industry around the world. In order to diagnose, assess and further control this disease, it is of great importance to first find a quick and effective way to detect it. Spectroscopy method, which was widely considered as a fast and nondestructive way, was adopted here to conduct a preliminary exploration of disease characteristics. In order to explore the spectral differences between the healthy and HLB infected leaves and canopies, this study measured the visible-NIR spectral reflectance of their leaves and canopies under lab and field conditions, respectively. The original spectral data were firstly preprocessed with smoothing (or moving average) and cluster average procedures, and then the first derivatives were also calculated to determine the red edge position (REP). In order to solve the multi-peak phenomenon problem, two interpolation methods (three-point Lagrangian interpolation and four-point linear extrapolation) were adopted to calculate the REP for each sample. The results showed that there were, obvious differences at the visible & NIR spectral reflectance between the healthy and HLB infected classes. Comparing with the healthy reflectance, the HLB reflectance was higher at the visible bands because of the yellowish symptoms on the infected leaves, and lower at NIR bands because the disease blocked water transportation to leaves. But the feature at NIR bands was easily affected by environmental factors such as light, background, etc. The REP was also a potential indicator to distinguish those two classes. The average REP was slowly moving toward red bands while the infection level was getting higher. The gap of the average REPs between the healthy and HLB classes reached to a maximum of 20 nm. Even in the dataset with relatively lower variation, the classification

  9. [Visible-NIR spectral feature of citrus greening disease].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-hua; Li, Min-zan; Won Suk, Lee; Reza, Ehsani; Ashish, Ratn Mishra

    2014-06-01

    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing, or HLB) is a devastating disease caused by Candidatus liberibacter which uses psyllids as vectors. It has no cure till now, and poses a huge threat to citrus industry around the world. In order to diagnose, assess and further control this disease, it is of great importance to first find a quick and effective way to detect it. Spectroscopy method, which was widely considered as a fast and nondestructive way, was adopted here to conduct a preliminary exploration of disease characteristics. In order to explore the spectral differences between the healthy and HLB infected leaves and canopies, this study measured the visible-NIR spectral reflectance of their leaves and canopies under lab and field conditions, respectively. The original spectral data were firstly preprocessed with smoothing (or moving average) and cluster average procedures, and then the first derivatives were also calculated to determine the red edge position (REP). In order to solve the multi-peak phenomenon problem, two interpolation methods (three-point Lagrangian interpolation and four-point linear extrapolation) were adopted to calculate the REP for each sample. The results showed that there were, obvious differences at the visible & NIR spectral reflectance between the healthy and HLB infected classes. Comparing with the healthy reflectance, the HLB reflectance was higher at the visible bands because of the yellowish symptoms on the infected leaves, and lower at NIR bands because the disease blocked water transportation to leaves. But the feature at NIR bands was easily affected by environmental factors such as light, background, etc. The REP was also a potential indicator to distinguish those two classes. The average REP was slowly moving toward red bands while the infection level was getting higher. The gap of the average REPs between the healthy and HLB classes reached to a maximum of 20 nm. Even in the dataset with relatively lower variation, the classification

  10. Effects of Salinity on Leaf Spectral Reflectance and Biochemical Parameters of Nitrogen Fixing Soybean Plants (Glycine max L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krezhova, Dora D.; Kirova, Elisaveta B.; Yanev, Tony K.; Iliev, Ilko Ts.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of physiology and hyperspectral leaf reflectance were used to detect salinity stress in nitrogen fixing soybean plants. Seedlings were inoculated with suspension of Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain 273. Salinity was performed at the stage of 2nd-4th trifoliate expanded leaves by adding of NaCl in the nutrient solution of Helrigel in concentrations 40 mM and 80 mM. A comparative analysis was performed between the changes in the biochemical parameters - stress markers (phenols, proline, malondialdehyde, thiol groups), chlorophyll a and b, hydrogen peroxide, and leaf spectral reflectance in the spectral range 450-850 nm. The spectral measurements were carried out by an USB2000 spectrometer. The reflectance data of the control and treated plants in the red, green, red-edge and the near infrared ranges of the spectrum were subjected to statistical analysis. Statistically significant differences were found through the Student's t-criterion at the two NaCl concentrations in all of the ranges examined with the exception of the near infrared range at 40 mM NaCl concentration. Similar results were obtained through linear discriminant analysis. The tents of the phenols, malondialdehyde and chlorophyll a and b were found to decrease at both salinity treatments. In the spectral data this effect is manifested by decrease of the reflectance values in the green and red ranges. The contents of proline, hydrogen peroxide and thiol groups rose with the NaCl concentration increase. At 80 mM NaCl concentration the values of these markers showed a considerable increase giving evidence that the soybean plants were stressed in comparison with the control. This finding is in agreement with the results from the spectral reflectance analysis.

  11. The digital step edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haralick, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    The facet model was used to accomplish step edge detection. The essence of the facet model is that any analysis made on the basis of the pixel values in some neighborhood has its final authoritative interpretation relative to the underlying grey tone intensity surface of which the neighborhood pixel values are observed noisy samples. Pixels which are part of regions have simple grey tone intensity surfaces over their areas. Pixels which have an edge in them have complex grey tone intensity surfaces over their areas. Specially, an edge moves through a pixel only if there is some point in the pixel's area having a zero crossing of the second directional derivative taken in the direction of a non-zero gradient at the pixel's center. To determine whether or not a pixel should be marked as a step edge pixel, its underlying grey tone intensity surface was estimated on the basis of the pixels in its neighborhood.

  12. Spectral Predictors

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarria, L; Lindstrom, P; Rossignac, J

    2006-11-17

    Many scientific, imaging, and geospatial applications produce large high-precision scalar fields sampled on a regular grid. Lossless compression of such data is commonly done using predictive coding, in which weighted combinations of previously coded samples known to both encoder and decoder are used to predict subsequent nearby samples. In hierarchical, incremental, or selective transmission, the spatial pattern of the known neighbors is often irregular and varies from one sample to the next, which precludes prediction based on a single stencil and fixed set of weights. To handle such situations and make the best use of available neighboring samples, we propose a local spectral predictor that offers optimal prediction by tailoring the weights to each configuration of known nearby samples. These weights may be precomputed and stored in a small lookup table. We show that predictive coding using our spectral predictor improves compression for various sources of high-precision data.

  13. Optimization of spectral indices and long-term separability analysis for classification of cereal crops using multi-spectral RapidEye imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstmann, Henning; Möller, Markus; Gläßer, Cornelia

    2016-10-01

    Crop monitoring using remotely sensed image data provides valuable input for a large variety of applications in environmental and agricultural research. However, method development for discrimination between spectrally highly similar crop species remains a challenge in remote sensing. Calculation of vegetation indices is a frequently applied option to amplify the most distinctive parts of a spectrum. Since no vegetation index exist, that is universally best-performing, a method is presented that finds an index that is optimized for the classification of a specific satellite data set to separate two cereal crop types. The η2 (eta-squared) measure of association - presented as novel spectral separability indicator - was used for the evaluation of the numerous tested indices. The approach is first applied on a RapidEye satellite image for the separation of winter wheat and winter barley in a Central German test site. The determined optimized index allows a more accurate classification (97%) than several well-established vegetation indices like NDVI and EVI (<87%). Furthermore, the approach was applied on a RapidEye multi-spectral image time series covering the years 2010-2014. The optimized index for the spectral separation of winter barley and winter wheat for each acquisition date was calculated and its ability to distinct the two classes was assessed. The results indicate that the calculated optimized indices perform better than the standard indices for most seasonal parts of the time series. The red edge spectral region proved to be of high significance for crop classification. Additionally, a time frame of best spectral separability of wheat and barley could be detected in early to mid-summer.

  14. Mechanism of Pressure-Induced Phase Transitions, Amorphization, and Absorption-Edge Shift in Photovoltaic Methylammonium Lead Iodide.

    PubMed

    Szafrański, Marek; Katrusiak, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    Our single-crystal X-ray diffraction study of methylammonium lead triiodide, MAPbI3, provides the first comprehensive structural information on the tetragonal phase II in the pressure range to 0.35 GPa, on the cubic phase IV stable between 0.35 and 2.5 GPa, and on the isostructural cubic phase V observed above 2.5 GPa, which undergoes a gradual amorphization. The optical absorption study confirms that up to 0.35 GPa, the absorption edge of MAPbI3 is red-shifted, allowing an extension of spectral absorption. The transitions to phases IV and V are associated with the abrupt blue shifts of the absorption edge. The strong increase of the energy gap in phase V result in a spectacular color change of the crystal from black to red around 3.5 GPa. The optical changes have been correlated with the pressure-induced strain of the MAPbI3 inorganic framework and its frustration, triggered by methylammonium cations trapped at random orientations in the squeezed voids. PMID:27538989

  15. The Edge supersonic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agosta, Roxana; Bilbija, Dushan; Deutsch, Marc; Gallant, David; Rose, Don; Shreve, Gene; Smario, David; Suffredini, Brian

    1992-01-01

    As intercontinental business and tourism volumes continue their rapid expansion, the need to reduce travel times becomes increasingly acute. The Edge Supersonic Transport Aircraft is designed to meet this demand by the year 2015. With a maximum range of 5750 nm, a payload of 294 passengers and a cruising speed of M = 2.4, The Edge will cut current international flight durations in half, while maintaining competitive first class, business class, and economy class comfort levels. Moreover, this transport will render a minimal impact upon the environment, and will meet all Federal Aviation Administration Part 36, Stage III noise requirements. The cornerstone of The Edge's superior flight performance is its aerodynamically efficient, dual-configuration design incorporating variable-geometry wingtips. This arrangement combines the benefits of a high aspect ratio wing at takeoff and low cruising speeds with the high performance of an arrow-wing in supersonic cruise. And while the structural weight concerns relating to swinging wingtips are substantial, The Edge looks to ever-advancing material technologies to further increase its viability. Heeding well the lessons of the past, The Edge design holds economic feasibility as its primary focus. Therefore, in addition to its inherently superior aerodynamic performance, The Edge uses a lightweight, largely windowless configuration, relying on a synthetic vision system for outside viewing by both pilot and passengers. Additionally, a fly-by-light flight control system is incorporated to address aircraft supersonic cruise instability. The Edge will be produced at an estimated volume of 400 aircraft and will be offered to airlines in 2015 at $167 million per transport (1992 dollars).

  16. Correlating Species and Spectral Diversity using Remote Sensing in Successional Fields in Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aneece, I.; Epstein, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    Conserving biodiversity can help preserve ecosystem properties and function. As the increasing prevalence of invasive plant species threatens biodiversity, advances in remote sensing technology can help monitor invasive species and their effects on ecosystems and plant communities. To assess whether we could study the effects of invasive species on biodiversity using remote sensing, we asked whether species diversity was positively correlated with spectral diversity, and whether correlations differed among spectral regions along the visible and near-infrared range. To answer these questions, we established community plots in secondary successional fields at the Blandy Experimental Farm in northern Virginia and collected vegetation surveys and ground-level hyperspectral data from 350 to 1025 nm wavelengths. Pearson correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation between spectral diversity and species diversity in the visible ranges of 350-499 nm (Pearson correlation=0.69, p=0.01), 500-589 nm (Pearson=0.64, p=0.03), and 590-674 nm (Pearson=0.70, p=0.01), slight positive correlation in the red edge range of 675-754 nm (Pearson=0.56, p=0.06), and no correlation in the near-infrared ranges of 755-924 nm (Pearson=-0.06, p=0.85) and 925-1025 nm (Pearson=0.30, p=0.34). These differences in correlations across spectral regions may be due to the elements that contribute to signatures in those regions and spectral data transformation methods. To investigate the role of pigment variability in these correlations, we estimated chlorophyll, carotenoid, and anthocyanin concentrations of five dominant species in the plots using vegetation indices. Although interspecific variability in pigment levels exceeded intraspecific variability, chlorophyll (F value=118) was more varied within species than carotenoids (F=322) and anthocyanins (F=126), perhaps contributing to the lack of correlation between species diversity and spectral diversity in the red edge region. Interspecific

  17. Extended Klein edges in graphene.

    PubMed

    He, Kuang; Robertson, Alex W; Lee, Sungwoo; Yoon, Euijoon; Lee, Gun-Do; Warner, Jamie H

    2014-12-23

    Graphene has three experimentally confirmed periodic edge terminations, zigzag, reconstructed 5-7, and arm-chair. Theory predicts a fourth periodic edge of graphene called the extended Klein (EK) edge, which consists of a series of single C atoms protruding from a zigzag edge. Here, we confirm the existence of EK edges in both graphene nanoribbons and on the edge of bulk graphene using atomic resolution imaging by aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. The formation of the EK edge stems from sputtering and reconstruction of the zigzag edge. Density functional theory reveals minimal energy for EK edge reconstruction and bond distortion both in and out of plane, supporting our TEM observations. The EK edge can now be included as the fourth member of observed periodic edge structures in graphene.

  18. Properties on the edge: graphene edge energies, edge stresses, edge warping, and the Wulff shape of graphene flakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branicio, Paulo S.; Jhon, Mark H.; Gan, Chee Kwan; Srolovitz, David J.

    2011-07-01

    It has been shown that the broken bonds of an unreconstructed graphene edge generate compressive edge stresses leading to edge warping. Here, we investigate edge energies and edge stresses of graphene nanoribbons with arbitrary orientations from armchair to zigzag, considering both flat and warped edge shapes in the presence and absence of hydrogen. We use the second generation reactive empirical bond order potential to calculate the edge energies and stresses for clean and hydrogenated edges. Using these energies, we perform a Wulff construction to determine the equilibrium shapes of flat graphene flakes as a function of hydrogen chemical potential. While edge stresses for clean, flat edges are compressive, they become tensile if allowed to warp. Conversely, we find that edge energies change little (~1%) with edge warping. Hydrogenation of the edges virtually eliminates both the edge energy and edge stresses. For warped edges an approximately linear relationship is found between amplitudes and wavelengths. The equilibrium shape of a graphene flake is determined by the value of the hydrogen chemical potential. For very small (and large) values of it the flakes have a nearly hexagonal (dodecagon) shape with zigzag oriented edges, while for intermediate values graphene flakes are found with complex shapes.

  19. Spectral characterization of a photonic bandgap fiber for sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Aref, S Hashem; Amezcua-Correac, Rodrigo; Carvalho, Joel P; Frazão, Orlando; Santos, José L; Araújo, Francisco M; Latifi, Hamid; Farahi, Faramarz; Ferreira, Luis A; Knight, Jonathan C

    2010-04-01

    We study the measurand-induced spectral shift of the photonic bandgap edge of a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. The physical measurands considered are strain, temperature, curvature, and twist. A noticeable sensitivity to strain, temperature, and twist is observed, with a blueshift to increase strain and twist. An increase in temperature induces a redshift. On the other hand, curvature has no observable effect on the spectral position of the photonic bandgap edge. PMID:20357872

  20. High Speed Edge Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokop, Norman F (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Analog circuits for detecting edges in pixel arrays are disclosed. A comparator may be configured to receive an all pass signal and a low pass signal for a pixel intensity in an array of pixels. A latch may be configured to receive a counter signal and a latching signal from the comparator. The comparator may be configured to send the latching signal to the latch when the all pass signal is below the low pass signal minus an offset. The latch may be configured to hold a last negative edge location when the latching signal is received from the comparator.

  1. High Speed Edge Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokop, Norman F (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Analog circuits for detecting edges in pixel arrays are disclosed. A comparator may be configured to receive an all pass signal and a low pass signal for a pixel intensity in an array of pixels. A latch may be configured to receive a counter signal and a latching signal from the comparator. The comparator may be configured to send the latching signal to the latch when the all pass signal is below the low pass signal minus an offset. The latch may be configured to hold a last negative edge location when the latching signal is received from the comparator.

  2. LOFTrelated semiscale test scene. Water has been dyed red. Hot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOFT-related semiscale test scene. Water has been dyed red. Hot steam blowdown exits semiscale at TAN-609 at A&M complex. Edge of building is along left edge of view. Date: 1971. INEEL negative no. 71-376 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Oscillating edge-flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckmaster, J.; Zhang, Yi

    1999-09-01

    It has been known for some years that when a near-limit flame spreads over a liquid pool of fuel, the edge of the flame can oscillate. It is also known that when a near-asphyxiated candle-flame burns in zero gravity, the edge of the (hemispherical) flame can oscillate violently prior to extinction. We propose that these oscillations are nothing more than a manifestation of the large Lewis number instability well known in chemical reactor studies and in combustion studies, one that is exacerbated by heat losses. As evidence of this we examine an edge-flame confined within a fuel-supply boundary and an oxygen-supply boundary, anchored by a discontinuity in data at the fuel-supply boundary. We show that when the Lewis number of the fuel is 2, and the Lewis number of the oxidizer is 1, oscillations of the edge occur when the Damköhler number is reduced below a critical value. During a single oscillation period there is a short premixed propagation stage and a long diffusion stage, behaviour that has been observed in flame spread experiments. Oscillations do not occur when both Lewis numbers are equal to 1.

  4. Superpixel edges for boundary detection

    DOEpatents

    Moya, Mary M.; Koch, Mark W.

    2016-07-12

    Various embodiments presented herein relate to identifying one or more edges in a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image comprising a plurality of superpixels. Superpixels sharing an edge (or boundary) can be identified and one or more properties of the shared superpixels can be compared to determine whether the superpixels form the same or two different features. Where the superpixels form the same feature the edge is identified as an internal edge. Where the superpixels form two different features, the edge is identified as an external edge. Based upon classification of the superpixels, the external edge can be further determined to form part of a roof, wall, etc. The superpixels can be formed from a speckle-reduced SAR image product formed from a registered stack of SAR images, which is further segmented into a plurality of superpixels. The edge identification process is applied to the SAR image comprising the superpixels and edges.

  5. Spectroscopic behavior in whispering-gallery modes by edge formation of printed microdisk lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cong; Li, Jifeng; Ryu, Soichiro; Yoshioka, Hiroaki; Ozawa, Masaaki; Oki, Yuji

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic and rapid spectral shifts of whispering-gallery mode (WGM) from microdisk laser were studied. The microdisks with diameter about 100 μm were fabricated by ink-jet printing of Rhodamine 590 doped polymer. Sharper edge microdisk and rounder edge microdisk were pumped with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser(@532 nm). A spectral shift -3.77×10-3 nm/(μJ·mm-2) was occurred in the case of the rounder edge microdisk, which is smaller than the spectral shift -4.21×10-3 nm/(μJ·mm-2) in the case of the sharper edge microdisk. Expecting the anomalous dispersion and Rhodamine 590 degradation affect, under the same excitation condition, the WGM spatial modification can also led to the shifts. And the modification was caused by interaction between the sharpened-edge and the increased optical gain.

  6. Spectral characterization of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, B. L.; Barker, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The spectral coverage characteristics of the two thematic mapper instruments were determined by analyses of spectral measurements of the optics, filters, and detectors. The following results are presented: (1) band 2 and 3 flatness was slightly below specification, and band 7 flatness was below specification; (2) band 5 upper-band edge was higher than specifications; (3) band 2 band edges were shifted upward about 9 nm relative to nominal; and (4) band 4, 5, and 7 lower band edges were 16 to 18 nm higher then nominal.

  7. Edge magnetoplasmons in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petković, Ivana; Williams, F. I. B.; Glattli, D. Christian

    2014-03-01

    We have observed propagation of edge magnetoplasmon (EMP) modes in graphene in the quantum Hall regime by performing picosecond time-of-flight measurements between narrow contacts on the perimeter of micrometric exfoliated graphene. We find the propagation to be chiral with low attenuation and to have a velocity which is quantized on Hall plateaus. The velocity has two contributions, one arising from the Hall conductivity and the other from carrier drift along the edge, which we were able to separate by their different filling factor dependence. The drift component is found to be slightly less than the Fermi velocity as expected for graphene dynamics in an abrupt edge potential. The Hall conduction contribution is slower than expected and indicates a characteristic length in the Coulomb potential from the Hall charge of about 500 nm. The experiment illustrates how EMP can be coupled to the electromagnetic field, opening the perspective of GHz to THz chiral plasmonics applications to devices such as voltage controlled phase shifters, circulators, switches and compact, tunable ring resonators.

  8. [Research on ground scenery spectral radiation source with tunable spectra].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jin-rong; Ren, Jian-wei; Li, Bao-yong; Wan, Zhi; Liu, Ze-xun; Liu, Hong-xing; Li, Xian-sheng; Sun, Jing-xu

    2015-02-01

    A spectrum-tunable ground scenery spectrum radiation source, using LEDs and bromine tungsten lamp as luminescence media, was introduced. System structure and control of the spectrum radiation source was expounded in detail. In order to simulate various ground scenery spectrum distribution with different shapes, a ground scenery spectral database was established in the control system. An improved genetic algorithm was proposed, and a large number of ground scenery spectra were produced by the simulator. Spectral similarity and the average spectral matching error of several typical ground scenery spectra were further analyzed. Spectral similarity of red bands, green bands, blue bands and near-infrared spectral band also was discussed. When the radiance of the target was 50 W x (m2 x sr)(-1), the average spectral matching error was less than 10% and spectral similarity was greater than 0.9, up to 0.983. Spectral similarity of red band, green band, blue band and near-infrared band (especially green band and near-infrared band) was less than that of full-band. Compared with blue band and red band, spectral similarity of green band and near-infrared band low-amplitude maximum can rearch 50%. Ground scenery spectrum radiation source can be used as radiometric calibration source for optical remote sensor, and calibration error, which is caused by objectives and calibration sources spectral mismatch, can be effectively reduced. PMID:25970881

  9. End-to-end sensor simulation for spectral band selection and optimization with application to the Sentinel-2 mission.

    PubMed

    Segl, Karl; Richter, Rudolf; Küster, Theres; Kaufmann, Hermann

    2012-02-01

    An end-to-end sensor simulation is a proper tool for the prediction of the sensor's performance over a range of conditions that cannot be easily measured. In this study, such a tool has been developed that enables the assessment of the optimum spectral resolution configuration of a sensor based on key applications. It employs the spectral molecular absorption and scattering properties of materials that are used for the identification and determination of the abundances of surface and atmospheric constituents and their interdependence on spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio as a basis for the detailed design and consolidation of spectral bands for the future Sentinel-2 sensor. The developed tools allow the computation of synthetic Sentinel-2 spectra that form the frame for the subsequent twofold analysis of bands in the atmospheric absorption and window regions. One part of the study comprises the assessment of optimal spatial and spectral resolution configurations for those bands used for atmospheric correction, optimized with regard to the retrieval of aerosols, water vapor, and the detection of cirrus clouds. The second part of the study presents the optimization of thematic bands, mainly driven by the spectral characteristics of vegetation constituents and minerals. The investigation is performed for different wavelength ranges because most remote sensing applications require the use of specific band combinations rather than single bands. The results from the important "red-edge" and the "short-wave infrared" domains are presented. The recommended optimum spectral design predominantly confirms the sensor parameters given by the European Space Agency. The system is capable of retrieving atmospheric and geobiophysical parameters with enhanced quality compared to existing multispectral sensors. Minor spectral changes of single bands are discussed in the context of typical remote sensing applications, supplemented by the recommendation of a few new bands for

  10. End-to-end sensor simulation for spectral band selection and optimization with application to the Sentinel-2 mission.

    PubMed

    Segl, Karl; Richter, Rudolf; Küster, Theres; Kaufmann, Hermann

    2012-02-01

    An end-to-end sensor simulation is a proper tool for the prediction of the sensor's performance over a range of conditions that cannot be easily measured. In this study, such a tool has been developed that enables the assessment of the optimum spectral resolution configuration of a sensor based on key applications. It employs the spectral molecular absorption and scattering properties of materials that are used for the identification and determination of the abundances of surface and atmospheric constituents and their interdependence on spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio as a basis for the detailed design and consolidation of spectral bands for the future Sentinel-2 sensor. The developed tools allow the computation of synthetic Sentinel-2 spectra that form the frame for the subsequent twofold analysis of bands in the atmospheric absorption and window regions. One part of the study comprises the assessment of optimal spatial and spectral resolution configurations for those bands used for atmospheric correction, optimized with regard to the retrieval of aerosols, water vapor, and the detection of cirrus clouds. The second part of the study presents the optimization of thematic bands, mainly driven by the spectral characteristics of vegetation constituents and minerals. The investigation is performed for different wavelength ranges because most remote sensing applications require the use of specific band combinations rather than single bands. The results from the important "red-edge" and the "short-wave infrared" domains are presented. The recommended optimum spectral design predominantly confirms the sensor parameters given by the European Space Agency. The system is capable of retrieving atmospheric and geobiophysical parameters with enhanced quality compared to existing multispectral sensors. Minor spectral changes of single bands are discussed in the context of typical remote sensing applications, supplemented by the recommendation of a few new bands for

  11. Early detection of oil-induced stress in crops using spectral and thermal responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emengini, Ebele Josephine; Blackburn, George Alan; Theobald, Julian Charles

    2013-01-01

    Oil pollution is a major source of environmental degradation, and requires accurate monitoring and timely detection for an effective control of its occurrence. This paper examines the potential of a remote sensing approach using the spectral and thermal responses of crops for the early detection of stress caused by oil pollution. In a glasshouse, pot-grown maize was treated with oil at sublethal and lethal applications. Thereafter, leaf thermal, spectral and physiological measurements were taken every two to three days to monitor the development of stress responses. Our results indicate that absolute leaf temperature was a poor indicator of developing stress. However, a derived thermal index (IG) responded consistently in the early stages of physiological damage. Various spectral reflectance features were highly sensitive to oil-induced stress. A narrow-band index using wavelengths in the near-infrared and red-edge region, (R755-R716)/(R755+R716), was optimal for previsual detection of oil-induced stress. This index had a strong linear relationship with photosynthetic rate. This indicates that by detecting vegetation stress, thermal and hyperspectral remote sensing has considerable potential for the timely detection of oil pollution in the environment.

  12. Laboratory goniometer approach for spectral polarimetric directionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furey, John; Zahniser, Shellie; Morgan, Cliff

    2016-05-01

    A two meter inner diameter goniometer provides approximately 0.1° angular positioning precision for a series of spectral and polarimetric instruments to enable measurements of the directionality of polarized reflectance from soils in the laboratory, at 10° increments along the azimuth and zenith. Polarimetric imaging instruments to be mounted on the goniometer, with linear polarizers in rotators in front of each instrument, include broadband focal plane array imagers in the Visible band (Vis), Near InfraRed (NIR), Short Wave InfraRed (SWIR), and Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR) spectral bands, as well as a hyperspectral imager in the Vis through NIR. Two additional hyperspectral polarimetric imagers in the Vis through NIR, and SWIR, are to be mounted separately with angles measured by laser on the goniometer frame.

  13. Spectral reflectance relationships to leaf water stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ripple, William J.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral reflectance data were collected from detached snapbean leaves in the laboratory with a multiband radiometer. Four experiments were designed to study the spectral response resulting from changes in leaf cover, relative water content of leaves, and leaf water potential. Spectral regions included in the analysis were red (630-690 nm), NIR (760-900 nm), and mid-IR (2.08-2.35 microns). The red and mid-IR bands showed sensitivity to changes in both leaf cover and relative water content of leaves. The NIR was only highly sensitive to changes in leaf cover. Results provided evidence that mid-IR reflectance was governed primarily by leaf moisture content, although soil reflectance was an important factor when leaf cover was less than 100 percent. High correlations between leaf water potentials and reflectance were attributed to covariances with relative water content of leaves and leaf cover.

  14. Spectral discrimination of giant reed (Arundo donax L.): A seasonal study in riparian areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Maria Rosário; Aguiar, Francisca C.; Silva, João M. N.; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Pereira, José M. C.

    2013-06-01

    The giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is amongst the one hundred worst invasive alien species of the world, and it is responsible for biodiversity loss and failure of ecosystem functions in riparian habitats. In this work, field spectroradiometry was used to assess the spectral separability of the giant reed from the adjacent vegetation and from the common reed, a native similar species. The study was conducted at different phenological periods and also for the giant reed stands regenerated after mechanical cutting (giant reed_RAC). A hierarchical procedure using Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Classification and Regression Trees (CART) was used to select the minimum number of optimal bands that discriminate the giant reed from the adjacent vegetation. A new approach was used to identify sets of wavelengths - wavezones - that maximize the spectral separability beyond the minimum number of optimal bands. Jeffries Matusita and Bhattacharya distance were used to evaluate the spectral separability using the minimum optimal bands and in three simulated satellite images, namely Landsat, IKONOS and SPOT. Giant reed was spectrally separable from the adjacent vegetation, both at the vegetative and the senescent period, exception made to the common reed at the vegetative period. The red edge region was repeatedly selected, although the visible region was also important to separate the giant reed from the herbaceous vegetation and the mid infrared region to the discrimination from the woody vegetation. The highest separability was obtained for the giant reed_RAC stands, due to its highly homogeneous, dense and dark-green stands. Results are discussed by relating the phenological, morphological and structural features of the giant reed stands and the adjacent vegetation with their optical traits. Weaknesses and strengths of the giant reed spectral discrimination are highlighted and implications of imagery selection for mapping purposes are argued based on present results.

  15. [Study on canopy spectral characteristics of paddy polluted by heavy metals].

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong-Yan; Zhuang, Da-Fang; Pan, Jian-Jun; Shi, Xue-Zheng; Shi, Run-He; Wang, Hong-Jie

    2010-02-01

    Because of frequent mining, heavy metals are brought into environment like soils, water and atmosphere, resulting heavy metal contamination in the agricultural region beside mines. Heavy metals contamination causes vegetation stress like destruction of chloroplast structure, chlorophyll content decrease, blunt photosynthesis, etc. Spectral responses to changes in chlorophyll content and photosynthesis make it possible that remote sensing is applied in monitoring heavy metals stress on paddy plants. Field spectroradiometer was used to acquire canopy reflectance spectra of paddy plants contaminated by heavy metals released from local mining. The present study was conducted to (1) investigate discrimination of canopy reflectance spectra of heavy metal polluted and normal paddy plants; (2) extract spectral characteristics of contaminated paddy plants and compare them. By means of correlation analysis, sensitive bands (SB) were firstly picked out from canopy spectra. Secondly, on the basis of these sensitive bands, normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI) were established, and then red edge position (REP) was extracted from canopy spectra via curve fitting of inverted Gaussian model. As a result of correlation analysis, 460, 560, 660 and 1 100 nm were considered respectively as sensitive band for Pb, Zn, Cu and As concentration in paddy leaves. Furthermore, heavy metal concentrations (Pb, Zn, Cu and As) were significantly correlated with NDVIs (Pb, NDV(510, 810); Zn, NDVI(510, 870; Cu, NDVI(660, 870); As, NDVI(510, 810)). Heavy metals were also significantly correlated with REP, however, the inflexion termed as spectral critical value (SCV) between low and high heavy metals concentrations should be considered during applying REP in remote sensing monitoring. Moreover, NDVI and REP are much better than SB in terms of capability of expressing spectral information. Therefore, heavy metals contamination in paddy plants can be remotely monitored via ground

  16. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  17. Variable Red Giants--The MACHO View

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, S C; Cook, K H

    2003-01-03

    The authors present a study of the MACHO red variable population in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This study reveals six period-luminosity relations among the red variable population. Only two of these were known prior to MACHO. The results are consistent with Mira pulsation in the fundamental mode. A sequence comprising 26% of the red variable population can not be explained by pulsation. They propose a dust {kappa}-mechanism in the circumstellar environment is responsible for the long period variation of these objects. The luminosity function of the variables shows a sharp edge at the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). This is the first clear indication of a population of variable stars within the immediate vicinity of the TRGB. The results indicate this population amounts to 8% of the RGB population near the TRGB.

  18. Electrochemistry of folded graphene edges.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, Adriano; Bonanni, Alessandra; Pumera, Martin

    2011-05-01

    There is enormous interest in the investigation of electron transfer rates at the edges of graphene due to possible energy storage and sensing applications. While electrochemistry at the edges and the basal plane of graphene has been studied in the past, the new frontier is the electrochemistry of folded graphene edges. Here we describe the electrochemistry of folded graphene edges and compare it to that of open graphene edges. The materials were characterized in detail by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. We found that the heterogeneous electron transfer rate is significantly lower on folded graphene edges compared to open edge sites for ferro/ferricyanide, and that electrochemical properties of open edges offer lower potential detection of biomarkers than the folded ones. It is apparent, therefore, that for sensing and biosensing applications the folded edges are less active than open edges, which should then be preferred for such applications. As folded edges are the product of thermal treatment of multilayer graphene, such thermal procedures should be avoided when fabricating graphene for electrochemical applications.

  19. Growth and photomorphogenesis of pepper plants under red light-emitting diodes with supplemental blue or far-red lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, C. S.; Schuerger, A. C.; Sager, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a potential irradiation source for intensive plant culture systems and photobiological research. They have small size, low mass, a long functional life, and narrow spectral output. In this study, we measured the growth and dry matter partitioning of 'Hungarian Wax' pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants grown under red LEDs compared with similar plants grown under red LEDs with supplemental blue or far-red radiation or under broad spectrum metal halide (MH) lamps. Additionally, we describe the thermal and spectral characteristics of these sources. The LEDs used in this study had a narrow bandwidth at half peak height (25 nm) and a focused maximum spectral output at 660 nm for the red and 735 nm for the far-red. Near infrared radiation (800 to 3000 nm) was below detection and thermal infrared radiation (3000 to 50,000 nm) was lower in the LEDs compared to the MH source. Although the red to far-red ratio varied considerably, the calculated phytochrome photostationary state (phi) was only slightly different between the radiation sources. Plant biomass was reduced when peppers were grown under red LEDs in the absence of blue wavelengths compared to plants grown under supplemental blue fluorescent lamps or MH lamps. The addition of far-red radiation resulted in taller plants with greater stem mass than red LEDs alone. There were fewer leaves under red or red plus far-red radiation than with lamps producing blue wavelengths. These results indicate that red LEDs may be suitable, in proper combination with other wavelengths of light, for the culture of plants in tightly controlled environments such as space-based plant culture systems.

  20. Finite-width effects for the localized edge modes in zigzag graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari-Sharbaf, Arash; Cottam, Michael G.

    2016-06-01

    A matrix formalism is used to derive the analytical Green's functions describing correlations between any two atomic sites on a zigzag (ZZ) graphene nanoribbon, incorporating modified electronic hopping values between edge sites that may be distinct from the hopping between interior sites. An analysis of the poles of our Green's functions shows two distinct types of localized edge modes in the electronic spectrum. The first of these, the "zero" mode, is a topologically induced mode arising from the bipartite honeycomb lattice structure of graphene and is always present along ZZ edges. The second type of localized edge mode is present at edges when the edge-to-bulk hopping ratio deviates significantly from unity. The correlations between edge sites are found to exhibit strikingly different features when mediated by the zero edge mode compared with mediation by the "modified" edge mode. In particular, the zero-mode spectral intensity for correlations between two atomic sites along opposite edges can be comparable in strength with that between two sites on the same edge of a finite-width ribbon, before it eventually tends to zero as the ribbon width tends to infinity. This remarkable behavior shows a strong dependence on the sublattice labels of the sites and is in contrast with properties of the modified hopping edge modes. The explicit form of our analytical expressions for the electronic spectrum enables us to predict the zero-mode properties (including frequency, spatial attenuation, and intensity) when the hopping values along ZZ edges are modified.

  1. Spectral and spread-spectral teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S.

    2010-06-15

    We report how quantum information encoded into the spectral degree of freedom of a single-photon state may be teleported using a finite spectrally entangled biphoton state. We further demonstrate how the bandwidth of the teleported wave form can be controllably and coherently dilated using a spread-spectral variant of teleportation. We calculate analytical expressions for the fidelities of spectral and spread-spectral teleportation when complex-valued Gaussian states are transferred using a proposed experimental approach. Finally, we discuss the utility of these techniques for integrating broad-bandwidth photonic qubits with narrow-bandwidth receivers in quantum communication systems.

