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Sample records for rediversion project lake

  1. Lake Charles CCS Project

    SciTech Connect

    Leib, Thomas; Cole, Dan

    2015-06-30

    In late September 2014 development of the Lake Charles Clean Energy (LCCE) Plant was abandoned resulting in termination of Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project which was a subset the LCCE Plant. As a result, the project was only funded through Phase 2A (Design) and did not enter Phase 2B (Construction) or Phase 2C (Operations). This report was prepared relying on information prepared and provided by engineering companies which were engaged by Leucadia Energy, LLC to prepare or review Front End Engineering and Design (FEED) for the Lake Charles Clean Energy Project, which includes the Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project in Lake Charles, Louisiana. The Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project was to be a large-scale industrial CCS project intended to demonstrate advanced technologies that capture and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial sources into underground formations. The Scope of work was divided into two discrete sections; 1) Capture and Compression prepared by the Recipient Leucadia Energy, LLC, and 2) Transport and Sequestration prepared by sub-Recipient Denbury Onshore, LLC. Capture and Compression-The Lake Charles CCS Project Final Technical Report describes the systems and equipment that would be necessary to capture CO2 generated in a large industrial gasification process and sequester the CO2 into underground formations. The purpose of each system is defined along with a description of its equipment and operation. Criteria for selection of major equipment are provided and ancillary utilities necessary for safe and reliable operation in compliance with environmental regulations are described. Construction considerations are described including a general arrangement of the CCS process units within the overall gasification project. A cost estimate is provided, delineated by system area with cost breakdown showing equipment, piping and materials

  2. Pyramid Lake Renewable Energy Project

    SciTech Connect

    John Jackson

    2008-03-14

    The Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe is a federally recognized Tribe residing on the Pyramid Lake Reservation in western Nevada. The funding for this project was used to identify blind geothermal systems disconnected from geothermal sacred sites and develop a Tribal energy corporation for evaluating potential economic development for profit.

  3. The Lake Ohrid SCOPSCO project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Bernd; Wilke, Thomas; Krastel, Sebastian; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Sulpizio, Roberto; Leng, Melanie J.; Francke, Alexander; Baumgarten, Henrike; Cvetkoska, Aleksandra; Giacco, Biagio; Lacey, Jack H.; Leicher, Niklas; Levkov, Zlatko; Lindhorst, Katja; Reed, Jane M.; Zhang, Xiaosen; Sadori, Laura; Vogel, Hendrik; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Wonik, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The ICDP SCOPSCO project at Lake Ohrid in Macedonia and Albania was one of the most successful lake drilling campaigns worldwide. Drilling took place from April to June 2013 and yielded more than 2000 m of sediments from four different sites in the lake. The maximum penetration was 569 m below lake floor and the overall recovery at all drill sites was > 95 %. Almost two years after the drilling operation, core opening and processing as well as biological and geological analyses are still ongoing. However, most of the cores from the main drill site, the so-called DEEP site in the centre of the lake, are meanwhile opened and reveal a unique record of lake history. The extraordinary quality of seismic, borehole logging and core data allows us to achieve the major goals of the SCOPSCO project. Seismic data, diatoms and coarse-grained sediments in the basal cores indicate that Lake Ohrid had no marine origin, as it was speculated in the past. The data show that Lake Ohrid established in a highly dynamic pull-apart basin with varying fluvial and shallow water conditions. On top of these basal sediments, borehole logging data, XRF scanning data, carbonate, and the amount of organic matter indicate a complete and high resolution succession of glacial / interglacial cycles and interspersed stadials and interstadials. This allows us to determine the establishment of Lake Ohrid by means of chronostratigraphic tuning to about 1.3 to 1.5 Ma ago. Additional, independent age control is given by paleomagnetic data and by numerous tephra layers, which can be correlated with well-dated proximal tephra deposits in Italy. The uppermost 350 m of the sediment record contain more than 30 tephras, which makes the Lake Ohrid record to the rosetta stone of distal Italian tephra deposits in the Balkan region. The unique sediment record of Lake Ohrid is fundamental to obtain crucial information on the overall goal of the SCOPSCO project, i.e. to clarify why Lake Ohrid has one of highest

  4. CLEAR LAKE BASIN 2000 PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    LAKE COUNTY SANITATION DISTRICT

    2003-03-31

    The following is a final report for the Clear Lake Basin 2000 project. All of the major project construction work was complete and this phase generally included final details and testing. Most of the work was electrical. Erosion control activities were underway to prepare for the rainy season. System testing including pump stations, electrical and computer control systems was conducted. Most of the project focus from November onward was completing punch list items.

  5. The Lake Charles CCS Project

    SciTech Connect

    Doug Cathro

    2010-06-30

    The Lake Charles CCS Project is a large-scale industrial carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) project which will demonstrate advanced technologies that capture and sequester carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from industrial sources into underground formations. Specifically the Lake Charles CCS Project will accelerate commercialization of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage from industrial sources by leveraging synergy between a proposed petroleum coke to chemicals plant (the LCC Gasification Project) and the largest integrated anthropogenic CO{sub 2} capture, transport, and monitored sequestration program in the U.S. Gulf Coast Region. The Lake Charles CCS Project will promote the expansion of EOR in Texas and Louisiana and supply greater energy security by expanding domestic energy supplies. The capture, compression, pipeline, injection, and monitoring infrastructure will continue to sequester CO{sub 2} for many years after the completion of the term of the DOE agreement. The objectives of this project are expected to be fulfilled by working through two distinct phases. The overall objective of Phase 1 was to develop a fully definitive project basis for a competitive Renewal Application process to proceed into Phase 2 - Design, Construction and Operations. Phase 1 includes the studies attached hereto that will establish: the engineering design basis for the capture, compression and transportation of CO{sub 2} from the LCC Gasification Project, and the criteria and specifications for a monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) plan at the Hastings oil field in Texas. The overall objective of Phase 2, provided a successful competitive down-selection, is to execute design, construction and operations of three capital projects: (1) the CO{sub 2} capture and compression equipment, (2) a Connector Pipeline from the LLC Gasification Project to the Green Pipeline owned by Denbury and an affiliate of Denbury, and (3) a comprehensive MVA system at the Hastings oil field.

  6. Water transfer projects and the role of fisheries biologists

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meador, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Water transfer projects are commonly considered important mechanisms for meeting increasing water demands. However, the movement of water from one area to another may have broad ecosystem effects, including on fisheries. The Southern Division of the American Fisheries Society held a symposium in 1995 at Virginia Beach, Virginia, to discuss the ecological consequences of water transfer and identify the role of fisheries biologists in such projects. Presenters outlined several case studies, including the California State Water Project, Garrison Diversion Project (North Dakota), Lake Texoma Water Transfer Project (Oklahoma-Texas), Santee-Cooper Diversion and Re-diversion projects (South Carolina), and Tri-State Comprehensive Study (Alabama-Florida-Georgia). Results from these studies suggest that fisheries biologists have provided critical information regarding potential ecological consequences of water transfer. If these professionals continue to be called for information regarding the ecological consequences of water transfer projects, developing a broader understanding of the ecological processes that affect the fish species they manage may be necessary. Although the traditional role of fisheries biologists has focused on the fishing customer base, fisheries management issues are only one component of the broad spectrum of ecosystem issues resulting from water transfer.

  7. The Great Lakes Runoff Intercomparison Project (GRIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronewold, A. D.; Fortin, V.; Fry, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    As a continuation of investments in the development of alternative methods for estimating major components of the Great Lakes water budget through the recently-completed International Joint Commission (IJC) International Upper Great Lakes Study (IUGLS), representatives from a variety of United States and Canadian agencies have formed a bi-national collaboration to assess alternative methods for modeling runoff within the Great Lakes basin. The project is based on assessing and comparing simulated runoff across the watersheds of both Lake Michigan and Lake Ontario, with an emphasis on understanding the different sources of data needed to support these models, and a comparison between both total runoff and estimated runoff at individual gauging stations. Models, or modeling frameworks (and contributing agencies) participating in the project include (but are not limited to) Analysis of Flows in Networks of Channels (or AFINCH, from USGS), the Community Hydrologic Prediction System (or CHPS, from NOAA's National Weather Service), the MESH system (from Environment Canada), the Large Basin Runoff Model (or LBRM, from NOAA's Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory) as well as a series of empirical methods for extrapolating historical gauge measurements to ungauged portions of each Lake basin. This presentation will also explore alternative methods for comparing runoff estimates over broad spatial scales, and for understanding potential sources of bias and uncertainty within and between these estimates. For models generating probabilistic estimates (i.e. with an explicit expression of uncertainty) we provide a comparison based on posterior predictive p-values (similar to rank histograms), an approach which, unlike conventional deterministic metrics, provides an indication of the relative importance of uncertainty in large-scale hydrological model assessment and how expressions of that uncertainty propagate into model-based water resources management planning

  8. Model study of St. Stephen powerhouse fish passage facilities, Cooper River rediversion project, South Carolina. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hite, J.E.; Murphy, T.E.

    1998-09-01

    This report documents a model study of the St. Stephen Power Plant, located in Berkely County, South Carolina. A previous model study revealed that the fish lift at the powerhouse could be improved by providing auxiliary attraction flows to the fish entrances. An auxiliary attraction flow (AAF) system was proposed that uses a siphon to obtain the auxiliary attraction water from the reservoir. The model investigations reported herein address the flow conditions at the discharge end of the siphon; the hydraulic aspects of the siphon are not addressed. Three different models were used to evaluate flow conditions at the discharge end of the AAF system. A 1:25-scale model of the St. Stephen powerhouse was used to improve the fish entrance conditions and to evaluate the outlet conditions for the initial AAF system. As the investigations progressed, the design of the siphon discharge system was modified to include downstream fish migration and debris passage.

  9. Effect of glacier ablation on the Snettisham Hydroelectric Project, Long Lake and Crater Lake Basins, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloan, C.E.; Emery, P.A.; Fair, Diana

    1986-01-01

    Long Lake Basin in the Snettisham Project Area southeast of Juneau, Alaska, yields water used for the production of hydroelectric power. Development of adjacent Crater Lake is planned to increase the Project 's generating capacity. Estimates of the hydroelectric potential of the lakes are based on streamflow records which are influenced by glaciers that cover 25% of the combined basins. Analysis of streamflow records shows that the quality and extent of records in the area are sufficient to predict flow from the Crater Creek basin with a fairly high degree of confidence. Comparison of aerial photographs indicates that glacier ablation and recession have been continuous since at least 1929. Estimates of ice-volume change from photogrammetric measurements indicate that less than 2.5% of the average runoff from the basins of Long and Crater Lakes has been from reduction in glacier-ice storage. (Author 's abstract)

  10. The Great Lakes Runoff Intercomparison Project Phase 1: Lake Michigan (GRIP-M)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Lauren M.; Gronewold, Andrew D.; Fortin, Vincent; Buan, Steven; Clites, Anne H.; Luukkonen, Carol; Holtschlag, David; Diamond, Laura; Hunter, Timothy; Seglenieks, Frank; Durnford, Dorothy; Dimitrijevic, Milena; Subich, Christopher; Klyszejko, Erika; Kea, Kandace; Restrepo, Pedro

    2014-11-01

    We assembled and applied five models (one of which included three different configurations) to the Lake Michigan basin to improve our understanding of how differences in model skill at simulating total runoff to Lake Michigan relate to model structure, calibration protocol, model complexity, and assimilation (i.e. replacement of simulated discharge with discharge observations into historical simulations), and evaluate historical changes in runoff to Lake Michigan. We found that the performance among these models when simulating total runoff to the lake varied relatively little, despite variability in model structure, spatial representation, input data, and calibration protocol. Relatively simple empirical, assimilative models, including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) area ratio-based model (ARM) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Analysis of Flows in Networks of CHannels (AFINCH) model, represent efficient and effective approaches to propagating discharge observations into basin-wide (including gaged and ungaged areas) runoff estimates, and may offer an opportunity to improve predictive models for simulating runoff to the Great Lakes. Additionally, the intercomparison revealed that the median of the simulations from non-assimilative models agrees well with assimilative models, suggesting that using a combination of different methodologies may be an appropriate approach for estimating runoff into the Great Lakes. We then applied one assimilative model (ARM) to the Lake Michigan basin and found that there was persistent reduction in the amount of precipitation that becomes runoff following 1998, corresponding to a period of persistent low Lake Michigan water levels. The study was conducted as a first phase of the Great Lakes Runoff Intercomparison Project, a regional binational collaboration that aims to systematically and rigorously assess a variety of models currently used

  11. The Great Lakes Runoff Intercomparison Project (GRIP): Phase II, Lake Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronewold, A.; Tolson, B.; Gaborit, E.; Fortin, V.; Fry, L. M.; Hunter, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Great Lakes runoff intercomparison project (GRIP) was established to assess a suite of models used primarily for simulating and forecasting flows from all of the major tributaries within the Great Lakes basin. These models are somewhat unique, in part because they were developed to overcome challenges of assimilating data across an international border, and in part because they are often an integral component of regional water budget models that also include simulations of over-lake precipitation and over-lake evaporation (both of which are, on annual time scales, of the same magnitude as runoff). Here, we present the next step in the evolution of GRIP (following GRIP-M, the first phase of the project that focused on Lake Michigan) with a comparison between different hydrological models (including GR4J and the NOAA large basin runoff model) and different regional precipitation data sources across the Lake Ontario basin. Results of our analysis provide insights that underscore the importance of the spatial and temporal resolution of a model domain and its forcings, along with their connections to model skill and selected objective criteria. Perhaps more importantly, our results are expected to assist in the advancement of regional hydrological models not only for improved forecasts of the Great Lakes water cycle, but in other large international freshwater basins as well.

  12. Lake Michigan and Lake Superior air quality: The 1994-2003 LADCO Aircraft Project (LAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, T. A.; Betterton, E. A.; Jacko, R.; Hillery, J.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of the 1994 to 2003 LADCO Airplane Project (LAP) was to study ozone formation over Lake Michigan so that equitable regional control strategies could be devised. During the ten year LAP campaign, a total of 328 flights were flown on 81 days over Lake Michigan and its southern and western boundaries. LAP also monitored air quality over Lake Superior and other areas in the Midwestern and southern United States. From 2001 to 2003, 117 flights were conducted over Lake Superior, Isle Royale National Park, Painted Rocks National Lakeshore and the Seeney National Wildlife Refuge in Michigan. 63 flights were conducted over St. Louis and 58 flights over the Dolly Sods Wilderness Area in West Virginia. We are looking for collaborators to help us analyze this vast data archive. Our first paper (Atmospheric Environment 45 (2011) 3192-3202) documented the project and presented results of our ozone analysis. Our results support the hypothesis of Dye et al. (1995), who found that the atmosphere over Lake Michigan is stable in the summer due to the air water temperature difference, which creates an efficient reaction chamber for ozone formation. They also hypothesized that the southwest winds characteristic of ozone-conducive conditions transport ozone further north over the lake before it crosses the shoreline onto land. We found that below 200 m above the lake, ozone formation is VOC-limited in the morning and becomes NOx limited in the afternoon. Above 200 m, ozone formation is NOx-limited throughout the day. The onshore NOx and VOC diurnal cycles peak during the early morning rush hour and are clearly linked to traffic patterns. Over the lake, VOC and NOy concentrations peak during the mid-morning rather than the early morning, supporting the hypothesis that the land breeze transports VOC and NOy over the lake. The diurnal NOx pattern over Lake Michigan is less clearly defined than the VOC pattern possibly as a result of emissions from five coal-burning power plants

  13. Final Results From the Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, K. M.; Arp, C. D.; Eisner, W. R.; Frey, K. E.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Kim, C.; Lenters, J. D.; Liu, H.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2012, the physical and biogeochemical properties of ~60 lakes in northern Alaska have been investigated under CALON, a project to document landscape-scale variability of Arctic lakes in permafrost terrain. The network has ten nodes along two latitudinal transects extending inland 200 km from the Arctic Ocean. A meteorological station is deployed at each node and six representative lakes instrumented and continuously monitored, with winter and summer visits for synoptic assessment of lake conditions. Over the 4-year period, winter and summer climatology varied to create a rich range of lake responses over a short period. For example, winter 2012-13 was very cold with a thin snowpack producing thick ice across the region. Subsequent years had relatively warm winters, yet regionally variable snow resulted in differing gradients of ice thickness. Ice-out timing was unusually late in 2014 and unusually early in 2015. Lakes are typically well-mixed and largely isothermal, with minor thermal stratification occurring in deeper lakes during calm, sunny periods in summer. Lake water temperature records and morphometric data were used to estimate the ground thermal condition beneath 28 lakes. Application of a thermal equilibrium steady-state model suggests a talik penetrating the permafrost under many larger lakes, but lake geochemical data do not indicate a significant contribution of subpermafrost groundwater. Biogeochemical data reveal distinct spatial and seasonal variability in chlorophyll biomass, chromophoric dissolved organic carbon (CDOM), and major cations/anions. Generally, waters sampled beneath ice in April had distinctly higher concentrations of inorganic solutes and methane compared with August. Chlorophyll concentrations and CDOM absorption were higher in April, suggesting significant biological/biogeochemical activity under lake ice. Lakes are a positive source of methane in summer, and some also emit nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide. As part of the

  14. Honey Lake hybrid geothermal wood residue power project

    SciTech Connect

    Toland, J.

    1981-05-01

    The Honey Lake Hybrid Geothermal Wood Residue Power Project with a planned output of 50 MW is undergoing feasibility studies funded by GeoProducts Corporation, Department of Water Resources, State of California, US Department of Energy and the Forest Service, USDA. The outlook is optimistic. It is reliably estimated that the required volume of woody biomass can be made available without environmental degradation.

  15. Leech Lake American Indian Foster Care Project 1978. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker and Associates, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    In its second year the project continued to attempt to reduce the incidence of separation of Indian children from their families and to establish permanent planning for those children who were removed, thus improving the child welfare services to Minnesota Chippewa Indian children and families on the Leech Lake Reservation through direct foster…

  16. Federal Great Lakes fishery research objectives, priorities, and projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tait, Howard D.

    1973-01-01

    Fishery productivity of the Great Lakes has declined drastically since settlement of the area. Premium quality fishes of the Great Lakes such as whitefish, lake trout, and walleyes have been replaced by less desired species. This change is attributed to selective overfishing, pollution, and the extreme instability of fish populations. Sea lamprey predation is still a vexing problem but progress is being made in controlling this parasite. The federal fishery research program with headquarters in Ann Arbor, Michigan, has the objective of providing baseline information, needed in resource use decisions, about the fishes of the Great Lakes. Studies of the habitat requirements of fish are high priority. The program includes fish population assessments, studies of the effects of mercury and other contaminants on fish, thermal effects studies, and general investigation of the impact of engineering projects on Great Lakes fisheries. The work is closely coordinated with state and Canadian agencies through the Great Lakes Fishery Commission. Four small research vessels and four field stations are utilized with a staff of 90 and an annual budget of about $1.5 million.

  17. Projecting Future Water Levels of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennington, V.; Notaro, M.; Holman, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes are the largest freshwater system on Earth, containing 84% of North America's freshwater. The lakes are a valuable economic and recreational resource, valued at over 62 billion in annual wages and supporting a 7 billion fishery. Shipping, recreation, and coastal property values are significantly impacted by water level variability, with large economic consequences. Great Lakes water levels fluctuate both seasonally and long-term, responding to natural and anthropogenic climate changes. Due to the integrated nature of water levels, a prolonged small change in any one of the net basin supply components: over-lake precipitation, watershed runoff, or evaporation from the lake surface, may result in important trends in water levels. We utilize the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics's Regional Climate Model Version 4.5.6 to dynamically downscale three global global climate models that represent a spread of potential future climate change for the region to determine whether the climate models suggest a robust response of the Laurentian Great Lakes to anthropogenic climate change. The Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate Version 5 (MIROC5), the National Centre for Meteorological Research Earth system model (CNRM-CM5), and the Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) project different regional temperature increases and precipitation change over the next century and are used as lateral boundary conditions. We simulate the historical (1980-2000) and late-century periods (2080-2100). Upon model evaluation we will present dynamically downscaled projections of net basin supply changes for each of the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  18. Moses Lake Fishery Restoration Project : FY 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    None given

    2000-12-01

    The Moses Lake Project consists of 3 phases. Phase 1 is the assessment of all currently available physical and biological information, the collection of baseline biological data, the formulation of testable hypotheses, and the development of a detailed study plan to test the hypotheses. Phase 2 is dedicated to the implementation of the study plan including data collection, hypotheses testing, and the formulation of a management plan. Phase 3 of the project is the implementation of the management plan, monitoring and evaluation of the implemented recommendations. The project intends to restore the failed recreational fishery for panfish species (black crappie, bluegill and yellow perch) in Moses Lake as off site mitigation for lost recreational fishing opportunities for anadromous species in the upper Columbia River. This report summarizes the results of Phase 1 investigations and presents the study plan directed at initiating Phase 2 of the project. Phase 1of the project culminates with the formulation of testable hypotheses directed at investigating possible limiting factors to the production of panfish in Moses Lake. The limiting factors to be investigated will include water quality, habitat quantity and quality, food limitations, competition, recruitment, predation, over harvest, environmental requirements, and the physical and chemical limitations of the system in relation to the fishes.

  19. The Nyanza Project: Interdisciplinary Research Training In Tropical Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, A. S.; Lezzar, K. E.; Michel, E.; O'Reilly, C. M.; Russell, J. M.; Nkotagu, H.; Kimirei, I.

    2005-12-01

    The Nyanza Project is a research training program for American and African students, run annually at Lake Tanganyika (LT), Tanzania. The Project`s objective is to provide undergraduates, graduate students and secondary school teachers with the skills to plan and conduct interdisciplinary research on various aspects of tropical lake studiees. At a time of rapid global change there is a pressing need for young scientists trained to investigate environmental processes in an interdisciplinary framework. Training students to understand long-term changes in water availability, water quality and the relationship of aquatic ecosystems to rapid climate change represents a critical element of this societal need. Waterbodies in the tropics are particularly useful proving grounds for training future researchers on the impacts of global change on natural waters, as they are very sensitive to environmental and climatic change. Moreover, they are likely to provide instructive bellwethers of changes to come in U.S. inland waters. Each year 17-22 undergraduates, 3-4 graduate students and one secondary school teacher are selected for the program from the US and Africa. To date (1998-2005), 89 undergraduate students, 24 graduate students, and 8 secondary school teachers from the US have participated through the Project`s NSF support and 58 African students (from Tanzania, Burundi, Zambia, Congo, Kenya, and Burkina Faso) have been funded to participate in the Nyanza Project through supporting grants from our non-NSF funding sources. The 7-week program comprises an initial two week intensive short course on all aspects of the LT system and project preparation period, followed by 5 weeks of directed research, written report preparation, and scientific meeting-styled presentations. Focal topics for Nyanza Project research include: 1) investigating East African paleoclimates using sediment cores and reflection seismic profiling, 2) mapping & interpreting the geologic structure and

  20. Paleoenvironments, Evolution, and Geomicrobiology in a Tropical Pacific Lake: The Lake Towuti Drilling Project (TOWUTI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Hendrik; Russell, James M.; Bijaksana, Satria; Fowle, David; von Rintelen, Thomas; Stevenson, Janelle; Watkinson, Ian; Marwoto, Ristiyanti; Melles, Martin; Crowe, Sean; Haffner, Doug; King, John

    2013-04-01

    stability, and modes of speciation (sympatric, allopatric). We established an international science team, reviewed datasets from the site survey, and selected three drill sites that are best suited to address the objectives of the TOWUTI project during an ICDP and NSF sponsored workshop held in Bandung, Indonesia in March 2012. Important milestones concerning the operational and logistical preparation of a deep drilling at Lake Towuti have been achieved by the PI team in close collaboration with DOSECC, local authorities and businesses in Indonesia, and ICDP. A drilling proposal has been submitted to ICDP in January 2013 and proposals for matching funds will be submitted to national funding agencies in the course of 2013. Drilling operations are envisaged to commence in early 2015.

  1. Dynamic Heights in the Great Lakes using OPUS Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, D. R.; Li, X.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. will be implementing new geometric and vertical reference frames in 2022 to replace the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88), respectively. Less emphasized is the fact that a new dynamic height datum will also be defined about the same time to replace the International Great Lakes Datum of 1985 (IGLD 85). IGLD 85 was defined concurrent with NAVD 88 and used the same geopotential values. This paper focuses on the use of an existing tool for determining geometric coordinates and a developing geopotential model as a means of determining dynamic heights. The Online Positioning User Service (OPUS) Projects (OP) is an online tool available from the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) for use in developing geometric coordinates from simultaneous observations at multiple sites during multiple occupations. With observations performed at the water level gauges throughout the Great Lakes, the geometric coordinates of the mean water level surface can be determined. NGS has also developed the xGEOID15B model from satellite, airborne and surface gravity data. Using the input geometric coordinates determined through OP, the geopotential values for the water surface at the water level stations around the Great Lakes were determined using the xGEOID15B model. Comparisons were made between water level sites for each Lake as well as to existing IGLD 85 heights. A principal advantage to this approach is the ability to generate new water level control stations using OP, while maintaining the consistency between orthometric and dynamic heights by using the same gravity field model. Such a process may provide a means for determining dynamic heights for a future Great Lakes Datum.

  2. Moses Lake Fishery Restoration Project : FY 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, Dave

    2003-02-01

    The Moses Lake Project (project No. 199502800) was first funded during FY 99 and field studies commenced October 2000. Later review of the proposal by the ISRP revealed perceived shortcomings. Immediately following the ISRP review Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) personnel were in contact with the Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) regarding further options. The NWPPC allowed WDFW to re-submit the first proposal revision that was followed in June 2001 by a second negative review by the ISRP. In August 2001, the NWPPC authorized a third and final submission of the proposal and limited funding extension. Therefore, proposal revisions and resubmissions limited progress in data collection and analysis. This report covers work conducted within the submitted scope of work (FY 2000, September 27, 2000--September 26, 2001) and incorporation of the suggested modifications to the proposal. The bulk of the work covered by this report concentrated on data collection.

  3. Climate change projections for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) recruitment in the 1836 Treaty Waters of the Upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lynch, Abigail J.; Taylor, William W.; Beard, T. Douglas; Lofgren, Brent M.

    2015-01-01

    Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) is an ecologically, culturally, and economically important species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Lake whitefish have been a staple food source for thousands of years and, since 1980, have supported the most economically valuable (annual catch value ≈ US$16.6 million) and productive (annual harvest ≈ 7 million kg) commercial fishery in the upper Great Lakes (Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior). Climate changes, specifically changes in temperature, wind, and ice cover, are expected to impact the ecology, production dynamics, and value of this fishery, because the success of recruitment to the fishery has been linked with these climatic factors. We used linear regression to determine the relationship between fall and spring air temperature indices, fall wind speed, winter ice cover, and lake whitefish recruitment in 13 management units located in the 1836 Treaty Waters of the Upper Great Lakes ceded by the Ottawa and Chippewa nations, a culturally and commercially important region for the lake whitefish fishery. In eight of 13 management units evaluated, models with climate variables explained significantly more variation in recruitment than models with only the stock-recruitment relationship, using corrected Akaike’s Information Criterion comparisons (ΔAICc > 3). Isolating the climate-recruitment relationship and projecting recruitment with the Coupled Hydrosphere-Atmosphere Research Model (CHARM) indicated the potential for increased lake whitefish recruitment in the majority of the 1836 Treaty Waters management units, given projected changes in climate. These results can inform adaptive management strategies by providing anticipated implications of climate on lake whitefish recruitment.

  4. Projected shifts in fish species dominance in Wisconsin lakes under climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Gretchen JA; Read, Jordan S.; Hansen, Jonathan F.; Winslow, Luke

    2016-01-01

    Temperate lakes may contain both coolwater fish species such as walleye (Sander vitreus) and warmwater fish species such as largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Recent declining walleye and increasing largemouth bass populations have raised questions regarding the future trajectories and management actions for these species. We developed a thermodynamic model of water temperatures driven by downscaled climate data and lake-specific characteristics to estimate daily water temperature profiles for 2148 lakes in Wisconsin, US, under contemporary (1989–2014) and future (2040–2064 and 2065–2089) conditions. We correlated contemporary walleye recruitment and largemouth bass relative abundance to modeled water temperature, lake morphometry, and lake productivity, and projected lake-specific changes in each species under future climate conditions. Walleye recruitment success was negatively related and largemouth bass abundance was positively related to water temperature degree days. Both species exhibited a threshold response at the same degree day value, albeit in opposite directions. Degree days were predicted to increase in the future, although the magnitude of increase varied among lakes, time periods, and global circulation models (GCMs). Under future conditions, we predicted a loss of walleye recruitment in 33–75% of lakes where recruitment is currently supported and a 27–60% increase in the number of lakes suitable for high largemouth bass abundance. The percentage of lakes capable of supporting abundant largemouth bass but failed walleye recruitment was predicted to increase from 58% in contemporary conditions to 86% by mid-century and to 91% of lakes by late century, based on median projections across GCMs. Conversely, the percentage of lakes with successful walleye recruitment and low largemouth bass abundance was predicted to decline from 9% of lakes in contemporary conditions to only 1% of lakes in both future periods. Importantly, we identify up

  5. Phosphorus and Phytoplankton in Lake Michigan: Model Post-audit and Projections

    EPA Science Inventory

    The eutrophication model, LM3-Eutro, was developed in support of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project to simulate chlorophyll-a (phytoplankton), phosphorus and carbon concentrations in the lake. This high-resolution carbon-based model was developed and calibrated using extensi...

  6. 78 FR 39725 - Grenada Lake Hydroelectric Project; Notice Of Proposed Restricted Service List for a Programmatic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Grenada Lake Hydroelectric Project; Notice Of Proposed Restricted Service List for a Programmatic Agreement Rule 2010 of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's...

  7. The Towuti Drilling Project: paleoenvironments, biological evolution, and geomicrobiology of a tropical Pacific lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, James M.; Bijaksana, Satria; Vogel, Hendrik; Melles, Martin; Kallmeyer, Jens; Ariztegui, Daniel; Crowe, Sean; Fajar, Silvia; Hafidz, Abdul; Haffner, Doug; Hasberg, Ascelina; Ivory, Sarah; Kelly, Christopher; King, John; Kirana, Kartika; Morlock, Marina; Noren, Anders; O'Grady, Ryan; Ordonez, Luis; Stevenson, Janelle; von Rintelen, Thomas; Vuillemin, Aurele; Watkinson, Ian; Wattrus, Nigel; Wicaksono, Satrio; Wonik, Thomas; Bauer, Kohen; Deino, Alan; Friese, André; Henny, Cynthia; Imran; Marwoto, Ristiyanti; Ode Ngkoimani, La; Nomosatryo, Sulung; Ode Safiuddin, La; Simister, Rachel; Tamuntuan, Gerald

    2016-07-01

    The Towuti Drilling Project (TDP) is an international research program, whose goal is to understand long-term environmental and climatic change in the tropical western Pacific, the impacts of geological and environmental changes on the biological evolution of aquatic taxa, and the geomicrobiology and biogeochemistry of metal-rich, ultramafic-hosted lake sediments through the scientific drilling of Lake Towuti, southern Sulawesi, Indonesia. Lake Towuti is a large tectonic lake at the downstream end of the Malili lake system, a chain of five highly biodiverse lakes that are among the oldest lakes in Southeast Asia. In 2015 we carried out a scientific drilling program on Lake Towuti using the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) Deep Lakes Drilling System (DLDS). We recovered a total of ˜ 1018 m of core from 11 drilling sites with water depths ranging from 156 to 200 m. Recovery averaged 91.7 %, and the maximum drilling depth was 175 m below the lake floor, penetrating the entire sedimentary infill of the basin. Initial data from core and borehole logging indicate that these cores record the evolution of a highly dynamic tectonic and limnological system, with clear indications of orbital-scale climate variability during the mid- to late Pleistocene.

  8. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Coagulation/Filtration - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Conneaut Lake Park in Conneaut Lake, PA - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Conneaut Lake Park (the Park) in Conneaut Lake, PA. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness of AdEdge Techno...

  9. LAKE MICHIGAN MASS BALANCE PROJECT: ATRAZINE MODELLING RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The triazine herbicide, atrazine, is used worldwide to control broadleaf and grassy weeds in agricultural regions. Atrazine is extensively used for corn crops in the midwestern US, the Great Lakes region, and in the Lake Michigan basin and has been cited as an emerging pollutant ...

  10. Third-Year Results from the Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, K. M.; Arp, C. D.; Beck, R. A.; Eisner, W. R.; Frey, K. E.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Kim, C.; Lenters, J. D.; Liu, H.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2012, 60 lakes in northern Alaska have been instrumented under the auspices of CALON, a project designed to document landscape-scale variability in physical and biogeochemical processes of Arctic lakes in permafrost terrain. The network has ten observation nodes along two latitudinal transects extending from the Arctic Ocean inland some 200 km to the Brooks Range foothills. At each node, a meteorological station is deployed, and six representative lakes of differing area and depth are instrumented and sampled at different intensity levels to collect basic field measurements. In April, sensors measuring water temperature and depth are deployed through the ice in each lake, ice and snow thickness recorded, and water samples are collected. Data are downloaded, lakes re-sampled, and bathymetric surveys are conducted in August. In 2014, the snow cover on inland lakes was thinner than in previous years but thicker on lakes located near the coast. Lake ice was generally thinner near the coast, but the difference diminished inland. Winters (Oct-March) have been progressively warmer over the 3-year period, which partially explains the thinner lake ice that formed in 2013-14. Lakes are typically well-mixed and largely isothermal, with minor thermal stratification occurring in deeper lakes during calm, sunny periods. These regional lake and meteorological data sets, used in conjunction with satellite imagery, supports the wind-driven lake circulation model for the origin of thermokarst lakes. Results of biogeochemical analyses of lake waters generally show notably higher concentrations of cations/anions, chromophoric dissolved organic matter, and chlorophyll-a during April as compared with August. Dissolved methane concentrations are also much higher under ice than in open water during summer, although all lakes are a source of atmospheric methane. Interviews with indigenous elders in Anaktuvuk Pass indicate that mountain lakes are drying up. During the 2014 breakup

  11. Snettisham Hydroelectric Project, Alaska second stage development, Crater lake. Final foundation report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-04

    The important geologic features and methods used to construct the Crater Lake stage of the Snettisham Hydroelectric project, built between 1985 and 1989, are discussed. The project added 31 megawatts of non-polluting, renewable electric power for Juneau, Alaska and the surrounding area. Features of the report include the power tunnel and access adits, penstock excavation, surge shaft, gate shaft and lake top. Construction aspects include the general geology, design features, construction methods, geologic conditions encountered, ground support requirements, grouting, instrumentation and tunnel filling. Foundation conditions for the Crater Lake status were excellent, permitting the power and penstock tunnel and shafts to be constructed essentially unlined. The basic rock type throughout the project is a high-quality, quartz diorite gneiss with randomly spaced, subparallel basalt dikes.... Unlined rock tunnels, Power tunnel, Penstocks, Lake tap, Surge shaft.

  12. Paleoenvironments, Evolution, and Geomicrobiology in a Tropical Pacific Lake: The Lake Towuti Drilling Project (TOWUTI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Hendrik; Russell, James M.; Bijaksana, Satria; Crowe, Sean; Fowle, David; Haffner, Douglas; King, John; Marwoto, Ristiyanti; Melles, Martin; von Rintelen, Thomas; Stevenson, Janelle; Watkinson, Ian; Wattrus, Nigel

    2014-05-01

    Lake Towuti (2.5°S, 121°E) is a, 560 km2, 200-m deep tectonic lake at the downstream end of the Malili lake system, a set of five, ancient (1-2 MYr) tectonic lakes in central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Lake Towuti's location in central Indonesia provides a unique opportunity to reconstruct long-term paleoclimate change in a crucially important yet understudied region- the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP), heart of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The Malili Lakes have extraordinarily high rates of floral and faunal endemism, and the lakes are surrounded by one of the most diverse tropical forests on Earth. Drilling in Lake Towuti will identify the age and origin of the lake and the environmental and climatic context that shaped the evolution of this unique lacustrine and terrestrial ecosystem. The ultramafic (ophiolitic) rocks and lateritic soils surrounding Lake Towuti provide metal substrates that feed a diverse, exotic microbial community, analogous to the microbial ecosystems that operated in the Archean Oceans. Drill core will provide unique insight into long-term changes in this ecosystem, as well as microbial processes operating at depth in the sediment column. High-resolution seismic reflection data (CHIRP and airgun) combined with numerous long sediment piston cores collected from 2007-2013 demonstrate the enormous promise of Lake Towuti for an ICDP drilling campaign. Well-stratified sequences of up to 150 m thickness, uninterrupted by unconformities or erosional truncation, are present in multiple sub-basins within Towuti, providing ideal sites for long-term environmental, climatic, and limnological reconstructions. Multiproxy analyses of our piston cores document a continuous and detailed record of moisture balance variations in Lake Towuti during the past 60 kyr BP. In detail our datasets show that wet conditions and rainforest ecosystems in central Indonesia persisted during Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS3) and the Holocene, and were interrupted by severe

  13. Paleoenvironments, Evolution, and Geomicrobiology in a Tropical Pacific Lake: The Lake Towuti Drilling Project (TOWUTI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Hendrik; Russell, James M.; Bijaksana, Satria; Fowle, David; von Rintelen, Thomas; Stevenson, Janelle; Watkinson, Ian; Marwoto, Ristiyanti; Melles, Martin; Crowe, Sean; Haffner, Doug; King, John

    2013-04-01

    Lake Towuti (2.5°S, 121°E) is a, 560 km2, 200-m deep tectonic lake at the downstream end of the Malili lake system, a set of five, ancient (1-2 MYr) tectonic lakes in central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Lake Towuti's location in central Indonesia provides a unique opportunity to reconstruct long-term paleoclimate change in a crucially important yet understudied region- the tropical Western Pacific warm pool, heart of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The Malili Lakes have extraordinarily high rates of floral and faunal endemism, and the lakes are surrounded by one of the most diverse tropical forests on Earth. Drilling in Lake Towuti will identify the age and origin of the lake and the environmental and climatic context that shaped the evolution of this unique lacustrine and terrestrial ecosystem. The ultramafic (ophiolitic) rocks and lateritic soils surrounding Lake Towuti provide metal substrates that feed a diverse, exotic microbial community, analogous to the microbial ecosystems that operated in the Archean Oceans. Drill core will provide unique insight into long-term changes in this ecosystem, as well as microbial processes operating at depth in the sediment column. While the Malili Lakes have long been considered high-priority drilling sites, only now do we have the requisite site survey information to propose the development of ICDP's first lake drilling target in the tropical western Pacific. High-resolution seismic reflection data (CHIRP and airgun) combined with numerous long sediment piston cores collected from 2007-2010 demonstrate the enormous promise of Lake Towuti for an ICDP drilling campaign. Well-stratified sequences of up to 150 m thickness, uninterrupted by unconformities or erosional truncation, are present in multiple sub-basins within Towuti, providing ideal sites for long-term environmental, climatic, and limnological reconstructions. Multiproxy analyses of our piston cores document a continuous and detailed record of moisture balance

  14. Second-Year Results from the Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, K. M.; Arp, C. D.; Beck, R. A.; Eisner, W. R.; Frey, K. E.; Gaglioti, B.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Kim, C.; Lenters, J. D.; Liu, H.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2013-12-01

    Beginning in April 2012, over 55 lakes in northern Alaska were instrumented as the initial phase of CALON, a project designed to document landscape-scale variability in physical and biogeochemical processes of Arctic lakes developed atop permafrost. The current network has nine observation nodes along two latitudinal transects that extend from the Arctic Ocean south 200 km to the foothills of the Brooks Range. At each node, six representative lakes of differing area and depth were instrumented at different intensity levels, and a suite of instruments were deployed to collect field measurements on lake physiochemistry, lake-surface and terrestrial climatology, and lake bed and permafrost temperature. Each April, sensors measuring water temperature and water depth are deployed through the ice and water samples are collected. Sensors are downloaded from lakes and meteorological stations in August, recording a timeline of lake regimes and events from ice decay to the summertime energy and water balance. In general, lake ice thickness increased with latitude. In 2012, ice on deeper (>2 m) lakes was about 1.4 m thick in the Arctic Foothills and 1.7 m thick near the Arctic Ocean coast. Lake ice thickness was about 20 cm thicker in winter 2013 although winter temperatures were several degrees warmer than the previous year; this is likely due to a thinner snow cover in 2013. Lake ice elevations agree with this general trend, showing higher absolute elevation in April 2013 compared to 2012 for most of the surveyed lakes. Regionally, ice-off occurs 2-4 weeks later on lakes near the coast, although there is significant inter-lake variability related to lake depth. Following ice-off, rapid lake warming occurs and water temperature varies synchronously in response to synoptic weather variations and associated changes in net radiation and turbulent heat fluxes. Average mid-summer (July) lake temperatures spanned a relatively wide range in 2012 from 7°C to 18°C, with higher

  15. 76 FR 74780 - FFP Project 105 LLC; Hugo Lake Hydro LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 105 LLC; Hugo Lake Hydro LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary... Applications On November 10, 2011, FFP Project 105 LLC (FFP 105), and on November 16, 2011, Hugo Lake Hydro LLC..., proposing to study the feasibility of a hydropower project at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' (Corps)...

  16. Preliminary Study of the Effect of the Proposed Long Lake Valley Project Operation on the Transport of Larval Suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Tamara M.

    2009-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model of Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon, was used to explore the effects of the operation of proposed offstream storage at Long Lake Valley on transport of larval suckers through the Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes system during May and June, when larval fish leave spawning sites in the Williamson River and springs along the eastern shoreline and become entrained in lake currents. A range in hydrologic conditions was considered, including historically high and low outflows and inflows, lake elevations, and the operation of pumps between Upper Klamath Lake and storage in Long Lake Valley. Two wind-forcing scenarios were considered: one dominated by moderate prevailing winds and another dominated by a strong reversal of winds from the prevailing direction. On the basis of 24 model simulations that used all combinations of hydrology and wind forcing, as well as With Project and No Action scenarios, it was determined that the biggest effect of project operations on larval transport was the result of alterations in project management of the elevation in Upper Klamath Lake and the outflow at the Link River and A Canal, rather than the result of pumping operations. This was because, during the spring time period of interest, the amount of water pumped between Upper Klamath Lake and Long Lake Valley was generally small. The dominant effect was that an increase in lake elevation would result in more larvae in the Williamson River delta and in Agency Lake, an effect that was enhanced under conditions of wind reversal. A decrease in lake elevation accompanied by an increase in the outflow at the Link River had the opposite effect on larval concentration and residence time.

  17. Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wien, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    The lake is blue black and deep. It is a glaciated finger lake, clawed out of rock when ice retracted across Nova Scotia in a northerly direction during the last ice age. The lake is narrow, a little over a mile long, and deep, 90 to 190 feet in places according to local lore, off the charts in others. The author loves to swim there, with a sense…

  18. Paleoenvironments, Evolution, and Geomicrobiology in a Tropical Pacific Lake: The Lake Towuti Drilling Project (TOWUTI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Hendrik; Russell, James M.; Bijaksana, Satria; Crowe, Sean; Fowle, David; Haffner, Douglas; King, John; Marwoto, Ristiyanti; Melles, Martin; von Rintelen, Thomas; Stevenson, Janelle; Watkinson, Ian; Wattrus, Nigel

    2014-05-01

    Lake Towuti (2.5°S, 121°E) is a, 560 km2, 200-m deep tectonic lake at the downstream end of the Malili lake system, a set of five, ancient (1-2 MYr) tectonic lakes in central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Lake Towuti's location in central Indonesia provides a unique opportunity to reconstruct long-term paleoclimate change in a crucially important yet understudied region- the Indo-Pacific warm pool (IPWP), heart of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The Malili Lakes have extraordinarily high rates of floral and faunal endemism, and the lakes are surrounded by one of the most diverse tropical forests on Earth. Drilling in Lake Towuti will identify the age and origin of the lake and the environmental and climatic context that shaped the evolution of this unique lacustrine and terrestrial ecosystem. The ultramafic (ophiolitic) rocks and lateritic soils surrounding Lake Towuti provide metal substrates that feed a diverse, exotic microbial community, analogous to the microbial ecosystems that operated in the Archean Oceans. Drill core will provide unique insight into long-term changes in this ecosystem, as well as microbial processes operating at depth in the sediment column. High-resolution seismic reflection data (CHIRP and airgun) combined with numerous long sediment piston cores collected from 2007-2013 demonstrate the enormous promise of Lake Towuti for an ICDP drilling campaign. Well-stratified sequences of up to 150 m thickness, uninterrupted by unconformities or erosional truncation, are present in multiple sub-basins within Towuti, providing ideal sites for long-term environmental, climatic, and limnological reconstructions. Multiproxy analyses of our piston cores document a continuous and detailed record of moisture balance variations in Lake Towuti during the past 60 kyr BP. In detail our datasets show that wet conditions and rainforest ecosystems in central Indonesia persisted during Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS3) and the Holocene, and were interrupted by severe

  19. 75 FR 6354 - NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes Restoration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... of Grant Funds for Fiscal Year 2010, published in the Federal Register (75 FR 3101). That... contained in the Federal Register notice of February 11, 2008 (73 FR 7696), are applicable to this... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-ZC10 NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration...

  20. CLEAN SEA project: the test in Lake Vättern (Sweden)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locritani, Marina; Carmisciano, Cosmo

    2016-04-01

    The CLEAN SEA (Continuous Long-term Environmental and Asset iNtegrity monitoring at SEA) project has been realized by eni e&p and its subsidiary Eni Norge in cooperation with Tecnomare in 2012. The aim of the project is to use a commercially available AUV properly upgraded, installed and operated by SAAB AUV, for the execution of environmental monitoring in offshore zone. We participated to the project performing the environmental characterization of site (Lake Vättern, Sweden) selected for the field test of Clean Sea project, and to providing support to processing the collected data by the payload installed. In detail, in the first phase of the project, we characterized the site of interest analyzing the clime, the morphology, and the principal chemical and physical water and environmental parameters on the basis of historical data (meteorology, hydrology, hydrodynamic, wind, ice cover and natural resources of the lake). In the second phase of the project, we processed the oceanographic and environmental data acquired in Lake Vättern during the AUV tests. The tests have been performed in two different areas in the East and West side of the lake. In detail Temperature, Salinity, Methane, Turbidity, Chlorophyll, Colored Dissolved Organic Matter, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Oxygen, pH, Oxidation Reduction Potential, Refined Oil and Crude Oil have been acquired in 21 different tests with 4 different mission types, and successively processed and evaluated. The analysis highlights the spatial and temporal variability for each parameter, and allows the comparison with the available historical data.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT AND FATE MASS BALANCE CALIBRATION MODEL FOR LAKE MICHIGAN MASS BALANCE PROJECT (LMMBP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project (LMMBP) was initiated to directly support the development of a lakewide management plan (LaMP) for Lake Michigan. A mass balance modeling approach is proposed for the project to addrss the realtionship between sources of toxic chemicals and thei...

  2. Model Construct and Calibration of an Integrated Water Quality Model (LM2-Toxic) for the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project (LMMBP) is a part of the Enhanced Monitoring Plan (EMP) for Lake Michigan (McCarty, et al., 2006). PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) were one of the targeted pollutants studied in the project. As one of the components in the overall LMMBP mod...

  3. Scope of work-supplemental standards-related fieldwork - Salt Lake City UMTRA Project Site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-23

    This scope of work governs the field effort to conduct transient in situ (hereafter referred to by the trademark name HydroPunch{reg_sign}) investigative subsurface logging and ground water sampling, and perform well point installation services at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Salt Lake City, Utah. The HydroPunch{reg_sign} and well point services subcontractor (the Subcontractor) shall provide services as stated herein to be used to investigate the subsurface, collect and analyze ground water samples, and install shallow well points.

  4. Scientific drilling projects in ancient lakes: Integrating geological and biological histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, Thomas; Wagner, Bernd; Van Bocxlaer, Bert; Albrecht, Christian; Ariztegui, Daniel; Delicado, Diana; Francke, Alexander; Harzhauser, Mathias; Hauffe, Torsten; Holtvoeth, Jens; Just, Janna; Leng, Melanie J.; Levkov, Zlatko; Penkman, Kirsty; Sadori, Laura; Skinner, Alister; Stelbrink, Björn; Vogel, Hendrik; Wesselingh, Frank; Wonik, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Sedimentary sequences in ancient or long-lived lakes can reach several thousands of meters in thickness and often provide an unrivalled perspective of the lake's regional climatic, environmental, and biological history. Over the last few years, deep-drilling projects in ancient lakes became increasingly multi- and interdisciplinary, as, among others, seismological, sedimentological, biogeochemical, climatic, environmental, paleontological, and evolutionary information can be obtained from sediment cores. However, these multi- and interdisciplinary projects pose several challenges. The scientists involved typically approach problems from different scientific perspectives and backgrounds, and setting up the program requires clear communication and the alignment of interests. One of the most challenging tasks, besides the actual drilling operation, is to link diverse datasets with varying resolution, data quality, and age uncertainties to answer interdisciplinary questions synthetically and coherently. These problems are especially relevant when secondary data, i.e., datasets obtained independently of the drilling operation, are incorporated in analyses. Nonetheless, the inclusion of secondary information, such as isotopic data from fossils found in outcrops or genetic data from extant species, may help to achieve synthetic answers. Recent technological and methodological advances in paleolimnology are likely to increase the possibilities of integrating secondary information. Some of the new approaches have started to revolutionize scientific drilling in ancient lakes, but at the same time, they also add a new layer of complexity to the generation and analysis of sediment-core data. The enhanced opportunities presented by new scientific approaches to study the paleolimnological history of these lakes, therefore, come at the expense of higher logistic, communication, and analytical efforts. Here we review types of data that can be obtained in ancient lake drilling

  5. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Salt Lake City, Utah. This plan identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for routine monitoring of ground water, sediments, and surface waters at monitoring stations on the site.

  6. 77 FR 18997 - Rim Lakes Forest Restoration Project; Apache-Sitgreavese National Forest, Black Mesa Ranger...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... Forest Service Rim Lakes Forest Restoration Project; Apache-Sitgreavese National Forest, Black Mesa... action can meet its restoration objectives, and to assure consistency with the forest plan. Information... Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003, following regulations at 36 CFR part 218. To date,...

  7. 75 FR 41856 - East Texas Electric Cooperative, Inc.: Lake Livingston Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... in or Eligible for Inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places July 9, 2010. Rule 2010 of... inclusion in, the National Register of Historic Places at the proposed Lake Livingston Hydroelectric Project... proceedings may request inclusion on the restricted service list, or may request that a restricted...

  8. Third Project Evaluation Report--Summative for Salt Lake Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siefer, Nancy; Latkiewicz, John

    Through a federal grant, Salt Lake Community College (Utah), in conjunction with two area industries, implemented a workplace literacy project to serve 225 employees. The training included work-related curriculum and instruction in reading, English as a Second Language, oral communication skills, written communication skills, mathematics, and…

  9. Toolik Lake project: Terrestrial and freshwater research on change in the Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbie, J.E.; Peterson, B.J.; Shaver, G.R.

    1992-03-01

    The Toolik Lake research project in the foothills of the North Slope, Alaska, has collected data since 1975 with funding from the NSFs Division of Polar Programs and from the Long Term Ecological Research Program and Ecosystems Research Program of the Division of Biotic Systems and Resources. The broad goal is to understand and predict how ecosystems of tundra, lakes, and streams function and respond to change. One specific goal is to understand the extent of control by resources (bottom-up control) or by grazing and predation (top-down control). The processes and relationships are analyzed in both natural ecosystems and in ecosystems that have undergone long-term experimental manipulations to simulate effects of climate and human-caused change. These manipulations include the fertilization of lakes and steams, the addition and removal of lake trout from lakes, the changing of the abundance of arctic grayling in sections of rivers, the exclusion of grazers from tundra, and the shading, fertilizing, and heating of the tussock tundra. A second specific goal is to monitor year-to-year variability and to measure how rapidly long-term change occurs. The measurements include: for lakes, measurements of temperature, chlorophyll, primary productivity; for streams, nutrients, chlorophyll on riffle rocks, insect and fish abundance, and water flow; and for the tundra, amount of flowering, air temperature, solar radiation, and biomass. A third specific goal is to understand the exchange of nutrients between land and water.

  10. Honey Lake Geothermal Project, Lassen County, California. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    This report discusses the drilling, completion, and testing of deep well WEN-2 for a hybrid electric power project which will use the area's moderate temperature geothermal fluids and locally procured wood fuel. The project is located within the Wendel-Amedee Known Geothermal Resource Area. (ACR)

  11. Gravity Survey on the Glass Buttes Geothermal Exploration Project Lake County, Oregon

    DOE Data Explorer

    John Akerley

    2011-10-12

    This report covers data acquisition, instrumentation and processing of a gravity survey performed on the Glass Buttes Geothermal Exploration Project, located in Lake County, Oregon for ORMAT Technologies Inc. The survey was conducted during 21 June 2010 to 26 June 2010. The survey area is located in T23S, R21-23E and lies within the Glass Buttes, Hat Butte, and Potato Lake, Oregon 1:24,000 topographic sheets. A total of 180 gravity stations were acquired along five profile lines.

  12. Viability report for the ByWater Lakes project.

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Passell, Howard David; Peplinski, William J.

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results from the hydrological, ecological, and renewable energy assessments conducted by Sandia National Laboratories at the ByWater Lakes site in Espanola, New Mexico for ByWater Recreation LLC and Avanyu Energy Services through the New Mexico small business assistance (NMSBA) program. Sandia's role was to assess the viability and provide perspective for enhancing the site to take advantage of renewable energy resources, improve and sustain the natural systems, develop a profitable operation, and provide an asset for the local community. Integral to this work was the identification the pertinent data and data gaps as well as making general observations about the potential issues and concerns that may arise from further developing the site. This report is informational only with no consideration with regards to the business feasibility of the various options that ByWater and Avanyu may be pursuing.

  13. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout : Habitat/Passage Improvement Project Annual Report 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Charles D.

    2000-02-01

    Lake Franklin D. Roosevelt was created with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam in 1942. The lake stretches 151 miles up-stream to the International border between the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel. Increased recreational use, subsistence and sport fishing has resulted in intense interest and possible exploitation of the resources within the lake. Previous studies of the lake and its fishery have been limited. Early studies indicate that natural reproduction within the lake and tributaries are not sufficient to support a rainbow trout (Onchoryhnchus mykiss) fishery (Scholz et. al., 1988). These studies indicate that the rainbow trout population may be limited by lack of suitable habitat for spawning and rearing (Scholz et. al., 1988). The initial phase of this project (Phase I, baseline data collection- 1990-91) was directed at the assessment of limiting factors such as quality and quantity of available spawning gravel, identification of passage barriers, and assessment of other limiting factors. Population estimates were conducted using the Seber/LeCren removal/depletion method. After the initial assessment of stream parameters, several streams were selected for habitat/passage improvement projects (Phase II, implementation-1992-96). At the completion of project habitat improvements, the final phase (Phase III, monitoring) began. This phase will assess changes and gauge the success achieved through the improvements. The objective of the project is to correct passage barriers and improve habitat conditions of selected tributaries to Lake Roosevelt for adfluvial rainbow trout that utilize tributary streams for spawning and rearing. Streams with restorable habitats were selected for improvements. Completion of improvement efforts should increase the adfluvial rainbow trout contribution to the resident fishery in Lake Roosevelt. Three co-operating agencies, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (CCT), the Spokane Tribe of Indians (STI

  14. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout : Habitat/Passage Improvement Project Annual Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Sear, Sheri

    2001-02-01

    Lake Franklin D. Roosevelt was created with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam in 1942. The lake stretches 151 miles up-stream to the International border between the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel. Increased recreational use, subsistence and sport fishing has resulted in intense interest and possible exploitation of the resources within the lake. Previous studies of the lake and its fishery have been limited. Early studies indicate that natural reproduction within the lake and tributaries are not sufficient to support a rainbow trout (Onchoryhnchus mykiss) fishery (Scholz et. al., 1988). These studies indicate that the rainbow trout population may be limited by lack of suitable habitat for spawning and rearing (Scholz et. al., 1988). The initial phase of this project (Phase I, baseline data collection- 1990-91) was directed at the assessment of limiting factors such as quality and quantity of available spawning gravel, identification of passage barriers, and assessment of other limiting factors. Population estimates were conducted using the Seber/LeCren removal/depletion method. After the initial assessment of stream parameters, several streams were selected for habitat/passage improvement projects (Phase II, implementation-1992-96). At the completion of project habitat improvements, the final phase (Phase III, monitoring) began. This phase will assess changes and gauge the success achieved through the improvements. The objective of the project is to correct passage barriers and improve habitat conditions of selected tributaries to Lake Roosevelt for adfluvial rainbow trout that utilize tributary streams for spawning and rearing. Streams with restorable habitats were selected for improvements. Completion of improvement efforts should increase the adfluvial rainbow trout contribution to the resident fishery in Lake Roosevelt. Three co-operating agencies, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (CCT), the Spokane Tribe of Indians (STI

  15. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout : Habitat/Passage Improvement Project : Annual Report 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Charles D.

    1999-02-01

    Lake Franklin D. Roosevelt was created with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam in 1942. The lake stretches 151 miles up-stream to the International border between the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel. Increased recreational use, subsistence and sport fishing has resulted in intense interest and possible exploitation of the resources within the lake. Previous studies of the lake and its fishery have been limited. Early studies indicate that natural reproduction within the lake and tributaries are not sufficient to support a rainbow trout (Onchoryhnchus mykiss) fishery (Scholz et. al., 1988). These studies indicate that the rainbow trout population may be limited by lack of suitable habitat for spawning and rearing (Scholz et. al., 1988). The initial phase of this project (Phase I, baseline data collection) was directed at the assessment of limiting factors such as quality and quantity of available spawning gravel, identification of passage barriers, and assessment of other limiting factors. Population estimates were conducted using the Seber/LeCren removal/depletion method. After the initial assessment of stream parameters, several streams were selected for habitat/passage improvement projects (Phase II, implementation). At the completion of project habitat improvements, the final phase (Phase III, monitoring) began. This phase will assess changes and gauge the success achieved through the improvements. The objective of the project is to correct passage barriers and improve habitat conditions of selected tributaries to Lake Roosevelt for adfluvial rainbow trout that utilize tributary streams for spawning and rearing. Streams with restorable habitats were selected for improvements. Completion of improvement efforts should increase the adfluvial rainbow trout contribution to the resident fishery in Lake Roosevelt. Personnel of three co-operating agencies, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (CCT), the Spokane Tribe of Indians (STI) and

  16. Women's independent access to productive resources: fish ponds in the Oxbow Lakes Project, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nathan, D; Apu, N A

    1998-01-01

    This article analyzes the experiences of women in acquiring user rights to fish ponds on government owned lands in the Oxbow Lakes Project in Bangladesh. The analysis describes the significance, functioning, and problems of women in fish farming. The field reports were based on the authors' involvement in implementation of the extension of fishing rights to women during 6 weeks/year over 4 years. Analysis was based on observations and discussions during project implementation and on a survey conducted in March 1997. The project involved land reforms that transferred rights to a group of poor people. Most of the lakes had been overfished. The poor fishers were organized into Lake Fishing Teams (LFTs) with the right to culture and harvest fish in lakes that were under common property management. In late 1994, at least 50% of the women were included in the Fish Farming Groups (FFGs) to manage fish culture in ponds constructed in shallow areas of the lake shore. The proportion of women was increased to 75% in 1994-95 and favored women-headed households. By March 1997, there were 510 members of FFGs, of whom 84% were single, poor women. Women had low participation in fish sales and netting and guarding the harvest. Women in mixed gender groups complained that men dominated the key decision-making and financial areas. Production averaged 1500 kg/hectare in 1995-96. FFGs had higher expenses for feed and fertilizer than LFTs. This endeavor earned higher per capita income than poultry raising. All women groups performed better than mixed groups. These groups increased assertiveness and self-confidence. PMID:12179931

  17. Women's independent access to productive resources: fish ponds in the Oxbow Lakes Project, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nathan, D; Apu, N A

    1998-01-01

    This article analyzes the experiences of women in acquiring user rights to fish ponds on government owned lands in the Oxbow Lakes Project in Bangladesh. The analysis describes the significance, functioning, and problems of women in fish farming. The field reports were based on the authors' involvement in implementation of the extension of fishing rights to women during 6 weeks/year over 4 years. Analysis was based on observations and discussions during project implementation and on a survey conducted in March 1997. The project involved land reforms that transferred rights to a group of poor people. Most of the lakes had been overfished. The poor fishers were organized into Lake Fishing Teams (LFTs) with the right to culture and harvest fish in lakes that were under common property management. In late 1994, at least 50% of the women were included in the Fish Farming Groups (FFGs) to manage fish culture in ponds constructed in shallow areas of the lake shore. The proportion of women was increased to 75% in 1994-95 and favored women-headed households. By March 1997, there were 510 members of FFGs, of whom 84% were single, poor women. Women had low participation in fish sales and netting and guarding the harvest. Women in mixed gender groups complained that men dominated the key decision-making and financial areas. Production averaged 1500 kg/hectare in 1995-96. FFGs had higher expenses for feed and fertilizer than LFTs. This endeavor earned higher per capita income than poultry raising. All women groups performed better than mixed groups. These groups increased assertiveness and self-confidence.

