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Sample records for reduce alcohol-related harm

  1. Reducing alcohol-related harm and social disorder in a university community: a framework for evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Kimberly; Connor, Jennie L; Kypri, Kypros

    2010-10-01

    In New Zealand and other middle to high income countries, university student are at high risk of alcohol-related injury and other problems due to their typical pattern of episodic heavy drinking. In 2007, one university implemented Campus Watch, a novel and extensive programme to reduce social disorder, including alcohol-related injury, in the university area. To quantify the effects of this complex intervention. A large public university campus and surrounding community in New Zealand. A health promotion evaluation model was used, examining: (1) how the programme was developed, introduced and received by the community? (process); (2) whether the programme affected behaviour? (impact); and (3) whether the programme reduced social disorder and alcohol-related harm in particular? (outcome). The outcome phase uses a non-equivalent control group design to measure changes occurring in the Campus Watch area compared with other universities, and with a same-city control site. Programme staff, university students and other community members. Interviews with university administrators and Campus Watch staff; surveys of local residents' views; Campus Watch incident data; national surveys of university students in 2005, 2007 and 2009; police data; fire department data. Prevalence of heavy episodic drinking; number of acute alcohol-related harms; incidence of antisocial behaviour, assault and street fires. Regression analyses will be used to examine changes in the intervention site relative to changes in the control areas.

  2. Effectiveness of lockouts in reducing alcohol-related harm: Systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nepal, Smriti; Kypri, Kypros; Pursey, Kirrilly; Attia, John; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Miller, Peter

    2018-05-01

    Australian jurisdictions have introduced lockouts to prevent alcohol-related violence. Lockouts prohibit patrons from entering licensed premises after a designated time while allowing sale and consumption of alcohol to continue. Their purposes include managing the movement of intoxicated patrons, and preventing violence and disorder by dispersing times that patrons leave premises. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of lockouts in preventing alcohol-related harm. We systematically searched electronic databases and reference lists and asked authors to identify relevant studies published to 1 June 2017. We deemed studies eligible if they evaluated lockouts, and if outcome measures included: assault, emergency department attendances, alcohol-related disorders or drink-driving offences. Two reviewers independently extracted data. After screening 244 records, we identified five studies from electronic databases, two from reference lists search and one from a Google search (N = 8). Two studies showed a decline in assaults; a third study showed reductions occurred only inside licensed premises; two studies showed an increase in assaults; and three studies showed no association. The studies had significant design and other limitations. Lockouts have been implemented across Australian jurisdictions as a strategy to prevent alcohol-related harm, despite limited evidence. In this systematic review, we synthesised findings from studies that evaluated lockouts as stand-alone interventions, to help clarify debate on their utility as a harm prevention strategy. There is not good evidence that lockouts prevent alcohol-related harm, in contrast to what is known about stopping the sale of alcohol earlier, for which there is evidence of effectiveness. © 2018 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  3. Population-level interventions to reduce alcohol-related harm: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Martineau, Fred; Tyner, Elizabeth; Lorenc, Theo; Petticrew, Mark; Lock, Karen

    2013-10-01

    To analyse available review-level evidence on the effectiveness of population-level interventions in non-clinical settings to reduce alcohol consumption or related health or social harm. Health, social policy and specialist review databases between 2002 and 2012 were searched for systematic reviews of the effectiveness of population-level alcohol interventions on consumption or alcohol-related health or social outcomes. Data were extracted on review research aim, inclusion criteria, outcome indicators, results, conclusions and limitations. Reviews were quality-assessed using AMSTAR criteria. A narrative synthesis was conducted overall and by policy area. Fifty-two reviews were included from ten policy areas. There is good evidence for policies and interventions to limit alcohol sale availability, to reduce drink-driving, to increase alcohol price or taxation. There is mixed evidence for family- and community-level interventions, school-based interventions, and interventions in the alcohol server setting and the mass media. There is weak evidence for workplace interventions and for interventions targeting illicit alcohol sales. There is evidence of the ineffectiveness of interventions in higher education settings. There is a pattern of support from the evidence base for regulatory or statutory enforcement interventions over local non-regulatory approaches targeting specific population groups. © 2013.

  4. The acceptability to Aboriginal Australians of a family-based intervention to reduce alcohol-related harms.

    PubMed

    Calabria, Bianca; Clifford, Anton; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Allan, Julaine; Bliss, Donna; Doran, Christopher

    2013-05-01

    Cognitive-behavioural interventions that use familial and community reinforcers in an individual's environment are effective for reducing alcohol-related harms. Such interventions have considerable potential to reduce the disproportionately high burden of alcohol-related harm among Aboriginal Australians if they can be successfully tailored to their specific needs and circumstances. The overall aim of this paper is to describe the perceived acceptability of two cognitive-behavioural interventions, the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) and Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT), to a sample of Aboriginal people. Descriptive survey was administered to 116 Aboriginal people recruited through an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service and a community-based drug and alcohol treatment agency in rural New South Wales, Australia. Participants perceived CRA and CRAFT to be highly acceptable for delivery in their local Aboriginal community. Women were more likely than men to perceive CRAFT as highly acceptable. Participants expressed a preference for counsellors to be someone they knew and trusted, and who has experience working in their local community. CRA was deemed most acceptable for delivery to individuals after alcohol withdrawal and CRAFT for people who want to help a relative/friend start alcohol treatment. There was a preference for five or more detailed sessions. Findings of this study suggest that CRA and CRAFT are likely to be acceptable for delivery to some rural Aboriginal Australians, and that there is potential to tailor these interventions to specific communities. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. The effectiveness of strategies such as health warning labels to reduce alcohol-related harms - an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Stockley, C S.

    2001-07-01

    The efficacy of health warning labels for products such as alcoholic beverages continue to be debated internationally and now in Australia as a means of mitigating the misuse of alcohol within community groups. This paper discusses evidence emanating primarily from the USA that has adopted a health warning label for both alcohol and tobacco, and from Australia that has adopted a health warning label for tobacco, on the effectiveness of such a strategy in changing consumer behaviour. The conclusion drawn is that such labelling is generally ineffective in changing consumer behaviour and hence such a strategy is inappropriate for reducing alcohol-related harms. The paper also discusses briefly what advertising and messages influence consumers, positively and negatively, and what specific strategies have been shown to better educate consumers and change their consumption from excessive to light to moderate as defined by the (Australian) National Health and Medical Research Council, which is the present premise of harm minimisation in Australia.

  6. Should I drink responsibly, safely or properly? Confusing messages about reducing alcohol-related harm

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sabine; Kypri, Kypros

    2017-01-01

    ‘Responsible drinking’ campaigns emerged in the early 1970s as a means of addressing hazardous drinking and its related consequences. While these were initially the product of public health agencies and health-related NGOs, they are increasingly being developed and disseminated by the alcohol industry. There is considerable debate as to whether industry-generated campaigns are designed to reduce hazardous drinking and related problems (as argued by their developers) or are designed to avoid government regulation or even to increase sales. The aim of the present study was to explore the way that recent industry-developed responsible drinking campaigns are perceived and interpreted by the general public. That is, do they promote low-risk drinking, promote risky drinking, or just muddy the waters. Two sub-studies were conducted. The first, a mall intercept study with 180 adults in two Australian shopping districts, explored participants’ understanding of slogans/taglines. The second, an online survey with 480 Australian adults, explored understandings and interpretations of television/online commercials. The results of the two studies revealed diversity in participants’ interpretation of the ‘responsible drinking’ advertisements. Terminology utilised in industry-developed advertisements was found to be ambiguous; for example, what age group was being referred to in the tagline ‘Kids and alcohol don’t mix’, and whether ‘Drink Properly’ meant not drinking to excess or drinking in a way that made you look more sophisticated. In Study Two, the government-developed campaign (‘Know when to say when’) was clearly interpreted as warning against risky consumption of alcohol; whereas the industry-developed campaigns (‘How to drink properly’, ‘Kids absorb your drinking’, ‘Friends are waiting’) were interpreted to have a range of different meanings, including some seemingly unrelated to alcohol. These findings are consistent with the

  7. Should I drink responsibly, safely or properly? Confusing messages about reducing alcohol-related harm.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sandra C; Hall, Sabine; Kypri, Kypros

    2017-01-01

    'Responsible drinking' campaigns emerged in the early 1970s as a means of addressing hazardous drinking and its related consequences. While these were initially the product of public health agencies and health-related NGOs, they are increasingly being developed and disseminated by the alcohol industry. There is considerable debate as to whether industry-generated campaigns are designed to reduce hazardous drinking and related problems (as argued by their developers) or are designed to avoid government regulation or even to increase sales. The aim of the present study was to explore the way that recent industry-developed responsible drinking campaigns are perceived and interpreted by the general public. That is, do they promote low-risk drinking, promote risky drinking, or just muddy the waters. Two sub-studies were conducted. The first, a mall intercept study with 180 adults in two Australian shopping districts, explored participants' understanding of slogans/taglines. The second, an online survey with 480 Australian adults, explored understandings and interpretations of television/online commercials. The results of the two studies revealed diversity in participants' interpretation of the 'responsible drinking' advertisements. Terminology utilised in industry-developed advertisements was found to be ambiguous; for example, what age group was being referred to in the tagline 'Kids and alcohol don't mix', and whether 'Drink Properly' meant not drinking to excess or drinking in a way that made you look more sophisticated. In Study Two, the government-developed campaign ('Know when to say when') was clearly interpreted as warning against risky consumption of alcohol; whereas the industry-developed campaigns ('How to drink properly', 'Kids absorb your drinking', 'Friends are waiting') were interpreted to have a range of different meanings, including some seemingly unrelated to alcohol. These findings are consistent with the literature evaluating anti-smoking campaigns

  8. Interventions in sports settings to reduce risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kingsland, Melanie; Wiggers, John H; Vashum, Khanrin P; Hodder, Rebecca K; Wolfenden, Luke

    2016-01-21

    Elevated levels of risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm have been reported for sportspeople and supporters compared to non-sporting populations. Limited systematic reviews have been conducted to assess the effect of interventions targeting such behaviours. A review was undertaken to determine if interventions implemented in sports settings decreased alcohol consumption and related harms. Studies were included that implemented interventions within sports settings; measured alcohol consumption or alcohol-related injury or violence and were either randomised controlled trials, staggered enrollment trials, stepped-wedged trials, quasi-randomised trials, quasi-experimental trials or natural experiments. Studies without a parallel comparison group were excluded. Studies from both published and grey literature were included. Two authors independently screened potential studies against the eligibility criteria, and two authors independently extracted data from included studies and assessed risk of bias. The results of included studies were synthesised narratively. The title and abstract of 6382 papers and the full text of 45 of these papers were screened for eligibility. Three studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. One of the included studies was a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a cognitive-behavioural intervention with athletes within an Olympic training facility in the USA. The study reported a significant change in alcohol use between pre-test and follow-up between intervention and control groups. The other two studies were RCTs in community sports clubs in Ireland and Australia. The Australian study found a significant intervention effect for both risky alcohol consumption at sports clubs and overall risk of alcohol-related harm. The Irish study found no significant intervention effect. A limited number of studies have been conducted to assess the effect of interventions implemented in sports settings on alcohol consumption and related

  9. Dynamic simulation modelling of policy responses to reduce alcohol-related harms: rationale and procedure for a participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Jo-An; O'Donnell, Eloise; Wiggers, John; McDonnell, Geoff; Mitchell, Jo; Freebairn, Louise; Indig, Devon; Rychetnik, Lucie

    2017-02-15

    Development of effective policy responses to address complex public health problems can be challenged by a lack of clarity about the interaction of risk factors driving the problem, differing views of stakeholders on the most appropriate and effective intervention approaches, a lack of evidence to support commonly implemented and acceptable intervention approaches, and a lack of acceptance of effective interventions. Consequently, political considerations, community advocacy and industry lobbying can contribute to a hotly contested debate about the most appropriate course of action; this can hinder consensus and give rise to policy resistance. The problem of alcohol misuse and its associated harms in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, provides a relevant example of such challenges. Dynamic simulation modelling is increasingly being valued by the health sector as a robust tool to support decision making to address complex problems. It allows policy makers to ask 'what-if' questions and test the potential impacts of different policy scenarios over time, before solutions are implemented in the real world. Participatory approaches to modelling enable researchers, policy makers, program planners, practitioners and consumer representatives to collaborate with expert modellers to ensure that models are transparent, incorporate diverse evidence and perspectives, are better aligned to the decision-support needs of policy makers, and can facilitate consensus building for action. This paper outlines a procedure for embedding stakeholder engagement and consensus building in the development of dynamic simulation models that can guide the development of effective, coordinated and acceptable policy responses to complex public health problems, such as alcohol-related harms in NSW.

  10. Impacts of licensed premises trading hour policies on alcohol-related harms.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Jo-An; Prodan, Ante; Livingston, Michael; Knowles, Dylan; O'Donnell, Eloise; Room, Robin; Indig, Devon; Page, Andrew; McDonnell, Geoff; Wiggers, John

    2018-07-01

    Evaluations of alcohol policy changes demonstrate that restriction of trading hours of both 'on'- and 'off'-licence venues can be an effective means of reducing rates of alcohol-related harm. Despite this, the effects of different trading hour policy options over time, accounting for different contexts and demographic characteristics, and the common co-occurrence of other harm reduction strategies in trading hour policy initiatives, are difficult to estimate. The aim of this study was to use dynamic simulation modelling to compare estimated impacts over time of a range of trading hour policy options on various indicators of acute alcohol-related harm. An agent-based model of alcohol consumption in New South Wales, Australia was developed using existing research evidence, analysis of available data and a structured approach to incorporating expert opinion. Five policy scenarios were simulated, including restrictions to trading hours of on-licence venues and extensions to trading hours of bottle shops. The impact of the scenarios on four measures of alcohol-related harm were considered: total acute harms, alcohol-related violence, emergency department (ED) presentations and hospitalizations. Simulation of a 3 a.m. (rather than 5 a.m.) closing time resulted in an estimated 12.3 ± 2.4% reduction in total acute alcohol-related harms, a 7.9 ± 0.8% reduction in violence, an 11.9 ± 2.1% reduction in ED presentations and a 9.5 ± 1.8% reduction in hospitalizations. Further reductions were achieved simulating a 1 a.m. closing time, including a 17.5 ± 1.1% reduction in alcohol-related violence. Simulated extensions to bottle shop trading hours resulted in increases in rates of all four measures of harm, although most of the effects came from increasing operating hours from 10 p.m. to 11 p.m. An agent-based simulation model suggests that restricting trading hours of licensed venues reduces rates of alcohol-related harm and extending trading hours of bottle

  11. Environmental factors in drinking venues and alcohol-related harm: the evidence base for European intervention.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Karen; Quigg, Zara; Eckley, Lindsay; Bellis, Mark; Jones, Lisa; Calafat, Amador; Kosir, Matej; van Hasselt, Ninette

    2011-03-01

    Reducing alcohol-related harm in young people is a major priority across Europe. Much alcohol use and associated harm in young people occurs in public drinking environments. This review aims to identity environmental factors in drinking establishements that are associated with increased alcohol consumption and associated harm and to understand the extent of study in this area across Europe. A systematic literature search identified studies that had explored associations between physical, staffing and social factors in drinking environments and increased alcohol use or alcohol-related harm. Fifty-three papers were identified, covering 34 studies implemented in nine countries. Most studies had been implemented in non-European countries and many had collected data more than a decade prior to the review. The majority had used observational research techniques. Throughout the studies, a wide range of physical, staffing and social factors had been associated with higher levels of alcohol use and related harm in drinking environments. Factors that appeared particularly important in contributing to alcohol-related problems included a permissive environment, cheap alcohol availability, poor cleanliness, crowding, loud music, a focus on dancing and poor staff practice. However, findings were not always consistent across studies. Drinking establishments, their management and the behaviours of the young people who use them vary widely across Europe. While international research shows that environmental factors in drinking settings can have an important influence on alcohol-related harm, there is currently a scarcity of knowledge on the relevance and impacts of such factors in modern European settings. Developing this knowledge will support the implementation of strategies to create drinking environments in Europe that are less conducive to risky drinking and alcohol-related harm. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Effect of the increase in "alcopops" tax on alcohol-related harms in young people: a controlled interrupted time series.

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve R; Pais, Joanne; White, Angela; Connor, Jason; Quek, Lake-Hui; Crilly, Julia L; Lawrence, David

    2011-12-19

    To measure alcohol-related harms to the health of young people presenting to emergency departments (EDs) of Gold Coast public hospitals before and after the increase in the federal government "alcopops" tax in 2008. Interrupted time series analysis over 5 years (28 April 2005 to 27 April 2010) of 15-29-year-olds presenting to EDs with alcohol-related harms compared with presentations of selected control groups. Proportion of 15-29-year-olds presenting to EDs with alcohol-related harms compared with (i) 30-49-year-olds with alcohol-related harms, (ii)15-29-year-olds with asthma or appendicitis, and (iii) 15-29-year-olds with any non-alcohol and non-injury related ED presentation. Over a third of 15-29-year-olds presented to ED with alcohol-related conditions, as opposed to around a quarter for all other age groups. There was no significant decrease in alcohol-related ED presentations of 15-29-year-olds compared with any of the control groups after the increase in the tax. We found similar results for males and females, narrow and broad definitions of alcohol-related harms, under-19s, and visitors to and residents of the Gold Coast. The increase in the tax on alcopops was not associated with any reduction in alcohol-related harms in this population in a unique tourist and holiday region. A more comprehensive approach to reducing alcohol harms in young people is needed.

  13. An exploratory randomised controlled trial of a premises-level intervention to reduce alcohol-related harm including violence in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of a licensed premises intervention to reduce severe intoxication and disorder; to establish effect sizes and identify appropriate approaches to the development and maintenance of a rigorous research design and intervention implementation. Methods An exploratory two-armed parallel randomised controlled trial with a nested process evaluation. An audit of risk factors and a tailored action plan for high risk premises, with three month follow up audit and feedback. Thirty-two premises that had experienced at least one assault in the year prior to the intervention were recruited, match paired and randomly allocated to control or intervention group. Police violence data and data from a street survey of study premises’ customers, including measures of breath alcohol concentration and surveyor rated customer intoxication, were used to assess effect sizes for a future definitive trial. A nested process evaluation explored implementation barriers and the fidelity of the intervention with key stakeholders and senior staff in intervention premises using semi-structured interviews. Results The process evaluation indicated implementation barriers and low fidelity, with a reluctance to implement the intervention and to submit to a formal risk audit. Power calculations suggest the intervention effect on violence and subjective intoxication would be raised to significance with a study size of 517 premises. Conclusions It is methodologically feasible to conduct randomised controlled trials where licensed premises are the unit of allocation. However, lack of enthusiasm in senior premises staff indicates the need for intervention enforcement, rather than voluntary agreements, and on-going strategies to promote sustainability. Trial registration UKCRN 7090; ISRCTN: 80875696 PMID:22676069

  14. Alcohol and alcohol-related harm in China: policy changes needed

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yi-lang; Xiang, Xiao-jun; Wang, Xu-yi; Cubells, Joseph F; Babor, Thomas F

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In China, alcohol consumption is increasing faster than anywhere else in the world. A steady increase in alcohol production has also been observed in the country, together with a rise in alcohol-related harm. Despite these trends, China’s policies on the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages are weak compared with those of other countries in Asia. Weakest of all are its policies on taxation, drink driving laws, alcohol sale to minors and marketing licenses. The authors of this descriptive paper draw attention to the urgent need for public health professionals and government officials in China to prioritize population surveillance, research and interventions designed to reduce alcohol use disorders. They describe China’s current alcohol policies and recent trends in alcohol-related harm and highlight the need for health officials to conduct a thorough policy review from a public health perspective, using as a model the World Health Organization’s global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol. PMID:23599550

  15. A Duty of Care: Non-Drinkers and Alcohol Related Harm among an Australian University Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhailovich, Katja; George, Amanda; Rickwood, Debra; Parker, Rhian

    2011-01-01

    Studies documenting the harm associated with excessive drinking amongst university students are numerous. Fewer studies have explored the experience of non-drinkers in the university setting. In 2008, 826 students aged 18-29 years responded to an online survey aiming to investigate alcohol use and alcohol related harm at an Australian university.…

  16. Genderedness of Bar Drinking Culture and Alcohol-Related Harms: A Multi-Country Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sarah C. M.; Bond, Jason; Korcha, Rachael; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores whether associations between consuming alcohol in bars and alcohol-related harms are consistent across countries and whether country-level characteristics modify associations. We hypothesized that genderedness of bar drinking modifies associations, such that odds of harms associated with bar drinking increase more rapidly in…

  17. Alcohol industry sponsorship and alcohol-related harms in Australian university sportspeople/athletes.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Lynott, Dermot; Miller, Peter G

    2013-05-01

    Although there is evidence that alcohol sponsorship in sport is related to greater drinking, there is no empirical research on whether alcohol sponsorship is associated with alcohol-related harms. We examined whether there is an association between receipt of alcohol industry sponsorship, and attendance at alcohol sponsor's drinking establishments (e.g. bars), and alcohol-related aggression and antisocial behaviour in university students who play sport. University sportspeople (n = 652) completed surveys (response rate >80%) assessing receipt of alcohol industry sponsorship, attendance at sponsor's establishments and confounders [i.e. age, gender, sport type, location and alcohol consumption measured by Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test--alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C) scores]. Participants also completed measures assessing displays and receipt of aggressive and antisocial behaviours (e.g. assaults, unwanted sexual advance, vandalism). Logistic regression models including confounders and reported attendance at alcohol sponsor's establishments showed that sportspeople receiving alcohol industry sponsorship were more likely to have been the victim of aggression (adjusted odds ratio 2.62, 95% confidence interval 1.22-5.64). Attending an alcohol sponsor's establishment was not associated with higher rates of other aggressive or antisocial behaviour. However, significant associations where found between AUDIT-C scores and having displayed and received aggression, and having damaged or had property damaged. Male sportspeople were more likely to have displayed and received aggressive and antisocial behaviour. Higher AUDIT-C scores, gender and receipt of alcohol industry sponsorship were associated with alcohol-related aggression/antisocial behaviours in university sportspeople. Sport administrators should consider action to reduce the harms associated with excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol industry sponsorship in sport. © 2012 Australasian Professional

  18. The impact of policies regulating alcohol trading hours and days on specific alcohol-related harms: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Ramirez, Diana C; Voaklander, Donald

    2018-02-01

    Evidence supports the expectation that changes in time of alcohol sales associate with changes in alcohol-related harm in both directions. However, to the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive systematic reviews had examined the effect of policies restricting time of alcohol trading on specific alcohol-related harms. To compile existing evidence related to the impact of policies regulating alcohol trading hours/days of on specific harm outcomes such as: assault/violence, motor vehicle crashes/fatalities, injury, visits to the emergency department/hospital, murder/homicides and crime. Systematic review of literature studying the impact of policies regulation alcohol trading times in alcohol-related harm, published between January 2000 and October 2016 in English language. Results support the premise that policies regulating times of alcohol trading and consumption can contribute to reduce injuries, alcohol-related hospitalisations/emergency department visits, homicides and crime. Although the impact of alcohol trading policies in assault/violence and motor vehicle crashes/fatalities is also positive, these associations seem to be more complex and require further study. Evidence suggests a potential direct effect of policies that regulate alcohol trading times in the prevention of injuries, alcohol-related hospitalisations, homicides and crime. The impact of these alcohol trading policies in assault/violence and motor vehicle crashes/fatalities is less compelling. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Genderedness of bar drinking culture and alcohol-related harms: A multi-country study

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Sarah C. M.; Bond, Jason; Korcha, Rachael; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores whether associations between consuming alcohol in bars and alcohol-related harms are consistent across countries and whether country-level characteristics modify associations. We hypothesized that genderedness of bar drinking modifies associations, such that odds of harms associated with bar drinking increase more rapidly in predominantly male bar-drinking countries. Multilevel analysis was used to analyze survey data from 21 countries representing five continents from Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS). Bar frequency was positively associated with harms overall. Relationships between bar frequency and harms varied across country. Genderedness modified associations between bar frequency and odds of fights, marriage/relationship harms, and work harms. Findings were significant only for men. Contrary to our hypothesis, odds of harms associated with bar drinking increased less rapidly in countries where bar drinking is predominantly male. This suggests predominantly male bar drinking cultures may be protective for males who more frequently drink in bars. PMID:23710158

  20. How do public health policies tackle alcohol-related harm: a review of 12 developed countries.

    PubMed

    Crombie, Iain K; Irvine, Linda; Elliott, Lawrence; Wallace, Hilary

    2007-01-01

    To identify how current public health policies of 12 developed countries assess alcohol-related problems, the goals and targets that are set and the strategic directives proposed. Policy documents on alcohol and on general public heath were obtained through repeated searches of government websites. Documents were reviewed by two independent observers. All the countries studied state that alcohol causes substantial harm to individual health and family well-being, increases crime and social disruption, and results in economic loss through lost productivity. All are concerned about consumption of alcohol by young adults and by heavy and problem drinkers. Few aim to reduce total consumption. Only five of the countries set specific targets for changes in drinking behaviour. Countries vary in their commitment to intervene, particularly on taxation, drink-driving, the drinking environment and for high-risk groups. Australia and New Zealand stand out as having coordinated intervention programmes in most areas. Policies differ markedly in their organization, the goals and targets that are set, the strategic approaches proposed and areas identified for intervention. Most countries could improve their policies by following the recommendations in the World Heath Organization's European Alcohol Action Plan.

  1. Alcohol-related crime in city entertainment precincts: Public perception and experience of alcohol-related crime and support for strategies to reduce such crime.

    PubMed

    Tindall, Jenny; Groombridge, Daniel; Wiggers, John; Gillham, Karen; Palmer, Darren; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Miller, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Bars, pubs and taverns in cities are often concentrated in entertainment precincts that are associated with higher rates of alcohol-related crime. This study assessed public perception and experiences of such crime in two city entertainment precincts, and support for alcohol-related crime reduction strategies. A cross-sectional household telephone survey in two Australian regions assessed: perception and experiences of crime; support for crime reduction strategies; and differences in such perceptions and support. Six hundred ninety-four people completed the survey (32%). Most agreed that alcohol was a problem in their entertainment precinct (90%) with violence the most common alcohol-related problem reported (97%). Almost all crime reduction strategies were supported by more than 50% of participants, including visitors to the entertainment precincts, with the latter being slightly less likely to support earlier closing and restrictions on premises density. Participants in one region were more likely to support earlier closing and lock-out times. Those at-risk of acute alcohol harm were less likely to support more restrictive policies. High levels of community concern and support for alcohol harm-reduction strategies, including restrictive strategies, provide policy makers with a basis for implementing evidence-based strategies to reduce such harms in city entertainment precincts. [Tindall J, Groombridge D, Wiggers J, Gillham K, Palmer D, Clinton-McHarg T, Lecathelinais C, Miller P. Alcohol-related crime in city entertainment precincts: Public perception and experience of alcohol-related crime and support for strategies to reduce such crime. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:263-272]. © 2015 The Authors. Drug and Alcohol Review published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  2. Prevalence of responsible hospitality policies in licensed premises that are associated with alcohol-related harm.

    PubMed

    Daly, Justine B; Campbell, Elizabeth M; Wiggers, John H; Considine, Robyn J

    2002-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of responsible hospitality policies in a group of licensed premises associated with alcohol-related harm. During March 1999, 108 licensed premises with one or more police-identified alcohol-related incidents in the previous 3 months received a visit from a police officer. A 30-item audit checklist was used to determine the responsible hospitality policies being undertaken by each premises within eight policy domains: display required signage (three items); responsible host practices to prevent intoxication and under-age drinking (five items); written policies and guidelines for responsible service (three items); discouraging inappropriate promotions (three items); safe transport (two items); responsible management issues (seven items); physical environment (three items) and entry conditions (four items). No premises were undertaking all 30 items. Eighty per cent of the premises were undertaking 20 of the 30 items. All premises were undertaking at least 17 of the items. The proportion of premises undertaking individual items ranged from 16% to 100%. Premises were less likely to report having and providing written responsible hospitality documentation to staff, using door charges and having entry/re-entry rules. Significant differences between rural and urban premises were evident for four policies. Clubs were significantly more likely than hotels to have a written responsible service of alcohol policy and to clearly display codes of dress and conditions of entry. This study provides an indication of the extent and nature of responsible hospitality policies in a sample of licensed premises that are associated with a broad range of alcohol related harms. The finding that a large majority of such premises appear to adopt responsible hospitality policies suggests a need to assess the validity and reliability of tools used in the routine assessment of such policies, and of the potential for harm from licensed premises.