  2. Phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy of mineral standards

    PubMed Central

    Ingall, Ellery D.; Brandes, Jay A.; Diaz, Julia M.; de Jonge, Martin D.; Paterson, David; McNulty, Ian; Elliott, W. Crawford; Northrup, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was performed on phosphate mineral specimens including (a) twelve specimens from the apatite group covering a range of compositional variation and crystallinity; (b) six non-apatite calcium-rich phosphate minerals; (c) 15 aluminium-rich phosphate minerals; (d) ten phosphate minerals rich in either reduced iron or manganese; (e) four phosphate minerals rich in either oxidized iron or manganese; (f) eight phosphate minerals rich in either magnesium, copper, lead, zinc or rare-earth elements; and (g) four uranium phosphate minerals. The identity of all minerals examined in this study was independently confirmed using X-ray powder diffraction. Minerals were distinguished using XANES spectra with a combination of pre-edge features, edge position, peak shapes and post-edge features. Shared spectral features were observed in minerals with compositions dominated by the same specific cation. Analyses of apatite-group minerals indicate that XANES spectral patterns are not strongly affected by variations in composition and crystallinity typical of natural mineral specimens. PMID:21335905

  3. Phosphorus K-edge XANES Spectroscopy of Mineral Standards

    SciTech Connect

    E Ingall; J Brandes; J Diaz; M de Jonge; D Paterson; I McNulty; C Elliott; P Northrup

    2011-12-31

    Phosphorus K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was performed on phosphate mineral specimens including (a) twelve specimens from the apatite group covering a range of compositional variation and crystallinity; (b) six non-apatite calcium-rich phosphate minerals; (c) 15 aluminium-rich phosphate minerals; (d) ten phosphate minerals rich in either reduced iron or manganese; (e) four phosphate minerals rich in either oxidized iron or manganese; (f) eight phosphate minerals rich in either magnesium, copper, lead, zinc or rare-earth elements; and (g) four uranium phosphate minerals. The identity of all minerals examined in this study was independently confirmed using X-ray powder diffraction. Minerals were distinguished using XANES spectra with a combination of pre-edge features, edge position, peak shapes and post-edge features. Shared spectral features were observed in minerals with compositions dominated by the same specific cation. Analyses of apatite-group minerals indicate that XANES spectral patterns are not strongly affected by variations in composition and crystallinity typical of natural mineral specimens.

  4. Carbon K-edge Spectra of Carbonate Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, J.; Wirick, S; Jacobsen, C

    2010-01-01

    Carbon K-edge X-ray spectroscopy has been applied to the study of a wide range of organic samples, from polymers and coals to interstellar dust particles. Identification of carbonaceous materials within these samples is accomplished by the pattern of resonances in the 280-320 eV energy region. Carbonate minerals are often encountered in the study of natural samples, and have been identified by a distinctive resonance at 290.3 eV. Here C K-edge and Ca L-edge spectra from a range of carbonate minerals are presented. Although all carbonates exhibit a sharp 290 eV resonance, both the precise position of this resonance and the positions of other resonances vary among minerals. The relative strengths of the different carbonate resonances also vary with crystal orientation to the linearly polarized X-ray beam. Intriguingly, several carbonate minerals also exhibit a strong 288.6 eV resonance, consistent with the position of a carbonyl resonance rather than carbonate. Calcite and aragonite, although indistinguishable spectrally at the C K-edge, exhibited significantly different spectra at the Ca L-edge. The distinctive spectral fingerprints of carbonates provide an identification tool, allowing for the examination of such processes as carbon sequestration in minerals, Mn substitution in marine calcium carbonates (dolomitization) and serpentinization of basalts.

  5. Edge remap for solids

    SciTech Connect

    Kamm, James R.; Love, Edward; Robinson, Allen C.; Young, Joseph G.; Ridzal, Denis

    2013-12-01

    We review the edge element formulation for describing the kinematics of hyperelastic solids. This approach is used to frame the problem of remapping the inverse deformation gradient for Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) simulations of solid dynamics. For hyperelastic materials, the stress state is completely determined by the deformation gradient, so remapping this quantity effectively updates the stress state of the material. A method, inspired by the constrained transport remap in electromagnetics, is reviewed, according to which the zero-curl constraint on the inverse deformation gradient is implicitly satisfied. Open issues related to the accuracy of this approach are identified. An optimization-based approach is implemented to enforce positivity of the determinant of the deformation gradient. The efficacy of this approach is illustrated with numerical examples.

  6. Edge-on!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-08-01

    Peering at Uranus's Rings as they Swing Edge-on to Earth for the First Time Since their Discovery in 1977 As Uranus coasts through a brief window of time when its rings are edge-on to Earth - a view of the planet we get only once every 42 years - astronomers peering at the rings with ESO's Very Large Telescope and other space or ground-based telescopes are getting an unprecedented view of the fine dust in the system, free from the glare of the bright rocky rings. They may even find a new moon or two. ESO PR Photo 37/07 ESO PR Photo 37/07 The Uranus System "ESO's VLT took data at the precise moment when the rings were edge-on to Earth," said Imke de Pater, of University of California, Berkeley who coordinated the worldwide campaign. She worked with two team members observing in Chile: Daphne Stam of the Technical University Delft in the Netherlands and Markus Hartung of ESO. The observations were done with NACO, one of the adaptive optics instruments installed at the VLT. With adaptive optics, it is possible to obtain images almost free from the blurring effect of the atmosphere. It is as if the 8.2-m telescope were observing from space. Observations were also done with the Keck telescope in Hawaii, the Hubble Space Telescope, and at the Palomar Observatory. "Using different telescopes around the world allows us to observe as much of the changes during the ring-plane crossing as possible: when Uranus sets as seen from the VLT, it can still be observed by the Keck," emphasised Stam. Uranus orbits the Sun in 84 years. Twice during a Uranian year, the rings appear edge-on to Earth for a brief period. The rings were discovered in 1977, so this is the first time for a Uranus ring-crossing to be observed from Earth. The advantage of observations at a ring-plane crossing is that it becomes possible to look at the rings from the shadowed or dark side. From that vantage point, the normally bright outer rings grow fainter because their centimetre- to metre-sized rocks obscure

  7. Edge turbulence and transport: Text and ATF modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Ritz, C.P.; Rhodes, T.L.; Lin, H.; Rowan, W.L.; Bengtson, R.; Wootton, A.J. . Fusion Research Center); Carreras, B.A.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Lee, D.K.; Harris, J.; Hidalgo, C.; Bell, J.D.; Holmes, J.A.; Isler, R.; Lynch, V.E.; Uckan, T. ); Diamond, P.H.; Ware, A.S. ); Thayer, D.R. (Science Applications Inter

    1990-01-01

    We present experimental results on edge turbulence and transport from the tokamak TEXT and the torsatron ATF. The measured electrostatic fluctuations can explain the edge transport of particles and energy. Certain drive (radiation) and stabilizing (velocity shear) terms are suggested by the results. The experimental fluctuation levels and spectral widths can be reproduced by considering the nonlinear evolution of the reduced MHD equations, incorporating a thermal drive from line radiation. In the tokamak limit (with toroidal electric field) the model corresponds to the resistivity gradient mode, while in the currentless torsatron or stellarator limit it corresponds to a thermally driven drift wave.

  8. [Study on spectral detection of green plant target].

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei; Zhao, Chun-jiang; He, Xiong-kui; Chen, Li-ping; Zhang, Lu-da; Wu, Guang-wei; Mueller, J; Zhai, Chang-yuan

    2010-08-01

    Weeds grow scatteredly in fields, where many insentient objects exist, for example, withered grasses, dry twig and barriers. In order to improve the precision level of spraying, it is important to study green plant detecting technology. The present paper discussed detecting method of green plant by using spectral recognizing technology, because of the real-time feature of spectral recognition. By analyzing the reflectivity difference between each of the two sides of the "red edge" of the spectrum from plants and surrounding environment, green plant discriminat index (GPDI) is defined as the value which equals the reflectivity ratio at the wavelength of 850 nm divided by the reflectivity ratio at the wavelength of 650 nm. The original spectral data of green plants and the background were measured by using the handhold FieldSpec 3 Spectroradiometer manufactured by ASD Inc. in USA. The spectral data were processed to get the reflectivity of each measured objects and to work out the GPDI thereof as well. The classification model of green plant and its background was built up using decision tree method in order to obtain the threshold of GPDI to distinguish green plants and the background. The threshold of GPDI was chosen as 5.54. The detected object was recognized as green plant when it is GPDI>GPDITH, and vice versa. Through another test, the accuracy rate was verified which was 100% by using the threshold. The authors designed and developed the green plant detector based on single chip microcomputer (SCM) "AT89S51" and photodiode "OPT101" to realize detecting green plants from the background. After passing through two optical filters, the center wavelengths of which are 650 and 850 nm respectively, the reflected light from measured targets was detected by two photodiodes and converted into electrical signals. These analog signals were then converted to digital signals via an analog-to-digital converter (ADS7813) after being amplified by a signal amplifier (OP400

  9. Edge phonons in black phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, H. B.; Villegas, C. E. P.; Bahamon, D. A.; Muraca, D.; Castro Neto, A. H.; de Souza, E. A. T.; Rocha, A. R.; Pimenta, M. A.; de Matos, C. J. S.

    2016-07-01

    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements.

  10. Edge phonons in black phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, H B; Villegas, C E P; Bahamon, D A; Muraca, D; Castro Neto, A H; de Souza, E A T; Rocha, A R; Pimenta, M A; de Matos, C J S

    2016-01-01

    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements. PMID:27412813

  11. Edge phonons in black phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, H. B.; Villegas, C. E. P.; Bahamon, D. A.; Muraca, D.; Castro Neto, A. H.; de Souza, E. A. T.; Rocha, A. R.; Pimenta, M. A.; de Matos, C. J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Black phosphorus has recently emerged as a new layered crystal that, due to its peculiar and anisotropic crystalline and electronic band structures, may have important applications in electronics, optoelectronics and photonics. Despite the fact that the edges of layered crystals host a range of singular properties whose characterization and exploitation are of utmost importance for device development, the edges of black phosphorus remain poorly characterized. In this work, the atomic structure and behaviour of phonons near different black phosphorus edges are experimentally and theoretically studied using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Polarized Raman results show the appearance of new modes at the edges of the sample, and their spectra depend on the atomic structure of the edges (zigzag or armchair). Theoretical simulations confirm that the new modes are due to edge phonon states that are forbidden in the bulk, and originated from the lattice termination rearrangements. PMID:27412813

  12. Red Blood Cell Count Automation Using Microscopic Hyperspectral Imaging Technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingli; Zhou, Mei; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Yiting; Guo, Fangmin

    2015-12-01

    Red blood cell counts have been proven to be one of the most frequently performed blood tests and are valuable for early diagnosis of some diseases. This paper describes an automated red blood cell counting method based on microscopic hyperspectral imaging technology. Unlike the light microscopy-based red blood count methods, a combined spatial and spectral algorithm is proposed to identify red blood cells by integrating active contour models and automated two-dimensional k-means with spectral angle mapper algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance than spatial based algorithm because the new algorithm can jointly use the spatial and spectral information of blood cells. PMID:26554882

  13. DRAMATIC CHANGE IN JUPITER'S GREAT RED SPOT FROM SPACECRAFT OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Amy A.; Wong, Michael H.; De Pater, Imke; Rogers, John H.; Orton, Glenn S.; Carlson, Robert W.; Asay-Davis, Xylar; Marcus, Philip S.

    2014-12-20

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features. Since the advent of modern telescopes, keen observers have noted its appearance and documented a change in shape from very oblong to oval, confirmed in measurements from spacecraft data. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show that this change has been accompanied by an increase in cloud/haze reflectance as sensed in methane gas absorption bands, increased absorption at wavelengths shorter than 500 nm, and increased spectral slope between 500 and 630 nm. These changes occurred between 2012 and 2014, without a significant change in internal tangential wind speeds; the decreased size results in a 3.2 day horizontal cloud circulation period, shorter than previously observed. As the GRS has narrowed in latitude, it interacts less with the jets flanking its north and south edges, perhaps allowing for less cloud mixing and longer UV irradiation of cloud and aerosol particles. Given its long life and observational record, we expect that future modeling of the GRS's changes, in concert with laboratory flow experiments, will drive our understanding of vortex evolution and stability in a confined flow field crucial for comparison with other planetary atmospheres.

  14. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot from Spacecraft Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Amy A.; Wong, Michael H.; Rogers, John H.; Orton, Glenn S.; de Pater, Imke; Asay-Davis, Xylar; Carlson, Robert W.; Marcus, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features. Since the advent of modern telescopes, keen observers have noted its appearance and documented a change in shape from very oblong to oval, confirmed in measurements from spacecraft data. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show that this change has been accompanied by an increase in cloud/haze reflectance as sensed in methane gas absorption bands, increased absorption at wavelengths shorter than 500 nanometers, and increased spectral slope between 500 and 630 nanometers. These changes occurred between 2012 and 2014, without a significant change in internal tangential wind speeds; the decreased size results in a 3.2 day horizontal cloud circulation period, shorter than previously observed. As the GRS has narrowed in latitude, it interacts less with the jets flanking its north and south edges, perhaps allowing for less cloud mixing and longer UV irradiation of cloud and aerosol particles. Given its long life and observational record, we expect that future modeling of the GRS's changes, in concert with laboratory flow experiments, will drive our understanding of vortex evolution and stability in a confined flow field crucial for comparison with other planetary atmospheres.

  15. Edge conduction in vacuum glazing

    SciTech Connect

    Simko, T.M.; Collins, R.E.; Beck, F.A.; Arasteh, D.

    1995-03-01

    Vacuum glazing is a form of low-conductance double glazing using in internal vacuum between the two glass sheets to eliminate heat transport by gas conduction and convection. An array of small support pillars separates the sheets; fused solder glass forms the edge seal. Heat transfer through the glazing occurs by radiation across the vacuum gap, conduction through the support pillars, and conduction through the bonded edge seal. Edge conduction is problematic because it affects stresses in the edge region, leading to possible failure of the glazing; in addition, excessive heat transfer because of thermal bridging in the edge region can lower overall window thermal performance and decrease resistance to condensation. Infrared thermography was used to analyze the thermal performance of prototype vacuum glazings, and, for comparison, atmospheric pressure superwindows. Research focused on mitigating the edge effects of vacuum glazings through the use of insulating trim, recessed edges, and framing materials. Experimentally validated finite-element and finite-difference modeling tools were used for thermal analysis of prototype vacuum glazing units and complete windows. Experimental measurements of edge conduction using infrared imaging were found to be in good agreement with finite-element modeling results for a given set of conditions. Finite-element modeling validates an analytic model developed for edge conduction.

  16. The Facilitator's Edge: Group Sessions for Edge-ucators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handcock, Helen

    The Facilitator's Edge is a workshop series based on the life/work messages of The Edge magazine. The workshops are deigned to help educators, youth workers, and their career practitioners facilitate conscious career building. This manual consists of five group sessions, each focusing on a different career-building theme. "Megatrends and Making it…

  17. Edge-edge interactions in stacked graphene nanoplatelets

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz Silva, Eduardo; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio; Jia, Xiaoting; Sumpter, Bobby G; Dresselhaus, M; Meunier, V.

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies show the dynamics of small graphene platelets on larger graphene layers. The platelets move nearly freely to eventually lock in at well-defined positions close to the edges of the larger underlying graphene sheet. While such movement is driven by a shallow potential energy surface described by an interplane interaction, the lock-in position occurs by via edge-edge interactions of the platelet and the graphene surface located underneath. Here we quantitatively study this behavior using van der Waals density functional calculations. Local interactions at the open edges are found to dictate stacking configurations that are different from Bernal (AB) stacking. These stacking configurations are known to be otherwise absent in edge-free two-dimensional (2D) graphene. The results explain the experimentally observed platelet dynamics and provide a detailed account of the new electronic properties of these combined systems.

  18. Giant edge state splitting at atomically precise graphene zigzag edges

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiyong; Talirz, Leopold; Pignedoli, Carlo A.; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Fasel, Roman; Ruffieux, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Zigzag edges of graphene nanostructures host localized electronic states that are predicted to be spin-polarized. However, these edge states are highly susceptible to edge roughness and interaction with a supporting substrate, complicating the study of their intrinsic electronic and magnetic structure. Here, we focus on atomically precise graphene nanoribbons whose two short zigzag edges host exactly one localized electron each. Using the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope, the graphene nanoribbons are transferred from the metallic growth substrate onto insulating islands of NaCl in order to decouple their electronic structure from the metal. The absence of charge transfer and hybridization with the substrate is confirmed by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, which reveals a pair of occupied/unoccupied edge states. Their large energy splitting of 1.9 eV is in accordance with ab initio many-body perturbation theory calculations and reflects the dominant role of electron–electron interactions in these localized states. PMID:27181701

  19. Giant edge state splitting at atomically precise graphene zigzag edges.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiyong; Talirz, Leopold; Pignedoli, Carlo A; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Fasel, Roman; Ruffieux, Pascal

    2016-05-16

    Zigzag edges of graphene nanostructures host localized electronic states that are predicted to be spin-polarized. However, these edge states are highly susceptible to edge roughness and interaction with a supporting substrate, complicating the study of their intrinsic electronic and magnetic structure. Here, we focus on atomically precise graphene nanoribbons whose two short zigzag edges host exactly one localized electron each. Using the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope, the graphene nanoribbons are transferred from the metallic growth substrate onto insulating islands of NaCl in order to decouple their electronic structure from the metal. The absence of charge transfer and hybridization with the substrate is confirmed by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, which reveals a pair of occupied/unoccupied edge states. Their large energy splitting of 1.9 eV is in accordance with ab initio many-body perturbation theory calculations and reflects the dominant role of electron-electron interactions in these localized states.

  20. Spectral sensitivity in jumping spiders (Araneae, Salticidae).

    PubMed

    Peaslee, A G; Wilson, G

    1989-01-01

    1. We report here a psychophysical technique for studying the spectral sensitivity of jumping spiders (family Salticidae), based on a newly discovered oculomotor reflex. 2. Our results, obtained from Maevia inclemens (Salticidae), are compatible with electrophysiological findings of retinal cells maximally sensitive in the green and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum. 3. Sensitivity to longer wavelengths (greater than 650 nm) has been controversial. In our study jumping spiders are shown to have a broad spectral sensitivity function extending from the ultraviolet (330 nm) to the deep red (700 nm).

  1. The Spectral Shift Function and Spectral Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azamov, N. A.; Carey, A. L.; Sukochev, F. A.

    2007-11-01

    At the 1974 International Congress, I. M. Singer proposed that eta invariants and hence spectral flow should be thought of as the integral of a one form. In the intervening years this idea has lead to many interesting developments in the study of both eta invariants and spectral flow. Using ideas of [24] Singer’s proposal was brought to an advanced level in [16] where a very general formula for spectral flow as the integral of a one form was produced in the framework of noncommutative geometry. This formula can be used for computing spectral flow in a general semifinite von Neumann algebra as described and reviewed in [5]. In the present paper we take the analytic approach to spectral flow much further by giving a large family of formulae for spectral flow between a pair of unbounded self-adjoint operators D and D + V with D having compact resolvent belonging to a general semifinite von Neumann algebra {mathcal{N}} and the perturbation V in {mathcal{N}} . In noncommutative geometry terms we remove summability hypotheses. This level of generality is made possible by introducing a new idea from [3]. There it was observed that M. G. Krein’s spectral shift function (in certain restricted cases with V trace class) computes spectral flow. The present paper extends Krein’s theory to the setting of semifinite spectral triples where D has compact resolvent belonging to {mathcal{N}} and V is any bounded self-adjoint operator in {mathcal{N}} . We give a definition of the spectral shift function under these hypotheses and show that it computes spectral flow. This is made possible by the understanding discovered in the present paper of the interplay between spectral shift function theory and the analytic theory of spectral flow. It is this interplay that enables us to take Singer’s idea much further to create a large class of one forms whose integrals calculate spectral flow. These advances depend critically on a new approach to the calculus of functions of non

  2. A comparative study of reflectance spectral indices and digital camera imagery to quantify in-vivo foliar chlorophyll concentration in common New England forest species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Michael T.

    Quantifying foliar chlorophyll content is an important procedure in ecosystem studies. Established extraction techniques for quantifying chlorophyll concentration were compared to hyperspectral reflectance indices collected with a GER2600 spectroradiometer, and digital image indices derived from digital camera imagery. Findings show REIP:(R 2=0.52) is a strong indicator reflectance changes associated with plant stress, but RE3/RE2:(R2=0.72), FD715/FD705:(R2=0.77) and CRI red-edge(d) :(R2=0.73) predicted differences in chlorophyll concentration across a range of species more accurately. Many spectral indices predict chlorophyll concentrations more accurately than the REIP, but fail to document the blue-shift associated with foliar stress. Camera imagery results show gray card normalized percent red (R-GC)/( R+GC):(R2=0.63) and percent green (G-GC)/(G+GC):(R 2=0.68) to be strong predictors of chlorophyll concentration across multiple species. For individual species (%Red-%Blue)/(%Red+%Blue) or ( RvB:%R) is a reliable camera index that tracks phenological changes in chlorophyll accurately. Pearson's r across the 2008 growing season for black oak (N=40) was (R2=-0.95), and sugar maple (N=33) was (R2=-0.64).

  3. The persistence of a chlorophyll spectral biosignature from Martian evaporite and spring analogues under Mars-like conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stromberg, J. M.; Applin, D. M.; Cloutis, E. A.; Rice, M.; Berard, G.; Mann, P.

    2014-07-01

    Spring and evaporite deposits are considered two of the most promising environments for past habitability on Mars and preservation of biosignatures. Manitoba, Canada hosts the East German Creek (EGC) hypersaline spring complex, and the post impact evaporite gypsum beds of the Lake St. Martin (LSM) impact. The EGC complex has microbial mats, sediments, algae and biofabrics, while endolithic communities are ubiquitous in the LSM gypsum beds. These communities are spectrally detectable based largely on the presence of a chlorophyll absorption band at 670 nm however, the robustness of this feature under Martian surface conditions was unclear. Biological and biology-bearing samples from EGC and LSM were exposed to conditions similar to the surface of present day Mars (high UV flux, 100 mbar, anoxic, CO2 rich) for up to 44 days, and preservation of the 670 nm chlorophyll feature and chlorophyll red-edge was observed. A decrease in band depth of the 670 nm band ranging from ~16 to 80% resulted, with correlations seen in the degree of preservation and the spatial proximity of samples to the spring mound and mineral shielding effects. The spectra were deconvolved to Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Pancam and Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mastcam science filter bandpasses to investigate the detectability of the 670 nm feature and to compare with common mineral features. The red-edge and 670 nm feature associated with chlorophyll can be distinguished from the spectra of minerals with features below ~1000 nm, such as hematite and jarosite. However, distinguishing goethite from samples with the chlorophyll feature is more problematic, and quantitative interpretation using band depth data makes little distinction between iron oxyhydroxides and the 670 nm chlorophyll feature. The chlorophyll spectral feature is observable in both Pancam and Mastcam, and we propose that of the proposed EXOMARS Pancam filters, the PHYLL filter is best suited for its detection.

  4. Rock Segmentation through Edge Regrouping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burl, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Rockster is an algorithm that automatically identifies the locations and boundaries of rocks imaged by the rover hazard cameras (hazcams), navigation cameras (navcams), or panoramic cameras (pancams). The software uses edge detection and edge regrouping to identify closed contours that separate the rocks from the background.

  5. Computer Methods in EDG Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabrey, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    Presents several computer-related techniques that encourage engineering design graphics (EDG) students to develop knowledge at levels 4 and 5 of Bloom's taxonomy. Contrasts this approach to extend the educational process with the development of training skills at knowledge levels 2 and 3, which are often the sole basis for EDG instruction.…

  6. The Robotic Edge Finishing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Loucks, C.S.; Selleck, C.B.

    1990-08-01

    The Robotic Edge Finishing Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories is developing four areas of technology required for automated deburring, chamfering, and blending of machined edges: (1) the automatic programming of robot trajectories and deburring processes using information derived from a CAD database, (2) the use of machine vision for locating the workpiece coupled with force control to ensure proper tool contact, (3) robotic deburring, blending, and machining of precision chamfered edges, and (4) in-process automated inspection of the formed edge. The Laboratory, its components, integration, and results from edge finishing experiments to date are described here. Also included is a discussion of the issues regarding implementation of the technology in a production environment. 24 refs., 17 figs.

  7. Dynamic fracture mechanics analysis for an edge delamination crack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Doyle, James F.

    1994-01-01

    A global/local analysis is applied to the problem of a panel with an edge delamination crack subject to an impulse loading to ascertain the dynamic J integral. The approach uses the spectral element method to obtain the global dynamic response and local resultants to obtain the J integral. The variation of J integral along the crack front is shown. The crack behavior is mixed mode (Mode 2 and Mode 3), but is dominated by the Mode 2 behavior.

  8. Numerical Simulation of a Flap-Edge Flowfield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streett, C. L.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we develop an approximate computational framework for simulation of the fluctuating flowfield associated with the complex vortex system seen at the side edge of a flap in a multielement high-lift airfoil system. The eventual goal of these simulations is to provide an estimate of the spectral content of these fluctuations, in order that the spectrum of the noise generated by such flowfields may be estimated. Results from simulations utilizing this computational framework are shown.

  9. Theory of edge detection.

    PubMed

    Marr, D; Hildreth, E

    1980-02-29

    A theory of edge detection is presented. The analysis proceeds in two parts. (1) Intensity changes, which occur in a natural image over a wide range of scales, are detected separately at different scales. An appropriate filter for this purpose at a given scale is found to be the second derivative of a Gaussian, and it is shown that, provided some simple conditions are satisfied, these primary filters need not be orientation-dependent. Thus, intensity changes at a given scale are best detected by finding the zero values of delta 2G(x,y)*I(x,y) for image I, where G(x,y) is a two-dimensional Gaussian distribution and delta 2 is the Laplacian. The intensity changes thus discovered in each of the channels are then represented by oriented primitives called zero-crossing segments, and evidence is given that this representation is complete. (2) Intensity changes in images arise from surface discontinuities or from reflectance or illumination boundaries, and these all have the property that they are spatially. Because of this, the zero-crossing segments from the different channels are not independent, and rules are deduced for combining them into a description of the image. This description is called the raw primal sketch. The theory explains several basic psychophysical findings, and the operation of forming oriented zero-crossing segments from the output of centre-surround delta 2G filters acting on the image forms the basis for a physiological model of simple cells (see Marr & Ullman 1979).

  10. Research on the relationship between the fractional coverage of the submerged plant Vallisneria spiralis and observed spectral parameters.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qian; Wu, Kunqi; Bai, Yan; Hu, Yueming

    2013-07-01

    The present paper discusses the relationship between the coverage fraction of submerged plants and the observed spectral characteristics. The purpose of this paper is to validate a remote sensing technology to monitor the change in the plant composition of a water body. In the current study, the reflectance spectra of the submerged plant Vallisneria spiralis at different fraction coverages of the wetland in Hangzhou Bay were measured. The relationships between the fraction coverage of V. spiralis and simulated Quickbird normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), red edge, and other spectral characteristic parameters were established. The results showed that the spectral reflectance characteristics of submerged plant V. spiralis were mainly in the visible light (490-650 nm) and near infrared (700-900 nm). The rate of change of the blue band curve and simulated Quickbird NDVI showed a higher correlation with the V. spiralis coverage, so estimation models of the fraction coverage were constructed using these parameters. The estimated fraction coverage of V. spiralis with different models were validated with ground data, and the accuracy of estimation models was assessed. The most suitable estimated fraction coverage of V. spiralis was obtained using the rate of change of the blue band curve and simulated Quickbird NDVI. The present work demonstrated a method to monitor the distribution and dynamical variation of submerged plants at the large scale. PMID:23093368

  11. Si K Edge Measurements of the ISM with Chandra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Norbert S.; Corrales, Lia; Canizares, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    The Si K edge structure in X-ray spectra of the diffuse ISM is expected to exhibit substructure related to the fact that most absorption is due to silicates in dust. We surveyed high resolution X-ray spectra of a large number of bright low-mass X-ray binaries with column densities significantly larger than 10^22 cm^2. Using the to date unprecedented spectral resolution of the high energy transmission gratings onboard the Chandra X-ray observatory we find complex substructure in the Si K edge. The highest resolved spectra show two edges, one at the expected value for atomic, one at the value for most silicate compounds with the dominant contribution of the latter. There is specific subtructure from silicate optical depth caused by absorption and scattering. Some is also variable and can be attributed to ionized absorption in the vicinity of the X-ray sources.

  12. The electronic spectral properties of gallic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, David W.; Stong, John D.

    The electronic spectral properties of gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), a chemiluminescence reagent which is unstable in oxygenated aqueous solution, have been determined under conditions regulated to retard decomposition. The characteristic blue and red shifts in the u.v. absorption spectra which accompany carboxyl and phenol dissociation, respectively, are in accord with the trends usually observed for these functional groups. The dianionic species exhibits a fluorescence emission band with a peak at 370 nm under 300-nm excitation.

  13. Hyperspectral image segmentation using spatial-spectral graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, David B.; Bowles, Jeffrey H.

    2012-06-01

    Spectral graph theory has proven to be a useful tool in the analysis of high-dimensional data sets. Recall that, mathematically, a graph is a collection of objects (nodes) and connections between them (edges); a weighted graph additionally assigns numerical values (weights) to the edges. Graphs are represented by their adjacency whose elements are the weights between the nodes. Spectral graph theory uses the eigendecomposition of the adjacency matrix (or, more generally, the Laplacian of the graph) to derive information about the underlying graph. In this paper, we develop a spectral method based on the 'normalized cuts' algorithm to segment hyperspectral image data (HSI). In particular, we model an image as a weighted graph whose nodes are the image pixels, and edges defined as connecting spatial neighbors; the edge weights are given by a weighted combination of the spatial and spectral distances between nodes. We then use the Laplacian of the graph to recursively segment the image. The advantages of our approach are that, first, the graph structure naturally incorporates both the spatial and spectral information present in HSI; also, by using only spatial neighbors, the adjacency matrix is highly sparse; as a result, it is possible to apply our technique to much larger images than previous techniques. In the paper, we present the details of our algorithm, and include experimental results from a variety of hyperspectral images.

  14. Detecting red blotch disease in grape leaves using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Orlebeck, Keith; Zemlan, Michael J.; Autran, Wesley

    2016-05-01

    Red blotch disease is a viral disease that affects grapevines. Symptoms appear as irregular blotches on grape leaves with pink and red veins on the underside of the leaves. Red blotch disease causes a reduction in the accumulation of sugar in grapevines affecting the quality of grapes and resulting in delayed harvest. Detecting and monitoring this disease early is important for grapevine management. This work focuses on the use of hyperspectral imaging for detection and mapping red blotch disease in grape leaves. Grape leaves with known red blotch disease have been imaged with a portable hyperspectral imaging system both on and off the vine to investigate the spectral signature of red blotch disease as well as to identify the diseased areas on the leaves. Modified reflectance calculated at spectral bands corresponding to 566 nm (green) and 628 nm (red), and modified reflectance ratios computed at two sets of bands (566 nm / 628 nm, 680 nm / 738 nm) were selected as effective features to differentiate red blotch from healthy-looking and dry leaf. These two modified reflectance and two ratios of modified reflectance values were then used to train the support vector machine classifier in a supervised learning scheme. Once the SVM classifier was defined, two-class classification was achieved for grape leaf hyperspectral images. Identification of the red blotch disease on grape leaves as well as mapping different stages of the disease using hyperspectral imaging are presented in this paper.

  15. Spectroscopic study of red-light-emitting centers in K2Al2B2O7: Fe single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogorodnikov, I. N.; Pustovarov, V. A.; Yakovlev, S. A.; Isaenko, L. I.

    2013-04-01

    We report on spectroscopic study of red-light-emitting centers in K2Al2B2O7 (KABO) single crystals containing ca. 2 ppm of Fe3+. Owing to the low Fe3+-concentration, KABO does not show noticeable absorption due to Fe3+d-d-transitions in the visible spectral region, but it exhibits the charge-transfer (CT) UV-absorption bands O-Fe at 4.7, 5.7 and 6.5 eV. The red photoluminescence at 1.675 eV (FWHM = 0.173 eV) is due to intracenter 4T1 (4G) → 6A1 (6S) transitions in Fe3+ ions. Because of partial overlapping of the fundamental absorption edge of the crystal, where mobile excitons are created, and a broad CT absorption band at 6.5 eV, the most intensive red emission occurs at 7 K upon excitation in the excitonic energy region. The presence of two nonequivalent Al2O7 clusters in KABO lattice provides two different types of red-light-emitting centers in the form of Fe3+ ion occupied the Al3+ tetrahedral site. Superposition of their luminescence bands determines both the spectrum and temperature dependence of red emission in KABO at T = 7-80 K: two bands with the ratio of intensities of ca. 2:1 are 20 meV-shifted relative to each other; two-stage thermal quenching obeys the Mott law with ET = 9 and 20 meV.

  16. Galileo 243 Ida System Spectral Observations Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granahan, J. C.

    2001-11-01

    On August 28, 1993 the Galileo spacecraft encountered the asteroid 243 Ida and its moon Dactyl. A variety of observations of this asteroid system were collected including visible wavelength (0.4-1.0 microns) imagery with the Solid State Imager (SSI) instrument and infrared wavelength (0.7-5.2 microns) with the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS). A new analysis of these observations has been conducted using band area analysis, band center measurement, and spectral similarity value measurement using the BAE SYSTEMS Hyperspectral Tool Kit. This abstract reports the initial results of this research effort. These data indicate that 243 Ida has an orthopyroxene/(orthopyroxene + olivine) ratio of about 0.28, a value consistent with that of LL chondrites. The ratio does not vary significantly for the portions of 243 Ida observed by the Galileo NIMS instrument. 243 Ida is a SIV subtype of the S type asteroid population. At least two spectral units were identified in a combined SSI and NIMS spectral data set. The primary difference is the amount of red slope present in the two spectral units. A larger red slope corresponds to regions of 243 Ida where ejecta from the crater Azurra are present. This evidence suggests that impacts enhance the red components of the 243 Ida spectrum, perhaps enhancing the NiFe content. Dactyl has a relatively deep absorption centered approximately at 0.97 microns with no significant two micron absorption features. This is a possible indicator of clinopyroxene and suggests partial melting or fractional crystallization processes occurred on Dactyl. Dactyl appears to be an SII subtype S type asteroid and is spectrally different from 243 Ida. Dactyl may have been produced by partial melting within the Koronis parent body while the 243 Ida region escaped such igneous processing. This study was made possible through support from NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics program.

  17. Nitrogen K-edge x-ray absorption near edge structure of pyrimidine-containing nucleotides in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Hiroyuki Minami, Hirotake; Okuizumi, Naoto; Sakuma, Ichiro; Ukai, Masatoshi; Fujii, Kentaro; Yokoya, Akinari; Fukuda, Yoshihiro; Saitoh, Yuji

    2015-05-07

    X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) was measured at energies around the N K-edge of the pyrimidine-containing nucleotides, cytidine 5′-monophosphate (CMP), 2′-deoxythymidine 5′-monophosphate (dTMP), and uridine 5′-monophosphate (UMP), in aqueous solutions and in dried films under various pH conditions. The features of resonant excitations below the N K-edge in the XANES spectra for CMP, dTMP, and UMP changed depending on the pH of the solutions. The spectral change thus observed is systematically explained by the chemical shift of the core-levels of N atoms in the nucleobase moieties caused by structural changes due to protonation or deprotonation at different proton concentrations. This interpretation is supported by the results of theoretical calculations using density functional theory for the corresponding nucleobases in the neutral and protonated or deprotonated forms.

