Science.gov

Sample records for red-cockaded woodpecker piciodes

  1. Experimental reintroduction of red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Dawn K. Carrie; Richard R. Schaefer

    1992-01-01

    The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is an endangered species endemic to the pine forests of the southeastern United States (Jackson 1971). Deforestation and habitat alteration have severely affected Red-cockaded Woodpecker populations; current populations are isolated and most are declining (Jackson 1971, Lennartz et al. 1983, Conner and Rudolph 1989, Costa...

  2. Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Parks and Wildlife, Austin.

    This packet provides information on the balance between the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker and modern forestry in Texas. A set of classroom activities about the Red-cockaded Woodpecker and its habitat for grades 3-6, and a booklet, a pamphlet, and a poster are featured. Sections of the booklet include: (1) "The Red-cockaded…

  3. Red-cockaded woodpecker foraging behavior

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Richard R. Schaefer; Nancy E. Koerth

    2007-01-01

    We studied Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) to examine the effect of status and gender on foraging behavior. Foraging behavior of breeding pairs extended beyond separation by foraging height to include zones (bole, trunk in crown, primary limb, secondary limb) of the tree used and foraging methods (scaling, probing, excavating). Helper...

  4. Establishment of a Viable Population of Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, P.A.

    2002-01-14

    Report on program's objective to restore viable population of Red-cockaded woodpecker at SRS. Several management strategies were used to promote population expansion of Red-cockaded woodpecker and reduction of interspecific competition with Red-Cockaded woodpecker.

  5. Range-wide success of red-cockaded woodpecker translocations.

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, John W; Costa, Ralph

    2004-12-31

    Edwards, John W.; Costa, Ralph. 2004. Range-wide success of red-cockaded woodpecker translocations. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 6. Translocation. Pp 307-311. Abstract: Red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) have declined range-wide during the past century, suffering from habitat loss and the effects of fire exclusion in older southern pine forests. Red-cockaded woodpecker translocations are a potentially important tool in conservation efforts to reestablish red-cockaded woodpeckers in areas from which they have been extirpated. Currently, translocations are critical in ongoing efforts to save and restore the many existing small populations. We examined the effects of demographic and environmental factors on the range-wide success of translocations between 1989 and 1995.

  6. Constructing Artifical Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Cavities

    Treesearch

    David H. Allen

    1991-01-01

    A complete guide is provided for excavating red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavities. A hole 4 inches wide by 10 inches high by 6 inches deep is cut from a live pine(Pinusspp.) tree with a chainsaw, and a prefabricated cavity is inserted. Cavities can be excavated in pines of any age, but the diameter of the tree at the height of insertion must be greater...

  7. Comparison of Red-Cockaded Woodpecker (Piciodes borealis) Nestling Diet in Old-Growth and Old-Field Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris)

    SciTech Connect

    Hanula, J.L.; Engstrom, R.T.

    1999-10-01

    Automatic cameras were used to record adult woodpecker diets in old-growth and old-field longleaf pine in the South. Roaches were the number one prey for the woodpeckers based on either biomass or numbers. The latter ranged from 37% to 57% of the prey numbers and 55%-73% of the biomass. Morisita's index of similarity between old-field and old growth varied from 0.89 to 0.95. The authors conclude that the prey base is similar in both conditions and that old-growth provides similar foraging habitat.

  8. Forest Stands Selected by Foraging Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Robert G. Hooper; Richard F. Harlow

    1986-01-01

    Selection of forest stands by 18 clans of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers was studied in their year-round home ranges. The foraging use of 276 stands relative to their availability within the home ranges was compared to several stand characteristics. Selection among stands with similar characteristics was highly vairable and red-cockadeds foraged in stands with a...

  9. Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Research at ERDC/CERL

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    program placed on the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (RCW, Picoides borealis ) in the period from 1994 through 2000. The studies included here fall into three categories: noise, maneuver, and fog oil effects.

  10. Are pileated woodpeckers attracted to red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees?

    Treesearch

    Daniel Saenz; Richard N. Conner; James R. McCormick

    2002-01-01

    Pileated Woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) cause damage to Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity trees in the form of cavity enlargement or other excavations on the surface of the pine tree. However, it is not known whether Pileated Woodpeckers excavate more frequently on Red-cockaded Woodpecker cavity trees than on...

  11. Pileated woodpecker damage to red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees in eastern Texas

    Treesearch

    Daniel Saenz; Richard N. Conner; Clifford E. Shackelford; D. Craig Rudolph

    1998-01-01

    The authors surveyed all known red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity trees (n = 514) in the Angelina National Forest in eastern Texas for pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus) damage. They compared the frequency of pileated woodpecker damage to red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) habitat to damage in loblolly (P....

  12. Diet of nestling red-cockaded woodpeckers at three locations

    Treesearch

    James L. Hanula; Donald Lipscomb; Kathleen E. Franzreb; Susan C. Loeb

    2000-01-01

    We conducted a 2-yr study of the nestling diet of red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) at three locations to determine how it varied among sites. We photographed 5939 nest visits by adult woodpeckers delivering food items for nestlings. In 1994, we located cameras near three nest cavities on the Lower Coastal Plain of South Carolina and near...

  13. Population trends of red-cockaded woodpeckers in Texas

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph

    2006-01-01

    tracked population trends of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in eastern Texas from 1983 through 2004. After declining precipitously during the 1980s, woodpecker population trends on federal lands (National Forests and Grasslands in Texas, but excluding the Big Thicket National Preserve) increased between 1990 and 2000, and have been...

  14. Forest habitat loss, fragmentation, and red-cockaded woodpecker populations

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph

    1991-01-01

    Loss of mature forest habitat was measured around Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity tree clusters (colonies) in three National Forests in eastern Texas. Forest removal results in a loss of foraging habitat and causes habitat fragmentation of the remaining mature forest. Habitat loss was negatively associated with woodpecker group size in small...

  15. Species using red-cockaded woodpecker cavities in eastern Texas

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer

    1997-01-01

    Because of its ability to excavate cavities in living pines, the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is a keystone species in the tire-disclimax, pine ecosystems of the southeastern United States. Many species representing multiple taxonomic classes are dependent on this woodpecker species for the cavities it creates. We examined the...

  16. Large-scale translocation strategies for reintroducing red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Daniel Saenz; Kristen A. Baum; Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Ralph Costa

    2002-01-01

    Translocation of wild birds is a potential conservation strategy for the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis). We developed and tested 8 large-scale translocation strategy models for a regional red-cockaded woodpecker reintroduction program. The purpose of the reintroduction program is to increase the number of red-cockaded...

  17. Delayed reproduction of translocated red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    James R. McCormick; Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; Brent Burt

    2001-01-01

    Twelve pairs of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers were translocated to the Angelina National Forest from 21 October 1998 to 17 December 1998. Five breeding pairs (consisting of at least one trnnslocated bird) produced eggs/nestlings within the first breeding season after translocation. Clutch initiation dates for all five pairs were later than those of resident breeders. The...

  18. Red-cockaded woodpecker recovery: An integrated strategy

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Jeffrey R. Walters

    2004-01-01

    Populations of the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) have experienced massive declines since European colonization of North America. This is due to extensive habitat loss and alteration. Logging of old-growth pine forests and alteration of the fire regime throughout the historic range of the species were the primary causes of population decline. Listing of...

  19. Silvicultural systems and red-cockaded woodpecker management: another perspective

    Treesearch

    Larry D. Hedrick; Robert G. Hooper; Dennis L. Krusac; Joseph M. Dabney

    1998-01-01

    In 1996 Rudolph and Conner maintained that a modified even-aged silvicultural system using irregular shelterwood as the method of regenerating new stands provides greater benefits for red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) than uneven-aged systems. Their argument was confined to loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (P. ecbinata) pine forest types and emphasized...

  20. Causes of mortality of red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; David L. Kulhavy; Ann E. Snow

    1991-01-01

    Over a 13-year period we examined the mortality of cavity trees (n = 453) used by red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) on national forests in eastern Texas. Bark beetles (53%), wind snap (30%), and fire (7%) were the major causes of cavity tree mortality. Bark beetles were the major cause of mortality in loblolly (Pinus taeda...

  1. Evidence of Red-cockaded Woodpecker nestling displacement by southern flying squirrels

    Treesearch

    James R. McCormick; Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Brent Burt

    2004-01-01

    Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) are unique among woodpeckers in that they excavate their roost and nest cavities entirely within living pines (Ligon 1970). A number of secondary cavity nesters and other vertebrates are dependent on Red-cockaded Woodpeckers for the cavities they create (Rudolph et al. 1990, Loeb 1993, LaBranche and...

  2. Seasonal use of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities by southern flying squirrels

    Treesearch

    Susan C. Loeb; Deanna L. Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) can significantly impact red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success (Laves and Loeb 1999). Thus, exclusion or removal of flying squirrels from red-cockaded woodpecker cavities and clusters may be warranted in small woodpecker populations (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2003). However, development of...

  3. Red-cockaded woodpecker cavity tree resin avoidance by southern flying squirrels

    Treesearch

    Richard R. Schaefer; Daniel Saenz

    1998-01-01

    While examining red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity contents in eastern Texas, the authors observed cavity tree resin avoidance by southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans). The tree surface around an active red-cockaded woodpecker cavity is coated with sticky resin which flows from resin wells created by the woodpecker. The southern flying squirrel...

  4. Monitoring interactions between red-cockaded woodpeckers and southern flying squirrels.

    SciTech Connect

    Risch, Thomas S; Loeb, Susan C

    2004-12-31

    Risch, Thomas S., and Susan C. Loeb. 2004. Monitoring interactions between red-cockaded woodpeckers and southern flying squirrels. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 8. Cavities, Cavity Trees, and Cavity Communities. Pp 504-505. Abstract: Although several studies have suggested that southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) may have a significant negative impact on red-cockades woodpeckers (Picoides borealsi) (Loeb and Hooper 1997, Laves and Loeb 1999), the nature of the interactions between the species remains unclear. Particularly lacking are data that address if southern flying squirrels directly usurp red-cockaded woodpecker s from cavities, or simply occupy cavities previously abandoned by red-cockaded woodpeckers. Ridley et al. (1997) observed the displacement of a red-cockaded woodpecker by a southern flying squirrel that was released after being captured. Observations of nocturnal displacements of red-cockaded woodpeckers by flying squirrels, however, are lacking. Due to the difficulty of observing interspecific interactions, determining the mechanisims by which flying squirrels impact red-cockaded woodpeckers is problematic.

  5. Competition for red-cockaded woodpecker roost and nest cavities: effects of resin age and entrance diameter

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Janet Turner

    1990-01-01

    Competition for roost and nest cavities was investigated in a Texas population of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) habitat. Twenty-two percent of all examined cavities were occupied by Red-cockaded Woodpeckers, and 46% were occupied by other species. Red-cockaded Woodpeckers did not roost in the open or...

  6. Status of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker in Texas, 1985-1987

    Treesearch

    Brent Ortego; Richard N. Conner; Craig Rudolph

    1988-01-01

    The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) was once a common species across the Southeastern United States. The species is specialized to live in old growth, open, park-like stands of pine. As the virgin pine forests in Texas were harvested, Red-cockaded Woodpecker populations declined (Hooper et al. 1980).

  7. Red-Cockaded Woodpecker male/female foraging differences in young forest stands

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    2010-01-01

    The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is an endangered species endemic to pine (Pinusspp.) forests of the southeastern United States. I examined Red-cockaded Woodpecker foraging behavior to learn if there were male/female differences at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The study was conducted in largely young forest stands (,50 years of age) in...

  8. Composition of mixed-species foraging flocks associated with red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Richard R. Schaefer; D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz

    2004-01-01

    Red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis are known to be regular members of mixed species foraging flocks. We censused avian species associated with foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) habitat and in mixed loblolly pine (P. taeda)-shortleaf pine (P. echinata...

  9. Red-cockaded woodpecker nutritional status in relation to habitat: Evidence from ptilochronology and body mass

    Treesearch

    Richard R. Schaefer; D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz

    2004-01-01

    Sexual divergence in foraging behavior exhibited by red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) should reduce intersexual competition for foraging sites. Males tend to forage at greater heights and on smaller stem diameters than females. It is well known that red-cockaded woodpeckers have an aversion to a well-developed stratum of midstory...

  10. Red-cockaded woodpecker nesting success, forest structure, and southern flying squirrels in Texas

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer

    1996-01-01

    For several decades general opinion has suggested that southern flying squirrels (Gluucomys volans) have a negative effect on Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) through competition for cavities and egg/nestling predation. Complete removal of hardwood trees from Red-cockaded Woodpecker cavity tree clusters has occurred on some forests because southern flying...

  11. Red-cockaded woodpecker foraging behavior in relation to midstory vegetation

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Richard R. Schaefer

    2002-01-01

    Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) nest and forage in pine-dominated forests. Research indicates that substantial hardwood midstory encroachment is detrimental to Red-cockaded Woodpecker populations, although the exact mechanisms are unknown. We examined foraging behavior in relation to midstory between August 1989 and February 1990. Red...

  12. Red-cockaded woodpecker use of seed-tree/shelterwood cuts in eastern Texas

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Ann E. Snow; Kathleen A. O' Halloran

    1991-01-01

    Establishment or maintenance of suitable habitat for any wildlife species is an important aspect of its management, especially for endangered species such as the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis). Populations of the red-cockaded woodpecker are declining over much of the bird's current range, most likely because of the lack of...

  13. Red-cockaded woodpeckers vs rat snakes: the effectiveness of the resin barrier

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Howard Kyle; Richard N. Conner

    1990-01-01

    Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) excavate resin wells in the immediate vicinity of roost and nest cavity entrances. Resin wells are worked regularly, resulting in a copious and persistent resin flow that coats the tree trunk, especially below cavity entrances. Red-cockaded Woodpeckers also scale loose bark from cavity trees and closely adjacent trees....

  14. A Mobile Aviary to Enhance Translocation Success of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    John W. Edwards; Charles A. Dachelet; Webb M. Smathers

    1997-01-01

    The red-cockaded woodpecker is a federally endangered species endemic to the pine forests of the southeastern United States. The Federal Red-cockaded Woodpecker Recovery Plan emphasized restoration ofpopulations within physiographic provinces throughout their range to provide for region-wide, long-term survival. Restoration efforts included habitat enhancement and...

  15. Cavity tree selection by red-cockaded woodpeckers in relation to tree age

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner

    1991-01-01

    We aged over 1350 Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity trees and a comparable number of randomly selected trees. Resulting data strongly support the hypothesis that Red-cockaded Woodpeckers preferentially select older trees. Ages of recently initiated cavity trees in the Texas study areas generally were similar to those of cavity trees...

  16. Red-cockaded woodpecker cavity-tree damage by Hurricane Rita: an evaluation of contributing factors

    Treesearch

    Ben Bainbridge; Kristen A. Baum; Daniel Saenz; Cory K. Adams

    2011-01-01

    Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpecker) is an endangered species inhabiting pine savannas of the southeastern United States. Because the intensity of hurricanes striking the southeastern United States is likely to increase as global temperatures rise, it is important to identify factors contributing to hurricane damage to Red-cockaded Woodpecker cavity-trees. Our...

  17. A forest model relevant to red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides Borealis)

    Treesearch

    J.C.G. Goelz; C.C. Rewerts; N.J. Hess

    2005-01-01

    Most forest models are created with timber production as the implied primacy. For many land managers, timber production is less important than production of habitat for wildlife. Red-cockaded woodpeckers (RCW) are one of the priorites for management of the forests at Ft. Benning army installation. To aid management, a model that integrates a red-cockaded woodpecker...

  18. Do Red-cockaded Woodpeckers Select Cavity Trees Based on Chemical Composition of Pine Resin?

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Robert H. Johnson; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz

    2003-01-01

    We examined resin chemistry of loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (P. echinata) pines selected as cavity trees by Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in eastern Texas. We sampled resin from (1) pines selected by Red-cockaded Woodpeckers that contained naturally excavated active cavities, (2) pines...

  19. Avian community response to southern pine ecosystem restoration for red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Clifford E. Shackelford; Richard R. Schaefer; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph

    2002-01-01

    The effects of Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) management on nontarget birds is not widely known. Intensive managentcnt for pine specialists such as the Red-cockaded Woodpecker may negatively impact both Nearctic-Neotropical and Temperate Zone migrants associated with hardwood vegetation. To evaluate possible positive and...

  20. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2004-12-31

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E. 2004. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 9. Habitat Management and Habitat Relationships. Pp 553-561. Abstract: I constructed a foraging study to examine habitat use of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Because much of the land had been harvested in the late 1940s and early 1950s prior to being sold to the Department of Energy, the available habitat largely consisted of younger trees (e.g., less than 40 years old). From 1992 to 1995, I examined the foraging behavior and reproductive success of 7 groups of red-cockaded woodpeckers.

  1. Effects of cavity-entrance restrictors on red-cockaded woodpeckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raulston, B.E.; James, D.A.; Johnson, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service has installed restrictors on cavity entrances of red-cockaded woodpeckers to limit access by larger cavity-dwelling competitors. This study tested the hypothesis that restrictors have no adverse effects on red-cockaded woodpeckers. Entrance restrictors were placed on openings to 20 cavities used by roosting red-cockaded woodpeckers, and 20 were left nonrestricted in the Bienville National Forest, Mississippi. No difference was found between treatments in subsequent cavity use by red-cockaded woodpeckers. We examined possible effects on bill wear of birds using cavities with the metal restrictors. We recorded evidence of damage to bills and measured bill lengths of 14 birds captured from cavities with restrictor plates compared to 20 birds from cavities without restrictors. No significant difference was found. These data indicate restrictors do not negatively affect red-cockaded woodpeckers.

  2. A mobile aviary to enhance translocation success of red-cockaded woodpeckers.

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, John W; Mari, Yvett; Smathers, Webb

    2004-12-31

    Edwards, John W., Yvette Mari, and Webb Smathers. 2004. A mobile aviary to enhance translocation success of red-cockaded woodpeckers. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 6. Translocation. Pp 335-336. Abstract: Because translocations of male red-cockaded woodpeckers have been less successful (Costa and Kennedy 1994) and because translocations of females are dependent on the availability of established males, a technique to increase the success of translocations would be an important contribution to conservation efforts. Researchers from the U.S. Forest Service Southern Research Station hypothesized that by maintaining red-cockaded woodpeckers in an aviary prior to release the birds would develop an affinity for, and possibly imprint (Scott and Carpenter 1987) on their surroundings, and that this would increase their likelyhood of remaining in the cluster upon their release.

  3. Habitat and Landscape Correlates of Southern Flying Squirrel Use of Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Clusters

    Treesearch

    Susan C. Loeb; Shawna L. Reid; Donald J. Lipscomb

    2012-01-01

    Southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) can have significant negative impacts on redcockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) reproductive success and group size. Although direct control of southern flying squirrels may be necessary in small red-cockaded woodpecker populations (

  4. Seasonal use of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities by southern flying squirrels.

    SciTech Connect

    Loeb, Susan C; Ruth, Deanna L

    2004-12-31

    Loeb, Susan C., and Deanna L. Ruth. 2004. Seasonal use of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities by southern flying squirrels. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 8. Cavities, Cavity Trees, and Cavity Communities. Pp 501-502. Abstract: Southern flying squirrels can significantly impact red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success (Laves and Loeb 1999). Thus exclusion or removal of flying squirrels from red-cockaded woodpecker cavities and clusters may be warranted in small woodpecker populations (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2003). However, development of effective and efficient protocols for southern flying squirrel control requires an understanding of the seasonal dynamics of southern flying squirrel cavity use. Most studies of southern flying squirrel use of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities have been conducted during spring (e.g., Harlow and Lennartz 1983, Rudolph et al. 1990a, Loeb 1993) and no studies have examined the effects of long term flying squirrel control on subsequent cavity use. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) whether flying squirrel use of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities varies with season or cavity type, and (2) the long term effect of continuous squirrel removal.

  5. Diet of Nesting Red-Cockaded Woodpecker at Three Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Hanula, J.L.; Lipcomb, D.; Franzreb, K.E.; Loeb, S.C.

    1998-12-03

    The authors studied diets of nestling red-cockaded woodpeckers for two years on three sites in South Carolina and Georgia. Cameras recorded 33 different types of prey. Wood roaches were the most common, amounting to 50% of the prey. In addition, blueberries and saw fly larvae were collected by birds. Snail shells were also collected. Morista's index of diet overlap ranged from 0.94 to 0.99 for breeding males and females. We conclude that nestling diets are similar across the region.

  6. Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Habitat and Timber Management Production Possibilities

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Roise; Joosang Chung; Richard Lancia; Mike Lennartz

    1990-02-01

    In order to mitigate the impact of longer rotations for the red-cockaded woodpecker on timber production, a multi-objective linear programming model was used. Various streams of habitat in relation to timber management were examined. Large areas immediately set aside for habitat may, in fact, lead to long term declines as a result of poor initial stand conditions. Timber production, harvesting and various silvicultural activities will have a short term impact but lead to long-term sustainable habitat condition for this species.

  7. An Exploration of the Effects of Genetic Drift on the Endangered Red-Cockaded Woodpecker

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    David L. (1995). Improved installation of artificial cavities for red-cockaded woodpeckers. The Wildlife Society Bulletin, 23(1). Baker, James B...cavities for the Red-cockaded Woodpecker. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 18(3). Copeyon, C. K., J. R. Walters, J. H. Carter III. (1991). Induction...Woodpecker nest cavities. Journal of Field Ornithology 68(2). Franklin, Ian Robert. Evolutionary change in small populations. (1980). In M. E. Soule

  8. The red-cockaded woodpecker: interactions with fire, snags, fungi, rat snakes and pileated woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph

    2004-01-01

    Red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) adaptation to fire-maintained southern pine ecosystems has involved several important interactions: (1) the reduction of hardwood frequency in the pine ecosystem because of frequent tires, (2) the softening of pine heartwood by red heart fungus (Phellinus pini) that hastens cavity...

  9. Availability and abundance of prey for the red-cockaded woodpecker.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanula, James, L.; Horn, Scott

    2004-12-31

    Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 11. Prey, Fire, and Community Ecology. Pp 633-645. Abstract: Over a 10-year period we investigated red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) prey use, sources of prey, prey distribution within trees and stands, and how forest management decisions affect prey abundance in South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia and Florida. Cameras were operated at 31 nest cavities to record nest visits with prey in 4 locations that ranged in foraging habitat from pine stands established in old fields to an old-growth stand in South Georgia. Examination of nearly 12,000 photographs recorded over 5 years revealed that, although red-cockaded woodpeckers used over 40 arthropods for food, the majority of the nestling diet is comprised of a relatively small number of common arthropods.

  10. The effect of using a "soft" release on translocation success of red-cockaded woodpeckers.

    SciTech Connect

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2004-12-31

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E. 2004 The effect of using a "soft" release on translocation success of red-cockaded woodpeckers. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 6. Translocation. Pp 301-306. Abstract: Translocations of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker have been conducted since 1986 to enhance critically small subpopulations, to minimize the likelihood of local extirpations, and to reduce the adverse effects of fragmentation and isolation among existing populations. Such attempts have had mixed success. This article compares "hard" releases with a "soft" release technique where the birds are temporarily interned in a large aviary at the release point for a period of 9 to 14 days.

  11. The response of adult red-cockaded woodpeckers to a fallen nestling

    Treesearch

    Richard R. Schaefer; D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner

    1991-01-01

    The response of adult Red-cockaded Woodpeckers to a fallen nestling- On 31 May 1990, while watching a pair of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) feeding two 20- day-old nestlings, we observed the following behavior. At 6:30 DST, the adult male flew to the entrance of the nest cavity with prey. He did not immediately offer the prey to the...

  12. Red-cockaded Woodpecker Picoides borealis Microhabitat Characteristics and Reproductive Success in a Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine Forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Douglas R.; Burger, L. Wesley; Vilella, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) reproductive success and microhabitat characteristics in a southeastern loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (P. echinata) pine forest. From 1997 to 1999, we recorded reproductive success parameters of 41 red-cockaded woodpecker groups at the Bienville National Forest, Mississippi. Microhabitat characteristics were measured for each group during the nesting season. Logistic regression identified understory vegetation height and small nesting season home range size as predictors of red-cockaded woodpecker nest attempts. Linear regression models identified several variables as predictors of red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success including group density, reduced hardwood component, small nesting season home range size, and shorter foraging distances. Red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success was correlated with habitat and behavioral characteristics that emphasize high quality habitat. By providing high quality foraging habitat during the nesting season, red-cockaded woodpeckers can successfully reproduce within small home ranges.

  13. Heartwood, sapwood, and fungal decay associated with red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer

    1994-01-01

    Provision of suitable sites for red-cockaded woodpecker (Picotdes borealis) cavity excavation is essential for successful management of the woodpecker. To evaluate internal characteristics of pines used by the woodpecker, we increment-cored longleaf pines (Pinus palustris) to determine heartwood diameter, sapwood thickness, and...

  14. Effects of midstory reduction and thinning in red-cockaded woodpecker cavity tree clusters

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph

    1991-01-01

    The red-cockaded woodpecker's (Picoides borealis) preference for open pine forest is well known (U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. 1985). Encroachment of hardwood midstory within redcockaded woodpecker clusters (colonies, aggregations of cavity trees used by groups of woodpeckers, see Walters et al. 1988) is believed to cause cluster abandonment (Hopkins and Lynn 1971,...

  15. Influence of artificial cavity age on red-cockaded woodpecker translocation success

    Treesearch

    Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer; Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Dawn K. Carrie; M. Stephen Best

    2004-01-01

    Red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) translocations have been used to bolster woodpecker populations and to fill breeding vacancies. Artificial, insert cavities have been used to offset cavity shortages in woodpecker clusters and are the primary cavity type used in recruitment clusters in Texas and Arkansas, but inserts may lose their...

  16. Group size and nest success in red-cockaded woodpeckers in the West Gulf Coastal Plain: helpers make a difference

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer; James R. McCormick; D. Craig Rudolph; D. Brent Burt

    2004-01-01

    We studied the relationships between Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) group size and nest productivity. Red-cockaded Woodpecker group size was positively correlated with fledging success. Although the relationships between woodpecker group size and nest productivity measures were nor statistically significant, a pattern of...

  17. Does red-cockaded woodpecker excavation of resin wells increase risk of bark beetle infestation of cavity trees?

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; William G. Ross; David L. Kulhavy; Robert N. Coulson

    2001-01-01

    The red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is unique among North American woodpeckers in that it nests and roosts almost exclusively in living pines (Pinus spp.) The red-cockaded woodpecker makes daily excavations at small wounds, termed "resin wells," around the cavity entrance and on the bole of the cavity tree...

  18. An unusually large number of eggs laid by a breeding red-cockaded woodpecker female

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; James R. McCormick

    2001-01-01

    The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is a cooperatively breeding species that typically uses a single cavity for nesting (Ligon 1970, Walters et al. 1988). A single tree, or aggregation of cavity trees, termed the cluster, is inhabited by a group of woodpeckers that includes a single breeding pair and up to several helpers, which are...

  19. Use of external nesting boxes by roosting red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    William E. Taylor; Robert G. Hooper

    2004-01-01

    Red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) roost year-round in cavities they excavate in living pine trees. Cavity excavation is a lengthy process (Conner and Rudolph 1995a) and sometimes a member of a family group does not have an available cavity for roosting within its resident cluster of cavity trees. Woodpeckers without a cavity either roost...

  20. Rainfall, El Niño, and reproduction of red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer; James R. McCormick; D. Craig Rudolph; D. Brent Burt

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis Vieillot) reproduction and rainfall during May when group members are provisioning nestlings with food. Patterns of variation over a 4-year period of approximately 30 woodpecker groups suggested that the mean number of hatchling deaths was positively related to...

  1. Heart rot hotel: fungal communities in red-cockaded woodpecker excavations

    Treesearch

    Michelle A. Jusino; Daniel L. Lindner; Mark T. Banik; Jeffrey R. Walters

    2015-01-01

    Tree-cavity excavators such as woodpeckers are ecosystem engineers that have potentially complex but poorly documented associations with wood decay fungi. Fungi facilitate cavity excavation by preparing and modifying excavation sites for cavity excavators. Associations between fungi and endangered red-cockaded woodpeckers (RCWs) are particularly interesting because...

  2. Influence of habitat and number of nestlings on partial brood loss in red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    James R. McCormick; Richard N. Conner; D. Brent Burt; Daniel Saenz

    2004-01-01

    Partial brood loss in red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) was studied during 2 breeding seasons in eastern Texas. The timing of partial brood loss, group size, number of initial nestlings, number of birds fledged, and habitat characteristics of the group's cavity-tree cluster were examined for 37 woodpecker groups in loblolly- (

  3. Long-distance dispersal of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers in Texas

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Richard R. Schaefer; Daniel Saenz

    1997-01-01

    The red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is a cooperatively breeding species indigenous to the mature pine forests of the Southeastern United States. Continued loss and fragmentation of the mature forests of the South have increased the isolation of extant woodpecker groups throughout the range of this endangered species. The authors discuss long-distance...

  4. Red-cockaded woodpecker nest-cavity selection: relationships with cavity age and resin production

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; William G. Ross; David L. Kulhavy

    1998-01-01

    The authors evaluated selection of nest sites by male red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in Texas relative to the age of the cavity when only cavities excavated by the woodpeckers were available and when both naturally excavated cavities and artificial cavities were available. They also evaluated nest-cavity selection relative to the ability of naturally...

  5. Extent of Phellinus pini decay in loblolly pines and red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees in eastern Texas.

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; Richard R. Schaefer

    2004-01-01

    Extent of Phellinus pini decay in loblolly pines and red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees in eastern Texas. Memoirs of The New York Botanical Garden 89: 315-321, 2004. To determine the prevalence of Phellinus pini in pines generally and red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees specifically, we dissected 24 loblolly pines (...

  6. Southern pine beetle-induced mortality of pines with natural and artificial red-cockaded woodpecker cavities in Texas

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; Robert N. Coulson

    1998-01-01

    Southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) infestation is the major cause of mortality for red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity trees in loblolly (Pinus taeda) and shortleaf (P. echinata) pines. Recent intensive management for red-cockaded woodpeckers includes the use of artificial cavity inserts. Between 1991 and 1996 the authors examined southern...

  7. Success of intensive management of a critically imperiled population of red-cockaded woodpeckers in South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    1997-01-01

    By late 1985, the population of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoider borealis) at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, had declined to a low of four individuals. Because of extensive timber harvesting prior to thr 1950s,the older live pine trees that Red-cockaded Woodpeckers require for cavity construction were limited. We monitored the response of the population to...

  8. Red-cockaded woodpecker population trends and management on Texas national forests

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph

    1994-01-01

    Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population trends and concurrent management on four national forests in eastern Texas were evaluated from 1983 through 1993. Following years of decline, populations stabilized and began to increase after intensive management efforts were initiated. Management activities included control of hardwood midstory and understory,...

  9. Forest fragmentation and Red-cockaded Woodpecker population: an analysis at intermediate scale

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner

    1994-01-01

    The Red-cockaded Woodpecker population on the Sam Houston National Forest in Texas was surveyed during 1988. The 128 active clusters present make this population one of the largest in existence. Pine stand ages varied considerably across the forest. Correlation analysis indicated that stand area in excess of 60 yr of age is positively correlated with measures of...

  10. Does the availability of artificial cavities affect cavity excavation rates in red-cockaded woodpeckers?

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; Richard R. Schaefer

    2002-01-01

    Rates of cavity excavation by Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) were examined from 1983 to 1999 on the Angelina National Forest in east Texas. We compared the rare of natural cavity excavation between 1983 and 1990 (before artificial cavities were available) with the rate of cavity excavation between 1992 and 1993, a period when...

  11. Monitoring interactions between red-cockaded woodpeckers and southern flying squirrels

    Treesearch

    Thomas S. Risch; Susan C. Loeb

    2004-01-01

    Although several studies have suggested that southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) may have a signif- icant negative impact on red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) (Loeb and Hooper 1997, Laves and Loeb 1999), the nature of the interactions between the species remains unclear. Particularly lacking are data that address if southern flying squirrels...

  12. Report of the American Ornithologists' Union Committee for the Conservation of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker

    Treesearch

    J. David Ligon; Peter B. Stacey; Richard N. Conner; Carl E. Bock; Curtis S. Adkisson

    1986-01-01

    The American Ornithologists' Union's Committee for the Conservation of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker was formed in late 1983 by Dr. Thomas R. Howell, then president of the A.O.U., at the request of Warren B. King of the United States Section of the International Council for Bird Preservation. The Committee's charge was to review the status of the federally...

  13. A Review of: The Red-cockaded Woodpecker: Surviving in a Fire-Maintained Ecosystem

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    2002-01-01

    This is a comprehensive treatise on an endangered species that covers both the species' biology and its conservation and recovery. Organized in textbook fashion, the volume includes a review of the most important aspects of Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) ecology and conservation. The 12 chapters cover this species' taxonomy,...

  14. The conservation crisis: the Red-cockaded Woodpecker: on the road to oblivion?

    Treesearch

    J. David Ligon; Wilson W. Baker; Richard N. Conner; Jerome A. Jackson; Frances C. James; D. Craig Rudolph; Peter B. Stacey; Jeffrey R. Walters

    1991-01-01

    Our purpose is to consider the case of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis), another continental species that appears to be on a trajectory toward extinction. Although this species has been on the endangered species list and thus legally protected by the Endangered Species Act since 1973, its situation has steadily worsened. The Red-...

  15. Factors that influence translocation success in the red-cockaded woodpecker

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    1999-01-01

    To restore a population that had declined to 4 individuals by late 1985, 54 red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) were translocated at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina between 1986 and 1995. Translocation success was evaluated by sex, age, and distance between the capture and release site. For moves involving females, the presence of...

  16. Factors that Influence Translocation Succcess on the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    1999-01-01

    To restore a population that had declined to 4 individuals by late 1985, 54 Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) were translocated at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina between 1986 and 1995. Translocation success was evaluated by sex, age, and distance between the capture and release site. For moves involving females, the presence of...

  17. Effectiveness of flying squirrel excluder devices on red-cockaded woodpecker cavities

    Treesearch

    Susan C. Loeb

    1996-01-01

    The author tested the effectiveness of squirrel excluder devices (SQED?s) in deterring southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) from using artificial red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavities by placing them on approximately one-half of the cavities in 14 inactive recruitment clusters on the Savannah River Site, SC. SQED?s consisted of 2 pieces of 35.5-...

  18. Effects of southern flying squirrels Glaucomys volans on red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis reproductive success

    Treesearch

    Kevin S. Laves; Susan C. Loeb

    1999-01-01

    Anecdotal data gathered from many populations suggest that southern flying squirrel (SFS, Glaucomys volans) use of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker's (RCW, Picoides borealis) nest and roost cavities may negatively affect RCW populations. The authors conducted a controlled experiment to determine the effects of SFS’s on...

  19. Red-cockaded woodpecker status and management: West Gulf Coastal Plain and Interior Highlands

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Richard R. Schaefer; Daniel Saenz; Dawn K. Carrie; N. Ross Carrie; Ricky W. Maxey; Warren G. Montague; Joe Neal; Kenneth Moore; John Skeen; Jeffrey A. Reid

    2004-01-01

    Red-cockaded woodpecker populations declined precipitously following European settlement and expansion and cutting of the original pine forests across the southeastern United States. By 1990 most residual populations lacked demographic viability, existed in degraded habitat, and were isolated from other populations. The primary causes of this situation were harvest of...

  20. Relationships among red-cockaded woodpecker group density, nestling provisioning rates, and habitat

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Richard R. Schaefer; Daniel Saenz; Clifford E. Shackelford

    1999-01-01

    We examined Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) food provisioning rates of nestlings during the 1992 and 1993 breeding seasons on the Vernon Ranger District of the Kisatchie National Forest in Louisiana. Provisioning rates were monitored at nest trees in moderate (9.8 groups/2 km radius, n=10) and low (5.9 groups/2 km radius, n=10) density...

  1. Initial and long-term use of inserts by red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Daniel Saenz; Richard N. Conner; Christopher S. Collins; D. Craig Rudolph

    2001-01-01

    Artificial cavities have become a standard management technique for red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis). Seventy cavity inserts were installed in our study sites on the Angelina National Forest in eastern Texas from 1990 to 1995. Eighty-two percent of the inserts were used for at least one year. It is still too early to make a direct...

  2. Availability and abundance of prey for the red-cockaded woodpecker

    Treesearch

    James L. Hanula; Scott Horn

    2004-01-01

    Over a 10-year period we investigated red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) prey use, sources of prey, prey distribution within trees and stands, and how forest management decisions affect prey abundance in South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. Cameras were operated at 31 nest cavities to record nest visits with prey in 4 locations...

  3. Red-cockaded woodpecker nestling provisioning and reproduction in two different pine habitats

    Treesearch

    Richard R. Schaefer; Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz

    2004-01-01

    We obtained nestling provisioning and rcpntductive data from 24 Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) groups occupying two different pine habitats-longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) and a mixture of loblolly (P. taeda) and shortleaf pine (P. echinata)--in eastern Texas during 1990 and 1901....

  4. The red-cockaded woodpecker cavity tree: A very special pine

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz; Robert H. Johnson

    2004-01-01

    The adaptation of red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) to fire-maintained southern pine ecosystems has included the development of behaviors that permit the species to use living pines for their cavity trees. Their adaptation to pine ecosystems has also involved a major adjustment in the species' breeding system to cooperative breeding,...

  5. Systematic review of the influence of foraging habitat on red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success

    Treesearch

    James E. Garabedian; Christopher E. Moorman; M. Nils Peterson; John C. Kilgo

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between foraging habitat and reproductive success provide compelling evidence of the contribution of specific vegetative features to foraging habitat quality, a potentially limiting factor for many animal populations. For example, foraging habitat quality likely will gain importance in the recovery of the threatened red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides...

  6. An experimental test of interspecific competition for red-cockaded woodpecker cavities

    Treesearch

    Susan C. Loeb; Robert G. Hooper

    1997-01-01

    To test whether the presence of nest boxes near red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW, Picoides borealis) cavity trees reduced cavity use by other species and improved RCW reproductive success on the Francis Marion National Forest in coastal South Carolina, the authors placed 3 nest bows in each of 62 experimenta1 boxes clusters and designated 61 clusters as controls....

  7. Insert Modifications Improve Access to Artificial Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Next Cavities

    Treesearch

    John W. Edwards; Ernest E. Stevens; Charles A. Dachelet

    1997-01-01

    A designfor a modified, artificial Red-cockaded Woodpecker(Picoides borealis) cavity insert is presented. This modification allowed eggs and young to be inspected easily, removed, and replaced throughout the nesting period. Modifications to cavity inserts are best done before installation, but can be easily retrofitted in existing artificial cavities...

  8. Losses of red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees to southern pine beetles

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph

    1995-01-01

    Over an 1 l-year period (1983-1993), we examined the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) infestation rate of single Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity trees on the Angelina National Forest in Texas. Southern pine beetles infested and killed 38 cavity trees during this period. Typically, within each cavity tree cluster, beetles infested only...

  9. Arthropod prey of nestling red-cockaded woodpeckers in the upper coastal plain of South Carolina

    Treesearch

    James L. Hanula; Kathleen E. Franzreb

    1995-01-01

    Four nest cavities of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) were monitored with automatic cameras to determine the prey selected to feed nestlings. Twelve adults were photographed making nearly 3000 nest visits. Prey in 28 arthropod taxa were recognizable in 65% of the photographic slides. Wood roaches in the genus (Parcoblutta...

  10. Longleaf pine characteristics associated with arthropods available for red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    James L. Hanula; Kathleen E. Franzreb; William D Pepper

    2000-01-01

    Red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) forage on the boles of living pine trees for a variety of arthropods. To assess the availability of prey under differing stand conditions, the authors sampled arthropods that crawled up the boles of 300 living longleaf pine trees (Pinus palustris) ranging in age from 20 to 100 years with...

  11. Texas ratsnake predation on southern flying squirrels in red-cockaded woodpecker cavities

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard R. Schaefer; Josh B. Pierce; Dan Saenz; Richard N. Conner

    2009-01-01

    Elaphe spp. (ratsnakes) are frequent predators on cavity-nesting birds and other vertebrates, including Glaucomys volans (Southern Flying Squirrels). They are known predators of Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpeckers), especially during the nestling phase. Picoides borealis cavities are frequently occupied by Southern Flying Squirrels, often several squirrels per...

  12. Heart Rot and Cavity Tree Selection by Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Robert G. Hooper; Michael R. Lennartz; H. David Muse

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies implied that decayed heartwood was important to cavity tree selection by red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealfs), but the results were inconclusive because they either lacked a control or were limited to 1 age class of trees. We compared the incidence of heart rot in loblolly and longleaf pines (Pinus taeda...

  13. The effect of using a "soft" release on translocation success of red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    2004-01-01

    Translocations of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker have been conducted since 1986 to enhance critically small subpopulations, to minimize the likelihood of local extirpations, and to reduce the adverse effects of fragmentation and isolation among existing populations. Such attempts have resulted in mixed success as many translocated birds either disappeared...

  14. Influence of ecosystem restoration for red-cockaded woodpeckers on breeding bird and small mammal communities

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. Masters; Christopher W. Wilson; Douglas S. Cram; George A. Bukenhofer; Robert L. Lochmiller

    2002-01-01

    Shortleaf pine-bluestem (Pinus echinata Mill.- Andropogon spp.) restoration for red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) has been underway for more than 2 decades on the Ouachita National Forest, Arkansas. Restoration efforts consist of modifying stand structure to basal areas similar to presettlement times...

  15. Habitat Characteristics of Active and Abandoned Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Colonies

    Treesearch

    Susan C. Loeb; William D. Pepper; Arlene T. Doyle

    1992-01-01

    Active red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) colonies in the Piedmont of Georgia are mature pine stands (mean age = 87 ± 1 yr old) with relatively sparse midstories (mean basal area = 31 ± 3 ft2/ac). Active and abandoned colony sites have similar overstory characteristics, but midstories are significantly denser in...

  16. A red-cockaded woodpecker group with two simultaneous nest trees

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; James M. McCormick; Richard R. Schaefer; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph

    2001-01-01

    During a study of red cockaded woodpecker (P icoides borealis) nesting in eastern Texas, we discovered a single breeding pair of woodpeckers with two simultaneous nests in nest trees that were 24 m apart. Incubation of eggs in each nest tree was at least 13 d and may have been as long as 16 d. The breeding male incubated and fed a nestling in one...

  17. Red-cockaded woodpecker colony status and trends on the Angelina, Davy Crockett and Sabine national forests

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph

    1989-01-01

    Abundant hardwood midstory, colony isolation, and habitat fragmentation are believed to be the causes for severe population declines of red-cockaded woodpeckers on three national forests in eastern Texas.

  18. Survey and host fitness effects of red-cockaded woodpecker blood parasites and nest cavity arthropods.

    PubMed

    Pung, O J; Carlile, L D; Whitlock, J; Vives, S P; Durden, L A; Spadgenske, E

    2000-06-01

    Blood parasites and nest cavity arthropods associated with the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) were surveyed and the impact of blood-feeding arthropods on woodpecker fitness traits was assessed. Five woodpeckers (8%) were infected with unidentified microfilariae, and 1 woodpecker (2%) was infected with 2 species of haemoproteid (Haemoproteus velans and Haemoproteus borgesi). This is the first record of haemoproteids in this species and the first observation of H. borgesi in North America. We collected representatives of at least 6 families of mites and 12 families of primarily commensal insects from woodpecker cavities. Only a few specimens of blood-feeding insects were recovered. The mite Androlaelaps casalis was the most common hematophagous arthropod (prevalence = 76%, mean density = 51+/-7 mites/cavity). The number of A. casalis mites increased with cavity age but there was no association between the number of mites and the number of woodpecker eggs laid or the number of hatchlings or fledglings. In conclusion, the prevalence of blood parasites in the red-cockaded woodpecker is low, woodpecker cavities are not heavily infested with blood-feeding insects, and there is no evidence that A. casalis mites affect woodpecker fitness.

  19. Relationship of Course Woody Debris to Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Prey Diversity and Abundance

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, G.S.

    1999-09-03

    The abundance of diversity of prey commonly used by the red-cockaded woodpecker were monitored in experimental plots in which course woody debris was manipulated. In one treatment, all the woody debris over four inches was removed. In the second treatment, the natural amount of mortality remained intact. The overall diversity of prey was unaffected; however, wood roaches were significantly reduced by removal of woody debris. The latter suggests that intensive utilizations or harvesting practices may reduce foraging.

  20. A System Dynamics Investigation of Genetic Drift and Translocation in the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Metapopulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    Captain, USAF AFIT/GEE/ENV/03-22 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base...the Faculty Department of Systems and Engineering Management Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air...cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis ) is classified under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 as an endangered species. As such, the red-cockaded

  1. Habitat preferences of foraging red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    2004-01-01

    I conducted a foraging study to examine habitat use of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Because much of the land had been harvested in the late 1940s and early 1950s prior to being sold to the Department of Energy, the available habitat largely consisted of younger trees (e.g., less than 40 years old). From 1992 to 1995, I examined...

  2. The red-cockaded woodpecker on the Savannah River Site: Aspects of reproductive success.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Peter A; Imm, Donald, W.; Jarvis, William L

    2004-12-31

    Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 5. Status and Trends of Populations. Pp 224-229. Abstract: The red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population on the Savannah River Site has been closely monitored and studied over the last 17 years. In 1985, the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station was given responsibility to study and manage this population in an effort to prevent its extirpation. In December 1985, there were only 4 individuals on the site: 1 pair and 2 solitary males. The population had increased to a total of 175 individuals in 42 active clusters in 2002. Although this represents a very successful recovery effort, there has been substantial annual variation in nesting survival from banding to fledging. Data were analyzed to more completely understand the factors affecting reproduction. No significant effects of age of the breeding male and female, years paired, number of helpers, habitat quality, number of nestings, and time of nest initiation were found when comparing reproductive success in 117 nesting attempts from 1999 to 2002. However, the number of neighboring groups had a direct effect on mortality rates, possibly demonstrating the importance of cluster spacing.

  3. Injection of 2,4-D to remove hardwood midstory within red-cockaded woodpecker colony areas

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner

    1989-01-01

    Red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) colonies on the Angelina National Forest were monitored from 1984 to 1986, after hardwoods on the site had been injected with the herbicide 2,4-D. The herbicide effectively reduced the hardwood midstory; however, possible toxicity to woodpeckers and cavity tree mortality are problems associated with the...

  4. Comparison of arthropod prey of red-cockaded woodpeckers on the boles of long-leaf and loblolly pines

    Treesearch

    Scott Horn; James L. Hanula

    2002-01-01

    Red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) forage on the boles of most southern pines. Woodpeckers may select trees based on arthropod availability, yet no published studies have evaluated differences in arthropod abundance on different species of pines. We used knockdown insecticides to sample arthropods on longleaf (Pinus palustris...

  5. Arthropod assemblages on longleaf pines: A possible link between the red-cockaded woodpecker and groundcover vegetation.

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T., Brandon

    2003-02-26

    Taylor, T.B. 2003. Arthropod assemblages on longleaf pines: A possible link between the red-cockaded woodpecker and groundcover vegetation. MS Thesis. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia. 99pp. Arthropod communities on the boles of longleaf pine originate on the forest floor. A research study was done to determine if there is evidence to support a link between red-cockaded woodpecker breeding success and groundcover composition of the forest floor. Results confirmed that arthropod biomass was positively correlated to the percent coverage of herbaceous and graminoid vegetation and negatively correlated to the percent coverage of woody vegetation.

  6. Two species in one ecosystem: management of northern bobwhite and red-cockaded woodpecker in the Red Hills

    Treesearch

    R. Todd Engstrom; William E. Palmer

    2005-01-01

    Sport hunting for Northern Bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) is the reason that approximately 300,000 acres of semi-wild lands still exist in the Red Hills region of north Florida and south Georgia. Use of fire for management and relatively large (400 to 4,000 ha), contiguous land ownerships permitted populations of bobwhite and Red-cockaded Woodpecker...

  7. Integration of long-term research into a GIS-based landscape habitat model for the red-cockaded Woodpecker

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb; F. Thomas. Lloyd

    2000-01-01

    The red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina has been the subject of intensive management and research activities designed to restore the population. By late 1985, the population was on the verge of being extirpated with only four individuals remaining. Older live pine trees that red...