  3. Measuring the effectiveness of in-hospital and on-base Prevent Alcohol and Risk-related Trauma in Youth (P.A.R.T.Y.) programs on reducing alcohol related harms in naval trainees: P.A.R.T.Y. Defence study protocol.

    PubMed

    Watterson, Jason; Gabbe, Belinda; Dietze, Paul; Thompson, Jennifer; Oborn, Michael; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V

    2017-05-02

    Reducing alcohol related harms in Australian Defence Force (ADF) trainees has been identified as a priority, but there are few evidence-based prevention programs available for the military setting. The study aims to test whether the P.A.R.T.Y. program delivered in-hospital or on-base, can reduce harmful alcohol consumption among ADF trainees. The study is a 3-arm randomized controlled trial, involving 953 Royal Australian Navy trainees from a single base. Trainees, aged 18 to 30 years, will be randomly assigned to the study arms: i. in-hospital P.A.R.T.Y.; ii. On-base P.A.R.T.Y.; and iii. All groups will receive the routine ADF annual alcohol awareness training. The primary outcome is the proportion of participants reporting an Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score of 8 or above at 12 months' post-intervention. The secondary outcome is the number of alcohol related incidents reported to the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) in the 12 months' post-intervention. This is the first trial of the use of the P.A.R.T.Y. program in the military. If the proposed intervention proves efficacious, it may be a useful program in the early education of RAN trainees. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): ACTRN12614001332617 , date of registration: 18/12/2014 'retrospectively registered'.

  4. The Socioeconomic Differences in Alcohol-Related Harm and the Effects of Alcohol Prices on Them: A Summary of Evidence from Finland.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Pia; Herttua, Kimmo; Martikainen, Pekka

    2015-11-01

    We make a case study of Finland to study the connections between socioeconomic status, alcohol use, related harm and possibilities for intervention by means of alcohol pricing. A review of Finnish studies on the topic. The socioeconomic differences in severe alcohol-related harm were great, and in the past two decades, these differences have widened. Alcohol-related mortality has also strongly contributed to both the level and widening of socioeconomic differences in life expectancy. Both in 2004, when alcohol prices were abruptly cut, and in the longer term with more gradual changes in lowest prices of alcohol, the lowest socioeconomic groups were most affected in absolute-but not so clearly in relative-terms, particularly among men. However, these effects are sometimes weak, not fully consistent by gender and across different measures of harm. The large and increasing socioeconomic differences in alcohol-related harm in Finland underline the importance of reducing these differences. The finding that particularly among men the impact of reduced alcohol prices on health has often in absolute terms been the greatest in the lower socioeconomic groups suggests that policies aimed at keeping the price of alcoholic beverages high may help to both minimize the overall level of alcohol-related health problems and to reduce absolute inequalities. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  5. Can screening and brief intervention lead to population-level reductions in alcohol-related harm?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A distinction is made between the clinical and public health justifications for screening and brief intervention (SBI) against hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. Early claims for a public health benefit of SBI derived from research on general medical practitioners’ (GPs’) advice on smoking cessation, but these claims have not been realized, mainly because GPs have not incorporated SBI into their routine practice. A recent modeling exercise estimated that, if all GPs in England screened every patient at their next consultation, 96% of the general population would be screened over 10 years, with 70-79% of excessive drinkers receiving brief interventions (BI); assuming a 10% success rate, this would probably amount to a population-level effect of SBI. Thus, a public health benefit for SBI presupposes widespread screening; but recent government policy in England favors targeted versus universal screening, and in Scotland screening is based on new registrations and clinical presentation. A recent proposal for a national screening program was rejected by the UK National Health Service’s National Screening Committee because 1) there was no good evidence that SBI led to reductions in mortality or morbidity, and 2) a safe, simple, precise, and validated screening test was not available. Even in countries like Sweden and Finland, where expensive national programs to disseminate SBI have been implemented, only a minority of the population has been asked about drinking during health-care visits, and a minority of excessive drinkers has been advised to cut down. Although there has been research on the relationship between treatment for alcohol problems and population-level effects, there has been no such research for SBI, nor have there been experimental investigations of its relationship with population-level measures of alcohol-related harm. These are strongly recommended. In this article, conditions that would allow a population-level effect of SBI to occur are

  6. Drinking and alcohol-related harm among New Zealand university students: findings from a national Web-based survey.

    PubMed

    Kypri, Kypros; Paschall, Mallie J; Langley, John; Baxter, Joanne; Cashell-Smith, Martine; Bourdeau, Beth

    2009-02-01

    Alcohol-related harm is pervasive among college students in the United States of America and Canada, where a third to half of undergraduates binge drink at least fortnightly. There have been no national studies outside North America. We estimated the prevalence of binge drinking, related harms, and individual risk factors among undergraduates in New Zealand. A web survey was completed by 2,548 undergraduates (63% response) at 5 of New Zealand's 8 universities. Drinking patterns and alcohol-related problems in the preceding 4 weeks were measured. Drinking diaries for the preceding 7 days were completed. Multivariate analyses were used to identify individual risk factors. A total of 81% of both women and men drank in the previous 4 weeks, 37% reported 1 or more binge episodes in the last week, 14% of women and 15% of men reported 2+ binge episodes in the last week, and 68% scored in the hazardous range (4+) on the AUDIT consumption subscale. A mean of 1.8 (95% confidence interval 1.4, 2.3) distinct alcohol-related risk behaviors or harmful consequences were reported, e.g., 33% had a blackout, 6% had unprotected sex, and 5% said they were physically aggressive toward someone, in the preceding 4 weeks. Drink-driving or being the passenger of a drink-driver in the last 4 weeks was reported by 9% of women and 11% of men. Risk factors for frequent binge drinking included: lower age, earlier age of drinking onset, monthly or more frequent binge drinking in high school, and living in a residential hall or a shared house (relative to living with parents). These correlates were similar to those identified in U.S. and Canadian studies. Strategies are needed to reduce the availability and promotion of alcohol on and around university campuses in New Zealand. Given the high prevalence of binge drinking in high school and its strong association with later binge drinking, strategies aimed at youth drinking are also a priority. In universities, high-risk drinkers should be

  7. Impacts of changes to trading hours of liquor licences on alcohol-related harm: a systematic review 2005-2015.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Claire; Livingston, Michael; Room, Robin

    2016-09-30

    Legislative limits on trading hours for licensed premises have a long history in Australia as a key policy approach to managing alcohol-related problems. In recent years, following substantial extensions to permitted hours of sale, there has been renewed attention to policies aimed at reducing late-night trading hours. Restrictions on on-premise alcohol sales have been implemented in Australia after 3.30 am in Newcastle, and after 3 am in Kings Cross and the Sydney central business district in New South Wales. In July 2016, similar restrictions were introduced state-wide after 2 am, or 3 am in 'safe night precincts', in Queensland. Similar policy changes have occurred internationally (e.g. in the UK and the Nordic countries) and there is a growing body of research examining the impacts of trading hour policies on alcohol-related harm. Although there has been a series of reviews of the research in this area, the most recent is now 5 years old and limited to studies published before March 2008. Objective and importance of study: To examine recent (2005-2015) research about the impact of changing the hours of sale of alcohol on alcohol-related harms. The ongoing public discussion about trading hours policy in Australia can benefit from an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the research. Systematic review of the literature that considered the impact of policies that extended or restricted trading hours. MEDLINE, Core Collection, PsychINFO and EMBASE databases were searched from January 2005 to December 2015. Articles were summarised descriptively, focusing on studies conducted in Australia and published since the previous reviews. The search identified 21 studies, including seven from Australia. There were 14 studies published since previous reviews. A series of robust, well-designed Australian studies demonstrate that reducing the hours during which on-premise alcohol outlets can sell alcohol late at night can substantially reduce rates of violence. The Australian

  8. A randomised controlled pilot trial evaluating feasibility and acceptability of a computer-based tool to identify and reduce harmful and hazardous drinking among adolescents with alcohol-related presentations in Canadian pediatric emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Newton, Amanda S; Dow, Nadia; Dong, Kathryn; Fitzpatrick, Eleanor; Cameron Wild, T; Johnson, David W; Ali, Samina; Colman, Ian; Rosychuk, Rhonda J

    2017-08-11

    This study piloted procedures and obtained data on intervention acceptability to determine the feasibility of a definitive randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the effectiveness of a computer-based brief intervention in the emergency department (ED). Two-arm, multi-site, pilot RCT. Adolescents aged 12-17 years presenting to three Canadian pediatric EDs from July 2010 to January 2013 for an alcohol-related complaint. Standard medical care plus computer-based screening and personalised assessment feedback (experimental group) or standard care plus computer-based sham (control group). ED and research staff, and adolescents were blinded to allocation. Main: change in alcohol consumption from baseline to 1- and 3 months post-intervention. Secondary: recruitment and retention rates, intervention acceptability and feasibility, perception of group allocation among ED and research staff, and change in health and social services utilisation. Of the 340 adolescents screened, 117 adolescents were eligible and 44 participated in the study (37.6% recruitment rate). Adolescents allocated to the intervention found it easy, quick and informative, but were divided on the credibility of the feedback provided (agreed it was credible: 44.4%, disagreed: 16.7%, unsure: 16.7%, no response: 22.2%). We found no evidence of a statistically significant relationship between which interventions adolescents were allocated to and which interventions staff thought they received. Alcohol consumption, and health and social services data were largely incomplete due to modest study retention rates of 47.7% and 40.9% at 1- and 3 months post-intervention, respectively. A computer-based intervention was acceptable to adolescents and delivery was feasible in the ED in terms of time to use and ease of use. However, adjustments are needed to the intervention to improve its credibility. A definitive RCT will be feasible if protocol adjustments are made to improve recruitment and retention rates; and

  9. Assessing university students' self-efficacy to employ alcohol-related harm reduction strategies.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Harold; Bonar, Erin E; Hoffmann, Erica; Kryszak, Elizabeth; Young, Kathleen M; Kraus, Shane W; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Bannon, Erin E; Pavlick, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Develop and evaluate key psychometric properties of a self-report questionnaire specifically designed to assess student drinkers' self-confidence to employ a variety of strategies intended to reduce unhealthy consequences of high-risk drinking. Four hundred ninety-eight participants rated their confidence (from "not at all confident" to "completely confident") to employ 17 harm reduction strategies when drinking. Factor analysis and internal consistency reliability analyses indicated that the 17 items constitute a single scale with good test-retest reliability. Consistent with other research examining previous use of such strategies, women in our sample reported significantly higher harm reduction self-efficacy than did men. Harm reduction self-efficacy was also associated with reported number of high-risk drinking episodes in the previous 2 weeks. This brief and easily administered questionnaire holds promise as a clinical tool to identify individuals with low harm reduction self-efficacy and as an outcome measure for health promotion and educational interventions.

  10. Responsibility without legal authority? Tackling alcohol-related health harms through licensing and planning policy in local government.

    PubMed

    Martineau, F P; Graff, H; Mitchell, C; Lock, K

    2014-09-01

    The power to influence many social determinants of health lies within local government sectors that are outside public health's traditional remit. We analyse the challenges of achieving health gains through local government alcohol control policies, where legal and professional practice frameworks appear to conflict with public health action. Current legislation governing local alcohol control in England and Wales is reviewed and analysed for barriers and opportunities to implement effective population-level health interventions. Case studies of local government alcohol control practices are described. Addressing alcohol-related health harms is constrained by the absence of a specific legal health licensing objective and differences between public health and legal assessments of the relevance of health evidence to a specific place. Local governments can, however, implement health-relevant policies by developing local evidence for alcohol-related health harms; addressing cumulative impact in licensing policy statements and through other non-legislative approaches such as health and non-health sector partnerships. Innovative local initiatives-for example, minimum unit pricing licensing conditions-can serve as test cases for wider national implementation. By combining the powers available to the many local government sectors involved in alcohol control, alcohol-related health and social harms can be tackled through existing local mechanisms. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  11. Does Increasing Community and Liquor Licensees’ Awareness, Police Activity, and Feedback Reduce Alcohol-Related Violent Crime? A Benefit-Cost Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Héctor José; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher M.; Petrie, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees’ awareness, police activity, and feedback) on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions. PMID:24169411

  12. Does increasing community and liquor licensees' awareness, police activity, and feedback reduce alcohol-related violent crime? A benefit-cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Héctor José; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher M; Petrie, Dennis J

    2013-10-28

    Approximately half of all alcohol-related crime is violent crime associated with heavy episodic drinking. Multi-component interventions are highly acceptable to communities and may be effective in reducing alcohol-related crime generally, but their impact on alcohol-related violent crime has not been examined. This study evaluated the impact and benefit-cost of a multi-component intervention (increasing community and liquor licensees' awareness, police activity, and feedback) on crimes typically associated with alcohol-related violence. The intervention was tailored to weekends identified as historically problematic in 10 experimental communities in NSW, Australia, relative to 10 control ones. There was no effect on alcohol-related assaults and a small, but statistically significant and cost-beneficial, effect on alcohol-related sexual assaults: a 64% reduction in in the experimental relative to control communities, equivalent to five fewer alcohol-related sexual assaults, with a net social benefit estimated as AUD$3,938,218. The positive benefit-cost ratio was primarily a function of the value that communities placed on reducing alcohol-related harm: the intervention would need to be more than twice as effective for its economic benefits to be comparable to its costs. It is most likely that greater reductions in crimes associated with alcohol-related violence would be achieved by a combination of complementary legislative and community-based interventions.

  13. Alcohol prices, taxes, and alcohol-related harms: A critical review of natural experiments in alcohol policy for nine countries.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jon P; McNall, Amy D

    2016-03-01

    Evidence for alcohol-price policy relies heavily on aggregate econometric studies for the United States. Prior reviews of prices and alcohol-related harms include only a few studies based on natural experiments. This study provides a comprehensive review of natural experiments for a wide variety of harms from studies published during 2003 to 2015. We examine policy changes that importantly affected alcohol taxes and prices, and related changes in availability. Forty-five studies met inclusion criteria, covering nine countries: Australia, Denmark, Finland, Hong Kong, Iceland, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, and United States. Some studies cover more than one harm or country, and there are 69 outcomes for review. Summaries are provided for five outcome groups: alcohol-related mortality and hospitalizations; assaults and other crime; drink-driving; intoxication; and survey-indexes for dependency. The review notes both positive/mixed results and negative/null results. Findings indicate that changes in taxes and prices have selective effects on harms. Mortality outcomes are positive for liver disease and older persons, especially in Finland and Russia. Mostly null results for assaults and drink-driving are found for five countries. Intoxication results for Nordic countries are mixed for selective subpopulations. Results for survey indexes are mixed, with no strong pattern of outcomes within or across countries. Prior reviews stress taxes as a comprehensive and cost-effective intervention for addressing alcohol-related harms. A review of natural experiments indicates the confidence placed on this measure is too high, and natural experiments in alcohol policy had selective effects on various subpopulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Unrecorded Alcohol and Alcohol-Related Harm in Rural Sabah, Malaysia: A Socio-economically Deprived Region with Expensive Beer and Cheap Local Spirits.

    PubMed

    Shoesmith, Wendy Diana; Oo Tha, Naing; Naing, Khin Saw; Abbas, Roslee Bin Haji; Abdullah, Ahmad Faris

    2016-11-01

    To investigate recorded and unrecorded alcohol and the relation to alcohol-related harm in a region with high taxation, economic deprivation and cultural use of alcohol. Two participants per household were systematically sampled from 12 different villages chosen using stratified random sampling in the North of Sabah, Malaysia. Participants were asked about each type and amount of drink consumed; price paid, whether tax was paid, number of days sick in the last year and whether they had experienced various health problems. A brief screen for mental disorders (PHQ) and an alcohol disorder screening test (AUDIT) were completed. Village heads were also interviewed about alcohol-related problems at village level. 470 people were interviewed. The most commonly drunk beverages were beer and Montoku (a local distilled beverage), which had average prices of RM3.85 and RM0.48 per standard drink respectively. Montoku was more likely to be drunk by problem drinkers. Only 3.1% of alcohol drunk was believed by respondents to be taxed. Men with an AUDIT score of more than 15 were more likely to have had a sick day in the last year and have a female household member with symptoms of mental disorder on PHQ. Change in the taxation structure needs to be considered to reduce alcohol-related harm. Most alcohol consumed in rural Sabah is smuggled or informal. The low price of local spirits is likely to be contributing to alcohol-related harm. Differential effects on minority populations need to be considered when designing alcohol policy. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  15. How can we reduce alcohol-related road crash deaths among young Australians?

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne D; Wallace, Angela L; Cobiac, Linda J; Doran, Christopher M; Vos, Theo

    2010-04-19

    In the United States, policy experiments over a 20-year period have demonstrated that road crash deaths among young adults can be substantially reduced by raising the minimum legal drinking age to 21 years. A recent evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of policies for reducing alcohol-related harm in Australia found that, if the US experience were to be replicated in Australia, raising the minimum legal drinking age would be more cost-effective than random breath testing and drink-driving campaigns. Given the major political obstacles to increasing the minimum legal drinking age, we propose another policy that could achieve a similar reduction in road crash deaths - requiring licensed drivers to maintain a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of zero until at least the age of 21 years (close to the current policy of zero BAC until age 22 years in Victoria), and preferably until 25 years. This would allow young Australians to drink or drive but not to combine these activities for at least the first several years of driving. If all Australian jurisdictions had adopted this policy in 2003, 17 deaths could have been be averted among young Australians as they aged from 18 to 21 years and many more serious injuries could have been prevented each year. If we had enforced a zero BAC until age 25, the number of deaths averted until age 25 years could have been as high as 50.

  16. University Students' Knowledge of Alcoholic Drinks and Their Perception of Alcohol-Related Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasking, Penelope; Shortell, Carly; Machalek, Mireille

    2005-01-01

    A total of 371 university students were asked to estimate the amount of alcohol contained in a standard drink and to estimate the number of standard drinks contained in popular alcoholic beverages. In addition, students completed questionnaires assessing their perception of short and long term harm related to the consumption of beer, wine, spirits…

  17. Explaining trends in alcohol-related harms in Scotland 1991-2011 (II): policy, social norms, the alcohol market, clinical changes and a synthesis.

    PubMed

    McCartney, G; Bouttell, J; Craig, N; Craig, P; Graham, L; Lakha, F; Lewsey, J; McAdams, R; MacPherson, M; Minton, J; Parkinson, J; Robinson, M; Shipton, D; Taulbut, M; Walsh, D; Beeston, C

    2016-03-01

    To provide a basis for evaluating post-2007 alcohol policy in Scotland, this paper tests the extent to which pre-2007 policy, the alcohol market, culture or clinical changes might explain differences in the magnitude and trends in alcohol-related mortality outcomes in Scotland compared to England & Wales (E&W). Rapid literature reviews, descriptive analysis of routine data and narrative synthesis. We assessed the impact of pre-2007 Scottish policy and policy in the comparison areas in relation to the literature on effective alcohol policy. Rapid literature reviews were conducted to assess cultural changes and the potential role of substitution effects between alcohol and illicit drugs. The availability of alcohol was assessed by examining the trends in the number of alcohol outlets over time. The impact of clinical changes was assessed in consultation with key informants. The impact of all the identified factors were then summarised and synthesised narratively. The companion paper showed that part of the rise and fall in alcohol-related mortality in Scotland, and part of the differing trend to E&W, were predicted by a model linking income trends and alcohol-related mortality. Lagged effects from historical deindustrialisation and socio-economic changes exposures also remain plausible from the available data. This paper shows that policy differences or changes prior to 2007 are unlikely to have been important in explaining the trends. There is some evidence that aspects of alcohol culture in Scotland may be different (more concentrated and home drinking) but it seems unlikely that this has been an important driver of the trends or the differences with E&W other than through interaction with changing incomes and lagged socio-economic effects. Substitution effects with illicit drugs and clinical changes are unlikely to have substantially changed alcohol-related harms: however, the increase in alcohol availability across the UK is likely to partly explain the rise in

  18. Alcohol and public health in Africa: can we prevent alcohol-related harm from increasing?

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Borges, Carina; Dias, Sonia; Babor, Thomas; Esser, Marissa B; Parry, Charles D H

    2015-09-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the total amount of alcohol consumed in the African region is expected to increase due to the growth of new alcohol consumers, especially young people and women. With the changing alcohol environment, increases in the alcohol-attributable burden of disease are inevitable. To our knowledge, there has not been a comprehensive analysis of the factors that could be driving those increases. The objective of this study was to examine the evidence from peer reviewed literature regarding the factors that could be instrumental in this process, in order to inform strategic policy-related decisions. A narrative review was conducted using a thematic analysis approach. We searched papers published between January 2000 and July 2014 in PubMed, the WHO's Global Health Library and African Journals Online. Our analysis identified seven factors (demographics, rapid urbanization, economic development, increased availability, corporate targeting, weak policy infrastructure and trade agreements) which are potentially tied to changes in alcohol consumption in Africa. Driven largely by globalization, a potential convergence of these various factors is likely to be associated with continued growth in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. To address the emerging risk factors associated with increased alcohol consumption, African governments need to take a more active role in protecting the public's health. In particular, important strategic shifts are needed to increase implementation of intersectoral strategies, community involvement in the policy dialogue, health services re-orientation and better regulation of the alcohol beverage industry. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Pills and pints: risky drinking and alcohol-related harms among regular ecstasy users in Australia.

    PubMed

    Kinner, Stuart A; George, Jessica; Johnston, Jennifer; Dunn, Matthew; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2012-05-01

    A significant proportion of young Australians engage in risky alcohol consumption, and an increasing minority are regular ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) users. Risky alcohol use, alone or in combination with ecstasy, is associated with a range of acute and chronic health risks. The aim of this study was to document the incidence and some health-related correlates of alcohol use, and concurrent alcohol and ecstasy use, among a large, national sample of regular ecstasy users (REU) in Australia. National, cross-sectional surveys of REU in Australia 2003-2008. Among REU in 2008 (n=678) usual alcohol use, psychological distress and health-related quality of life were measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and Short Form-8 Survey respectively. Among REU in 2008, 36% reported high-risk patterns of usual alcohol consumption, 62% reported usually consuming more than five standard drinks with ecstasy, and 24% reported currently experiencing high or very high levels of psychological distress. Controlling for age and education, high-risk drinking among REU was associated with higher levels of psychological distress and poorer health-related functioning; however, the associations between concurrent alcohol and ecstasy use, and health outcomes, were not significant (P>0.05). A large and increasing proportion of REU in Australia engage in high-risk patterns of alcohol consumption, including in combination with ecstasy. High-risk alcohol consumption among this group is associated with adverse health-related outcomes. Prevention and harm reduction interventions for REU should incorporate messages about the risks associated with alcohol use. There is an ongoing need for youth-specific, coordinated alcohol and other drug and mental health services. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  20. All-Wales licensed premises intervention (AWLPI): a randomised controlled trial to reduce alcohol-related violence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol-related violence in and in the vicinity of licensed premises continues to place a considerable burden on the United Kingdom’s (UK) health services. Robust interventions targeted at licensed premises are therefore required to reduce the costs of alcohol-related harm. Previous evaluations of interventions in licensed premises have a number of methodological limitations and none have been conducted in the UK. The aim of the trial was to determine the effectiveness of the Safety Management in Licensed Environments intervention designed to reduce alcohol-related violence in licensed premises, delivered by Environmental Health Officers, under their statutory authority to intervene in cases of violence in the workplace. Methods/Design A national randomised controlled trial, with licensed premises as the unit of allocation. Premises were identified from all 22 Local Authorities in Wales. Eligible premises were those with identifiable violent incidents on premises, using police recorded violence data. Premises were allocated to intervention or control by optimally balancing by Environmental Health Officer capacity in each Local Authority, number of violent incidents in the 12 months leading up to the start of the project and opening hours. The primary outcome measure is the difference in frequency of violence between intervention and control premises over a 12 month follow-up period, based on a recurrent event model. The trial incorporates an embedded process evaluation to assess intervention implementation, fidelity, reach and reception, and to interpret outcome effects, as well as investigate its economic impact. Discussion The results of the trial will be applicable to all statutory authorities directly involved with managing violence in the night time economy and will provide the first formal test of Health and Safety policy in this environment. If successful, opportunities for replication and generalisation will be considered. Trial registration

  1. Mortality for alcohol-related harm by country of birth in Scotland, 2000-2004: potential lessons for prevention.

    PubMed

    Bhala, Neeraj; Fischbacher, Colin; Bhopal, Raj

    2010-01-01

    Deaths caused by alcohol have increased in the UK, and Scotland in particular, but the change in the rates of alcohol-related deaths for migrants are uncertain, and could yield insights for the general population. Alcohol-related mortality in immigrants among Scotland's residents was assessed using 2001 census data and mortality data from 2000 to 2004. Mortality from direct alcohol-related causes accounted for nearly 1500 deaths per year in Scotland. Age-standardized mortality ratios were comparatively low for people born in Pakistan, other parts of the UK (largely England and Wales) and those from elsewhere in the world. Scotland's propensity to alcohol-related deaths is not shared by all its residents. Studying such variations in more depth could yield lessons for prevention.

  2. Do community characteristics predict alcohol-related crime?

    PubMed

    Breen, Courtney; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Slade, Tim; Love, Stephanie; D'Este, Catherine; Mattick, Richard P

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol-related crime is a substantial community problem. There is evidence to suggest that certain geographic areas experience higher rates of alcohol-related crime and that both individual and community factors are associated with alcohol-related crime. There is limited research at the community level despite communities being the target of interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related harm. This study aims to determine whether there are differences in alcohol-related crime at the community level and examines whether certain community characteristics are associated with increased alcohol-related crime. Routinely collected police data from 20 rural communities in New South Wales, Australia were analysed. The ratio of alcohol to non-alcohol-related criminal incidents was used as a proxy for alcohol-related crime. Predictor variables were population-adjusted community characteristics, including demographic and resource variables. Regression analyses suggest that there are differences between communities in alcohol-related crime. Less socioeconomic disadvantage and more GPs and licensed premises (pubs and clubs) are associated with greater alcohol-related crime at the community level. Decreasing the socioeconomic well-being of a community is not appropriate; however, introducing additional taxes to increase the cost of alcohol may decrease consumption and therefore alcohol-related crime. Reducing or capping the number of licensed premises, specifically the number of pubs and clubs, may be an appropriate strategy to reduce alcohol-related crime in rural communities.