  18. Hydrogen-free graphene edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Kuang; Lee, Gun-Do; Robertson, Alex W.; Yoon, Euijoon; Warner, Jamie H.

    2014-01-01

    Graphene edges and their functionalization influence the electronic and magnetic properties of graphene nanoribbons. Theoretical calculations predict saturating graphene edges with hydrogen lower its energy and form a more stable structure. Despite the importance, experimental investigations of whether graphene edges are always hydrogen-terminated are limited. Here we study graphene edges produced by sputtering in vacuum and direct measurements of the C-C bond lengths at the edge show ~86% contraction relative to the bulk. Density functional theory reveals the contraction is attributed to the formation of a triple bond and the absence of hydrogen functionalization. Time-dependent images reveal temporary attachment of a single atom to the arm-chair C-C bond in a triangular configuration, causing expansion of the bond length, which then returns back to the contracted value once the extra atom moves on and the arm-chair edge is returned. Our results provide confirmation that non-functionalized graphene edges can exist in vacuum.

  19. Hydrogen-free graphene edges.

    PubMed

    He, Kuang; Lee, Gun-Do; Robertson, Alex W; Yoon, Euijoon; Warner, Jamie H

    2014-01-01

    Graphene edges and their functionalization influence the electronic and magnetic properties of graphene nanoribbons. Theoretical calculations predict saturating graphene edges with hydrogen lower its energy and form a more stable structure. Despite the importance, experimental investigations of whether graphene edges are always hydrogen-terminated are limited. Here we study graphene edges produced by sputtering in vacuum and direct measurements of the C-C bond lengths at the edge show ~86% contraction relative to the bulk. Density functional theory reveals the contraction is attributed to the formation of a triple bond and the absence of hydrogen functionalization. Time-dependent images reveal temporary attachment of a single atom to the arm-chair C-C bond in a triangular configuration, causing expansion of the bond length, which then returns back to the contracted value once the extra atom moves on and the arm-chair edge is returned. Our results provide confirmation that non-functionalized graphene edges can exist in vacuum.

  20. The influence of edge and corner evolution on plasmon properties and resonant edge effect in gold nanoplatelets.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xi-Bin; Luo, Jiang-Shan; Liu, Miao; Wang, Yu-Ying; Yi, Zao; Li, Xi-Bo; Yi, You-Gen; Tang, Yong-Jian

    2015-01-28

    In this paper a simulation of the properties of surface plasmons on gold nanoplatelets with various cross-sections inscribed in a circle and an investigation of their field distributions to assign multiple SPRs are described. The manipulated propagation can be obtained through the evolution of edges and corners. Furthermore, the particle morphology and the associated spectral positions alone do not uniquely reflect the important details of the local field distribution or the resonance modes. The plasmon modes were investigated and found to be mainly excited along the edges and in the side and sloped side surfaces. The strong field distributions can generally be found around the corners and how the plasmons transmit through the corners to adjacent edges was also investigated. Besides the plasmons excited along the edges as were found for the triangular nanoplatelets, plasmons were excited in the interior region of the triangular surfaces and were also investigated. Despite this in the infrared region, plasmon modes were found to be along the edges for the hexagonal nanoplatelets. Also, it can be seen that the change of nanoplatelet thickness can support different plasmon modes ranging from dipolar resonance mode to quadrupole resonance mode. The thickness far below the skin depth can display complex plasmon modes along the edges and on the side and sloping side surfaces as well as the strong coupling between the top and bottom surfaces. The observed plasmon resonance modes in this simulation reflect the interference of all these contributions including the plasmons along the edges and on the side surfaces. This is an essential step towards a thorough understanding of plasmon modes and the effect of edge and corner evolution in polygonous nanoplatelets.

  1. Modelling the spectral response of the desert tree Prosopis tamarugo to water stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chávez, R. O.; Clevers, J. G. P. W.; Herold, M.; Ortiz, M.; Acevedo, E.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we carried out a laboratory experiment to study changes in canopy reflectance of Tamarugo plants under controlled water stress. Tamarugo (Prosopis tamarugo Phil.) is an endemic and endangered tree species adapted to the hyper-arid conditions of the Atacama Desert, Northern Chile. Observed variation in reflectance during the day (due to leaf movements) as well as changes over the experimental period (due to water stress) were successfully modelled by using the Soil-Leaf-Canopy (SLC) radiative transfer model. Empirical canopy reflectance changes were mostly explained by the parameters leaf area index (LAI), leaf inclination distribution function (LIDF) and equivalent water thickness (EWT) as shown by the SLC simulations. Diurnal leaf movements observed in Tamarugo plants (as adaptation to decrease direct solar irradiation at the hottest time of the day) had an important effect on canopy reflectance and were explained by the LIDF parameter. The results suggest that remote sensing based assessment of this desert tree should consider LAI and canopy water content (CWC) as water stress indicators. Consequently, we tested fifteen different vegetation indices and spectral absorption features proposed in literature for detecting changes of LAI and CWC, considering the effect of LIDF variations. A sensitivity analysis was carried out using SLC simulations with a broad range of LAI, LIDF and EWT values. The Water Index was the most sensitive remote sensing feature for estimating CWC for values less than 0.036 g/cm2, while the area under the curve for the spectral range 910-1070 nm was most sensitive for values higher than 0.036 g/cm2. The red-edge chlorophyll index (CIred-edge) performed the best for estimating LAI. Diurnal leaf movements had an effect on all remote sensing features tested, particularly on those for detecting changes in CWC.

  2. SPECTRAL SMILE CORRECTION IN CRISM HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceamanos, X.; Doute, S.

    2009-12-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) is affected by a common artifact in "push-broom" sensors, the so-called "spectral smile". As a consequence, both central wavelength and spectral width of the spectral response vary along the across-track dimension, thus giving rise to a shifting and smoothing of spectra (see Fig. 1 (left)). In fact, both effects are greater for spectra on the edges, while they are minimum for data acquired by central detectors, the so-called "sweet spot". The prior artifacts become particularly critical for Martian observations which contain steep spectra such as CO2 ice-rich polar images. Fig. 1 (right) shows the horizontal brightness gradient which appears in every band corresponding to a steep portion of spectra. The correction of CRISM spectral smile is addressed using a two-step method which aims at modifying data sensibly in order to mimic the optimal CRISM response. First, all spectra, which are previously interpolated by cubic splines, are resampled to the "sweet spot" wavelengths in order to overcome the spectra shift. Secondly, the non-uniform spectral width is overcome by mimicking an increase of spectral resolution thanks to a spectral sharpening. In order to minimize noise, only bands particularly suffering from smile are selected. First, bands corresponding to the outliers of the Minimum Noise Transformation (MNF) eigenvector, which corresponds to the MNF band related to smile (MNF-smile), are selected. Then, a spectral neighborhood Θi, which takes into account the local spectral convexity or concavity, is defined for every selected band in order to maximize spectral shape preservation. The proposed sharpening technique takes into account both the instrument parameters and the observed spectra. First, every reflectance value belonging to a Θi is reevaluated by a sharpening which depends on a ratio of the spectral width of the current detector and the "sweet spot" one. Then, the optimal degree of

  3. Fluorescence Spectral Dynamics of Single LHCII Trimers

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Tjaart P.J.; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I.; Ilioaia, Cristian; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Single-molecule spectroscopy was employed to elucidate the fluorescence spectral heterogeneity and dynamics of individual, immobilized trimeric complexes of the main light-harvesting complex of plants in solution near room temperature. Rapid reversible spectral shifts between various emitting states, each of which was quasi-stable for seconds to tens of seconds, were observed for a fraction of the complexes. Most deviating states were characterized by the appearance of an additional, red-shifted emission band. Reversible shifts of up to 75 nm were detected. By combining modified Redfield theory with a disordered exciton model, fluorescence spectra with peaks between 670 nm and 705 nm could be explained by changes in the realization of the static disorder of the pigment-site energies. Spectral bands beyond this wavelength window suggest the presence of special protein conformations. We attribute the large red shifts to the mixing of an excitonic state with a charge-transfer state in two or more strongly coupled chlorophylls. Spectral bluing is explained by the formation of an energy trap before excitation energy equilibration is completed. PMID:20550923

  4. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  5. Fast tracking using edge histograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokita, Przemyslaw

    1997-04-01

    This paper proposes a new algorithm for tracking objects and objects boundaries. This algorithm was developed and applied in a system used for compositing computer generated images and real world video sequences, but can be applied in general in all tracking systems where accuracy and high processing speed are required. The algorithm is based on analysis of histograms obtained by summing along chosen axles pixels of edge segmented images. Edge segmentation is done by spatial convolution using gradient operator. The advantage of such an approach is that it can be performed in real-time using available on the market hardware convolution filters. After edge extraction and histograms computation, respective positions of maximums in edge intensity histograms, in current and previous frame, are compared and matched. Obtained this way information about displacement of histograms maximums, can be directly converted into information about changes of target boundaries positions along chosen axles.

  6. RED-LETTER DAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

  7. Red blood cell production

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells are an important element of blood. Their job is to transport oxygen to the body’s tissues in exchange for carbon dioxide, which is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of bones. Stem cells in the red bone marrow called hemocytoblasts ...

  8. Light harvesting in photonic crystals revisited: why do slow photons at the blue edge enhance absorption?

    PubMed

    Deparis, O; Mouchet, S R; Su, B-L

    2015-11-11

    Light harvesting enhancement by slow photons in photonic crystal catalysts or dye-sensitized solar cells is a promising approach for increasing the efficiency of photoreactions. This structural effect is exploited in inverse opal TiO2 photocatalysts by tuning the red edge of the photonic band gap to the TiO2 electronic excitation band edge. In spite of many experimental demonstrations, the slow photon effect is not fully understood yet. In particular, observed enhancement by tuning the blue edge has remained unexplained. Based on rigorous couple wave analysis simulations, we quantify light harvesting enhancement in terms of absorption increase at a specific wavelength (monochromatic UV illumination) or photocurrent increase (solar light illumination), with respect to homogeneous flat slab of equivalent material thickness. We show that the commonly accepted explanation relying on light intensity confinement in high (low) dielectric constant regions at the red (blue) edge is challenged in the case of TiO2 inverse opals because of the sub-wavelength size of the material skeleton. The reason why slow photons at the blue edge are also able to enhance light harvesting is the loose confinement of the field, which leads to significant resonantly enhanced field intensity overlap with the skeleton in both red and blue edge tuning cases, yet with different intensity patterns. PMID:26517229

  9. Light harvesting in photonic crystals revisited: why do slow photons at the blue edge enhance absorption?

    PubMed

    Deparis, O; Mouchet, S R; Su, B-L

    2015-11-11

    Light harvesting enhancement by slow photons in photonic crystal catalysts or dye-sensitized solar cells is a promising approach for increasing the efficiency of photoreactions. This structural effect is exploited in inverse opal TiO2 photocatalysts by tuning the red edge of the photonic band gap to the TiO2 electronic excitation band edge. In spite of many experimental demonstrations, the slow photon effect is not fully understood yet. In particular, observed enhancement by tuning the blue edge has remained unexplained. Based on rigorous couple wave analysis simulations, we quantify light harvesting enhancement in terms of absorption increase at a specific wavelength (monochromatic UV illumination) or photocurrent increase (solar light illumination), with respect to homogeneous flat slab of equivalent material thickness. We show that the commonly accepted explanation relying on light intensity confinement in high (low) dielectric constant regions at the red (blue) edge is challenged in the case of TiO2 inverse opals because of the sub-wavelength size of the material skeleton. The reason why slow photons at the blue edge are also able to enhance light harvesting is the loose confinement of the field, which leads to significant resonantly enhanced field intensity overlap with the skeleton in both red and blue edge tuning cases, yet with different intensity patterns.

  10. Irradiance and spectral distribution control system for controlled environment chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krones, M. J.; Sager, J. C.; Johnson, A. T.; Knott, W. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a closed-loop control system for controlling the irradiance and spectral quality generated by fluorescent lamps in a controlled environment chamber. The 400 to 800 nm irradiance and the ratio of the red waveband (600 to 700 nm) to the far-red waveband (700 to 800 nm) were independently controlled and varied as functions of time. A suggested application is to investigate the possibility of synergistic effects of changing irradiance levels and changing spectral distributions on photoperiodism and photomorphogenesis.

  11. Multi-spectral compressive snapshot imaging using RGB image sensors.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Hoover; Lau, Daniel; Arce, Gonzalo R

    2015-05-01

    Compressive sensing is a powerful sensing and reconstruction framework for recovering high dimensional signals with only a handful of observations and for spectral imaging, compressive sensing offers a novel method of multispectral imaging. Specifically, the coded aperture snapshot spectral imager (CASSI) system has been demonstrated to produce multi-spectral data cubes color images from a single snapshot taken by a monochrome image sensor. In this paper, we expand the theoretical framework of CASSI to include the spectral sensitivity of the image sensor pixels to account for color and then investigate the impact on image quality using either a traditional color image sensor that spatially multiplexes red, green, and blue light filters or a novel Foveon image sensor which stacks red, green, and blue pixels on top of one another. PMID:25969307

  12. Edge equilibrium code for tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xujing; Drozdov, Vladimir V.

    2014-01-15

    The edge equilibrium code (EEC) described in this paper is developed for simulations of the near edge plasma using the finite element method. It solves the Grad-Shafranov equation in toroidal coordinate and uses adaptive grids aligned with magnetic field lines. Hermite finite elements are chosen for the numerical scheme. A fast Newton scheme which is the same as implemented in the equilibrium and stability code (ESC) is applied here to adjust the grids.

  13. Remote Sensing Study of the Influence of Different Herbicides on the Leaf Spectral Reflectance and Fluorescence of Pea Plants (Pisum sativum L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krezhova, Dora; Yanev, Tony; Iliev, Ilko; Alexieva, Vera; Tsaneva, Mariana

    four specific for the green vegetation spectral intervals: 520÷580 nm (maximal reflectivity region), 640-680 nm (maximal leaf absorption region), 690÷720 nm (red edge region) and 730÷770 nm (near infrared region). Statistically significant differences were found between the spectral reflectance characteristics of leaves of control and treated with herbicides plants at a significance level p¡0.05 for all concentrations of every herbicide except for the low acifluorfen concentration. The differences in the fluorescence spectra were assessed by several indices. A comparative analysis of the influence of the applied herbicides on the spectral reflectance characteristics and the fluorescence was performed. The results render the possibility to clarify the sensitivity of spectral features as a tool to assess the physiological responses and adaptation of plants to changes in environment.

  14. Impact of scattered radiation on spectral CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegert, Jens; Engel, Klaus Jürgen; Herrmann, Christoph

    2009-02-01

    In "Spectral CT" based on energy-resolving photon-counting detectors (also "multi-energy CT") spectral information of transmitted X-radiation is measured in order to extract additional information about the material composition of the scanned object. Common practice is to decompose the attenuation line integrals into several components based on models of physical (e.g. photo/Compton/K-edge) or material properties (e.g. water/calcium). Scattered radiation causes a significant deterioration to the results, which are obtained with these models, as the measured spectrum in a specific detector element contains additional contributions which are not related to the attenuation in the respective line integral of the beam. In this paper the detrimental impact of scattered radiation in multi-energy CT is quantitatively analyzed by means of Monte-Carlo simulations. Large projection data sets of full rotational acquisitions are computed by combining noise-free analytical primary radiation with Monte-Carlo calculated scattered radiation of high statistical accuracy. The simulations show that, compared to the primary spectrum, the scatter spectrum is significantly shifted towards lower energies resulting in very high scatter-to-primary ratios for energies below 50keV. In the analysis of sinograms and reconstructed data using extended Alvarez-Macovsky decomposition into Photo-, Compton-, and K-edge images, it is revealed that scattered radiation causes significant inhomogeneity artifacts especially in the Photo image. Additionally "crosstalk" between Photo-, Compton- and K-edge images is found as K-edge structures appear in the other images and vice versa. Quantitatively it is found that due to scatter the reconstructed concentration of the K-edge material is up to 23 % smaller than its correct value.

  15. Edge instabilities of topological superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Johannes S.; Assaad, Fakher F.; Schnyder, Andreas P.

    2016-05-01

    Nodal topological superconductors display zero-energy Majorana flat bands at generic edges. The flatness of these edge bands, which is protected by time-reversal and translation symmetry, gives rise to an extensive ground-state degeneracy. Therefore, even arbitrarily weak interactions lead to an instability of the flat-band edge states towards time-reversal and translation-symmetry-broken phases, which lift the ground-state degeneracy. We examine the instabilities of the flat-band edge states of dx y-wave superconductors by performing a mean-field analysis in the Majorana basis of the edge states. The leading instabilities are Majorana mass terms, which correspond to coherent superpositions of particle-particle and particle-hole channels in the fermionic language. We find that attractive interactions induce three different mass terms. One is a coherent superposition of imaginary s -wave pairing and current order, and another combines a charge-density-wave and finite-momentum singlet pairing. Repulsive interactions, on the other hand, lead to ferromagnetism together with spin-triplet pairing at the edge. Our quantum Monte Carlo simulations confirm these findings and demonstrate that these instabilities occur even in the presence of strong quantum fluctuations. We discuss the implications of our results for experiments on cuprate high-temperature superconductors.

  16. Edge of polar cap patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2016-04-01

    On the night of 4 December 2013, a sequence of polar cap patches was captured by an all-sky airglow imager (ASI) in Longyearbyen, Norway (78.1°N, 15.5°E). The 630.0 nm airglow images from the ASI of 4 second exposure time, oversampled the emission of natural lifetime (with quenching) of at least ˜30 sec, introduce no observational blurring effects. By using such high-quality ASI images, we succeeded in visualizing an asymmetry in the gradients between the leading/trailing edges of the patches in a 2-D fashion. The gradient in the leading edge was found to be 2-3 times steeper than that in the trailing edge. We also identified fingerlike structures, appearing only along the trailing edge of the patches, whose horizontal scale size ranged from 55 to 210 km. These fingers are considered to be manifestations of plasma structuring through the gradient-drift instability (GDI), which is known to occur only along the trailing edge of patches. That is, the current 2-D observations visualized, for the first time, how GDI stirs the patch plasma and such a mixing process makes the trailing edge more gradual. This result strongly implies a close connection between the GDI-driven plasma stirring and the asymmetry in the large-scale shape of patches and then suggests that the fingerlike structures can be used as markers to estimate the fine-scale structure in the plasma flow within patches.

  17. Radiative ablation with two ionizing fronts when opacity displays a sharp absorption edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poujade, Olivier; Bonnefille, Max; Vandenboomgaerde, Marc

    2015-11-01

    The interaction of a strong flux of photons with matter through an ionizing front (I-front) is an ubiquitous phenomenon in the context of astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion (ICF) where intense sources of radiation put matter into motion. When the opacity of the irradiated material varies continuously in the radiation spectral domain, only one single I-front is formed. In contrast, as numerical simulations tend to show, when the opacity of the irradiated material presents a sharp edge in the radiation spectral domain, a second I-front (an edge front) can form. A full description of the mechanism behind the formation of this edge front is presented in this article. It allows us to understand extra shocks (edge-shocks), displayed by ICF simulations, that might affect the robustness of the design of fusion capsules in actual experiments. Moreover, it may have consequences in various domains of astrophysics where ablative flows occur.

  18. A short remark on the band structure of free-edge platonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Michael J. A.; Meylan, Michael H.; McPhedran, Ross C.; Poulton, Chris G.

    2014-10-01

    A corrected version of the multipole solution for a thin plate perforated in a doubly periodic fashion is presented. It is assumed that free-edge boundary conditions are imposed at the edge of each cylindrical inclusion. The solution procedure given here exploits a well-known property of Bessel functions to obtain the solution directly, in contrast to the existing incorrect derivation. A series of band diagrams and an updated table of values are given for the resulting system (correcting known publications on the topic), which shows a spectral band at low frequency for the free-edge problem. This is in contrast to clamped-edge boundary conditions for the same biharmonic plate problem, which features a low-frequency band gap. The numerical solution procedure outlined here is also simplified relative to earlier publications, and exploits the spectral properties of complex-valued matrices to determine the band structure of the structured plate.

  19. Chlorine-Free Red-Burning Pyrotechnics.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Jesse J; Koch, Ernst-Christian; Poret, Jay C; Moretti, Jared D; Harbol, Seth M

    2015-09-01

    The development of a red, chlorine-free pyrotechnic illuminant of high luminosity and spectral purity was investigated. Red-light emission based solely on transient SrOH(g) has been achieved by using either 5-amino-1H-tetrazole or hexamine to deoxidize the combustion flame of a Mg/Sr(NO3 )2 /Epon-binder composition and reduce the amount of both condensed and gaseous SrO, which emits undesirable orange-red light. The new formulations were found to possess high thermal onset temperatures. Avoiding chlorine in these formulations eliminates the risk of the formation of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. This finding, hence, will have a great impact on both military pyrotechnics and commercial firework sectors.

  20. Spectral type, temperature, and evolutionary stage in cool supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorda, Ricardo; Negueruela, Ignacio; González-Fernández, Carlos; Tabernero, Hugo M.

    2016-07-01

    Context. In recent years, our understanding of red supergiants has been questioned by strong disagreements between stellar atmospheric parameters derived with different techniques. Temperature scales have been disputed, and the possibility that spectral types do not depend primarily on temperature has been raised. Aims: We explore the relations between different observed parameters, and we explore the ability to derive accurate intrinsic stellar parameters from these relations through the analysis of the largest spectroscopic sample of red supergiants to date. Methods: We obtained intermediate-resolution spectra of a sample of about 500 red supergiants in the Large and the Small Magellanic Cloud. From these spectra, we derive spectral types and measure a large set of photospheric atomic lines. We explore possible correlations between different observational parameters, also making use of near- and mid-infrared colours and literature on photometric variability. Results: Direct comparison between the behaviour of atomic lines (Fe i, Ti i, and Ca ii) in the observed spectra and a comprehensive set of synthetic atmospheric models provides compelling evidence that effective temperature is the prime underlying variable driving the spectral-type sequence between early G and M2 for supergiants. In spite of this, there is a clear correlation between spectral type and luminosity, with later spectral types tending to correspond to more luminous stars with heavier mass loss. This trend is much more marked in the LMC than in the SMC. The population of red supergiants in the SMC is characterised by a higher degree of spectral variability, early spectral types (centred on type K1) and low mass-loss rates (as measured by dust-sensitive mid-infrared colours). The population in the LMC displays less spectroscopic variability and later spectral types. The distribution of spectral types is not single-peaked. Instead, the brightest supergiants have a significantly different

  1. A new COmpact hyperSpectral Imaging system (COSI) for UAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sima, Aleksandra; Baeck, Pieter-Jan; Delalieux, Stephanie; Livens, Stefan; Blommaert, Joris; Delauré, Bavo; Boonen, Miet

    2016-04-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the new COmpact hyperSpectral Imaging (COSI) system recently developed at the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO, Belgium) and suitable for multirotor Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) platforms. The camera is compact and lightweight, with a total mass of less than 500g including: an embedded computer, storage and power distribution unit. Such device miniaturization was possible thanks to the application of linear variable filters technology, in which image lines in the across flight direction correspond to different spectral bands as well as a different location on the ground (frame camera). The scanning motion is required to retrieve the complete spectrum for every point on the ground. The COSI camera captures data in 72 narrow (FWHM: 5nm to 10 nm) bands in the spectral range of 600-900 nm. Such spectral information is highly favourable for vegetation studies, since the main chlorophyll absorption feature centred around 680 nm is measured, as well as, the red-edge region (680 nm to 730 nm) which is often linked to plant stress. The NIR region furthermore reflects the internal plant structure, and is often linked to leaf area index and plant biomass. Next to the high spectral resolution, the COSI imager also provides a very high spatial data resolution i.e. images captured with a 9mm lens at 40m altitude cover a swath of ~40m with a ~2cm ground sampling distance. A dedicated data processing chain transforms the raw images into various information and action maps representing the status of the vegetation health and thus allowing for optimization of the management decisions within agricultural fields. In a number of test flights, hyperspectral COSI imager data were acquired covering diverse environments, e.g.: strawberry fields, natural grassland or pear orchards. Next to the COSI system overview, examples of collected data will be presented together with the results of the spectral data analysis. Lessons

  2. Ca L2,3-edge XANES and Sr K-edge EXAFS study of hydroxyapatite and fossil bone apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zougrou, I. M.; Katsikini, M.; Brzhezinskaya, M.; Pinakidou, F.; Papadopoulou, L.; Tsoukala, E.; Paloura, E. C.

    2016-08-01

    Upon burial, the organic and inorganic components of hard tissues such as bone, teeth, and tusks are subjected to various alterations as a result of interactions with the chemical milieu of soil, groundwater, and presence of microorganisms. In this study, simulation of the Ca L 2,3-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum of hydroxyapatite, using the CTM4XAS code, reveals that the different symmetry of the two nonequivalent Ca(1) and Ca(2) sites in the unit cell gives rise to specific spectral features. Moreover, Ca L 2,3-edge XANES spectroscopy is applied in order to assess variations in fossil bone apatite crystallinity due to heavy bacterial alteration and catastrophic mineral dissolution, compared to well-preserved fossil apatite, fresh bone, and geologic apatite reference samples. Fossilization-induced chemical alterations are investigated by means of Ca L 2,3-edge XANES and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and are related to histological evaluation using optical microscopy images. Finally, the variations in the bonding environment of Sr and its preference for substitution in the Ca(1) or Ca(2) sites upon increasing the Sr/Ca ratio is assessed by Sr K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy.

  3. Bifurcations of edge states—topologically protected and non-protected—in continuous 2D honeycomb structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fefferman, C. L.; Lee-Thorp, J. P.; Weinstein, M. I.

    2016-03-01

    Edge states are time-harmonic solutions to energy-conserving wave equations, which are propagating parallel to a line-defect or ‘edge’ and are localized transverse to it. This paper summarizes and extends the authors’ work on the bifurcation of topologically protected edge states in continuous two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb structures. We consider a family of Schrödinger Hamiltonians consisting of a bulk honeycomb potential and a perturbing edge potential. The edge potential interpolates between two different periodic structures via a domain wall. We begin by reviewing our recent bifurcation theory of edge states for continuous 2D honeycomb structures (http://arxiv.org/abs/1506.06111). The topologically protected edge state bifurcation is seeded by the zero-energy eigenstate of a one-dimensional Dirac operator. We contrast these protected bifurcations with (more common) non-protected bifurcations from spectral band edges, which are induced by bound states of an effective Schrödinger operator. Numerical simulations for honeycomb structures of varying contrasts and ‘rational edges’ (zigzag, armchair and others), support the following scenario: (a) for low contrast, under a sign condition on a distinguished Fourier coefficient of the bulk honeycomb potential, there exist topologically protected edge states localized transverse to zigzag edges. Otherwise, and for general edges, we expect long lived edge quasi-modes which slowly leak energy into the bulk. (b) For an arbitrary rational edge, there is a threshold in the medium-contrast (depending on the choice of edge) above which there exist topologically protected edge states. In the special case of the armchair edge, there are two families of protected edge states; for each parallel quasimomentum (the quantum number associated with translation invariance) there are edge states which propagate in opposite directions along the armchair edge.

  4. Bounds on probability of state transfer with respect to readout time and edge weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Whitney; Kirkland, Steve; Li, Chi-Kwong; Plosker, Sarah; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2016-02-01

    We analyze the sensitivity of a spin chain modeled by an undirected weighted connected graph exhibiting perfect state transfer to small perturbations in readout time and edge weight in order to obtain physically relevant bounds on the probability of state transfer. At the heart of our analysis is the concept of the numerical range of a matrix; our analysis of edge weight errors additionally makes use of the spectral and Frobenius norms.

  5. Spectral filtering for plant production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Roy E.; Mcmahon, Margaret J.; Rajapakse, Nihal C.; Decoteau, Dennis R.

    1994-01-01

    Both plants and animals have one general commonality in their perception of light. They both are sensitive primarily to the 400 to 700 nm wavelength portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. This is referred to as the visible spectrum for animals and as the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) spectrum for plants. Within this portion of the spectrum, animals perceive colors. Relatively recently it has been learned that within this same spectral range plants also demonstrate varying responses at different wavelengths, somewhat analogous to the definition of various colors at specific wavelengths. Although invisible to the human eye, portions of the electromagnetic spectrum on either side of the visible range are relatively inactive photosynthetically but have been found to influence important biological functions. These portions include the ultraviolet (UV approximately equal to 280-400 nm) and the far-red (FR approximately equal to 700-800 nm). The basic photoreceptor of plants for photosynthesis is chlorophyll. It serves to capture radiant energy which combined with carbon dioxide and water produces oxygen and assimulated carbon, used for the synthesis of cell wall polysaccarides, proteins, membrane lipids and other cellular constituents. The energy and carbon building blocks of photosynthesis sustain growth of plants. On the other hand, however, there are other photoreceptors, or pigments, that function as signal transducers to provide information that controls many physiological and morphological responses of how a plant grows. Known photomorphogenic receptors include phytochrome (the red/far-red sensor in the narrow bands of 655-665 nm and 725-735 nm ranges, respectively) and 'cryptochrome' (the hypothetical UV-B sensor in the 280-320 nm range). Since the USDA team of W. L. Butler, S. B. Hendricks, H. A. Borthwick, H. A. Siegleman and K. Norris in Beltsville, MD detected by spectroscopy, extracted and identified phytochrome as a protein in the 1950's, many

  6. Evaluating Spectral Signals to Identify Spectral Error

    PubMed Central

    Bazar, George; Kovacs, Zoltan; Tsenkova, Roumiana

    2016-01-01

    Since the precision and accuracy level of a chemometric model is highly influenced by the quality of the raw spectral data, it is very important to evaluate the recorded spectra and describe the erroneous regions before qualitative and quantitative analyses or detailed band assignment. This paper provides a collection of basic spectral analytical procedures and demonstrates their applicability in detecting errors of near infrared data. Evaluation methods based on standard deviation, coefficient of variation, mean centering and smoothing techniques are presented. Applications of derivatives with various gap sizes, even below the bandpass of the spectrometer, are shown to evaluate the level of spectral errors and find their origin. The possibility for prudent measurement of the third overtone region of water is also highlighted by evaluation of a complex data recorded with various spectrometers. PMID:26731541

  7. Flap-Edge Blowing Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaeta, R. J.; Englar, R. J.; Ahuja, K. K.

    2003-01-01

    This Appendix documents the salient results from an effort to mitigate the so-called flap-edge noise generated at the split between a flap edge that is deployed and the undeployed flap. Utilizing a Coanda surface installed at the flap edge, steady blowing was used in an attempt to diminish the vortex strength resulting from the uneven lift distribution. The strength of this lifting vortex was augmented by steady blowing over the deployed flap. The test article for this study was the same 2D airfoil used in the steady blowing program reported earlier (also used in pulsed blowing tests, see Appendix G), however its trailing edge geometry was modified. An exact duplicate of the airfoil shape was made out of fiberglass with no flap, and in the clean configuration. It was attached to the existing airfoil to make an airfoil that has half of its flap deployed and half un-deployed. Figure 1 shows a schematic of the planform showing the two areas where steady blowing was introduced. The flap-edge blowing or the auxiliary blowing was in the direction normal to the freestream velocity vector. Slot heights for the blowing chambers were on the order of 0.0 14 inches.

  8. Edge-Aware BMA Filters.

    PubMed

    Guang Deng

    2016-01-01

    There has been continuous research in edge-aware filters which have found many applications in computer vision and image processing. In this paper, we propose a principled-approach for the development of edge-aware filters. The proposed approach is based on two well-established principles: 1) optimal parameter estimation and 2) Bayesian model averaging (BMA). Using this approach, we formulate the problem of filtering a pixel in a local pixel patch as an optimal estimation problem. Since a pixel belongs to multiple local patches, there are multiple estimates of the same pixel. We combine these estimates into a final estimate using BMA. We demonstrate the versatility of this approach by developing a family of BMA filters based on different settings of cost functions and log-likelihood and log-prior functions. We also present a new interpretation of the guided filter and develop a BMA guided filter which includes the guided filter as a special case. We show that BMA filters can produce similar smoothing results as those of the state-of-the-art edge-aware filters. Two BMA filters are computationally as efficient as the guided filter which is one of the fastest edge-aware filters. We also demonstrate that the BMA guided filter is better than the guided filter in preserving sharp edges. A new feature of the BMA guided filter is that the filtered image is similar to that produced by a clustering process.

  9. Spectral methods for CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zang, Thomas A.; Streett, Craig L.; Hussaini, M. Yousuff

    1989-01-01

    One of the objectives of these notes is to provide a basic introduction to spectral methods with a particular emphasis on applications to computational fluid dynamics. Another objective is to summarize some of the most important developments in spectral methods in the last two years. The fundamentals of spectral methods for simple problems will be covered in depth, and the essential elements of several fluid dynamical applications will be sketched.

  10. Cascade trailing-edge noise modeling using a mode-matching technique and the edge-dipole theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, Michel; François, Benjamin; Moreau, Stéphane

    2016-11-01

    An original analytical approach is proposed to model the broadband trailing-edge noise produced by high-solidity outlet guide vanes in an axial turbomachine. The model is formulated in the frequency domain and first in two dimensions for a preliminary assessment of the method. In a first step the trailing-edge noise sources of a single vane are shown to be equivalent to the onset of a so-called edge dipole, the direct field of which is expanded in a series of plane-wave modes. A criterion for the distance of the dipole to the trailing-edge and a scaling of its amplitude is defined to yield a robust model. In a second step the diffraction of each plane-wave mode is derived considering the cascade as an array of bifurcated waveguides and using a mode-matching technique. The cascade response is finally synthesized by summing the diffracted fields of all cut-on modes to yield upstream and downstream sound power spectral densities. The obtained spectral shapes are physically consistent and the present results show that upstream radiation is typically 3 dB higher than downstream radiation, which has been experimentally observed previously. Even though the trailing-edge noise sources are not vane-to-vane correlated their radiation is strongly determined by a cascade effect that consequently must be accounted for. The interest of the approach is that it can be extended to a three-dimensional annular configuration without resorting to a strip theory approach. As such it is a promising and versatile alternative to previously published methods.

  11. Calibration and characterization of spectral imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polder, Gerrit; van der Heijden, Gerie W.

    2001-09-01

    Spectral image sensors provide images with a large umber of contiguous spectral channels per pixel. This paper describes the calibration of spectrograph based spectral imaging systems. The relation between pixel position and measured wavelength was determined using three different wavelength calibration sources. Results indicate that for spectral calibration a source with very small peaks,such as a HgAr source, is preferred to arrow band filters. A second order polynomial model gives a better fit than a linear model for the pixel to wavelength mapping. The signal to noise ratio (SNR)is determined per wavelength. In the blue part of the spectrum,the SNR was lower than in the green and red part.This is due to a decreased quantum efficiency of the CCD,a smaller transmission coefficient of the spectrograph,as well as poor performance of the illuminant. Increasing the amount of blue light,using additional Fluorescent tube with special coating increased the SNR considerably. Furthermore, the spatial and spectral resolution of the system are determined.These can be used to choose appropriate binning factors to decrease the image size without losing information.

  12. Image recovery from edge primitives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Huck, Friedrich O.; Narayanswamy, Ramkumar

    1990-01-01

    A method for extracting edge primitives from Mach-band patterns is presented together with a method for recovering image representations of features outlined by the edge boundaries. The accuracy, stability, and resolution of these representations are assessed. Since these representations are most commonly used in characterizing targets, this method of low-level processing offers new opportunities for computer vision and high data-compressing coding. Two bandpass filters are considered, the spatially invariant Laplacian of Gaussian filter and spatially variant intensity-dependent spatial (IDS) summation. It is shown that the recovery from the IDS bandpass data is particularly advantageous in applications for which robustness to local and temporal variations in illumination is important. It is concluded that the edge primitives extracted from bandpassed images can be an efficient way to store, transmit, and represent images.