  18. Cheney Lake CEAP Project Validation/Calibration: Streamflow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AnnAGNPS was used to analyze some of the projects funded in the Special Emphasis Watershed during the Conservation Evaluation Assessment Program (CEAP). Its major finding was the significance of ephemeral gully erosion. In order to ensure confidence in its findings, a sequence of calibration, in s...

  19. The Lake Ohrid Drilling Project: initial interpretations of stable isotope data over the last 640 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, J. H.; Leng, M. J.; Francke, A.; Sloane, H. J.; Milodowski, A. E.; Vogel, H.; Baumgarten, H.; Wagner, B.

    2015-12-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania) is an ancient European lake with a unique biodiversity and a site of global significance to study the influence of climate, geological and tectonic events on the biological evolution of taxa. Here, we present oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope data on carbonate from sediment cores spanning 640 ka recovered as part of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project. Previous work on cores from the lake (up to 15 m, <140 ka) indicated that the Total Inorganic Carbon (TIC) content of sediments was highly sensitive to climate change during the last glacial-interglacial cycle, comprising abundant endogenic calcite through interglacials and being almost absent in glacials, apart from discrete bands of early diagenetic authigenic siderite. Isotope measurements on calcite (δ18Oc and δ13Cc) reveal variations both between and within interglacials that suggest the lake has been subject to hydroclimate fluctuations on orbital and millennial timescales. We also measured isotopes on authigenic siderite (δ18Os and δ13Cs) and, with the δ18Oc and δ18Os, reconstruct δ18O of lakewater (δ18Olw). Glacials are observed to have lower δ18Olw when compared to interglacials, most likely due to cooler summer temperatures, a higher proportion of winter precipitation (snowfall), and a reduced inflow from neighbouring Lake Prespa. The isotope data suggest Lake Ohrid experienced a period of overall stability through Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 15 to 13, highlighting MIS 14 as a particularly warm glacial, and MIS 9 was isotopically freshest. Following MIS 9, the variability between glacial and interglacial δ18Olw is enhanced and the lake became increasingly evaporated through to present day with MIS 5 having the highest average δ18Olw. These findings provide new evidence for long-term climate change in the northern Mediterranean region, which will form the basis to better understand the influence of major

  20. Site Observational Work Plan for the UMTRA project site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    Ground water compliance for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites, including the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, site, is governed by the Uranium Mills Tailings Radiation Control Act (42 USC {section}7901 et seq.) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s Health and Environmental Protection Standards for Uranium and Thorium Mill Tailings (40 CFR Part 192; 60 FR 2854). The EPA standards describe specific conditions for which the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) may apply for supplemental standards for contaminated ground water rather than meeting background levels or numerical standards. To achieve compliance with Subpart A of the EPA standards the residual radioactive materials are currently being consolidated on the site by the DOE in a disposal cell, isolating them from direct human or ecological contact and further dispersion into the environment. Completion of the disposal cell is scheduled for early 1995. An environmental assessment and a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) were completed in 1987. Concurrence with the UMTRA Surface Project Ambrosia Lake remedial action plan (RAP) was granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and state of New Mexico in 1990. The DOE deferred compliance with Subpart B of the EPA standards in the Surface Project RAP. This site observational work plan (SOWP) is the first document to address ground water compliance under Subpart B at the Ambrosia Lake site. The Ambrosia Lake UMTRA Project site is within the Grants Mineral Belt and was one of numerous uranium mills supplied by many local mines. Ground water contamination at the site occurred as a result of uranium mill operations. Contamination of ground water resulted from discharge of waste water, infiltration of water through the tailings pile, hydraulic placement of mill tailings in nearby mines, and water pumped from mine shafts.

  1. Supplement to the UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Ambrosia Lake Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is in McKinley County, New Mexico. As part of UMTRA surface remediation, residual radioactive materials were consolidated on the site in a disposal cell that was completed July 1995. The need for ground water monitoring was evaluated and found not to be necessary beyond the completion of the remedial action because the ground water in the uppermost aquifer is classified as limited use.

  2. The Lake Towuti Drilling Project: A New, 1-Million Year Record of Indo-Pacific Hydroclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, J. M.; Bijaksana, S.; Vogel, H.; Melles, M.; Crowe, S.; Fajar, S. J.; Hasberg, A. K.; Ivory, S.; Kallmeyer, J.; Kelly, C. S.; Kirana, K. H.; Morlock, M.; Tamuntuan, G. H.; Wicaksono, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    ­The Indo-Pacific region plays an integral role in the Earth's climate system. Changes in local insolation, greenhouse gas concentrations, ice volume, and local sea level are each hypothesized to exert a dominant control on Indo-Pacific hydroclimate variations through the Pleistocene, yet existing records from the region are generally short and exhibit fundamental differences in orbital-scale patterns that limit our understanding of the regional climate responses to these global forcings. New paleoclimate records spanning multiple glacial-interglacial cycles are therefore required to document the region's hydroclimatic response to the full range of global climate boundary conditions observed during the late Quaternary. Lake Towuti is located in central Indonesia and is the only known terrestrial sedimentary archive in the region that spans multiple glacial-interglacial cycles. From May - July, 2015, the Towuti Drilling Project, consisting of nearly 40 scientists from eight countries, recovered over 1,000 meters of new sediment core from Lake Towuti. This includes cores though the entire sediment column to bedrock, which likely provide a >1-million-year records of regional hydroclimate. On-site borehole and sediment core logging data document major shifts in sediment composition, including transitions from lake clays to peats, calcareous sediments, and gravels. These data show excellent agreement with major lithological transitions recorded in seismic reflection data, and indicate large changes in lake levels and hydroclimate through the late Quaternary. Prior work on Lake Towuti indicated a dominant control by global ice volume on regional hydroclimate, a hypothesis we aim to test through the analysis of these new cores. This presentation will review existing records from the region and show the first long geochemical and sedimentological records from Lake Towuti to understand orbital-scale hydrologic change during the last ~1 million years.

  3. Initial results from the ICDP SCOPSCO drilling project, Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francke, A.; Wagner, B.; Krastel, S.; Lindhorst, K.; Wilke, T.; Zanchetta, G.; Sulpizio, R.; Grazhdani, A.; Reicherter, K. R.

    2013-12-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) is about 30 km long and 15 km wide and up to 290 m deep. Formed within a tectonic graben, Lake Ohrid is considered to be the oldest lake in Europe, providing a high-resolution, continuous archive of environmental change and tectonic and tephrostratigraphic history in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. The deep drilling campaign at Lake Ohrid in spring 2013 within the scope of the ICDP project SCOPSCO (Scientific Collaboration of Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid) aimed (a) to obtain more precise information about the age and origin of the lake, (b) to unravel the seismotectonic history of the lake area including effects of major earthquakes and associated mass wasting events, (c) to obtain a continuous record containing information on volcanic activities and climate changes in the central northern Mediterranean region, and (d) to better understand the impact of major geological/environmental events on general evolutionary patterns and shaping an extraordinary degree of endemic biodiversity as a matter of global significance. Drilling was carried out by DOSECC (Salt Lake City, USA) using the DLDS (Deep Lake Drilling System) with a hydraulic piston corer for surface sediments and rotation drilling for harder, deeper sediments. Overall, about 2,100 m of sediment were recovered from 4 drill sites. At the 'DEEP' site in the center of the lake, seismic data implied a maximum sediment fill of ca. 700 m, of which the uppermost 568 m sediment were recovered. Coarse-grained gravel and pebbles underlying clay and shallow water facies sediments hampered deeper penetration. 6 boreholes at the 'DEEP' site resulted in a total of 1526 m of sediment cores and a composite field recovery of 544 m (95%). Initial geochemical and magnetic susceptibility data imply that the sediments from 'DEEP' site are highly sensitive to climate and environmental variations in the Balkan area probably over the last 1.5 Mio years. Long-term climate oscillations on

  4. Results from Downhole Logging in the ICDP Project Scopsco at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgarten, H.; Wonik, T.; Wagner, B.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Ohrid is located at the border between Macedonia and Albania (40°70' N, 20°42 E) and is assumed as the oldest lake in Europe. The lake with a surface area of 360 km² has trapped sediments and volcanic ashes and hence, contains essential information of major climatic and environmental change of the central northern Mediterranean region. In the frame of the ICDP project SCOPSCO (Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid), several scientific questions are adressed: age and origin of the lake, paleoclimatic change during the Quaternary, tephrostratigraphy, and driving forces for the outstanding biodiversity. Sediments of the lake have been targeted for a deep drilling campaign in spring 2013. Four sites (DEEP, CERAVA, GRADISTE, PESTANI) have been cored to a depth of 569 m below lake floor (blf). High-quality continuous downhole logging data have been achieved at all drill sites by the use of the following tools: spectral gamma ray, magnetic susceptibility, resistivity, dipmeter, borehole televiewer and sonic. Additionally, vertical seismic profiling was conducted at the DEEP site. Seismic investigations indicate a sediment fill of the lake basin up to a thickness of 700 m. First results from cores revealed, that the bottom part, below 430 m blf is characterized by coarser grained deposits while the upper part yields fine grained pelagic sediments. The borehole logging data at the DEEP site shows strong contrasts in all physical properties, in particular in spectral gamma ray (GR), magnetic susceptibility, resistivity and seismic velocity (vp). Furthermore, the pelagic facies show a cyclic alternation in these parameters as well as in the structural features from borehole televiewer. By use of the current age estimate of the record of around 1.2 Ma, the GR data was tested for matching with the benthic δ18O record and shows high correlation (R² = 0.72), whereas high GR indicate glacial and low GR interglacial periods. Spectral

  5. Honey Lake Hybrid Power Plant Project. Volume 1. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    A technical and economic feasibility study of the engineering aspects of a hybrid wood-fired geothermal electrical generating plant is presented. The proposed plant location is in Lassen County, California, near the Wendel Amedee Known Geothermal Resource Area. This power plant uses moderate temperature geothermal fluid to augment the heat supplied from a wood waste fired boiler. This report defines major plant systems for implementation into the plant conceptual design and provides sufficient design information for development of budgetary cost estimates. Emphasis is placed on incorporation of geothermal heat into the power generation process. Plant systems are designed and selected based on economic justification and on proven performance. The culminating economic analysis provides the financial information to establish the incentives for construction of the plant. The study concludes that geothermal energy and energy from wood can be combined in a power generating plant to yield attractive project economics.

  6. Modern (1992–2011) and projected (2012–99) peak snowpack and May–July runoff for the Fort Peck Lake and Lake Sakakawea watersheds in the Upper Missouri River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamm, John F.; Todey, Dennis; Mayes Bousted, Barbara; Rossi, Shawn; Norton, Parker A.; Carter, Janet M.

    2016-02-09

    Annual peak snowpack was projected to have a downward trend for the Fort Peck Lake watershed and an upward trend for the lower Lake Sakakawea watershed. Projections of May–July runoff had a significant downward trend for the Fort Peck Lake, lower Lake Sakakawea, and Lake Sakakawea (combination of Fort Peck Lake and lower Lake Sakakawea) watersheds. Downward trends in projected May–July runoff indicated that power production at Fort Peck Dam might be affected particularly in the later part of the simulation (2061–99); however, confidence in projected May–July runoff for the later part of the simulation was less certain because bias-corrected air temperatures from CCSM3 and CCSM4 commonly fell outside of the observed range used for calibration. Projected May–July runoff combined for the Fort Peck Lake and lower Lake Sakakawea watersheds were on the order of magnitude of the 2011 flood for 1 simulation year for each of the CCSM-based simulations. High peak snowpack and precipitation in April, May, and June in the plains was associated with large May–July runoff events; therefore, high precipitation at lower elevations in the Fort Peck Lake and lower Lake Sakakawea watersheds was a factor in the simulation of extreme runoff events at the magnitude of the 2011 flood.

  7. Spatial analysis in recreation resource management for the Berlin Lake Reservoir Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwardo, H. A.; Koryak, M.; Miller, M. S.; Wilson, H.; Merry, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    Spatial analysis of geographic information systems and the acquisition and use of remotely-sensed data within the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is an emerging Technology Work units have been developed under te Remote Sensing Research and Development Program, which are most relevant to the productive needs of the Corps in both the military and civil works missions. Corps participation in the SPOT simulation champaign is one such example of this research. This paper describes the application of spatial analysis and remote sensing in recreation resource managmaster planning at the Berlin Lake Reservoir Project within the Pittsburgh District. SPOT simulator data was acquired over Berlin Lake, Site No. 10, on July 8, 1983. The first part of this paper describes the background of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Berlin Lake project, the geographic information system being developed, and the planned use of SPOT and similar data. The remainder of the paper describes the results on an analysis of the simulated SPOT data conducted at the NASA Goddard Institut for Space Studies.

  8. The National Map - Lake Tahoe Area Pilot Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    Governments depend on a common set of geographic base information as a tool for economic and community development, land and natural resource management, and health and safety services. Emergency management and defense operations rely on this information. Private industry, nongovernmental organizations, and individual citizens use the same geographic data. Geographic information underpins an increasingly large part of the Nation's economy. Available geographic data often have the following problems: * They do not align with each other because layers are frequently created or revised separately, * They do not match across administrative boundaries because each producing organization uses different methods and standards, and * They are not up to date because of the complexity and cost of revision. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is developing The National Map to be a seamless, continuously maintained, and nationally consistent set of online, public domain, geographic base information to address these issues. The National Map will serve as a foundation for integrating, sharing, and using other data easily and consistently. In collaboration with other government agencies, the private sector, academia, and volunteer groups, the USGS will coordinate, integrate, and, where needed, produce and maintain base geographic data. The National Map will include digital orthorectified imagery; elevation data; vector data for hydrography, transportation, boundary, and structure features; geographic names; and land cover information. The data will be the source of revised paper topographic maps. Many technical and institutional issues must be resolved as The National Map is implemented. To begin the refinement of this new paradigm, pilot projects are being designed to identify and investigate these issues. The pilots are the foundation upon which future partnerships for data sharing and maintenance will be built.

  9. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Ambrosia Lake Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is within the Grants Mineral Belt and was one of numerous uranium mills supplied by many local mines. Ground water contamination at the site occurred as a result of uranium mill operations. The potential for impacts to human health and the environment from contaminated ground water currently does not exist. No domestic or livestock wells accessing ground water from the uppermost aquifer have been identified within a 5 mile radius from the site. Therefore, no current exposure pathways to humans, livestock, or wildlife exist, nor are any foreseen. The proposed ground water compliance strategy under consideration for application at the Ambrosia Lake site is to perform no remediation, based on the application of supplemental standards because the ground water has ``limited use.``

  10. Preliminary analysis of downhole logging data from ICDP Lake Junin drilling Project, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierdominici, Simona; Kück, Jochem; Rodbell, Donald T.; Abbott, Mark B.

    2016-04-01

    The International Continental Drilling Programm (ICDP) has supported a scientific drilling campaign in Peru during the summer season 2015. The Lake Junin Drilling Project mainly aims at obtaining high-resolution paleoclimate records from lacustrine sediments to reconstruct the history of the continental records covering the glacial-interglacial cycles. Lake Junín is located at 4000 m a.s.l. in the tropical Andes of Peru, and is characterized by a thick (> 125 m) sediment package deposited at a high rate (0.2 to 1.0 mm yr-1). Lake Junín is one of the few lakes in the tropical Andes that predates the maximum extent of glaciation and is in a geomorphic position to record the waxing and waning of glaciers in nearby cordillera, hence making the lake a key site for the investigation of the Quaternary climate evolution in the inner-tropics of the Southern Hemisphere. Continous coring was performed at three sites in overall 11 boreholes on the lake with at least two overlapping boreholes per site to avoid core gaps. The depth of the boreholes varied between approx. 30 m and 110 m depending on the drill site. The core bit had a bit size of 122.6 mm and yielded a core diameter of 85 mm. Upon completion of coring operations downhole geophysical logging was performed in five of the 11 boreholes (1A, 1C, 1D, 2A and 3B) by the Operational Support Group of ICDP. The main objective was to record in-situ the physical properties of the lacustrine sediments of Lake Junin. Downhole logs provide a powerful tool to fill in information at intervals with core gaps and as depth reference for depth matching of the discontinous cores. Furthermore it will be used for the lithological reconstruction and interpretation. The OSG downhole logging comprised total and spectrum gamma ray, magnetic susceptibility, borehole geometry, temperature, and sonic P-wave velocity. Unstable and collapsing borehole walls made it neccessary to carry out logging in several sections instead of in one run. The

  11. Active-source seismic imaging below Lake Malawi (Nyasa) from the SEGMeNT project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shillington, D. J.; Scholz, C. A.; Gaherty, J. B.; Accardo, N. J.; McCartney, T.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Kamihanda, G.; Trinhammer, P.; Wood, D. A.; Khalfan, M.; Ebinger, C. J.; Nyblade, A.; Mbogoni, G. J.; Mruma, A. H.; Salima, J.; Ferdinand-Wambura, R.

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the controls on the initiation and development of magmatism and segmentation in young rift systems. The northern Lake Malawi (Nyasa) rift in the East African Rift System is an early stage rift exhibiting pronounced tectonic segmentation, which is defined in the upper crust by ~100-km-long border faults. Very little volcanism is associated with rifting; the only surface expression of magmatism occurs in an accommodation zone between segments to the north of the lake in the Rungwe Volcanic Province. The SEGMeNT (Study of Extension and maGmatism in Malawi aNd Tanzania) project is a multidisciplinary, multinational study that is acquiring a suite of geophysical, geological and geochemical data to characterize deformation and magmatism in the crust and mantle lithosphere along 2-3 segments of this rift. As a part of the SEGMeNT project, we acquired seismic reflection and refraction data in Lake Malawi (Nyasa) in March-April 2015. Over 2000 km of seismic reflection data were acquired with a 500 to 2580 cu in air gun array from GEUS/Aarhus and a 500- to 1500-m-long seismic streamer from Syracuse University over a grid of lines across and along the northern and central basins. Air gun shots from MCS profiles and 1000 km of additional shooting with large shot intervals were also recorded on 27 short-period and 6 broadband lake bottom seismometers from Scripps Oceanographic Institute as a part of the Ocean Bottom Seismic Instrument Pool (OBSIP) as well as the 55-station onshore seismic array. The OBS were deployed along one long strike line and two dip lines. We will present preliminary data and results from seismic reflection and refraction data acquired in the lake and their implications for crustal deformation within and between rift segments. Seismic reflection data image structures up to ~5-6 km below the lake bottom, including syntectonic sediments, intrabasinal faults and other complex horsts. Some intrabasinal faults in both the northern and

  12. Small mammal community succession on the beach of Dongting Lake, China after the Three Gorges Project.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meiwen; Wang, Yong; Li, Bo; Guo, Cong; Huang, Guoxian; Shen, Guo; Zhou, Xunjun

    2014-06-01

    Although the Three Gorges Project (TGP) may have affected the population structure and distribution of plant and animal communities, few studies have analyzed the effect of this project on small mammal communities. Therefore, the present paper compares the small mammal communities inhabiting the beaches of Dongting Lake using field investigations spanning a 20-year period, both before and after the TGP was implemented. Snap traps were used throughout the census. The results indicate that the TGP caused major changes to the structure of the small mammal community at a lake downstream of the dam. First, species abundance on the beaches increased after the project commenced. The striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) and the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus), which rarely inhabited the beach before the TGP, became abundant (with marked population growth) once water was impounded by the Three Gorges Reservoir. Second, dominant species concentration indices exhibited a stepwise decline, indicating that the community structure changed from a single dominant species to a more diverse species mix after TGP implementation. Third, the regulation of water discharge release by the TGP might have caused an increase in the species diversity of the animal community on the beaches. A significant difference in diversity indices was obtained before and after the TGP operation. Similarity indices also indicate a gradual increase in species numbers. Hence, a long-term project should be established to monitor the population fluctuations of the Yangtze vole (Microtus fortis), the striped field mouse and the Norway rat to safeguard against population outbreaks (similar to the Yangtze vole outbreak in 2007), which could cause crop damage to adjacent farmland, in addition to documenting the succession process of the small mammal community inhabiting the beaches of Dongting Lake.

  13. Small mammal community succession on the beach of Dongting Lake, China after the Three Gorges Project.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meiwen; Wang, Yong; Li, Bo; Guo, Cong; Huang, Guoxian; Shen, Guo; Zhou, Xunjun

    2014-06-01

    Although the Three Gorges Project (TGP) may have affected the population structure and distribution of plant and animal communities, few studies have analyzed the effect of this project on small mammal communities. Therefore, the present paper compares the small mammal communities inhabiting the beaches of Dongting Lake using field investigations spanning a 20-year period, both before and after the TGP was implemented. Snap traps were used throughout the census. The results indicate that the TGP caused major changes to the structure of the small mammal community at a lake downstream of the dam. First, species abundance on the beaches increased after the project commenced. The striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) and the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus), which rarely inhabited the beach before the TGP, became abundant (with marked population growth) once water was impounded by the Three Gorges Reservoir. Second, dominant species concentration indices exhibited a stepwise decline, indicating that the community structure changed from a single dominant species to a more diverse species mix after TGP implementation. Third, the regulation of water discharge release by the TGP might have caused an increase in the species diversity of the animal community on the beaches. A significant difference in diversity indices was obtained before and after the TGP operation. Similarity indices also indicate a gradual increase in species numbers. Hence, a long-term project should be established to monitor the population fluctuations of the Yangtze vole (Microtus fortis), the striped field mouse and the Norway rat to safeguard against population outbreaks (similar to the Yangtze vole outbreak in 2007), which could cause crop damage to adjacent farmland, in addition to documenting the succession process of the small mammal community inhabiting the beaches of Dongting Lake. PMID:24148252

  14. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; West Beaver Lake Project, Technical Report 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On September 7, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the West Beaver Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in September 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The West Beaver Lake Project provides a total of 82.69 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetland habitat provides 8.80 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. Conifer forest habitat provides 70.33 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Open water provides 3.30 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. The objective of using HEP at the West Beaver Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  15. Projected hydrologic regime changes in the Poyang Lake Basin due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Le; Guo, Shenglian; Hong, Xingjun; Liu, Dedi; Xiong, Lihua

    2016-09-01

    Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, and its surrounding sub-basins have suffered frequent floods and droughts in recent decades. To better understand and quantitatively assess hydrological impacts of climate change in the region, this study adopted the Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) to downscale the outputs of a Global Climate Model (GCM) under three scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) as recommended by the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) during future periods (2010‒2099) in the Poyang Lake Basin. A semi-distributed two-parameter monthly water balance model was also used to simulate and predict projected changes of runoff in the Ganjiang sub-basin. Results indicate that: 1) SDSM can simulate monthly mean precipitation reasonably well, while a bias correction procedure should be applied to downscaled extreme precipitation indices (EPI) before being employed to simulate future precipitation; 2) for annual mean precipitation, a mixed pattern of positive or negative changes are detected in the entire basin, with a slightly higher or lower trend in the 2020s and 2050s, with a consistent increase in the 2080s; 3) all six EPI show a general increase under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, while a mixed pattern of positive and negative changes is detected for most indices under the RCP2.6 scenario; and 4) the future runoff in the Ganjiang sub-basin shows an overall decreasing trend for all periods but the 2080s under the RCP8.5 scenario when runoff is more sensitive to changes in precipitation than evaporation.

  16. Physiological, toxicological, and population responses of smallmouth bass to acidification. Lake Acidification and Fisheries Project

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, M.D.; Gulley, D.D.; Christensen, S.W.; McDonald, D.G.; Van Winkle, W.; Mount, D.R.; Wood, C.M.; Bergman, H.L.

    1992-08-01

    The Lake Acidification and Fisheries (LAF) project examined effects of acidic water chemistries on four fish species. This report presents an overview of investigations on smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui). Experiments conducted with this species included as many as 84 exposure combinations of acid, aluminum, and low calcium. In egg, fry, and juvenile stages of smallmouth bass, increased acid and aluminum concentrations increased mortality and decreased growth, while increased calcium concentrations often improved survival. Relative to the juvenile life stages of smallmouth bass tested, yolksac and swim-up fry were clearly more sensitive to stressful exposure conditions. While eggs appeared to be the most sensitive life stage, this conclusion was compromised by heavy mortalities of eggs due to fungal infestations during experimental exposures. As found in our earlier studies with brook and rainbow trout, acid-aluminum stressed smallmouth bass exhibited net losses of electrolytes across gills and increased accumulation of aluminum on gill tissues. Overall, our results indicated that smallmouth bass were generally more sensitive to increased exposure concentrations of aluminum than to increased acidities. Compared to toxicology results from earlier LAF project studies, smallmouth bass were more sensitive than brook trout and slightly less sensitive than rainbow trout when exposed to water quality conditions associated with acidification.An example application of the LAF modeling framework shows how different liming scenarios can improve survival probabilities for smallmouth bass in a set of lakes sensitive to acidification.

  17. Moses Lake Fishery Restoration Project; Factors Affecting the Recreational Fishery in Moses Lake Washington, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, Dave

    2003-11-01

    This annual report is a precursor to the final technical report we will be writing the next contract period. Consequently, this report, covering the period between September 27, 2002, and September 26, 2003, represents a progress report towards the final technical report we anticipate completing by September 26, 2004. Sample analysis and field work have progressed well and we anticipate no further delays. There are 4 objectives: (1) To quantify secondary production Moses Lake; (2) To quantify the influence of predation on target fishes in Moses Lake; (3) To quantify mortality of selected fished in Moses Lake; and (4) To assess effects of habitat changes from shoreline development and carp on the fish community in Moses Lake.

  18. Assessment of the long-term hydrologic impacts of Lake Nasser and related irrigation projects in southwestern Egypt.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.; Sultan, M.; Environmental Research

    2002-05-10

    A two-dimensional groundwater flow model was constructed to investigate the long-term hydrologic impacts of Lake Nasser and the major land reclamation projects that use excess lake water in southwest Egypt. Egypt constructed (1964-1971) the Aswan High Dam, creating the Lake Nasser reservoir (length: 500 km; average width: 12 km) and is constructing the Tushka Canal to channel 5.0x10{sup 9} m{sup 3}/yr of Lake Nasser water to reclaim 0.5x10{sup 6} acres of desert lands. The model, constrained by regional-scale groundwater flow and near-lake head data, was successfully calibrated to temporal-observation heads from 1970 to 2000 that reflect variations in lake levels. Predictive analyses for the subsequent 50-yr period were conducted by employing the calibrated model. Simulations of long-term effects, beyond year 2000, of Lake Nasser on recharge and temporal groundwater head (base case scenario) show that recharge from the lake will continue at a much slower rate than during the 30-yr period of 1970-2000 (with approximately 86% reduction in 30-yr recharge). The modest projected pumping and injection activities in the study area are not expected to cause major deviation in the overall head distribution compared to the base case scenario. The investigation of effects of the new irrigation land development on the Nubian aquifer indicated that many of the proposed irrigation areas, especially those with small aquifer thickness, will become fully saturated with introduced water, resulting in potential flooding and salinization.

  19. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media, U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at LEADS Head Start Building in Buckeye Lake, OH - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained for the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Licking Economic Action Development Study (LEADS) Head Start School in Buckeye Lake, Ohio. The objectives of the project were to evaluate...

  20. Marys Lake 69/115-kV transmission line upgrade and substation expansion projects

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) propose to upgrade portions of the existing electric transmission and substation system that serves the Town of Estes Park, Colorado. The existing transmission lines between the Estes Power Plant Switchyard and the Marys Lake Substation include a 115,000 volt (115-kV) line and 69,000 volt (69-kV) line. Approximately one mile is a double-circuit 115/69-kV line on steel lattice structures, and approximately two miles consists of separate single-circuit 115-kV and a 69-kV lines, constructed on wood H-Frame structures. Both lines were constructed in 1951 by the US Bureau of Reclamation. The existing transmission lines are on rights-of-way (ROW) that vary from 75 feet to 120 feet and are owned by Western. There are 48 landowners adjacent to the existing ROW. All of the houses were built adjacent to the existing ROW after the transmission lines were constructed. Upgrading the existing 69-kV transmission line between the Marys Lake Substation and the Estes Power Plant Switchyard to 115-kV and expanding the Marys Lake Substation was identified as the most effective way in which to improve electric service to Estes Park. The primary purpose and need of the proposed project is to improve the reliability of electric service to the Town of Estes Park. Lack of reliability has been a historical concern, and reliability will always be less than desired until physical improvements are made to the electrical facilities serving Estes Park.

  1. Completion report for the UMTRA project Vitro processing site, Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This completion report provides evidence that the final Salt Lake City, Utah, processing site property conditions are in accordance with the approval design and that all U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards have been satisfied. Included as appendixes to support the stated conclusions are the record drawings; a summary of grid test results; contract specifications and construction drawing and the EPA standards; the audit, inspection, and surveillance summary; the permit information; and project photographs. The principal objectives of remedial action at Salt Lake City were to remove the tailings from the former processing site, render the site free of contamination to EPA standards, and restore the site to the final design grade elevations. The final remedial action plan, which is approved by the U.S. Department of Energy and concurred upon by the U.S. Nuclear Regulator Commission and the state of Utah, contains the conceptual design used to develop the final approved design. During remedial action construction operations, conditions were encountered that required design features that differed form the conceptual design. These conditions and the associated design changes are noted in the record drawings. All remedial action activities were completed in conformance with the specifications and drawings. In the opinion of the state of Utah, the record drawings accurately reflect existing property conditions at the processing site.

  2. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) provides the basis for ground water sampling at the Ambrosia Lake Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site during fiscal year 1994. It identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring locations and will be updated annually. The Ambrosia Lake site is in McKinley County, New Mexico, about 40 kilometers (km) (25 miles [mi]) north of Grants, New Mexico, and 1.6 km (1 mi) east of New Mexico Highway 509 (Figure 1.1). The town closest to the tailings pile is San Mateo, about 16 km ( 10 mi) southeast (Figure 1.2). The former mill and tailings pile are in Section 28, and two holding ponds are in Section 33, Township 14 North, Range 9 West. The site is shown on the US Geological Survey (USGS) map (USGS, 1980). The site is approximately 2100 meters (m) (7000 feet [ft]) above sea level.

  3. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 1, Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western`s power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western`s firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action altemative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  4. Building America Case Study: Zero Energy Ready Home Multifamily Project: Mutual Housing at Spring Lake, Woodland, California

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    Building cost effective, high performance homes that provide superior comfort, health, and durability is the goal of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Zero Energy Ready Homes (ZERH) program. Through Building America research and other innovative programs throughout the country, many of the technical challenges to building to the ZERH standard have been addressed. This case study describes the development of a 62-unit multifamily community constructed by nonprofit developer Mutual Housing at the Spring Lake subdivision in Woodland, CA. The Spring Lake project is expected to be the first ZERH-certified multifamily project nationwide. Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation worked with Mutual Housing throughout the project. The case study discusses challenges encountered, lessons learned, and how obstacles were overcome. An objective of this project was to gain a highly visible foothold for residential buildings built to the DOE ZERH specification that can be used to encourage participation by other California builders.

  5. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Zero Energy Ready Home Multifamily Project: Mutual Housing at Spring Lake

    SciTech Connect

    D. Springer and A. German

    2015-09-01

    Building cost effective, high performance homes that provide superior comfort, health, and durability is the goal of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Zero Energy Ready Homes (ZERH) program. This case study describes the development of a 62-unit multifamily community constructed by nonprofit developer Mutual Housing at the Spring Lake subdivision in Woodland, California. The Spring Lake project is expected to be the first ZERH-certified multifamily project nationwide. Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation worked with Mutual Housing throughout the project. An objective of this project was to gain a highly visible foothold for residential buildings built to the DOE ZERH specification that can be used to encourage participation by other California builders.

  6. Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project Annual Report : Fiscal Year 2008 (March 1, 2008 to February 1, 2009).

    SciTech Connect

    Polacek, Matt

    2009-07-15

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife implemented the Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project (BLFEP) in September 2001 with funds from the Bonneville Power Administration, and continued project tasks in 2008. The objective was to evaluate factors that could limit kokanee in Banks Lake, including water quality, prey availability, harvest, and acute predation during hatchery releases. Water quality parameters were collected twice monthly from March through November. Banks Lake water temperatures began to increase in May and stratification was apparent by July. By late August, the thermocline had dropped to 15 meters deep, with temperatures of 21-23 C in the epilimnion and 16-19 C in the hypolimnion. Dissolved oxygen levels were generally above 8 mg/L until August when they dropped near or below 5 mg/L deeper than 20-meters. Secchi depths ranged from 3.2 to 6.2 meters and varied spatially and temporally. Daphnia and copepod densities were the highest in May and June, reaching densities of 26 copepods/liter and 9 Daphnia/liter. Fish surveys were conducted in July and October 2008 using boat electrofishing, gill netting, and hydroacoustic surveys. Lake whitefish (71%) and yellow perch (16%) dominated the limnetic fish assemblage in the summer, while lake whitefish (46%) and walleye (22%) were the most abundant in gill net catch during the fall survey. Piscivore diets switched from crayfish prior to the release of rainbow trout to crayfish and rainbow trout following the release. The highest angling pressure occurred in May, when anglers were primarily targeting walleye and smallmouth bass. Boat anglers utilized Steamboat State Park more frequently than any other boat ramp on Banks Lake. Shore anglers used the rock jetty at Coulee City Park 45% of the time, with highest use occurring from November through April. Ice fishing occurred in January and February at the south end of the lake. An estimated total of 4,397 smallmouth bass, 11,106 walleye, 371 rainbow trout

  7. Appreciating Your Great Lakes. A Guide for Developing Educational Projects. 4-H Marine Education Series - 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennisi, Christine; Goettel, Robin, Ed.

    The Great Lakes are the largest series of fresh water bodies in the world. They are used for a wide variety of purposes by the 37 million citizens of the United States and Canada who live near the lakes and share this resource. This guide is intended to guide youth in acquiring training and field experience related to the Great Lakes in areas such…

  8. Lake Roosevelt White Sturgeon Recovery Project : Annual Progress Report, January 2003 – March 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, Matthew D.; McLellan, Jason G.

    2009-07-15

    motivated movements. In August 2003, three Vemco VR2 fixed station acoustic receivers, supplied by the UCWSRI Transboundary Telemetry Project, were deployed in the vicinities of Kettle Falls Bridge, Marcus Island, and Northport, WA. Data downloaded from these receivers through December 2003 confirmed the findings of a previous telemetry study that the Marcus area is an important overwintering habitat for white sturgeon. On 18 February 2004, juvenile white sturgeon (n=2,000) were transported from Kootenay Sturgeon Hatchery in British Columbia to WDFW Columbia Basin Hatchery (CBH) in Moses Lake, WA. Fish were reared at CBH to approximately 30 g and individually outfitted with PIT tags and scute marked. On 11 May 2004, fish were released into Lake Roosevelt in the vicinities of Kettle Falls Bridge, North Gorge, and Northport.

  9. Remote Sensing supports EULAKES project for mapping submerged macrophytes in Lake Garda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matta, Erica; Bresciani, Mariano; Giardino, Claudia; Bolpagni, Rossano; Pellegrini, Giovanna; Braga, Federica

    2013-04-01

    Lake bottoms have an important role in the aquatic ecosystem: bathymetry and morphology may affect the hydrodynamic processes in coastal waters, while the presence of aquatic macrophytes helps to preserve the ecology. Within the context of macrophyte monitoring programs, technical advances in remote sensing with higher spatial and spectral resolutions provide opportunities for big scale ecological studies, with the possibility to assess a multitemporal analysis. One of the objectives of the EULAKES project has been to map aquatic vegetation cover inside the Garda Lake from hyperspectral MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) aerial images thanks to the application of a bio-optical model inversion technique (BOMBER: Bio-Optical Model Based tool for Estimating water quality and bottom properties from Remote sensing images). MIVIS images, with a spectral resolution of 102 bands, working between 430 and 1270 nm, were previously corrected for atmospheric, adjacency and glint effects before being processed with the BOMBER tool. One complete MIVIS overflight (12 runs) acquired on June 27th 2011, allowed the retrieval of a macrophyte presence map all around the first 7m deep coastal belt, with a validation error of about 10%, resulting from 89 in situ measures performed during images acquisition. A relevant spatial distribution could be observed, with higher aquatic plants concentration in the Southern part of the lake. A further local cover distribution map localized on the Sirmione Peninsula was integrated with previous results to perform a temporal analysis of macrophyte colonization patterns along this reduced littoral zone for the last 14 years (acquisitions on September 1997, July 2005 and July 2010). Considerable modifications in terms of macrophyte structural complexity and colonized areas were detectable: a drastic reduction of well-established dense communities (more than 70% of cover) and increasing of un-colonized areas were followed by

  10. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, Sheryl

    2003-01-01

    The construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams completely and irrevocably blocked anadromous fish migrations to the Upper Columbia River. Historically this area hosted vast numbers of salmon returning to their natal waters to reproduce and die. For the native peoples of the region, salmon and steelhead were a principle food source, providing physical nourishment and spiritual sustenance, and contributing to the religious practices and the cultural basis of tribal communities. The decaying remains of spawned-out salmon carcasses contributed untold amounts of nutrients into the aquatic, aerial, and terrestrial ecosystems of tributary habitats in the upper basin. Near the present site of Kettle Falls, Washington, the second largest Indian fishery in the state existed for thousands of years. Returning salmon were caught in nets and baskets or speared on their migration to the headwater of the Columbia River in British Columbia. Catch estimates at Kettle Falls range from 600,000 in 1940 to two (2) million around the turn of the century (UCUT, Report No.2). The loss of anadromous fish limited the opportunities for fisheries management and enhancement exclusively to those actions addressed to resident fish. The Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project is a mitigation project intended to enhance resident fish populations and to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses caused by hydropower system impacts. This substitution of resident fish for anadromous fish losses is considered in-place and out-of-kind mitigation. Upstream migration and passage barriers limit the amount of spawning and rearing habitat that might otherwise be utilized by rainbow trout. The results of even limited stream surveys and habitat inventories indicated that a potential for increased natural production exists. However, the lack of any comprehensive enhancement measures prompted the Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center (UCUT), Colville Confederated

  11. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, Sheryl

    2004-01-01

    The construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams completely and irrevocably blocked anadromous fish migrations to the Upper Columbia River. Historically this area hosted vast numbers of salmon returning to their natal waters to reproduce and die. For the native peoples of the region, salmon and steelhead were a principle food source, providing physical nourishment and spiritual sustenance, and contributing to the religious practices and the cultural basis of tribal communities. The decaying remains of spawned-out salmon carcasses contributed untold amounts of nutrients into the aquatic, aerial, and terrestrial ecosystems of tributary habitats in the upper basin. Near the present site of Kettle Falls, Washington, the second largest Indian fishery in the state existed for thousands of years. Returning salmon were caught in nets and baskets or speared on their migration to the headwater of the Columbia River in British Columbia. Catch estimates at Kettle Falls range from 600,000 in 1940 to two (2) million around the turn of the century (UCUT, Report No.2). The loss of anadromous fish limited the opportunities for fisheries management and enhancement exclusively to those actions addressed to resident fish. The Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project is a mitigation project intended to enhance resident fish populations and to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses caused by hydropower system impacts. This substitution of resident fish for anadromous fish losses is considered in-place and out-of-kind mitigation. Upstream migration and passage barriers limit the amount of spawning and rearing habitat that might otherwise be utilized by rainbow trout. The results of even limited stream surveys and habitat inventories indicated that a potential for increased natural production exists. However, the lack of any comprehensive enhancement measures prompted the Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center (UCUT), Colville Confederated

  12. The Lake Ohrid Drilling Project: some initial interpretations of stable isotope data through the last 15 Marine Isotope Stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Melanie; Lacey, Jack; Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd; Zanchetta, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    The SCOPSCO (Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid) project is an international research initiative to study the influence of major geological/environmental events on the biologic evolution of taxa. The target site for this study is Lake Ohrid, which is considered to be the oldest lake with continuous existence in Europe and which has more than 200 endemic species. The recovery of long sediment successions from Lake Ohrid is the basis for obtaining more precise information about the age and origin of the lake, and about the climatic and environmental history of the region including the history of Italian volcanic eruptions. The main SCOPSCO drilling campaign was carried out in 2013, and here we describe data from a 569 m core taken from centre of the lake. Initial data from borehole logging, core logging and geochemistry indicate that the sediment succession from this site covers more than 1.2 million years of Earth's history. Total carbon (TC) and Total Inorganic Carbon (TIC) content show that the amount of TIC is a proxy for short-term and long-term climate change (Vogel et al., 2010; Wagner et al., 2010). TIC is high during interglacials and primarily originates from calcite precipitated in the spring-summer in the epilimnion, when photoautotropic organisms assimilate CO2 utilising the Ca and bicarbonate from the karstic springs. During the glacials, carbonate is almost absent except from discrete siderite layers. TOC is very low throughout both the glacial and interglacial periods and reflects the oligotrophic conditions in the lake. The oxygen and carbon isotope composition of the endogenic carbonate has been shown to be a function of the balance between freshwater input by rivers and springs and evaporation of the lake water (Leng et al., 2010). Variations both within and between interglacials show climate variability including periods of exceptional aridity and potentially very low lake levels. These early findings suggest that

  13. Lake Pend Oreille Fishery Recovery Project, 1996-1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, Melo A.; Harryman, Bill; Elam, Steve

    1999-09-01

    During the winter of 1996-97, the elevation of Lake Pend Oreille was kept 1.2 m higher in an attempt to recover the impacted Kokanee fishery. This was the first winter of the scheduled three-year test. We found that kokanee spawned on the newly inundated gravels provided by the higher water levels. Many of the redds were at depths of 0.5 to 2 m with the highest density of redds at the 1.2 m depth. We also found the numbers of kokanee spawning in tributary streams declined sharply with the higher lake levels. Presumably, these fish spawned on the lakeshore because of the abundance of shoreline gravel rather than migrate up tributary streams. Kokanee spawning sites were mapped around the entire perimeter of the lake. Most spawning occurred at the southern end of the lake; however, kokanee utilized the newly available spawning gravels throughout much of lake's shorelines. Unusually high spring run-off in 1997 produced an inflow to the lake of 4,360 m{sup 3}/s and raised the lake 1 m above full pool. We found that all age-classes of kokanee declined sharply between 1996 and 1997. Survival rates of all age-classes were at or near the lowest point on record. The cause of these declines is unknown; possible causes include kokanee emigrating from the lake and mortality of kokanee due to dissolved gases in the northern third of the lake reaching 120% to 130% of saturation. High dissolved gases were caused by the Cabinet Gorge and Noxon dams on the Clark Fork River. Kokanee population declines caused by flooding would have masked any benefits to the population resulting from a higher winter lake level.

  14. Lake Pend Oreille Fishery Recovery Project, 1997-1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, Melo A.; Ament, William J.; Harryman, Bill

    2000-05-01

    The elevation of Lake Pend Oreille was kept 1.2 m higher during the winter of 1997-1998 in an attempt to recover the impacted kokanee fishery. This was the second winter of a scheduled three-year test. Hydroacoustic surveys and trawling were conducted in the fall of 1998 to assess the kokanee population. We estimated the abundance of wild and hatchery fry in the lake at 3.71 million by hydroacoustics. These originated from an estimated 11.2 million eggs spawned during the fall of 1997. The survival from wild spawned eggs to wild fry was 9.7%, which is the highest egg-to-fry survival rate on record. This is the strongest indication to date that higher lake levels were having a direct benefit to the kokanee population. By trawling, we found that total kokanee abundance in the lake dropped to a new record low of 2.8 million fish. The number of adult kokanee in the lake was below average: 100,000 age 4 kokanee (100% mature) and 730,000 age 3 kokanee (29% mature). These fish laid an estimated 52.1 million eggs in 1998. Hatchery personnel collected 9.0 million eggs which were cultured, marked by cold branding the otoliths, and the resulting fry stocked into the lake in 1999. Peak counts of spawning kokanee were 5,100 fish on the shoreline and 9,700 fish in tributary streams; unusually high considering the low population in the lake. Opossum shrimp Mysis relicta declined in the southern two sections of the lake but increased in the northern end. Immature and mature shrimp (excluding young-of-the-year [YOY] shrimp) densities averaged 426 shrimp/m{sup 2}. The number of waterfowl using the lake in the winter of 1998-1999 increased from the previous three years to over 30,000 ducks, geese, and swans.

  15. Initial Geochemistry Data of the Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) DEEP -Site Sediment Record: The ICDP Scopsco Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francke, A.; Wagner, B.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Leicher, N.; Gromig, R.; Krastel, S.; Lindhorst, K.; Wilke, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ancient lakes, with sediment records spanning >1 million years, are very rare. The UNESCO World Heritage site of Lake Ohrid on the Balkans is thought to be the oldest lake in Europe. With 212 endemic species described to date, it is also a hotspot of evolution. In order to unravel the geological and evolutionary history of the lake, an international group of scientists, conducted a deep drilling campaign in spring 2013 under the umbrella of the ICDP SCOPSCO project (Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid). Overall, about 2,100 m of sediments were recovered from four drill sites. At the main drill site (DEEP-site) in central parts of the lake where seismic data indicated a maximum sediment fill of ca. 700 m, a total of more than 1,500 m of sediments were recovered until a penetration depth of 569 m. Currently, core opening, core description, XRF and MSCL scanning, sub-sampling (16 cm resolution), and inorganic and organic geochemical as well as sedimentological analyses of the sediment cores from the DEEP site are in progress at the University of Cologne. Previous studies at Lake Ohrid have shown that interglacial periods are characterized by high TIC and TOC contents, likely associated with high contents of calcite and organic matter in the sediments. In contrast, during glacial periods negligible TIC and low TOC contents correspond to high K counts indicating enhanced supply of clastic material. Similar patterns can be observed in the biogeochemical analyses of the subsamples and in the XRF data of the DEEP site record. Following these variations on a glacial-interglacial time scale, TIC and TOC data obtained from the subsamples and from core catcher samples indicate that the DEEP site sequence provides a 1.2 million year old continuous record of environmental and climatological variability in the Balkan Region. The age control can be further improved by first findings of macroscopic tephra horizons. Peaks in K, Sr, Zr, and magnetic

  16. Lake Nyos Degassing Project: First Results Pertaining To The Degassing Under Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halbwachs, M.; Sabroux, J. C.; Grangeon, J.; Kayser, G.; Tanyileke, G.

    The catastrophic August 1986 gas burst of lake Nyos, Cameroon, resulted in 1800 casualties asphyxiated by the huge amount of carbon dioxide released by an over- saturated water layer of the lake. Inspired by the proposal drawn by the Ministry of Environment as early as 1987, a French team of scientists and engineers has been working for 15 years to conceive, design, assemble and test an original system intended to remove, at an innocuous rate, the residual dissolved gas in order to eradicate the risk of a deadly lake overturn. After several experimental trials, a fully fledged degassing column has been successfully set up at lake Nyos: on January 30, 2001, a spectacular 50 m-high fountain soared above the lake surface. Since March 2001, a powerful soda spray jet -- stable and safe -- composed of 90% carbon dioxide and 10% water (volume/volume) has been spurting up from a vertical 145 mm inner diameter pipe sunk into the lake. The lower end of the pipe taps water at a depth of 203 m. The process has been almost continuous, apart from the short periods of time needed for maintenance. Given a steady state CO2 flow-rate of 57000 STP m3/day, the recharge rate of the lake (assessed to be in the 9500 to 14000 m3/day range) is safely offset. The degassing device is remotely-operated from France, through an INMARSAT satellite link, with a possibility of manual operation from the lake shore and instrumentation barge, as a backup. The satellite link provides also a real time access to technical parameters pertaining to the device operation, and to the physical and chemical lake response to the degassing. The thinning, by ca.. 2 metres in nine months at 190 m depth, of the lowermost, gas rich layer of the lake is clearly visible on the continuous CTD measurements, and consistent with the gas and water flow-rates through the pipe. The observed subsidence of all the water layers is in good agreement with the calculated efficiency of the degassing system, taking into account the

  17. 77 FR 790 - Grant Lake Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ...-feet and a water surface area of 1,790 acres at full pool elevation of 700 feet above mean seal level... Support at FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov or toll free at 1-(866) 208-3676, or for TTY, (202) 502-8659...-foot-high by 120-foot-long, concrete gravity dam at Grant Lake, or (b) a natural lake outlet, with a...

  18. Detailed study of selenium in soil, water, bottom sediment, and biota in the Sun River Irrigation Project, Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, west-central Montana, 1990-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimick, D.A.; Lambing, J.H.; Palawski, D.U.; Malloy, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Selenium and other constituents are adversely affecting water quality and creating a potential hazard to wildlife in several areas of the Sun River Irrigation Project, Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge in west-central Montana. Selenium derived from Cretaceous shale and Tertiary and Quaternary deposits containing shale detritus is transported in the oxic shallow ground-water systems. At Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, drainage from irrigated glacial deposits is the primary source of selenium; drainage from non-irrigated farmland is a significant source locally. Benton Lake generally receives more selenium from natural runoff from its non-irrigated basin than from the trans-basin diversion of irrigation return flow. Selenium has accumulated in aquatic plants and invertebrates, fish, and water birds, particularly in wetlands that receive the largest selenium loads. Although selenium residues in biological tissue from some wetland units exceeded biological risk levels, water-bird reproduction generally has not been impaired. The highest selenium residues in biota commonly occurred in samples from Priest Butte Lakes, which also had the highest selenium concentration in wetland water. Selenium concentrations in all invertebrate samples from Priest Butte Lakes and the south end of Freezeout Lake exceeded the critical dietary threshold for water birds. Selenium delivered to wetlands accumulates in bottom sediment, predominantly in near-shore areas. Potential impacts to water quality, and presumably biota, may be greatest near the mouths of inflows. Most selenium delivered to wetlands will continue to accumulate in bottom sediment and biota.

  19. The Class@Baikal project: studying recent tectonics, sedimentology and geochemistry on Lake Baikal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmanov, Grigorii; Khlystov, Oleg; Mazzini, Adriano; Poort, Jeffrey; Giliazetdinova, Dina

    2016-04-01

    The Class@Baikal project - onboard training of the marine science students on the Baikal Lake - is successfully running for the second year following and carrying further the traditions laid out by the legendary UNESCO Training-through-Research (Floating University) Programme. Main areas studied during two Class@Baikal cruises are: "Bolshoy Mud Volcano" is located at the southern deep of the lake. Dense profiler lines grid has been acquired during the Class@Baikal-2015 expedition. A sedimentary core with mud breccia and massive gas hydrates was collected from the southern crater confirming its active status. "Krasny Yar seeps" are located within outer delta of the Selenga River. Side-scan sonar, profiler and multibeam data show that there is a well-expressed amphitheatre-shaped slump scour nearby. Slumped sediments and associated amphitheater scour were mapped. Data indicated that the seabed scour has steep walls. Propagation of the slumped sediments had been stopped by a seabed ridge of unknown origin. At the north the ridge is breached and the slumped material funnels out through a narrow opening spreading down the slope by gravity flows. "Novosibirsk" and "St.Petersburg mud volcanoes" are located along a fault. The mud volcanoes are located partially along its hanging wall and partially along its foot wall. Side-scan sonar and profiler data acquired during Class@Baikal-2015 expedition show that both mud volcanoes demonstrate evidence of a vertical material transport within feeder channels, which developed on both sides of the fault. The fault seems to be separating the mud volcano area into clusters. It is proposed that initially the fault did not have vertical offset but nevertheless initiated mud volcanic activity. The early mud volcanoes had usual symmetric morphology. The vertical offset of the fault took place later and this resulted in formation of the blocky asymmetry of the structures. "Khuray deep-water depositional system" study has begun in 2014 when

  20. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT BIG SAUK LAKE MOBILE HOME PARK IN SAUK CENTRE, MN. SIX MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the first six months of the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Big Sauk Lake Mobile Home Park (BSLMHP) in Sauk Centre, MN. The objectives of the project are to evaluate the...

  1. Paleomagnetic and Mineral-Magnetic Results From the Lake Bosumtwi Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. W.; Heil, C. W.; Peck, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    Lake Bosumtwi is an impact crater lake located at 6.5ºN and 1.5ºW in Ghana. The Bosumtwi impact event and the Ivory Coast tektite strewn field generated by the event have an age of 1.07 Myr. The lake contains an approximately 300m sedimentary section that provides a nearly continuous stratigraphy of this interval. In addition, the majority of the section is annually laminated. Advantages of magnetic studies of Lake Bosumtwi sediments include: (1) duplicate drill holes; (2) high sedimentation rates; (3) laminations allow assessmet of core disturbance; and (4) sediments record polarity transitions, excusions, and possibly paleointensity at a low-latitude site; and (5) Milankovitch and sub- Milankovitch scale paleoclimate variations. Challenges include: (1) low-latitude site location makes it difficult to recognize excursions and polarity transitions; (2) anoxia that produces annual laminations also causes some reductive diagenesis; and (3) some intervals are weakly magnetic and have noisy data. Overall, with respect to its magnetic record, Lake Bosumtwi is neither a "silk purse," nor a "sows ear." We will detail our efforts to maximize the former and minimize the latter.

  2. Paleolimnological investigations of anthropogenic environmental change in Lake Tanganyika: I. An introduction to the project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, A.S.; Palacios-Fest, M. R.; McGill, J.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Verschuren, D.; Sinyinza, R.; Songori, T.; Kakagozo, B.; Syampila, M.; O'Reilly, C. M.; Alin, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated paleolimnological records from a series of river deltas around the northeastern rim of Lake Tanganyika, East Africa (Tanzania and Burundi) in order to understand the history of anthropogenic activity in the lake's catchment over the last several centuries, and to determine the impact of these activities on the biodiversity of littoral and sublittoral lake communities. Sediment pollution caused by increased rates of soil erosion in deforested watersheds has caused significant changes in aquatic communities along much of the lake's shoreline. We analyzed the effects of sediment discharge on biodiversity around six deltas or delta complexes on the east coast of Lake Tanganyika: the Lubulungu River delta, Kabesi River delta, Nyasanga/Kahama River deltas, and Mwamgongo River delta in Tanzania; and the Nyamuseni River delta and Karonge/Kirasa River deltas in Burundi. Collectively, these deltas and their associated rivers were chosen to represent a spectrum of drainage-basin sizes and disturbance levels. By comparing deltas that are similar in watershed attributes (other than disturbance levels), our goal was to explore a series of historical "experiments" at the watershed scale, with which we could more clearly evaluate hypotheses of land use or other effects on nearshore ecosystems. Here we discuss these deltas, their geologic and physiographic characteristics, and the field procedures used for coring and sampling the deltas, and various indicators of anthropogenic impact. ?? Springer 2005.

  3. Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project Annual Report : Fiscal Year 2001 (September 1, 2001 to August 31, 2002).

    SciTech Connect

    Polacek, Matt; Knuttgen, Kamia; Baldwin, Casey; Woller, Heather

    2003-03-01

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife implemented the Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project (BLFEP) in September 2001 with funds from the Bonneville Power Administration. The first year of the BLFEP was used to gather historic information, establish methods and protocols, collect limnology data, and conduct the first seasonal fish surveys. Water quality parameters were collected monthly from February to May and bi-monthly from June to August. Banks Lake water temperatures began to increase in April and stratification was apparent by June at all 3 limnology collection sites. By late August, the thermocline had dropped to nearly 20 m deep, with 19-20 C temperatures throughout the epilimnion. Dissolved oxygen levels were generally above 10 mg/L until mid summer when dissolved oxygen dropped near or below 5 mg/L below 20-m deep. Secchi depths ranged from 3-10 m and varied by location and date. Nearshore and offshore fish surveys were conducted in May and July using boat electrofishing, fyke net, gill net, and hydroacoustic surveys. Smallmouth bass Micropterous dolomieui (24%) and lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis (20%) dominated the nearshore species composition in May; however, by July yellow perch Perca flavescens (26%) were the second most common species to smallmouth bass (30%). Lake whitefish dominated the offshore catch during May (72%) and July (90%). The May hydroacoustic survey revealed highest densities of fish in the upper 1/3 of the water column in the mid- to northern sections of the reservoir near Steamboat Rock. In the future, data from seasonal surveys will be used to identify potential factors that may limit the production and harvest of kokanee, rainbow trout, and various spiny-rayed fishes in Banks Lake. The limiting factors that will be examined consist of: abiotic factors including water temperature, dissolved oxygen levels, habitat, exploitation and entrainment; and biotic factors including food limitation and predation. The BLFEP

  4. CHAPHOLO (scientific drilling project): Paleolimnological Evaluation of Lake Chapala, western Mexico, During Holocene (CONACYT grant: CB2011-168685)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarate, P. F.; Fritz, S. C.; Ramirez Sanchez, U.; Gomez Salazar, S.; Ceja Andrade, I.; Priyadarsi Debajyoti, R.; Brenner, M.

    2012-12-01

    CHAPHOLO ( CHAP: Chapala; HOLO: Holocene) has as goal to evaluate paleoenvironmental variations recorded in the sediment of neotectonic Lake Chapala (LCH), western Mexico (20°15.129'N, 103° 02.996'W). The lake lies about 1524 m asl. LCH is the largest lake in Mexico (1,100 kmyr2), but is shallow (zmax = 7.20 m). It is located in a basin belonging to the Citala Rift, the east-west branch of three continental rifts that join to form the so-called Jalisco triple junction. Our working hypothesis is that recent (Holocene) paleolimnological changes in LCH were caused by major climate variations and by minor regional/local processes (e.g. volcanism). We will drill a 40m long core from the lake depocenter, with the objective of recovering a full Holocene record, and likely more, assuming a mean sedimentation rate of 2 mm yr-1. Core chronology will be established using AMS 14C and 210Pb techniques and climate inferences will be made using geochemical, geophysical and micropaleontological proxies. Particularly, we pretend to identify the six "short" fluctuations of climate that characterized the Holocene (Mayewski et al., 2004) and the identification of Mediewal Warm Period and the droughts affected the mayan culture (Hodell et al., 1995). We will verify the application of Ti as a proxy to rainfall (Metcalfe et al., 2010). During the last 10,000 the fact about the dissolution of diatom in LCH sediments must be evaluated (Ryves et al., 2009). The working group is multidisciplinary (Geochemistry, Micropaleontology, Paleolimnology, Geophysics) and involves multiple institutions (Guadalajara University, Mexican National University-UNAM, University of Florida, University of Nebraska-Lincoln). CHAPHOLO is supported by funds from the Mexican government and from the Guadalajara University. The theme of CHAPHOLO is consistent with global environmental programs such as PAGES and CLIVAR. This project will be developed in stages over three years.

  5. THE LAKE MICHIGAN MASS BALANCE PROJECT: QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN FOR MATHEMATICAL MODELLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the quality assurance process for the development and application of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Models. The scope includes the overall modeling framework as well as the specific submodels that are linked to form a comprehensive synthesis of physical, che...

  6. Results of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project: Atrazine Modeling Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report covers an overview of chemical properties, measurements in air and water, model construct and assumptions, and results of mathematical mass balance modeling of the herbicide atrazine in the Lake Michigan basin. Within the context of the mass balance, an overview of a...

  7. Coast Guard/NOAA/NASA Great Lakes Project Icewarn. [ice mapping for winter navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, T. D.; Gedney, R. T.

    1975-01-01

    The operational feasibility of using remote sensing to provide all weather ice formation for Great Lakes winter navigation is explored. A combination airborne pulsed radar system to measure actual ice thickness, a satellite data link system, and a hand drawn interpretive ice chart proved valuable for extending winter navigation through the icepack.

  8. Ballads of the Romanian Immigrants. Romanian Americans in Lake County, Indiana: An Ethnic Heritage Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuca, Mary, Comp.