  3. Randomized Controlled Trial of a Web-Delivered Personalized Normative Feedback Intervention to Reduce Alcohol-Related Risky Sexual Behavior among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Melissa A.; Patrick, Megan E.; Litt, Dana. M.; Atkins, David C.; Kim, Theresa; Blayney, Jessica A.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of personalized normative feedback (PNF) on college student alcohol-related risky sexual behavior (RSB). Method In a randomized controlled trial, 480 (57.6% female) sexually-active college students were stratified by gender and level of drinking and randomly assigned to an alcohol only intervention, an alcohol-related RSB only intervention, a combined alcohol and alcohol-related RSB intervention, or control. All assessment and intervention procedures were web-based. Results Results indicated a significant reduction in drinking outcomes for the alcohol only and the combined alcohol and alcohol-related RSB interventions relative to control. Findings further demonstrated a significant reduction in alcohol-related RSB outcomes for the alcohol-related RSB only and the combined alcohol and alcohol-related RSB interventions relative to control. There were no significant intervention effects on alcohol-related negative consequences. These findings demonstrate that the combined alcohol and alcohol-related RSB intervention was the only intervention successful at reducing both drinking and alcohol-related RSB outcomes relative to control. There were no significant differences when comparing the combined alcohol and alcohol-related RSB intervention to the alcohol only intervention or the alcohol-related RSB only intervention. Finally, results suggested that the intervention effects on high-risk behaviors were mediated by reductions in descriptive normative perceptions. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that PNF specific to drinking in sexual situations was needed to reduce alcohol-related RSB. Furthermore, this study highlights the potential utility of a brief intervention that can be delivered via the Internet to reduce high-risk drinking and alcohol-related RSB among college students. PMID:24491076

  4. Reducing Alcohol Harm. International Benchmark

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    consume alcohol.30 Binge drinking among young people is reported in Table 4. Similar to the data for adults in previous tables, the data should be...more-targeted awareness raising and education.145 In addition, the campaigns seem mostly beneficial in increasing knowledge among adults and young ...effective in reducing consumption amongst teenagers and young adults .204 The policy implications of this have been succinctly stated by one researcher

  5. Does Drinking Location Matter? Profiles of Risky Single-Occasion Drinking by Location and Alcohol-Related Harm among Young Men.

    PubMed

    Bähler, Caroline; Dey, Michelle; Dermota, Petra; Foster, Simon; Gmel, Gerhard; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun

    2014-01-01

    In adolescents and young adults, acute consequences like injuries account for a substantial proportion of alcohol-related harm, especially in risky single-occasion (RSO) drinkers. The primary aim of the study was to characterize different drinking profiles in RSO drinkers according to drinking locations and their relationship to negative, alcohol-related consequences. The sample consisted of 2746 young men from the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors who had reported drinking six or more drinks on a single-occasion at least monthly over the preceding 12 months. Principal component analysis on the frequency and amount of drinking at 11 different locations was conducted, and 2 distinguishable components emerged: a non-party-dimension (loading high on theater/cinema, sport clubs, other clubs/societies, restaurants, and sport events) and a party-dimension (loading high on someone else's home, pubs/bars, discos/nightclubs, outdoor public places, special events, and home). Differential impacts of drinking location profiles were observed on severe negative alcohol-related consequences (SAC). Relative to those classified as low or intermediate in both dimensions, no significant difference experiencing SAC was found among those who were classified as high in the non-party-dimension only. However, those who were classified as high in the party-dimension alone or in both dimensions were more likely to experience SAC. These differential effects remained after adjusting for alcohol consumption (volume and risky single-occasion drinking), personality traits, and peer-influence [adjusted OR = 0.83 (0.68-1.02), 1.57 (1.27-1.96), and 1.72 (1.23-2.41), respectively], indicating independent effects of drinking location on SAC. The inclusion of sociodemographic factors did not alter this association. The fact that this cluster of party-dimension locations seems to predispose young men to experiencing SAC has important implications for alcohol control policies.

  6. A systematic review: effectiveness of mass media campaigns for reducing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad; Kobayashi, Miwako

    2015-09-04

    Mass media campaigns have long been used as a tool for promoting public health. In the past decade, the growth of social media has allowed more diverse options for mass media campaigns. This systematic review was conducted to assess newer evidence from quantitative studies on the effectiveness of mass media campaigns for reducing alcohol-impaired driving (AID) and alcohol-related crashes, particularly after the paper that Elder et al. published in 2004. This review focused on English language studies that evaluated the effect of mass media campaigns for reducing AID and alcohol-related crashes, with or without enforcement efforts. A systematic search was conducted for studies published between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2013. Studies from the review by Elder et al. were added as well. A total of 19 studies met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review, including three studies from the review by Elder et al. Nine of them had concomitant enforcement measures and did not evaluate the impact of media campaigns independently. Studies that evaluated the impact of mass media independently showed reduction more consistently (median -15.1%, range -28.8 to 0%), whereas results of studies that had concomitant enforcement activities were more variable (median -8.6%, range -36.4 to +14.6%). Summary effects calculated from seven studies showed no evidence of media campaigns reducing the risk of alcohol-related injuries or fatalities (RR 1.00, 95% CI = 0.94 to 1.06). Despite additional decade of evidence, reviewed studies were heterogeneous in their approaches; therefore, we could not conclude that media campaigns reduced the risk of alcohol-related injuries or crashes. More studies are needed, including studies evaluating newly emerging media and cost-effectiveness of media campaigns.

  7. A comprehensive examination of U.S. laws enacted to reduce alcohol-related crashes among underage drivers.

    PubMed

    Romano, Eduardo; Scherer, Michael; Fell, James; Taylor, Eileen

    2015-12-01

    To effectively address concerns associated with alcohol-related traffic laws, communities must apply comprehensive and well-coordinated interventions that account for as many factors as possible. The goal of the current research article is to examine and evaluate the simultaneous contribution of 20 underage drinking laws and 3 general driving safety laws, while accounting for demographic, economic, and environmental variables. Annual fatal crash data (1982 to 2010), policies, and demographic, economic, and environmental information were collected and applied to each of the 51 jurisdictions (50 states and the District of Columbia). A structural equation model was fit to estimate the relative contribution of the variables of interest to alcohol-related crashes. As expected, economic factors (e.g., unemployment rate, cost of alcohol) and alcohol outlet density were found highly relevant to the amount of alcohol teens consume and therefore to teens' impaired driving. Policies such as those regulating the age of bartenders, sellers, or servers; social host civil liability laws; dram shop laws; internal possession of alcohol laws; and fake identification laws do not appear to have the same impact on teens' alcohol-related crash ratios as other types of policies such as those regulating alcohol consumption or alcohol outlet density. This effort illustrates the need for comprehensive models of teens' impaired driving. After simultaneously accounting for as many factors as possible, we found that in general (for most communities) further reductions in alcohol-related crashes among teens might be more rapidly achieved from efforts focused on reducing teens' drinking rather than on reducing teens' driving. Future efforts should be made to develop models that represent specific communities. Based on this and community-specific models, simulation programs can be developed to help communities understand and visualize the impact of various policy alternatives. Copyright © 2015

  8. An application of deviance regulation theory to reduce alcohol-related problems among college women during spring break.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, Robert D; Kramer, Matthew P; Stevenson, Brittany L; Sargent, Emily M; Kilwein, Tess M

    2017-05-01

    Spring break (SB) can lead to heavy episodic drinking and increased alcohol-related risks. This may be especially relevant for women. The current study utilized deviance regulation theory to increase the use of protective behavioral strategies (PBSs) among female college students on SB. Female college students going on SB (n = 62) completed a screening, a pre-SB intervention (where they were randomly assigned to receive either a positively or negatively framed message about individuals who do or do not use PBS), and a post-SB assessment that provided alcohol and PBS use data for each day of SB (n = 620 person-days). Data were analyzed using a multilevel structural equation model. In the negative frame, SB PBS use was higher among those who perceived SB PBS norms to be more common on SB relative to non-SB. In the positive frame, SB PBS use was higher among those who perceived SB PBS norms to be less common on SB relative to non-SB. These associations did not result in lower alcohol consumption, but did result in a lower likelihood of experiencing alcohol-related problems during SB. These results suggest that a brief online intervention, that utilizes targeted messages based on normative perceptions of SB PBS use, could be an effective strategy for reducing alcohol-related consequences among college student women during SB. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter; Chisholm, Dan; Fuhr, Daniela C

    2009-06-27

    This paper reviews the evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol, in the areas of education and information, the health sector, community action, driving while under the influence of alcohol (drink-driving), availability, marketing, pricing, harm reduction, and illegally and informally produced alcohol. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses show that policies regulating the environment in which alcohol is marketed (particularly its price and availability) are effective in reducing alcohol-related harm. Enforced legislative measures to reduce drink-driving and individually directed interventions to already at-risk drinkers are also effective. However, school-based education does not reduce alcohol-related harm, although public information and education-type programmes have a role in providing information and in increasing attention and acceptance of alcohol on political and public agendas. Making alcohol more expensive and less available, and banning alcohol advertising, are highly cost-effective strategies to reduce harm. In settings with high amounts of unrecorded production and consumption, increasing the proportion of alcohol that is taxed could be a more effective pricing policy than a simple increase in tax.

  10. Low alcohol alternatives: a promising strategy for reducing alcohol related harm.

    PubMed

    Segal, David S; Stockwell, Tim

    2009-03-01

    Less than 1% of the beer market in British Columbia comprises beers with an alcohol content below 4%, despite the success of low alcohol beers in other countries, e.g. Australia. A small experimental study is described in which male students were given either unmarked low alcohol beer (3.8%) or regular strength beer (5.3%) to investigate their enjoyment and subjective intoxication. Thirty-four male students who reported drinking 5 or more beers in 1 day at least once in the last month volunteered for the study. In each drinking session, small groups of between 6 and 10 students consumed two servings of beer while playing dominoes. Each subject was his own control in the experiment by attending two group-drinking sessions, drinking a different beverage each time. The different beers were given in balanced order with half the subjects in each group drinking each type of beer. Standard measures of subjective intoxication and enjoyment were used. Blood alcohol levels were tested before, during and after drinking. Although significantly higher blood alcohol levels were obtained with the higher strength beer (means of 0.026 versus 0.033 mg/100 ml at the end of the study, p < 0.001), (i) most participants reported enjoying the two sessions equally or preferred the low alcohol beer session, (ii) most did not report feeling different between the two sessions and (iii) only about half correctly guessed which was the higher alcohol content beer. There was a preference, however, for the taste of the stronger beer. We conclude beer drinkers cannot readily distinguish low and regular strength beers and can enjoy socializing equally with either. We recommend taxation strategies to create incentives for the manufacture, marketing and consumption of low alcohol alternatives.

  11. The effectiveness of tax policy interventions for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

    PubMed

    Elder, Randy W; Lawrence, Briana; Ferguson, Aneeqah; Naimi, Timothy S; Brewer, Robert D; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Toomey, Traci L; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2010-02-01

    A systematic review of the literature to assess the effectiveness of alcohol tax policy interventions for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). Seventy-two papers or technical reports, which were published prior to July 2005, met specified quality criteria, and included evaluation outcomes relevant to public health (e.g., binge drinking, alcohol-related crash fatalities), were included in the final review. Nearly all studies, including those with different study designs, found that there was an inverse relationship between the tax or price of alcohol and indices of excessive drinking or alcohol-related health outcomes. Among studies restricted to underage populations, most found that increased taxes were also significantly associated with reduced consumption and alcohol-related harms. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, these results constitute strong evidence that raising alcohol excise taxes is an effective strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The impact of a potential tax increase is expected to be proportional to its magnitude and to be modified by such factors as disposable income and the demand elasticity for alcohol among various population groups. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. The Effectiveness of Tax Policy Interventions for Reducing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Randy W.; Lawrence, Briana; Ferguson, Aneeqah; Naimi, Timothy S.; Brewer, Robert D.; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K.; Toomey, Traci L.; Fielding, Jonathan E.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature to assess the effectiveness of alcohol tax policy interventions for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). Seventy-two papers or technical reports, which were published prior to July 2005, met specifıed quality criteria, and included evaluation outcomes relevant to public health (e.g., binge drinking, alcohol-related crash fatalities), were included in the fınal review. Nearly all studies, including those with different study designs, found that there was an inverse relationship between the tax or price of alcohol and indices of excessive drinking or alcohol-related health outcomes. Among studies restricted to underage populations, most found that increased taxes were also signifıcantly associated with reduced consumption and alcohol-related harms. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, these results constitute strong evidence that raising alcohol excise taxes is an effective strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The impact of a potential tax increase is expected to be proportional to its magnitude and to be modifıed by such factors as disposable income and the demand elasticity for alcohol among various population groups. PMID:20117579

  13. Evaluation of work-based screening for early signs of alcohol-related liver disease in hazardous and harmful drinkers: the PrevAIL study.

    PubMed

    Cook, Penny A; Morleo, Michela; Billington, David; Sanderson-Shortt, Kevin; Jones, Colin; Gabbay, Mark; Sheron, Nick; Bellis, Mark A; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Gilmore, Ian T

    2015-06-04

    The direct cost of excessive alcohol consumption to health services is substantial but dwarfed by the cost borne by the workplace as a result of lost productivity. The workplace is also a promising setting for health interventions. The Preventing Alcohol Harm in Liverpool and Knowsley (PrevAIL) project aimed to evaluate a mechanism for detecting the prevalence of alcohol related liver disease using fibrosis biomarkers. Secondary aims were to identify the additive effect of obesity as a risk factor for early liver disease; to assess other impacts of alcohol on work, using a cross-sectional survey. Participants (aged 36-55 y) from 13 workplaces participated (March 2011-April 2012). BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure and self-reported alcohol consumption in the previous week was recorded. Those consuming more than the accepted UK threshold (men: >21 units; female: >14 units alcohol) provided a 20 ml venous blood sample for a biomarker test (Southampton Traffic Light Test) and completed an alcohol questionnaire (incorporating the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire). The screening mechanism enrolled 363 individuals (52 % women), 39 % of whom drank above the threshold and participated in the liver screen (n = 141, complete data = 124 persons). Workplaces with successful participation were those where employers actively promoted, encouraged and facilitated attendance. Biomarkers detected that 30 % had liver disease (25 %, intermediate; 5 % probable). Liver disease was associated with the frequency of visits to the family physician (P = 0.036) and obesity (P = 0.052). The workplace is an important setting for addressing alcohol harm, but there are barriers to voluntary screening that need to be addressed. Early detection and support of cases in the community could avert deaths and save health and social costs. Alcohol and obesity should be addressed simultaneously, because of their known multiplicative effect on liver disease risk, and because employers

  14. Cue-induced alcohol-seeking behaviour is reduced by disrupting the reconsolidation of alcohol-related memories.

    PubMed

    von der Goltz, Christoph; Vengeliene, Valentina; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Perreau-Lenz, Stephanie; Pawlak, Cornelius R; Kiefer, Falk; Spanagel, Rainer

    2009-08-01

    In humans, the retrieval of memories associated with an alcohol-related experience frequently evokes alcohol-seeking behaviour. The reconsolidation hypothesis states that a consolidated memory could again become labile and susceptible to disruption after memory retrieval. The aim of our study was to examine whether retrieval of alcohol-related memories undergoes a reconsolidation process. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer ethanol in the presence of specific conditioned stimuli. Thereafter, animals were left undisturbed in their home cages for the following 21 days. Memory retrieval was performed in a single 5-min exposure to all alcohol-associated stimuli. The protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin, the non-competitive N-methyl-D: -aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK-801 and acamprosate, a clinically used drug known to reduce a hyper-glutamatergic state, were given immediately after retrieval of alcohol-related memories. The impact of drug treatment on cue-induced alcohol-seeking behaviour was measured on the following day and 7 days later. Administration of both anisomycin and MK-801 reduced cue-induced alcohol-seeking behaviour, showing that memory reconsolidation was disrupted by these compounds. However, acamprosate had no effect on the reconsolidation process, suggesting that this process is not dependent on a hyper-glutamatergic state but is more related to protein synthesis and NMDA receptor activity. Pharmacological disruption of reconsolidation of alcohol-associated memories can be achieved by the use of NMDA antagonists and protein synthesis inhibitors and may thus provide a potential new therapeutic strategy for the prevention of relapse in alcohol addiction.

  15. Evaluating Personalized Feedback Intervention Framing with a Randomized Controlled Trial to Reduce Young Adult Alcohol-Related Sexual Risk Taking.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Melissa A; Rhew, Isaac C; Fairlie, Anne M; Swanson, Alex; Anderson, Judyth; Kaysen, Debra

    2018-03-06

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate personalized feedback intervention (PFI) framing with two web-delivered PFIs aimed to reduce young adult alcohol-related risky sexual behavior (RSB). Combined PFIs typically use an additive approach whereby independent components on drinking and components on RSB are presented without the discussion of the influence of alcohol on RSB. In contrast, an integrated PFI highlights the RSB-alcohol connection by presenting integrated alcohol and RSB components that focus on the role of intoxication as a barrier to risk reduction in sexual situations. In a randomized controlled trial, 402 (53.98% female) sexually active young adults aged 18-25 were randomly assigned to a combined PFI, an integrated PFI, or attention control. All assessment and intervention procedures were web-based. At the 1-month follow-up, those randomly assigned to the integrated condition had a lower likelihood of having any casual sex partners compared to those in the control group. At the 6-month follow-up, the combined condition had a lower likelihood of having any casual sex partners compared to those in the control group. When examining alcohol-related RSB, at the 1-month follow-up, both interventions showed a lower likelihood of any drinking prior to sex compared to the control group. When examining alcohol-related sexual consequences, results showed a reduction in the non-zero count of consequences in the integrated condition compared to the control at the 1-month follow-up. For typical drinks per week, those in the combined condition showed a greater reduction in the non-zero count of drinks than those in the control condition at the 1-month follow-up. While there were no significant differences between the two interventions, the current findings highlight the utility of two efficacious web-based alcohol and RSB interventions among a national sample of at-risk young adults.

  16. The Long-Term Effectiveness of a Selective, Personality-Targeted Prevention Program in Reducing Alcohol Use and Related Harms: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Nicola C.; Conrod, Patricia J.; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Champion, Katrina E.; Barrett, Emma L.; Kelly, Erin V.; Nair, Natasha K.; Stapinski, Lexine; Teesson, Maree

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the long-term effectiveness of Preventure, a selective personality-targeted prevention program, in reducing the uptake of alcohol, harmful use of alcohol, and alcohol-related harms over a 3-year period. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Preventure.…

  17. Effects of legislative reform to reduce drunken driving and alcohol-related traffic fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Hingson, R W; Howland, J; Levenson, S

    1988-01-01

    From 1980 through 1985, considerable progress was made across the Nation in reducing drunken driving and fatal automobile crashes. More than 400 chapters of local citizen groups concerned with reducing drunken driving were formed. New media coverage, measured in number of stories, increased fiftyfold from 1980 to 1984. More than 500 legislative reforms were passed. All States now have adopted a legal drinking age of 21. Many also adopted criminal and administrative per se laws and instituted penalty increases for drunken driving. By 1985, the total number of fatal crashes declined to 39,168, a decrease of 6,116, or 16 percent, from the 1980 level of 45,284. Single-vehicle fatal crashes occurring at night, those most likely to involve alcohol, declined by 20 percent, with 3,674 fewer crashes in 1985 than in 1980. Among teenage drivers, declines in fatal crashes were steeper: Fatal crashes decreased 26 percent, and single-vehicle night fatal crashes were down 34 percent. After 1984, however, the number of new citizen groups established and the number of stories appearing in the media began to decline. In 1986, after decreasing for several years, the number of fatal crashes rose 5 percent, and single-vehicle night fatal crashes rose 7 percent, up 1,060 from 1985. Among teenage drivers, the increase in single-vehicle night fatal crashes was even higher, up 17 percent. In 1987, single-vehicle night fatal crashes declined slightly but still remained higher than in 1983, 1984, or 1985.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3141962

  18. Explaining trends in alcohol-related harms in Scotland, 1991-2011 (I): the role of incomes, effects of socio-economic and political adversity and demographic change.

    PubMed

    McCartney, G; Bouttell, J; Craig, N; Craig, P; Graham, L; Lakha, F; Lewsey, J; McAdams, R; MacPherson, M; Minton, J; Parkinson, J; Robinson, M; Shipton, D; Taulbut, M; Walsh, D; Beeston, C

    2016-03-01

    This paper tests the extent to which differing trends in income, demographic change and the consequences of an earlier period of social, economic and political change might explain differences in the magnitude and trends in alcohol-related mortality between 1991 and 2011 in Scotland compared to England & Wales (E&W). Comparative time trend analyses and arithmetic modelling. Three approaches were utilised to compare Scotland with E&W: 1. We modelled the impact of changes in income on alcohol-related deaths between 1991-2001 and 2001-2011 by applying plausible assumptions of the effect size through an arithmetic model. 2. We used contour plots, graphical exploration of age-period-cohort interactions and calculation of Intrinsic Estimator coefficients to investigate the effect of earlier exposure to social, economic and political adversity on alcohol-related mortality. 3. We recalculated the trends in alcohol-related deaths using the white population only to make a crude approximation of the maximal impact of changes in ethnic diversity. Real incomes increased during the 1990s but declined from around 2004 in the poorest 30% of the population of Great Britain. The decline in incomes for the poorest decile, the proportion of the population in the most deprived decile, and the inequality in alcohol-related deaths, were all greater in Scotland than in E&W. The model predicted less of the observed rise in Scotland (18% of the rise in men and 29% of the rise in women) than that in E&W (where 60% and 68% of the rise in men and women respectively was explained). One-third of the decline observed in alcohol-related mortality in Scottish men between 2001 and 2011 was predicted by the model, and the model was broadly consistent with the observed trends in E&W and amongst women in Scotland. An age-period interaction in alcohol-related mortality was evident for men and women during the 1990s and 2000s who were aged 40-70 years and who experienced rapidly increasing alcohol-related

  19. Evaluating a Comprehensive Campus-Community Prevention Intervention to Reduce Alcohol-Related Problems in a College Population*

    PubMed Central

    Saltz, Robert F.; Welker, Lara R.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Feeney, Maggie A.; Fabiano, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This article evaluates Western Washington University's Neighborhoods Engaging with Students project—a comprehensive strategy to decrease disruptive off-campus parties by increasing student integration into and accountability to the neighborhoods in which they live. The intervention includes increasing the number of and publicity regarding “party emphasis patrols” and collaboration with the city to develop a regulatory mechanism to reduce repeat problematic party calls to the same address. The enforcement components are complemented by campus-based, late-night expansion programming, as well as neighborhood engagement strategies including an educational Web site designed to increase students' knowledge of and skills in living safely and legally in the community, service-learning projects in the campus-contiguous neighborhoods, and a neighborhood-based conflict-resolution program. Method: The evaluation comprised data from three public universities in Washington. In addition to the Western Washington University site, a second campus created an opportunity for a “natural experiment” because it adopted a very similar intervention in the same time frame, creating two intervention sites and one comparison site. Annual, Web-based student surveys in 2005 and 2006 included measures of alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and student perception of alcohol control and prevention activities. Results: Although statistical power with three campuses was limited, results using hierarchical linear modeling showed that the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking was significantly lower at the intervention schools (odds ratio = 0.73; N = 6, 150 students). Conclusions: The results suggest that alcohol control measures can be effective in reducing problematic drinking in college settings. These findings strongly support conducting a replication with greater power and a more rigorous design. PMID:19538909

  20. University Students’ Willingness to Assist Fellow Students Who Experience Alcohol-Related Facial Flushing to Reduce Their Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lanyan; Yuen, Lok-Wa; Shell, Duane F.

    2018-01-01

    This study explored bystanders’ willingness to help a friend who flushes when drinking to reduce his/her drinking. Alcohol-related facial flushing is an indicator of an inherited variant enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), that impairs alcohol metabolism and increases drinkers’ lifetime risk of certain aerodigestive cancers. Individuals who flush should reduce their alcohol exposure, but they may continue to drink if social pressures and rules of etiquette make not drinking socially risky. The analysis used data from 2912 undergraduate students from 13 universities in southwestern, central and northeastern China from a survey asking how they respond to someone’s flushing in various scenarios. Latent class analysis grouped students by similar responses to flushing. A multinomial logistic regression explored how class membership was associated with knowledge, drinking status, and reactions to one’s own flushing. Five classes were derived from the latent class analysis, ranging from always intervene to mostly hesitate to help; in between were classes of students who were willing to help in some scenarios and hesitant in other scenarios. Only 11.6% students knew the connection between facial flushing and impaired alcohol metabolism, and knowledgeable students were somewhat more likely to assist when they saw someone flushing. In the absence of knowledge, other factors—such as drinking status, the gender of the bystander, the gender of the person who flushed, and degree of friendship with the person who flushed—determined how willing a person was to help someone reduce or stop drinking. Class membership was predicted by knowledge, gender, drinking status, and reactions to one’s own flushing. Of these 4 factors, knowledge and reactions to one’s own flushing could be influenced through alcohol education programs. It will take some time for alcohol education to catch up to and change social and cultural patterns of drinking. Meanwhile, motivational

  1. Trial protocol: a clustered, randomised, longitudinal, type 2 translational trial of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm among adolescents in Australia.

    PubMed

    Rowland, B; Abraham, C; Carter, R; Abimanyi-Ochom, J; Kelly, A B; Kremer, P; Williams, J W; Smith, R; Hall, J K; Wagner, D; Renner, H; Hosseini, T; Osborn, A; Mohebbi, M; Toumbourou, J W

    2018-04-27

    This cluster randomised control trial is designed to evaluate whether the Communities That Care intervention (CTC) is effective in reducing the proportion of secondary school age adolescents who use alcohol before the Australian legal purchasing age of 18 years. Secondary outcomes are other substance use and antisocial behaviours. Long term economic benefits of reduced alcohol use by adolescents for the community will also be assessed. Fourteen communities and 14 other non-contiguous communities will be matched on socioeconomic status (SES), location, and size. One of each pair will be randomly allocated to the intervention in three Australian states (Victoria, Queensland and Western Australia). A longitudinal survey will recruit grade 8 and 10 students (M = 15 years old, N = 3500) in 2017 and conduct follow-up surveys in 2019 and 2021 (M = 19 years old). Municipal youth populations will also be monitored for trends in alcohol-harms using hospital and police administrative data. Community-led interventions that systematically and strategically implement evidence-based programs have been shown to be effective in producing population-level behaviour change, including reduced alcohol and drug use. We expect that the study will be associated with significant effects on alcohol use amongst adolescents because interventions adopted within communities will be based on evidence-based practices and target specific problems identified from surveys conducted within each community. The trial was retrospectively registered in September, 2017 ( ACTRN12616001276448 ), as communities were selected prior to trial registration; however, participants were recruited after registration. Findings will be disseminated in peer-review journals and community fora.

  2. A community-based intervention to reduce alcohol-related accidents and violence in 9th grade students in southern Sweden: the example of the Trelleborg project.

    PubMed

    Stafström, Martin; Ostergren, Per-Olof

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse if a community-based intervention has led to a decrease in alcohol-related accidents and violence, and whether this was mediated by a reduction in excessive drinking and frequency of distilled spirits consumption. We applied logistic regression analyses on cross-sectional, non-repeated data, which was collected from a questionnaire distributed in classrooms to all 9th graders from 1999 to 2001, and in 2003 (n=1376, 724 boys and 652 girls; response rate=92.3%). All alcohol abstainers (n=330) were excluded from the analyses, making the sample 1046 individuals. The odds ratio for alcohol-related accidents was significantly lower, comparing the baseline year (1999) with 2003 (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.27-0.76). There was also an indication that self-reported alcohol-related violence had decreased between 1999 and 2003 (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.43-1.01). When controlling these estimates for excessive drinking and frequency of distilled spirits consumption, the differences between survey years were substantially reduced or even deleted. In conclusion, the decrease in alcohol-related accidents and violence among 15-16-year-olds in Trelleborg, between 1999 and 2002, is likely to be attributed to the identified reduction in excessive drinking and frequency of distilled spirits consumption.

  3. Linked randomised controlled trials of face-to-face and electronic brief intervention methods to prevent alcohol related harm in young people aged 14-17 years presenting to Emergency Departments (SIPS junior).