  13. Optimal network modification for spectral radius dependent phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Yonatan; Kirsch, Lior; Louzoun, Yoram

    2016-09-01

    The dynamics of contact processes on networks is often determined by the spectral radius of the networks adjacency matrices. A decrease of the spectral radius can prevent the outbreak of an epidemic, or impact the synchronization among systems of coupled oscillators. The spectral radius is thus tightly linked to network dynamics and function. As such, finding the minimal change in network structure necessary to reach the intended spectral radius is important theoretically and practically. Given contemporary big data resources such as large scale communication or social networks, this problem should be solved with a low runtime complexity. We introduce a novel method for the minimal decrease in weights of edges required to reach a given spectral radius. The problem is formulated as a convex optimization problem, where a global optimum is guaranteed. The method can be easily adjusted to an efficient discrete removal of edges. We introduce a variant of the method which finds optimal decrease with a focus on weights of vertices. The proposed algorithm is exceptionally scalable, solving the problem for real networks of tens of millions of edges in a short time.

  14. Temporal spectral measurements of corn and soybean crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1979-01-01

    A ground-based, hand-held radiometer, configured to measure red and photographic infrared spectral radiances, was successfully used to collect in situ temporal spectral measurements of corn and soybean crops. Significant relationships were found between the radiance data and the biomass, plant height, percentage crop cover, percentage crop chlorosis, and percentage leaf loss. The results of this experiment show conclusively that hand-held radiometers can be used to collect spectral data that are highly correlated to several agronomic variables. These findings suggest approaches for agronomic research, and confirm the value of remote sensing of agricultural targets.

  15. Spectral properties of zinc sulfide sols stabilized by high-molecular polyvinylpyrrolidone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evstrop'ev, S. K.; Gatchin, Yu. A.; Evstrop'ev, K. S.; Dukel'skii, K. V.; Kislyakov, I. M.

    2015-12-01

    Spectral properties of zinc sulfide sols stabilized by high-molecular polyvinylpyrrolidone have been studied. It is shown that the absorption spectra of colloidal solutions in the UV spectral range are determined by the quantum-confinement effect, exhibiting a dependence of the absorption edge on the size of zinc sulfide nanocrystals.

  16. Control of Spectral Phase of Ultrafast Optical Pulses with Grisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durfee, Charles; Field, Jeff; Squier, Jeff; Kane, Steve

    2008-10-01

    High-quality dispersion management is critical for ultrafast optics. Grisms are a combination of diffraction gratings and prisms. We can use grisms for high-fidelity control of the spectral phase of ultrafast pulses, making systems much more compact and easy to adjust. While the spectral phase of a given system can be obtained with ray-tracing, analytic expressions are desirable for exploring and optimizing new designs. We show that we can analytically calculate the spectral phase of a range of grism-like structures by making a superposition of basic tilted window modules. For example, a prism pair can be described by starting with a tilted slab of glass, which defines the outer edges of the prism pair. The inner edges of the prism pair are then created by superposing a tilted slab of air, which removes glass between the prisms. We will discuss the applications of these grism designs to ultrafast amplifiers and pulse shapers.

  17. Spectral Properties of Multiply Charged Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Yalcin, Sibel Ebru; Labastide, Joelle A.; Sowle, Danielle L.; Barnes, Michael D.

    2011-10-12

    Spectrally resolved fluorescence imaging of single CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs), charged by electrospray deposition under negative bias has revealed a surprising net blue shift (~60 meV peak-to-peak) in the distribution of center frequencies in QD band-edge luminescence. Electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) on the electrospray QD samples showed a subpopulation of charged QDs with 4.7 ± 0.7 excess electrons, as well as a significant fraction of uncharged QDs as evidenced by the distinct cantilever response under bias. We show that the blue-shifted peak recombination energy can be understood as a first-order electronic perturbation that affects the band-edge electron- and hole-states differently. These studies provide new insight into the role of electronic perturbations of QD luminescence by excess charges.

  18. Edge shape and comfort of rigid lenses.

    PubMed

    La Hood, D

    1988-08-01

    One of the main factors determining the comfort of a rigid contact lens is the shape of the edge. The comfort of four different contact lens edge shapes was assessed with four unadapted subjects in a randomized masked trial. Lenses with well rounded anterior edge profiles were found to be significantly more comfortable than lenses with square anterior edges. There was no significant difference in subjective comfort between a rounded and square posterior edge profile. The results suggest that the interaction of the edge with the eyelid is more important in determining comfort than edge effects on the cornea, when lenses are fitted according to a corneal alignment philosophy. PMID:3177585

  19. Theoretical characterization of X-ray absorption, emission, and photoelectron spectra of nitrogen doped along graphene edges.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianlong; Hou, Zhufeng; Ikeda, Takashi; Oshima, Masaharu; Kakimoto, Masa-aki; Terakura, Kiyoyuki

    2013-01-24

    K-edge X-ray absorption (XAS), emission (XES), and photoelectron (XPS) spectra of nitrogen doped along graphene edges are systematically investigated by using first-principles methods. In this study we considered pyridinium-like, pyridine-like, cyanide-like, and amine-like nitrogens at armchair and zigzag edges and pyrrole-like nitrogen at armchair edge as well as graphite-like nitrogen at graphene interior site. Our results indicate that nitrogen configuration and its location (armchair or zigzag edge) in nitrogen-doped graphene can be identified via the spectral analysis. Furthermore, some controversial spectral features observed in experiment for N-doped graphene-like materials are unambiguously assigned. The present analysis gives an explanation to the reason why the peak assignment is usually made differently between XPS and XAS.

  20. Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Affects Soybean Spectral Reflectance.

    PubMed

    Alves, Tavvs M; Macrae, Ian V; Koch, Robert L

    2015-12-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most economically important insect pest of soybean in the north central United States. Scouting-based integrated pest management (IPM) programs could become more efficient and more widely adopted by using plant spectral reflectance to estimate soybean aphid injury. Our objective was to determine whether plant spectral reflectance is affected by soybean aphid feeding. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 using caged plots. Early-, late-, and noninfested treatments were established to create a gradient of soybean aphid pressure. Whole-plant soybean aphid densities were recorded weekly. Measurements of plant spectral reflectance occurred on two sample dates per year. Simple linear regression models were used to test the effect of cumulative aphid-days (CAD) on plant spectral reflectance at 680 nm (RED) and 800 nm (NIR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and relative chlorophyll content. Data indicated that CAD had no effect on canopy-level RED reflectance, but CAD decreased canopy-level NIR reflectance and NDVI. Canopy- and leaf-level measurements typically indicated similar plant spectral response to increasing CAD. CAD generally had no effect on relative chlorophyll content. The present study provides the first documentation that remote sensing holds potential for detecting changes in plant spectral reflectance induced by soybean aphid. The use of plant spectral reflectance in soybean aphid management may assist future IPM programs to reduce sampling costs and prevent prophylactic insecticide sprays.

  1. Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Affects Soybean Spectral Reflectance

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Tavvs M.; Macrae, Ian V.; Koch, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most economically important insect pest of soybean in the north central United States. Scouting-based integrated pest management (IPM) programs could become more efficient and more widely adopted by using plant spectral reflectance to estimate soybean aphid injury. Our objective was to determine whether plant spectral reflectance is affected by soybean aphid feeding. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 using caged plots. Early-, late-, and noninfested treatments were established to create a gradient of soybean aphid pressure. Whole-plant soybean aphid densities were recorded weekly. Measurements of plant spectral reflectance occurred on two sample dates per year. Simple linear regression models were used to test the effect of cumulative aphid-days (CAD) on plant spectral reflectance at 680 nm (RED) and 800 nm (NIR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and relative chlorophyll content. Data indicated that CAD had no effect on canopy-level RED reflectance, but CAD decreased canopy-level NIR reflectance and NDVI. Canopy- and leaf-level measurements typically indicated similar plant spectral response to increasing CAD. CAD generally had no effect on relative chlorophyll content. The present study provides the first documentation that remote sensing holds potential for detecting changes in plant spectral reflectance induced by soybean aphid. The use of plant spectral reflectance in soybean aphid management may assist future IPM programs to reduce sampling costs and prevent prophylactic insecticide sprays. PMID:26470392

  2. Forest edges and fire ants alter the seed shadow of an ant-dispersed plant.

    PubMed

    Ness, J H

    2004-02-01

    Exotic species invade fragmented, edge-rich habitats readily, yet the distinct impacts of habitat edges and invaders on native biota are rarely distinguished. Both appear detrimental to ant-dispersed plants such as bloodroot, Sanguinaria canadensis. Working in northeastern Georgia (USA), an area characterized by a rich ant-dispersed flora, fragmented forests, and invasions by the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, I monitored the interactions between ants and S. canadensis seeds in uninvaded forest interiors, uninvaded forest edges, invaded forest interiors, and invaded forest edges. I observed 95% of the seed dispersal events that occurred within the 60-min observation intervals. Seed collection rates were similar among all four (habitat x invasion) groups. The presence of invasive ants had a strong effect on seed dispersal distance: S. invicta collected most seeds in invaded sites, but was a poorer disperser than four of five native ant taxa. Habitat type (interior versus edge) had no effect on seed dispersal distance, but it had a strong effect on seed dispersal direction. Dispersal towards the edge was disproportionately rare in uninvaded forest edges, and ants in those habitats moved the average dispersed seed approximately 70 cm away from that edge. Dispersal direction was also skewed away from the edge in uninvaded forest interiors and invaded forest edges, albeit non-significantly. This biased dispersal may help explain the rarity of myrmecochorous plants in younger forests and edges, and their poor ability to disperse between fragments. This is the first demonstration that forest edges and S. invicta invasion influence seed dispersal destination and distance, respectively. These forces act independently.

  3. Triatomic Spectral Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 117 Triatomic Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 55 triatomic molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  4. Hydrocarbon Spectral Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 115 Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 91 hydrocarbon molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  5. Diatomic Spectral Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 114 Diatomic Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 121 diatomic molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty, and reference are given for each transition reported.

  6. Spectral collocation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussaini, M. Y.; Kopriva, D. A.; Patera, A. T.

    1987-01-01

    This review covers the theory and application of spectral collocation methods. Section 1 describes the fundamentals, and summarizes results pertaining to spectral approximations of functions. Some stability and convergence results are presented for simple elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic equations. Applications of these methods to fluid dynamics problems are discussed in Section 2.

  7. On the wake flow of asymmetrically beveled trailing edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yaoyi; Pröbsting, Stefan; Stephens, David; Gupta, Abhineet; Morris, Scott C.

    2016-05-01

    Trailing edge and wake flows are of interest for a wide range of applications. Small changes in the design of asymmetrically beveled or semi-rounded trailing edges can result in significant difference in flow features which are relevant for the aerodynamic performance, flow-induced structural vibration and aerodynamically generated sound. The present study describes in detail the flow field characteristics around a family of asymmetrically beveled trailing edges with an enclosed trailing-edge angle of 25° and variable radius of curvature R. The flow fields over the beveled trailing edges are described using data obtained by particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments. The flow topology for different trailing edges was found to be strongly dependent on the radius of curvature R, with flow separation occurring further downstream as R increases. This variation in the location of flow separation influences the aerodynamic force coefficients, which were evaluated from the PIV data using a control volume approach. Two-point correlations of the in-plane velocity components are considered to assess the structure in the flow field. The analysis shows large-scale coherent motions in the far wake, which are associated with vortex shedding. The wake thickness parameter yf is confirmed as an appropriate length scale to characterize this large-scale roll-up motion in the wake. The development in the very near wake was found to be critically dependent on R. In addition, high-speed PIV measurements provide insight into the spectral characteristics of the turbulent fluctuations. Based on the time-resolved flow field data, the frequency range associated with the shedding of coherent vortex pairs in the wake is identified. By means of time-correlation of the velocity components, turbulent structures are found to convect from the attached or separated shear layers without distinct separation point into the wake.

  8. Shape-dependent canny edge detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panetta, Karen A.; Agaian, Sos S.; Nercessian, Shahan C.; Almunstashri, Ali A.

    2011-08-01

    Edges characterize the boundaries of objects in images and are informative structural cues for computer vision and target/object detection and recognition systems. The Canny edge detector is widely regarded as the edge detection standard. It is fairly adaptable to different environments, as its parametric nature attempts to tailor the detection of edges based on image-dependent characteristics or the particular requirements of a given implementation. Though it has been used in a myriad of image processing tasks, the Canny edge detector is still vulnerable to edge losses, localization errors, and noise sensitivity. These issues are largely due to the key tradeoff made in the scale and size of the edge detection filters used by the algorithm. Small-scaled filters are sensitive to edges but also to noise, whereas large-scaled filters are robust to noise but could filter out fine details. In this paper, novel edge detection kernel generalizations and a shape-dependent edge detector are introduced to alleviate these shortcomings. While most standard edge detection algorithms are based on convolving the input image with fixed size square kernels, this paper will illustrate the benefits of different filter sizes, and more importantly, different kernel shapes for edge detection. Moreover, new edge fusion methods are introduced to more effectively combine the individual edge responses. Existing edge detectors, including the Canny edge detector, can be obtained from the generalized edge detector by specifying corresponding parameters and kernel shapes. The proposed representations and edge detector have been qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated on several different types of image data. Computer simulations demonstrate that nonsquare kernel approaches can outperform square kernel approaches such as Canny, Sobel, Prewitt, Roberts, and others, providing better tradeoffs between noise rejection, accurate edge localization, and resolution. Where possible, Pratt's figure of

  9. High spectral resolution airborne short wave infrared hyperspectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Liqing; Yuan, Liyin; Wang, Yueming; Zhuang, Xiaoqiong

    2016-05-01

    Short Wave InfraRed(SWIR) spectral imager is good at detecting difference between materials and penetrating fog and mist. High spectral resolution SWIR hyperspectral imager plays a key role in developing earth observing technology. Hyperspectral data cube can help band selections that is very important for multispectral imager design. Up to now, the spectral resolution of many SWIR hyperspectral imagers is about 10nm. A high sensitivity airborne SWIR hyperspectral imager with narrower spectral band will be presented. The system consists of TMA telescope, slit, spectrometer with planar blazed grating and high sensitivity MCT FPA. The spectral sampling interval is about 3nm. The IFOV is 0.5mrad. To eliminate the influence of the thermal background, a cold shield is designed in the dewar. The pixel number of spatial dimension is 640. Performance measurement in laboratory and image analysis for flight test will also be presented.

  10. Use of near infrared/red radiance ratios for estimating vegetation biomass and physiological status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.

    1977-01-01

    The application of photographic infrared/red (ir/red) reflectance or radiance ratios for the estimation of vegetation biomass and physiological status were investigated by analyzing in situ spectral reflectance data from experimental grass plots. Canopy biological samples were taken for total wet biomass, total dry biomass, leaf water content, dry green biomass, dry brown biomass, and total chlorophyll content at each sampling date. Integrated red and photographic infrared radiances were regressed against the various canopy or plot variables to determine the relative significance between the red, photographic infrared, and the ir/red ratio and the canopy variables. The ir/red ratio is sensitive to the photosynthetically active or green biomass, the rate of primary production, and actually measures the interaction between the green biomass and the rate of primary production within a given species type. The ir/red ratio resulted in improved regression significance over the red or the ir/radiances taken separately. Only slight differences were found between ir/red ratio, the ir-red difference, the vegetation index, and the transformed vegetation index. The asymptotic spectral radiance properties of the ir, red, ir/red ratio, and the various transformations were evaluated.

  11. Detecting the red tide based on remote sensing data in optically complex East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Pan, Delu; Mao, Zhihua; Tao, Bangyi; Liu, Qiong

    2012-09-01

    Red tide not only destroys marine fishery production, deteriorates the marine environment, affects coastal tourist industry, but also causes human poison, even death by eating toxic seafood contaminated by red tide organisms. Remote sensing technology has the characteristics of large-scale, synchronized, rapid monitoring, so it is one of the most important and most effective means of red tide monitoring. This paper selects the high frequency red tides areas of the East China Sea as study area, MODIS/Aqua L2 data as the data source, analysis and compares the spectral differences in the red tide water bodies and non-red tide water bodies of many historical events. Based on the spectral differences, this paper develops the algorithm of Rrs555/Rrs488> 1.5 to extract the red tide information. Apply the algorithm on red tide event happened in the East China Sea on May 28, 2009 to extract the information of red tide, and found that the method can determine effectively the location of the occurrence of red tide; there is a good corresponding relationship between red tide extraction result and chlorophyll a concentration extracted by remote sensing, shows that these algorithm can determine effectively the location and extract the red tide information.

  12. The Problem of the Edge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faatz, Judith A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a field study in a local ecosystem which allows high school students to investigate the edge effect, where a meadow and a forest meet. Students measure soil moisture content, soil temperature, air temperature, relative humidity, wind intensity, and illumination level. Teachers can help students apply their findings to understand problems…

  13. Spectral Fingerprints for Authentication and Identification of Variation in Foods and Botanical Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spectral fingerprints were acquired using ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis), infra-red (IR), near infra-red (NIR), and mass spectrometry (MS) for broccoli, dry beans, and Ginkgo biloba with no prior chromatographic separation of the samples. Patterns were elucidated from the complex overlapping spectra ...

  14. Spectral-temporal description of dispersive wave emission and soliton trapping in micro-nano silicon-on-insulator waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jin; Ma, Chengju; Fan, Wei; Fu, Haiwei

    2015-08-01

    We numerically investigate the dispersive wave emission and soliton trapping in the process of femtosecond soliton propagation in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide. The cross-correlation frequency resolved optical gating (X-FROG) technique is employed to analyze the spectral-temporal dynamics of the soliton at different propagation distances. The numerical results show that dispersive wave emission can be blue-shifted (around 1300 nm) or red-shifted (around 1900 nm), which is determined by the dispersion slope for the pump wavelength (1550 nm). In addition, it can be found that red-shifted dispersive wave can supply contribution to the flatness of the supercontinuum generation. Through increasing the peak power of the soliton to 100 W, the soliton trapping can be observed by the edge of dispersive wave, which can be visualized in the form of multi-peak oscillation structure in the spectrogram when not considering the two-photon absorption (TPA). This work opens up the possibility for the realization of dispersive wave emission device in highly integrated circuit.

  15. T Dwarfs Model Fits for Spectral Standards at Low Spectral Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorla, Paige; Rice, Emily L.; Douglas, Stephanie T.; Mace, Gregory N.; McLean, Ian S.; Martin, Emily C.; Logsdon, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    We present model fits to the T dwarf spectral standards which cover spectral types from T0 to T8. For a complete spectral range analysis, we have included a T9 object which is not considered a spectral standard. We have low-resolution (R~120) SpeX Prism spectra and a variety of higher resolution (R~1,000-25,000) spectra for all nine of these objects. The synthetic spectra are from the BT-SETTL 2013 models. We compare the best fit parameters from low resolution spectra to results from the higher resolution fits of prominent spectral type dependent features, where possible. Using the T dwarf standards to calibrate the effective temperature and gravity parameters for each spectral type, we will expand our analysis to a larger, more varied sample, which includes over one hundred field T dwarfs, for which we have a variety of low, medium, and high resolution spectra from the SpeX Prism Library and the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey. This sample includes a handful of peculiar and red T dwarfs, for which we explore the causes of their non-normalcy.

  16. Groupers on the edge: Shelf edge spawning habitat in and around marine reserves of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, F.C.; Scanlon, K.M.; Koenig, C.C.

    2011-01-01

    The northeastern Gulf of Mexico contains some of the most diverse and productive marine habitat in the United States. Much of this habitat, located on the shelf edge in depths of 50 to 120 m, supports spawning for many economically important species, including groupers. Here, we couple acoustic surveys with georeferenced videography to describe the primary spatial and geologic features of spawning aggregation sites for four economically important species: gag (Mycteroperca microlepis), scamp (M. phenax), red grouper (Epinephelus morio), and red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), with notes on fish distribution and abundance and spawning activities. We provide information on movement patterns of reef fish determined using acoustic telemetry. Finally, we discuss the possible coupling of geomorphology with hydrographic features to influence the overall productivity of the region and the importance of spatial fishery management in sustaining that productivity. ?? 2011 by Association of American Geographers.

  17. Effect of Spectrally Varying Albedo of Vegetation Surfaces on Shortwave Radiation Fluxes and Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, L.; Martins, J. V.; Yu, H.

    2012-01-01

    This study develops an algorithm for representing detailed spectral features of vegetation albedo based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) observations at 7 discrete channels, referred to as the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Albedo (MEVA) algorithm. The MEVA algorithm empirically fills spectral gaps around the vegetation red edge near 0.7 micrometers and vegetation water absorption features at 1.48 and 1.92 micrometers which cannot be adequately captured by the MODIS 7 channels. We then assess the effects of applying MEVA in comparison to four other traditional approaches to calculate solar fluxes and aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) at the top of atmosphere (TOA) based on the MODIS discrete reflectance bands. By comparing the DRF results obtained through the MEVA method with the results obtained through the other four traditional approaches, we show that filling the spectral gap of the MODIS measurements around 0.7 micrometers based on the general spectral behavior of healthy green vegetation leads to significant improvement in the instantaneous aerosol DRF at TOA (up to 3.02Wm(exp -2) difference or 48% fraction of the aerosol DRF, .6.28Wm(exp -2), calculated for high spectral resolution surface reflectance from 0.3 to 2.5 micrometers for deciduous vegetation surface). The corrections of the spectral gaps in the vegetation spectrum in the near infrared, again missed by the MODIS reflectances, also contributes to improving TOA DRF calculations but to a much lower extent (less than 0.27Wm(exp -2), or about 4% of the instantaneous DRF). Compared to traditional approaches, MEVA also improves the accuracy of the outgoing solar flux between 0.3 to 2.5 micrometers at TOA by over 60Wm(exp -2) (for aspen 3 surface) and aerosol DRF by over 10Wm(exp -2) (for dry grass). Specifically, for Amazon vegetation types, MEVA can improve the accuracy of daily averaged aerosol radiative forcing in the spectral range of 0.3 to 2.5 micrometers at equator at the

  18. Spectral discrimination of papyrus vegetation ( Cyperus papyrus L.) in swamp wetlands using field spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Elhadi; Mutanga, Onisimo

    Techniques for mapping and monitoring wetland species are critical for their sustainable management. Papyrus ( Cyperus papyrus L.) is one of the most important species-rich habitats that characterize the Greater St. Lucia Wetlands Park (GSWP) in South Africa. This paper investigates whether papyrus could be discriminated from its co-existing species using ASD field spectrometer data ranging from 300 nm to 2500 nm, yielding a total of 2151 bands. Canopy spectral measurements from papyrus and three other species were collected in situ in the Greater St. Lucia Wetlands Park, South Africa. A new hierarchical method based on three integrated analysis levels was proposed and implemented to spectrally discriminate papyrus from other species as well as to reduce and subsequently select optimal bands for the potential discrimination of papyrus. In the first level of the analysis using ANOVA, we found that there were statistically significant differences in spectral reflectance between papyrus and other species on 412 wavelengths located in different portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Using the selected 412 bands, we further investigated the use of classification and regression trees (CART) in the second level of analysis to identify the most sensitive bands for spectral discrimination. This analysis yielded eight bands which are considered to be practical for upscaling to airborne or space borne sensors for mapping papyrus vegetation. The final sensitivity analysis level involved the application of Jeffries-Matusita (JM) distance to assess the relative importance of the selected eight bands in discriminating papyrus from other species. The results indicate that the best discrimination of papyrus from its co-existing species is possible with six bands located in the red-edge and near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Overall, the study concluded that spectral reflectance of papyrus and its co-existing species is statistically different, a promising

  19. [Effect of adaptation to light of different spectral composition on photosynthesis of Chlorella cells].

    PubMed

    Brandt, A B; Kiseleva, M I

    1980-01-01

    Dependence of cell photosynthesis in different spectral regions on illumination conditions of chlorella culture during growing (blue, green and red light) was studied. Change in the shape of action spectra of photosynthesis (measured with interference light filters) was discovered. This change is mostly pronounced in relation to the red and blue maxima. The largest relative value of the blue maximum was observed for the cells grown in the red light.

  20. Development of edge effects around experimental ecosystem hotspots is affected by edge density and matrix type

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecological edge effects are sensitive to landscape context. In particular, edge effects can be altered by matrix type and by the presence of other nearby edges. We experimentally altered patch configurations in an African savanna to determine how edge density and matrix type influence edge effect de...

  1. Edge absorption and circular photogalvanic effect in 2D topological insulator edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entin, M. V.; Magarill, L. I.

    2016-06-01

    The electron absorption on the edge states and the edge photocurrent of a 2D topological insulator (TI) are studied. We consider the optical transitions within linear edge branches of the energy spectrum. The interaction with impurities is taken into account. The circular polarization is found to produce the edge photocurrent, the direction of which is determined by light polarization and edge orientation.

  2. Cobb's Red Cabbage Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an indicator made from the pigment in red cabbage. Cabbage is grated then soaked in water. When the water is a strong red, the cabbage is strained out. The cabbage-juice indicator is then used to test for acids and bases. Includes a list of good foods to test for acidity and alkalinity. (PVD)

  3. Resolution-enhancing hybrid, spectral CT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. P.; Badea, C. T.

    2016-04-01

    Spectral x-ray imaging based on photon-counting x-ray detectors (PCXD) is an area of growing interest. By measuring the energy of x-ray photons, a spectral CT system can better differentiate elements using a single scan. However, the spatial resolution achievable with most PCXDs limits their application, particularly in preclinical CT imaging. Consequently, our group is developing a hybrid micro-CT scanner based on a high-resolution, energy-integrating (EID) detector and a lower-resolution, PCXD. To complement this system, we propose and demonstrate a hybrid, spectral CT reconstruction algorithm which robustly combines the spectral contrast of the PCXD with the spatial resolution of the EID. Specifically, the high-resolution, spectrally resolved data (X) is recovered as the sum of two matrices: one with low column rank (XL) determined from the EID data and one with intensity gradient sparse columns (XS) corresponding to the upsampled spectral contrast obtained from the PCXD data. We test the proposed algorithm in a feasibility study focused on molecular imaging of atherosclerotic plaque using activatable iodine and gold nanoparticles. The results show accurate estimation of material concentrations at increased spatial resolution for a voxel size ratio between the PCXD and the EID of 500 μm3:100 μm3. Specifically, regularized, iterative reconstruction of the MOBY mouse phantom around the K-edges of iodine (33.2 keV) and gold (80.7 keV) reduces the reconstruction error by more than a factor of three relative to least-squares, algebraic reconstruction. Likewise, the material decomposition accuracy into iodine, gold, calcium, and water improves by more than a factor of two.

  4. Growth of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under red and blue lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Sara S.; Cuello, Joel L.; Myhre, Graham; Pau, Stanley

    2011-03-01

    Red and blue lasers, holding promise as an electric light source for photosynthetic systems on account of being true monochromatic, high-power, and having high electrical-conversion efficiency, were employed in growing a green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The laser treatments tested included: 655-nm Red; 680-nm Red; 655-nm Red+474-nm Blue and 680-nm Red+474-nm Blue. A white cold cathode lamp with spectral output similar to that of white fluorescent lamp served as control. C. reinhardtii successfully grew and divided under the 655 and 680-nm red lasers as well as under the white-light control. Supplementing either red with blue laser, however, resulted in increased algae cell count that significantly exceeded those under both red lasers and the white-light control on average by 241%.

  5. Spectrally nonselective holographic objective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardosanidze, Zurab V.

    1991-10-01

    Reflection holograms and holographic optical elements fabricated by the Denisyuk method are spectrally selective. In certain applications there may be a need for the development of holographic structures that are not selective in terms of the spectral composition of the reconstructing light. This paper describes the possibility of creating spectral nonselective optical elements and reflection holograms on a dichromate gelatin layer (DGL). The essential condition for achieving nonselectivity in this case is a strong absorption of actinic radiation in the initial emulsion layer conditioning the strongly damping character of the summary field in thickness.

  6. [Phycobiliproteins of blue-green, red and cryptophytic algae].

    PubMed

    Stadnichuk, I N; Gusev, M V

    1979-04-01

    The present-day concepts on phycobiliproteins, the protein pigments of blue-green, red and cryptophyte algae are reviewed. The functions, distribution, localization, physico-chemical, spectral and immunochemical properties of phycobiliproteins are described. The properties of the polypeptide protein subunits and the composition and chemical structure of chromophores as well as their binding to the apoprotein molecules are discussed.

  7. Project STOP (Spectral Thermal Optimization Program)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhammer, L. J.; Opjorden, R. W.; Goodelle, G. S.; Powe, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The spectral thermal optimization of solar cell configurations for various solar panel applications is considered. The method of optimization depends upon varying the solar cell configuration's optical characteristics to minimize panel temperatures, maximize power output and decrease the power delta from beginning of life to end of life. Four areas of primary investigation are: (1) testing and evaluation of ultraviolet resistant coverslide adhesives, primarily FEP as an adhesive; (2) examination of solar cell absolute spectral response and corresponding cell manufacturing processes that affect it; (3) experimental work with solar cell manufacturing processes that vary cell reflectance (solar absorptance); and (4) experimental and theoretical studies with various coverslide filter designs, mainly a red rejection filter. The Hughes' solar array prediction program has been modified to aid in evaluating the effect of each of the above four areas on the output of a solar panel in orbit.

  8. Saddle-node dynamics for edge detection

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Y.F.

    1994-09-01

    The author demonstrates how the formulation of a nonlinear scale-space filter can be used for edge detection and junction analysis. By casting edge-preserving filtering in terms of maximizing information content subject to an average cost function, the computed cost at each pixel location becomes a local measure of edgeness. This computation depends on a single scale parameter and the given image data. Unlike previous approaches which require careful tuning of the filter kernels for various types of edges, this scheme is general enough to be able to handle different edges, such as lines, step edges, corners and junctions. Anisotropy in the data is handled automatically by the nonlinear dynamics.

  9. Edge-on thick discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasparova, A.; Katkov, I.; Chilingarian, I.; Silchenko, O.; Moiseev, A.; Borisov, S.

    2016-06-01

    Although thick stellar discs are detected in nearly all edge-on disc galaxies, their formation scenarios still remain a matter of debate. Due to observational difficulties, there is a lack of information about their stellar populations. Using the Russian 6-m telescope BTA we collected deep spectra of thick discs in three edge-on early-type disc galaxies located in different environments: NGC4111 in a dense group, NGC4710 in the Virgo cluster, and NGC5422 in a sparse group. We see intermediate age (4 ‑ 5 Gyr) metal rich ([Fe/H] ~ ‑0.2 ‑ 0.0 dex) stellar populations in NGC4111 and NGC4710. On the other hand, NGC5422 does not harbour young stars, its only disc is thick and old (10 Gyr) and its α-element abundance suggests a long formation epoch implying its formation at high redshift. Our results prove the diversity of thick disc formation scenarios.

  10. Linear array optical edge sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, Antal K. (Inventor); Primus, Howard C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A series of independent parallel pairs of light emitting and detecting diodes for a linear pixel array, which is laterally positioned over an edge-like discontinuity in a workpiece to be scanned, is disclosed. These independent pairs of light emitters and detectors sense along intersecting pairs of separate optical axes. A discontinuity, such as an edge in the sensed workpiece, reflects a detectable difference in the amount of light from that discontinuity in comparison to the amount of light that is reflected on either side of the discontinuity. A sequentially sychronized clamping and sampling circuit detects that difference as an electrical signal which is recovered by circuitry that exhibits an improved signal-to-noise capability for the system.

  11. Soil spectral characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1981-01-01

    The spectral characterization of soils is discussed with particular reference to the bidirectional reflectance factor as a quantitative measure of soil spectral properties, the role of soil color, soil parameters affecting soil reflectance, and field characteristics of soil reflectance. Comparisons between laboratory-measured soil spectra and Landsat MSS data have shown good agreement, especially in discriminating relative drainage conditions and organic matter levels in unvegetated soils. The capacity to measure both visible and infrared soil reflectance provides information on other soil characteristics and makes it possible to predict soil response to different management conditions. Field and laboratory soil spectral characterization helps define the extent to which intrinsic spectral information is available from soils as a consequence of their composition and field characteristics.

  12. Multi-spectral imaging of oxygen saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savelieva, Tatiana A.; Stratonnikov, Aleksander A.; Loschenov, Victor B.

    2008-06-01

    The system of multi-spectral imaging of oxygen saturation is an instrument that can record both spectral and spatial information about a sample. In this project, the spectral imaging technique is used for monitoring of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in human tissues. This system can be used for monitoring spatial distribution of oxygen saturation in photodynamic therapy, surgery or sports medicine. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the visible range is an effective and extensively used technique for the non-invasive study and characterization of various biological tissues. In this article, a short review of modeling techniques being currently in use for diffuse reflection from semi-infinite turbid media is presented. A simple and practical model for use with a real-time imaging system is proposed. This model is based on linear approximation of the dependence of the diffuse reflectance coefficient on relation between absorbance and reduced scattering coefficient. This dependence was obtained with the Monte Carlo simulation of photon propagation in turbid media. Spectra of the oxygenated and deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin differ mostly in the red area (520 - 600 nm) and have several characteristic points there. Thus four band-pass filters were used for multi-spectral imaging. After having measured the reflectance, the data obtained are used for fitting the concentration of oxygenated and free hemoglobin, and hemoglobin oxygen saturation.

  13. Temporal spectral response of a corn canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, B. L.; Kimes, D. S.; Tucker, C. J.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1981-01-01

    Techniques developed for the prediction of winter wheat yields from remotely sensed data indicating crop status over the growing season are tested for their applicability to corn. Ground-based spectral measurements in the Landsat Thematic Mapper bands 3 (0.62-0.69 microns), 4 (0.76-0.90 microns) and 5 (1.55-1.75 microns) were performed at one-week intervals throughout the growing season for 24 plots of corn, and analyzed to derive spectral ratios and normalized spectral differences of the IR and shortwave IR bands with the red. The ratios of the near IR and shortwave IR bands are found to provide the highest and most consistent correlations with corn yield and dry matter accumulation, however the value of band 5 could not be tested due to the absence of water stress conditions. Integration of spectral ratios over several dates improved the correlations over those of any single date by achieving a seasonal, rather than instantaneous, estimate of crop status. Results point to the desirability of further tests under other growth conditions to determine whether satellite-derived data will be useful in providing corn yield information.

  14. Gyrosheath near the tokamak edge

    SciTech Connect

    Hazeltine, R.D.; Xiao, H. . Inst. for Fusion Studies); Valanju, P.M. . Fusion Research Center)

    1993-03-01

    A new model for the structure of the radial electric field profile in the edge during the H-mode is proposed. Charge separation caused by the difference between electron and ion gyromotion, or more importantly in a tokamak, the banana motion (halo effect) can self-consistently produce an electric dipole moment that causes the sheared radial electric field. The calculated results based on the model are consistent with D-III D and TEXTOR experimental results.

  15. Edge-driven microplate kinematics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schouten, Hans; Klitgord, Kim D.; Gallo, David G.

    1993-01-01

    It is known from plate tectonic reconstructions that oceanic microplates undergo rapid rotation about a vertical axis and that the instantaneous rotation axes describing the microplate's motion relative to the bounding major plates are frequently located close to its margins with those plates, close to the tips of propagating rifts. We propose a class of edge-driven block models to illustrate how slip across the microplate margins, block rotation, and propagation of rifting may be related to the relative motion of the plates on either side. An important feature of these edge-driven models is that the instantaneous rotation axes are always located on the margins between block and two bounding plates. According to those models the pseudofaults or traces of disrupted seafloor resulting from the propagation of rifting between microplate and major plates may be used independently to approximately trace the continuous kinematic evolution of the microplate back in time. Pseudofault geometries and matching rotations of the Easter microplate show that for most of its 5 m.y. history, block rotation could be driven by the drag of the Nazca and Pacific plates on the microplate's edges rather than by a shear flow of mantle underneath.