  8. Forest landscapes: Their effect on the interaction of the southern pine beetle and red-cockaded woodpecker

    Treesearch

    Robert N. Coulson; Maria D. Guzman; Karen Skordinski; Jeffrey W. Fitzgerald; Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Forrest L. Oliveria; Douglas F. Wunneburger; Paul E. Pulley

    1999-01-01

    The nature of the interaction of the southern pine beetle and red-cockaded woodpecker was investidgated using spatially explicit information on the structure of a forest landscape mosiac and knowledge of the behavior of the two organisms. This interaction is the basis for defind functional heterogeneity - how an organism perceives and responds to the elements forming...

  9. A bark-shaving technique to deter rat snakes from climbing red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees

    Treesearch

    Daniel Saenz; Christopher S. Collins; Richard N. Conner

    1999-01-01

    We developed a bark-shaving technique to deter rat snakes (Elaphe obsoleta) from climbing red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) trees as an aesthetically pleasing, more cost-effective, and safer alternative to other snake excluder devices. We used a drawknife to carefully shave the bark around the circumference of 4 treatment trees in a l-m-wide band to...

  10. Trading Habitat Patches for the Red Cockaded Woodpecker: Incorporating the Role of Landscape Structure and Uncertainty in Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-11

    office space and high speed computers necessary for the intense modeling used in this study. Special thanks to Stephanie Kramer- Schadt, Sandro Puetz...dispersal in Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers. Condor 102: 482-491. deGroot, R.S., J. van der Perk , A. Chiesura, S. Marguliew. 2000. Ecological functions and

  11. Red-cockaded woodpeckers and silvicultural practice: is uneven-aged silviculture preferable to even-aged?

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner

    1996-01-01

    The endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) has become a high-profile management issue in the southeastern United States. Suitable habitat consists of mature to old pine, or mixed pine-hardwood forest, with minimal hardwood midstory vegetation. Loss of habitat, detrimental silvicultural practices, and changes in the fire regime have...

  12. Is a "hands-off" approach appropriate for red-cockaded woodpecker conservation in twenty-first-century landscapes?

    Treesearch

    Daniel Saenz; Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; R. Todd Engstrom

    2001-01-01

    The endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is well adapted to fire-maintained pine ecosystems of the Southeastern United States. Management practices vary greatly among land ownerships. In some wilderness areas and state parks, a "no management" policy has eliminated use of prescribed fire, artificial cavities, and...

  13. Stand conditions and tree characteristics affect quality of longleaf pine for red-cockaded woodpecker cavity trees

    Treesearch

    W.G. Ross; D.L. Kulhavy; R.N. Conner

    1997-01-01

    We measured resin flow of longleaf (Pinus palustris Mill.) pines in red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis Vieillot) clusters in the Angelina National Forest in Texas, and the Apalachicola National Forest in Florida. Sample trees were categorized as active cavity trees, inactive cavity trees and control trees. Sample trees were further...

  14. Effect of time elapsed after prescribed burning in longleaf pine stands on potential prey of the red-cockaded woodpecker

    Treesearch

    Kirsten C. New; James L. Hanula

    1998-01-01

    The effects of dormant and growing season prescribed burns on the potential arthropod prey of the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) were studied in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) stands on the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Sampling was conducted 0, 1, 2, or 3 years post burn. Stands were burned once during the winters of 1991, 1992, 1993, and...

  15. Forest policy impact assessment in the Ouachita National Forest and the valuation of conserving red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Difei Zhang; Michael M. Huebschmann; Thomas B. Lynch; James M. Guldin

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The Ouachita National Forest received approval in 1996 for an amendment to its Forest Plan that would allocate 10% of the Forest to long-rotation silviculture. The purpose of the new management area is to restore pre-European settlement forest conditions and recreate habitat for the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker. Approach: This study explored...

  16. Implications of home-range estimation in the management of red-cockaded woodpeckers in South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    2006-01-01

    I undertook a behavioral study to determine red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) home-range size at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA. In this location, because much of the timber was harvested in the late 1940s and early 1950s, the available habitat largely consisted of younger trees (e.g., less than 45 years old), not generally...

  17. Red-cockaded woodpecker male/female foraging differences in young forest stands.

    SciTech Connect

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is an endangered species endemic to pine (Pinus spp.) forests of the southeastern United States. I examined Red-cockaded Woodpecker foraging behavior to learn if there were male/female differences at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The study was conducted in largely young forest stands (,50 years of age) in contrast to earlier foraging behavior studies that focused on more mature forest. The Redcockaded Woodpecker at the Savannah River site is intensively managed including monitoring, translocation, and installation of artificial cavity inserts for roosting and nesting. Over a 3-year period, 6,407 foraging observations covering seven woodpecker family groups were recorded during all seasons of the year and all times of day. The most striking differences occurred in foraging method (males usually scaled [45% of observations] and females mostly probed [47%]),substrate used (females had a stronger preference [93%] for the trunk than males [79%]), and foraging height from the ground (mean 6 SE foraging height was higher for males [11.1 6 0.5 m] than females [9.8 6 0.5 m]). Niche overlap between males and females was lowest for substrate (85.6%) and foraging height (87.8%), and highest for tree species (99.0%), tree condition (98.3%), and tree height (96.4%). Both males and females preferred to forage in older, large pine trees. The habitat available at the Savannah River Site was considerably younger than at most other locations, but the pattern of male/female habitat partitioning observed was similar to that documented elsewhere within the range attesting to the species’ ability to adjust behaviorally.

  18. Unusual macrocyclic lactone sex pheromone of Parcoblatta lata, a primary food source of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker.

    PubMed

    Eliyahu, Dorit; Nojima, Satoshi; Santangelo, Richard G; Carpenter, Shannon; Webster, Francis X; Kiemle, David J; Gemeno, Cesar; Leal, Walter S; Schal, Coby

    2012-02-21

    Wood cockroaches in the genus Parcoblatta, comprising 12 species endemic to North America, are highly abundant in southeastern pine forests and represent an important prey of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis. The broad wood cockroach, Parcoblatta lata, is among the largest and most abundant of the wood cockroaches, constituting >50% of the biomass of the woodpecker's diet. Because reproduction in red-cockaded woodpeckers is affected dramatically by seasonal and spatial changes in arthropod availability, monitoring P. lata populations could serve as a useful index of habitat suitability for woodpecker conservation and forest management efforts. Female P. lata emit a volatile, long-distance sex pheromone, which, once identified and synthesized, could be deployed for monitoring cockroach populations. We describe here the identification, synthesis, and confirmation of the chemical structure of this pheromone as (4Z,11Z)-oxacyclotrideca-4,11-dien-2-one [= (3Z,10Z)-dodecadienolide; herein referred to as "parcoblattalactone"]. This macrocyclic lactone is a previously unidentified natural product and a previously unknown pheromonal structure for cockroaches, highlighting the great chemical diversity that characterizes olfactory communication in cockroaches: Each long-range sex pheromone identified to date from different genera belongs to a different chemical class. Parcoblattalactone was biologically active in electrophysiological assays and attracted not only P. lata but also several other Parcoblatta species in pine forests, underscoring its utility in monitoring several endemic wood cockroach species in red-cockaded woodpecker habitats.

  19. Evaluating red-cockaded woodpeckers for exposure to West Nile Virus and blood parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusek, R.J.; Richardson, D.; Egstad, K.F.; Heisey, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    A marked decline in the Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpecker [RCW]) population at Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge, MS, was observed in 2002. Demographic changes - including absence of hatch-year birds, decreases in size of known groups, and loss of known groups-were identified during annual fall surveys and are uncharacteristic of RCW populations. In 2003, a serosurvey of 28 adult RCWs was conducted to investigate the presence of West Nile virus (WNV) exposure in the population, possibly providing insight into whether WNV may have been responsible for this decline. Blood smears were also examined from these birds for blood parasites. We found no evidence of West Nile virus exposure or blood parasites in any of the RCWs sampled. Further monitoring of the RCW population and WNV activity in other species at Noxubee NWR is recommended to further evaluate the potential role of WNV and blood parasites in their decline.

  20. Establishment of a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985 the Southeastern Forest Experiment Station in cooperation with the Department of Energy (DOE), the Savannah River Forest Station (SRFS) and the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) initiated a research/management program to restore a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers (RCW) to the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program has progresses in two phases. The first phase (1985-1987) focused on stabilizing the declining RCW population at SRS. The second phase (1988-present) has focused on facilitating population expansion. In 1989 we have focused our efforts on development of techniques for excavating new RCW cavities, identification of old-growth stands with the potential of providing new nesting habitat to support population expansion, continued flying squirrel control, continued translocations of RCW's as needed, and monitoring clan composition and reproduction.

  1. Population differentiation in randomly amplified polymorphic DNA of red-cockaded woodpeckers Picoides borealis.

    PubMed

    Haig, S M; Rhymer, J M; Heckel, D G

    1994-12-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) phenotypes generated by 13 primers were scored for 101 individuals in 14 populations of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis. Although no population-specific markers were found, the frequencies of several markers differed significantly among populations. Application of the recently developed AMOVA method (analysis of molecular variance; Excoffier, Smouse & Quattro 1992) showed that more than 90% of phenotypic variance occurred among individuals within populations; of the remaining variance, half was attributed among groups of geographically adjacent populations and half among populations within those groups. The statistical significance of these patterns was supported by Monte Carolo sampling simulations and permutation tests. Estimation of allele frequencies from phenotypes provided somewhat weaker evidence for population structure, although among-population variance in allele frequencies was detectable (Fst = 0.19; chi 2(169) = 509.3, P < 0.0001). UPGMA cluster analyses based on Rogers' (1972) genetic distance revealed grouping of some geographically proximate populations. A Mantel test indicated a positive (r = 0.16), although not significant, correlation between geographic and genetic distances. We compared a subset of our RAPD data with data from a previous study that used allozymes (Stangel, Lennartz & Smith 1992). RAPD (n = 75) and allozyme (n = 245) results based on samples from the same ten populations showed similar patterns. Our study indicates that RAPDs can be helpful in differentiating populations at the phenotypic level even when small sample sizes, estimation bias, and inability to test for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium complicate the genotypic interpretation. Lack of large differences among populations of red-cockaded woodpeckers may allow flexibility in interpopulation translocations, provided factors such as habitat preference, latitudinal direction of translocation, and status of donor

  2. Wood Thrush movements and habitat use: effects of forest management for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lang, J.D.; Powell, L.A.; Krementz, D.G.; Conroy, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    We monitored adult and juvenile breeding season movements and habitat use of radio-tagged Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, central Georgia, USA. We investigated the effects that management for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis), thinning and burning >30 year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) habitat, had on Wood Thrushes, a ground-foraging and midstory-nesting species. Adult Wood Thrush pairs regularly moved long distances between nesting attempts (range 1 to 17,388 m). The only experimental effect we found on adult movements was a decrease in weekly emigration rates (Y ) from thinned and burned compartments after silvicultural management. Adult males preferred riparian hardwoods with sparse to moderate cover and those preferences increased following management. Juveniles remained near their nest site (0 = 177 m, SE = 113) for an average 24 days (SE = 6.3), and then dispersed a mean 2,189 m (SE = 342). Before dispersal, juveniles preferred upland hardwood?pine mixed habitat (P < 0.05) with moderate overstory cover (P < 0.05). We found no management effects on dispersal distances or predispersal habitat use. However, juveniles from thinned and burned compartments dispersed to hardwood habitats with dense cover, whereas birds from control compartments dispersed to pine-dominated habitats with sparse cover. All juveniles dispersed to areas with habitat similar to what they used before dispersal. Small-scale thinning and burning for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers may have had little effect on Wood Thrush habitat use and movements because typical movements were often larger than the scale (stand or compartment) targeted for management.

  3. Wood Thrush movements and habitat use: Effects of forest management for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lang, J.D.; Powell, L.A.; Krementz, D.G.; Conroy, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    We monitored adult and juvenile breeding-season movements and habitat use of radio-tagged Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, central Georgia, USA. We investigated the effects that management for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis), thinning and burning >30 year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) habitat, had on Wood Thrushes, a ground-foraging and midstory-nesting species. Adult Wood Thrush pairs regularly moved long distances between nesting attempts (range 1 to 17,388 m). The only experimental effect we found on adult movements was a decrease in weekly emigration rates (Ψ) from thinned and burned compartments after silvicultural management. Adult males preferred riparian hardwoods with sparse to moderate cover and those preferences increased following management. Juveniles remained near their nest site (x̄ = 177 m, SE = 113) for an average 24 days (SE = 6.3), and then dispersed a mean 2,189 m (SE = 342). Before dispersal, juveniles preferred upland hardwood–pine mixed habitat (P < 0.05) with moderate overstory cover (P < 0.05). We found no management effects on dispersal distances or predispersal habitat use. However, juveniles from thinned and burned compartments dispersed to hardwood habitats with dense cover, whereas birds from control compartments dispersed to pine-dominated habitats with sparse cover. All juveniles dispersed to areas with habitat similar to what they used before dispersal. Small-scale thinning and burning for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers may have had little effect on Wood Thrush habitat use and movements because typical movements were often larger than the scale (stand or compartment) targeted for management.

  4. Experimental evidence of a symbiosis between red-cockaded woodpeckers and fungi.

    PubMed

    Jusino, Michelle A; Lindner, Daniel L; Banik, Mark T; Rose, Kevin R; Walters, Jeffrey R

    2016-03-30

    Primary cavity excavators, such as woodpeckers, are ecosystem engineers in many systems. Associations between cavity excavators and fungi have long been hypothesized to facilitate cavity excavation, but these relationships have not been experimentally verified. Fungi may help excavators by softening wood, while excavators may facilitate fungal dispersal. Here we demonstrate that excavators facilitate fungal dispersal and thus we report the first experimental evidence of a symbiosis between fungi and a cavity excavator, the red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW,Picoides borealis). Swab samples of birds showed that RCWs carry fungal communities similar to those found in their completed excavations. A 26-month field experiment using human-made aseptically drilled excavations in live trees, half of which were inaccessible to RCWs, demonstrated that RCWs directly alter fungal colonization and community composition. Experimental excavations that were accessible to RCWs contained fungal communities similar to natural RCW excavations, whereas inaccessible experimental excavations contained significantly different fungal communities. Our work demonstrates a complex symbiosis between cavity excavators and communities of fungi, with implications for forest ecology, wildlife management, and conservation.

  5. Experimental evidence of a symbiosis between red-cockaded woodpeckers and fungi

    PubMed Central

    Banik, Mark T.; Rose, Kevin R.; Walters, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Primary cavity excavators, such as woodpeckers, are ecosystem engineers in many systems. Associations between cavity excavators and fungi have long been hypothesized to facilitate cavity excavation, but these relationships have not been experimentally verified. Fungi may help excavators by softening wood, while excavators may facilitate fungal dispersal. Here we demonstrate that excavators facilitate fungal dispersal and thus we report the first experimental evidence of a symbiosis between fungi and a cavity excavator, the red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW, Picoides borealis). Swab samples of birds showed that RCWs carry fungal communities similar to those found in their completed excavations. A 26-month field experiment using human-made aseptically drilled excavations in live trees, half of which were inaccessible to RCWs, demonstrated that RCWs directly alter fungal colonization and community composition. Experimental excavations that were accessible to RCWs contained fungal communities similar to natural RCW excavations, whereas inaccessible experimental excavations contained significantly different fungal communities. Our work demonstrates a complex symbiosis between cavity excavators and communities of fungi, with implications for forest ecology, wildlife management, and conservation. PMID:27009222

  6. Population structure of red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in south Florida: RAPDs revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Bowman, R.; Mullins, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    Six south Florida populations of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) were sampled to examine genetic diversity and population structure in the southernmost portion of the species' range relative to 14 previously sampled populations from throughout the species range. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses were used to evaluate the populations (n= 161 individuals, 13 primers, one band/primer). Results suggested that south Florida populations have significant among-population genetic differentiation (FST= 0.17, P < 0.000), although gene flow may be adequate to offset drift (Nm= 1.26). Comparison of Florida populations with others sampled indicated differentiation was less in Florida (FST for all populations = 0.21). Cluster analyses of all 20 populations did not reflect complete geographical predictions, although clustering of distant populations resulted in a significant correlation between genetic distance and geographical distance. Overall, results suggest populations in south Florida, similar to the remainder of the species, have low genetic diversity and high population fragmentation. Exact clustering of distant populations supports the ability of RAPDs to differentiate populations accurately. Our results further support past management recommendations that translocations of birds among geographically proximate populations is preferable to movement of birds between distant populations.

  7. Comparison of Arthropod Prey of Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers on the Boles of Longleaf and Loblolly Pines

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, S.; Hanula, J.

    2002-01-01

    Use of knockdown insecticides to sample arthropods on longleaf and loblolly pine to determine which harbored the greater abundance of potential prey. Alterations of longleaf pine bark surface to determine whether bark structure may affect arthropods residing on a tree's bole. Recovery revealed fewer arthropods from scraped trees. Results suggest the bark structure and not the chemical nature of the bark is responsible for differences in arthropod abundance and biomass. Retaining or restoring longleaf pine in red-cockaded woodpecker habitats should increase arthropod availability for this endangered bird and other back-foraging species.

  8. Integration of Long-Term Research into a GIS Based Landscape Habitat Model for the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker

    SciTech Connect

    Franzreb, K.; Lloyd, F.T.

    2000-10-01

    The red cockaded woodpecker has been intensively studied since 1985 when the population was on the verge of extinction. The population decline is primarily the result of timber harvesting prior to 1950 and restricted burning. Construction of artificial cavities, translocations, competitor control, and removal of hardwood mid-story has provided suitable habitat. Since 1985, the population has increased from 4 to 99 birds. A GIS model is being developed to simulate the development of habitat at SRS in relation to management and existing vegetation.

  9. Effects of southern flying squirrels Glaucomys volans on red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis reproductive success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laves, K.S.; Loeb, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    Anecdotal data gathered from many populations suggest that southern flying squirrel (SFS, Glaucomys volans) use of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker's (RCW, Picoides borealis) nest and roost cavities may negatively affect RCW populations. We conducted a controlled experiment to determine the effects of SFSs on RCW reproductive success. During the 1994 and 1995 breeding seasons, SFSs were removed from 30 RCW clusters and 32 clusters served as controls. SFSs were the most frequently encountered occupants of RCW cavities and used 20-33% of RCW cavities in control and treatment clusters over both years. Treatment groups produced significantly more successful nests (??? 1 fledgling) than control groups in 1994. In 1995 however, there was no difference in the number of successful nests. In both years, RCW groups nesting in treatment clusters produced significantly more fledglings than groups in control clusters in each of four experimental areas, averaging approximately 0.7 additional fledglings per nesting group. Loss of entire clutches or broods, possibly as a result of predation or abandonment, was a major factor limiting reproduction in control groups in 1994. In contrast, differences in partial brood loss appeared to be the cause of differential fledging success in 1995 Usurpation of RCW roost cavities by SFSs may have placed greater energetic demands on RCWs for cavity defence or thermoregulation, thus reducing energy available for reproduction. Our results show that SFS use of RCW cavities during the breeding season has a significant impact on RCWs and that management of RCW populations should include activities that either minimize SFS populations in RCW clusters or limit access of SFSs to RCW cavities.

  10. Systematic review of the influence of foraging habitat on red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success.

    SciTech Connect

    Garabedian, James E.

    2014-04-01

    Relationships between foraging habitat and reproductive success provide compelling evidence of the contribution of specific vegetative features to foraging habitat quality, a potentially limiting factor for many animal populations. For example, foraging habitat quality likely will gain importance in the recovery of the threatened red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis (RCW) in the USA as immediate nesting constraints are mitigated. Several researchers have characterized resource selection by foraging RCWs, but emerging research linking reproductive success (e.g. clutch size, nestling and fledgling production, and group size) and foraging habitat features has yet to be synthesized. Therefore, we reviewed peer-refereed scientific literature and technical resources (e.g. books, symposia proceedings, and technical reports) that examined RCW foraging ecology, foraging habitat, or demography to evaluate evidence for effects of the key foraging habitat features described in the species’ recovery plan on group reproductive success. Fitness-based habitat models suggest foraging habitat with low to intermediate pine Pinus spp. densities, presence of large and old pines, minimal midstory development, and herbaceous groundcover support more productive RCW groups. However, the relationships between some foraging habitat features and RCW reproductive success are not well supported by empirical data. In addition, few regression models account for > 30% of variation in reproductive success, and unstandardized multiple and simple linear regression coefficient estimates typically range from -0.100 to 0.100, suggesting ancillary variables and perhaps indirect mechanisms influence reproductive success. These findings suggest additional research is needed to address uncertainty in relationships between foraging habitat features and RCW reproductive success and in the mechanisms underlying those relationships.

  11. Relationship of coarse woody debris to arthropod availability for red-cockaded woodpeckers and other bark-foraging birds on loblolly pine boles

    Treesearch

    Scott Horn; James L. Hanula

    2008-01-01

    This study determined if short-term removal of coarse woody debris would reduce prey available to red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis Vieillot) and other bark-foraging 1 birds at the Savannah River Site in Aiken and Barnwell counties, SC. All coarse woody debris was removed from four 9-ha plots of mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda...

  12. Evaluating some proposed matrices for scoring sub-optimal red-cockaded woodpecker foraging habitat in relation to the 2003 recovery plan

    Treesearch

    Donald J. Lipscomb; Thomas M. Williams

    2006-01-01

    We have used RCWFAT (an ARC-INFO program that evaluates RCW habitat) to examine the 2003 Red Cockaded Woodpecker (RCW) Recovery Plan, which will influence silvicultural activities on large tracts of southeastern forests. The new plan includes 11 specific characteristics of forest stands that constitute “Good Quality Foraging Habitat” (GQFH) and requires 120 to 200...

  13. Comparison of red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) nestling diet in old-growth and old-field longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) habitats

    Treesearch

    James L. Hanula; R. Todd Engstrom

    2000-01-01

    Automatic cameras were used to record adult red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) nest visits with food for nestlings. Diet of nestlings on or near an old-growth longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) remnant in southern Georgia was compared to that in longleaf pine stands established on old farm fields in western South Carolina....

  14. Sequentially Observed Periodic Surveys of Management Compartments to Monitor Red-cockaded Woodpecker Populations

    Treesearch

    Robert G. Hooper; H. David Muse

    1989-01-01

    Management of the red-cockaded woodpeckcer (Picoides borealis) requires knowledge of size and trend of individual poulations. Periodic entry into management compartments for thinning and regeneration of stands provides considerable information on individual cavity trees and colonies. The statistical rationale and formulas for using this information...

  15. A Modification of Copeyon's Drilling Technique for Making Artificial Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Cavities

    Treesearch

    William E. Taylor; Robert G. Hooper

    1991-01-01

    A modification to Copeyon's drilling technique for making highly effective artificial cavities for red-cockaded wookpeckers is described.The changes virtually eliminate the possibility of making a mistake in constructing cavities and reduces the learning time to less than 2 weeks.The basic change is the use of a 3-inch access hole that allows the relative position...

  16. Empirical comparison of uniform and non-uniform probability sampling for estimating numbers of red-cockaded woodpecker colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geissler, P.H.; Moyer, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Four sampling and estimation methods for estimating the number of red-cockaded woodpecker colonies on National Forests in the Southeast were compared, using samples chosen from simulated populations based on the observed sample. The methods included (1) simple random sampling without replacement using a mean per sampling unit estimator, (2) simple random sampling without replacement with a ratio per pine area estimator, (3) probability proportional to 'size' sampling with replacement, and (4) probability proportional to 'size' without replacement using Murthy's estimator. The survey sample of 274 National Forest compartments (1000 acres each) constituted a superpopulation from which simulated stratum populations were selected with probability inversely proportional to the original probability of selection. Compartments were originally sampled with probabilities proportional to the probabilities that the compartments contained woodpeckers ('size'). These probabilities were estimated with a discriminant analysis based on tree species and tree age. The ratio estimator would have been the best estimator for this survey based on the mean square error. However, if more accurate predictions of woodpecker presence had been available, Murthy's estimator would have been the best. A subroutine to calculate Murthy's estimates is included; it is computationally feasible to analyze up to 10 samples per stratum.

  17. Establishment of a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Plant: Progress report, 1985 through 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.H.; Lennartz, M.R.

    1988-12-06

    In 1985 the Southeastern Forest Experiment Station (SEFES) in cooperation with the Department of Energy began research on the red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). In early 1986 there were four RCW's on the SRP, including one pair in colony 19 and solitary males in colonies 5 and 16. Because of the decline in past years, it was deemed necessary to bring in birds from outside the plant to augment the local RCW population. In the next two years, translocations and local reproduction increased the population to 14 birds and the number of breeding clans from one to three. Although only two clans bred and fledged young in 1988, the population remains at 14 birds and has expanded to occupy five colony sites. Research and management activities implemented or continued over the past year include: translocations of birds within the SRP and from the Francis Marion National Forest (FMNF) to SRP, herbicide, burning and thinning for hardwood control and increased diameter growth of pines, the removal of flying squirrels from active colonies, and the installation of nest boxes, RCW artificial cavities and metal restrictors to reduce competition from other species.

  18. Establishment of a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.H.

    1990-12-31

    In 1985 the Southeastern Forest Experiment Station (SEFES) in cooperation with the Department of Energy, the Savannah River Forest Station (SRFS) and the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) initiated a research/management program to restore a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers (RCW) to the Savannah River Site (SRS). We managed to stabilize the population in the first couple of years through an intensive flying squirrel removal project as well as augmentation of female RCW`s to the SRS population. We are now in the expansion phase of the project. In 1990 we have focused our efforts on: (1) developing a cavity excavation method and excavating cavities in suitable habitat; (2) flying squirrel control; (3) translocation of RCW`s; (4) monitoring clan composition and reproduction; (5) identification of old-growth stands with the potential of providing new nesting habitat to support population expansion; and (6) surveying lands near SRS where RCW`s were thought to exist. This report summarizes activities for FY 1990 and plans for FY 1991.

  19. Establishment of a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site. Annual report, FY1992

    SciTech Connect

    Laves, K.S.

    1992-09-11

    The Southeastern Forest Experiment Station (SEFES) began research on the red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW) on the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1985 with the objective of restoring a viable population. This Project is conducted in cooperation with the Department of Energy, the Savannah River Forest Station (SRFS) and the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. The program has consisted of two phases. The stabilization phase (1985--1987) focused on preventing the immediate extirpation of the RCW population. During this phase the number of breeding pairs of RCWs increased from one to three, and the total population increased from five to 14 birds. We are currently in the expansion phase (1987--present). To facilitate the population expansion of the RCW at SRS, SEFES and SRFS have implemented numerous research and management activities. These include: control of mid-story vegetation to improve habitat suitability, installation of artificial cavities for RCWS, translocations of RCWs within the SRS and from other populations, maintenance of cavities by installing metal restrictors to discourage cavity competition, and generic research to ascertain the degree of relatedness between individuals and populations.

  20. The relative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on population genetic variation in the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis).

    PubMed

    Bruggeman, Douglas J; Wiegand, Thorsten; Fernández, Néstor

    2010-09-01

    The relative influence of habitat loss, fragmentation and matrix heterogeneity on the viability of populations is a critical area of conservation research that remains unresolved. Using simulation modelling, we provide an analysis of the influence both patch size and patch isolation have on abundance, effective population size (N(e)) and F(ST). An individual-based, spatially explicit population model based on 15 years of field work on the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) was applied to different landscape configurations. The variation in landscape patterns was summarized using spatial statistics based on O-ring statistics. By regressing demographic and genetics attributes that emerged across the landscape treatments against proportion of total habitat and O-ring statistics, we show that O-ring statistics provide an explicit link between population processes, habitat area, and critical thresholds of fragmentation that affect those processes. Spatial distances among land cover classes that affect biological processes translated into critical scales at which the measures of landscape structure correlated best with genetic indices. Therefore our study infers pattern from process, which contrasts with past studies of landscape genetics. We found that population genetic structure was more strongly affected by fragmentation than population size, which suggests that examining only population size may limit recognition of fragmentation effects that erode genetic variation. If effective population size is used to set recovery goals for endangered species, then habitat fragmentation effects may be sufficiently strong to prevent evaluation of recovery based on the ratio of census:effective population size alone.

  1. An experimental study of the impact of location on the effectiveness of recruitment clusters for red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, J., R.; Taylor, T., B.; Daniels, S., J.

    2003-05-29

    This report summarizes results of research on red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) conducted by personnel from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) and the Duke Marine Laboratory at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, from September 29, 2000 through September 28, 2002. This period represents the first two years of a five-year Cooperative Agreement between Virginia Tech and the USDA Forest Service, Savannah River. This report serves as an Interim Project Report with respect to the Cooperative Agreement (No. OO-CA-ll 083600-010), and a Final Project Report for the initial award to Virginia Tech (FRS No.428911).

  2. Experimental evidence of a symbiosis between red-cockaded woodpeckers and fungi

    Treesearch

    Michelle A. Jusino; Daniel L. Lindner; Mark T. Banik; Kevin R. Rose; Jeffrey R. Walters

    2016-01-01

    Primary cavity excavators, such as woodpeckers, are ecosystem engineers in many systems. Associations between cavity excavators and fungi have long been hypothesized to facilitate cavity excavation, but these relationships have not been experimentally verified. Fungi may help excavators by softening wood, while excavators may facilitate fungal dispersal. Here we...

  3. Yellow-bellied sapsuckers feeding at red-cockaded woodpecker resin wells

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner; Richard R. Schaefer

    1991-01-01

    Yellowbellied Sapsuckers (Sphyrapicus varius) excavate rows of holes into the cambium of various tree species and feed on the exuded sap (Kilham 1956, Tate 1973). Several other species including Red-bellied Woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus), White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis), Tufted Titmouse (Parus bicolor), and Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus...

  4. Should Habitat Trading Be Based on Mitigation Ratios Derived from Landscape Indices? A Model-Based Analysis of Compensatory Restoration Options for the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggeman, Douglas J.; Jones, Michael L.

    2008-10-01

    Many species of conservation concern are spatially structured and require dispersal to be persistent. For such species, altering the distribution of suitable habitats on the landscape can affect population dynamics in ways that are difficult to predict from simple models. We argue that for such species, individual-based and spatially explicit population models (SEPMs) should be used to determine appropriate levels of off-site restoration to compensate for on-site loss of ecologic resources. Such approaches are necessary when interactions between biologic processes occur at different spatial scales (i.e., local [recruitment] and landscape [migration]). The sites of restoration and habitat loss may be linked to each other, but, more importantly, they may be linked to other resources in the landscape by regional biologic processes, primarily migration. The common management approach for determining appropriate levels of off-site restoration is to derive mitigation ratios based on best professional judgment or pre-existing data. Mitigation ratios assume that the ecologic benefits at the site of restoration are independent of the ecologic costs at the site of habitat loss. Using an SEPM for endangered red-cockaded woodpeckers, we show that the spatial configuration of habitat restoration can simultaneously influence both the rate of recruitment within breeding groups and the rate of migration among groups, implying that simple mitigation ratios may be inadequate.

  5. Relationship of coarse woody debris to arthropod Availability for Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers and other bark-foraging birds on loblolly pine boles.

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.

    2008-04-01

    Abstract This study determined if short-term removal of coarse woody debris would reduce prey available to red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis Vieillot) and other bark-foraging birds at the Savannah River Site in Aiken and Barnwell counties, SC. All coarse woody debris was removed from four 9-ha plots of mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in 1997 and again in 1998. We sampled arthropods in coarse woody debris removal and control stands using crawl traps that captured arthropods crawling up tree boles, burlap bands wrapped around trees, and cardboard panels placed on the ground. We captured 27 orders and 172 families of arthropods in crawl traps whereas 20 arthropod orders were observed under burlap bands and cardboard panels. The most abundant insects collected from crawl traps were aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Forrnicidae). The greatest biomass was in the wood cockroaches (Blattaria: Blattellidae), caterpillars (Lepidoptera) in the Family Noctuidae, and adult weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The most common group observed underneath cardboard panels was lsoptera (termites), and the most common taxon under burlap bands was wood cockroaches. Overall, arthropod abundance and biomass captured in crawl traps was similar in control and removal plots. In contrast, we observed more arthropods under burlap bands (mean & SE; 3,021.5 k 348.6, P= 0.03) and cardboard panels (3,537.25 k 432.4, P= 0.04) in plots with coarse woody debris compared with burlap bands (2325 + 171.3) and cardboard panels (2439.75 + 288.9) in plots where coarse woody debris was removed. Regression analyses showed that abundance beneath cardboard panels was positively correlated with abundance beneath burlap bands demonstrating the link between abundance on the ground with that on trees. Our results demonstrate that short-term removal of coarse woody debris from pine forests reduced overall arthropod availability to bark-foraging birds.

  6. Fort Bragg and the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker: A Content Analysis of Selected Local Newspapers’ Coverage of Fort Bragg’s Endangered Species Protection Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    woodpecker species? 3) How did the amount and tone of coverage differ between Fort Bragg’s command information newspaper, the Paraglide , and the civilian...to Fort * Bragg and its potential to offer a sample of local newspaper articles not inspired by a prepared media release. The Paraglide , a weekly...newspapers yielded 15 stories (241 paragraphs, 15 headlines) from the Fort Bragg Paraglide , 37 stories (666 paragraphs, 36 headlines) from the

  7. Burning and chopping for woodpeckers and wiregrass?

    Treesearch

    Joan L. Walker; Brian P. van Eerden; David Robinson; Mike Hausch

    2004-01-01

    To restore red-cockaded woodpecker habitat managers must reduce hardwoods while maintaining native ground cover. Fire, chemical, and mechanical methods are used alone or in combination to reduce oaks. Previous studies have reported selected single treatment effects (e.g., Outcalt and Lewis 1990, Robbins and Myers 1992, Glitzenstein et al. 1995, Provencher et al. 2001...

  8. Longleaf Pine Characterists Associated with Arthropods Available for Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers

    SciTech Connect

    Hanula, J.L.; Franzreb, K.E.; Pepper, W.D.

    1999-01-25

    The authors sampled arthropods on 300 longleaf pine under varying stand conditions and ranging in age from 20 to 100 years. The most diverse orders were beetles, spiders, ants, wasps and bees. The most abundant were aphids and Hymenoptera with a large number of ants. Arthropod biomass per tree increased in age up to 65-70 years, but biomass was highest in the youngest stands. Arthropods were positively correlated to bark thickness and tree diameter, but negatively related to the stand basal area. No relationships were found between abundance and ground vegetation conditions.

  9. Evaluation of Military Range Berm Effectiveness in Protecting Red-cockaded Woodpecker Foraging and Nesting Habitat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    longleaf pine (P. palustris; Table 2). This contrasted with Fort Stewart, where the dominant tree species was longleaf pine , followed by loblolly...of all trees surveyed on Fort Benning, compared with only 6.4% to 16.2% across plots on Fort Stewart. In contrast, longleaf pine accounted for...surveyed on Fort Stewart (Tables 2–4). The dominant tree species identified for each installation (i.e., loblolly pine for Fort Benning and longleaf

  10. A density management diagram for longleaf pine stands with application to red-cockaded woodpecker habitat

    Treesearch

    John D. Shaw; James N. Long

    2007-01-01

    We developed a density management diagram (DMD) for longleaf pine (Pinus palustris P. Mill.) using data from Forest Inventory and Analysis plots. Selection criteria were for purity, defined as longleaf pine basal area (BA) that is 90% or more of plot BA, and even-agedness, as defined by a ratio between two calculations of stand density index. The...

  11. Range-Wide Meta-Analysis of Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Foraging Habitat Suitability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-31

    other native, fire-tolerant, fire-dependent herbs total 40 percent or more of ground and midstory plants and are dense enough to carry growing...for groundcover at least in part. Detailed studies of the variation in plant communities within sites and their response to fire and other management...J. M. Morales, T. Mclntosh, and R. C. Rosatte. 2008. Multiple movement modes by large carnivore at multiple spatiotemporal scales. Proceedings of

  12. Inbreeding and experience affect response to climate change by endangered woodpeckers.

    PubMed

    Schiegg, Karin; Pasinelli, Gilberto; Walters, Jeffrey R; Daniels, Susan J

    2002-06-07

    In recent decades, female red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) have laid eggs increasingly earlier in response to a changing climate, as has been observed in several other bird species breeding at north temperate latitudes. Within each year, females that lay earlier are more productive than females that lay later. However, inexperienced females, experienced females who change mates and inbred birds have not adjusted to the changing climate by laying earlier, and have suffered reproductive costs as a result. Failure to respond to global climate change may be a further example of the reduced ability of inbred animals to respond to environmental challenges.

  13. Ecological Risk Assessment of the Effects of Military Fog Oil Obscurant Smoke on the Red-cockaded Woodpecker

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    grasses transfer and accumulate fog oil constituents to below-ground plant tissues (Cataldo et al. 1989). Although acute exposure to fog oil may...not appear to affect seed germination or soil nutrient levels (Cataldo et al. 1989). However, resi- dues on soils can have indirect effects on plant ...damage or parasitic infection. Habitat quality and quantity may be altered if some plant species are susceptible to fog oil aerosol dam- age

  14. Managing Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Stands for the Restoration of Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) Habitat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    REPORT DATE MAR 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Managing Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda...among site types based on productivity and the structure and composition of the canopy and ground layer vegetation protocol development on a range of...because protocol suitability is likely to vary among site types based on productivity and the structure and composition of the canopy and ground layer

  15. Trading Habitat Patches for the Red Cockaded Woodpecker: Incorporating the Role of Landscape Structure and Uncertainty in Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-11

    importance of control populations for the identification and management of genetic diversity. Genetica 110: 109-115. Bruggeman, D. J., M. L. Jones, F. Lupi ...Genetics and Tradable Permit Markets to Design Nature Reserves on Private Land. D. Bruggeman, F. Lupi , M. Jones, and K. Scribner. Ecological Society of...Bruggeman, M. Jones, F. Lupi , and K. Scribner. Estacion Biologica de Donana, Seville, Spain. May 26, 2006. (Invited) Reconciling Structural and

  16. Long-term efficacy of artificial cavities for red-cockaded woodpeckers: Lessons learned from hurricane Hugo

    Treesearch

    Robert G. Hooper; William E. Taylor; Susan C. Loeb

    2004-01-01

    Between 1990 and 1992 an extensive artificial cavity installation program was conducted on the Francis Marion National Forest (FMNF) in coastal South Carolina where Hurricane Hugo had caused vast devastation. Four artificial cavity types were installed: drilled starts, drilled cavities, modified drilled cavities, and inserts. In 1998, we examined 443 of the artificial...

  17. Shortleaf pine-bluestem restoration for red-cockaded woodpeckers in the Ouachita Mountains: Implications for other taxa

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. Thill; D. Craig Rudolph; Nancy E. Koerth

    2004-01-01

    The more xeric south- and west-facing slopes of the Ouachita Mountains of west-central Arkansas once supported fire-maintained shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) forests with a well-developed herbaceous understory. Fire suppression following the original harvest of these forests resulted in forests with increasingly abundant woody vegetation in the...

  18. Co-occurence of Invasive Species on Priority TES Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    cockaded Woodpecker Florida Tasselflower Emilia fosbergii forb Clay Camp Blanding FL Red-cockaded Woodpecker Centipedegrass Eremochloa ophiuroides...Camp Blanding FL Red-cockaded Woodpecker Florida Tasselflower Emilia fosbergii forb Alachua Camp Blanding FL Red-cockaded Woodpecker Florida...Tasselflower Emilia fosbergii forb Putnam Camp Blanding FL Red-cockaded Woodpecker Lilac Tasselflower Emilia sonchifolia forb Alachua Camp

  19. Biological Assessment of the Effects of the Proposed Revision of the 1996 Management Guidelines for the Red-cockaded Woodpecker on Army Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    silty or loamy soils distinguish bottomland areas. Naturally regenerated forests and plantations of longleaf, slash, and lob- lolly pine dominate the...indigo snake T Gopherus polyphemus Gopher tortoise T Amphibians Ambystoma cingulatum Flatwoods Salamander T Insects Neonympha mitchellii

  20. Landscape Scale Assessment of Predominant Pine Canopy Height for Red-cockaded Woodpecker Habitat Assessment Using Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-26

    tree height in a managed loblolly pine plantation . Forest Science. 49(3):457-466. McKerrow, A.J., T.R. Wentworth, and H.M. Cheshire. In prep...Nelson, R., W. Krabill, and J. Tonelli. 1988. Estimating forest biomass and volume using airborne laser data. Remote Sensing of Environment. 24:247-267

  1. Lewis's Woodpecker: Melanerpes lewis

    Treesearch

    Bret W. Tobalske; Kerri T. Vierling; Victoria A. Saab

    2013-01-01

    During the historic Lewis and Clark expedition, Meriwether Lewis wrote on 20 July 1805, "I saw a black woodpecker (or crow) today it is a distinct species of woodpecker; it has a long tail and flys a good deal like the jay bird" (sic, Thwaites 1905). Subsequent observations of flight and vocalization reminded him of the Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes...

  2. Woodpeckers and head injury.

    PubMed

    May, P R; Fuster, J M; Newman, P; Hirschman, A

    1976-02-28

    The woodpecker is an experiment in Nature, a model for the investigation of mechanisms of basic importance for head injury and its prevention. A preliminary anatomical study of the woodpecker's head suggests that it may be fruitful to explore impact protective systems which are radically different from those in common use.

  3. Techniques for monitoring pileated woodpeckers.

    Treesearch

    Evelyn L Bull; Richard S. Holthausen; Marie G. Henjum

    1990-01-01

    Methods of locating pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) are described, including imitating pileated woodpecker vocalizations, identifying nest and roost trees, and finding foraging signs. Populations of pileated woodpeckers can be monitored by using (1) density of breeding pairs, (2) reproduction, and (3) presence or absence of birds. The...

  4. Do downy woodpeckers migrate?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Browning, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Seasonal movement and migration of Downy Woodpeckers (Picoides pubescens) are indicated in several sources in the literature. Analyses of 3784 recoveries of banded birds, with other data, indicate that the species is resident, and that movements of a few individuals may indicate dispersal.

  5. 77 FR 59959 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... within Texas: Bee Creek Cave harvestman (Texella reddelli) Black-capped vireo (Vireo atricapilla) Bone... Dakota; interior least tern (Sterna antillarum) and red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis)...

  6. How woodpecker avoids brain injury?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. W.; Zhu, Z. D.; Zhang, W.

    2015-07-01

    It has long been recognized that woodpecker is an excellent anti-shock organism, as its head and brain can bear high deceleration up to 1500 g under fast pecking. To investigate the mechanism of brain protection of woodpecker, we built a finite element model of a whole woodpecker using computed topography scanning technique and geometry modeling. Numerical results show that the periodical changing Young's modulus around the skull affects the stress wave propagation in head and makes the stress lowest at the position of the brain. Modal analysis reveals the application of pre-tension force to the hyoid bone can increase the natural frequency of woodpecker's head. The large gap between the natural and working frequencies enable the woodpecker to effectively protect its brain from the resonance injury. Energy analyses indicate the majority of the impact energy (99.7%) is stored in the bulk of body and is utilized in the next pecking. There is only a small fraction of it enters into the head (0.3%). The whole body of the woodpecker gets involved in the energy conversion and forms an efficient anti-shock protection system for the brain.

  7. 76 FR 13205 - Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, Jones and Jasper Counties, GA; Final Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... red-cockaded woodpecker and associated wildlife species of concern. Prescribed burning and timber thinning are used to ensure that quality pine habitat is maintained for red-cockaded woodpeckers... compatible wildlife-dependent public use opportunities. We will continue to monitor and manage the...

  8. Lead poisoning in woodpeckers in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mörner, T; Petersson, L

    1999-10-01

    Lead poisoning was demonstrated in two gray-headed woodpeckers (Picus canus) and one white-backed woodpecker (Dendrocopus leucotos) in Sweden; they had liver lead levels between 9.4 and 26.2 mg(-1) wet weight. At necropsy one gray-headed woodpecker showed signs of emaciation and the other one had severe traumatic injuries, caused by a cat. The white-backed woodpecker died in the transportation box during a translocation program. The source of the lead could not be determined, but it was suspected that it may have originated from lead pellets shot into trees and picked out by the woodpeckers during food search.

  9. Foraging ecology of Nuttall's Woodpecker

    Treesearch

    William M. Block

    1991-01-01

    I studied relative abundances, foraging behavior, and foraging habitats of Nuttall's Woodpeckers (Picoides nuttallii# at three California locations. Population sizes at two areas in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada were larger than the population in the Tehachapi Mountains. These differences were attributed to habitat and weather differences. The two areas in...

  10. Survivorship of Pileated Woodpeckers in northeastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Evelyn L. Bull

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of the survival of the Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus) is essential in managing viable populations of the species. In eight study areas in northeastern Oregon, survivorship of adult Pileated Woodpeckers was 0.60 after 6 mo, 0.47 after 12 me, and 0.35 after 18 mo. Of three juveniles radio-tagged in late summer or fall, two...

  11. Quantifying purported competition with individual- and population-level metrics.

    PubMed

    Walters, Eric L; James, Frances C

    2010-12-01

    Competitive species interactions may contribute to population declines. Purportedly, Red-bellied Woodpeckers (Melanerpes carolinus), a common species, and Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis), an endangered species, compete for roosting and nesting cavities in living pine trees. To determine whether behavioral interactions measured at the individual level manifest themselves at the population level, we conducted field experiments designed to test whether the presence of Red-bellied Woodpeckers resulted in a decrease in fitness to Red-cockaded Woodpeckers. As part of a 4-year study examining the nature of interspecific interactions in two populations of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (one stable, the Apalachicola Ranger District; one declining, the Wakulla Ranger District) in the Apalachicola National Forest, Florida, we conducted a set of Red-bellied Woodpecker removal experiments. Paradoxically, following the removal of Red-bellied Woodpeckers, we observed decreases in Red-cockaded Woodpecker group size, proportion of nests that were successful, and proportion of individuals remaining on territories. Removal of Red-bellied Woodpeckers may have exaggerated the immigration rate of Red-bellied Woodpeckers to Red-cockaded Woodpecker territories. The Red-cockaded Woodpeckers in the Apalachicola Ranger District likely can withstand pressure from immigrating Red-bellied Woodpeckers given that their population has remained relatively stable despite the presence of Red-bellied Woodpeckers. A major factor of population persistence in the Wakulla Ranger District was the high turnover rate of adult female Red-cockaded Woodpeckers, a phenomenon that was exacerbated by removal of Red-bellied Woodpeckers. Relying solely on observations of apparently competitive interactions between individuals may not necessarily provide information about population-level outcomes. Paradoxically, removing species that appear to be competitors may harm species of concern.

  12. Resource partitioning among woodpeckers in northeastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Bull Evelyn L.; Steven R. Peterson; Jack Ward. Thomas

    1986-01-01

    Eight species of woodpeckers coexist in conifer forests in northeastern Oregon: northern flicker (Colaptes auratus); yellow-bellied (Sphyrapicus varius) and Williamson's (S. thyroideus) sapsuckers; and pileated (Dryocopus pileatus), hairy (Picoides villosus),...

  13. Interactions between nesting pileated woodpeckers and wood ducks

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Clifford E. Shackelford; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer

    2001-01-01

    We observed interactions between a nesting pair of pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) and what appeared to be four pairs of wood ducks (Aix sponsa). Wood ducks regularly approached and attempted to enter an active pileated woodpecker nest cavity that contained three fully feathered young pileated woodpeckers. The male...

  14. Woodpecker Excavation and Use of Cavities in Polystyrene Snags

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz

    1996-01-01

    We examined woodpecker excavation and use of artificial polystyrene snags in four forest types in eastern Texas for five years. Twenty-three of 47 artificial snags were used by Downy Woodpeckers (Picoides pubescens) for cavity excavation and subsequent nocturnal roosting; they did not use the artificial snags for nesting. Although six ather species of woodpeckers...

  15. Acoustic sensor networks for woodpecker localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Chen, C. E.; Ali, A.; Asgari, S.; Hudson, R. E.; Yao, K.; Estrin, D.; Taylor, C.

    2005-08-01

    Sensor network technology can revolutionize the study of animal ecology by providing a means of non-intrusive, simultaneous monitoring of interaction among multiple animals. In this paper, we investigate design, analysis, and testing of acoustic arrays for localizing acorn woodpeckers using their vocalizations. Each acoustic array consists of four microphones arranged in a square. All four audio channels within the same acoustic array are finely synchronized within a few micro seconds. We apply the approximate maximum likelihood (AML) method to synchronized audio channels of each acoustic array for estimating the direction-of-arrival (DOA) of woodpecker vocalizations. The woodpecker location is estimated by applying least square (LS) methods to DOA bearing crossings of multiple acoustic arrays. We have revealed the critical relation between microphone spacing of acoustic arrays and robustness of beamforming of woodpecker vocalizations. Woodpecker localization experiments using robust array element spacing in different types of environments are conducted and compared. Practical issues about calibration of acoustic array orientation are also discussed.