    PubMed

    Deluca, Paolo; Coulton, Simon; Alam, M Fasihul; Cohen, David; Donoghue, Kim; Gilvarry, Eilish; Kaner, Eileen; Maconochie, Ian; McArdle, Paul; McGovern, Ruth; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Patton, Robert; Phillips, Ceri; Phillips, Thomas; Russell, Ian; Strang, John; Drummond, Colin

    2015-04-10

    Alcohol is a major global threat to public health. Although the main burden of chronic alcohol-related disease is in adults, its foundations often lie in adolescence. Alcohol consumption and related harm increase steeply from the age of 12 until 20 years. Several trials focusing upon young people have reported significant positive effects of brief interventions on a range of alcohol consumption outcomes. A recent review of reviews also suggests that electronic brief interventions (eBIs) using internet and smartphone technologies may markedly reduce alcohol consumption compared with minimal or no intervention controls. Interventions that target non-drinking youth are known to delay the onset of drinking behaviours. Web based alcohol interventions for adolescents also demonstrate significantly greater reductions in consumption and harm among 'high-risk' drinkers; however changes in risk status at follow-up for non-drinkers or low-risk drinkers have not been assessed in controlled trials of brief alcohol interventions. The study design comprises two linked randomised controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two intervention strategies compared with screening alone. One trial will focus on high-risk adolescent drinkers attending Emergency Departments (Eds) and the other will focus on those identified as low-risk drinkers or abstinent from alcohol but attending the same ED. Our primary (null) hypothesis is similar for both trials: Personalised Feedback and Brief Advice (PFBA) and Personalised Feedback plus electronic Brief Intervention (eBI) are no more effective than screening alone in alcohol consumed at 12 months after randomisation as measured by the Time-Line Follow-Back 28-day version. Our secondary (null) hypothesis relating to economics states that PFBA and eBI are no more cost-effective than screening alone. In total 1,500 participants will be recruited into the trials, 750 high-risk drinkers and 750 low-risk drinkers or

  4. Prescription for antidepressant in reducing future alcohol-related readmission in patients suffering from depression and alcohol use disorder: a retrospective medical record review.

    PubMed

    Chan, Patrick; Yomen, Katie; Turcios, Jennifer; Richman, Mark

    2015-12-21

    Patients suffering from major depressive disorder are more likely to suffer from alcohol use disorder. The data is inconclusive for the effectiveness of antidepressant treatment of patients suffering from both illnesses in regards to improving sobriety and reducing alcohol-related healthcare expenses such as hospitalizations. The objective of this study is to determine if a new prescription of an antidepressant upon inpatient discharge is associated with a reduction in the number of future acute alcohol-related hospital readmissions to the same institution in patients suffering from major depressive disorder and alcohol-use disorder. A retrospective, medical record review study was conducted at a publicly-supported hospital in Sylmar, CA. A query was performed for adult patients admitted between 1/1/2005-12/31/2013 who had ICD-9 codes for both alcohol-use disorder and depression. Index admission was the first hospitalization in which the patient was currently consuming alcohol and had depression as identified by physician documentation as a problem. Acute alcohol-related admissions were those for alcohol intoxication or withdrawal (indicating current alcohol use). Patients were excluded if they were receiving an antidepressant on index admission, <18 years old, no patient data available, or not currently consuming alcohol; 139 patients met inclusion criteria. Multivariate logistical regression analysis was performed on the primary predictive variable of discharge prescription of an antidepressant along with other independent variables for alcohol readmissions: homelessness, family history of alcohol use disorder, and smoking. Discharging patients with a prescription of an antidepressant was not associated with a reduction in acute alcohol-related readmission. There was no difference in acute alcohol-related readmissions between patients discharged with (44.6 %) versus without (47.0 %) a prescription for an antidepressant (p = 0.863). The median number of days

  5. Good choices, great future: an applied theatre prevention program to reduce alcohol-related risky behaviours during Schoolies.

    PubMed

    Quek, Lake-Hui; White, Angela; Low, Christine; Brown, Judith; Dalton, Nigel; Dow, Debbie; Connor, Jason P

    2012-11-01

    The contextual and temporal factors of post-school celebratory events ('Schoolies') place young people at elevated risk of excessive drinking compared with other social occasions. This study investigates the impact of an applied theatre prevention program 'Choices' in reducing the risk of drinking and other risk behaviours during Schoolies celebrations. Choices was delivered in the last term of Year 12 across 28 North Queensland schools. A total of 352 school leavers (43.1% male, mean age = 17.14 years) completed a questionnaire at Whitsunday Schoolies, Queensland, Australia on 23-24 November 2010. Nearly 49% of respondents had attended Choices. The survey included measures of alcohol use, illicit drug use and associated problems during Schoolies and a month prior to Schoolies. After controlling for gender and pre-Schoolies drinking, school leavers who attended Choices were significantly less likely to report illicit drug use (OR = 0.51, P < 0.05) and problem behaviours (OR = 0.40, P < 0.01) than those who did not attend Choices. There was, however, no intervention effect in risky drinking (i.e. drank on 5 or more days, typical amount five or more standard drink and binge drank on 3 or more days) at Schoolies (OR = 0.92, P = 0.80). Delivery of a youth-specific applied theatre prevention program employing a harm minimisation framework may be effective in reducing high-risk behaviours associated with alcohol consumption at celebratory events, even if young people expect to engage in excessive alcohol consumption. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  6. Data sharing for prevention: a case study in the development of a comprehensive emergency department injury surveillance system and its use in preventing violence and alcohol-related harms.

    PubMed

    Quigg, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A

    2012-10-01

    To examine emergency department (ED) data sharing via a local injury surveillance system and assess its contribution to the prevention of violence and alcohol-related harms. 6-year (2004-2010) exploratory study analysing injury attendances to one ED in the North West of England using descriptive and trend analyses. Over the 6-year period, there were 242,796 ED injury attendances, including 21,683 for intentional injuries. Compared with unintentional injury patients, intentional injury patients were more likely to be men, aged 18-34 years, live in the most deprived communities, have attended the ED at night/weekends, have been injured in a public place and have consumed alcohol prior to the injury. Detailed data collected on alcohol and violence-related ED attendances were shared with local partners to monitor local trends and inform prevention activity including targeted policing and licensing enforcement. Over the 6-year period, intentional ED injury attendances decreased by 35.6% and alcohol-related assault attendances decreased by 30.3%. The collection of additional ED data on assault details and alcohol use prior to injury, and its integration into multi-agency policy and practice, played an important role in driving local violence prevention activity. Further research is needed to assess the direct contribution ED data sharing makes to reductions in violence.

  7. Data sharing for prevention: a case study in the development of a comprehensive emergency department injury surveillance system and its use in preventing violence and alcohol-related harms

    PubMed Central

    Quigg, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine emergency department (ED) data sharing via a local injury surveillance system and assess its contribution to the prevention of violence and alcohol-related harms. Methods 6-year (2004–2010) exploratory study analysing injury attendances to one ED in the North West of England using descriptive and trend analyses. Results Over the 6-year period, there were 242 796 ED injury attendances, including 21 683 for intentional injuries. Compared with unintentional injury patients, intentional injury patients were more likely to be men, aged 18–34 years, live in the most deprived communities, have attended the ED at night/weekends, have been injured in a public place and have consumed alcohol prior to the injury. Detailed data collected on alcohol and violence-related ED attendances were shared with local partners to monitor local trends and inform prevention activity including targeted policing and licensing enforcement. Over the 6-year period, intentional ED injury attendances decreased by 35.6% and alcohol-related assault attendances decreased by 30.3%. Conclusions The collection of additional ED data on assault details and alcohol use prior to injury, and its integration into multi-agency policy and practice, played an important role in driving local violence prevention activity. Further research is needed to assess the direct contribution ED data sharing makes to reductions in violence. PMID:22210640

  8. Do managed alcohol programs change patterns of alcohol consumption and reduce related harm? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Vallance, Kate; Stockwell, Tim; Pauly, Bernie; Chow, Clifton; Gray, Erin; Krysowaty, Bonnie; Perkin, Kathleen; Zhao, Jinhui

    2016-05-09

    withdrawal seizures. Qualitative interviews with staff and MAP participants provided additional insight into reductions of non-beverage alcohol use and reductions of police and health-care contacts. It was unclear if overall volume of alcohol consumption was reduced as a result of MAP participation. The quantitative and qualitative findings of this pilot study suggest that MAP participation was associated with a number of positive outcomes including fewer hospital admissions, detox episodes, and police contacts leading to custody, reduced NBA consumption, and decreases in some alcohol-related harms. These encouraging trends are being investigated in a larger national study.

  9. Process evaluation of an environmental health risk audit and action plan intervention to reduce alcohol related violence in licensed premises.

    PubMed

    Williams, Annie; Moore, Simon C; Shovelton, Claire; Moore, Laurence; Murphy, Simon

    2016-05-28

    Alcohol-related violence is associated with licensed premise environments and their management. There is a lack of evidence for effective interventions to address these, and there are significant barriers to implementation. This study aims to understand how development and implementation processes can facilitate intervention reach, fidelity and receipt and therefore provides key process data necessary to interpret the results of the randomised controlled trial conducted in parallel. A process evaluation, embedded within a randomised controlled trial. Intervention development and implementation were assessed via focus groups (n = 2) and semi-structured interviews (n = 22) with Environmental Health Practitioners (EHPs). Reach and fidelity were assessed via routinely collected intervention data, which was was collected from 276 licenced premises across Wales, UK. Case study semi-structured interviews with licensed premises proprietors (n = 30) explored intervention receipt. Intervention co-production with senior EHPs facilitated organisational adoption and implementation. Training events for EHPs played an important role in addressing wider organisational concerns regarding partnership working and the contextual integration of the intervention. EHPs delivered the intervention to 98 % of intervention premises; 35 % of premises should have received a follow up enforcement visit, however EHP confidence in dealing with alcohol risk factors meant only 7 % of premises received one. Premises therefore received a similar intervention dose regardless of baseline risk. Intervention receipt appeared to be greatest in premises with an existing commitment to prevention and those in urban environments. The study suggests that a collaborative approach to the development and diffusion of interventions is associated with high levels of organisational adoption, implementation and reach. However, the lack of enforcement visits represents implementation failure for a key

  10. Reducing Fatal Opioid Overdose: Prevention, Treatment and Harm Reduction Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Hawk, Kathryn F.; Vaca, Federico E.; D’Onofrio, Gail

    2015-01-01

    The opioid overdose epidemic is a major threat to the public’s health, resulting in the development and implementation of a variety of strategies to reduce fatal overdose [1-3]. Many strategies are focused on primary prevention and increased access to effective treatment, although the past decade has seen an exponential increase in harm reduction initiatives. To maximize identification of opportunities for intervention, initiatives focusing on prevention, access to effective treatment, and harm reduction are examined independently, although considerable overlap exists. Particular attention is given to harm reduction approaches, as increased public and political will have facilitated widespread implementation of several initiatives, including increased distribution of naloxone and policy changes designed to increase bystander assistance during a witnessed overdose [4-7]. PMID:26339206

  11. A Research Framework for Reducing Preventable Patient Harm

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Robert; Cardo, Denise M.; Goeschel, Christine A.; Berenholtz, Sean M.; Saint, Sanjay; Jernigan, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Programs to reduce central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) have improved the safety of hospitalized patients. Efforts are underway to disseminate these successes broadly to reduce other types of hospital-acquired infectious and noninfectious preventable harms. Unfortunately, the ability to broadly measure and prevent other types of preventable harms, especially infectious harms, needs enhancement. Moreover, an overarching research framework for creating and integrating evidence will help expedite the development of national prevention programs. This article outlines a 5-phase translational (T) framework to develop robust research programs that reduce preventable harm, as follows: phase T0, discover opportunities and approaches to prevent adverse health care events; phase T1, use T0 discoveries to develop and test interventions on a small scale; phase T2, broaden and strengthen the evidence base for promising interventions to develop evidence-based guidelines; phase T3, translate guidelines into clinical practice; and phase T4, implement and evaluate T3 work on a national and international scale. Policy makers should use this framework to fill in the knowledge gaps, coordinate efforts among federal agencies, and prioritize research funding. PMID:21258104

  12. Is local alcohol outlet density related to alcohol-related morbidity and mortality in Scottish cities?

    PubMed

    Richardson, E A; Hill, S E; Mitchell, R; Pearce, J; Shortt, N K

    2015-05-01

    Alcohol consumption may be influenced by the local alcohol retailing environment. This study is the first to examine neighbourhood alcohol outlet availability (on- and off-sales outlets) and alcohol-related health outcomes in Scotland. Alcohol-related hospitalisations and deaths were significantly higher in neighbourhoods with higher outlet densities, and off-sales outlets were more important than on-sales outlets. The relationships held for most age groups, including those under the legal minimum drinking age, although were not significant for the youngest legal drinkers (18-25 years). Alcohol-related deaths and hospitalisations were higher in more income-deprived neighbourhoods, and the gradient in deaths (but not hospitalisations) was marginally larger in neighbourhoods with higher off-sales outlet densities. Efforts to reduce alcohol-related harm should consider the potentially important role of the alcohol retail environment. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Is local alcohol outlet density related to alcohol-related morbidity and mortality in Scottish cities?

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, E.A.; Hill, S.E.; Mitchell, R.; Pearce, J.; Shortt, N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption may be influenced by the local alcohol retailing environment. This study is the first to examine neighbourhood alcohol outlet availability (on- and off-sales outlets) and alcohol-related health outcomes in Scotland. Alcohol-related hospitalisations and deaths were significantly higher in neighbourhoods with higher outlet densities, and off-sales outlets were more important than on-sales outlets. The relationships held for most age groups, including those under the legal minimum drinking age, although were not significant for the youngest legal drinkers (18–25 years). Alcohol-related deaths and hospitalisations were higher in more income-deprived neighbourhoods, and the gradient in deaths (but not hospitalisations) was marginally larger in neighbourhoods with higher off-sales outlet densities. Efforts to reduce alcohol-related harm should consider the potentially important role of the alcohol retail environment. PMID:25840352

  14. Do students use contextual protective behaviors to reduce alcohol-related sexual risk? Examination of a dual-process decision-making model.

    PubMed

    Scaglione, Nichole M; Hultgren, Brittney A; Reavy, Racheal; Mallett, Kimberly A; Turrisi, Rob; Cleveland, Michael J; Sell, Nichole M

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies suggest drinking protective behaviors (DPBs) and contextual protective behaviors (CPBs) can uniquely reduce alcohol-related sexual risk in college students. Few studies have examined CPBs independently, and even fewer have utilized theory to examine modifiable psychosocial predictors of students' decisions to use CPBs. The current study used a prospective design to examine (a) rational and reactive pathways and psychosocial constructs predictive of CPB use and (b) how gender might moderate these influences in a sample of college students. Students (n = 508) completed Web-based baseline (mid-Spring semester) and 1- and 6-month follow-up assessments of CPB use; psychosocial constructs (expectancies, normative beliefs, attitudes, and self-concept); and rational and reactive pathways (intentions and willingness). Regression was used to examine rational and reactive influences as proximal predictors of CPB use at the 6-month follow-up. Subsequent path analyses examined the effects of psychosocial constructs, as distal predictors of CPB use, mediated through the rational and reactive pathways. Both rational (intentions to use CPB) and reactive (willingness to use CPB) influences were significantly associated with increased CPB use. The examined distal predictors were found to effect CPB use differentially through the rational and reactive pathways. Gender did not significantly moderate any relationships within in the model. Findings suggest potential entry points for increasing CPB use that include both rational and reactive pathways. Overall, this study demonstrates the mechanisms underlying how to increase the use of CPBs in programs designed to reduce alcohol-related sexual consequences and victimization. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Do Students Use Contextual Protective Behaviors to Reduce Alcohol-Related Sexual Risk? Examination of a Dual-Process Decision-Making Model

    PubMed Central

    Scaglione, Nichole M.; Hultgren, Brittney A.; Reavy, Racheal; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Turrisi, Rob; Cleveland, Michael J.; Sell, Nichole M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent studies suggest drinking protective behaviors (DPBs) and contextual protective behaviors (CPBs) can uniquely reduce alcohol-related sexual risk in college students. Few studies have examined CPBs independently, and even fewer have utilized theory to examine modifiable psychosocial predictors of students’ decisions to use CPBs. The current study used a prospective design to examine 1) rational and reactive pathways and psychosocial constructs predictive of CPB use, and 2) how gender might moderate these influences in a sample of college students. Method Students (n = 508) completed web-based baseline (mid-spring semester) and 1- and 6-month follow-up assessments of CPB use; psychosocial constructs (expectancies, normative beliefs, attitudes, and self-concept); and rational and reactive pathways (intentions and willingness). Regression was used to examine rational and reactive influences as proximal predictors of CPB use at the 6-month follow-up. Subsequent path analyses examined the effects of psychosocial constructs, as distal predictors of CPB use, mediated through the rational and reactive pathways. Results Both rational (intentions to use CPB) and reactive (willingness to use CPB) influences were significantly associated with increased CPB use. The examined distal predictors were found to effect CPB use differentially through the rational and reactive pathways. Gender did not significantly moderate any relationships within in the model. Discussion Findings suggest potential entry points for increasing CPB use that include both rational and reactive pathways. Overall, this study demonstrates the mechanisms underlying how to increase the use of CPBs in programs designed to reduce alcohol-related sexual consequences and victimization. PMID:26415062

  16. How Social Reactions to Alcohol-Related Facial Flushing Are Affected by Gender, Relationship, and Drinking Purposes: Implications for Education to Reduce Aerodigestive Cancer Risks.

    PubMed

    Newman, Ian M; Ding, Lanyan; Shell, Duane F; Lin, Lida

    2017-06-09

    Alcohol-related facial flushing is a sign of compromised alcohol metabolism and increased risk of certain cancers. This project examined how facial flushing might be used to reduce alcohol use to lower cancer risks. Interviews with Chinese university students identified gender, friendship, and drinking purpose as important variables related to whether someone would encourage a person who flushes when drinking alcohol to stop or reduce their drinking. A questionnaire was developed that incorporated these variables into 24 drinking scenarios in which someone flushed while drinking. Students responded whether they would (a) encourage the flusher to stop or drink less; (b) do nothing while wishing they could; or (c) do nothing because there was no need. Analysis of survey responses from 2912 university students showed a three-way interaction of the variables and implied that the probability students will intervene when a drinker flushes was highest when the flusher was a female, a close friend, and the drinking purpose was for fun and lowest if the flusher was a male, the friendship was general, and the drinking purpose was risky. The results provide important details about the social factors affecting how other people respond to a person who flushes when drinking alcohol. This information is useful for those considering ways to reduce and prevent aerodigestive cancers through education and information programs.

  17. Social anxiety and alcohol-related negative consequences among college drinkers: do protective behavioral strategies mediate the association?

    PubMed

    Villarosa, Margo C; Moorer, Kayla D; Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Noble, Jeremy J

    2014-09-01

    The link between social anxiety and alcohol-related negative consequences among college students has been well documented. Protective behavioral strategies are cognitive-behavioral strategies that college students use in an effort to reduce harm while they are drinking. In the current study we examined the mediating role of the 2 categories of protective behavioral strategies (i.e., controlled consumption and serious harm reduction) in the relationship that social anxiety symptoms have with alcohol-related negative consequences. Participants were 572 undergraduates who completed measures of social anxiety, alcohol use, negative consequences of alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategy use. Only serious harm reduction strategies emerged as a mediator of the association that social anxiety symptoms had with alcohol-related negative consequences. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  18. Decreasing Malpractice Claims by Reducing Preventable Perinatal Harm.

    PubMed

    Riley, William; Meredith, Les W; Price, Rebecca; Miller, Kristi K; Begun, James W; McCullough, Mac; Davis, Stanley

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the association of improved patient safety practices with medical malpractice claims and costs in the perinatal units of acute care hospitals. Malpractice and harm data from participating hospitals; litigation records and medical malpractice claims data from American Excess Insurance Exchange, RRG, whose data are managed by Premier Insurance Management Services, Inc. (owned by Premier Inc., a health care improvement company). A quasi-experimental prospective design to compare baseline and postintervention data. Statistical significance tests for differences were performed using chi-square, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and t-test. Claims data were collected and evaluated by experienced senior claims managers through on-site claim audits to evaluate claim frequency, severity, and financial information. Data were provided to the analyzing institution through confidentiality contracts. There is a significant reduction in the number of perinatal malpractice claims paid, losses paid, and indemnity payments (43.9 percent, 77.6 percent, and 84.6 percent, respectively) following interventions to improve perinatal patient safety and reduce perinatal harm. This compares with no significant reductions in the nonperinatal claims in the same hospitals during the same time period. The number of perinatal malpractice claims and dollar amount of claims payments decreased significantly in the participating hospitals, while there was no significant decrease in nonperinatal malpractice claims activity in the same hospitals. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  19. Evidence of reducing ethanol content in beverages to reduce harmful use of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Llopis, Eva Jané; Imtiaz, Sameer; Anderson, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol use is a major contributor to the burden of gastrointestinal disease. WHO's global strategy to reduce harmful use of alcohol encourages the alcohol industry to contribute to this effort. However, evidence that alcohol producers have contributed to the reduction of harmful use of alcohol is scarce. Reduction of alcoholic strength of beer has been proposed and initiated as one potential way forward. We examine the evidence base for the success of such an initiative. Direct evidence from natural experiments or other controlled studies is scarce. We identified three potential mechanisms for how reduction of alcoholic strength could affect harmful use of alcohol: by current drinkers replacing standard alcoholic beverages with similar beverages of lower alcoholic strength, without increasing the quantity of liquid consumed; by current drinkers switching to no alcohol alternatives for part of the time, thereby reducing their average amount of ethanol consumed; and by initiating alcohol use in current abstainers. The first mechanism seems to be the most promising to potentially reduce harm, but much will depend on actual implementation, and only an independent assessment will be able to identify effects on harmful drinking. The potential of alcoholic strength reduction is independent of initiation by law or by self-initiative of the industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reduced Exposure to Harmful and Potentially Harmful Smoke Constituents With the Tobacco Heating System 2.1

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Gizelle; Magnette, John; Picavet, Patrick; Weitkunat, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Heating rather than burning tobacco reduces levels of harmful and potentially harmful constituents, and consumer products using this approach aim to reduce exposure to tobacco toxicants. The Tobacco Heating System (THS) version 2.1 has been enhanced from earlier prototypes with an improved heat control and sensorial experience and thereby user acceptance. Exposure measurements are required to determine whether it may be possible to reduce the individual health risk compared to smoking combustible cigarettes (CCs). Methods: This controlled clinical study randomly assigned 40 smokers to either a group continuing to use of their own CC brand (n = 20) or a group switching to THS 2.1 (n = 20) for 5 days. Biomarkers of exposure were measured at baseline and on day 1 through day 5. Product consumption, Human Puffing Topography, the occurrence of adverse events, and an assessment of subjective effects, such as smoking satisfaction and enjoyment of respiratory tract sensations, were also determined. Results: The group of smokers who switched to THS 2.1 adapted their puffing behavior initially through longer puff duration and more puffs. During the duration of the study, total puff volume returned to baseline levels and the mean daily product consumption increased but with similar nicotine exposure compared to baseline CC use. Biomarkers of exposure to tobacco smoke toxicants which inform product risk assessment were significantly reduced with THS use compared to the CC group. THS 2.1 users experienced less reinforcing effects with THS 2.1 than with their own cigarette brand. Conclusions: THS 2.1 is a promising alternative to smoking CCs. Notwithstanding possible use adaption through consumption or puffing behavior, the exposure to harmful smoke constituents was markedly reduced with the new heated tobacco platform. Implications: Exposure markers to harmful and potentially harmful smoke constituents were lowered with the THS 2.1. Heating tobacco instead of

  1. Chasing Success: Air Force Efforts to Reduce Civilian Harm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    law that is not properly part of the LOAC.35 Military lawyers have what might be called a “conservative” or “ minimalist ” view of the LOAC.36 While...practical or political matter, such nuance is infeasible. Even starting down that route might prove a slippery slope, compromising the law’s bedrock...on civilian harm] with the [Harvard] Carr Center dialogue; so, I started seeing the problem through that lens. I thought we could fix some things

  2. Reducing the Harms of College Student Drinking: How Alan Marlatt Changed Approaches, Outcomes, and the Field

    PubMed Central

    Kilmer, Jason R.; Palmer, Rebekka S.; Cronce, Jessica M.; Logan, Diane E.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we discuss Alan Marlatt’s contributions to the prevention and reduction of alcohol-related harms among college students. We consider Alan’s early research that later led to the development and evaluation of college student drinking programs, and examine Alan’s impact, both directly and indirectly through those he mentored and trained, as a scientist-practitioner. We review the recognition of the efficacy of Alan’s programs, including the Alcohol Skills Training Program (ASTP) and Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS), in addition to extensions of these interventions in more recent studies. Finally, we discuss how Alan’s work influences interventions with college student drinkers today, and how future directions will continue to be informed by his vision and values. PMID:25774117

  3. Effect of the Australian "Alcopops Tax" on Alcohol-Related Emergency Department Presentations for Injury in Two States.

    PubMed

    Lensvelt, Eveline; Liang, Wenbin; Gilmore, William; Gordon, Elise; Hobday, Michelle; Chikritzhs, Tanya

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a specific tax increase on ready-to-drink beverages (the "alcopops" tax) on male injuries presenting to emergency departments during times likely to be highly alcohol related in two Australian states. Poisson regression was used to compare annual risk of Western Australian and Victorian male emergency department injuries occurring during high alcohol-related times before and after the implementation of the alcopops tax. A range of age groups was examined. Surrogate methodology was applied to identify numbers of emergency department injuries that occurred during high and low alcohol-related times. Risk of injury during high alcohol-related times (incident rate ratio [IRR]) was lower among Western Australian 12- to 15-year-olds beginning from the year of the tax increase and continued throughout. Lower IRRs were also apparent for 15- to 19-year-olds, although some delay was implicated. There was no change for 12- to 15-year-old Victorians, but immediate declines were evident for 15- to 19-year-olds. To a lesser extent, delayed effects were also indicated for 20- to 29-year-olds in both states. There was no evidence of a change in injury risk during high alcohol-related times among the oldest age group (35-39 years). Previous research on beverage-specific taxes has suggested that they may increase alcohol-related harms among the target group. This study found no evidence of increased injury during high alcohol-related times associated with the alcopops tax in two states. Evidence of reduced harm was apparent, however, and strongest for Western Australian males aged 19 years and younger. These outcomes are consistent with documented national reductions in alcopops sales.

  4. Reduced Exposure to Harmful and Potentially Harmful Smoke Constituents With the Tobacco Heating System 2.1.

    PubMed

    Lüdicke, Frank; Baker, Gizelle; Magnette, John; Picavet, Patrick; Weitkunat, Rolf

    2017-02-01

    Heating rather than burning tobacco reduces levels of harmful and potentially harmful constituents, and consumer products using this approach aim to reduce exposure to tobacco toxicants. The Tobacco Heating System (THS) version 2.1 has been enhanced from earlier prototypes with an improved heat control and sensorial experience and thereby user acceptance. Exposure measurements are required to determine whether it may be possible to reduce the individual health risk compared to smoking combustible cigarettes (CCs). This controlled clinical study randomly assigned 40 smokers to either a group continuing to use of their own CC brand (n = 20) or a group switching to THS 2.1 (n = 20) for 5 days. Biomarkers of exposure were measured at baseline and on day 1 through day 5. Product consumption, Human Puffing Topography, the occurrence of adverse events, and an assessment of subjective effects, such as smoking satisfaction and enjoyment of respiratory tract sensations, were also determined. The group of smokers who switched to THS 2.1 adapted their puffing behavior initially through longer puff duration and more puffs. During the duration of the study, total puff volume returned to baseline levels and the mean daily product consumption increased but with similar nicotine exposure compared to baseline CC use. Biomarkers of exposure to tobacco smoke toxicants which inform product risk assessment were significantly reduced with THS use compared to the CC group. THS 2.1 users experienced less reinforcing effects with THS 2.1 than with their own cigarette brand. THS 2.1 is a promising alternative to smoking CCs. Notwithstanding possible use adaption through consumption or puffing behavior, the exposure to harmful smoke constituents was markedly reduced with the new heated tobacco platform. Exposure markers to harmful and potentially harmful smoke constituents were lowered with the THS 2.1. Heating tobacco instead of burning can offer a potentially lower risk of delivering

  5. A time series analysis of alcohol-related presentations to emergency departments in Queensland following the increase in alcopops tax.