    Twelve Romanian immigrant ballads with musical scores, Romanian lyrics, and English translations are presented. Following a description of early 20th Century Romanian immigrants in Lake County, Indiana, a pronunciation guide, descriptions of the ballads, and suggestions for classroom use are provided. English titles include "Lament from…

  9. Resource Guide: Romanian Americans in Lake County, Indiana: An Ethnic Heritage Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuca, Mary

    A resource guide suitable for secondary level for teaching about Romanian Americans and their contributions is presented. Following two essays which describe the country of Romania and the story of Romanian Americans in Lake County, Indiana, four sections trace the development of the Romanian community. Section I discusses the history and causes…

  10. Navajo Participation in Labor Unions. Lake Powell Research Project Bulletin Number 15, December 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Lynn A.

    Navajo participation in labor unions and Navajo labor relations have undergone rapid and fundamental changes since the development of industry around Lake Powell and on Black Mesa. Early attempts to unionize Navajo workers met with stiff resistance from employees and the Navajo Tribal Council. Union entry into the Navajo Reservation was viewed as…

  11. Lake Pend Oreille Fishery Recovery Project, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, Melo A.; Ament, William J.; Harryman, Bill

    2001-12-01

    The minimum water level of Lake Pend Oreille was raised from 625.1 m to 626.4 m elevation during the winter of 1998-99 in an attempt to recover the impacted kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka fishery. This report covers the third year of testing higher winter levels. Hydroacoustic surveys and mid-water trawling were conducted in the fall of 1999 to assess the kokanee population. We estimated the abundance of each age class of kokanee as: 6.023 million age-0 (wild and hatchery fry), 883,000 age-1, 409,000 age-2, 579,000 age-3, 861,000 age-4, and 87,000 age-5. Wild fry abundance was estimated at 2.57 million fish. These originated from 43.1 million eggs spawned in the wild during the fall of 1998. The survival from wild spawned eggs to wild fry was, therefore, 6.0%. This was lower than the 9.6% survival rate calculated last year but was much higher than the 1.4% calculated in 1995 prior to changing lake levels. To date, years of higher winter lake elevations have out-performed years of full drawdown. Based on data collected during trawl sampling, the total number of eggs laid in the lake in the fall of 1999 was 74.8 million. Mean fecundity per female was 379 eggs. Hatchery personnel collected 22.4 million eggs, leaving 52.4 million eggs to be laid by wild fish in tributary streams and along the lake shoreline. These eggs will be used to assess wild kokanee survival during 2000. Peak counts of spawning kokanee were 3,500 fish on the shoreline and 16,400 fish in tributary streams. This represents only a fraction of the total kokanee spawning population. Opossum shrimp Mysis relicta increased slightly in the southern two sections of the lake but decreased in the northern end. Immature and mature shrimp (excluding young-of-the-year shrimp) densities averaged 302 shrimp/m{sup 2}, down from 426 shrimp/m{sup 2} the previous year. The relatively stable shrimp population was not thought to affect the outcome of the lake level testing.

  12. The Lake Bosumtwi Drilling Project: A 1 Ma West African Paleoclimate Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, J. A.; Heil, C.; King, J. W.; Scholz, C. A.; Shanahan, T. M.; Overpeck, J. T.; Fox, P. A.; Amoako, P. Y.; Forman, S. L.; Koeberl, C.; Milkereit, B.

    2005-12-01

    Lake Bosumtwi occupies a 1.07 Ma impact crater located in Ghana, West Africa centered at 06*32'N and 01*25'W. This 78 m deep, hydrologically-closed lake has a water budget extremely sensitive to the precipitation/evapotranspiration balance and is located in the path of the seasonal migration of the ITCZ. Therefore, Lake Bosumtwi is ideally situated to provide a long record of change in North African monsoon strength. In addition, the stratified water column allows for the preservation of finely-laminated sediments and the potential for high-resolution (annual) paleoclimate reconstruction. Using the GLAD800 lake drilling system, five drill sites were occupied along a water-depth transect in order to facilitate the reconstruction of the lake level history. At these five sites, a total of 14 separate holes were drilled yielding a total sediment recovery of 1,833 m. The shallow water drill sites consist of alternating laminated lacustrine mud (deepwater environment), moderately-sorted sand (nearshore beach environment) and sandy gravel (fluvial or lake marginal environments). These sediment cores and seismic reflection profiles are being used to construct a basin-wide stratigraphic framework, in order to extend further back in time the present Bosumtwi lake level histories obtained from highstand terraces and short piston cores. At a deep water site, the complete 1 Ma lacustrine stratigraphic section was recovered in 294 m deep holes that ended in impact-glass bearing, accretionary lapilli fallout representing the initial days of sedimentation. The lowermost lacustrine sediment is a bioturbated, light-gray mud with abundant gastropod shells indicating that a shallow-water oxic lake environment was established in the crater. Much of the overlying 294 m of mud is laminated thus these sediment cores will provide a unique 1 million year record of tropical African climate change. Two contrasting litholgies identified in the dated, upper part of the deep water drill hole

  13. ["Constanze": a trinational project on avian influenza in wild birds at Lake Constance].

    PubMed

    Brunhart, I; Baumer, A; Reist, M; Stärk, K; Griot, C

    2010-11-01

    When highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (HPAI H5N1) arrived at Lake Constance in February 2006, little was known about its ecology and epidemiology in wild birds. In order to prevent virus transmission from wild birds to poultry, the adjacent countries initiated the tri-national, interdisciplinary research program «Constanze» to investigate avian influenza infections in water birds at Lake Constance. In collaboration with government agencies scientists examined the prevalence of AI virus in the region of Lake Constance for a period of 33 months, compared the effectiveness of different surveillance methods and analysed the migration behaviour of water birds. Although virus introduction from regions as far as the Ural Mountains seemed possible based on the migration behaviour of certain species, no influenza A viruses of the highly pathogenic subtype H5N1 (HPAIV) was found. However, influenza A viruses of different low pathogenic subtypes were isolated in 2.2 % of the sampled birds (swabs). Of the different surveillance methods utilised in the program the sampling of so called sentinel birds was particularly efficient.

  14. ["Constanze": a trinational project on avian influenza in wild birds at Lake Constance].

    PubMed

    Brunhart, I; Baumer, A; Reist, M; Stärk, K; Griot, C

    2010-11-01

    When highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (HPAI H5N1) arrived at Lake Constance in February 2006, little was known about its ecology and epidemiology in wild birds. In order to prevent virus transmission from wild birds to poultry, the adjacent countries initiated the tri-national, interdisciplinary research program «Constanze» to investigate avian influenza infections in water birds at Lake Constance. In collaboration with government agencies scientists examined the prevalence of AI virus in the region of Lake Constance for a period of 33 months, compared the effectiveness of different surveillance methods and analysed the migration behaviour of water birds. Although virus introduction from regions as far as the Ural Mountains seemed possible based on the migration behaviour of certain species, no influenza A viruses of the highly pathogenic subtype H5N1 (HPAIV) was found. However, influenza A viruses of different low pathogenic subtypes were isolated in 2.2 % of the sampled birds (swabs). Of the different surveillance methods utilised in the program the sampling of so called sentinel birds was particularly efficient. PMID:21043024

  15. Alimini Lakes Project (PAL). Human-environment interaction during the Holocene in Mediterranean coastal wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbo, Andrea; Primavera, Milena; Fiorentino, Girolamo; Simone, Oronzo; Caldara, Massimo; Quarta, Gianluca; Calcagnile, Lucio

    2010-05-01

    A diachronical understanding of the co-evolution of people and Mediterranean wetlands requires the combined study of archaeological and palaeoenvironmental records. By focusing on an extended chronology, and relying on the update of known and new archaeological and palaeonvironmental sequences, PAL investigates how the Alimini Lakes disctrict (Apulia, S Italy) has changed over the past 10ka (the Holocene), a period witnessing great climatic environmental and social change. Holocene climate change is amplified in coastal wetlands, greatly affecting hydrology vegetation and people. Likewise, socio-economical changes (e.g. the introduction of agriculture) play a fundamental role in the shaping of wet landscapes. Under the combined action of environmental and human factors, coastal wetlands are prone to rapid and drastic ecological shifts and constitute ideal locations for developing a geoarchaeological approach. The results of the first year of research are presented here and include (1) the visit, description and GPS positioning of previously and newly discovered archaeological areas (cave and open air sites), (2) sampling of two Holocene sedimentary sequences from the Alimini Lakes disctict, (3) the results of the preliminary analyses (including AMS radiocarbon dating) carried out on the samples. The relocation of new and previously found archaeological sites was necessary to overcome some confusions caused by the contrasting published information. Relocated archaeological sites were normalized in a GIS environment. Two main Pleistocene/Holocene palaeoenvironmental sequences were sampled within the Alimini Lakes district: (1) the Frassanito dune reference sequence, obtained from a portion of the coastal dune (up to 10 m high) bordering the trait of the Adriatic coast situated in front of the Alimini lakes, (2) the ALI G 1 core (9m long) sampled on the W shore of Alimini Grande Lake. The multiproxy study of these sedimentary sequences provides a record of Holocene

  16. Education and Public Outreach at The Pavilion Lake Research Project: Fusion of Science and Education using Web 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, B. R.; Lim, D. S.; Pendery, R.; Laval, B.; Slater, G. F.; Brady, A. L.; Dearing, W. L.; Downs, M.; Forrest, A.; Lees, D. S.; Lind, R. A.; Marinova, M.; Reid, D.; Seibert, M. A.; Shepard, R.; Williams, D.

    2009-12-01

    The Pavilion Lake Research Project (PLRP) is an international multi-disciplinary science and exploration effort to explain the origin and preservation potential of freshwater microbialites in Pavilion Lake, British Columbia, Canada. Using multiple exploration platforms including one person DeepWorker submersibles, Autonomous Underwater Vehicles, and SCUBA divers, the PLRP acts as an analogue research site for conducting science in extreme environments, such as the Moon or Mars. In 2009, the PLRP integrated several Web 2.0 technologies to provide a pilot-scale Education and Public Outreach (EPO) program targeting the internet savvy generation. The seamless integration of multiple technologies including Google Earth, Wordpress, Youtube, Twitter and Facebook, facilitated the rapid distribution of exciting and accessible science and exploration information over multiple channels. Field updates, science reports, and multimedia including videos, interactive maps, and immersive visualization were rapidly available through multiple social media channels, partly due to the ease of integration of these multiple technologies. Additionally, the successful application of videoconferencing via a readily available technology (Skype) has greatly increased the capacity of our team to conduct real-time education and public outreach from remote locations. The improved communication afforded by Web 2.0 has increased the quality of EPO provided by the PLRP, and has enabled a higher level of interaction between the science team and the community at large. Feedback from these online interactions suggest that remote communication via Web 2.0 technologies were effective tools for increasing public discourse and awareness of the science and exploration activity at Pavilion Lake.

  17. Finding the "Fittest" for a "Survival Law" Curriculum: The Sturgeon Lake Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butschler, Monica

    1983-01-01

    A high school level legal education curriculum development project undertaken in a small locally-controlled school district in Canada is described. Specifically discussed are project background, the process used to develop the curriculum, the project objectives, and resources used. (RM)

  18. Supplement to the site observational work plan for the UMTRA project site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide additional and more detailed information to supplement review of the site observational work plan (SOWP) (DOE, 1995) for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This document includes a discussion of the average linear velocity of the ground water in the alluvium and a discussion of the ground water quality of the alluvium, weathered Mancos Shale, and the Tres Hermanos-C Member of the Mancos Shale. The data from a 1989 aquifer test were analyzed using the curve-matching software AQTESOLV and then compared with the original results. A hydrograph of the ground water elevations in monitoring wells screened in the alluvium is presented to show how the ground water elevations change with time. Stiff and Piper diagrams were created to describe the changes in ground water geochemistry in the alluvium/weathered Mancos Sahel unit, the Tres Hermanos-C Sandstone unit, the Tres Hermanos-B Sandstone unit, and the Dakota Sandstone. Background information on other related topics such as site history, cell construction, soil characteristics, and well construction are presented in the SOWP. A geologic cross section depicts the conceptual model of the hydrostratigraphy and ground water chemistry of the Ambrosia Lake site. Hydrogeologic information of each hydrostratigraphic unit is presented.

  19. Supplement to the site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide additional and more detailed information to supplement review of the site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This document includes a discussion of (1) the average linear velocity of the ground water in the alluvium; (2) the ground water quality of the alluvium, weathered Mancos Shale, and the Tres Hermanos-C Member of the Mancos Shale; and (3) the fate and transport of contaminants from the uppermost aquifer to the Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation. The data from a 1989 aquifer test were analyzed using the curve-matching software AQTESOLV and then compared with the original results. A hydrograph of the ground water elevations in monitoring wells screened in the alluvium is presented to show how the ground water elevations change with time. Stiff and Piper diagrams were created to describe the changes in ground water geochemistry in the alluvium/weathered Mancos Shale unit, the Tres Hermanos-C Sandstone unit, the Tres Hermanos-B Sandstone unit, and the Dakota Sandstone. Background information on other related topics such as site history, cell construction, soil characteristics, and well construction are presented in the SOWP. Figure 1 is a geologic cross section depicting the conceptual model of the hydrostratigraphy and ground water chemistry of the Ambrosia Lake site. Table 1 presents hydrogeologic information of each hydrostratigraphic unit.

  20. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Sections 1-16

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  1. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 4, Appendixes B-D

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  2. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 3, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  3. Projected Precipitation Changes within the Great Lakes Region: A Multi-scale Analysis of Precipitation Intensity and Seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile, S.; Steiner, A. L.; Brown, D.; Bryan, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Great Lakes region supports a diverse network of agriculture, transportation and tourism centered on some of the largest freshwater bodies of water in the world. Precipitation affects these sectors as concerns about precipitation timing and intensity can affect the agricultural growing season, runoff, and subsequent water quality. Here, we examine precipitation projections for mid-century (2041-2065) within the Great Lakes basin (GLB) and two sub-regions using three climate model ensembles of varying resolutions to constrain and compare associated precipitation uncertainties. These include: 1. atmosphere-ocean models from the CMIP5 global simulations with the RCP 8.5 scenario (12 members, resolution ranging from ~1 to ~3 degrees), 2. dynamically downscaled regional climate models from NARCCAP with the SRES A2 scenario (4 members at ~0.5 degree resolution (50 km)), and 3. high resolution (~0.25 degree resolution (25 km)) regional climate model simulations with the RCP 8.5 scenario (RegCM (hereafter RCM3(HiRes)), 2 members). For the entire GLB, all three ensembles captured the intensity of historical events well, but with a bias in the high intensity precipitation events as compared to observed intensity, with fewer overprediction events by the NARCCAP and RCM3(HiRes) ensembles. Daily probability density functions from three model ensembles reveal consistent increases in high precipitation event probabilities for all seasons, even after accounting for wet model biases during the observation period (1980-1999). Comparing all three ensembles to the historical period for the GLB, both CMIP5 and NARCCAP ensembles capture the annual seasonal cycle with a wet bias in the winter and spring, while the RCM3(HiRes) ensemble shows a dry bias for all seasons except winter. For the Lake Michigan and Western Lake Erie basin sub-regions, the spring and winter biases remain present across ensembles, however the RCM3(HiRes) summer dry bias is reduced. Overall, the three climate

  4. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Upper Bodfish in Lake Isabella, CA Interim Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first 10 months of system operation of an arsenic (As) and uranium (U) removal technology being demonstrated at Upper Bodfish in Lake Isabella, CA. The objectives of the project are to evalua...

  5. Arsenic and Uranium Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Upper Bodfish in Lake Isabella, CA -Final Performance Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the performance evaluation of an arsenic (As) and uranium (U) removal technology demonstrated at Upper Bodfish in Lake Isabella, CA. The objectives of the project are to evaluate: (1) the effecti...

  6. Satellite Validation: A Project to Create a Data-Logging System to Monitor Lake Tahoe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, Rudy A.

    2005-01-01

    Flying aboard the satellite Terra, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is an imaging instrument used to acquire detailed maps of Earth's surface temperature, elevation, emissivity, and reflectance. An automated site consisting of four buoys was established 6 years ago at Lake Tahoe for the validation of ASTERS thermal infrared data. Using Campbell CR23X Dataloggers, a replacement system to be deployed on a buoy was designed and constructed for the measurement of the lake's temperature profile, surrounding air temperature, humidity, wind direction and speed, net radiation, and surface skin temperature. Each Campbell Datalogger has been programmed to control, power, and monitor 14 different temperature sensors, a JPL-built radiometer, and an RM Young 32500 meteorological station. The logger communicates with the radiometer and meteorological station through a Campbell SDM-SIO4 RS232 serial interface, sending polling commands, and receiving filtered data back from the sensors. This data is then cataloged and sent back across a cellular modem network every hour to JPL. Each instrument is wired via a panel constructed with 18 individual plugs that allow for simple installation and expansion. Data sent back from the system are analyzed at JPL, where they are used to calibrate ASTER data.

  7. 77 FR 21721 - Sierra National Forest, Bass Lake Ranger District, California, Whisky Ecosystem Restoration Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ..., Whisky Ecosystem Restoration Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an... restoration treatments, east of the community of North Fork, California. This would be north of Cascadel Point... Ecosystem Restoration Project (Madera County, California) lies within the Willow Creek watershed,...

  8. On-site monitoring of construction of Terror Lake hydroelectric project, Kodiak, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, H.

    1984-09-01

    The report describes the effort by the Fish and Wildlife Service to monitor the construction of the first hydroelectric project built on national wildlife refuge lands under license by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Recommendations are offered for use in planning other projects. Fish and wildlife species of concern included brown bears, Sitka black-tailed deer, mountain goats, raptors (including bald eagles), and several species of salmonid fish. Construction practices relating to erosion control, contaminant management, culvert placement, and siting of project structures are covered.

  9. The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project: inferring the environmental context of human evolution from eastern African rift lake deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, A.; Campisano, C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Asrat, A.; Behrensmeyer, A. K.; Deino, A.; Feibel, C.; Hill, A.; Johnson, R.; Kingston, J.; Lamb, H.; Lowenstein, T.; Noren, A.; Olago, D.; Owen, R. B.; Potts, R.; Reed, K.; Renaut, R.; Schäbitz, F.; Tiercelin, J.-J.; Trauth, M. H.; Wynn, J.; Ivory, S.; Brady, K.; O'Grady, R.; Rodysill, J.; Githiri, J.; Russell, J.; Foerster, V.; Dommain, R.; Rucina, S.; Deocampo, D.; Russell, J.; Billingsley, A.; Beck, C.; Dorenbeck, G.; Dullo, L.; Feary, D.; Garello, D.; Gromig, R.; Johnson, T.; Junginger, A.; Karanja, M.; Kimburi, E.; Mbuthia, A.; McCartney, T.; McNulty, E.; Muiruri, V.; Nambiro, E.; Negash, E. W.; Njagi, D.; Wilson, J. N.; Rabideaux, N.; Raub, T.; Sier, M. J.; Smith, P.; Urban, J.; Warren, M.; Yadeta, M.; Yost, C.; Zinaye, B.

    2016-02-01

    The role that climate and environmental history may have played in influencing human evolution has been the focus of considerable interest and controversy among paleoanthropologists for decades. Prior attempts to understand the environmental history side of this equation have centered around the study of outcrop sediments and fossils adjacent to where fossil hominins (ancestors or close relatives of modern humans) are found, or from the study of deep sea drill cores. However, outcrop sediments are often highly weathered and thus are unsuitable for some types of paleoclimatic records, and deep sea core records come from long distances away from the actual fossil and stone tool remains. The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) was developed to address these issues. The project has focused its efforts on the eastern African Rift Valley, where much of the evidence for early hominins has been recovered. We have collected about 2 km of sediment drill core from six basins in Kenya and Ethiopia, in lake deposits immediately adjacent to important fossil hominin and archaeological sites. Collectively these cores cover in time many of the key transitions and critical intervals in human evolutionary history over the last 4 Ma, such as the earliest stone tools, the origin of our own genus Homo, and the earliest anatomically modern Homo sapiens. Here we document the initial field, physical property, and core description results of the 2012-2014 HSPDP coring campaign.

  10. Watershed-scale evaluation of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model in the Lake Tahoe basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Erin S.; Dobre, Mariana; Elliot, William J.; Wu, Joan Q.; Boll, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Forest managers need methods to evaluate the impacts of management at the watershed scale. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) has the ability to model disturbed forested hillslopes, but has difficulty addressing some of the critical processes that are important at a watershed scale, including baseflow and water yield. In order to apply WEPP to forested watersheds, we developed and assessed new approaches for simulating streamflow and sediment transport from large watersheds using WEPP. We created specific algorithms to spatially distribute soil, climate, and management input files for all the subwatersheds within the basin. The model enhancements were tested on five geologically and climatically diverse watersheds in the Lake Tahoe basin, USA. The model was run with minimal calibration to assess WEPP's ability as a physically-based model to predict streamflow and sediment delivery. The performance of the model was examined against 17 years of observed snow water equivalent depth, streamflow, and sediment load data. Only region-wide baseflow recession parameters related to the geology of the basin were calibrated with observed streamflow data. Close agreement between simulated and observed snow water equivalent, streamflow, and the distribution of fine (<20 μm) and coarse (>20 μm) sediments was achieved at each of the major watersheds located in the high-precipitation regions of the basin. Sediment load was adequately simulated in the drier watersheds; however, annual streamflow was overestimated. With the exception of the drier eastern region, the model demonstrated no loss in accuracy when applied without calibration to multiple watersheds across Lake Tahoe basin demonstrating the utility of the model as a management tool in gauged and ungauged basins.

  11. Projecting the Impact of Regional Land-Use Change and Water Management Policies on Lake Water Quality: An Application to Periurban Lakes and Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Catherine, Arnaud; Mouillot, David; Maloufi, Selma; Troussellier, Marc; Bernard, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    As the human population grows, the demand for living space and supplies of resources also increases, which may induce rapid change in land-use/land-cover (LULC) and associated pressures exerted on aquatic habitats. We propose a new approach to forecast the impact of regional land cover change and water management policies (i.e., targets in nutrient loads reduction) on lake and reservoir water eutrophication status using a model that requires minimal parameterisation compared with alternative methods. This approach was applied to a set of 48 periurban lakes located in the Ile de France region (IDF, France) to simulate catchment-scale management scenarios. Model outputs were subsequently compared to governmental agencies’ 2030 forecasts. Our model indicated that the efforts made to reduce pressure in the catchment of seepage lakes might be expected to be proportional to the gain that might be obtained, whereas drainage lakes will display little improvement until a critical level of pressure reduction is reached. The model also indicated that remediation measures, as currently planned by governmental agencies, might only have a marginal impact on improving the eutrophication status of lakes and reservoirs within the IDF region. Despite the commitment to appropriately managing the water resources in many countries, prospective tools to evaluate the potential impacts of global change on freshwater ecosystems integrity at medium to large spatial scales are lacking. This study proposes a new approach to investigate the impact of region-scale human-driven changes on lake and reservoir ecological status and could be implemented elsewhere with limited parameterisation. Issues are discussed that relate to model uncertainty and to its relevance as a tool applied to decision-making. PMID:23991066

  12. The Tulare Lake Project: A 35,000-year record of lake level constraining precipitation and stream discharge from the southern Sierra Nevada of California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrini, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Building upon earlier works by Harding (1949), Atwater et al. (1986) and Davis (1999), research centered at CSU Bakersfield over the past 15 years has generated a high resolution paleoclimate history with water resource implications for one of the world's great agricultural centers, the San Joaquin Valley of California. Lake level is based upon aerial mapping of geomorphological features (e.g., sand spits and shorelines), lithologic features exposed in trenches from opposite sides of the lake basin (e.g., marsh deposits), and proxy data from core (e.g., clay %). Age control was provided by radiocarbon dating of charcoal, mussel shells, and bulk organic matter and by paleomagnetic secular variation dating. From oldest to youngest, highlights include: 1. millennial-scale variations at the base of the record, 2. evidence for avulsion of the Kings River into Tulare Lake at or near the time of maximum glaciation in the Sierra Nevada as predicted by Weissman et al. (2005), 3. lake-level changes during the early and middle Holocene that vary in tune with eastern Pacific sea-surface temperatures from marine core records. This includes an unusually wet period starting at 12,500 cal B.P. followed by a dramatic, rapid drop in lake level at 7,500 cal B.P. Evidence for the former feature includes geochemical (leaf wax n-alkane markers for grass) and petrographic (grass phytolith) data. The latter feature represents an abrupt decrease in Sierran Stream discharge equal to several millions of acre-ft/yr. 4. A centuries-long increase in lake level commencing in the 13th or 14th century based on both lake-level reconstructions from the LBDA of Cook et al. (2010) and dated fine-grained sediments exposed in high-elevation trenches (Negrini et al., 2006), 5. A flood deposit identified in the uppermost sediments exposed in the southeastern edge of the lake that has a radiocarbon age consistent with that of an early 17th century flood found in the sediments of the Santa Barbara Channel

  13. Projections and downscaling of 21st century temperatures, precipitation, radiative fluxes and winds for the southwestern US, with focus on the Lake Tahoe basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettinger, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent projections of global climate changes in response to increasing greenhouse-gas concentrations in the atmosphere include warming in the Southwestern US and, especially, in the vicinity of Lake Tahoe of from about +3°C to +6°C by end of century and changes in precipitation on the order of 5-10 % increases or (more commonly) decreases, depending on the climate model considered. Along with these basic changes, other climate variables like solar insolation, downwelling (longwave) radiant heat, and winds may change. Together these climate changes may result in changes in the hydrology of the Tahoe basin and potential changes in lake overturning and ecological regimes. Current climate projections, however, are generally spatially too coarse (with grid cells separated by 1 to 2° latitude and longitude) for direct use in assessments of the vulnerabilities of the much smaller Tahoe basin. Thus, daily temperatures, precipitation, winds, and downward radiation fluxes from selected global projections have been downscaled by a statistical method called the constructed-analogues method onto 10 to 12 km grids over the Southwest and especially over Lake Tahoe. Precipitation, solar insolation and winds over the Tahoe basin change only moderately (and with indeterminate signs) in the downscaled projections, whereas temperatures and downward longwave fluxes increase along with imposed increases in global greenhouse-gas concentrations.

  14. 78 FR 69363 - Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit, California, Heavenly Mountain Resort Epic Discovery Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ...The Epic Discovery Project is intended to enhance summer activities in response to the USDA Forest Service Ski Area Recreational Opportunity Enhancement Act of 2011. Heavenly Mountain Resort (Heavenly) proposes to improve year-round, recreation opportunities within the developed portions of the ski area on National Forest System lands using existing facilities and infrastructure to meet the......

  15. DELIVERING TIMELY WATER QUALITY INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY. THE LAKE ACCESS-MINNEAPOLIS PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a summary of the near-real-time water quality-monitoring project conducted by a consortium of interested parties in the greater Minneapolis area. It was funded by an EPA program known as EMPACT (Environmental Monitoring, Public Access, and Community Tracking). In 1...

  16. BIOGEOCHEMISTRY OF MERCURY IN VERMONT AND NEW HAMPSHIRE LAKES: AN ASSESSMENT OF MERCURY IN WATER, SEDIMENT, AND BIOTA OF VERMONT AND NEW HAMPSHIRE LAKES - COMPREHENSIVE FINAL PROJECT REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes findings of a three-year field study of mercury in freshwater lakes of Vermont and New Hampshire. The study was undertaken jointly by the Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation, New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, and Syracuse Univ...

  17. 75 FR 13232 - Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead... establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Lake Mead in support of the construction project for Lake... Pipe from Lake Mead throughout 2010. This safety zone is necessary to ensure non-authorized...

  18. 76 FR 2579 - Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead, Boulder City, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lake Mead Intake Construction, Lake Mead... establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Lake Mead in support of the construction project for Lake... blasting operations for the placement of a water intake pipe in Lake Mead during the first 6 months of...

  19. Proposal to market Provo River Project power, Salt Lake City area

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This report is an environmental assessment of the Western Area Power Administrations`s proposal to change the way in which the power produced by the Provo River Project (PRP) is marketed. The topics of the report include the alternatives to the proposed action that have been considered, a description of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and the alternatives that were considered, and other environmental considerations.

  20. Do it yourself remote sensing: Generating an inexpensive, high tech, real science lake mapping project for the classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, Stephen M.

    1993-01-01

    The utilization of modest equipment and software revealed bottom contours and water column conditions of a dynamic water body. Classroom discussions of field techniques and equipment capabilities followed by exercises with the data sets in cause-and-effect analysis all contributed to participatory education in the process of science. This project is presented as a case study of the value of engaging secondary and collegiate level students in planning, executing and appraising a real world investigation which they can directly relate to. A 1 km wide bay, experiencing marsh inflow, along an 8 km long lake situated 120 km north of Ottawa, Canada, on the glaciated Canadian Precambrian Shield was mapped in midsummer for submerged topography, bottom composition, temperature profile, turbudity, dissolved oxygen and biota distribution. Low level aerial photographs scanned into image processing software are permitting spatial classification of bottom variations in biology and geology. Instrumentation consisted of a portable sport fishing SONAR depth finder, an electronic lead line multiprobe with photocell, thermistor and dissolved oxygen sensors, a selective depth water sampler, portable pH meter, an underwater camera mounted on a home-made platform with a bottom-contact trigger and a disposable underwater camera for shallow survey work. Sampling transects were referenced using a Brunton hand transit triangulating several shore markers.

  1. Lake Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This quarterly publication of the State Historical Society of Iowa features articles and activities for elementary school students. This summer issue focuses on the topic of lake life. The issue includes the following features: (1) "Where the Lakes Are Map"; (2) "Letter from the Lake"; (3) "Lake People"; (4) "Spirit Lake"; (5) "Lake Manawa"; (6)…

  2. Modeling potential impacts of the Garrison Diversion Unit project on Sand Lake and Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuges: a feasibility analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, David B.; Auble, Gregor T.; Farmer, Adrian H.; Roelle, James E.

    1987-01-01

    The Garrison Diversion Unit (GDU) of the Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin program was authorized in 1965, with the purpose of diverting Missouri River water to the James River for irrigation, municipal and industrial water supply, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and flood control. The project was reauthorized in 1986, with the specification that comprehensive studies be conducted to address a variety of issues. One of these ongoing studies addresses potential impacts of GDU construction and operation on lands of the National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) system, including Arrowwood and Sand Lake Refuges (the Refuges) on the James River. A number of concerns at these Refuges have been identified; the primary concerns addressed in this report include increased winter return flows, which would limit control of rough fish; increased turbidity during project construction, which would decrease production of sago pondweed; and increased water level fluctuations in the late spring and early summer, which would destroy the nests of some over-water nesting birds. The facilitated workshop described in this report was conducted February 18-20, 1987, under the joint sponsorship of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the North Dakota Game and Fish Department. The primary objectives of the workshop were to evaluate the feasibility of using simulation modeling techniques to estimate GDU impacts on Arrowwood and Sand Lake Refuges and to suggest enhancements to the James River Refuge monitoring program. The workshop was structured around the formulation of four submodels: a Hydrology and Water Quality submodel to simulate changes in Refuge pool elevations, turnover rates, and water quality parameters (e.g., total dissolved solids, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, water temperature, pesticides) due to GDU construction and operation; a Vegetation submodel to simulate concomitant changes in wetland communities (e.g., sago pondweed, wet meadows, deep

  3. Landsat Image Analysis of the Rebea Agricultural Project, Mosul Dam and Lake, Northern Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, W.; Alassadi, F.

    2014-12-01

    An archive of 70 good-to-excellent quality Landsat TM and ETM+ images acquired between 1984 and 2011 were identified through visual examination of the GLOVIS web portal. After careful consideration of factors relevant to agriculture in the region (e.g., crop calendar) and associated image processing needs (e.g., preference for anniversary dates), the images deemed most appropriate were downloaded. Standard preprocessing, including visual quality and statistical inspection, sub-setting to the study area, was performed, and the results combined in a database with available GIS data. The resolution merge spatial enhancement technique was applied to any ETM+ imagery to improve visual clarity and interpretability. The NDVI was calculated for all images in the time series. Unsupervised classification of images was performed for dates ranging from 1987 just before the inception of the Rebea project in 1989 through 2011. In order to reduce uncertainty related to lack of detailed ancillary and/or ground reference data, simple land cover classes were mapped, specifically: surface water, agriculture, and other. Results were able to quantify and track areas of each class over time, and showed a marked decrease in agriculture between the Iraq invasion in 2003 to the end of the study period in 2011, despite massive efforts and capital by the United States and Iraqi governments to improve agriculture in the area. Complications to understanding the role of warfare and conflict on the environment in the Mosul region include severe drought and water shortages, including effects of the Turkish GAP water resource development project in the headwaters of the Tigris-Euphrates, as well as Mosul Dam structural problems associated with geologically-unsuitable conditions upon which the dam is constructed. Now, the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) likely captured the Mosul Dam on the day this abstract was submitted. Our Landsat-based monitoring and analysis of the Rebea Project and

  4. Final monitoring plan for the Utica aquifer-North Lake Basin restoration project at Utica, Nebraska.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2005-10-05

    On March 9, 2001, representatives of the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) and Argonne National Laboratory met with representatives from a number of federal and Nebraska state agencies (the wetlands agencies; see Table 1.1) to discuss the CCC/USDA's proposed aquifer remediation and wetlands restoration project at Utica, Nebraska. As part of those discussions, Argonne outlined preliminary recommendations for a long-term monitoring program to verify and document (1) the performance of the spray irrigation treatment process for the removal of carbon tetrachloride from extracted groundwater, (2) the geochemical quality of the extracted and treated groundwater delivered to the wetlands, and (3) the hydrogeologic and inorganic geochemical impacts of the groundwater delivery. General activities recommended included the following: (1) Periodic sampling and analysis for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater extracted at each pumping well and in water discharged from the spray irrigation treatment units. (2) Periodic sampling of groundwater from each pumping well and directly from the sprinkler discharge, for analysis for selected inorganic water quality parameters. The CCC/USDA and Argonne also requested at the March 2001 meeting that the wetlands agencies accept responsibility for developing the ecological and biological monitoring programs needed to meet environmental requirements for the wetlands restoration program. The preliminary recommendations for monitoring outlined above were generally accepted by the wetlands agencies. Since the March 2001, meeting, however, no further discussions have taken place (to Argonne's knowledge) regarding potential monitoring at this site. As the design of the Utica project has evolved, more detailed technical information has become available regarding the specific restoration activities to be performed in association with the aquifer and the wetlands basin. The scope of the aquifer

  5. Relationships between Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing program and hydropower operations at Salt Lake City area integrated projects

    SciTech Connect

    Veselka, T.D.; Folga, S.; Poch, L.A.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum provides background information on the Western Area Power Administration (Western) and the physical characteristics of the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) hydropower plants, which include the Colorado River Storage Project, the Rio Grande Project, and the Collbran Project. In addition, the history, electrical capacity, storage capacity, and flow restrictions at each dam are presented. An overview of Western`s current programs and services, including a review of statutory authorities, agency discretion, and obligations, is also provided. The variability of SLCA/IP hourly generation under various alternative marketing strategies and purchasing programs is discussed. The effects of Western`s services, such as area load control, outage assistance, and transmission, on SLCA/IP power plant operations are analyzed.

  6. The Temporally Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) Project Design: 1. Classification of Northeast Lakes Using a Combination of Geographic, Hydrogeochemical, and Multivariate Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Thomas C.; Stoddard, John L.

    1996-08-01

    This investigation is part of the Temporally Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems ((TIME) project, an effort to meet the difficult challenge of monitoring surface water quality in the northeastern United States for signs of change in response to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The overall objective of the study was to develop a unified scheme for classifying lakes in the northeast into relatively homogeneous groups and improve the likelihood of detecting water quality trends in the region. The study approach involved combining the best elements of several procedures recently used for defining regional subpopulations of lakes; these were termed the hydrogeochemical model (HM), geographical model (GM), and multivariate statistical model (MSM). Lake and watershed data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Eastern Lake Survey (ELS) were used to evaluate the classification methods and their modifications. After preliminary comparisons were made of the three classification schemes, it was concluded that the resulting subpopulations indicated that there was meaningful similarity among methods but that the significant dissimilarity reflected distinctive attributes of each classification method. These differences were deemed important; accordingly, integration of the methods entailed efforts to preserve parts of each. This was accomplished by assigning each lake of the ELS data set into a lake cluster that had been defined by jointly applying the HM and GM methods. Subsequently, the jointly classified clusters were aggregated by coupling an application of the MSM (cluster analysis) with subjective judgment regarding termination of the process of cluster formation. This integration of procedures gave rise to nine subpopulations that separated mainly on the basis of hydrogeochemical factors, though geographic influences also were evident in the results. The integrated classification procedure provided an explicit method involving the combination of several kinds

  7. Projected impact of climate change in the hydroclimatology of Senegal with a focus over the Lake of Guiers for the twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tall, Moustapha; Sylla, Mouhamadou Bamba; Diallo, Ismaïla; Pal, Jeremy S.; Faye, Aïssatou; Mbaye, Mamadou Lamine; Gaye, Amadou Thierno

    2016-04-01

    This study analyzes the impact of anthropogenic climate change in the hydroclimatology of Senegal with a focus over the lake of Guiers basin for the middle (2041-2060) and late twenty-first century (2080-2099). To this end, high-resolution multimodel ensemble based on regional climate model experiments considering two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) is used. The results indicate that an elevated warming, leading to substantial increase of atmospheric water demand, is projected over the whole of Senegal. In the Lake basin, these increases in potential evapotranspiration (PE) range between 10 and 25 % in the near future and for RCP4.5 while for the far future and RCP8.5, they exceed 50 %. In addition, mean precipitation unveils contrasting changes with wetter (10 to 25 % more) conditions by the middle of the century and drier conditions (more than 50 %) during the late twenty-first century. Such changes cause more/less evapotranspiration and soil moisture respectively during the two future periods. Furthermore, surface runoff shows a tendency to increase in most areas amid few locations including the Lake basin with substantial reduction. Finally, it is found that while semi-arid climates develop in the RCP4.5 scenario, generalized arid conditions prevail over the whole Senegal for RCP8.5. It is thus evident that these future climate conditions substantially threaten freshwater availability for the country and irrigated cropping over the Lake basin. Therefore, strong governmental politics are needed to help design response options to cope with the challenges posed by the projected climate change for the country.

  8. Place-based research project design for 10-week REU and two-week "mini-REU" internships using lake sediment cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrbo, A.; Howes, T.; Thompson, R.; Drake, C.; Woods, P.; Schuldt, N.; Borkholder, B.; Marty, J.; Lafrancois, T.; Pellerin, H.

    2012-12-01

    Lake sediment cores provide scalable, interdisciplinary research projects that are well suited for summer internships such as the NSF-REU (Research Experience for Undergraduates). Short paleorecords (100-500 years or about a meter of core) are easy to collect and are tractable in terms of sample numbers (Myrbo et al. 2011). Many students find it compelling to reconstruct the recent past; choosing sites with cultural or historical significance is another way to make research seem more relevant. We present the results and experiences of designing two- and ten-week individual, group, and team research projects. Each of these projects contributes to the findings of a collaborative inquiry by the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa (FDL) and the University of Minnesota (UMN). Research questions are determined and framed by FDL Resource Management, and student projects are supported and advised by both FDL and UMN scientists. The research is focused on the past environmental conditions of on- and off-Reservation wild rice lakes and the surrounding landscapes and people, and includes the study of biological and chemical proxies as well as historical records. Over the past three years, this approach has enabled diverse groups of students to conduct authentic and original basic research that also has applications to management and planning issues for Tribal resource managers, and to develop skills that are portable to other management and academic settings. These compelling "short" time scale projects can serve as a gateway for students to further pursue science including longer term paleorecords, climate change research, other disciplines in ecology, water resources, geography, archeology, and geology, as well as humanities research areas such as history and landscape architecture. An overarching goal is to help students understand current environmental change in the context of long-term changes, pre-industrial human land use, and accelerated Anthropocene impacts

  9. Aggregating Hydrometeorological Data from International Monitoring Networks Across Earth's Largest Lake System to Quantify Uncertainty in Historical Water Budget Records, Improve Regional Water Budget Projections, and Differentiate Drivers Behind a Recent Record-Setting Surge in Water Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronewold, A.; Bruxer, J.; Smith, J.; Hunter, T.; Fortin, V.; Clites, A. H.; Durnford, D.; Qian, S.; Seglenieks, F.

    2015-12-01

    Resolving and projecting the water budget of the North American Great Lakes basin (Earth's largest lake system) requires aggregation of data from a complex array of in situ monitoring and remote sensing products that cross an international border (leading to potential sources of bias and other inconsistencies), and are relatively sparse over the surfaces of the lakes themselves. Data scarcity over the surfaces of the lakes is a particularly significant problem because, unlike Earth's other large freshwater basins, the Great Lakes basin water budget is (on annual scales) comprised of relatively equal contributions from runoff, over-lake precipitation, and over-lake evaporation. Consequently, understanding drivers behind changes in regional water storage and water levels requires a data management framework that can reconcile uncertainties associated with data scarcity and bias, and propagate those uncertainties into regional water budget projections and historical records. Here, we assess the development of a historical hydrometeorological database for the entire Great Lakes basin with records dating back to the late 1800s, and describe improvements that are specifically intended to differentiate hydrological, climatological, and anthropogenic drivers behind recent extreme changes in Great Lakes water levels. Our assessment includes a detailed analysis of the extent to which extreme cold winters in central North America in 2013-2014 (caused by the anomalous meridional upper air flow - commonly referred to in the public media as the "polar vortex" phenomenon) altered the thermal and hydrologic regimes of the Great Lakes and led to a record setting surge in water levels between January 2014 and December 2015.

  10. Computation and error analysis of discharge for the Lake Michigan Diversion Project in Illinois: 1997-99 water years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duncker, James J.; Over, Thomas M.; Gonzalez, Juan A.

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic velocity meters (AVM's) and acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP's) were used to measure streamflow at four streamflow-gaging stations in the Chicago River system. The streamflow data were used to compute discharge and to determine the uncertainty in the computed annual mean discharge at each station for the Lake Michigan Diversion Project in Illinois. Descriptions of the instrumentation at each station, stage-area and index-velocity ratings, and methods utilized for computing discharge and estimating missing record are given. Daily mean and annual mean discharges were computed for each station for 1997-99 water years (WY's). A water year is defined as the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30. The water year is designated by the calender year in which it ends and which includes 9 of the 12 months. Thus, the year ending September 30, 1999, is called the 1999 water year. A first-order error analysis was applied to acoustic velocity meter (AVM) data, stage-area, and index-velocity ratings at each streamflow-gaging station. The error analysis results indicate that the uncertainty is sensitive to the value of uncertainty associated with acoustic Doppler cur-rent profiler (ADCP) discharge measurement data. At the Chicago River at Columbus Drive at Chicago, Illinois station for the 1997-99 WY's, the uncertainty, expressed as a standard deviation of the average annual discharge, ranged from 13 to 18 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) when ADCP uncertainty was not included, whereas total uncertainty ranged from 55 to 69 ft3/s when ADCP uncertainty was included. At the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal at Romeoville, Illinois station for the 1997-99 WY's, the uncertainty ranged from 18 to 20 ft3/s when ADCP uncertainty was not included, whereas it ranged from 64 to 68 ft3/s when it was included. At the Calumet River below O'Brien Lock and Dam at Chicago, Illinois station for the 1997-99 WY's, the uncertainty ranged from 13 to 22 ft3/s when ADCP

  11. Potential hydrologic effects of peat mining in the Red Lake Peatlands, north-central Minnesota: A project plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegel, Donald I.

    1979-01-01

    Peat is being considered for fuel in Minnesota. This study will investigate the potential effects of large-scale surface mining of peat on the hydrology and water quality of Upper Red Lake and the Tamarac River. The major aspects of the study are the characterization of the surface-water and groundwater hydrology and water quality, including the trace-metal content of the peat. Data will be collected to construct two- and three-dimensional digital models to simulate the movement of ground water and its relation to surface water in the peatlands, streams, and lakes. After the model is calibrated with field data, it will be used to evaluate the effect of mining peat on the hydrology and water quality of the Upper Red Lake and Tamarac River.

  12. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of the Sun River Irrigation Project, Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, west-central Montana, 1990-92, with selected data for 1987-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambing, J.H.; Nimick, D.A.; Knapton, J.R.; Palawski, D.U.

    1994-01-01

    Physical chemical, and biological data were collected in the lower Sun River area of west-central Montana during 1990-92 as part of a U.S. Department of the Interior detailed study of the extent, magnitude, sources, and potential biological impacts of contaminants associated with irrigation drainage. Physical and chemical data were collected from areas within and near the Sun River Irrigation Project and from wetland areas receiving irrigation drainage. Biological data were collected from areas in and near Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Additional biological data were collected previously during 1987-89 as part of a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service program. This report presents data for selenium and other potentially toxic constituents in solid-phase, water, and biological media. Data consist of concentrations of major and trace elements in soil and drill cores; concen- trations of major ions, nutrients, and trace elements in ground water and surface water; and trace-element concentrations in bottom sediment and biological tissue. Hydrogeologic data for domestic and test wells and daily streamflow data for selected sites also are included.

  13. Monitoring lake and reservoir restoration: Technical supplement to the lake and reservoir restoration guidance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Wedepohl, R.E.; Knauer, D.R.; Wolbert, G.B.; Olem, H.; Garrison, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    In the manual the lake manager will find practical information on how to design and implement a lake monitoring program during and following a lake restoration project. In addition to describing monitoring methods for both the waterbody and the watershed, the manual deals with monitoring specific in-lake restoration techniques. Although the manual specifically guides the lake manager who must meet the Clean Lakes Program Phase II monitoring requirements, readers will find it helpful as a starting point for more comprehensive studies of lake ecosystems and useful in designing any lake study. Researchers will welcome its recommendations for consistent methods and quality assurance procedures.

  14. Initial geochemistry data of the Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) "DEEP" site sediment record: The ICDP SCOPSCO drilling project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd; Krastel, Sebastian; Lindhorst, Katja; Mantke, Nicole; Klinghardt, Dorothea

    2014-05-01

    Lake Ohrid, located at the border of Macedonia and Albania is about 30 km long, 15 km wide and up to 290 m deep. Formed within a tectonic graben, Lake Ohrid is considered to be the oldest lake in Europe. The ICDP SCOPSCO (Scientific Collaboration of Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid) deep drilling campaign at Lake Ohrid in spring 2013 aimed (a) to obtain more precise information about the age and origin of the lake, (b) to unravel the seismotectonic history of the lake area including effects of major earthquakes and associated mass wasting events, (c) to obtain a continuous record containing information on volcanic activities and climate changes in the central northern Mediterranean region, and (d) to better understand the impact of major geological/environmental events on general evolutionary patterns and shaping an extraordinary degree of endemic biodiversity as a matter of global significance. Drilling was carried out by DOSECC (Salt Lake City, USA) using the DLDS (Deep Lake Drilling System) with a hydraulic piston corer for surface sediments and rotation drilling for harder, deeper sediments. Overall, about 2,100 m of sediment were recovered from 4 drill sites. At the "DEEP" site in the center of the lake, seismic data indicated a maximum sediment fill of ca. 700 m, of which the uppermost 568 m sediment were recovered. Initial data from core catcher samples and on-site susceptibility measurements indicate that the sediment sequence covers more than 1.2 million years and provides a continuous archive of environmental and climatological variability in the area. Currently, core opening, core description, XRF and MSCL -scanning, core correlation, and sub-sampling of the sediment cores from the "DEEP" site is conducted at the University of Cologne. High-resolution geochemical data obtained from XRF-scanning imply that the sediments from the "DEEP" site are highly sensitive to climate and environmental variations in the Balkan area over the last few glacial

  15. 78 FR 71026 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Lake Tahoe Passenger Ferry Project, Placer and El Dorado...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ..., Placer and El Dorado Counties and City of South Lake Tahoe, California AGENCY: Federal Transit... Terminal at the Grove Street Pier just west of the Tahoe City Marina in Tahoe City, Placer County... a vessel assembly and maintenance location using existing facilities at Tahoe Keys Marina, City...

  16. Lake water quality mapping from Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherz, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    In the project described remote sensing was used to check the quality of lake waters. The lakes of three Landsat scenes were mapped with the Bendix MDAS multispectral analysis system. From the MDAS color coded maps, the lake with the worst algae problem was easily located. The lake was closely checked, and the presence of 100 cows in the springs which fed the lake could be identified as the pollution source. The laboratory and field work involved in the lake classification project is described.

  17. Sustainable knowledge development across cultural boundaries: Experiences from the EU-project SILMAS (Toolbox for conflict solving instruments in Alpine Lake Management)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fegerl, Michael; Wieden, Wilfried

    2013-04-01

    Increasingly people have to communicate knowledge across cultural and language boundaries. Even though recent technologies offer powerful communication facilities people often feel confronted with barriers which clearly reduce their chances of making their interaction a success. Concrete evidence concerning such problems derives from a number of projects, where generated knowledge often results in dead-end products. In the Alpine Space-project SILMAS (Sustainable Instruments for Lake Management in Alpine Space), in which both authors were involved, a special approach (syneris® ) was taken to avoid this problem and to manage project knowledge in sustainable form. Under this approach knowledge input and output are handled interactively: Relevant knowledge can be developed continuously and users can always access the latest state of expertise. Resort to the respective tools and procedures can also assist in closing knowledge gaps and in developing innovative responses to familiar or novel problems. This contribution intends to describe possible ways and means which have been found to increase the chances of success of knowledge communication across cultural boundaries. The process of trans-cultural discussions of experts to find a standardized solution is highlighted as well as the problem of dissemination of expert knowledge to variant stakeholders. Finally lessons learned are made accessible, where a main task lies in the creation of a tool box for conflict solving instruments, as a demonstrable result of the project and for the time thereafter. The interactive web-based toolbox enables lake managers to access best practice instruments in standardized, explicit and cross-linguistic form.

  18. Landsat analysis of lake quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Fisher, L. T.; Holmquist, K. W.

    1979-01-01

    The trophic status of a number of inland lakes in Wisconsin has been assessed. The feasibility of using both photographic and digital representations of Landsat imagery was investigated during the lake classification project. The result of the investigation has been a semi-automatic data acquisition and handling system which, in conjunction with an analytical categorization scheme, can be used to classify all the significant lakes in the state.

  19. Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project: A Community-Based Intervention Targeting Type 2 Diabetes and Its Risk Factors in a First Nations Community

    PubMed Central

    Kakekagumick, Kara E.; Naqshbandi Hayward, Mariam; Harris, Stewart B.; Saksvig, Brit; Gittelsohn, Joel; Manokeesic, Gary; Goodman, Starsky; Hanley, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    The Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project (SLHDP) was initiated in 1991 as a partnership between Sandy Lake First Nation and researchers interested in addressing the high rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the community. Following the expressed wishes of the community, the SLHDP has encompassed a variety of community-wide interventions and activities including: community surveys to document T2DM prevalence and risk factors, the Northern Store program aimed at increasing the availability and knowledge of healthy food options, a home visit program for the prevention and management of T2DM, a local diabetes radio show, a school diabetes curriculum for grades 3 and 4, a community-wide walking trail to encourage increased physical activity, youth diabetes summer camps, and a variety of community events focusing on nutrition and physical activity. Over the 22 year existence of the SLHDP, the community has taken ownership of the program and activities have evolved in alignment with community needs and priorities. This paper discusses the history, implementation, evaluation, and outcomes of the SLHDP and describes its sustainability. The SLHDP is a model of culturally appropriate participatory research that is iterative, with reciprocal capacity building for both key community stakeholders and academic partners. PMID:24302919

  20. Sandy lake health and diabetes project: a community-based intervention targeting type 2 diabetes and its risk factors in a first nations community.

    PubMed

    Kakekagumick, Kara E; Naqshbandi Hayward, Mariam; Harris, Stewart B; Saksvig, Brit; Gittelsohn, Joel; Manokeesic, Gary; Goodman, Starsky; Hanley, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    The Sandy Lake Health and Diabetes Project (SLHDP) was initiated in 1991 as a partnership between Sandy Lake First Nation and researchers interested in addressing the high rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the community. Following the expressed wishes of the community, the SLHDP has encompassed a variety of community-wide interventions and activities including: community surveys to document T2DM prevalence and risk factors, the Northern Store program aimed at increasing the availability and knowledge of healthy food options, a home visit program for the prevention and management of T2DM, a local diabetes radio show, a school diabetes curriculum for grades 3 and 4, a community-wide walking trail to encourage increased physical activity, youth diabetes summer camps, and a variety of community events focusing on nutrition and physical activity. Over the 22 year existence of the SLHDP, the community has taken ownership of the program and activities have evolved in alignment with community needs and priorities. This paper discusses the history, implementation, evaluation, and outcomes of the SLHDP and describes its sustainability. The SLHDP is a model of culturally appropriate participatory research that is iterative, with reciprocal capacity building for both key community stakeholders and academic partners.

  1. Whiting in Lake Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  2. Lake water quality mapping from LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherz, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    The lakes in three LANDSAT scenes were mapped by the Bendix MDAS multispectral analysis system. Field checking the maps by three separate individuals revealed approximately 90-95% correct classification for the lake categories selected. Variations between observers was about 5%. From the MDAS color coded maps the lake with the worst algae problem was easily located. This lake was closely checked and a pollution source of 100 cows was found in the springs which fed this lake. The theory, lab work and field work which made it possible for this demonstration project to be a practical lake classification procedure are presented.

  3. Lake Eyre

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ...   View Larger Image Lake Eyre is a large salt lake situated between two deserts in one of Australia's driest regions. ... the effect of sunglint at the nadir camera view angle. Dry, salt encrusted parts of the lake appear bright white or gray. Purple areas have ...

  4. Temperate Lakes Discovered on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vixie, Graham; Barnes, Jason W.; Jackson, Brian; Wilson, Paul

    2012-04-01

    We have discovered two temperate lakes on Titan using Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). Three key features help to identify these surface features as lakes: morphology, albedo, and specular reflection. The presence of lakes at the mid-latitudes mean liquid can accumulate and remain stable outside of the poles. We first identify a lake surface by looking for possible shorelines with a lacustrine morphology. Then, we apply a simple atmospheric correction that produces an approximate surface albedo. Next, we prepare cylindrical projection maps of the brightness of the sky as seen from any points on the surface to identify specular reflections. Our techniques can then be applied to other areas, such as Arrakis Planitia, to test for liquid. Currently, all the known lakes on Titan are concentrated at the poles. Lakes have been suggested in the tropic zone by Griffith et al. Our discovery of non-transient, temperate lakes has important implications for Titan's hydrologic cycle. Clouds have been recorded accumulating in the mid-latitudes and areas have been darkened by rainfall but later brightened after evaporation (Turtle et al. 2011). Stable temperate lakes would affect total rainfall, liquid accumulation, evaporation rates, and infiltration. Polaznik Macula (Figure 1) is a great candidate for lake filling, evaporation rates, and stability. References: Griffith, C., et al.: "Evidence for Lakes on Titan's Tropical Surface". AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts #42, Vol. 42, pp. 1077, 2010. Turtle, E. P., et al.: "Rapid and Extensive Surface Changes Near Titan's Equator: Evidence of April Showers". Science, Vol. 331, pp. 1414-, 2011. Figure 1: Polaznik Macula is the large, dark area central to the figure. The encircled dark blue areas represent positively identified lake regions in the T66 flyby. The light blue areas represent lake candidates still under analysis. The green circle marks a non-lake surface feature enclosed by a

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls in selected sites in Pasig River and Laguna Lake in the Philippines before and after a big flood event investigated under the UNU East Asia Regional POPs monitoring project.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Evangeline C; Rivas, Fritzi

    2012-08-01

    This paper reports the results of the 2009 United Nations University (UNU) East Asia Regional Monitoring of the Coastal Hydrosphere Project implemented in the Philippines. The monitoring activity focused on the concentrations of 16 specific congeners of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in selected sites in Pasig River and Laguna Lake for two sampling periods in August and in November, 2009. The results show that the total concentrations of PCBs detected in the sampling sites in August increased during the November sampling from 0.9-12.2 to 6.1-32 ng/L in Pasig River and from 0.1-0.9 to 2.9-10.8 ng/L in Laguna Lake. The increase in PCB concentrations on second sampling is attributed to the increase in contaminated sediments in the river sites and to the overflow of contaminated water in the lake sites; both of which could have been caused by the flooding event that occurred in September 2009.

  6. Climate Change Impacts on the Los Angeles Aqueducts Water Sources: 21st Century Hydrologic Projections for Owens Valley and Mono Lake Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa-Cabral, M. C.; Roy, S. B.; Maurer, E. P.; Mills, W. B.; Chen, L.

    2011-12-01

    Precipitation from the Eastern Sierra Nevada watersheds of Owens Lake and Mono Lake is one of the main water sources, and the one of highest quality, for Los Angeles' more than 4 million people. Winter snow is stored in the large snowpack reservoir, and meltwater (~0.2-0.5 million acre-feet) is delivered annually to the city in the dry season by the 340-mile long Los Angeles Aqueduct system, operated by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power. We identify plausible scenarios of future climate conditions in the Owens-Mono watersheds over the 21st century based on CMIP3 results for 16 global climate models (GCMs) statistically downscaled to 1/8° and greenhouse gas emission scenarios A2 and B1; and we evaluate the consequent hydrologic impacts using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model. Such climate scenarios have large and unquantifiable associated uncertainty and do not represent predictions, but are considered to be plausible under the current state of knowledge. We applied VIC to the Owens-Mono watersheds and calibrated the model using monthly streamflow records provided by LADWP. Of most interest to Los Angeles' water supply are the projections for the snowpack and the dry-season hydrograph that relies on snowmelt. Our results indicate future increases in the fraction of precipitation falling as rain rather than snow, from a historical value of about 20% to 20-30% by mid-century and 28-52% by end of century (depending on the GCM) for scenario A2. As a result, the snowpack's peak snow water equivalent (SWE) is projected to decline by most GCMs. The SWE peak is also projected to shift toward earlier dates (by a few days by mid-century and by a GCM-average of 2 weeks by end of century under emissions scenario A2). The diminished SWE, earlier SWE peak and earlier melt associated with rising temperatures result in earlier hydrograph peaks, a shift in the date marking the passage of half of the year's hydrograph volume (by more than one

  7. PROJECTED CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON WINTERKILL IN SHALLOW LAKES IN THE NORTHERN CONTIGUOUS U.S. (R824801)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  8. The Global Climatology of Large Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchant, Christopher J.; MacCallum, Stuart N.

    2010-12-01

    There are ~250 large lakes in the world, large here meaning lakes with surface areas exceeding 500 km2 . Lakes are potentially sensitive indicators of regional climatic changes and large lakes also significantly modulate climate locally, via their effects on surface atmosphere fluxes and atmospheric stability. The interactions of lakes and atmosphere are therefore significant for climatology and weather forecasting. Relatively few lakes are permanently instrumented (mostly in N America and Europe), and in assimilation systems for numerical weather prediction, highly simplistic approximations for lake surface temperature are giving way to lake temperature models within the land-atmosphere exchange schemes. It is therefore important to exploit satellite observations to inform and constrain lake and weather models, and to provide observations of lake temperature changes for a wider range of lakes. Here we present results from the first phase of an ESA-funded project, ARCLake, to demonstrate accurate lake surface temperatures and detection of ice cover, using ATSR-2 and AATSR, for large lakes globally. It is sometimes assumed that sea surface temperature (SST) techniques are applicable, but in fact, lake-specific approaches are required for cloud detection and for temperature retrieval. In this paper, we present preliminary results from application of the techniques described in a companion paper [1].

  9. Using prediction uncertainty analysis to design hydrologic monitoring networks: Example applications from the Great Lakes water availability pilot project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fienen, Michael N.; Doherty, John E.; Hunt, Randall J.; Reeves, Howard W.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of monitoring networks for resource-management decisions is becoming more recognized, in both theory and application. Quantitative computer models provide a science-based framework to evaluate the efficacy and efficiency of existing and possible future monitoring networks. In the study described herein, two suites of tools were used to evaluate the worth of new data for specific predictions, which in turn can support efficient use of resources needed to construct a monitoring network. The approach evaluates the uncertainty of a model prediction and, by using linear propagation of uncertainty, estimates how much uncertainty could be reduced if the model were calibrated with addition information (increased a priori knowledge of parameter values or new observations). The theoretical underpinnings of the two suites of tools addressing this technique are compared, and their application to a hypothetical model based on a local model inset into the Great Lakes Water Availability Pilot model are described. Results show that meaningful guidance for monitoring network design can be obtained by using the methods explored. The validity of this guidance depends substantially on the parameterization as well; hence, parameterization must be considered not only when designing the parameter-estimation paradigm but also-importantly-when designing the prediction-uncertainty paradigm.