  16. The spectral changes of deforestation in the Brazilian tropical savanna.

    PubMed

    Trancoso, Ralph; Sano, Edson E; Meneses, Paulo R

    2015-01-01

    The Cerrado is a biome in Brazil that is experiencing the most rapid loss in natural vegetation. The objective of this study was to analyze the changes in the spectral response in the red, near infrared (NIR), middle infrared (MIR), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) when native vegetation in the Cerrado is deforested. The test sites were regions of the Cerrado located in the states of Bahia, Minas Gerais, and Mato Grosso. For each region, a pair of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes from 2008 (before deforestation) and 2009 (after deforestation) was compared. A set of 1,380 samples of deforested polygons and an equal number of samples of native vegetation have their spectral properties statistically analyzed. The accuracy of deforestation detections was also evaluated using high spatial resolution imagery. Results showed that the spectral data of deforested areas and their corresponding native vegetation were statistically different. The red band showed the highest difference between the reflectance data from deforested areas and native vegetation, while the NIR band showed the lowest difference. A consistent pattern of spectral change when native vegetation in the Cerrado is deforested was identified regardless of the location in the biome. The overall accuracy of deforestation detections was 97.75%. Considering both the marked pattern of spectral changes and the high deforestation detection accuracy, this study suggests that deforestation in Cerrado can be accurately monitored, but a strong seasonal and spatial variability of spectral changes might be expected.

  17. Pulsed mid-infrared radiation from spectral broadening in laser wakefield simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, W.; Palastro, J. P.; Antonsen, T. M.

    2013-07-15

    Spectral red-shifting of high power laser pulses propagating through underdense plasma can be a source of ultrashort mid-infrared (MIR) radiation. During propagation, a high power laser pulse drives large amplitude plasma waves, depleting the pulse energy. At the same time, the large amplitude plasma wave provides a dynamic dielectric response that leads to spectral shifting. The loss of laser pulse energy and the approximate conservation of laser pulse action imply that spectral red-shifts accompany the depletion. In this paper, we investigate, through simulation, the parametric dependence of MIR generation on pulse energy, initial pulse duration, and plasma density.

  18. Thermophotovoltaic Spectral Control

    SciTech Connect

    DM DePoy; PM Fourspring; PF Baldasaro; JF Beausang; EJ Brown; MW Dashiel; KD Rahner; TD Rahmlow; JE Lazo-Wasem; EJ Gratrix; B Wemsman

    2004-06-09

    Spectral control is a key technology for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) direct energy conversion systems because only a fraction (typically less than 25%) of the incident thermal radiation has energy exceeding the diode bandgap energy, E{sub g}, and can thus be converted to electricity. The goal for TPV spectral control in most applications is twofold: (1) Maximize TPV efficiency by minimizing transfer of low energy, below bandgap photons from the radiator to the TPV diode. (2) Maximize TPV surface power density by maximizing transfer of high energy, above bandgap photons from the radiator to the TPV diode. TPV spectral control options include: front surface filters (e.g. interference filters, plasma filters, interference/plasma tandem filters, and frequency selective surfaces), back surface reflectors, and wavelength selective radiators. System analysis shows that spectral performance dominates diode performance in any practical TPV system, and that low bandgap diodes enable both higher efficiency and power density when spectral control limitations are considered. Lockheed Martin has focused its efforts on front surface tandem filters which have achieved spectral efficiencies of {approx}83% for E{sub g} = 0.52 eV and {approx}76% for E{sub g} = 0.60 eV for a 950 C radiator temperature.

  19. Spectrally selective glazings

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  20. Chemistry at the Edge of Graphene.

    PubMed

    Bellunato, Amedeo; Arjmandi Tash, Hadi; Cesa, Yanina; Schneider, Grégory F

    2016-03-16

    The selective functionalization of graphene edges is driven by the chemical reactivity of its carbon atoms. The chemical reactivity of an edge, as an interruption of the honeycomb lattice of graphene, differs from the relative inertness of the basal plane. In fact, the unsaturation of the pz orbitals and the break of the π conjugation on an edge increase the energy of the electrons at the edge sites, leading to specific chemical reactivity and electronic properties. Given the relevance of the chemistry at the edges in many aspects of graphene, the present Review investigates the processes and mechanisms that drive the chemical functionalization of graphene at the edges. Emphasis is given to the selective chemical functionalization of graphene edges from theoretical and experimental perspectives, with a particular focus on the characterization tools available to investigate the chemistry of graphene at the edge.

  1. USGS Digital Spectral Library splib06a

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Wise, Richard A.; Livo, K. Eric; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Sutley, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction We have assembled a digital reflectance spectral library that covers the wavelength range from the ultraviolet to far infrared along with sample documentation. The library includes samples of minerals, rocks, soils, physically constructed as well as mathematically computed mixtures, plants, vegetation communities, microorganisms, and man-made materials. The samples and spectra collected were assembled for the purpose of using spectral features for the remote detection of these and similar materials. Analysis of spectroscopic data from laboratory, aircraft, and spacecraft instrumentation requires a knowledge base. The spectral library discussed here forms a knowledge base for the spectroscopy of minerals and related materials of importance to a variety of research programs being conducted at the U.S. Geological Survey. Much of this library grew out of the need for spectra to support imaging spectroscopy studies of the Earth and planets. Imaging spectrometers, such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Visible/Infra Red Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) or the NASA Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) which is currently orbiting Saturn, have narrow bandwidths in many contiguous spectral channels that permit accurate definition of absorption features in spectra from a variety of materials. Identification of materials from such data requires a comprehensive spectral library of minerals, vegetation, man-made materials, and other subjects in the scene. Our research involves the use of the spectral library to identify the components in a spectrum of an unknown. Therefore, the quality of the library must be very good. However, the quality required in a spectral library to successfully perform an investigation depends on the scientific questions to be answered and the type of algorithms to be used. For example, to map a mineral using imaging spectroscopy and the mapping algorithm of Clark and others (1990a, 2003b

  2. Mass loss in red giants and supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanner, F.

    1975-01-01

    The circumstellar envelopes surrounding late-type giants and supergiants were studied using high resolution, photoelectric scans of strong optical resonance lines. A method for extracting the circumstellar from the stellar components of the lines allowed a quantitative determination of the physical conditions in the envelopes and the rates of mass loss at various positions in the red giant region of the HR diagram. The observed strengthening of the circumstellar spectrum with increasing luminosity and later spectral type is probably caused by an increase in the mass of the envelopes. The mass loss rate for individual stars is proportional to the visual luminosity; high rates for the supergiants suggest that mass loss is important in their evolution. The bulk of the mass return to the interstellar medium in the red giant region comes from the normal giants, at a rate comparable to that of planetary nebulae.

  3. Edge localized mode control with an edge resonant magnetic perturbation

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, R.A.; Boedo, J.A.; Rudakov, D.L.; Evans, T.E.; Osborne, T.H.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J.; Jackson, G.L.; La Haye, R.J.; Leonard, A.W.; Schaffer, M.J.; Snyder, P.B.; West, W.P.; Thomas, P.R.; Becoulet, M.; Harris, J.; Finken, K.-H.; Doyle, E.J.; Rhodes, T.L.; Wang, G.

    2005-05-15

    A low amplitude ({delta}b{sub r}/B{sub T}=1 part in 5000) edge resonant magnetic field perturbation with toroidal mode number n=3 and poloidal mode numbers between 8 and 15 has been used to suppress most large type I edge localized modes (ELMs) without degrading core plasma confinement. ELMs have been suppressed for periods of up to 8.6 energy confinement times when the edge safety factor q{sub 95} is between 3.5 and 4. The large ELMs are replaced by packets of events (possibly type II ELMs) with small amplitude, narrow radial extent, and a higher level of magnetic field and density fluctuations, creating a duty cycle with long 'active' intervals of high transport and short 'quiet' intervals of low transport. The increased transport associated with these events is less impulsive and slows the recovery of the pedestal profiles to the values reached just before the large ELMs without the n=3 perturbation. Changing the toroidal phase of the perturbation by 60 deg. with respect to the best ELM suppression case reduces the ELM amplitude and frequency by factors of 2-3 in the divertor, produces a more stochastic response in the H-mode pedestal profiles, and displays similar increases in small scale events, although significant numbers of large ELMs survive. In contrast to the best ELM suppression case where the type I ELMs are also suppressed on the outboard midplane, the midplane recycling increases until individual ELMs are no longer discernable. The ELM response depends on the toroidal phase of the applied perturbation because intrinsic error fields make the target plasma nonaxisymmetric, and suggests that at least some of the variation in ELM behavior in a single device or among different devices is due to differences in the intrinsic error fields in these devices. These results indicate that ELMs can be suppressed by small edge resonant magnetic field perturbations. Extrapolation to next-step burning plasma devices will require extending the regime of operation to

  4. Learnability of Red-Green Opponency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Lennie, Haake, and Williams found that in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), parvocellular unit responses are consistent with the hypothesis that their input connectivity is blind to the difference between middle-wavelength-sensitive (MWS) and long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones. Most of their cells have a total MWS input weight opposite in sign and similar in magnitude to their total LWS input weight. If these weights are exactly balanced, the construction of a red-green opponent system from such units is simple: such units need only be aligned so the signs of their outputs agree. Ahumada and Mulligan described an associative learning process which can accomplish this alignment. If the units are not balanced (carry some luminance information), the strong overlap between the MWS and LWS spectral responses can cause units to agree more on the basis of luminance, and the associative process fails to produce red-green opponency. The learning theory requires that the LGN units be nearly balanced (more strongly encode chromaticity than luminance) and quantitatively expresses the requirement: the principal component of the LGN outputs must be in the red-green rather than the luminance direction. We show that the cone weights of the monkey LGN cells measured by Derrington, Krauskopf, and Lennie can satisfy this learnability criterion even if the MWS spectral response is close to the LWS spectral response, simulating anomalous trichromacy. The learnability theory provides a source of visual system variation for explaining why different anomalous trichromats may make the same average anomaloscope match (same pigments), but have either narrow (good opponent learning) or wide (poor learning) ranges of acceptable matches.

  5. Sparse-view spectral CT reconstruction using spectral patch-based low-rank penalty.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungsang; Ye, Jong Chul; Worstell, William; Ouyang, Jinsong; Rakvongthai, Yothin; El Fakhri, Georges; Li, Quanzheng

    2015-03-01

    Spectral computed tomography (CT) is a promising technique with the potential for improving lesion detection, tissue characterization, and material decomposition. In this paper, we are interested in kVp switching-based spectral CT that alternates distinct kVp X-ray transmissions during gantry rotation. This system can acquire multiple X-ray energy transmissions without additional radiation dose. However, only sparse views are generated for each spectral measurement; and the spectra themselves are limited in number. To address these limitations, we propose a penalized maximum likelihood method using spectral patch-based low-rank penalty, which exploits the self-similarity of patches that are collected at the same position in spectral images. The main advantage is that the relatively small number of materials within each patch allows us to employ the low-rank penalty that is less sensitive to intensity changes while preserving edge directions. In our optimization formulation, the cost function consists of the Poisson log-likelihood for X-ray transmission and the nonconvex patch-based low-rank penalty. Since the original cost function is difficult to minimize directly, we propose an optimization method using separable quadratic surrogate and concave convex procedure algorithms for the log-likelihood and penalty terms, which results in an alternating minimization that provides a computational advantage because each subproblem can be solved independently. We performed computer simulations and a real experiment using a kVp switching-based spectral CT with sparse-view measurements, and compared the proposed method with conventional algorithms. We confirmed that the proposed method improves spectral images both qualitatively and quantitatively. Furthermore, our GPU implementation significantly reduces the computational cost.

  6. Double surface effect causes a peak in band-edge photocurrent spectra: a quantitative model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkulets, Yury; Bick, Tamar; Shalish, Ilan

    2016-09-01

    Band-edge photocurrent spectra are typically observed in either of two shapes: a peak or a step. In this study, we show that the photocurrent band-edge response of a GaN layer forms a peak, while the same response in GaN nanowires takes the form of a step, and both are red-shifted to the actual band-edge energy. This apparent inconsistency is not limited to GaN. The physics of this phenomenon has been unclear. To understand the physics behind these observations, we propose a model that explains the apparent discrepancy as resulting from a structure-dependent surface effect. To test the model, we experiment with a GaAs layer, showing that we can deliberately switch between a step and a peak. We use GaAs because it is available at a semi-insulating doping level. We demonstrate that using this quantitative model one may obtain the exact band-edge transition energy, regardless of the red-shift variance, as well as the density of the surface state charges that cause the red shift. The model thus adds quantitative features to photocurrent spectroscopy.

  7. Red Bull Stratos Presentation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Red Bull Stratos High Performance Director Andy Walshe & Technical Project Director Art Thompson share the Stratos story with JSC. Supported by a team of experts, Felix Baumgartner reached 128,100 ...

  8. Densified edge seals for fuel cell components

    DOEpatents

    DeCasperis, Anthony J.; Roethlein, Richard J.; Breault, Richard D.

    1982-01-01

    A porous fuel cell component, such as an electrode substrate, has a densified edge which forms an improved gas seal during operation when soaked with electrolyte. The edges are made from the same composition as the rest of the component and are made by compressing an increased thickness of this material along the edges during the fabrication process.

  9. Whence the red panda?

    PubMed

    Flynn, J J; Nedbal, M A; Dragoo, J W; Honeycutt, R L

    2000-11-01

    The evolutionary history of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher-level phylogeny of the "bear-like" arctoid carnivoran mammals. Characters from morphology and molecules have provided inconsistent evidence for placement of the red panda. Whereas it certainly is an arctoid, there has been major controversy about whether it should be placed with the bears (ursids), ursids plus pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, walrus), raccoons (procyonids), musteloids (raccoons plus weasels, skunks, otters, and badgers [mustelids]), or as a monotypic lineage of uncertain phylogenetic affinities. Nucleotide sequence data from three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear intron were analyzed, with more complete taxonomic sampling of relevant taxa (arctoids) than previously available in analyses of primary molecular data, to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the red panda to other arctoid carnivorans. This study provides detailed phylogenetic analyses (both parsimony and maximum-likelihood) of primary character data for arctoid carnivorans, including bootstrap and decay indices for all arctoid nodes, and three statistical tests of alternative phylogenetic hypotheses for the placement of the red panda. Combined phylogenetic analyses reject the hypotheses that the red panda is most closely related to the bears (ursids) or to the raccoons (procyonids). Rather, evidence from nucleotide sequences strongly support placement of the red panda within a broad Musteloidea (sensu lato) clade, including three major lineages (the red panda, the skunks [mephitids], and a clearly monophyletic clade of procyonids plus mustelids [sensu stricto, excluding skunks]). Within the Musteloidea, interrelationships of the three major lineages are unclear and probably are best considered an unresolved trichotomy. These data provide compelling evidence for the relationships of the red panda and demonstrate that small taxonomic sample sizes can result in misleading or possibly erroneous

  10. Whence the red panda?

    PubMed

    Flynn, J J; Nedbal, M A; Dragoo, J W; Honeycutt, R L

    2000-11-01

    The evolutionary history of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher-level phylogeny of the "bear-like" arctoid carnivoran mammals. Characters from morphology and molecules have provided inconsistent evidence for placement of the red panda. Whereas it certainly is an arctoid, there has been major controversy about whether it should be placed with the bears (ursids), ursids plus pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, walrus), raccoons (procyonids), musteloids (raccoons plus weasels, skunks, otters, and badgers [mustelids]), or as a monotypic lineage of uncertain phylogenetic affinities. Nucleotide sequence data from three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear intron were analyzed, with more complete taxonomic sampling of relevant taxa (arctoids) than previously available in analyses of primary molecular data, to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the red panda to other arctoid carnivorans. This study provides detailed phylogenetic analyses (both parsimony and maximum-likelihood) of primary character data for arctoid carnivorans, including bootstrap and decay indices for all arctoid nodes, and three statistical tests of alternative phylogenetic hypotheses for the placement of the red panda. Combined phylogenetic analyses reject the hypotheses that the red panda is most closely related to the bears (ursids) or to the raccoons (procyonids). Rather, evidence from nucleotide sequences strongly support placement of the red panda within a broad Musteloidea (sensu lato) clade, including three major lineages (the red panda, the skunks [mephitids], and a clearly monophyletic clade of procyonids plus mustelids [sensu stricto, excluding skunks]). Within the Musteloidea, interrelationships of the three major lineages are unclear and probably are best considered an unresolved trichotomy. These data provide compelling evidence for the relationships of the red panda and demonstrate that small taxonomic sample sizes can result in misleading or possibly erroneous

  11. Red cell metabolism in red and grey kangaroos.

    PubMed

    Agar, N S

    1977-12-15

    Glucose utilization, lactate production and glutathione regeneration were measured in the red blood cells of 2 species of Australian Marsupials, Eastern grey Kangaroo (Macropus gigantus) and red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), and were found to be significantly lower in the red blood cells from grey than that of red kangaroos.

  12. Multipurpose spectral imager.

    PubMed

    Sigernes, F; Lorentzen, D A; Heia, K; Svenøe, T

    2000-06-20

    A small spectral imaging system is presented that images static or moving objects simultaneously as a function of wavelength. The main physical principle is outlined and demonstrated. The instrument is capable of resolving both spectral and spatial information from targets throughout the entire visible region. The spectral domain has a bandpass of 12 A. One can achieve the spatial domain by rotating the system's front mirror with a high-resolution stepper motor. The spatial resolution range from millimeters to several meters depends mainly on the front optics used and whether the target is fixed (static) or movable relative to the instrument. Different applications and examples are explored, including outdoor landscapes, industrial fish-related targets, and ground-level objects observed in the more traditional way from an airborne carrier (remote sensing). Through the examples, we found that the instrument correctly classifies whether a shrimp is peeled and whether it can disclose the spectral and spatial microcharacteristics of targets such as a fish nematode (parasite). In the macroregime, we were able to distinguish a marine vessel from the surrounding sea and sky. A study of the directional spectral albedo from clouds, mountains, snow cover, and vegetation has also been included. With the airborne experiment, the imager successfully classified snow cover, leads, and new and rafted ice, as seen from 10.000 ft (3.048 m). PMID:18345245

  13. Multipurpose spectral imager.

    PubMed

    Sigernes, F; Lorentzen, D A; Heia, K; Svenøe, T

    2000-06-20

    A small spectral imaging system is presented that images static or moving objects simultaneously as a function of wavelength. The main physical principle is outlined and demonstrated. The instrument is capable of resolving both spectral and spatial information from targets throughout the entire visible region. The spectral domain has a bandpass of 12 A. One can achieve the spatial domain by rotating the system's front mirror with a high-resolution stepper motor. The spatial resolution range from millimeters to several meters depends mainly on the front optics used and whether the target is fixed (static) or movable relative to the instrument. Different applications and examples are explored, including outdoor landscapes, industrial fish-related targets, and ground-level objects observed in the more traditional way from an airborne carrier (remote sensing). Through the examples, we found that the instrument correctly classifies whether a shrimp is peeled and whether it can disclose the spectral and spatial microcharacteristics of targets such as a fish nematode (parasite). In the macroregime, we were able to distinguish a marine vessel from the surrounding sea and sky. A study of the directional spectral albedo from clouds, mountains, snow cover, and vegetation has also been included. With the airborne experiment, the imager successfully classified snow cover, leads, and new and rafted ice, as seen from 10.000 ft (3.048 m).

  14. Noncomputable Spectral Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teutsch, Jason

    2007-01-01

    It is possible to enumerate all computer programs. In particular, for every partial computable function, there is a shortest program which computes that function. f-MIN is the set of indices for shortest programs. In 1972, Meyer showed that f-MIN is Turing equivalent to 0'', the halting set with halting set oracle. This paper generalizes the notion of shortest programs, and we use various measures from computability theory to describe the complexity of the resulting "spectral sets." We show that under certain Godel numberings, the spectral sets are exactly the canonical sets 0', 0'', 0''', ... up to Turing equivalence. This is probably not true in general, however we show that spectral sets always contain some useful information. We show that immunity, or "thinness" is a useful characteristic for distinguishing between spectral sets. In the final chapter, we construct a set which neither contains nor is disjoint from any infinite arithmetic set, yet it is 0-majorized and contains a natural spectral set. Thus a pathological set becomes a bit more friendly. Finally, a number of interesting open problems are left for the inspired reader.

  15. Field measurements of the spectral response of natural waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolucci, L. A.; Robinson, B. F.; Silva, L. F.

    1977-01-01

    The spectral response (air-water interface reflectance and water-volume scattering) of turbid river water (99 mg/liter suspended solids) and relatively clear lake water (10 mg/liter suspended solids) was measured in situ with a field spectroradiometer. The influence of the river bottom on the spectral response of the water also was determined by using a modified Secchi disc approach. The results indicated that turbid river water had a higher spectral response than clear lake water (about 6 percent) in the red (0.6-0.7 micron) and near-infrared (0.7-0.9 micron) portions of the spectrum. Also, the reflectance characteristics of the river bottom did not influence the spectral response of the turbid river water when the water was deeper than 30 cm

  16. New approach for the radiometric calibration of spectral imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Kohler, David; Bissett, W; Steward, Robert; Davis, Curtiss

    2004-05-31

    The calibration of multispectral and hyperspectral imaging systems is typically done in the laboratory using an integrating sphere, which usually produces a signal that is red rich. Using such a source to calibrate environmental monitoring systems presents some difficulties. Not only is much of the calibration data outside the range and spectral quality of data values that are expected to be captured in the field, using these measurements alone may exaggerate the optical flaws found within the system. Left unaccounted for, these flaws will become embedded in to the calibration, and thus, they will be passed on to the field data when the calibration is applied. To address these issues, we used a series of well-characterized spectral filters within our calibration. It provided us with a set us stable spectral standards to test and account for inadequacies in the spectral and radiometric integrity of the optical imager.

  17. K-edge densitometer (KED)

    SciTech Connect

    Sprinkle, J.K.; Hansen, W.J.

    1993-02-11

    In 1979, a K-edge densitometer (KED) was installed by the Safeguards Assay group from Los Alamos National Laboratory in the PNC reprocessing plant at Tokai-mura, Japan. It uses an active nondestructive assay technique, KED, to measure the plutonium concentration of the product solution. The measurement uncertainty of an assay depends on the count time chosen, but can be 0.5% or better. The computer hardware and software were upgraded in 1992. This manual describes the operation of the instrument, with an emphasis on the user interface to the software.

  18. [Wavebands selection for rice information extraction based on spectral bands inter-correlation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fu-Min; Huang, Jing-Feng; Xu, Jun-Feng; Wang, Xiu-Zhen

    2008-05-01

    The hyperspectral remote sensing data usually involve hundreds or even thousands of narrow bands, which may be crucial for providing additional information with significant improvements over broad bands in quantifying biophysical and biochemical variables of agricultural crop. However, the huge data generated by hyperspectral systems, and the problems this presents for storage and analysis, have far prevented the routine use of such data. The objective of the present research was to identify the spectral bands in the visible and near-infrared range that were suitable for the study of rice. The hyperspectral reflectance of canopy in different development stages was measured in experimental field using a 1 nm-wide spectroradiometer but was aggregated to 10 nm-wide bandwidths to match the first spaceborne hyperspectral sensor, Hyperion. The correlation coefficients(r) between all the combinations of spectral bands were computed, and then they were converted to R2 , which constituted R2 matrices. The matrices were plotted against wavebands. The criterion of band selection is that the lower the R2 value, the less the redundancy between two wavebands while the higher R2 indicates that there is redundant information between two wavebands. According to the criterion, the wavebands corresponding to the first 100 minimum R2 values were selected from all canopy spectra collected on different dates. And then these bands were analyzed. The results indicate that the visible and infrared (NIR and SWIR) themselves contain redundant information. The wavebands containing abundant information of rice are located in specific bands in the longer wavelength portion of the visible region, with secondary clusters in red edge region, in strongly reflective near-infrared region with relatively higher reflectance, in one particular section of short wave near-infrared (SWIR) (1 530 nm) and in the second maximum reflectance region of SWIR (2 215 nm). Compared with the selected bands with other

  19. An Efficient Ant-Based Edge Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydın, Doğan

    An efficient ant-based edge detector is presented. It is based on the distribution of ants on an image, ants try to find possible edges by using a state transition function based on 5x5 edge structures. Visual comparisons show that the proposed method gives finer details and thinner edges at lesser computational times when compared to earlier ant-based approaches. When compared to standard edge detectors, it shows robustness to Gaussian and Salt & Pepper noise and provides finer details than others with same parameter set in both clear and noisy images.

  20. Tunable skewed edges in puckered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujić, Marko M.; Ezawa, Motohiko; Tadić, Milan Ž.; Peeters, François M.

    2016-06-01

    We propose a type of edges arising due to the anisotropy inherent in the puckered structure of a honeycomb system such as in phosphorene. Skewed-zigzag and skewed-armchair nanoribbons are semiconducting and metallic, respectively, in contrast to their normal edge counterparts. Their band structures are tunable, and a metal-insulator transition is induced by an electric field. We predict a field-effect transistor based on the edge states in skewed-armchair nanoribbons, where the edge state is gapped by applying arbitrary small electric field Ez. A topological argument is presented, revealing the condition for the emergence of such edge states.

  1. Photovoltaic spectral responsivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, K.; Dunlavy, D.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T.

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses the various elemental random and nonrandom error sources in typical spectral responsivity measurement systems. The authors focus specifically on the filter and grating monochrometer-based spectral responsivity measurement systems used by the Photovoltaic (PV) performance characterization team at NREL. A variety of subtle measurement errors can occur that arise from a finite photo-current response time, bandwidth of the monochromatic light, waveform of the monochromatic light, and spatial uniformity of the monochromatic and bias lights; the errors depend on the light source, PV technology, and measurement system. The quantum efficiency can be a function of he voltage bias, light bias level, and, for some structures, the spectral content of the bias light or location on the PV device. This paper compares the advantages and problems associated with semiconductor-detector-based calibrations and pyroelectric-detector-based calibrations. Different current-to-voltage conversion and ac photo-current detection strategies employed at NREL are compared and contrasted.

  2. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  3. Optimal edge filters explain human blur detection.

    PubMed

    McIlhagga, William H; May, Keith A

    2012-01-01

    Edges are important visual features, providing many cues to the three-dimensional structure of the world. One of these cues is edge blur. Sharp edges tend to be caused by object boundaries, while blurred edges indicate shadows, surface curvature, or defocus due to relative depth. Edge blur also drives accommodation and may be implicated in the correct development of the eye's optical power. Here we use classification image techniques to reveal the mechanisms underlying blur detection in human vision. Observers were shown a sharp and a blurred edge in white noise and had to identify the blurred edge. The resultant smoothed classification image derived from these experiments was similar to a derivative of a Gaussian filter. We also fitted a number of edge detection models (MIRAGE, N(1), and N(3)(+)) and the ideal observer to observer responses, but none performed as well as the classification image. However, observer responses were well fitted by a recently developed optimal edge detector model, coupled with a Bayesian prior on the expected blurs in the stimulus. This model outperformed the classification image when performance was measured by the Akaike Information Criterion. This result strongly suggests that humans use optimal edge detection filters to detect edges and encode their blur. PMID:22984222

  4. Single-hole spectral function and spin-charge separation in the t-J model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, A. S.; Prokof'ev, N. V.; Svistunov, B. V.

    2001-07-01

    Worm algorithm Monte Carlo simulations of the hole Green function with subsequent spectral analysis were performed for 0.1<=J/t<=0.4 on lattices with up to L×L=32×32 sites at a temperature as low as T=J/40, and present, apparently, the hole spectral function in the thermodynamic limit. Spectral analysis reveals a δ-function-sharp quasiparticle peak at the lower edge of the spectrum that is incompatible with the power-law singularity and thus rules out the possibility of spin-charge separation in this parameter range. Spectral continuum features two peaks separated by a gap ~4÷5 t.

  5. ADE spectral networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhi, Pietro; Park, Chan Y.

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a new perspective and a generalization of spectral networks for 4d {N} = 2 theories of class S associated to Lie algebras {g} = A n , D n , E6, and E7. Spectral networks directly compute the BPS spectra of 2d theories on surface defects coupled to the 4d theories. A Lie algebraic interpretation of these spectra emerges naturally from our construction, leading to a new description of 2d-4d wall-crossing phenomena. Our construction also provides an efficient framework for the study of BPS spectra of the 4d theories. In addition, we consider novel types of surface defects associated with minuscule ccrepresentations of {g}.

  6. AEGIS: The Diversity of Bright Near-IR Selected Distant RedGalaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Conselice, C.J.; Newman, J.A.; Georgakakis, A.; Almaini, O.; Coil, A.L.; Cooper, M.C.; Eisenhardt, P.; Foucaud, S.; Koekemoer, A.; Lotz, J.; Noeske, K.; Weiner, B.; Willmer, C.N.A

    2006-10-13

    We use deep and wide near infrared (NIR) imaging from the Palomar telescope combined with DEEP2 spectroscopy and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Chandra Space Telescope imaging to investigate the nature of galaxies that are red in NIR colors. We locate these 'distant red galaxies' (DRGs) through the color cut (J - K){sub vega} > 2.3 over 0.7 deg{sup 2}, where we find 1010 DRG candidates down to K{sub s} = 20.5. We combine 95 high quality spectroscopic redshifts with photometric redshifts from BRIJK photometry to determine the redshift and stellar mass distributions for these systems, and morphological/structural and X-ray properties for 107 DRGs in the Extended Groth Strip. We find that many bright (J - K){sub vega} > 2.3 galaxies with K{sub s} < 20.5 are at redshifts z < 2, with 64% between 1 < z < 2. The stellar mass distributions for these galaxies is broad, ranging from 10{sup 9} - 10{sup 12} M{sub {circle_dot}} , but with most z > 2 systems massive with M{sub *} > 10{sup 11} M{sub {circle_dot}}. HST imaging shows that the structural properties and morphologies of DRGs are also diverse, with the majority elliptical/compact (57%), and the remainder edge-on spirals (7%), and peculiar galaxies (29%). The DRGs at z < 1.4 with high quality spectroscopic redshifts are generally compact, with small half-light radii, and span a range in rest-frame optical properties. The spectral energy distributions for these objects differ from higher redshift DRGs: they are bluer by one magnitude in observed (I - J) color. A pure IR color selection of high redshift populations is not sufficient to identify unique populations, and other colors, or spectroscopic redshifts are needed to produce homogeneous samples.

  7. Double conical crystal x-ray spectrometer for high resolution ultrafast x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy of Al K edge

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, A.; Dorchies, F.; Fourment, C.; Harmand, M.; Hulin, S.; Santos, J. J.; Descamps, D.; Petit, S.; Bouillaud, R.

    2010-06-15

    An x-ray spectrometer devoted to dynamical studies of transient systems using the x-ray absorption fine spectroscopy technique is presented in this article. Using an ultrafast laser-induced x-ray source, this optical device based on a set of two potassium acid phthalate conical crystals allows the extraction of x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy structures following the Al absorption K edge. The proposed experimental protocol leads to a measurement of the absorption spectra free from any crystal reflectivity defaults and shot-to-shot x-ray spectral fluctuation. According to the detailed analysis of the experimental results, a spectral resolution of 0.7 eV rms and relative fluctuation lower than 1% rms are achieved, demonstrated to be limited by the statistics of photon counting on the x-ray detector.

  8. Spectral shifts and spectral switches of light generated by scattering of arbitrary coherent waves from a quasi-homogeneous media.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Chang, Liping

    2015-06-29

    Within the accuracy of the Born approximation, it is shown that the light, which is generated by the scattering of an arbitrary coherent polychromatic wave from a quasi-homogeneous (QH) media can, display both spectral shifts and spectral switches. In our study, a pair of Young's pinholes is utilized to modulate spatial coherence of the incident plane wave before it interacts with the scatterer. The spectral shifts are found to be highly dependent of the scattering angle, the correlation length of scatterer and the Young's configuration parameter. Moreover, the spectral shifts can be converted from the red shift to blue one provided that the correlation length of scatterer is small enough. Derived results are confirmed by numerical simulations where influences of various factors on the spectrum are analyzed in detail.

  9. Measuring edge importance to improve immunization performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, He; Yan, Zhijun; Pan, Yaohui

    2014-12-01

    The edge heterogeneity has a remarkable influence on disease spreading, but it has seldom been considered in the disease-controlling policies. Based on the gravity model, we propose the edge importance index to describe the influence of edge heterogeneity on immunization strategies. Then the edge importance and contact weight are combined to calculate the infection rates on the I-S (Infected-Susceptible) edges in the complex network, and the difference of the infection rates on strong and weak ties is analyzed. Simulation results show that edge heterogeneity has a significant influence on the performance of immunization strategies, and better immunization efficiency is derived when the vaccination rate of the nodes in the weak I-S edges is increased.

  10. The Red Sea analog for the early Gulf of Mexico: Salt basins on oceanic crust

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    New geophysical data from the Red Sea and the Gulf of Mexico support the concept that the early Gulf closely resembled the modern Red Sea. Oceanic crust like that now forming along the axis of the Red Sea basin may underlie much of the continental slope offshore Louisiana and Texas. Original depositional thicknesses greater than 4 km characterize both salt depocenters. The thickest salt overlies oceanic crust, probably for isostatic reasons. Deep crustal detachment faulting in a simple shear model with ductile flow below 15 km and narrow zones (up to 50 km) of severely extended crust on the hanging wall characterizes the early tectonic development. The landward edge of thick (> 2--4 km) salt generally follows the edge of oceanic crust, but the seaward edge is localized by depositional factors, modified by subsequent gravity spreading.

  11. Haptic Edge Detection Through Shear

    PubMed Central

    Platkiewicz, Jonathan; Lipson, Hod; Hayward, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Most tactile sensors are based on the assumption that touch depends on measuring pressure. However, the pressure distribution at the surface of a tactile sensor cannot be acquired directly and must be inferred from the deformation field induced by the touched object in the sensor medium. Currently, there is no consensus as to which components of strain are most informative for tactile sensing. Here, we propose that shape-related tactile information is more suitably recovered from shear strain than normal strain. Based on a contact mechanics analysis, we demonstrate that the elastic behavior of a haptic probe provides a robust edge detection mechanism when shear strain is sensed. We used a jamming-based robot gripper as a tactile sensor to empirically validate that shear strain processing gives accurate edge information that is invariant to changes in pressure, as predicted by the contact mechanics study. This result has implications for the design of effective tactile sensors as well as for the understanding of the early somatosensory processing in mammals. PMID:27009331

  12. Haptic Edge Detection Through Shear.

    PubMed

    Platkiewicz, Jonathan; Lipson, Hod; Hayward, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Most tactile sensors are based on the assumption that touch depends on measuring pressure. However, the pressure distribution at the surface of a tactile sensor cannot be acquired directly and must be inferred from the deformation field induced by the touched object in the sensor medium. Currently, there is no consensus as to which components of strain are most informative for tactile sensing. Here, we propose that shape-related tactile information is more suitably recovered from shear strain than normal strain. Based on a contact mechanics analysis, we demonstrate that the elastic behavior of a haptic probe provides a robust edge detection mechanism when shear strain is sensed. We used a jamming-based robot gripper as a tactile sensor to empirically validate that shear strain processing gives accurate edge information that is invariant to changes in pressure, as predicted by the contact mechanics study. This result has implications for the design of effective tactile sensors as well as for the understanding of the early somatosensory processing in mammals. PMID:27009331

  13. Spectral library searching in proteomics.

    PubMed

    Griss, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Spectral library searching has become a mature method to identify tandem mass spectra in proteomics data analysis. This review provides a comprehensive overview of available spectral library search engines and highlights their distinct features. Additionally, resources providing spectral libraries are summarized and tools presented that extend experimental spectral libraries by simulating spectra. Finally, spectrum clustering algorithms are discussed that utilize the same spectrum-to-spectrum matching algorithms as spectral library search engines and allow novel methods to analyse proteomics data.