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Lawrence, David

    2016-02-01

    Raising duty on alcohol across the board can reduce morbidity, mortality and other adverse consequences of alcohol use. However, effectiveness is less certain for measures that target specific types of alcohol beverage in isolation. One example from Australia was the increase in tax on alcopops favoured by young people to curb risky drinking in this demographic. We measured alcohol-related health harms in 15-29-year-olds presenting to emergency departments (EDs) in Queensland following the tax increase. These presentations were compared with following ED controls: (1) 15-29-year-olds with asthma or appendicitis; and (2) 30-49-year-olds presenting with alcohol-related harms. We analysed data over a 5-year period (April 2005-April 2010) using a time series analysis. This covered 3 years before, and 2 years after, the tax increase. We investigated both mental and behavioural consequences (F10 codes), and intentional/unintentional injuries (S and T codes). We fitted an ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average) model to test for a change following the increased 'alcopops' tax in April 2008. There was no significant decrease in alcohol-related ED presentations in 15-29-year-olds compared to any of the controls. We found similar results for males and females, narrow and broad definitions of alcohol-related harms, under-19s and ED presentations at night-time and weekends. The increase in tax on 'alcopops' did not result in any reduction in alcohol-related harms in this population. Targeting particular alcoholic drinks may therefore not be as effective as more comprehensive policies such as minimum unit pricing for alcohol. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Personalised digital interventions for reducing hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption in community-dwelling populations.

    PubMed

    Kaner, Eileen Fs; Beyer, Fiona R; Garnett, Claire; Crane, David; Brown, Jamie; Muirhead, Colin; Redmore, James; O'Donnell, Amy; Newham, James J; de Vocht, Frank; Hickman, Matthew; Brown, Heather; Maniatopoulos, Gregory; Michie, Susan

    2017-09-25

    Excessive alcohol use contributes significantly to physical and psychological illness, injury and death, and a wide array of social harm in all age groups. A proven strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption levels is to offer a brief conversation-based intervention in primary care settings, but more recent technological innovations have enabled people to interact directly via computer, mobile device or smartphone with digital interventions designed to address problem alcohol consumption. To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of digital interventions for reducing hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, or both, in people living in the community, specifically: (i) Are digital interventions more effective and cost-effective than no intervention (or minimal input) controls? (ii) Are digital interventions at least equally effective as face-to-face brief alcohol interventions? (iii) What are the effective component behaviour change techniques (BCTs) of such interventions and their mechanisms of action? (iv) What theories or models have been used in the development and/or evaluation of the intervention? Secondary objectives were (i) to assess whether outcomes differ between trials where the digital intervention targets participants attending health, social care, education or other community-based settings and those where it is offered remotely via the internet or mobile phone platforms; (ii) to specify interventions according to their mode of delivery (e.g. functionality features) and assess the impact of mode of delivery on outcomes. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, HTA and Web of Knowledge databases; ClinicalTrials.com and WHO ICTRP trials registers and relevant websites to April 2017. We also checked the reference lists of included trials and relevant systematic reviews. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effectiveness of digital interventions compared with no

  7. Disregulated Alcohol-Related Behavior among College Drinkers: Associations with Protective Behaviors, Personality, and Drinking Motives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaak, Matthew I.; Perkins, David R.; Labatut, Tiffany R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Disregulated Alcohol-Related Behaviors Inventory (DARBI), a measure of harmful alcohol-related behavior, and the relationship between protective behavior use and scores on the DARBI and several other measures. Participants: Participants were 281 undergraduate volunteers (60%…

  8. Use of imagery and text that could convey reduced harm in American Spirit advertisements.

    PubMed

    Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Pierce, John P; Weiger, Caitlin; Cunningham, Mary C; Sargent, James D

    2017-03-01

    In 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration issued warning letters to three tobacco companies regarding use of the terms 'natural' and/or 'additive-free' to describe their products, as these terms inaccurately convey reduced harm. Yet, tobacco companies engage in a variety of alternate techniques to attempt to convey the same 'natural' (and thus reduced harm) message. It is critical to monitor these practices to inform regulatory action. To describe the marketing techniques used in Natural American Spirit (American Spirit) ads that could convey a natural and less harmful product image. Trained coders content analysed 142 American Spirit ads from 2012 to 2016. In addition to use of the terms 'natural' and 'additive-free', American Spirit ads engage in a variety of other linguistic and iconic techniques that could convey reduced harm, such as references to small, local or organic farming, eco-friendly practices, and plant, farming and other nature-related imagery. American Spirit ads use a wide range of marketing techniques to convey a natural product image, which could subsequently communicate reduced harm. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Sharply Reduced but Still Heavy Self-Harm Burdens in Hubei Province, China, 1990-2015.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jingju; Zhang, Lan; Tang, Yumeng; Li, Qian; Yu, Chuanhua; He, Tianjing

    2018-02-24

    The aims of this study were to describe fatal and non-fatal self-harm burdens, as well as burdens from the main preventable risk factors, and to investigate the different suicide methods in Hubei province in central China utilizing data from both Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 and Hubei Disease Surveillance Points system. All self-harm burdens including mortality, years of life lost (YLLs), prevalence, years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability adjusted life-years (DALYs) consistently demonstrated downward trends in Hubei from 1990 to 2015, with a bigger decline gap observed among females and narrower decreasing amplitudes among the elderly. Hubei experienced much higher age-standardized rates for self-harm mortality (22.0 per 100,000), YLLs (560.1 per 100,000) and DALYs (563.9 per 100,000) than the national (9.0, 292.3 and 295.0 per 100,000 respectively) and global levels (11.5, 453.3 and 457.9 per 100,000 respectively) in 2015. Self-harm burdens have begun shifting from females to males and the elderly suffered more self-harm burdens than other age groups. Alcohol use accounted for 20.9% of all self-harm DALYs for males, whereas intimate partner violence accounted for 24.4% of all self-harm DALYs for females. Poisoning, mainly pesticide self-poisoning, was still the most common method of suicide. Effective interventions by multi-sectoral collaboration are urgently needed to reduce the alarmingly heavy self-harm burdens in Hubei.

  10. Sharply Reduced but Still Heavy Self-Harm Burdens in Hubei Province, China, 1990–2015

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lan; Tang, Yumeng; Li, Qian; He, Tianjing

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe fatal and non-fatal self-harm burdens, as well as burdens from the main preventable risk factors, and to investigate the different suicide methods in Hubei province in central China utilizing data from both Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 and Hubei Disease Surveillance Points system. All self-harm burdens including mortality, years of life lost (YLLs), prevalence, years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability adjusted life-years (DALYs) consistently demonstrated downward trends in Hubei from 1990 to 2015, with a bigger decline gap observed among females and narrower decreasing amplitudes among the elderly. Hubei experienced much higher age-standardized rates for self-harm mortality (22.0 per 100,000), YLLs (560.1 per 100,000) and DALYs (563.9 per 100,000) than the national (9.0, 292.3 and 295.0 per 100,000 respectively) and global levels (11.5, 453.3 and 457.9 per 100,000 respectively) in 2015. Self-harm burdens have begun shifting from females to males and the elderly suffered more self-harm burdens than other age groups. Alcohol use accounted for 20.9% of all self-harm DALYs for males, whereas intimate partner violence accounted for 24.4% of all self-harm DALYs for females. Poisoning, mainly pesticide self-poisoning, was still the most common method of suicide. Effective interventions by multi-sectoral collaboration are urgently needed to reduce the alarmingly heavy self-harm burdens in Hubei. PMID:29495306

  11. The effectiveness of an intervention to reduce alcohol-related violence in premises licensed for the sale and on-site consumption of alcohol: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Moore, Simon C; Alam, M Fasihul; Heikkinen, Marjukka; Hood, Kerenza; Huang, Chao; Moore, Laurence; Murphy, Simon; Playle, Rebecca; Shepherd, Jonathan; Shovelton, Claire; Sivarajasingam, Vaseekaran; Williams, Anne

    2017-11-01

    Premises licensed for the sale and consumption of alcohol can contribute to levels of assault-related injury through poor operational practices that, if addressed, could reduce violence. We tested the real-world effectiveness of an intervention designed to change premises operation, whether any intervention effect changed over time, and the effect of intervention dose. A parallel randomized controlled trial with the unit of allocation and outcomes measured at the level of individual premises. All premises (public houses, nightclubs or hotels with a public bar) in Wales, UK. A randomly selected subsample (n = 600) of eligible premises (that had one or more violent incidents recorded in police-recorded crime data; n = 837) were randomized into control and intervention groups. Intervention premises were audited by Environmental Health Practitioners who identified risks for violence and provided feedback by varying dose (informal, through written advice, follow-up visits) on how risks could be addressed. Control premises received usual practice. Police data were used to derive a binary variable describing whether, on each day premises were open, one or more violent incidents were evident over a 455-day period following randomization. Due to premises being unavailable at the time of intervention delivery 208 received the intervention and 245 were subject to usual practice in an intention-to-treat analysis. The intervention was associated with an increase in police recorded violence compared to normal practice (hazard ratio = 1.34, 95% confidence interval = 1.20-1.51). Exploratory analyses suggested that reduced violence was associated with greater intervention dose (follow-up visits). An Environmental Health Practitioner-led intervention in premises licensed for the sale and on-site consumption of alcohol resulted in an increase in police recorded violence. © 2017 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of

  12. A Community Prevention Intervention to Reduce Youth from Inhaling and Ingesting Harmful Legal Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Knowlton; Courser, Matthew; Holder, Harold; Miller, Brenda; Ogilvie, Kristen; Moore, Roland; Collins, David; Saltz, Bob; Ogilvie, Diane; Saylor, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Youth use of harmful legal products, including inhaling or ingesting everyday household products, prescription drugs, and over-the-counter drugs, constitutes a growing health problem for American society. As such, a single targeted approach to preventing such a drug problem in a community is unlikely to be sufficient to reduce use and abuse at the…

  13. Alcohol policy and harm reduction in Australia.

    PubMed

    Loxley, Wendy; Gray, Dennis; Wilkinson, Celia; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Midford, Richard; Moore, David

    2005-11-01

    With consultations having been held across Australia this year as part of the process of developing a new National Alcohol Strategy, it seemed timely to invite my colleagues from the National Drug Research Institute who are experts in the alcohol field to write this Harm Reduction Digest. The authors have canvassed a range of alcohol policy options and discussed their effectiveness in reducing harm for what is arguably Australia's number one drug problem. Australia's response to alcohol and other drug problems has, historically, been based on 'harm minimization--incorporating supply reduction, demand reduction and harm reduction'. At this time where the policy options for alcohol are being set for the next 5 years in a climate of 'small government', removing restrictions of 'fair competition' in business and a belief in the free market, what does the research have to say about recommended policies and strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm?

  14. Can brief behavioral health interventions reduce suicidal and self-harm ideation in primary care patients?

    PubMed

    Dueweke, Aubrey R; Rojas, Sasha M; Anastasia, Elizabeth A; Bridges, Ana J

    2017-09-01

    We examined whether brief behavioral health visits reduced suicidal and self-harm ideation among primary care patients and compared the effectiveness of interventions that targeted ideation directly (i.e., safety planning) with those that targeted ideation indirectly through management of underlying mental illness (e.g., behavioral activation). We examined first- and last-visit data from 31 primary care patients with suicidal or self-harm ideation seen by behavioral health consultants. Patients reported significantly lower frequencies of suicidal and self-harm ideation at their final visit than at their initial visit. Patients whose ideation was targeted directly showed greater improvements than patients whose ideation was targeted indirectly. Although preliminary, results suggest mild to moderate suicidal ideation could be addressed in primary care through integration of behavioral health consultants into the medical team. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Effects of alcohol taxes on alcohol-related disease mortality in New York State from 1969 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Delcher, Chris; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2012-07-01

    The relationship of increased alcohol taxes to reductions in alcohol-related harm is well established. Few studies, however, have examined the effects of sudden decreases in alcohol tax rates or effects of narrow tax changes limited to specific beverage types. In the current study, we: (1) examine whether tax increases on spirits have similar effects in reducing alcohol-related disease mortality as increasing taxes on all types of alcoholic beverages simultaneously, and (2) evaluate effects of beer-specific tax decreases in New York State on mortality. We used a time-series, quasi-experimental research design, including non-alcohol deaths within New York State and other states' rates of alcohol-related disease mortality for comparison. The dataset included 456 monthly observations of mortality in New York State over a 38-year period (1969-2006). We used a random-effects approach and included several other important covariates. Alcohol-related disease mortality declined by 7.0% after a 1990 tax increase for spirits and beer. A spirits-only tax increase (in 1972) was not significantly associated with mortality but a data anomaly increased error in this effect estimate. Small tax decreases on beer between 1996 and 2006 had no measurable effect on mortality. Doubling the beer tax from $0.11 to $0.22 per gallon, a return to New York State's 1990 levels, would decrease deaths by an estimated 250 deaths per year. Excise tax increases on beer and spirits were associated with reductions in alcohol-related disease mortality. Modifying tax rates on a single beverage type does not appear to be as effective as doing so on multiple alcoholic beverages simultaneously. In New York, small decreases in beer taxes were not significantly associated with alcohol-related disease mortality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of alcohol taxes on alcohol-related disease mortality in New York State from 1969 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Delcher, Chris; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The relationship of increased alcohol taxes to reductions in alcohol-related harm is well established. Few studies, however, have examined the effects of sudden decreases in alcohol tax rates or effects of narrow tax changes limited to specific beverage types. In the current study, we: (1) examine whether tax increases on spirits have similar effects in reducing alcohol-related disease mortality as increasing taxes on all types of alcoholic beverages simultaneously, and (2) evaluate effects of beer-specific tax decreases in New York State on mortality. Method We used a time-series, quasi-experimental research design, including non-alcohol deaths within New York State and other states’ rates of alcohol-related disease mortality for comparison. The dataset included 456 monthly observations of mortality in New York State over a 38-year period (1969–2006). We used a random-effects approach and included several other important covariates. Results Alcohol-related disease mortality declined by 7.0% after a 1990 tax increase for spirits and beer. A spirits-only tax increase (in 1972) was not significantly associated with mortality but a data anomaly increased error in this effect estimate. Small tax decreases on beer between 1996 and 2006 had no measurable effect on mortality. Doubling the beer tax from $0.11 to $0.22 per gallon, a return to New York State’s 1990 levels, would decrease deaths by an estimated 250 deaths per year. Conclusions Excise tax increases on beer and spirits were associated with reductions in alcohol-related disease mortality. Modifying tax rates on a single beverage type does not appear to be as effective as doing so on multiple alcoholic beverages simultaneously. In New York, small decreases in beer taxes were not significantly associated with alcohol-related disease mortality. PMID:22436591

  17. Results of a cluster randomised controlled trial to reduce risky use of alcohol, alcohol-related HIV risks and improve help-seeking behaviour among safety and security employees in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Burnhams, Nadine Harker; London, Leslie; Laubscher, Ria; Nel, Elmarie; Parry, Charles

    2015-05-08

    To test the effectiveness of a programme aimed at reducing the risky use of alcohol and alcohol-related HIV risk and increase help-seeking behaviour among a sample of municipal employees in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. A clustered randomised controlled trial was conducted in 2011-2012 among 325 employees. The eight hour intervention, Team Awareness (TA), addressing behavioural risk among employees was administered to 168 employees in the intervention arm and the 157 employees in the control arm who received a one-hour wellness talk. The results show that TA had the greatest impact on risky drinking practices and hangover effects. There was a significant group × time interaction (F (1, 117) = 25.16, p<0.0001) with participants in the intervention condition reducing number of days on which they engaged in binge drinking. There was also a significant time effect with participants in the intervention condition reducing the likelihood of going to work with a hangover (F (1,117) = 4.10, p=0.045). No reduction in HIV-related risk behaviours were found. This intervention study was able to demonstrate a modest but significant reduction in risky drinking practices and hangover effects. This provides encouraging evidence for the effectiveness of interventions that address risky use of alcohol among employed persons, further providing a launch pad for strengthening and replicating future RCT studies on workplace prevention, especially in developing country settings. Pan-African Control Trial Registry (201301000458308) .

  18. Human alcohol-related neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Kril, Jillian J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-related diseases of the nervous system are caused by excessive exposures to alcohol, with or without co-existing nutritional or vitamin deficiencies. Toxic and metabolic effects of alcohol (ethanol) vary with brain region, age/developmental stage, dose, and duration of exposures. In the mature brain, heavy chronic or binge alcohol exposures can cause severe debilitating diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems, and skeletal muscle. Most commonly, long-standing heavy alcohol abuse leads to disproportionate loss of cerebral white matter and impairments in executive function. The cerebellum (especially the vermis), cortical-limbic circuits, skeletal muscle, and peripheral nerves are also important targets of chronic alcohol-related metabolic injury and degeneration. Although all cell types within the nervous system are vulnerable to the toxic, metabolic, and degenerative effects of alcohol, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and synaptic terminals are major targets, accounting for the white matter atrophy, neural inflammation and toxicity, and impairments in synaptogenesis. Besides chronic degenerative neuropathology, alcoholics are predisposed to develop severe potentially life-threatening acute or subacute symmetrical hemorrhagic injury in the diencephalon and brainstem due to thiamine deficiency, which exerts toxic/metabolic effects on glia, myelin, and the microvasculature. Alcohol also has devastating neurotoxic and teratogenic effects on the developing brain in association with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder/fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol impairs function of neurons and glia, disrupting a broad array of functions including neuronal survival, cell migration, and glial cell (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) differentiation. Further progress is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of this exposure-related constellation of nervous system diseases and better correlate the underlying pathology with in vivo imaging and biochemical lesions

  19. Brief interventions to reduce harmful alcohol use among military personnel: lessons learned from the civilian experience.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, William G; Hartman, Roger; Olshaker, Jonathan

    2006-06-01

    Unhealthy alcohol use is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Among military personnel, service members between the ages 18 and 25 had a 27.3% prevalence of heavy drinking in the previous 30 days, compared to 15.3% among civilians in the same age group. In the civilian world, > 100 million patients are treated in U.S. emergency departments (ED) annually; 7.9% of these visits are alcohol related. Alcohol is associated with a broad range of health consequences that may ultimately present in the ED setting: traumatic injuries (e.g., motor vehicle crashes, intentional violence, falls); environmental injuries (e.g., frostbite); cardiovascular problems (e.g., hypertension, dilated cardiomyopathy); gastrointestinal disorders (e.g., hepatitis, pancreatitis, gastrointestinal bleeding); neurological problems (e.g., encephalopathy, alcohol withdrawal, withdrawal seizures), as well as psychological problems (e.g., depression, suicide). Seminal work has been done to create behavioral interventions for at-risk drinkers. These motivational interventions have been found to be successful in encouraging clients to change their risky behaviors. We present such a technique, called the Brief Negotiated Interview as performed in a civilian ED setting, in hopes of adapting it for use in the military context. Military health care providers could easily adapt this technique to help reduce risky levels of alcohol consumption among service members, retirees, or military dependents.

  20. Temporal Patterns of Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Road Accidents in Young Swiss Men: Seasonal, Weekday and Public Holiday Effects.

    PubMed

    Foster, Simon; Gmel, Gerhard; Estévez, Natalia; Bähler, Caroline; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun

    2015-09-01

    To assess seasonal, weekday, and public holiday effects on alcohol-related road accidents and drinking diaries among young Swiss men. Federal road accident data (35,485 accidents) from Switzerland and drinking diary data from a large cohort of young Swiss men (11,930 subjects) were analysed for temporal effects by calendar week, weekday and public holiday (Christmas, New Years, National Day). Alcohol-related accidents were analysed using rate ratios for observed versus expected numbers of accidents and proportions of alcohol-related accidents relative to the total number. Drinking diaries were analysed for the proportion of drinkers, median number of drinks consumed, and the 90th percentile's number of drinks consumed. Several parallel peaks were identified in alcohol-related accidents and drinking diaries. These included increases on Fridays and Saturdays, with Saturday drinking extending until early Sunday morning, an increase during the summer on workdays but not weekends, an increase at the end of the year, and increases on public holidays and the evening before. Our results suggest specific time-windows that are associated with increases in drinking and alcohol-related harm. Established prevention measures should be enforced during these time-windows to reduce associated peaks. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  1. Normative perceptions of alcohol-related consequences among college students.

    PubMed

    Brett, Emma I; Leavens, Eleanor L; Miller, Mary Beth; Lombardi, Nathaniel; Leffingwell, Thad R

    2016-07-01

    College students in the U.S. continue to drink in hazardous ways and experience a range of alcohol-related consequences. Personalized feedback interventions (PFIs), which often include normative components comparing personal drinking to that of similar peers, have been effective in reducing alcohol outcomes among college students. Though normative perceptions of the quantity and frequency of alcohol use have been examined in many studies, norms for alcohol-related consequences have received less attention. The current study examined self-other discrepancies (SODs) for alcohol-related consequences among college students. Participants overestimated how often alcohol-related consequences are experienced by other same-sex students on campus and rated consequences as more acceptable for others to experience than themselves. No differences in SODs were found between those who did and did not report alcohol use. Future studies should examine the efficacy of PFIs that incorporate normative feedback on alcohol-related consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Refining boat electrofishing equipment to improve consistency and reduce harm to fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, L.E.

    2005-01-01

    A major concern with electrofishing is the standardization of sampling equipment and methods, particularly when collections are used to monitor spatial and temporal changes in fish communities. Standardization can not only ensure that stock assessment is consistent - that is, the data collected over time and space have equal meaning and are not influenced by differences in gear or gear application - but also reduce injury by constraining power to ranges that are likely to immobilize fish but unlikely to harm them. Standardization of electrofishing equipment requires adjusting power output to keep constant the amount of power transferred to fish in diverse water conditions. In this study, the power level thresholds required to immobilize and injure fish under controlled laboratory conditions were identified for various size-species combinations and applied to establish power minima and maxima suitable for successful and safe boat electrofishing. The target settings identified allowed survival of 99.4% of the fish collected and held for 2-3 h during field trials; all the mortalities were small fish (???53 mm long). The standardization procedure described herein may be adapted to single boats or fleets and can promote consistency in electrofishing, although it does not completely avoid harm to fish. Because electrofishing is an active capture method applied to changing microenvironments, complete standardization and total avoidance of harm to individual fish are not feasible with present technology, but standardization of controllable variables is advisable.

  3. City-based action to reduce harmful alcohol use: review of reviews

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Peter; Jané-Llopis, Eva; Hasan, Omer Syed Muhammad; Rehm, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization global strategy on alcohol called for municipal policies to reduce the harmful use of alcohol. Yet, there is limited evidence that documents the impact of city-level alcohol policies. Methods: Review of reviews for all years to July 2017. Searches on OVID Medline, Healthstar, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED, Social Work Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Mental Measurements Yearbook, Health and Psychosocial Instruments, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, International Political Science Abstracts, NASW Clinical Register, and Epub Ahead of Print databases. All reviews that address adults, without language or date restrictions resulting from combining the terms (“review” or “literature review” or “review literature” or “data pooling” or “comparative study” or “systematic review” or “meta-analysis” or “pooled analysis”), and “alcohol”, and “intervention” and (“municipal” or “city” or “community”). Results: Five relevant reviews were identified. Studies in the reviews were all from high income countries and focussed on the acute consequences of drinking, usually with one target intervention, commonly bars, media, or drink-driving. No studies in the reviews reported the impact of comprehensive city-based action. One community cluster randomized controlled trial in Australia, published after the reviews, failed to find convincing evidence of an impact of community-based interventions in reducing adult harmful use of alcohol.     Conclusions: To date, with one exception, the impact of adult-oriented comprehensive community and municipal action to reduce the harmful use of alcohol has not been studied. The one exception failed to find a convincing effect. We conclude with recommendations for closing this evidence gap. PMID:29862017

  4. City-based action to reduce harmful alcohol use: review of reviews.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter; Jané-Llopis, Eva; Hasan, Omer Syed Muhammad; Rehm, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization global strategy on alcohol called for municipal policies to reduce the harmful use of alcohol. Yet, there is limited evidence that documents the impact of city-level alcohol policies. Methods: Review of reviews for all years to July 2017. Searches on OVID Medline, Healthstar, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED, Social Work Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Mental Measurements Yearbook, Health and Psychosocial Instruments, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, International Political Science Abstracts, NASW Clinical Register, and Epub Ahead of Print databases. All reviews that address adults, without language or date restrictions resulting from combining the terms ("review" or "literature review" or "review literature" or "data pooling" or "comparative study" or "systematic review" or "meta-analysis" or "pooled analysis"), and "alcohol", and "intervention" and ("municipal" or "city" or "community"). Results: Five relevant reviews were identified. Studies in the reviews were all from high income countries and focussed on the acute consequences of drinking, usually with one target intervention, commonly bars, media, or drink-driving. No studies in the reviews reported the impact of comprehensive city-based action. One community cluster randomized controlled trial in Australia, published after the reviews, failed to find convincing evidence of an impact of community-based interventions in reducing adult harmful use of alcohol.     Conclusions: To date, with one exception, the impact of adult-oriented comprehensive community and municipal action to reduce the harmful use of alcohol has not been studied. The one exception failed to find a convincing effect. We conclude with recommendations for closing this evidence gap.

  5. Missouri Curriculum Guide for Alcohol-Related Traffic Offenders' Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Don; McClain, Robert

    This document contains the second edition of the Alcohol or Drug Related Traffic Offenders' Program (ARTOP) curriculum guide developed by the Missouri Department of Mental Health to reduce alcohol-related traffic offenses by presenting factual information about the physical effects of alcohol on the body and on driving skills. The materials…

  6. Temporal distribution of alcohol related facial fractures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kai H; Qiu, Michael; Sun, Jiandong

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to address 2 important aspects of temporal pattern in alcohol-related facial fractures: (1) comparison of temporal pattern of alcohol-related facial fracture (alcohol group) presentation with non-alcohol-related fracture (non-alcohol group) presentation; (2) temporal pattern of patient demographic characteristics, injury characteristics, and surgical management in the alcohol group presentation. This study retrospectively examined the Victorian admitted episodes data set (VAED) for the years 2010 to 2013. VAED is a standardized set of data collected during all hospital presentations in Victoria. The study found higher incidence of alcohol-related facial fracture presentations during weekends and during the summer and spring months compared with non-alcohol-related fractures (statistically significant). Alcohol-related facial fractures are more likely to involve male patients in the 20- to 29-year age group, occur as a result of interpersonal violence, and require shorter hospital stays during weekend admissions (statistically significant). No statistically significant relationship has been observed in seasonal variation across all variables. This study found distinct characteristics in temporal distribution of alcohol-related facial fractures. These characteristics are, in particular, significant in weekend trauma admissions. Such information is important in workforce planning, resource distribution, and implementation of injury prevention programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Can harms associated with high-intensity drinking be reduced by increasing the price of alcohol?