  10. Is Lake Tahoe Terminal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coats, R. N.; Reuter, J.; Heyvaert, A.; Lewis, J.; Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, G.; Thorne, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Tahoe, an iconic ultra-oligotrophic lake in the central Sierra Nevada, has been studied intensively since 1968, with the goal of understanding and ultimately controlling its eutrophication and loss of clarity. Research on the lake has included a) periodic profiles of primary productivity, nutrients, temperature, and plankton; b) Secchi depth; c) nutrient limitation experiments; d) analysis of sediment cores; e) radiocarbon dating of underwater in-place tree stumps; g) analysis of long-term temperature trends. Work in its watershed has included a) monitoring of stream discharge, sediment and nutrients at up to 20 stream gaging stations; b) monitoring of urban runoff water quality at selected sites; c) development of a GIS data base, including soils, vegetation, and land use. Based on these studies, we know that a) primary productivity in the lake is limited by phosphorus, and continues to increase; b) the loss of clarity continues, but at a declining rate; c) the lake has been warming since 1970, and its resistance to deep mixing is increasing; d) historically the lake level drops below the outlet elevation about one year in seven; e) 6300 to 4300 yrs BP lake level was below the present outlet elevation long enough for large trees to grow; f) the date of the peak snowmelt runoff is shifting toward earlier dates; g) after accounting for annual runoff, loads of nutrients and suspended sediment have declined significantly in some basin streams since 1980. Downscaled outputs from GCM climatic models have recently been used to drive hydrologic models and a lake clarity model, projecting future trends in the lake and watersheds. Results show a) the temperature and thermal stability will likely continue to increase, with deep mixing shutting down in the latter half of this century; b) the lake may drop below the outlet for an extended period beginning about 2085; c) the annual snowpack will continue to decline, with earlier snowmelt and shift from snowfall to rain; d

  11. PLS regression-based pan evaporation and minimum-maximum temperature projections for an arid lake basin in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Manish Kumar; Ojha, C. S. P.

    2011-10-01

    Climate change information required for impact studies is of a much finer scale than that provided by Global circulation models (GCMs). This paper presents an application of partial least squares (PLS) regression for downscaling GCMs output. Statistical downscaling models were developed using PLS regression for simultaneous downscaling of mean monthly maximum and minimum temperatures ( T max and T min) as well as pan evaporation to lake-basin scale in an arid region in India. The data used for evaluation were extracted from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis dataset for the period 1948-2000 and the simulations from the third-generation Canadian Coupled Global Climate Model (CGCM3) for emission scenarios A1B, A2, B1, and COMMIT for the period 2001-2100. A simple multiplicative shift was used for correcting predictand values. The results demonstrated that the downscaling method was able to capture the relationship between the premises and the response. The analysis of downscaling models reveals that (1) the correlation coefficient for downscaled versus observed mean maximum temperature, mean minimum temperature, and pan evaporation was 0.94, 0.96, and 0.89, respectively; (2) an increasing trend is observed for T max and T min for A1B, A2, and B1 scenarios, whereas no trend is discerned with the COMMIT scenario; and (3) there was no trend observed in pan evaporation. In COMMIT scenario, atmospheric CO2 concentrations are held at year 2000 levels. Furthermore, a comparison with neural network technique shows the efficiency of PLS regression method.

  12. Simulation of Heavy Lake-Effect Snowstorms across the Great Lakes Basin by RegCM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notaro, M.; Zarrin, A.; Vavrus, S. J.; Bennington, V.

    2013-12-01

    A historical simulation (1976-2002) of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model Version 4 (ICTP RegCM4), coupled to a one-dimensional lake model, is validated against observed lake ice cover and snowfall across the Great Lakes Basin. The model reproduces the broad temporal and spatial features of both variables in terms of spatial distribution, seasonal cycle, and interannual variability, including climatological characteristics of lake-effect snowfall, although the simulated ice cover is overly extensive largely due to the absence of lake circulations. A definition is introduced for identifying heavy lake-effect snowstorms in regional climate model output for all grid cells in the Great Lakes Basin, using criteria based on location, wind direction, lake ice cover, and snowfall. Simulated heavy lake-effect snowstorms occur most frequently downwind of the Great Lakes, particularly to the east of Lake Ontario and to the east and south of Lake Superior, and are most frequent in December-January. The mechanism for these events is attributed to an anticyclone over the central United States and related cold air outbreak for areas downwind of Lakes Ontario and Erie, in contrast to a nearby cyclone over the Great Lakes Basin and associated cold front for areas downwind of Lakes Superior, Huron, and Michigan. Projections of mid- and late-21st century lake-effect snowstorms in the Great Lakes Basin will be summarized, based on dynamically downscaled CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase Five) simulations.

  13. Class 1 overview of cultural resources for the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.; Walitschek, D.A.; Shogren, L.; Mathews, J.E.; Verhaaren, B.T.

    1993-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory conducted an inventory of known archaeological and historic sites in areas that could be affected by the hydropower operation alternatives under analysis in the power marketing environmental impact statement for the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects. The study areas included portions of the Green River (Flaming Gorge Dam to Cub Creek) in Utah and Colorado and the Gunnison River (Blue Mesa Reservoir to Crystal Dam) in Colorado. All previous archaeological surveys and previously recorded prehistoric and historic sites, structures, and features were inventoried and plotted on maps (only survey area maps are included in this report). The surveys were classified by their level of intensity, and the sites were classified according to their age, type, and contents. These data (presented here in tabular form) permit a general assessment of the character and distribution of archaeological remains in the study areas, as well as an indication of the sampling basis for such an assessment. To provide an adequate context for the descriptions of the archaeological and historic sites, this report also presents overviews of the environmental setting and the regional prehistory, history, and ethnography for each study area.

  14. Lake Constance

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Lake Constance, Europe     View ... This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Lake Constance covers an area measuring 355 kilometers x 287 kilometers, and ... wastewater and fertilizers. This leads to overproduction of algae and aquatic plants, exhaustion of available oxygen, loss of some fish ...

  15. Lake-river and lake-atmosphere interactions in a changing climate over Northeast Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huziy, Oleksandr; Sushama, Laxmi

    2016-04-01

    Lakes influence the regional climate and hydrology in a number of ways and therefore they should be represented in climate models in a realistic manner. Lack of representation of lakes in models can lead to errors in simulated energy and water fluxes, for lake-rich regions. This study focuses on the assessment of the impact of climate change on lakes and hydrology as well as on the influence of lakes on projected changes to regional climate and surface hydrology, particularly streamflows, for Northeast Canada. To this end, transient climate change simulations spanning the 1950-2100 period are performed, with and without lakes, with the fifth generation of the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5), driven by the Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2) at the lateral boundaries for Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5. Comparison of projected changes from the CRCM5 simulations with and without lakes suggest that lakes attenuate projected increases to 2-m air temperature in all seasons, almost everywhere in the study domain, with maximum decreases of the order of 2°C occurring during winter. As for streamflows, results suggest projected increases for winter and spring and decreases during summer. Comparison of the projected changes suggests that lakes attenuate the projected increases in streamflows in spring due to the storage effect of lakes, and also attenuate the projected decreases in streamflows in summer in future climate due to the gradual release of the excess water stored in the lakes during spring. This study, thus demonstrates the impact of lakes on projected changes to the regional climate and hydrology for the study region using a single regional modelling system.

  16. The Lake County Career Opportunities Study II: A Cooperative Study Presented to the Lake County Association of School Administrators and Lakeland Community College. Prepared as a Community Service Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakeland Community Coll., Mentor, OH.

    The study on Lake County career opportunities was conducted (1) to forecast major population and demographic changes and their effects on schools and programs, (2) to determine the present and future occupational needs of employers, (3) to determine current program and enrollments in career training, (4) to determine student aspirations, (5) to…

  17. Analyses of water, core material, and elutriate samples collected near New Orleans, Louisiana (Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, and vicinity hurricane protection project)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leone, Harold L.

    1976-01-01

    When a hurricane approaches the New Orleans, Louisiana area, the accompanying tides and heavy rainfall increase the level of water in Lake Borgne, Mississippi Sound, and Lake Pontchartrain and pose a major threat of water damage to the populated areas. During Hurricane Betsy (1965), for example, the level of Lake Pontchartrain rose as much as 13 feet. Nineteen core-material-sampling sites were chosen by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers as possible borrow areas for fill material to be used in levee construction for flood protection around Lake Pontchartrain. Twenty-three receiving-water sites were also selected to represent the water that will contact the proposed levees. Selected nutrients, metals, pesticides, and other organic constituents were analyzed from bed-material and native-water samples as well as upon elutriate samples of specific core material-receiving water systems. The results of these analyses are presented without interpretation. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Trout Lake, Wisconsin: A water, energy, and biogeochemical budgets program site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, John F.; Bullen, Thomas D.

    2000-01-01

    The Trout Lake Watershed is in the Northern Highlands Lake District in north-central Wisconsin. The study area includes four subbasins with five lakes and two bog lakes. The objectives of the Trout Lake WEBB project are to (1) describe processes controlling water and solute fluxes in the Trout Lake watershed, (2) examine interactions among those processes and (3) improve the capability to predict changes in water and solute fluxes for a range of spatial and temporal scales (Elder and others, 1992).

  19. Principles of lake sedimentology

    SciTech Connect

    Janasson, L.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index.

  20. Tapping lakes in Norway: clean but risky energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    Four hydroelectric projects are currently underway and two more are expected to begin within the next couple of years in Norway, using lake taps. The Ulla-Forre project is presently under construction which uses lake taps to link 30 lakes and many rivers through a network of tunnels and dams. Environmentalists are concerned that dams and other above-ground components of these projects will interfere with the migration routes of reindeer and spawning salmon.

  1. 68. View of north arm of Lake Tapps, looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. View of north arm of Lake Tapps, looking east toward power line that crosses Hille Lake; the shore is composed of a dike built by the Pacific Coast Power Company as part of the Lake Tapps reservoir construction. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  2. 75 FR 22892 - Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT AGENCY: Federal... transportation improvement project in Salt Lake County, Utah. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Edward Woolford, Environmental Program Manager, Federal Highway Administration, 2520 West 4700 South, Suite 9A, Salt Lake...

  3. 75 FR 9476 - Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT AGENCY: Federal... transportation improvement project in Salt Lake County, Utah. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bryan Dillon, Area Engineer, Federal Highway Administration, 2520 West 4700 South, Suite 9A, Salt Lake City, UT...

  4. View of Stehr Lake from FS 502 looking upstream (northeast). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Stehr Lake from FS 502 looking upstream (northeast). Vehicle at right center is parked on earthen Upper Stehr Lake Dam. - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Stehr Lake & Dams, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  5. Lake Powell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The white ring around Lake Powell tells the story. The surface is down 98 feet. This is critical, because Powell, Lake Mead, and other lakes along the Colorado River provide water for millions of people in five states. We are in the eighth year of a drought on the Colorado River. This year was the driest year ever reported in Southern California, and there is a severe drought in Northern California, down to less than 30-percent of snow pack. This ASTER image of part of Lake Powell was acquired in 2001. The gray area depicts the shrunken, reduced 2007 lake extent compared to the extended, larger black area in 2001.

    The image covers an area of 24 x 30 km, and is centered near 37.1 degrees north latitude, 111.3 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  6. Microbial Communities of Pavilion Lake Microbialites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, J. A.; Biddle, J.; Pointing, S.; Cardman, Z.; Brady, A. L.; Slater, G. F.; Lim, D. S.

    2011-12-01

    Fossilized remnants of microbial mat growth, called stromatolites, are found in the rock record and are thought to be some of the earliest evidence for life on Earth. On the modern Earth, living versions of these stromatolites, called microbialites, are found in few environments across the globe. Pavilion Lake in British Columbia was found to host these microbialites, even though conditions are not extreme in the lake and grazers exist amongst the microbial growths. The Pavilion Lake Research Project, funded by NASA, the CSA and others, has developed the lake into an analog research site for the exploration of extraplanetary bodies since 2004. Pavilion Lake began to be explored for microbial ecology in 2007 to attempt to determine how the microbial communities change over time, location and depth to build these microbialite structures. DNA extracted from microbialites at two different locations and 3 depths at each location were analyzed by T-RFLP patterns. Significant differences were seen in the total communities from each location. Additional samples were taken in the summer and budding seasons, and significant differences were seen by season. A survey performed on just the cyanobacterial populations show less differences between taxa between sites, but significant differences with depth above and below the chemocline and between mineralized and non-mineralized mats. Differences were also examined between purple and green nodules, which are thought to be the growth forms of the microbialites. Detailed sequence analysis shows that Pavilion Lake microorganisms are similar, yet different, from microbial communities seen in other microbialite systems. In 2011, the research project moved to Kelly Lake, a lake nearby Pavilion Lake, that also contain microbialite structures. Similar morphologies were seen in Kelly Lake with an approximate 20 ft. offset in the typical depths where morphologies were seen. Continued analysis of Kelly Lake microbialites will be performed

  7. The Effects of Power Production and Strip Mining on Local Navajo Populations. Lake Powell Research Project Bulletin Number 22, June 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaway, Donald G.; And Others

    In an effort to evaluate the impact of the 1972-73 Navajo Generating Station at Page, Arizona and the strip mine at Black Mesa on the Navajo Reservation, areas adjacent to each of these operations were surveyed (N=134 and 60 respectively) and compared with two control populations (N=60 from the rural area of Red Lake and 58 from the wagework area…

  8. Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The wild plants and animals and the natural systems that support them in the Great Lakes region are valuable resources of considerable local, regional, and national interest. They are also, in part, transboundary resources that the U.S. shares with its Canadian neighbors to the north. The way these resources are changing over time is inadequately known and is a concern for resource users and for those charged with managing and protecting these unique and valuable resources. This chapter describes the wild plants and animals and the systems that support them in the Great Lakes region; addresses their condition; and points out the gaps in our knowledge about them that, if filled, would aid in their conservation and appropriate use.

  9. Lake Garda, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This ASTER image was acquired on July 29, 2000 and covers an area of 30 by 57 km in northern Italy. Lake Garda was formed by glaciers during the last Ice Age, and is Italy's largest lake. Lago di Garda lies in the provinces of Verona, Brescia, and Trento, and is 51 kilometers (32 miles) long and from 3 to 18 kilometers (2 to 11 miles) wide. The Sarca is its chief affluent, and the lake is drained southward by the Mincio, which discharges into the Po River. Many villas are situated on its shores. On the peninsula of Sirmione, at the southern end of the lake, are the ruins of a Roman villa and a castle of the Scaligers, an Italian family of the 16th century. The RIGHT image has the land area masked out, and a harsh stretch was applied to the lake values to display variations in sediment load. Also visible are hundreds of boats and their wakes, criss-crossing the lake.

    The image is centered at 45.6 degrees north latitude, 10.6 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for

  10. Gauging the Health of New England's Lakes and Ponds

    EPA Science Inventory

    The New England Lakes and Ponds Project provides a consistent and first time comprehensive assessment of the ecological and water quality condition of lakes and ponds across the New England region. The project is being conducted by EPA along with the New England Interstate Water...

  11. 77 FR 55466 - Barren River Lake Hydro LLC; Notice Soliciting Scoping Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Barren River Lake Hydro LLC; Notice Soliciting Scoping Comments Take notice... filed: December 9, 2011 and amended on June 21, 2012. d. Applicant: Barren River Lake Hydro LLC (Barren River Hydro). e. Name of Project: Barren River Lake Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: At the...

  12. Archaea in Yellowstone Lake.

    PubMed

    Kan, Jinjun; Clingenpeel, Scott; Macur, Richard E; Inskeep, William P; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Gorby, Yuri; McDermott, Timothy R; Nealson, Kenneth

    2011-11-01

    The Yellowstone geothermal complex has yielded foundational discoveries that have significantly enhanced our understanding of the Archaea. This study continues on this theme, examining Yellowstone Lake and its lake floor hydrothermal vents. Significant Archaea novelty and diversity were found associated with two near-surface photic zone environments and two vents that varied in their depth, temperature and geochemical profile. Phylogenetic diversity was assessed using 454-FLX sequencing (~51,000 pyrosequencing reads; V1 and V2 regions) and Sanger sequencing of 200 near-full-length polymerase chain reaction (PCR) clones. Automated classifiers (Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) and Greengenes) were problematic for the 454-FLX reads (wrong domain or phylum), although BLAST analysis of the 454-FLX reads against the phylogenetically placed full-length Sanger sequenced PCR clones proved reliable. Most of the archaeal diversity was associated with vents, and as expected there were differences between the vents and the near-surface photic zone samples. Thaumarchaeota dominated all samples: vent-associated organisms corresponded to the largely uncharacterized Marine Group I, and in surface waters, ~69-84% of the 454-FLX reads matched archaeal clones representing organisms that are Nitrosopumilus maritimus-like (96-97% identity). Importance of the lake nitrogen cycling was also suggested by >5% of the alkaline vent phylotypes being closely related to the nitrifier Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. The Euryarchaeota were primarily related to the uncharacterized environmental clones that make up the Deep Sea Euryarchaeal Group or Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Group-6. The phylogenetic parallels of Yellowstone Lake archaea to marine microorganisms provide opportunities to examine interesting evolutionary tracks between freshwater and marine lineages.

  13. Sedimentological imprints of environmental variability at the Balkan Peninsula on the sediment sequence of Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) between the Mid Pleistocene Transition and present days: The ICDP SCOPSCO project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd; Leicher, Niklas; Raphael, Gromig; Leng, Melanie; Lacey, Jack; Vogel, Hendrik; Baumgarten, Henrike; Thomas, Wonik; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Roberto, Sulpizio; Krastel, Sebastian; Lindhorst, Katja

    2015-04-01

    The UNESCO World Heritage site of Lake Ohrid in the Balkans is thought to be the oldest, continuously existing lake in Europe. In order to unravel the geological and evolutionary history of the lake, a deep drilling campaign was conducted in spring 2013 under the umbrella of the ICDP SCOPSCO project. At the coring site "DEEP" in central parts of the lake, more than 1,500 m of sediments were recovered down to a penetration depth of 569 m blf. This sediment sequence is assumed to be more than 1.2 Ma old and likely covers the entire lacustrine deposits of the Lake Ohrid Basin. Currently, an age model for the upper 260m of the DEEP- site sequence is available. This age model is based on chronological tie points (tephrochronology), and wiggle matching of down hole logging data and (bio-)geochemistry data (XRF, TIC, TOC) from the core sequence to the global benthic stack LR04 and local insolation patterns. The data suggests that the upper 260 m of the DEEP-site sequence corresponds to the time period between the Mid Pleistocene Transition (MPT) and present days. During this period, the sedimentological properties of the sediments show a strong dependency on environmental variability in the area. Interglacial deposits appear massive or marbled, contain up to 80 % of CaCO3 (high TIC), high amounts of organic matter (high TOC) and biogenic silica (high BSi), and low contents of clastic material. Glacial deposits are predominantly marbled and calcite is generally absent. Similarly, the amounts of organic matter and biogenic silica are low, and glacial sediments predominately consist of clastic matter. Distinct layers of siderite and uniformly distributed Fe- or Mn- oxides occur in the glacial deposits, vivianite concretions occur in both the glacial and interglacial periods. High CaCO3 contents in deposits formed during warm (interglacial) periods are also known from studies on short pilot cores from Lake Ohrid and are triggered by increased productivity in the lake, such as

  14. Projected ground-water development, ground-water levels, and stream-aquifer leakage in the South Fork Solomon River Valley between Webster Reservoir and Waconda Lake, north-central Kansas, 1979-2020

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kume, Jack; Lindgren, R.J.; Stullken, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite difference computer model was used to project changes in the potentiometric surface, saturated thickness, and stream aquifer leakage in an alluvial aquifer resulting from four instances of projected groundwater development. The alluvial aquifer occurs in the South Fork Solomon River valley between Webster Reservoir and Waconda Lake in north-central Kansas. In the first two projections, pumpage for irrigation was held constant at 1978 rates throughout the projection period (1979-2020). In the second two projections, the 1978 pumpage was progressively increased each yr through 2020. In the second and fourth projections, surface water diversions in the Osborne Irrigation Canal were decreased by 50 %. For the third and fourth projections, each grid-block in the modeled area was classified initially as one of six types according to whether it represented irrigable or nonirrigable land, to its saturated thickness, to its location inside or outside the canal-river area, and to its pumping rate. The projected base-flow rates (leakage from the aquifer to the river) were lower during the irrigation season (June, July, and August) than during the other months of the yr because of the decline in hydraulic head produced by groundwater pumpage. Stream depletion, calculated as a decrease below the average (1970-78) estimated winter base-flow rate of 16.5 cu ft/sec, varied inversely with base flow. For the first two projections, a constant annual cycle of well pumpage and recharge was used throughout the projection period. Aquifer leakage to the river was nearly constant by the mid-to-late 1990's, implying that flow conditions had attained a stabilized annual cycle. The third and fourth projections never attained an annual stabilized cycle because the irrigation pumpage rate was increased each year. By the early 1980's, the hydraulic head had fallen below river stage, reversing the hydraulic gradient at the stream-aquifer interface and resulting in net

  15. Lake Nam Co (Tibet, China) - a suitable target for a deep drilling project as confirmed by a preliminary airgun seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiess, V.; Daut, G.; Wenau, S.; Gernhardt, F.; Wang, J.; Schwenk, T.; Haberzettl, T.; Zhu, L.; Maeusbacher, R.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Nam Co, located on the central Tibetan Plateau at the intersection of the Westerlies and the Indian Ocean Summer Monsoon, is well suited to study the monsoonal regime over different time scales. High-resolution and continuous sedimentary records from the Tibetan Plateau are still rare and only few reach back to the Last Glacial Maximum. For Nam Co, numerous multiproxy studies unravel the regional paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental history for the past 24,000 years. These promising results demonstrate the potential of Lake Nam Co as a geoarchive, but nature, thickness and geologic time of the sediment fill have not yet been determined. Therefore the Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research (Chinese Academy of Sciences) and the Universities of Bremen and Jena jointly carried out an airgun multichannel seismic survey at Nam Co in June/July 2014. As main equipment, a micro GI Gun(2 x 0.1 L) was used in conjunction with a 64 m long seismic streamer (32 channels/2 m spacing) to achieve deep signal penetration, to confirm a thick sediment infill and to prove the suitability for deep coring of several hundred meters. Although only few lines could be shot due to technical and weather issues, several lines particularly from the deepest part of the lake provide new insight. Preliminary data processing and interpretation reveal a well layered sediment cover of >700 m in the center of the lake. Seismic facies appears to vary in a cyclic manner, indicating a coupling to climatically-driven changes in lake level and sediment delivery. From a comparison with the Holocene/Late Glacial sedimentary and seismic record, several similar units could be imaged. Furthermore, rapid sedimentation is confirmed from the continuous cover of growth faults and doming, and continuous sedimentation throughout glacial/interglacial cycles appears likely due to the absence of erosional unconformities. By tentatively assigning these units to marine isotope stages, different seismostratigraphies can

  16. Reintroduction of lake sturgeon in the St. Louis River, western Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schram, Stephen T.; Lindgren, John; Evrard, Lori M.

    1999-01-01

    Lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens declined in abundance in Lake Superior's St. Louis River during the late 1800s and were eliminated from the river during the early 1900s because of the combined effects of exploitation, pollution, and habitat alteration. Since then, exploitation in the river and in Lake Superior has been reduced. Furthermore, water quality in the St. Louis River has improved, and its upper-estuary spawning habitat has remained relatively unchanged and adequate. Lake sturgeon have been stocked annually in the St. Louis River since 1983; from 1983 to 1994 stockings included 736,000 fry, 128,000 fingerlings, and 500 yearlings of the Lake Winnebago strain. Relative abundance, distribution, and growth were determined by sampling marked fish in the St. Louis River estuary and western Lake Superior with graded-mesh gill nets and bottom trawls. During 1983–1998, 644 lake sturgeon were caught in 15,486 m of gill net, and 196 were caught in 1,200 trawl tows. Lake sturgeon were sampled most frequently near channelized portions of the St. Louis River and stayed in the estuary up to 5 years before entering Lake Superior. Lake sturgeon were not captured in western Lake Superior prior to stocking, but abundance increased dramatically after 1985. Of 582 lake sturgeon sampled along the Wisconsin shore of Lake Superior from 1985 through 1998 (347,000 m of gill nets), 93% were captured in less than 30 m of water. A total of 93 lake sturgeon were reported from assessment netting conducted along the Minnesota shore of Lake Superior from 1992 through 1997. The current range of stocked lake sturgeon extends from the St. Louis River 145 km east to the apostle Islands in Wisconsin and 110 km northeast to Little Marais in Minnesota. Increases in lake sturgeon abundance were directly attributed to the stocking program. We recommend stocking a minimum of 20 year-classes and the use of a Lake Superior egg source, if possible. Final evaluation of the project will be

  17. Lake Effect Snow Covers Buffalo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An average of one foot of snow per day has fallen on Buffalo, New York, since Christmas Eve, resulting in a total of up to 5 feet from December 24-28. The snow fell very heavily, with accumulations of up to 3 inches per hour. Cold winds blowing along the surface of Lake Erie pick up warmth and moisture, which falls as snow as the warm air rises. This image was acquired by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), operated by NOAA, on December 27, 2001, at 12:32 p.m. EST. The scene shows thick bands of clouds extending from the eastern tip of Lake Erie and over Buffalo. The arrows show the wind direction, which is blowing down the length of the lake. Image and animation by Robert Simmon, based on data from the NASA GOES Project Science Office.

  18. 40 CFR 35.1603 - Summary of clean lakes assistance program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and the State must certify that the lake project is consistent with the State Water Quality Management... implementing recommended methods and procedures for controlling pollution entering the lake and restoring...

  19. A SCREENING-LEVEL MODEL EVALUATION OF ATRAZINE IN THE LAKE MICHIGAN BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atrazine, a widely used herbicide in the agricultural regions of the Lake Michigan basin, was selected as a priority toxic chemical study in the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) - sponsored Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project.

  20. Distribution and condition of larval and juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers in the Williamson River Delta restoration project and Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; Brown, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    Federally endangered Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose sucker (Chasmistes brevirostris) were once abundant throughout their range but populations have declined. They were extirpated from several lakes in the 1920s and may no longer reproduce in others. Poor recruitment to the adult spawning populations is one of several reasons cited for the decline and lack of recovery of these species and may be the consequence of high mortality during juvenile life stages. High larval and juvenile sucker mortality may be exacerbated by an insufficient quantity of suitable or high quality rearing habitat. In addition, larval suckers may be swept downstream from suitable rearing areas in Upper Klamath Lake into Keno Reservoir, which is seasonally anoxic. The Nature Conservancy flooded about 3,600 acres (1,456 hectares) to the north of the Williamson River mouth (Tulana Unit) in October 2007 and about 1,400 acres (567 hectares) to the south and east of the Williamson River mouth (Goose Bay Unit) a year later to retain larval suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, create nursery habitat, and improve water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey joined a long-term research and monitoring program in collaboration with The Nature Conservancy, the Bureau of Reclamation, and Oregon State University in 2008 to assess the effects of the Williamson River Delta restoration on the early life-history stages of Lost River and shortnose suckers. The primary objectives of the research were to describe habitat colonization and use by larval and juvenile suckers and non-sucker fishes and to evaluate the effects of the restored habitat on the health and condition of juvenile suckers. This report summarizes data collected in 2009 by the U.S. Geological Survey as a part of this monitoring effort. The Williamson River Delta appeared to provide suitable rearing habitat for endangered larval Lost River and shortnose suckers in 2008 and 2009. Larval suckers captured in this delta typically were

  1. Distribution and condition of larval and juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers in the Williamson River Delta restoration project and Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.

    2012-01-01

    Federally endangered Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose sucker (Chasmistes brevirostris) were once abundant throughout their range but populations have declined. They were extirpated from several lakes in the 1920s and may no longer reproduce in other lakes. Poor recruitment to the adult spawning populations is one of several reasons cited for the decline and lack of recovery of these species and may be the consequence of high mortality during juvenile life stages. High larval and juvenile sucker mortality may be exacerbated by an insufficient quantity of suitable or high-quality rearing habitat. In addition, larval suckers may be swept downstream from suitable rearing areas in Upper Klamath Lake into Keno Reservoir, where they are assumed lost to Upper Klamath Lake populations. The Nature Conservancy flooded about 3,600 acres (1,456 hectares) to the north of the Williamson River mouth (Tulana) in October 2007, and about 1,400 acres (567 hectares) to the south and east of the Williamson River mouth (Goose Bay Farms) in October 2008, in order to retain larval suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, create nursery habitat, and improve water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey joined a long-term research and monitoring program in collaboration with The Nature Conservancy, the Bureau of Reclamation, and Oregon State University in 2008 to assess the effects of the Williamson River Delta restoration on the early life-history stages of Lost River and shortnose suckers. The primary objectives of the research were to describe habitat colonization and use by larval and juvenile suckers and non-sucker fishes and to evaluate the effects of the restored habitat on the health and condition of juvenile suckers. This report summarizes data collected in 2010 by the U.S. Geological Survey as a part of this monitoring effort and follows two annual reports on data collected in 2008 and 2009. Restoration modifications made to the Williamson River Delta appeared to provide

  2. Hazardous thunderstorm intensification over Lake Victoria

    PubMed Central

    Thiery, Wim; Davin, Edouard L.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Bedka, Kristopher; Lhermitte, Stef; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Weather extremes have harmful impacts on communities around Lake Victoria, where thousands of fishermen die every year because of intense night-time thunderstorms. Yet how these thunderstorms will evolve in a future warmer climate is still unknown. Here we show that Lake Victoria is projected to be a hotspot of future extreme precipitation intensification by using new satellite-based observations, a high-resolution climate projection for the African Great Lakes and coarser-scale ensemble projections. Land precipitation on the previous day exerts a control on night-time occurrence of extremes on the lake by enhancing atmospheric convergence (74%) and moisture availability (26%). The future increase in extremes over Lake Victoria is about twice as large relative to surrounding land under a high-emission scenario, as only over-lake moisture advection is high enough to sustain Clausius–Clapeyron scaling. Our results highlight a major hazard associated with climate change over East Africa and underline the need for high-resolution projections to assess local climate change. PMID:27658848

  3. Hazardous thunderstorm intensification over Lake Victoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiery, Wim; Davin, Edouard L.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Bedka, Kristopher; Lhermitte, Stef; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.

    2016-09-01

    Weather extremes have harmful impacts on communities around Lake Victoria, where thousands of fishermen die every year because of intense night-time thunderstorms. Yet how these thunderstorms will evolve in a future warmer climate is still unknown. Here we show that Lake Victoria is projected to be a hotspot of future extreme precipitation intensification by using new satellite-based observations, a high-resolution climate projection for the African Great Lakes and coarser-scale ensemble projections. Land precipitation on the previous day exerts a control on night-time occurrence of extremes on the lake by enhancing atmospheric convergence (74%) and moisture availability (26%). The future increase in extremes over Lake Victoria is about twice as large relative to surrounding land under a high-emission scenario, as only over-lake moisture advection is high enough to sustain Clausius-Clapeyron scaling. Our results highlight a major hazard associated with climate change over East Africa and underline the need for high-resolution projections to assess local climate change.

  4. Integrating Climate Change into Great Lakes Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedman, S.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is now recognized as one of the greatest threats to the Great Lakes. Projected climate change impacts to the Great Lakes include increases in surface water and air temperature; decreases in ice cover; shorter winters, early spring, and longer summers; increased frequency of intense storms; more precipitation falling as rain in the winter; less snowfall; and variations in water levels, among other effects. Changing climate conditions may compromise efforts to protect and restore the Great Lakes ecosystem and may lead to irrevocable impacts on the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes. Examples of such potential impacts include the transformation of coastal wetlands into terrestrial ecosystems; reduced fisheries; increased beach erosion; change in forest species composition as species migrate northward; potential increase in toxic substance concentrations; potential increases in the frequency and extent of algal blooms; degraded water quality; and a potential increase in invasive species. The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, signed into law by President Obama in 2010, represents the commitment of the federal government to protect, restore, and maintain the Great Lakes ecosystem. The GLRI Action Plan, issued in February 2010, identifies five focus areas: - Toxic Substances and Areas of Concern - Invasive Species - Nearshore Health and Nonpoint Source Pollution - Habitat and Wildlife Protection and Restoration - Accountability, Education, Monitoring, Evaluation, Communication, and Partnerships The Action Plan recognizes that the projected impacts of climate change on the Great Lakes have implications across all focus areas and encourages incorporation of climate change considerations into GLRI projects and programs as appropriate. Under the GLRI, EPA has funded climate change-related work by states, tribes, federal agencies, academics and NGOs through competitive grants, state and tribal capacity grants, and Interagency

  5. Mass balance assessment for mercury in Lake Champlain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gao, N.; Armatas, N.G.; Shanley, J.B.; Kamman, N.C.; Miller, E.K.; Keeler, G.J.; Scherbatskoy, T.; Holsen, T.M.; Young, T.; McIlroy, L.; Drake, S.; Olsen, Bill; Cady, C.

    2006-01-01

    A mass balance model for mercury in Lake Champlain was developed in an effort to understand the sources, inventories, concentrations, and effects of mercury (Hg) contamination in the lake ecosystem. To construct the mass balance model, air, water, and sediment were sampled as a part of this project and other research/monitoring projects in the Lake Champlain Basin. This project produced a STELLA-based computer model and quantitative apportionments of the principal input and output pathways of Hg for each of 13 segments in the lake. The model Hg concentrations in the lake were consistent with measured concentrations. Specifically, the modeling identified surface water inflows as the largest direct contributor of Hg into the lake. Direct wet deposition to the lake was the second largest source of Hg followed by direct dry deposition. Volatilization and sedimentation losses were identified as the two major removal mechanisms. This study significantly improves previous estimates of the relative importance of Hg input pathways and of wet and dry deposition fluxes of Hg into Lake Champlain. It also provides new estimates of volatilization fluxes across different lake segments and sedimentation loss in the lake. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  6. 33 CFR 208.19 - Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Lyndon B. Johnson (Alvin Wirtz Dam), Lake Marble Falls (Max Starcke Dam), Marshall Ford Reservoir (Lake..., Lake Marble Falls, and Lake Austin) are run-of-the-river projects. The capabiity of the four upstream... Marble Falls and Marshall Ford Reservoir). During flood conditions, the following upstream...

  7. 33 CFR 208.19 - Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Lyndon B. Johnson (Alvin Wirtz Dam), Lake Marble Falls (Max Starcke Dam), Marshall Ford Reservoir (Lake..., Lake Marble Falls, and Lake Austin) are run-of-the-river projects. The capabiity of the four upstream... Marble Falls and Marshall Ford Reservoir). During flood conditions, the following upstream...

  8. 33 CFR 208.19 - Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Lyndon B. Johnson (Alvin Wirtz Dam), Lake Marble Falls (Max Starcke Dam), Marshall Ford Reservoir (Lake..., Lake Marble Falls, and Lake Austin) are run-of-the-river projects. The capabiity of the four upstream... Marble Falls and Marshall Ford Reservoir). During flood conditions, the following upstream...

  9. 33 CFR 208.19 - Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Lyndon B. Johnson (Alvin Wirtz Dam), Lake Marble Falls (Max Starcke Dam), Marshall Ford Reservoir (Lake..., Lake Marble Falls, and Lake Austin) are run-of-the-river projects. The capabiity of the four upstream... Marble Falls and Marshall Ford Reservoir). During flood conditions, the following upstream...

  10. Effects of land management practices on water quality in Mississippi Delta Oxbow Lakes: biochemical and microbiological aspects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mississippi Delta Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) project assessed the effects of land management practices on water quality in three small oxbow lake watersheds; Thighman (1497 ha, 9 ha lake); Beasley (850 ha, 25 ha lake); and Deep Hollow (202 ha, 8 ha lake). During 2000-2003 monthly...

  11. Effects of Land Management Practices on Water Quality in Mississippi Delta Oxbow Lakes: Biochemical and Microbiological Aspects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mississippi Delta Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) project was designed to assess the effects of land management practices on water quality in three small oxbow lake watersheds; Thighman (1497 ha, 9 ha lake); Beasley (850 ha, 25 ha lake); and Deep Hollow (202 ha, 8 ha lake). Results fr...

  12. Distribution and condition of larval and juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers in the Williamson River Delta restoration project and Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.

    2012-01-01

    Federally endangered Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose sucker (Chasmistes brevirostris) were once abundant throughout their range but populations have declined. They were extirpated from several lakes in the 1920s and may no longer reproduce in other lakes. Poor recruitment to the adult spawning populations is one of several reasons cited for the decline and lack of recovery of these species and may be the consequence of high mortality during juvenile life stages. High larval and juvenile sucker mortality may be exacerbated by an insufficient quantity of suitable or high-quality rearing habitat. In addition, larval suckers may be swept downstream from suitable rearing areas in Upper Klamath Lake into Keno Reservoir, where they are assumed lost to Upper Klamath Lake populations. The Nature Conservancy flooded about 3,600 acres (1,456 hectares) to the north of the Williamson River mouth (Tulana) in October 2007, and about 1,400 acres (567 hectares) to the south and east of the Williamson River mouth (Goose Bay Farms) in October 2008, in order to retain larval suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, create nursery habitat, and improve water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey joined a long-term research and monitoring program in collaboration with The Nature Conservancy, the Bureau of Reclamation, and Oregon State University in 2008 to assess the effects of the Williamson River Delta restoration on the early life-history stages of Lost River and shortnose suckers. The primary objectives of the research were to describe habitat colonization and use by larval and juvenile suckers and non-sucker fishes and to evaluate the effects of the restored habitat on the health and condition of juvenile suckers. This report summarizes data collected in 2010 by the U.S. Geological Survey as a part of this monitoring effort and follows two annual reports on data collected in 2008 and 2009. Restoration modifications made to the Williamson River Delta appeared to provide

  13. Drilling reaches Antarctic subglacial Lake Whillans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-02-01

    A decade-long planning effort to drill through 800 meters of ice to directly and cleanly sample the waters and sediments of subglacial Lake Whillans in West Antarctica succeeded at 5:00 A.M. local time on 28 January. The effort "marks the first successful retrieval of clean whole samples from an Antarctic subglacial lake," according to a 28 January statement from the Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling (WISSARD) project team.

  14. Longevity of Lake Superior lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schram, Stephen T.; Fabrizio, Mary C.

    1998-01-01

    The age structure of mature lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from the Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior increased following a population recovery that has taken place since the 1960s. As the population aged, it became apparent that scales were unreliable aging structures. Beginning in 1986, we examined both scale and sagittal otolith ages from tagged fish with a known period at liberty. We found large discrepancies in scale and sagittal otolith ages of mature fish, such that scale ages were biased low. We estimated lake trout living up to 42 years, which is greater than previously reported from Lake Superior. Investigators studying lake trout population dynamics in the Great Lakes should be aware that lake trout can live longer than previously thought.

  15. Benefit-cost analysis of fishery rehabilitation projects: A Great Lakes case study. Spec. issue: Responses to marine resource change/social sciences perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, R.C.; Milliman, S.R.; Boyle, K.J.; Johnson, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    Tools of benefit-cost analysis are used to evaluate a project to rehabilitate the yellow perch (Perca flavescens ) fishery of Green Bay, Wisconsin. Both sport and commercial fishers harvest from this stock, which has been suffering from much reduced productivity since the early 1960s. The project is composed of commercial quotas and other regulations. Measures of benefits and costs were used that explicitly incorporate uncertainly about the potential level of success of the project. The analysis shows that commercial fish producers will more or less break even compared to where they would have been without the project, but that substantial recreational benefits can be expected.

  16. Lake Volta, Ghana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of Lake Volta in Ghana was acquired March 31, 2002 by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Lake Volta is one of the world's largest artificially created lakes. Lake Volta is actually a reservoir formed from the damming of the Volta River, and extends 250 miles north of the Akosombo Dam. The lake covers an area of 8,482 square km. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  17. Lake-river and lake-atmosphere interactions in a changing climate over Northeast Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huziy, O.; Sushama, L.

    2016-07-01

    Lakes influence the regional climate and hydrology in a number of ways and therefore they should be represented in climate models in a realistic manner. Lack of representation of lakes in models can lead to errors in simulated energy and water fluxes, for lake-rich regions. This study focuses on the assessment of the impact of climate change on lakes and hydrology as well as on the influence of lakes on projected changes to regional climate and surface hydrology, particularly streamflows, for Northeast Canada. To this end, transient climate change simulations spanning the 1950-2100 period are performed, with and without lakes, with the fifth generation of the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5), driven by the Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2) at the lateral boundaries for Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5. An additional CRCM5 simulation, driven by European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis Interim (ERA-Interim) for the 1980-2010 period, is performed in order to assess performance and boundary forcing errors. Performance errors are assessed by comparing the ERA-Interim-driven simulation with available observation datasets, for the 1980-2010 period, for selected variables: 2-m air temperature, total precipitation, snow water equivalent and streamflow. The validation results indicate reasonable model performance over the study region. Boundary forcing errors are studied by comparing ERA-Interim-driven simulation with the one driven by CanESM2 for the current 1980-2010 period, to identify regions and seasons for which projected changes should be interpreted with extra caution. Comparison of projected changes from the CRCM5 simulations with and without lakes suggest that the presence of lakes results in a dampening of projected increases to 2-m air temperature for all seasons almost everywhere in the study domain, with maximum dampening of the order of 2 °C occurring during winter, mostly in the vicinity of the lakes. As for

  18. Planetary Lake Lander - A Robotic Sentinel to Monitor a Remote Lake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, Liam; Smith, Trey; Lee, Susan; Cabrol, Nathalie; Rose, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The Planetary Lake Lander Project is studying the impact of rapid deglaciation at a high altitude alpine lake in the Andes, where disrupted environmental, physical, chemical, and biological cycles result in newly emerging natural patterns. The solar powered Lake Lander robot is designed to monitor the lake system and characterize both baseline characteristics and impacts of disturbance events such as storms and landslides. Lake Lander must use an onboard adaptive science-on-the-fly approach to return relevant data about these events to mission control without exceeding limited energy and bandwidth resources. Lake Lander carries weather sensors, cameras and a sonde that is winched up and down the water column to monitor temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and other water quality parameters. Data from Lake Lander is returned via satellite and distributed to an international team of scientists via web-based ground data systems. Here, we describe the Lake Lander Project scientific goals, hardware design, ground data systems, and preliminary data from 2011. The adaptive science-on-the-fly system will be described in future papers.

  19. Astrobiology of Antarctic ice Covered Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, P. T.; Fritsen, C. H.

    2005-12-01

    Antarctica contains a number of permanently ice-covered lakes which have often been used as analogs of purported lakes on Mars in the past. Antarctic subglacial lakes, such as Lake Vostok, have also been viewed as excellent analogs for an ice covered ocean on the Jovian moon Europa, and to a lesser extend on Mars. Lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of East Antarctica have ice covers that range from 3 to 20 meters thick. Water salinities range from fresh to hypersaline. The thinner ice-covered lakes have a well-documented ecology that relies on the limited available nutrients and the small amount of light energy that penetrates the ice covers. The thickest ice-covered lake (Lake Vida in Victoria Valley) has a brine beneath 20 m of ice that is 7 times sea water and maintains a temperature below -10 degrees Celsius. This lake is vastly different from the thinner ice-covered lakes in that there is no communication with the atmosphere. The permanent ice cover is so thick, that summer melt waters can not access the sub-ice brine and so the ice grows from the top up, as well as from the bottom down. Brine trapped beneath the ice is believed to be ancient, stranded thousands of years ago when the ice grew thick enough to isolate it from the surface. We view Lake Vida as an excellent analog for the last aquatic ecosystem to have existed on Mars under a planetary cooling. If, as evidence is now increasingly supporting, standing bodies of water existed on Mars in the past, their fate under a cooling would be to go through a stage of permanent ice cover establishment, followed by a thickening of that ice cover until the final stage just prior to a cold extinction would be a Lake Vida-like lake. If dust storms or mass movements covered these ancient lakes, remnants may well be in existence in the subsurface today. A NASA Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP) project will drill the Lake Vida ice cover and access the brine and sediments beneath in

  20. An inventory of glacial lakes in the Austrian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckel, Johannes; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Keuschnig, Markus; Götz, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    The formation of lakes is one of the consequences of glacier retreat due to climate change in mountain areas. Numerous lakes have formed in the past few decades in many mountain regions around the globe. Some of these lakes came into focus due to catastrophic hazard events especially in the Himalayas and the Andes. Glacial lake development and lifetime is controlled by the complex interplay of glacier dynamics, geomorphological process activity and geological boundary conditions. Besides the hazard potential new lakes in formerly glaciated areas will significantly contribute to a new landscape setting and to changing geomorphologic, hydrologic and ecologic conditions at higher alpine altitudes. We present an inventory of high alpine lakes in the Austrian Alps located above an altitude of 1700 m asl. Most of these lakes are assumed to be of glacial origin, but other causes for development, like mass movements are considered as well. The inventory is a central part of the project FUTURELAKES that aims at modelling the potential development of glacial lakes in Austria (we refer to the presentation by Helfricht et al. during the conference for more details on the modelling part). Lake inventory data will serve as one basis for model validation since modelling is performed on different time steps using glacier inventory data. The purpose of the lake inventory is to get new insights into boundary conditions for lake formation and evolution by analysing existing lake settings. Based on these information the project seeks to establish a model of lake sedimentation after glacier retreat in order to assess the potential lifetime of the new lakes in Austria. Lakes with a minimum size of 1000 m² were mapped using multiple aerial imagery sources. The dataset contains information on location, geometry, dam type, and status of sedimentation for each lake. Additionally, various geologic, geomorphic and morphometric parameters describe the lake catchments. Lake data is related to

  1. Climate Change Adaptation Decision Making for Glacial Lake Outburst Floods From Palcacocha Lake in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuellar, A. D.; McKinney, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change has accelerated glacial retreat in high altitude glaciated regions of Peru leading to the growth and formation of glacier lakes. Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF) are sudden events triggered by an earthquake, avalanche into the lake or other shock that causes a sudden outflow of water. These floods are catastrophic because of their sudden onset, the difficulty predicting them, and enormous quantity of water and debris rapidly flooding downstream areas. Palcacocha Lake in the Peruvian Andes has experienced accelerated growth since it burst in 1941 and threatens the major city of Huaraz and surrounding communities. Since the 1941 flood stakeholders have advocated for projects to adapt to the increasing threat posed by Palcacocha Lake. Nonetheless, discussions surrounding projects for Palcacocha have not included a rigorous analysis of the potential consequences of a flood, probability of an event, or costs of mitigation projects. This work presents the first step to rationally analyze the risks posed by Palcacocha Lake and the various adaptation projects proposed. In this work the authors use decision analysis to asses proposed adaptation measures that would mitigate damage in downstream communities from a GLOF. We use an existing hydrodynamic model of the at-risk area to determine how adaptation projects will affect downstream flooding. Flood characteristics are used in the HEC-FIA software to estimate fatalities and injuries from an outburst flood, which we convert to monetary units using the value of a statistical life. We combine the monetary consequences of a GLOF with the cost of the proposed projects and a diffuse probability distribution for the likelihood of an event to estimate the expected cost of the adaptation plans. From this analysis we found that lowering the lake level by 15 meters has the least expected cost of any proposal despite uncertainty in the effect of lake lowering on flooding downstream.

  2. Spatial characterization of acid rain stress in Canadian Shield Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanis, F. J.; Marshall, E. M.

    1989-01-01

    The lake acidification in Northern Ontario was investigated using LANDSAT TM to sense lake volume reflectance and also to provide important vegetation and terrain characteristics. The purpose of this project was to determine the ability of LANDSAT to assess water quality characteristics associated with lake acidification. Results demonstrate that a remote sensor can discriminate lake clarity based upon reflection. The basic hypothesis is that seasonal and multi-year changes in lake optical transparency are indicative of sensitivity to acidic deposition. In many acid-sensitive lakes optical transparency is controlled by the amount of dissolved organic carbon present. Seasonal changes in the optical transparency of lakes can potentially provide an indication of the stress due to acid deposition and loading.

  3. Exploration of Subglacial Lake Ellsworth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, N.

    2012-12-01

    Antarctic subglacial lakes are thought to be extreme habitats for microbial life and may contain important records of ice sheet history within their lake-floor sediments. To find if this is true, and to answer the science questions that would follow, direct measurement and sampling of these environments is required. Ever since the water depth of Vostok Subglacial Lake in East Antarctica was shown to be >500 m, attention has been given to how these unique, ancient and pristine subglacial environments may be entered without contamination and adverse disturbance. Several organizations have offered guidelines on the desirable cleanliness and sterility requirements for direct sampling experiments, including the US National Academy of Sciences and the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. The aims, design and implementation of subglacial lake access experiments have direct relevance for the exploration of extra-terrestrial ice-covered bodies (e.g. Europa) and the search for microbial life elsewhere in the Solar System. This presentation summarizes the scientific protocols and methods being developed for the exploration of Ellsworth Subglacial Lake in West Antarctica, and provides an up-to-date summary of the status of the project. The proposed exploration, planned for December 2012, involves accessing the lake using a hot-water drill and deploying a sampling probe and sediment corer to allow in situ measurement and sample collection. Details are presented on how this can be undertaken with minimal environmental impact that maximizes scientific return without compromising the environment for future experiments. The implications of this experiment for the search for extra-terrestrial life will be discussed.

  4. International Planning for Subglacial Lake Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennicutt, M.; Priscu, J.

    2003-04-01

    As one of the last unexplored frontiers on our planet, subglacial lakes offer a unique and exciting venue for exploration and research. Over the past several years, subglacial lakes have captured the imagination of the scientific community and public, evoking images of potential exotic life forms surviving under some of the most extreme conditions on earth. Various planning activities have recognized that due to the remote and harsh conditions, that a successful subglacial lake exploration program will entail a concerted effort for a number of years. It will also require an international commitment of major financial and human resources. To begin a detailed planning process, the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) convened the Subglacial Antarctic Lake Exploration Group of Specialists (SALEGOS) in Tokyo in 2000. The group was asked to build on previous workshops and meetings to develop a plan to explore subglacial lake environments. Its mandate adopted the guiding principles as agreed in Cambridge in 1999 that the program would be interdisciplinary in scope, be designed for minimum contamination and disturbance of the subglacial lake environment, have as a goal lake entry and sample retrieval, and that the ultimate target of the program should be Lake Vostok exploration. Since its formation SALEGOS has met three times and addressed some of the more intractable issues related to subglacial lake exploration. Topics under discussion include current state-of-the-knowledge of subglacial environments, technological needs, international management and organizational strategies, a portfolio of scientific projects, "clean" requirements, and logistical considerations. In this presentation the actvities of SALEGOS will be summarized and recommendations for an international subglacial lake exploration program discussed.

  5. IBIS FOR FISH AND MACROINVERTEBRATES DEVELOPED FOR GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS: AN EPA REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (REMAP) PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research from this REMAP project produced results that demonstrate various stages of an assessment strategy and produced tools including an inventory classification, field methods and multimetric biotic indices that are now available for use by environmental resource managers...

  6. A proposed algaculture facility at L Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.; Benemann, J.R.

    1988-11-18

    The proposed project involves the development and establishment of an aquaculture system in L Lake, a 1000-acre cooling lake constructed at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) in 1985. Waste heat and excess nutrients would be used to produce valuable products derived from microalgae biomass. The process would simultaneously serve as an innovative mitigation scheme to help overcome the potential environmental problems associated with using L Lake to dissipate heat from the secondary cooling system for L Reactor. The project involves using the upper 300 acres of L Lake, the region most affected by thermal effluents, to cultivate (produce and harvest) microalgae, a process known commercially as ''algaculture''. Selected strains of nontoxic, thermotolerant, filamentous, nitrogen-fixing, blue-green algae would be used. These algae could be inoculated into the uppermost sections of L Lake, near the reactor outfall, and harvested at the lower boundary of the 300-acre project area with microstrainers. Part of the harvested biomass could be recycled back to the reactor outfall region to maintain a high density of the desired algal strain(s) within the project area.

  7. Hazardous thunderstorms over Lake Victoria: climate change and early warnings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiery, Wim; Davin, Edouard L.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Bedka, Kristopher; Lhermitte, Stef; van Lipzig, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Severe thunderstorms and associated high waves represent a constant threat to the 200,000 fishermen operating on Lake Victoria. According to the International Red Cross, presumably 3000 to 5000 fishermen die every year on the lake, thereby substantially contributing to the global death toll from natural disasters. Despite the long-known bad reputation of Lake Victoria, operational early warning systems are lacking and possible future changes of these extreme thunderstorms are unknown. Here we present the first dedicated high-resolution, coupled lake-land-atmosphere climate projection for the African Great Lakes region and analyse it in combination with new satellite data and coarser-scale ensemble projections. Our model projections for the end-of-the-century indicate that Lake Victoria amplifies the future intensification of extreme precipitation seen over the surrounding land. Under a high-emission scenario (RCP8.5), the 1% most extreme over-lake precipitation may intensify up to four times faster compared to surrounding land. Our findings are consistent with an ensemble of coarser-scale climate projections for Africa, but the lower skill of the ensemble over Lake Victoria constrains its applicability. Interestingly, the change in extremes contrasts to the change in average over-lake precipitation, which is projected to decrease by -6% for the same period. By further analyzing the high-resolution output we are able to explain this different response: while mesoscale circulation changes cause the average precipitation decline, the response of extremes is essentially thermodynamic. Finally, the study of the satellite-based detection of severe thunderstorms revealed a strong dependency of the nighttime storm intensity over Lake Victoria on the antecedent daytime land storm activity. This highlights the potential of this new satellite product for predicting intense storms over Lake Victoria. Overall, our results indicate a new major hazard associated with climate

  8. Choking Lake Winnipeg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, J. M.; Little, L. J.; Dodgson, K. A.; MacDonald, R. J.; Graham, J.

    2009-12-01

    The problems of waterway eutrophication and coastal zone hypoxia are reaching epidemic proportions. Fresh water and coastal marine environments around the world are suffering unprecedented pollution loadings. We are developing an education program to address the dramatic need for public, community and K-12 education about the harsh impacts of elevated nutrient loads on fresh and marine water environments. The Lake Winnipeg watershed is adopted as the poster child of fresh water eutrophication in western North America. The watershed, one of the largest on the continent, is in rapid decline due to pollution, population pressures and water diversion. A concerted education program is needed to change personal and society actions that negatively impact the Winnipeg watershed; and the confluence of the watershed - Lake Winnipeg. But the education program goes beyond Lake Winnipeg. Negative impacts of nutrient loads are adversely affecting environments right to the oceans. Major dead zones that are expanding on our continental shelves due to nutrient overloading threaten to coalesce into extensive regions of marine life die-off. This presentation outlines the documentary education production process under development. We are building a series of Public Service Announcements (PSAs) for national television networks. The PSAs will direct educators, stakeholders and citizens to an associated website with educational video clips detailing the issues of eutrophication and hypoxia. The video clips or webisodes, present interviews with leading scientists. The discussions address the causes of the problems, and presents workable solutions to nutrient overloads from a variety of sources. The webisodes are accompanied by notes and advice to teachers on ways and means to use the webisodes in classrooms. The project is fully funed by a group of Canadian Community Foundations, with the understanding the work wil be available free to educators anywhere in the world. Our education

  9. 77 FR 99 - Barren River Lake Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Barren River Lake Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission, Soliciting Additional Study Requests, and Establishing Procedural Schedule for... River Lake Hydro LLC (Barren Hydro). e. Name of Project: Barren River Lake Dam Hydroelectric Project....

  10. Lake Nasser and Toshka Lakes, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Nasser (center) and the Toshka Lakes (center left) glow emerald green and black in this MODIS true-color image acquired March 8, 2002. Located on and near the border of Egypt and Norther Sudan, these lakes are an oasis of water in between the Nubian (lower right) and Libyan Deserts (upper left). Also visible are the Red Sea (in the upper right) and the Nile River (running north from Lake Nasser). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  11. INTERACTION AND IMPACTS OF THE DETROIT RIVER ON LAKE ERIE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This preliminary modeling effort synthesizes information collected by the US EPA Great Lakes National Program Office project and collaborators over the past 4 years and is pursuant to the Clean Water Act and the US-Canada Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. Although these are p...

  12. Diving in Head First: Finding the Volume of Norris lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Drew W.

    2008-01-01

    This article allows students to apply their knowledge and experience of area and volume to find the volume of Norris Lake, a large reservoir lake in Tennessee. Students have the opportunity to demonstrate their skills in using maps and scales as well as to incorporate the use of technology in developing the solution. This project satisfied the…

  13. 9. 'CRIB DAM IN LAKE FORK RIVER AT HEADING OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. 'CRIB DAM IN LAKE FORK RIVER AT HEADING OF LAKE FORK CANAL, UINTAH PROJECT. TWO SLUICEWAYS TWENTY FEET WIDE HAVE BEEN LEFT IN THE DAM TO PASS BOULDERS DURING HIGH WATER. THESE SLUICEWAYS ARE CLOSED BY LOGS AND HAY DURING LOW WATER.' Date unknown - Irrigation Canals in the Uinta Basin, Duchesne, Duchesne County, UT

  14. MODELLING PHYTOPLANKTON IN LAKE MICHIGAN USING A HIGH RESULUTION CARBON-BASED FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project was initiated by the U.S. EPA Great Lakes National Program Office to determine strategies for managing toxic chemicals in the lake basin. The hydrophobicity of most of these chemicals necessitates a solid understanding of autochthonous produ...

  15. Evaluation of a cooling-lake fishery. Volume 1. Introduction, water quality, and summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Larimore, R.W.; McNurney, J.M.

    1980-07-01

    Volume 1 consists of (1) a statement of project objectives and a detailed description of the study areas, (2) a comparison of water quality in Lake Sangchris, a cooling lake, and Lake Shelbyville, a nearby flood control reservoir, and (3) a summary of the other three volumes.

  16. RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF TOTAL AND METHYL MERCURY IN 1994-5 LAKE MICHIGAN FORAGE FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project, forage fish samples were collected in 1994-5 from three regions within Lake Michigan: Saugatuck, Michigan and Port Washington and Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin by the USGS Great Lakes Science Center in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Species of ...

  17. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Eckert, Thomas H.; Schaner, Ted; Bowlby, James N.; Schleen, Larry P.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in 1971 and was enhanced when the tributaries of Oneida Lake and Lake Erie were treated in the 1980s. Annual stocking of hatchery fish was resumed with the 1972 year class and peaked at about 1.8 million yearlings and 0.3 million fingerlings from the 1985–1990 year classes. Survival of stocked yearlings declined over 50% in the 1980 s and was negatively correlated with the abundance of lake trout > 550 mm long (r = −0.91, P < 0.01, n = 12). A slot length limit imposed by the State of New York for the 1988 fishing season reduced angler harvest. Angler harvest in Canadian waters was 3 times higher in eastern Lake Ontario than in western Lake Ontario. For the 1977–1984 year classes, mean annual survival rate of lake trout age 6 and older was 0.45 (range: 0.35–0.56). In U.S. waters during 1985–1992, the total number of lake trout harvested by anglers was about 2.4 times greater than that killed by sea lampreys. The number of unmarked lake trout < 250 mm long in trawl catches in 1978–1992 was not different from that expected due to loss of marks and failure to apply marks at the hatchery, and suggested that recruitment of naturally-produced fish was nil. However, many of the obstacles which may have impeded lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario during the 1980s are slowly being removed, and there are signs of a general ecosystem recovery. Significant recruitment of naturally produced lake trout by the year 2000, one interim objective of the rehabilitation plan for the Lake, may be achieved.

  18. Lakes Ecosystem Services Online

    EPA Science Inventory

    Northeastern lakes provide valuable ecosystem services that benefit residents and visitors and are increasingly important for provisioning of recreational opportunities and amenities. Concurrently, however, population growth threatens lakes by, for instance, increasing nutrient ...

  19. Utah: Salt Lake Region

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region     View Larger Image Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the ...

  20. Impacts of a Warmer Climate on Lake Geneva Temperature Profiles Using a Single- Column Lake Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perroud, M.; Goyette, S.