  16. Environmental Assessment for Employment of a Mobile Laser Evaluator System (LES-M) for the 20th Fighter Wing at Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-01

    mississippiensis) is also listed as threatened, due to its similarity of appearance to a threatened taxon, the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus). However...These include four federally listed bird species: red-cockaded woodpecker, roseate tern (Sterna dougallii), bald eagle and piping plover ...Piping plover Charadrius melodus T T Red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis E E Roseate tern Sterna dougallii E E Mammal Species Black bear

  17. Woodpecker densities in the big woods of Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luscier, J.D.; Krementz, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Sightings of the now-feared-extinct ivory-billed woodpecker Campephilus principalis in 2004 in the Big Woods of Arkansas initiated a series of studies on how to best manage habitat for this endangered species as well as all woodpeckers in the area. Previous work suggested that densities of other woodpeckers, particularly pileated Dryocopus pileatus and red-bellied Melanerpes carolinus woodpeckers, might be useful in characterizing habitat use by the ivory-billed woodpecker. We estimated densities of six woodpecker species in the Big Woods during the breeding seasons of 2006 and 2007 and also during the winter season of 2007. Our estimated densities were as high as or higher than previously published woodpecker density estimates for the Southeastern United States. Density estimates ranged from 9.1 to 161.3 individuals/km2 across six woodpecker species. Our data suggest that the Big Woods of Arkansas is attractive to all woodpeckers using the region, including ivory-billed woodpeckers.

  18. Red-bellied woodpecker Melanerpes carolinus

    Treesearch

    Clifford E. Shackelford; Raymond E. Brown; Richard N. Conner

    2000-01-01

    This familiar, eastern U.S. woodpecker is an active and vocal species, with a preference for humid forests dominated by pines or hardwoods, or a mixture of both. It seldom excavates wood for insects; instead, depending on season, it forages opportunistically for a wide range of fruit, mast, seeds and arboreal arthropods. It is also known to take small or young...

  19. Looking out for the pileated woodpecker.

    Treesearch

    Noreen Parks

    2009-01-01

    The pileated woodpecker is a species of conservation concern and a keystone species in mature and old forests of the Pacific Northwest. In the Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon, researchers from the PNW Research Station in La Grande, Oregon, studied the effects of natural and human-caused disturbance on pileated populations and their habitat over a period spanning...

  20. Snag Condition and Woodpecker Foraging Ecology in a Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Stanley D. Jones; Gretchen D. Jones

    1994-01-01

    We studied woodpecker foraging behavior, snag quality, and surrounding habitat in a bottomland hardwood forest in the Stephen F. Austin Experimental Forest from December 1984 through November 1986. The amount and location of woodpecker foraging excavations indicated that woodpeckers excavated mainly at the well-decayed tops and bases of snags. Woodpeckers preferred to...

  1. Decadal Drought Effects on Endangered Woodpecker Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahle, David W.; Cleaveland, Malcolm K.; Griffin, R. Daniel; Spond, Mark D.; Fye, Falko K.; Culpepper, R. Brian; Patton, David

    2006-03-01

    The critically endangered ivory-billed woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) apparently has been rediscovered in old-growth bald cypress (Taxodium distichum, Figure 1) and swamp tupelo (Nyssa aquatica) forests of Bayou DeView, located seven kilometers northwest of Brinkley, Ark. [Fitzpatrick et al., 2005]. The evaluation of the impact of drought on forest history and wildlife population levels is critical to the conservation of the ivory billed woodpecker and other similarly endangered species. Tree ring chronologies have been developed from old-growth forests at Bayou DeView to aid in this assessment. This article also describes a conceptual model that has proven useful for the discovery of other noncommercial old-growth cypress-tupelo remnants in the Southeast. These relict cypress-tupelo stands may be candidates for conservation, restoration, and perhaps the eventual reintroduction of the ivory bill and other increasingly rare species native to this ecosystem.

  2. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Hairy woodpecker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sousa, Patrick J.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the hairy woodpecker (Picoides villosus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  3. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Downy woodpecker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information was used to develop a habitat model for the downy woodpecker (Picoides eubescens). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indexes are designed for use with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  4. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Pileated woodpecker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information was used to develop a habitat model for the pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indexes are designed for use.with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  5. Fall movements of Red-headed woodpeckers in South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Mark Vukovich; John C. Kilgo

    2013-01-01

    Fall migration of Red-headed Woodpeckers (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) can be erratic, with departure rates, directions, and distances varying among populations and individuals. We report fall migration departure dates, rates, and routes, and the size of fall home ranges of 62 radio-tagged Red-headed Woodpeckers in western South Carolina. Rates of fall migration...

  6. Foraging ecology of pileated woodpeckers in coastal forests of Washington.

    Treesearch

    C.M. Raley; K.B. Aubry

    2006-01-01

    Providing habitat for pileated woodpeckers in the Pacific Northwest has been a key component of forest management strategies for over 20 years. We investigated the diet of pileated woodpeckers, and selection by birds of both individual structure and site characteristics for foraging. Birds foraged amost exclusively in closed-canopy habitats and selected relatively tall...

  7. Coming home to roost: the pileated woodpecker as ecosystem engineer.

    Treesearch

    Sally. Duncan

    2003-01-01

    Prior to 1994, the pileated woodpecker was a management indicator species (MIS) of mature and old-growth forest conditions on 16 of 19 national forests in the Pacific Northwest Region. This status required each of those national forests to establish pileated woodpecker habitat areas that included tracts of mature and old-growth forest with minimum densities of large,...

  8. Effects of gypsy moth outbreaks on North American woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Walter D. Koenig; Eric L. Walters; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of the introduced gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) on seven species of North American woodpeckers by matching spatially explicit data on gypsy moth outbreaks with data on breeding and wintering populations. In general, we detected modest effects during outbreaks: during the breeding season one species, the Red-headed Woodpecker...

  9. Potential woodpecker nest trees through artificial inoculation of heart rots

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; James G. Dickson; J. Howard Williamson

    1983-01-01

    We suggest that the fungus Spongipellis pachyodon might be used to artificially create suitable hardwood nest trees for woodpeckers in both young and older trees and when supplies of potential nest trees are limited. Sizes of trees suitable for inoculation, inoculation heights, and densities of snags are suggested for six species of woodpeckers.

  10. Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis): A technical conservation assessment

    Treesearch

    Stephen C. Abele; Victoria A. Saab; Edward O. Garton

    2004-01-01

    Lewis's woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis) is a locally common but patchily distributed woodpecker species usually seen in open forests of western North America. The combination of its sporadic distribution, its diet of adult-stage free-living insects (primarily aerial), its preference to nest in burned landscapes, and its variable migratory behavior...

  11. Netguns: a technique for capturing Black-backed Woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Chad P. Lehman; Dylan C. Kesler; Christopher T. Rota; Mark A. Rumble; Eric M. Seckinger; Thomas M. Juntti; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2011-01-01

    Effective capture techniques are essential for studying bird populations, but commonly used techniques have proven ineffective for capturing Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) during the nonbreeding period. As a result, little is known about the winter ecology of Black-backed Woodpeckers. We used two netguns, one powered with a 0.308 cartridge and another...

  12. Auditory brainstem responses and auditory thresholds in woodpeckers.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Bernard; Brittan-Powell, Elizabeth F; Dooling, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Auditory sensitivity in three species of woodpeckers was estimated using the auditory brainstem response (ABR), a measure of the summed electrical activity of auditory neurons. For all species, the ABR waveform showed at least two, and sometimes three prominent peaks occurring within 10 ms of stimulus onset. Also ABR peak amplitude increased and latency decreased as a function of increasing sound pressure levels. Results showed no significant differences in overall auditory abilities between the three species of woodpeckers. The average ABR audiogram showed that woodpeckers have lowest thresholds between 1.5 and 5.7 kHz. The shape of the average woodpecker ABR audiogram was similar to the shape of the ABR-measured audiograms of other small birds at most frequencies, but at the highest frequency data suggest that woodpecker thresholds may be lower than those of domesticated birds, while similar to those of wild birds.

  13. Effects of radio-transmitter methods on pileated woodpeckers: an improved technique for large woodpeckers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We captured and radio-marked 64 Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)in bottomland hardwood forests from February 2007 to June 2010. At least 12 (35.3%) of the first 34 birds radio-tagged died within 43 d of capture (x¯ = 8.2 d). Thus, we adjusted our radio-attachment techniques adaptively from a...

  14. Woodpecker Preventative measures at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Technicians at Launch Pad 39B take steps to prevent further damage from woodpeckers to the Space Shuttle Discovery, set to lift off July 13 on Mission STS-70. Installing balloons with scary eyes, such as these two near the external tank, are just one of the measures being taken to keep woodpeckers away since Discovery's second rollout to Pad B. Discovery had to be rolled back once to the Vehicle Assembly Building to repair woodpecker holes made in the insulation covering the external tank.

  15. Woodpecker Preventative measures at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Technicians at Launch Pad 39B take steps to prevent further damage from woodpeckers to the Space Shuttle Discovery, set to lift off July 13 on Mission STS-70. Installing balloons with scary eyes, such as these two near the external tank, are just one of the measures being taken to keep woodpeckers away since Discovery's second rollout to Pad B. Discovery had to be rolled back once to the Vehicle Assembly Building to repair woodpecker holes made in the insulation covering the external tank.

  16. Woodpecker damage to STS-70 External Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The power and persistence of Nature is demonstrated anew on man- made, space age technology. At Launch Pad 39B, Flicker Woodpeckers apparently decided to test the suitability of the Space Shuttle Discovery's external tank for a future home. Their 'survey' resulted in about 71 holes ranging in size from 1/2 to 4 inches (1.27-10 cm.) in diameter in the tank's thermal protection foam insulation. Managers are assessing the damage and will determine what repairs need to be made. Discovery was slated for a liftoff on June 8 on Mission STS-70.

  17. Woodpecker cavity aeration: a predictive model.

    PubMed

    Ar, Amos; Barnea, Anat; Yom-Tov, Yoram; Mersten-Katz, Cynthia

    2004-12-15

    We studied characteristics of the Syrian woodpecker (Dendrocopos syriacus) cavities in the field and a laboratory model, and rates of gas exchange in the laboratory. Night temperature of occupied cavities is 4.3 degrees C higher than empty ones, representing energy savings of approximately 24%. Oxygen conductance (GNO2) of an empty cavity is 7.1 ml[STPD] (Torr h)(-1), and is affected by winds at velocities up to 0.8 m/s. Day and night body temperatures were 42.0 and 40.1 degrees C, respectively. Steady-state O2 consumption rates (MO2) were 3.49 +/- 0.49 and 2.53 +/- 0.26 ml[STPD] (g h)(-1) during day and night respectively -- higher than predicted by allometry. A mathematical model describing PO2 in a cavity, taking into consideration MO2, GNO2, heat convection and wind speed, from the moment birds inhabit it, was developed. It shows that on the average, one woodpecker staying in its cavity at night does not encounter hypoxic conditions. However, in nest cavities with below the average GNO2, with more inhabitants (e.g. during the breeding season), hypoxia may become a problem.

  18. Video analysis of the escape flight of Pileated Woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus: does the Ivory-billed Woodpecker Campephilus principalis persist in continental North America?

    PubMed Central

    Collinson, J Martin

    2007-01-01

    Background The apparent rediscovery of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker Campephilus principalis in Arkansas, USA, previously feared extinct, was supported by video evidence of a single bird in flight (Fitzpatrick et al, Science 2005, 308:1460–1462). Plumage patterns and wingbeat frequency of the putative Ivory-billed Woodpecker were said to be incompatible with the only possible confusion species native to the area, the Pileated Woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus. Results New video analysis of Pileated Woodpeckers in escape flights comparable to that of the putative Ivory-billed Woodpecker filmed in Arkansas shows that Pileated Woodpeckers can display a wingbeat frequency equivalent to that of the Arkansas bird during escape flight. The critical frames from the Arkansas video that were used to identify the bird as an Ivory-billed Woodpecker are shown to be equally, or more, compatible with the Pileated Woodpecker. Conclusion The identification of the bird filmed in Arkansas in April 2004 as an Ivory-billed Woodpecker is best regarded as unsafe. The similarities between the Arkansas bird and known Pileated Woodpeckers suggest that it was most likely a Pileated Woodpecker. PMID:17362504

  19. The upside of the emerald ash borer catastrophe: a feast for woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    David Cappaert; Deborah McCullough; Therese Poland

    2005-01-01

    Under the most favorable conditions, woodpeckers reduce larval EAB density as effectively as the best pesticides. Woodpeckers work over the entire core region for free and are always more popular than spray trucks.

  20. Life History and Habitat Associations of the Broad Wood Cockroach, Purcoblatta lata (Blattaria: Blattellidae) and Other Native Cockroaches in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Scott Horn; James L. Hanula

    2002-01-01

    Wood cockroaches (Blattaria: Blattellidae) are important prey of the red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis Wilson (Piciformes: Picidae), an endangered species inhabiting pine (Pinus spp.) forests in the southern United States. These woodpeckers forage on the boles of live pine trees, but their prey consists of a high...

  1. Longleaf Pine Ecosystem Restoration on Small and Mid-Sized Tracts

    Treesearch

    Joan L. Walker

    1999-01-01

    Speaking of restoring the longleaf pine ecosystem, conservationists may present images of open stands I trees, prescribed burning, grassy ground layers, and of providing habitat for red-cockaded woodpeckers. Unfortunately, planting a longleaf pine forest, using fire, and recovering an endangered woodpecker all seem require lands larger than a backyard. To many,...

  2. Foraging Behaviour in Magellanic Woodpeckers Is Consistent with a Multi-Scale Assessment of Tree Quality

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Pablo M.; Soto, Gerardo E.; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Meneses, Luis O.; Pérez-Hernández, Christian G.

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical models predict that animals should make foraging decisions after assessing the quality of available habitat, but most models fail to consider the spatio-temporal scales at which animals perceive habitat availability. We tested three foraging strategies that explain how Magellanic woodpeckers (Campephilus magellanicus) assess the relative quality of trees: 1) Woodpeckers with local knowledge select trees based on the available trees in the immediate vicinity. 2) Woodpeckers lacking local knowledge select trees based on their availability at previously visited locations. 3) Woodpeckers using information from long-term memory select trees based on knowledge about trees available within the entire landscape. We observed foraging woodpeckers and used a Brownian Bridge Movement Model to identify trees available to woodpeckers along foraging routes. Woodpeckers selected trees with a later decay stage than available trees. Selection models indicated that preferences of Magellanic woodpeckers were based on clusters of trees near the most recently visited trees, thus suggesting that woodpeckers use visual cues from neighboring trees. In a second analysis, Cox’s proportional hazards models showed that woodpeckers used information consolidated across broader spatial scales to adjust tree residence times. Specifically, woodpeckers spent more time at trees with larger diameters and in a more advanced stage of decay than trees available along their routes. These results suggest that Magellanic woodpeckers make foraging decisions based on the relative quality of trees that they perceive and memorize information at different spatio-temporal scales. PMID:27416115

  3. 75 FR 41886 - Recovery Plan for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Recovery Plan for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis...-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis). This final recovery plan includes criteria and measures that... measures. Prior to European settlement, the ivory-billed woodpecker appeared to be ] widely...

  4. Foraging Behaviour in Magellanic Woodpeckers Is Consistent with a Multi-Scale Assessment of Tree Quality.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Pablo M; Soto, Gerardo E; Moreira-Arce, Darío; Rodewald, Amanda D; Meneses, Luis O; Pérez-Hernández, Christian G

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical models predict that animals should make foraging decisions after assessing the quality of available habitat, but most models fail to consider the spatio-temporal scales at which animals perceive habitat availability. We tested three foraging strategies that explain how Magellanic woodpeckers (Campephilus magellanicus) assess the relative quality of trees: 1) Woodpeckers with local knowledge select trees based on the available trees in the immediate vicinity. 2) Woodpeckers lacking local knowledge select trees based on their availability at previously visited locations. 3) Woodpeckers using information from long-term memory select trees based on knowledge about trees available within the entire landscape. We observed foraging woodpeckers and used a Brownian Bridge Movement Model to identify trees available to woodpeckers along foraging routes. Woodpeckers selected trees with a later decay stage than available trees. Selection models indicated that preferences of Magellanic woodpeckers were based on clusters of trees near the most recently visited trees, thus suggesting that woodpeckers use visual cues from neighboring trees. In a second analysis, Cox's proportional hazards models showed that woodpeckers used information consolidated across broader spatial scales to adjust tree residence times. Specifically, woodpeckers spent more time at trees with larger diameters and in a more advanced stage of decay than trees available along their routes. These results suggest that Magellanic woodpeckers make foraging decisions based on the relative quality of trees that they perceive and memorize information at different spatio-temporal scales.

  5. Common, but Commonly Overlooked: Red-bellied Woodpeckers as Songbird Nest Predators

    Treesearch

    Kirsten R. Hazler; Dawn E.W. Drumtra; Matthew R. Marshall; Robert J. Cooper; Paul B. Hamel

    2004-01-01

    Woodpeckers in North America are not widely recognized as nest predators. In this paper, we describe several eyewitness accounts of songbird nest predation by Red-bellied Woodpeckers (Melanerpes carolinus), document evidence that songbirds recognize woodpeckers as nest predators, and show that our observations are consistent with previously published...

  6. Density and abundance of black-backed woodpeckers in a Ponderosa pine ecosystem

    Treesearch

    Sean R. Mohren; Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are usually associated with forest disturbance resulting in recently killed trees. While black-backed woodpeckers are attracted to areas affected by these disturbances, in the Black Hills they exist during interim disturbance periods in largely undisturbed forests. In 2012, a petition for listing black-backed woodpeckers in...

  7. Why do woodpeckers resist head impact injury: a biomechanical investigation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lizhen; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man; Pu, Fang; Li, Deyu; Zhang, Ming; Fan, Yubo

    2011-01-01

    Head injury is a leading cause of morbidity and death in both industrialized and developing countries. It is estimated that brain injuries account for 15% of the burden of fatalities and disabilities, and represent the leading cause of death in young adults. Brain injury may be caused by an impact or a sudden change in the linear and/or angular velocity of the head. However, the woodpecker does not experience any head injury at the high speed of 6-7 m/s with a deceleration of 1000 g when it drums a tree trunk. It is still not known how woodpeckers protect their brain from impact injury. In order to investigate this, two synchronous high-speed video systems were used to observe the pecking process, and the force sensor was used to measure the peck force. The mechanical properties and macro/micro morphological structure in woodpecker's head were investigated using a mechanical testing system and micro-CT scanning. Finite element (FE) models of the woodpecker's head were established to study the dynamic intracranial responses. The result showed that macro/micro morphology of cranial bone and beak can be recognized as a major contributor to non-impact-injuries. This biomechanical analysis makes it possible to visualize events during woodpecker pecking and may inspire new approaches to prevention and treatment of human head injury.

  8. Why Do Woodpeckers Resist Head Impact Injury: A Biomechanical Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lizhen; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man; Pu, Fang; Li, Deyu; Zhang, Ming; Fan, Yubo

    2011-01-01

    Head injury is a leading cause of morbidity and death in both industrialized and developing countries. It is estimated that brain injuries account for 15% of the burden of fatalities and disabilities, and represent the leading cause of death in young adults. Brain injury may be caused by an impact or a sudden change in the linear and/or angular velocity of the head. However, the woodpecker does not experience any head injury at the high speed of 6–7 m/s with a deceleration of 1000 g when it drums a tree trunk. It is still not known how woodpeckers protect their brain from impact injury. In order to investigate this, two synchronous high-speed video systems were used to observe the pecking process, and the force sensor was used to measure the peck force. The mechanical properties and macro/micro morphological structure in woodpecker's head were investigated using a mechanical testing system and micro-CT scanning. Finite element (FE) models of the woodpecker's head were established to study the dynamic intracranial responses. The result showed that macro/micro morphology of cranial bone and beak can be recognized as a major contributor to non-impact-injuries. This biomechanical analysis makes it possible to visualize events during woodpecker pecking and may inspire new approaches to prevention and treatment of human head injury. PMID:22046293

  9. Numerical study of the impact response of woodpecker's head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhao Dan; Ma, Guo Jun; Wu, Cheng Wei; Chen, Zhen

    2012-12-01

    Woodpecker can beat trees 20-25 times per second and lasts for several seconds, with a 1200 g deceleration, but it appears that they never get brain concussion. How does the stress wave propagate from the beak tip to brain and how does a woodpecker protect itself from brain damage? In this paper, we establish a finite element model of typical woodpecker head based on its X-ray tomography images and conduct the numerical analysis of the impact response of the woodpecker's head by using a viscoelasticity material model. Especially, the woodpecker head response to an impact speed of 7 m/s is investigated to explore the stress concentration zone and how the stress wave propagates in its head. The numerical results show that the stress wave in the head propagates from the upper beak to back skull and is reduced by the specific structure of hyoid and viscoelasticity of biomaterials. The maximum stresses in skull and brain are both below the safe level. The stress in skull almost disappears before the next impact. The stress in brain lasts for a little longer but shows smaller value with little variation. The stress is impossible to accumulate in the limited pecking time, so the brain damage can be avoided.

  10. How does a woodpecker work? An impact dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuzhe; Qiu, Xinming; Yu, Tongxi; Tao, Jiawei; Cheng, Ze

    2015-04-01

    To understand how a woodpecker is able accelerate its head to such a high velocity in a short amount of time, a multi-rigid-segment model of a woodpecker's body is established in this study. Based on the skeletal specimen of the woodpecker and several videos of woodpeckers pecking, the parameters of a three-degree-of-freedom system are determined. The high velocity of the head is found to be the result of a whipping effect, which could be affected by muscle torque and tendon stiffness. The mechanism of whipping is analyzed by comparing the response of a hinged rod to that of a rigid rod. Depending on the parameters, the dynamic behavior of a hinged rod is classified into three response modes. Of these, a high free-end velocity could be achieved in mode II. The model is then generalized to a multihinge condition, and the free-end velocity is found to increase with hinge number, which explains the high free-end velocity resulting from whipping. Furthermore, the effects of some other factors, such as damping and mass distribution, on the velocity are also discussed.

  11. Exertional myopathy in pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) subsequent to capture.

    PubMed

    Ruder, Mark G; Noel, Brandon L; Bednarz, James C; Keel, M Kevin

    2012-04-01

    Out of 33 Pileated Woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) captured and fitted with radio-transmitters, 12 were later found dead. Three carcasses were recovered and submitted for necropsy. One bird had large pale foci in multiple muscles. Microscopically, skeletal muscle in all three had evidence of severe coagulative necrosis, consistent with capture myopathy.

  12. Search efforts for ivory-billed woodpecker in South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Matthew Moskwik; Theresa Thom; Laurel M. Barnhill; Craig Watson; Jennifer Koches; John Kilgo; Bill Hulslander; Colette Degarady; Gary. Peters

    2013-01-01

    Following the reported rediscovery of Campephilus principalis (Ivory-billed Woodpecker) in Arkansas, we initiated searches in South Carolina in February 2006, with additional searches in the winter and spring of 2006–2007 and 2007–2008, concentrating in the Congaree, Santee, and Pee Dee river basins. We accrued a cumulative total of 8893 survey hours...

  13. White-headed woodpecker nesting ecology after wildfire

    Treesearch

    Catherine S. Wightman; Victoria A. Saab; Chris Forristal; Kim Mellen-Mclean; Amy Markus

    2010-01-01

    Within forests susceptible to wildfire and insect infestations, land managers need to balance dead tree removal and habitat requirements for wildlife species associated with snags. We used Mahalanobis distance methods to develop predictive models of white-headed woodpecker (Picoides albolarvatus) nesting habitat in postfire ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)-dominated...

  14. Woodpecker woes: the right tree can be hard to find

    Treesearch

    Natasha Vizcarra; Teresa. Lorenz

    2017-01-01

    Woodpeckers and other cavity-excavating birds worldwide are keystone species. These birds excavate their nests out of solid wood, and because their nests are often well protected against predators and the environment, other species use and compete for their old, vacant nests. The presence of cavity-excavating birds in forests has far-reaching effects on species...

  15. Strength loss in southern pine poles damaged by woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    R.W. Rumsey; G.E. Woodson

    1973-01-01

    Woodpecker damage caused extensive reductions in strength of 50-foot, class-2 utility poles, the amount depending on the cross-sectional area of wood removed and its distance from the apex. Two methods for estimating when damaged poles should be replaced proved to be conservative when applied to results of field tests. Such conservative predictions of falling loads...

  16. Strength loss in southern pine poles damaged by woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    R.L. Rumsey; George E. Woodson

    1973-01-01

    Woodpecker damage caused extensive reductions in strength of 50-foot, class-2 utility poles, the amount depending on the cross-sectional area of wood removed and its distance from the apex. Two methods for estimating when damaged poles should be replaced proved to be conservative when applied to results of field rests. Such conservative predictions of failing loads...

  17. Resource selection by black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) and American three-toed woodpeckers (P. dorsalis) in South Dakota and Wyoming

    Treesearch

    Sean R. Mohren; Mark A. Rumble; Chadwick P. Lehman; Stanley H. Anderson

    2016-01-01

    Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus, [BBWO]) and American three-toed woodpeckers (P. dorsalis, [ATTW]) are uncommon inhabitants of conifer forests and are sympatric in some areas, including the Black Hills. Both species exhibit genetic characteristics associated with isolated populations, are species of special management concern, and for which data...

  18. Mid-Pleistocene divergence of Cuban and North American ivory-billed woodpeckers.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Robert C; Kirchman, Jeremy J; Dumbacher, John P; Bevier, Louis; Dove, Carla; Rotzel, Nancy C; Edwards, Scott V; Lammertink, Martjan; Miglia, Kathleen J; Moore, William S

    2006-09-22

    We used ancient DNA analysis of seven museum specimens of the endangered North American ivory-billed woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) and three specimens of the species from Cuba to document their degree of differentiation and their relationships to other Campephilus woodpeckers. Analysis of these mtDNA sequences reveals that the Cuban and North American ivory bills, along with the imperial woodpecker (Campephilus imperialis) of Mexico, are a monophyletic group and are roughly equidistant genetically, suggesting each lineage may be a separate species. Application of both internal and external rate calibrations indicates that the three lineages split more than one million years ago, in the Mid-Pleistocene. We thus can exclude the hypothesis that Native Americans introduced North American ivory-billed woodpeckers to Cuba. Our sequences of all three woodpeckers also provide an important DNA barcoding resource for identification of non-invasive samples or remains of these critically endangered and charismatic woodpeckers.

  19. Mechanical Evaluation of the Skeletal Structure and Tissue of the Woodpecker and Its Shock Absorbing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Juhachi; Sakamoto, Jiro; Sakano, Kenichi

    A woodpecker strikes its beak toward a tree repeatedly. But, the damage of brain or the brain concussion doesn’t occur by this action. Human cannot strike strongly the head without the damage of a brain. Therefore, it is predicted that the brain of a woodpecker is protected from the shock by some methods and that the woodpecker has the original mechanism to absorb a shock. In this study, the endoskeltal structure, especially head part structure of woodpecker is dissected and the impact-proof system is analyzed by FEM and model experiment. From the results, it is obvious that the woodpecker has the original impact-proof system as the unique states of hyoid bone, skull, tissue and brain. Moreover it is considered that woodpecker has the advanced impact-proof system relating with not only the head part but also with the whole body.

  20. The Conservation Value of Traditional Rural Landscapes: The Case of Woodpeckers in Transylvania, Romania.

    PubMed

    Dorresteijn, Ine; Hartel, Tibor; Hanspach, Jan; von Wehrden, Henrik; Fischer, Joern

    2013-01-01

    Land use change is a major threat to global biodiversity. Forest species face the dual threats of deforestation and intensification of forest management. In regions where forests are under threat, rural landscapes that retain structural components of mature forests potentially provide valuable additional habitat for some forest species. Here, we illustrate the habitat value of traditional wood pastures for a woodpecker assemblage of six species in southern Transylvania, Romania. Wood pastures are created by long-term stable silvo-pastoral management practices, and are composed of open grassland with scattered large, old trees. Because of their demanding habitat requirements, woodpeckers share habitat with many other bird species, and have been considered as possible indicator species for bird species diversity. We first compared woodpecker assemblages between forests and wood pastures. Second, we grouped features of wood pastures into three spatial contexts and addressed how these features related to the occurrence of three woodpecker species that are formally protected. Woodpecker species composition, but not the number of species, differed between forests and wood pastures, with the green woodpecker occurring more commonly in wood pastures, and the lesser spotted woodpecker more commonly in forests. Within wood pastures, the intermediate context (especially surrounding forest cover) best explained the presence of the grey-headed and middle spotted woodpecker. By contrast, variables describing local vegetation structure and characteristics of the surrounding landscape did not affect woodpecker occurrence in wood pastures. In contrast to many other parts of Europe, in which several species of woodpeckers have declined, the traditional rural landscape of Transylvania continues to provide habitat for several woodpecker species, both in forests and wood pastures. Given the apparent habitat value of wood pastures for woodpeckers we recommend wood pastures be explicitly

  1. Biomechanism of impact resistance in the woodpecker's head and its application.

    PubMed

    Wang, LiZhen; Lu, Shan; Liu, XiaoYu; Niu, XuFeng; Wang, Chao; Ni, YiKun; Zhao, MeiYa; Feng, ChengLong; Zhang, Ming; Fan, YuBo

    2013-08-01

    The woodpecker does not suffer head/eye impact injuries while drumming on a tree trunk with high acceleration (more than 1000×g) and high frequency. The mechanism that protects the woodpecker's head has aroused the interest of ornithologists, biologists and scientists in the areas of mechanical engineering, material science and electronics engineering. This article reviews the literature on the biomechanisms and materials responsible for protecting the woodpecker from head impact injury and their applications in engineering and human protection.

  2. The Conservation Value of Traditional Rural Landscapes: The Case of Woodpeckers in Transylvania, Romania

    PubMed Central

    Dorresteijn, Ine; Hartel, Tibor; Hanspach, Jan; von Wehrden, Henrik; Fischer, Joern

    2013-01-01

    Land use change is a major threat to global biodiversity. Forest species face the dual threats of deforestation and intensification of forest management. In regions where forests are under threat, rural landscapes that retain structural components of mature forests potentially provide valuable additional habitat for some forest species. Here, we illustrate the habitat value of traditional wood pastures for a woodpecker assemblage of six species in southern Transylvania, Romania. Wood pastures are created by long-term stable silvo-pastoral management practices, and are composed of open grassland with scattered large, old trees. Because of their demanding habitat requirements, woodpeckers share habitat with many other bird species, and have been considered as possible indicator species for bird species diversity. We first compared woodpecker assemblages between forests and wood pastures. Second, we grouped features of wood pastures into three spatial contexts and addressed how these features related to the occurrence of three woodpecker species that are formally protected. Woodpecker species composition, but not the number of species, differed between forests and wood pastures, with the green woodpecker occurring more commonly in wood pastures, and the lesser spotted woodpecker more commonly in forests. Within wood pastures, the intermediate context (especially surrounding forest cover) best explained the presence of the grey-headed and middle spotted woodpecker. By contrast, variables describing local vegetation structure and characteristics of the surrounding landscape did not affect woodpecker occurrence in wood pastures. In contrast to many other parts of Europe, in which several species of woodpeckers have declined, the traditional rural landscape of Transylvania continues to provide habitat for several woodpecker species, both in forests and wood pastures. Given the apparent habitat value of wood pastures for woodpeckers we recommend wood pastures be explicitly

  3. Haemoproteus bennetti sp. n. and a review of the haemoproteids from the Picidae (woodpeckers).

    PubMed

    Greiner, E C; Mandal, A K; Nandi, N C

    1977-08-01

    Haemoproteus velans Coatney and Roudabush 1937 and H. borgesi Tendeiro 1947 are redescribed and illustrated. Haemoproteus bennetti sp. n. is described. Haemoproteid records from woodpeckers are listed.

  4. Quantifying the impact of woodpecker predation on population dynamics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).

    PubMed

    Jennings, David E; Gould, Juli R; Vandenberg, John D; Duan, Jian J; Shrewsbury, Paula M

    2013-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers.

  5. Quantifying the Impact of Woodpecker Predation on Population Dynamics of the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, David E.; Gould, Juli R.; Vandenberg, John D.; Duan, Jian J.; Shrewsbury, Paula M.

    2013-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Understanding how predators such as woodpeckers (Picidae) affect the population dynamics of EAB should enable us to more effectively manage the spread of this beetle, and toward this end we combined two experimental approaches to elucidate the relative importance of woodpecker predation on EAB populations. First, we examined wild populations of EAB in ash trees in New York, with each tree having a section screened to exclude woodpeckers. Second, we established experimental cohorts of EAB in ash trees in Maryland, and the cohorts on half of these trees were caged to exclude woodpeckers. The following spring these trees were debarked and the fates of the EAB larvae were determined. We found that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded consistently had significantly lower levels of predation, and that woodpecker predation comprised a greater source of mortality at sites with a more established wild infestation of EAB. Additionally, there was a considerable difference between New York and Maryland in the effect that woodpecker predation had on EAB population growth, suggesting that predation alone may not be a substantial factor in controlling EAB. In our experimental cohorts we also observed that trees from which woodpeckers were excluded had a significantly higher level of parasitism. The lower level of parasitism on EAB larvae found when exposed to woodpeckers has implications for EAB biological control, suggesting that it might be prudent to exclude woodpeckers from trees when attempting to establish parasitoid populations. Future studies may include utilizing EAB larval cohorts with a range of densities to explore the functional response of woodpeckers. PMID:24349520

  6. DOMELAND WILDERNESS, DOMELAND ADDITION, AND WOODPECKER ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergquist, Joel R.; Spear, James M.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Domeland Wilderness and the contiguous Domeland Addition and Woodpecker Roadless Areas delineated areas of substantiated and probable mineral-resource potential. The areas of substantiated resource potential are in the Woodpecker Roadless Area where alluvial gravel in Rockhouse Basin and on Upper Trout Creek contains small, irregular, low-grade deposits of placer gold. There is a probable resource potential for very small deposits of uranium in fractures in granitic rocks west of the South Fork of the Kern River in the Domeland Wilderness. Geochemical data indicate a probable potential for a porphyry-molybdenum deposit at the southern end of the Domeland Wilderness, and for very small deposits of tungsten, copper-lead-zinc, tin, silver, and molybdenum at several places in the wilderness and roadless areas. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of organic fuel resources.

  7. Range expansion of pileated woodpecker in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dechant, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Natural history writings from explorers such as M. Lewis, W. Clark, J. J. Audubon, S. F. Baird, and E. Coues failed to mention the pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus ) in North Dakota throughout the 1800's. The first published reference to the species was in the early 1900's in the valley of the Red River of the North, part of the Agassiz Lake Plain of eastern North Dakota. Sightings increased in the Agassiz Lake Plain in the mid-1900's but remained rare west of the Agassiz Lake Plain until the late 1900's. Ornithologists suggest that the species has recently established small, permanent populations in the Turtle Mountains, Devils Lake area, and along the Sheyenne River, especially in the Sheyenne National Grassland. I present information that supports the idea that the pileated woodpecker is establishing populations in the aforementioned areas and is moving even farther west. I also document the presence of the pileated woodpecker along the James River and the first record for Stutsman County.

  8. Do woodpecker finches acquire tool-use by social learning?

    PubMed Central

    Tebbich, S.; Taborsky, M.; Fessl, B.; Blomqvist, D.

    2001-01-01

    Tool-use is widespread among animals, but except in primates the development of this behaviour is poorly known. Here, we report on the first experimental study to our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the acquisition of tool-use in a bird species. The woodpecker finch Cactospiza pallida, endemic to the Galápagos Islands, is a famous textbook example of tool-use in animals. This species uses modified twigs or cactus spines to pry arthropods out of tree holes. Using nestlings and adult birds from the field, we tested experimentally whether woodpecker finches learn tool-use socially. We show that social learning is not essential for the development of tool-use: all juveniles developed tool-use regardless of whether or not they had a tool-using model. However, we found that not all adult woodpecker finches used tools in our experiments. These non-tool-using individuals also did not learn this task by observing tool-using conspecifics. Our results suggest that tool-use behaviour depends on a very specific learning disposition that involves trial-and-error learning during a sensitive phase early in ontogeny. PMID:11674865

  9. Woodpecker-inspired shock isolation by microgranular bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sang-Hee; Roh, Jin-Eep; Lyug Kim, Ki

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents a woodpecker-inspired shock isolation (SI) using a microgranular bed to protect micromachined electronic devices (MEDs) for high-g military applications where mechanical excitations reach up to tens of thousands of gs and several hundreds of kHz. The shock isolating phenomenon in the microgranular bed within a metal housing, biomimetically inspired from a spongy bone within a skull of the woodpecker, controls unwanted high-frequency mechanical excitations so that their adverse effects on the embedded MEDs are kept within acceptable limit. The microgranular bed composed of close-packed microglass beads reduces the mechanical excitations transmitted to the MEDs through kinetic energy absorption. Two kinds of tests, a laboratory test and a 60 mm air-gun test, have been made. The laboratory test using a vibration exciter up to 25 kHz has demonstrated that the cut-off frequency (2.2-15.8 kHz) and roll-off steepness (-155.0 to -78.7 dB decade-1) are inversely proportional to the diameter of the close-packed microglass beads (68-875 µm), whereas the vibration absorptivity (0.23-0.87) is proportional. The 60 mm air-gun test under high-g environments of up to 60 000 g has verified that the woodpecker-inspired SI is superior in improving the shock survivability of the MEDs to the conventional one using hard resin.

  10. Factors affecting breeding season survival of red-headed woodpeckers in South Carolina

    Treesearch

    John C. Kilgo; Mark Vukovich

    2012-01-01

    Red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) populations have declined in the United States and Canada over the past 40 years. However, few demographic studies have been published on the species and none have addressed adult survival. During 2006¨C2007, we estimated survival probabilities of 80 radio-tagged red-headed woodpeckers during the breeding season in...

  11. Drill, baby, drill: the influence of woodpeckers on post-fire vertebrate communities through cavity excavation

    Treesearch

    Gina L. Tarbill; Patricia N. Manley; Angela M. White

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have addressed the importance of woodpeckers as ecological engineers in forests due to their excavation of cavities. Although research in green, unburned forests has identified the influence of different excavators on secondary use by cavity-dependent species, little is known about the relative importance of cavities created by woodpeckers in recently...

  12. Detection probabilities of woodpecker nests in mixed conifer forests in Oregon

    Treesearch

    Robin E. Russell; Victoria A. Saab; Jay J. Rotella; Jonathan G. Dudley

    2009-01-01

    Accurate estimates of Black-backed (Picoides arcticus) and Hairy Woodpecker (P. villosus) nests and nest survival rates in post-fire landscapes provide land managers with information on the relative importance of burned forests to nesting woodpeckers. We conducted multiple-observer surveys in burned and unburned mixed coniferous forests in Oregon to identify important...

  13. Foraging-habitat selection of Black-backed Woodpeckers in forest burns of southwestern Idaho

    Treesearch

    Jonathan G. Dudley; Victoria A. Saab; Jeffrey P. Hollenbeck

    2012-01-01

    We examined foraging-habitat selection of Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) in burned forests of southwestern Idaho during 2000 and 2002 (6 and 8 years following wildfire). This woodpecker responds positively to large-scale fire disturbances and may be at risk from logging and post-fire management. With 100 radio-locations of four adult males, we used...

  14. Transferability of habitat suitability models for nesting woodpeckers associated with wildfire

    Treesearch

    Quresh S. Latif; Vicki Saab; Jeff P. Hollenbeck; Jonathan G. Dudley

    2016-01-01

    Following wildfire, forest managers are challenged with meeting both socioeconomic demands (e.g., salvage logging) and mandates requiring habitat conservation for disturbance-associated wildlife (e.g., woodpeckers). Habitat suitability models for nesting woodpeckers can be informative, but tests of model transferability are needed to understand how broadly...

  15. Do male and female black-backed woodpeckers respond differently to gaps in habitat?

    Treesearch

    Jennifer Pierson; Fred W. Allendorf; Vicki Saab; Pierre Drapeau; Michael K. Schwartz

    2010-01-01

    We used population- and individual-based genetic approaches to assess barriers to movement in black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus), a fire-specialist that mainly occupies the boreal forest in North America. We tested if male and female woodpeckers exhibited the same movement patterns using both spatially implicit and explicit genetic analyses to define...

  16. Using Satellite and Airborne LiDAR to Predict Woodpecker Presence at the Landscape Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, P.; Vierling, L. A.; Vierling, K.; Hudak, A. T.; Strand, E. K.

    2010-12-01

    Biodiversity assessments are increasingly important components of effective ecosystem management plans. Woodpeckers are considered a keystone species whose presence has been shown to be indicative of overall forest bird diversity at the landscape scale. This relationship likely exists because woodpeckers can provide nesting and foraging resources for other avian species, where few or none would otherwise exist. However, different woodpecker species are sensitive to different forest structural conditions (e.g. minimum tree diameter, proportion of snags to live trees). Current methods to identify specific locations of woodpecker presence rely on field observations which are time and resource intensive, and typically limited to the forest stand scale. Therefore, systematic assessments of potential woodpecker presence and overall forest bird diversity at broad scales require the use of remote sensing data. We used small footprint airborne lidar, large footprint satellite lidar from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), and woodpecker field survey data to predict the presence of woodpeckers in a coniferous forest in northwestern Idaho. We conducted woodpecker surveys at 72 sites coincident with airborne and GLAS lidar footprints across six forest structural stages modeled using airborne lidar. Vertical (e.g. mean and maximum canopy height) and horizontal (e.g. canopy closure) forest structure were quantified from lidar derived metrics and used with published habitat preferences of six woodpecker species to predict their presence. Similar vegetation structural metrics derived from collocated airborne lidar were used to quantify the accuracy of GLAS lidar vegetation metrics. Results indicate that while six woodpecker species were present in four of six structural classes, there is strong evidence to suggest preference for forests characterized by young and mature multistory structure, as opposed to forests characterized by stand initiation or understory

  17. Relative hippocampal volume in relation to food-storing behavior in four species of woodpeckers.

    PubMed

    Volman, S F; Grubb, T C; Schuett, K C

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that those food-storing birds of the order Passeriformes that remember the locations of their caches have relatively larger hippocampal complexes than do non-storing passerines. Woodpeckers constitute a different avian order (Piciformes), which also includes some food-storing species. We compared hippocampal volume, relative to the volume of the rest of the telencephalon, across four species of woodpeckers with disparate caching behavior. Red-bellied woodpeckers (Melanerpes carolinus) are "scatter hoarders'. During the fall and winter they cache acorns or beechnuts in dispersed sites throughout a large territory. Red-headed woodpeckers (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) also store nuts but in central "larders' on their small territories which they fiercely defend. Caching is absent or much reduced in hairy woodpeckers (Picoides villosus) and downy woodpeckers (Picoides pubescens), both of which forage on a variety of foods within large winter home ranges. The relative volume of the hippocampal complex in the scatter hoarder was larger than in the larder hoarder, suggesting that red-bellied woodpeckers, like passerine scatter hoarders, rely on memory to recover their caches. Surprisingly, the relative hippocampal volumes in the two non-storing Picoides woodpeckers were most similar to the scatter hoarder of the other genus. In passerine birds, hippocampal volume and telencephalon volume are highly correlated in storing species but not in non-storers. We found that the volumes of these two brain areas were highly correlated in both Melanerpes species, uncorrelated in the hairy woodpeckers, and more weakly correlated in the downy woodpeckers. The unexpectedly large hippocampal complexes in the Picoides species suggests they may engage in some behavior, other than food-storing, that selects for this trait. Conversely, our results concerning the relationship between hippocampal and telencephalon volumes may indicate that a weak correlation is

  18. Sharp-shinned hawks nesting in the Pineywoods of eastern Texas and western Louisiana

    Treesearch

    Clifford E. Shackelford; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer

    1996-01-01

    While monitoring the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) in eastern Texas and western Louisiana, the authors incidentally found nesting pairs of Sharp-shinned Hawks (Accipiter striatus). All nesting pairs were located in similar stands with an overstory of either longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), or a mix of loblolly (P. tuedu) and shortleaf pine (P. echinatu...

  19. 75 FR 61513 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... bird species, four (4) listed reptile species, two (2) listed insect species, one (1) listed arachnid..., banding, translocating and installing artificial nesting cavities for red-cockaded woodpeckers on the...-33469. The applicant requests renewal of authorization for trapping, banding, translocating and...

  20. How far could a squirrel travel in the treetops? A prehistory of the southern forest

    Treesearch

    Paul B. Hamel; Edward R. Buckner

    1998-01-01

    Conservation activities aimed at protecting old-growth forests; at maintaining populations of desired species groups, such as oaks (Quercus sp.), wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), other game species or Neotropical migratory birds; and at increasing populations of endangered species, such as red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis), Bachman's warblers (...

  1. Does Question Format Matter? Valuing an Endangered Species

    Treesearch

    Dixie Watts Reaves; Randall A. Kramer; Thomas P. Holmes

    1999-01-01

    A three-way treatment design is used to compare contingent valuation response formats. Respondents are asked to value an endangered species (the red-cockaded woodpecker) and the restoration of its habitat following a natural disaster. For three question formats (open-ended, payment card, and double-bounded dichotomous choice), differences in survey response rates,...

  2. Potential population-level effects of land-use change and climate change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change and land-use change are poised to be two fo the largest drivers of biological changeover the next century. We explored the potential effects of these two forces on a population of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) at Fort Benning in Georgia, USA. We us...

  3. An Application of System Dynamics Analysis to Ecosystem Management at the Poinsett Weapons Range, Shaw AFB SC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    include deer , turkeys, fox squirrels, and flying squirrels. Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Background. The RCW is a federally listed endangered species (since... overpopulation , the RCW population increases to fill the available cavities and then drops to a reasonable and stable population. Increasing the capture

  4. A Mobile Aviary Design to Allow the Soft Release of Cavity Nesting Birds

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb

    1997-01-01

    Translocation of endangered red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides boreal is) has been an important component in restoration efforts to establish new populations and enlarge small populations. These efforts-relying on a "hard release" approach whereby the bird is captured, moved, and immediately released at the new site-have met with mixed results. A mobile...

  5. Differential estimates of southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans) population structure based on capture method

    Treesearch

    Kevin S. Laves; Susan C. Loeb

    2005-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that population estimates derived from trapping small mammals are accurate and unbiased or that estimates derived from different capture methods are comparable. We captured southern flying squirrels (Glaucmrtys volam) using two methods to study their effect on red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides bumah) reproductive success. Southern flying...

  6. Using existing growth models to predict RCW habitat development following site preparation: pitfalls of the process and potential growth response

    Treesearch

    Benjamin O. Knapp; Joan L. Walker

    2013-01-01

    Land managers throughout the Southeast are interested in restoring the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystem, due in part to its value as habitat for the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis). In 2003, we established a study at Camp Lejeune, NC, to determine the effects of common site preparation...

  7. Training Restrictions on Army Lands Due to High Priority Endangered Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Requirements and Technology Assessments (AERTA) research is focused on seven of the highest priority TES. These species are: red-cockaded woodpecker...Picoides borealis ), black-capped vireo (Vireo atri- capillus), golden-cheeked warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia), gray bat (Myotis grisescens), Indiana bat...2 Mode of Technology Transfer

  8. Ecological forestry, old growth, and birds in the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystem

    Treesearch

    R. Todd Engstrom; Richard N. Conner

    2006-01-01

    Renewed awareness of the longleaf-pine ecosystem and a legal mandate to provide suitable habitat for the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) have generated interest in alternative forms of silviculture in the southeastern United States. Of 110-120 species of birds that occur in longleaf pine woodlands, 26 species (including three that are federally...

  9. Hurricane Hugo: South Carolina Forest Land Research and Management Related to the Storm

    Treesearch

    Jacqueline L. Haymond; William R. Harms; [Editors

    1996-01-01

    Hurricane Hugo was probably one of the most destructive hurricanes to assault the forests of the Eastern United States in recorded history. Four and one-half million acres were damaged in North Carolina and South Carolina, an estimated 21.4 billion board feet of timber were destroyed or damaged, and several federally listed endangered species (red-cockaded woodpecker,...

  10. Integrating Forage, Wildlife, Water, and Fish Projections with Timber Projections at the Regional Level: A Case Study in Southern United States

    Treesearch

    Linda A. Joyce; Curtis H. Flather; Patricia A. Flebbe; Thomas W. Hoekstra; Stan J. Ursic

    1990-01-01

    The impact of timber management and land-use change on forage production, turkey and deer abundance, red-cockaded woodpecker colonies, water yield, and trout abundance was projected as part of a policy study focusing on the southern United States. The multiresource modeling framework used in this study linked extant timber management and land-area policy models with...