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Joshua; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Petrie, Dennis; Doran, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Increasing the price of alcohol is consistently shown to reduce the average level of consumption. However, the evidence for the effect of increasing the price on high-intensity drinking is both limited and equivocal. The aim of this analysis is to estimate the effect of changes in price on patterns of consumption. Self-reported patterns of alcohol consumption and demographic data were obtained from the Australian National Drug Strategy Household Surveys, conducted in 2001, 2004 and 2007. A pooled three-stage least-squares estimator was used to simultaneously model the impact of the price on the frequency (measured in days) of consuming no, low, moderate and high quantities of alcohol. A 1% increase in the price of alcohol was associated with a statistically significant increase of 6.41 days per year on which no alcohol is consumed (P ≤ 0.049), and a statistically significant decrease of 7.30 days on which 1-4 standard drinks are consumed (P ≤ 0.021). There was no statistically significant change for high or moderate-intensity drinking. For Australia, and countries with a similar pattern of predominant high-intensity drinking, taxation policies that increase the price of alcohol and are very efficient at decreasing harms associated with reduced average consumption may be relatively inefficient at decreasing alcohol harms associated with high-intensity drinking. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  8. Quantification of alcohol-related mortality in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sjögren, H; Eriksson, A; Broström, G; Ahlm, K

    2000-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to estimate total alcohol-related mortality in Sweden. For natural deaths, a meta-analysis carried out in Australia was updated to the end of March 1998, and pooled estimates of the relative risks were calculated for different diseases based on data from scientific studies that have been published in the international literature. The proportion of current alcohol drinkers from recent Swedish surveys, and the pooled relative risk estimates were used to estimate disease-specific alcohol-attributable fractions. Natural deaths 'caused' or 'prevented' by alcohol were estimated for the period 1992-1996. For unnatural deaths, all cases from 1992 through 1996 in Sweden were analysed (n = 23 132). Alcohol was regarded to attribute to the death: if the deceased was a 'known alcoholic'; if the underlying or contributing cause of death was alcohol-related; if the deceased had an alcohol-related in-patient diagnosis during a 3-year period prior to death; if the case tested positive for blood alcohol. Person years of life lost/gained (<70 years) due to alcohol were also assessed. The assumptions underlying the attributable risk methods used to analyse alcohol-related mortality due to natural causes need to be borne in mind when interpreting the results on natural deaths. Moreover, the preventive effect of alcohol on coronary heart disease and stroke is still controversial. The findings of alcohol-related mortality due to unnatural causes were much more reliable. About 3.5% of deaths were attributed to alcohol; alcohol involvement was more than twice as common in deaths of males (4.8%) than in those of females (2.0%). About one-quarter of the deaths in those aged below 50 years were attributed to alcohol. In those (harmful effect in that it 'caused' more deaths than it 'prevented'; 7% of deaths were in net 'caused'. More person years of life were in net lost than were saved by alcohol, suggesting that alcohol

  9. Socioeconomic differences in alcohol-related risk-taking behaviours.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Michael

    2014-11-01

    There is substantial research showing that low socioeconomic position is a predictor of negative outcomes from alcohol consumption, while alcohol consumption itself does not exhibit a strong social gradient. This study aims to examine socioeconomic differences in self-reported alcohol-related risk-taking behaviour to explore whether differences in risk-taking while drinking may explain some of the socioeconomic disparities in alcohol-related harm. Cross-sectional data from current drinkers (n = 21 452) in the 2010 wave of the Australian National Drug Strategy Household Survey were used. Ten items on risk-taking behaviour while drinking were combined into two risk scores, and zero-inflated Poisson regression was used to assess the relationship between socioeconomic position and risk-taking while controlling for age, sex and alcohol consumption. Socioeconomically advantaged respondents reported substantially higher rates of alcohol-related hazardous behaviour than socioeconomically disadvantaged respondents. Controlling for age, sex, volume of drinking and frequency of heavy drinking, respondents living in the most advantaged quintile of neighbourhoods reported significantly higher rates of hazardous behaviour than those in the least advantaged quintile. A similar pattern was evident for household income. Socioeconomically advantaged Australians engage in alcohol-related risky behaviour at higher rates than more disadvantaged Australians even with alcohol consumption controlled. The significant socioeconomic disparities in negative consequences linked to alcohol consumption cannot in this instance be explained via differences in behaviour while drinking. Other factors not directly related to alcohol consumption may be responsible for health inequalities in outcomes with significant alcohol involvement. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  10. Induction-heating MOCVD reactor with significantly improved heating efficiency and reduced harmful magnetic coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kuang-Hui; Alotaibi, Hamad S.; Sun, Haiding; Lin, Ronghui; Guo, Wenzhe; Torres-Castanedo, Carlos G.; Liu, Kaikai; Valdes-Galán, Sergio; Li, Xiaohang

    2018-04-01

    In a conventional induction-heating III-nitride metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor, the induction coil is outside the chamber. Therefore, the magnetic field does not couple with the susceptor well, leading to compromised heating efficiency and harmful coupling with the gas inlet and thus possible overheating. Hence, the gas inlet has to be at a minimum distance away from the susceptor. Because of the elongated flow path, premature reactions can be more severe, particularly between Al- and B-containing precursors and NH3. Here, we propose a structure that can significantly improve the heating efficiency and allow the gas inlet to be closer to the susceptor. Specifically, the induction coil is designed to surround the vertical cylinder of a T-shaped susceptor comprising the cylinder and a top horizontal plate holding the wafer substrate within the reactor. Therefore, the cylinder coupled most magnetic field to serve as the thermal source for the plate. Furthermore, the plate can block and thus significantly reduce the uncoupled magnetic field above the susceptor, thereby allowing the gas inlet to be closer. The results show approximately 140% and 2.6 times increase in the heating and susceptor coupling efficiencies, respectively, as well as a 90% reduction in the harmful magnetic flux on the gas inlet.

  11. The Role of Alcohol Perceptions as Mediators Between Personality and Alcohol-Related Outcomes Among Incoming College-Student Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Hustad, John T. P.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Neighbors, Clayton; Borsari, Brian

    2014-01-01

    After high school, college students escalate their drinking at a faster rate than their noncollege-attending peers, and alcohol use in high school is one of the strongest predictors of alcohol use in college. Therefore, an improved understanding of the role of predictors of alcohol use during the critical developmental period when individuals transition to college has direct clinical implications to reduce alcohol-related harms. We used path analysis in the present study to examine the predictive effects of personality (e.g., impulsivity, sensation seeking, hopelessness, and anxiety sensitivity) and three measures of alcohol perception: descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and perceptions regarding the perceived role of drinking in college on alcohol-related outcomes. Participants were 490 incoming freshmen college students. Results indicated that descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and the role of drinking largely mediated the effects of personality on alcohol outcomes. In contrast, both impulsivity and hopelessness exhibited direct effects on alcohol-related problems. The perceived role of drinking was a particularly robust predictor of outcomes and mediator of the effects of personality traits, including sensation seeking and impulsivity on alcohol outcomes. The intertwined relationships observed in this study between personality factors, descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and the role of drinking highlight the importance of investigating these predictors simultaneously. Findings support the implementation of interventions that target these specific perceptions about the role of drinking in college. PMID:24467197

  12. Usability Testing of the BRANCH Smartphone App Designed to Reduce Harmful Drinking in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Milward, Joanna; Deluca, Paolo; Drummond, Colin; Watson, Rod; Dunne, Jacklyn; Kimergård, Andreas

    2017-08-08

    Electronic screening and brief intervention (eSBI) apps demonstrate potential to reduce harmful drinking. However, low user engagement rates with eSBI reduce overall effectiveness of interventions. As "Digital Natives," young adults have high expectations of app quality. Ensuring that the design, content, and functionality of an eSBI app are acceptable to young adults is an integral stage to the development process. The objective of this study was to identify usability barriers and enablers for an app, BRANCH, targeting harmful drinking in young adults. The BRANCH app contains a drinking diary, alcohol reduction goal setting functions, normative drinking feedback, and information on risks and advice for cutting down. The app includes a social feature personalized to motivate cutting down and to promote engagement with a point-based system for usage. Three focus groups were conducted with 20 users who had tested the app for 1 week. A detailed thematic analysis was undertaken. The first theme, "Functionality" referred to how users wanted an easy-to-use interface, with minimum required user-input. Poor functionality was considered a major usability barrier. The second theme, "Design" described how an aesthetic with minimum text, clearly distinguishable tabs and buttons and appealing infographics was integral to the level of usability. The final theme, "Content" described how participants wanted all aspects of the app to be automatically personalized to them, as well as providing them with opportunities to personalize the app themselves, with increased options for social connectivity. There are high demands for apps such as BRANCH that target skilled technology users including young adults. Key areas to optimize eSBI app development that emerged from testing BRANCH with representative users include high-quality functionality, appealing aesthetics, and improved personalization. ©Joanna Milward, Paolo Deluca, Colin Drummond, Rod Watson, Jacklyn Dunne, Andreas Kimerg

  13. Usability Testing of the BRANCH Smartphone App Designed to Reduce Harmful Drinking in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Deluca, Paolo; Drummond, Colin; Watson, Rod; Dunne, Jacklyn; Kimergård, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Background Electronic screening and brief intervention (eSBI) apps demonstrate potential to reduce harmful drinking. However, low user engagement rates with eSBI reduce overall effectiveness of interventions. As “Digital Natives,” young adults have high expectations of app quality. Ensuring that the design, content, and functionality of an eSBI app are acceptable to young adults is an integral stage to the development process. Objective The objective of this study was to identify usability barriers and enablers for an app, BRANCH, targeting harmful drinking in young adults. Methods The BRANCH app contains a drinking diary, alcohol reduction goal setting functions, normative drinking feedback, and information on risks and advice for cutting down. The app includes a social feature personalized to motivate cutting down and to promote engagement with a point-based system for usage. Three focus groups were conducted with 20 users who had tested the app for 1 week. A detailed thematic analysis was undertaken. Results The first theme, “Functionality” referred to how users wanted an easy-to-use interface, with minimum required user-input. Poor functionality was considered a major usability barrier. The second theme, “Design” described how an aesthetic with minimum text, clearly distinguishable tabs and buttons and appealing infographics was integral to the level of usability. The final theme, “Content” described how participants wanted all aspects of the app to be automatically personalized to them, as well as providing them with opportunities to personalize the app themselves, with increased options for social connectivity. Conclusions There are high demands for apps such as BRANCH that target skilled technology users including young adults. Key areas to optimize eSBI app development that emerged from testing BRANCH with representative users include high-quality functionality, appealing aesthetics, and improved personalization. PMID:28790022

  14. Meta-Analysis of the Association of Alcohol-Related Social Media Use with Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Brenda L; Lookatch, Samantha J; Ramo, Danielle E; McKay, James R; Feinn, Richard S; Kranzler, Henry R

    2018-06-01

    social media engagement and drinking behavior or these were measured on different occasions and (ii) whether measurements were taken by self-report or observation of social media engagement. We found moderate-sized effects across the 19 studies: Greater alcohol-related social media engagement was correlated with both greater self-reported drinking and alcohol-related problems. Further research to determine the causal direction of these associations could provide opportunities for social media-based interventions with young drinkers aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related adverse consequences. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Recommendations on dram shop liability and overservice law enforcement initiatives to prevent excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    The Task Force on Community Preventive Services recommends the use of dram shop liability laws, on the basis of strong evidence of effectiveness in preventing and reducing alcohol-related harms. The Task Force found insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of overservice law enforcement initiatives as a means to reduce excessive alcohol consumption and related harms, because too few studies were identified and findings were inconsistent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Personality Mechanisms of Alcohol-Related Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, William R.; Adams, Nicholas A.

    1985-01-01

    Personality variables involved in alcohol-related violence were studied by comparing Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) scores of four different groups (N=259). Results are given for violent versus nonviolent groups and intoxicated versus sober men who commit murder. (Author/BL)

  17. Surveillance of tobacco industry retail marketing activities of reduced harm products.

    PubMed

    Slater, Sandy; Giovino, Gary; Chaloupka, Frank

    2008-01-01

    With the introduction of potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) and the interest in studying tobacco harm reduction, sound research and surveillance are needed to examine and understand the distribution and availability of PREPs in communities, as well as the tobacco industry's marketing practices surrounding these products. We examined the availability and marketing of PREPs in a national sample of tobacco retail stores. We also compared the price of PREPs to those of premium brand cigarettes and examined the distribution of PREPs in comparison with premium brand cigarettes by store type, urbanization, region, and race/ethnicity. We found that PREPs are not widely available, are priced similarly to leading cigarette brands, and have few promotional offers. We also found some significant differences in the distribution of PREPs and cigarettes, as well as in the distribution of Ariva and Omni, by store type and community demographics. The fact that this study used data collected nationally emphasizes the importance of these findings and helps shed some light on the tobacco industry's PREP marketing strategies. This study's national sample provides a unique perspective that needs to be replicated if and when other PREPs are widely marketed.

  18. Strategies to reduce the harmful effects of extreme heat events: a four-city study.

    PubMed

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L; McCormick, Sabrina; Sampson, Natalie; Buxton, Miatta A; O'Neill, Marie S; Gronlund, Carina J; Catalano, Linda; Conlon, Kathryn C; Parker, Edith A

    2014-02-13

    Extreme heat events (EHEs) are becoming more intense, more frequent and longer lasting in the 21st century. These events can disproportionately impact the health of low-income, minority, and urban populations. To better understand heat-related intervention strategies used by four U.S. cities, we conducted 73 semi-structured interviews with government and non-governmental organization leaders representing public health, general social services, emergency management, meteorology, and the environmental planning sectors in Detroit, MI; New York City, NY; Philadelphia, PA and Phoenix, AZ-cities selected for their diverse demographics, climates, and climate adaptation strategies. We identified activities these leaders used to reduce the harmful effects of heat for residents in their city, as well as the obstacles they faced and the approaches they used to evaluate these efforts. Local leaders provided a description of how local context (e.g., climate, governance and city structure) impacted heat preparedness. Despite the differences among study cities, political will and resource access were critical to driving heat-health related programming. Upon completion of our interviews, we convened leaders in each city to discuss these findings and their ongoing efforts through day-long workshops. Our findings and the recommendations that emerged from these workshops could inform other local or national efforts towards preventing heat-related morbidity and mortality.

  19. The role of remote community stores in reducing the harm resulting from tobacco to Aboriginal people.

    PubMed

    Ivers, Rowena G; Castro, Anthony; Parfitt, David; Bailie, Ross S; Richmond, Robyn L; D'Abbs, Peter H

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the potential for reducing the harm resulting from tobacco use through health promotion programmes run in community stores in remote Aboriginal communities. The Tobacco Project utilised data from 111 stakeholder interviews (72 at baseline and 71 at follow-up after 12 months) assessing presence of sales to minors, tobacco advertising, labelling and pricing. It also involved the assessment of observational data from community stores and comments obtained from 29 tobacco vendors derived from community surveys. Sales of tobacco to minors were not reported in community stores and all stores complied with requirements to display the legislated signage. However, tobacco was accessible to minors through a vending machine and through independent vendors. Only one store displayed tobacco advertising; all stores had displayed anti-tobacco health promotion posters or pamphlets. Pricing policies in two stores may have meant that food items effectively subsidised the cost of tobacco. All stores had unofficial no-smoking policies in accessible parts of the store. Remote community stores complied with existing legislation, aside from allowing access of minors to vending machines. There may still be potential for proactive tobacco education campaigns run through community stores and for a trial assessing the effect of changes in tobacco prices on tobacco consumption.

  20. Strategies to Reduce the Harmful Effects of Extreme Heat Events: A Four-City Study

    PubMed Central

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L.; McCormick, Sabrina; Sampson, Natalie; Buxton, Miatta A.; O’Neill, Marie S.; Gronlund, Carina J.; Catalano, Linda; Conlon, Kathryn C.; Parker, Edith A.

    2014-01-01

    Extreme heat events (EHEs) are becoming more intense, more frequent and longer lasting in the 21st century. These events can disproportionately impact the health of low-income, minority, and urban populations. To better understand heat-related intervention strategies used by four U.S. cities, we conducted 73 semi-structured interviews with government and non-governmental organization leaders representing public health, general social services, emergency management, meteorology, and the environmental planning sectors in Detroit, MI; New York City, NY; Philadelphia, PA and Phoenix, AZ—cities selected for their diverse demographics, climates, and climate adaptation strategies. We identified activities these leaders used to reduce the harmful effects of heat for residents in their city, as well as the obstacles they faced and the approaches they used to evaluate these efforts. Local leaders provided a description of how local context (e.g., climate, governance and city structure) impacted heat preparedness. Despite the differences among study cities, political will and resource access were critical to driving heat-health related programming. Upon completion of our interviews, we convened leaders in each city to discuss these findings and their ongoing efforts through day-long workshops. Our findings and the recommendations that emerged from these workshops could inform other local or national efforts towards preventing heat-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:24531122

  1. Alcohol-related legal infractions and student retention.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kevin M

    2007-09-01

    The present study employed municipal alcohol-related arrest reports to determine if being arrested/cited reduced the probability of academic retention. Alcohol-related legal infraction data implicating 1,310 college students was gathered during a 4-year period. First- through third-year students were identified in the database by cross-checking names in the campus directory. A random sample of nonarrested students functioned as the comparison group (n = 856). Students not appearing in the directory the following year were defined as nonretained students. Retention was not affected by the experience of one alcohol-related legal infraction. Retention odds were 31% lower for students experiencing multiple arrests, however, than for nonarrested or single-arrested students. Gender moderated the association between arrest and retention, with women who had been arrested more likely to return to school than those who had not been arrested. Retention odds were higher for arrested/cited students if they were in their second or third year of college, a fraternity/sorority member, or charged with an offense other than driving under the influence. Multi-arrested college students are at risk for attrition. Immersion in college life may reduce the odds of attrition among arrested college students.

  2. Cat cracking technology with reduced discharge of harmful substances to the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Elshin, A.I.; Aliev, R.R.; Solyar, B.Z.

    1995-11-01

    The operation of cat crackers creates a number of ecological problems involving pollution of the atmosphere. In the regeneration of coked catalyst, up to 10 tonnes/day of sulfur oxides are discharged to the atmosphere, along with catalyst dust in amounts up to 2 tonnes/day and carbon monoxide up to 120 tonnes/day. With increasingly severe requirements for environmental protection, the problem of reducing harmful discharges to the atmosphere has become more acute, necessitating either preliminary hydrotreating of the feed or scrubber cleanup of the stack gas to remove sulfur oxides. The high cost of these processes has provided the impetus formore » proposing various types of bifunctional cracking catalysts and effective catalyst additives to bind sulfur oxides directly in the regenerator. Basic oxides (of aluminum, magnesium, calcium, etc.) react with sulfur oxides to form stable sulfates that are then reduced to hydrogen sulfide in the reactor, while re-forming the basic oxide. Binding sulfur oxides in the regenerator is favored by the presence of an oxidizing agent or by the introduction of a promoter for afterburning carbon monoxide to dioxide. Compositions consisting mainly of aluminum oxide ({>=}90% by weight) have been patented as catalyst additives for binding sulfur oxides; other compositions that have been patented consist of Group II metal oxides and other oxides that have oxidizing properties. The additives are introduced into the catalyst charge in amounts of 5-10% by weight. On the basis of research, an aluminium oxide additive, PS-17, has been developed for binding sulfur oxides in the course of cracking.« less

  3. Effectiveness of Mass Media Campaigns to Reduce Alcohol Consumption and Harm: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Young, Ben; Lewis, Sarah; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Bauld, Linda; Stead, Martine; Angus, Kathryn; Campbell, Mhairi; Hilton, Shona; Thomas, James; Hinds, Kate; Ashie, Adela; Langley, Tessa

    2018-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of mass media messages to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms using a systematic literature review. Eight databases were searched along with reference lists of eligible studies. Studies of any design in any country were included, provided that they evaluated a mass media intervention targeting alcohol consumption or related behavioural, social cognitive or clinical outcomes. Drink driving interventions and college campus campaigns were ineligible. Studies quality were assessed, data were extracted and a narrative synthesis conducted. Searches produced 10,212 results and 24 studies were included in the review. Most campaigns used TV or radio in combination with other media channels were conducted in developed countries and were of weak quality. There was little evidence of reductions in alcohol consumption associated with exposure to campaigns based on 13 studies which measured consumption, although most did not state this as a specific aim of the campaign. There were some increases in treatment seeking and information seeking and mixed evidence of changes in intentions, motivation, beliefs and attitudes about alcohol. Campaigns were associated with increases in knowledge about alcohol consumption, especially where levels had initially been low. Recall of campaigns was high. Mass media health campaigns about alcohol are often recalled by individuals, have achieved changes in knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about alcohol but there is little evidence of reductions in alcohol consumption. There is little evidence that mass media campaigns have reduced alcohol consumption although most did not state that they aimed to do so. Studies show recall of campaigns is high and that they can have an impact on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about alcohol consumption.

  4. Reducing Lake Erie's Harmful Algal Blooms: Projection and Adoption of Management Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J.; Aloysius, N.; Howard, G.; Kalcic, M. M.; Wilson, R. S.; Scavia, D.; Roe, B.

    2016-12-01

    In early 2016, the United States and Canada formally agreed to reduce phosphorus inputs to Lake Erie by 40% to reduce the severity of annual Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). These blooms have become more severe, with record events occurring in 2011 and 2015, and have compromised public safety, shut down drinking water supplies, and negatively impacted the economy of the western Lake Erie basin. Now, key questions revolve around the ability to reach the 40% reduction, required management changes, and resources to support these changes. This presentation will highlight interdisciplinary research to compare the amount and types of practices needed for this reduction to the current and projected levels of adoption. Economic resources to support these management changes are also compared with the financial support from the general public to improve Lake Erie water quality. Multiple models of the Maumee watershed identified management plans and adoption rates needed to reach the reduction targets. For example, one successful scenario estimated necessary adoption rates of 50% for subsurface application of fertilizer on row crops, 58% for cover crops, and 78% for buffer strips. Current adoption is below these levels, but future projections based on farmer surveys shows these levels are possible. Public support is necessary to generate the funding to support cost sharing and other programs aimed at increasing adoption of recommended practices. Comparing results from willingness-to-pay surveys of the general public with the estimated need for these management plans shows a gap in resources to support these levels of adoption. In general, these results show that accelerated adoption of management plans is needed compared to past adoption rates, but that these rates are possible based on likely adoption rates. Projected support from the general public indicates it will be challenging to fund these rates of adoption, especially during climate changes that may require even greater

  5. Effectiveness of Mass Media Campaigns to Reduce Alcohol Consumption and Harm: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Sarah; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Bauld, Linda; Stead, Martine; Angus, Kathryn; Campbell, Mhairi; Hilton, Shona; Thomas, James; Hinds, Kate; Ashie, Adela; Langley, Tessa

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Aims To assess the effectiveness of mass media messages to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms using a systematic literature review. Methods Eight databases were searched along with reference lists of eligible studies. Studies of any design in any country were included, provided that they evaluated a mass media intervention targeting alcohol consumption or related behavioural, social cognitive or clinical outcomes. Drink driving interventions and college campus campaigns were ineligible. Studies quality were assessed, data were extracted and a narrative synthesis conducted. Results Searches produced 10,212 results and 24 studies were included in the review. Most campaigns used TV or radio in combination with other media channels were conducted in developed countries and were of weak quality. There was little evidence of reductions in alcohol consumption associated with exposure to campaigns based on 13 studies which measured consumption, although most did not state this as a specific aim of the campaign. There were some increases in treatment seeking and information seeking and mixed evidence of changes in intentions, motivation, beliefs and attitudes about alcohol. Campaigns were associated with increases in knowledge about alcohol consumption, especially where levels had initially been low. Recall of campaigns was high. Conclusion Mass media health campaigns about alcohol are often recalled by individuals, have achieved changes in knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about alcohol but there is little evidence of reductions in alcohol consumption. Short summary There is little evidence that mass media campaigns have reduced alcohol consumption although most did not state that they aimed to do so. Studies show recall of campaigns is high and that they can have an impact on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about alcohol consumption. PMID:29329359

  6. Chain of Care for Patients with Intentional Self-Harm: An Effective Strategy to Reduce Suicide Rates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossow, Ingeborg; Mehlum, Lars; Gjertsen, Finn; Moller, Bjorn

    2009-01-01

    Chain of care for patients with intentional self-harm was important in the Norwegian national action plan to prevent suicide. In this study there were two aims: (1) to calculate the potential effects of chain of care on reducing suicide rates, and (2) to assess whether suicide rates decreased more in areas where chain of care had been implemented…

  7. Effectiveness of policies restricting hours of alcohol sales in preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Robert A; Kuzara, Jennifer L; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2010-12-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team's initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Legislative smoking bans for reducing harms from secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    PubMed

    Frazer, Kate; Callinan, Joanne E; McHugh, Jack; van Baarsel, Susan; Clarke, Anna; Doherty, Kirsten; Kelleher, Cecily

    2016-02-04

    Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and the smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. Since the first version of this review in 2010, more countries have introduced national smoking legislation banning indoor smoking. To assess the effects of legislative smoking bans on (1) morbidity and mortality from exposure to secondhand smoke, and (2) smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and reference lists of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; February 2015. We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans affecting populations. The minimum standard was having an indoor smoking ban explicitly in the study and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. Our search included a broad range of research designs including: randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (i.e. non-randomized controlled studies), controlled before-and-after studies, interrupted time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. One author extracted characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies and a second author checked the details. We extracted health and smoking behaviour outcomes. We did not attempt a meta-analysis due to the heterogeneity in design and content of the studies included. We evaluated the studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. There are 77 studies included in this updated review. We retained 12 studies from the original review and identified 65 new studies. Evidence from 21 countries is

  9. Minimum prices for alcohol and educational disparities in alcohol-related mortality.

    PubMed

    Herttua, Kimmo; Mäkelä, Pia; Martikainen, Pekka

    2015-05-01

    Minimum price of alcohol is one of the proposed set of alcohol policies in many high-income countries. However, the extent to which alcohol-related harm is associated with minimum prices across socioeconomic groups is not known. Using Finnish national registers in 1988-2007, we investigated, by means of time-series analysis, the association between minimum prices for alcohol overall, as well as for various types of alcoholic beverages, and alcohol-related mortality, among men and women ages 30-79 years across three educational groups. We defined quarterly aggregations of alcohol-related deaths, based on a sample including 80% of all deaths, in accordance with information on both underlying and contributory causes of death. About 62,500 persons died from alcohol-related causes during the 20-year follow-up. The alcohol-related mortality rate was more than threefold higher among those with a basic education than among those with a tertiary education. Among men with a basic education, an increase of 1% in the minimum price of alcohol was associated with a decrease of 0.03% (95% confidence interval = 0.01, 0.04%) in deaths per 100,000 person-years. Changes in the minimum prices of distilled spirits, intermediate products, and strong beer were also associated with changes in the opposite direction among men with a basic education and among women with a secondary education, whereas among the most highly educated there were no associations between the minimum prices of any beverages and mortality. Moreover, we found no evidence of an association between lower minimum prices for wine and higher rates of alcohol-related mortality in any of the population sub-groups. The results reveal associations between higher minimum prices and lower alcohol-related mortality among men with a basic education and women with a secondary education for all beverage types except wine.

  10. Features of alcohol harm reduction advertisements that most motivate reduced drinking among adults: an advertisement response study

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Dunstone, Kimberley; Durkin, Sarah J; Dixon, Helen G; Pettigrew, Simone; Slater, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To improve the effectiveness of alcohol harm reduction mass media campaigns, this study aimed to (1) identify existing advertisements (ads) with greatest potential to motivate reduced alcohol consumption, (2) assess consistency across audience subgroups in ad effectiveness and (3) identify ad features associated with effectiveness. Design Cross-sectional online ad response study with random assignment to view ads. Participants 2174 Australian adult weekly drinkers recruited from an online panel. Procedure Participants were randomly assigned to view three of 83 English-language alcohol harm reduction ads. Each ad was viewed and rated by a mean of 79 participants. Outcome measure After viewing each ad, participants reported the extent to which they felt motivated to reduce their drinking. Ads were ranked from most to least motivating using predicted means adjusted for demographic characteristics and alcohol consumption. We compared the characteristics of the top-ranked 15% of ads (most motivating) with the middle 70% and bottom 15%. Results An ad about the link between alcohol and cancer (‘Spread’) was most motivating, whereas an ad that encouraged drinking water instead of beer (‘Add nothing’) was least motivating. Top-ranked ads were more likely than other ads to feature a ‘why change’ message and less likely to carry a ‘how to change’ message; more likely to address long-term harms; more likely to be aimed at the general adult drinking population and more likely to include drinking guidelines. There was substantial overlap in top-ranked ads for younger versus older adults, men versus women and high-risk versus low-risk drinker subgroups. Conclusions The effectiveness of alcohol harm reduction campaigns may be improved by directly communicating alcohol's long-term harms to the general adult population of drinkers along with drinking guidelines. By doing so, campaigns can also efficiently influence high-risk drinkers and key demographic

  11. Changing Collective Social Norms in Favour of Reduced Harmful Use of Alcohol: A Review of Reviews.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter; Jané-Llopis, Eva; Hasan, Omer Syed Muhammad; Rehm, Jürgen

    2018-05-01

    Public sector bodies have called for policies and programmes to shift collective social norms in disfavour of the harmful use of alcohol. This article aims to identify and summarize the evidence and propose how policies and programmes to shift social norms could be implemented and evaluated. Review of reviews for all years to July 2017. Searches on OVID Medline, Healthstar, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED, Social Work Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Mental Measurements Yearbook, Joanna Briggs Institute EBP, Health and Psychosocial Instruments, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, International Political Science Abstracts, NASW Clinical Register and Epub Ahead of Print databases. All reviews, without language or date restrictions resulting from combining the terms ((review or literature review or review literature or data pooling or comparative study or systematic review or meta-analysis or pooled analysis) and (social norms or culture) and (alcohol drinking)). Two relevant reviews were identified. One review of community-based interventions found one study that demonstrated small changes in parental disapproval of under-age drinking. One review stressed that collective social norms about drinking are malleable and not uniform in any one country. Three factors are proposed to inform programmes: provide information about the consequences of the harmful use of alcohol, and their causes and distribution; act on groups, not individuals; and strengthen environmental laws, regulations and approaches. Purposeful policies and programmes could be implemented to change collective social norms in disfavour of the harmful use of alcohol; they should be evidence-based and fully evaluated for their impact.