    2008-12-01

    The main objective of this study is to assess the impacts of a warmer climate on Lake Geneva, a deep, extensive lake located in peri-alpine area of Switzerland. In a first step, temperature profiles have been investigated using different 1-D lake models in order to select the most suitable for long term simulation. Subsequently, one-way and two-way coupling methods with the processes at the lake-atmosphere interface have been used to evaluate future temperature profiles. The numerical lake model Simstrat reproduces accurately the thermal profiles prevailing at the centre of the lake and the model may therefore serve for studies on lake temperature evolution by the end of the century. Simulations run with the one-way coupling method are based on hourly observed data recorded between 1960-1990 and perturbed with future atmospheric conditions deduced from a statistical analysis using outputs from an RCM produced in the context of the EU-Prudence project under IPCC A2 scenario. In the two-way method where mutual exchanges between the lake and atmosphere are considered, then Simstrat is coupled to an atmospheric column model (Fiz), and future temperature profiles are evaluated following the doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration. The juxtaposition of outputs using the one-way or the two-way coupling method allows for comparison of individual performances, verification of energy budgets and validation of temperature trends, based on the simulation with respect to future conditions.

  1. Water-quality and lake-stage data for Wisconsin Lakes, water year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, W.J.; Garn, H.S.; Goddard, G.L.; Olson, D.L.; Robertson, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data, including stage and discharge data at most streamflow-gaging stations, are available throught the World Wide Web on the Internet. The Wisconsin District's home page is at http://wi.water.usgs.gov/. Information on the Wisconsin District's Lakes Program is found at wi.water.usgs.gov/lake/index.html and wi.water.usgs.gov/projects/ index.html.

  2. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This book contains lesson plans that provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into elementary subjects. The book is divided into three subject areas: (1) History, which includes the origins of the Great Lakes, Great Lakes people, and shipwrecks; (2) Social Studies, which covers government, acid rain as a…

  3. A Killer Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In 1986, Lake Nyos, a volcanic lake in Cameroon, released a huge amount of carbon dioxide gas, killing over 1,700 people in the surrounding area. This case study, developed for use in a limnology or aquatic biology course, explores that event, introducing students to concepts relating to lake formation, thermal stratification, and dissolved gases.…

  4. Great Lakes: Chemical Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfino, Joseph J.

    1976-01-01

    The Tenth Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society met to assess current Chemical Research activity in the Great Lakes Basin, and addressed to the various aspects of the theme, Chemistry of the Great Lakes. Research areas reviewed included watershed studies, atmospheric and aquatic studies, and sediment studies. (BT)

  5. Lake Layers: Stratification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brothers, Chris; And Others

    This teacher guide and student workbook set contains two learning activities, designed for fifth through ninth grade students, that concentrate on lake stratification and water quality. In the activities students model the seasonal temperature changes that occur in temperate lakes and observe the resulting stratification of lake waters. Students…

  6. Sweet Lake Geopressured-geothermal Project, Magma Gulf-Technadril/DOE Amoco Fee. Volume II. Surface installations reservoir testing. Annual report, February 28, 1981-February 10, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, K.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Magma Gulf-Technadril/Department of Energy Amoco Fee No. 1 (production) and salt water disposal wells were drilled in the period from August, 1980 to February 1981. Surface facilities were designed and constructed during March-June 1981. Flow testing began in June 1981 and continued until February, 1982. The Miogypsinoides interval contains seven discrete sands in the test well. These sands have been numbered 1 to 7, beginning at the top of the sequence. Data from wireline logs and core samples suggested that the first zone to be perforated should be Sand 5. Because of its high porosity and permeability, Sand 5 was thought to contain almost 50% of the total hydraulic capacity of the well. Flow testing of Sand 5 was performed in three stages, each of which is fully described in this report. Phase I was designed as an initial clean-up flow and a reservoir confirmation test. Phase II consisted of the reservoir limit determination test and lasted 17 days. Boundaries were confirmed which suggest that the Sweet Lake reservoir is fairly narrow, with boundaries on three sides, but is open in one direction with no closure for at least 4-1/4 miles. These boundaries approximate the shape of the graben in which the test well was drilled, but may or may not be directly related to the major faults forming the graben. Phase III testing was planned to be a long-term test at commercial design rates. Although Sand 5 alone would not support such rates, long-term production was demonstrated. Additional research not supported by DOE funding was also performed during the period covered by this report. This research, consisting of mud logging, micropaleontology, organic geochemistry, core analysis, and rock mechanics, is summarized in this report.

  7. View of Pressure Tunnel Intake at Stehr Lake. Looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Pressure Tunnel Intake at Stehr Lake. Looking southeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Pressure Tunnel Intake, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  8. 69. View of north arm of Lake Tapps, looking south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. View of north arm of Lake Tapps, looking south. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  9. 62. Lake Pleasant with snow in the Bradshaw Mountains. Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Lake Pleasant with snow in the Bradshaw Mountains. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. Great Lakes Steel -- PCI facility

    SciTech Connect

    Eichinger, F.T.; Dake, S.H.; Wagner, E.D.; Brown, G.S.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the planning, design, and start-up of the 90 tph PCI facility for National Steel`s Great Lakes Steel Division in River Rouge, MI. This project is owned and operated by Edison Energy Services, and was implemented on a fast-track basis by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Babcock Material Handling, and Babcock and Wilcox. This paper presents important process issues, basic design criteria, an the challenges of engineering and building a state-of-the-art PCI facility in two existing plants. Pulverized coal is prepared at the River Rouge Power Plant of Detroit Edison, is pneumatically conveyed 6,000 feet to a storage silo at Great Lakes Steel, and is injected into three blast furnaces.

  11. The effects of water levels on Two Lake Ontario Wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busch, Wolf-Dieter N.; Osborn, Ronald G.; Auble, Gregor T.

    1990-01-01

    Lake Ontario's water levels have been regulated since 1959, after the completion of the St. Lawrence River navigation and hydropower development project. The plan used to guide the regulation (1958-D) has been in effect since 1963 (Bryce, 1982). The purpose of the regulation was to prevent extreme high-water levels which increased erosion on the south shore of Lake Ontario, while protecting the interests of commercial navigation and hydropower production in the St. Lawrence River (T. Brown, personal communication, member of the Board of Control). Major user groups have sought further reductions in the range of lake level fluctuations. However, the biological resources, especially the lake influenced wetlands, benefit from the waterlevel fluctuations. Great Lakes wetlands are the most important habitat for wildlife of the region (Tilton and Schwegler, 1978). We provide information here on the responses of wetland plant communities in two wetlands to changes in lake levels over time.

  12. Potential Impacts of Climate Change in the Great Lakes Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change is projected to have substantial impacts in the Great Lakes region of the United States. One intent of this presentation is to introduce the Great Lakes Integrated Sciences and Assessments Center (GLISA), a recently-funded NOAA RISA center. The goals and unique organizational structure of GLISA will be described along with core activities that support impact and assessment studies in the region. Additionally, observed trends in temperature, precipitation including lake effect snowfall, and lake temperatures and ice cover will be summarized for the Great Lakes region, and vulnerabilities to, and potential impacts of, climate change will be surveyed for critical natural and human systems. These include forest ecosystems, water resources, traditional and specialized agriculture, and tourism/recreation. Impacts and vulnerabilities unique to the Great Lakes region are emphasized.

  13. Statistical analysis of interaction between lake seepage rates and groundwater and lake levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ala-aho, P.; Rossi, P. M.; Klöve, B.

    2012-04-01

    measurement locations. Result suggested that underlying hydrogeological conditions dictated the variation of seepage rates to some extent for all of the measurement locations. Correlation analysis of seepage meter measurements and water levels and precipitation indicated that seepage rates in a specific seepage measurement location were influenced by different parts of the hydrogeological system. Location and rate of inseepage were dictated by a different groundwater flow system compared to locations where outseepage were measured. In addition locations of outseepage responded differently to changes in the lake and groundwater levels. Variation of seepage rate in some locations reflected the changes in the regional groundwater system, as other responded to changes in the local flow system. Study shows that a simple statistical analysis of temporal variability of lake seepage rates and lake and groundwater level recordings can give a valuable insight to the dynamics of lake - groundwater interaction. Such understanding is of crucial importance when effects of changes in climate, land use or water extraction needs to be understood and managed in lake - aquifer systems. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The project was financed by the 7th framework project GENESIS (226536).

  14. Food of lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dryer, William R.; Erkkila, Leo F.; Tetzloff, Clifford L.

    1965-01-01

    Stomachs were examined from 1,492 lake trout and 83 siscowets collected from Lake Superior. Data are given on the food of lake trout of legal size (17 inches or longer) by year, season, and depth of water, and on the relation between food and size among smaller lake trout. Fish contributed 96.7 to 99.9 per cent of the total volume of food in the annual samples. Ciscoes (Coregonus spp.) were most common (52.2 to 87.5 per cent of the volume) in 1950 to 1953 and American smelt ranked first (65.6 per cent of the volume) in 1963. Cottids were in 8.9 to 12.3 per cent of the stomachs in 1950 to 1953 but in only 4.3 per cent in 1963. Insects ranked second to fish in occurrence (9.6 per cent for the combined samples) and crustaceans followed at 3.9 per cent. The greatest seasonal changes in the food of lake trout were among fish caught at 35 fathoms and shallower. The occurrence of Coregonus increased from 34.6 per cent in February-March to 71.1 per cent in October-December. Smelt were in 76.9 per cent of the stomachs in February-March but in only 2.2 per cent in October-December. Cottids, Mysis relicta, and insects were most common in the July-September collections. Lake trout taken at depths greater than 35 fathoms had eaten a higher percentage of Cottidae and Coregonus than had those captured in shallower water. Smelt, ninespine sticklebacks, Mysis, and insects were more frequent in stomachs of lake trout from less than 35 fathoms. Crustaceans comprised more than 70 per cent of the total volume of food for 4.0- to 7.9-inch lake trout but their importance decreased as the lake trout grew larger. Pontoporeia affinis was the most common in the stomachs of 4.0- to 6.9-inch lake trout and Mysis held first rank at 7.0 to 12.9 inches. Ostracods were important only to 4.0- to 4.9-inch lake trout. As the lake trout became larger, the importance of fish grew from 4.4-per cent occurrence at 5.0 to 5.9 inches to 93.9 per cent at 16.0 to 16.9 inches. Smelt were most commonly eaten by

  15. Partitioning potential fish yields from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loftus, D.H.; Olver, C.H.; Brown, Edward H.; Colby, P.J.; Hartman, Wilbur L.; Schupp, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    We proposed and implemented procedures for partitioning future fish yields from the Great Lakes into taxonomic components. These projections are intended as guidelines for Great Lakes resource managers and scientists. Attainment of projected yields depends on restoration of stable fish communities containing some large piscivores that will use prey efficiently, continuation of control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), and restoration of high-quality fish habitat. Because Great Lakes fish communities were harmonic before their collapse, we used their historic yield properties as part of the basis for projecting potential yields of rehabilitated communities. This use is qualified, however, because of possible inaccuracies in the wholly commercial yield data, the presence now of greatly expanded sport fisheries that affect yield composition and magnitude, and some possibly irreversible changes since the 1950s in the various fish communities themselves. We predict that total yields from Lakes Superior, Huron, and Ontario will be increased through rehabilitation, while those from Lakes Michigan and Erie will decline. Salmonines and coregonines will dominate future yields from the upper lakes. The Lake Erie fishery will continue to yield mostly rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), but the relative importance of percids, especially of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) will increase. In Lake Ontario, yields of salmonines will be increased. Managers will have to apply the most rigorous management strictures to major predator species.

  16. Proceedings of GLaSS: Global Lakes Sentinel Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Steef; Hommersom, Annelies; Alikas, Krista; Heege, Thomas; Schenk, Karin; Ruescas, Ana; Eleveld, Marieke; Giardino, Claudia; Koponen, Sampsa; Kallio, Kari; Philipson, Petra

    2015-12-01

    Global Lakes Sentinel Services (GLaSS) is developing a prototype Sentinel service infrastructure to ingest and process Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 data into validated ecological water quality parameters for lakes, plus training material. GLaSS is an EU-funded R&D project within the Copernicus framework. The project is well on its way to reach its goals. Some results on comparisons on atmospheric correction methods for inland waters are presented here.

  17. A Water Balance Model for assessing Hydro Climatic Variability in Tropical Lake Systems: Application to Lake Babati and Lake Emakat, Nothern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pericles Mbanguka, Rene; Girons Lopez, Marc; Jarsjö, Jerker

    2013-04-01

    are the only climate related factors that could justify the large volume change experienced by the Lake during a 200 year period, 10,000 years BP, as estimated by proxy data. On the other hand, the model was applied to establish the necessary ambient condition changes to produce a dry-out and an overflow condition of Lake Babati and to investigate the lake system response to future IPCC climate change projections in the study area. The model shows that a sustained temperature change of less than 3oC or a precipitation change of about 100 mm/year is sufficient to bring the lake from a dry-out to an overflow condition. Simulations of IPCC derived scenarios indicate a clear tendency of the lake to increase its volume and reach the overflow level in relatively short time (approximately 10 years). Despite the model uncertainties, mainly due to limited data, it provides a means for improved interpretation of proxy data of lake level and past climatic changes retrieved from lake sediments. Furthermore, the model ability to predict the lakes hydrological response to future variations in hydroclimatic conditions and catchment characteristics offers a valuable decision support tool for water resources management

  18. Water quality of Lake Austin and Town Lake, Austin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, F.L.; Wells, F.C.; Shelby, W.J.; McPherson, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    Lake Austin and Town Lake are impoundments on the Colorado River in Travis County, central Texas, and are a source of water for municipal industrial water supplies, electrical-power generation, and recreation for more than 500,000 people in the Austin metropolitan area. Small vertical temperature variations in both lakes were attributed to shallow depths in the lakes and short retention times of water in the lakes during the summer months. The largest areal variations in dissolved oxygen generally occur in Lake Austin during the summer as a result of releases of water from below the thermocline in Lake Travis. Except for iron, manganese, and mercury, dissolved concentrations of trace elements in water collected from Lake Austin and Town Lake did not exceed the primary or secondary drinking water standards set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Little or no effect of stormwater runoff on temperature, dissolved oxygen, or minor elements could be detected in either Lake Austin or Town Lake. Little seasonal or areal variation was noted in nitrogen concentrations in Lake Austin or Town lake. Total phosphorus concentrations generally were small in both lakes. Increased concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were detected after storm runoff inflow in Town Lake, but not in Lake Austin; densities of fecal-coliform bacteria increased in Lake Austin and Town Lake, but were substantially greater in Town Lake than in Lake Austin. 18 refs., 38 figs., 59 tabs.

  19. Decision Making Methodology to Mitigate Damage From Glacial Lake Outburst Floods From Imja Lake in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinney, D. C.; Cuellar, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change has accelerated glacial retreat in high altitude glaciated regions of Nepal leading to the growth and formation of glacier lakes. Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF) are sudden events triggered by an earthquake, moraine failure or other shock that causes a sudden outflow of water. These floods are catastrophic because of their sudden onset, the difficulty predicting them, and enormous quantity of water and debris rapidly flooding downstream areas. Imja Lake in the Himalaya of Nepal has experienced accelerated growth since it first appeared in the 1960s. Communities threatened by a flood from Imja Lake have advocated for projects to adapt to the increasing threat of a GLOF. Nonetheless, discussions surrounding projects for Imja have not included a rigorous analysis of the potential consequences of a flood, probability of an event, or costs of mitigation projects in part because this information is unknown or uncertain. This work presents a demonstration of a decision making methodology developed to rationally analyze the risks posed by Imja Lake and the various adaptation projects proposed using available information. In this work the authors use decision analysis, data envelopement analysis (DEA), and sensitivity analysis to assess proposed adaptation measures that would mitigate damage in downstream communities from a GLOF. We use an existing hydrodynamic model of the at-risk area to determine how adaptation projects will affect downstream flooding and estimate fatalities using an empirical method developed for dam failures. The DEA methodology allows us to estimate the value of a statistical life implied by each project given the cost of the project and number of lives saved to determine which project is the most efficient. In contrast the decision analysis methodology requires fatalities to be assigned a cost but allows the inclusion of uncertainty in the decision making process. We compare the output of these two methodologies and determine the

  20. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eshenroder, Randy L.; Payne, N. Robert; Johnson, James E.; Bowen, Charles; Ebener, Mark P.

    1995-01-01

    Efforts to restore lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Huron after their collapse in the 1940s were underway in the early 1970s with completion of the first round of lampricide applications in tributary streams and the stocking of several genotypes. We assess results of rehabilitation and establish a historical basis for comparison by quantifying the catch of spawning lake trout from Michigan waters in 1929-1932. Sixty-eight percent of this catch occurred in northern waters (MH-1) and most of the rest (15%) was from remote reefs in the middle of the main basin. Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) increased in the early 1980s in the main basin and depressed spawning populations of lake trout. This increase was especially severe in northern waters and appeared to be associated with untreated populations in the St. Marys River. Excessive commercial fishing stemming from unresolved treaty rights also contributed to loss of spawning fish in northern Michigan waters. Seneca-strain lake trout did not appear to be attacked by sea lampreys until they reached a size > 532 mm. At sizes > 632 mm, Seneca trout were 40-fold more abundant than the Marquette strain in matched-planting experiments. Natural reproduction past the fry stage has occurred in Thunder Bay and South Bay, but prospects for self-sustaining populations of lake trout in the main basin are poor because sea lampreys are too abundant, only one side of the basin is stocked, and stocking is deferred to allow commercial gillnetting in areas where most of the spawning occurred historically. Backcross lake trout, a lake trout x splake (s. Fontinalis x s. Namaycush) hybrid, did not reproduce in Georgian Bay, but this genotype is being replaced with pure-strain lake trout, whose early performance appears promising.

  1. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources in the Great Lakes Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuebbles, D. J.; Hayhoe, K.; Cherkauer, K.

    2008-12-01

    Climate-driven changes in temperature and precipitation are projected to affect many aspects of water resources. Here, we provide examples of several case studies demonstrating the potential effects of climate change on soil moisture, river and stream flow, and lake levels in the Great Lakes and the Midwest. Using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) large-scale hydrology model and the NOAA/GLERL Great Lakes basin model driven by gridded historical meteorology and statistically downscaled future global climate model projections, simulations of future changes under IPCC emissions scenarios were conducted. Runoff and baseflow are routed to produce streamflow and inputs to the Great Lakes, which are analyzed to identify potential future trends in streamflow characteristics and lake inputs. Additionally, the VIC model with lake and wetland algorithm was also run to study trends in lake ice phenology for Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. In general, we find that warming has been reducing the duration of ice cover on regional lakes in the last 50 years, and based on the future projections many lakes, especially in the southern parts of these states will be essentially ice-free by the end of the century. Under lower emissions over most of this century, competing effects suggest no net changes in Great Lake levels. Under higher emissions, however, the effects of greater temperature increases are projected to begin to dominate over the longer term, leading to lake level decreases of one to three feet before the end of the century.

  2. Water-Quality and Lake-Stage Data for Wisconsin Lakes, Water Year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, W.J.; Garn, H.S.; Goddard, G.L.; Marsh, S.B.; Olson, D.L.; Robertson, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    Wisconsin Water Science Center's Lakes Program is found at http://wi.water.usgs.gov/lake/index.html and http://wi.water.usgs.gov/projects/index.html.

  3. Stage fluctuations of Wisconsin lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    House, Leo B.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes lake-stage fluctuations of 83 gaged lakes in Wisconsin and presents techniques for estimating stage fluctuation at ungaged lakes. Included are stage information at 83 lakes and stage-frequency data for 32 of these lakes that had sufficient record for analysis. Lakes are classified by a hydrologic-topographic lake classification scheme as ground-water flowthrough (GWF) lakes, surface-water drainage (SWD) lakes, and surface-water flow-through (SWF) lakes. Lakes within the same class were found to have similar water-level fluctuations. The lake-stage records indicate that most annual maximums occur during the months of May and June for all three classes. Annual minimum lake levels generally occur in September for surface-water drainage lakes, in March for surface-water flowthrough lakes, and in November for ground-water flow-through lakes. Data for each lake include location, period of water-level record, hydrologic classification, drainage area, surface area, lake volume, maximum depth, long-term mean stage and its standard deviation, maximum and minimum observed lake stage, and the average annual lake-stage fluctuation.

  4. Energy Efficient Buildings, Salt Lake County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Kimberly

    2012-04-30

    Executive Summary Salt Lake County's Solar Photovoltaic Project - an unprecedented public/private partnership Salt Lake County is pleased to announce the completion of its unprecedented solar photovoltaic (PV) installation on the Calvin R. Rampton Salt Palace Convention Center. This 1.65 MW installation will be one the largest solar roof top installations in the country and will more than double the current installed solar capacity in the state of Utah. Construction is complete and the system will be operational in May 2012. The County has accomplished this project using a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) financing model. In a PPA model a third-party solar developer will finance, develop, own, operate, and maintain the solar array. Salt Lake County will lease its roof, and purchase the power from this third-party under a long-term Power Purchase Agreement contract. In fact, this will be one of the first projects in the state of Utah to take advantage of the recent (March 2010) legislation which makes PPA models possible for projects of this type. In addition to utilizing a PPA, this solar project will employ public and private capital, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants (EECBG), and public/private subsidized bonds that are able to work together efficiently because of the recent stimulus bill. The project also makes use of recent changes to federal tax rules, and the recent re-awakening of private capital markets that make a significant public-private partnership possible. This is an extremely innovative project, and will mark the first time that all of these incentives (EECBG grants, Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds, New Markets tax credits, investment tax credits, public and private funds) have been packaged into one project. All of Salt Lake County's research documents and studies, agreements, and technical information is available to the public. In addition, the County has already shared a variety of information with the public through webinars

  5. Sweet Lake geopressured-geothermal project, Magma Gulf-Technadril/DOE Amoco fee. Volume III. Final report. Annual report, February 1982-March 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, C.O. Jr.; O'Brien, F.D.; Rodgers, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of the testing of Sand 3 (15,245 to 15,280 feet in depth) which occurred from November 1983 to March 1984 and evaluates these new data in comparison to results from the testing of Sand 5 (15,385 to 15,415 feet in depth) which occurred from June 1981 to February 1982. It also describes the reworking of the production and salt water disposal wells preparatory to the Sand 3 testing as well as the plug and abandon procedures requested to terminate the project. The volume contains two parts: Part 1 includes the text and accompanying plates, figures and tables; Part 2 consists of the appendixes including auxiliary reports and tabulations.

  6. Hydrology of Indiana lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perrey, Joseph Irving; Corbett, Don Melvin

    1956-01-01

    The stabilization of lake levels often requires the construction of outlet control structures. A detailed study of past lake-level elevations and other hydologic date is necessary to establish a level that can be maintained and to determine the means necessary for maintaining the established level. Detailed lake-level records for 28 lakes are included in the report, and records for over 100 other lakes data are available in the U.S. Geological Survey Office, Indianapolis, Ind. Evaporation data from the four Class A evaporation station of the U. S. Weather Bureau have been compiled in this report. A table showing the established legal lake level and related data is included.

  7. Anthropopression markers in lake bottom sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadolna, Anna; Nowicka, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Lakes are vulnerable to various types of anthropogenic disturbances. Responses of lake ecosystems to environmental stressors are varied and depend not only on the type of a factor but also on the lake natural resistance to degradation. Within the EULAKES project an evaluation of anthropogenic stress extent in a flow-through, postglacial, ribbon lake (Lake Charzykowskie) was carried out. It was assumed, that this impact manifests unevenly, depending on a type and degree of the pressure on the shore zones, water quality of tributaries, lake basin shape and dynamics of a water movement. It was stated, that anthropogenic markers are substances accumulated in bottom sediments as a result of allochthonous substances inflow from the catchment and atmosphere. Along the selected transects 105 samples from the top layer of sediments (about 20 cm) was collected representing the contemporary accumulation (about 15 years). The content of selected chemical elements and compounds was examined, including nutrients (TN and TP), heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, mercury, iron, and manganese) and pesticides (DDT, DDD, DDE, DMDT , γ-HCH). The research was conducted in the deepest points of each lake basin and along the research transects - while choosing the spots, the increased intensity of anthropogenic impact (ports, roads with heavy traffic, wastewater discharge zones, built-up areas) was taken into consideration. The river outlets to the lake, where there are ecotonal zones between limnic and fluvial environment, were also taken into account. Analysis of the markers distribution was carried out against the diversity of chemical characteristics of limnic sediments. Ribbon shape of the lake basin and the dominant wind direction provide an opportunity of easy water mixing to a considerable depth. Intensive waving processes cause removal of the matter from the littoral zone towards lake hollows (separated by the underwater tresholds), where the

  8. Origins of rainbow smelt in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.

    1983-01-01

    The first rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) to enter Lake Ontario were probably migrants from an anadromous strain introduced into New York's Finger Lakes. Since the upper Great Lakes were originally stocked with a landlocked strain from Green Lake, Maine, subsequent migration to Lake Ontario from Lake Erie makes Lake Ontario unique among the Great Lakes in probably having received introductions from two distinct populations.

  9. LakeMIP Kivu: Evaluating the representation of a large, deep tropical lake by a set of 1-dimensional lake models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiery, Wim; Stepanenko, Viktor; Darchambeau, François; Joehnk, Klaus; Martynov, Andrey; Mironov, Dmitrii; Perroud, Marjorie; van Lipzig, Nicole

    2013-04-01

    The African great lakes are of utmost importance for the local economy (fishing), as well as being essential to the survival of the local people. During the last decades, these lakes experienced fast changes in ecosystem structure and functioning and their future evolution is a major concern. In this study, for the first time a set of one-dimensional lake models are evaluated over East-Africa, in particular over Lake Kivu (2.28 °S; 28.98 °E). The unique limnology of meromictic Lake Kivu, with the importance of salinity and geothermal springs in a tropical high-altitude climate, presents a worthy challenge to the 1D-lake models currently involved in the Lake Model Intercomparison Project (LakeMIP). Furthermore, this experiment will serve as the basis for a future, more complex intercomparison, coupling lake models with atmospheric circulation models to analyse climate change effects on the lake. Meteorological observations from two automatic weather stations, one at Kamembe airport (Rwanda, 2003-2008), the other at ISP Bukavu (DRC, 2003-2011), are used to drive each of these models. For the evaluation, a unique dataset is used which contains over 150 temperature profiles recorded since 2002. The standard LakeMIP protocol is adapted to mirror the limnological conditions in Lake Kivu and to unify model parameters as far as possible. Since some lake models do not account for salinity and its effect upon lake stratification, two sets of simulations are performed with each model: one for the freshwater layer only (60 m) and one for the average lake depth (240 m) including salinity. Therewith, on the one hand it is investigated whether each model is able to reproduce the correct mixing regime in Lake Kivu and captures the controlling of this seasonality by the relative humidity, which constrains evaporation except during summer (JJA). On the other hand, the ability of different models to simulate salinity- and geothermal-induced effects upon deep water stratification is

  10. David Morrison on Lake Vostok

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. David Morrison discusses the implications of research possibilities at Lake Vostok, one of the largest subglacial lakes located over two miles beneath the ice in Antarctica. The lake has been c...

  11. In-lake measures for phosphorus control: The most feasible and cost-effective solution for long-term management of water quality in urban lakes.

    PubMed

    Huser, Brian J; Futter, Martyn; Lee, Jeff T; Perniel, Mike

    2016-06-15

    Both in-lake and catchment measures designed to reduce phosphorus (P) loading were implemented as part of a 12.3 million USD restoration project for the Minneapolis Chain of lakes in Minnesota (USA). Treatment wetlands, 'in-pipe' measures, and in-lake aluminum sulfate (alum) treatment were applied to restore water quality in the four urban lakes. Different alum dosing methods led to between 4 and 20+ (modeled) years of water quality improvements in these lakes after treatment and only one of the four lakes continues to meet water quality goals approximately 25 years after the project started. Due to limited space and poor performance, reduction of total external loads was low (1-13%) for three lakes. Changes to internal P sediment release rates after application of alum correlated well with epilimnetic total P (TP) concentrations in these lakes, indicating that improvements in water quality were mainly driven by reduced internal loading via in-lake measures. Substantial reductions to external P loading were only achieved at Cedar Lake (49%) via conversion of an existing natural area to a treatment wetland, but even Cedar Lake is no longer meeting management goals. When expressed in terms of dollars spent per unit P removed, in lake alum treatment was on average 50 times more effective than in-catchment measures. The results of this study indicate that substantial external nutrient reductions may not be adequate to sustainably maintain water quality in urban lakes and that continued in-lake management of P accumulated in lake sediment will not only be necessary, but will also be more cost efficient relative to in-catchment measures. PMID:26298078

  12. Depth, ice thickness, and ice-out timing cause divergent hydrologic responses among Arctic lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Liljedahl, Anna K.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Welker, Jeffery A.

    2015-01-01

    Lakes are prevalent in the Arctic and thus play a key role in regional hydrology. Since many Arctic lakes are shallow and ice grows thick (historically 2-m or greater), seasonal ice commonly freezes to the lake bed (bedfast ice) by winter's end. Bedfast ice fundamentally alters lake energy balance and melt-out processes compared to deeper lakes that exceed the maximum ice thickness (floating ice) and maintain perennial liquid water below floating ice. Our analysis of lakes in northern Alaska indicated that ice-out of bedfast ice lakes occurred on average 17 days earlier (22-June) than ice-out on adjacent floating ice lakes (9-July). Earlier ice-free conditions in bedfast ice lakes caused higher open-water evaporation, 28% on average, relative to floating ice lakes and this divergence increased in lakes closer to the coast and in cooler summers. Water isotopes (18O and 2H) indicated similar differences in evaporation between these lake types. Our analysis suggests that ice regimes created by the combination of lake depth relative to ice thickness and associated ice-out timing currently cause a strong hydrologic divergence among Arctic lakes. Thus understanding the distribution and dynamics of lakes by ice regime is essential for predicting regional hydrology. An observed regime shift in lakes to floating ice conditions due to thinner ice growth may initially offset lake drying because of lower evaporative loss from this lake type. This potential negative feedback caused by winter processes occurs in spite of an overall projected increase in evapotranspiration as the Arctic climate warms.

  13. Depth, ice thickness, and ice-out timing cause divergent hydrologic responses among Arctic lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Liljedahl, Anna K.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Welker, Jeffery A.

    2015-12-01

    Lakes are prevalent in the Arctic and thus play a key role in regional hydrology. Since many Arctic lakes are shallow and ice grows thick (historically 2 m or greater), seasonal ice commonly freezes to the lake bed (bedfast ice) by winter's end. Bedfast ice fundamentally alters lake energy balance and melt-out processes compared to deeper lakes that exceed the maximum ice thickness (floating ice) and maintain perennial liquid water below floating ice. Our analysis of lakes in northern Alaska indicated that ice-out of bedfast ice lakes occurred on average 17 days earlier (22 June) than ice-out on adjacent floating ice lakes (9 July). Earlier ice-free conditions in bedfast ice lakes caused higher open-water evaporation, 28% on average, relative to floating ice lakes and this divergence increased in lakes closer to the coast and in cooler summers. Water isotopes (18O and 2H) indicated similar differences in evaporation between these lake types. Our analysis suggests that ice regimes created by the combination of lake depth relative to ice thickness and associated ice-out timing currently cause a strong hydrologic divergence among Arctic lakes. Thus, understanding the distribution and dynamics of lakes by ice regime is essential for predicting regional hydrology. An observed regime shift in lakes to floating ice conditions due to thinner ice growth may initially offset lake drying because of lower evaporative loss from this lake type. This potential negative feedback caused by winter processes occurs in spite of an overall projected increase in evapotranspiration as the Arctic climate warms.

  14. Hydrologic data for the drainage basins of Chatfield and Cherry Creek Lakes, Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, J.W.; Arnold, L.M.; Reed, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Chatfield and Cherry Creek Lakes are flood control lakes constructed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and leased to the Colorado Division of Parks and Recreation. Both lakes are in the Denver metropolitan area and provide a variety of recreational activities, including boating, camping, fishing, picnicking, and swimming. The projected increase of urban development in the drainage basins of Chatfield and Cherry Creek lakes could increase the constituent loads delivered to the lakes. Due to the eutrophic condition of Cherry Creek Lake and the potential eutrophic condition of Chatfield Lake, increased constituent loads could affect the suitability of the lakes for recreation. A monitoring program was started to determine the constituent loads of the drainage basins to both lakes. A network of monitoring stations was established to collect ambient water quality samples, storm runoff water quality samples, precipitation, and stream discharge. In the Cherry Creek basin 12 observation wells were established in the alluvium upgradient from Cherry Creek lake. Water levels and water quality data were collected to determine the quantity and quality of groundwater entering Cherry Creek lake. Data were collected from January through December 1982. The data may be used to evaluate the present and projected impact of urbanization in the drainage basins and the effect of increased constituent loads delivered to Chatfield and Cherry Creek lakes. (Author 's abstract)

  15. Summary of operations and performance of the Utica aquifer and North Lake Basin Wetlands restoration project in December 2006-November 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-04-02

    This document summarizes the performance of the groundwater restoration systems installed by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Utica, Nebraska, during the third year of system operation, from December 1, 2006, until November 30, 2007. In the project at Utica, the CCC/USDA is cooperating with multiple state and federal agencies to remove carbon tetrachloride contamination from a shallow aquifer underlying the town and to provide supplemental treated groundwater for use in the restoration of a nearby wetlands area. Argonne National Laboratory has assisted the CCC/USDA by providing technical oversight for the aquifer restoration effort and facilities during this review period. This document presents overviews of the aquifer restoration facilities (Section 2) and system operations (Section 3), then describes groundwater production results (Section 4); groundwater treatment results (Section 5); and associated groundwater monitoring, system modifications, and costs during the review period (Section 6). Section 7 summarizes the present year of operation and provides some comparisons with system performance in previous years. The performance of the groundwater restoration systems at Utica in earlier years was summarized in greater detail previously (Argonne 2005, 2006).

  16. Summary of first-year operations and performance of the Utica Aquifer and North Lake Basin Wetlands Restoration Project in October 2004-November 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Sedivy, R. A.

    2006-01-27

    This document summarizes the performance of the groundwater restoration systems installed by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Utica, Nebraska, during the initial period of system operation, from October 29, 2004, until November 31, 2005. In the project at Utica, the CCC/USDA is cooperating with multiple state and federal agencies to remove carbon tetrachloride contamination from a shallow aquifer underlying the town and to provide supplemental treated groundwater for use in the restoration of a nearby wetlands area. Argonne National Laboratory has assisted the CCC/USDA by providing technical oversight for the aquifer restoration effort and facilities during this review period. This document presents overviews of the aquifer restoration facilities (Section 2) and system operations (Section 3), then describes groundwater production results (Section 4), groundwater treatment results (Section 5), and modifications and costs during the review period (Section 6). Section 7 summarizes the first year of operation.

  17. Summary of operations and performance of the Utica aquifer and North Lake Basin Wetlands restoration project in December 2007-November 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Sedivy, R. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-01-23

    This document summarizes the performance of the groundwater restoration systems installed by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Utica, Nebraska, during the fourth year of system operation, from December 1, 2007, until November 30, 2008. Performance in earlier years was reported previously (Argonne 2005, 2006, 2008). In the project at Utica, the CCC/USDA is cooperating with multiple state and federal agencies to remove carbon tetrachloride contamination from a shallow aquifer underlying the town and to provide supplemental treated groundwater for use in the restoration of a nearby wetlands area. Argonne National Laboratory assisted the CCC/USDA by providing technical oversight for the aquifer restoration effort and facilities during this review period. This document presents overviews of the aquifer restoration facilities (Section 2) and system operations (Section 3). The report then describes groundwater production results (Section 4); groundwater treatment results (Section 5); and associated maintenance, system modifications, and costs during the review period (Section 6). Section 7 summarizes the present year of operation.

  18. Summary of operations and performance of the Utica aquifer and North Lake Basin wetlands restoration project in December 2005-November 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-12-21

    This document summarizes the performance of the groundwater restoration systems installed by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Utica, Nebraska, during the second year of system operation, from December 1, 2005, until November 31, 2006. In the project at Utica, the CCC/USDA is cooperating with multiple state and federal agencies to remove carbon tetrachloride contamination from a shallow aquifer underlying the town and to provide supplemental treated groundwater for use in the restoration of a nearby wetlands area. Argonne National Laboratory has assisted the CCC/USDA by providing technical oversight for the aquifer restoration effort and facilities during this review period. This document presents overviews of the aquifer restoration facilities (Section 2) and system operations (Section 3), then describes groundwater production results (Section 4), groundwater treatment results (Section 5), and associated groundwater monitoring, system modifications, and costs during the review period (Section 6). Section 7 summarizes the present year of operation.

  19. Summary of operations and performance of the Utica aquifer and North Lake Basin Wetlands restoration project in December 2009-November 2010.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2011-03-11

    This document summarizes the performance of the groundwater restoration systems installed by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Utica, Nebraska, during the sixth year of system operation, from December 1, 2009, until November 30, 2010. In the project at Utica, the CCC/USDA is cooperating with multiple state and federal agencies to remove carbon tetrachloride contamination from a shallow aquifer underlying the town and to provide supplemental treated groundwater for use in the restoration of a nearby wetlands area. Argonne National Laboratory has assisted the CCC/USDA by providing technical oversight for the aquifer restoration effort and facilities during this review period. This document presents overviews of the aquifer restoration facilities (Section 2) and system operations (Section 3), then describes groundwater production results (Section 4), groundwater treatment results (Section 5), and associated groundwater monitoring, system modifications, and costs during the review period (Section 6). Section 7 summarizes the present year of operation. Performance prior to December 1, 2009, has been reviewed previously (Argonne 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009a, 2010).

  20. Summary of operations and performance of the Utica aquifer and North Lake Basin wetlands restoration project in December 2008-November 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-05-25

    This document summarizes the performance of the groundwater restoration systems installed by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Utica, Nebraska, during the fifth year of system operation, from December 1, 2008, until November 30, 2009. Performance in earlier years was reported previously (Argonne 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009a). In the project at Utica, the CCC/USDA is cooperating with multiple state and federal agencies to remove carbon tetrachloride contamination from a shallow aquifer underlying the town and to provide supplemental treated groundwater for use in the restoration of a nearby wetlands area. Argonne National Laboratory has assisted the CCC/USDA by providing technical oversight for the aquifer restoration effort and facilities during this review period. This document presents overviews of the aquifer restoration facilities (Section 2) and system operations (Section 3), then describes groundwater production results (Section 4), groundwater treatment results (Section 5), and associated groundwater monitoring, system modifications, and costs during the review period (Section 6). Section 7 summarizes the present year of operation.

  1. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  2. Past and future warming of a deep European lake (Lake Lugano): What are the climatic drivers?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lepori, Fabio; Roberts, James J.

    2015-01-01

    We used four decades (1972–2013) of temperature data from Lake Lugano, Switzerland and Italy, to address the hypotheses that: [i] the lake has been warming; [ii] part of the warming reflects global trends and is independent from climatic oscillations and [iii] the lake will continue to warm until the end of the 21st century. During the time spanned by our data, the surface waters of the lake (0–5 m) warmed at rates of 0.2–0.9 °C per decade, depending on season. The temperature of the deep waters (50-m bottom) displayed a rising trend in a meromictic basin of the lake and a sawtooth pattern in the other basin, which is holomictic. Long-term variation in surfacewater temperature correlated to global warming and multidecadal variation in two climatic oscillations, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the East Atlantic Pattern (EA).However, we did not detect an influence of the EA on the lake's temperature (as separate from the effect of global warming). Moreover, the effect of the AMO, estimated to a maximum of +1 °C, was not sufficient to explain the observed temperature increase (+2–3 °C in summer). Based on regional climate projections, we predicted that the lake will continue to warm at least until the end of the 21st century. Our results strongly suggest that the warming of Lake Lugano is tied to globalclimate change. To sustain current ecosystem conditions in Lake Lugano, we suggest that manage- ment plans that curtail eutrophication and (or) mitigation of global warming be pursued.

  3. Lakes, Lagerstaetten, and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordesch, E. G.; Park, L. E.

    2001-12-01

    The diversity of terrestrial systems is estimated to be greater than in the marine realm. However no hard data yet exists to substantiate this claim. Ancient lacustrine deposits may preserve an exceptionally diverse fossil fauna and aid in determining continental faunal diversities. Fossils preserved in lake deposits, especially those with exceptional preservation (i.e. Konservat Lagerstaetten), may represent a dependable method for determining species diversity changes in the terrestrial environment because of their faunal completeness. Important Konservat Lagerstaetten, such as the Green River Formation (US) and Messel (Germany), both Eocene in age, are found in lake sediments and show a remarkable faunal diversity for both vertebrates and invertebrates. To date information from nearly 25 lake lagerstaetten derived from different types of lake basins from the Carboniferous to the Miocene have been collected and described. Carboniferous sites derive from the cyclothems of Midcontinent of the US while many Cenozoic sites have been described from North and South America as well as Europe and Australia. Asian sites contain fossils from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. With this data, insight into the evolutionary processes associated with lake systems can be examined. Do lakes act as unique evolutionary crucibles in contrast to marine systems? The speciation of cichlid fishes in present-day African lakes appears to be very high and is attributed to the diversity of environments found in large rift lakes. Is this true of all ancient lakes or just large rift lakes? The longevity of a lake system may be an important factor in allowing speciation and evolutionary processes to occur; marine systems are limited only in the existence of environments as controlled by tectonics and sea level changes, on the order of tens of millions of years. Rift lakes are normally the longest lived in the millions of years. Perhaps there are only certain types of lakes in which speciation of

  4. 78 FR 26768 - Great Lakes Hydro America, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Great Lakes Hydro America, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application...-filing Process. b. Project No.: 2520-072. c. Dated Filed: March 1, 2013. d. Submitted By: Great Lakes... designating Great Lakes Hydro America, LLC as the Commission's non-federal representative for carrying...

  5. 77 FR 38043 - Great Lakes Hydro America, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Great Lakes Hydro America, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing.... Applicant: Great Lakes Hydro America, LLC. e. Name of Project: Penobscot Mills. f. Location: North Twin.... h. Applicant Contact: Kevin Bernier, Manager, Licensing and Compliance, ] Great Lakes Hydro...

  6. Silica Extraction at Mammoth Lakes, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W; Ralph, W; Johnson, M; Bruton, C; Gutierrez, P

    2006-06-07

    The purpose of this project is to develop a cost-effective method to extract marketable silica (SiO{sub 2}) from fluids at the Mammoth Lakes, California geothermal power plant. Silica provides an additional revenue source for the geothermal power industry and therefore lowers the costs of geothermal power production. The use of this type of ''solution mining'' to extract resources eliminates the need for acquiring these resources through energy intensive and environmentally damaging mining technologies. We have demonstrated that both precipitated and colloidal silica can be produced from the geothermal fluids at Mammoth Lakes by first concentrating the silica to over 600 ppm using reverse osmosis (RO). The RO permeate can be used in evaporative cooling at the plant; the RO concentrate is used for silica and potentially other resource extraction (Li, Cs, Rb). Preliminary results suggest that silica recovery at Mammoth Lakes could reduce the cost of geothermal electricity production by 1.0 cents/kWh.

  7. Lessons from a Lake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goethals, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Describes a study that included classroom lessons on hydroelectric power, the history and construction of a nearby lake, data recording, the use of field guides, and methods of counting natural populations. The study culminated in a field trip to the lake. (JRH)

  8. The Great Lakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seasons, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reserviors of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. These lakes and their relationship with people of Canada and the United States can be useful as a subject for teaching the impact of human…

  9. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  10. Utah: Salt Lake City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... backdrops for the 2002 Winter Olympics, to be held in Salt Lake City, Utah. The mountains surrounding Salt Lake City are renowned for ... western edge of the Rocky Mountains and eastern rim of the Great Basin. This early-winter image pair was acquired by the Multi-angle ...

  11. The lakes of Titan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stofan, E.R.; Elachi, C.; Lunine, J.I.; Lorenz, R.D.; Stiles, B.; Mitchell, K.L.; Ostro, S.; Soderblom, L.; Wood, C.; Zebker, H.; Wall, S.; Janssen, M.; Kirk, R.; Lopes, R.; Paganelli, F.; Radebaugh, J.; Wye, L.; Anderson, Y.; Allison, M.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.; Paillou, P.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.

    2007-01-01

    The surface of Saturn's haze-shrouded moon Titan has long been proposed to have oceans or lakes, on the basis of the stability of liquid methane at the surface. Initial visible and radar imaging failed to find any evidence of an ocean, although abundant evidence was found that flowing liquids have existed on the surface. Here we provide definitive evidence for the presence of lakes on the surface of Titan, obtained during the Cassini Radar flyby of Titan on 22 July 2006 (T16). The radar imaging polewards of 70?? north shows more than 75 circular to irregular radar-dark patches, in a region where liquid methane and ethane are expected to be abundant and stable on the surface. The radar-dark patches are interpreted as lakes on the basis of their very low radar reflectivity and morphological similarities to lakes, including associated channels and location in topographic depressions. Some of the lakes do not completely fill the depressions in which they lie, and apparently dry depressions are present. We interpret this to indicate that lakes are present in a number of states, including partly dry and liquid-filled. These northern-hemisphere lakes constitute the strongest evidence yet that a condensable-liquid hydrological cycle is active in Titan's surface and atmosphere, in which the lakes are filled through rainfall and/or intersection with the subsurface 'liquid methane' table. ??2007 Nature Publishing Group.

  12. Great Lakes: Great Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Sea Grant Inst., Albany, NY.

    This folder contains 12 fact sheets designed to improve the quality of gardens near the Great Lakes. The titles are: (1) "Your Garden and the Great Lakes"; (2) "Organic Gardening"; (3) "Fruit and Vegetable Gardening"; (4) "Composting Yard Wastes"; (5) "Herbicides and Water Quality"; (6) "Watering"; (7) "Soil Erosion by Water"; (8) "Soil…

  13. Lake Wobegon Dice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraleda, Jorge; Stork, David G.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce Lake Wobegon dice, where each die is "better than the set average." Specifically, these dice have the paradoxical property that on every roll, each die is more likely to roll greater than the set average on the roll, than less than this set average. We also show how to construct minimal optimal Lake Wobegon sets for all "n" [greater…

  14. Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ron

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology…

  15. Energy and water in the Great Lakes.

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2011-11-01

    The nexus between thermoelectric power production and water use is not uniform across the U.S., but rather differs according to regional physiography, demography, power plant fleet composition, and the transmission network. That is, in some regions water demand for thermoelectric production is relatively small while in other regions it represents the dominate use. The later is the case for the Great Lakes region, which has important implications for the water resources and aquatic ecology of the Great Lakes watershed. This is today, but what about the future? Projected demographic trends, shifting lifestyles, and economic growth coupled with the threat of global climate change and mounting pressure for greater U.S. energy security could have profound effects on the region's energy future. Planning for such an uncertain future is further complicated by the fact that energy and environmental planning and regulatory decisionmaking is largely bifurcated in the region, with environmental and water resource concerns generally taken into account after new energy facilities and technologies have been proposed, or practices are already in place. Based on these confounding needs, the objective of this effort is to develop Great Lakes-specific methods and tools to integrate energy and water resource planning and thereby support the dual goals of smarter energy planning and development, and protection of Great Lakes water resources. Guiding policies for this planning are the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The desired outcome of integrated energy-water-aquatic resource planning is a more sustainable regional energy mix for the Great Lakes basin ecosystem.

  16. Geomicrobiology of Subglacial Lake Whillans, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priscu, J. C.; Christner, B. C.; Skidmore, M. L.; Mikucki, J.; Vick-Majors, T.; Achberger, A.; Michaud, A. B.; Mitchell, A.; Barbante, C.

    2013-12-01

    Subglacial Lake Whillans is the first Antarctic subglacial lake to be sampled directly. Hot water drilling was used to access the water column and sediments of Subglacial Lake Whillans in January 2013 as part of the Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling (WISSARD) Project. The ~1.5 m deep lake lies 800 m beneath the surface of the Whillans ice plain and had temperature, conductivity and pH values near -0.5 °C, 720 μS/cm and 8.1, respectively. The lake had relatively high dissolved organic carbon and low dissolved oxygen. Molar particulate organic C to N ratios in the water column and sediments exceeded 16 revealing a system deficient in N relative to C. δ18O values for the lake indicates that glacial ice melt water is the primary water source; Cl- to Br- concentrations and ratios suggest a minor seawater component. Conductivity and δ18O values in the upper 38 cm of lake sediment infer a seawater influence in the deeper sediment layers. Delta17O-nitrate values of the lake water indicate microbial production as the dominant source for SLW nitrate. Bacterial densities in the lake averaged 100,000/mL and contained diverse morphotypes. Radiolabeled substrate incorporation and ATP levels showed active biosynthesis in both the water column and surficial sediment layer. Small subunit rRNA gene sequences revealed that the lake water was dominated by phylotypes related to archaeal chemotrophic ammonium oxidizers. Members of the Proteobacteria (Gamma, Beta, Delta), Planctomycetes, and Actinobacteria collectively represented the remainder of the OTUs found in the water column. In contrast, only one archeal OTU was identified in the sediments; most sediment phylotypes identified were affiliated with the Proteobacteria. Many of the bacterial phylotypes were closely related to species that grow chemolithotrophically using reduced iron, sulfur, or nitrogen compounds or C1 hydrocarbons as electron donors. Collectively, our results indicate the presence of an

  17. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This simulated natural color image presents a late spring view of north central Utah that includes all of the Olympic sites. The image extends from Ogden in the north, to Provo in the south; and includes the snow-capped Wasatch Mountains and the eastern part of the Great Salt Lake.

    This image was acquired on May 28, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution

  18. Dongting Lake, China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These images show dramatic change in the water at Dongting Lake in Hunan province, China. A flood crest surged down the Yangtze River in late August of this year, but the embankments made by residents there held. The left image was acquired on September 2, 2002 and shows the extent of the lake. The right image was obtained March 19, 2002 before the flooding began.

    These images were acquired on September 2, 2002 and March 19,2002 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as

  19. Lake Superior revisited 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCallum, Wayne R.; Selgeby, James H.

    1987-01-01

    The Lake Superior fish community has changed substantially since the early 1960s, when control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) became effective. Self-reproducing stocks of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) have been reestablished in many inshore areas, although they have not yet reached pre-sea lamprey abundance; offshore lake trout are probably at or near pre-sea lamprey abundance. Stocks of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) appear to have fully recovered; commercial catches are at or above historical levels. Lake herring (Coregonus artedii) are recovering rapidly in U.S. waters and are abundant in western Canadian waters. The population of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), which declined in the 1970s, is recovering. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus) are becoming more abundant as a result of increased stocking in U.S. waters and are reproducing in most suitable tributaries; they have become significant in anglers' creels.

  20. Lakes and reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Taub, F.B.

    1984-01-01

    This volume in the Ecosystems of the World series studies lakes and reservoirs. The book opens with a discussion of the ecosystem processes that are common to all lakes and reservoirs and then proceeds to a description of mathematical models of these processes. The chapters concentrate on lakes and reservoirs in different parts of the world, ranging from polar to tropical lakes, and in many of the chapters the effects of human activities such as dam construction, increased nutrient inputs, toxic contaminants and fish introduction, are also considered. The book concludes with a summary of the efforts at lake restoration that are being undertaken in many communities in an attempt to undo the damage that has resulted from some of these activities.

  1. Lake trout in northern Lake Huron spawn on submerged drumlins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Stephen C.; Binder, Thomas; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Faust, Matthew D.; Janssen, John; Menzies, John; Marsden, J. Ellen; Ebener, Mark P.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji X.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Hansen, Michael J.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of spawning lake trout Salvelinus namaycush near Drummond Island in northern Lake Huron indicate that lake trout use drumlins, landforms created in subglacial environments by the action of ice sheets, as a primary spawning habitat. From these observations, we generated a hypothesis that may in part explain locations chosen by lake trout for spawning. Most salmonines spawn in streams where they rely on streamflows to sort and clean sediments to create good spawning habitat. Flows sufficient to sort larger sediment sizes are generally lacking in lakes, but some glacial bedforms contain large pockets of sorted sediments that can provide the interstitial spaces necessary for lake trout egg incubation, particularly if these bedforms are situated such that lake currents can penetrate these sediments. We hypothesize that sediment inclusions from glacial scavenging and sediment sorting that occurred during the creation of bedforms such as drumlins, end moraines, and eskers create suitable conditions for lake trout egg incubation, particularly where these bedforms interact with lake currents to remove fine sediments. Further, these bedforms may provide high-quality lake trout spawning habitat at many locations in the Great Lakes and may be especially important along the southern edge of the range of the species. A better understanding of the role of glacially-derived bedforms in the creation of lake trout spawning habitat may help develop powerful predictors of lake trout spawning locations, provide insight into the evolution of unique spawning behaviors by lake trout, and aid in lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes.

  2. Spatial patterns in PCB concentrations of Lake Michigan lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Stedman, Ralph M.; Brown, Edward H.; Eck, Gary W.; Schmidt, Larry J.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.

    1999-01-01

    Most of the PCB body burden in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) of the Great Lakes is from their food. PCB concentrations were determined in lake trout from three different locations in Lake Michigan during 1994–1995, and lake trout diets were analyzed at all three locations. The PCB concentrations were also determined in alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), bloater (Coregonus hoyi), slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), and deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni), five species of prey fish eaten by lake trout in Lake Michigan, at three nearshore sites in the lake. Despite the lack of significant differences in the PCB concentrations of alewife, rainbow smelt, bloater, slimy sculpin, and deepwater sculpin from the southeastern nearshore site near Saugatuck (Michigan) compared with the corresponding PCB concentrations from the northwestern nearshore site near Sturgeon Bay (Wisconsin), PCB concentrations in lake trout at Saugatuck were significantly higher than those at Sturgeon Bay. The difference in the lake trout PCB concentrations between Saugatuck and Sturgeon Bay could be explained by diet differences. The diet of lake trout at Saugatuck was more concentrated in PCBs than the diet of Sturgeon Bay lake trout, and therefore lake trout at Saugatuck were more contaminated in PCBs than Sturgeon Bay lake trout. These findings were useful in interpreting the long-term monitoring series for contaminants in lake trout at both Saugatuck and the Wisconsin side of the lake.

  3. Water quality of Lake Austin and Town Lake, Austin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, Freeman L.; Wells, Frank C.; Shelby, Wanda J.; McPherson, Emma

    1988-01-01

    Water-quality data collected from Lake Austin and Town Lake, following runoff, generally were not adequate to fully determine the effects of runoff on the lakes. Data collection should not to be limited to fixed-station sampling following runoff, and both lakes need to be sampled simultaneously as soon as possible following significant precipitation.

  4. Evidence of offshore lake trout reproduction in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Bowen, Charles A., II

    2003-01-01

    Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef, an offshore reef complex, was an historically important spawning area believed to represent some of the best habitat for the rehabilitation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Huron. Since 1986, lake trout have been stocked on these offshore reefs to reestablish self-sustaining populations. We sampled with beam trawls to determine the abundance of naturally reproduced age-0 lake trout on these offshore reefs during May-July in 1994-1998 and 2000-2002. In total, 123 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at Six Fathom Bank, and 2 naturally reproduced lake trout fry were caught at nearby Yankee Reef. Our findings suggest that this region of Lake Huron contains suitable habitat for lake trout spawning and offers hope that lake trout rehabilitation can be achieved in the main basin of Lake Huron.

  5. Lake whitefish and lake herring population structure and niche in ten south-central Ontario lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carl, Leon M.; McGuiness, Fiona

    2006-01-01

    This study compares simple fish communities of ten oligotrophic lakes in south-central Ontario. Species densities and population size structure vary significantly among these lake communities depending on fish species present beyond the littoral zone. Lake whitefish are fewer and larger in the presence of lake herring than in their absence. Diet analysis indicates that lake whitefish shift from feeding on both plankton and benthic prey when lake herring are absent to a primarily benthic feeding niche in the presence of lake herring. When benthic round whitefish are present, lake whitefish size and density decline and they move lower in the lake compared to round whitefish. Burbot are also fewer and larger in lakes with lake herring than in lakes without herring. Burbot, in turn, appear to influence the population structure of benthic coregonine species. Lower densities of benthic lake whitefish and round whitefish are found in lakes containing large benthic burbot than in lakes with either small burbot or where burbot are absent. Predation on the pelagic larvae of burbot and lake whitefish by planktivorous lake herring alters the size and age structure of these populations. As life history theory predicts, those species with poor larval survival appear to adopt a bet-hedging life history strategy of long-lived individuals as a reproductive reserve.

  6. Using a coupled groundwater/surface-water model to predict climate-change impacts to lakes in the Trout Lake Watershed, northern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Randall; Walker, John F.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Hay, Lauren E.; Doherty, John; Webb, Richard M.T.; Semmens, Darius J.

    2009-01-01

    The Trout Lake watershed in northern Wisconsin is underlain by a highly conductive outwash sand aquifer. In this area, streamflow is dominated by groudwater contributions, however, surface runoff occurs during intense rainfall periods and spring snowmelt. Surface runoff also occurs locally near stream/lake areas where the unsaturated zone is thin. A diverse data set, collected from 1992 to 2007 for the Trout Lake WEBB project and the co-located and NSF-funded North Temperate Lake LTER project, includes snowpack, solar radiation, potential evapotranspiration, lake levels, groundwater levels, and streamflow. The time-series processing software TSPROC (Doherty 2001)was used to distill the large time series data set to a smaller set of observations and summary statistics that captured the salient hydrologic information. The time-series processing reduced hundreds of thousands of observations to less than 5,000. Model calibration included specific predictions for several lakes in the study area using the PEST parameter estimation suit of software (Doherty 2007). The calibrated model was used to simulate the hydrologic response in the study lakes to a variety of climate change scenarios culled from the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (Solomon et al. 2007). Results from the simulations indicate climate change could result in substantial changes to the lake levels and components of the hydrologic budget of a seepage lake in the flow system. For a drainage lake lower in the flow system, the impacts of climate change are diminished.

  7. Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Feasibility Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Boezaart, Arnold; Edmonson, James; Standridge, Charles; Pervez, Nahid; Desai, Neel; Williams, Bruce; Clark, Aaron; Zeitler, David; Kendall, Scott; Biddanda, Bopi; Steinman, Alan; Klatt, Brian; Gehring, J. L.; Walter, K.; Nordman, Erik E.

    2014-06-30

    The purpose of this project was to conduct the first comprehensive offshore wind assessment over Lake Michigan and to advance the body of knowledge needed to support future commercial wind energy development on the Great Lakes. The project involved evaluation and selection of emerging wind measurement technology and the permitting, installation and operation of the first mid-lake wind assessment meteorological (MET) facilities in Michigan’s Great Lakes. In addition, the project provided the first opportunity to deploy and field test floating LIDAR and Laser Wind Sensor (LWS) technology, and important research related equipment key to the sitting and permitting of future offshore wind energy development in accordance with public participation guidelines established by the Michigan Great Lakes Wind Council (GLOW). The project created opportunities for public dialogue and community education about offshore wind resource management and continued the dialogue to foster Great Lake wind resource utilization consistent with the focus of the GLOW Council. The technology proved to be effective, affordable, mobile, and the methods of data measurement accurate. The public benefited from a substantial increase in knowledge of the wind resources over Lake Michigan and gained insights about the potential environmental impacts of offshore wind turbine placements in the future. The unique first ever hub height wind resource assessment using LWS technology over water and development of related research data along with the permitting, sitting, and deployment of the WindSentinel MET buoy has captured public attention and has helped to increase awareness of the potential of future offshore wind energy development on the Great Lakes. Specifically, this project supported the acquisition and operation of a WindSentinel (WS) MET wind assessment buoy, and associated research for 549 days over multiple years at three locations on Lake Michigan. Four research objectives were defined for the

  8. Hydrologic modification to improve habitat in riverine lakes: Management objectives, experimental approach, and initial conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Barry L.; Barko, John W.; Gerasimov, Yuri; James, William F.; Litvinov, Alexander; Naimo, Teresa J.; Wiener, James G.; Gaugush, Robert F.; Rogala, James T.; Rogers, Sara J.; Schoettger, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Finger Lakes habitat-rehabilitation project is intended to improve physical and chemical conditions for fish in six connected back water lakes in Navigation Pool 5 of the upper Missouri River. The primary management objective is to improve water temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration and current velocity during winter for bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, and black crappies, Pomoxis nigromaculatus, two of the primary sport fishes in the lakes. The lakes will be hydrologically altered by Installing culverts to Introduce controlled flows of oxygenated water into four lakes, and an existing unregulated culvert on a fifth lake will be equipped with a control gate to regulate inflow. These habitat modifications constitute a manipulative field experiment that will compare pre-project (1991 to summer 1993) and post-project (fall 1993 to 1996) conditions in the lakes, including hydrology, chemistry, rooted vegetation, and fish and macroinvertebrate communities. Initial data indicate that the Finger Lakes differ in water chemistry, hydrology, and macrophyte abundance. Macroinvertebrate communities also differed among lakes: species diversity was highest in lakes with dense aquatic macrophytes. The system seems to support a single fish community, although some species concentrated in individual lakes at different times. The introduction of similar flows into five of the lakes will probably reduce the existing physical and chemical differences among lakes. However, our ability to predict the effects of hydrologic modification on fish populations is limited by uncertainties concerning both the interactions of temperature, oxygen and current in winter and the biological responses of primary and secondary producers. Results from this study should provide guidance for similar habitat-rehabilitation projects in large rivers.