  11. Potential population-level effects of land-use change and climate change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change and land-use change are poised to be two fo the largest drivers of biological changeover the next century. We explored the potential effects of these two forces on a population of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) at Fort Benning in Georgia, USA. We us...

  12. Pest Fact Sheet 2007: Southern Pine Beetle prevention initiative: Working for healthier forests

    Treesearch

    R-8 and Southern Research Station U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Health Protection

    2007-01-01

    From 1999 to 2003, southern pine beetle (SPB) caused unprecedented damage to pine forests in southern Appalachian mountains. These losses severely impacted the natural resource base that supports the South's tourism and wood-based manufacturing industries and also destroyed the habitat of threatened and endangered species, such as the red-cockaded woodpecker....

  13. Factors influencing loblolly pine stand health in Fort Benning, Georgia, USA

    Treesearch

    Soung Ryoul Ryu; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker

    2013-01-01

    Loblolly pine (LBP; Pinus taeda L.) stands provide two-thirds of the existing federally protected red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW; Picoides borealis) habitat in Fort Benning, Georgia, USA. However, LBP in this area is suspected to face a forest decline issue, which may risk the sustainability of the RCW population. Land managers are attempting to convert LBP stands to...

  14. The health of loblolly pine stands at Fort Benning, GA

    Treesearch

    Soung-Ryoul Ryu; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker

    2013-01-01

    Approximately two-thirds of the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) (RCW) groups at Fort Benning, GA, depend on loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands for nesting or foraging. However, loblolly pine stands are suspected to decline. Forest managers want to replace loblolly pine with longleaf pine (P. palustris...

  15. Preface

    Treesearch

    W. Mark Ford; Kevin R. Russell; Christopher E. Moorman

    2002-01-01

    Fire has a long history of regional use in the United States for forest, range and game management. Except for a few high-profile threatened, endangered, and sensitive species such as the pine barrens treefrog (Hyla andersonii), the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis), and the Kirtland?s warbler (Dendroica...

  16. Longleaf pine plantations: Growth and yield modeling in an ecosystem restoration context

    Treesearch

    J.C.G. Goelz

    2001-01-01

    Restoration of longleaf pine within its historical range is actively conducted by private individuals and public agencies due to the inherent beauty of the ecosystem and the suitability as habitat for red cockaded woodpeckers and other wildlife. Managers of land restored to longleaf pine desire models that will allow long-term projections to facilitate management...

  17. Wildlife diversity of restored shortleaf pine-oak woodlands in the northern Ozarks

    Treesearch

    Corinne S. Mann; Andrew R. Forbes

    2007-01-01

    Historic changes in land use have altered the plant composition and structure of shortleaf pine-oak woodlands in the northern Ozarks. As a result, the composition of wildlife communities in these landscapes has shifted to species that are more associated with closed canopy oak forests. For example, the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) has...

  18. Arthropod density and biomass in longleaf pines: effects of pine age and hardwood midstory

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Christopher S. Collins; Daniel Saenz; Toni Trees; Richard R. Schaefer; D. Craig Rudolph

    2004-01-01

    During a 2-year study we examined arthropod communities (density and biomass) on longleaf pines (Pinus palustris) in eastern Texas during spring, summer, and winter on trees in 3 age classes: 40-50, 60-70, and 130-1 50 years, as a potential food source for the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis). We also examined arthropod...

  19. Local calibration of the Forest Vegetation simulator (FVS) using custom inventory data

    Treesearch

    J. D. Shaw; G. Vacchiano; R. J. DeRose; A. Brough; A. Kusbach; J. N. Long

    2006-01-01

    Fort Bragg, North Carolina includes over 65,000 acres of longleaf pine forest, which is primary habitat for the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW). Effective management of the RCW depends on effective management of the longleaf pine forest. However, growth and yield models available in the geographic area that includes Fort Bragg over-predict stand growth and...

  20. Installation Contracting Course (4th)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-27

    increasingly having to cope with the presence of endangered species (e.g., the desert tortoise at Fort Irwin and the red cockaded woodpecker at Fort Bragg). 3...the ears." Robert Burton Anatomy of Melancholy "Democritus to the Reader" I. INTRODUCTION. A. References. 1. FAR SUBPART 33.2; DFARS 33.232; AFARS

  1. Nestling diets and provisioning rates of sympatric Golden-fronted and Ladder-backed Woodpeckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Evonne L.; Boal, Clint W.; Glasscock, Selma N.

    2013-01-01

    We examined comparative food use and provisioning of Golden-fronted (Melanerpes aurifrons) and Ladder-backed (Picoides scalaris) woodpeckers at the Rob and Bessie Welder Wildlife Foundation Refuge, in San Patricio County, Texas. We combined video surveillance and direct observations to monitor provisioning rates and identify items delivered by adult woodpeckers to nestlings. We collected 328 hours of data at Ladder-backed Woodpecker nest cavities and 230 hours of data at Golden-fronted Woodpecker nest cavities. Ladder-backed Woodpecker nestling diets consisted of 100% animal matter, comprised of invertebrate larvae (99%) and invertebrate adults (< 1%). Diets of Golden-fronted Woodpecker nestlings were also high in animal matter (77%) with more invertebrate adults (55%) and fewer invertebrate larvae (27%), but also included vegetable matter (16%). Morisita's measure of overlap suggested a relatively low dietary overlap of 31% between nestlings of these two sympatric woodpecker species. Foraging methods used by these species may explain their low dietary overlap and facilitate their coexistence.

  2. Habitat use of woodpeckers in the Big Woods of eastern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, David G.; Lehnen, Sarah E.; Luscier, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    The Big Woods of eastern Arkansas contain some of the highest densities of woodpeckers recorded within bottomland hardwood forests of the southeastern United States. A better understanding of habitat use patterns by these woodpeckers is a priority for conservationists seeking to maintain these high densities in the Big Woods and the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley as a whole. Hence, we used linear mixed-effects and linear models to estimate the importance of habitat characteristics to woodpecker density in the Big Woods during the breeding seasons of 2006 and 2007 and the winter of 2007. Northern flicker Colaptes auratus density was negatively related to tree density both for moderate (. 25 cm diameter at breast height) and larger trees (>61 cm diameter at breast height). Red-headed woodpeckers Melanerpes erythrocephalus also had a negative relationship with density of large (. 61 cm diameter at breast height) trees. Bark disfiguration (an index of tree health) was negatively related to red-bellied woodpecker Melanerpes carolinus and yellow-bellied sapsucker Sphyrapicus varius densities. No measured habitat variables explained pileated woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus density. Overall, the high densities of woodpeckers observed in our study suggest that the current forest management of the Big Woods of Arkansas is meeting the nesting, roosting, and foraging requirements for these birds.

  3. Urbanization level and woodland size are major drivers of woodpecker species richness and abundance.

    PubMed

    Myczko, Lukasz; Rosin, Zuzanna M; Skórka, Piotr; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization is a process globally responsible for loss of biodiversity and for biological homogenization. Urbanization may have a direct negative impact on species behaviour and indirect effects on species populations through alterations of their habitats, for example patch size and habitat quality. Woodpeckers are species potentially susceptible to urbanization. These birds are mostly forest specialists and the development of urban areas in former forests may be an important factor influencing their richness and abundance, but documented examples are rare. In this study we investigated how woodpeckers responded to changes in forest habitats as a consequence of urbanization, namely size and isolation of habitat patches, and other within-patch characteristics. We selected 42 woodland patches in a gradient from a semi-natural rural landscape to the city centre of Poznań (Western Poland) in spring 2010. Both species richness and abundance of woodpeckers correlated positively to woodland patch area and negatively to increasing urbanization. Abundance of woodpeckers was also positively correlated with shrub cover and percentage of deciduous tree species. Furthermore, species richness and abundance of woodpeckers were highest at moderate values of canopy openness. Ordination analyses confirmed that urbanization level and woodland patch area were variables contributing most to species abundance in the woodpecker community. Similar results were obtained in presence-absence models for particular species. Thus, to sustain woodpecker species within cities it is important to keep woodland patches large, multi-layered and rich in deciduous tree species.

  4. Urbanization Level and Woodland Size Are Major Drivers of Woodpecker Species Richness and Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Myczko, Łukasz; Rosin, Zuzanna M.; Skórka, Piotr; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization is a process globally responsible for loss of biodiversity and for biological homogenization. Urbanization may have a direct negative impact on species behaviour and indirect effects on species populations through alterations of their habitats, for example patch size and habitat quality. Woodpeckers are species potentially susceptible to urbanization. These birds are mostly forest specialists and the development of urban areas in former forests may be an important factor influencing their richness and abundance, but documented examples are rare. In this study we investigated how woodpeckers responded to changes in forest habitats as a consequence of urbanization, namely size and isolation of habitat patches, and other within-patch characteristics. We selected 42 woodland patches in a gradient from a semi-natural rural landscape to the city centre of Poznań (Western Poland) in spring 2010. Both species richness and abundance of woodpeckers correlated positively to woodland patch area and negatively to increasing urbanization. Abundance of woodpeckers was also positively correlated with shrub cover and percentage of deciduous tree species. Furthermore, species richness and abundance of woodpeckers were highest at moderate values of canopy openness. Ordination analyses confirmed that urbanization level and woodland patch area were variables contributing most to species abundance in the woodpecker community. Similar results were obtained in presence-absence models for particular species. Thus, to sustain woodpecker species within cities it is important to keep woodland patches large, multi-layered and rich in deciduous tree species. PMID:24740155

  5. Differential estimates of southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans) population structure based on capture method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laves, K.S.; Loeb, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that population estimates derived from trapping small mammals are accurate and unbiased or that estimates derived from different capture methods are comparable. We captured southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) using two methods to study their effect on red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) reproductive success. Southern flying squirrels were captured at and removed from 30 red-cockaded woodpecker cluster sites during March to July 1994 and 1995 using Sherman traps placed in a grid encompassing a red-cockaded woodpecker nest tree and by hand from red-cockaded woodpecker cavities. Totals of 195 (1994) and 190 (1995) red-cockaded woodpecker cavities were examined at least three times each year. Trappability of southern flying squirrels in Sherman traps was significantly greater in 1995 (1.18%; 22,384 trap nights) than in 1994 (0.42%; 20,384 trap nights), and capture rate of southern flying squirrels in cavities was significantly greater in 1994 (22.7%; 502 cavity inspections) than in 1995 (10.8%; 555 cavity inspections). However, more southern flying squirrels were captured per cavity inspection than per Sherman trap night in both years. Male southern flying squirrels were more likely to be captured from cavities than in Sherman traps in 1994, but not in 1995. Both male and female juveniles were more likely to be captured in cavities than in traps in both years. In 1994 males in reproductive condition were more likely to be captured in cavities than in traps and in 1995 we captured significantly more reproductive females in cavities than in traps. Our data suggest that population estimates based solely on one trapping method may not represent true population size or structure of southern flying squirrels.

  6. Differential Estimates of Southern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys volans) Population Structure Based on Capture Method.

    SciTech Connect

    Laves, Kevin S.; Loeb, Susan C.

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT.—It is commonly assumed that population estimates derived from trapping small mammals are accurate and unbiased or that estimates derived from different capture methods are comparable. We captured southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) using two methods to study their effect on red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) reproductive success. Southern flying squirrels were captured at and removed from 30 red-cockaded woodpecker cluster sites during March to July 1994 and 1995 using Sherman traps placed in a grid encompassing a red-cockaded woodpecker nest tree and by hand from red-cockaded woodpecker cavities. Totals of 195 (1994) and 190 (1995) red-cockaded woodpecker cavities were examined at least three times each year. Trappability of southern flying squirrels in Sherman traps was significantly greater in 1995 (1.18%; 22,384 trap nights) than in 1994 (0.42%; 20,384 trap nights), and capture rate of southern flying squirrels in cavities was significantly greater in 1994 (22.7%; 502 cavity inspections) than in 1995 (10.8%; 555 cavity inspections). However, more southern flying squirrels were captured per cavity inspection than per Sherman trap night in both years. Male southern flying squirrels were more likely to be captured from cavities than in Sherman traps in 1994, but not in 1995. Both male and female juveniles were more likely to be captured in cavities than in traps in both years. In 1994 males in reproductive condition were more likely to be captured in cavities than in traps and in 1995 we captured significantly more reproductive females in cavities than in traps. Our data suggest that population estimates based solely on one trapping method may not represent true population size or structure of southern flying squirrels.

  7. Lethal Procyrnea infection in a black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus) from California.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Rodney B; Bond, Monica L; Wilkerson, Robert L; Barr, Bradd C; Gardiner, Chris H; Kinsella, John M

    2012-06-01

    The black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus) is a species of management concern in California. As part of a study of black-backed woodpecker home range size and foraging ecology, nine birds in Lassen National Forest (Shasta and Lassen Counties, California) were radio-tracked during the 2011 breeding season. One of the marked birds was found dead after being tracked for a 10-wk period in which it successfully nested. A postmortem examination of the dead bird revealed that it was emaciated and autolyzed, with the presumptive cause being numerous spiruroid nematodes of the genus Procyrnea in the gizzard. This first observation of Procyrnea nematodes in a black-backed woodpecker is notable because the Procyrnea infection was considered lethal and because Procyrnea has been implicated in substantial die-offs in other bird species, including woodpeckers.

  8. Woodpecker abundance and habitat use in three forest types in eastern Texas

    Treesearch

    Clifford E. Shackelford; Richard N. Conner

    1997-01-01

    Woodpeckers were censused in 60 fixed-radius (300 m) circular plots (divided into eight 45B-arc pie-shaped sectors) in mature forests (60 to 80 years-old) of three forest types (20 plots per type) in eastern Texas: bottomland hardwood forest; longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) savanna; and mixed pine-hardwood forest. A total of 2,242 individual woodpeckers of eight...

  9. Difference on cone size preferences between two coniferous species by Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major).

    PubMed

    Dylewski, Łukasz; Yosef, Reuven; Myczko, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    The number of species that specialize in pre-dispersal seed predation is relatively small. Examples of specialized pre-dispersal seed predators adapted to feeding on closed cones include vertebrate species like Crossbills, Squirrels, Nutcrackers and Woodpeckers. Seed predation selects against certain phenotypic features of cones and favors another phenotypic features. In this study, we document preferences of the Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) for specific traits in the cones of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). We found that the Great Spotted Woodpecker prefers to feed on medium sized Norway spruce cones. The results suggest a disruptive selection that favors the extreme cone lengths in Norway spruce. In Scots pine, the woodpeckers avoided cones with large apophyses. Further, the selectivity for the specific characteristics of the cones is probably related to the configuration of the anvil, a place at which woodpeckers extract seeds from the cones. We think that the Great Spotted Woodpecker preferences in relation to the morphological characteristics of cones are a key to the design of the anvil in order to maximize the use of it as a tool for processing cones of both the Norway spruce and the Scots pine.

  10. Difference on cone size preferences between two coniferous species by Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major)

    PubMed Central

    Yosef, Reuven; Myczko, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    The number of species that specialize in pre-dispersal seed predation is relatively small. Examples of specialized pre-dispersal seed predators adapted to feeding on closed cones include vertebrate species like Crossbills, Squirrels, Nutcrackers and Woodpeckers. Seed predation selects against certain phenotypic features of cones and favors another phenotypic features. In this study, we document preferences of the Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) for specific traits in the cones of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). We found that the Great Spotted Woodpecker prefers to feed on medium sized Norway spruce cones. The results suggest a disruptive selection that favors the extreme cone lengths in Norway spruce. In Scots pine, the woodpeckers avoided cones with large apophyses. Further, the selectivity for the specific characteristics of the cones is probably related to the configuration of the anvil, a place at which woodpeckers extract seeds from the cones. We think that the Great Spotted Woodpecker preferences in relation to the morphological characteristics of cones are a key to the design of the anvil in order to maximize the use of it as a tool for processing cones of both the Norway spruce and the Scots pine. PMID:28584699

  11. Pesticide treatments affect mountain pine beetle abundance and woodpecker foraging behavior.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Christy A; Dods, Patti L; Elliott, John E

    2008-01-01

    In British Columbia, Canada, management efforts used to control mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreaks have included treatment of infested trees with an organic arsenic pesticide, monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA). Cumulative pesticide applications over a large geographic area have generated concerns about arsenic loading in the environment and potential toxicity to nontarget wildlife. We investigated woodpecker foraging patterns in infested stands with and without MSMA treatment using a combination of tree debarking indices, point count surveys, and radiotelemetry methods in addition to insect flight traps to measure mountain pine beetle emergence. Debarking indices indicated woodpecker foraging of MSMA-treated trees was significantly lower than nontreated trees in all sampling years. However, approximately 40% of MSMA trees had some evidence of foraging. Focal observations of foraging woodpeckers and point count surveys in MSMA treatment areas further confirmed that several species of woodpeckers regularly used MSMA stands during the breeding season. Radio-tagged Hairy (Picoides villosus) and Three-toed (Picoides dorsalis) Woodpeckers spent on average 13% and 23% (range 0-66%) of their time, respectively, in treated stands, despite the fact that these areas only comprised on average 1-2% of their core home range (1 km2). MSMA strongly reduced the emergence of several bark beetle (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) species including the mountain pine beetle, and there was a highly significant positive relationship between Dendroctonus beetle abundance and Three-toed Woodpecker abundance. This study identifies the potential negative impact that forest management practices using pesticides can have on woodpecker populations that depend on bark beetles and their host trees.

  12. Factors affecting breeding season survival of Red-Headed Woodpeckers in South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgo, John, C.; Vukovich, Mark

    2011-11-18

    Red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) populations have declined in the United States and Canada over the past 40 years. However, few demographic studies have been published on the species and none have addressed adult survival. During 2006-2007, we estimated survival probabilities of 80 radio-tagged red-headed woodpeckers during the breeding season in mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests in South Carolina. We used known-fate models in Program MARK to estimate survival within and between years and to evaluate the effects of foliar cover (number of available cover patches), snag density treatment (high density vs. low density), and sex and age of woodpeckers. Weekly survival probabilities followed a quadratic time trend, being lowest during mid-summer, which coincided with the late nestling and fledgling period. Avian predation, particularly by Cooper's (Accipiter cooperii) and sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus), accounted for 85% of all mortalities. Our best-supported model estimated an 18-week breeding season survival probability of 0.72 (95% CI = 0.54-0.85) and indicated that the number of cover patches interacted with sex of woodpeckers to affect survival; females with few available cover patches had a lower probability of survival than either males or females with more cover patches. At the median number of cover patches available (n = 6), breeding season survival of females was 0.82 (95% CI = 0.54-0.94) and of males was 0.60 (95% CI = 0.42-0.76). The number of cover patches available to woodpeckers appeared in all 3 of our top models predicting weekly survival, providing further evidence that woodpecker survival was positively associated with availability of cover. Woodpecker survival was not associated with snag density. Our results suggest that protection of {ge}0.7 cover patches per ha during vegetation control activities in mature pine forests will benefit survival of this Partners In Flight Watch List species.

  13. A comparison of postburn woodpecker foraging use of white fir (Abies concolor) and Jeffrey Pine (Pinus jeffreyi)

    Treesearch

    Kerry L. Farris; Steve Zack

    2008-01-01

    We examined the temporal patterns of the structural decay, insect infestation and woodpecker foraging patterns on white-fir and yellow pine following a prescribed burn in Lassen National Park, CA. Our objectives were to: 1) describe how pine and fir differ in their decay patterns and insect activity, and 2) determine how these differences reflect woodpecker foraging...

  14. Nest success of Black-backed Woodpeckers in forests with mountain pine beetle outbreaks in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Bonnot; Mark A. Rumble; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2008-01-01

    Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are burned-forest specialists that rely on beetles (Coleoptera) for food. In the Black Hills, South Dakota, standing dead forests resulting from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreaks offer food resources for Black-backed Woodpeckers, in addition to providing habitat...

  15. Short-term effects of fuel reduction on pileated woodpeckers in northeastern Oregon—a pilot study.

    Treesearch

    Evelyn L. Bull; Abe A. Clark; Jay F. Shepherd

    2005-01-01

    To determine the short-term effects (1 to 3 years posttreatment) of fuel reduction on pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) in northeastern Oregon, we compared measures of abundance of logs, snags, stumps, and of woodpecker foraging in mixed-conifer stands that had undergone the following treatments: prescribed burning after mechanical fuel...

  16. Threatened and endangered wildlife survey: Vacherie Dome area, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Review of the available literature concerning the previous distribution of animals now considered to be threatened or endangered suggests that the following species may once have occupied the project area in Webster and Bienville Parishes, Louisiana: Florida panther, bald eagle, Arctic peregrine falcon, red-cockaded woodpecker, ivory-billed woodpecker, red wolf, and Eskimo curlew. The Louisiana pine snake is not officially listed at this time although it is considered to be a candidate for inclusion on the federal list pending further research on its population and distribution. Based on previous experience within northwestern Louisiana and other recent evidence, it is concluded that the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is the only animal listed or proposed as threatened or endangered which may actually now be found there.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA based phylogeny of the woodpecker genera Colaptes and Piculus, and implications for the history of woodpecker diversification in South America.

    PubMed

    Moore, William S; Overton, Lowell C; Miglia, Kathleen J

    2011-01-01

    The woodpecker genus Colaptes (flickers) has its highest diversity in South America and the closely related genus Piculus is restricted to South and Central America. Two species of flickers occur in North America, and one species is endemic to Cuba. We conducted a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of three mitochondrial encoded genes (cyt b, COI, 12S rRNA) and confirmed that the two genera are paraphyletic. Three species historically classified as Piculus are actually flickers. We found that the Cuban endemic C. fernandinae is the most basal species within the flickers and that the Northern Flicker is the next most basal species within the Colaptes lineage. The South American clade is most derived. The age of the South American diversification is estimated to be 3.6MY, which is synchronous with the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama. The pattern of diversification of South American flickers is common among South American woodpeckers. Although woodpeckers have their greatest diversity in South America, we hypothesize that woodpeckers (Family Picidae) originated in Eurasia, dispersed to North America via the Bering land bridge, and multiple lineages entered South America as the Isthmus approached its final closing.

  18. How does vegetation structure influence woodpeckers and secondary cavity nesting birds in African cork oak forest?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segura, Amalia

    2017-08-01

    The Great Spotted Woodpecker provides important information about the status of a forest in terms of structure and age. As a primary cavity creator, it provides small-medium size cavities for passerines. However, despite its interest as an ecosystem engineer, studies of this species in Africa are scarce. Here, spatially explicit predictive models were used to investigate how forest structural variables are related to both the Great Spotted Woodpecker and secondary cavity nesting birds in Maamora cork oak forest (northwest Morocco). A positive association between Great Spotted Woodpecker and both dead-tree density and large mature trees (>60 cm dbh) was found. This study area, Maamora, has an old-growth forest structure incorporating a broad range of size and condition of live and dead trees, favouring Great Spotted Woodpecker by providing high availability of foraging and excavating sites. Secondary cavity nesting birds, represented by Great Tit, African Blue Tit, and Hoopoe, were predicted by Great Spotted Woodpecker detections. The findings suggest that the conservation of the Maamora cork oak forest could be key to maintaining these hole-nesting birds. However, this forest is threatened by forestry practises and livestock overgrazing and the challenge is therefore to find sustainable management strategies that ensure conservation while allowing its exploitation.

  19. Hopping and climbing gait of Japanese Pygmy Woodpeckers (Picoides kizuki).

    PubMed

    Fujita, Masaki; Kawakami, Kazuto; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2007-12-01

    Single cycles of hopping and climbing were investigated in Japanese Pygmy Woodpeckers Picoides kizuki using motion analyses on video. Body movements on substrate angled from 0-90 degrees were compared for every 10 degrees. The body was inclined forward during stance phase for both small and large substrate angles, and the inclination amplitude increased when the substrate angle increased. The tail was bent ventrally almost simultaneously to this body inclination, and its amplitude was apparently high at large substrate angles. Most of the gait parameters changed when the stride length increased. The minimum body-tail angle and most of the parameters representing body movements during stance phase changed when the substrate angle increased, probably because gravity pulled the birds further backward when they were moving on a steeper slope. These parameters showed a clear difference between the data on substrate steeper than 40 degrees and lower than 30 degrees. The abrupt changes in these parameters most likely mean that the motor pattern changed from hopping to climbing between these angles.

  20. Natal dispersal in the cooperatively breeding Acorn Woodpecker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koenig, Walter D.; Hooge, P.N.; Stanback, M.T.; Haydock, J.

    2000-01-01

    Dispersal data are inevitably biased toward short-distance events, often highly so. We illustrate this problem using our long-term study of Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) in central coastal California. Estimating the proportion of birds disappearing from the study area and correcting for detectability within the maximum observable distance are the first steps toward achieving a realistic estimate of dispersal distributions. Unfortunately, there is generally no objective way to determine the fates of birds not accounted for by these procedures, much less estimating the distances they may have moved. Estimated mean and root-mean-square dispersal distances range from 0.22-2.90 km for males and 0.53-9.57 km for females depending on what assumptions and corrections are made. Three field methods used to help correct for bias beyond the limits of normal study areas include surveying alternative study sites, expanding the study site (super study sites), and radio-tracking dispersers within a population. All of these methods have their limitations or can only be used in special cases. New technologies may help alleviate this problem in the near future. Until then, we urge caution in interpreting observed dispersal data from all but the most isolated of avian populations.

  1. Consumption of Mullerian Bodies by Golden-olive Woodpecker (Colaptes rubiginosus) in Nicaragua's Highlands

    Treesearch

    M.A. Torrez; Wayne Arendt; L. Diaz

    2016-01-01

    The Golden-olive Woodpecker is a generalist species found in a wide range of habitats, being particularly common in coffee plantations within Nicaraguan cloud forests. Observations of an individual feeding at the base of Cecropia leaves revealed it was consuming Mullerian bodies that the Cecropia produces to feed Azteca ants as part of a host-inhabitant mutualistic...

  2. Quantifying the impact of woodpecker predation on population dynamics of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Woodpeckers are an important source of mortality for EAB in their native range, and understanding their effect on the pop...

  3. Response of Woodpecker's Head during Pecking Process Simulated by Material Point Method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuzhe; Qiu, Xinming; Zhang, Xiong; Yu, T X

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of brain injury in woodpeckers under high deceleration during the pecking process has been an intriguing biomechanical problem for a long time. Several studies have provided different explanations, but the function of the hyoid bone, one of the more interesting skeletal features of a woodpecker, still has not been fully explored. This paper studies the relationship between a woodpecker head's response to impact and the hyoid bone. Based on micro-CT scanning images, the material point method (MPM) is employed to simulate woodpecker's pecking process. The maximum shear stress in the brainstem (SSS) is adopted as an indicator of brain injury. The motion and deformation of the first cervical vertebra is found to be the main reason of the shear stress of the brain. Our study found that the existence of the hyoid bone reduces the SSS level, enhances the rigidity of the head, and suppresses the oscillation of the endoskeleton after impact. The mechanism is explained by a brief mechanical analysis while the influence of the material properties of the muscle is also discussed.

  4. Exertional myopathy in a pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus) subsequent to capture.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Out of 33 Pileated Woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) captured and fitted with radio-transmitters, 12 were later found dead. Three carcasses were recovered and submitted for necropsy. One bird had large pale foci in multiple muscles. Microscopically, skeletal muscle in all three had evidence of severe...

  5. Acorns and acorn woodpeckers: ups and downs in a long-term relationship

    Treesearch

    Walter D. Koenig; Eric L. Walters; Johannes M.H. Knops; William J. Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Acorn woodpeckers are one of the most conspicuous and abundant birds in California oak forests due to their unique dependence on acorns, a food resource eaten directly and stored in specialized structures on their territories for later use when acorns are no longer present on trees. Parallel long-term studies of the demography and behavior of this species and of...

  6. Mapping Potential Ivory Billed Woodpecker Habitat using Lidar and Hyperspectral Data Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swatantran, A.; Dubayah, R.; Hofton, M.; Blair, J. B.; Handley, L.

    2008-12-01

    Multisensor fusion is a powerful approach towards characterizing forest structure for effective management of wildlife habitats. The rediscovery of the Ivory Billed Woodpecker in 2005 reinforced the need to map and conserve suitable habitat for the previously thought extinct bird. In this study we fused waveform lidar and hyperspectral data to map potential habitat for the woodpecker along the Lower Mississippi Valley of Arkansas. Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) data was processed to produce high-resolution forest structure maps. We used multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA) to map stressed and dead vegetation from the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data. LVIS and AVIRIS maps were fused to identify habitat hot-spots based on historical records of habitat preferences of the bird. Results indicate several small hotspots in the bottomland hardwood forests, but very few large and continuous patches qualify as potential woodpecker habitat. Results from this study are expected to aid search efforts for the woodpecker and also provide useful insights into lidar fusion for large scale habitat mapping.

  7. Temporal dynamics of woodpecker predation on the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) in North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Woodpeckers (Picidae) are among the most prevalent natural enemies attacking the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in North America, but there can be considerable variation in the levels of EAB predation on ash trees (Oleaceae: Fraxinus) within and between sites as wel...

  8. Quantification of Lewis's Woodpecker habitat using Forest Inventory and Analysis data

    Treesearch

    Chris Witt

    2009-01-01

    The Utah Department of Natural Resources' Division of Wildlife Resources (UDWR) placed Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis) on their Sensitive Species Tier II list due to declining populations and suspected local extirpations throughout the state. It is thought that the decline in burned coniferous forest has reduced the amount of suitable...

  9. Habitat suitability and nest survival of white-headed woodpeckers in unburned forests of Oregon

    Treesearch

    Jeff P. Hollenbeck; Vicki Saab; Richard W. Frenzel

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated habitat suitability and nest survival of breeding white-headed woodpeckers (Picoides albolarvatus) in unburned forests of central Oregon, USA. Daily nest-survival rate was positively related to maximum daily temperature during the nest interval and to density of large-diameter trees surrounding the nest tree. We developed a niche-based habitat suitability...

  10. Space use by white-headed woodpeckers and selection for recent forest disturbances

    Treesearch

    Teresa J. Lorenz; Kerri T. Vierling; Jeffrey M. Kozma; Janet E. Millard; Martin G. Raphael

    2015-01-01

    White-headed woodpeckers (Picoides albolarvatus) are important cavity excavators that recently have become the focus of much research because of concerns over population declines. Past studies have focused on nest site selection and survival but information is needed on factors influencing their space use when away from the nest. We examined space...

  11. Hairy woodpecker winter ecology in ponderosa pine forests representing different ages since wildfire

    Treesearch

    Kristin A Covert-Bratland; William M. Block; Tad C. Theimer

    2006-01-01

    We investigated how changes in vegetation structure and prey resources following wildfire affected the winter ecology of hairy woodpeckers (Picoides villosus) in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests of northern Arizona, USA. Using point-counts, radiotelemetry, and focal bird observation, we assessed the relative abundance, home...

  12. Nest-site selection and nest survival of Lewis's woodpecker in aspen riparian woodlands

    Treesearch

    Karen R. Newlon; Victoria A. Saab

    2011-01-01

    Riparian woodlands of aspen (Populus tremuloides) provide valuable breeding habitat for several cavity-nesting birds. Although anecdotal information for this habitat is available for Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), no study has previously examined the importance of aspen woodlands to this species' breeding biology. From 2002 to 2004, we monitored 76...

  13. Home range size of Black-backed Woodpeckers in burned forests of southwestern Idaho

    Treesearch

    Jonathan G. Dudley; Victoria A. Saab

    2007-01-01

    We examined home range size of Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) in burned ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) / Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests of southwestern Idaho during 2000 and 2002 (6 and 8 years following fire). Home range size for 4 adult males during the post-fledging period was 115....

  14. Effects of radio transmitters on the behavior of Red-headed Woodpeckers.

    SciTech Connect

    Vukovich, Mark; Kilgo, John, C.

    2009-05-01

    ABSTRACT. Previous studies have revealed that radio-transmitters may affect bird behaviors, including feeding rates, foraging behavior, vigilance, and preening behavior. In addition, depending on the method of attachment, transmitters can potentially affect the ability of cavity-nesting birds to use cavities. Our objective was to evaluate effects of transmitters on the behavior of and use of cavities byRed-headedWoodpeckers (Melanerpes erythrocephalus). Using backpack harnesses, we attached 2.1-g transmitter packages that averaged 3.1% of body weight (range = 2.5–3.6%) to Red-headed Woodpeckers. We observed both radio-tagged (N = 23) and nonradio-tagged (N = 28) woodpeckers and determined the percentage of time spent engaged in each of five behaviors: flight, foraging, perching, preening, and territorial behavior. We found no difference between the two groups in the percentage of time engaged in each behavior. In addition, we found that transmitters had no apparent effect on use of cavities for roosting by radio-tagged woodpeckers (N = 25).We conclude that backpack transmitters weighing less than 3.6% of body weight had no impact on either their behavior or their ability to use cavities.

  15. Biogeography and diversification dynamics of the African woodpeckers.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jérôme; Pons, Jean-Marc; Bowie, Rauri C K

    2017-03-01

    The dynamics of species accumulation of African terrestrial vertebrates over time remains underexplored in comparison with those in the New World, despite Africa hosting about 25% of the world's avian diversity. This lack of knowledge hampers our understanding of the fundamental processes that drive biodiversity and the dynamics of speciation. To begin to address this gap, we reconstructed species-level phylogenies of two unrelated clades of African woodpeckers (12 species of Geocolaptes/Campethera and 13 species of Chloropicus/Mesopicos/Dendropicos/Ipophilus) that diverged from their closest Indo-Malayan relatives at similar times. Our results demonstrate that the current taxonomy is misleading: three (Campethera, Dendropicos and Mesopicos) out of four polytpic genera/subgenera are not monophyletic. Our results also show that current estimates of diversity at the species level are significantly understated, as up to 18 species for the 'Campethera clade' and 19 for the 'Dendropicos clade' could be recognized. The first splits within both clades involve species that are largely restricted to the Guineo-Congolian biogeographic regions, followed by later adaptations to particular habitats (forest versus savannah) and colonization of other regions (e.g. Southern Africa), each of which occurred multiple times in both clades. Assuming a conservative species delimitation scheme, our results indicate that diversification rates are decreasing through time for both clades. Applying a more extreme species recognition scheme (18 and 19 species for the Campethera and Dendropicos clades, respectively), our results support a decrease in diversification rates only for the Dendropicos clade and thus underline the importance of the number of species included in our diversification analyses. Greater ecological diversity of the Campethera clade where multiple species exhibit either an arboreal or terrestrial foraging strategy might explain the constant diversification rates through

  16. Nest-site selection in the acorn woodpecker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooge, P.N.; Stanback, M.T.; Koenig, Walter D.

    1999-01-01

    Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) at Hastings Reservation in central California prefer to nest in dead limbs in large, dead valley oaks (Quercus lobata) and California sycamores (Platanus racemosa) that are also frequently used as acorn storage trees. Based on 232 nest cavities used over an 18-year period, we tested whether preferred or modal nest-site characters were associated with increased reproductive success (the 'nest-site quality' hypothesis). We also examined whether more successful nests were likely to experience more favorable microclimatic conditions or to be less accessible to terrestrial predators. We found only equivocal support for the nest-site quality hypothesis: only 1 of 5 preferred characters and 2 of 10 characters exhibiting a clear modality were correlated with higher reproductive success. All three characteristics of nests known or likely to be associated with a more favorable microclimate, and two of five characteristics likely to render nests less accessible to predators, were correlated with higher reproductive success: These results suggest that nest cavities in this population are built in part to take advantage of favorable microclimatic conditions and, to a lesser extent, to reduce access to predators. However, despite benefits of particular nest characteristics, birds frequently nested in apparently suboptimal cavities. We also found a significant relationship between mean group size and the history of occupancy of particular territories and the probability of nest cavities being built in microclimatically favorable live limbs, suggesting that larger groups residing on more stable territories were better able to construct nests with optimal characteristics. This indicates that there may be demographic, as well as ecological, constraints on nest-site selection in this primary cavity nester.

  17. Manipulation of walnuts to facilitate opening by the great spotted woodpecker (Picoides major): is it tool use?

    PubMed

    Yi, Xianfeng; Steele, Michael A; Shen, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    True tool use has been documented in some bird species, but to our knowledge, it has not been shown in woodpeckers. Here, we investigated the ability of Picoides major to open nuts of Juglans mandshurica by consistently inserting walnuts between tree branches in a specific position that facilitated nut opening. As seen in these birds, we showed that woodpeckers removed 96% of the nuts of J. mandshurica from experimental seed trays and inserted each nut in a precise position that specifically allowed nut cracking. When we inserted nuts in an alternative position, woodpeckers manipulated and repositioned nuts to allow nut opening. In contrast, when we inserted the nuts in positions preferred for nut opening, woodpeckers did not alter their position and instead opened the nuts. We suggest that the origin of this behavior, as in other forms of tool use, likely requires a higher cognitive ability in these birds.

  18. Final Environmental Assessment for Shared Use Paths (SUP), Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    red-cockaded woodpecker SHPO State Historic Preservation Officer SPOC Single Point of Contact SWPPP Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan SUP...Contact ( SPOC ) on May 18, 2011. The SPOC was also provided the FCMP Consistency Determination detailing the Proposed Action on May 18, 2011. See...Appendix A. On July 12, 2011 the SPOC concluded the review for consistency with the FCMP and other state agencies. No comments were received from the

  19. Final Environmental Assessment for the Installation of a Range Safety Lighting System at Avon Park Air Force Range, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    rat snake, red-shouldered hawk, bobwhite, opossum, cottontail rabbit, cotton rat, cotton mouse , raccoon, striped skunk, bobcat, and white-tailed...kestrel, brown-headed nuthatch, pine warbler, red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW), Bachman’s sparrow, cotton rat, cotton mouse , wild hogs, raccoon, gray...coachwhip, ground dove, loggerhead shrike, yellow-rumped warbler, eastern towhee, Florida mouse , and spotted skunk. Scrub Scrub communities are dense to

  20. Establishing Longleaf Pine Seedlings Under a Loblolly Pine Canopy (User’s Guide)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    pine habitat for the red- cockaded woodpecker (RCW), a species protected by the Endangered Species Act. Although longleaf pine forests provide the...A-1 III List of Tables Table 1. Characteristics of RCW foraging guidelines established in the species recovery plan (U.S. Fish and Wildlife...forested lands that might be considered for restoration have been converted to pine species with faster early growth and better apparent establishment

  1. Environmental Security: What is DoD’s Role

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-28

    CLASSIFICATION 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT OF REPORT OF THIS PAGE OF ABSTRACT Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified UL NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form...installations will be sharing the common goals and standards of performance associated with the restoration program. DOD shields 189,000 acres of undeveloped... standards related to the endangered Red Cockaded Woodpecker. The environmental management effort there has been so successful that when the base

  2. Ground Combat Training Squadron Complex Final Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    road within the proposed Base Tango boundary. The vegetation in the area is longleaf pine /scrub oak except for a 15-acre cleared training area...this area is potentially home to gopher tortoises, eastern indigo snakes, and Florida pine snakes. One inactive red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW) tree is...collecting forest products such as deer moss, palmetto, pine straw, and wood mulch. These activities require an Eglin Forest Products Permit. No

  3. Meeting of the southeast management working group (4th) abstracts. Held in Memphis, Tennessee on November 12-14, 1992. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.P.

    1993-08-01

    Contents: hurricane effects on neotropical migrants at a South Carolina bottomland hardwood site; point count results from 9 bottomland hardwood sites in South Carolina; bird banding at hilton pond: monitoring and managing for neotropical migrants in South Carolina's piedmont region; effects of forest management on population parameters and habitat use of wood thrushes; and influence of red-cockaded woodpecker habitat management on the abundance of neotropical migrant breeding birds in two loblolly pine forests of Mississippi: study design and preliminary results.

  4. Parasitic helminths of red-bellied woodpeckers (Melanerpes carolinus) from the Apalachicola National Forest in Florida.

    PubMed

    Foster, Garry W; Kinsella, John M; Walters, Eric L; Schrader, Mathew S; Forrester, Donald J

    2002-12-01

    Seventy-four red-bellied woodpeckers (Melanerpes carolinus) from the Apalachicola National Forest (30 degrees 10'N, 84 degrees 40'W) in northwest Florida were examined for helminths. The most prevalent parasites were the nematode Aproctella stoddardi (11%) and the acanthocephalan Mediorhynchus centurorum (11%). New host records include Pseudaprocta samueli, A. stoddardi, Tridentocapillaria tridens, Diplotriaena americana, Dispharynx nasuta, Procyrnea pileata, Orthoskrjabinia rostellata, and Brachylaima fuscatum. The helminth fauna was characterized by low prevalences and intensities of infection and low numbers of species per bird (1.2). The frequency of prescribed burning and habitat understory flora composition did not influence the prevalences or intensities of helminths in red-bellied woodpeckers collected from 2 similar but differently managed sites within the forest.

  5. Functional visual sensitivity to ultraviolet wavelengths in the Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus), and its influence on foraging substrate selection.

    PubMed

    O'Daniels, Sean T; Kesler, Dylan C; Mihail, Jeanne D; Webb, Elisabeth B; Werner, Scott J

    2017-03-02

    Most diurnal birds are presumed visually sensitive to near ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths, however, controlled behavioral studies investigating UV sensitivity remain few. Although woodpeckers are important as primary cavity excavators and nuisance animals, published work on their visual systems is limited. We developed a novel foraging-based behavioral assay designed to test UV sensitivity in the Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus). We acclimated 21 wild-caught woodpeckers to foraging for frozen mealworms within 1.2m sections of peeled cedar (Thuja spp.) poles. We then tested the functional significance of UV cues by placing frozen mealworms behind UV-reflective covers, UV-absorptive covers, or decayed red pine substrates within the same 1.2m poles in independent experiments. Behavioral responses were greater toward both UV-reflective and UV-absorptive substrates in three experiments. Study subjects therefore reliably differentiated and attended to two distinct UV conditions of a foraging substrate. Cue-naïve subjects showed a preference for UV-absorptive substrates, suggesting that woodpeckers may be pre-disposed to foraging from such substrates. Behavioral responses were greater toward decayed pine substrates (UV-reflective) than sound pine substrates suggesting that decayed pine can be a useful foraging cue. The finding that cue-naïve subjects selected UV-absorbing foraging substrates has implications for ecological interactions of woodpeckers with fungi. Woodpeckers transport fungal spores, and communication methods analogous to those of plant-pollinator mutualisms (i.e. UV-absorbing patterns) may have evolved to support woodpecker-fungus mutualisms.

  6. Habitat suitability and nest survival of white-headed woodpeckers in unburned forests of Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollenbeck, J.P.; Saab, V.A.; Frenzel, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated habitat suitability and nest survival of breeding white-headed woodpeckers (Picoides albolarvatus) in unburned forests of central Oregon, USA. Daily nest-survival rate was positively related to maximum daily temperature during the nest interval and to density of large-diameter trees surrounding the nest tree. We developed a niche-based habitat suitability model (partitioned Mahalanobis distance) for nesting white-headed woodpeckers using remotely sensed data. Along with low elevation, high density of large trees, and low slope, our habitat suitability model suggested that interspersion-juxtaposition of low- and high-canopy cover ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) patches was important for nest-site suitability. Cross-validation suggested the model performed adequately for management planning at a scale >1 ha. Evaluation of mapped habitat suitability index (HSI) suggested that the maximum predictive gain (HSI=0.36), where the number of nest locations are maximized in the smallest proportion of the modeled landscape, provided an objective initial threshold for identification of suitable habitat. However, managers can choose the threshold HSI most appropriate for their purposes (e.g., locating regions of low-moderate suitability that have potential for habitat restoration). Consequently, our habitat suitability model may be useful for managing dry coniferous forests for white-headed woodpeckers in central Oregon; however, model validation is necessary before our model could be applied to other locations. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  7. Do male and female black-backed woodpeckers respond differently to gaps in habitat?

    PubMed

    Pierson, Jennifer C; Allendorf, Fred W; Saab, Victoria; Drapeau, Pierre; Schwartz, Michael K

    2010-05-01

    We used population- and individual-based genetic approaches to assess barriers to movement in black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus), a fire-specialist that mainly occupies the boreal forest in North America. We tested if male and female woodpeckers exhibited the same movement patterns using both spatially implicit and explicit genetic analyses to define population structure and movement patterns of both sexes among populations. Three genetic groups were identified, a large, genetically continuous population that spans from the Rocky Mountains to Quebec, a small isolated population in South Dakota and a separate population in the western portion of their distribution (Oregon). Patterns of genetic diversity suggest extensive gene flow mediated by both males and females within the continuous boreal forest. However, male-mediated gene flow is the main form of connectivity between the continuously distributed group and the smaller populations of South Dakota and Oregon that are separated by large areas of unforested habitat, which apparently serves as a barrier to movement of female woodpeckers.

  8. Structural analysis of the tongue and hyoid apparatus in a woodpecker

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae-Young; Naleway, Steven E.; Yaraghi, Nicholas A.; Herrera, Steven; Sherman, Vincent R.; Bushong, Eric A.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Kisailus, David; McKittrick, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Woodpeckers avoid brain injury while they peck at trees up to 20 Hz with speeds up to 7 m/s, undergoing decelerations up to 1200 g. Along with the head, beak and neck, the hyoid apparatus (tongue bone and associated soft tissues) is subjected to these high impact forces. The shape of the hyoid apparatus is unusual in woodpeckers and its structure and mechanical properties have not been reported in detail. High-resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were performed and correlated with nanoindentation mapping. The hyoid apparatus has four distinct bone sections, with three joints between these sections. Nanoindentation results on cross-sectional regions of each bone reveal a previously unreported structure consisting of a stiff core and outer, more compliant shell with moduli of up to 27.4 GPa and 8.5 GPa, respectively. The bending resistance is low at the posterior section of the hyoid bones, indicating that this region has a high degree of flexibility to absorb impact. These new structural findings can be applied to further studies on the energy dissipation of the woodpecker during its drumming behavior, and may have implications for the design of engineered impact-absorbing structures. PMID:27000554

  9. Space-use and habitat associations of Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) occupying recently disturbed forests in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Treesearch

    Christopher T. Rota; Mark A. Rumble; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Chadwick P. Lehman; Dylan C. Kesler

    2014-01-01

    Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are a disturbance-dependent species that occupy recently burned forest and mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestations. Forest management practices that reduce the amount of disturbed forest may lead to habitat loss for Black-backed Woodpeckers, which have recently been petitioned for listing under the Endangered Species Act. We...

  10. The Potential for Long-Term Sustainability in Seminatural Forestry: A Broad Perspective Based on Woodpecker Populations.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Asko; Nellis, Renno; Pullerits, Mirjam; Leivits, Meelis

    2016-03-01

    We assessed ecological sustainability of seminatural forestry by analyzing 80-year dynamics and the current distribution of all woodpecker species in Estonia. We found that, despite the clear-cutting-based forestry system, woodpeckers inhabited commercial seminatural forests in substantial numbers, including the species generally considered vulnerable to timber harvesting. The only negative trend, a drastic decline in the Green Woodpecker, paralleled the loss of seminatural, wooded grasslands and is mostly an issue for landscape planning and agricultural land use. Major silvicultural factors supporting other species in commercial forests include natural regeneration with multiple native tree species and deadwood abundance. In such context, the main role of protected areas is to provide ecological resilience; however, we estimated that the current strict reserves could further double their carrying capacities for woodpeckers through successional recovery and, perhaps, active restoration. The long time series used were instrumental in detecting unexpected dynamics and the impacts of climatically extreme years. We conclude that (1) seminatural forestry can serve as a basis for reconciling timber harvesting and biodiversity protection at the landscape scale, given appropriate attention to key structures and landscape zoning and (2) woodpeckers represent a biological indicator system for the sustainability of forest landscapes in Europe.

  11. The Potential for Long-Term Sustainability in Seminatural Forestry: A Broad Perspective Based on Woodpecker Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lõhmus, Asko; Nellis, Renno; Pullerits, Mirjam; Leivits, Meelis

    2016-03-01

    We assessed ecological sustainability of seminatural forestry by analyzing 80-year dynamics and the current distribution of all woodpecker species in Estonia. We found that, despite the clear-cutting-based forestry system, woodpeckers inhabited commercial seminatural forests in substantial numbers, including the species generally considered vulnerable to timber harvesting. The only negative trend, a drastic decline in the Green Woodpecker, paralleled the loss of seminatural, wooded grasslands and is mostly an issue for landscape planning and agricultural land use. Major silvicultural factors supporting other species in commercial forests include natural regeneration with multiple native tree species and deadwood abundance. In such context, the main role of protected areas is to provide ecological resilience; however, we estimated that the current strict reserves could further double their carrying capacities for woodpeckers through successional recovery and, perhaps, active restoration. The long time series used were instrumental in detecting unexpected dynamics and the impacts of climatically extreme years. We conclude that (1) seminatural forestry can serve as a basis for reconciling timber harvesting and biodiversity protection at the landscape scale, given appropriate attention to key structures and landscape zoning and (2) woodpeckers represent a biological indicator system for the sustainability of forest landscapes in Europe.