  12. Within-group male relatedness reduces harm to females in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Felicity; Wigby, Stuart; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2018-01-01

    Resolving the mechanisms that switch competition to cooperation is key to understand biological organization1. This is particularly relevant for intrasexual competition, which often leads to males harming females2. Recent theory proposes that kin selection may modulate female harm by relaxing competition among relatives3–5. We experimentally manipulated the relatedness of groups of male Drosophila melanogaster competing over females to demonstrate that, as expected, within group relatedness inhibits male competition and female harm. Females exposed to three brothers unrelated to the female had higher lifetime reproductive success and slower reproductive ageing compared to females exposed to triplets of males unrelated to each other. Triplets of brothers also fought less with each other, courted females less intensively and lived longer than triplets of unrelated males. However, associations among brothers may be vulnerable to invasion by minorities of unrelated males: when two brothers were matched with an unrelated male, the latter sired on average twice as many offspring as either brother. These results demonstrate that relatedness can profoundly affect fitness through its modulation of intrasexual competition, as flies plastically adjust sexual behaviour in a way consistent with kin selection theory. PMID:24463521

  13. Keeping them connected--reducing drug-related harm in Australian schools from a Catholic perspective.

    PubMed

    Norden, Peter

    2008-07-01

    In this Harm Reduction Digest, Father Peter Norden of Jesuit Social Services (Australia) summarises the findings of a report of a consultation into how Catholic schools in Australia address substance use by school students. The report showed that while in the past the 'zero tolerance' approach had been the norm, more recently there had been a growing awareness in Catholic schools that it is possible to respond to the needs of drug-using students while being respectful of the duty of care to other students. Moreover, harm reduction was accepted as a serious objective for drug policy and practice in Australian Catholic schools. The paper canvases the key issues that emerged from the consultation and suggests what 'good practice' looks like, providing useful guidance for both Catholic and non-Catholic schools alike. For those of us outside the Catholic school system, the paper provides an enlightening read about how substance use can be best addressed within schools. Simon Lenton Editor, Harm Reduction Digest.

  14. Alcohol-related emergency department injury presentations in Queensland adolescents and young adults over a 13-year period.

    PubMed

    Hides, Leanne; Limbong, Jesani; Vallmuur, Kirsten; Barker, Ruth; Daglish, Mark; Young, Ross McD

    2015-03-01

    The rate of alcohol-related emergency department (ED) presentations in young people has increased dramatically in recent decades. Injuries are the most common type of youth alcohol-related ED presentation, yet little is known about these injuries in young people. This paper describes the characteristics of alcohol-related ED injury presentations in young people over a 13-year period and determines if they differ by gender and/or age group (adolescents: 12-17 years; young adults: 18-24 years). The Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit (QISU) database collects injury surveillance data at triage in participating EDs throughout Queensland, Australia. A total of 4667 cases of alcohol-related injuries in young people (aged 12-24 years) were identified in the QISU database between January 1999 and December 2011, using an injury surveillance code and nursing triage text-based search strategy. Overall, young people accounted for 38% of all QISU alcohol-related ED injury presentations in patients aged 12 years or over. The majority of young adults presented with injuries due to violence and falls, whereas adolescents presented due to self-harm or intoxication without other injury. Males presented with injuries due to violence, whereas females presented with alcohol-related self-harm and intoxication. There is a need for more effective ways of identifying the degree of alcohol involvement in injuries among young people presenting to EDs. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  15. A multi‐faceted intervention to reduce alcohol misuse and harm amongst sports people in Ireland: A controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    O'Farrell, Anne; Kenny, Susan; Eldin, Nazih; Wiggers, John; Wolfenden, Luke; Allwright, Shane

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction and Aims Alcohol misuse and harm are more prevalent amongst sports people than non‐sports people. Few studies have trialled interventions to address alcohol misuse for this group. The study aimed to test the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce alcohol misuse and related harms amongst amateur sports people in Ireland. Design and Methods A controlled trial was conducted in two counties in Ireland. A random selection of sports clubs in one county received a 4 month multi‐faceted intervention. All sports clubs in a non‐adjacent county acted as control sites. Consumption of more than 21 units of alcohol per week and six or more standard drinks on a single occasion at least once per week was the primary study outcome. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores and number of alcohol‐related harms were also reported. Outcomes were assessed for cross‐sectional samples of players at pre‐intervention and post‐intervention and paired samples of players who completed surveys at both times. Generalised linear mixed model analysis was used. Results There was no evidence of effect for the primary outcomes or Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores. There was a statistically significant difference in the median number of alcohol‐related harms reported by intervention group players compared with control group players at post‐intervention for the paired samples [intervention: 0; control: 3; incident rate ratio 0.56 (0.37, 0.84); P = 0.005]. Discussion and Conclusions Intervention in community sports clubs may be effective in reducing the number of alcohol‐related harms. Low levels of intervention participation and inadequate intervention dose are possible reasons for lack of a broader intervention effect. [O'Farrell A, Kingsland M, Kenny S, Eldin N, Wiggers J, Wolfenden L, Allwright S. A multi‐faceted intervention to reduce alcohol misuse and harm amongst sports people in Ireland: A controlled trial. Drug Alcohol Rev

  16. Comparing methods of detecting alcohol-related emergency department presentations.

    PubMed

    Indig, D; Copeland, J; Conigrave, K M

    2009-08-01

    To assess the strengths and limitations of different methods for detecting alcohol-related emergency department (ED) presentations and to compare the characteristics of patients who present to the ED with an alcohol-related presentation with ED patients who are found to be risky drinkers by a questionnaire. Survey at two Sydney Australia ED over four weekends of 389 patients. Alcohol-related presentations were identified using a range of methods and were compared with presentations in ED patients who reported risky drinking using the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT). Overall, 20% of ED patients had alcohol-related presentations and 28% were identified as risky drinkers by AUDIT. Diagnostic codes detected only 7% of all alcohol-related ED presentations, compared with 34% detected by nursing triage text, 60% by medical record audits and 69% by self-report. Among risky drinkers, just over half (51%) were not attending for an alcohol-related reason, whereas among alcohol-related ED presentations, nearly a third (31%) were not identified as risky drinkers by AUDIT. Not all patients with an alcohol-related ED presentation usually drink at risky levels, nor do all risky drinkers present to the ED for an alcohol-related reason. The use of routinely recorded nursing triage text detects over a third of alcohol-related ED presentations with no additional burden on busy clinicians. As these data are potentially readily accessible, further research is needed to evaluate their validity for the detection of alcohol-related ED presentations.

  17. Making Residents Part of the Safety Culture: Improving Error Reporting and Reducing Harms.

    PubMed

    Fox, Michael D; Bump, Gregory M; Butler, Gabriella A; Chen, Ling-Wan; Buchert, Andrew R

    2017-01-30

    Reporting medical errors is a focus of the patient safety movement. As frontline physicians, residents are optimally positioned to recognize errors and flaws in systems of care. Previous work highlights the difficulty of engaging residents in identification and/or reduction of medical errors and in integrating these trainees into their institutions' cultures of safety. The authors describe the implementation of a longitudinal, discipline-based, multifaceted curriculum to enhance the reporting of errors by pediatric residents at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The key elements of this curriculum included providing the necessary education to identify medical errors with an emphasis on systems-based causes, modeling of error reporting by faculty, and integrating error reporting and discussion into the residents' daily activities. The authors tracked monthly error reporting rates by residents and other health care professionals, in addition to serious harm event rates at the institution. The interventions resulted in significant increases in error reports filed by residents, from 3.6 to 37.8 per month over 4 years (P < 0.0001). This increase in resident error reporting correlated with a decline in serious harm events, from 15.0 to 8.1 per month over 4 years (P = 0.01). Integrating patient safety into the everyday resident responsibilities encourages frequent reporting and discussion of medical errors and leads to improvements in patient care. Multiple simultaneous interventions are essential to making residents part of the safety culture of their training hospitals.

  18. Establishments licensed to serve alcohol and their contribution to police-recorded crime in Australia: further opportunities for harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Shelley C; Wiggers, John H; Wolfenden, Luke; Francis, J Lynn

    2010-11-01

    Although strategies exist to minimize alcohol-related harms associated with establishments licensed to serve alcohol, such establishments are associated with a disproportionate level of harm. To date, understanding the association between such establishments and alcohol-related harms, and hence the opportunities for reducing harm, has been limited by inadequate information regarding incidents of alcohol-related crime. To address this deficiency, this study was undertaken to describe the association between such establishments and incidents of crime using enhanced police-recorded, alcohol-related crime intelligence. A descriptive analysis was undertaken of intoxicated people who had last consumed alcohol in establishments licensed to serve alcohol (841 bars, 551 licensed social clubs, 11 nightclubs, and 18 other locations) preceding their involvement in police-recorded incidents of violence, disorder, or motor vehicle crashes. The study area encompassed 21 nonmetropolitan police commands in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Among intoxicated persons involved in incidents of violence, disorder, or motor vehicle crashes, the risk of being recorded as having last consumed alcohol in a bar or nightclub before the incident was at least twice that of licensed social clubs and other establishments. Approximately 20% of establishments accounted for 80% of intoxicated persons involved in such incidents, and 6% of establishments were in the top 20% of establishments for all three offense types. The disproportionate burden of alcohol-related crime associated with establishments licensed to serve alcohol may be reduced if harm-reduction strategies address the specific risks posed by bars and nightclubs, and individual high-risk establishments.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent alcohol-related disease and injury in Australia.

    PubMed

    Cobiac, Linda; Vos, Theo; Doran, Christopher; Wallace, Angela

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate cost-effectiveness of eight interventions for reducing alcohol-attributable harm and determine the optimal intervention mix. Interventions include volumetric taxation, advertising bans, an increase in minimum legal drinking age, licensing controls on operating hours, brief intervention (with and without general practitioner telemarketing and support), drink driving campaigns, random breath testing and residential treatment for alcohol dependence (with and without naltrexone). Cost-effectiveness is modelled over the life-time of the Australian population in 2003, with all costs and health outcomes evaluated from an Australian health sector perspective. Each intervention is compared with current practice, and the most cost-effective options are then combined to determine the optimal intervention mix. Cost-effectiveness is measured in 2003 Australian dollars per disability adjusted life year averted. Although current alcohol intervention in Australia (random breath testing) is cost-effective, if the current spending of $71 million could be invested in a more cost-effective combination of interventions, more than 10 times the amount of health gain could be achieved. Taken as a package of interventions, all seven preventive interventions would be a cost-effective investment that could lead to substantial improvement in population health; only residential treatment is not cost-effective. Based on current evidence, interventions to reduce harm from alcohol are highly recommended. The potential reduction in costs of treating alcohol-related diseases and injuries mean that substantial improvements in population health can be achieved at a relatively low cost to the health sector. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Alcohol-related emergency department visits associated with collegiate football games.

    PubMed

    Shook, Janice; Hiestand, Brian C

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, after several post-college football game riots, multiple strategies including strict enforcement of open container laws were instituted by the authors' city and university. The authors compared alcohol-related visits to the on-campus emergency department (ED) associated with home football games in 2002 and 2006, hypothesizing that alcohol-related visits should decline. ED patients during home game weekends. Retrospective cohort study comparing the 2002 and 2006 home games-similar seasons wherein the team went undefeated. Logistic regression assessed the impact of environmental and patient characteristics on the likelihood of an ED visit being alcohol related. In total 2,220 visits in 2002 and 2,146 visits in 2006 were reviewed. Alcohol-related visits increased from 2002 (7.9%) to 2006 (9.5%, p = .06). Despite community interventions, the odds of an ED visit being alcohol related increased (odds ratio [OR] 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI₉₅] 1.06-1.64). Community measures did not reduce alcohol-related visits to the ED.

  1. The gendered trouble with alcohol: young people managing alcohol related violence.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Jo

    2012-05-01

    Alcohol related violence is a troubling backdrop to the social lives and relationships of many young people in post-industrial societies. The development of the night-time economy where young people are encouraged to drink heavily in entertainment precincts has increased the risk of violence. This paper reports on 60 individual structured in-depth interviews about the drinking biographies of young people (aged 20-24) living in Victoria, Australia. Twenty-six males and 34 females participated in the research. The participants discussed their experiences with alcohol over their life course to date. The material on alcohol related violence is analysed in this paper. Just over half of the participants (33/60) recounted negative experiences with alcohol related violence. The findings demonstrate the continuing gendered nature of experiences of perpetration and victimization. Participants reported that aggression and violence perpetrated by some men was fuelled by alcohol consumption and required ongoing management. Experiences of violence were also spatialized. Men were more likely to report managing and avoiding violence in particular public settings whilst more women than men discussed managing violence in domestic settings. The central argument of this paper is that incidents of alcohol related violence and reactions to it are specific gender performances that occur in specific socio-cultural contexts. In contrast to research which has found some young people enjoy the adventure and excitement of alcohol related violence the mainstream participants in this study saw violence as a negative force to be managed and preferably avoided. Understanding violence as a dynamic gender performance complicates the development of policy measures designed to minimize harm but also offers a more holistic approach to developing effective policy in this domain. There is a need for greater acknowledgement that alcohol related violence in public venues and in families is primarily about

  2. Patterns of 'at-home' alcohol-related injury presentations to emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Naomi; Woods, Cindy; Conway, Jane; Barker, Ruth; Usher, Kim

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the scale of alcohol-related injuries originating in the home. Despite recent media and public attention on alcohol-related injuries occurring at licensed venues, many occur in other locations including the home. A retrospective observational study. Emergency department surveillance data sourced from the Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit were interrogated for alcohol-related emergency department presentations from 2003-2012 (n = 12,296). Descriptive analysis was undertaken to assess alcohol involvement in injury, and analysis of variance was used to determine the differences among group means and their associated presentations. The relationship between demographic variables and injury location was assessed using p value of <0·05 as statistically significant. Of all injuries that were positively identified as being alcohol related, 41·07% occurred at the 'other' location, 36·14% 'at home', 13·00% on the street and 9·78% at licensed premises. Of these, males (n = 2635; 59%) represented a higher proportion than females (n = 1807; 41%). Of injuries identified as domestic violence by spouse or partner (n = 510), 59·5% occurred 'at home'. This is the first study to investigate alcohol-related injuries occurring at home. The home accounts for a greater proportion of injuries than the frequently assessed licensed premises location. Further research is required to validate these findings in a wider setting. A public health campaign is required to minimise harm associated with alcohol-related injuries in the home, and nurses are positioned to inform health policy makers around this issue. Furthermore, emergency department nurses are in a unique position to provide brief interventions around safe alcohol consumption and injury prevention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Parochial Empathy Predicts Reduced Altruism and the Endorsement of Passive Harm

    PubMed Central

    Cikara, Mina; Saxe, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Empathic failures are common in hostile intergroup contexts; repairing empathy is therefore a major focus of peacebuilding efforts. However, it is unclear which aspect of empathy is most relevant to intergroup conflict. Although trait empathic concern predicts prosociality in interpersonal settings, we hypothesized that the best predictor of meaningful intergroup attitudes and behaviors might not be the general capacity for empathy (i.e., trait empathy), but the difference in empathy felt for the in-group versus the out-group, or “parochial empathy.” Specifically, we predicted that out-group empathy would inhibit intergroup harm and promote intergroup helping, whereas in-group empathy would have the opposite effect. In three intergroup contexts—Americans regarding Arabs, Hungarians regarding refugees, Greeks regarding Germans—we found support for this hypothesis. In all samples, in-group and out-group empathy had independent, significant, and opposite effects on intergroup outcomes, controlling for trait empathic concern. PMID:29276575

  4. A hierarchy of strategies heroin-using mothers employ to reduce harm to their children.

    PubMed

    Richter, K P; Bammer, G

    2000-12-01

    The present paper explores strategies that drug-using women employ to protect their children from drug-related harm. Twenty-two mothers were recruited through word-of-mouth, field recruitment, and flyers. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect mother's views on parenting and heroin use. Analysis was conducted using a standard qualitative software package. A hierarchy of seven strategies was identified: (1) stop using; (2) go into treatment; (3) maintain a stable small habit; (4) shield children from drug-related activities; (5) keep the home environment stable, safe, and secure; (6) stay out of gaol; and, if the children's needs still cannot be met, (7) place them with a trusted caregiver and maintain as active a parental role as possible. These strategies, derived innovatively from mothers' experiences, provide progressive goals for treatment and can also serve as measures of success. In addition, they may determine how well children fare in drug-affected families.

  5. Parental restriction reduces the harmful effects of in-bedroom electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Fu, King-Wa; Ho, Frederick Ka Wing; Rao, Nirmala; Jiang, Fan; Li, Sophia Ling; Lee, Tatia Mei-Chun; Chan, Sophelia Hoi-Shan; Yung, Ada Wing-Yan; Young, Mary Eming; Ip, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    To investigate whether school readiness could be affected by placing electronic devices (EDs) in children's bedroom and whether the relationship was moderated by parental restriction and family socioeconomic status (SES). This is a cross-sectional study with bedroom ED placement and parental restriction reported by parents. Multiple linear regressions were used to test the relationship between school readiness and ED placement. Multiple regression with interaction terms were used to test whether the effect was consistent with and without parental restriction. Kindergartens randomly selected from two districts of different socioeconomic backgrounds in Hong Kong, China. 556 young children attending the third year of kindergarten. Children's school readiness was rated by teachers using the Chinese Early Development Instrument. 556 preschoolers (mean age 5.46; 51.8% girls) from 20 kindergartens participated in this study. About 30% of parents placed at least one ED in their children's bedroom. After controlling for sex and SES, the placement of television in the bedroom was associated with lower overall school readiness (β -1.11, 95% CI -1.80 to -0.42) and the placement of game console was associated with lower social competence (β-0.94, 95% CI -1.74 to -0.15). Such harmful effect was more prominent among lower SES families and could be partially alleviated with parental restriction. ED placement in children's bedroom was associated with lower school readiness, particularly among lower SES families. Parental restriction might help to alleviate the harm. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Antidepressant sales and the risk for alcohol-related and non-alcohol-related suicide in Finland--an individual-level population study.

    PubMed

    Moustgaard, Heta; Joutsenniemi, Kaisla; Myrskylä, Mikko; Martikainen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    A marked decline in suicide rates has co-occurred with increased antidepressant sales in several countries but the causal connection between the trends remains debated. Most previous studies have focused on overall suicide rates and neglected differential effects in population subgroups. Our objective was to investigate whether increasing sales of non-tricyclic antidepressants have reduced alcohol- and non-alcohol-related suicide risk in different population subgroups. We followed a nationally representative sample of 950,158 Finnish adults in 1995-2007 for alcohol-related (n = 2,859) and non-alcohol-related (n = 8,632) suicides. We assessed suicide risk by gender and social group according to regional sales of non-tricyclic antidepressants, measured by sold doses per capita, prevalence of antidepressant users, and proportion of antidepressant users with doses reflecting minimally adequate treatment. Fixed-effects Poisson regression models controlled for regional differences and time trends that may influence suicide risk irrespective of antidepressant sales. The number of sold antidepressant doses per capita and the prevalence of antidepressant users were unrelated to male suicide risk. However, one percentage point increase in the proportion of antidepressant users receiving minimally adequate treatment reduced non-alcohol-related male suicide risk by one percent (relative risk 0.987, 95% confidence interval 0.976-0.998). This beneficial effect only emerged among men with high education, high income, and employment, among men without a partner, and men not owning their home. Alcohol-related suicides and female suicides were unrelated to all measures of antidepressant sales. We found little evidence that increase in overall sales or in the prevalence of non-tricyclic antidepressant users would have caused the fall in suicide rates in Finland in 1995-2007. However, the rise in the proportion of antidepressant users receiving minimally adequate treatment, possibly

  7. Effects of dram shop liability and enhanced overservice law enforcement initiatives on excessive alcohol consumption and related harms: Two community guide systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Rammohan, Veda; Hahn, Robert A; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S; Toomey, Traci L; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Zometa, Carlos

    2011-09-01

    Dram shop liability holds the owner or server(s) at a bar, restaurant, or other location where a patron, adult or underage, consumed his or her last alcoholic beverage responsible for harms subsequently inflicted by the patron on others. Liability in a state can be established by case law or statute. Overservice laws prohibit the sale of alcoholic beverages to intoxicated patrons drinking in on-premises retail alcohol outlets (i.e., premises where the alcohol is consumed where purchased); enhanced enforcement of these laws is intended to ensure compliance by premises personnel. Both of these interventions are ultimately designed to promote responsible beverage service by reducing sales to intoxicated patrons, underage youth, or both. This review assesses the effectiveness of dram shop liability and the enhanced enforcement of overservice laws for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Studies assessing alcohol-related harms in states adopting dram shop laws were evaluated, as were studies assessing alcohol-related harms in regions with enhanced overservice enforcement. Methods previously developed for systematic reviews for the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used. Eleven studies assessed the association of state dram shop liability with various outcomes, including all-cause motor vehicle crash deaths, alcohol-related motor vehicle crash deaths (the most common outcome assessed in the studies reviewed), alcohol consumption, and other alcohol-related harms. There was a median reduction of 6.4% (range of values 3.7% to 11.3% reduction) in alcohol-related motor vehicle fatalities associated with the presence of dram shop liability in jurisdictions where premises are licensed. Other alcohol-related outcomes also showed a reduction. Only two studies assessed the effects of enhanced enforcement initiatives on alcohol-related outcomes; findings were inconsistent, some indicating benefit and others none. According to Community Guide rules

  8. Exploring the Relationship between Experiential Avoidance, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Alcohol-Related Problems among First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Michael E.; Lillis, Jason; Seeley, John; Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Biglan, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the relationship of experiential avoidance (eg, the tendency to avoid, suppress, or otherwise control internal experiences even when doing so causes behavioral harm) to alcohol use disorders and alcohol-related problems. Participants: Cross-sectional data were collected from 240 undergraduate college students in…

  9. Education to reduce potentially harmful medication use among residents of assisted living facilities: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pitkälä, Kaisu H; Juola, Anna-Liisa; Kautiainen, Hannu; Soini, Helena; Finne-Soveri, U Harriet; Bell, J Simon; Björkman, Mikko

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the effect of nurse training on the use of potentially harmful medications; and (2) to explore the effect of nurse training on residents' health-related quality of life (HRQoL), health service utilization, and mortality. A randomized controlled trial. In total, 227 residents in 20 wards of assisted living facilities in Helsinki were recruited. The 20 wards were randomized into those in which (1) staff received two 4-hour training sessions on appropriate medication treatment (intervention group), and (2) staff received no additional training and continued to provide routine care (control group). Two 4-hour interactive training sessions for nursing staff based on constructive learning theory to recognize potentially harmful medications and corresponding adverse drug events. Use of potentially harmful medications, HRQoL assessed using the 15 dimensional instrument of health-related quality of life, health service utilization, and mortality assessed at baseline, and 6 and 12 months. During the 12-month follow-up, the mean number of potentially harmful medications decreased in the intervention wards [-0.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.71 to -0.15] but remained constant in the control wards (+0.11, 95% CI -0.09 to +0.31) (P = .004, adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities). HRQoL declined more slowly in the intervention wards (-0.038 (95% CI -0.054 to -0.022) than in the control wards (-0.072 (95% CI -0.089 to -0.055) (P = .005, adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities). Residents of the intervention wards had significantly less hospital days (1.4 days/person/year, 95% CI 1.2-1.6) than in the control wards (2.3 days/person/year; 95% CI 2.1-2.7) (relative risk 0.60, 95% CI 0.49-0.75, P < .001, adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities). Activating learning methods directed at nurses in charge of comprehensive care can reduce the use of harmful medications, maintain HRQoL, and reduce hospitalization in residents of

  10. Features of alcohol harm reduction advertisements that most motivate reduced drinking among adults: an advertisement response study.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Brennan, Emily; Dunstone, Kimberley; Durkin, Sarah J; Dixon, Helen G; Pettigrew, Simone; Slater, Michael D

    2017-04-20

    To improve the effectiveness of alcohol harm reduction mass media campaigns, this study aimed to (1) identify existing advertisements (ads) with greatest potential to motivate reduced alcohol consumption, (2) assess consistency across audience subgroups in ad effectiveness and (3) identify ad features associated with effectiveness. Cross-sectional online ad response study with random assignment to view ads. 2174 Australian adult weekly drinkers recruited from an online panel. Participants were randomly assigned to view three of 83 English-language alcohol harm reduction ads. Each ad was viewed and rated by a mean of 79 participants. After viewing each ad, participants reported the extent to which they felt motivated to reduce their drinking. Ads were ranked from most to least motivating using predicted means adjusted for demographic characteristics and alcohol consumption. We compared the characteristics of the top-ranked 15% of ads (most motivating) with the middle 70% and bottom 15%. An ad about the link between alcohol and cancer (' Spread ') was most motivating, whereas an ad that encouraged drinking water instead of beer (' Add nothing ') was least motivating. Top-ranked ads were more likely than other ads to feature a 'why change' message and less likely to carry a 'how to change' message; more likely to address long-term harms; more likely to be aimed at the general adult drinking population and more likely to include drinking guidelines. There was substantial overlap in top-ranked ads for younger versus older adults, men versus women and high-risk versus low-risk drinker subgroups. The effectiveness of alcohol harm reduction campaigns may be improved by directly communicating alcohol's long-term harms to the general adult population of drinkers along with drinking guidelines. By doing so, campaigns can also efficiently influence high-risk drinkers and key demographic subgroups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  11. Parochial cooperation in nested intergroup dilemmas is reduced when it harms out-groups.