  9. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries and Limnological Research : 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cichosz, Thomas A.; Underwood, Keith D.; Shields, John; Scholz, Allan; Tilson, Mary Beth

    1997-05-01

    The Lake Roosevelt Monitoring/Data Collection Program resulted from a merger between the Lake Roosevelt Monitoring Program and the Lake Roosevelt Data Collection Project. This project will model biological responses to reservoir operations, evaluate the effects of releasing hatchery origin kokanee salmon and rainbow trout on the fishery, and evaluate the success of various stocking strategies. In 1996, limnological, reservoir operation, zooplankton, and tagging data were collected. Mean reservoir elevation, storage volume and water retention time were reduced in 1996 relative to the last five years. In 1996, Lake Roosevelt reached a yearly low of 1,227 feet above mean sea level in April, a yearly high of 1,289 feet in July, and a mean yearly reservoir elevation of 1,271.4 feet. Mean monthly water retention times in Lake Roosevelt during 1996 ranged from 15.7 days in May to 49.2 days in October. Average zooplankton densities and biomass were lower in 1996 than 1995. Daphnia spp. and total zooplankton densities peaked during the summer, whereas minimum densities occurred during the spring. Approximately 300,000 kokanee salmon and 400,000 rainbow trout were released into Lake Roosevelt in 1996. The authors estimated 195,628 angler trips to Lake Roosevelt during 1996 with an economic value of $7,629,492.

  10. The hydrology of Lake Rousseau, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    German, E.R.

    1978-01-01

    Lake Rousseau, about 4 miles southwest of Inglis, Florida, was formed in 1909 by impoundment of the Withlacooche River by Inglis Dam, west of Dunnellon, Florida. The lake was to have been part of the Cross-Florida Barge Canal; a lock and channel associated with the presently inactive project were completed in 1969. Lake Rousseau is about 11 miles long, covers about 4,000 acres, and contains about 34,000 acre-feet of water at the normal pool elevation of 27.5 feet above mean sea level. Inflow to the lake is relatively constant and responds slowly to rainfall. The estimated 100-year peak inflow, 10,400 cubic feet per second, is only 19 percent higher than the 100-year high monthly inflow. Water in Lake Rousseau is a calcium-bicarbonate type and is hard. Mean total phosphorus and organic nitrogen concentrations are considerably lower in Lake Rousseau than in north-central Florida lakes which have been considered to be eutrophic by other investigators, however, the lake supports of prolific aquatic plant community. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations near the water surface are occasionally less than 3 mg/liter. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. Lake sturgeon population characteristics in Rainy Lake, Minnesota and Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, W.E.; Kallemeyn, L.W.; Willis, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    Rainy Lake contains a native population of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens that has been largely unstudied. The aims of this study were to document the population characteristics of lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake and to relate environmental factors to year-class strength for this population. Gill-netting efforts throughout the study resulted in the capture of 322 lake sturgeon, including 50 recaptures. Lake sturgeon in Rainy Lake was relatively plump and fast growing compared with a 32-population summary. Population samples were dominated by lake sturgeon between 110 and 150 cm total length. Age–structure analysis of the samples indicated few younger (<10 years) lake sturgeon, but the smallest gill net mesh size used for sampling was 102 mm (bar measure) and would not retain small sturgeon. Few lake sturgeon older than age 50 years were captured, and maximum age of sampled fish was 59 years. Few correlations existed between lake sturgeon year-class indices and both annual and monthly climate variables, except that mean June air temperature was positively correlated with year-class strength. Analysis of Rainy Lake water elevation and resulting lake sturgeon year-class strength indices across years yielded consistent but weak negative correlations between late April and early June, when spawning of lake sturgeon occurs. The baseline data collected in this study should allow Rainy Lake biologists to establish more specific research questions in the future.

  12. Project: "Project!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the editors of "Campus Technology" launched their first-ever High-Resolution Projection Study, to find out if the latest in projector technology could really make a significant difference in teaching, learning, and educational innovation on US campuses. The author and her colleagues asked campus educators, technologists, and…

  13. Yellowstone Lake Nanoarchaeota

    PubMed Central

    Clingenpeel, Scott; Kan, Jinjun; Macur, Richard E.; Woyke, Tanja; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Inskeep, William P.; Nealson, Kenneth; McDermott, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR) were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels). However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp) demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (71 pyrosequencing reads) was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations. PMID:24062731

  14. Yellowstone lake nanoarchaeota.

    PubMed

    Clingenpeel, Scott; Kan, Jinjun; Macur, Richard E; Woyke, Tanja; Lovalvo, Dave; Varley, John; Inskeep, William P; Nealson, Kenneth; McDermott, Timothy R

    2013-01-01

    Considerable Nanoarchaeota novelty and diversity were encountered in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park (YNP), where sampling targeted lake floor hydrothermal vent fluids, streamers and sediments associated with these vents, and in planktonic photic zones in three different regions of the lake. Significant homonucleotide repeats (HR) were observed in pyrosequence reads and in near full-length Sanger sequences, averaging 112 HR per 1349 bp clone and could confound diversity estimates derived from pyrosequencing, resulting in false nucleotide insertions or deletions (indels). However, Sanger sequencing of two different sets of PCR clones (110 bp, 1349 bp) demonstrated that at least some of these indels are real. The majority of the Nanoarchaeota PCR amplicons were vent associated; however, curiously, one relatively small Nanoarchaeota OTU (71 pyrosequencing reads) was only found in photic zone water samples obtained from a region of the lake furthest removed from the hydrothermal regions of the lake. Extensive pyrosequencing failed to demonstrate the presence of an Ignicoccus lineage in this lake, suggesting the Nanoarchaeota in this environment are associated with novel Archaea hosts. Defined phylogroups based on near full-length PCR clones document the significant Nanoarchaeota 16S rRNA gene diversity in this lake and firmly establish a terrestrial clade distinct from the marine Nanoarcheota as well as from other geographical locations.

  15. Biological studies of atmospheric deposition impact on biota in Kola North Mountain Lakes, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Yakovlev, V.; Sharov, A.; Vandysh, O.

    1996-12-31

    In the framework of the AL:PE projects, biological studies of phyto-, zooplankton and zoobenthos communities of a small lakes situated in Chuna tundra and Chibiny mountains in Murmansk region were performed in 1993-1995. The lakes are the typical oligotrophic mountain lakes. In the Chibiny lake phytoplankton were presented mostly by species from rock catchment area. Summer phytoplankton state in the lakes showed no acidification in 1993-1995. However, the great number dead cells of acid tolerance diatoms, such as Tabellaria flocculosa found in the Chuna lake in summer period, may indicate a presence of acid episodes. Zooplankton of the lakes is typical for high oligotrophic mountain lakes. However, lack of the acid sensitive daphniidae cladocerans seems to be a result of acidification effects. There were no significant relationships between benthic invertebrates species composition and present water acidity of the lakes. The typical for mountain lakes taxa (Prodiamesinae chironomids, stone flies and mayflies) were found in lake shore and streams. Despite the only little evidence of damage in biota, the further biological studies would be useful for long-term monitoring of the mountain lakes.

  16. Ecology of playa lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haukos, David A.; Smith, Loren M.

    1992-01-01

    Between 25,000 and 30,000 playa lakes are in the playa lakes region of the southern high plains (Fig. 1). Most playas are in west Texas (about 20,000), and fewer, in New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Colorado. The playa lakes region is one of the most intensively cultivated areas of North America. Dominant crops range from cotton in southern areas to cereal grains in the north. Therefore, most of the native short-grass prairie is gone, replaced by crops and, recently, grasses of the Conservation Reserve Program. Playas are the predominant wetlands and major wildlife habitat of the region.More than 115 bird species, including 20 species of waterfowl, and 10 mammal species have been documented in playas. Waterfowl nest in the area, producing up to 250,000 ducklings in wetter years. Dominant breeding and nesting species are mallards and blue-winged teals. During the very protracted breeding season, birds hatch from April through August. Several million shorebirds and waterfowl migrate through the area each spring and fall. More than 400,000 sandhill cranes migrate through and winter in the region, concentrating primarily on the larger saline lakes in the southern portion of the playa lakes region.The primary importance of the playa lakes region to waterfowl is as a wintering area. Wintering waterfowl populations in the playa lakes region range from 1 to 3 million birds, depending on fall precipitation patterns that determine the number of flooded playas. The most common wintering ducks are mallards, northern pintails, green-winged teals, and American wigeons. About 500,000 Canada geese and 100,000 lesser snow geese winter in the playa lakes region, and numbers of geese have increased annually since the early 1980’s. This chapter describes the physiography and ecology of playa lakes and their attributes that benefit waterfowl.

  17. The Great Salt Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hassibe, W.R.; Keck, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    The western part of the conterminous United States is often thought of as being a desert without any large bodies of water. In the desert area of western Utah, however, lies Great Salt Lake, which in 1986 covered approximately 2,300 square miles and contained 30 million acre-feet of water (an acre-foot is the amount of water necessary to cover 1 acre of land with water 1 foot in depth or about 326,000 gallons). To emphasize its size, the Great Salt Lake is the largest lake west of the Mississippi River, larger than the states of Rhode Island and Delaware.

  18. Methane bubbling from northern lakes: present and future contributions to the global methane budget.

    PubMed

    Walter, Katey M; Smith, Laurence C; Chapin, F Stuart

    2007-07-15

    Large uncertainties in the budget of atmospheric methane (CH4) limit the accuracy of climate change projections. Here we describe and quantify an important source of CH4 -- point-source ebullition (bubbling) from northern lakes -- that has not been incorporated in previous regional or global methane budgets. Employing a method recently introduced to measure ebullition more accurately by taking into account its spatial patchiness in lakes, we estimate point-source ebullition for 16 lakes in Alaska and Siberia that represent several common northern lake types: glacial, alluvial floodplain, peatland and thermokarst (thaw) lakes. Extrapolation of measured fluxes from these 16 sites to all lakes north of 45 degrees N using circumpolar databases of lake and permafrost distributions suggests that northern lakes are a globally significant source of atmospheric CH4, emitting approximately 24.2+/-10.5Tg CH4yr(-1). Thermokarst lakes have particularly high emissions because they release CH4 produced from organic matter previously sequestered in permafrost. A carbon mass balance calculation of CH4 release from thermokarst lakes on the Siberian yedoma ice complex suggests that these lakes alone would emit as much as approximately 49000Tg CH4 if this ice complex was to thaw completely. Using a space-for-time substitution based on the current lake distributions in permafrost-dominated and permafrost-free terrains, we estimate that lake emissions would be reduced by approximately 12% in a more probable transitional permafrost scenario and by approximately 53% in a 'permafrost-free' Northern Hemisphere. Long-term decline in CH4 ebullition from lakes due to lake area loss and permafrost thaw would occur only after the large release of CH4 associated thermokarst lake development in the zone of continuous permafrost. PMID:17513268

  19. Spatial characterization of acid rain stress in Canadian Shield Lakes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tanis, F.J.; Marshall, E.M.

    1989-03-01

    The lake acidification in Northern Ontario was investigated using LANDSAT TM to sense lake volume reflectance and also to provide important vegetation and terrain characteristics. The purpose of this project was to determine the ability of LANDSAT to assess water quality characteristics associated with lake acidification. Results demonstrate that a remote sensor can discriminate lake clarity based upon reflection. The basic hypothesis is that seasonal and multi-year changes in lake optical transparency are indicative of sensitivity to acidic deposition. In many acid-sensitive lakes optical transparency is controlled by the amount of dissolved organic carbon present. Seasonal changes in the optical transparency of lakes can potentially provide an indication of the stress due to acid deposition and loading.

  20. Representative stability classification near Lake Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Caiazza, R.; Bedford, C.

    1994-12-31

    USEPA guidance for air quality modeling specifies Pasquill-Gifford stability categories using near-surface wind speed and subjective insolation observations. In areas where there are no major discontinuities, this approach is acceptable. However, where there are discontinuities, e.g. adjacent to major water bodies, adjustments should be made to account for the discontinuity. The Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO) has sponsored a multi-year project to develop a comprehensive system of air pollution meteorology techniques for input to air quality models used near Lake Ontario. The monitoring projects reveal that there are numerous lake-induced regimes that affect wind fields and stability classification. In this work differences in stability classification techniques are analyzed.

  1. Can lake sensitivity to desiccation be predicted from lake geometry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torabi Haghighi, Ali; Menberu, Meseret Walle; Aminnezhad, Mousa; Marttila, Hannu; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-08-01

    Declining lake levels (Aral Sea syndrome) can be caused by changes in climate, increased water use or changed regulation patterns. This paper introduces a novel lake geometry index (LGI) to quantify lake hydrological characteristics. The index was developed using a large representative dataset of lake hypsographic characteristics from 152 lakes and man-made reservoirs. Using the LGI index, lakes can be classified into five groups: groups 1-4 when LGI is 0.5-2.5, 2.5-4.5, 4.5-6.5 and 6.5-8.5, respectively, and group 5 when LGI is >8.5. Naturally shallow and vast lakes and wetlands fall into the first group and deep man-made reservoirs in narrow valleys are in group 5. The response of three different lake systems (LGI 0.75, 2.75 and 6.5) to different water flow scenarios was then simulated using the water balance equation. From this, the index 'potential lake area' (Apot) was developed to show lake responses to changed hydro-climatological conditions. Apot and LGI can be used to classify lakes into open or closed systems. Simulations showed that lakes with low LGI have a shorter response time to flow and climate changes. As a result, the impact of water balance restoration is faster for lakes with low LGI than for lakes with high LGI. The latter are also more vulnerable to climate variation and change.

  2. Challenges to the Lake

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the past decade we have extensively studied coastal ecosystems in the Great Lakes. Some research efforts have linked coastal receiving systems to conditions in their contributing watersheds; others have focused on developing invasive species detection and monitoring strat...

  3. Lake Superior, Duluth, MN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This view shows the west end of Lake Superior and Duluth, MN (47.0N, 91.0W). Portions of Minnesota, Michigan and Ontario, Canada are in the scene. The Duluth metropolitan area is at the west end of the lake. The discoloration plume in the water at Duluth is the result of tailings from the iron ore smelters that process the iron ore from the nearby open pit mines seen near the upper left corner of the photo.

  4. Lake Chad, Chad, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The fluctuating water levels of Lake Chad, (13.0N, 15.0E) at the intersection of the borders of Chad, Niger and Cameroon in the Sahara Desert, is an index of the drought in Africa. The lake level continues to decrease as indicated by the growing number and extent of emerging islands as previously submerged ancient sand dunes become visible. The water impounded between the dunes is probably because of local rainfall rather than a reversal of desertification.

  5. Phase 2 sampling for radionuclides and metal distribution in L-lake sediments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.W. II

    1996-10-01

    Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) was tasked by Westinghouse Savannah River Company under subcontract C001015P to provide environmental sampling services on L-Lake at the Savannah River site. Athena Technologies, Inc. was subcontracted by SAIC to provide vibracoring services. The project consisted of vibracore sampling of lake bottom sediments at 23 locations within L-Lake. Field activities were performed from August 8 through August 22, 1996. This report describes the activities associated with the task.

  6. Overview: Ancient Lake Creede

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bethke, Philip M.; Hay, Richard L.

    2000-01-01

    Lake Creede was moderately saline closed-basin lake that developed in the 26.9 Ma Creede caldera in the San Juan Mountains in the southwest Colorado. The volcaniclastic sediments deposited within the late Oligocene lake were first described and named as the Creede Formation by Emmons and Larsen (1923). The lake and its sedimentary fill are of interest first as representatives of a caldera-hosted lake in a silicic volcanic terrane, and second because of the likely involvement of lake fluids or related pore waters in the deposition of the 25 Ma silver and base-metal ores of the Creede mining district north of the Creede caldera (Fig. 1), as proposed Bethke and Rye (1979). Much of the material presented in this volume is based on observation of core samples and on downhole geophysical measurements obtained as part of a U.S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program in the moat of the Creede caldera. These core and downhole studies are supplemented by outcrop studies, some initiated in support of the drilling program (Bethke and Lipman, 1987), and by conceptual studies of the evolution of the Creede caldera and its surrounding landscape. Not surprisingly, not all authors agree on all interpretation. Most disagreements are pointed out in this overview chapter, and may present opportunities for future study.

  7. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

  8. Remote sensing data supporting EULAKES project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresciani, Mariano; Matta, Erica; Giardino, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    EULAKES Project (European Lakes Under Environmental Stressors), funded by Central Europe Programme 2010-2013, includes four European lakes study: Garda Lake (Italy), Charzykowskie Lake (Poland), Neusiedl Lake (Austria) and Balaton Lake (Hungary). Aim of the Project is to evaluate lakes exposure to different type of risks in order to provide some useful tools to improve natural resources planning and management. The goal is to build an informatics system to support decision makers' purposes, which also provides a list of possible measures to be undertaken for water quality protection. Thanks to remote sensing techniques water quality characteristics have been assessed. Our activity provided photosynthetic cyanobacteria specific pigments spatial distribution in Charzykowskie Lake, macrophyte mapping in Garda Lake using MIVIS images, and common reeds change detection in Neusiedl Lake through Landsat satellite images analysis. 4800 MODIS 11A products, from 2004 to 2010, have been acquired to evaluate surface water temperature trends, significant input data for future global change scenarios. Temperature analysis allowed the evaluation of lakes different characteristics, temperature temporal trends and temperature spatial variability inside each lake. Optical active parameters (Chlorophyll-a, Total Suspended Matter, Colored Dissolved Organic Matter), as well as water transparency, have been estimated from 250 MERIS images processing. Satellite images, acquired following Water Frame Directive monitoring rules, have been corrected for adjacent effects using ESA Beam-Visat software (ICOL tool). Atmospheric correction has been performed applying different softwares: 6S radiative transfer code and Beam Neural-Network. Different algorithms for the water quality parameters estimation have been applied to reflectance values, after their validation with spectroradiometric field measures. Garda Lake has been analysed with ESA Case 2 Regional algorithm, while for Balaton and

  9. Is Lake Chabot Eutrophic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrini, K.; Logan, J.; Esterlis, P.; Lew, A.; Nguyen, M.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction/Abstract: Lake Chabot is an integral part of the East Bay watershed that provides habitats for animals and recreation for humans year-round. Lake Chabot has been in danger of eutrophication due to excessive dumping of phosphorous and nitrogen into the water from the fertilizers of nearby golf courses and neighboring houses. If the lake turned out to be eutrophified, it could seriously impact what is currently the standby emergency water supply for many Castro Valley residents. Eutrophication is the excessive richness of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in a lake, usually as a result of runoff. This buildup of nutrients causes algal blooms. The algae uses up most of the oxygen in the water, and when it dies, it causes the lake to hypoxify. The fish in the lake can't breathe, and consequently suffocate. Other oxygen-dependant aquatic creatures die off as well. Needless to say, the eutrophication of a lake is bad news for the wildlife that lives in or around it. The level of eutrophication in our area in Northern California tends to increase during the late spring/early summer months, so our crew went out and took samples of Lake Chabot on June 2. We focused on the area of the lake where the water enters, known on the map as Honker Bay. We also took readings a ways down in deeper water for comparison's sake. Visually, the lake looked in bad shape. The water was a murky green that glimmered with particulate matter that swirled around the boat as we went by. In the Honker Bay region where we focused our testing, there were reeds bathed in algae that coated the surface of the lake in thick, swirling patterns. Surprisingly enough, however, our test results didn't reveal any extreme levels of phosphorous or nitrogen. They were slightly higher than usual, but not by any significant amount. The levels we found were high enough to stimulate plant and algae growth and promote eutrophication, but not enough to do any severe damage. After a briefing with a

  10. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program; Lake Roosevelt Fisheries and Limnological Research; 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Tilson, Mary Beth; Underwood, Keith D.; Shields, John

    1996-08-01

    This project began collecting biological data from Lake Roosevelt starting in 1991, with a long term goal of developing a computer model which accurately predicts biological responses to reservoir operations as part of the System Operation Review Program. In conjunction with the Lake Roosevelt Monitoring Project, this study collected limnological, reservoir operation, zooplankton, creel, net-pen rainbow trout and kokanee tagging data in 1994. Results obtained from current and past years data allow for the quantification of impacts to lake limnology, zooplankton, fish species and fisherman caused by reservoir drawdowns and low water retention times. in Lake Roosevelt, reservoir operations influence lake morphology as well as habitat availability for fish and their food. Lake elevations reached a yearly low of 1,263.90 feet above sea level in April and a yearly high of 1,288.50 feet in October. Lake Roosevelt experienced a peak in Daphnia spp. densities during July and August including the peak density of nearly 9,000 organisms per m{sup 3}. High densities of zooplankton were found in the lower end of the reservoir which supports the hypothesis that flushing of reservoir water increases downstream plankton densities and biomass as well as increasing entrainment of fishes. In 1994, a total of 26,975 net-pen rainbow trout were tagged at locations throughout the reservoir. Anglers fishing in Lake Roosevelt or below returned 448 tags, of which 399 tags were from fish tagged in 1994. Trends in tag returns continue to indicate that entrainment of Lake Roosevelt net-pen fish are influenced by water retention times and release times. Creel surveys of Rufus Woods were conducted over a six month period in 1993 and seven months in 1994 to estimate entrainment loss of tagged fish, however no tags were observed. Harvest estimates for the creel period were 46, 0 and 55 fish for rainbow trout, kokanee and walleye in 1993 and 384, 5 and 4,856 fish per year respectively in 1994.

  11. TOXAPHENE STUDY OF GREAT LAKES TRIBUTARY SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Product is the paper "Pulp and Paper Mills as Sources of Toxaphene to Lake Superior and Northern Lake Michigan" published in the Journal of Great Lakes Research, 25(2):383-394 International Association of Great Lakes 1999.

  12. Availability of lake trout reproductive habitat in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Kennedy, Gregory W.

    1995-01-01

    A decades-long program to reestablish self-sustaining stocks of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the four lower Great Lakes produced excellent fisheries supported by stocked fish. These fish spawned widely and small numbers of their offspring were collected intermittently from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario, but no self-sustaining stocks were established. Irt this paper we address habitat sufficiency as a factor in the failure of stocked lake trout to established self-sustaining populations in the four lower Great Lakes. We present the previously unpublished results of lake trout spawning habitat surveys conducted at seven sites in the Great Lakes since 1987 and we compare them with the published results of similar surveys conducted at 24 other sites in the four lower lakes since 1981. Our evaluation indicates all but two of these sites can support the production of viable fry from spawnings by the shallow-water strains of lake trout that are stocked in the Great Lakes. However, some of the best spawning, egg, and fry habitat in the lower Great Lakes seems to be at deeper offshore sites that may be unattractive to these shallow-water strains. Thus, we suggest also stocking the lower four lakes with strains from Lake Superior that might more fully exploit the best spawning habitat at these deeper, offshore sites.

  13. The movement of tagged lake trout in Lake Superior, 1950-52

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eschmeyer, Paul H.; Daly, Russell; Erkkila, Leo F.

    1953-01-01

    A total of 733 native lake trout was tagged at two widely separated localities in Lake Superior; subsequent recaptures numbered 155 fish (21.1 percent) during the year following marking. In October 1950, 116 large lake trout (average total length, 27.3 inches) were tagged near Keweenaw Point, Michigan. Fifteen (12.9 percent) were recovered during the first year at points as far west as the Gooseberry River, Minnesota (190 miles), north to the Slate Islands, Ontario (95 miles), and east to Grand Marais, Michigan (100 miles). Nine fish (7.8 percent) were recovered during the second year after marking. Returns from 617 tagged lake trout of smaller size (average length 18.2 inches) released in the Apostle Island region of Wisconsin during the period June 12 to August 6, 1951, numbered 140 (22.7 percent) during the first year. Of these fish, 90 percent were recaptured within a radius of 50 miles of the points of release. Seventy-six percent were caught in Wisconsin, 14 percent in Minnesota, and 9 percent in Michigan waters. The fish retaken in Michigan had moved 120 to 255 miles between the time of release and recapture, traveling as far wast as Grand Marais. Lake trout recaptured at distances of more than 50 miles from the tagging locality were of larger average size than marked fish caught within this radius. The four types of tages used in the marking of lake trout in the Apostle Island region, together with the number tagged and percentage recovered during the first year were as follows: 103 aluminum lower-jaw tags (used only on fish less than 17 inches in length when marked)-10.7 percent; 200 monel upper-jaw tags-14 percent; 162 streamer tags-19.8 percent; and 152 Peterson tags-45.4 percent. Obviously lake trout marked with the Peterson tag, with the discs and ends of the pin projecting from each side near the point of maximum girth, were more vulnerable to the fishery than were fish marked with other tags. The recoveries of marked fish show that Lake Superior lake

  14. Yangtze River Water Diversion into Lake Taihu for Algal Bloom Control: Is it Helping or Hurting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, K.; Li, Y.; Tang, C.; Qiu, L.; Yu, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Harmful algae blooms in Lake Taihu are getting worse every year due to excess nutrients flowing into the water, especially from the northern watershed areas. Impact of blooms on lake's ecosystem, fisheries and drinking water supply to local towns has been severe. Many efforts have been undertaken by both government entities and researchers since 1990 for restoring the lake such as dredging, wetland construction, control of watershed runoff but none has garnered more attention than the water-diversion project. In the water-diversion project, freshwater from the Yangtze River is transferred into the lake via the Wangyuhe River (in the north) and is eventually discharged from the lake via the Taipuhe River (in the south) in an attempt to dilute the polluted water and flush pollutants out of the lake. The effects of water transfer on lake water quality and ecology have drawn great attention because the effectiveness of this project is conflicting. Recent studies suggest that water transfer could only decrease the concentration of phytoplankton but may actually increase concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen in some areas of the lake where nutrient concentrations are lower than the influent water. In this study, a three dimensional Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model was used to investigate mass balance and spatial distribution of nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus) in Lake Taihu before and after transfer.

  15. 40 CFR 35.1650-1 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Project period. 35.1650-1 Section 35... Lakes § 35.1650-1 Project period. (a) The project period for Phase 1 projects shall not exceed three years. (b) The project period for Phase 2 projects shall not exceed four years. Implementation...

  16. 40 CFR 35.1650-1 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Project period. 35.1650-1 Section 35... Lakes § 35.1650-1 Project period. (a) The project period for Phase 1 projects shall not exceed three years. (b) The project period for Phase 2 projects shall not exceed four years. Implementation...

  17. 40 CFR 35.1650-1 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Project period. 35.1650-1 Section 35... Lakes § 35.1650-1 Project period. (a) The project period for Phase 1 projects shall not exceed three years. (b) The project period for Phase 2 projects shall not exceed four years. Implementation...

  18. 40 CFR 35.1650-1 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Project period. 35.1650-1 Section 35... Lakes § 35.1650-1 Project period. (a) The project period for Phase 1 projects shall not exceed three years. (b) The project period for Phase 2 projects shall not exceed four years. Implementation...

  19. 40 CFR 35.1650-1 - Project period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project period. 35.1650-1 Section 35... Lakes § 35.1650-1 Project period. (a) The project period for Phase 1 projects shall not exceed three years. (b) The project period for Phase 2 projects shall not exceed four years. Implementation...

  20. Contaminants in American alligator eggs from Lake Apopka, Lake Griffin, and Lake Okeechobee, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Percival, H.F.; Jennings, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 16 elements were measured in American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) eggs collected in 1984 from Lakes Apopka, Griffin, and Okeechobee in central and south Florida. Organochlorine pesticides were highest in eggs from Lake Apopka. None of the elements appeared to be present at harmful concentrations in eggs from any of the lakes. A larger sample of eggs was collected in 1985, but only from Lakes Griffin, a lake where eggs were relatively clean, and Apopka, where eggs were most contaminated. In 1985, hatching success of artificially incubated eggs was lower for Lake Apopka, and several organochlorine pesticides were higher than in eggs from Lake Griffin. However, within Lake Apopka, higher levels of pesticides in chemically analyzed eggs were not associated with reduced hatching success of the remaining eggs in the clutch. Therefore, it did not appear that any of the pesticides we measured were responsible for the reduced hatching of Lake Apopka eggs.

  1. A review on anthropogenic impact to the Micro Prespa lake and its damages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frasheri, N.; Pano, N.; Frasheri, A.; Beqiraj, G.; Bushati, S.; Taska, E.

    2012-04-01

    Paper presents the results of the integrated and multidisciplinary studies for investigation of the anthropogenic damages to Albanian part of the transborder Micro Prespa Lake. Remote sensing with Landsat images was used for identification of environmental changes in time for the period 1970 - 2010. Micro Prespa Lake is lake with international status, as Ramsar Convection, International Park and Special Protection Area-79/409/EEC. According to the studies, investigations and analyses, the following were concluded: Devolli River- Micro Prespa Lake irrigation system was not scientifically supported by environmental engineering, hydroeconomy and International Rights principles. It does work according to the projected parameters, and also, doesn't supply the agricultural needs. About of 10 % of the water volume, discharges by Devolli River in Micro Prespa Lake during the winter, is taken from this lake for the irrigation in summer. Great surface of Albanian part of Micro Prespa Lake is destroyed. The other part of the lake is atrophied and the habitat and biodiversity are damaged. Important and unique species of fish, birds and plants of national and international values are risked. The underground karstic connection ways for water circulation are blocked. There are ruining the historic values of the area, such the encient Treni cave from the Bronze Age. The Albanian part of the Micro Prespa Lake has been damaged by the human activities. A huge amount of 1,2 million cubic meters alluvium has been deposited on the lake bottom and lakeshore, which was transported by the Devolli River waters, since 1974. This river waters, rich in alluvium and organic coal material from outcropped geological formations, also absorbed free chemical toxic remains by the drainage of Devolli farm ground, which have changed the chemical features of the lake water and degrading it. Micro Prespa Lake communicates with Macro Prespa Lake, and together with Ohrid Lake. Blockage of underground

  2. Evidence of Lake Trout reproduction at Lake Michigan's mid-lake reef complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janssen, J.; Jude, D.J.; Edsall, T.A.; Paddock, R.W.; Wattrus, N.; Toneys, M.; McKee, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Mid-Lake Reef Complex (MLRC), a large area of deep (> 40 m) reefs, was a major site where indigenous lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan aggregated during spawning. As part of an effort to restore Lake Michigan's lake trout, which were extirpated in the 1950s, yearling lake trout have been released over the MLRC since the mid-1980s and fall gill net censuses began to show large numbers of lake trout in spawning condition beginning about 1999. We report the first evidence of viable egg deposition and successful lake trout fry production at these deep reefs. Because the area's existing bathymetry and habitat were too poorly known for a priori selection of sampling sites, we used hydroacoustics to locate concentrations of large fish in the fall; fish were congregating around slopes and ridges. Subsequent observations via unmanned submersible confirmed the large fish to be lake trout. Our technological objectives were driven by biological objectives of locating where lake trout spawn, where lake trout fry were produced, and what fishes ate lake trout eggs and fry. The unmanned submersibles were equipped with a suction sampler and electroshocker to sample eggs deposited on the reef, draw out and occasionally catch emergent fry, and collect egg predators (slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus). We observed slimy sculpin to eat unusually high numbers of lake trout eggs. Our qualitative approaches are a first step toward quantitative assessments of the importance of lake trout spawning on the MLRC.

  3. Big lake records preserved in a little lake's sediment: An example from Silver Lake, Michigan, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, T.G.; Loope, W.L.; Pierce, W.; Jol, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    We reconstruct postglacial lake-level history within the Lake Michigan basin using soil stratigraphy, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), sedimentology and 14C data from the Silver Lake basin, which lies adjacent to Lake Michigan. Stratigraphy in nine vibracores recovered from the floor of Silver Lake appears to reflect fluctuation of water levels in the Lake Michigan basin. Aeolian activity within the study area from 3,000 years (cal yr. B.P.) to the present was inferred from analysis of buried soils, an aerial photograph sequence, and GPR. Sediments in and around Silver Lake appear to contain a paleoenvironmental record that spans the entire post-glacial history of the Lake Michigan basin. We suggest that (1) a pre-Nipissing rather than a Nipissing barrier separated Silver Lake basin from the Lake Michigan basin, (2) that the Nipissing transgression elevated the water table in the Silver Lake basin about 6,500 cal yr. B.P., resulting in reestablishment of a lake within the basin, and (3) that recent dune migration into Silver Lake is associated with levels of Lake Michigan.

  4. Undiscovered oil and gas resources underlying the U.S. portions of the Great Lakes, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, James L.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Ryder, Robert T.; Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the U.S. portions of the Appalachian Basin and the Michigan Basin in 2002 and 2004, respectively. Following the assessments of these two basins, oil and gas allocations were assigned to the U.S. portions of the Great Lakes - Lake Superior (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin), Lake Michigan (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and Wisconsin), Lake Huron (Michigan), Lake Erie (Michigan, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania), and Lake Ontario (New York). Allocations for Lake St. Clair (Michigan) were included with those of Lake Erie. The allocations are based on the geologic elements of each total petroleum system defined in the region and the projected extent of those elements from onshore beneath each of the lakes. These geologic elements include the hydrocarbon source rocks, reservoir rocks, and traps. By using this geologic framework, the USGS defined 8 total petroleum systems and 21 assessment units within the Great Lakes and estimated the quantity of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and gas resources within 16 of the 21 assessment units in the Great Lakes.

  5. Bottom Topographic Changes of Poyang Lake During Past Decade Using Multi-temporal Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Poyang Lake, as a well-known international wetland in the Ramsar Convention List, is the largest freshwater lake in China. It plays crucial ecological role in flood storage and biological diversity. Poyang Lake is facing increasingly serious water crises, including seasonal dry-up, decreased wetland area, and water resource shortage, all of which are closely related to progressive bottom topographic changes over recent years. Time-series of bottom topography would contribute to our understanding of the lake's evolution during the past several decades. However, commonly used methods for mapping bottom topography fail to frequently update quality bathymetric data for Poyang Lake restricted by weather and accessibility. These deficiencies have limited our ability to characterize the bottom topographic changes and understanding lake erosion or deposition trend. To fill the gap, we construct a decadal bottom topography of Poyang Lake with a total of 146 time series medium resolution satellite images based on the Waterline Method. It was found that Poyang Lake has eroded with a rate of -14.4 cm/ yr from 2000 to 2010. The erosion trend was attributed to the impacts of human activities, especially the operation of the Three Gorge Dams, sand excavation, and the implementation of water conservancy project. A decadal quantitative understanding bottom topography of Poyang Lake might provide a foundation to model the lake evolutionary processes and assist both researchers and local policymakers in ecological management, wetland protection and lake navigation safety.

  6. Winter Lake Breezes near the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosman, Erik T.; Horel, John D.

    2016-05-01

    Case studies of lake breezes during wintertime cold air pools in Utah's Salt Lake Valley are examined. While summer breezes originating from the Great Salt Lake are typically deeper, of longer duration, and have higher wind speeds than winter breezes, the rate of inland penetration and cross-frontal temperature differences can be higher during the winter. The characteristics of winter breezes and the forcing mechanisms controlling them (e.g., snow cover, background flow, vertical stability profile, clouds, lake temperature, lake sheltering, and drainage pooling) are more complex and variable than those evident in summer. During the afternoon in the Salt Lake Valley, these lake breezes can lead to elevated pollution levels due to the transport of fine particle pollutants from over the Great Salt Lake, decreased vertical mixing depth, and increased vertical stability.

  7. Movements of adult lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rahrer, Jerold F.

    1968-01-01

    Returns from mature lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) tagged in western Lake Superior in 1959 and 1962-65 described here suggest that trout disperse widely from the spawning grounds after spawning and return in subsequent years. Although the data were not extensive, returns from lake trout tagged near Keweenaw Point in 1950 and off Marquette, Michigan, in 1952 suggested similar movement. Loftus stated that river-spawning lake trout of eastern Lake Superior returned annually to the same spawning streams. Movements of lake trout must be understood to manage and evaluate the rehabilitation of lake trout stocks in Lake Superior, especially when the trout move across interstate and international boundaries and are subject to different fishing regulations and fishing pressures.

  8. Crater Lake revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, David W.; Dartnell, Peter; Bacon, Charles R.; Robinson, Joel E.; Gardner, James V.

    2003-01-01

    Around 500,000 people each year visit Crater Lake National Park in the Cascade Range of southern Oregon. Volcanic peaks, evergreen forests, and Crater Lake’s incredibly blue water are the park’s main attractions. Crater Lake partially fills the caldera that formed approximately 7,700 years ago by the eruption and subsequent collapse of a 12,000-foot volcano called Mount Mazama. The caldera-forming or climactic eruption of Mount Mazama drastically changed the landscape all around the volcano and spread a blanket of volcanic ash at least as far away as southern Canada. Prior to the climactic event, Mount Mazama had a 400,000 year history of cone building activity like that of other Cascade volcanoes such as Mount Shasta. Since the climactic eruption, there have been several less violent, smaller postcaldera eruptions within the caldera itself. However, relatively little was known about the specifics of these eruptions because their products were obscured beneath Crater Lake’s surface. As the Crater Lake region is still potentially volcanically active, understanding past eruptive events is important to understanding future eruptions, which could threaten facilities and people at Crater Lake National Park and the major transportation corridor east of the Cascades. Recently, the lake bottom was mapped with a high-resolution multibeam echo sounder. The new bathymetric survey provides a 2m/pixel view of the lake floor from its deepest basins virtually to the shoreline. Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications, the bathymetry data can be visualized and analyzed to shed light on the geology, geomorphology, and geologic history of Crater Lake.

  9. The Wandering Lake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In the area at the very far eastern corner of China's Taklimakan Desert, Lop Nor Lake was located up until some years ago. Lop Nor, also called the 'the heart of the heart' of Asia, was the place where the waters of the largest inner basin (i.e., not flowing into the sea) of the world-including the Tarim and Kum-daria Rivers-were collected. Depending on the balance between rainfall water yield and evaporation, both position and size of the lake were strongly variable, thus giving rise to the legend of the Wandering Lake. 'Lop City' was the place where Marco Polo took his last rest before facing the one-year long crossing of the Gobi Desert. Starting from the end of the 19th century, several explorers tried to find the legendary place. One such explorer was Sven Hedin, who was commissioned by the Governor of Nanjing to lead an expedition to find the lake. In 1937, the Swedish explorer published his book entitled The Wandering Lake. Comparing this very precise map from Sven Hedin's book with the above Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) false-color image (acquired on October 28, 2001), one can find a faint sign on the soil where the Lop Nor was located. This image, derived using a combination of MODIS' near-infrared and red channels (vegetation in red), shows where the Tarim River waters currently end their flow. The Wandering Lake does not exist anymore. The combination of climate change and human exploitation of water resources for agriculture caused the disappearance of the lake. This image was processed by Telespazio, Earth Observation division, new products development facility in Rome, Italy. The MODIS sensor flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft, launched in December 1999. Caption and image courtesy Luca Pietranera, Telespazio, Rome, Italy, based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  10. Historical Orthoimagery of the Lake Tahoe Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Raumann, Christian G.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Geographic Science Center has developed a series of historical digital orthoimagery (HDO) datasets covering part or all of the Lake Tahoe Basin. Three datasets are available: (A) 1940 HDOs for the southern Lake Tahoe Basin, (B) 1969 HDOs for the entire Lake Tahoe Basin, and (C) 1987 HDOs for the southern Lake Tahoe Basin. The HDOs (for 1940, 1969, and 1987) were compiled photogrammically from aerial photography with varying scales, camera characteristics, image quality, and capture dates. The resulting datasets have a 1-meter horizontal resolution. Precision-corrected Ikonos multispectral satellite imagery was used as a substitute for HDOs/DOQs for the 2002 imagery date, but these data are not available for download in this series due to licensing restrictions. The projection of the HDO data is set to UTM Zone 10, NAD 1983. The data for each of the three available dates are clipped into files that spatially approximate the 3.75-minute USGS quarter quadrangles (roughly 3,000 to 4,000 hectares), and have roughly 100 pixels (or 100 meters) of overlap to facilitate combining the files into larger regions without data gaps. The files are named after 3.75-minute USGS quarter quadrangles that cover the same general spatial extent. These files are available in the ERDAS Imagine (.img) format.

  11. Using a coupled groundwater/surfacewater model to predict climate-change impacts to lakes in the Trout Lake watershed, Northern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, John F.; Hunt, Randall J.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Hay, Lauren E.; Doherty, John

    2009-01-01

    A major focus of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Trout Lake Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) project is the development of a watershed model to allow predictions of hydrologic response to future conditions including land-use and climate change. The coupled groundwater/surface-water model GSFLOW was chosen for this purpose because it could easily incorporate an existing groundwater flow model and it provides for simulation of surface-water processes. The Trout Lake watershed in northern Wisconsin is underlain by a highly conductive outwash sand aquifer. In this area, streamflow is dominated by groundwater contributions; however, surface runoff occurs during intense rainfall periods and spring snowmelt. Surface runoff also occurs locally near stream/lake areas where the unsaturated zone is thin. A diverse data set, collected from 1992 to 2007 for the Trout Lake WEBB project and the co-located and NSF-funded North Temperate Lakes LTER project, includes snowpack, solar radiation, potential evapotranspiration, lake levels, groundwater levels, and streamflow. The timeseries processing software TSPROC (Doherty 2003) was used to distill the large time series data set to a smaller set of observations and summary statistics that captured the salient hydrologic information. The timeseries processing reduced hundreds of thousands of observations to less than 5,000. Model calibration included specific predictions for several lakes in the study area using the PEST parameter estimation suite of software (Doherty 2007). The calibrated model was used to simulate the hydrologic response in the study lakes to a variety of climate change scenarios culled from the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Solomon et al. 2007). Results from the simulations indicate climate change could result in substantial changes to the lake levels and components of the hydrologic budget of a seepage lake in the flow system. For a drainage lake

  12. Examining indirect effects of lake trout recovery

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the recovery of lake trout populations in Lake Superior, there are indications of decreased forage fish abundance and density-dependence in lake trout. In Lake Superior, lean lake trout historically occupied depths < 60 m, and siscowet lake trout occupied depths > 60 m...

  13. VARIABILITY, PATTERN, AND SENSITIVITY OF ECOLOGICAL INDICAORS FOR NEARSHORE REGIONS OF THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Associated with the Great Lakes Environmental Indicators (GLEI) project of the EaGLe program, we are evaluating a suite of indicators of ecological condition for the nearshore region of U.S. shorelines of the Great Lakes. The evaluation includes sampling conducted at limited fix...

  14. Investigation of Total and Methyl Mercury in Fish and Sediment of Lake Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment cores and fish collected between 1994 and 1996 as part of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project were analyzed for total and methyl mercury. Results of the fish analyses are being used to describe total and methyl mercury concentrations in forage fish and lake trout, re...

  15. 40 CFR 35.1620-5 - State work programs and lake priority lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lakes according to trophic condition (§ 35.1630) and to set priorities for implementing clean lakes... agreement applications, with necessary funding, which it expects to submit in the following fiscal year... priority project has sufficient resources available to provide the required matching funding while a...

  16. 40 CFR 35.1620-5 - State work programs and lake priority lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lakes according to trophic condition (§ 35.1630) and to set priorities for implementing clean lakes... agreement applications, with necessary funding, which it expects to submit in the following fiscal year... priority project has sufficient resources available to provide the required matching funding while a...

  17. 40 CFR 35.1620-5 - State work programs and lake priority lists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... lakes according to trophic condition (§ 35.1630) and to set priorities for implementing clean lakes... agreement applications, with necessary funding, which it expects to submit in the following fiscal year... priority project has sufficient resources available to provide the required matching funding while a...

  18. Suncor sees loss in oil sands, shelves Burnt Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    Suncor Inc. reported that earnings from operations for the first nine months of 1986 were $1 million, compared to $27 million for the same period last year. However, improved productivity at the oil sands plant and better margins in the downstream business were among the positive factors helping Suncor record a third quarter operating profit of $2 million. As part of restructuring the company's Resources Group it has stopped work on the $1 billion Burnt Lake project. Burnt Lake is an in situ steam recovery project located in the Primrose area. The operation has a potential of 25,000 barrels per day.

  19. 42. Peaks of Otter, Abbott Lake. View across lake to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Peaks of Otter, Abbott Lake. View across lake to peaks of Outter Lodge, completed in 1964. Construction of the lake got underway in 1964. Looking east-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  20. National Lakes Assessment: A Collaborative Survey of the Nation's Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Lakes Assessment A Collaborative Survey of the Nation's Lakes presents the results of an unprecedented assessment of the nation’s lakes. This report is part of the National Aquatic Resource Surveys, a series of statistically based surveys designed to provide the pub...

  1. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents th...

  2. Public engagement in the exploration of Antarctic subglacial lakes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegert, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Plans to undertake the direct measurement and sampling of subglacial lakes have been ongoing for ~20 years. Recently, three attempts have been made to acquire samples of subglacial lake material, to look for life and to seek climate records (from US, UK and Russian teams). Considerable potential exists within this scientific field to advance public understanding of science, including inspiring school children to think about environmental issues, and each of the three programmes has made such engagement a priority. Numerous major media reports on subglacial lakes have been made over the last ten years, and each have contributed to the effective communication of the science. In this talk, I explain how the Lake Ellsworth programme encouraged public interest in the project, from its early genesis, including geophysical survey, to experimental design to, ultimately, the unsuccessful field mission in 2012/13. In addition, I will discuss how public support for the work may assist in future plans to undertake a second field season.

  3. Studies of the effects of operating the Mt. Elbert pumped-storage powerplant on Twin Lakes, Colorado: 1980 report of findings

    SciTech Connect

    LaBounty, J.F.; Sartoris, J.J.

    1981-12-01

    A series of studies is being performed to qualify and quantify changes that occur in the limnological features of Twin Lakes, Colo. because of the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Powerplant, which began operation in August 1981. This report presents the results of studies done in 1980. These results, along with those from other studies done since 1971 when the project began, are being used to define the preoperational limnology of Twin Lakes. The lakes are a pair of dimictic, connected, montane, drainage lakes of glacial origin. Based on seven limnological parameters, the lakes are classified as oligotrophic lakes.

  4. Microplastic pollution in lakes and lake shoreline sediments - A case study on Lake Bolsena and Lake Chiusi (central Italy).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Elke Kerstin; Paglialonga, Lisa; Czech, Elisa; Tamminga, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Rivers and effluents have been identified as major pathways for microplastics of terrestrial sources. Moreover, lakes of different dimensions and even in remote locations contain microplastics in striking abundances. This study investigates concentrations of microplastic particles at two lakes in central Italy (Lake Bolsena, Lake Chiusi). A total number of six Manta Trawls have been carried out, two of them one day after heavy winds occurred on Lake Bolsena showing effects on particle distribution of fragments and fibers of varying size categories. Additionally, 36 sediment samples from lakeshores were analyzed for microplastic content. In the surface waters 2.68 to 3.36 particles/m(3) (Lake Chiusi) and 0.82 to 4.42 particles/m(3) (Lake Bolsena) were detected, respectively. Main differences between the lakes are attributed to lake characteristics such as surface and catchment area, depth and the presence of local wind patterns and tide range at Lake Bolsena. An event of heavy winds and moderate rainfall prior to one sampling led to an increase of concentrations at Lake Bolsena which is most probable related to lateral land-based and sewage effluent inputs. The abundances of microplastic particles in sediments vary from mean values of 112 (Lake Bolsena) to 234 particles/kg dry weight (Lake Chiusi). Lake Chiusi results reveal elevated fiber concentrations compared to those of Lake Bolsena what might be a result of higher organic content and a shift in grain size distribution towards the silt and clay fraction at the shallow and highly eutrophic Lake Chiusi. The distribution of particles along different beach levels revealed no significant differences. PMID:27104923

  5. Microplastic pollution in lakes and lake shoreline sediments - A case study on Lake Bolsena and Lake Chiusi (central Italy).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Elke Kerstin; Paglialonga, Lisa; Czech, Elisa; Tamminga, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Rivers and effluents have been identified as major pathways for microplastics of terrestrial sources. Moreover, lakes of different dimensions and even in remote locations contain microplastics in striking abundances. This study investigates concentrations of microplastic particles at two lakes in central Italy (Lake Bolsena, Lake Chiusi). A total number of six Manta Trawls have been carried out, two of them one day after heavy winds occurred on Lake Bolsena showing effects on particle distribution of fragments and fibers of varying size categories. Additionally, 36 sediment samples from lakeshores were analyzed for microplastic content. In the surface waters 2.68 to 3.36 particles/m(3) (Lake Chiusi) and 0.82 to 4.42 particles/m(3) (Lake Bolsena) were detected, respectively. Main differences between the lakes are attributed to lake characteristics such as surface and catchment area, depth and the presence of local wind patterns and tide range at Lake Bolsena. An event of heavy winds and moderate rainfall prior to one sampling led to an increase of concentrations at Lake Bolsena which is most probable related to lateral land-based and sewage effluent inputs. The abundances of microplastic particles in sediments vary from mean values of 112 (Lake Bolsena) to 234 particles/kg dry weight (Lake Chiusi). Lake Chiusi results reveal elevated fiber concentrations compared to those of Lake Bolsena what might be a result of higher organic content and a shift in grain size distribution towards the silt and clay fraction at the shallow and highly eutrophic Lake Chiusi. The distribution of particles along different beach levels revealed no significant differences.

  6. The Shorezone Functionality Index applied to Central Europe lakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zennaro, Barbara; Siligardi, Maurizio

    2013-04-01

    While most of earlier indices were characterized by a particular analysis, for example to the water itself (chemical analyses) or the biotic environment (biotic extended index), the Lake Shorezone Functionality Index (SFI) looks at the overall status of the lacustrine environment, extending out from the lake itself to also include the surrounding territory and watershed topography. Biotic and abiotic parameters are collected in the field with an ecological point of view to evaluate the buffering capacity of riparian vegetation, the complexity and artificiality of the shoreline, the anthropogenic use of the surrounding territory, and the way the inputs from the watershed enter the lake. Each shore stretch with similar parameters is evaluated in the field with a different form. The parameters collected are then run into a dedicated software (SFINX02) that will assigned a functionality level ranging from excellent to bad (divided into 5 categories as suggested from the WFD 2000/60/CE). The same software can also be used to model different scenarios, offering therefore a toll to foresee the impacts that public or private work may have on the lake, or to plan tailored restoration actions. The data transferred into a GIS environment is used to carry out further spatial analysis and to easily display the results in maps. The SFI reports, thematic maps and brochures give specific indications on what actions are needed to improve the functionality of the lake and to avoid stress to the lake. Therefore this index can be used to plan, monitor and evaluate restoration efforts. The SFI index is easily surveyed, speedily and economically, and it evaluates the state of the environment, assists in the identification of the causes of deterioration and represents a powerful tool that can be used for sustainable planning and management. To date, the Shorezone Functionality Index (created in 2009) has been used within the Eulakes and Silmas European projects in Italy (Lake Garda, Idro

  7. Sanctuaries for lake trout in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Jon G.; Eshenroder, Randy L.; Hartman, Wilbur L.

    1987-01-01

    Populations of lake trout, severely depleted in Lake Superior and virtually extirpated from the other Great Lakes because of sea lamprey predation and intense fishing, are now maintained by annual plantings of hatchery-reared fish in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario and parts of Lake Superior. The extensive coastal areas of the Great Lakes and proximity to large populations resulted in fishing pressure on planted lake trout heavy enough to push annual mortality associated with sport and commercial fisheries well above the critical level needed to reestablish self-sustaining stocks. The interagency, international program for rehabilitating lake trout includes controlling sea lamprey abundance, stocking hatchery-reared lake trout, managing the catch, and establishing sanctuaries where harvest is prohibited. Three lake trout sanctuaries have been established in Lake Michigan: the Fox Island Sanctuary of 121, 500 ha, in the Chippewa-Ottawa Treaty fishing zone in the northern region of the lake; the Milwaukee Reef Sanctuary of 160, 000 ha in midlake, in boundary waters of Michigan and Wisconsin; and Julian's Reef Sanctuary of 6, 500 ha, in Illinois waters. In northern Lake Huron, Drummond Island Sanctuary of 55, 000 ha is two thirds in Indian treaty-ceded waters in Michigan and one third in Ontario waters of Canada. A second sanctuary, Six Fathom Bank-Yankee Reef Sanctuary, in central Lake Huron contains 168, 000 ha. Sanctuary status for the Canadian areas remains to be approved by the Provincial government. In Lake Superior, sanctuaries protect the spawning grounds of Gull Island Shoal (70, 000 ha) and Devils Island Shoal (44, 000 ha) in Wisconsin's Apostle Island area. These seven sanctuaries, established by the several States and agreed upon by the States, Indian tribes, the U.S. Department of the Interior, and the Province of Ontario, contribute toward solving an interjurisdictional fishery problem.

  8. Lake v. Arnold.

    PubMed

    2000-01-01

    Court Decision: 232 Federal Reporter, 3d Series 360, 2000 Nov 7 (date of decision). The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit agreed with the lower court that the husband of a mentally disabled woman who was involuntarily sterilized by her parents at age 16 was not entitled to a loss of consortium claim because the injury occurred before the couple was married, both he and his wife were aware of the injury before they married and there was not subsequent harm from the initial injury (sterilization) after the Lakes' marriage. At age 16, Lake, a mentally disabled woman, was taken to a hospital by her father and stepmother and was permanently sterilized. The claim by Lake and her husband against her parents, hospital, and physicians that her civil rights were violated because the sterilization was nonconsensual was dismissed by the court on statute of limitation grounds.

  9. Viruses in Antarctic lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.

  10. Measurement of Lake Roosevelt Biota in Relation to Reservoir Operations : Final Report 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Voeller, Amy C.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect biological data from Lake Roosevelt to be used in the design of a computer model that will predict biological responses to reservoir operations as part of the System Operation Review Program. This study worked in conjunction with Lake Roosevelt Monitoring Project which investigated the effectiveness of two kokanee salmon hatcheries. This report summarized the data collected from Lake Roosevelt from 1993 and includes limnological, reservoir operation, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrate, experimental trawling, and net-pen rainbow trout tagging data. Major components of the Lake Roosevelt model include quantification of impacts to zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish caused by reservoir drawdowns and low water retention times.

  11. Michigan: The Great Lakes State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Sandra Lee; La Luzerne-Oi, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Although Michigan is often called the "Wolverine State," its more common nickname is the "Great Lakes State." This name comes from the fact that Michigan is the only state in the United States that borders four of the five Great Lakes. Also referred to as the "Water Wonderland," Michigan has 11,000 additional lakes, 36,000 miles of streams, and…

  12. Database compilation: hydrology of Lake Tiberias (Jordan Valley)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shentsis, Izabela; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Magri, Fabien

    2014-05-01

    A long-term series of water balance data over the last 50 years is compiled to gain insights into the hydrology of the Lake Tiberias (LT) and surrounding aquifers. This database is used within the framework of a German-Israeli-Jordanian project (DFG Ma4450-2) in which numerical modeling is applied to study the mechanisms of deep fluid transport processes affecting the Tiberias basin. The LT is the largest natural freshwater lake in Israel. It is located in the northern part of the Dead Sea Rift. The behavior of the lake level is a result of the regional water balance caused mainly by interaction of two factors: (i) fluctuations of water inflow to the Lake, (ii) water exploitation in the adjacent aquifers and consumptions from the lake (pumping, diversion, etc). The replenishment of the lake occurs through drainage from surrounding mountains (Galilee, Golan Heights), entering the lake through the Jordan River and secondary streams (85%), direct precipitation (11%), fresh-saline springs discharging along the shoreline, divertion from Yarmouk river and internal springs and seeps. The major losses occur through the National Water Carrier (ca. 44%), evaporation (38%), local consumption and compensation to Jordan (in sum 12%). In spite of the increasing role of water exploitation, the natural inflow to the Lake remains the dominant factor of hydrological regime of the Tiberias Lake. Additionally, series of natural yield to the LT are reconstructed with precipitation data measured in the Tiberias basin (1922-2012). The earlier period (1877-1921) is evaluated considering long rainfall records at Beirut and Nazareth stations (Middle East Region). This data enables to use the LT yield as a complex indicator of the regional climate change. Though the data applies to the LT, this example shows the importance of large database. Their compilation defines the correct set-up of joint methodologies such as numerical modeling and hydrochemical analyses aimed to understand large

  13. Challenges of Artificial Recharge at the Chain of Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, X.

    2004-12-01

    A series of gravel quarry lakes, A through I (i.e. Chain of Lakes) in Alameda County, California are planned to convert to off-channel spreading lakes for artificial groundwater recharge. An operational plan is needed for the near-term improvements that would allow safe and efficient operations of Lake H and Lake I recently acquired for artificial recharge operations. Water source for the groundwater recharge comes from State Water Project (SWP) water releases at the South Bay Aqueduct turnout. The released water flows approximately nine miles in Arroyo Mocho Creek to the planned diversion facility. The recharge system includes multiple water delivery components and recharge components. Reliability of SWP water delivery is a water supply constraint to the recharge system. Hydraulic capacities of each delivery component and recharge capacities of each recharge component are physical constraints to the development of the operational plan. Policy issues identified in the Mitigated Negative Declaration which contains mitigation measures addressing potential impacts of fisheries and erosion are regulatory constraints to the operational plan development. Our approach that addresses technical challenges and policy issues in the development of the operational plan includes i) determination of lake recharge under observed conditions using water budget method; ii) development and calibration of a ground water flow model using MODFLOW; iii) estimation of lake recharge capacity for a range of lake levels using the calibrated ground water flow model; iv) analysis of clogging layer effects on recharge capacity; and v) development and application of operations models for the stream delivery system and the lake system.

  14. Regional climate model performance in the Lake Victoria basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Karina; Chamberlain, Jill; Buontempo, Carlo; Bain, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    Lake Victoria, the second largest freshwater lake in the world, plays a crucial role in the hydrology of equatorial eastern Africa. Understanding how climate change may alter rainfall and evaporation patterns is thus of vital importance for the economic development and the livelihood of the region. Regional rainfall distribution appears, up to a large extent, to be controlled by local drivers which may be not well resolved in general circulation model simulations. We investigate the performance over the Lake Victoria basin of an ensemble of UK Met Office Hadley Centre regional climate model (HadRM3P) simulations at 50 km, driven by five members of the Hadley Centre global perturbed-physics ensemble (QUMP). This is part of the validation of an ensemble of simulations that has been used to assess the impacts of climate change over the continent over the period 1950-2099. We find that the regional climate model is able to simulate a lake/land breeze over Lake Victoria, which is a significant improvement over the driving global climate model and a vital step towards reproducing precipitation characteristics in the region. The local precipitation correlates well with large-scale processes in the Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean, which is in agreement with observations. We find that the spatial pattern of precipitation in the region and the diurnal cycle of convection is well represented although the amount of rainfall over the lake appears to be overestimated in most seasons. Reducing the observational uncertainty in precipitation over the lake through future field campaigns would enable this model bias to be better quantified. We conclude that increasing the spatial resolution of the model significantly improves its ability to simulate the current climate of the Lake Victoria basin. We suggest that, despite the higher computational costs, the inclusion of a model which allows two-way interactions between the lake and its surroundings should be seriously considered for

  15. Global assessment of nutrient loads to the world's largest lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Gabriel; Reder, Klara; Malsy, Marcus; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina

    2015-04-01

    Lakes are essential resources of drinking water for a large part of mankind. Even so, most of the industrial and domestic waste water is discharged - often untreated - into rivers and streams that are finally the tributaries of these important freshwater bodies. Additionally, diffuse nutrient sources such as fertilizer and atmospheric deposition exacerbate existing algal blooms and low oxygen concentrations in rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. In this tense atmosphere of competing water uses, it is necessary to analyze all sources of pollution as well as their total contributions in order to protect these water bodies against deterioration. Finally, this is a general and urgently needed basis for developing recommendations for involved stakeholders and decision makers. Therefore, the project eartH2Observe, initiated and financed by the European Commission, creates the necessary and underlying quantitative and qualitative hydrological and water use data. In this context, information for global as well as for regional water resource assessments is being prepared based on new earth observations and an ensemble of global hydrological models. As a member of this ensemble, WaterGAP3 provides global estimates of lake water quality relevant parameters on a 5 arc minutes grid, namely total phosphorus and total nitrogen. These nutrient loads to lakes from different sources such as industrial fertilizer, organic fertilizer, domestic loads, atmospheric deposition, and urban surface runoff are estimated for the period 1990 to 2010 in a monthly time step. Whereas nutrient loads and their changes into numerous lakes worldwide are calculated, a special focus is set on nutrient loads into the large and shallow Lake Peipus, which is located between Estonia and Russia and subject to blooms of harmful cyanobacteria. We present estimates, trends, as well as sources of present nutrient loads (TN and TP) to the world's largest lakes with detailed insights to the Lake Peipus situation

  16. Estimation of a Trophic State Index for selected inland lakes in Michigan, 1999–2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Lori M.; Jodoin, Richard S.