  14. Effects of timber harvests and silvicultural edges on terrestrial salamanders.

    PubMed

    MacNeil, Jami E; Williams, Rod N

    2014-01-01

    Balancing timber production and conservation in forest management requires an understanding of how timber harvests affect wildlife species. Terrestrial salamanders are useful indicators of mature forest ecosystem health due to their importance to ecosystem processes and sensitivity to environmental change. However, the effects of timber harvests on salamanders, though often researched, are still not well understood. To further this understanding, we used artificial cover objects to monitor the relative abundance of terrestrial salamanders for two seasons (fall and spring) pre-harvest and five seasons post-harvest in six forest management treatments, and for three seasons post-harvest across the edge gradients of six recent clearcuts. In total, we recorded 19,048 encounters representing nine species of salamanders. We observed declines in mean encounters of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) and northern slimy salamanders (P. glutinosus) from pre- to post-harvest in group selection cuts and in clearcuts. However, we found no evidence of salamander declines at shelterwoods and forested sites adjacent to harvests. Edge effects induced by recent clearcuts influenced salamanders for approximately 20 m into the forest, but edge influence varied by slope orientation. Temperature, soil moisture, and canopy cover were all correlated with salamander counts. Our results suggest silvicultural techniques that remove the forest canopy negatively affect salamander relative abundance on the local scale during the years immediately following harvest, and that the depth of edge influence of clearcuts on terrestrial salamanders is relatively shallow (<20 m). Small harvests (<4 ha) and techniques that leave the forest canopy intact may be compatible with maintaining terrestrial salamander populations across a forested landscape. Our results demonstrate the importance of examining species-specific responses and monitoring salamanders across multiple seasons and years

  15. Effects of Timber Harvests and Silvicultural Edges on Terrestrial Salamanders

    PubMed Central

    MacNeil, Jami E.; Williams, Rod N.

    2014-01-01

    Balancing timber production and conservation in forest management requires an understanding of how timber harvests affect wildlife species. Terrestrial salamanders are useful indicators of mature forest ecosystem health due to their importance to ecosystem processes and sensitivity to environmental change. However, the effects of timber harvests on salamanders, though often researched, are still not well understood. To further this understanding, we used artificial cover objects to monitor the relative abundance of terrestrial salamanders for two seasons (fall and spring) pre-harvest and five seasons post-harvest in six forest management treatments, and for three seasons post-harvest across the edge gradients of six recent clearcuts. In total, we recorded 19,048 encounters representing nine species of salamanders. We observed declines in mean encounters of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) and northern slimy salamanders (P. glutinosus) from pre- to post-harvest in group selection cuts and in clearcuts. However, we found no evidence of salamander declines at shelterwoods and forested sites adjacent to harvests. Edge effects induced by recent clearcuts influenced salamanders for approximately 20 m into the forest, but edge influence varied by slope orientation. Temperature, soil moisture, and canopy cover were all correlated with salamander counts. Our results suggest silvicultural techniques that remove the forest canopy negatively affect salamander relative abundance on the local scale during the years immediately following harvest, and that the depth of edge influence of clearcuts on terrestrial salamanders is relatively shallow (<20 m). Small harvests (<4 ha) and techniques that leave the forest canopy intact may be compatible with maintaining terrestrial salamander populations across a forested landscape. Our results demonstrate the importance of examining species-specific responses and monitoring salamanders across multiple seasons and years

  16. Effects of timber harvests and silvicultural edges on terrestrial salamanders.

    PubMed

    MacNeil, Jami E; Williams, Rod N

    2014-01-01

    Balancing timber production and conservation in forest management requires an understanding of how timber harvests affect wildlife species. Terrestrial salamanders are useful indicators of mature forest ecosystem health due to their importance to ecosystem processes and sensitivity to environmental change. However, the effects of timber harvests on salamanders, though often researched, are still not well understood. To further this understanding, we used artificial cover objects to monitor the relative abundance of terrestrial salamanders for two seasons (fall and spring) pre-harvest and five seasons post-harvest in six forest management treatments, and for three seasons post-harvest across the edge gradients of six recent clearcuts. In total, we recorded 19,048 encounters representing nine species of salamanders. We observed declines in mean encounters of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) and northern slimy salamanders (P. glutinosus) from pre- to post-harvest in group selection cuts and in clearcuts. However, we found no evidence of salamander declines at shelterwoods and forested sites adjacent to harvests. Edge effects induced by recent clearcuts influenced salamanders for approximately 20 m into the forest, but edge influence varied by slope orientation. Temperature, soil moisture, and canopy cover were all correlated with salamander counts. Our results suggest silvicultural techniques that remove the forest canopy negatively affect salamander relative abundance on the local scale during the years immediately following harvest, and that the depth of edge influence of clearcuts on terrestrial salamanders is relatively shallow (<20 m). Small harvests (<4 ha) and techniques that leave the forest canopy intact may be compatible with maintaining terrestrial salamander populations across a forested landscape. Our results demonstrate the importance of examining species-specific responses and monitoring salamanders across multiple seasons and years

  17. [Microscopic infrared spectral imaging of oily core].

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiao-Song; Yu, Zhao-Xian; Li, Jing; Chen, Chen

    2009-02-01

    In the present paper, the authors examined some oily core by microscopic infrared spectral imaging methods. Those methods can be classified in three modes, referred to as "transmission mode", "reflection mode" and "attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode". The observed oily core samples belong to siltstone. The samples were made of quartz (-20%), feldspar(-50%) and other rock (igneous rock 25%, metamorphic rocks 1%, sedimentary rock 4%); a little recrystallized calcite (-1%) was in the pore, and the argillaceous matter was distributed along the edge of a pore. The experimental work has been accomplished using SHIMADZU Model IRPrestige-21 Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer plus AIM8800 infrared microscope. For IRPrestige-21, the spectral range is 7 800-350 cm(-1) spectral resolution is 1 cm(-1), and AIM8800 microscope with motorized stages has a resolution of 1 micrometer. The experiment was preformed at room temperature. In "transmission mode" infrared spectral imaging method, the spectral range was limited in wavenumbers greater than 2 000 cm(-1) because the base glass piece has strong light absorption. In contrast with "transmission mode", in "attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode", the depth of penetration into sample is very small (1-2 micrometer), then the absorbance value has nothing to do with base glass piece light absorption. In microscopic infrared transmission spectra, the experimental result shows that there are some strong absorption peaks at 2 866, 2 928, 3 618 and 2 515 cm(-1) respectively. The former two peaks correspond to methyl(methylene) symmetrical and unsymmetrical stretch vibration mode, respectively. The latter two peaks correspond to hydroxyl-stretch vibration mode and S-H, P-H chemical bond stretch vibration mode, respectively. In microscopic longwave infrared ATR spectra, there are other stronger absorption peaks at 1 400, 1 038 and 783 cm(i1)respectively, corresponding to methyl(methylene) widing vibration mode and optical mode

  18. [Microscopic infrared spectral imaging of oily core].

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiao-Song; Yu, Zhao-Xian; Li, Jing; Chen, Chen

    2009-02-01

    In the present paper, the authors examined some oily core by microscopic infrared spectral imaging methods. Those methods can be classified in three modes, referred to as "transmission mode", "reflection mode" and "attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode". The observed oily core samples belong to siltstone. The samples were made of quartz (-20%), feldspar(-50%) and other rock (igneous rock 25%, metamorphic rocks 1%, sedimentary rock 4%); a little recrystallized calcite (-1%) was in the pore, and the argillaceous matter was distributed along the edge of a pore. The experimental work has been accomplished using SHIMADZU Model IRPrestige-21 Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer plus AIM8800 infrared microscope. For IRPrestige-21, the spectral range is 7 800-350 cm(-1) spectral resolution is 1 cm(-1), and AIM8800 microscope with motorized stages has a resolution of 1 micrometer. The experiment was preformed at room temperature. In "transmission mode" infrared spectral imaging method, the spectral range was limited in wavenumbers greater than 2 000 cm(-1) because the base glass piece has strong light absorption. In contrast with "transmission mode", in "attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode", the depth of penetration into sample is very small (1-2 micrometer), then the absorbance value has nothing to do with base glass piece light absorption. In microscopic infrared transmission spectra, the experimental result shows that there are some strong absorption peaks at 2 866, 2 928, 3 618 and 2 515 cm(-1) respectively. The former two peaks correspond to methyl(methylene) symmetrical and unsymmetrical stretch vibration mode, respectively. The latter two peaks correspond to hydroxyl-stretch vibration mode and S-H, P-H chemical bond stretch vibration mode, respectively. In microscopic longwave infrared ATR spectra, there are other stronger absorption peaks at 1 400, 1 038 and 783 cm(i1)respectively, corresponding to methyl(methylene) widing vibration mode and optical mode

  19. Red cell enzymes.

    PubMed

    Paniker, N V

    1975-03-01

    As compared to other cells of the body, the mammalian red cell has one of the simplest structural organizations. As a result, this cell has been extensively used in studies involving the structure, function, and integrity of cell membranes as well as cytoplasmic events. Additionally, the metabolic activities of the red blood cell are also relatively simple. During the past quarter century or so, an ocean of knowledge has been gathered on various aspects of red cell metabolism and function. The fields of enzymes, hemoglobin, membrane, and metabolic products comprise the major portion of this knowledge. These advances have made valuable contributions to biochemistry and medicine. Despite these favorable aspects of this simple, anucleated cell, it must be conceded that our knowledge about the red cell is far from complete. We are still in the dark concerning the mechanism involved in several aspects of its membrane, hemoglobin, enzymes, and a large number of other constituents. For example, a large number of enzymes with known catalytic activity but with unknown function have eluded investigators despite active pursuit. This review will be a consolidation of our present knowledge of human red cell enzymes, with particular reference to their usefulness in the diagnosis and therapy of disease. Owing to the multitude of publications by prominent investigators on each of the approximately 50 enzymes discussed in this review, it was impossible to cite a majority of them.

  20. Imaging tamoxifen retinopathy using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Caramoy, Albert; Scholz, Paula; Fauser, Sascha; Kirchhof, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    A case of tamoxifen retinopathy examined with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is presented. The typical refractile deposits are located between ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer in SD-OCT. A defect on the outer retinal layer with disruption of the photoreceptor layer with sharp edges is seen. The still attached posterior hyaloids gives evidence of other pathomechanism involved in the outer retinal defect than that of macular hole, as suggested in the literature.

  1. LCLS Spectral Flux Viewer

    2005-10-25

    This application (FluxViewer) is a tool for displaying spectral flux data for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). This tool allows the user to view sliced spatial and energy distributions of the photons selected for specific energies and positions transverse to the beam axis.

  2. Microwave spectral line listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The frequency, intensity, and identification of 9615 spectral lines belonging to 75 molecules are tabulated in order of increasing frequency. Measurements for all 75 molecules were made in the frequency range from 26500 to 40000 MHz by a computer controlled spectrometer. Measurements were also made in the 18000 to 26500 MHz range for some of the molecules.

  3. Large Spectral Library Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Chilton, Lawrence K.; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2008-10-03

    Hyperspectral imaging produces a spectrum or vector at each image pixel. These spectra can be used to identify materials present in the image. In some cases, spectral libraries representing atmospheric chemicals or ground materials are available. The challenge is to determine if any of the library chemicals or materials exist in the hyperspectral image. The number of spectra in these libraries can be very large, far exceeding the number of spectral channels collected in the ¯eld. Suppose an image pixel contains a mixture of p spectra from the library. Is it possible to uniquely identify these p spectra? We address this question in this paper and refer to it as the Large Spectral Library (LSL) problem. We show how to determine if unique identi¯cation is possible for any given library. We also show that if p is small compared to the number of spectral channels, it is very likely that unique identi¯cation is possible. We show that unique identi¯cation becomes less likely as p increases.

  4. Blue protein with red fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Swagatha; Yu, Chi-Li; Ferraro, Daniel J.; Sudha, Sai; Pal, Samir Kumar; Schaefer, Wayne F.; Gibson, David T.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2016-01-01

    The walleye (Sander vitreus) is a golden yellow fish that inhabits the Northern American lakes. The recent sightings of the blue walleye and the correlation of its sighting to possible increased UV radiation have been proposed earlier. The underlying molecular basis of its adaptation to increased UV radiation is the presence of a protein (Sandercyanin)–ligand complex in the mucus of walleyes. Degradation of heme by UV radiation results in the formation of Biliverdin IXα (BLA), the chromophore bound to Sandercyanin. We show that Sandercyanin is a monomeric protein that forms stable homotetramers on addition of BLA to the protein. A structure of the Sandercyanin–BLA complex, purified from the fish mucus, reveals a glycosylated protein with a lipocalin fold. This protein–ligand complex absorbs light in the UV region (λmax of 375 nm) and upon excitation at this wavelength emits in the red region (λmax of 675 nm). Unlike all other known biliverdin-bound fluorescent proteins, the chromophore is noncovalently bound to the protein. We provide here a molecular rationale for the observed spectral properties of Sandercyanin. PMID:27688756

  5. Spectral imaging using forward-viewing spectrally encoded endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Zeidan, Adel; Yelin, Dvir

    2016-02-01

    Spectrally encoded endoscopy (SEE) enables miniature, small-diameter endoscopic probes for minimally invasive imaging; however, using the broadband spectrum to encode space makes color and spectral imaging nontrivial and challenging. By careful registration and analysis of image data acquired by a prototype of a forward-viewing dual channel spectrally encoded rigid probe, we demonstrate spectral and color imaging within a narrow cylindrical lumen. Spectral imaging of calibration cylindrical test targets and an ex-vivo blood vessel demonstrates high-resolution spatial-spectral imaging with short (10 μs/line) exposure times. PMID:26977348

  6. Spectral imaging using forward-viewing spectrally encoded endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zeidan, Adel; Yelin, Dvir

    2016-01-01

    Spectrally encoded endoscopy (SEE) enables miniature, small-diameter endoscopic probes for minimally invasive imaging; however, using the broadband spectrum to encode space makes color and spectral imaging nontrivial and challenging. By careful registration and analysis of image data acquired by a prototype of a forward-viewing dual channel spectrally encoded rigid probe, we demonstrate spectral and color imaging within a narrow cylindrical lumen. Spectral imaging of calibration cylindrical test targets and an ex-vivo blood vessel demonstrates high-resolution spatial-spectral imaging with short (10 μs/line) exposure times. PMID:26977348

  7. Edge detection in microscopy images using curvelets

    PubMed Central

    Gebäck, Tobias; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite significant progress in imaging technologies, the efficient detection of edges and elongated features in images of intracellular and multicellular structures acquired using light or electron microscopy is a challenging and time consuming task in many laboratories. Results We present a novel method, based on the discrete curvelet transform, to extract a directional field from the image that indicates the location and direction of the edges. This directional field is then processed using the non-maximal suppression and thresholding steps of the Canny algorithm to trace along the edges and mark them. Optionally, the edges may then be extended along the directions given by the curvelets to provide a more connected edge map. We compare our scheme to the Canny edge detector and an edge detector based on Gabor filters, and show that our scheme performs better in detecting larger, elongated structures possibly composed of several step or ridge edges. Conclusion The proposed curvelet based edge detection is a novel and competitive approach for imaging problems. We expect that the methodology and the accompanying software will facilitate and improve edge detection in images available using light or electron microscopy. PMID:19257905

  8. Reviving red snapper.

    PubMed

    Estabrook, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Red snappers in the Gulf of Mexico once hovered on the brink of extinction, their population having dropped to 2 percent of what had historically swum in the Gulf. But thanks to a recently introduced plan that turns the conventional wisdom of fisheries management on its head, the picture has begun to change. Called Individual Fishing Quotas (IFQs), the new regulations, which give a guaranteed allotment of fish to each participant instead of applying industry-wide quotas, went into effect for Gulf of Mexico Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) in early 2007. The results were immediate and so profound that the Gulf Fishery Management Council voted earlier this year to increase the annual limit on red snapper to nearly 7 million pounds from 5 million.

  9. Red-based cumulus.

    PubMed

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    2015-02-01

    Observations and model simulations of cumulus clouds whose bases are tinted red when the Sun is well above the horizon are presented. Conditions for seeing red bases include (1) a red underlying surface (which may consist of dust clouds, as from haboobs) with high albedo, (2) small fractional cloud cover when the Sun is far enough below the zenith for direct sunlight to illuminate much of the surface directly below and around cloud base, (3) optically thick clouds so that the bases are dark, and (4) clouds with bases that are near enough to the observer to appear high in the sky so that the admixture of scattered light from the intervening atmosphere is minimized.

  10. Jet formation at the sea ice edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltham, D. L.; Heorton, H. D.

    2014-12-01

    The sea ice edge presents a region of many feedback processes between the atmosphere, ocean and sea ice, which are inadequately represented in current climate models. Here we focus on on-ice atmospheric and oceanic flows at the sea ice edge. Mesoscale jet formation due to the Coriolis effect is well understood over sharp changes in surface roughness such as coastlines. This sharp change in surface roughness is experienced by the atmosphere flowing over, and ocean flowing under, a compacted sea ice edge. We have studied a dynamic sea ice edge responding to atmospheric and oceanic jet formation. The shape and strength of atmospheric and oceanic jets during on-ice flows is calculated from existing studies of the sea ice edge and prescribed to idealised models of the sea ice edge. An idealised analytical model of sea ice drift is developed and compared to a sea ice climate model (the CICE model) run on an idealised domain. The response of the CICE model to jet formation is tested at various resolutions. We find that the formation of atmospheric jets during on-ice winds at the sea ice edge increases the wind speed parallel to the sea ice edge and results in the formation of a sea ice edge jet. The modelled sea ice edge jet is in agreement with an observed jet although more observations are needed for validation. The increase in ice drift speed is dependent upon the angle between the ice edge and wind and can result in a 40% increase in ice transport along the sea ice edge. The possibility of oceanic jet formation during on-ice currents and the resultant effect upon the sea ice edge is less conclusive. Observations and climate model data of the polar oceans has been analysed to show areas of likely atmospheric jet formation, with the Fram Strait being of particular interest.

  11. Spectral Identification of Lighting Type and Character

    PubMed Central

    Elvidge, Christopher D.; Keith, David M.; Tuttle, Benjamin T.; Baugh, Kimberly E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the optimal spectral bands for the identification of lighting types and the estimation of four major indices used to measure the efficiency or character of lighting. To accomplish these objectives we collected high-resolution emission spectra (350 to 2,500 nm) for forty-three different lamps, encompassing nine of the major types of lamps used worldwide. The narrow band emission spectra were used to simulate radiances in eight spectral bands including the human eye photoreceptor bands (photopic, scotopic, and “meltopic”) plus five spectral bands in the visible and near-infrared modeled on bands flown on the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). The high-resolution continuous spectra are superior to the broad band combinations for the identification of lighting type and are the standard for calculation of Luminous Efficacy of Radiation (LER), Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) and Color Rendering Index (CRI). Given the high cost that would be associated with building and flying a hyperspectral sensor with detection limits low enough to observe nighttime lights we conclude that it would be more feasible to fly an instrument with a limited number of broad spectral bands in the visible to near infrared. The best set of broad spectral bands among those tested is blue, green, red and NIR bands modeled on the band set flown on the Landsat Thematic Mapper. This set provides low errors on the identification of lighting types and reasonable estimates of LER and CCT when compared to the other broad band set tested. None of the broad band sets tested could make reasonable estimates of Luminous Efficacy (LE) or CRI. The photopic band proved useful for the estimation of LER. However, the three photoreceptor bands performed poorly in the identification of lighting types when compared to the bands modeled on the Landsat Thematic Mapper. Our conclusion is that it is feasible to identify lighting type and make reasonable estimates of LER and CCT using four or more

  12. Changes in spectral reflectance of wheat leaves in response to specific macronutrient deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala-Silva, Tomas; Beyl, Caula A.

    In wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants, deficiency of an essential element may drastically affect growth, appearance, and most importantly yield. Wheat, the focus of this study, is one of the crops studied in the CELSS program. Information about nutrient deficiencies in crops grown in controlled environment is essential to optimize food productivity. The main objective of this study was to determine whether deficiency of Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (M) alters spectral reflectance properties of wheat leaves. Plants were grown in the greenhouse and growth chamber, in a modified Hoagland’s nutrient solution. Spectral reflectance of fully expanded wheat leaves from 280 to 1100 nm, nutrient concentrations (N, P, K, and Ca) and chlorophyll (Chl) were determined when deficiency symptoms were first evident (≈6 7 weeks). Chlorophyll content and fresh and dry weight, were used to assess the severity of the nutrient stress. All nutrient deficiencies affected chlorophyll content and generally increased reflectance in the visible (VIS) 400 700 nm and infrared (IR) 700 1100 nm ranges. Magnesium and nitrogen deficiencies had the most pronounced effect on chlorophyll concentration height, and reflectance. All macronutrient deficiencies tested reduced chlorophyll concentration, increase reflectance in the visible range and caused a shift in the position of the red edge (the point of maximum slope on the reflectance spectrum of vegetation between red and near-infrared wavelengths) toward shorter or longer wavelengths; depending upon the element. In the greenhouse, N and Mg induced the greatest increase in reflectance of 33% and 25% in the VI range and 86% and 53% in the IR range, respectively. However, in the growth chamber, an increase of 97% and 25% occurred in the VI range, and 20% and 33% in the IR range, respectively. In the IR range in the growth chamber, P, K, and Ca deficiency caused a reduction in reflectance (412 770 nm

  13. Interference effect of edge radiation at three-pole wiggler section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koda, Shigeru; Takabayashi, Yuichi

    2016-09-01

    Radiation from a three-pole wiggler section is not simply treated as typical synchrotron radiation in a long-wavelength region. The interference effect between edge radiations from upstream and downstream straight subsections of the wiggler is considered to contribute significantly to the radiation. Our simple model roughly reproduced spectral and spatial distributions of the radiation. Under the maximum interference condition, the peak radiation intensity is four times larger than the edge radiation from a single straight section. Moreover, the longitudinal periodic alignment of three-pole wigglers, which satisfies the maximum interference condition, generates radiation of higher intensity proportional to the square of the periodic number.

  14. EDGES: Deep Multi-Wavelength Photometry and Radial SED Analysis for Six Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mclane, Jacob Noel; Leung, Andrew S.; Dale, Daniel A.; Barnes, Kate L.; Beltz-Mohrmann, Gillian; Egan, Arika; Hatlestad, Alan; Herzog, Laura; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Phenicie, Christopher; Roberts, Jareth; Staudaher, Shawn; van Zee, Liese

    2015-01-01

    New deep ugr imaging was obtained on the Wyoming Infrared Observatory 2.3 meter telescope for NGC4220, NGC4618, NGC5055, NGC5523 and NGC5608, five galaxies in the Extended Disk Galaxy Exploration Science Survey (EDGES). Additional imaging was obtained for NGC4625, a non-EDGES target of opportunity. These data are coupled with deep GALEX ultraviolet and Spitzer/WISE infrared imaging to study the radial variations in the spectral energy distributions. Results from the CIGALE SED modeling software will be presented, including trends in the galaxy star formation histories. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under REU grant AST 1063146.

  15. Spectral Models of Kuiper Belt Objects and Centaurs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale; Ore, Christina M. Dalle

    2003-01-01

    We present models of the spectral reflectances of groups of outer Solar System objects defined primarily by their colors in the spectral region 0.4 -1.2 microns, and which have geometric albedo 0.04 at wavelength 0.55 microns. Our models of the groups with the strongest reflectance gradients (reddest colors) use combinations of organic tholins. We test the hypothesis that metal-reddened igneous rock-forming minerals contribute to the red colors of Centaurs and KBOs by using the space-weathered lunar soil as one of the components of our models. We find that our models can admit the presence of moderate amounts of space-weathered (metal-reddened) minerals, but that they do not require this material to achieve the red colors of the reddest outer Solar System bodies. Our models with organic tholins are consistent with the results of other investigators.

  16. Yellow-red emission from (Ga,In)N heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damilano, B.; Gil, B.

    2015-10-01

    (Ga,In)N-based light emitting devices are very efficient in producing blue light and to a lesser extent green. Extending their spectral range to longer wavelengths while maintaining high efficiency is a challenge due to material and physical issues related to high-In content (Ga,In)N alloys. We review the current status of yellow and red emitters (light emitting diodes and laser diodes) based on this material system. We also describe the state-of-the-art of devices mixing blue-yellow or red-blue-green coloured light, such as monolithic phosphor-free white light emitting diodes and full-colour micro-displays.

  17. Edge Magnon Excitation in Spin Dimer Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, Ryo; Matsumoto, Masashige

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic excitation in a spin dimer system on a bilayer honeycomb lattice is investigated in the presence of a zigzag edge, where disordered and ordered phases can be controlled by a quantum phase transition. In analogy with the case of graphene with a zigzag edge, a flat edge magnon mode appears in the disordered phase. In an ordered phase, a finite magnetic moment generates a mean-field potential to the magnon. Since the potential is nonuniform on the edge and bulk sites, it affects the excitation, and the dispersion of the edge mode deviates from the flat shape. We investigate how the edge magnon mode evolves when the phase changes through the quantum phase transition and discuss the similarities to ordered spin systems on a monolayer honeycomb lattice.

  18. Colouration mechanism of underglaze copper-red decoration porcelain (AD 13th-14th century), China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian; Duan, Huiping; Yang, Yimin; Guan, Li; Xu, Wei; Chen, Dongliang; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Lihua; Huang, Yuying; Wang, Changsui

    2014-07-01

    Underglaze copper-red decoration, i.e. the copper colourant used to paint diversified patterns on the surface of a body and then covered by transparent glaze and fired at high temperature in a reductive firing environment, is famous all over the world. However, the red colouration mechanism generated by underglaze copper remains unclear. In particular, the fact that the edges of the red patterns are orange has been ignored in previous research. Here, non-destructive analysis has been carried out on a precious fragment of early underglaze red porcelain using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence, X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) and reflection spectrometry techniques. The results suggest that the copper content in the red region is higher than that in the orange region, and other colour generation elements do not have obvious content difference, indicating that the colour generation effect of the underglaze red product is related to the copper content. XANES analysis shows that the valence states of copper in the red and orange regions are similar and metal copper contributes to their hues. The results of reflection spectrometry demonstrate that tiny orange hues could be attributed to the Mie scatting effect. Therefore, light-scattering effects should be considered when researching the colouration mechanism of underglaze red. PMID:24971970

  19. Spectral Band Selection for Urban Material Classification Using Hyperspectral Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bris, A.; Chehata, N.; Briottet, X.; Paparoditis, N.

    2016-06-01

    In urban areas, information concerning very high resolution land cover and especially material maps are necessary for several city modelling or monitoring applications. That is to say, knowledge concerning the roofing materials or the different kinds of ground areas is required. Airborne remote sensing techniques appear to be convenient for providing such information at a large scale. However, results obtained using most traditional processing methods based on usual red-green-blue-near infrared multispectral images remain limited for such applications. A possible way to improve classification results is to enhance the imagery spectral resolution using superspectral or hyperspectral sensors. In this study, it is intended to design a superspectral sensor dedicated to urban materials classification and this work particularly focused on the selection of the optimal spectral band subsets for such sensor. First, reflectance spectral signatures of urban materials were collected from 7 spectral libraires. Then, spectral optimization was performed using this data set. The band selection workflow included two steps, optimising first the number of spectral bands using an incremental method and then examining several possible optimised band subsets using a stochastic algorithm. The same wrapper relevance criterion relying on a confidence measure of Random Forests classifier was used at both steps. To cope with the limited number of available spectra for several classes, additional synthetic spectra were generated from the collection of reference spectra: intra-class variability was simulated by multiplying reference spectra by a random coefficient. At the end, selected band subsets were evaluated considering the classification quality reached using a rbf svm classifier. It was confirmed that a limited band subset was sufficient to classify common urban materials. The important contribution of bands from the Short Wave Infra-Red (SWIR) spectral domain (1000-2400 nm) to material

  20. Ultrafast Nonlinear Spectroscopy of Red Fluorescent Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konold, Patrick Eugene

    Red-emitting homologues (RFPs) of the native Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) with emission wavelengths beyond 650 nm are desirable probes for in vivo imaging experiments. They offer the potential for deeper tissue penetration and lower background scatter given a cleaner spectral window. However, bioimaging applications are hindered by poor photophysics ( e.g. low fluorescence quantum yield, high photobleaching), which limits experimental resolution and represents a significant obstacle towards utilization for low copy-number, long-duration imaging applications. In this thesis, a variety of femtosecond nonlinear electronic spectroscopies were employed jointly with site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the photophysical properties of RFPs. In one study, the molecular mechanism of red emission was pursued in two notable RFPs, mPlum and TagRFP675. Solvation dynamics observed with time-resolved transient grating spectroscopy were interpreted with the aid of molecular dynamics simulations to indicate that their red-emission is correlated with the ability of specific chromophore-sidechain hydrogen-bonding interactions to interconvert between direct and water-mediated states. In a second set of studies, two-dimensional double quantum coherence spectroscopy was used to probe the electronic transitions of mPlum. It was discovered that it displayed a response distinctly different from an organic dye in bulk solvent. Modeling indicate of these spectra indicate the spectral features may be attributed to the existence of multiple high-lying (n>1) excited states. The results provide new insight into the electronic structure of these widely used fluorescent probes.

  1. Photoabsorption Study of Bacillus megaterium, DNA and Related Biological Materials in the Phosphorus K-edge Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frigo, Sean P.; McNulty, Ian; Richmond, Robert C.; Ehret, Charles F.

    2002-01-01

    We have measured the x-ray transmission spectra of several biologically related samples in the phosphorus K-edge absorption region. These include elemental red phosphorus, hydrated sodium phosphate (Na3PO4.12H2O), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), adenosinetriphosphate (ATP), diolylphosphatidyl choline (DOPC), and Bacillus megaterium spores. Elemental red phosphorus essentially displays an edge-jump. All other spectra are similar in form and energy position. Each spectrum for these substances is dominated by a narrower, more intense first peak and a broader but less intense second peak. The corresponding K-edge absorption thresholds are shifted towards higher energy relative to that for elemental red phosphorus, as expected for increasing degrees of phosphorus oxidation. The B. megaterium spectrum has aspects common to both the phosphate and DNA spectra and is therefore interpreted as a composite of spectra arising from DNA/RNA and phosphates within the spore. The B. megaterium spore spectrum provides needed information for resonant radiation damage studies in the phosphorus K-edge absorption region by identifying candidate photoexcitations. In addition,the absorption spectra will be useful in macromolecular crystallography studies employing anomalous dispersion effects at the phosphorus K-edge.

  2. Photoabsorption study of Bacillus megaterium, DNA and Related Biological Materials in the Phosphorus K-edge Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frigo, Sean P.; McNulty,Ian; Richmond, Robert C.; Ehret, Charles F.

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the x-ray transmission spectra of several biologically related samples in the phosphorus K-edge absorption region. These include red phosphorus, hydrated sodium phosphate (Na3PO4 12 H2O), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), adenosinetriphosphate (ATP), diolylphosphatidyl choline (DOPC), and Bacillus megaterium spores. Red phosphorus essentially displays an edge-jump. All other spectra are similar in form and energy position, where each is dominated by a narrower, more intense first peak and a broader but less intense second peak. The corresponding K-edge absorption thresholds are shifted towards higher energy relative to that for red phosphorus, as expected for increasing degrees of phosphorus oxidation. The B.meguterium spectrum has aspects common to both the phosphate and DNA spectra and is therefore interpreted as a composite of spectra arising from DNA/RNA and phosphates within the spore. The B. megaterium spore spectrum provides needed information for resonant radiation damage studies in the phosphorus K-edge absorption region by identifying candidate photoexcitations. In addition, the absorption spectra will be useful in macromolecular crystallography studies employing anomalous dispersion effects at the phosphorus K-edge.

  3. 'Vintage' Red Raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Vintage' is a new primocane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA–ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR released in cooperation with the Oregon State Agricultural Experiment Station and the Washington State University Agricu...

  4. Clover, Red (Trifolium pretense)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic modification of plants by the insertion of transgenes can be a powerful experimental approach to answer basic questions about gene product function. This technology can also be used to make improved crop varieties for use in the field. To apply this powerful tool to red clover, an important ...

  5. Red mud product development

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, D.B.

    1996-10-01

    Kaiser Alumina and Chemical Co. impounds red mud, the byproduct of alumina production, behind levees. Kaiser recognizes that this action cannot be maintained indefinitely. Therefore, a project is in progress to produce useful products from red mud that increase the profitability of the Gramercy facility. Before products could be developed, an obstacle had to be overcome. The annual rainfall in South Louisiana prevents evaporative drying of the mud lakes. Innovative methods were applied to dry the lake mud. Two products have been developed. A daily landfill cover and an absorbant, which are marketed under the Cajunite{trademark} banner. Both products are currently being tested by potential customers at their sites. Environmental concerns were addressed during development. Extensive TCLP results show no metal leachate problems. All pilot tests and plant trials received LADEQ approval. Products that are under development include levee core, road base, fertilizer fillers and synthetic soils. State and Federal agencies are interested in using red mud to remediate coastal erosion. Kaiser is also pursuing the recovery of metals from red mud.

  6. Red Cross Swimming Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlasich, Cynthia

    1989-01-01

    Six new aquatic courses, developed by the Red Cross, are described. They are: Infant and Preschool Aquatics, Longfellow's Whale Tales (classroom water safety lessons for K-Six), Basic Water Safety, Emergency Water Safety, Lifeguard Training, and Safety Training for Swim Coaches. (IAH)

  7. Red sea drillings.

    PubMed

    Ross, D A; Whitmarsh, R B; Ali, S A; Boudreaux, J E; Coleman, R; Fleisher, R L; Girdler, R; Manheim, F; Matter, A; Nigrini, C; Stoffers, P; Supko, P R

    1973-01-26

    Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered. PMID:17843766

  8. Red sea drillings.

    PubMed

    Ross, D A; Whitmarsh, R B; Ali, S A; Boudreaux, J E; Coleman, R; Fleisher, R L; Girdler, R; Manheim, F; Matter, A; Nigrini, C; Stoffers, P; Supko, P R

    1973-01-26

    Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered.

  9. Power spectral estimation algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, Manjit S.

    1989-01-01

    Algorithms to estimate the power spectrum using Maximum Entropy Methods were developed. These algorithms were coded in FORTRAN 77 and were implemented on the VAX 780. The important considerations in this analysis are: (1) resolution, i.e., how close in frequency two spectral components can be spaced and still be identified; (2) dynamic range, i.e., how small a spectral peak can be, relative to the largest, and still be observed in the spectra; and (3) variance, i.e., how accurate the estimate of the spectra is to the actual spectra. The application of the algorithms based on Maximum Entropy Methods to a variety of data shows that these criteria are met quite well. Additional work in this direction would help confirm the findings. All of the software developed was turned over to the technical monitor. A copy of a typical program is included. Some of the actual data and graphs used on this data are also included.

  10. Moveable Leading Edge Device for a Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitt, Dale M. (Inventor); Eckstein, Nicholas Stephen (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method and apparatus for managing a flight control surface system. A leading edge section on a wing of an aircraft is extended into a deployed position. A deformable section connects the leading edge section to a trailing section. The deformable section changes from a deformed shape to an original shape when the leading edge section is moved into the deployed position. The leading edge section on the wing is moved from the deployed position to an undeployed position. The deformable section changes to the deformed shape inside of the wing.