  12. Foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newell, P.; King, Sammy L.; Kaller, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    In bottomland hardwood forests, partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife like Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and Neotropical migrants. Although partial cutting may be beneficial to some species, those that use dead wood may be negatively affected since large diameter and poor quality trees (deformed, moribund, or dead) are rare, but normally targeted for removal. On the other hand, partial cutting can create dead wood if logging slash is left on-site. We studied foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) in one- and two-year-old partial cuts designed to benefit priority species and in uncut forest during winter, spring, and summer of 2006 and 2007 in Louisiana. Males and females did not differ in their use of tree species, dbh class, decay class, foraging height, use of foraging tactics or substrate types; however, males foraged on larger substrates than females. In both partial cut and uncut forest, standing live trees were most frequently used (83% compared to 14% for standing dead trees and 3% for coarse woody debris); however, dead trees were selected (i.e. used out of proportion to availability). Overcup oak (Quercus lyrata) and bitter pecan (Carya aquatica) were also selected and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) avoided. Pileated woodpeckers selected trees >= 50 cm dbh and avoided trees in smaller dbh classes (10-20 cm). Density of selected foraging substrates was the same in partial cut and uncut forest. Of the foraging substrates, woodpeckers spent 54% of foraging time on live branches and boles, 37% on dead branches and boles, and 9% on vines. Of the foraging tactics, the highest proportion of foraging time was spent excavating (58%), followed by pecking (14%), gleaning (14%), scaling (7%), berry-eating (4%), and probing (3%). Woodpecker use of foraging tactics and substrates, and foraging height and substrate

  13. Foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newell, P.; King, S.; Kaller, M.

    2009-01-01

    In bottomland hardwood forests, partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife like Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and Neotropical migrants. Although partial cutting may be beneficial to some species, those that use dead wood may be negatively affected since large diameter and poor quality trees (deformed, moribund, or dead) are rare, but normally targeted for removal. On the other hand, partial cutting can create dead wood if logging slash is left on-site. We studied foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) in one- and two-year-old partial cuts designed to benefit priority species and in uncut forest during winter, spring, and summer of 2006 and 2007 in Louisiana. Males and females did not differ in their use of tree species, dbh class, decay class, foraging height, use of foraging tactics or substrate types; however, males foraged on larger substrates than females. In both partial cut and uncut forest, standing live trees were most frequently used (83% compared to 14% for standing dead trees and 3% for coarse woody debris); however, dead trees were selected (i.e. used out of proportion to availability). Overcup oak (Quercus lyrata) and bitter pecan (Carya aquatica) were also selected and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) avoided. Pileated woodpeckers selected trees ???50 cm dbh and avoided trees in smaller dbh classes (10-20 cm). Density of selected foraging substrates was the same in partial cut and uncut forest. Of the foraging substrates, woodpeckers spent 54% of foraging time on live branches and boles, 37% on dead branches and boles, and 9% on vines. Of the foraging tactics, the highest proportion of foraging time was spent excavating (58%), followed by pecking (14%), gleaning (14%), scaling (7%), berry-eating (4%), and probing (3%). Woodpecker use of foraging tactics and substrates, and foraging height and substrate

  14. Notes on breeding sharp-shinned hawks and Cooper’s hawks in Barnwell County, South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Vukovich, Mark; Kilgo, John, C.

    2009-07-01

    Abstract - Breeding records of Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawks) in the southeastern US are scattered and isolated. We documented a Sharp-shinned Hawk and Accipiter cooperii (Cooper’s Hawk) nest while conducting a telemetry study on Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpeckers) in Barnwell County, SC in 2006 and 2007. We report the first known nest of a Sharp-shinned Hawk in Barnwell County, SC and the first report of Sharp-shinned Hawks preying upon Red-headed Woodpeckers. Thirteen of 93 (13.9 %) woodpeckers were killed by accipiters in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Large, contiguous forests managed for Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpeckers) may be used by breeding Sharp-shinned Hawks. The bright plumage, loud calls, and behavior of Red-headed Woodpeckers, particularly during the nestling stage, may make them conspicuous prey for accipiters.

  15. Life history and habitat associations of the broad wood cockroach, Parcoblatta lata (Blattaria: Blattellidae) and other native cockroaches in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.

    2002-06-18

    Wood cockroaches are an important prey of the red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis, an endangered species inhabiting pine forests in the southern United States. These woodpeckers forage on the boles of live pine trees, but their prey consists of a high proportion of wood cockroaches, Parcoblatta spp., that are more commonly associated with dead plant material. Cockroach population density samples were conducted on live pine trees, dead snags and coarse woody debris on the ground. The studies showed that snags and logs are also important habitats of wood cockroaches in pine forests.

  16. Hierarchical multiscale structure-property relationships of the red-bellied woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus) beak.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nayeon; Horstemeyer, M F; Rhee, Hongjoo; Nabors, Ben; Liao, Jun; Williams, Lakiesha N

    2014-07-06

    We experimentally studied beaks of the red-bellied woodpecker to elucidate the hierarchical multiscale structure-property relationships. At the macroscale, the beak comprises three structural layers: an outer rhamphotheca layer (keratin sheath), a middle foam layer and an inner bony layer. The area fraction of each layer changes along the length of the beak giving rise to a varying constitutive behaviour similar to functionally graded materials. At the microscale, the rhamphotheca comprises keratin scales that are placed in an overlapping pattern; the middle foam layer has a porous structure; and the bony layer has a big centre cavity. At the nanoscale, a wavy gap between the keratin scales similar to a suture line was evidenced in the rhamphotheca; the middle foam layer joins two dissimilar materials; and mineralized collagen fibres were revealed in the inner bony layer. The nano- and micro-indentation tests revealed that the hardness (associated with the strength, modulus and stiffness) of the rhamphotheca layer (approx. 470 MPa for nano and approx. 320 MPa for micro) was two to three times less than that of the bony layer (approx. 1200 MPa for nano and approx. 630 MPa for micro). When compared to other birds (chicken, finch and toucan), the woodpecker's beak has more elongated keratin scales that can slide over each other thus admitting dissipation via shearing; has much less porosity in the bony layer thus strengthening the beak and focusing the stress wave; and has a wavy suture that admits local shearing at the nanoscale. The analysis of the woodpeckers' beaks provides some understanding of biological structural materials' mechanisms for energy absorption.

  17. New taxa of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata) from African barbets and woodpeckers (Piciformes: Lybiidae, Picidae).

    PubMed

    Skorack, Maciej; Klimovičová, Miroslava; Muchai, Muchane; Hromada, Martin

    2014-02-25

    New taxa of quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae) are described from African barbets and woodpeckers in the Ethiopian region. A new monotypic genus Picineoaulonastus gen. nov. is established for a new species Picineoaulonastus pogoniulus sp. nov., parasitising 2 lybiid species, Pogoniulus bilineatus (Sundevall) (type host) in Kenya and Tanzania and P. pusillus (Dumont) (Piciformes: Lybiidae) in Ethiopia. Additionally, 2 more new syringophilid species are described: Neosyringophilopsis lybidus sp. nov. from P. bilineatus in Kenya, and Syringophiloidus picidus sp. nov. from Dendropicos fuscescens (Vieillot) (Piciformes: Picidae) in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania.

  18. The Case of the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker: The Scientific Process and How It Relates to Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin; Merriam, Jennifer; Greuling, Ruth Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this case study, based on the reported rediscovery of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker in April 2005, students examine a real-world example of the scientific process and explore the practical implications of their conclusions. The case tells the story of Brad Murky, a student and research assistant who must decide whether the available evidence is…

  19. The Case of the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker: The Scientific Process and How It Relates to Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin; Merriam, Jennifer; Greuling, Ruth Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this case study, based on the reported rediscovery of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker in April 2005, students examine a real-world example of the scientific process and explore the practical implications of their conclusions. The case tells the story of Brad Murky, a student and research assistant who must decide whether the available evidence is…

  20. Between-year breeding dispersal by White-headed Woodpeckers: A caution about using color bands to estimate survival

    Treesearch

    Teresa J Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    Between-year breeding dispersal has not been previously documented in White-headed Woodpeckers (Picoides albolarvatus). Therefore, resightings of color-banded adults on previous years’ breeding territories have been considered a means of estimating annual adult survival. From 2013 to 2015, I observed 2 cases of between-year breeding dispersal by...

  1. Foraging plasticity by a keystone excavator, the white-headed woodpecker, in managed forests: Are there consequences for productivity?

    Treesearch

    Teresa J. Lorenz; Kerri T. Vierling; Jeffrey M. Kozma; Janet E. Millard

    2016-01-01

    Information on the foraging ecology of animals is important for conservation and management, particularly for keystone species whose presence affects ecosystem health. We examined foraging by an at-risk cavity excavator, the white-headed woodpecker (Picoides albolarvatus). The foraging needs of this species are used to inform management of...

  2. Temporal dynamics of woodpecker predation on emerald ash borer ( Agrilus planipennis ) in the northeastern U.S.A.

    Treesearch

    David E. Jennings; Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Jonathan M. Schmude; Miles T. Wetherington; Paula M. Shrewsbury

    2015-01-01

    Woodpeckers (Picidae) are important natural enemies attacking emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire in North America. There can be considerable variation in predation levels within and between sites, and among different times of year; therefore, understanding what causes these differences is necessary for effectively predicting EAB...

  3. Multi-scale nest-site selection by black-backed woodpeckers in outbreaks of mountain pine beetles

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Bonnot; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Mark A. Rumble

    2009-01-01

    Areas of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreaks in the Black Hills can provide habitat for black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus), a U.S. Forest Service, Region 2 Sensitive Species. These outbreaks are managed through removal of trees infested with mountain pine beetles to control mountain pine...

  4. Influence of postfire salvage logging on black-backed woodpecker nest-site selection and nest survival

    Treesearch

    Christopher David Forristal

    2009-01-01

    Post-fire timber harvest practices (i.e. post-fire salvage logging) on public lands are a highly contentious issue in the western United States. Harvest of burned trees impacts a number of species, particularly those specialized for using post-wildfire habitats. We assessed the effects of post-fire salvage logging on black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus...

  5. COMPLEX BIOGEOGRAPHIC SCENARIOS REVEALED IN THE DIVERSIFICATION OF THE LARGEST WOODPECKER RADIATION IN THE NEW WORLD.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G; Vázquez-Miranda, Hernán; Hernández-Alonso, Germán; García-Trejo, Erick A; Sánchez-González, Luis A

    2017-04-12

    Phylogenetic relationships and patterns of evolution within Melanerpes, one of the most diverse groups of New World woodpeckers (22-23 lineages), have been complicated due to complex plumages and morphological adaptations. In an attempt to resolve these issues, we obtained sequence data from four nuclear introns and two mitochondrial protein-coding genes for 22 of the 24 currently recognized species in the genus. We performed phylogenetic analyses involving Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference, species-tree divergence dating, and biogeographic reconstructions. Tree topologies from the concatenated and species-tree analyses of the mtDNA and nDNA showed broadly similar patterns, with three relatively well-supported groups apparent: a) the Sphyrapicus clade (four species); b) the typical Melanerpes clade, which includes temperate and subtropical dry forest black-backed species; and c) the mostly barred-backed species, here referred to as the "Centurus" clade. The phylogenetic position of Melanerpes superciliaris regarding the rest of Melanerpes is ambiguous as it is recovered as sister to the rest of Melanerpes or as sister to a group including Sphyrapicus + Melanerpes. Our species tree estimations recovered the same well-delimited highly-supported clades. Geographic range evolution (estimated in BioGeoBEARS) was best explained by a DIVALIKE + j model, which includes vicariance, founder effect speciation, and anagenetic dispersal (range expansion) as important processes involved in the diversification of the largest radiation of woodpeckers in the New World.

  6. Concordant genetic structure in two species of woodpecker distributed across the primary West African biogeographic barriers.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jérôme; Bowie, Rauri C K

    2015-07-01

    The lowland forests of western and central tropical Africa are separated by several potential biogeographic barriers to dispersal for forest adapted vertebrates. The two primary barriers are (1) the Dahomey Gap, a savanna corridor that reaches the coast of southern Ghana, Togo and Benin, and separates the West African rainforest into the Upper (Ghana west to Guinea) and Lower Guinea (Nigeria to Uganda and Angola) forest blocks, and (2) the Lower Niger River, a large delta that separates Western and Eastern Nigeria. Previous studies on terrestrial vertebrates (lizards, mammals and birds) have highlighted a genetic break in the Dahomey Gap/Lower Niger River area although the relative importance of each barrier has not been assessed due to limitations in geographic sampling. We compared the phylogeographic history of two co-distributed sister-species of woodpeckers (Campethera caroli and C. nivosa) using data from three loci representing all inheritance modes. Our analyses revealed that both the Dahomey Gap and possibly the Lower Niger River acted as strong biogeographic barriers for the two woodpecker species, with the Lower Niger River being the first barrier to have formed, leading to three distinct populations of C. nivosa. Our divergence time analyses revealed that both these biogeographic barriers formed during the Pleistocene, supporting the Pleistocene refuge hypothesis, with the Dahomey Gap likely appearing about 0.5 myr BP. No genetic structure was recovered among sampled populations in either the Upper or the Lower Guinea Forest Block for both species, despite the considerable geographic area covered.

  7. Evolutionary history of woodpeckers and allies (Aves: Picidae): placing key taxa on the phylogenetic tree.

    PubMed

    Benz, Brett W; Robbins, Mark B; Peterson, A Townsend

    2006-08-01

    We analyzed 2995 base pairs of nucleotide sequence data (nuclear beta-fibrinogen intron 7 and mitochondrial cytochrome b and ND2 genes), using parsimony and model-based approaches to infer phylogenetic relationships of the woodpeckers and allies, yielding novel hypotheses for several critical gaps in the knowledge of picid phylogeny. We tested the monophyly of sub-families within the Picidae, and sampled from widely distributed and diverse genera (Celeus, Colaptes, Dryocopus, Melanerpes, Picoides, Picumnus, Sasia, Piculus, and Picus). Relationships of three poorly known Southeast Asian genera (Dinopium, Reinwardtipicus, and Blythipicus) were also examined, revealing unexpected sister relationships. All phylogenetic approaches recovered largely congruent topologies, supporting a monophyletic Picinae and paraphyletic Picumninae, with the monotypic piculet, Nesoctites micromegas, as sister to the Picinae. We report paraphyly for Celeus and Piculus, whereas the broadly distributed genera Picumnus and Dryocopus were supported as monophyletic. Our phylogenetic results indicate a complex geographic history for the Picidae, with multiple disjunct sister lineages distributed between the New World and Asia. The relationships and geographic distribution of basal picid lineages indicates an Old World origin of the Picidae; however, the geographic origin of the Picinae remains equivocal, as the sister relationship between the Caribbean N. micromegas and the true woodpeckers presents the possibility of a New World origin for the Picinae.

  8. Relationship between jaw apparatus, feeding habit, and food source in oriental woodpeckers.

    PubMed

    Donatelli, Reginaldo José; Höfling, Elizabeth; Catalano, Ana Luiza C

    2014-04-01

    Associations among feeding habit, beak type, and food source in birds have been widely studied and are well known to exist. The relationship between feeding habit and jaw apparatus in birds has not attracted attention from ornithologists, perhaps because of the complexity of the skeletal morphology of the feeding system of birds. The goal of this study was to compare the jaw apparatus and foraging strategies of various Oriental species of the Picidae (Meiglyptini and Picini tribes) using a morphofunctional analysis of the skeletal structure of the jaw apparatus. This study showed that there are at least three types of jaw apparatus in these woodpeckers, as follows: 1) robust, developed, and complex; 2) complexity and development intermediate, as observed in Meiglyptes tristis and Dinopium spp., whose main foraging method involves gleaning, probing, and tapping; and 3) poorly developed, as observed in Picus miniaceus and Hemicircus concretus. The success of woodpeckers as a natural group is due not only to their feeding diversity, but also their ability to explore a wide range of different resources, as appropriate to their jaw apparatus.

  9. Temporal variability and cooperative breeding: testing the bet-hedging hypothesis in the acorn woodpecker

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Walter D.; Walters, Eric L.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative breeding is generally considered an adaptation to ecological constraints on dispersal and independent breeding, usually due to limited breeding opportunities. Although benefits of cooperative breeding are typically thought of in terms of increased mean reproductive success, it has recently been proposed that this phenomenon may be a bet-hedging strategy that reduces variance in reproductive success (fecundity variance) in populations living in highly variable environments. We tested this hypothesis using long-term data on the polygynandrous acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus). In general, fecundity variance decreased with increasing sociality, at least when controlling for annual variation in ecological conditions. Nonetheless, decreased fecundity variance was insufficient to compensate for reduced per capita reproductive success of larger, more social groups, which typically suffered lower estimated mean fitness. We did, however, find evidence that sociality in the form of larger group size resulted in increased fitness in years following a small acorn crop due to reduced fecundity variance. Bet-hedging, although not the factor driving sociality in general, may play a role in driving acorn woodpecker group living when acorns are scarce and ecological conditions are poor. PMID:26400744

  10. A new classification of the Pied Woodpeckers assemblage (Dendropicini, Picidae) based on a comprehensive multi-locus phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jérôme; Pons, Jean-Marc

    2015-07-01

    The pied woodpecker assemblage historically included the widespread genera Picoides and Dendrocopos. The assignment of species to either of these two genera has for long puzzled systematists due to their overall plumage similarity. Recent molecular studies not only suggested that both of these genera are not monophyletic, but also that four other genera, the African Dendropicos the South American Veniliornis and two Asian monospecific genera (Hypopicus and Sapheopipo) are nested within the Dendrocopos-Picoides clade. Yet, our current understanding of the phylogeny and taxonomy of this group is still very partial because several distinctive Old World species that have been assigned to different genera throughout their taxonomic history have not been sampled yet. Here, using DNA sequence data gathered from four loci, we reconstructed a species level phylogeny of the Indo-Malayan and Palearctic Pied Woodpeckers to understand the phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history of the Eurasian species with respect to African and New World lineages. Our phylogenetic analyses revealed nine strongly supported clades within the Dendropicini. Noticeably, two species that had disputed affinities at the genus level clustered in clades with species from the same biogeographical region: the Brown-backed Woodpecker (D. obsoletus) is nested in Dendropicos and the Arabian Woodpecker (D. dorae) is related to two Eurasian species, the Brown-fronted (D. auriceps) and Middle-spotted woodpeckers (D. medius). The nine clades have a strong biogeographic component and very few dispersal event among bioregions occurred. For example, the African species formed a clade, suggesting that only one dispersal event is needed to explain the presence of Dendropicini in Africa. Based on our phylogenetic results, we propose a new classification of the Dendropicini that recognizes nine genera. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Geographic Distribution of a Tropical Montane Bird Is Limited by a Tree: Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) and Colombian Oaks (Quercus humboldtii) in the Northern Andes.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Benjamin G; Mason, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    Species distributions are limited by a complex array of abiotic and biotic factors. In general, abiotic (climatic) factors are thought to explain species' broad geographic distributions, while biotic factors regulate species' abundance patterns at local scales. We used species distribution models to test the hypothesis that a biotic interaction with a tree, the Colombian oak (Quercus humboldtii), limits the broad-scale distribution of the Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) in the Northern Andes of South America. North American populations of Acorn Woodpeckers consume acorns from Quercus oaks and are limited by the presence of Quercus oaks. However, Acorn Woodpeckers in the Northern Andes seldom consume Colombian oak acorns (though may regularly drink sap from oak trees) and have been observed at sites without Colombian oaks, the sole species of Quercus found in South America. We found that climate-only models overpredicted Acorn Woodpecker distribution, suggesting that suitable abiotic conditions (e.g. in northern Ecuador) exist beyond the woodpecker's southern range margin. In contrast, models that incorporate Colombian oak presence outperformed climate-only models and more accurately predicted the location of the Acorn Woodpecker's southern range margin in southern Colombia. These findings support the hypothesis that a biotic interaction with Colombian oaks sets Acorn Woodpecker's broad-scale geographic limit in South America, probably because Acorn Woodpeckers rely on Colombian oaks as a food resource (possibly for the oak's sap rather than for acorns). Although empirical examples of particular plants limiting tropical birds' distributions are scarce, we predict that similar biotic interactions may play an important role in structuring the geographic distributions of many species of tropical montane birds with specialized foraging behavior.

  12. Quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Syringophilidae) associated with woodpeckers (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae).

    PubMed

    Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Kavetska, Katarzyna; Kaszewska, Katarzyna

    2014-03-01

    The paper contains a review of quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) associated with woodpeckers (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae). Three new species are described: Picobia mentalis Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Picus mentalis Temminck, Neopicobia ea Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Celeus flavus (St. Mueller) (type host), C. elegans (St. Mueller), C. torquatus (Boddaert), and Neopicobia freya Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Dryocopus galeatus (Temminck) (type host) and Piculus rubiginosus (Swainson). Additionally, six new host species for Picobia heeri Haller, 1878 and 12 new host species for Picobia dryobatis (Fritsch, 1956) are reported. A complete list of the picobiines parasitising birds of the family Picidae is presented in the tabular form.

  13. Molecular phylogenetics, vocalizations, and species limits in Celeus woodpeckers (Aves: Picidae).

    PubMed

    Benz, Brett W; Robbins, Mark B

    2011-10-01

    Species limits and the evolutionary mechanisms that have shaped diversification of woodpeckers and allies (Picidae) remain obscure, as inter and intraspecific phylogenetic relationships have yet to be comprehensively resolved for most genera. Herein, we analyzed 5020 base pairs of nucleotide sequence data from the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes to reconstruct the evolutionary history of Celeus woodpeckers. Broad geographic sampling was employed to assess species limits in phenotypically variable lineages and provide a first look at the evolution of song and plumage traits in this poorly known Neotropical genus. Our results strongly support the monophyly of Celeus and reveal several novel relationships across a shallow phylogenetic topology. We confirm the close sister relationship between Celeus spectabilis and the enigmatic Celeus obrieni, both of which form a clade with Celeus flavus. The Mesoamerican Celeus castaneus was placed as sister to a Celeus undatus-grammicus lineage, with the species status of the latter drawn into question given the lack of substantial genetic, morphological, and vocal variation in these taxa. We recovered paraphyly in Celeus elegans; however, this result appears to be the consequence of mitochondrial introgression from Celeus lugubris considering the monophyly of elegans at the ß-FIBI7 locus. A second instance of paraphyly was observed in Celeus flavescens with deep genetic splits and substantial phenotypic variation indicating the presence of two distinct species in this broadly distributed lineage. As such, we advocate elevation of Celeus flavescens ochraceus to species status. Our analysis of Celeus vocalizations and plumage characters demonstrates a pattern of lability consistent with a relatively recent origin of the genus and potentially rapid speciation history.

  14. Complete mitochondrial genomes of the white-browed piculet (Sasia ochracea, Picidae) and pale-billed woodpecker (Campephilus guatemalensis, Picidae).

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jérôme; Pons, Jean-Marc; Pasquet, Eric; Bonillo, Céline

    2016-09-01

    The mitochondrial genome of the white-browed piculet Sasia ochracea (Piciformes, Picidae) and the pale-billed woodpecker Campephilus guatemalensis (Piciformes, Picidae) were sequenced using a mixed strategy of Sanger and next-generation sequencing methods. The size of the circular mitochondrial genomes were 16 908 and 16 856 bp, respectively, and include 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer tRNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, a control region and a reduced pseudo control region. The functional control region was located between the tRNAThr and tRNAPro, as found in the two other Piciformes for which complete mtDNA data are available. The length of the pseudo-control region in the white-browed piculet (103 bp) and pale-billed woodpecker (87 bp) is similar to the size of that region in Dryocopus pileatus (60 bp) and much shorter that the length of this region in Pteroglossus azara (1493 bp), suggesting that size reduction occurred before the last common ancestor of the piculets and woodpeckers.

  15. Genetic signals of demographic expansion in Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens) after the last North American glacial maximum.

    PubMed

    Pulgarín-R, Paulo C; Burg, Theresa M

    2012-01-01

    The glacial cycles of the Pleistocene have been recognized as important, large-scale historical processes that strongly influenced the demographic patterns and genetic structure of many species. Here we present evidence of a postglacial expansion for the Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), a common member of the forest bird communities in North America with a continental distribution. DNA sequences from the mitochondrial tRNA-Lys, and ATPase 6 and 8 genes, and microsatellite data from seven variable loci were combined with a species distribution model (SDM) to infer possible historical scenarios for this species after the last glacial maximum. Analyses of Downy Woodpeckers from 23 geographic areas suggested little differentiation, shallow genealogical relationships, and limited population structure across the species' range. Microsatellites, which have higher resolution and are able to detect recent differences, revealed two geographic groups where populations along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains (Montana, Utah, Colorado, and southern Alberta) were genetically isolated from the rest of the sampled populations. Mitochondrial DNA, an important marker to detect historical patterns, recovered only one group. However, populations in Idaho and southeast BC contained high haplotype diversity and, in general were characterized by the absence of the most common mtDNA haplotype. The SDM suggested several areas in the southern US as containing suitable Downy Woodpecker habitat during the LGM. The lack of considerable geographic structure and the starburst haplotype network, combined with several population genetic tests, suggest a scenario of demographic expansion during the last part of Pleistocene and early Holocene.

  16. Genetic Signals of Demographic Expansion in Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens) after the Last North American Glacial Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Pulgarín-R, Paulo C.; Burg, Theresa M.

    2012-01-01

    The glacial cycles of the Pleistocene have been recognized as important, large-scale historical processes that strongly influenced the demographic patterns and genetic structure of many species. Here we present evidence of a postglacial expansion for the Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), a common member of the forest bird communities in North America with a continental distribution. DNA sequences from the mitochondrial tRNA-Lys, and ATPase 6 and 8 genes, and microsatellite data from seven variable loci were combined with a species distribution model (SDM) to infer possible historical scenarios for this species after the last glacial maximum. Analyses of Downy Woodpeckers from 23 geographic areas suggested little differentiation, shallow genealogical relationships, and limited population structure across the species’ range. Microsatellites, which have higher resolution and are able to detect recent differences, revealed two geographic groups where populations along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains (Montana, Utah, Colorado, and southern Alberta) were genetically isolated from the rest of the sampled populations. Mitochondrial DNA, an important marker to detect historical patterns, recovered only one group. However, populations in Idaho and southeast BC contained high haplotype diversity and, in general were characterized by the absence of the most common mtDNA haplotype. The SDM suggested several areas in the southern US as containing suitable Downy Woodpecker habitat during the LGM. The lack of considerable geographic structure and the starburst haplotype network, combined with several population genetic tests, suggest a scenario of demographic expansion during the last part of Pleistocene and early Holocene. PMID:22792306

  17. A phylogenetic analysis of woodpeckers and their allies using 12S, Cyt b, and COI nucleotide sequences (class Aves; order Piciformes).

    PubMed

    Webb, David Matthew; Moore, William S

    2005-08-01

    Although the woodpeckers have long been recognized as a natural, monophyletic taxon, morphological analyses of their intra- and intergeneric relationships have produced conflicting results. To clarify this issue, and as part of a larger study of piciform relationships, nucleotide sequences for the 12S ribosomal RNA (12S; 1123 bp), cytochrome b (Cyt b; 1022 bp), and cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (COI; 1512 bp) mitochondrial genes were obtained from 34 piciform species that included 16 of the 23 currently recognized woodpecker genera (subfamily Picinae), three piculets (subfamily Picumninae), a wryneck (subfamily Jynginae), a honeyguide (family Indicatoridae), and three barbets (infraorder Ramphastides). Analyses were conducted on the individual and combined 12S, Cyt b, and COI sequences with maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian algorithms. Based on the strong, congruent support among the different data partitions and models of sequence evolution, a highly resolved consensus of the relationships among woodpeckers and their allies could be formed. The monophyly of Indicatoridae + Picidae (infraorder Picides), Picidae, Picinae + Picumninae, and Picinae was strongly supported in all analyses. However, the tribes Colaptini, Picini, Campephilini, and Campetherini were shown to be paraphyletic as were the genera of Colaptes and Piculus. A revision of the tribal-level classification of woodpeckers is proposed and the importance of plumage convergence among woodpeckers is discussed.

  18. Improving inferences from short-term ecological studies with Bayesian hierarchical modeling: white-headed woodpeckers in managed forests.

    PubMed

    Linden, Daniel W; Roloff, Gary J

    2015-08-01

    Pilot studies are often used to design short-term research projects and long-term ecological monitoring programs, but data are sometimes discarded when they do not match the eventual survey design. Bayesian hierarchical modeling provides a convenient framework for integrating multiple data sources while explicitly separating sample variation into observation and ecological state processes. Such an approach can better estimate state uncertainty and improve inferences from short-term studies in dynamic systems. We used a dynamic multistate occupancy model to estimate the probabilities of occurrence and nesting for white-headed woodpeckers Picoides albolarvatus in recent harvest units within managed forests of northern California, USA. Our objectives were to examine how occupancy states and state transitions were related to forest management practices, and how the probabilities changed over time. Using Gibbs variable selection, we made inferences using multiple model structures and generated model-averaged estimates. Probabilities of white-headed woodpecker occurrence and nesting were high in 2009 and 2010, and the probability that nesting persisted at a site was positively related to the snag density in harvest units. Prior-year nesting resulted in higher probabilities of subsequent occurrence and nesting. We demonstrate the benefit of forest management practices that increase the density of retained snags in harvest units for providing white-headed woodpecker nesting habitat. While including an additional year of data from our pilot study did not drastically alter management recommendations, it changed the interpretation of the mechanism behind the observed dynamics. Bayesian hierarchical modeling has the potential to maximize the utility of studies based on small sample sizes while fully accounting for measurement error and both estimation and model uncertainty, thereby improving the ability of observational data to inform conservation and management strategies.

  19. Improving inferences from short-term ecological studies with Bayesian hierarchical modeling: white-headed woodpeckers in managed forests

    PubMed Central

    Linden, Daniel W; Roloff, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    Pilot studies are often used to design short-term research projects and long-term ecological monitoring programs, but data are sometimes discarded when they do not match the eventual survey design. Bayesian hierarchical modeling provides a convenient framework for integrating multiple data sources while explicitly separating sample variation into observation and ecological state processes. Such an approach can better estimate state uncertainty and improve inferences from short-term studies in dynamic systems. We used a dynamic multistate occupancy model to estimate the probabilities of occurrence and nesting for white-headed woodpeckers Picoides albolarvatus in recent harvest units within managed forests of northern California, USA. Our objectives were to examine how occupancy states and state transitions were related to forest management practices, and how the probabilities changed over time. Using Gibbs variable selection, we made inferences using multiple model structures and generated model-averaged estimates. Probabilities of white-headed woodpecker occurrence and nesting were high in 2009 and 2010, and the probability that nesting persisted at a site was positively related to the snag density in harvest units. Prior-year nesting resulted in higher probabilities of subsequent occurrence and nesting. We demonstrate the benefit of forest management practices that increase the density of retained snags in harvest units for providing white-headed woodpecker nesting habitat. While including an additional year of data from our pilot study did not drastically alter management recommendations, it changed the interpretation of the mechanism behind the observed dynamics. Bayesian hierarchical modeling has the potential to maximize the utility of studies based on small sample sizes while fully accounting for measurement error and both estimation and model uncertainty, thereby improving the ability of observational data to inform conservation and management strategies

  20. Scrub-successional bird community dynamics in young and mature longleaf pine-wiregrass savannahs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Christie, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    Public agencies are required to manage for threatened and endangered species and for biodiversity. However, at times, management for threatened and endangered species precludes consideration of other species. We investigated how managing for red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) and biodiversity at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, affected communities of bird species that use early-successional scrub habitat (hereafter, scrub-successional species). Management for red-cockaded woodpeckers at the SRS involved both (1) manipulating mature longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)-wiregrass (Andropogon spp.) stands via canopy thinning, removal of midstory trees, and prescribed burning; and (2) even-aged timber harvesting. The former management practice encouraged red-cockaded woodpeckers to establish new colonies in previously unoccupied stands (hereafter, 'recruitment' stands). The latter management practice is used to remove off-site planted pines and replant with preferred longleaf pines. We conducted a constant-effort mist net study in recruitment and regenerating stands (stands clearcut and planted with longleaf pine) during the breeding seasons of 1995-96. We hypothesized that the scrub-successional bird community in recruitment stands would have greater species richness and higher survival and reproductive rates per species than in regenerating stands. However, recruitment stands always had fewer scrub-successional species (1995:36 species; 1996:31 species) than regenerating stands (1995:54 species; 1996:55 species), and all species that occurred in recruitment stands also occurred in regenerating stands. Species which commonly occurred in both recruitment and regenerating stands had similar adult:juvenile ratios (P > 0.15) and relative proportion of adults in breeding condition (P > 0.05). We detected no difference in survival rates of Bachman's sparrows (Aimophila aestivalis), indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea), and of 'combined' scrub

  1. The Savannah River: Site Description, Land Use and Management History

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.L.; Gaines, K.F.

    2000-10-01

    Aboriginal and early European settlement were primarily along streams where much of the farming and timber cutting occurred. Woodland grazing occurred in the upland and lowlands. Land use intensity increased after the Civil War and peaked in the 1920's. The impact of agricultural and timber cutting practices left little land untouched. Grazing and the reduction in fire limited reproduction of longleaf pine. After 1951, a massive reforestation effort was implemented. Over the last decades efforts have shifted to recovering the red-cockaded woodpecker and restoring other habitats.

  2. Comparative study of the mechanical properties, micro-structure, and composition of the cranial and beak bones of the great spotted woodpecker and the lark bird.

    PubMed

    Wang, LiZhen; Zhang, HongQuan; Fan, YuBo

    2011-11-01

    Woodpeckers are well able to resist head injury during repeated high speed impacts at 6-7 m s⁻¹ with decelerations up to 1000 g. This study was designed to compare the mechanical properties, microstructures and compositions of cranial bone and beak bone of great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major) and the Mongolian sky lark (Melanocorypha mongolica). Microstructures were observed using micro-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy and their compositions were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Under high stress, the cranial bone and the beak of the woodpecker exhibited distinctive mechanical features, which were associated with differences in micro-structure and composition, compared with those of the lark. Evolutionary optimization of bone micro-structure has enabled functional adaptation to the woodpecker's specific lifestyle. Its characteristic micro-structure efficiently avoids head impact injury and may provide potential clues to the prevention of brain injury using bio-inspired designs of shock-absorbing materials.

  3. The role of wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations on the population dynamics of black-backed woodpeckers in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Treesearch

    Christopher T. Rota; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Mark A. Rumble; Chad P. Lehman; Dylan C. Kesler

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic...

  4. Habitat Selection and Reproductive Success of Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis) at Its Northern Limit

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiang; Srivastava, Diane S.; Martin, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis) has experienced population declines in both Canada and the United States and in 2010 was assigned a national listing of threatened in Canada. We conducted a two-year study (2004–2005) of this species at its northern range limit, the South Okanagan Valley in British Columbia, Canada. Our main objective was to determine whether the habitat features that influenced nest-site selection also predicted nest success, or whether other factors (e.g. cavity dimensions, clutch initiation date or time of season) were more important. Nest tree decay class, density of suitable cavities and total basal area of large trees were the best predictors of nest-site selection, but these factors were unrelated to nesting success. Estimates of demographic parameters (mean ± SE) included daily nest survival rate (0.988±0.003, years combined), nest success (0.52±0.08), clutch size (5.00±0.14 eggs), female fledglings per successful nest (1.31±0.11), and annual productivity (0.68±0.12 female fledglings per nest per year). Although higher nest survival was associated with both early and late initiated clutches, early-initiated clutches allowed birds to gain the highest annual productivity as early clutches were larger. Nests in deep cavities with small entrances experienced lower predation risk especially during the peak period of nest predation. We concluded that nest-site selection can be predicted by a number of easily measured habitat variables, whereas nest success depended on complicated ecological interactions among nest predators, breeding behaviors, and cavity features. Thus, habitat-based conservation strategies should also consider ecological factors that may not be well predicted by habitat. PMID:23028525

  5. Strong reproductive isolation and narrow genomic tracts of differentiation among three woodpecker species in secondary contact.

    PubMed

    Grossen, Christine; Seneviratne, Sampath S; Croll, Daniel; Irwin, Darren E

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid zones allow the measurement of gene flow across the genome, producing insight into the genomic architecture of speciation. Such analysis is particularly powerful when applied to multiple pairs of hybridizing species, as patterns of genomic differentiation can then be related to age of the hybridizing species, providing a view into the build-up of differentiation over time. We examined 33 809 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three hybridizing woodpecker species: Red-breasted, Red-naped and Yellow-bellied sapsuckers (Sphyrapicus ruber, Sphyrapicus nuchalis and Sphyrapicus varius), two of which (ruber and nuchalis) are much more closely related than each is to the third (varius). To identify positions of SNPs on chromosomes, we developed a localization method based on comparative genomics. We found narrow clines, bimodal distributions of hybrid indices and genomic regions with decreased rates of introgression. These results suggest moderately strong reproductive isolation among species and selection against specific hybrid genotypes. We found 19 small regions of strong differentiation between species, partly shared among species pairs, but no large regions of differentiation. An association analysis revealed a single strong-effect candidate locus associated with plumage, possibly explaining mismatch among the three species in genomic relatedness and plumage similarity. Our comparative analysis of species pairs of different age and their hybrid zones showed that moderately strong reproductive isolation can occur with little genomic differentiation, but that reproductive isolation is incomplete even with much greater genomic differentiation, implying there are long periods of time when hybridization is possible if diverging populations are in geographic contact. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Molecular phylogeny of a cosmopolitan group of woodpeckers (genus Picoides) gased on COI and cyt b mitochondrial gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Weibel, Amy C; Moore, William S

    2002-01-01

    Picoides is the largest genus of woodpeckers and member species are found on most major land masses. Current systematic arrangement of this group, based on morphological, behavioral, and plumage characters, suggests that New World species evolved from a single invasion by a Eurasian common ancestor and that all New World species form a monophyletic group. No clear link has ever been established between the relationships of Old World and New World species other than to infer that the most primitive species is Eurasian. This study employs DNA sequences for two protein-coding mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase I and cytochrome b, to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among all New World species and several Eurasian representatives of the genus Picoides. A well-resolved mitochondrial gene tree is in direct conflict with proposed species relationships based on nongenetic characters; monophyly among New World species is rejected, the evolution of New World species likely resulted from as many as three independent Eurasian invasions, and Picoides is paraphyletic with two other woodpecker genera, Veniliornis and Dendropicos. These results strongly suggest that this large, cosmopolitan genus is in need of systematic revision in order to reflect evolutionary history.

  7. The role of testosterone in male downy woodpeckers in winter home range use, mate interactions and female foraging behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kellam, James S; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Wingfield, John C

    2006-03-01

    Studies of the role of testosterone (T) in birds have typically focused on sexual or aggressive behaviours of males during the breeding period, but males of nonmigratory species may invest in mate and territory long before breeding, and the influence of T in facilitating nonbreeding-season behaviours is poorly understood. We gave free-living male downy woodpeckers, Picoides pubescens, T-implants during the winter to determine whether elevated levels of T increased a male's ability to exclusively occupy territory-based resources, and whether elevated T strengthened a male's investment in an existing pair bond relationship. We also explored how a female's foraging efficiency might be affected by her mate's behaviour if he had elevated T. We found little difference between control and T-implanted males with regard to home range exclusivity. Surprisingly, male-male display rates were significantly lower in T-implanted males than in controls. Regarding male-female interactions, T-implanted males that experienced high incursion rates from other males maintained more frequent spatial association with their mate, suggesting that T facilitates male behaviours that could restrict the mate's access to other male birds. Female mates of T-males showed reduced foraging rates, but because male-female aggression was similar between treatment groups, the cause for this reduction is unknown. The results indicate that exogenous T during winter affects a variety of behaviours in male woodpeckers, and proximate influences on pair bond maintenance in winter may be a fruitful avenue for future research.

  8. Intra-annual variation in habitat choice by an endemic woodpecker: Implications for forest management and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-del-Rey, Eduardo; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Muñoz, Pascual Gil

    2009-09-01

    The Canary Islands great spotted woodpecker Dendrocopos major canariensis is an endemic bird restricted to the Pinus canariensis forests of Tenerife and Gran Canaria. Classification tree models were applied to explore the relationship of the occurrence of this picid and habitat variables between two contrasting periods (breeding vs. non-breeding seasons) and for the entire annual cycle. During the reproductive period the availability of mature trees (DBH > 60 cm), and snags (dead trees), for nesting and roosting, characterize the breeding territory. Outside the breeding season the choice of locations was driven by a tree cover larger than 28.5% and the presence of trees taller than 8.5 m on average, a pattern explained by the availability of pine seeds in the cones of well-developed canopies, and less so by predation risk. Overall, during the annual cycle, well-developed canopy sites influenced the presence of this picidae (tree cover > 38%) and on more open sites (<38%) the presence of mature trees (DBH> 60 cm) became the second most important predictor of occurrence. We suggest that food abundance and availability could be the ultimate factor explaining the intra-annual variation observed, with the availability of snags being an important factor during nesting. In the range of this endemic, we recommend selective cuts in pine plantations, to allow the trees to set seed and improve their crops, minimizing the elimination of snags, and killing some large pine trees if the priority is to expand the distributional range of the woodpecker.

  9. The Geographic Distribution of a Tropical Montane Bird Is Limited by a Tree: Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) and Colombian Oaks (Quercus humboldtii) in the Northern Andes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Species distributions are limited by a complex array of abiotic and biotic factors. In general, abiotic (climatic) factors are thought to explain species’ broad geographic distributions, while biotic factors regulate species’ abundance patterns at local scales. We used species distribution models to test the hypothesis that a biotic interaction with a tree, the Colombian oak (Quercus humboldtii), limits the broad-scale distribution of the Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) in the Northern Andes of South America. North American populations of Acorn Woodpeckers consume acorns from Quercus oaks and are limited by the presence of Quercus oaks. However, Acorn Woodpeckers in the Northern Andes seldom consume Colombian oak acorns (though may regularly drink sap from oak trees) and have been observed at sites without Colombian oaks, the sole species of Quercus found in South America. We found that climate-only models overpredicted Acorn Woodpecker distribution, suggesting that suitable abiotic conditions (e.g. in northern Ecuador) exist beyond the woodpecker’s southern range margin. In contrast, models that incorporate Colombian oak presence outperformed climate-only models and more accurately predicted the location of the Acorn Woodpecker’s southern range margin in southern Colombia. These findings support the hypothesis that a biotic interaction with Colombian oaks sets Acorn Woodpecker’s broad-scale geographic limit in South America, probably because Acorn Woodpeckers rely on Colombian oaks as a food resource (possibly for the oak’s sap rather than for acorns). Although empirical examples of particular plants limiting tropical birds’ distributions are scarce, we predict that similar biotic interactions may play an important role in structuring the geographic distributions of many species of tropical montane birds with specialized foraging behavior. PMID:26083262

  10. Foraging patterns of acorn woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) on valley oak (Quercus lobata Née) in two California oak savanna-woodlands.

    PubMed

    Scofield, Douglas G; Alfaro, Victor Ryan; Sork, Victoria L; Grivet, Delphine; Martinez, Edith; Papp, Jeannette; Pluess, Andrea R; Koenig, Walter D; Smouse, Peter E

    2011-05-01

    Landscape characteristics and social behavior can affect the foraging patterns of seed-dependent animals. We examine the movement of acorns from valley oak (Quercus lobata) trees to granaries maintained by acorn woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) in two California oak savanna-woodlands differing in the distribution of Q. lobata within each site. In 2004, we sampled Q. lobata acorns from 16 granaries at Sedgwick Reserve in Santa Barbara County and 18 granaries at Hastings Reserve in Monterey County. Sedgwick has lower site-wide density of Q. lobata than Hastings as well as different frequencies of other Quercus species common to both sites. We found acorn woodpeckers foraged from fewer Q. lobata seed source trees (K(g) = 4.1 ± 0.5) at Sedgwick than at Hastings (K(g) = 7.6 ± 0.6) and from fewer effective seed sources (N(em)* = 2.00 and 5.78, respectively). The differences between sites are due to a greater number of incidental seed sources used per granary at Hastings than at Sedgwick. We also found very low levels of seed source sharing between adjacent granaries, indicating that territoriality is strong at both sites and that each social group forages on its own subset of trees. We discovered an interesting spatial pattern in the location of granaries. At Sedgwick, acorn woodpeckers situated their granaries within areas of higher-than-average tree density, while at Hastings, they placed them within areas of lower-than-average tree density, with the outcome that granaries at the two sites were located in areas of similar valley oak density. Our results illustrate that landscape characteristics might influence the number of trees visited by acorn woodpeckers and the locations of territories, while woodpecker social behavior, such as territoriality, shapes which trees are visited and whether they are shared with other social groups.

  11. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A female Red-bellied Woodpecker clings to a utility pole where it has made a home on Merritt Island Wildlife Refuge. The most common type of woodpecker in the South, the "Zebraback" nests in the cavities of trees and consumes large quantities of wood-boring beetles, as well as other insect pests. More than 280 species of birds make their homes on the 140,000-acre refuge, which lies within the boundaries of Kennedy Space Center.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-04-10

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A female Red-bellied Woodpecker clings to a utility pole where it has made a home on Merritt Island Wildlife Refuge. The most common type of woodpecker in the South, the "Zebraback" nests in the cavities of trees and consumes large quantities of wood-boring beetles, as well as other insect pests. More than 280 species of birds make their homes on the 140,000-acre refuge, which lies within the boundaries of Kennedy Space Center.

  12. Comparative evolution of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and nuclear beta-fibrinogen intron 7 in woodpeckers.

    PubMed

    Prychitko, T M; Moore, W S

    2000-07-01

    Most molecular phylogenetic studies of vertebrates have been based on DNA sequences of mitochondrial-encoded genes. MtDNA evolves rapidly and is thus particularly useful for resolving relationships among recently evolved groups. However, it has the disadvantage that all of the mitochondrial genes are inherited as a single linkage group so that only one independent gene tree can be inferred regardless of the number of genes sequenced. Introns of nuclear genes are attractive candidates for independent sources of rapidly evolving DNA: they are pervasive, most of their nucleotides appear to be unconstrained by selection, and PCR primers can be designed for sequences in adjacent exons where nucleotide sequences are conserved. We sequenced intron 7 of the beta-fibrinogen gene (beta-fibint7) for a diversity of woodpeckers and compared the phylogenetic signal and nucleotide substitution properties of this DNA sequence with that of mitochondrial-encoded cytochrome b (cyt b) from a previous study. A few indels (insertions and deletions) were found in the beta-fibint7 sequences, but alignment was not difficult, and the indels were phylogentically informative. The beta-fibint7 and cyt b gene trees were nearly identical to each other but differed in significant ways from the traditional woodpecker classification. Cyt b evolves 2.8 times as fast as beta-fibint7 (14. 0 times as fast at third codon positions). Despite its relatively slow substitution rate, the phylogenetic signal in beta-fibint7 is comparable to that in cyt b for woodpeckers, because beta-fibint7 has less base composition bias and more uniform nucleotide substitution probabilities. As a consequence, compared with cyt b, beta-fibint7 nucleotide sites are expected to enter more distinct character states over the course of evolution and have fewer multiple substitutions and lower levels of homoplasy. Moreover, in contrast to cyt b, in which nearly two thirds of nucleotide sites rarely vary among closely related taxa

  13. Using Lidar-derived 3-D Vegetation Structure Maps to Assist in the Search for the Ivory- billed Woodpecker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofton, M. A.; Blair, J. B.; Rabine, D.; Dubayah, R.; Greim, H.