    2016-03-11

    A 15-year estimated Trophic State Index (eTSI) for Michigan inland lakes is available, and it spans seven datasets, each representing 1 to 3 years of data from 1999 to 2013. On average, 3,000 inland lake eTSI values are represented in each of the datasets by a process that relates field-measured Secchi-disk transparency (SDT) to Landsat satellite imagery to provide eTSI values for unsampled inland lakes. The correlation between eTSI values and field-measured Trophic State Index (TSI) values from SDT was strong as shown by R2 values from 0.71 to 0.83. Mean eTSI values ranged from 42.7 to 46.8 units, which when converted to estimated SDT (eSDT) ranged from 8.9 to 12.5 feet for the datasets. Most eTSI values for Michigan inland lakes are in the mesotrophic TSI class. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III Ecoregions were used to illustrate and compare the spatial distribution of eTSI classes for Michigan inland lakes. Lakes in the Northern Lakes and Forests, North Central Hardwood Forests, and Southern Michigan/Northern Indiana Drift Plains ecoregions are predominantly in the mesotrophic TSI class. The Huron/Erie Lake Plains and Eastern Corn Belt Plains ecoregions, had predominantly eutrophic class lakes and also the highest percent of hypereutrophic lakes than other ecoregions in the State. Data from multiple sampling programs—including data collected by volunteers with the Cooperative Lakes Monitoring Program (CLMP) through the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), and the 2007 National Lakes Assessment (NLA)—were compiled to compare the distribution of lake TSI classes between each program. The seven eTSI datasets are available for viewing and download with eSDT from the Michigan Lake Water Clarity Interactive Map Viewer at http://mi.water.usgs.gov/projects/RemoteSensing/index.html.

  17. Late-stage phases of glacial Lake Ojibway in the central Abitibi region, eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Martin; Veillette, Jean J.; Daubois, Virginie; Ménard, Maxime

    2015-11-01

    The decay of the Laurentide ice sheet southern margin during the last deglaciation led to the development of Lake Ojibway that covered large expanses of northeastern Ontario and northwestern Quebec. The history of Ojibway lake phases is poorly detailed mainly because of the physical configuration of the lake basin and the dominance of fine-grained glaciolacustrine sediments that prevent the formation of well-developed and extensive sandy strandlines. Here we use a complex sequence of relict terraces carved in glaciolacustrine rhythmites to document the evolution of Lake Ojibway in northwestern Quebec. Specifically, lake levels were constrained by measuring the elevation of 154 raised wave-cut scarps present in the eastern Lake Abitibi region. Results provide evidence for four distinct shorelines with elevations of 299, 289, 282, and 272 m (± 1 m) at the latitude of La Sarre. The highest lake level documented appears to be linked to one of the two known (Kinojévis) phases of Lake Ojibway, while the three other lake levels project well below the main outlet system that controlled the elevation of the lake during the deglaciation. The elevation, uplift gradients, and areal extent of these lower shorelines suggest that the two intermediate lake levels likely formed during late stages of the deglaciation, following abrupt drawdowns of the lake's surface. The fourth and lowest shoreline is associated with a postglacial lake that developed after the complete withdrawal of Ojibway water from the region. These low-elevation shorelines bring new evidence for significant changes in the areal extent and depth of Lake Ojibway near the end of the deglaciation. Although the origin of these late-stage phases remains unspecified, the associated drawdowns likely implied routing events into newly deglaciated regions and/or (subglacial) meltwater discharges into the North Atlantic.

  18. Estimation of a Trophic State Index for selected inland lakes in Michigan, 1999–2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Lori M.; Jodoin, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    A 15-year estimated Trophic State Index (eTSI) for Michigan inland lakes is available, and it spans seven datasets, each representing 1 to 3 years of data from 1999 to 2013. On average, 3,000 inland lake eTSI values are represented in each of the datasets by a process that relates field-measured Secchi-disk transparency (SDT) to Landsat satellite imagery to provide eTSI values for unsampled inland lakes. The correlation between eTSI values and field-measured Trophic State Index (TSI) values from SDT was strong as shown by R2 values from 0.71 to 0.83. Mean eTSI values ranged from 42.7 to 46.8 units, which when converted to estimated SDT (eSDT) ranged from 8.9 to 12.5 feet for the datasets. Most eTSI values for Michigan inland lakes are in the mesotrophic TSI class. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III Ecoregions were used to illustrate and compare the spatial distribution of eTSI classes for Michigan inland lakes. Lakes in the Northern Lakes and Forests, North Central Hardwood Forests, and Southern Michigan/Northern Indiana Drift Plains ecoregions are predominantly in the mesotrophic TSI class. The Huron/Erie Lake Plains and Eastern Corn Belt Plains ecoregions, had predominantly eutrophic class lakes and also the highest percent of hypereutrophic lakes than other ecoregions in the State. Data from multiple sampling programs—including data collected by volunteers with the Cooperative Lakes Monitoring Program (CLMP) through the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), and the 2007 National Lakes Assessment (NLA)—were compiled to compare the distribution of lake TSI classes between each program. The seven eTSI datasets are available for viewing and download with eSDT from the Michigan Lake Water Clarity Interactive Map Viewer at http://mi.water.usgs.gov/projects/RemoteSensing/index.html.

  19. The Great Lakes whitefish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Oosten, John; Elliot, Charles

    1942-01-01

    In every one of the Great Lakes- Ontario, Erie, Huron, Michigan, and Superior- the most valuable fishes are declining, and there is no evidence that this trend will be reversed. Under existing conditions of a diversity of regulations that vary between states and between the two countries, and with the present methods of fishing, the Great Lakes fisheries are doomed. This chapter deals with the common whitefish, a valuable species which many believe to be the next that will go unless positive action is forthcoming soon.

  20. Transient Tsunamis in Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couston, L.; Mei, C.; Alam, M.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of lakes are surrounded by steep and unstable mountains with slopes prone to failure. As a result, landslides are likely to occur and impact water sitting in closed reservoirs. These rare geological phenomena pose serious threats to dam reservoirs and nearshore facilities because they can generate unexpectedly large tsunami waves. In fact, the tallest wave experienced by contemporary humans occurred because of a landslide in the narrow bay of Lituya in 1958, and five years later, a deadly landslide tsunami overtopped Lake Vajont's dam, flooding and damaging villages along the lakefront and in the Piave valley. If unstable slopes and potential slides are detected ahead of time, inundation maps can be drawn to help people know the risks, and mitigate the destructive power of the ensuing waves. These maps give the maximum wave runup height along the lake's vertical and sloping boundaries, and can be obtained by numerical simulations. Keeping track of the moving shorelines along beaches is challenging in classical Eulerian formulations because the horizontal extent of the fluid domain can change over time. As a result, assuming a solid slide and nonbreaking waves, here we develop a nonlinear shallow-water model equation in the Lagrangian framework to address the problem of transient landslide-tsunamis. In this manner, the shorelines' three-dimensional motion is part of the solution. The model equation is hyperbolic and can be solved numerically by finite differences. Here, a 4th order Runge-Kutta method and a compact finite-difference scheme are implemented to integrate in time and spatially discretize the forced shallow-water equation in Lagrangian coordinates. The formulation is applied to different lake and slide geometries to better understand the effects of the lake's finite lengths and slide's forcing mechanism on the generated wavefield. Specifically, for a slide moving down a plane beach, we show that edge-waves trapped by the shoreline and free

  1. Europe's Neogene and Quaternary lake gastropod diversity - a statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, Thomas A.; Georgopoulou, Elisavet; Harzhauser, Mathias; Mandic, Oleg; Kroh, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    - and planorbid-dominated lakes. Nevertheless, several pre-Holocene lakes, such as the early Middle Miocene Lake Rein (Styrian Basin, Austria), several Middle Miocene lakes in Hungary and some Pliocene ones in France, are strikingly "modern" in their generic inventory and genus/species relations. This suggests that the modern composition is not necessarily a young pattern, explained only by the glacial bottleneck. Nevertheless, an overall turnover from melanopsid-pyrgulid-dominated faunas towards planorbid-viviparid-dominated lake faunas from Miocene to Pliocene seems to be reflected in the data on central Europe. This rule of thumb, however, is contradicted by melanopsid-dominated faunas on the Aegean islands during the Pliocene. The FreshGEN project (Freshwater Gastropods of the European Neogene) is currently collecting data for providing the first detailed assessment of the composition of the European freshwater gastropod fauna during the Neogene and Quaternary at species level, with emphasis on lake faunas. This includes revealing shifts in the overall γ-biodiversity, changing evolutionary hotspots, faunal gradients, and the evolution of endemic radiations. The results will be discussed in terms of regional and global patterns and will be related to regional and large-scale climatic changes during the Neogene.

  2. Tropical Lake Levels and Their Relationship to Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricko, M.; Carton, J.; Birkett, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    The availability of satellite altimeters and improvements in satellite estimates of river and lake levels are offering an exciting monitoring alternative to currently limited prediction systems using current climate models. Aware of existing limitations in data retrievals, we have developed a simple linear model for estimating lake level as a function of freshwater flux into the catchment basin for 12 tropical lakes and reservoirs: 8 in Africa, 3 in Central and South America, and 1 in Southeast Asia. In our model three parameters, effective catchment basin, time delay, and drainage timescale are determined from linear regression based on the simultaneous availability of remotely sensed lake level and rainfall. We present results of estimates of net surface freshwater flux and lake levels during a 16-year period (1992-2007). Comparison between two different altimeter satellite-based lake level datasets shows very good agreement for most lakes. For net freshwater flux (i.e., rainfall minus evaporation), we use three different rainfall products: the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim reanalysis, the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) rainfall, and the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) 3B42 precipitation index rainfall. ERA-Interim evaporation is combined with each of the three rainfall products to form three estimates of net surface freshwater flux. Results from models are denominated as Model-I, Model-G, Model-T, respectively. A comparison of rainfall products shows differences, and as a result the best model for a given lake varies. The median correlation between the observed LEGOS and Model-G lake levels is significantly higher than for Model-I, with the median RMS difference between observation and model slightly lower for Model-G than for Model-I. For many tropical lakes the best results are obtained using one of the observation-based products, GPCP or TRMM. All three model results show that all lakes

  3. Integrated Ecosystem Assessment: Lake Ontario Water Management

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Mark B.; Singkran, Nuanchan; Mills, Katherine E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Ecosystem management requires organizing, synthesizing, and projecting information at a large scale while simultaneously addressing public interests, dynamic ecological properties, and a continuum of physicochemical conditions. We compared the impacts of seven water level management plans for Lake Ontario on a set of environmental attributes of public relevance. Methodology and Findings Our assessment method was developed with a set of established impact assessment tools (checklists, classifications, matrices, simulations, representative taxa, and performance relations) and the concept of archetypal geomorphic shoreline classes. We considered each environmental attribute and shoreline class in its typical and essential form and predicted how water level change would interact with defining properties. The analysis indicated that about half the shoreline of Lake Ontario is potentially sensitive to water level change with a small portion being highly sensitive. The current water management plan may be best for maintaining the environmental resources. In contrast, a natural water regime plan designed for greatest environmental benefits most often had adverse impacts, impacted most shoreline classes, and the largest portion of the lake coast. Plans that balanced multiple objectives and avoided hydrologic extremes were found to be similar relative to the environment, low on adverse impacts, and had many minor impacts across many shoreline classes. Significance The Lake Ontario ecosystem assessment provided information that can inform decisions about water management and the environment. No approach and set of methods will perfectly and unarguably accomplish integrated ecosystem assessment. For managing water levels in Lake Ontario, we found that there are no uniformly good and bad options for environmental conservation. The scientific challenge was selecting a set of tools and practices to present broad, relevant, unbiased, and accessible information to guide

  4. Reevaluation of lake trout and lake whitefish bioenergetics models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steve A.; Kao, Yu-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Using a corrected algorithm for balancing the energy budget, we reevaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the laboratory and for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in the laboratory and in the field. For lake trout, results showed that the bioenergetics model slightly overestimated food consumption by the lake trout when they were fed low and intermediate rations, whereas the model predicted food consumption by lake trout fed ad libitum without any detectable bias. The slight bias in model predictions for lake trout on restricted rations may have been an artifact of the feeding schedule for these fish, and we would therefore recommend application of the Wisconsin lake trout bioenergetics model to lake trout populations in the field without any revisions to the model. Use of the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for coregonids resulted in overestimation of food consumption by lake whitefish both in the laboratory and in the field by between 20 and 30%, on average. This overestimation of food consumption was most likely due to overestimation of respiration rate. We therefore adjusted the respiration component of the bioenergetics model to obtain a good fit to the observed consumption in our laboratory tanks. The adjusted model predicted the consumption in the laboratory and the field without any detectable bias. Until a detailed lake whitefish respiration study can be conducted, we recommend application of our adjusted version of the Wisconsin generalized coregonid bioenergetics model to lake whitefish populations in the field.

  5. Innovative Project Activities in Science [From the NSTA Study of Innovative Project Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Describes four projects chosen as innovative project activities in science which exhibited identification of unique or novel problems and creative approaches to their solutions. Projects included a study of fish in Lake Erie, a goat raising project, an analysis of terrestrial plant ecology and soil composition, and a study of marine and wetlands…

  6. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program; Lake Roosevelt Fisheries and Limnological Research; 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, Keith D.; Shields, John P.

    1996-09-01

    This document contains three 1995 annual reports, organized by sections. The first section contains the Lake Roosevelt Data Collection Project report. The second section contains the Lake Roosevelt Monitoring Program report, and the third section contains the Kokanee Salmon Imprinting report. These three projects were interdependent upon one another for data collection and interpretation. As a result, the authors combined the three annual report into one document in order to provide the reader with all aspects of the related analysis. Each section includes an abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, recommendations, references and appendices. In each discussion section, they have attempted to relate the results of the studies to existing knowledge, and speculate on management recommendations.

  7. Gas exchange on Mono Lake and Crowley Lake, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanninkhof, Rik; Ledwell, James R.; Broecker, Wallace S.

    1987-01-01

    Gas exchange coefficients (k) have been determined for freshwater Crowley Lake and saline Mono Lake through the use of a man-made purposefully injected gas, SF6. The concentration decreased from an initial value of 40 to 4 pmol/L for Mono Lake and from 20 to 1 pmol/L for Crowley lake over a period of 6 wks. Wind-speed (u) records from anemometers on the shore of each lake made it possible to determine the relationship between k and u. The average u and k values for the experiment were identical for the two lakes, despite the large chemical differences. It is estimated that, for the u values observed over Mono Lake from July to December 1984, the exchange of CO2 occurred 2.5 times faster than without chemical enhancement. This is a factor of 4 lower than needed to explain the high invasion rate of C-14 produced by nuclear bomb tests.

  8. A High-Resolution Global Lake Inventory with Classified Freshwater and Saline Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Sheng, Y.; Song, C.; Urano, T.; Satori, P. J.; Ford, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Lakes are the largest surface water stock readily accessible to human need. Monitoring and understanding the distribution, change, and vulnerability of contemporary lakes remain as one of the top priorities in hydrological studies. Our recent project supported by the U.S. Geological Survey produced a high-resolution inventory of global lake extents (greater than 0.4 hectare) using circa 2000 Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery, which further enhanced human's vision on the precise physical distribution of contemporary surface water stock worldwide. Continuous advancement in understanding regional-to-global surface water stress demands expanded knowledge on not only water discharge in streams and rivers but also stock in freshwater lakes. Yet to our best knowledge, we are currently lacking detailed, reliable inventory of lake water types on a global scale. Here we represent a progressing world lake database with differentiated freshwater and saline categories by integrating hydrological analysis, climate data, and spectral remote sensing. This effort is a natural extension of our global lake mapping project and a prerequisite of our overarching goal to assess global lake vulnerability. The completed lake data will also benefit a wide spectrum of scientific disciplines and water resources management agencies.

  9. BOTULISM E IN LAKE ERIE: ECOLOGY AND LOWER FOOD WEB TRANSFER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will determine the environmental conditions that favor botulism Type E bacteria in Lake Erie and explore whether quagga mussels are altering bottom sediment conditions to favor C. botulinum growth. Analysis of environmental parameters, including water chemistry, alg...

  10. AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES ANALYSIS OF FARMINGTON BAY WETLANDS IN THE GREAT SALT LAKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Alternative Futures Analysis (AFA) was conducted to evaluate tradeoffs between landscape design scenarios and ecological services for Farmington Bay, Great Salt Lake (GSL), wetlands. Model scenarios included plan trend and conservation "futures" scenarios projected to 2030. ...

  11. Alternative Futures Analysis Of Farmington Bay Wetlands In The Great Salt Lake Ecosystem

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Alternative Futures Analysis (AFA) was conducted to evaluate tradeoffs between landscape design scenarios and ecological services for Farmington Bay, Great Salt Lake (GSL), wetlands. Model scenarios included both plan trend and conservation "futures" projected to 2030. Scena...

  12. Use of wetlands under USEPA's (Environmental Protection Agency's) Region 5 Clean Lakes Program. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, J.C.

    1989-05-01

    The EPA's Region V Clean Lakes Program uses several wetlands for controlling degradation of publicly owned, freshwater lakes. The study seeks to determine if the objectives of the Clean Lakes Program are being met by this use of wetlands, and if appropriate institutional arrangements and management techniques are being implemented to manage the wetlands. Conclusions regarding Revion V's use and management of wetlands include: wetland projects are not being monitored adequately for effectiveness and potential negative impacts on ecosystems; other mechanisms which may help to protect wetlands are being employed; management of most wetland projects is decentralized appropriately; most of the wetland projects provide for adequate short-term mass balance studies, prior sedimentation, plant species diversity, water level, retention time, uniform flow of water, and upland pollutant management; and existing evidence suggests that the Clean Lakes wetland projects are instrumental in meeting Program goals and objectives. Based on these conclusions several recommendations for improving wetlands management are reviewed.

  13. The SCOPSCO deep drilling program in ancient Lake Ohrid: Unravelling the driving forces of speciation in Europe's oldest and most biodiverse lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, Thomas; Wagner, Bernd; Albrecht, Christian; Levkov, Zlatko; Francke, Alexander; Hauffe, Torsten; Cvetkoska, Aleksandra; Jovanovska, Elena; Zhang, Xiaosen; Reed, Jane M.; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Stelbrink, Björn; Viehberg, Finn

    2015-04-01

    Ancient Lake Ohrid on the Balkan Peninsula constitutes the oldest and most biodiverse lake in Europe. The processes generating this extraordinary species richness with a high share of endemic taxa, however, are poorly understood. In order to unravel the geological and biological history of the lake and to study, among others, the influence of major geological and environmental events on the evolution of endemic taxa, an international research initiative - the SCOPSCO project - was launched. The project combines sedimentological, tephro-stratigraphical, seismic and paleontological (diatoms, mollusks, ostracods) studies of lake sediment cores with molecular-dating and empirical modelling approaches applied to extant taxa. Preliminary analyses of sediment core and borehole logging data from drill sites with a maximum penetration depth of 569 m below lake floor and an overall recovery of > 95 % indicate that Lake Ohrid is roughly 1.3 to 1.5 My old. Intriguingly, these data fully reinforce the results of molecular clock analyses conducted prior to the drilling operation. Moreover, the combined geological and biological studies suggest that the extraordinary biodiversity in Lake Ohrid is largely driven by 1) the long and continuous existence of the lake, 2) the lack of catastrophic events (e.g., desiccation, full glaciation or salinization) during its lifetime potentially causing massive extinctions, 3) the high buffer capacity of the lake to environmental change and/or the high resilience of its taxa, and 4) distinct turnovers in species composition over time promoting frequency dependent selection. The cumulative effect of these factors, in turn, resulted in overall low extinction rates and continuous speciation and radiation events. These findings not only shed new light on patterns and processes of evolution in Europe's oldest lake, they also show that data from sediment cores can contribute to a better understanding of the driving forces of biotic evolution

  14. Holocene tephra stratigraphy in four lakes in southeastern Oregon and northwestern Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foit, Franklin F.; Mehringer, Peter J.

    2016-03-01

    To better understand the regional tephra stratigraphy and chronology of northern Nevada and southern Oregon, tephras in archived cores, taken as part of the Steens Mountain Prehistory Project from four lakes, Diamond Pond, Fish and Wildhorse lakes in southeastern Oregon and Blue Lake in northwestern Nevada, were reexamined using more advanced electron microprobe analytical technology. The best preserved and most complete core from Fish Lake along with Wildhorse Lake hosted two tephras from Mt. Mazama (Llao Rock and the Climactic Mazama), a mid-Holocene basaltic tephra from Diamond Craters, Oregon, two Medicine Lake tephras and an unexpected late Holocene Chaos Crags (Mt. Lassen volcanic center) tephra which was also found in the other lakes. Blue Lake was the only lake that hosted a Devils Hill tephra from the Three Sisters volcano in west central Oregon. Another tephra from the Three Sisters Volcano previously reported in sediments of Twin Lakes in NE Oregon, has now been confirmed as Rock Mesa tephra. The Chaos Crags, Devils Hill and Rock Mesa tephras are important late Holocene stratigraphic markers for central and eastern Oregon and northwestern Nevada.

  15. Potentially dangerous glacial lakes in Kyrgyzstan - Research overview of 2004-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansky, Bohumir; Yerokhin, Sergey; Sobr, Miroslav; Engel, Zbynek; Cerny, Michal; Falatkova, Kristyna; Kocum, Jan; Benes, Vojtech

    2016-04-01

    Global warming causes intensive melting and retreat of glaciers in most of high mountains all over the world. This process is also evident in the mountain regions of central Tien Shan. Glacier melt water affects changes in hydrological regime of water streams and causes overfilling of high mountain lake basins. The dams of many lakes are very unstable and can burst open. To determine the degree of such risk, it is necessary to analyse the genesis of lakes, to characterize the morphology of the lake basins and to know the particularities of their hydrological regime. According to the latest inventory within territory of Kyrgyzstan, a total of 1328 lakes have been identified as potentially dangerous, 12 lakes are considered as currently dangerous, other 25 feature high potential hazard. Since 1952 more than 70 disastrous cases of lake outburst have been registered. The hazardous alpine lakes are studied in Kyrgyzstan systematically since 1966. Since 2004, Czech-Kyrgyz research team has been operating in Kyrgyzstan in the field of dangerous glacial lakes. Projects were focused primarily on high-mountain glacial lakes risk assessment, propositions of risk mitigation measures, establishment of permanent research station near one of the studied glacier complexes, preparation of risk analysis for selected endangered valleys, evaluation of climatic and hydrological data and glacier development within observed regions. The most significant portion of data and information has been gathered during field work, complemented by satellite image analysis and surveillance flights over the monitored sites.

  16. Lake whitefish diet, condition, and energy density in Lake Champlain and the lower four Great Lakes following dreissenid invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herbst, Seth J.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lantry, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis support some of the most valuable commercial freshwater fisheries in North America. Recent growth and condition decreases in Lake Whitefish populations in the Great Lakes have been attributed to the invasion of the dreissenid mussels, zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussels D. bugensis, and the subsequent collapse of the amphipod, Diporeia, a once-abundant high energy prey source. Since 1993, Lake Champlain has also experienced the invasion and proliferation of zebra mussels, but in contrast to the Great Lakes, Diporeia were not historically abundant. We compared the diet, condition, and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain after the dreissenid mussel invasion to values for those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Lake Whitefish were collected using gill nets and bottom trawls, and their diets were quantified seasonally. Condition was estimated using Fulton's condition factor (K) and by determining energy density. In contrast to Lake Whitefish from some of the Great Lakes, those from Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish did not show a dietary shift towards dreissenid mussels, but instead fed primarily on fish eggs in spring, Mysis diluviana in summer, and gastropods and sphaeriids in fall and winter. Along with these dietary differences, the condition and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain were high compared with those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario after the dreissenid invasion, and were similar to Lake Whitefish from Lake Erie; fish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario consumed dreissenids, whereas fish from Lake Erie did not. Our comparisons of Lake Whitefish populations in Lake Champlain to those in the Great Lakes indicate that diet and condition of Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish were not negatively affected by the dreissenid mussel invasion.

  17. Temperature Trends in Montane Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melack, J. M.; Sadro, S.; Jellison, R.

    2014-12-01

    Long-term temperature trends in lakes integrate hydrological and meteorological factors. We examine temperature trends in a small montane lake with prolonged ice-cover and large seasonal snowfall and in a large saline lake. Emerald Lake, located in the Sierra Nevada (California), is representative of high-elevation lakes throughout the region. No significant trend in outflow temperature was apparent from 1991to 2012. Snowfall in the watershed accounted for 93% of the variability in average summer lake temperatures. Mono Lake (California) lies in a closed, montane basin and is hypersaline and monomictic or meromictic. Temperature profiles have been collected from 1982 to 2010. In the upper water column, the July-August-September water temperatures increased 0.8-1.0°C over the 29 years. This rate of warming is less than published estimates based on satellite-derived skin temperatures and will discussed in the context of general limnological interpretation of temperature trends.

  18. Lake Michigan: Nearshore Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a high-resolution survey in the nearshore of Lake Michigan at a 20 meter contour using towed electronic instrumentation. The nearly 1200 km survey was conducted Sep 8-15, 2010. We also conducted six cross-contour tows. Along the survey tracks we sampled fixed stat...

  19. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a high-resolution survey with towed electronic instrumentation along the Lake Ontario nearshore (720 km) at a 20 meter contour. The survey was conducted September 6-10, 2008 with a shorter 300 km survey conducted August 14-15 for comparing of temporal variability. ...

  20. The People's Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Karen Townsend

    1975-01-01

    Citizen action to stop the disposal of taconite tailings into Lake Superior was unsuccessful when the courts settled in the favor of industry. Although citizen research revealed a form of asbestos, as well as other toxic chemicals in the discharged wastes, company representatives stated that there were no health hazards. (MA)

  1. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This booklet introduces an environmental curriculum for use in a variety of elementary subjects. The lesson plans provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into the subjects of history, social studies, and environmental sciences. Each of these sections contains background information, discussion points, and a…

  2. 76 FR 19522 - Notice of Limitation on Claims Against Proposed Public Transportation Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ..., Metropolitan Transportation Authority, New York, NY; and (4) Sugar House Streetcar Project, Utah Transit... January 2011. 4. Project name and location: Sugar House Streetcar Project, South Salt Lake and Salt...

  3. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Erie: a case history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cornelius, Floyd C.; Muth, Kenneth M.; Kenyon, Roger

    1995-01-01

    Native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) once thrived in the deep waters of eastern Lake Erie. The impact of nearly 70 years of unregulated exploitation and over 100 years of progressively severe cultural eutrophication resulted in the elimination of lake trout stocks by 1950. Early attempts to restore lake trout by stocking were unsuccessful in establishing a self-sustaining population. In the early 1980s, New York's Department of Environmental Conservation, Pennsylvania's Fish and Boat Commission, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service entered into a cooperative program to rehabilitate lake trout in the eastern basin of Lake Erie. After 11 years of stocking selected strains of lake trout in U.S. waters, followed by effective sea lamprey control, lake trout appear to be successfully recolonizing their native habitat. Adult stocks have built up significantly and are expanding their range in the lake. Preliminary investigations suggest that lake trout reproductive habitat is still adequate for natural reproduction, but natural recruitment has not been documented. Future assessments will be directed toward evaluation of spawning success and tracking age-class cohorts as they move through the fishery.

  4. Movements of hatchery-reared lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pycha, Richard L.; Dryer, William R.; King, George R.

    1965-01-01

    The history of stocking of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Great Lakes is reviewed. The study of movements is based on capture of 24,275 fin-clipped lake trout taken in experimental gill nets and trawls and commercial gill nets. Yearling lake trout planted from shore dispersed to 15-fath (27-m) depths in 3A? hr. Most fish remained within 2 miles (3.2 km) of the planting site 2 months, but within 4 months some fish had moved as much as 17 miles (27 km). The highest abundance of planted lake trout was in areas 2-4 miles (3.2-6.4 km) from the planting site even 3 years after release. Distance moved and size of fish were not correlated. Dispersal of lake trout begins at planting and probably continues until the fish are mature. Most movement was eastward in southern Lake Superior and followed the counterclockwise surface currents. Movement is most rapid in areas of strong currents and slowest in areas of weak currents or eddies. Movement to areas west of the Keweenaw Peninsula was insignificant from plantings in Keweenaw Bay and nil from other plantings farther east. Lake trout planted in the eastern third of the lake dispersed more randomly than those planted farther west. Few fish moved farther offshore than the 50-fath (91-m) contour. Lake trout planted in Canadian waters made insignificant contributions to populations in US waters.

  5. Microbiology of Lonar Lake and other soda lakes.

    PubMed

    Antony, Chakkiath Paul; Kumaresan, Deepak; Hunger, Sindy; Drake, Harold L; Murrell, J Colin; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2013-03-01

    Soda lakes are saline and alkaline ecosystems that are believed to have existed throughout the geological record of Earth. They are widely distributed across the globe, but are highly abundant in terrestrial biomes such as deserts and steppes and in geologically interesting regions such as the East African Rift valley. The unusual geochemistry of these lakes supports the growth of an impressive array of microorganisms that are of ecological and economic importance. Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria and Archaea belonging to all major trophic groups have been described from many soda lakes, including lakes with exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Lonar Lake is a soda lake that is centered at an unusual meteorite impact structure in the Deccan basalts in India and its key physicochemical and microbiological characteristics are highlighted in this article. The occurrence of diverse functional groups of microbes, such as methanogens, methanotrophs, phototrophs, denitrifiers, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers and syntrophs in soda lakes, suggests that these habitats harbor complex microbial food webs that (a) interconnect various biological cycles via redox coupling and (b) impact on the production and consumption of greenhouse gases. Soda lake microorganisms harbor several biotechnologically relevant enzymes and biomolecules (for example, cellulases, amylases, ectoine) and there is the need to augment bioprospecting efforts in soda lake environments with new integrated approaches. Importantly, some saline and alkaline lake ecosystems around the world need to be protected from anthropogenic pressures that threaten their long-term existence.

  6. Microbiology of Lonar Lake and other soda lakes.

    PubMed

    Antony, Chakkiath Paul; Kumaresan, Deepak; Hunger, Sindy; Drake, Harold L; Murrell, J Colin; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2013-03-01

    Soda lakes are saline and alkaline ecosystems that are believed to have existed throughout the geological record of Earth. They are widely distributed across the globe, but are highly abundant in terrestrial biomes such as deserts and steppes and in geologically interesting regions such as the East African Rift valley. The unusual geochemistry of these lakes supports the growth of an impressive array of microorganisms that are of ecological and economic importance. Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria and Archaea belonging to all major trophic groups have been described from many soda lakes, including lakes with exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Lonar Lake is a soda lake that is centered at an unusual meteorite impact structure in the Deccan basalts in India and its key physicochemical and microbiological characteristics are highlighted in this article. The occurrence of diverse functional groups of microbes, such as methanogens, methanotrophs, phototrophs, denitrifiers, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers and syntrophs in soda lakes, suggests that these habitats harbor complex microbial food webs that (a) interconnect various biological cycles via redox coupling and (b) impact on the production and consumption of greenhouse gases. Soda lake microorganisms harbor several biotechnologically relevant enzymes and biomolecules (for example, cellulases, amylases, ectoine) and there is the need to augment bioprospecting efforts in soda lake environments with new integrated approaches. Importantly, some saline and alkaline lake ecosystems around the world need to be protected from anthropogenic pressures that threaten their long-term existence. PMID:23178675

  7. UPDATE ON THE MARINA STUDY ON LAKE TEXOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) has instituted a program for Risk Management Research for Ecosystem Restoration in Watersheds. As part of this program a large scale project was initiated on Lake Texoma and the surrounding watershed to evaluate the assimi...

  8. Cross-Sector Collaboration: The Great Lakes Environmental Finance Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austrian, Ziona; Iannone, Donald

    1997-01-01

    The Great Lakes Environmental Finance Center is one of six university-based environmental finance centers established by the federal government. Its primary mission is to help state and local government and private-sector organizations devise effective financing strategies for environmental improvement projects. Cross-sector collaboration and…

  9. MODEL VERSION CONTROL FOR GREAT LAKES MODELS ON UNIX SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientific results of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project were provided where atrazine was measured and modeled. The presentation also provided the model version control system which has been used for models at Grosse Ile for approximately a decade and contains various version...

  10. Exploring the Food Environment on the Spirit Lake Reservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattanaik, Swaha; Gold, Abby; McKay, Lacey; Azure, Lane; Larson, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to understand the food environment of the Fort Totten community on the Spirit Lake reservation in east-central North Dakota, as perceived by tribal members and employees at Cankdeska Cikana Community College (CCCC). According to a 2010 report from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the food…

  11. The Lake Michigan Federation: Evaluation of an Environmental Interest Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culhane, Paul J.

    Since Earth Day 1970, the number of environmental groups has approximately doubled and the movement articulates a much broader and comprehensive philosophy than earlier conservation or preservation movements. The Lake Michigan Federation, one of the new environmental groups developed from the Open Lands Project, was publicly proclaimed in…

  12. Lessons from White Lake - Connecting Students to their Community through Environmental Stewardship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Susan

    2014-05-01

    White Lake and its surrounding community have been negatively affected by shoreline degradation and wildlife habitat loss caused primarily by historical logging practices, and reduced water quality from industrial pollution and storm water runoff. This led to the lake being identified as a Great Lakes Area of Concern by the United States Environmental Protection Agency three decades ago. Local community partners have worked diligently in recent years to reverse habitat loss, and repair damaged ecosystems. The "H2O White Lake" (Healthy Habitats On White Lake) project has involved over seven hundred middle school students in grades six through eight over the course of the last five years. Students begin by researching the environmental history of the watershed and then they monitor six tributaries of the lake for nutrient pollution and habitat degradation. Students use the field experience as a community inventory to identify stewardship needs, for which they then identify solutions that take into account land usage and community behaviors. Class projects have focused on stream bank restoration, storm water management, eradication of invasive species, shoreline clean-up, and community outreach and education. This year, the project culminated in the first ever White Lake Environmental Film Festival, for which students had the opportunity to create their own short documentary. This multiple year place based education project allows students to apply their classroom studies of surface water and groundwater dynamics to an authentic, real-world situation, conduct themselves as scientists, and feel valuable through connections with community partners.

  13. Enrollment Projections: Combining Statistics and Gut Feelings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Julie

    1994-01-01

    Describes the College of Lake County's (Illinois) development of an enrollment projection process that satisfies the need for information for institutional planning and budget forecasting. The process includes statistically driven projections and adjustments to the projections that reflect unique conditions within the disciplines and requires much…

  14. Distribution, Health, and Development of Larval and Juvenile Lost River and Shortnose Suckers in the Williamson River Delta Restoration Project and Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: 2008 Annual Data Summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; Ottinger, Christopher; Brown, Daniel T.; VanderKooi, Scott P.; Robertson, Laura; Iwanowicz, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Federally endangered Lost River sucker Deltistes luxatus and shortnose sucker Chasmistes brevirostris were once abundant throughout their range but populations have declined; they have been extirpated from several lakes, and may no longer reproduce in others. Poor recruitment into the adult spawning populations is one of several reasons cited for the decline and lack of recovery of these species, and may be the consequence of high mortality during juvenile life stages. High larval and juvenile sucker mortality may be exacerbated by an insufficient quantity of suitable rearing habitat. Within Upper Klamath Lake, a lack of marshes also may allow larval suckers to be swept from suitable rearing areas downstream into the seasonally anoxic waters of the Keno Reservoir. The Nature Conservancy (TNC) flooded about 3,600 acres to the north of the Williamson River mouth (Tulana Unit) in October 2007, and about 1,400 acres to the south and east of the Williamson River mouth (Goose Bay Unit) a year later, to retain larval suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, create nursery habitat for suckers, and improve water quality. In collaboration with TNC, the Bureau of Reclamation, and Oregon State University, we began a long-term collaborative research and monitoring program in 2008 to assess the effects of the Williamson River Delta restoration on the early life-history stages of Lost River and shortnose suckers. Our approach includes two equally important aspects. One component is to describe habitat use and colonization processes by larval and juvenile suckers and non-sucker fish species. The second is to evaluate the effects of the restored habitat on the health and condition of juvenile suckers. This report contains a summary of the first year of data collected as a part of this monitoring effort.

  15. The Dynamics of Laurentian Great Lakes Surface Energy Budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, C.; Blanken, P.; Lenters, J. D.; Gronewold, A.; Kerkez, B.; Xue, P.; Froelich, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes constitute the largest freshwater surface in the world and are a valuable North American natural and socio-economic resource. In response to calls for improved monitoring and research on the energy and water budgets of the lakes, there has been a growing ensemble of in situ measurements - including offshore eddy flux towers, buoy-based sensors, and vessel-based platforms -deployed through an ongoing, bi-national collaboration known as the Great Lakes Evaporation Network (GLEN). The objective of GLEN is to reduce uncertainty in Great Lakes seasonal and 6-month water level forecasts, as well as climate change projections of the surface energy balance and water level fluctuations. Although It remains challenging to quantify and scale energy budgets and fluxes over such large water bodies, this presentation will report on recent successes in three areas: First, in estimating evaporation rates over each of the Great Lakes; Second, defining evaporation variability among the lakes, especially in winter and; Third, explaining the interaction between ice cover, water temperature, and evaporation across a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Research gaps remain, particularly those related to spatial variability and scaling of turbulent fluxes, so the presentation will also describe how this will be addressed with enhanced instrument and platform arrays.

  16. Change Detection of Lake Aba Samuel in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczynski, R.; Rylko, A.

    2016-06-01

    Old topographic map published in 1975 elaborated from aerial photographs taken in 1972, Landsat TM data acquired in May 1986 and Landsat ETM+ from June 2002 have been used to assess the changes of the lake Aba Samuel in Ethiopia. First map of the lake has been done in the framework of UNDP project running in 1988-90 in the Ethiopian Mapping Authority. The second classification map has been done as M.Sc. thesis in the MUT in 2015. Supervised classification methods with the use of ground truth data have been used for elaboration of the Landsat TM data. From the year 1972 up to 1986 the area of the lake has decreased by 23%. From 1986 up to 2002 the area of the lake has decreased by 20%. Therefore, after 30 years the lake was smaller by 43%. This have had very bad influence on the lives of the local population. From other recent data in the period from 2002-2015 the lake has practically disappeared and now it is only a small part of the river Akaki. ENVI 5.2 and ERDAS IMAGINE 9.2 have been used for Radiometric Calibration, Quick Atmospheric Correction (QUAC) and supervised classification of Landsat ETM+ data. The Optimum Index Factor shows the best combination of Landsat TM and ETM+ bands for color composite as 1,4,5 in the color filters: B, G, R for the signature development. Methodology and final maps are enclosed in the paper.

  17. Hungry Horse Mitigation : Flathead Lake : Annual Progress Report 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Barry; Evarts, Les

    2009-08-06

    The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) and Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) wrote the 'Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam' in March 1991 to define the fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives and recommendations to protect, mitigate and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by Hungry Horse Dam. On November 12, 1991, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) approved the mitigation plan with minor modifications, called for a detailed implementation plan, and amended measures 903(h)(1) through (7). A long-term mitigation plan was submitted in August 1992, was approved by the Council in 1993, and the first contract for this project was signed on November 11, 1993. The problem this project addresses is the loss of habitat, both in quality and quantity, in the Flathead Lake and River basin resulting from the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. The purpose of the project is to both implement mitigation measures and monitor the biological responses to those measures including those implemented by Project Numbers 9101903 and 9101904. Goals and objectives of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program (Section 10.1) addressed by this project are the rebuilding to sustainable levels weak, but recoverable, native populations injured by the hydropower system. The project mitigates the blockage of spawning runs by Hungry Horse Dam by restoring and even creating spawning habitats within direct drainages to Flathead Lake. The project also addresses the altered habitat within Flathead Lake resulting from species shifts and consequent dominance of new species that restricts the potential success of mitigation measures. Specific goals of this project are to create and restore habitat and quantitatively monitor changes in fish populations to verify the efficacy of our mitigation measures. The project consists of three components: monitoring, restoration and research. Monitoring

  18. Hungry Horse Mitigation; Flathead Lake, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Barry; Evarts, Les

    2005-06-01

    The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) and Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) wrote the ''Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam'' in March 1991 to define the fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives and recommendations to protect, mitigate and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by Hungry Horse Dam. On November 12, 1991, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) approved the mitigation plan with minor modifications, called for a detailed implementation plan, and amended measures 903(h)(1) through (7). A long-term mitigation plan was submitted in August 1992, was approved by the Council in 1993, and the first contract for this project was signed on November 11, 1993. The problem this project addresses is the loss of habitat, both in quality and quantity, in the Flathead Lake and River basin resulting from the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. The purpose of the project is to both implement mitigation measures and monitor the biological responses to those measures including those implemented by Project Numbers 9101903 and 9101904. Goals and objectives of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program (Section 10.1) addressed by this project are the rebuilding to sustainable levels weak, but recoverable, native populations injured by the hydropower system. The project mitigates the blockage of spawning runs by Hungry Horse Dam by restoring and even creating spawning habitats within direct drainages to Flathead Lake. The project also addresses the altered habitat within Flathead Lake resulting from species shifts and consequent dominance of new species that restricts the potential success of mitigation measures. Specific goals of this project are to create and restore habitat and quantitatively monitor changes in fish populations to verify the efficacy of our mitigation measures. The project consists of three components: monitoring, restoration and research. Monitoring

  19. Hungry Horse Mitigation : Flathead Lake : Annual Progress Report 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Barry; Evarts, Les

    2008-12-22

    The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) and Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) wrote the 'Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam' in March 1991 to define the fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives and recommendations to protect, mitigate and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by Hungry Horse Dam. On November 12, 1991, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) approved the mitigation plan with minor modifications, called for a detailed implementation plan, and amended measures 903(h)(1) through (7). A long-term mitigation plan was submitted in August 1992, was approved by the Council in 1993, and the first contract for this project was signed on November 11, 1993. The problem this project addresses is the loss of habitat, both in quality and quantity, in the Flathead Lake and River basin resulting from the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. The purpose of the project is to both implement mitigation measures and monitor the biological responses to those measures including those implemented by Project Numbers 9101903 and 9101904. Goals and objectives of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program (Section 10.1) addressed by this project are the rebuilding to sustainable levels weak, but recoverable, native populations injured by the hydropower system. The project mitigates the blockage of spawning runs by Hungry Horse Dam by restoring and even creating spawning habitats within direct drainages to Flathead Lake. The project also addresses the altered habitat within Flathead Lake resulting from species shifts and consequent dominance of new species that restricts the potential success of mitigation measures. Specific goals of this project are to create and restore habitat and quantitatively monitor changes in fish populations to verify the efficacy of our mitigation measures. The project consists of three components: monitoring, restoration and research. Monitoring

  20. Lake level fluctuations and catchment dynamics at Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) during MIS6 and MIS5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd; Just, Janna; Sadori, Laura; Masi, Alessia; Vogel, Hendrik; Lindhorst, Katja; Krastel, Sebastian; Dosseto, Anthony; Rothacker, Leo; Leicher, Niklas; Gromig, Raphael

    2016-04-01

    Lake Ohrid, presumably the oldest lake of Europe located at the border of Macedonia and Albania, is about 30 km long, 15 km wide, and up to 290 m deep. In 2013, an ICDP deep drilling campaign was carried out under the umbrella of the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project. At the main drill site (DEEP) in the central part of Lake Ohrid, the uppermost 568 m from a total sediment fill of ca. 700 m were recovered. Initial data from core catcher material indicate that the sediment sequence covers more than 1.2 million years. An age model, which is based on 11 tephrostratigragphic tie points and on tuning of biogeochemical proxy data versus orbital parameters reveals that that the upper 247 m of the DEEP site sequence cover the time period between 637 ka (MIS16) and the present. Inhere, we present sedimentological, (bio-)geochemical, environmental magnetic, and pollen data for the time period between MIS6 (191 ka) and MIS5 (71 ka). The data imply that MIS6 was one of the most severe glacial periods, while MIS5 was likely one of the more pronounced interglacial during the past 637 kyrs. The repercussions of these high amplitude climatic and environmental variations during this period are recorded in the sedimentological archive of Lake Ohrid. Previous studies based on hydro-acoustic and sediment core data from the northeastern part of the lake basin have shown that the lake level of Lake Ohrid was likely 60 m lower during MIS6. The ˜60 m lower lake level at Lake Ohrid during MIS6 can at least partly be explained by the ongoing subsidence, which persists in the basin until today. However, in the DEEP site sediments, the MIS6/MIS5 transition occurs at ca. 50 m sediment depth. This implies that climate-induced lake level fluctuation at Lake Ohrid are less severe compared for example to Lake Van (Turkey), were a 260 m lower lake level has been reported for the Younger Dryas. The imprint of the environmental variations between

  1. Assessing Climate Change Effect on the World's Largest Lakes Using Satellite Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Gabriel, R.; Norouzi, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Landsat program offers the longest continuous global record of the Earth's surface using satellite imagery for over forty years (1972-2014). Millions of images and relevant data have since been acquired using the instrument on the Landsat satellite to monitor the Earth's interesting phenomena. There are Landsat receiving stations around the world including the United States that process and archive the images that are a unique resource for global change research and applications in agriculture, forestry, regional planning, geology, cartography and global warming. So far, National Oceanic Atmospheric and Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), have launched a total of eight successfully orbiting satellites throughout its forty-two years of service. The main objective of this project aims to use Landsat images to monitor the changes of the world's largest lakes from 1972 to present. We focus on areas around the planet that are home to large scale lakes such as Lake Urmia, Lake Vanern, Lake Winnipegosis, Lake Albert and Lake Mweru. Then using U.S Geological Survey (USGS) database as a source for gathering cloud free images that are covering each lake, we were able to download and obtain necessary data. For larger lakes, images were mosaic to cover the entire area of the lake and using a Maximum Likelihood technique images were specifically classified into land and water content using ENVI software. The extent of the water content was quantified for each year and a temporal analysis of the area was performed. It is also found that the lakes which locates near the equator or at low latitude are seriously facing threats of becoming mostly dry. Future work is needed for establishing the dynamic characteristic of more lakes' water extent changes and also to compare them with other available information such as precipitation and soil moisture in each region. In lakes where high latitude, the change in extent of ice during winter

  2. Potential strategies for recovery of lake whitefish and lake herring stocks in eastern Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oldenburg, K.; Stapanian, M.A.; Ryan, P.A.; Holm, E.

    2007-01-01

    Lake Erie sustained large populations of ciscoes (Salmonidae: Coregoninae) 120 years ago. By the end of the 19th century, abundance of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) had declined drastically. By 1925, the lake herring (a cisco) population (Coregonus artedii) had collapsed, although a limited lake herring fishery persisted in the eastern basin until the 1950s. In the latter part of the 20th century, the composition of the fish community changed as oligotrophication proceeded. Since 1984, a limited recovery of lake whitefish has occurred, however no recovery was evident for lake herring. Current ecological conditions in Lake Erie probably will not inhibit recovery of the coregonine species. Recovery of walleye (Sander vitreus) and efforts to rehabilitate the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Erie will probably assist recovery because these piscivores reduce populations of alewife (Alosa psuedoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), which inhibit reproductive success of coregonines. Although there are considerable spawning substrates available to coregonine species in eastern Lake Erie, eggs and fry would probably be displaced by storm surge from most shoals. Site selection for stocking or seeding of eggs should consider the reproductive life cycle of the stocked fish and suitable protection from storm events. Two potential sites in the eastern basin have been identified. Recommended management procedures, including commercial fisheries, are suggested to assist in recovery. Stocking in the eastern basin of Lake Erie is recommended for both species, as conditions are adequate and the native spawning population in the eastern basin is low. For lake herring, consideration should be given to match ecophenotypes as much as possible. Egg seeding is recommended. Egg seeding of lake whitefish should be considered initially, with fingerling or yearling stocking suggested if unsuccessful. Spawning stocks of whitefish in the western basin of Lake

  3. Lake Mead--clear and vital

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wessells, Stephen M.; Rosen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Lake Mead – Clear and Vital” is a 13 minute documentary relating the crucial role of science in maintaining high water quality in Lake Mead. The program was produced coincident with release of the Lakes Mead and Mohave Circular a USGS publication covering past and on-going research in the lakes and tributaries of the Lake Mead National Recreation Area.

  4. Predicting Maximum Lake Depth from Surrounding Topography

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lake volume aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate lake volume (i.e. bathymetry) are usually only collected on a lake by lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. ...

  5. Lake Erie...Take a Bow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canning, Maureen; Dunlevy, Margie

    This elementary school teaching unit was developed as a part of a series of teaching units that deal with Lake Erie. This unit was developed to enable children to: (1) identify the Great Lakes and pick out Lake Erie on a map; (2) demonstrate knowledge of Lake Erie's origin and geography; (3) list some uses of Lake Erie; and (4) give examples of…

  6. A WHOLE-LAKE WATER QUALITY SURVEY OF LAKE OAHE BASED ON A SPATIALLY-BALANCED PROBABILISTIC DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing conditions on large bodies of water presets multiple statistical and logistical challenges. As part of the Upper Missouri River Program of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Project (EMAP) we surveyed water quality of Lake Oahe in July-August, 2002 using a spat...

  7. Fecundity of hatchery lake trout in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzsimons, John D.; O'Gorman, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Fecundity (egg number) was determined from 26 stocked (617-800 mm, total length) lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) collected in western Lake Ontario during September 1992. Previous to this study, fecundity was evaluated only once in Lake Ontario using native stocks in 1927. The following relationships between fecundity and total length (TL) and weight (W) were obtained. Fecundity = -12,492 + 25.87 TL(mm) and Fecundity = -1,010 + 1,307 W(kg). Relative fecundity (number of eggs per kg of body weight) was unrelated to body weight and averaged 1,592 eggs kg-1. Fecundity of contemporary lake trout based on length was significantly lower than that of historic native stocks, but was similar to contemporary stocked lake trout in Lake Superior.

  8. Lake-wide distribution of Dreissena in Lake Michigan, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleischer, Guy W.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Holuszko, Jeffrey D.

    2001-01-01

    The Great Lakes Science Center has conducted lake-wide bottom trawl surveys of the fish community in Lake Michigan each fall since 1973. These systematic surveys are performed at depths of 9 to 110 m at each of seven index sites around Lake Michigan. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) populations have expanded to all survey locations and at a level to sufficiently contribute to the bottom trawl catches. The quagga (Dreissena bugensis), recently reported in Lake Michigan, was likely in the catches though not recognized. Dreissena spp. biomass ranged from about 0.6 to 15 kg/ha at the various sites in 1999. Dreissenid mussels were found at depths of 9 to 82 m, with their peak biomass at 27 to 46 m. The colonization of these exotic mussels has ecological implications as well as potential ramifications on the ability to sample fish consistently and effectively with bottom trawls in Lake Michigan.

  9. Diversity, evolution, and horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in soda lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkart, Holly C.; Storrie-Lombardi, Michael C.

    2007-09-01

    Soap Lake is a hypersaline, alkaline lake in Central Washington State (USA). For the past five years the lake has been the site of an NSF Microbial Observatory project devoted to identifying critical geochemical and microbial characteristics of the monimolimnion sediment and water column, and has demonstrated rich multispecies communities occupy all areas of the lake. Soap Lake and similar soda lakes are subject to repeated transient periods of extreme evaporation characterized by significant repetitive alterations in salinity, pH, and total water volume, yet maintain high genetic and metabolic diversity. It has been argued that this repetitive cycle for salinity, alkalinity, and sulfur concentration has been a major driver for prokaryote evolution and diversity. The rapidity of wet-dry cycling places special demands on genome evolution, requirements that are beyond the relatively conservative eukaryotic evolutionary strategy of serial alteration of existing gene sequences in a relatively stable genome. Although HGT is most likely responsible for adding a significant amount of noise to the genetic record, analysis of HGT activity can also provide us with a much-needed probe for exploration of prokaryotic genome evolution and the origin of diversity. Packaging of genetic information within the protective protein capsid of a bacteriophage would seem preferable to exposing naked DNA to the highly alkaline conditions in the lake. In this study, we present preliminary data demonstrating the presence of a diverse group of phage integrases in Soap Lake. Integrase is the viral enzyme responsible for the insertion of phage DNA into the bacterial host's chromosome. The presence of the integrase sequence in bacterial chromosomes is evidence of lysogeny, and the diversity of integrase sequences reported here suggests a wide variety of temperate phage exist in this system, and are especially active in transition zones.

  10. Resident Fish Planning: Dworshak Reservoir, Lake Roosevelt and Lake Pend Oreille.

    SciTech Connect

    Fickeisen, Duane H.; Geist, David R.

    1994-01-01

    Research projects are presently being conducted to reduce the amount of uncertainty in how reservoir operations within the Columbia River federal power system affect resident fish. Many of these research projects are being conducted to better define operation strategies being proposed under the Columbia River System Operation Review (SOR). This project provides a basis for understanding the potential effects of different operating strategies being considered under the SOR in reservoir fisheries at Lake Roosevelt, Dworshak Reservoir, and Lake Pend Oreille. The methodological framework used here was adapted from the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP), a project framework used for evaluating supplementation strategies for anadromous fish. RASP attempts to diagnose the factors that limit production of fishes and outlines a process that can be followed to systematically reduce uncertainty while achieving the objective. In all three reservoirs concerns exist about protecting sensitive species, particularly bull trout and cutthroat trout. In all three reservoirs a need exists for additional baseline information to provide an adequate understanding of the populations of interest.

  11. State of Michigan, Lake Michigan and Lake Huron, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Almost the entire state of Michigan and most of lakes Michigan and Huron (45.5N, 83.5W) can be seen in this single midwinter view of the Great Lakes region. Even under midwinter snow and ice conditions, the distinctive silhouette of the state of Michigan is still easy to recognize as well as Lakes Michigan and Huron. The Canadian province of Ontario is at the top of the scene on the opposite shore from Michigan.

  12. Sweet lake geopressured-geothermal project, Magma Gulf-Technadril/DOE Amoco Fee. Annual report, December 1, 1979-February 27, 1981. Volume I. Drilling and completion test well and disposal well

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, R.W.

    1982-06-01

    The Sweet lake site is located approximately 15 miles southeast of Lake Charles in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. A geological study showed that the major structure in this area is a graben. The dip of the beds is northwesterly into the basin. A well drilled into the deep basin would find the target sand below 18,000', at high pressures and temperatures. However, since there is no well control in the basin, the specific site was chosen on the 15,000' contour of the target sand in the eastern, more narrow part of the garben. Those key control wells are present within one mile of the test well. The information acquired by drilling the test well confirmed the earlier geologic study. The target sand was reached at 15,065', had a porosity of over 20% and a permeability to water of 300 md. The original reservoir pressure was 12,060 psi and the bottom hole temperature 299{sup 0}F. There are approximately 250 net feet of sand available for the perforation. The disposal well was drilled to a total depth of 7440'.

  13. Genetic diversity of Diporeia in the Great Lakes: comparison of Lake Superior to the other Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abundances of Diporeia have dropped drastically in the Great Lakes, except in Lake Superior, where data suggest that population counts actually have risen. Various ecological, environmental, or geographic hypotheses have been proposed to explain the greater abundance of Lake Supe...

  14. Projection of Changes in Regional Climate and Air Quality in the Great Lakes Basin between 2000 and 2050 for the RCP8.5 Emissions Scenario using the GEM-AQ Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupu, A.; Semeniuk, K.; McConnell, J. C.; Kaminski, J. W.; Toyota, K.; Neary, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Global Environmental Multiscale Air Quality (GEM-AQ) model was run in global and limited area model (LAM) modes for the baseline year 2000 and one future year, 2050, on three different horizontal grids of increasing resolution from global (1.5°) to North American (LAM, 0.45°) to Ontario regional scale (LAM, 0.15°). For the future simulation we used the high greenhouse emissions scenario RCP8.5. Boundary conditions for the LAM runs were taken from the coarser resolution runs. All simulations had 54 vertical sigma-pressure hybrid levels from the ground to the stratopause (˜50 km), which should give a good representation of ozone injection to the troposphere from the stratosphere. The model uses the interactive land surface scheme ISBA. Sea surface and lake temperatures are prescribed, but ice cover is partially interactive based on prescribed fields. A lake model, FLAKE, was coupled to GEM-AQ in order to capture the impacts of the Great Lakes on the meteorology when the model is run at high resolution. For the Ontario regional simulation the interactive lake model allowed for self-consistent water temperatures and moisture fluxes. The simulation for the year 2000 shows that the model is able to reproduce the observed monthly surface temperatures across the US. The monthly surface ozone is reproduced at the level of detail of most other air quality models with year 2000 weather as opposed to a free run forced by SSTs. Our year 2050 simulation shows that ozone levels during the summer throughout most of Ontario and Canada will increase. Regions south of the latitude of Lake Superior will generally see decreased levels of summer (JJA) ozone, except for around large urban areas such as Toronto, Chicago and Montreal. However, NOx levels will decrease during the summer, reflecting decreased emissions. Ozone levels in the US will generally improve. Other indices rather than simple averages yield a different perspective. If the MDA8 ozone metric and NO2 one-hour 98th

  15. Aeolian sand preserved in Silver Lake: a new signal of Holocene high stands of Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Timothy G.; Loope, Walter L.

    2005-01-01

    Aeolian sand within lake sediment from Silver Lake, Michigan can be used as a proxy for the timing of high lake levels of Lake Michigan.We demonstrate that the sand record from Silver Lake plotted as percent weight is in-phase with the elevation curve of Lake Michigan since the mid-Holocene Nipissing Phase. Because fluctuations in Lake Michigan's lake level are recorded in beach ridges, and are a response to climate change, the aeolian sand record within Silver Lake is also a proxy for climate change. It appears that increases in dune activity and lake sand are controlled by similar climatic shifts that drive fluctuations in lake level of Lake Michigan. High lake levels destabilize coastal bluffs that drive dune sand instability, and along with greater wintertime storminess, increase niveo-aeolian transport of sand across lake ice. The sand is introduced into the lake each spring as the ice cover melts.

  16. Life history of lake herring in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dryer, William R.; Beil, Joseph

    1964-01-01

    The average annual commercial catch of lake herring (Coregonus artedi) in U.S. waters of Lake Superior was nearly 12 million pounds in 1929-61. This production contributed 62.4 percent of the total U.S. take of lake herring for the Great Lakes. About 90 percent of the annual catch is taken from small-mesh gill nets during the November-December spawning season. The life-history studies were based on 12,187 fish collected in 1950-62; past growth was computed for 3,779 specimens collected from commercial landings at: Duluth, Minn.; Bayfield, Wis.; and Portage Entry and Marquette, Mich.

  17. Evidence of spring spawning lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    In 1992, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service began research on the life history, population dynamics, and stock delineation of siscowet lake trout Salvelinus namaycush siscowet in Lake Superior. Siscowet were captured with gill nets in 80-150 m of water on 23-26 April 1992 north of the Apostle Islands in western Lake Superior. Of 91 captured siscowets, one male had fully developed testes in nearly ripe condition and one female had eggs running from the vent. This observation represents the earliest dates that lake trout of any morphotype have been found in spawning or near-spawning condition.

  18. EO-based lake-ice cover and surface temperature products: Advancing process understanding and modeling capabilities of lake-atmosphere interactions in cold regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duguay, C. R.; Kheyrollah Pour, H.; Ochilov, S.