  11. An edge index for topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodan, Emil

    2009-03-01

    Topological insulators display dissipationless currents flowing at the edges of the samples. These currents are associated to chiral edge modes, whose existence is intrinsically linked to the topology of the electronic states of the bulk. The edge modes can be easily investigated when the edges are smooth and have a periodicity, but as soon as the periodicity is absent, the problem becomes un-traceable by purely theoretical means. In my talk I will exemplify the use of non-commutative calculus to explore the properties, especially the stability of the edge modes. For example, using such techniques one can give a fairly elementary proof that the edge modes in Chern insulators survive even for a rough (random) edge. Similarly, for the Spin-Hall effect, one can define an observable and its associated current whose conductance remains quantized during various deformations of the Hamiltonian system. It turns out that in all cases, the edge conductance is given by the index of a Fredholm operator, which provides a new topological invariant linked directly to the edge rather than the bulk.

  12. Visible imaging of edge turbulence in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    S. Zweben; R. Maqueda; K. Hill; D. Johnson; et al

    2000-06-13

    Edge plasma turbulence in tokamaks and stellarators is believed to cause the radical heat and particle flux across the separatrix and into the scrape-off-layers of these devices. This paper describes initial measurements of 2-D space-time structure of the edge density turbulence made using a visible imaging diagnostic in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The structure of the edge turbulence is most clearly visible using a method of gas puff imaging to locally illuminate the edge density turbulence.

  13. BHZ model edge states on Mobius strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogni, Christopher; Vakaryuk, Victor; Tchernyshyov, Oleg

    2014-03-01

    We present analytical edge state solutions to the Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang (BHZ) model of a quantum spin hall topological insulator with Mobius geometry. The edge state solutions are obtained by solving the differential equations governing the BHZ model. The edge states satisfy both inverted periodic boundary conditions and single-valuedness boundary conditions. Furthermore, we develop a classification of boundary conditions compatible with the BHZ model insulator with Mobius geometry. We demonstrate that in the limit of large strip length that there exists a finite energy gap between the edge states. This energy gap does not exist for strips with periodic boundary conditions.

  14. Automatic CME front edge detection from STEREO white-light coronagraph images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirnosov, Vladimir; Chang, Lin-Ching; Pulkkinen, Antti

    2015-08-01

    The coronagraph images captured by a Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) Ahead/Behind (A/B) spacecraft allow tracking of a coronal mass ejection (CME) from two different viewpoints and reconstructing its propagation in three-dimensional space. The reconstruction can be done using a triangulation technique that requires a CME front edge location. There are currently no robust automatic CME front edge detection methods that can be integrated with the triangulation technique. In this paper, we propose a novel automatic method to detect the front edge of the CME using STEREO coronagraph 2 red-colored Red, Green, Blue color model images. Our method consists of two modules: preprocessing and classification. The preprocessing module decomposes each coronagraph image into its three channels and uses only the red channel image for CME segmentation. The output of the preprocessing module is a set of segmented running-difference binary images which is fed into the classification module. These images are then transformed into polar coordinates followed by CME front edge detection based on the distance that CME travels in the field of view. The proposed method was validated against a manual method using total 56 CME events, 28 from STEREO A and 28 from STEREO B, captured in the period from 1 January 2008 to 16 August 2009. The results show that the proposed method is effective for CME front edge detection. The proposed method is useful in quantitative CME processing and analysis and will be immediately applicable to assist automatic triangulation method for real-time space weather forecasting.

  15. DSDEPROJ: Direct Spectral Deprojection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Jeremy; Russell, Helen

    2016-10-01

    Deprojection of X-ray data by methods such as PROJCT, which are model dependent, can produce large and unphysical oscillating temperature profiles. Direct Spectral Deprojection (DSDEPROJ) solves some of the issues inherent to model-dependent deprojection routines. DSDEPROJ is a model-independent approach, assuming only spherical symmetry, which subtracts projected spectra from each successive annulus to produce a set of deprojected spectra.

  16. Remote and Ground Truth Spectral Measurement Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Kira Jorgensen; Hamada, Kris; Guyote, Michael; Okada, Jennifer; Barker, Edwin

    2007-01-01

    FORMOSAT III are a set of six research satellites from Taiwan that were launched in April 2006. The satellites are in 800 km, 71 degree inclination orbits and separated by 24 degrees in ascending node. Ground truth spectral measurements were taken of outer surface materials on FORMOSAT III. From those measurements, a computer model was built to predict the spectral reflectance, which included phase angle and orientation of the spacecraft relative to the observer. However, materials exposed to the space environment have exhibited spectral changes including a darkening and a reddening of the spectra. This reddening was seen as an increase in slope of the reflectance as the wavelength increases. Therefore, the model of pristine materials was augmented to include the space weathering effects. Remote data were collected on two of the six FORMOSAT satellites using the 1.6 meter telescope at AMOS (Air Force Maui Optical and Supercomputing) site with the Spica spectrometer. Due to the separation in ascending node, observations were made on whichever one of the six satellites was visible on that specific night. Three nights of data were collected using the red (6000 9500 angstroms) filter and two nights of data were collected using the blue (3200 -6600 angstroms) filter. A comparison of the data showed a good match to the pristine model for the blue filter region. The absorption feature near 5500 angstroms due to the copper colored Kapton multi-layer insulation (MLI) was very apparent in the remote samples and a good fit to the data was seen in both satellites observed. The features in the red filter regime agreed with the pristine model up through 7000 angstroms where the reddening begins and the slope of the remote sample increases. A comparison of the two satellites showed similar features in the red and blue filter regions, i.e. the satellites were aging at the same rate. A comparison of the pristine model to the first month of remote measurements showed the amount by

  17. Remote and Ground Truth Spectral Measurement Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abercromby, K.; Hamada, K.; Guyote, M.; Okada, J.; Barker, E.

    FORMOSAT III are a set of six research satellites from Taiwan that were launched in April 2006. The satellites are in 800 km, 71 degree inclination orbits and separated by 24 degrees in ascending node. Laboratory spectral measurements were taken of outer surface materials on FORMOSAT III. From those measurements, a computer model was built to predict the spectral reflectance accounting for both solar phase angle and orientation of the spacecraft relative to the observer. However, materials exposed to the space environment have exhibited spectral changes including a darkening and a "reddening" of the spectra. This "reddening" is characterized by an increase in slope of the reflectance as the wavelength increases. Therefore, the model of pre-flight materials was augmented to include the presumed causative agent: space weathering effects. Remote data were collected on two of the six FORMOSAT satellites using the 1.6 meter telescope at the AMOS (Air Force Maui Optical and Supercomputing) site with the Spica spectrometer. Due to the separation in ascending node, observations were acquired of whichever one of the six satellites was visible on that specific night. Three nights of data were collected using the red (6000 - 9500 angstroms) filter and five nights of data were collected using the blue (3200 -6600 angstroms) filter. A comparison of the data showed a good match to the pre-flight models for the blue filter region. The absorption feature near 5500 angstroms due to the copper colored Kapton multi-layer insulation (MLI) was very apparent in the remote samples and a good fit to the data was seen in all satellites observed. The features in the red filter regime agreed with the pre-flight model up through 7000 angstroms where the reddening begins and the slope of the remote sample increases. A comparison of the satellites showed similar features in the red and blue filter regions, i.e. the satellite surfaces were aging at the same rate. A comparison of the pre

  18. Spectral tailoring device

    DOEpatents

    Brager, H.R.; Schenter, R.E.; Carter, L.L.; Karnesky, R.A.

    1987-08-05

    A spectral tailoring device for altering the neutron energy spectra and flux of neutrons in a fast reactor thereby selectively to enhance or inhibit the transmutation rate of a target metrical to form a product isotope. Neutron moderators, neutron filters, neutron absorbers and neutron reflectors may be used as spectral tailoring devices. Depending on the intended use for the device, a member from each of these four classes of materials could be used singularly, or in combination, to provide a preferred neutron energy spectra and flux of the neutrons in the region of the target material. In one embodiment of the invention, an assembly is provided for enhancing the production of isotopes, such as cobalt 60 and gadolinium 153. In another embodiment of the invention, a spectral tailoring device is disposed adjacent a target material which comprises long lived or volatile fission products and the device is used to shift the neutron energy spectra and flux of neutrons in the region of the fission products to preferentially transmute them to produce a less volatile fission product inventory. 6 figs.

  19. Efficient edge-guided full-waveform inversion by Canny edge detection and bilateral filtering algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Shiming; Zhang, Haijiang

    2016-11-01

    It is known full-waveform inversion (FWI) is generally ill-conditioned and various strategies including pre-conditioning and regularizing the inversion system have been proposed to obtain a reliable estimation of the velocity model. Here, we propose a new edge-guided strategy for FWI in frequency domain to efficiently and reliably estimate velocity models with structures of the size similar to the seismic wavelength. The edges of the velocity model at the current iteration are first detected by the Canny edge detection algorithm that is widely used in image processing. Then, the detected edges are used for guiding the calculation of FWI gradient as well as enforcing edge-preserving total variation (TV) regularization for next iteration of FWI. Bilateral filtering is further applied to remove noise but keep edges of the FWI gradient. The proposed edge-guided FWI in the frequency domain with edge-guided TV regularization and bilateral filtering is designed to preserve model edges that are recovered from previous iterations as well as from lower frequency waveforms when FWI is conducted from lower to higher frequencies. The new FWI method is validated using the complex Marmousi model that contains several steeply dipping fault zones and hundreds of horizons. Compared to FWI without edge guidance, our proposed edge-guided FWI recovers velocity model anomalies and edges much better. Unlike previous image-guided FWI or edge-guided TV regularization strategies, our method does not require migrating seismic data, thus is more efficient for real applications.

  20. Spectral methods for discontinuous problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abarbanel, S.; Gottlieb, D.; Tadmor, E.

    1985-01-01

    Spectral methods yield high-order accuracy even when applied to problems with discontinuities, though not in the sense of pointwise accuracy. Two different procedures are presented which recover pointwise accurate approximations from the spectral calculations.

  1. Saturn's Rings Edge-on

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In one of nature's most dramatic examples of 'now-you see-them, now-you-don't', NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captured Saturn on May 22, 1995 as the planet's magnificent ring system turned edge-on. This ring-plane crossing occurs approximately every 15 years when the Earth passes through Saturn's ring plane.

    For comparison, the top picture was taken by Hubble on December 1, 1994 and shows the rings in a more familiar configuration for Earth observers.

    The bottom picture was taken shortly before the ring plane crossing. The rings do not disappear completely because the edge of the rings reflects sunlight. The dark band across the middle of Saturn is the shadow of the rings cast on the planet (the Sun is almost 3 degrees above the ring plane.) The bright stripe directly above the ring shadow is caused by sunlight reflected off the rings onto Saturn's atmosphere. Two of Saturn's icy moons are visible as tiny starlike objects in or near the ring plane. They are, from left to right, Tethys (slightly above the ring plane) and Dione.

    This observation will be used to determine the time of ring-plane crossing and the thickness of the main rings and to search for as yet undiscovered satellites. Knowledge of the exact time of ring-plane crossing will lead to an improved determination of the rate at which Saturn 'wobbles' about its axis (polar precession).

    Both pictures were taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The top image was taken in visible light. Saturn's disk appears different in the bottom image because a narrowband filter (which only lets through light that is not absorbed by methane gas in Saturn's atmosphere) was used to reduce the bright glare of the planet. Though Saturn is approximately 900 million miles away, Hubble can see details as small as 450 miles across.

    The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science

  2. The reconstructed edges of the hexagonal BN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ruiqi; Gao, Junfeng; Liu, Zhongfan; Ding, Feng

    2015-05-01

    As an important two-dimensional material which shows exceptional mechanical and chemical stability, superior electronic properties, along with broad applications, the hexagonal-BN (h-BN) has drawn great attention recently. Here we report a systematic study on the structural stability, electronic and magnetic properties of various h-BN edges, including both bare and hydrogen-terminated ones. It is found that along the armchair (AC) direction, the pristine edge is the most stable one because of the formation of a triple B\\z.tbd N bond, while, along the zigzag (ZZ) directions, the reconstructed ones, ZZB + N and ZZN57 are more stable. The pristine edges are more stable in bare BN in most cases if saturated with hydrogen. By applying the theory of Wulff construction, we predicted that an unpassivated BN domain prefers the hexagonal shape enclosed with bare AC edges i.e., AC-Ns, AC, AC-Bs if the feedstock varies from N-rich to B-rich. However, the evolution from ZZN edged triangular domain, to hexagonal domain enclosed with AC edges, and ZZB edged triangle may occur if the edges are terminated by hydrogen atoms. Further calculation shows that these edges present rich type-dependent properties and thus are important for various applications. This theoretical study showed that controlling the morphologies of BN domains and BN edges is crucial for various applications.As an important two-dimensional material which shows exceptional mechanical and chemical stability, superior electronic properties, along with broad applications, the hexagonal-BN (h-BN) has drawn great attention recently. Here we report a systematic study on the structural stability, electronic and magnetic properties of various h-BN edges, including both bare and hydrogen-terminated ones. It is found that along the armchair (AC) direction, the pristine edge is the most stable one because of the formation of a triple B\\z.tbd N bond, while, along the zigzag (ZZ) directions, the reconstructed ones, ZZB + N

  3. Modern spectral transmissometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgerson, Mark J.; Bartz, Robert; Zaneveld, J. Ronald V.; Kitchen, James C.

    1990-09-01

    We have evaluated a number of spectral attenuation meter designs based on constraints related to power consumption, spectral bandwidth, sampling time, accuracy and stability . Our fmal instrument design employs a unique optical bridge deve1oped1r Sea Tech with ONR support, a tungsten light source and a holographic grating monochromatorThe instrument design is summarized as follows: White light from a 10-Watt tungsten lamp with a 1mm2 filament is collected by a condensing lens and then spatially filtered by a 1mm diameter pinhole which is placed at the entrance port of a monochromator. The monochromator has a 45°, 1200 lines/mm, holographic grating 37 mm in diameter with a 91 mm focal length. The grating is rotated about its vertical axis with a sine arm driven by a stepping motor, allowing wavelength to be selected from 400 to 800 nm. At the exit port of the monochromator we use a 1mm diameter pinhole which spectrally filters the output light, resulting in a spectral bandwidth of 9. 1 nm. This nearly monochromatic light is then measured by a unique reference detector with a 0.5mm diameter pinhole at its center, allowing light to be transmitted through the center of the detector. The transmitted light has a bandwidth of 4.5 nm. The monochromatic light is then collimated by a 50mm focal length achromatic lens and stopped down to a beam 1 cm in diameter. This light then enters the sample chamber. After passing through the sample the light is received by a 61mm focal length achromatic lens and is focused onto a signal detector with a diameter of 1.25mm. Digitized ratios ofreference detector to signal detector voltages allow transmission to be measured with an accuracy of 0.05% and a resolution of 0.01%. By monitoring temperature we were able to temperature compensate the instrument to within 0.05% transmission from 00 C to 25° C. Based on these results it is now possible to construct a spectral attenuation meter with the required sensitivity and accuracy to measure

  4. SWOC: Spectral Wavelength Optimization Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruchti, G. R.

    2016-06-01

    SWOC (Spectral Wavelength Optimization Code) determines the wavelength ranges that provide the optimal amount of information to achieve the required science goals for a spectroscopic study. It computes a figure-of-merit for different spectral configurations using a user-defined list of spectral features, and, utilizing a set of flux-calibrated spectra, determines the spectral regions showing the largest differences among the spectra.

  5. DsRed as a Potential FRET Partner with CFP and GFP

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Michael G.; Moon, Daniel L.; Yue, David T.

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between mutant green fluorescent proteins (GFP) provides powerful means to monitor in vivo protein-protein proximity and intracellular messengers. However, the leading FRET pair of this class (CFP/YFP) entails suboptimal donor excitation by Argon lasers, thereby hindering FRET imaging on many confocal microscopes. Further challenges arise from the large spectral overlap of CFP/YFP emission. By contrast, DsRed, along with other members of a growing family of red-shifted sea coral fluorophores, features spectra that could obviate such limitations, using DsRed as FRET acceptor, and GFP or CFP as donor. Nonetheless, DsRed suffers from slow chromophore maturation, which confounds quantitative FRET. Here, we develop strategies minimizing the resulting complexity: 1), Pulsed activation of inducible promoters, driving expression of DsRed-tagged molecules, yields a uniform bolus of mature fluorophore; 2), The 33-FRET detection algorithm, adapted for CFP/DsRed and GFP/DsRed, proves insensitive to distortion by slow maturation. We thus show that DsRed supports strong FRET in CFP-DsRed or GFP-DsRed concatemers. These results reveal the promise of sea coral fluorophores like DsRed as FRET partners with GFP or CFP. PMID:12829514

  6. Suppression of the water ice and snow albedo feedback on planets orbiting red dwarf stars and the subsequent widening of the habitable zone.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Manoj M; Haberle, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    M stars comprise 80% of main sequence stars, so their planetary systems provide the best chance for finding habitable planets, that is, those with surface liquid water. We have modeled the broadband albedo or reflectivity of water ice and snow for simulated planetary surfaces orbiting two observed red dwarf stars (or M stars), using spectrally resolved data of Earth's cryosphere. The gradual reduction of the albedos of snow and ice at wavelengths greater than 1 μm, combined with M stars emitting a significant fraction of their radiation at these same longer wavelengths, means that the albedos of ice and snow on planets orbiting M stars are much lower than their values on Earth. Our results imply that the ice/snow albedo climate feedback is significantly weaker for planets orbiting M stars than for planets orbiting G-type stars such as the Sun. In addition, planets with significant ice and snow cover will have significantly higher surface temperatures for a given stellar flux if the spectral variation of cryospheric albedo is considered, which in turn implies that the outer edge of the habitable zone around M stars may be 10-30% farther away from the parent star than previously thought.

  7. Multispectral image sharpening using a shift-invariant wavelet transform and adaptive processing of multiresolution edges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemeshewsky, G.P.; Rahman, Z.-U.; Schowengerdt, R.A.; Reichenbach, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    Enhanced false color images from mid-IR, near-IR (NIR), and visible bands of the Landsat thematic mapper (TM) are commonly used for visually interpreting land cover type. Described here is a technique for sharpening or fusion of NIR with higher resolution panchromatic (Pan) that uses a shift-invariant implementation of the discrete wavelet transform (SIDWT) and a reported pixel-based selection rule to combine coefficients. There can be contrast reversals (e.g., at soil-vegetation boundaries between NIR and visible band images) and consequently degraded sharpening and edge artifacts. To improve performance for these conditions, I used a local area-based correlation technique originally reported for comparing image-pyramid-derived edges for the adaptive processing of wavelet-derived edge data. Also, using the redundant data of the SIDWT improves edge data generation. There is additional improvement because sharpened subband imagery is used with the edge-correlation process. A reported technique for sharpening three-band spectral imagery used forward and inverse intensity, hue, and saturation transforms and wavelet-based sharpening of intensity. This technique had limitations with opposite contrast data, and in this study sharpening was applied to single-band multispectral-Pan image pairs. Sharpening used simulated 30-m NIR imagery produced by degrading the spatial resolution of a higher resolution reference. Performance, evaluated by comparison between sharpened and reference image, was improved when sharpened subband data were used with the edge correlation.

  8. Novel full-spectral flow cytometry with multiple spectrally-adjacent fluorescent proteins and fluorochromes and visualization of in vivo cellular movement.

    PubMed

    Futamura, Koji; Sekino, Masashi; Hata, Akihiro; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Nakanishi, Yasutaka; Egawa, Gyohei; Kabashima, Kenji; Watanabe, Takeshi; Furuki, Motohiro; Tomura, Michio

    2015-09-01

    Flow cytometric analysis with multicolor fluoroprobes is an essential method for detecting biological signatures of cells. Here, we present a new full-spectral flow cytometer (spectral-FCM). Unlike conventional flow cytometer, this spectral-FCM acquires the emitted fluorescence for all probes across the full-spectrum from each cell with 32 channels sequential PMT unit after dispersion with prism, and extracts the signals of each fluoroprobe based on the spectral shape of each fluoroprobe using unique algorithm in high speed, high sensitive, accurate, automatic and real-time. The spectral-FCM detects the continuous changes in emission spectra from green to red of the photoconvertible protein, KikGR with high-spectral resolution and separates spectrally-adjacent fluoroprobes, such as FITC (Emission peak (Em) 519 nm) and EGFP (Em 507 nm). Moreover, the spectral-FCM can measure and subtract autofluorescence of each cell providing increased signal-to-noise ratios and improved resolution of dim samples, which leads to a transformative technology for investigation of single cell state and function. These advances make it possible to perform 11-color fluorescence analysis to visualize movement of multilinage immune cells by using KikGR-expressing mice. Thus, the novel spectral flow cytometry improves the combinational use of spectrally-adjacent various FPs and multicolor fluorochromes in metabolically active cell for the investigation of not only the immune system but also other research and clinical fields of use.

  9. Absence of edge states in covalently bonded zigzag edges of graphene on Ir(111).

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Subramaniam, Dinesh; Atodiresei, Nicolae; Lazić, Predrag; Caciuc, Vasile; Pauly, Christian; Georgi, Alexander; Busse, Carsten; Liebmann, Marcus; Blügel, Stefan; Pratzer, Marco; Morgenstern, Markus; Mazzarello, Riccardo

    2013-04-11

    The zigzag edges of graphene on Ir(111) are studied by ab initio simulations and low-temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy, providing information about their structural, electronic, and magnetic properties. No edge state is found to exist, which is explained in terms of the interplay between a strong geometrical relaxation at the edge and a hybridization of the d orbitals of Ir atoms with the graphene orbitals at the edge.

  10. [Retrieve of red tide distributions from MODIS data based on the characteristics of water spectrum].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhong-Feng; Cui, Ting-Wei; He, Yi-Jun

    2011-08-01

    After comparing the spectral differences between red tide water and normal water, we developed a method to retrieve red tide distributions from MODIS data based on the characteristics of red tide water spectrum. The authors used the 119 series of in situ observations to validate the method and found that only one observation has not been detected correctly. The authors then applied this method to MODIS data on April 4, 2005. In the research areas three locations of red tide water were apparently detected with the total areas about 2 000 km2. The retrieved red tide distributions are in good agreement with the distributions of high chlorophyll a concentrations. The research suggests that the method is available to eliminating the influence of suspended sediments and can be used to retrieve the locations and areas of red tide water.

  11. X-ray absorption near edge structure/electron energy loss near edge structure calculation using the supercell orthogonalized linear combination of atomic orbitals method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Wai-Yim; Rulis, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Over the last eight years, a large number of x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and/or electron energy loss near edge structure (ELNES) spectroscopic calculations for complex oxides and nitrides have been performed using the supercell-OLCAO (orthogonalized linear combination of atomic orbitals) method, obtaining results in very good agreement with experiments. The method takes into account the core-hole effect and includes the dipole matrix elements calculated from ab initio wavefunctions. In this paper, we describe the method in considerable detail, emphasizing the special advantages of this method for large complex systems. Selected results are reviewed and several hitherto unpublished results are also presented. These include the Y K edge of Y ions segregated to the core of a Σ31 grain boundary in alumina, O K edges of water molecules, C K edges in different types of single walled carbon nanotubes, and the Co K edge in the cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) molecule. On the basis of these results, it is argued that the interpretation of specific features of the calculated XANES/ELNES edges is not simple for complex material systems because of the delocalized nature of the conduction band states. The long-standing notion of the 'fingerprinting' technique for spectral interpretation of experimental data is not tenable. A better approach is to fully characterize the structure under study, using either crystalline data or accurate ab initio modeling. Comparison between calculated XANES/ELNES spectra and available measurements enables us to ascertain the validity of the modeled structure. For complex crystals or structures, it is necessary to use the weighted sum of the spectra from structurally nonequivalent sites for comparison with the measured data. Future application of the supercell-OLCAO method to complex biomolecular systems is also discussed.

  12. Active flow control for a blunt trailing edge profiled body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghib Lahouti, Arash

    Flow in the wake of nominally two-dimensional bluff bodies is dominated by vortex shedding, beyond a very small threshold Reynolds number. Vortex shedding poses challenges in the design of structures, due to its adverse effects such as cyclic aerodynamic loads and fatigue. The wake vortices are often accompanied by large- and small-scale secondary instabilities, which manifest as dislocations in the primary wake vortices, and/or pairs of counter-rotating streamwise vortices, depending on the dominant instability mode(s), which in turn depends on the profile geometry and Reynolds number. The secondary instabilities interact with the wake vortices through several mechanisms. Therefore, manipulation of the secondary instabilities can be used as a means to alter the wake vortices, in order to reduce their adverse effects. In the present study, flow in the wake of a blunt trailing edge profiled body, composed of an elliptical leading edge and a rectangular trailing edge, has been studied at Reynolds numbers ranging from Re(d) = 500 to 2150 where d is thickness of the body, to identify the secondary instabilities. Various tools, including numerical simulations, Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF), and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) have been used for this study. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) has been applied to analyze the velocity field data. The results indicate the existence of small-scale instabilities with a spanwise wavelength of 2.0d to 2.5d in the near wake. The mechanism of the instability is similar to the Mode-A instability of a circular cylinder; however, it displays features that are specific to the blunt trailing edge profiled body. An active three-dimensional flow control mechanism based on the small-scale instabilities has been designed and evaluated. The mechanism comprises a series of trailing edge injection ports, with a spanwise spacing equal to the wavelength of the small-scale instabilities. Following preliminary evaluation of the control

  13. Eliminating Unbonded Edges In Explosive Bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Kushnick, Anne C.

    1991-01-01

    Explosive-bonding technique elminates sharp unbonded notch normally occurring between flyer plate and baseplate. Makes it possible to simply break away unbonded outer extremity of flyer plate; no longer necessary to grind away unbonded edge to prevent collection of corrosive contaminants in edge voids. Method not limited to flat surfaces.

  14. How Forest Inhomogeneities Affect the Edge Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreault, Louis-Étienne; Dupont, Sylvain; Bechmann, Andreas; Dellwik, Ebba

    2016-09-01

    Most of our knowledge on forest-edge flows comes from numerical and wind-tunnel experiments where canopies are horizontally homogeneous. To investigate the impact of tree-scale heterogeneities ({>}1 m) on the edge-flow dynamics, the flow in an inhomogeneous forest edge on Falster island in Denmark is investigated using large-eddy simulation. The three-dimensional forest structure is prescribed in the model using high resolution helicopter-based lidar scans. After evaluating the simulation against wind measurements upwind and downwind of the forest leading edge, the flow dynamics are compared between the scanned forest and an equivalent homogeneous forest. The simulations reveal that forest inhomogeneities facilitate flow penetration into the canopy from the edge, inducing important dispersive fluxes in the edge region as a consequence of the flow spatial variability. Further downstream from the edge, the forest inhomogeneities accentuate the canopy-top turbulence and the skewness of the wind-velocity components while the momentum flux remains unchanged. This leads to a lower efficiency in the turbulent transport of momentum within the canopy. Dispersive fluxes are only significant in the upper canopy. Above the canopy, the mean flow is less affected by the forest inhomogeneities. The inhomogeneities induce an increase in the mean wind speed that was found to be equivalent to a decrease in the aerodynamic height of the canopy. Overall, these results highlight the importance of forest inhomogeneities when looking at canopy-atmosphere exchanges in forest-edge regions.

  15. Cutting a Tapered Edge on Padding Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Resilience and flexibility of felt, rubber, or other padding materials allow them to be clamped in form block, cut straight down, and then released to produce straight clean tapered edge. With material held in slanted position, edge can be cut straight down; hence cut depth is minimum.

  16. Registration of 'Red Ruby' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red Ruby’ soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2007 via an exclusive licensing agreement through Michigan State University (MSU) Technologies. Red Ruby was selected from the cross Pioneer ‘2552’/Pioneer ‘2737W’ ma...

  17. Construction and characterization of a red-emitting luciferase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eames, Brian F.; Benaron, David A.; Stevenson, David K.; Contag, Christopher H.

    1999-07-01

    Red light is transmitted through live tissue more efficiently than other wavelengths of visible light, thus by red-shifting the emission of bioluminescent reporters, we may enhance their utility for in vivo monitoring of biological processes. Codon changes at positions that may shift the yellow-green emission to red, based on studies of a related luciferase, were introduced into a variant of the North American firefly luciferase. Clones containing the desired mutation were selected based on the introduction of unique restriction enzyme sites and transfected into NIH 3T3 cells. Expression levels were evaluated using an intensified charge coupled device camera. Upon spectral analysis, all mutant luciferases demonstrated red-orange emission. Two emission peaks were detected in each spectrum, each clone with different peak heights at 560 nm and 610 nm. Sequence analyses of the compete coding region of several clones confirmed the presence of the target mutations, although sequence variation was observed at several secondary sites, likely resulting from the infidelity of Taq polymerase used in the mutagenesis protocol. A clone that demonstrated a strong 610 nm peak with a minimum shoulder at 560 nm was selected for use in animals. In summary, a red-shifted mutant of a well-characterized luciferase reporter gene was generated. Red light from this enzyme may both penetrate mammalian tissues to a greater extent and provide a tool for multicolor biological assays.

  18. Predicting the Spectral Effects of Soils on Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems

    DOE PAGES

    Burton, Patrick D.; King, Bruce Hardison; Riley, Daniel M.

    2014-12-15

    The soiling losses on high concentrating photovoltaic (HCPV) systems may be influenced by the spectral properties of accumulated soil. We predicted the response of an isotype cell to changes in spectral content and reduction in transmission due to soiling using measured UV/vis transmittance through soil films. Artificial soil test blends deposited on glass coupons were used to supply the transmission data, which was then used to calculate the effect on model spectra. Moreover, the wavelength transparency of the test soil was varied by incorporating red and yellow mineral pigments into graded sand. The more spectrally responsive (yellow) soils were predictedmore » to alter the current balance between the top and middle subcells throughout a range of air masses corresponding to daily and seasonal variation.« less

  19. Changes in spectral properties of detached birch leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    1985-01-01

    A study conducted in order to determine the rate of changes in spectral properties of detached leaves and to evaluate the effectiveness of low temperature and cytokinins for delaying the changes, is examined. For five minutes, leaves from red birch are immersed in water or 0.001 M BAP, and then stored in plastic bags in the dark at either 5 or 25 C. Using a spectroradiometer and an integrating sphere, total directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance of the adaxial surface of the leaves are measured over the 400-1100 nm wavelength region. The results indicate that for leaves stored at 5 C for one week, the changes in the spectral properties are less than 5 percent of the initial values, whereas storage at 25 C promotes rapid senescence and large changes in the spectral properties. It is shown that low temperature is more effective than BAP in delaying senescence.

  20. Liquid optical phantoms mimicking spectral characteristics of laboratory mouse biotissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loginova, D. A.; Sergeeva, E. A.; Krainov, A. D.; Agrba, P. D.; Kirillin, M. Yu

    2016-06-01

    Optical phantoms mimicking optical properties of real biotissues in the visible and IR spectral regions are developed based on measurements of the spectral characteristics of ex vivo samples of laboratory mouse biotissues. The phantoms are composed of aqueous solutions of Lipofundin, Indian ink and red ink with different spectral characteristics. The deviations of the measured absorption and scattering coefficients of phantoms in the wavelength range 480 – 580 nm from the corresponding values for real biotissues do not exceed 25% and 2%, respectively. For phantoms in the wavelength region 580 – 880 nm, the deviations of the absorption coefficient do not exceed 40% and the deviations of the scattering coefficient do not exceed 25%. These values, in general, fall within the range of variations for different individual mice of one strain.

  1. Predicting the Spectral Effects of Soils on Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, Patrick D.; King, Bruce Hardison; Riley, Daniel M.

    2014-12-15

    The soiling losses on high concentrating photovoltaic (HCPV) systems may be influenced by the spectral properties of accumulated soil. We predicted the response of an isotype cell to changes in spectral content and reduction in transmission due to soiling using measured UV/vis transmittance through soil films. Artificial soil test blends deposited on glass coupons were used to supply the transmission data, which was then used to calculate the effect on model spectra. Moreover, the wavelength transparency of the test soil was varied by incorporating red and yellow mineral pigments into graded sand. The more spectrally responsive (yellow) soils were predicted to alter the current balance between the top and middle subcells throughout a range of air masses corresponding to daily and seasonal variation.

  2. The spectral index and its running in axionic curvaton

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2013-06-01

    We show that a sizable running spectral index suggested by the recent SPT data can be explained in the axionic curvaton model with a potential that consists of two sinusoidal contributions of different height and period. We find that the running spectral index is generically given by dn{sub s}/dln k ∼ 2π/ΔN (n{sub s}−1), where ΔN is the e-folds during one period of modulations. In the string axiverse, axions naturally acquire a mass from multiple contributions, and one of the axions may be responsible for the density perturbations with a sizable running spectral index via the curvaton mechanism. We note that the axionic curvaton model with modulations can also accommodate the red-tilted spectrum with a negligible running, without relying on large-field inflation.

  3. First derivative versus absolute spectral reflectance of citrus varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazquez, Carlos H.; Nigg, H. N.; Hedley, Lou E.; Ramos, L. E.; Sorrell, R. W.; Simpson, S. E.

    1996-06-01

    Spectral reflectance measurements from 400 to 800 nm were taken from immature and mature leaves of grapefruit ('McCarty' and 'Rio Red'), 'Minneola' tangelo, 'Satsuma' mandarin, 'Dancy' tangerine, 'Nagami' oval kumquat, and 'Valencia' sweet orange, at the Florida Citrus Arboretum, Division of Plant Industry, Winter Haven, Florida. Immature and mature leaves of 'Minneola' tangelo had greater percent reflectance in the 400 to 800 nm range than the other varieties and leaf ages measured. The slope of the citrus spectral curves in the 800 nm range was not as sharp as conventional spectrometers, but had a much higher reflectance value than those obtained with a DK-2 spectrometer. Statistical analyses of absolute spectral data yielded significant differences between mature and immature leaves and between varieties. First derivative data analyses did not yield significant differences between varieties.

  4. Spectrally resolved visualization of fluorescent dyes permeating into skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeder, Ulf; Bergmann, Thorsten; Beer, Sebastian; Burg, Jan Michael; Schmidts, Thomas; Runkel, Frank; Fiebich, Martin

    2012-03-01

    We present a spectrally resolved confocal imaging approach to qualitatively asses the overall uptake and the penetration depth of fluorescent dyes into biological tissue. We use a confocal microscope with a spectral resolution of 5 nm to measure porcine skin tissue after performing a Franz-Diffusion experiment with a submicron emulsion enriched with the fluorescent dye Nile Red. The evaluation uses linear unmixing of the dye and the tissue autofluorescence spectra. The results are combined with a manual segmentation of the skin's epidermis and dermis layers to assess the penetration behavior additionally to the overall uptake. The diffusion experiments, performed for 3h and 24h, show a 3-fold increased dye uptake in the epidermis and dermis for the 24h samples. As the method is based on spectral information it does not face the problem of superimposed dye and tissue spectra and therefore is more precise compared to intensity based evaluation methods.

  5. Spectral Observations of BIG Objects. III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2004-07-01

    Results of spectral observations of 66 objects from the BIG (Byurakan IRAS Galaxies) sample made with the 1.93 m telescope at the Observatoire de Haute Provence (OHP, France) are presented. Emission lines are observed from 64 of the galaxies. The red shifts are determined, the radial velocities, distances, and absolute stellar magnitudes are calculated, the spectrum line parameters are determined, diagnostic diagrams are constructed, the objects are classified according to activity type, and their IR and far-IR luminosities are calculated. Of the 66 objects (corresponding to 61 IRAS sources), 6 are Sy2, 2 are LINERs, 8 are AGN (Sy2 or LINER), 10 are composite, 34 are HII, and 4 are Em of undetermined type. It is calculated that IRAS 07479+7832= BIG d141a is a ultraluminous IR galaxy (ULIG), and 21 are LIG. Spectra of several of the galaxies being studied are presented.

  6. Molecular emission in the edge plasma of T-10 tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zimin, A. M.; Krupin, V. A.; Troynov, V. I.; Klyuchnikov, L. A.