    2006-12-01

    Averaging about 20 inches in length, the ivory-billed woodpecker is among the world's largest woodpeckers. It once ranged through swampy forests in the southeastern and lower Mississippi valley states, and until recently was believed to have become extinct in the 1940's when commercial logging destroyed its last known habitat. Recent sightings however, may indicate the birds' survival in remaining bottomland hardwood forest adjacent to the Cache and White Rivers in Arkansas. In June-July 2006, NASA's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) was used to map approximately 5000 km2 of the White River National Wildlife Refuge in Arkansas, including sites where recent possible sightings of the bird occurred. LVIS is an airborne, medium- footprint (5- to 25-meter diameter), full waveform-recording, airborne, scanning lidar system which has been used extensively for mapping forest structure, habitat, carbon and natural hazards. The system digitally records the shape of the returning laser echo, or waveform, after its interaction with the various reflecting surfaces of the earth (leaves, branches, ground, etc.), providing a true 3-dimensional record of the surface structure. Data collected included ground elevation and canopy height measurements for each laser footprint, as well as the vertical distribution of intercepted surfaces (the return waveform). Experimental metrics such as canopy structure metrics based on energy quartiles, as well as ground energy/canopy cover and waveform complexity metrics will be derived from each waveform. The project is a collaborative effort between the University of Maryland, NASA, USGS, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The LVIS-generated data of the 3- D vegetation structure and underlying terrain will be used as a means to guide local, ground-based search efforts in the upcoming field season as well as identify the remaining areas of habitat suitable for protection should the bird be found.

  14. Nonbreeding season pairing behavior and the annual cycle of testosterone in male and female downy woodpeckers, Picoides pubescens.

    PubMed

    Kellam, James S; Wingfield, John C; Lucas, Jeffrey R

    2004-12-01

    Studies in birds show that testosterone (T) concentrations vary over the annual cycle depending on mating system and life history traits. Socially monogamous species show pairing behavior throughout the year and low levels of male-male aggression and are underrepresented in these studies, yet the function of testosterone could be particularly important for sexual and social interactions occurring outside the breeding season. We measured fecal T concentrations over the annual cycle and the frequency of interactions between male and female downy woodpeckers (Picoides pubescens) from late fall through early spring. We validated the fecal assay by collecting blood in conjunction with a subsample of our fecal samples: fecal T correlated with circulating levels in the blood. The annual peak level of T in males was relatively low and short-lived, similar to that of other bird species with low levels of male-male aggression and high paternal care. The annual cycle of female T resembled the male pattern, and the ratio of male T to female T was close to 1.0. Likewise, the frequency of aggression among females was similar to the frequency among males. Overall, testosterone levels in both sexes were variable, even in winter. In other bird species, sexual behavior during nonbreeding periods correlates with circulating levels of T in males. Based on this observation, we tested the hypothesis that T in winter was positively related to the frequency of interaction between mated downy woodpeckers. The results showed no such relationship. We discuss this finding and further relate the annual cycle of T in both males and females to behaviors that appear to facilitate mate choice and retention of the pair bond during conspecific challenge.

  15. Black-backed woodpecker habitat suitability mapping using conifer snag basal area estimated from airborne laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas Planes, Á.; Garcia, M.; Siegel, R.; Koltunov, A.; Ramirez, C.; Ustin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Occupancy and habitat suitability models for snag-dependent wildlife species are commonly defined as a function of snag basal area. Although critical for predicting or assessing habitat suitability, spatially distributed estimates of snag basal area are not generally available across landscapes at spatial scales relevant for conservation planning. This study evaluates the use of airborne laser scanning (ALS) to 1) identify individual conifer snags and map their basal area across a recently burned forest, and 2) map habitat suitability for a wildlife species known to be dependent on snag basal area, specifically the black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus). This study focuses on the Rim Fire, a megafire that took place in 2013 in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, creating large patches of medium- and high-severity burned forest. We use forest inventory plots, single-tree ALS-derived metrics and Gaussian processes classification and regression to identify conifer snags and estimate their stem diameter and basal area. Then, we use the results to map habitat suitability for the black-backed woodpecker using thresholds for conifer basal area from a previously published habitat suitability model. Local maxima detection and watershed segmentation algorithms resulted in 75% detection of trees with stem diameter larger than 30 cm. Snags are identified with an overall accuracy of 91.8 % and conifer snags are identified with an overall accuracy of 84.8 %. Finally, Gaussian process regression reliably estimated stem diameter (R2 = 0.8) using height and crown area. This work provides a fast and efficient methodology to characterize the extent of a burned forest at the tree level and a critical tool for early wildlife assessment in post-fire forest management and biodiversity conservation.

  16. Nest box use and productivity of great crested flycatchers in prescribed-burned longleaf pine forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Seginak, J.T.

    2000-01-01

    Managing for the endangered Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) on federal lands requires burning large tracts of mature pine forests every 3-5 yr. Many cavity trees that serve as potential nest sites for primary and secondary hole-nesting birds are destroyed by fire. We assessed the efficacy of a nest box program for the Great Crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitus) at Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge, an area intensively managed for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers. During 1996-1998, we installed and monitored 330 (30 in each of 11 sites) nest boxes in mature (>60 yr) longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) tracts that were burned either in April-June (warm season) or December-March (cool season). Prescribed-burned sites were nearly devoid of snags; we estimated only 0.8/ ha in cool-season burns and 1.7/ha in warm-season burns. Great Crested Flycatchers built nests in 20% of the boxes available to them. Clutch sizes were larger in warm-season burns than in cool-season burns, but fledging success (fledglings/nest hatching -1 egg) was lower. Twenty-two of 59 Great Crested Flycatcher nests were depredated and the proportions in each burn class were similar. We recommend the installation of nest boxes for Great Crested Flycatchers in prescribed-burned pine forests, but additional research is needed in these habitats on nest depredation rates and causes.

  17. Coping with Uncertainty: Woodpecker Finches (Cactospiza pallida) from an Unpredictable Habitat Are More Flexible than Birds from a Stable Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Tebbich, Sabine; Teschke, Irmgard

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural flexibility is thought to be a major factor in evolution. It may facilitate the discovery and exploitation of new resources, which in turn may expose populations to novel selective forces and facilitate adaptive radiation. Darwin's finches are a textbook example of adaptive radiation. They are fast learners and show a range of unusual foraging techniques, probably as a result of their flexibility. In this study we aimed to test whether variability of the environment is correlated with flexibility. We compared woodpecker finches from a dry area (hereafter, Arid Zone), where food availability is variable, with individuals from a cloud forest (hereafter, Scalesia zone) where food abundance is stable. As parameters for flexibility, we measured neophilia and neophobia, which are two aspects of reaction to novelty, reversal learning and problem-solving. We found no differences in performance on a problem-solving task but, in line with our prediction, individuals from the Arid Zone were significantly faster reversal learners and more neophilic than their conspecifics from the Scalesia zone. The latter result supports the notion that environmental variability drives flexibility. In contrast to our prediction, Arid Zone birds were even more neophobic than birds from the Scalesia Zone. The latter result could be the consequence of differences in predation pressure between the two vegetation zones. PMID:24638107

  18. Genomic Organization of Repetitive DNA in Woodpeckers (Aves, Piciformes): Implications for Karyotype and ZW Sex Chromosome Differentiation.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Thays Duarte; Kretschmer, Rafael; Bertocchi, Natasha Avila; Degrandi, Tiago Marafiga; de Oliveira, Edivaldo Herculano Corrêa; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Garnero, Analía Del Valle; Gunski, Ricardo José

    2017-01-01

    Birds are characterized by a low proportion of repetitive DNA in their genome when compared to other vertebrates. Among birds, species belonging to Piciformes order, such as woodpeckers, show a relatively higher amount of these sequences. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of different classes of repetitive DNA-including microsatellites, telomere sequences and 18S rDNA-in the karyotype of three Picidae species (Aves, Piciformes)-Colaptes melanochloros (2n = 84), Colaptes campestris (2n = 84) and Melanerpes candidus (2n = 64)-by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization. Clusters of 18S rDNA were found in one microchromosome pair in each of the three species, coinciding to a region of (CGG)10 sequence accumulation. Interstitial telomeric sequences were found in some macrochromosomes pairs, indicating possible regions of fusions, which can be related to variation of diploid number in the family. Only one, from the 11 different microsatellite sequences used, did not produce any signals. Both species of genus Colaptes showed a similar distribution of microsatellite sequences, with some difference when compared to M. candidus. Microsatellites were found preferentially in the centromeric and telomeric regions of micro and macrochromosomes. However, some sequences produced patterns of interstitial bands in the Z chromosome, which corresponds to the largest element of the karyotype in all three species. This was not observed in the W chromosome of Colaptes melanochloros, which is heterochromatic in most of its length, but was not hybridized by any of the sequences used. These results highlight the importance of microsatellite sequences in differentiation of sex chromosomes, and the accumulation of these sequences is probably responsible for the enlargement of the Z chromosome.

  19. Influence of habitat quality, population size, patch size, and connectivity on patch-occupancy dynamics of the middle spotted woodpecker.

    PubMed

    Robles, Hugo; Ciudad, Carlos

    2012-04-01

    Despite extensive research on the effects of habitat fragmentation, the ecological mechanisms underlying colonization and extinction processes are poorly known, but knowledge of these mechanisms is essential to understanding the distribution and persistence of populations in fragmented habitats. We examined these mechanisms through multiseason occupancy models that elucidated patch-occupancy dynamics of Middle Spotted Woodpeckers (Dendrocopos medius) in northwestern Spain. The number of occupied patches was relatively stable from 2000 to 2010 (15-24% of 101 patches occupied every year) because extinction was balanced by recolonization. Larger and higher quality patches (i.e., higher density of oaks >37 cm dbh [diameter at breast height]) were more likely to be occupied. Habitat quality (i.e., density of large oaks) explained more variation in patch colonization and extinction than did patch size and connectivity, which were both weakly associated with probabilities of turnover. Patches of higher quality were more likely to be colonized than patches of lower quality. Populations in high-quality patches were less likely to become extinct. In addition, extinction in a patch was strongly associated with local population size but not with patch size, which means the latter may not be a good surrogate of population size in assessments of extinction probability. Our results suggest that habitat quality may be a primary driver of patch-occupancy dynamics and may increase the accuracy of models of population survival. We encourage comparisons of competing models that assess occupancy, colonization, and extinction probabilities in a single analytical framework (e.g., dynamic occupancy models) so as to shed light on the association of habitat quality and patch geometry with colonization and extinction processes in different settings and species.

  20. Genomic Organization of Repetitive DNA in Woodpeckers (Aves, Piciformes): Implications for Karyotype and ZW Sex Chromosome Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kretschmer, Rafael; Bertocchi, Natasha Avila; Degrandi, Tiago Marafiga; de Oliveira, Edivaldo Herculano Corrêa; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Garnero, Analía del Valle; Gunski, Ricardo José

    2017-01-01

    Birds are characterized by a low proportion of repetitive DNA in their genome when compared to other vertebrates. Among birds, species belonging to Piciformes order, such as woodpeckers, show a relatively higher amount of these sequences. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of different classes of repetitive DNA—including microsatellites, telomere sequences and 18S rDNA—in the karyotype of three Picidae species (Aves, Piciformes)—Colaptes melanochloros (2n = 84), Colaptes campestris (2n = 84) and Melanerpes candidus (2n = 64)–by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization. Clusters of 18S rDNA were found in one microchromosome pair in each of the three species, coinciding to a region of (CGG)10 sequence accumulation. Interstitial telomeric sequences were found in some macrochromosomes pairs, indicating possible regions of fusions, which can be related to variation of diploid number in the family. Only one, from the 11 different microsatellite sequences used, did not produce any signals. Both species of genus Colaptes showed a similar distribution of microsatellite sequences, with some difference when compared to M. candidus. Microsatellites were found preferentially in the centromeric and telomeric regions of micro and macrochromosomes. However, some sequences produced patterns of interstitial bands in the Z chromosome, which corresponds to the largest element of the karyotype in all three species. This was not observed in the W chromosome of Colaptes melanochloros, which is heterochromatic in most of its length, but was not hybridized by any of the sequences used. These results highlight the importance of microsatellite sequences in differentiation of sex chromosomes, and the accumulation of these sequences is probably responsible for the enlargement of the Z chromosome. PMID:28081238

  1. A risk-based approach to evaluating wildlife demographics for management in a changing climate: A case study of the Lewis's Woodpecker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Towler, Erin; Saab, Victoria A.; Sojda, Richard S.; Dickinson, Katherine; Bruyere, Cindy L.; Newlon, Karen R.

    2012-01-01

    Given the projected threat that climate change poses to biodiversity, the need for proactive response efforts is clear. However, integrating uncertain climate change information into conservation planning is challenging, and more explicit guidance is needed. To this end, this article provides a specific example of how a risk-based approach can be used to incorporate a species' response to climate into conservation decisions. This is shown by taking advantage of species' response (i.e., impact) models that have been developed for a well-studied bird species of conservation concern. Specifically, we examine the current and potential impact of climate on nest survival of the Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis) in two different habitats. To address climate uncertainty, climate scenarios are developed by manipulating historical weather observations to create ensembles (i.e., multiple sequences of daily weather) that reflect historical variability and potential climate change. These ensembles allow for a probabilistic evaluation of the risk posed to Lewis's Woodpecker nest survival and are used in two demographic analyses. First, the relative value of each habitat is compared in terms of nest survival, and second, the likelihood of exceeding a critical population threshold is examined. By embedding the analyses in a risk framework, we show how management choices can be made to be commensurate with a defined level of acceptable risk. The results can be used to inform habitat prioritization and are discussed in the context of an economic framework for evaluating trade-offs between management alternatives.

  2. A test of a mitochondrial gene-based phylogeny of woodpeckers (genus Picoides) using an independent nuclear gene, beta-fibrinogen intron 7.

    PubMed

    Weibel, Amy C; Moore, William S

    2002-02-01

    A conservative estimate of the species tree for the woodpecker genus Picoides based on two mitochondrial protein-coding genes is tested using sequences of an independently evolving nuclear intron, beta-fibrinogen intron 7. The mitochondrial gene-based topology and the intron-based topology are concordant, and a partition-homogeneity statistical test did not detect phylogenetic heterogeneity. The intron evolves more slowly than the mitochondrial sequences and tends not to resolve relationships among recently evolved species. However, the intron is superior over mitochondrial genes in resolving older bifurcations in the phylogeny. The two data sets were combined resulting in a robust estimate of the Picoides species tree in which most every node is statistically supported by bootstrap proportions. The Picoides species tree clearly shows that many morphological and behavioral characters used to lump species into this single genus have evolved by convergent evolution. Picoides is considered the largest genus of woodpeckers, but the molecular-based species tree suggests that Picoides is actually a conglomerate of several smaller groups.

  3. Resolution of phylogenetic relationships among recently evolved species as a function of amount of DNA sequence: an empirical study based on woodpeckers (Aves: Picidae).

    PubMed

    DeFilippis, V R; Moore, W S

    2000-07-01

    Synonymous substitutions in the 13 mitochondrial encoded protein genes form a large pool of characters that should approach the ideal for phylogenetic analysis of being independently and identically distributed. Pooling sequences from multiple mitochondrial protein-coding genes should result in statistically more powerful estimates of relationships among species that diverged sufficiently recently that most nucleotide substitutions are synonymous. Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) was sequenced for woodpecker species for which cytochrome b (cyt b) sequences were available. A pairing-design test based on the normal distribution indicated that cyt b evolves more rapidly than COI when all nucleotides are compared but their rates are equal for synonymous substitutions. Nearly all of the phylogenetically informative substitutions among woodpeckers are synonymous. Statistical support for relationships, as measured by bootstrap proportions, increased as the number of nucleotides increased from 1047 (cyt b) to 1512 (COI) to 2559 nucleotides (aggregate data set). Pseudo-bootstrap replicates showed the same trend and increasing the amount of sequence beyond the actual length of 2559 nucleotides to 5120 (2x) resulted in stronger bootstrap support, even though the amount of phylogenetic information was the same. However, the amount of sequence required to resolve an internode depends on the length of the internode and its depth in the phylogeny.

  4. A Risk-Based Approach to Evaluating Wildlife Demographics for Management in a Changing Climate: A Case Study of the Lewis's Woodpecker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towler, Erin; Saab, Victoria A.; Sojda, Richard S.; Dickinson, Katherine; Bruyère, Cindy L.; Newlon, Karen R.

    2012-12-01

    Given the projected threat that climate change poses to biodiversity, the need for proactive response efforts is clear. However, integrating uncertain climate change information into conservation planning is challenging, and more explicit guidance is needed. To this end, this article provides a specific example of how a risk-based approach can be used to incorporate a species' response to climate into conservation decisions. This is shown by taking advantage of species' response (i.e., impact) models that have been developed for a well-studied bird species of conservation concern. Specifically, we examine the current and potential impact of climate on nest survival of the Lewis's Woodpecker ( Melanerpes lewis) in two different habitats. To address climate uncertainty, climate scenarios are developed by manipulating historical weather observations to create ensembles (i.e., multiple sequences of daily weather) that reflect historical variability and potential climate change. These ensembles allow for a probabilistic evaluation of the risk posed to Lewis's Woodpecker nest survival and are used in two demographic analyses. First, the relative value of each habitat is compared in terms of nest survival, and second, the likelihood of exceeding a critical population threshold is examined. By embedding the analyses in a risk framework, we show how management choices can be made to be commensurate with a defined level of acceptable risk. The results can be used to inform habitat prioritization and are discussed in the context of an economic framework for evaluating trade-offs between management alternatives.

  5. The role of wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations on the population dynamics of black-backed woodpeckers in the black hills, South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Rota, Christopher T; Millspaugh, Joshua J; Rumble, Mark A; Lehman, Chad P; Kesler, Dylan C

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic impact of natural disturbances can result in habitat loss for this species. Although black-backed woodpeckers occupy habitats created by wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations, the relative value of these habitats remains unknown. We studied habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probabilities and reproductive rates between April 2008 and August 2012 in the Black Hills, South Dakota. We estimated habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probability with Bayesian multi-state models and habitat-specific reproductive success with Bayesian nest survival models. We calculated asymptotic population growth rates from estimated demographic rates with matrix projection models. Adult and juvenile survival and nest success were highest in habitat created by summer wildfire, intermediate in MPB infestations, and lowest in habitat created by fall prescribed fire. Mean posterior distributions of population growth rates indicated growing populations in habitat created by summer wildfire and declining populations in fall prescribed fire and mountain pine beetle infestations. Our finding that population growth rates were positive only in habitat created by summer wildfire underscores the need to maintain early post-wildfire habitat across the landscape. The lower growth rates in fall prescribed fire and MPB infestations may be attributed to differences in predator communities and food resources relative to summer wildfire.

  6. The Role of Wildfire, Prescribed Fire, and Mountain Pine Beetle Infestations on the Population Dynamics of Black-Backed Woodpeckers in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    PubMed Central

    Rota, Christopher T.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Rumble, Mark A.; Lehman, Chad P.; Kesler, Dylan C.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic impact of natural disturbances can result in habitat loss for this species. Although black-backed woodpeckers occupy habitats created by wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations, the relative value of these habitats remains unknown. We studied habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probabilities and reproductive rates between April 2008 and August 2012 in the Black Hills, South Dakota. We estimated habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probability with Bayesian multi-state models and habitat-specific reproductive success with Bayesian nest survival models. We calculated asymptotic population growth rates from estimated demographic rates with matrix projection models. Adult and juvenile survival and nest success were highest in habitat created by summer wildfire, intermediate in MPB infestations, and lowest in habitat created by fall prescribed fire. Mean posterior distributions of population growth rates indicated growing populations in habitat created by summer wildfire and declining populations in fall prescribed fire and mountain pine beetle infestations. Our finding that population growth rates were positive only in habitat created by summer wildfire underscores the need to maintain early post-wildfire habitat across the landscape. The lower growth rates in fall prescribed fire and MPB infestations may be attributed to differences in predator communities and food resources relative to summer wildfire. PMID:24736502

  7. Toward an Experimental Basis for Protecting Forest Wildlife.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Larry L; Wigley, T Bently

    1993-05-01

    Social and economic debates over allocation of old-growth forests have spawned conservation strategies that are aimed at protecting sensitive wildlife species while allowing limited timber harvesting. We are interested in improving the scientific underpinnings for such conservation strategies, because doing so might both minimize costs of resource development and provide more reliable protection. Here, we discuss potential consequences from inductive inferencing systems used to develop technical support for protecting wildlife in temperate forests. For examples, we refer to recent conservation strategies for Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) and Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis). Soft inferencing systems could result in conservation strategies that fail to meet intended goals, thereby exacerbating forestry-wildlife debates. Greater emphasis should be placed on hypothetico-deductive inferencing processes that vigorously employ adaptive management principles. Such processes simultaneously test alternative landscape patterns and forestry options as rigorous management experiments, and thus could incrementally predicate forest policy upon an experimental basis.

  8. Scrub-Successional Bird Community Dynamics in Young and Mature Pine-Wiregrass Savannahs

    SciTech Connect

    Krementz, D.G.; Christie, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated how management for habitat conditions to support the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker effects the biodiversity of the breeding bird community associated with those habitats. Habitat is created by thinning, burning and mid-story control of hardwoods in mature longleaf stands. In addition, similar habitat structurally can be found in recently harvested areas. We tested the hypothesis that diversity and abundance, as well as survival and reproduction would be greater in mature stands. However, mature stands used for recruitment always had fewer species (36/31) than recently harvested areas (54/55). All species that occurred in recruitment stands also occurred in mature stands. No differences in survival rates were found between mature and recent cuts for Bachman's sparrow and indigo bunting.

  9. Integrating forage, wildlife, water, and fish projections with timber projections at the regional level: A case study in southern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, Linda A.; Flather, Curtis H.; Flebbe, Patricia A.; Hoekstra, Thomas W.; Ursic, Stan J.

    1990-07-01

    The impact of timber management and land-use change on forage production, turkey and deer abundance, red-cockaded woodpecker colonies, water yield, and trout abundance was projected as part of a policy study focusing on the southern United States. The multiresource modeling framework used in this study linked extant timber management and land-area policy models with newly developed models for forage, wildlife, fish, and water. Resource production was integrated through a commonly defined land base that could be geographically partitioned according to individual resource needs. Resources were responsive to changes in land use, particularly human-related, and timber management, particularly the harvest of older stands, and the conversion to planted pine.

  10. Military hazardous training sites overlapping with habitats for threatened and endangered species

    SciTech Connect

    Reinbold, K.; Grethen, W.; Taylor, P.

    1995-12-31

    Numerous threatened and endangered species live on military land during part or all of their lives. Army officials are required to comply with the Endangered Species Act. T and E species on military training areas, may be exposed to military chemicals (e.g. smokes and obscurants, explosives) as a stressors in addition to noise and human activity involved in the exercise. Reduction of conflict between critical mission requirements and RCWs is the goal. One T and E species of particular concern on military installations in the southeastern US is the red-cockaded Woodpecker (RCW). Examination of life history characteristics of T and E species, using the RCW as an example, combined with physical and chemical characteristics allows for a more accurate assessment of potential effects. Based on observations of RCW in the field during a smokes and obscurants training exercise, exposure to military chemicals is possible.

  11. The Value of Learning about Natural History in Biodiversity Markets

    PubMed Central

    Bruggeman, Douglas J.

    2015-01-01

    Markets for biodiversity have generated much controversy because of the often unstated and untested assumptions included in transactions rules. Simple trading rules are favored to reduce transaction costs, but others have argued that this leads to markets that favor development and erode biodiversity. Here, I describe how embracing complexity and uncertainty within a tradable credit system for the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) creates opportunities to achieve financial and conservation goals simultaneously. Reversing the effects of habitat fragmentation is one of the main reasons for developing markets. I include uncertainty in habitat fragmentation effects by evaluating market transactions using five alternative dispersal models that were able to approximate observed patterns of occupancy and movement. Further, because dispersal habitat is often not included in market transactions, I contrast how changes in breeding versus dispersal habitat affect credit values. I use an individually-based, spatially-explicit population model for the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) to predict spatial- and temporal- influences of landscape change on species occurrence and genetic diversity. Results indicated that the probability of no net loss of abundance and genetic diversity responded differently to the transient dynamics in breeding and dispersal habitat. Trades that do not violate the abundance cap may simultaneously violate the cap for the erosion of genetic diversity. To highlight how economic incentives may help reduce uncertainty, I demonstrate tradeoffs between the value of tradable credits and the value of information needed to predict the influence of habitat trades on population viability. For the trade with the greatest uncertainty regarding the change in habitat fragmentation, I estimate that the value of using 13-years of data to reduce uncertainty in dispersal behaviors is $6.2 million. Future guidance for biodiversity markets should at

  12. The Value of Learning about Natural History in Biodiversity Markets.

    PubMed

    Bruggeman, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Markets for biodiversity have generated much controversy because of the often unstated and untested assumptions included in transactions rules. Simple trading rules are favored to reduce transaction costs, but others have argued that this leads to markets that favor development and erode biodiversity. Here, I describe how embracing complexity and uncertainty within a tradable credit system for the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) creates opportunities to achieve financial and conservation goals simultaneously. Reversing the effects of habitat fragmentation is one of the main reasons for developing markets. I include uncertainty in habitat fragmentation effects by evaluating market transactions using five alternative dispersal models that were able to approximate observed patterns of occupancy and movement. Further, because dispersal habitat is often not included in market transactions, I contrast how changes in breeding versus dispersal habitat affect credit values. I use an individually-based, spatially-explicit population model for the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) to predict spatial- and temporal- influences of landscape change on species occurrence and genetic diversity. Results indicated that the probability of no net loss of abundance and genetic diversity responded differently to the transient dynamics in breeding and dispersal habitat. Trades that do not violate the abundance cap may simultaneously violate the cap for the erosion of genetic diversity. To highlight how economic incentives may help reduce uncertainty, I demonstrate tradeoffs between the value of tradable credits and the value of information needed to predict the influence of habitat trades on population viability. For the trade with the greatest uncertainty regarding the change in habitat fragmentation, I estimate that the value of using 13-years of data to reduce uncertainty in dispersal behaviors is $6.2 million. Future guidance for biodiversity markets should at

  13. The utility of DNA sequences of an intron from the beta-fibrinogen gene in phylogenetic analysis of woodpeckers (Aves: Picidae).

    PubMed

    Prychitko, T M; Moore, W S

    1997-10-01

    Estimating phylogenies from DNA sequence data has become the major methodology of molecular phylogenetics. To date, molecular phylogenetics of the vertebrates has been very dependent on mtDNA, but studies involving mtDNA are limited because the several genes comprising the mt-genome are inherited as a single linkage group. The only apparent solution to this problem is to sequence additional genes, each representing a distinct linkage group, so that the resultant gene trees provide independent estimates of the species tree. There exists the need to find novel gene sequences which contain enough phylogenetic information to resolve relationships between closely related species. A possible source is the nuclear-encoded introns, because they evolve more rapidly than exons. We designed primers to amplify and sequence the 7 intron from the beta-fibrinogen gene for a recently evolved group, the woodpeckers. We sequenced the entire intron for 10 specimens representing five species. Nucleotide substitutions are randomly distributed along the length of the intron, suggesting selective neutrality. A preliminary analysis indicates that the phylogenetic signal in the intron is as strong as that in the mitochondrial encoded cytochrome b (cyt b) gene. The topology of the beta-fibrinogen tree is identical to that of the cyt b tree. This analysis demonstrates the ability of the 7 intron of beta-fibrinogen to provide well resolved, independent gene trees for recently evolved groups and establishes it as a source of sequences to be used in other phylogenetic studies.

  14. Design for a region-wide adaptive search for the ivorybilled woodpecker with the objective of estimating occupancy and related parameters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, R.J.; Mordecai, Rua S.; Mattsson, B.G.; Conroy, M.J.; Pacifici, K.; Peterson, J.T.; Moore, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a survey design and field protocol for the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis) search effort that will: (1) allow estimation of occupancy, use, and detection probability for habitats at two spatial scales within the bird?s former range, (2) assess relationships between occupancy, use, and habitat characteristics at those scales, (3) eventually allow the development of a population viability model that depends on patch occupancy instead of difficult-to-measure demographic parameters, and (4) be adaptive, allowing newly collected information to update the above models and search locations. The approach features random selection of patches to be searched from a sampling frame stratified and weighted by patch quality, and requires multiple visits per patch. It is adaptive within a season in that increased search activity is allowed in and around locations of strong visual and/or aural evidence, and adaptive among seasons in that habitat associations allow modification of stratum weights. This statistically rigorous approach is an improvement over simply visiting the ?best? habitat in an ad hoc fashion because we can learn from prior effort and modify the search accordingly. Results from the 2006-07 search season indicate weak relationships between occupancy and habitat (although we suggest modifications of habitat measurement protocols), and a very low detection probability, suggesting more visits per patch are required. Sample size requirements will be discussed.

  15. Optimal regeneration planning for old-growth forest: addressing scientific uncertainty in endangered species recovery through adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, C.T.; Conroy, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Stochastic and structural uncertainties about forest dynamics present challenges in the management of ephemeral habitat conditions for endangered forest species. Maintaining critical foraging and breeding habitat for the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) requires an uninterrupted supply of old-growth forest. We constructed and optimized a dynamic forest growth model for the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge (Georgia, USA) with the objective of perpetuating a maximum stream of old-growth forest habitat. Our model accommodates stochastic disturbances and hardwood succession rates, and uncertainty about model structure. We produced a regeneration policy that was indexed by current forest state and by current weight of evidence among alternative model forms. We used adaptive stochastic dynamic programming, which anticipates that model probabilities, as well as forest states, may change through time, with consequent evolution of the optimal decision for any given forest state. In light of considerable uncertainty about forest dynamics, we analyzed a set of competing models incorporating extreme, but plausible, parameter values. Under any of these models, forest silviculture practices currently recommended for the creation of woodpecker habitat are suboptimal. We endorse fully adaptive approaches to the management of endangered species habitats in which predictive modeling, monitoring, and assessment are tightly linked.

  16. Forest management under uncertainty for multiple bird population objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, C.T.; Plummer, W.T.; Conroy, M.J.; Ralph, C. John; Rich, Terrell D.

    2005-01-01

    We advocate adaptive programs of decision making and monitoring for the management of forest birds when responses by populations to management, and particularly management trade-offs among populations, are uncertain. Models are necessary components of adaptive management. Under this approach, uncertainty about the behavior of a managed system is explicitly captured in a set of alternative models. The models generate testable predictions about the response of populations to management, and monitoring data provide the basis for assessing these predictions and informing future management decisions. To illustrate these principles, we examine forest management at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, where management attention is focused on the recovery of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) population. However, managers are also sensitive to the habitat needs of many non-target organisms, including Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) and other forest interior Neotropical migratory birds. By simulating several management policies on a set of-alternative forest and bird models, we found a decision policy that maximized a composite response by woodpeckers and Wood Thrushes despite our complete uncertainty regarding system behavior. Furthermore, we used monitoring data to update our measure of belief in each alternative model following one cycle of forest management. This reduction of uncertainty translates into a reallocation of model influence on the choice of optimal decision action at the next decision opportunity.

  17. Variation in Bachman's Sparrow home-range size at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stober, J.M.; Krementz, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    Using radiotelemetry, we studied variation in home-range size of the Bachman's Sparrow (Aimophila aestivalis) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, during the 1995 breeding season. At SRS, sparrows occurred primarily in two habitats: mature pine habitats managed for Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) and pine plantations 1 to 6 years of age. The mean 95% minimum convex polygon home-range size for males and females combined (n = 14) was 2.95 ha + 0.57 SE, across all habitats. Mean homerange size for males in mature pine stands (4.79 ha + 0.27, n = 4) was significantly larger than that in 4-year-old (3.00 ha + 0.31, n = 3) and 2-year-old stands (1.46 ha + 0.31, it = 3). Home-range sizes of paired males and females (it = 4 pairs) were similar within habitat type; mean distances between consecutive locations differed by habitat type and sex. We hypothesize that a gradient in food resources drives home-range dynamics.

  18. Costs of detection bias in index-based population monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, C.T.; Kendall, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    Managers of wildlife populations commonly rely on indirect, count-based measures of the population in making decisions regarding conservation, harvest, or control. The main appeal in the use of such counts is their low material expense compared to methods that directly measure the population. However, their correct use rests on the rarely-tested but often-assumed premise that they proportionately reflect population size, i.e., that they constitute a population index. This study investigates forest management for the endangered Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) and the Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia, U.S.A. Optimal decision policies for a joint species objective were derived for two alternative models of Wood Thrush population dynamics. Policies were simulated under scenarios of unbiasedness, consistent negative bias, and habitat-dependent negative bias in observed Wood Thrush densities. Differences in simulation outcomes between biased and unbiased detection scenarios indicated the expected loss in resource objectives (here, forest habitat and birds) through decision-making based on biased population counts. Given the models and objective function used in our analysis, expected losses were as great as 11%, a degree of loss perhaps not trivial for applications such as endangered species management. Our analysis demonstrates that costs of uncertainty about the relationship between the population and its observation can be measured in units of the resource, costs which may offset apparent savings achieved by collecting uncorrected population counts.

  19. Assessment of risks of military smokes and obscurants to threatened and endangered species

    SciTech Connect

    Reinbold, K.; Grethen, Taylor, P.

    1995-12-31

    Smokes and obscurants are released to fulfill various training scenarios, such as to send messages, cover small areas, or cover large areas. A literature review of environmental effects of smokes and obscurants that are used by the military for field training exercises for military preparedness was completed. A mathematical model has been developed in a GIS context to predict the distribution of the released smokes. The primary smoke/obscurant currently being assessed is aerosolized fog oil. A first level (Tier 1) risk assessment has been completed for fog oil. Field studies have been initiated at a military installation in the southeastern US for a Tier 2 risk assessment with a focus on the Red-Cockaded Woodpecker (RCW) and associated longleaf pine habitats. Environmental samples are being collected and analyzed for residues to verify exposure levels. To assess effects, observations and measurements are being made prior to, during, and following field releases. A surrogate species is being used to estimate effects to RCW.

  20. Movements and survival of Bachman's Sparrows in response to prescribed summer burns in South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seaman, B.D.; Krementz, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Prescribed winter burning is a common practice in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) to manage for red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis). The effect of these burns on non-target animals is not well studied. Bachman's sparrows (Aimophila aestivalis) were captured in predominantly longleaf pine stands to be burned and not to be burned at Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge (CSNWR) and the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina. Sparrows were marked with radio-transmitters and monitored daily. Before burning, daily movements did not differ among sites within or among study areas. Additionally, daily movements did not differ by sex or time within the breeding season. After prescribed burning, daily movements were longer for sparrows in burned stands than in unburned stands. All marked sparrows dispersed 1-3 days after a stand was burned and never returned. We found no evidence that dispersing sparrows successfully breed elsewhere. Bachman's sparrow survival rates and reproductive output after burning were lowered. The juxtaposition of seemingly suitable Bachman's sparrow habitat in relation to burned stands influenced both the duration and length of dispersal movements. Managers need to consider the proximity of available habitats when developing burning plans when managing for Bachman's sparrows.

  1. Site selection modeling system for a production facility at Savannah River site

    SciTech Connect

    Shedrow, C.B.; Shedrow, D.M.

    1996-12-31

    The Savannah River site (SRS) is located along the Savannah River in southwestern South Carolina and encompasses an area of {approximately}832 km (198 344 acres). Major land covers include evergreen and deciduous forests, surface water, wetlands, and administrative/industrial areas. Less than 10% of the site`s surface area is developed. Several endangered and threatened species are found on the SRS, including the red-cockaded woodpecker, the southern bald eagle, the wood stork, and the smooth purple coneflower. With the cessation of the Cold War, the traditional defense-related missions at the SRS have been significantly reduced. The implementation of new missions at the SRS will require the utilization of effective siting and prioritization methodologies to ensure the best use of available land resources and protection of the environment. The objective of this paper is to describe the utilization of the Site Selection Modeling System (SSMS) for the selection of potential industrial development sites within the SRS. The SSMS is a raster geographic information system (GIS)-based system that integrates the graphical interface ArcView 2.1 with the GRID modeling functionality of ARC/INFO. The proposed industrial development being sited is a linear accelerator, which will be used for the accelerator production of tritium.

  2. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Volume 6, Federally endangered species, Savannah River Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E.

    1987-09-01

    The Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the environmental effects of the intake and release of cooling water on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems at the Savannah River Plant. The initial report described the results from the first year of the study. This document is the final report and concludes the program. The report comprises eight volumes. The Endangered Species Act requires that Federal agencies use their authorities to conduct programs for the conservation of endangered and threatened species and to ensure that agency actions do not jeopardize the continued existence of or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitat of protected species. Those Federally endangered or threatened species that occur on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) include the American alligator, the red-cockaded woodpecker, the shortnose sturgeon, the wood stork, and the bald eagle. Of these species, the alligator, sturgeon, wood stork, and the bald eagle are likely to be affected directly and/or indirectly by the intake or release of cooling water at the SRP. 81 refs., 76 figs., 35 tabs.

  3. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Lewis' woodpecker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sousa, Patrick J.

    1983-01-01

    This document is part of the Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) Model Series (FWS/OBS-82/10), which provides habitat information useful for impact assessment and habitat management. Several types of habitat i nformat i on are provided. The Habitat Use Information Section is largely constrained to those data that can be used to derive quantitative relationships between key environmental variables and habitat suitability. The habitat use information provides the foundation for HSI models that follow. In addition, this same information may be useful in the development of other models more appropriate to specific assessment or evaluation needs.

  4. Vegetation classification in southern pine mixed hardwood forests using airborne scanning laser point data.

    SciTech Connect

    McGaughey, Robert J.; Reutebuch, Stephen E.

    2012-10-15

    Forests of the southeastern United States are dominated by a relatively small number of conifer species. However, many of these forests also have a hardwood component composed of a wide variety of species that are found in all canopy positions. The presence or absence of hardwood species and their position in the canopy often dictates management activities such as thinning or prescribed burning. In addition, the characteristics of the under- and mid-story layers, often dominated by hardwood species, are key factors when assessing suitable habitat for threatened and endangered species such as the Red Cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) (RCW), making information describing the hardwood component important to forest managers. General classification of cover types using LIDAR data has been reported (Song et al. 2002, Brennan and Webster 2006) but most efforts focusing on the identification of individual species or species groups rely on some type of imagery to provide more complete spectral information for the study area. Brandtberg (2007) found that use of intensity data significantly improved LIDAR detection and classification of three leaf-off deciduous eastern species: oaks (Quercus spp.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). Our primary objective was to determine the proportion of hardwood species present in the canopy using only the LIDAR point data and derived products. However, the presence of several hardwood species that retain their foliage through the winter months complicated our analyses. We present two classification approaches. The first identifies areas containing hardwood and softwood (conifer) species (H/S) and the second identifies vegetation with foliage absent or present (FA/FP) at the time of the LIDAR data acquisition. The classification results were used to develop predictor variables for forest inventory models. The ability to incorporate the proportion of hardwood and softwood was important to the

  5. Land-use history, historical connectivity, and land management interact to determine longleaf pine woodland understory richness and composition.

    SciTech Connect

    Brudvig, Lars A.; Damschen, Ellen L.

    2010-08-13

    Restoration and management activities targeted at recovering biodiversity can lead to unexpected results. In part, this is due to a lack of understanding of how site-level characteristics, landscape factors, and land-use history interact with restoration and management practices to determine patterns of diversity. For plants, such factors may be particularly important since plant populations often exhibit lagged responses to habitat loss and degradation. Here, we assess the importance of site-level, landscape, and historical effects for understory plant species richness and composition across a set of 40 longleaf pine Pinus palustris woodlands undergoing restoration for the federally endangered red-cockaded woodpecker in the southeastern United States. Land-use history had an overarching effect on richness and composition. Relative to historically forested sites, sites with agricultural histories (i.e. former pastures or cultivated fields) supported lower species richness and an altered species composition due to fewer upland longleaf pine woodland community members. Landscape effects did not influence the total number of species in either historically forested or post-agricultural sites; however, understory species composition was affected by historical connectivity, but only for post-agricultural sites. The influences of management and restoration activities were only apparent once land-use history was accounted for. Prescribed burning and mechanical overstory thinning were key drivers of understory composition and promoted understory richness in post-agricultural sites. In historically forested sites these activities had no impact on richness and only prescribed fire influenced composition. Our findings reveal complex interplays between site-level, landscape, and historical effects, suggest fundamentally different controls over plant communities in longleaf pine woodlands with varying land-use history, and underscore the importance of considering land

  6. Cavity excavation and enlargement as mechanisms for indirect interactions in an avian community.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Lori A; Walters, Jeffrey R

    2008-02-01

    Direct and indirect species interactions within ecological communities may play a strong role in influencing or maintaining community structure. Complex community interactions pose a major challenge to predicting ecosystem responses to environmental change because predictive frameworks require identification of mechanisms by which community interactions arise. Cavity-nesting communities are well suited for mechanistic studies of species interactions because cavity nesters interact through the creation of and competition for cavity-nest sites. In this study, we use a cavity-nest web as a predictive framework for identifying potential indirect species interactions within a cavity-nesting community. From 2002 to 2005, we monitored abundance and nests of cavity-nesting birds in the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystem. Using a nest-web approach, we identified a potential indirect interaction between the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) and large secondary cavity nesters, mediated by the Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus). We used structural equation modeling to test a path model of this interaction, using cavity excavation and enlargement as mechanisms which drive the relationship between these species. Through experimental manipulation of cavity availability, we blocked links described in our model, confirming cavity creation and enlargement as processes that influence community structure. We found that a single-species management technique could potentially disrupt this indirect relationship by affecting Northern Flicker cavity-excavation behavior. This study is the first demonstration of how experimental cavity manipulation can be used to test inferred processes derived from a nest web and highlights the need to understand how mechanisms underlying species interactions can complicate ecosystem responses to environmental change.

  7. Associations of breeding birds with fire-influenced and riparian-upland gradients in a longleaf pine ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.C.; Krieger, S.M.; Walters, J.R.; Collazo, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    We determined the effects of fire history and a riparian-upland gradient on the breeding bird community at Fort Bragg Military Installation in North Carolina, one of the largest remnant areas of the endangered longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystem. Study sites were classified into two treatments: fire-intense (areas experiencing growing-season burns) and fire-suppressed (areas lacking fires). Within each treatment, bird and vegetation data were recorded at point-count stations positioned at three distances from streamhead pocosins to characterize the riparian-upland habitat gradient: 0, 75, and ≥150 m. Total bird abundance and species richness varied significantly along the riparian-upland gradient, with pocosins contributing greatly to avian biodiversity. Our data revealed strong effects of fire history and riparian-upland gradient on bird species, which we described in terms of breeding-bird assemblages. Members of the open longleaf assemblage (e.g., Red- cockaded Woodpecker [Picoides borealis], Bachman's Sparrow [Aimophila aestivalis]) were most common in fire-intense areas and at upland locations. Members of the fire-suppressed assemblage (e.g., Wood Thrush [Hylocichla mustelina], Ovenbird [Seiurus aurocapilla]) were confined to pocosins in fire-intense areas, but became more abundant in fire-suppressed areas. Members of the pocosin assemblage (e.g., Eastern Towhee [Pipilo erythropthalamus], Common Yellowthroat [Geothlypis trichas]) were largely confined to pocosins and, in some cases, were most abundant in fire-intense pocosins. Fire suppression increased structural diversity of vegetation and promoted one breeding-bird assemblage (fire-suppressed), but at the expense of two others (open longleaf, pocosin). Continued management of Fort Bragg to promote longleaf pine restoration is essential for supporting conservation of the open-longleaf bird assemblage; in addition, it will benefit the pocosin assemblage.

  8. Weighing the relative potential impacts of climate change and land-use change on an endangered bird.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, Betsy A; Lawler, Joshua J; Schumaker, Nathan H

    2016-07-01

    Climate change and land-use change are projected to be the two greatest drivers of biodiversity loss over the coming century. Land-use change has resulted in extensive habitat loss for many species. Likewise, climate change has affected many species resulting in range shifts, changes in phenology, and altered interactions. We used a spatially explicit, individual-based model to explore the effects of land-use change and climate change on a population of the endangered Red-cockaded Woodpecker (RCW; Picoides borealis). We modeled the effects of land-use change using multiple scenarios representing different spatial arrangements of new training areas for troops across Fort Benning. We used projected climate-driven changes in habitat and changes in reproductive output to explore the potential effects of climate change. We summarized potential changes in habitat based on the output of the dynamic vegetation model LPJ-GUESS, run for multiple climate change scenarios through the year 2100. We projected potential changes in reproduction based on an empirical relationship between spring precipitation and the mean number of successful fledglings produced per nest attempt. As modeled in our study, climate change had virtually no effect on the RCW population. Conversely, simulated effects of land-use change resulted in the loss of up to 28 breeding pairs by 2100. However, the simulated impacts of development depended on where the development occurred and could be completely avoided if the new training areas were placed in poor-quality habitat. Our results demonstrate the flexibility inherent in many systems that allows seemingly incompatible human land uses, such as development, and conservation actions to exist side by side.

  9. Agency interaction at the Savannah River Plant under the Endangered Species Act

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The 300 square mile Savannah River Plant (SRP) offers a variety of protected habitats for endangered species including the alligator (resident), red-cockaded woodpecker (resident), short-nose sturgeon (migratory), and wood stock (fish-forager). The most recent of these four species to be listed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (US FWS) is the wood stock. It had been observed prior to 1983 as an infrequent forager in the SRP Savannah River swamp which adjoins SRP on the south and southwest. In anticipation of its listing as an endangered species, DOE-SR requested in the spring of 1983 that the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, conduct field surveys and studies of the nearest colony of wood storks to SRP (the Birdsville colony in north-central Georgia). The objective of these studies was to determine potential effects of the flooding of the Steel Creek swamp area with cooling water from L-Reactor. L-Reactor, which is proposed for restart, has not been operated since 1968. The survey found that wood storks forage in the Steel Creek delta swamp area of the Savannah River at SRP. Based on the numbers of storks at various foraging locations, sites at SRP ranked higher than non-SRP sites during the pre-fledging phase of the colony. Cold flow testing of L-Reactor also demonstrated that foraging sites in the Steel Creek delta would be unavailable during L-Reactor operation because of increased water levels. Consultation meetings between DOE-SR and US FWS in April 1984, resulted in an agreement between the two agencies to develop alternative foraging habitat for the wood stork to replace potential losses in the Steel Creek delta area. A suitable habitat was located on the National Audubon Society's Silver Bluff Plantation Sanctuary just west of SRP. This location will be developed by the US Soil Conservation Service through an interagency agreement with DOE-SR. 6 references, 4 figures.

  10. Comprehensive cooling water study annual report. Volume X: endangered species, Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gladden, J.B.; Lower, M.W.; Mackey, H.E.; Specht, W.L.; Wilde, E.W.

    1985-07-01

    Federally endangered species which occur on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) include the American alligator, red-cockaded woodpecker, the shortnose sturgeon, and the wood stork. Of these species, only the alligator, sturgeon, and wood stork are likely to be affected by the intake or release of cooling water at the SRP. The nearest colony of wood storks to the SRP is the Birdsville Colony, about 40-45 km southwest of potential foraging areas in the SRP Savannah River swamp. In 1983, it contained about six percent of the nesting pairs in the United States and produced about 250 fledglings. Its reproductive success was about the same in 1984. Based on the results of surveys made of foraging areas, both on SRP and offsite in 1983 and 1984, forage fish availability could be reduced by increased water depths in the Steel Creek delta area following L-Reactor restart with once-through cooling. Effluent discharge from SRP facilities probably limits the potential use of the SRP Savannah River swamp by foraging wood storks. The SRP supports a low-to-moderate alligator population. The current information available on the alligators of the SRP suggests that populations in suitable habitats (e.g., Beaver Dam Creek, Steel Creek, and Par Pond) should continue to benefit from the protection provided by the SRP and should remain stable or continue to increase. Based upon information from the literature and fisheries data for the Savannah River, the operations of the SRP do not appear to have adverse effects on the shortnose sturgeon. Based on known life history characteristics, there is no indication that spawning, rearing, or foraging habitats are affected by SRP operations. 64 refs., 20 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Effects of forest management on density, survival, and population growth of wood thrushes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, L.A.; Lang, J.D.; Conroy, M.J.; Krementz, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Loss and alteration of breeding habitat have been proposed as causes of declines in several Neotropical migrant bird populations. We conducted a 4-year study to determine the effects of winter prescribed burning and forest thinning on breeding wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) populations at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge (PNWR) in Georgia. We estimated density, adult and juvenile survival rates, and apparent annual survival using transect surveys, radiotelemetry, and mist netting. Burning and thinning did not cause lower densities (P = 0.25); wood thrush density ranged from 0.15 to 1.30 pairs/10 ha. No radiomarked male wood thrushes (n = 68) died during the 4 years, but female (n = 63) weekly survival was 0.981 ? 0.014 (SE) for females (n = 63) and 0.976 ? 0.010 for juveniles (n = 38). Apparent annual adult survival was 0.579 (SE = 0.173). Thinning and prescribed burning did not reduce adult or juvenile survival during the breeding season or apparent annual adult survival. Annual population growth (lambda) at PNWR was 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.32--1.63), and the considerable uncertainty in this prediction underscores the need for long term monitoring to effectively manage Neotropical migrants. Population growth increased on experimental compartments after the burn and thin (95% CI before = 0.91--0.97, after = 0.98--1.05), while control compartment declined (before = 0.98--1.05, after = 0.87--0.92). We found no evidence that the current management regime at PNWR, designed to improve red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) habitat, negatively affected wood thrushes.