    2011-12-01

    Our ability to determine the energy and water budgets of lakes is critical to modeling high latitude weather and climate. In recent years, the proper representation of lake processes in numerical weather prediction (NWP) and regional climate (RCM) models has become a topic of much interest by the scientific community. With the increased resolution of the NWP models and RCMs, it has now become possible and necessary to improve the representation of lake-atmosphere interactions to better describe the energy exchange between the atmosphere and the lake surface. Among other lake properties, knowledge about lake surface temperature and ice-coverage is critical. These two parameters can either be obtained from observations or through simulations. Although much progress is being made with lake models, as implemented in NWP/RCM models, the assimilation of data on lake temperature and fractional ice coverage has been identified as highly desirable. Spatially and temporally consistent lake ice and lake surface temperature (LST) products are invaluable in this respect. These can be derived from Earth Observation (EO) systems. However, satellite-based products must be compared with existing lake models, as well as validated and further improved as needed, to generate lake ice and LST products for operational use by the modeling community. The European Space Agency (ESA) is supporting the international efforts coordinated by the Climate and Cryosphere (CliC) project of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) to exploit the use of EO technology, models and in situ data to improve the characterization of river and lake ice processes and their contribution to the Northern Hydrology system. The ESA-sponsored North Hydrology project aims to develop a portfolio of novel multi-mission geo-information products, maximizing the use of ESA satellite data, to respond to the scientific requirements of the CliC community and the operational requirements of the weather and climate

  19. Hydrology of Lake County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, Darwin D.; Hughes, G.H.

    1976-01-01

    Lake County includes a 1,150 square-mile area consisting of ridges, uplands, and valleys in central-peninsular Florida. About 32 percent of the county is covered by lakes, swamps, and marshes. Water requirements in 1970 averaged about 54 million gallons per day. About 85 percent of the water was obtained from wells; about 15 percent from lakes. The Floridan aquifer supplies almost all the ground water used in Lake County. Annual recharge to the Floridan aquifer averages about 7 inches over the county; runoff average 8.5 inches. The quality of ground and surface water in Lake County is in general good enough for most uses; however, the poor quality of Floridan-aquifer water in the St. John River Valley probably results from the upward movement of saline water along a fault zone. Surface water in Lake County is usually less mineralized than ground water but is more turbid and colored. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J. Iwan

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  1. Method for lake restoration

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, Gaynor W.; Mercer, Basil W.

    1979-01-01

    A process for removing pollutants or minerals from lake, river or ocean sediments or from mine tailings is disclosed. Magnetically attractable collection units containing an ion exchange or sorbent media with an affinity for a chosen target substance are distributed in the sediments or tailings. After a period of time has passed sufficient for the particles to bind up the target substances, a magnet drawn through the sediments or across the tailings retrieves the units along with the target substance.

  2. Not so Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, “September of My Years” “Early Bird,” the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  3. Not so Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, "September of My Years;" "Early Bird," the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  4. Angora Fire, Lake Tahoe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On the weekend of June 23, 2007, a wildfire broke out south of Lake Tahoe, which stretches across the California-Nevada border. By June 28, the Angora Fire had burned more than 200 homes and forced some 2,000 residents to evacuate, according to The Seattle Times and the Central Valley Business Times. On June 27, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the burn scar left by the Angora fire. The burn scar is dark gray, or charcoal. Water bodies, including the southern tip of Lake Tahoe and Fallen Leaf Lake, are pale silvery blue, the silver color a result of sunlight reflecting off the surface of the water. Vegetation ranges in color from dark to bright green. Streets are light gray, and the customary pattern of meandering residential streets and cul-de-sacs appears throughout the image, including the area that burned. The burn scar shows where the fire obliterated some of the residential areas just east of Fallen Leaf Lake. According to news reports, the U.S. Forest Service had expressed optimism about containing the fire within a week of the outbreak, but a few days after the fire started, it jumped a defense, forcing the evacuation of hundreds more residents. Strong winds that had been forecast for June 27, however, did not materialize, allowing firefighters to regain ground in controlling the blaze. On June 27, authorities hoped that the fire would be completely contained by July 3. According to estimates provided in the daily report from the National Interagency Fire Center, the fire had burned 3,100 acres (about 12.5 square kilometers) and was about 55 percent contained as of June 28. Some mandatory evacuations remained in effect. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  5. THOUSAND LAKES WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Till, Alison B.; McHugh, Edward L.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Thousand Lakes Wilderness in northern California indicated little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. Volcanic stone and cinders occur, but similar materials are found in abundance outside the wilderness. The wilderness is in the Cascade Volcanic Province, a setting locally favorable for geothermal resource potential. No geothermal potential was identified in the wilderness; subsurface potential cannot be evaluated without regional studies and drilling.

  6. Potential effects of climate change on inland glacial lakes and implications for lake-dependent biota in Wisconsin: final report April 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, Michael W.; Walker, John F.; Kenow, Kevin P.; Rasmussen, Paul W.; Garrison, Paul J.; Hanson, Paul C.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2013-01-01

    F statewide, and an increase in precipitation of 1”–2”. However, summer precipitation in the northern part of the state is expected to be less and winter precipitation will be greater. By the end of the 21st century, the magnitude of changes in temperature and precipitation are expected to intensify. Such climatic changes have altered, and would further alter hydrological, chemical, and physical properties of inland lakes. Lake-dependent wildlife sensitive to changes in water quality, are particularly susceptible to lake quality-associated habitat changes and are likely to suffer restrictions to current breeding distributions under some climate change scenarios. We have selected the common loon (Gavia immer) to serve as a sentinel lake-dependent piscivorous species to be used in the development of a template for linking primary lake-dependent biota endpoints (e.g., decline in productivity and/or breeding range contraction) to important lake quality indicators. In the current project, we evaluate how changes in freshwater habitat quality (specifically lake clarity) may impact common loon lake occupancy in Wisconsin under detailed climate-change scenarios. In addition, we employ simple land-use/land cover and habitat scenarios to illustrate the potential interaction of climate and land-use/land cover effects. The methods employed here provide a template for studies where integration of physical and biotic models is used to project future conditions under various climate and land use change scenarios. Findings presented here project the future conditions of lakes and loons within an important watershed in northern Wisconsin – of importance to water resource managers and state citizens alike.

  7. Shallow Water Offshore Wind Optimization for the Great Lakes (DE-FOA-0000415) Final Report: A Conceptual Design for Wind Energy in the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Wissemann, Chris; White, Stanley M

    2014-02-28

    The primary objective of the project was to develop a innovative Gravity Base Foundation (GBF) concepts, including fabrication yards, launching systems and installation equipment, for a 500MW utility scale project in the Great Lakes (Lake Erie). The goal was to lower the LCOE by 25%. The project was the first to investigate an offshore wind project in the Great Lakes and it has furthered the body of knowledge for foundations and installation methods within Lake Erie. The project collected historical geotechnical information for Lake Erie and also used recently obtained data from the LEEDCo Icebreaker Project (FOA DE-EE0005989) geotechnical program to develop the conceptual designs. Using these data-sets, the project developed design wind and wave conditions from actual buoy data in order to develop a concept that would de-risk a project using a GBF. These wind and wave conditions were then utilized to create reference designs for various foundations specific to installation in Lake Erie. A project partner on the project (Weeks Marine) provided input for construction and costing the GBF fabrication and installation. By having a marine contractor with experience with large marine projects as part of the team provides credibility to the LCOE developed by NREL. NREL then utilized the design and construction costing information as part of the LCOE model. The report summarizes the findings of the project. • Developed a cost model and “baseline” LCOE • Documented Site Conditions within Lake Erie • Developed Fabrication, Installation and Foundations Innovative Concept Designs • Evaluated LCOE Impact of Innovations • Developed Assembly line “Rail System” for GBF Construction and Staging • Developed Transit-Inspired Foundation Designs which incorporated: Semi-Floating Transit with Supplemental Pontoons Barge mounted Winch System • Developed GBF with “Penetration Skirt” • Developed Integrated GBF with Turbine Tower • Developed Turbine, Plant

  8. Methane bubbling from Siberian thaw lakes as a positive feedback to climate warming.

    PubMed

    Walter, K M; Zimov, S A; Chanton, J P; Verbyla, D; Chapin, F S

    2006-09-01

    Large uncertainties in the budget of atmospheric methane, an important greenhouse gas, limit the accuracy of climate change projections. Thaw lakes in North Siberia are known to emit methane, but the magnitude of these emissions remains uncertain because most methane is released through ebullition (bubbling), which is spatially and temporally variable. Here we report a new method of measuring ebullition and use it to quantify methane emissions from two thaw lakes in North Siberia. We show that ebullition accounts for 95 per cent of methane emissions from these lakes, and that methane flux from thaw lakes in our study region may be five times higher than previously estimated. Extrapolation of these fluxes indicates that thaw lakes in North Siberia emit 3.8 teragrams of methane per year, which increases present estimates of methane emissions from northern wetlands (< 6-40 teragrams per year; refs 1, 2, 4-6) by between 10 and 63 per cent. We find that thawing permafrost along lake margins accounts for most of the methane released from the lakes, and estimate that an expansion of thaw lakes between 1974 and 2000, which was concurrent with regional warming, increased methane emissions in our study region by 58 per cent. Furthermore, the Pleistocene age (35,260-42,900 years) of methane emitted from hotspots along thawing lake margins indicates that this positive feedback to climate warming has led to the release of old carbon stocks previously stored in permafrost. PMID:16957728

  9. Methane bubbling from Siberian thaw lakes as a positive feedback to climate warming.

    PubMed

    Walter, K M; Zimov, S A; Chanton, J P; Verbyla, D; Chapin, F S

    2006-09-01

    Large uncertainties in the budget of atmospheric methane, an important greenhouse gas, limit the accuracy of climate change projections. Thaw lakes in North Siberia are known to emit methane, but the magnitude of these emissions remains uncertain because most methane is released through ebullition (bubbling), which is spatially and temporally variable. Here we report a new method of measuring ebullition and use it to quantify methane emissions from two thaw lakes in North Siberia. We show that ebullition accounts for 95 per cent of methane emissions from these lakes, and that methane flux from thaw lakes in our study region may be five times higher than previously estimated. Extrapolation of these fluxes indicates that thaw lakes in North Siberia emit 3.8 teragrams of methane per year, which increases present estimates of methane emissions from northern wetlands (< 6-40 teragrams per year; refs 1, 2, 4-6) by between 10 and 63 per cent. We find that thawing permafrost along lake margins accounts for most of the methane released from the lakes, and estimate that an expansion of thaw lakes between 1974 and 2000, which was concurrent with regional warming, increased methane emissions in our study region by 58 per cent. Furthermore, the Pleistocene age (35,260-42,900 years) of methane emitted from hotspots along thawing lake margins indicates that this positive feedback to climate warming has led to the release of old carbon stocks previously stored in permafrost.

  10. How well do measurements from the IADN Network reflect atmospheric deposition to the Great Lakes?

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, C.W.

    1997-12-31

    Samples of air and precipitation were collected at 9 stations around Lake Michigan during 1994 and 1995 as part of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project. The samples were analyzed for PCBs, chlorinated pesticides, PAHs, and trace metals. Concentrations of many of these chemicals in air were 10 to 100 times higher at the stations around southern Lake Michigan compared to those found at remote sites on northern Lake Michigan. Limited shipboard sampling at mid-Lake locations indicates that elevated concentrations of some chemicals can be found in air over wide areas of the lake. In contrast, concentrations of most of the chemicals found in precipitation were very similar at all the stations. It is concluded that use of the results from air sampling at the IADN station on northern Lake Michigan to calculate deposition to the whole lake will underestimate dry deposition in many cases. On the other hand, the IADN data should provide a good estimate of wet deposition to Lake Michigan for most chemicals.

  11. Studies of the limnology, fish populations, and fishery of Turquoise Lake, Colorado - 1979-80

    SciTech Connect

    Nesler, T.P.

    1981-07-01

    Turquoise Lake is one of the primary storage reservoirs in the Fryingpan-Arkansas Water Project and provides supplementary water by conduit to the MT. Elbert Forebay-Twin Lakes system for pump-back storage power generation. The reservoir may be characterized as a dimictic, cold-water lake that is well oxygenated, relatively unbuffed, and slightly acidic. The lake may be classified as oligotrophic on the basis of total dissolved solids, algal nutrients (N-P), and chlorophyll concentrations. Depletion of dissolved oxygen occurs regularly in the hypolimnion during late summer and late winter. Turquoise Lake is limnologically similar to Twin Lakes (Colo.) in most respects. Data contained in this report are useful to those interested in the limnology of high mountain lakes, including physical-chemical parameters, chlorophyll, plankton, and fish populations. Turquoise Lake provides source water to the Mt. Elbert forebay. Thus the baseline data provided here will be helpful in assessing the effects of pumped-storage powerplant operation on the limnology of Twin Lakes, Colo.

  12. Application of Landsat 8 imagery to regional-scale assessment of lake water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrzej Urbanski, Jacek; Wochna, Agnieszka; Bubak, Iwona; Grzybowski, Waldemar; Lukawska-Matuszewska, Katarzyna; Łącka, Magda; Śliwińska, Sylwia; Wojtasiewicz, Bożena; Zajączkowski, Marek

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the project was to create a tool with which to support regional lake quality assessment using Landsat 8 imagery data. The model of assigning the ecological status was implemented in GIS for the northern part of Poland and classifies lake quality for several classes according to classification of WFD using two basic assumptions. The first is that there exists a combination of OLI bands (OLI2/OLI4 was used) which correlates well with the trophic state of the lakes; the second assumption is that the reference trophic state depends on the mean depth of the lake. The model uses a lake geodatabase which contains lakes outlines, raster masks of lakes and attribute information about their mean depth. There is no need to provide any field data when using this tool, as calibration of the model is done using subsets of lakes which were classified using legally defined methods. The tool allows fast classification of 2800 lakes from the area of interest. The results show good agreement between satellite and expert based methods.

  13. Is China's fifth-largest inland lake to dry-up? Incorporated hydrological and satellite-based methods for forecasting Hulun lake water levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zuansi; Jin, Taoyong; Li, Changyou; Ofterdinger, Ulrich; Zhang, Sheng; Ding, Aizhong; Li, Jiancheng

    2016-08-01

    Hulun Lake, China's fifth-largest inland lake, experienced severe declines in water level in the period of 2000-2010. This has prompted concerns whether the lake is drying up gradually. A multi-million US dollar engineering project to construct a water channel to transfer part of the river flow from a nearby river to maintain the water level was completed in August 2010. This study aimed to advance the understanding of the key processes controlling the lake water level variation over the last five decades, as well as investigate the impact of the river transfer engineering project on the water level. A water balance model was developed to investigate the lake water level variations over the last five decades, using hydrological and climatic data as well as satellite-based measurements and results from land surface modelling. The investigation reveals that the severe reduction of river discharge (-364 ± 64 mm/yr, ∼70% of the five-decade average) into the lake was the key factor behind the decline of the lake water level between 2000 and 2010. The decline of river discharge was due to the reduction of total runoff from the lake watershed. This was a result of the reduction of soil moisture due to the decrease of precipitation (-49 ± 45 mm/yr) over this period. The water budget calculation suggests that the groundwater component from the surrounding lake area as well as surface run off from the un-gauged area surrounding the lake contributed ∼ net 210 Mm3/yr (equivalent to ∼ 100 mm/yr) water inflows into the lake. The results also show that the water diversion project did prevent a further water level decline of over 0.5 m by the end of 2012. Overall, the monthly water balance model gave an excellent prediction of the lake water level fluctuation over the last five decades and can be a useful tool to manage lake water resources in the future.

  14. Crater Lake: blue through time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Gary L.; Buktenica, Mark; Collier, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Blue is the color of constancy, hence the term true blue. The unearthly blueness of Crater Lake reflects its pristine character and gives scientists a focal point for studying human impacts on aquatic environments over long periods of time. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Park Service, and Oregon State University have systematically studied the lake for the last two decades. Long-term monitoring of this lake is a priority of Crater Lake National Park and will continue far into the future.

  15. Great Lakes' regional climate regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsov, Sergey; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Roebber, Paul

    2016-04-01

    We simulate the seasonal cycle of the Great Lakes' water temperature and lake ice using an idealized coupled lake-atmosphere-ice model. Under identical seasonally varying boundary conditions, this model exhibits more than one seasonally varying equilibrium solutions, which we associate with distinct regional climate regimes. Colder/warmer regimes are characterized by abundant/scarce amounts of wintertime ice and cooler/warmer summer temperatures, respectively. These regimes are also evident in the observations of the Great Lakes' climate variability over recent few decades, and are found to be most pronounced for Lake Superior, the deepest of the Great Lakes, consistent with model predictions. Multiple climate regimes of the Great Lakes also play a crucial role in the accelerated warming of the lakes relative to the surrounding land regions in response to larger-scale global warming. We discuss the physical origin and characteristics of multiple climate regimes over the lakes, as well as their implications for a longer-term regional climate variability.

  16. Lost lake - restoration of a Carolina bay

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlin, H.G.; McLendon, J.P.; Wike, L.D. |; Dietsch, B.M. |

    1994-09-01

    Carolina bays are shallow wetland depressions found only on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Although these isolated interstream wetlands support many types of communities, they share the common features of having a sandy margin, a fluctuating water level, an elliptical shape, and a northwest to southeast orientation. Lost Lake, an 11.3 hectare Carolina bay, was ditched and drained for agricultural production before establishment of the Savannah River Site in 1950. Later it received overflow from a seepage basin containing a variety of chemicals, primarily solvents and some heavy metals. In 1990 a plan was developed for the restoration of Lost Lake, and restoration activities were complete by mid-1991. Lost Lake is the first known project designed for the restoration and recovery of a Carolina bay. The bay was divided into eight soil treatment zones, allowing four treatments in duplicate. Each of the eight zones was planted with eight species of native wetland plants. Recolonization of the bay by amphibians and reptiles is being evaluated by using drift fences with pitfall traps and coverboard arrays in each of the treatment zones. Additional drift fences in five upland habitats were also established. Hoop turtle traps, funnel minnow traps, and dip nets were utilized for aquatic sampling. The presence of 43 species common to the region has been documented at Lost Lake. More than one-third of these species show evidence of breeding populations being established. Three species found prior to the restoration activity and a number of species common to undisturbed Carolina bays were not encountered. Colonization by additional species is anticipated as the wetland undergoes further succession.

  17. Glacioisostasy and Lake-Level Change at Moosehead Lake, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balco, G.; Belknap, D.F.; Kelley, J.T.

    1998-01-01

    Reconstructions of glacioisostatic rebound based on relative sea level in Maine and adjacent Canada do not agree well with existing geophysical models. In order to understand these discrepancies better, we investigated the lake-level history of 40-km-long Moosehead Lake in northwestern Maine. Glacioisostasy has affected the level of Moosehead Lake since deglaciation ca. 12,500 14C yr B.P. Lowstand features at the southeastern end and an abandoned outlet at the northwestern end of the lake indicate that the lake basin was tilted down to the northwest, toward the retreating ice sheet, by 0.7 m/km at 10,000 14C yr B.P. Water level then rose rapidly in the southeastern end of the lake, and the northwestern outlet was abandoned, indicating rapid relaxation of landscape tilt. Lowstand features at the northwestern end of the lake suggest that the lake basin was tilted to the southeast at ca. 8750 14C yr B.P., possibly as the result of a migrating isostatic forebulge. After 8000 14C yr B.P., water level at the southeastern end was again below present lake level and rose gradually thereafter. We found no evidence suggesting that postglacial climate change significantly affected lake level. The rebound history inferred from lake-level data is consistent with previous interpretations of nearby relative sealevel data, which indicate a significantly steeper and faster-moving ice-proximal depression and ice-distal forebulge than geophysical models predict. ?? 1998 University of Washington.

  18. Hungry Horse Mitigation; Flathead Lake, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Barry

    2003-06-09

    The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) and Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) wrote ''Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam'' in March 1991 to define the fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives and recommendations to protect, mitigate and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by Hungry Horse Dam. On November 12, 1991, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) approved the mitigation plan with minor modifications, called for a detailed implementation plan, and amended measures 903(h)(1) through (7). A long-term mitigation plan was submitted in August 1992, was approved by the Council in 1993, and the first contract for this project was signed on November 11, 1993. The problem this project addresses is the loss of habitat, both in quality and quantity, in the interconnected Flathead Lake and River basin resulting from the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. The purpose of the project is to both implement mitigation measures and monitor the biological responses to those measures including those implemented by Project Numbers 9101903 and 9101904. Goals and objectives of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program (Section 10.1) addressed by this project are the rebuilding to sustainable levels weak, but recoverable, native populations injured by the hydropower system. The project mitigates the blockage of spawning runs by Hungry Horse Dam by restoring and even creating spawning habitats within direct drainages to Flathead Lake. The project also addresses the altered habitat within Flathead Lake resulting from species shifts and consequent dominance of new species that restricts the potential success of mitigation measures. Specific goals of this project are to create and restore habitat and quantitatively monitor changes in fish populations to verify the efficacy of our mitigation measures. The project consists of three components: monitoring, restoration and research

  19. Global Lakes Sentinel Services: Monitoring Water Quality Trends in Deep, Clear Lakes to Detect Causes and Effects of Changes in Trophic Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poser, Kathrin; Peters, Steef; Hommersom, Annelies; Giardino, Claudia; Bresciani, Mariano; Cazzaniga, Ilaria; Schenk, Karin; Heege, Thomas; Philipson, Petra; Ruescas, Ana; Bottcher, Martin; Stelzer, Kerstin

    2015-12-01

    The GLaSS project develops a prototype infrastructure to ingest and process large amounts of Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 data for lakes and reservoirs. To demonstrate the value of satellite observations for the management of aquatic ecosystems, global case studies are performed addressing different types of lakes with their respective problems and management questions. One of these case studies is concentrating on deep clear lakes worldwide. The aim of this case study is to evaluate trends of chlorophyll-a concentrations (Chl-a) as a proxy of the trophic status based on the MERIS full resolution data archive. Some preliminary results of this case study are presented here.

  20. The influence of changing climate on the ecology and management of selected Laurentian Great Lakes fisheries.

    PubMed

    Lynch, A J; Taylor, W W; Smith, K D

    2010-11-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes Basin provides an ecological system to evaluate the potential effect of climate change on dynamics of fish populations and the management of their fisheries. This review describes the physical and biological mechanisms by which fish populations will be affected by changes in timing and duration of ice cover, precipitation events and temperature regimes associated with projected climate change in the Great Lakes Basin with a principal focus on the fish communities in shallower regions of the basin. Lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis, walleye Sander vitreus and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu were examined to assess the potential effects of climate change on guilds of Great Lakes cold, cool and warm-water fishes, respectively. Overall, the projections for these fishes are for the increased thermally suitable habitat within the lakes, though in different regions than they currently inhabit. Colder-water fishes will seek refuge further north and deeper in the water column and warmer-water fishes will fill the vacated habitat space in the warmer regions of the lakes. While these projections can be modified by a number of other habitat elements (e.g. anoxia, ice cover, dispersal ability and trophic productivity), it is clear that climate-change drivers will challenge the nature, flexibility and public perception of current fisheries management programmes. Fisheries agencies should develop decision support tools to provide a systematic method for incorporating ecological responses to climate change and moderating public interests to ensure a sustainable future for Great Lakes fishes and fisheries.

  1. Eutrophication History of Small Shallow Lakes in Estonia: Evidence from Multiproxy Analysis of Lake Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koff, T.; Marzecova, A.; Vandel, E.; Mikomägi, A.; Avi, E.

    2015-12-01

    Human activities have impacted aquatic systems through the release of contaminants and the regulation of surface and groundwater. Although environmental monitoring has been essential in detecting eutrophication, biodiversity loss or water quality deterioration, monitoring activities are limited in time and are thus not sufficient in their scope to identify causality and thresholds. Paleolimnological studies increasingly show that the response of lakes to climatic and human influences is complex, multidimensional, and often indirectly mediated through watershed processes. In this study we examine the history of eutrophication processes in small lakes in Estonia using the multi-proxy analysis of sediment. Study sites represent lakes with different anthropogenic stressors: urbanisation and recreational use, run-off from an oil shale mine, and fish-kills and liming measures. We have used diverse analytical methods, such as elemental analysis, stable isotopes, fossil pigments, diatoms and Cladocera remains. The information derived from sedimentary indicators broadly agrees with the historical evidence of eutrophication and pollution. Moreover, the sediment records are indispensable for identifying additional issues such as: 1) earlier onset of cultural eutrophication; 2) the significant impact of catchment erosion on the deterioration of lake quality, particularly cyanobacterial blooms; and 3) changes in sedimentation processes with significance for internal biogeochemical cycling of nutrients. Importantly, the integration of several methods has significantly improved interpretation of sedimentary data and elucidated the different strengths of various indicator types. The project findings prove to be highly relevant for both the prediction of the ecological responses of lakes to different anthropogenic impacts and the establishment of reasonable reference target conditions in restoration schemes, as well as for methodological improvements of the sediment analysis.

  2. Poyang Lake basin: a successful, large-scale integrated basin management model for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meiqiu; Wei, Xiaohua; Huang, Hongsheng; Lü, Tiangui

    2011-01-01

    Protection of water environment while developing socio-economy is a challenging task for lake regions of many developing countries. Poyang Lake is the largest fresh water lake in China, with its total drainage area of 160,000 km2. In spite of rapid development of socio-economy in Poyang Lake region in the past several decades, water in Poyang Lake is of good quality and is known as the "last pot of clear water" of the Yangtze River Basin in China. In this paper, the reasons of "last pot of clear water" of Poyang Lake were analysed to demonstrate how economic development and environmental protection can be coordinated. There are three main reasons for contributing to this coordinated development: 1) the unique geomorphologic features of Poyang Lake and the short water residence time; 2) the matching of the basin physical boundary with the administrative boundary; and 3) the implementation of "Mountain-River-Lake Program" (MRL), with the ecosystem concept of "mountain as source, river as connection flow, and lake as storage". In addition, a series of actions have been taken to coordinate development, utilisation, management and protection in the Poyang Lake basin. Our key experiences are: considering all basin components when focusing on lake environment protection is a guiding principle; raising the living standard of people through implementation of various eco-economic projects or models in the basin is the most important strategy; preventing soil and water erosion is critical for protecting water sources; and establishing an effective governance mechanism for basin management is essential. This successful, large-scale basin management model can be extended to any basin or lake regions of developing countries where both environmental protection and economic development are needed and coordinated.

  3. Computing Evaporation Using Meteorological Data for Hydrological Budget of Lake Wapalanne in NJ School of Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, J. J.; Barrett, K. R.; Galster, J. C.; Ophori, D. U.; Flores, D.; Kelly, S. A.; Lutey, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Lake Wapalanne is small manmade lake about 5.4 hectares in northwest New Jersey in the Highlands Physiographic province within permanently protected land. The lake's surrounding area consists of forested vegetation and is relatively unoccupied which minimizes human influence. The lake's small size, minimal external influence, geographic isolation, and protected status provide an optimal research environment to record meteorological data used in calculation of potential evaporation. Between July 7h and August 3rd meteorological data was collected from a professional weather station placed on an island directly in the center of Lake Wapalanne. The Vantage Pro2 weather station provided accurate readings of temperate, humidity, wind-speed and direction, precipitation, and atmospheric pressure. A bathometric survey of the lake was conducted to determine the surface area with variations in depth of the lake's water level. Using the collected weather station data, a rate of potential evaporation was determined with several evaporation equations. A quantified volume was then derived from the rate and surface area of the lake. Using small scale evaporation measurements of known volumes of water within small pans placed in the lake water and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration evaporation stations near the experiment site, a comparison and validation of the calculated potential evaporation accuracy and regional evaporation is achieved. This three year study is part of an ongoing NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) project that encompasses additional topics of lake research; see abstract from Kelly et al. AGU 2011 for more information on the lake's hydrologic budget. The results and methods of this study will be of use in future forecasting and baseline measurements of hydrologic budgets for lakes and reservoirs within regional proximity, which provide drinking water to over five million people in the State of New Jersey.

  4. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program, Part B; Limnology, Primary Production, and Zooplankton in Lake Roosevelt, Washington, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, John; Spotts, Jim; Underwood, Keith

    2002-11-01

    The Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program is the result of a merger between two projects, the Lake Roosevelt Monitoring Program (BPA No. 8806300) and the Lake Roosevelt Data Collection Project (BPA No. 9404300). These projects were merged in 1996 to continue work historically completed under the separate projects, and is now referred to as the Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program. The 1998 Annual Report, Part B. Limnology, Primary Production, and Zooplankton in Lake Roosevelt, Washington examined the limnology, primary production, and zooplankton at eleven locations throughout the reservoir. The 1998 research protocol required a continuation of the more complete examination of limnological parameters in Lake Roosevelt that began in 1997. Phytoplankton and periphyton speciation, phytoplankton and periphyton chlorophyll a analysis, complete zooplankton biomass analysis by taxonomic group, and an increased number of limnologic parameters (TDG, TDS, etc.) were examined and compared with 1997 results. Total dissolved gas levels were greatly reduced in 1998, compared with 1997, likely resulting from the relatively normal water year experienced in 1998. Mean water temperatures were similar to what was observed in past years, with a maximum of 22.7 C and a minimum of 2.6 C. Oxygen concentrations were also relatively normal, with a maximum of 16.6 mg/L, and a minimum of 0.9 mg/L. Phytoplankton in Lake Roosevelt was primarily composed of microplankton (29.6%), Cryptophyceae (21.7%), and Bacillriophyceae (17.0 %). Mean total phytoplankton chlorophyll a maximum concentration occurred in May (3.53 mg/m{sup 3}), and the minimum in January (0.39 mg/m{sup 3}). Phytoplankton chlorophyll a concentrations appear to be influenced by hydro-operations and temperature. Trophic status as indicated by phytoplankton chlorophyll a concentrations place Lake Roosevelt in the oligomesotrophic range. Periphyton colonization rates and biovolume were significantly greater at a depth

  5. Climate change and waterborne disease risk in the Great Lakes region of the U.S.

    PubMed

    Patz, Jonathan A; Vavrus, Stephen J; Uejio, Christopher K; McLellan, Sandra L

    2008-11-01

    Extremes of the hydrologic cycle will accompany global warming, causing precipitation intensity to increase, particularly in middle and high latitudes. During the twentieth century, the frequency of major storms has already increased, and the total precipitation increase over this time period has primarily come from the greater number of heavy events. The Great Lakes region is projected to experience a rise these extreme precipitation events. For southern Wisconsin, the precipitation rate of the 10 wettest days was simulated using a suite of seven global climate models from the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report. For each ranking, the precipitation rate of these very heavy events increases in the future. Overall, the models project that extreme precipitation events will become 10% to 40% stronger in southern Wisconsin, resulting in greater potential for flooding, and for the waterborne diseases that often accompany high discharge into Lake Michigan. Using 6.4 cm (2.5 in) of daily precipitation as the threshold for initiating combined sewer overflow into Lake Michigan, the frequency of these events is expected to rise by 50% to 120% by the end of this century. The combination of future thermal and hydrologic changes may affect the usability of recreational beaches. Chicago beach closures are dependent on the magnitude of recent precipitation (within the past 24 hours), lake temperature, and lake stage. Projected increases in heavy rainfall, warmer lake waters, and lowered lake levels would all be expected to contribute to beach contamination in the future. The Great Lakes serve as a drinking water source for more than 40 million people. Ongoing studies and past events illustrate a strong connection between rain events and the amount of pollutants entering the Great Lakes. Extreme precipitation under global warming projections may overwhelm the combined sewer systems and lead to overflow events that can threaten both human

  6. Embryotoxicity of an extract from Great Lakes lake trout to rainbow trout and lake trout

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, P.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Aquatic ecosystems such as the Great Lakes are known to be contaminated with chemicals that are toxic to fish. However, the role of these contaminants in reproductive failures of fishes, such as lake trout recruitment, has remained controvertible. It was the objective to evaluate dioxin-like embryotoxicity of a complex mixture of chemicals and predict their potential to cause the lack of recruitment in Great Lakes lake trout. Graded doses of a complex environmental extract were injected into eggs of both rainbow trout and lake trout. The extract was obtained from whole adult lake trout collected from Lake Michigan in 1988. The extract was embryotoxic in rainbow trout, with LD50 values for Arlee strain and Erwin strain of 33 eggEQ and 14 eggEQ respectively. The LOAEL for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities in rainbow trout were 2, 2, and 4 eggEQ, respectively. Subsequent injections of the extract into lake trout eggs were likewise embryotoxic, with an LD50 value of 7 eggEQ. The LOAEL values for the extract in lake trout for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities were 0.1, 1, and 2 eggEQ, respectively. The current levels of contaminants in lake trout eggs are above the threshold for hemorrhaging and yolk-sac edema. The results also support the use of an additive model of toxicity to quantify PCDDs, PCDFs, Non-o-PCBs, and Mono-o-PCBs in relation to early life stage mortality in Lake Michigan lake trout.

  7. 77 FR 55205 - Barren River Lake Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... generation of 25.8 GWh, and operate in a run-of- release mode utilizing surplus water from the Barren River... Energy Regulatory Commission Barren River Lake Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and.... d. Applicant: Barren River Lake Hydro LLC (Barren River Hydro) e. Name of Project: Barren River...

  8. 75 FR 11530 - Crystal Lake Wind III, LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Crystal Lake Wind III, LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status March 4, 2010. Docket Nos. Crystal Lake Wind III, LLC EG10-6-000 GardenGarden Wind, LLC EG10-7-000 Star Point Wind Project LLC EG10-8-000 Nacogdoches Power, LLC EG10-9-000...

  9. Holocene lake-level fluctuations of Lake Aricota, Southern Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Placzek, C.; Quade, Jay; Betancourt, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Lacustrine deposits exposed around Lake Aricota, Peru (17?? 22???S), a 7.5-km2 lake dammed by debris flows, provide a middle to late Holocene record of lake-level fluctuations. Chronological context for shoreline deposits was obtained from radiocarbon dating of vascular plant remains and other datable material with minimal 14C reservoir effects (<350 yr). Diatomites associated with highstands several meters above the modern lake level indicate wet episodes. Maximum Holocene lake level was attained before 6100 14C yr B.P. and ended ???2700 14C yr B.P. Moderately high lake levels occurred at 1700 and 1300 14C yr B.P. The highstand at Lake Aricota during the middle Holocene is coeval with a major lowstand at Lake Titicaca (16?? S), which is only 130 km to the northeast and shares a similar climatology. Comparisons with other marine and terrestrial records highlight emerging contradictions over the nature of mid-Holocene climate in the central Andes. ?? 2001 University of Washington.

  10. Gillnet selectivity for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Selgeby, James H.; Helser, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    Gillnet selectivity for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) was estimated indirectly from catches in nets of 102-, 114-, 127-, 140-, and 152-mm stretch measure. Mesh selectivity was modeled as a nonlinear response surface that describes changes in the mean, standard deviation, and skewness of fish lengths across mesh sizes. Gillnet selectivity for lake trout was described by five parameters that explained 88% of the variation in wedged and entangled catches, 81% of the variation in wedged catches, and 82% of the variation in entangled catches. Combined catches of wedged and entangled lake trout were therefore described more parsimoniously than separate catches of wedged and entangled lake trout. Peak selectivity of wedged and entangled fish increased from 588 to 663 mm total length as mesh size increased from 102 to 152 mm, and relative selectivity peaked at a total length of 638 mm. The estimated lake trout population size-frequency indicated that gillnet catches were negatively biased toward both small and large lake trout. As a consequence of this bias, survival of Lake Superior lake trout across ages 9-11 was underestimated by about 20% when the catch curve was not adjusted for gillnet selectivity.

  11. Geographical distributions of lake trout strains stocked in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Schaner, Ted

    1996-01-01

    Geographical distributions of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) stocked at seven locations in U.S. waters and at four locations in Canadian waters of Lake Ontario were determined from fish caught with gill nets in September in 17 areas of U.S. waters and at 10 fixed locations in Canadian waters in 1986-95. For fish of a given strain stocked at a given location, geographical distributions were not different for immature males and immature females or for mature males and mature females. The proportion of total catch at the three locations nearest the stocking location was higher for mature fish than for immature fish in all 24 available comparisons (sexes combined) and was greater for fish stocked as yearlings than for those stocked as fingerlings in all eight comparisons. Mature fish were relatively widely dispersed from stocking locations indicating that their tendency to return to stocking locations for spawning was weak, and there was no appreciable difference in this tendency among strains. Mature lake trout were uniformly distributed among sampling locations, and the strain composition at stocking locations generally reflected the stocking history 5 to 6 years earlier. Few lake trout moved across Lake Ontario between the north and south shores or between the eastern outlet basin and the main lake basin. Limited dispersal from stocking sites supports the concept of stocking different genetic strains in various parts of the lake with the attributes of each strain selected to match environmental conditions in the portion of the lake where it is stocked.

  12. HABITAT: LAKE SUPERIOR - STATE OF THE LAKE 2005

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation briefly describes the state of research and management in Lake Superior concerning fisheries and their association to habitat. It discusses a general habitat classification for the lake and an increasing interest in the nearshore, summarizing the status of cont...

  13. Biology of young lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Oosten, John; Eschmeyer, Paul H.

    1956-01-01

    Experimental fishing with gill nets of 5 mesh sizes (2 3/8 to 3 inches) in Lake Michigan in 1930-32 yielded more than 16,000 young lake trout. Data are presented here on age, growth, length-weight relationship, abundance, geographical and bathymetric distribution, and other details of their biology.

  14. The near extinction of lake trout in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eschmeyer, Paul H.

    1957-01-01

    Comparisons in 1949 and 1950 of numbers of legal-sized lake trout caught in large-mesh nets with numbers of small fish taken in chub nets showed that both large and small lake trout declined over the same period, and that by these years the decline may have been greater among small than among legal-sized fish.

  15. Delineation of sympatric morphotypes of lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Seth A.; Bronte, Charles R.

    2001-01-01

    Three morphotypes of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush are recognized in Lake Superior: lean, siscowet, and humper. Absolute morphotype assignment can be difficult. We used a size-free, whole-body morphometric analysis (truss protocol) to determine whether differences in body shape existed among lake trout morphotypes. Our results showed discrimination where traditional morphometric characters and meristic measurements failed to detect differences. Principal components analysis revealed some separation of all three morphotypes based on head and caudal peduncle shape, but it also indicated considerable overlap in score values. Humper lake trout have smaller caudal peduncle widths to head length and depth characters than do lean or siscowet lake trout. Lean lake trout had larger head measures to caudal widths, whereas siscowet had higher caudal peduncle to head measures. Backward stepwise discriminant function analysis retained two head measures, three midbody measures, and four caudal peduncle measures; correct classification rates when using these variables were 83% for leans, 80% for siscowets, and 83% for humpers, which suggests the measures we used for initial classification were consistent. Although clear ecological reasons for these differences are not readily apparent, patterns in misclassification rates may be consistent with evolutionary hypotheses for lake trout within the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  16. ARE LAKES GETTING WARMER? REMOTE SENSING OF LARGE LAKE TEMPERATURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies (Levitus et al., 2000) suggest a warning of the world ocean over the past 50 years. Freshwater lakes could also be getting warmer but thermal measurements to determine this are lacking. Large lake temperatures are vertically and horizontally heterogeneous and vary ...

  17. Great Salt Lake sets record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    The level of the Great Salt Lake, Utah, broke its 1873 record on May 12, 1986, rising to 1283.7 m above mean sea level, according to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Heavy snowpack remains in the lake's drainage basin, and the lake is likely to continue rising into June. “It could well go up another foot [i.e., ˜0.3 m],” this season, according to Ted Arnow, USGS district chief in Utah.The Utah state legislature convened a special session on May 13 to discuss measures to control the flooding. Last year, the legislature began to consider funding a plan to pump water from the Great Salt Lake to form a large, shallow pond in the desert 48 km to the west. Because the lake's level was predicted to drop this year, however, the lawmakers postponed action on the issue (Eos, September 10, 1985, p. 641). The Rose Park area of Salt Lake City, which lies below the lake's current level, has been diked, but groundwater is backing up into Rose Park and has to be pumped out over the dikes, Arnow said. Also, trains that use the Southern Pacific railroad causeway, which crosses the lake, have had to be temporarily rerouted south of the lake during storms. The causeway has been progressively raised since 1983, but engineers now say that they can raise it no further because the added weight will make it sink into the lake, Arnow said. If the lake rises much higher, the interstate highway that runs by it might also have to shut down temporarily during storms, he added.

  18. Reconstructing the lake-level history of former glacial lakes through the study of relict wave-cut terraces: the case of Lake Ojibway (eastern Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Martin; Veillette, Jean; Daubois, Virginie

    2014-05-01

    known geodesic survey markers. Additional WCS were also measured with altimeters. The results suggest that Lake Ojibway experienced at least three different phases, at elevations of 283 m, 289 m, and 300 m (precision ± 0.5 m). For comparison, the near-maximum phase of Lake Ojibway (the only known phase) that was documented about 250 km to the NE would project at an elevation of about 385 m in the study area. Taken together, the position of these WCS in the landscape, their elevation and associated uplift gradients suggest that these lake levels were formed during episodes of long stands associated with late-stage phases of glacial Lake Ojibway. Overall, these results underlie the strong potential of the use of relict and discontinuous wave-cut terraces to reconstruct the lake-level history of former glacial lakes. This approach could also contribute to derive new estimates of meltwater volumes, a critical parameter in evaluating the impact of meltwater discharges on the late-glacial and deglacial climate.

  19. Feeding competition between larval lake whitefish and lake herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Hudson, Patrick L.

    1995-01-01

    The potential for competition for food between larval lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and lake herring (C. artedi) 1- to 8-wk of age was explored in a series of 1-h laboratory feeding studies. Feeding started at 2-wk post-hatch. Learning and fish size appear to be more important than prey density at the onset of feeding. Species differed in their feeding behavior and consumption noticeably by 5-wk and substantially by 8-wk. Lake whitefish generally were more aggressive foragers than lake herring, attacking and capturing more prey. At high plankton density at 8-wk, lake herring feeding was depressed in mixed-fish treatments. This difference in competitive food consumption between the two coregonids occurs at a critical life stage, and when combined with other biotic and abiotic factors, may have a significant impact on recruitment.

  20. River-Lake Mixing, Eutrophication, and Hypoxia in Green Bay, Lake Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J. V.; LaBuhn, S.

    2014-12-01

    Despite being a freshwater system, Green Bay in Lake Michigan, has many estuarine-like characteristics, including water mass exchange and the mixing between riverine inflow and the open lake. The bay has experienced excessive nutrient loading for decades resulting in hyper-eutrophic conditions and extensive algal blooms. Combined with a restricted, estuarine like circulation, this has resulted in the reoccurrence of late summer "dead zones" and wide spread bottom water oxygen concentrations below water quality standards. The onset of hypoxia is clearly related to thermal stratification which, in Green Bay, arises both from direct atmospheric forcing, i.e. low winds, high air temperatures, and increased solar radiation, and from indirect atmospheric forcing that drives circulation patterns resulting in the southerly incursion of cooler Lake Michigan bottom waters onto highly reducing organic rich sediment deposits. This circulation pattern can re-stratify a well-mixed water column within hours, and can set up stable stratified water column conditions that persist for days to weeks during which time sediment oxygen demand rates are sufficient to completely deplete hypolimnetic oxygen. Modeling hypoxia, therefore, is somewhat more complex than in a system which is driven largely or solely by seasonal thermal fluctuations. Understanding both the general circulation and the onset and duration of stratification in the bay are essential to determining the potential for hypoxic conditions to improve or worsen, particularly in the face of climate change projections of warmer conditions, less ice cover, and an earlier summer. Using D and O-18 isotopes in water, Rn-222, and dissolved methane as tracers we examine the relationship between river/lake mixing, transport rates and oxygen depletion in an attempt to verify the spatial and temporal scales of hypoxia in the bay, and estimate the potential impact of future climate change projections.

  1. Forecasting Lake-Effect Snow in the Great Lakes Using NASA Satllite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cipullo, Michelle; Molthan, Andrew; Shafer, Jackie; Case, Jonathan; Jedlovec, Gary

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the forecast of the lake effect snow in the Great Lakes region using models and infrared estimates of Great Lake Surface Temperatures (GLSTs) from the MModerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on Terra and Aqua satellites, and other satellite data. This study analyzes Lake Erie and Lake Ontario which produce storm total snowfall ranged from 8-18 inches off of Lake Ontario and 10-12 inches off of Lake Erie for the areas downwind.

  2. Last millenium environmental changes in Lake Bertrand sediments, Chilean Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacré, V.; Fagel, N.; Schmidt, S.; Alvarez, D.; Araneda, A.; Urrutia, R.

    2012-04-01

    'W). The identification of the diatom assemblages and its temporal variability in both lake sediments will help to identify the origin of those silica-rich layers. In addition, further sedimentological analyses are in progress to better characterize the sediment deposition models. This research was funded by Chilean Fondecyt project number 1070508 and Belgian projects (FNRS proposal 1360 2007-2010, ULg CFRA 1060 2009-2010).

  3. A WEEK-LONG 3-H COMPARISON OR INTEGRATED AND CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF PM2.5 MASS AND COMPOSITION IN THE SALT LAKE CITY EMPACT PROJECT (R827993)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  4. Genetic and tagging evidence for movement of walleyes between Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Thomas N.; Haas, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) from Lake Erie differed in allele frequencies from walleyes in Lake St. Clair (N = 1,680; 25 loci); however, only slight differences were found among walleyes from different spawning sites in each lake. Analyses of allele frequency data from samples of nonspawning walleyes taken in Lake St. Clair provided conditional maximum likelihood estimates that 86% of these walleyes were from Lake St. Clair and 14% from Lake Erie (SD = 19.7%) in 1983 and that 63% were from Lake St. Clair and 37% were from Lake Erie (SD = 20.0%) in 1984. About 30% of 1,159 recoveries of walleyes tagged in Lake Erie were taken from the Detroit River northward to southern Lake Huron, thus demonstrating extensive mixing of stocks from Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair. Additionally, tags recovered from the upper half of the St. Clair River provided an estimate of mixed stock composition of 76% Lake St. Clair fish and 24% Lake Erie fish. Analyses of tags returned during successive spawning seasons showed that walleyes strongly tended to return to suspected natal spawning areas. The tagging data thus corroborate the genetic evidence that walleye stocks from Lake St. Clair and Lake Erie are different, and that large numbers of Lake Erie walleyes enter Lake St. Clair during nonspawning seasons and return to their Lake Erie spawning sites each year. Western Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair walleyes should be considered as separate stocks for management purposes.

  5. Stream, Lake, and Reservoir Management.

    PubMed

    Mei, Ying; Chang, Chein-Chi; Dong, Zhanfeng; Wei, Li

    2016-10-01

    This review on stream, lake, and reservoir management covers selected 2015 publications on the focus of the following sections: • Biota • Climate effect • Models • Remediation and restoration • Reservoir operations • Stream, Lake, and Reservoir Management • Water quality.

  6. The Great Lakes Food Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Marjane L.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a play for students in grades four to nine that incorporates the scientific names, physical characteristics, feeding habits, interactions, and interdependence of the plants and animals that make up the Great Lakes food web to facilitate the learning of this complex system. Includes a Great Lakes food web chart. (AIM)

  7. "Lake Woebegone," Twenty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannell, John Jacob

    2006-01-01

    Almost 20 years ago, the author wrote--and then privately published--the two "Lake Woebegone" reports, named after Garrison Keillor's mythical Minnesota town where "all the women are strong, all the men are good-looking, and all the children are above average." The first "Lake Woebegone" report documented that all 50 states were testing above the…

  8. PYRAMID LAKE RENEWEABLE ENERGY PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    HIGH DESERT GEOCULTURE, LLC

    2009-06-06

    The Pyramid Lake Renewable Energy Plan covers these areas: energy potential (primarily focusing on geothermal resource potential, but also more generally addressing wind energy potential); renewable energy market potential; transmission system development; geothermal direct use potential; and business structures to accomplish the development objectives of the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe.

  9. NATIONAL LAKE ASSESSMENT MONITORING DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA designed the National Lake Assessment in 2005-6 with field sampling being completed in 2007. The objective of the assessment is to estimate the ecological condition of lakes and reservoirs nationally. The objective of this paper is to describe the national survey desi...

  10. An urban lake remediation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Castelli, S.E.; Gardner, K.H.; Jennings, A.A.

    1998-07-01

    Circumstances provided the opportunity to study a small urban lake as the surrounding municipalities attempted to improve its aesthetic quality by dredging. This manuscript focuses primarily on the sediments in the system: accumulation rates, the expected dynamics of the lake bed drying process, and the influence of the sediments on water quality.

  11. Stream, Lake, and Reservoir Management.

    PubMed

    Mei, Ying; Chang, Chein-Chi; Dong, Zhanfeng; Wei, Li

    2016-10-01

    This review on stream, lake, and reservoir management covers selected 2015 publications on the focus of the following sections: • Biota • Climate effect • Models • Remediation and restoration • Reservoir operations • Stream, Lake, and Reservoir Management • Water quality. PMID:27620102

  12. Climate change impacts on lake thermal dynamics and ecosystem vulnerabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sahoo, G. B; Forrest, A. L; Schladow, S. G ;; Reuter, J. E; Coats, R.; Dettinger, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Using water column temperature records collected since 1968, we analyzed the impacts of climate change on thermal properties, stability intensity, length of stratification, and deep mixing dynamics of Lake Tahoe using a modified stability index (SI). This new SI is easier to produce and is a more informative measure of deep lake stability than commonly used stability indices. The annual average SI increased at 16.62 kg/m2/decade although the summer (May–October) average SI increased at a higher rate (25.42 kg/m2/decade) during the period 1968–2014. This resulted in the lengthening of the stratification season by approximately 24 d. We simulated the lake thermal structure over a future 100 yr period using a lake hydrodynamic model driven by statistically downscaled outputs of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Model (GFDL) for two different green house gas emission scenarios (the A2 in which greenhouse-gas emissions increase rapidly throughout the 21st Century, and the B1 in which emissions slow and then level off by the late 21st Century). The results suggest a continuation and intensification of the already observed trends. The length of stratification duration and the annual average lake stability are projected to increase by 38 d and 12 d and 30.25 kg/m2/decade and 8.66 kg/m2/decade, respectively for GFDLA2 and GFDLB1, respectively during 2014–2098. The consequences of this change bear the hallmarks of climate change induced lake warming and possible exacerbation of existing water quality, quantity and ecosystem changes. The developed methodology could be extended and applied to other lakes as a tool to predict changes in stratification and mixing dynamics.

  13. Emergency Fish Restoration Project; Final Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    LeCaire, Richard

    2003-03-01

    Lake Roosevelt is a 151-mile impoundment created by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam during the early 1940's. The construction of the dam permanently and forever blocked the once abundant anadromous fish runs to the upper Columbia Basin. Since the construction of Grand Coulee Dam in 1943 and Chief Joseph Dam in 1956 this area is known as the blocked area. The blocked area is totally dependant upon resident fish species to provide a subsistence, recreational and sport fishery. The sport fishery of lake Roosevelt is varied but consists mostly of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), Walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) Small mouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). Currently, Bonneville Power Administration funds and administers two trout/kokanee hatcheries on Lake Roosevelt. The Spokane Tribe of Indians operates one hatchery, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife the other. In addition to planting fish directly into Lake Roosevelt, these two hatcheries also supply fish to a net pen operation that also plants the lake. The net pen project is administered by Bonneville Power funded personnel but is dependant upon volunteer labor for daily feeding and monitoring operations. This project has demonstrated great success and is endorsed by the Colville Confederated Tribes, the Spokane Tribe of Indians, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, local sportsmen associations, and the Lake Roosevelt Forum. The Lake Roosevelt/Grand Coulee Dam area is widely known and its diverse fishery is targeted by large numbers of anglers annually to catch rainbow trout, kokanee salmon, small mouth bass and walleye. These anglers contribute a great deal to the local economy by fuel, grocery, license, tackle and motel purchases. Because such a large portion of the local economy is dependant upon the Lake Roosevelt fishery and tourism, any unusual operation of the Lake Roosevelt system may have a

  14. Europa's Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, B. E.; Blankenship, D. D.; Patterson, G. W.; Schenk, P. M.

    2012-04-01

    Unique to the surface of Europa, chaos terrain is diagnostic of the properties and dynamics of its icy shell. While models have suggested that partial melt within a thick shell or melt-through of a thin shell may form chaos, neither model has been able to definitively explain all observations of chaos terrain. However, we present a new model that suggests large melt lenses form within the shell and that water-ice interactions above and within these lenses drive the production of chaos. Our analysis of the geomorphology of Conamara Chaos and Thera Macula, was used to infer and test a four-stage lens-collapse chaos formation model: 1) Thermal plumes of warm, pure ice ascend through the shell melting the impure brittle ice above, producing a lake of briny water and surface down draw due to volume reduction. 2) Surface deflection and driving force from the plume below hydraulically seals the water in place. 3) Extension of the brittle ice lid generates fractures from below, allowing brines to enter and fluidize the ice matrix. 4) As the lens and now brash matrix refreeze, thermal expansion creates domes and raises the chaos feature above the background terrain. This new "lense-collapse" model indicates that chaos features form in the presence of a great deal of liquid water, and that large liquid water bodies exist within 3km of Europa's surface comparable in volume to the North American Great Lakes. The detection of shallow subsurface "lakes" implies that the ice shell is recycling rapidly and that Europa may be currently active. In this presentation, we will explore environments on Europa and their analogs on Earth, from collapsing Antarctic ice shelves to to subglacial volcanos in Iceland. I will present these new analyses, and describe how this new perspective informs the debate about Europa's habitability and future exploration.

  15. Variability in diatom and chrysophyte assemblages and inferred pH: Paleolimnological studies of Big Moose Lake, New York, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Charles, D.F.; Dixit, S.S.; Cumming, B.F.; Smol, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The paper is part of the variability study component of the Paleoecological Investigation of Recent Lake Acidification I (PIRLA I) Project. The study was designed to assess the variability in diatom and chrysophyte assemblages within a lake, and the variability associated with enumerating inferring pH from these assemblages. The results presented in the paper serve as a partial basis for assessing the uncertainty associated with the diatom and chrysophyte analyses of all PIRLA I study lakes. A major conclusion of the study is that a single sediment core can adequately represent the overall trends that have occurred in a lake.

  16. Lake-floor sediment texture and composition of a hydrothermally-active, volcanic lake, Lake Rotomahana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittari, A.; Muir, S. L.; Hendy, C. H.

    2016-03-01

    Young volcanic lakes undergo a transition from rapid, post-eruptive accumulation of volcaniclastic sediment to slower pelagic settling under stable lake conditions, and may also be influenced by sublacustrine hydrothermal systems. Lake Rotomahana is a young (129 year-old), hydrothermally-active, volcanic lake formed after the 1886 Tarawera eruption, and provides a unique insight into the early evolution of volcanic lake systems. Lake-bottom sediment cores, 20-46 cm in length, were taken along a transect across the lake and characterised with respect to stratigraphy, facies characteristics (i.e., grain size, componentry) and pore water silica concentrations. The sediments generally comprise two widespread facies: (i) a lower facies of light grey to grey, very fine lacustrine silt derived from the unconsolidated pyroclastic deposits that mantled the catchment area immediately after the eruption, which were rapidly reworked and redeposited into the lake basin; and (ii) an upper facies of dark, fine-sandy diatomaceous silt, that settled from the pelagic zone of the physically stable lake. Adjacent to sublacustrine hydrothermal vents, the upper dark facies is absent, and the upper part of the light grey to grey silt is replaced by a third localised facies comprised of hydrothermally altered pale yellow to yellowish brown, laminated silt with surface iron-rich encrustations. Microspheres, which are thought to be composed of amorphous silica, although some may be halloysite, have precipitated from pore water onto sediment grains, and are associated with a decrease in pore water silicon concentration. Lake Rotomahana is an example of a recently-stabilised volcanic lake, with respect to sedimentation, that shows signs of early sediment silicification in the presence of hydrothermal activity.

  17. Seasonal bathythermal distribution of juvenile lake trout in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; Schneider, Clifford P.

    1987-01-01

    Bathythermal distributions of hatchery-reared lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) of three genetic strains (Lake Superior; Clearwater Lake, Manitoba; and Seneca Lake, New York) were described from catches with bottom trawls in Lake Ontario during April-May, June, July-August, and October, 1978–1984. This work was part of a program to evaluate post-stocking performance of hatchery-reared fish and identify strains for continued use in rehabilitation of lake trout in Lake Ontario. All age groups of Lake Superior fish were in deeper water in April-May than in June each year; mean depth of capture was greatest at age II and became progressively shallower at ages III and IV. Mean depth of capture in April-May was positively correlated with severity of the preceding winter as judged by heating degree days and average wind speed. During July-August, the fish were concentrated between the epilimnion and 50 m, with no consistent trend in depth by age; however, 92% were captured at water temperatures of 12°C or lower. Mean temperatures of capture for Lake Superior fish during the four respective sampling periods were 3.9, 7.5, 6.9, and 9.5° C for fish of age II and 3.9, 8.4, 6.9, and 8.7° C for fish of age III. The age-II Clearwater Lake fish were consistently at shallower depths than age-II Lake Superior fish. Mean temperatures of capture were 4.2, 9.7, 9.6, and 10.7° C during the four respective sampling periods; during July-August, 91% were taken in water of 12° C or lower. The distribution of Seneca Lake fish was similar to that of the Lake Superior strain. Mean temperatures at which the three strains were captured were well below published preferred temperatures of yearlings in the laboratory. Annual variations in depth distributions during a given season were probably due to differing thermal regimes resulting from annual variations in the weather.

  18. L-Lake macroinvertebrate community

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    To characterize the present benthic macroinvertebrate community of L-Lake, Regions 5 and 7 of the reservoir were sampled in September 1995 at the same locations sampled in 1988 and 1989 during the L-Lake monitoring program. The macroinvertebrate community of 1995 is compared to that of 1988 and 1989. The species composition of L-Lake`s macroinvertebrate community has changed considerably since 1988-1989, due primarily to maturation of the reservoir ecosystem. L-Lake contains a reasonably diverse macroinvertebrate community that is capable of supporting higher trophic levels, including a diverse assemblage of fish species. The L-Lake macroinvertebrate community is similar to those of many other southeastern reservoirs, and there is no indication that the macroinvertebrate community is perturbed by chemical or physical stressors.

  19. Methane emissions from pan-Arctic lakes during the 21st century: An analysis with process-based models of lake evolution and biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zeli; Zhuang, Qianlai

    2015-12-01

    The importance of methane emissions from pan-Arctic lakes in the global carbon cycle has been suggested by recent studies. These studies indicated that climate change influences this methane source mainly in two ways: the warming of lake sediments and the evolution of thermokarst lakes. Few studies have been conducted to quantify the two impacts together in a unified modeling framework. Here we adapt a region-specific lake evolution model to the pan-Arctic scale and couple it with a lake methane biogeochemical model to quantify the change of this freshwater methane source in the 21st century. Our simulations show that the extent of thaw lakes will increase throughout the 21st century in the northern lowlands of the pan-Arctic where the reworking of epigenetic ice in drained lake basins will continue. The projected methane emissions by 2100 are 28.3 ± 4.5 Tg CH4 yr-1 under a low warming scenario (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 2.6) and 32.7 ± 5.2 Tg CH4 yr-1 under a high warming scenario (RCP 8.5), which are about 2.5 and 2.9 times the simulated present-day emissions. Most of the emitted methane originates from nonpermafrost carbon stock. For permafrost carbon, the methanogenesis will mineralize a cumulative amount of 3.4 ± 0.8 Pg C under RCP 2.6 and 3.9 ± 0.9 Pg C under RCP 8.5 from 2006 to 2099. The projected emissions could increase atmospheric methane concentrations by 55.0-69.3 ppb. This study further indicates that the warming of lake sediments dominates the increase of methane emissions from pan-Arctic lakes in the future.

  20. USGS Activities at Lake Roosevelt and the Upper Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Cynthia; Turney, Gary L.

    2010-01-01

    Lake Roosevelt (Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake) is the impoundment of the upper Columbia River behind Grand Coulee Dam, and is the largest reservoir within the Bureau of Reclamation's Columbia Basin Project (CBP). The reservoir is located in northeastern Washington, and stretches 151 miles from Grand Coulee Dam north to the Canadian border. The 15-20 miles of the Columbia River downstream of the border are riverine and are under small backwater effects from the dam. Grand Coulee Dam is located on the mainstem of the Columbia River about 90 miles northwest of Spokane. Since the late 1980s, trace-element contamination has been known to be widely present in Lake Roosevelt. Trace elements of concern include arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc. Contaminated sediment carried by the Columbia River is the primary source of the widespread occurrence of trace-element enrichment present in Lake Roosevelt. In 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a preliminary assessment of environmental contamination of the Lake Roosevelt area (also referred to as Upper Columbia River, UCR site, or UCR/LR site) and has subsequently begun remedial investigations of the UCR site.