    2015-12-15

    The experiments on recording molecular emission in the edge plasma of the T-10 tokamak are described. To obtain reliable spectra with sufficient spectral, temporal, and spatial resolution, the optical circuit is optimized for various experimental conditions. Typical spectra measured in two sections of the tokamak are shown. It is shown that, upon varying the parameters of the discharge, the molecular spectrum not only changes significantly in intensity but also undergoes a qualitative change in the rotational and vibrational structure. For a detailed analysis, we use the Fulcher-α system (d{sup 3}Π{sub u}–a{sup 3}Σ{sub g}{sup +}) of deuterium in the wavelength range from 590 to 640 nm. The rotational temperatures of ground state X{sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +} and upper excited state d{sup 3}Π{sub u} are estimated by the measured spectra.

  7. More results on oscillating edge-flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckmaster, J.; Hegab, A.; Jackson, T. L.

    2000-06-01

    We examine a simple model of a side-anchored non-premixed edge-flame in order to gain insights into the oscillations that are sometimes observed in microgravity candle burning, flame-spread over liquids, etc. Previous results describe the role played by the Lewis number of the fuel, and the Damköhler number, and here we examine both the effects of an on-edge and off-edge convective flow, and the effects of a heat sink. The on-edge flow and the heat sink tend to destabilize and the off-edge flow tends to stabilize, results consistent with our hypothesis regarding the genesis of the oscillations.

  8. Magnetism of zigzag edge phosphorene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Zhili E-mail: jiayu@zzu.edu.cn; Li, Chong; Yu, Weiyang; Chang, Dahu; Sun, Qiang; Jia, Yu E-mail: jiayu@zzu.edu.cn

    2014-09-15

    We have investigated, by means of ab initio calculations, the electronic and magnetic structures of zigzag edge phosphorene nanoribbons (ZPNRs) with various widths. The stable magnetic state was found in pristine ZPNRs by allowing the systems to be spin-polarized. The ground state of pristine ZPNRs prefers ferromagnetic order in the same edge but antiferromagnetic order between two opposite edges. The magnetism arises from the dangling bond states as well as edge localized π-orbital states. The presence of a dangling bond is crucial to the formation of the magnetism of ZPNRs. The hydrogenated ZPNRs get nonmagnetic semiconductors with a direct band gap. While, the O-saturated ZPNRs show magnetic ground states due to the weak P-O bond in the ribbon plane between the p{sub z}-orbitals of the edge O and P atoms.

  9. Characterisation and modelling of transition edge sensor distributed read-out imaging devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Stephen J.; Whitford, Chris H.; Fraser, George W.; Goldie, David J.

    2006-04-01

    We report on the experimental characterisation and modelling of Transition Edge Sensor (TES)-based Distributed Read-Out Imaging Devices (DROIDs), for use as position-sensitive detectors in X-ray astronomy. Latest experimental results from prototype DROIDs using Ir TESs with Au absorbers are reported. Through modelling and the development of signal processing algorithms we are able to design the DROID for optimum spectral and spatial resolution depending upon application.

  10. Spectral variability on Ceres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erard, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    Older ground-based observations are reprocessed in order to assess the spectral variability of Ceres surface before the beginning of observations by the Dawn spacecraft. Ceres was observed with NACO on the VLT in 2004 and 2005, producing resolved spectra of the disk under different attitudes. The data cover the range from 0.91-3.80 µm (J, H, K, and L bands), except in the telluric regions. They consist in spectral scans of the dayside, typically with 15 lines of 20 samples, an actual resolution of ~ 100 km, and a spectral resolution R~500 to 1500. A specific calibration scheme has been applied to preprocess the data and to evidence small compositional variations at the surface of Ceres. The major signatures observed are two bands centered at 3.06 and 3.30 µm, which exhibit significant spatial variations at this scale (5 to 10%). These features are best fit by ammoniated minerals (phyllosilicates or feldspars), although the lack of secondary hydration bands seems to rule out phyllosilicates. No significant absorption or variation is observed in J, H and K bands, consistently with [1]. No presence of ices (H2O, C02…) is detected, even at the poles. If Ceres was once rich in ices (e.g., [2]), this suggests a global resurfacing with melting of ices in the subsurface, and alteration under the influence of H2O and perhaps NH3, with reduced production of phyllosilicates. References [1] Carry et al (2012) Icarus 217, 20 [2] McCord, T. B. and C. Sotin (2005) JGR 110, 05009.

  11. Design and Fabrication of Edge Filter Using Absorbed ZnS Single Layer Prepared by Flash Evaporation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habubi, Nadir F.; Mishjil, Khudheir A.; Rashid, Hayfa G.; Mansour, H. L.

    Long-wave pass edge filter of high transmittance and wide bandpass have been designed and fabricated using on a single weakly absorbed ZnS thin film material of thickness of about 300 nm which was prepared by using the flash evaporation technique. The design was based on characteristic matrix theory, taking into account the effect of dispersion phenomena for all spectral wavelength.

  12. An endmember optimization approach for linear spectral unmixing of fine-scale urban imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian; He, Yuhong; Oguchi, Takashi

    2014-04-01

    Spectral unmixing of high spatial resolution imagery has attracted growing interest for interpreting urban surface material characteristics. This study proposes an endmember optimization method based on endmember spatial distribution (i.e. solid angle and tetrahedron volume) to select the optimal endmember combination for urban spectral unmixing. Specifically, a linear spectral unmixing model (SESMA) is implemented in a suitable 3-D spectral space structured by the green, red and near infrared bands of the imagery, and endmember spatial distribution is measured with solid angle and tetrahedron volume. Both the solid angle and tetrahedron volume are found to have a strong linear or logarithmic relationship with valid and correct unmixed proportions, whereas the latter measure also takes the photometric shade into account as an endmember. The spectral unmixing results based on the proposed endmember optimization method are compared with those from a common multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA) model. Towards different classes, each model has its own advantages over the other.

  13. Great Red Spot (GRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A huge permanent anticyclone in Jupiter's southern hemisphere, visible as a reddish oval at just over 20 °S. The earliest unequivocal observation was by Heinrich Schwabe in 1831 (the often-quoted sighting by Robert Hooke in 1664 now seems to have been of a similar but different spot). The GRS became a striking feature around 1880, when it developed a deep red coloration. It was also prominent in ...

  14. THE TEMPERATURES OF RED SUPERGIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, Ben; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Gazak, Zach; Plez, Bertrand; Trager, Scott; Lancon, Ariane; Bergemann, Maria; Evans, Chris; Chiavassa, Andrea

    2013-04-10

    We present a re-appraisal of the temperatures of red supergiants (RSGs) using their optical and near-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We have obtained data of a sample of RSGs in the Magellanic Clouds using VLT+XSHOOTER, and we fit MARCS model atmospheres to different regions of the spectra, deriving effective temperatures for each star from (1) the TiO bands, (2) line-free continuum regions of the SEDs, and (3) the integrated fluxes. We show that the temperatures derived from fits to the TiO bands are systematically lower than the other two methods by several hundred kelvin. The TiO fits also dramatically overpredict the flux in the near-IR, and imply extinctions which are anomalously low compared to neighboring stars. In contrast, the SED temperatures provide good fits to the fluxes at all wavelengths other than the TiO bands, are in agreement with the temperatures from the flux integration method, and imply extinctions consistent with nearby stars. After considering a number of ways to reconcile this discrepancy, we conclude that three-dimensional effects (i.e., granulation) are the most likely cause, as they affect the temperature structure in the upper layers where the TiO lines form. The continuum, however, which forms at much deeper layers, is apparently more robust to such effects. We therefore conclude that RSG temperatures are much warmer than previously thought. We discuss the implications of this result for stellar evolution and supernova progenitors, and provide relations to determine the bolometric luminosities of RSGs from single-band photometry.

  15. Color Constancy of Red-Green Dichromats and Anomalous Trichromats

    PubMed Central

    Foster, David H.; Amano, Kinjiro; Nascimento, Sérgio M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Color-vision deficiency is associated with abnormalities in color matching and color discrimination, but its impact on the ability of people to judge the constancy of surface colors under different lights (color constancy) is less clear. This work had two aims: first, to quantify the degree of color constancy in subjects with congenital red-green color deficiency; second, to test whether the degree of color constancy in anomalous trichromats can be predicted from their Rayleigh anomaloscope matches. Methods. Color constancy of red-green color-deficient subjects was tested in a task requiring the discrimination of illuminant changes from surface-reflectance changes. Mondrian-like colored patterns, generated on the screen of a computer monitor, were used as stimuli to avoid the spatial cues provided by natural objects and scenes. Spectral reflectances were taken from the Munsell Book of Color and from natural scenes. Illuminants were taken from the daylight locus. Results. Protanopes and deuteranopes performed more poorly than normal trichromats with Munsell spectral reflectances but were less impaired with natural spectral reflectances. Protanomalous and deuteranomalous trichromats performed as well as, or almost as well as, normal trichromats, independent of the type of reflectance. Individual differences were not correlated with Rayleigh anomaloscope matches. Conclusions. Despite the evidence of clinical color-vision tests, red-green color-deficient persons are less disadvantaged than might be expected in their judgments of surface colors under different lights. PMID:19892868

  16. Reflectance confocal microscopy of red blood cells: simulation and experiment

    PubMed Central

    Zeidan, Adel; Yelin, Dvir

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the morphology of red blood cells is important for clinical diagnosis, providing valuable indications on a patient’s health. In this work, we have simulated the appearance of normal red blood cells under a reflectance confocal microscope and discovered unique relations between the morphological parameters and the resulting characteristic interference patterns of the cell. The simulation results showed good agreement with in vitro reflectance confocal images of red blood cells, acquired using spectrally encoded flow cytometry that imaged the cells in a linear flow without artificial staining. By matching the simulated patterns to confocal images of the cells, this method could be used for measuring cell morphology in three dimensions and for studying their physiology. PMID:26600999

  17. Elastically Deformable Side-Edge Link for Trailing-Edge Flap Aeroacoustic Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Lockard, David P. (Inventor); Moore, James B. (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Lin, John C. (Inventor); Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor); Kahng, Seun K. (Inventor); Verden, Scott A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system is provided for reducing aeroacoustic noise generated by an aircraft having wings equipped with trailing-edge flaps. The system includes a plurality of elastically deformable structures. Each structure is coupled to and along one of the side edges of one of the trailing-edge flaps, and is coupled to a portion of one of the wings that is adjacent to the one of the side edges. The structures elastically deform when the trailing-edge flaps are deployed away from the wings.

  18. Comparison of iodine K-edge subtraction and fluorescence subtraction imaging in an animal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Zhu, Y.; Bewer, B.; Zhang, L.; Korbas, M.; Pickering, I. J.; George, G. N.; Gupta, M.; Chapman, D.

    2008-09-01

    K-Edge Subtraction (KES) utilizes the discontinuity in the X-ray absorption across the absorption edge of the selected contrast element and creates an image of the projected density of the contrast element from two images acquired just above and below the K-edge of the contrast element. KES has proved to be powerful in coronary angiography, micro-angiography, bronchography, and lymphatic imaging. X-ray fluorescence imaging is a successful technique for the detection of dilute quantities of elements in specimens. However, its application at high X-ray energies (e.g. at the iodine K-edge) is complicated by significant Compton background, which may enter the energy window set for the contrast material's fluorescent X-rays. Inspired by KES, Fluorescence Subtraction Imaging (FSI) is a technique for high-energy (>20 keV) fluorescence imaging using two different incident beam energies just above and below the absorption edge of a contrast element (e.g. iodine). The below-edge image can be assumed as a "background" image, which includes Compton scatter and fluorescence from other elements. The above-edge image will contain nearly identical spectral content as the below-edge image but will contain the additional fluorescence of the contrast element. This imaging method is especially promising with thick objects with dilute contrast materials, significant Compton background, and/or competing fluorescence lines from other materials. A quality factor is developed to facilitate the comparison. The theoretical value of the quality factor sets the upper limit that an imaging method can achieve when the noise is Poisson limited. The measured value of this factor makes two or more imaging methods comparable. Using the Hard X-ray Micro-Analysis (HXMA) beamline at the Canadian Light Source (CLS), the techniques of FSI and KES were critically compared, with reference to radiation dose, image acquisition time, resolution, signal-to-noise ratios, and quality factor.

  19. Spectral Element Agglomerate AMGe

    SciTech Connect

    Chartier, T; Falgout, R; Henson, V E; Jones, J E; Vassilevski, P S; Manteuffel, T A; McCormick, S F; Ruge, J W

    2005-05-20

    The purpose of this note is to describe an algorithm resulting from the uniting of two ideas introduced and applied elsewhere. For many problems, AMG has always been difficult due to complexities whose natures are difficult to discern from the entries of matrix A alone. Element-based interpolation has been shown to be an effective method for some of these problems, but it requires access to the element matrices on all levels. One way to obtain these has been to perform element agglomeration to form coarse elements, but in complicated situations defining the coarse degrees of freedom (dofs) is not easy. The spectral approach to coarse dof selection is very attractive due to its elegance and simplicity. The algorithm presented here combines the robustness of element interpolation, the ease of coarsening by element agglomeration, and the simplicity of defining coarse dofs through the spectral approach. As demonstrated in the numerical results, the method does yield a reasonable solver for the problems described. It can, however, be an expensive method due to the number and cost of the local, small dense linear algebra problems; making it a generally competitive method remains an area for further research.

  20. OSSE spectral analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purcell, W. R.; Brown, K. M.; Grabelsky, D. A.; Johnson, W. N.; Jung, G. V.; Kinzer, R. L.; Kroeger, R. A.; Kurfess, J. D.; Matz, S. M.; Strickman, M. S.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the spectra from the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) is complicated because of the typically low signal to noise (approx. 0.1 percent) and the large background variability. The OSSE instrument was designed to address these difficulties by periodically offset-pointing the detectors from the source to perform background measurements. These background measurements are used to estimate the background during each of the source observations. The resulting background-subtracted spectra can then be accumulated and fitted for spectral lines and/or continua. Data selection based on various environmental parameters can be performed at various stages during the analysis procedure. In order to achieve the instrument's statistical sensitivity, however, it will be necessary for investigators to develop a detailed understanding of the instrument operation, data collection, and the background spectrum and its variability. A brief description of the major steps in the OSSE spectral analysis process is described, including a discussion of the OSSE background spectrum and examples of several observational strategies.

  1. Refining spectral library searching.

    PubMed

    Rudnick, Paul A

    2013-11-01

    Spectral library searching has many advantages over sequence database searching, yet it has not been widely adopted. One possible reason for this is that users are unsure exactly how to interpret the similarity scores (e.g., "dot products" are not probability-based scores). Methods to create decoys have been proposed, but, as developers caution, may produce proxies that are not equivalent to reversed sequences. In this issue, Shao et al. (Proteomics 2013, 13, 3273-3283) report advances in spectral library searching where the focus is not on improving the performance of their search engine, SpectraST, but is instead on improving the statistical meaningfulness of its discriminant score and removing the need for decoys. The results in their paper indicate that by "standardizing" the input and library spectra, sensitivity is not lost but is, surprisingly, gained. Their tests also show that false discovery rate (FDR) estimates, derived from their new score, track better with "ground truth" than decoy searching. It is possible that their work strikes a good balance between the theory of library searching and its application. And as such, they hope to have removed a major entrance barrier for some researchers previously unwilling to try library searching.

  2. Spectroscopic determination of masses (and implied ages) for red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, Melissa; Hogg, David W.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Martig, Marie; Ho, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The mass of a star is arguably its most fundamental parameter and for red giant stars it implies a stellar evolution age. Stellar masses and ages have never been derived directly from spectra of red giants. However, using the APOGEE Kepler sample of stars, (the APOKASC sample), with high-quality spectra and astroseismic masses, we can build a data-driven spectral model using THE CANNON (arXiv:1501.07604) to infer stellar mass and therefore age from stellar spectra. We determine stellar masses to 0.07 dex from APOGEE DR12 spectra of red giants; these imply age estimates accurate to 0.2 dex (40 percent). THE CANNON constrains the ages foremost from spectral regions with particular absorption lines, elements whose surface abundances reflect mass-dependent dredge-up. We deliver an unprecedented catalog of 85,000 giants (including 20,000 red-clump stars) with mass and age estimates, spanning the entire disk (from the Galactic center to R ˜ 20 kpc). Such stellar age constraints across the Milky Way open up new avenues in Galactic archeology.

  3. Spectroscopic Determination of Masses (and Implied Ages) for Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, M.; Hogg, David W.; Rix, H.-W.; Martig, M.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Ho, A. Y. Q.

    2016-06-01

    The mass of a star is arguably its most fundamental parameter. For red giant stars, tracers luminous enough to be observed across the Galaxy, mass implies a stellar evolution age. It has proven to be extremely difficult to infer ages and masses directly from red giant spectra using existing methods. From the Kepler and apogee surveys, samples of several thousand stars exist with high-quality spectra and asteroseismic masses. Here we show that from these data we can build a data-driven spectral model using The Cannon, which can determine stellar masses to ˜0.07 dex from apogee dr12 spectra of red giants; these imply age estimates accurate to ˜0.2 dex (40%). We show that The Cannon constrains these ages foremost from spectral regions with CN absorption lines, elements whose surface abundances reflect mass-dependent dredge-up. We deliver an unprecedented catalog of 70,000 giants (including 20,000 red clump stars) with mass and age estimates, spanning the entire disk (from the Galactic center to R˜ 20 kpc). We show that the age information in the spectra is not simply a corollary of the birth-material abundances {{[Fe/H]}} and [α /{Fe}], and that, even within a monoabundance population of stars, there are age variations that vary sensibly with Galactic position. Such stellar age constraints across the Milky Way open up new avenues in Galactic archeology.

  4. Near Edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhez, Olivier; Ade, Harald; Urquhart, Stephen

    2001-03-01

    Synthetic and natural polymers exhibit a rich carbon, nitrogen and oxygen K-edge Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS). The spectroscopic variations with chemical structure and composition are interesting in their own right. In addition, the large spectroscopic variability can be utilized for the compositional analysis of materials. This is particularly useful for high spatial resolution NEXAFS microanalysis at lateral spatial resolutions exceeding that achievable with more traditional compositional analysis tools such as Infrared and NMR spectroscopy. To increase our understanding of NEXAFS spectra and to start a database for microanalysis, we acquired carbon NEXAFS spectra of the following polymers: polycarbonate, poly(oxybenzoate-co-2,6oxynaphthoate), poly (p-phenylene terephtalamide), toluene diisocyanate polyurethane, toluene diisocyanate polyurea, 4,4'-methylene di-p-phenylene isocyanate polyurethane, 4,4'-methylene di-p-phenylene isocyanate polyurea, poly(ether ether ketone), poly(alpha-methylstyrene), poly-styrene, poly bromostyrene, poly(2-vinyl styrene), polyethylene, poly(ethylene oxide), polypropylene, poly(propylene oxide), polyisobutylene, ethylene propylene rubber, poly(methyl -metacrylate). These spectra were obtained in transmission with an energy resolution of 150 meV. The energy scale was carefully calibrated in-situ utilizing C02 gas as a reference. Spectral assignments are made based on model compounds and theoretical calculations.

  5. Edge states at phase boundaries and their stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asorey, M.; Balachandran, A. P.; Pérez-Pardo, J. M.

    2016-10-01

    We analyze the effects of Robin-like boundary conditions on different quantum field theories of spin 0, 1/2 and 1 on manifolds with boundaries. In particular, we show that these conditions often lead to the appearance of edge states. These states play a significant role in physical phenomena like quantum Hall effect and topological insulators. We prove in a rigorous way the existence of spectral lower bounds on the kinetic term of different Hamiltonians, even in the case of Abelian gauge fields where it is a non-elliptic differential operator. This guarantees the stability and consistency of massive field theories with masses larger than the lower bound of the kinetic term. Moreover, we find an upper bound for the deepest edge state. In the case of Abelian gauge theories, we analyze a generalization of Robin boundary conditions. For Dirac fermions, we analyze the cases of Atiyah-Patodi-Singer and chiral bag boundary conditions. The explicit dependence of the bounds on the boundary conditions and the size of the system is derived under general assumptions.

  6. Double-Edge Molecular Technique for Doppler Lidar Wind Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flesia, Cristina; Korb, C. Laurence

    1998-01-01

    The double-edge lidar technique for measuring the wind using molecular backscatter is described. Two high spectral resolution edge filters are located in the wings of the Rayleigh-Brillouin profile. This doubles the signal change per unit Doppler shift, the sensitivity, and gives nearly a factor of two improvement in measurement accuracy. The use of a crossover region is described where the sensitivity of a molecular and aerosol-based measurement are equal. This desensitizes the molecular measurement to the effects of aerosol scattering over a frequency range of +/- 100 m/s. We give methods for correcting for short-term frequency jitter and drift using a laser reference frequency measurement and methods for long-term frequency correction using a servo control system. The effects of Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering on the measurement are shown to be significant and are included in the analysis. Simulations for a conical scanning satellite-based lidar at 355 nm show an accuracy of 2-3 m/s for altitudes of 2 to 15 km for a 1 km vertical resolution, a satellite altitude of 400 km and a 200 km x 200 km spatial resolution. Results of ground based wind measurements are presented.

  7. Luminescence from Edge Fracture in Shocked Lithium Fluoride Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Turley, W. D.; Stevens, G. D.; Capelle, G. A.; Grover, M.; Holtkamp, D. B.; LaLone, B. M.; Veeser, L. R.

    2013-01-01

    Light emitted from a [100] lithium fluoride crystal was characterized under shock wave compression to 28GPa followed by complete stress release at the edges. The light was examined using time-gated optical spectrometry and imaging, time-resolved optical emission measurements, and hydrodynamic modeling. The shock arrival at the circumference of the crystal was delayed relative to the center so that the two regions could be studied at different times. The majority of the light emission originated when the shock waves released at the circumference of the crystal. Unlike previously reported results for shocked lithium fluoride, we found that the light spectrum is not strictly broad band, but has spectral lines associated with atomic lithium in addition to a broad band background. Also, the emission spectrum depends strongly on the gas surrounding the sample. Based on our observations, the line emission appears to be related to fracture of the lithium fluoride crystal from the shock wave releasing at the edges. Experimenters frequently utilize lithium fluoride crystals as transparent windows for observing shock compressed samples. Because of the experimental geometries used, the shock wave in such cases often reaches the circumference of the window at nearly the same moment as when it reaches the center of the sample-window interface. Light generated at the circumference could contaminate the measurement at the interface when this light scatters into the observed region. This background light may be reduced or avoided using experimental geometries which delay the arrival of the shock wave at the edges of the crystal.

  8. Monomeric Garnet, a far-red fluorescent protein for live-cell STED imaging.

    PubMed

    Hense, Anika; Prunsche, Benedikt; Gao, Peng; Ishitsuka, Yuji; Nienhaus, Karin; Nienhaus, G Ulrich

    2015-12-09

    The advancement of far-red emitting variants of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) is crucially important for imaging live cells, tissues and organisms. Despite notable efforts, far-red marker proteins still need further optimization to match the performance of their green counterparts. Here we present mGarnet, a robust monomeric marker protein with far-red fluorescence peaking at 670 nm. Thanks to its large extinction coefficient of 95,000 M(-1)cm(-1), mGarnet can be efficiently excited with 640-nm light on the red edge of its 598-nm excitation band. A large Stokes shift allows essentially the entire fluorescence emission to be collected even with 640-nm excitation, counterbalancing the lower fluorescence quantum yield of mGarnet, 9.1%, that is typical of far-red FPs. We demonstrate an excellent performance as a live-cell fusion marker in STED microscopy, using 640 nm excitation and 780 nm depletion wavelengths.

  9. [Optimized Spectral Indices Based Estimation of Forage Grass Biomass].

    PubMed

    An, Hai-bo; Li, Fei; Zhao, Meng-li; Liu, Ya-jun

    2015-11-01

    As an important indicator of forage production, aboveground biomass will directly illustrate the growth of forage grass. Therefore, Real-time monitoring biomass of forage grass play a crucial role in performing suitable grazing and management in artificial and natural grassland. However, traditional sampling and measuring are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Recently, development of hyperspectral remote sensing provides the feasibility in timely and nondestructive deriving biomass of forage grass. In the present study, the main objectives were to explore the robustness of published and optimized spectral indices in estimating biomass of forage grass in natural and artificial pasture. The natural pasture with four grazing density (control, light grazing, moderate grazing and high grazing) was designed in desert steppe, and different forage cultivars with different N rate were conducted in artificial forage fields in Inner Mongolia. The canopy reflectance and biomass in each plot were measured during critical stages. The result showed that, due to the influence in canopy structure and biomass, the canopy reflectance have a great difference in different type of forage grass. The best performing spectral index varied in different species of forage grass with different treatments (R² = 0.00-0.69). The predictive ability of spectral indices decreased under low biomass of desert steppe, while red band based spectral indices lost sensitivity under moderate-high biomass of forage maize. When band combinations of simple ratio and normalized difference spectral indices were optimized in combined datasets of natural and artificial grassland, optimized spectral indices significant increased predictive ability and the model between biomass and optimized spectral indices had the highest R² (R² = 0.72) compared to published spectral indices. Sensitive analysis further confirmed that the optimized index had the lowest noise equivalent and were the best performing index in

  10. [Optimized Spectral Indices Based Estimation of Forage Grass Biomass].

    PubMed

    An, Hai-bo; Li, Fei; Zhao, Meng-li; Liu, Ya-jun

    2015-11-01

    As an important indicator of forage production, aboveground biomass will directly illustrate the growth of forage grass. Therefore, Real-time monitoring biomass of forage grass play a crucial role in performing suitable grazing and management in artificial and natural grassland. However, traditional sampling and measuring are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Recently, development of hyperspectral remote sensing provides the feasibility in timely and nondestructive deriving biomass of forage grass. In the present study, the main objectives were to explore the robustness of published and optimized spectral indices in estimating biomass of forage grass in natural and artificial pasture. The natural pasture with four grazing density (control, light grazing, moderate grazing and high grazing) was designed in desert steppe, and different forage cultivars with different N rate were conducted in artificial forage fields in Inner Mongolia. The canopy reflectance and biomass in each plot were measured during critical stages. The result showed that, due to the influence in canopy structure and biomass, the canopy reflectance have a great difference in different type of forage grass. The best performing spectral index varied in different species of forage grass with different treatments (R² = 0.00-0.69). The predictive ability of spectral indices decreased under low biomass of desert steppe, while red band based spectral indices lost sensitivity under moderate-high biomass of forage maize. When band combinations of simple ratio and normalized difference spectral indices were optimized in combined datasets of natural and artificial grassland, optimized spectral indices significant increased predictive ability and the model between biomass and optimized spectral indices had the highest R² (R² = 0.72) compared to published spectral indices. Sensitive analysis further confirmed that the optimized index had the lowest noise equivalent and were the best performing index in

  11. Technidilaton at the conformal edge

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Michio; Yamawaki, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Technidilaton (TD) was proposed long ago in the technicolor near criticality/conformality. To reveal the critical behavior of TD, we explicitly compute the nonperturbative contributions to the scale anomaly <{theta}{sub {mu}}{sup {mu}>} and to the technigluon condensate <{alpha}G{sub {mu}{nu}}{sup 2}>, which are generated by the dynamical mass m of the technifermions. Our computation is based on the (improved) ladder Schwinger-Dyson equation, with the gauge coupling {alpha} replaced by the two-loop running coupling {alpha}({mu}) having the Caswell-Banks-Zaks infrared fixed point {alpha}{sub *}: {alpha}({mu}){approx_equal}{alpha}={alpha}{sub *} for the infrared region m<{mu}<{Lambda}{sub TC}, where {Lambda}{sub TC} is the intrinsic scale (analogue of {Lambda}{sub QCD} of QCD) relevant to the perturbative scale anomaly. We find that -<{theta}{sub {mu}}{sup {mu}}>/m{sup 4}{yields}const{ne}0 and <{alpha}G{sub {mu}}{nu}{sup 2}>/m{sup 4}{yields}({alpha}/{alpha}{sub cr}-1){sup -3/2}{yields}{infinity} in the criticality limit m/{Lambda}{sub TC}{approx}exp(-{pi}/({alpha}/{alpha}{sub cr}-1){sup 1/2}){yields}0 ({alpha}={alpha}{sub *}=>{alpha}{sub cr}, or N{sub f} approaches N{sub f}{sup cr}) ('conformal edge'). Our result precisely reproduces the formal identity <{theta}{sub {mu}}{sup {mu}>}=({beta}({alpha})/4{alpha}{sup 2})<{alpha}G{sub {mu}{nu}}{sup 2}>, where {beta}({alpha})={Lambda}{sub TC}({partial_derivative}{alpha}/{partial_derivative}{Lambda}{sub TC})=-(2{alpha}{sub cr}/{pi}){center_dot}({alpha}/{alpha}{sub cr}-1){sup 3/2} is the nonperturbative beta function corresponding to the above essential singularity scaling of m/{Lambda}{sub TC}. Accordingly, the partially conserved dilatation current implies (M{sub TD}/m){sup 2}(F{sub TD}/m){sup 2}=-4<{theta}{sub {mu}}{sup {mu}}>/m{sup 4}{yields}const{ne}0 at criticality limit, where M{sub TD} is the mass of TD and F{sub TD} the decay constant of TD. We thus conclude that at criticality limit the TD could become a ''true

  12. Formation of Klein Edge Doublets from Graphene Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Judy S; Warner, Jamie H; Robertson, Alex W; Kirkland, Angus I

    2015-09-22

    With increasing possibilities for applications of graphene, it is essential to fully characterize the rich topological variations in graphene edge structures. Using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy, dangling carbon doublets at the edge of monolayer graphene crystals have been observed. Unlike the single-atom Klein edge often found at zigzag edges, these carbon dimers were observed in various edge structure environments, but most frequently on the more stable armchair edges. Observation of this Klein edge doublet over time reveals that its existence enhances the stability of armchair edges and is a route to atom abstraction on zigzag edges.

  13. Spectral Emissivity (6 – 38 µm) of Jupiter's Trojan Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Audrey; Emery, Joshua P.; Lindsay, Sean S.

    2016-10-01

    Jovian Trojan asteroids, located in Jupiter's stable Lagrange points, are an extensive population of primitive bodies in the Solar System. Previous work in the visible and NIR shows Trojans have featureless, red-sloped spectra and low albedos, making mineralogical characterization difficult. However, it has been shown that three Trojans exhibit silicate emissivity features in the thermal IR (6 – 38 μm Emery et al. 2006, Icarus 182). The detected features indicate the presence of fine-grained (micron-sized) silicate dust on the surfaces, and closely resemble spectral features measured of cometary comae. We hypothesize that Trojan surface mineralogy is fairly uniform and is similar to comet dust. The principal goal of this work is, therefore, to derive primary surface mineralogy from thermal emission spectra. We present thermal IR spectra of 12 Trojans observed with NASA's Spitzer space telescope, using the InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) in Staring Mode from June 2006 to June 2007. Eight objects were observed over the 5.2 – 38 µm spectral range, and four objects over the 7.5 – 38 µm range. Using the NEATM thermal model, we have computed size, albedo, and beaming parameter for the 12 Trojans. Results for these physical parameters are comparable to those derived from WISE data (Grav et al. 2011, ApJ 742 (1); Grav et al. 2012, ApJ 759 (49)). There are, however, some discrepancies, especially with 2797 Teucer. The emissivity spectra fall into groups that directly correlate with the red and less-red spectral slope groupings described in Emery et al. (2011, ApJ, 141(1)). Strong 10 µm emission features appear in each object, suggesting the presence of fine-grained silicates. Features found between 12-13 µm, and 18-19 µm are also observed in all spectra. We will present these new Trojan asteroid data with mineralogical estimates derived from the emissivity spectra.

  14. Numerical quantification of the vibronic broadening of the SrTiO3 Ti L-edge spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Keith; Shirley, Eric

    2010-03-01

    Calculations of x-ray absorption spectra are typically limited to obtaining the positions and intensities of spectral features, while simply adding broadening artificially to match experimental results. However, spectral widths hold valuable information on the coupling of the notional excited electronic state with the environment. The 2p^53d^1 excited state of the Ti^4+ ion in SrTiO3 experiences Jahn-Teller coupling to eg distortions of the oxygen cage. Such coupling broadens the electronic transition by involving a variable number of eg phonons. We quantify this broadening effect by solving a model Hamiltonian, taking parameters for the Hamiltonian from first-principles calculations. Comparison of numerical and experimental results indicates that this vibronic coupling accounts for the majority of the broadening observed for the L3-edge, but only a minority of the L2-edge spectral width.

  15. An edge preserving differential image coding scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rost, Martin C.; Sayood, Khalid

    1992-01-01

    Differential encoding techniques are fast and easy to implement. However, a major problem with the use of differential encoding for images is the rapid edge degradation encountered when using such systems. This makes differential encoding techniques of limited utility, especially when coding medical or scientific images, where edge preservation is of utmost importance. A simple, easy to implement differential image coding system with excellent edge preservation properties is presented. The coding system can be used over variable rate channels, which makes it especially attractive for use in the packet network environment.

  16. Image Edge Extraction via Fuzzy Reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominquez, Jesus A. (Inventor); Klinko, Steve (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A computer-based technique for detecting edges in gray level digital images employs fuzzy reasoning to analyze whether each pixel in an image is likely on an edge. The image is analyzed on a pixel-by-pixel basis by analyzing gradient levels of pixels in a square window surrounding the pixel being analyzed. An edge path passing through the pixel having the greatest intensity gradient is used as input to a fuzzy membership function, which employs fuzzy singletons and inference rules to assigns a new gray level value to the pixel that is related to the pixel's edginess degree.

  17. Electrostatic analysis of the tokamak edge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Motley, R.W.

    1981-07-01

    The intrusion of an equipotential poloidal limiter into the edge plasma of a circular tokamak discharge distorts the axisymmetry in two ways: (1) it (partially) shorts out the top-to-bottom Pfirsch-Schlueter driving potentials, and (2) it creates zones of back current flow into the limiter. The resulting boundary mismatch between the outer layers and the inner axisymmetric Pfirsch-Schlueter layer provides free energy to drive the edge plasma unstable. Special limiters are proposed to symmetrize the edge plasma and thereby reduce the electrical and MHD activity in the boundary layer.

  18. Differential Search Algorithm Based Edge Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunen, M. A.; Civicioglu, P.; Beşdok, E.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a new method has been presented for the extraction of edge information by using Differential Search Optimization Algorithm. The proposed method is based on using a new heuristic image thresholding method for edge detection. The success of the proposed method has been examined on fusion of two remote sensed images. The applicability of the proposed method on edge detection and image fusion problems have been analysed in detail and the empirical results exposed that the proposed method is useful for solving the mentioned problems.

  19. Cavitation on hydrofoils with sinusoidal leading edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johari, H.

    2015-12-01

    Cavitation characteristics of hydrofoils with sinusoidal leading edge were examined experimentally at a Reynolds number of 7.2 × 105. The hydrofoils had an underlying NACA 634-021 profile and an aspect ratio of 4.3. The sinusoidal leading edge geometries included three amplitudes of 2.5%, 5%, and 12% and two wavelengths of 25% and 50% of the mean chord length. Results revealed that cavitation on the leading edge-modified hydrofoils existed in pockets behind the troughs whereas the baseline hydrofoil produced cavitation along its entire span. Moreover, cavitation on the modified hydrofoils appeared at consistently lower angles of attack than on the baseline hydrofoil.

  20. Stresses in edge stiffened anisotropic sandwich plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Koganti M.; Rao, Y. U. M.

    Hybrid-stress finite elements are used to study the static behavior of an edge stiffened anisotropic sandwich plate subjected to cylindrical bending. The stress concentration factors at the interface of core and stiffener are evaluated. The analysis of the simply-supported sandwich indicates that the state of stress at the interface of core and stiffener is increased and that the edge stiffener induces clamping conditions. The faces and stiffener at the edge are, respectively, subjected to negative and positive transverse shear, causing considerable bending action in faces about their own centroidal axis.