  12. Woodpecker forage availability in habitat disturbances of the Black Hills

    Treesearch

    Brian E. Dickerson; Angie K. Ambourn; Mark A. Rumble; Kurt K. Allen; Chad P. Lehman

    2015-01-01

    Habitat disturbance events are critical to ecological systems in which some bird species have become specialized. The vegetation community, reduced competition, ability to avoid predators, nest site characteristics, and forage opportunities within a disturbed ecosystem are all aspects that make it desirable for selection by particular species (Svardson 1949,...

  13. Impacts of prescribed fire on ecosystem C and N cycles at Fort Benning Installation, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, S.; Liu, S.; Tieszen, L.

    2007-12-01

    A critical challenge for the land managers at military installation is to maintain the ecological sustainability of natural resources while meeting the needs of military training. Prescribed ground fire as a land management practice has been used to remove the ground layer plants at Fort Benning for two purposes: to facilitate access for military training, and to maintain and restore fire-adapted longleaf pine communities that are critical habitat for the federally endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis). Nevertheless, the impacts of prescribed fire on ecosystem processes and health are not well-understood and quantified at the plot to regional scales. Frequent fire may result in ecosystem nitrogen (N) deficiency due to repeated N loss through combustion, volatilization, and leaching, threatening ecosystem sustainability at Fort Benning. On the other hand, N loss may be offset by enhanced symbiotic N2 fixation since fire favors herbaceous legumes by scarifying legume seeds and stimulating germination. Quantifying the impacts of prescribed fire on ecosystem carbon (C) and N cycles is further complicated by interactions and feedbacks among burning, nitrogen inputs, other land use practices (e.g. tree thinning or clear-cutting), and soil properties. In this study, we used the Erosion-Deposition-Carbon Model (EDCM), a process-based biogeochemical model, to simulate C and N dynamic at Fort Benning under different combinations of fire frequency, fire intensity, nitrogen deposition, legume nitrogen input, forest harvesting, and soil sand content. Model simulations indicated that prescribed fire led to nitrogen losses from ecosystems at Fort Benning, especially with high intensity and high frequency fires. Forest harvesting further intensified ecosystem nitrogen limitation, leading to reduced biophysical potential of C sequestration. The adverse impacts of prescribed fire and forest harvesting on C and N cycles were much higher in more sandy soil than in

  14. Improving longleaf pine mortality predictions in the Southern Variant of the Forest Vegetation Simulator

    Treesearch

    R. Justin DeRose; John D. Shaw; Giorgio Vacchiano; James N. Long

    2008-01-01

    The Southern Variant of the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS-SN) is made up of individual submodels that predict tree growth, recruitment and mortality. Forest managers on Ft. Bragg, North Carolina, discovered biologically unrealistic longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) size-density predictions at large diameters when using FVS-SN to project red-cockaded...

  15. 76 FR 46837 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... to the Chief, Endangered Species Division, Ecological Services, P.O. Box 1306, Room 6034, Albuquerque... Service, 500 Gold Ave., SW., Room 6034, Albuquerque, NM. Please refer to the respective permit number for... (Sterna antillarum athalassos). Northern aplomado falcon (Falco femoralis septentrionalis). Red-cockaded...

  16. Proceedings Interagency Endangered Species Symposium Held in Washington, DC on April 26-28, 1994

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    species, salmon and bald eagles. Other species occasionally involved are: spotted owl, grizzly bear, peregrine falcon, and wolves . The issues associated...Agreement between the USAF and the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service authorized release of wolves onto the 46,600-acre air-to- ground range. Availability...monitoring the wolves , and periodically closing roads to protect active den sites. Eglin AFB, Florida, is home to a major population of the Red-cockaded

  17. Scientific Method & Evolutionary Theory Elucidated by the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupa, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Large, introductory, nonmajors biology classes present challenges when trying to encourage class discussion to help reinforce important concepts. Lively in-class discussion involving hundreds of students is more successful when a relevant story told with passion is used to introduce a topic. In my courses, each semester begins with thorough…

  18. Evaluating habitat suitability models for nesting white-headed woodpeckers in unburned forest

    Treesearch

    Quresh S. Latif; Victoria A. Saab; Kim Mellen-Mclean; Jonathan G. Dudley

    2015-01-01

    Habitat suitability models can provide guidelines for species conservation by predicting where species of interest are likely to occur. Presence-only models are widely used but typically provide only relative indices of habitat suitability (HSIs), necessitating rigorous evaluation often using independently collected presence-absence data. We refined and evaluated...

  19. Woodpecker use and fall rates of snags created by killing ponderosa pine infected with dwarf mistletoe.

    Treesearch

    Catherine G. Parks; David A. Conklin; Larry Bednar; Helen. Maffei

    1999-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) killed as part of a forest management project to reduce dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium sp.) in the Gila National Forest, New Mexico, were evaluated for wildlife value. One hundred and two dwarf mistletoe-infected trees were killed by basal burning, basal girdling, or by a...

  20. Old forests and endangered woodpeckers: old-growth in the Southern Coastal Plain

    Treesearch

    Robert Mitchell; Todd Engstrom; Rebecca Sharitz; Diane De Steven; Kevin Hiers; Robert Cooper; Katherine. Kirkman

    2009-01-01

    Southern old-growth forests are small and rare, but critical in their support of biodiversity. While the remnant old-growth forests contain diversity that is significant regionally and globally, they most likely represent only a portion of the variety that old forests once sustained. High within-habitat diversity and rarity in the landscape magnify the conservation...

  1. Living in stable social groups is associated with reduced brain size in woodpeckers (Picidae).

    PubMed

    Fedorova, Natalia; Evans, Cara L; Byrne, Richard W

    2017-03-01

    Group size predicts brain size in primates and some other mammal groups, but no such relationship has been found in birds. Instead, stable pair-bonding and bi-parental care have been identified as correlates of larger brains in birds. We investigated the relationship between brain size and social system within the family Picidae, using phylogenetically controlled regression analysis. We found no specific effect of duration or strength of pair-bonds, but brain sizes were systematically smaller in species living in long-lasting social groups of larger sizes. Group-living may only present a cognitive challenge in groups in which members have individually competitive relationships; we therefore propose that groups functioning for cooperative benefit may allow disinvestment in expensive brain tissue.

  2. Scientific Method & Evolutionary Theory Elucidated by the Ivory-Billed Woodpecker Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupa, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Large, introductory, nonmajors biology classes present challenges when trying to encourage class discussion to help reinforce important concepts. Lively in-class discussion involving hundreds of students is more successful when a relevant story told with passion is used to introduce a topic. In my courses, each semester begins with thorough…

  3. Using Satellite and Airborne LiDAR to Model Woodpecker Habitat Occupancy at the Landscape Scale

    PubMed Central

    Vierling, Lee A.; Vierling, Kerri T.; Adam, Patrick; Hudak, Andrew T.

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating vertical vegetation structure into models of animal distributions can improve understanding of the patterns and processes governing habitat selection. LiDAR can provide such structural information, but these data are typically collected via aircraft and thus are limited in spatial extent. Our objective was to explore the utility of satellite-based LiDAR data from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) relative to airborne-based LiDAR to model the north Idaho breeding distribution of a forest-dependent ecosystem engineer, the Red-naped sapsucker (Sphyrapicus nuchalis). GLAS data occurred within ca. 64 m diameter ellipses spaced a minimum of 172 m apart, and all occupancy analyses were confined to this grain scale. Using a hierarchical approach, we modeled Red-naped sapsucker occupancy as a function of LiDAR metrics derived from both platforms. Occupancy models based on satellite data were weak, possibly because the data within the GLAS ellipse did not fully represent habitat characteristics important for this species. The most important structural variables influencing Red-naped Sapsucker breeding site selection based on airborne LiDAR data included foliage height diversity, the distance between major strata in the canopy vertical profile, and the vegetation density near the ground. These characteristics are consistent with the diversity of foraging activities exhibited by this species. To our knowledge, this study represents the first to examine the utility of satellite-based LiDAR to model animal distributions. The large area of each GLAS ellipse and the non-contiguous nature of GLAS data may pose significant challenges for wildlife distribution modeling; nevertheless these data can provide useful information on ecosystem vertical structure, particularly in areas of gentle terrain. Additional work is thus warranted to utilize LiDAR datasets collected from both airborne and past and future satellite platforms (e.g. GLAS, and the planned IceSAT2 mission) with the goal of improving wildlife modeling for more locations across the globe. PMID:24324655

  4. A decade of emerald ash borer effects on regional woodpecker and nuthatch populations

    Treesearch

    Walter D. Koenig; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2017-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis, first detected in 2002 in the vicinity of Detroit, Michigan, USA, has spread throughout much of eastern and midwestern North America as of 2016, resulting in widespread mortality of ash trees in the genus Fraxinus. We investigated the effects of this newly available, exotic food...

  5. Woodpecker-snag interactions: an overview of current knowledge in ponderosa pine systems

    Treesearch

    Kerry L. Farris; Steve Zack

    2005-01-01

    Standing dead trees (snags) with cavities are a critical ecological component of western coniferous forests. These structures provide foraging, roosting, and nesting habitat for numerous species of invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Snags may be created through a variety of interrelated processes including wildfire, drought, insects and disease....

  6. Using satellite and airborne LiDAR to model woodpecker habitat occupancy at the landscape scale

    Treesearch

    Lee A. Vierling; Kerri T. Vierling; Patrick Adam; Andrew T. Hudak

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating vertical vegetation structure into models of animal distributions can improve understanding of the patterns and processes governing habitat selection. LiDAR can provide such structural information, but these data are typically collected via aircraft and thus are limited in spatial extent. Our objective was to explore the utility of satellite-based LiDAR...

  7. Demography of Lewis's Woodpecker, breeding bird densities, and riparian aspen integrity in a grazed landscape

    Treesearch

    Karen Rachel Newlon

    2005-01-01

    Aspen (Populus tremuloides) riparian woodlands are extremely limited in distribution throughout the western U.S., yet these habitats have a disproportionate value to breeding birds. Aspen habitats are also considered prime sheep and cattle summer range, particularly in the semiarid Intermountain West. Such concentrated use has raised concern about...

  8. Effects of radio transmitters on the behavior of Red-headed Woodpeckers

    Treesearch

    Mark Vukovich; John C. Kilgo

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that radio-transmitters may affect bird behaviors, including feeding rates, foraging behavior, vigilance, and preening behavior. In addition, depending on the method of attachment, transmitters can potentially affect the ability of cavity-nesting birds to use cavities. Our objective was to evaluate effects of transmitters on the behavior...

  9. Postfire woodpecker foraging in salvage-logged and unlogged forests of the Sierra Nevada

    Treesearch

    C.T. Hanson; M.P. North

    2008-01-01

    In forests, high-severity burn patches—wherein most or all of the trees are killed by fire—often occur within a mosaic of low- and moderate-severity effects. Although there have been several studies of postfire salvage-logging effects on bird species, there have been few studies of effects on bird species associated with high-severity patches in forests that have...

  10. Using satellite and airborne LiDAR to model woodpecker habitat occupancy at the landscape scale.

    PubMed

    Vierling, Lee A; Vierling, Kerri T; Adam, Patrick; Hudak, Andrew T

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating vertical vegetation structure into models of animal distributions can improve understanding of the patterns and processes governing habitat selection. LiDAR can provide such structural information, but these data are typically collected via aircraft and thus are limited in spatial extent. Our objective was to explore the utility of satellite-based LiDAR data from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) relative to airborne-based LiDAR to model the north Idaho breeding distribution of a forest-dependent ecosystem engineer, the Red-naped sapsucker (Sphyrapicus nuchalis). GLAS data occurred within ca. 64 m diameter ellipses spaced a minimum of 172 m apart, and all occupancy analyses were confined to this grain scale. Using a hierarchical approach, we modeled Red-naped sapsucker occupancy as a function of LiDAR metrics derived from both platforms. Occupancy models based on satellite data were weak, possibly because the data within the GLAS ellipse did not fully represent habitat characteristics important for this species. The most important structural variables influencing Red-naped Sapsucker breeding site selection based on airborne LiDAR data included foliage height diversity, the distance between major strata in the canopy vertical profile, and the vegetation density near the ground. These characteristics are consistent with the diversity of foraging activities exhibited by this species. To our knowledge, this study represents the first to examine the utility of satellite-based LiDAR to model animal distributions. The large area of each GLAS ellipse and the non-contiguous nature of GLAS data may pose significant challenges for wildlife distribution modeling; nevertheless these data can provide useful information on ecosystem vertical structure, particularly in areas of gentle terrain. Additional work is thus warranted to utilize LiDAR datasets collected from both airborne and past and future satellite platforms (e.g. GLAS, and the planned IceSAT2 mission) with the goal of improving wildlife modeling for more locations across the globe.

  11. Apparent foraging success reflects habitat quality in an irruptive species, the Black-backed Woodpecker

    Treesearch

    Christopher T. Rota; Mark A. Rumble; Chad P. Lehman; Dylan C. Kesler; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2015-01-01

    Dramatic fluctuations in food resources are a key feature of many habitats, and many species have evolved a movement strategy to exploit food resources that are unpredictable in space and time. The availability of food resources may be a particularly strong determinant of habitat quality for irruptive bird species. We studied the apparent foraging success of Black-...

  12. A multi-locus phylogeny suggests an ancient hybridization event between Campephilus and melanerpine woodpeckers (Aves: Picidae).

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jérôme; Pons, Jean-Marc; Liu, Liang; Ericson, Per G P; Couloux, Arnaud; Pasquet, Eric

    2013-06-01

    The ever increasing number of analysed loci in phylogenetics has not only allowed resolution of some parts of the Tree of Life but has also highlighted parts of the tree where incongruent signals among loci were detected. Previous molecular studies suggested conflicting relationships for the New World genus Campephilus, being either associated to the Megapicini or Dendropocini. Yet, the limited number of analysed loci and the use of the concatenation approach to reconstruct the phylogeny prevented the disentanglement of lineage sorting and introgression as causal explanation of this topological conflict. We sequenced four mitochondrial, nine autosomal and three Z-linked loci and used a method that incorporates population level processes into the phylogenetic framework to understand which process (lineage sorting of genetic polymorphism or hybridization/introgression) best explains this conflict. Our analyses revealed that the autosomal FGB intron-7 and to a lesser extent the Z-linked loci have a different phylogenetic history from the mitochondrial loci and some other nuclear loci we analysed. We suggest that this conflicting pattern is the result of introgression consecutive to a hybridization event at the time when members of the Campephilus and melanerpine (Melanerpes and Sphyrapicus) lineages colonized the New World. The case of Campephilus highlights that the mitochondrial genome does not always carry the 'wrong' phylogenetic signal after a past hybridization event. Indeed, we here emphasise that the signature of such event can also be detected in the nuclear genome. With the ongoing increase in the number of loci analysed in phylogenetic studies, it is very likely that further cases will be discovered. Our current results indicate that (1) the genus Campephilus is related to the Asian genera Blythipicus, Chrysocolaptes and Reinwardtipicus, in accordance with morphological data and (2) that the nuclear genome of Campephilus is likely the mixture of two unrelated lineages. Yet, further work with a denser sampling of loci is necessary to evaluate the extant of the Sphyrapicus/Melanerpes lineage nuclear genome that introgressed into the Campephilus genome.

  13. Quantitative analysis of woodpecker habitat using high-resolution airborne LiDAR estimates of forest structure and composition

    Treesearch

    James E. Garabedian; Robert J. McGaughey; Stephen E. Reutebuch; Bernard R. Parresol; John C. Kilgo; Christopher E. Moorman; M. Nils. Peterson

    2014-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology has the potential to radically alter the way researchers and managers collect data on wildlife–habitat relationships. To date, the technology has fostered several novel approaches to characterizing avian habitat, but has been limited by the lack of detailed LiDAR-habitat attributes relevant to species across a continuum of...

  14. Mobile Bay: Chapter K in Emergent wetlands status and trends in the northern Gulf of Mexico: 1950-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Larry; Spear, Kathryn A.; Jones, Stephen; Thatcher, Cindy

    2011-01-01

    as an unintentional barrier between Delta waters north of the Causeway and saline waters south of the Causeway, the salinity of Mobile Bay is highly variable. Mobile Bay receives an average of 165 cm (65 inches) of rain per year from tropical storms, summer thunderstorms, and winter cold fronts (Stout et al., 1998). The climate and geography that have made Mobile Bay so rich in resources have also contributed to the threats surrounding its ecosystem. The extensive amount of rain in Mobile Bay creates large amounts of runoff, polluting the waters with fertilizers, chemicals, sediment, oil, trash, and sewage (Mobile Bay NEP, 1997). Tourism, ecotourism, recreational and commercial fishing, recreational boating, shipping, and chemical, pulp, and paper production are significant industries in Mobile Bay and the surrounding areas. Despite the approximate \\$3 billion and 55,000 jobs these industries bring into the community (Alabama Tourism Department, 2010), the growth, development, and environmental stress they create are major threats to the Mobile Bay ecosystem.Among the nation’s states, Alabama ranks fifth in number of different species (144 endemic species), second in number of extinctions that have already occurred (90 extinct species) and fourth in number of species at risk for extinction (14.8% at risk out of 4,533 total species; Stein, 2002). Twenty-one of these threatened and endangered species are found in Mobile Bay, whose brackish waters provide a nursery area for many species of vertebrates and invertebrates. Some of these species include the Alabama sturgeon, Gulf sturgeon, heavy pigtoe mussel, inflated heel-splitter mussel, West Indian manatee, Alabama beach mouse, Perdido beach mouse, Alabama red-bellied turtle, gopher tortoise, Kemp’s ridley sea turtle, green sea turtle, loggerhead sea turtle, eastern indigo snake, flatwoods salamander, piping plover, red-cockaded woodpecker, and wood stork. Habitat loss underlies the decline of some bird species in

  15. Integrated Endangered Species Management Recommendations for Army Installations in the Southeastern United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-11

    woodpecker Brown-headed nuthatch sustain snag densities suffi- Downy woodpecker Carolina wren cient to support stable popu- Eastern bluebird Great crested...1995. Draft Element Stewardship Abstract for Picoides borealis. The Nature Conservancy, Eastern Regional Office, Boston, MA. 0 * S 0 00 0 0 USAvWM. SH...woodpecker, red-headed woodpecker, eastern bluebird , northern flicker, great crested flycatcher, and tufted titmouse (Parus bicolor) (Jackson 1978b, Harlow

  16. A risk-based approach to evaluating wildlife demographics for management in a changing climate: A case study of the Lewis's Woodpecker

    Treesearch

    Erin Towler; Victoria A. Saab; Richard S. Sojda; Katherine Dickinson; Cindy L. Bruyere; Karen R. Newlon

    2012-01-01

    Given the projected threat that climate change poses to biodiversity, the need for proactive response efforts is clear. However, integrating uncertain climate change information into conservation planning is challenging, and more explicit guidance is needed. To this end, this article provides a specific example of how a risk-based approach can be used to incorporate a...

  17. Not all forests are disturbed equally: Population dynamics and resource selection of black-backed woodpeckers in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Treesearch

    Christopher Thomas Rota

    2013-01-01

    Western North American forests are shaped by natural disturbances, which are an important driver of habitat heterogeneity and species diversity. Wildfire and bark beetle infestations are of particular interest to resource managers because of their widespread occurrence and potential economic impacts. These naturally occurring disturbances create habitat for numerous...

  18. Housing Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmalz, Georgann

    1985-01-01

    Building specifications for birdhouses (nesting boxes) are given for 11 species (chickadee, titmouse, nuthatch, Carolina wren, house wren, downy woodpecker, hairy woodpecker, flicker, bluebird, screech owl, and wood duck) including length, width, depth, entrance diameter, and height above the ground. Pointers for construction, materials, and…

  19. Minimizing yellow-bellied sapsucker damage

    Treesearch

    Gayne G. Erdmann; Ralph M., Jr. Peterson

    1992-01-01

    The yellow-bellied sapsucker is a migratory woodpecker that feeds on a wide variety of orchard, shade, and forest trees. Instead of drilling holes to find insects like other woodpeckers, sapsuckers drill holes in living trees to feed on sap and phloem tissues. Yellow and paper birches are their favorite summer food sources on their nesting grounds in Upper Michigan and...

  20. A complex stand on the white river national wildlife refuge: implications for bottomland hardwood old growth

    Treesearch

    Brian Roy Lockhart; Jamie E. Kellum

    2006-01-01

    With the possible re-discovery of the ivory-billed woodpecker (Campephilus principalis), interest has increased in the habitat requirements for the species and the current state of these habitats (Fitzpatrick et al. 2005). Tanner (1942) indicated that the ivory-billed woodpecker needs large, decadent trees for foraging. Trees in such decline provide...

  1. Breeding biology of the pileated woodpecker—management implications.

    Treesearch

    Evelyn L. Bull; E. Charles. Meslow

    1988-01-01

    We located and studied 123 pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus) nests from 1973 to 1983 in northeastern Oregon. Pileated woodpeckers excavated nest cavities in late March and early April, incubated eggs as early as 13 May and as late as 15 June, and fledged young between 26 June and 13 July. These birds nested at 1 year of age, and some lived...

  2. Housing Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmalz, Georgann

    1985-01-01

    Building specifications for birdhouses (nesting boxes) are given for 11 species (chickadee, titmouse, nuthatch, Carolina wren, house wren, downy woodpecker, hairy woodpecker, flicker, bluebird, screech owl, and wood duck) including length, width, depth, entrance diameter, and height above the ground. Pointers for construction, materials, and…

  3. Abundance of Black-backed woodpeckers and other birds in relation to disturbance and forest structure in the Black Hills and Bear Lodge Mountains of South Dakota and Wyoming

    Treesearch

    Elizabeth A. Matseur

    2017-01-01

    Natural disturbances, such as wildfire and mountain pine beetle (Dentroctonus ponderosae, hereafter MPB) infestations, are two sources of large-scale disturbance that can significantly alter forest structure in the Black Hills. The Black Hills has recently experienced one of the largest MPB outbreaks in the last 100 years, along with varying levels of wildfires...

  4. Inhalation Toxicity of Cogenerated Graphite Flake and Fog Oil Smoke in the Brown-Headed Cowbird and the Red-Winged Blackbird, Size-Specific Inhalation Surrogates for the Red-Cockaged Woodpecker

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    commercial mix of wild bird seed , cracked corn wheat, natural millet sprays, berries, and lettuce were also provided for both dietary vari- ety and...harmful to birds ingesting unrefined oils (Hartung and Hunt 1966, Chia 1971). Significant pathologies from preening unrefined petro- leum oils have...been observed only in waterfowl that have obtained doses of at least 1 ml/Kg (Hartung and Hunt 1966, Chia 1971). No toxic or gross lesions were asso

  5. Woodland Detection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    Presents tips on nature observation during a woodland hike in the Adirondacks. Discusses engraver beetles and Dutch elm disease, birds' nests, hornets' nests, caterpillar webs, deer and bear signs, woodpecker holes, red squirrels, porcupine and beaver signs, and galls. (SV)

  6. Woodland Detection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    Presents tips on nature observation during a woodland hike in the Adirondacks. Discusses engraver beetles and Dutch elm disease, birds' nests, hornets' nests, caterpillar webs, deer and bear signs, woodpecker holes, red squirrels, porcupine and beaver signs, and galls. (SV)

  7. Repair operations to foam insulation on STS-70 ET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Thiokol Corp. technician Scott Dornton works in the Vehicle Assembly Building to repair damage to the foam insulation of the Space Shuttle Discovery's external tank, caused by woodpeckers while the vehicle was at Launch Pad 39B. Discovery was rolled back from the pad to the VAB June 8 to allow access to approximately 195 holes caused by nesting Northern Flicker Woodpeckers. The STS-70 mission is now scheduled for liftoff July 13 at 9:41 a.m. EDT.

  8. A comparative study of avian auditory brainstem responses: correlations with phylogeny and vocal complexity, and seasonal effects.

    PubMed

    Lucas, J R; Freeberg, T M; Krishnan, A; Long, G R

    2002-12-01

    We conducted a comparative study of the peripheral auditory system in six avian species (downy woodpeckers, Carolina chickadees, tufted titmice, white-breasted nuthatches, house sparrows, and European starlings). These species differ in the complexity and frequency characteristics of their vocal repertoires. Physiological measures of hearing were collected on anesthetized birds using the auditory brainstem response to broadband click stimuli. If auditory brainstem response patterns are phylogenetically conserved, we predicted woodpeckers, sparrows, and starlings to be outliers relative to the other species, because woodpeckers are in a different Order (Piciformes) and, within the Order Passeriformes, sparrows and starlings are in different Superfamilies than the nuthatches, chickadees, and titmice. However, nuthatches and woodpeckers have the simplest vocal repertoires at the lowest frequencies of these six species. If auditory brainstem responses correlate with vocal complexity, therefore, we would predict nuthatches and woodpeckers to be outliers relative to the other four species. Our results indicate that auditory brainstem responses measures in the spring broadly correlated with both vocal complexity and, in some cases, phylogeny. However, these auditory brainstem response patterns shift from spring to winter due to species-specific seasonal changes. These seasonal changes suggest plasticity at the auditory periphery in adult birds.

  9. Prescribed fire effects on wintering, bark-foraging birds in northern Arizona

    Treesearch

    Theresa L. Pope; William M. Block; Paul Beier

    2009-01-01

    We examined effects of prescribed fire on 3 wintering, bark-foraging birds, hairy woodpeckers (Picoides villosus), pygmy nuthatches (Sitta pygmaea), and white-breasted nuthatches (S. carolinensis), in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests of northern Arizona, USA. During winters of 2004-2006, we compared bird density, foraging behavior, and bark beetle activity...

  10. Assessment of Small Arms Munitions Impacts on Natural Infrastructure in Sensitive Downrange Areas on Military Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    woodpecker nest tree killed in by wildfire in 2010...18 A-4 Different types of tree damage caused by bullet strikes on Fort Benning and Fort Stewart, GA...Multiple forms of tree damage was observed: small scars (A), large cambium cuts (B), bark bullet strikes (C), nodules (D), and broken branches, leader

  11. A Bird and Bee Problem in House Siding

    Treesearch

    Louis F. Wilson; Henry A. Huber

    1976-01-01

    Plywood house siding made to simulate reverse board-and-batten design is sometimes attacked by woodpeckers because leaf-cutting bees, their prey, make nests in holes in the plywood core. The problem can be prevented by plugging the holes before nesting occurs. If nesting does occur, the nest should be destroyed and then the holes plugged.

  12. Environmental Impact Research Program. Techniques to Increase Efficiency and Reduce Effort in Applications of the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Felis rufus Brewer’s sparrow Spizella breweri Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis Brown shrimp Penaeus aztecus Brown thrasher Toxostoma rufum Brown trout...Brevoortia patronus Hairy woodpecker Picoides villosus Hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria Inland silverside Menidia beryllina Lake trout Salvelinus ... namaycush Largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides Lark bunting Calamospiza melanocorys Laughing gull Larus atricilla Least tern Sterna antillarum Lesser scaup

  13. 6. View of HiattStricklin House showing north gable back and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View of Hiatt-Stricklin House showing north gable back and east side. Note the porches, shsutters and chimney. The shiny squares on the siding are metal pieces to repair woodpecker holes, facing southwest. - Hiatt Property, House, West bank of Woof Creek, 400 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  14. Risky business: Site selection by Acadian Flycatchers under threat of nest predation and brood parasitism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    HazIer, K.R.; Cooper, R.J.; Twedt, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Habitat quality is determined not only by habitat structure and the availability of resources, but also by competitors, cooperators, predators, and parasites. We hypothesized that, for passerines, minimizing risk from avian nest predators and brood parasites is an important factor in selecting a breeding site. Through the early part of two breeding seasons, we spot-mapped locations of Acadian Flycatchers (Empidonax virescens, territory selectors), Red-bellied Woodpeckers (Melanerpes carolinus, nest predators) and Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater, brood parasites) in a 56-ha study area within an extensive bottomland hardwood forest. We were thereby able to determine the order of flycatcher territory settlement and nest initiation in relation to risk of predation and parasitism, while accounting for habitat structure. Male settlement was influenced by both habitat structure and risk avoidance. However, risk trom woodpeckers was relatively more important in the first season and risk from cowbirds in the second, evidently due to differences in the relative abundance of predator and brood-parasite in each year. For male flycatchers, settlement choices appear to be flexible in the face of changing 'risk landscapes.' For females, habitat structure was the most important predictor of nest site selection. Even so, there was evidence that females avoided cowbirds. Surprisingly, nest site selection was positively associated with woodpecker abundance in the first season when woodpeckers were present in greater numbers. Possible explanations for this contradictory result are discussed.

  15. An augmented supermatrix phylogeny of the avian family Picidae reveals uncertainty deep in the family tree.

    PubMed

    Dufort, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of DNA sequence data in public repositories allows for phylogenetic inference on unprecedented taxonomic scales using supermatrix approaches. Careful analysis of available data allows strategic augmentation with new sequences in order to maximize taxonomic sampling and coverage of informative loci. I inferred relationships among 179 species (76%) in the avian family Picidae (woodpeckers, piculets, and wrynecks), using publicly available sequence data supplemented with targeted sequencing to increase species-level and locus-level sampling and maximize resolution. Results of these analyses generally corroborate previous molecular studies, with consensus on the membership of most genera and tribes. However, several newly placed taxa show surprising affinities, and several genera as currently delineated appear to be paraphyletic. Relationships among major clades of Picidae remain poorly resolved, particularly among the three lineages of piculets, the unusual woodpecker genus Hemicircus, and the remaining woodpeckers, and among the major groups of true woodpeckers (Picinae). If these deep relationships are to be resolved, phylogenomic approaches may be necessary.

  16. Brain cholinesterase inhibition in songbirds from pecan groves sprayed with phosaline and disulfoton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Seginak, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    Disulfoton at 0.83 kg/ha caused moderate to severe brain cholinesterase (ChE) depression in 11 of 15 blue jays collected in pecan groves 6-7 hr after the application. Phosalone at 0.83 kg/ha to pecan groves caused only slight ChE inhibition in a few blue jays and red-bellied woodpeckers.

  17. Songbirds in managed and non-managed savannas and woodlands in the central hardwoods region

    Treesearch

    Frank R., III Thompson; Jennifer L. Reidy; Sarah W. Kendrick; Jane A. Fitzgerald

    2012-01-01

    We know little about the response of birds to savanna and woodland restoration in the Ozarks or how important such habitats are to birds of conservation concern. Bird species such as red-headed woodpecker, prairie warbler, field sparrow, and blue-winged warbler are species of regional concern, and declines of these species may be due to historical declines in savannas...

  18. Interspecific nest use by aridland birds

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch

    1982-01-01

    Nest holes drilled by woodpeckers (Picidae) are frequently used by secondary cavity-nesting species, but interspecific use of open and domed nests is less well known. Nests constructed by many southwestern desert birds last longer than one year (pers. obs.) and are consequently reused by the same pair (e.g., Abert's Towhees [Pipilo aberti], pers. obs.) or by other...

  19. How to Manage Oak Forests for Acorn Production

    Treesearch

    Paul Johnson

    1994-01-01

    Oak forests are life support systems for the many animals that live in them. Acorns, a staple product of oaks forests, are eaten by many species of birds and mammals including deer, bear, squirrels, mice, rabbits, foxes, raccoons, grackles, turkey, grouse, quail, blue jays, woodpeckers, and waterfowl. The population and health of wildlife often rise and fall with the...

  20. DYNAST: Simulating wildlife responses to forest management strategies

    Treesearch

    Gary L. Benson; William F.  Laudenslayer

    1986-01-01

    A computer simulation approach (DYNAST) was used to evaluate effects of three timber-management alternatives on wildlife in a 2700-ha (6700-acre) study area located in the Sierra Nevada, California. Wildlife species selected to evaluate the effects of these alternatives were band-tailed pigeon (Columba fusciutu), pileated woodpecker (

  1. Challenges of Avian Conservation on Non-Federal Forests in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Joseph B. Buchanan

    2005-01-01

    Conservation of species associated with mature forest habitats remains an important objective for non-federal lands in the Pacific Northwest. With few exceptions, state forest practices rules, a Washington state pilot landscape planning program, and federal Habitat Conservation Plans provide little functional habitat for species, like the Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus...

  2. Native bark-foraging birds preferentially forage in infected ash (Fraxinus spp.) and prove effective predators of the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire)

    Treesearch

    Charles E. Flower; Lawrence C. Long; Kathleen S. Knight; Joanne Rebbeck; Joel S. Brown; Miquel A. Gonzalez-Meler; Christopher J. Whelan

    2014-01-01

    Inadvertently introduced into North America in the 1990s, the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) has been spreading across the Great Lakes Region resulting in widespread ash tree (Fraxinus spp.) mortality. Native woodpeckers and other bark-foraging insectivores represent one of the few potential natural predators...

  3. Role of Predators on an Artificially Planted Red Oak Borer Population

    Treesearch

    Jimmy R. Galford; Jimmy R. Galford

    1985-01-01

    Adult survival of first-instar red oak borer larvae, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), implanted into red oak trees, Quercus rubra L., was 4 times greater when the larvae were protected from predators. Nitidulids, ants, and woodpeckers accounted for 40 to 60 percent of the mortality in unprotected larvae. Most mortality in protected larvae occurred from unknown causes...

  4. HOW to Identify and Control Sapsucker Injury on Trees

    Treesearch

    Michael E. Ostry; Thomas H. Nicholls

    1976-01-01

    The yellow-bellied sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varius), a member of the woodpecker family, is a migratory bird whose summer breeding range includes the Lakes States region. The identifying field markings of adult birds are a black crescent on the breast, pale yellow belly, white wing stripe, and a crimson crown. The male also has a crimson chin and throat, distinguishing...

  5. Nest densities of cavity-nesting birds in relation to postfire salvage logging and time since wildfire

    Treesearch

    Victoria A. Saab; Robin E. Russell; Jonathan G. Dudley

    2007-01-01

    We monitored the nest densities and nest survival of seven cavity-nesting bird species, including four open-space foragers (American Kestrel [Falco sparverius], Lewis's Woodpecker [Melanerpes lewis], Western Bluebird [Sialia mexicana], and Mountain Bluebird [S. currucoides]) and three wood...

  6. The role of wood hardness in limiting nest site selection in avian cavity excavators

    Treesearch

    Teresa J. Lorenz; Kerri T. Vierling; Timothy R. Johnson; Philip C. Fischer

    2015-01-01

    Woodpeckers and other primary cavity excavators (PCEs) are important worldwide for excavating cavities in trees, and a large number of studies have examined their nesting preferences. However, quantitative measures of wood hardness have been omitted from most studies, and ecologists have focused on the effects of external tree- and habitat-level features on nesting....

  7. 78 FR 21086 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Two...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... infestations (Goggans et al. 1989, pp. 20, 34; Powell 2000, pp. 77-79). Utilization of live or dead trees for... al. (1986, p. 13) found that black- backed woodpeckers used live and dead trees for foraging in... on several species of live trees, they use snags (dead trees) more than expected based on...

  8. Dead Trees Bring Life to Forest Critters

    Treesearch

    Thomas Nicholls; Mike Ostry

    2003-01-01

    What good is a dying or dead tree in a forest? Dead and dying trees don't awe us with their beauty; they just stand or lie there on the forest floor, offering no promise of lumber or other wood products we need. But if we look more closely at such trees, we may see lots of life in them: a raccoon family huddled in a burrow, a downy woodpecker excavating another...

  9. Benefits to satellite members in mixed-species foraging groups: an experimental analysis.

    PubMed

    Dolby; Grubb jr TC

    1998-08-01

    Hypotheses proposed to explain the formation of mixed-species foraging groups have focused on both foraging and antipredation benefits. Mixed-species flocks of bark-foraging birds form during the winter in the eastern deciduous forests of North America. These flocks are composed of two parid nuclear species, tufted titmice, Baeolophus bicolor, and either Carolina or black-capped chickadees, Poecile carolinensis or P. atricapillus, and several satellite species including downy woodpeckers, Picoides pubescens, and white-breasted nuthatches, Sitta carolinensis. The parid nuclear species seem to act as flock leaders and are closely followed by the satellite species. To elucidate what advantages downy woodpeckers and white-breasted nuthatches gain by flocking with parids, we removed parids from eight Ohio woodlots isolated by surrounding agricultural fields and compared the woodpeckers and nuthatches in these woodlots to those in eight controls. We tested four predictions generated by group-foraging hypotheses: compared with controls, satellite birds in treatment woodlots should (1) forage more in microclimates that reduce metabolic costs, (2) increase their vigilance, (3) exhibit reduced nutritional condition and (4) exhibit higher mortality rates. As predicted, female downy woodpeckers in treatment woodlots tended to forage in locations that were more sheltered from wind, presumably thereby reducing metabolic costs. Treatment males and females of both species significantly increased their vigilance. Finally, in the absence of parids, male nuthatches showed significantly reduced nutritional condition according to ptilochronology analysis of feathers grown during the experimental manipulation, and tended to exhibit increased mortality Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour

  10. U. S. Naval Forces, Vietnam Monthly Historical Summary for April 1970

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1970-06-13

    bunker complex also contained numerous spider holes, sub-bimkers, and one large tunnel. The WPBs detained a total of 78 persons (4 male, _,_.--_,. 26...458) 14-30 USS PEACOCK (MSC 198) 1-3 . USS WIDGECN (MSC 203) 1-7 USS WOODPECKER (MSC ?09) 7-12 USS ADVANCE (040 510) 12-30 _ USS ORLECK (DD 886) 1-4 USS

  11. Environmental Assessment for the Construction of Power and Fiber Optic Lines to Facilities in the Yukon Training Area, Alaska-Phase 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    feather moss. Closed canopy black spruce forest tends to return to its original composition after fire (Viereck et al., 1992). In the absence of fire...facility, the vegetation becomes a more open growth of mixed spruce and hardwoods, with it eventually getting to an alpine tundra vegetative community...area. Non migratory birds include ravens, jays, chickadees, songbirds, woodpeckers, grouse, and ptarmigan. Raptors include bald and golden eagles, hawks

  12. Proceedings of the Annual Major Range and Test Facility Base (MRTFB) environmental Workshop (4th) Held in Alexandria, Virginia on 26-28 April 1994

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    Copy 0of 37 Copts$ | AD-A285 779 SIDA DOCUMENT D- 1537 I PROCEEDLNGS OF THE FOURTH ANNUAL MAJOR RANGE AND TEST FACILITY BASE (MRTFB...DEFENSE ANALYSES 񓜩 N. Beauregard Street, Alexandria, Virginia 22311-1772 SIDA Log No. HU 94-45640 * III i DEFINITIONS IDA publishes the follewing...woodpecker. The RCW is a good indicator of ecosystem health in VIH -36 I I the longleaf pine ecosystem. This survey identified Eglin as having the fourth

  13. Environmental Assessment Military Housing Privatization Initiative at Beale Air Force Base, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number . 1. REPORT DATE JUN 2005 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED...turkey, California quail, acorn woodpecker, scrub jay, deer, and California ground squirrels. 9 Oak foliage and bark support insect populations ...basing issued in March 2004 by the 4 California Regional Water Quality Control Board (CRWQCB), Central Valley Region. 5 During the rainy season

  14. Detailed Project Report for Section 205 Flood Control Project. Dry Run Creek, Fayette County, Oelwein, Iowa with Environmental Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    manicured residential and recreational areas. Wildlife species likely to be present in the study area include raccoons, rabbits, squirrels, shrews...mice, woodpeckers, songbirds, and some amphibians and reptiles . No unusual or critical terrestrial habitats are known to exist within the study area. C... likely the result of thunderstorm-type rainf alls occurring during spring and summer. The major historical flood appears to have been that of 28

  15. Notes on breeding sharp-shinned hawks and cooper’s hawks in Barnwell County, South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Mark Vukovich; John C. Kilgo

    2009-01-01

    Breeding records of Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawks) in the southeastern US are scattered and isolated. We documented a Sharp-shinned Hawk and Accipiter cooperii (Cooper’s Hawk) nest while conducting a telemetry study on Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpeckers) in Barnwell County, SC in 2006 and 2007. We report the first known nest of a Sharp-shinned...

  16. Hope is the thing with feathers [book review

    Treesearch

    John C Kilgo

    2000-01-01

    Hope Is the Thing with Feathers, written by Christopher Cokinos, presents accounts of the lives and deaths of six extinct species (or races) of North American birds: Carolina parakeet, ivory-billed woodpecker, heath hen, passenger pigeon, Labrador duck, and the great auk. The message of Cokinos’ book is that we must do more than hope; we must act to prevent...

  17. Brain size and morphology of the brood-parasitic and cerophagous honeyguides (Aves: Piciformes).

    PubMed

    Corfield, Jeremy R; Birkhead, Tim R; Spottiswoode, Claire N; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Boogert, Neeltje J; Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Cristian; Overington, Sarah E; Wylie, Douglas R; Lefebvre, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Honeyguides (Indicatoridae, Piciformes) are unique among birds in several respects. All subsist primarily on wax, are obligatory brood parasites and one species engages in 'guiding' behavior in which it leads human honey hunters to bees' nests. This unique life history has likely shaped the evolution of their brain size and morphology. Here, we test that hypothesis using comparative data on relative brain and brain region size of honeyguides and their relatives: woodpeckers, barbets and toucans. Honeyguides have significantly smaller relative brain volumes than all other piciform taxa. Volumetric measurements of the brain indicate that honeyguides have a significantly larger cerebellum and hippocampal formation (HF) than woodpeckers, the sister clade of the honeyguides, although the HF enlargement was not significant across all of our analyses. Cluster analyses also revealed that the overall composition of the brain and telencephalon differs greatly between honeyguides and woodpeckers. The relatively smaller brains of the honeyguides may be a consequence of brood parasitism and cerophagy ('wax eating'), both of which place energetic constraints on brain development and maintenance. The inconclusive results of our analyses of relative HF volume highlight some of the problems associated with comparative studies of the HF that require further study.

  18. Arsenic accumulation in bark beetles and forest birds occupying mountain pine beetle infested stands treated with monosodium methanearsonate.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Christy A; Albert, Courtney A; Dods, Patti L; Cullen, William R; Lai, Vivian W M; Elliott, John E

    2007-02-15

    The arsenic-based pesticide, monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA), is presently being evaluated for re-registration in Canada and the United States and has been widely used in British Columbia to help suppress Mountain Pine Beetle (MPB) outbreaks. We assessed the availability and exposure of MSMA to woodpeckers and other forest birds that may prey directly on contaminated bark beetles. Total arsenic residues in MPB from MSMA treated trees ranged from 1.3-700.2 microg g(-1) dw (geometric mean 42.0 microg g(-1)) with the metabolite monomethyl arsonic acid (MMAA) contributing 90-97% to the total arsenic extracted. Live adult and larval beetles were collected from treated trees and reached concentrations up to 327 microg g(-1) dw. MPBs from reference trees had significantly lower arsenic concentrations averaging 0.19 microg g(-1) dw. Woodpeckers foraged more heavily on MSMAtreesthat contained beetles with lower arsenic residues, suggesting those trees had reduced MSMAtranslocation and possibly greater live beetle broods. Blood samples from five species of woodpeckers and other forest passerines breeding within 1 km of MSMA stands contained elevated levels of total arsenic but with large individual variability (geometric mean = 0.18 microg g(-1) dw, range 0.02-2.20 microg g(-1). The results indicate that there is significant accumulation and transfer of organic arsenic within the food chain at levels that may present a toxicity risk to avian wildlife.

  19. On uncertain sightings and inference about extinction.

    PubMed

    Solow, Andrew R; Beet, Andrew R

    2014-08-01

    The extinction of many species can only be inferred from the record of sightings of individuals. Solow et al. (2012, Uncertain sightings and the extinction of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker. Conservation Biology 26:180-184) describe a Bayesian approach to such inference and apply it to a sighting record of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis). A feature of this sighting record is that all uncertain sightings occurred after the most recent certain sighting. However, this appears to be an artifact. We extended this earlier work in 2 ways. First, we allowed for overlap in time between certain and uncertain sightings. Second, we considered 2 plausible statistical models of a sighting record. In one of these models, certain and uncertain sightings that are valid arise from the same process whereas in the other they arise from independent processes. We applied both models to the case of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker. The result from the first model did not favor extinction, whereas the result for the second model did. This underscores the importance, in applying tests for extinction, of understanding what could be called the natural history of the sighting record. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Ensemble modeling to predict habitat suitability for a large-scale disturbance specialist.

    PubMed

    Latif, Quresh S; Saab, Victoria A; Dudley, Jonathan G; Hollenbeck, Jeff P

    2013-11-01

    To conserve habitat for disturbance specialist species, ecologists must identify where individuals will likely settle in newly disturbed areas. Habitat suitability models can predict which sites at new disturbances will most likely attract specialists. Without validation data from newly disturbed areas, however, the best approach for maximizing predictive accuracy can be unclear (Northwestern U.S.A.). We predicted habitat suitability for nesting Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus; a burned-forest specialist) at 20 recently (≤6 years postwildfire) burned locations in Montana using models calibrated with data from three locations in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. We developed 8 models using three techniques (weighted logistic regression, Maxent, and Mahalanobis D (2) models) and various combinations of four environmental variables describing burn severity, the north-south orientation of topographic slope, and prefire canopy cover. After translating model predictions into binary classifications (0 = low suitability to unsuitable, 1 = high to moderate suitability), we compiled "ensemble predictions," consisting of the number of models (0-8) predicting any given site as highly suitable. The suitability status for 40% of the area burned by eastside Montana wildfires was consistent across models and therefore robust to uncertainty in the relative accuracy of particular models and in alternative ecological hypotheses they described. Ensemble predictions exhibited two desirable properties: (1) a positive relationship with apparent rates of nest occurrence at calibration locations and (2) declining model agreement outside surveyed environments consistent with our reduced confidence in novel (i.e., "no-analogue") environments. Areas of disagreement among models suggested where future surveys could help validate and refine models for an improved understanding of Black-backed Woodpecker nesting habitat relationships. Ensemble predictions presented here can help guide

  1. Ensemble modeling to predict habitat suitability for a large-scale disturbance specialist

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Quresh S; Saab, Victoria A; Dudley, Jonathan G; Hollenbeck, Jeff P

    2013-01-01

    To conserve habitat for disturbance specialist species, ecologists must identify where individuals will likely settle in newly disturbed areas. Habitat suitability models can predict which sites at new disturbances will most likely attract specialists. Without validation data from newly disturbed areas, however, the best approach for maximizing predictive accuracy can be unclear (Northwestern U.S.A.). We predicted habitat suitability for nesting Black-backed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus; a burned-forest specialist) at 20 recently (≤6 years postwildfire) burned locations in Montana using models calibrated with data from three locations in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. We developed 8 models using three techniques (weighted logistic regression, Maxent, and Mahalanobis D2 models) and various combinations of four environmental variables describing burn severity, the north–south orientation of topographic slope, and prefire canopy cover. After translating model predictions into binary classifications (0 = low suitability to unsuitable, 1 = high to moderate suitability), we compiled “ensemble predictions,” consisting of the number of models (0–8) predicting any given site as highly suitable. The suitability status for 40% of the area burned by eastside Montana wildfires was consistent across models and therefore robust to uncertainty in the relative accuracy of particular models and in alternative ecological hypotheses they described. Ensemble predictions exhibited two desirable properties: (1) a positive relationship with apparent rates of nest occurrence at calibration locations and (2) declining model agreement outside surveyed environments consistent with our reduced confidence in novel (i.e., “no-analogue”) environments. Areas of disagreement among models suggested where future surveys could help validate and refine models for an improved understanding of Black-backed Woodpecker nesting habitat relationships. Ensemble predictions presented here can

  2. JPRS Report, China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-22

    defamatory mate- rial on Jiang Qing . Originally, among the group of books purchased there was a volume called A History of Chi- nese Movies. It...discussed some disgraceful matters from That’s Jiang Qing by Lan Ping [5663 5493] in the 1930’s. Of course, at the time I had been a bystander. I had...example, it was I who set up and chose the name ZHUO MU NIAO [WOODPECKER], but I was not allowed to work on it. In 1987, during the "antifree- dom

  3. The Effects of Coarse Woody Debris and Vegetation Structure on Avian Communities of Southeastern Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Forests

    SciTech Connect

    Lohr, S.M.

    1999-09-01

    Avian community richness and abundance were compared among several treatments in which coarse woody debris was manipulated. Treatments included a control, all dead wood removed less than four inches, and all down wood less than four inches removed. Avian communities were compared during the winter and spring nesting periods. In general, no differences in community parameters were detected during the winter months. However, during the spring nesting season several species of cavity nesting species like woodpeckers were significantly reduced where all snags were removed. Diversity was highest on the control. In addition, the woody debris appeared to benefit several ground nesting species such as the Carolina wren.

  4. Avian Territory Mapping. Section 6.3.4, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    tivelv e;sv to detect. Site visits should be made on calm days with no rain to maximize the opportunity to hear bird songs and calls. 6 The route of...or review the songs and call notes of local species before starting a mapping study. A small hand-held tape recorder is useful to record questionable...black-billed cuckoo (Cocc’u.p aturu za) DW, downy woodpecker (Picoideo pube:,,,!nr1); RT, rufous-sided towhee (Pipilo erythrophthanna); C, northern

  5. Avian Distribution Patterns Across the Cache River Floodplain, Arkansas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    northern waterthrush, and yellow-billed cuckoo ) were not asso- ciated with any of the habitat variables. During winter, most species showed no affinity for...8217• • Yellow-billed Cuckoo -0.1 Red-bellied Woodpecker Blue-gray Gnatcatcher CO 0.0- Northern Parula W Carolina Chickadee Z Brown-headed CowbirdI- 1L 0.1...Robinson, S. K. (1990). "Effects of forest fragmentation on nesting song - birds," Illinois Natural History Survey, Natural History Reports, No. 296

  6. How to manage oak forests for acorn production

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.S.

    1994-03-01

    Oak forests are life support systems for the many animals that live in them. Acorns, a staple product of oak forests, are eaten by many species of birds and mammals including deer, bear, squirrels, mice, rabbits, foxes, raccoons, grackles, turkey, grouse, quail, blue jays, woodpeckers, and water-fowl. The population and health and wildlife often rise, and fall with the cyclic production of acorns. Acorns' importance to wildlife is related to several factors including their widespread occurrence, palatability, nutritiousness, and availability during the critical fall and winter period.

  7. Folsom-Nimbus 115 kV transmission line replacement for Western Area Power Administration: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to replace the existing Folsom-Nimbus 115 kV electrical transmission line along the American River between Folsom Dam and Nimbus Dam in Sacramento County, California. The need to replace the line is attributed to the deterioration of the existing wood pole structures by the acorn woodpecker; thus resulting in increased maintenance and hazard potential. The need for the replacement of the Folsom-Nimbus transmission line has resulted in the evaluation by Western of various routing alternatives. These alternatives were evaluated in terms of design, economic and environmental considerations. 60 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Avian abundance and oak mistletoe survey data from the Willamette Valley, Oregon, 2013-2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pritchard, Kyle R.; Hagar, Joan; Shaw, David C.

    2017-01-01

    This dataset includes two spreadsheets: The "Avian_abundance_oak_mistletoe_bird_data" spreadsheet contains data regarding Oregon White Oak tree (Quercus garryana) measurements such as height, diameter and crown volume along with microhabitat data including number of mistletoe infections, number of cavities, amount of dead wood, amount of loose/missing bark, amount of poison oak, amount of bole cracks, and presence of woodpecker sign, bark-beetle sign, and fungal fruiting bodies. The "Avian_abundance_oak_mistletoe_surveys_data" spreadsheet contains bird survey observations including data, time, temperature, precipitation, bird species observations, age/sex, and behavioral observations.

  9. Habitat relationships and nest site characteristics of cavity-nesting birds in cottonwood floodplains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedgwick, James A.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1990-01-01

    We examined habitat relationships and nest site characteristics for 6 species of cavity-nesting birds--American kestrel (Falco sparverius), northern flicker (Colaptes auratus), red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus), house wren (Troglodytes aedon), and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris)--in a mature plains cottonwood (Populus sargentii) bottomland along the South Platte River in northeastern Colorado in 1985 and 1986. We examined characteristics of cavities, nest trees, and the habitat surrounding nest trees. Density of large trees (>69 cm dbh), total length of dead limbs ≥10 cm diameter (TDLL), and cavity density were the most important habitat variables; dead limb length (DLL), dbh, and species were the most important tree variables; and cavity height, cavity entrance diameter, and substrate condition at the cavity (live vs. dead) were the most important cavity variables in segregating cavity nesters along habitat, tree, and cavity dimensions, respectively. Random sites differed most from cavity-nesting bird sites on the basis of dbh, DLL, limb tree density (trees with ≥1 m dead limbs ≥10 cm diameter), and cavity density. Habitats of red-headed woodpeckers and American kestrels were the most unique, differing most from random sites. Based on current trends in cottonwood demography, densities of cavity-nesting birds will probably decline gradually along the South Platte River, paralleling a decline in DLL, limb tree density, snag density, and the concurrent lack of cottonwood regeneration.

  10. Consistency and variation in phenotypic selection exerted by a community of seed predators.

    PubMed

    Benkman, Craig W; Smith, Julie W; Maier, Monika; Hansen, Leif; Talluto, Matt V

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic selection that is sustained over time underlies both anagenesis and cladogenesis, but the conditions that lead to such selection and what causes variation in selection are not well known. We measured the selection exerted by three species of predispersal seed predators of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta latifolia) in the South Hills, Idaho, and found that net selection on different cone and seed traits exerted by red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) and cone borer moths (Eucosma recissoriana) over 10 years of seed crops was similar to that measured in another mountain range. We also found that the strength of selection increased as seed predation increased, which provides a mechanism for the correlation between the escalation of seed defenses and the density of seed predators. Red crossbills consume the most seeds and selection they exert accounts for much of the selection experienced by lodgepole pine, providing additional support for a coevolutionary arms race between crossbills and lodgepole pine in the South Hills. The third seed predator, hairy woodpeckers (Picoides villosus), consumed less than one-sixth as many seeds as crossbills. Across the northern Rocky Mountains, woodpecker abundance and therefore selective impact appears limited by the elevated seed defenses of lodgepole pine.

  11. The ecological importance of severe wildfires: some like it hot.

    PubMed

    Hutto, Richard L

    2008-12-01

    Many scientists and forest land managers concur that past fire suppression, grazing, and timber harvesting practices have created unnatural and unhealthy conditions in the dry, ponderosa pine forests of the western United States. Specifically, such forests are said to carry higher fuel loads and experience fires that are more severe than those that occurred historically. It remains unclear, however, how far these generalizations can be extrapolated in time and space, and how well they apply to the more mesic ponderosa pine systems and to other forest systems within the western United States. I use data on the pattern of distribution of one bird species (Black-backed Woodpecker, Picoides arcticus) as derived from 16465 sample locations to show that, in western Montana, this bird species is extremely specialized on severely burned forests. Such specialization has profound implications because it suggests that the severe fires we see burning in many forests in the Intermountain West are not entirely "unnatural" or "unhealthy." Instead, severely burned forest conditions have probably occurred naturally across a broad range of forest types for millennia. These findings highlight the fact that severe fire provides an important ecological backdrop for fire specialists like the Black-backed Woodpecker, and that the presence and importance of severe fire may be much broader than commonly appreciated.

  12. Columbia River Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report / Scotch Creek Wildlife Area, Berg Brothers, and Douglas County Pygmy Rabbit Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul R.

    1997-01-01

    This Habitat Evaluation Procedure study was conducted to determine baseline habitat units (HUs) on the Scotch Creek, Mineral Hill, Pogue Mountain, Chesaw and Tunk Valley Habitat Areas (collectively known as the Scotch Creek Wildlife Area) in Okanogan County, Sagebrush Flat and the Dormaler property in Douglas County, and the Berg Brothers ranch located in Okanogan County within the Colville Reservation. A HEP team comprised of individuals from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (Appendix A) conducted baseline habitat surveys using the following HEP evaluation species: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana), mink (Mustela vison), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), Lewis woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), and Yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Results of the HEP analysis are listed below. General ratings (poor, marginal, fair, etc.,) are described in Appendix B. Mule deer habitat was marginal lacking diversity and quantify of suitable browse species. Sharp-tailed grouse habitat was marginal lacking residual nesting cover and suitable winter habitat Pygmy rabbit habitat was in fair condition except for the Dormaier property which was rated marginal due to excessive shrub canopy closure at some sites. This report is an analysis of baseline habitat conditions on mitigation project lands and provides estimated habitat units for mitigation crediting purposes. In addition, information from this document could be used by wildlife habitat managers to develop management strategies for specific project sites.

  13. Battery Charge Affects the Stability of Light Intensity from Light-emitting Diode Light-curing Units.

    PubMed

    Tongtaksin, A; Leevailoj, C

    This study investigated the influence of battery charge levels on the stability of light-emitting diode (LED) curing-light intensity by measuring the intensity from fully charged through fully discharged batteries. The microhardness of resin composites polymerized by the light-curing units at various battery charge levels was measured. The light intensities of seven fully charged battery LED light-curing units-1) LY-A180, 2) Bluephase, 3) Woodpecker, 4) Demi Plus, 5) Saab II, 6) Elipar S10, and 7) MiniLED-were measured with a radiometer (Kerr) after every 10 uses (20 seconds per use) until the battery was discharged. Ten 2-mm-thick cylindrical specimens of A3 shade nanofilled resin composite (PREMISE, Kerr) were prepared per LED light-curing unit group. Each specimen was irradiated by the fully charged light-curing unit for 20 seconds. The LED light-curing units were then used until the battery charge fell to 50%. Specimens were prepared again as described above. This was repeated again when the light-curing units' battery charge fell to 25% and when the light intensity had decreased to 400 mW/cm(2). The top/bottom surface Knoop hardness ratios of the specimens were determined. The microhardness data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance with Tukey test at a significance level of 0.05. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine significant correlations between surface hardness and light intensity. We found that the light intensities of the Bluephase, Demi Plus, and Elipar S10 units were stable. The intensity of the MiniLED unit decreased slightly; however, it remained above 400 mW/cm(2). In contrast, the intensities of the LY-A180, Woodpecker, and Saab II units decreased below 400 mW/cm(2). There was also a significant decrease in the surface microhardnesses of the resin composite specimens treated with MiniLED, LY-A180, Woodpecker, and Saab II. In conclusion, the light intensity of several LED light-curing units decreased as the battery was

  14. The Relative Importance of Three Specific Climatic Factors on North American Breeding Bird Species Richness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Lin, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Understanding of the relationships between bird species and environment facilitates protecting avian biodiversity and maintaining nature sustaining. However, the effects of many climatic factors on bird richness have not been fully grasped. To fill this gap, this study investigated the relationships between the richness of three typical North American breeding bird species and three climatic factors at the monthly scale. Based on the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data during 1967-2014, the relationships between the numbers of Carolina wren, Cerulean warbler, and Red-bellied woodpecker and the three climatic factors of precipitation, vapor pressure, and potential evapotranspiration were examined using the method of Pearson linear regression analysis. The results indicated that the three climatic factors have correlations with the richness of the breeding bird species but in different modes, e.g., strong correlations for the non-migratory species but weak correlations for the migratory species.

  15. DNA barcoding and phylogenetic relationships of genera Picoides and Dendrocopos (Aves: Picidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Z H; Tu, F Y; Liao, X J

    2015-12-28

    Picoides and Dendrocopos are two closely related genera of woodpeckers (family Picidae), and members of these genera have long been the subjects of phylogenetic debate. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) is a powerful marker for the identification and phylogenetic study of animal species. In the present study, we analyzed the COI barcodes of 21 species from the two genera, and 222 variable sites were identified. Kimura two-parameter distances were calculated between barcodes. The average interspecific genetic distance was more than 20 times higher than the average intraspecific genetic distance. The neighbor-joining method was used to construct a phylogenetic tree, and all of the species could be discriminated by their distinct clades. Picoides arcticus was the first to split from the lineage, and the other species were grouped into two divergent clades. The results of this study indicated that the COI genetic data did not support the monophyly of Picoides and Dendrocopos.

  16. Evaluation of a guild approach to habitat assessment for forest-dwelling birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Mary; Porter, William F.

    1988-11-01

    The applicability of the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was assessed for several nongame bird species in the central Adirondack Mountains of New York. Measures for 24 avian species and 33 associated habitat variables were collected during the summers of 1985 and 1986. The accuracy of four published Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models was examined: pileated and downy woodpeckers, black-capped chickadee, and veery. Chickadee and veery models were judged successful and were then used to predict habitat quality for respective avian foragingguild members. The HSI model/guild approach provided poor predictors of habitat quality for ubiquitous and uncommon species. Information on relative abundance within the geographic region and specific cover types must be included when designing habitat evaluations using the guild approach.

  17. Temporal differences in point counts of bottomland forest landbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, W.P.; Twedt, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    We compared number of avian species and individuals in morning and evening point counts during the breeding season and during winter in a bottomland hardwood forest in west-central Mississippi. USA. In both seasons, more species and individuals were recorded during morning counts than during evening counts. We also compared morning and evening detections for 18 species during the breeding season and 9 species during winter. Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata), Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura), and Red-bellied Woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus) were detected significantly more often in morning counts than in evening counts during the breeding season. Tufted Titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor) was recorded more often in morning Counts than evening counts during the breeding season and during winter. No species was detected more often in evening counts. Thus, evening point counts of birds during either the breeding season or winter will likely underestimate species richness, overall avian abundance, and the abundance of some individual species in bottomland hardwood forests.

  18. Hummingbirds have a greatly enlarged hippocampal formation.

    PubMed

    Ward, Brian J; Day, Lainy B; Wilkening, Steven R; Wylie, Douglas R; Saucier, Deborah M; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2012-08-23

    Both field and laboratory studies demonstrate that hummingbirds (Apodiformes, Trochilidae) have exceptional spatial memory. The complexity of spatial-temporal information that hummingbirds must retain and use daily is probably subserved by the hippocampal formation (HF), and therefore, hummingbirds should have a greatly expanded HF. Here, we compare the relative size of the HF in several hummingbird species with that of other birds. Our analyses reveal that the HF in hummingbirds is significantly larger, relative to telencephalic volume, than any bird examined to date. When expressed as a percentage of telencephalic volume, the hummingbird HF is two to five times larger than that of caching and non-caching songbirds, seabirds and woodpeckers. This HF expansion in hummingbirds probably underlies their ability to remember the location, distribution and nectar content of flowers, but more detailed analyses are required to determine the extent to which this arises from an expansion of HF or a decrease in size of other brain regions.

  19. Relationships of the avifauna of San Esteban Island, Sonora

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, R.C.

    1969-01-01

    Seven species of geographically variable birds have been reported as part of the resident avifauna of San Esteban Island in the Gulf of California, Sonora. Two of these, the Curvebilled Thrasher and the Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, may not actually have breeding populations there, at least at the present time. Of the seven, only two, the Verdin and the doubtfully resident thrasher, can be used in a determination of the relationships of the avifauna, and both show affinities to that of Sonora. The Ash-throated Flycatcher and the House Finch are represented by the same form on San Esteban and in both Sonora and Baja California at the latitude of the island. Neither the Ladder-backed Woodpecker nor the endemic Black-throated Sparrow shows greater similarity to the Baja California or Sonoran avifauna. The slight balance of evidence indicates that the avifauna of San Esteban Island is best considered with that of Sonora.

  20. Nucleolar organizer regions in Sittasomus griseicapillus and Lepidocolaptes angustirostris (Aves, Dendrocolaptidae): Evidence of a chromosome inversion.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Barbosa, Marcelo; da Silva, Rubens Rodrigues; de Sena Correia, Vanessa Carolina; Dos Santos, Luana Pereira; Garnero, Analía Del Valle; Gunski, Ricardo José

    2013-03-01

    Cytogenetic studies in birds are still scarce compared to other vertebrates. Woodcreepers (Dendrocolaptidae) are part of a highly specialized group within the Suboscines of the New World. They are forest birds exclusive to the Neotropical region and similar to woodpeckers, at a comparable evolutionary stage. This paper describes for the first time the karyotypes of the Olivaceous and the Narrow-billed Woodcreeper using conventional staining with Giemsa and silver nitrate staining of the nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs). Metaphases were obtained by fibular bone marrow culture. The chromosome number of the Olivaceous Woodcreeper was 2n = 82 and of the Narrow-billed Woodcreeper, 2n = 82. Ag-NORs in the largest macrochromosome pair and evidence of a chromosome inversion are described herein for the first time for this group.

  1. Plasmodium circumflexum in a Shikra (Accipiter badius): phylogeny and ultra-structure of the haematozoa.

    PubMed

    Salakij, Jarernsak; Lertwatcharasarakul, Preeda; Kasorndorkbua, Chaiyan; Salakij, Chaleow

    2012-08-01

    A wild-caught, juvenile Shikra (Accipiter badius) was evaluated for rehabilitation at the Kasetsart University Raptor Rehabilitation Unit (KURRU) with a history of weakness. Plasmodium sp. was observed by both light and electron microscopy in blood obtained on day 1 of evaluation. Based on the appearance of erythrocytic meronts and gametocytes, the parasites were defined as Plasmodium (Giovannolaia) circumflexum. The sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from the plasmodia was closely related to parasites found in the Grey-headed woodpecker from Myanmar and the Brown hawk-owl from Singapore. Transmission electron microscopic examination revealed organelles in the haematozoa and heterophils that ingested the plasmodia. This is the first recorded case of Plasmodium circumflexum in a wild Shikra. This note emphasises the molecular characterisation and ultra-structure of the haematozoa.

  2. Nucleolar organizer regions in Sittasomus griseicapillus and Lepidocolaptes angustirostris (Aves, Dendrocolaptidae): Evidence of a chromosome inversion

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Barbosa, Marcelo; da Silva, Rubens Rodrigues; de Sena Correia, Vanessa Carolina; dos Santos, Luana Pereira; Garnero, Analía del Valle; Gunski, Ricardo José

    2013-01-01

    Cytogenetic studies in birds are still scarce compared to other vertebrates. Woodcreepers (Dendrocolaptidae) are part of a highly specialized group within the Suboscines of the New World. They are forest birds exclusive to the Neotropical region and similar to woodpeckers, at a comparable evolutionary stage. This paper describes for the first time the karyotypes of the Olivaceous and the Narrow-billed Woodcreeper using conventional staining with Giemsa and silver nitrate staining of the nucleolar organizer regions (Ag-NORs). Metaphases were obtained by fibular bone marrow culture. The chromosome number of the Olivaceous Woodcreeper was 2n = 82 and of the Narrow-billed Woodcreeper, 2n = 82. Ag-NORs in the largest macrochromosome pair and evidence of a chromosome inversion are described herein for the first time for this group. PMID:23569410

  3. Optimal allocation of conservation resources to species that may be extinct.

    PubMed

    Rout, Tracy M; Heinze, Dean; McCarthy, Michael A

    2010-08-01

    Statements of extinction will always be uncertain because of imperfect detection of species in the wild. Two errors can be made when declaring a species extinct. Extinction can be declared prematurely, with a resulting loss of protection and management intervention. Alternatively, limited conservation resources can be wasted attempting to protect a species that no longer exists. Rather than setting an arbitrary level of certainty at which to declare extinction, we argue that the decision must trade off the expected costs of both errors. Optimal decisions depend on the cost of continued intervention, the probability the species is extant, and the estimated value of management (the benefit of management times the value of the species). We illustrated our approach with three examples: the Dodo (Raphus cucullatus), the Ivory-billed Woodpecker (U.S. subspecies Campephilus principalis principalis), and the mountain pygmy-possum (Burramys parvus). The dodo was extremely unlikely to be extant, so managing and monitoring for it today would not be cost-effective unless the value of management was extremely high. The probability the Ivory-billed woodpecker is extant depended on whether recent controversial sightings were accepted. Without the recent controversial sightings, it was optimal to declare extinction of the species in 1965 at the latest. Accepting the recent controversial sightings, it was optimal to continue monitoring and managing until 2032 at the latest. The mountain pygmy-possum is currently extant, with a rapidly declining sighting rate. It was optimal to conduct as many as 66 surveys without sighting before declaring the species extinct. The probability of persistence remained high even after many surveys without sighting because it was difficult to determine whether the species was extinct or undetected. If the value of management is high enough, continued intervention can be cost-effective even if the species is likely to be extinct.

  4. Using Field Data and GIS-Derived Variables to Model Occurrence of Williamson’s Sapsucker Nesting Habitat at Multiple Spatial Scales

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Williamson's sapsucker (Sphyrapicus thyroideus) is a migratory woodpecker that breeds in mixed coniferous forests in western North America. In Canada, the range of this woodpecker is restricted to three small populations in southern British Columbia, precipitating a national listing as ‘Endangered’ in 2005, and the need to characterize critical habitat for its survival and recovery. We compared habitat attributes between Williamson’s sapsucker nest territories and random points without nests or detections of this sapsucker as part of a resource selection analysis to identify the habitat features that best explain the probability of nest occurrence in two separate geographic regions in British Columbia. We compared the relative explanatory power of generalized linear models based on field-derived and Geographic Information System (GIS) data within both a 225 m and 800 m radius of a nest or random point. The model based on field-derived variables explained the most variation in nest occurrence in the Okanagan-East Kootenay Region, whereas nest occurrence was best explained by GIS information at the 800 m scale in the Western Region. Probability of nest occurrence was strongly tied to densities of potential nest trees, which included open forests with very large (diameter at breast height, DBH, ≥57.5 cm) western larch (Larix occidentalis) trees in the Okanagan-East Kootenay Region, and very large ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and large (DBH 17.5–57.5 cm) trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) trees in the Western Region. Our results have the potential to guide identification and protection of critical habitat as required by the Species at Risk Act in Canada, and to better manage Williamson’s sapsucker habitat overall in North America. In particular, management should focus on the maintenance and recruitment of very large western larch and ponderosa pine trees. PMID:26177286

  5. Occurrence of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and biotic factors affecting its immature stages in the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Yurchenko, Galina; Fuester, Roger

    2012-04-01

    Field surveys were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in the Khabarovsk and Vladivostok regions of Russia to investigate the occurrence of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and mortality factors affecting its immature stages. We found emerald ash borer infesting both introduced North American green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and native oriental ashes (F. mandshurica Rupr. and F. rhynchophylla Hance) in both regions. Emerald ash borer densities (larvae/m(2) of phloem area) were markedly higher on green ash (11.3-76.7 in the Khabarovsk area and 77-245 in the Vladivostok area) than on artificially stressed Manchurian ash (2.2) or Oriental ash (10-59). Mortality of emerald ash borer larvae caused by different biotic factors (woodpecker predation, host plant resistance and/or undetermined diseases, and parasitism) varied with date, site, and ash species. In general, predation of emerald ash borer larvae by woodpeckers was low. While low rates (3-27%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by undetermined biotic factors on green ash between 2009 and 2011, higher rates (26-95%) of emerald ash borer larval mortality were caused by putative plant resistance in Oriental ash species in both regions. Little (<1%) parasitism of emerald ash borer larvae was observed in Khabarovsk; however, three hymenopteran parasitoids (Spathius sp., Atanycolus nigriventris Vojnovskaja-Krieger, and Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang) were observed attacking third - fourth instars of emerald ash borer in the Vladivostok area, parasitizing 0-8.3% of emerald ash borer larvae infesting Oriental ash trees and 7.3-62.7% of those on green ash trees (primarily by Spathius sp.) in two of the three study sites. Relevance of these findings to the classical biological control of emerald ash borer in newly invaded regions is discussed.

  6. A novel approach to an old problem: tracking dispersed seeds.

    PubMed

    Grivet, Delphine; Smouse, Peter E; Sork, Victoria L

    2005-10-01

    Animals are the principal vectors of dispersal for a large number of plant species. Unfortunately it is not easy to discern their movement patterns or the fate of their dispersed seeds. Many animals transport seeds by consuming them and then, some time later, defecating them. Others gather seeds and then store them for later consumption. Both circumstances lead to a set of seeds that have been dispersed in a clumped pattern, which offers a unique opportunity to assess seed movements. We introduce a novel approach that uses maternally inherited seed tissue to quantify the genetic structure of dispersed seed pools. This direct approach measures the genetic variability within and among seed pools, and estimates the scale of seed movement, without requiring a highly polymorphic battery of markers or the location and genotypes of all possible seed parents. We demonstrate this approach with the specific case of seed transport of valley oak (Quercus lobata) acorns by acorn woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus). These territorial birds store acorns in drilled holes in the bark of trees, called granaries. We sampled stored acorns from different granaries, extracted DNA from the maternally inherited pericarp, and then assessed individuals for three microsatellite markers. We found extremely high genetic structure among granaries, a low number of effective seed donors per granary, and restricted seed movement. A maternity analysis performed on the same sample with seven microsatellites confirms acorn transport is limited to approximately 100-m radius. Our findings provide insight into the foraging and seed-dispersal behaviour of acorn woodpeckers, with an approach that can be widely extended to other systems.

  7. Wildlife Inventory, Craig Mountain, Idaho.

    SciTech Connect

    Cassirer, E. Frances

    1995-06-01

    Wildlife distribution/abundance were studied at this location during 1993 and 1994 to establish the baseline as part of the wildlife mitigation agreement for construction of Dworshak reservoir. Inventory efforts were designed to (1) document distribution/abundance of 4 target species: pileated woodpecker, yellow warbler, black-capped chickadee, and river otter, (2) determine distribution/abundance of rare animals, and (3) determine presence and relative abundance of all other species except deer and elk. 201 wildlife species were observed during the survey period; most were residents or used the area seasonally for breeding or wintering. New distribution or breeding records were established for at least 6 species. Pileated woodpeckers were found at 35% of 134 survey points in upland forests; estimated densities were 0-0.08 birds/ha, averaging 0.02 birds/ha. Yellow warblers were found in riparian areas and shrubby draws below 3500 ft elev., and were most abundant in white alder plant communities (ave. est. densities 0.2-2. 1 birds/ha). Black-capped chickadees were found in riparian and mixed tall shrub vegetation at all elevations (ave. est. densities 0-0.7 birds/ha). River otters and suitable otter denning and foraging habitat were observed along the Snake and Salmon rivers. 15 special status animals (threatened, endangered, sensitive, state species of special concern) were observed at Craig Mt: 3 amphibians, 1 reptile, 8 birds, 3 mammals. Another 5 special status species potentially occur (not documented). Ecosystem-based wildlife management issues are identified. A monitoring plant is presented for assessing effects of mitigation activities.

  8. Generalized avian dispersal syndrome contributes to Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum, Euphorbiaceae) invasiveness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renne, I.J.; Barrow, W.C.; Johnson, Randall L.A.; Bridges, W.C.

    2002-01-01

    Plants possessing generalized dispersal syndromes are likely to be more invasive than those relying on specialist dispersal agents. To address this issue on a local and regional scale, avian seed dispersal of the invasive alien Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.) was assessed in forests and spoil areas of South Carolina and along forest edges in Louisiana during the 1997-99 fruiting seasons. Tallow trees in these floristically distinct habitats had a few common and many casual visitors, and considerable species overlap among habitats was found. However, bird species differed in the importance of dispersing and dropping seeds among habitats. Important dispersal agents common to forests and spoil areas of South Carolina included Northern Flicker, American Robin and Redwinged Blackbird, whereas Red-bellied Woodpecker and European Starling were important in the former and latter habitat, respectively. In Louisiana, Red-bellied Woodpecker, American Robin, Northern Cardinal and Eastern Bluebird dispersed many seeds. Nearly all species foraging on seeds were winter residents. Estimated numbers of seeds dispersed and dropped were higher in spoil areas of South Carolina than in Louisiana because of higher numbers of individuals per visit, higher seed consumption and seed dropping rates, and longer foraging durations. Within South Carolina, more seeds were dispersed and dropped in spoil areas than in forests because of higher numbers of birds per visit. These findings show that among habitats, tallow tree attracts diverse but variable coteries of dispersal agents that are qualitatively similar in seed usage patterns. We suggest that its generalized dispersal syndrome contributes to effective seed dispersal by many bird species throughout its range. Effects of differential avian use among locales may include changes in local bird communities, and differing tallow tree demographics and invasion patterns.

  9. Toward meaningful snag-management guidelines for postfire salvage logging in North American conifer forests.

    PubMed

    Hutto, Richard L

    2006-08-01

    The bird species in western North America that are most restricted to, and therefore most dependent on, severely burned conifer forests during the first years following afire event depend heavily on the abundant standing snags for perch sites, nest sites, and food resources. Thus, it is critical to develop and apply appropriate snag-management guidelines to implement postfire timber harvest operations in the same locations. Unfortunately, existing guidelines designed for green-tree forests cannot be applied to postfire salvage sales because the snag needs of snag-dependent species in burned forests are not at all similar to the snag needs of snag-dependent species in green-tree forests. Birds in burned forests have very different snag-retention needs from those cavity-nesting bird species that have served as the focus for the development of existing snag-management guidelines. Specifically, many postfire specialists use standing dead trees not only for nesting purposes but for feeding purposes as well. Woodpeckers, in particular specialize on wood-boring beetle larvae that are superabundant in fire-killed trees for several years following severe fire. Species such as the Black-backed Woodpecker (Picoides arcticus) are nearly restricted in their habitat distribution to severely burned forests. Moreover existing postfire salvage-logging studies reveal that most postfire specialist species are completely absent from burned forests that have been (even partially) salvage logged. I call for the long-overdue development and use of more meaningful snag-retention guidelines for postfire specialists, and I note that the biology of the most fire-dependent bird species suggests that even a cursory attempt to meet their snag needs would preclude postfire salvage logging in those severely burned conifer forests wherein the maintenance of biological diversity is deemed important.

  10. Mitochondrial genomes and avian phylogeny: complex characters and resolvability without explosive radiations.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Gillian C; Kardailsky, Olga; Kimball, Rebecca T; Braun, Edward L; Penny, David

    2007-01-01

    We improve the taxon sampling for avian phylogeny by analyzing 7 new mitochondrial genomes (a toucan, woodpecker, osprey, forest falcon, American kestrel, heron, and a pelican). This improves inference of the avian tree, and it supports 3 major conclusions. The first is that some birds (including a parrot, a toucan, and an osprey) exhibit a complete duplication of the control region (CR) meaning that there are at least 4 distinct gene orders within birds. However, it appears that there are regions of continued gene conversion between the duplicate CRs, resulting in duplications that can be stable for long evolutionary periods. Because of this stable duplicated state, gene order can eventually either revert to the original order or change to the new gene order. The existence of this stable duplicate state explains how an apparently unlikely event (finding the same novel gene order) can arise multiple times. Although rare genomic changes have theoretical advantages for tree reconstruction, they can be compromised if these apparently rare events have a stable intermediate state. Secondly, the toucan and woodpecker improve the resolution of the 6-way split within Neoaves that has been called an "explosive radiation." An explosive radiation implies that normal microevolutionary events are insufficient to explain the observed macroevolution. By showing the avian tree is, in principle, resolvable, we demonstrate that the radiation of birds is amenable to standard evolutionary analysis. Thirdly, and as expected from theory, additional taxa breaking up long branches stabilize the position of some problematic taxa (like the falcon). In addition, we report that within the birds of prey and allies, we did not find evidence pairing New World vultures with storks or accipitrids (hawks, eagles, and osprey) with Falconids.

  11. Habitat-Mediated Variation in the Importance of Ecosystem Engineers for Secondary Cavity Nesters in a Nest Web

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Hugo; Martin, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Through physical state changes in biotic or abiotic materials, ecosystem engineers modulate resource availability to other organisms and are major drivers of evolutionary and ecological dynamics. Understanding whether and how ecosystem engineers are interchangeable for resource users in different habitats is a largely neglected topic in ecosystem engineering research that can improve our understanding of the structure of communities. We addressed this issue in a cavity-nest web (1999–2011). In aspen groves, the presence of mountain bluebird (Sialia currucoides) and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolour) nests was positively related to the density of cavities supplied by northern flickers (Colaptes auratus), which provided the most abundant cavities (1.61 cavities/ha). Flickers in aspen groves provided numerous nesting cavities to bluebirds (66%) and swallows (46%), despite previous research showing that flicker cavities are avoided by swallows. In continuous mixed forests, however, the presence of nesting swallows was mainly related to cavity density of red-naped sapsuckers (Sphyrapicus nuchalis), which provided the most abundant cavities (0.52 cavities/ha), and to cavity density of hairy woodpeckers (Picoides villosus), which provided few (0.14 cavities/ha) but high-quality cavities. Overall, sapsuckers and hairy woodpeckers provided 86% of nesting cavities to swallows in continuous forests. In contrast, the presence of nesting bluebirds in continuous forests was associated with the density of cavities supplied by all the ecosystem engineers. These results suggest that (i) habitat type may mediate the associations between ecosystem engineers and resource users, and (ii) different ecosystem engineers may be interchangeable for resource users depending on the quantity and quality of resources that each engineer supplies in each habitat type. We, therefore, urge the incorporation of the variation in the quantity and quality of resources provided by ecosystem engineers

  12. Habitat-mediated variation in the importance of ecosystem engineers for secondary cavity nesters in a nest web.

    PubMed

    Robles, Hugo; Martin, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Through physical state changes in biotic or abiotic materials, ecosystem engineers modulate resource availability to other organisms and are major drivers of evolutionary and ecological dynamics. Understanding whether and how ecosystem engineers are interchangeable for resource users in different habitats is a largely neglected topic in ecosystem engineering research that can improve our understanding of the structure of communities. We addressed this issue in a cavity-nest web (1999-2011). In aspen groves, the presence of mountain bluebird (Sialia currucoides) and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolour) nests was positively related to the density of cavities supplied by northern flickers (Colaptes auratus), which provided the most abundant cavities (1.61 cavities/ha). Flickers in aspen groves provided numerous nesting cavities to bluebirds (66%) and swallows (46%), despite previous research showing that flicker cavities are avoided by swallows. In continuous mixed forests, however, the presence of nesting swallows was mainly related to cavity density of red-naped sapsuckers (Sphyrapicus nuchalis), which provided the most abundant cavities (0.52 cavities/ha), and to cavity density of hairy woodpeckers (Picoides villosus), which provided few (0.14 cavities/ha) but high-quality cavities. Overall, sapsuckers and hairy woodpeckers provided 86% of nesting cavities to swallows in continuous forests. In contrast, the presence of nesting bluebirds in continuous forests was associated with the density of cavities supplied by all the ecosystem engineers. These results suggest that (i) habitat type may mediate the associations between ecosystem engineers and resource users, and (ii) different ecosystem engineers may be interchangeable for resource users depending on the quantity and quality of resources that each engineer supplies in each habitat type. We, therefore, urge the incorporation of the variation in the quantity and quality of resources provided by ecosystem engineers

  13. Quantifying the multi-scale response of avifauna to prescribed fire experiments in the southwest United States.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Brett G; Noon, Barry R; Flather, Curtis H; Jentsch, Stephanie; Block, William M

    2009-04-01

    Landscape-scale disturbance events, including ecological restoration and fuel reduction activities, can modify habitat and affect relationships between species and their environment. To reduce the risk of uncharacteristic stand-replacing fires in the southwestern United States, land managers are implementing restoration and fuels treatments (e.g., mechanical thinning, prescribed fire) in progressively larger stands of dry, lower elevation ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest. We used a Before-After/Control-Impact experimental design to quantify the multi-scale response of avifauna to large (approximately 250-400 ha) prescribed fire treatments on four sites in Arizona and New Mexico dominated by ponderosa pine. Using distance sampling and an information-theoretic approach, we estimated changes in density for 14 bird species detected before (May-June 2002-2003) and after (May-June 2004-2005) prescribed fire treatments. We observed few site-level differences in pre- and posttreatment density, and no species responded strongly to treatment on all four sites. Point-level spatial models of individual species response to treatment, habitat variables, and fire severity revealed ecological relationships that were more easily interpreted. At this scale, pretreatment forest structure and patch characteristics were important predictors of posttreatment differences in bird species density. Five species (Pygmy Nuthatch [Sitta pygmaea], Western Bluebird [Sialia mexicana], Steller's Jay [Cyanocitta stelleri], American Robin [Turdus migratorius], and Hairy Woodpecker [Picoides villosus]) exhibited a strong treatment response, and two of these species (American Robin and Hairy Woodpecker) could be associated with meaningful fire severity response functions. The avifaunal response patterns that we observed were not always consistent with those reported by more common studies of wildland fire events. Our results suggest that, in the short-term, the distribution and abundance of

  14. Using Field Data and GIS-Derived Variables to Model Occurrence of Williamson's Sapsucker Nesting Habitat at Multiple Spatial Scales.

    PubMed

    Drever, Mark C; Gyug, Les W; Nielsen, Jennifer; Stuart-Smith, A Kari; Ohanjanian, I Penny; Martin, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Williamson's sapsucker (Sphyrapicus thyroideus) is a migratory woodpecker that breeds in mixed coniferous forests in western North America. In Canada, the range of this woodpecker is restricted to three small populations in southern British Columbia, precipitating a national listing as 'Endangered' in 2005, and the need to characterize critical habitat for its survival and recovery. We compared habitat attributes between Williamson's sapsucker nest territories and random points without nests or detections of this sapsucker as part of a resource selection analysis to identify the habitat features that best explain the probability of nest occurrence in two separate geographic regions in British Columbia. We compared the relative explanatory power of generalized linear models based on field-derived and Geographic Information System (GIS) data within both a 225 m and 800 m radius of a nest or random point. The model based on field-derived variables explained the most variation in nest occurrence in the Okanagan-East Kootenay Region, whereas nest occurrence was best explained by GIS information at the 800 m scale in the Western Region. Probability of nest occurrence was strongly tied to densities of potential nest trees, which included open forests with very large (diameter at breast height, DBH, ≥57.5 cm) western larch (Larix occidentalis) trees in the Okanagan-East Kootenay Region, and very large ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and large (DBH 17.5-57.5 cm) trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) trees in the Western Region. Our results have the potential to guide identification and protection of critical habitat as required by the Species at Risk Act in Canada, and to better manage Williamson's sapsucker habitat overall in North America. In particular, management should focus on the maintenance and recruitment of very large western larch and ponderosa pine trees.

  15. Effects of logging and recovery process on avian richness and diversity in hill dipterocarp tropical rainforest-Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Husin, Mohamed Zakaria; Rajpar, Muhammad Nawaz

    2015-01-01

    The effects of logging and recovery process on avian richness and diversity was compared in recently logged and thirty year post-harvested hill dipterocarp tropical rainforest, using mist-netting method. Atotal of 803 bird individuals representing 86 bird species and 29 families (i.e., 37.90% from recently logged forest and 62.10% from thirty year post-harvested forest) were captured from October 2010 to September, 2012. Twenty one bird species were commonly captured from both types of forests, 37 bird species were caught only in thirty year post-harvested forest and 28 bird species were caught only from recently logged forest. Arachnothera longirostra--Little Spiderhunter, Malacopteron magnum--Rufous-crowned Babbler, Alophoixus phaeocephalus -Yellow-bellied Bulbul and Meiglyptes tukki--Buff-necked Woodpecker were the most abundant four bird species in the thirty year post-harvested forest. On the contrary, seven bird species, i.e., Trichastoma rostratum - White-chested Babbler, Lacedo pulchella - Banded Kingfisher, Picus miniaceus--Banded Woodpecker, Enicurus ruficapillus - Chestnut-naped Forktail, Anthreptes simplex--Plain Sunbird, Muscicapella hodgsoni--Pygmy Blue Flycatcher and Otus rufescens--Reddish Scope Owl were considered as the rarest (i.e., each represented only 0.12%). Likewise, A. longirostra, Pycnonotus eythropthalmos - Spectacled Bulbul, P. simplex--Cream-vented Bulbul and Merops viridis--Blue-throated Bee-eater were the most dominant and Copsychus malabaricus--White-rumped Shama Eurylaimus javanicus--Banded Broadbill /xos malaccensis - Streaked Bulbul and Harpactes diardii--Diard's Trogon (each 0.12%) were the rarest bird species in recently logged forest. CAP analysis indicated that avian species in thirty year post-harvested forest were more diverse and evenly distributed than recently logged forest. However, recently logged forest was rich in bird species than thirty year post- harvested forest. The results revealed that logging and retrieval

  16. Comparison of statistical and theoretical habitat models for conservation planning: the benefit of ensemble prediction.

    PubMed

    Jones-Farrand, D Todd; Fearer, Todd M; Thogmartin, Wayne E; Thompson, Frank R; Nelson, Mark D; Tirpak, John M

    2011-09-01

    Selection of a modeling approach is an important step in the conservation planning process, but little guidance is available. We compared two statistical and three theoretical habitat modeling approaches representing those currently being used for avian conservation planning at landscape and regional scales: hierarchical spatial count (HSC), classification and regression tree (CRT), habitat suitability index (HSI), forest structure database (FS), and habitat association database (HA). We focused our comparison on models for five priority forest-breeding species in the Central Hardwoods Bird Conservation Region: Acadian Flycatcher, Cerulean Warbler, Prairie Warbler, Red-headed Woodpecker, and Worm-eating Warbler. Lacking complete knowledge on the distribution and abundance of each species with which we could illuminate differences between approaches and provide strong grounds for recommending one approach over another, we used two approaches to compare models: rank correlations among model outputs and comparison of spatial correspondence. In general, rank correlations were significantly positive among models for each species, indicating general agreement among the models. Worm-eating Warblers had the highest pairwise correlations, all of which were significant (P < 0.05). Red-headed Woodpeckers had the lowest agreement among models, suggesting greater uncertainty in the relative conservation value of areas within the region. We assessed model uncertainty by mapping the spatial congruence in priorities (i.e., top ranks) resulting from each model for each species and calculating the coefficient of variation across model ranks for each location. This allowed identification of areas more likely to be good targets of conservation effort for a species, those areas that were least likely, and those in between where uncertainty is higher and thus conservation action incorporates more risk. Based on our results, models developed independently for the same purpose

  17. Integrating Recent Land Cover Mapping Efforts to Update the National Gap Analysis Program's Species Habitat Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKerrow, A. J.; Davidson, A.; Earnhardt, T. S.; Benson, A. L.

    2014-11-01

    Over the past decade, great progress has been made to develop national extent land cover mapping products to address natural resource issues. One of the core products of the GAP Program is range-wide species distribution models for nearly 2000 terrestrial vertebrate species in the U.S. We rely on deductive modeling of habitat affinities using these products to create models of habitat availability. That approach requires that we have a thematically rich and ecologically meaningful map legend to support the modeling effort. In this work, we tested the integration of the Multi-Resolution Landscape Characterization Consortium's National Land Cover Database 2011 and LANDFIRE's Disturbance Products to update the 2001 National GAP Vegetation Dataset to reflect 2011 conditions. The revised product can then be used to update the species models. We tested the update approach in three geographic areas (Northeast, Southeast, and Interior Northwest). We used the NLCD product to identify areas where the cover type mapped in 2011 was different from what was in the 2001 land cover map. We used Google Earth and ArcGIS base maps as reference imagery in order to label areas identified as "changed" to the appropriate class from our map legend. Areas mapped as urban or water in the 2011 NLCD map that were mapped differently in the 2001 GAP map were accepted without further validation and recoded to the corresponding GAP class. We used LANDFIRE's Disturbance products to identify changes that are the result of recent disturbance and to inform the reassignment of areas to their updated thematic label. We ran species habitat models for three species including Lewis's Woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis) and the White-tailed Jack Rabbit (Lepus townsendii) and Brown Headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla). For each of three vertebrate species we found important differences in the amount and location of suitable habitat between the 2001 and 2011 habitat maps. Specifically, Brown headed nuthatch habitat in

  18. Geometric effects on stress wave propagation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K L; Trim, M W; Horstemeyer, M F; Lee, N; Williams, L N; Liao, J; Rhee, H; Prabhu, R

    2014-02-01

    The present study, through finite element simulations, shows the geometric effects of a bioinspired solid on pressure and impulse mitigation for an elastic, plastic, and viscoelastic material. Because of the bioinspired geometries, stress wave mitigation became apparent in a nonintuitive manner such that potential real-world applications in human protective gear designs are realizable. In nature, there are several toroidal designs that are employed for mitigating stress waves; examples include the hyoid bone on the back of a woodpecker's jaw that extends around the skull to its nose and a ram's horn. This study evaluates four different geometries with the same length and same initial cross-sectional diameter at the impact location in three-dimensional finite element analyses. The geometries in increasing complexity were the following: (1) a round cylinder, (2) a round cylinder that was tapered to a point, (3) a round cylinder that was spiraled in a two dimensional plane, and (4) a round cylinder that was tapered and spiraled in a two-dimensional plane. The results show that the tapered spiral geometry mitigated the greatest amount of pressure and impulse (approximately 98% mitigation) when compared to the cylinder regardless of material type (elastic, plastic, and viscoelastic) and regardless of input pressure signature. The specimen taper effectively mitigated the stress wave as a result of uniaxial deformational processes and an induced shear that arose from its geometry. Due to the decreasing cross-sectional area arising from the taper, the local uniaxial and shear stresses increased along the specimen length. The spiral induced even greater shear stresses that help mitigate the stress wave and also induced transverse displacements at the tip such that minimal wave reflections occurred. This phenomenon arose although only longitudinal waves were introduced as the initial boundary condition (BC). In nature, when shearing occurs within or between materials

  19. The evolutionary origins and ecological context of tool use in New Caledonian crows.

    PubMed

    Rutz, Christian; St Clair, James J H

    2012-02-01

    New Caledonian (NC) crows Corvus moneduloides are the most prolific avian tool users. In the wild, they use at least three distinct tool types to extract invertebrate prey from deadwood and vegetation, with some of their tools requiring complex manufacture, modification and/or deployment. Experiments with captive-bred, hand-raised NC crows have demonstrated that the species has a strong genetic predisposition for basic tool use and manufacture, suggesting that this behaviour is an evolved adaptation. This view is supported by recent stable-isotope analyses of the diets of wild crows, which revealed that tool use provides access to highly profitable hidden prey, with preliminary data indicating that parents preferentially feed their offspring with tool-derived food. Building on this work, our review examines the possible evolutionary origins of these birds' remarkable tool-use behaviour. Whilst robust comparative analyses are impossible, given the phylogenetic rarity of animal tool use, our examination of a wide range of circumstantial evidence enables a first attempt at reconstructing a plausible evolutionary scenario. We suggest that a common ancestor of NC crows, originating from a (probably) non-tool-using South-East Asian or Australasian crow population, colonised New Caledonia after its last emersion several million years ago. The presence of profitable but out-of-reach food, in combination with a lack of direct competition for these resources, resulted in a vacant woodpecker-like niche. Crows may have possessed certain behavioural and/or morphological features upon their arrival that predisposed them to express tool-use rather than specialised prey-excavation behaviour, although it is possible that woodpecker-like foraging preceded tool use. Low levels of predation risk may have further facilitated tool-use behaviour, by allowing greater expenditure of time and energy on object interaction and exploration, as well as the evolution of a 'slow' life-history, in

  20. Comparison of statistical and theoretical habitat models for conservation planning: the benefit of ensemble prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones-Farrand, D. Todd; Fearer, Todd M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Thompson, Frank R.; Nelson, Mark D.; Tirpak, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Selection of a modeling approach is an important step in the conservation planning process, but little guidance is available. We compared two statistical and three theoretical habitat modeling approaches representing those currently being used for avian conservation planning at landscape and regional scales: hierarchical spatial count (HSC), classification and regression tree (CRT), habitat suitability index (HSI), forest structure database (FS), and habitat association database (HA). We focused our comparison on models for five priority forest-breeding species in the Central Hardwoods Bird Conservation Region: Acadian Flycatcher, Cerulean Warbler, Prairie Warbler, Red-headed Woodpecker, and Worm-eating Warbler. Lacking complete knowledge on the distribution and abundance of each species with which we could illuminate differences between approaches and provide strong grounds for recommending one approach over another, we used two approaches to compare models: rank correlations among model outputs and comparison of spatial correspondence. In general, rank correlations were significantly positive among models for each species, indicating general agreement among the models. Worm-eating Warblers had the highest pairwise correlations, all of which were significant (P , 0.05). Red-headed Woodpeckers had the lowest agreement among models, suggesting greater uncertainty in the relative conservation value of areas within the region. We assessed model uncertainty by mapping the spatial congruence in priorities (i.e., top ranks) resulting from each model for each species and calculating the coefficient of variation across model ranks for each location. This allowed identification of areas more likely to be good targets of conservation effort for a species, those areas that were least likely, and those in between where uncertainty is higher and thus conservation action incorporates more risk. Based on our results, models developed independently for the same purpose