    PubMed

    Aaldering, Hillie; Ten Velden, Femke S; van Kleef, Gerben A; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2018-06-01

    In intergroup settings, humans often contribute to their in-group at a personal cost. Such parochial cooperation benefits the in-group and creates and fuels intergroup conflict when it simultaneously hurts out-groups. Here, we introduce a new game paradigm in which individuals can display universal cooperation (which benefits both in- and out-group) as well as parochial cooperation that does, versus does not hurt the out-group. Using this set-up, we test hypotheses derived from group selection theory, social identity, and bounded generalized reciprocity theory. Across three experiments we find, first, that individuals choose parochial over universal cooperation. Second, there was no evidence for a motive to maximize differences between in- and out-group, which is central to both group selection and social identity theory. However, fitting bounded generalized reciprocity theory, we find that individuals with a prosocial value orientation display parochial cooperation, provided that this does not harm the out-group; individualists, in contrast, display parochialism whether or not nut it hurts the out-group. Our findings were insensitive to cognitive taxation (Experiments 2-3), and emerged even when universal cooperation served social welfare more than parochialism (Experiment 3). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Alcohol consumption, masculinity, and alcohol-related violence and anti-social behaviour in sportspeople.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Forrest, Walter; Greenlees, Iain; Rhind, Daniel; Jowett, Sophia; Pinsky, Ilana; Espelt, Albert; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Sonderlund, Anders Larrabee; Vergani, Matteo; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    There is no research examining alcohol-related aggression and anti-social behaviour in UK or European sportspeople (athletes), and no research has examined relationships between masculinity, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related aggression and antisocial behaviour in sportspeople (athletes). This study addresses this gap. Cross-sectional. A sample (N=2048; women=892, 44%) of in season sportspeople enrolled at UK universities (response 83%), completed measures of masculinity, alcohol consumption, within-sport (on-field) violence, and having been the perpetrator and/or victim of alcohol-related violent/aggressive and antisocial behaviour (e.g., hit/assaulted, vandalism, sexual assault). Logistic regressions examined predictors of alcohol-related violence/aggression and anti-social behaviours. Significant bivariate relationships between masculinity, within-sport violence, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related aggression and anti-social behaviour were found for both men and women (p's<.001). Logistic regression adjusting for all variables showed that higher levels of masculinity and alcohol consumption in men and women were related to an increased odds of having conducted an aggressive, violent and/or anti-social act in the past 12 months when intoxicated. Odds ratios were largest for relationships between masculinity, alcohol consumption, within-sport violence, and interpersonal violence/aggression (p's<.001). A similar pattern of results was found for having been the victim of aggression and anti-social behaviour. Alcohol-related aggression and anti-social behaviour appear to be problematic in UK university sportspeople, and is related to masculinity and excessive drinking. Interventions that reduce excessive alcohol consumption, masculine norms and associated within-sport violence, could be effective in reducing alcohol-related aggression and antisocial behaviour in UK sportspeople. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  13. Benefits and Harms of Sacubitril in Adults With Heart Failure and Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    Aronow, Wilbert S; Shamliyan, Tatyana A

    2017-10-01

    The quality of evidence regarding patient-centered outcomes in adults with heart failure (HF) after sacubitril combined with valsartan has not been systematically appraised. We searched 4 databases in February 2017 and graded the quality of evidence according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation working group approach. We reviewed 1 meta-analysis and multiple publications of 2 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 1 unpublished RCT. In adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction, low-quality evidence from 1 RCT of 8,432 patients suggests that sacubitril combined with valsartan reduces all-cause (number needed to treat [NNT] to prevent 1 event [NNTp] = 35) and cardiovascular mortality (NNTp = 32), hospitalization (NNTp = 11), emergency visits (NNTp = 69), and serious adverse effects, leading to treatment discontinuation (NNTp = 63) and improves quality of life when compared with enalapril. In adults with HF and preserved ejection fraction, very low-quality evidence from 1 RCT of 301 patients suggests that there are no differences in mortality, morbidity, or adverse effects between sacubitril combined with valsartan and valsartan alone. In conclusion, in adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction, to reduce cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations and improve quality of life, clinicians may recommend sacubitril combined with valsartan over angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing the Representativeness of Population-Sampled Health Surveys Through Linkage to Administrative Data on Alcohol-Related Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Emma; Leyland, Alastair H.; McCartney, Gerry; White, Ian R.; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Rutherford, Lisa; Graham, Lesley; Gray, Linsay

    2014-01-01

    Health surveys are an important resource for monitoring population health, but selective nonresponse may impede valid inference. This study aimed to assess nonresponse bias in a population-sampled health survey in Scotland, with a focus on alcohol-related outcomes. Nonresponse bias was assessed by examining whether rates of alcohol-related harm (i.e., hospitalization or death) and all-cause mortality among respondents to the Scottish Health Surveys (from 1995 to 2010) were equivalent to those in the general population, and whether the extent of any bias varied according to sociodemographic attributes or over time. Data from consenting respondents (aged 20–64 years) to 6 Scottish Health Surveys were confidentially linked to death and hospitalization records and compared with general population counterparts. Directly age-standardized incidence rates of alcohol-related harm and all-cause mortality were lower among Scottish Health Survey respondents compared with the general population. For all years combined, the survey-to-population rate ratios were 0.69 (95% confidence interval: 0.61, 0.76) for the incidence of alcohol-related harm and 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.83, 0.96) for all-cause mortality. Bias was more pronounced among persons residing in more deprived areas; limited evidence was found for regional or temporal variation. This suggests that corresponding underestimation of population rates of alcohol consumption is likely to be socially patterned. PMID:25227767

  15. Peripheral amiodarone-related phlebitis: an institutional nursing guideline to reduce patient harm.

    PubMed

    Spiering, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Intravenous amiodarone is one of the most widely used antiarrythmics for the treatment of atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response. Peripheral amiodarone infusion, however, often causes pain during infusion and subsequent phlebitis.Data collection on a cardiac telemetry unit revealed a high rate of phlebitis. A multidisciplinary team developed and implemented amiodarone peripheral infusion guidelines. The pre-guideline phlebitis rate was 85% and post-guideline rate was 38%, representing a 47% change or improvement. An additional finding was that the severity of phlebitis was reduced, as well. The results of this study suggest that the implementation of a peripheral amiodarone infusion guideline reduced the incidence and severity of amiodarone-related phlebitis in the cardiac population.

  16. 49 CFR 655.35 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 655.35 Section 655... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.35 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No employer shall permit a...

  17. 49 CFR 382.505 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 382.505 Section 382... SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Consequences for Drivers Engaging in Substance Use-Related Conduct § 382.505 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No driver tested under the provisions of subpart C of this...

  18. 49 CFR 655.35 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 655.35 Section 655... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.35 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No employer shall permit a...

  19. 49 CFR 382.505 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 382.505 Section 382... SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Consequences for Drivers Engaging in Substance Use-Related Conduct § 382.505 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No driver tested under the provisions of subpart C of this...

  20. 49 CFR 199.237 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 199.237 Section 199... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.237 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No operator shall...

  1. 49 CFR 199.237 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 199.237 Section 199... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.237 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No operator shall...

  2. Protective behavioral strategies and negative alcohol-related consequences in college students.

    PubMed

    Araas, Teresa E; Adams, Troy B

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol abuse among college students is associated with a quality of life burden. The current study replicated and extended previous research on protective behavioral strategies (PBS) by examining relationships between PBS use and negative alcohol-related consequences. A national sample of 29,792 U.S. college students who completed the National College Health Assessment during spring 2004 was included. Using a retrospective analysis of cross-sectional data, relationships between PBS use and negative alcohol-related consequences were examined. Greater PBS use was associated with fewer negative alcohol-related consequences, while less frequent use of PBS was correlated with increased negative alcohol-related consequences. The current study findings strongly support expanded educational alcohol-intervention programs promoting greater PBS use aimed at reducing or completely alleviating negative alcohol-related consequences (e.g., BASICS, ASTP). Future research should further investigate such PBS-based intervention programs, examine the existence of latent PBS, and study use of combined PBS.

  3. Effects of the Campus Watch intervention on alcohol consumption and related harm in a university population.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Kimberly; Connor, Jennie L; Kypri, Kypros

    2014-10-01

    High levels of drinking and alcohol-related problems are pervasive among university students in New Zealand and other high-income countries, where controls on alcohol availability and promotion are typically weak. Environmental interventions to reduce hazardous drinking and harm have shown promise in general populations, but require further evidence of effectiveness in university settings. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of a community liaison and security program, Campus Watch, on drinking patterns and alcohol-related harm among university students. The study used a quasi-experimental design with non-equivalent control sites using before (2005) and after (2009) observations. Participants were full-time students aged 17-25 years selected randomly from the enrolment lists of six New Zealand universities. Changes in scores on the alcohol use disorders identification consumption scale (AUDIT-C) and alcohol-related harms at the intervention campus were compared with those at control campuses using linear and logistic regression models. Compared to control campuses, AUDIT-C scores decreased in students at the intervention campus (β=-0.5, 95% CI: -0.6 to -0.3). Campus Watch was associated with reductions in some harms (independent of its effect on drinking), such as aggression (aOR 0.66, 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.94), but not other harms, e.g., blackouts (aOR 1.06, 95% CI: 0.89 to 1.27). While not being focused on alcohol per se, Campus Watch reduced alcohol consumption and some related harms. Such programs may be useful in similar environments where controls on alcohol availability and promotion cannot be affected and where informal controls are weak. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Demographic and Substance Use Factors Associated with Non-Violent Alcohol-Related Injuries among Patrons of Australian Night-Time Entertainment Districts

    PubMed Central

    Coomber, Kerri; Mayshak, Richelle; Hyder, Shannon; Droste, Nicolas; Curtis, Ashlee; Pennay, Amy; Gilmore, William; Lam, Tina; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Miller, Peter G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between patron demographics, substance use, and experience of recent alcohol-related accidents and injuries that were not due to interpersonal violence in night-time entertainment districts. Cross-sectional interviews (n = 4016) were conducted around licensed venues in entertainment districts of five Australian cities. Demographic factors associated with non-violent alcohol-related injuries were examined, including gender, age, and occupation. The association between substance use on the night of interview; blood alcohol concentration (BAC), pre-drinking, energy drink consumption, and illicit drug use; and experience of injury was also explored. Thirteen percent of participants reported an alcohol-related injury within the past three months. Respondents aged younger than 25 years were significantly more likely to report an alcohol-related injury. Further, a significant occupation effect was found indicating the rate of alcohol-related injury was lower in managers/professionals compared to non-office workers. The likelihood of prior alcohol-related injury significantly increased with BAC, and self-reported pre-drinking, energy drink, or illicit drug consumption on the night of interview. These findings provide an indication of the demographic and substance use-related associations with alcohol-related injuries and, therefore, potential avenues of population-level policy intervention. Policy responses to alcohol-related harm must also account for an assessment and costing of non-violent injuries. PMID:28085105

  5. Demographic and Substance Use Factors Associated with Non-Violent Alcohol-Related Injuries among Patrons of Australian Night-Time Entertainment Districts.

    PubMed

    Coomber, Kerri; Mayshak, Richelle; Hyder, Shannon; Droste, Nicolas; Curtis, Ashlee; Pennay, Amy; Gilmore, William; Lam, Tina; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Miller, Peter G

    2017-01-12

    This study examined the relationship between patron demographics, substance use, and experience of recent alcohol-related accidents and injuries that were not due to interpersonal violence in night-time entertainment districts. Cross-sectional interviews ( n = 4016) were conducted around licensed venues in entertainment districts of five Australian cities. Demographic factors associated with non-violent alcohol-related injuries were examined, including gender, age, and occupation. The association between substance use on the night of interview; blood alcohol concentration (BAC), pre-drinking, energy drink consumption, and illicit drug use; and experience of injury was also explored. Thirteen percent of participants reported an alcohol-related injury within the past three months. Respondents aged younger than 25 years were significantly more likely to report an alcohol-related injury. Further, a significant occupation effect was found indicating the rate of alcohol-related injury was lower in managers/professionals compared to non-office workers. The likelihood of prior alcohol-related injury significantly increased with BAC, and self-reported pre-drinking, energy drink, or illicit drug consumption on the night of interview. These findings provide an indication of the demographic and substance use-related associations with alcohol-related injuries and, therefore, potential avenues of population-level policy intervention. Policy responses to alcohol-related harm must also account for an assessment and costing of non-violent injuries.

  6. Estimating the benefits of public health policies that reduce harmful consumption.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Elizabeth M; Nardinelli, Clark; Lavaty, Rosemarie A

    2015-05-01

    For products such as tobacco and junk food, where policy interventions are often designed to decrease consumption, affected consumers gain utility from improvements in lifetime health and longevity but also lose utility associated with the activity of consuming the product. In the case of anti-smoking policies, even though published estimates of gross health and longevity benefits are up to 900 times higher than the net consumer benefits suggested by a more direct willingness-to-pay estimation approach, there is little recognition in the cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness literature that gross estimates will overstate intrapersonal welfare improvements when utility losses are not netted out. This paper presents a general framework for analyzing policies that are designed to reduce inefficiently high consumption and provides a rule of thumb for the relationship between net and gross consumer welfare effects: where there exists a plausible estimate of the tax that would allow consumers to fully internalize health costs, the ratio of the tax to the per-unit long-term cost can provide an upper bound on the ratio of net to gross benefits. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Straw Mulching Reduces the Harmful Effects of Extreme Hydrological and Temperature Conditions in Citrus Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Jing; Liu, Dongbi; Li, Zhiguo; Zhang, Guoshi; Tao, Yong; Xie, Juan; Pan, Junfeng; Chen, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Extreme weather conditions with negative impacts can strongly affect agricultural production. In the Danjiangkou reservoir area, citrus yields were greatly influenced by cold weather conditions and drought stress in 2011. Soil straw mulching (SM) practices have a major effect on soil water and thermal regimes. A two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate whether the SM practices can help achieve favorable citrus fruit yields. Results showed that the annual total runoff was significantly (P<0.05) reduced with SM as compared to the control (CK). Correspondingly, mean soil water storage in the top 100 cm of the soil profile was increased in the SM as compared to the CK treatment. However, this result was significant only in the dry season (Jan to Mar), and not in the wet season (Jul to Sep) for both years. Interestingly, the SM treatment did not significantly increase citrus fruit yield in 2010 but did so in 2011, when the citrus crop was completely destroyed (zero fruit yield) in the CK treatment plot due to extremely low temperatures during the citrus overwintering stage. The mulch probably acted as an insulator, resulting in smaller fluctuations in soil temperature in the SM than in the CK treatment. The results suggested that the small effects on soil water and temperature changes created by surface mulch had limited impact on citrus fruit yield in a normal year (e.g., in 2010). However, SM practices can positively impact citrus fruit yield in extreme weather conditions. PMID:24489844

  8. Interventions to Reduce Harm from Smoking with Families in Infancy and Early Childhood: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Nicola; Luckett, Tim; Davidson, Patricia M.; Di Giacomo, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to adult smoking can have deleterious effects on children. Interventions that assist families with smoking cessation/reduction and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) avoidance can improve child health outcomes and reduce the risk of smoking initiation. The purpose of this review was to describe the state of the science of interventions with families to promote smoke-free home environments for infants and young children, including parent smoking reduction and cessation interventions, ETS reduction, and anti-smoking socialisation interventions, using the socio-ecological framework as a guide. A systematic review of peer-reviewed articles identified from journal databases from 2000 to 2014 was undertaken. Of 921 articles identified, 28 were included in the review. Considerable heterogeneity characterised target populations, intervention types, complexity and intensity, precluding meta-analysis. Few studies used socio-ecological approaches, such as family theories or concepts. Studies in early parenthood (child age newborn to one year) tended to focus on parent smoking cessation, where studies of families with children aged 1–5 years were more likely to target household SHSe reduction. Results suggest that interventions for reduction in ETS may be more successful than for smoking cessation and relapse prevention in families of children aged less than 5 years. There is a need for a range of interventions to support families in creating a smoke free home environment that are both tailored and targeted to specific populations. Interventions that target the social and psychodynamics of the family should be considered further, particularly in reaching vulnerable populations. Consideration is also required for approaches to interventions that may further stigmatise families containing smokers. Further research is required to identify successful elements of interventions and the contexts in which they are most effective. PMID:25785496

  9. Reducing Alcohol-Related Sexual Assault in the Marine Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-10

    Class (PFC) Wood, U.S. Marine Corps, was accused of rape . and United States v. Stewart,14 will serve this purpose and serve as a catlayst for...and that he left the room.21 The allegation of rape surfaced when Ms. T presented at a pregnancy counseling center seeking communicable disease...prosecution’s theory of the case was that PFC Wood was guilty of rape because, despite his claim that the sex was consensual, Ms. T was actually

  10. Managing alcohol related aggression in the emergency department (Part I).

    PubMed

    Ferns, Terry; Cork, Alison

    2008-01-01

    Internationally, violence in the emergency department (ED) is of a constant concern to emergency practitioners. Frequently, both original research papers and anecdotal reports emphasise the phenomenon of alcohol related aggression in the ED. In this first paper, we highlight the literatures discussion of alcohol related violence in the emergency department and the potential psychological effects of alcohol intoxication. In the second we offer personal and organisational strategies clinical nursing staff may consider appropriate to minimise the risk of assault when caring for service users projecting alcohol related aggression.

  11. Perceptions of adult trauma patients on the acceptability of text messaging as an aid to reduce harmful drinking behaviours

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Brief interventions (BIs) have been shown to be effective in modifying hazardous drinking behaviours in a range of settings. However, they are underutilised in hospitals due to resource constraints. We explored the perspectives of admitted trauma patients about the appeal, acceptability and content of a Brief Intervention (BI) delivered via text messages. Methods Thirty mobile phone users (≥16 years old) admitted to Auckland City Hospital as a result of injury were recruited (December 2010 – January 2011). Participants were interviewed face-to-face during their hospital stay using a semi-structured interview guide that explored topics including perceptions of the proposed intervention to reduce hazardous drinking and related harm, and perceived acceptability of an m-health program. Where issues relating to content of messages were raised by participants these were also captured. In addition, a brief survey captured information on demographic information, mobile phone usage and type of phone, along with the frequency of alcohol use. Results 22 of the 30 participants were male, and almost half were aged 20 to 39 years. The majority of participants identified as New Zealand Europeans, six as Māori (New Zealand's indigenous population) and of the remainder two each identified as Pacific and of Asian ethnicity. Most (28/30) participants used a mobile phone daily. 18 participants were deemed to be drinking in a non-hazardous manner, seven were hazardous drinkers, and three were non-drinkers. Most participants (21/30) indicated that text messages could be effective in reducing hazardous drinking and related harms, with more than half (17/30) signalling they would sign-up. Factors identified that would increase receptiveness included: awareness that the intervention was evidence-based; participants readiness-to-change; informative messages that include the consequences of drinking and practical advice; non-judgemental messages; and ease-of-use. Areas of

  12. [Connection between cancer- and alcohol-related mortality in a rural practice of a South-Hungarian village].

    PubMed

    Péter, Arpád

    2013-05-05

    The author, who is a sole general practitioner in a Hungarian village, has continuously followed mortality in his practice for a long period of time. He found connections between cancer- and alcohol-related mortality in the first observational period between 1987 and 1999. Among men, cancer mortality related to alcoholism reached 50% in men and 7.9% in women. The aim of the author was to obtain new data on the relation between cancer- and alcohol-related mortality during a 12-year period between 2000 and 2011, and compare them with findings in his earlier work. Data recorded in detailed death reports were analysed. For the main cause of death, long-term data from the medical history of patients were analysed thoroughly. Between 2000 and 2011 there were 326 cases of death (167 men and 159 women). Despite several changes in the structure of the cause of mortality (the frequency of alcohol-related deaths considerably decreased while the frequency of cancer-related deaths somewhat increased), the proportion of alcohol-related cancer mortality has increased to 60% in men and 9.1% in women. These data confirm earlier observation of the author showing that alcoholism is frequent in this Hungarian village and that it contributes to the high cancer mortality of the inhabitants, especially in men. Therefore, decreased alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms would be an important step in cancer prevention.

  13. Using Watershed Models and Human Behavioral Analyses to identify Management Options to Reduce Lake Erie's Harmful Algal Blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J.; Wilson, R. S.; Aloysius, N.; Kalcic, M. M.; Roe, B.; Howard, G.; Irwin, E.; Zhang, W.; Liu, H.

    2017-12-01

    In early 2016, the United States and Canada formally agreed to reduce phosphorus inputs to Lake Erie by 40% to reduce the severity of annual Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). These blooms have become more severe, with record events occurring in 2011 and 2015, and have compromised public safety, shut down drinking water supplies, and negatively impacted the economy of the western Lake Erie basin. Now, a key question is what management options should be pursued to reach the 40% reduction. This presentation will highlight interdisciplinary research to compare the amount and types of practices needed for this reduction to the current and projected levels of adoption. Multiple models of the Maumee watershed identified management plans and adoption rates needed to reach the reduction targets. For example, one successful scenario estimated necessary adoption rates of 50% for subsurface application of fertilizer on row crops, 58% for cover crops, and 78% for buffer strips. Current adoption is below these levels, but future projections based on farmer surveys shows these levels are possible. This information was then used to guide another round of watershed modeling analysis to evaluate scenarios that represented more realistic scenarios based on potential levels of management adoption. In general, these results show that accelerated adoption of management plans is needed compared to past adoption rates, and that some of these greater adoption levels are possible based on likely adoption rates. Increasing the perceived efficacy of the practices is one method that will support greater voluntary rates of adoption.

  14. Antidepressant Sales and the Risk for Alcohol-Related and Non-Alcohol-Related Suicide in Finland—An Individual-Level Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Moustgaard, Heta; Joutsenniemi, Kaisla; Myrskylä, Mikko; Martikainen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A marked decline in suicide rates has co-occurred with increased antidepressant sales in several countries but the causal connection between the trends remains debated. Most previous studies have focused on overall suicide rates and neglected differential effects in population subgroups. Our objective was to investigate whether increasing sales of non-tricyclic antidepressants have reduced alcohol- and non-alcohol-related suicide risk in different population subgroups. Methods We followed a nationally representative sample of 950,158 Finnish adults in 1995–2007 for alcohol-related (n = 2,859) and non-alcohol-related (n = 8,632) suicides. We assessed suicide risk by gender and social group according to regional sales of non-tricyclic antidepressants, measured by sold doses per capita, prevalence of antidepressant users, and proportion of antidepressant users with doses reflecting minimally adequate treatment. Fixed-effects Poisson regression models controlled for regional differences and time trends that may influence suicide risk irrespective of antidepressant sales. Results The number of sold antidepressant doses per capita and the prevalence of antidepressant users were unrelated to male suicide risk. However, one percentage point increase in the proportion of antidepressant users receiving minimally adequate treatment reduced non-alcohol-related male suicide risk by one percent (relative risk 0.987, 95% confidence interval 0.976–0.998). This beneficial effect only emerged among men with high education, high income, and employment, among men without a partner, and men not owning their home. Alcohol-related suicides and female suicides were unrelated to all measures of antidepressant sales. Conclusion We found little evidence that increase in overall sales or in the prevalence of non-tricyclic antidepressant users would have caused the fall in suicide rates in Finland in 1995–2007. However, the rise in the proportion of antidepressant

  15. Correlates of Alcohol-Related Regretted Sex among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Orchowski, Lindsay M.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Borsari, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of alcohol-related regretted sex in college students warrants a better understanding of the characteristics of students who report such experiences. Therefore, the present study examined correlates of regretted sexual experiences involving alcohol use among two specific high-risk college student samples: Students mandated to alcohol intervention (N = 522) and volunteer first-year students transitioning to college (N = 481). Results indicated that alcohol-related regretted sex occurred in similar rates in mandated and volunteer students, with approximately 25% of the students reporting at least one occurrence in the past month. Women were more likely to report alcohol-related regretted sex compared to men. The belief that alcohol use would result in “liquid courage” was associated with alcohol-related regretted sex among college students, even after accounting for greater alcohol use and problem alcohol use behaviors. These findings have significant implications for intervention efforts and future research. PMID:22448762

  16. Factors influencing arrests for alcohol-related traffic violations

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-09-01

    This report describes factors that were found to influence police officers' arrests of persons suspected of alcohol-related (A/R) traffic violations, and presents recommendations for treating these factors so that a higher level of enforcement might ...

  17. An assessment of statistics on alcohol-related problems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-05-05

    The report is presented as a contribution to the discussion of alcohol use and its related problems. Its aim is to provide an assessment of government and other statistics regarding certain alcohol-related problems; further research is suggested wher...

  18. Together Achieving More: Primary Care Team Communication and Alcohol-Related Health Care Utilization and Costs

    PubMed Central

    Mundt, Marlon P.; Zakletskaia, Larissa I.; Shoham, David A.; Tuan, Wen-Jan; Carayon, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    Background Identifying and engaging excessive alcohol users in primary care may be an effective way to improve patient health outcomes, reduce alcohol-related acute care events, and lower costs. Little is known about what structures of primary care team communication are associated with alcohol-related patient outcomes. Methods Using a sociometric survey of primary care clinic communication, this study evaluated the relation between team communication networks and alcohol-related utilization of care and costs. Between May 2013 and December 2013, a total of 155 healthcare employees at 6 primary care clinics participated in a survey on team communication. Three-level hierarchical modeling evaluated the link between connectedness within the care team and the number of alcohol-related emergency department visits, hospital days, and associated medical care costs in the past 12 months for each team’s primary care patient panel. Results Teams (n=31) whose RNs displayed more strong (at least daily) face-to-face ties and strong (at least daily) electronic communication ties had 10% fewer alcohol-related hospital days (RR=0.90; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.97). Furthermore, in an average team size of 19, each additional team member with strong interaction ties across the whole team was associated with $1030 (95% CI: −$1819, −$241) lower alcohol-related patient health care costs per 1000 team patients in the past 12 months. Conversely, teams whose primary care practitioner had more strong face-to-face communication ties and more weak (weekly or several times a week) electronic communication ties had 12% more alcohol-related hospital days (RR=1.12; 95: CI: 1.03, 1.23) and $1428 (95% CI: $378, $2478) higher alcohol-related healthcare costs per 1000 patients in the past 12 months. The analyses controlled for patient age, gender, insurance, and co-morbidity diagnoses. Conclusions Excessive alcohol-using patients may fair better if cared for by teams whose face-to-face and electronic

  19. Together Achieving More: Primary Care Team Communication and Alcohol-Related Healthcare Utilization and Costs.

    PubMed

    Mundt, Marlon P; Zakletskaia, Larissa I; Shoham, David A; Tuan, Wen-Jan; Carayon, Pascale

    2015-10-01

    Identifying and engaging excessive alcohol users in primary care may be an effective way to improve patient health outcomes, reduce alcohol-related acute care events, and lower costs. Little is known about what structures of primary care team communication are associated with alcohol-related patient outcomes. Using a sociometric survey of primary care clinic communication, this study evaluated the relation between team communication networks and alcohol-related utilization of care and costs. Between May 2013 and December 2013, a total of 155 healthcare employees at 6 primary care clinics participated in a survey on team communication. Three-level hierarchical modeling evaluated the link between connectedness within the care team and the number of alcohol-related emergency department visits, hospital days, and associated medical care costs in the past 12 months for each team's primary care patient panel. Teams (n = 31) whose registered nurses displayed more strong (at least daily) face-to-face ties and strong (at least daily) electronic communication ties had 10% fewer alcohol-related hospital days (rate ratio [RR] = 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84, 0.97). Furthermore, in an average team size of 19, each additional team member with strong interaction ties across the whole team was associated with $1,030 (95% CI: -$1,819, -$241) lower alcohol-related patient healthcare costs per 1,000 team patients in the past 12 months. Conversely, teams whose primary care practitioner (PCP) had more strong face-to-face communication ties and more weak (weekly or several times a week) electronic communication ties had 12% more alcohol-related hospital days (RR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.23) and $1,428 (95% CI: $378, $2,478) higher alcohol-related healthcare costs per 1,000 patients in the past 12 months. The analyses controlled for patient age, gender, insurance, and comorbidity diagnoses. Excessive alcohol-using patients may fair better if cared for by teams whose

  20. Survey of alcohol-related presentations to Australasian emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Egerton-Warburton, Diana; Gosbell, Andrew; Wadsworth, Angela; Fatovich, Daniel M; Richardson, Drew B

    2014-11-17

    To determine the proportion of alcohol-related presentations to emergency departments (EDs) in Australia and New Zealand, at a single time point on a weekend night shift. A point prevalence survey of ED patients either waiting to be seen or currently being seen conducted at 02:00 local time on 14 December 2013 in 106 EDs in Australia and New Zealand. The number of ED presentations that were alcohol-related, defined using World Health Organization ICD-10 codes. At the 106 hospitals (92 Australia, 14 New Zealand) that provided data, 395 (14.3%; 95% CI, 13.0%-15.6%) of 2766 patients in EDs at the study time were presenting for alcohol-related reasons; 13.8% (95% CI, 12.5%-15.2%) in Australia and 17.9% (95% CI, 13.9%-22.8%) in New Zealand. The distribution was skewed left, with proportions ranging from 0 to 50% and a median of 12.5%. Nine Australian hospitals and one New Zealand hospital reported that more than a third of their ED patients had alcohol-related presentations; the Northern Territory (38.1%) and Western Australia (21.1%) reported the highest proportions of alcohol-related presentations. One in seven ED presentations in Australian and New Zealand at this 02:00 snapshot were alcohol-related, with some EDs seeing more than one in three alcohol-related presentations. This confirms that alcohol-related presentations to EDs are currently underreported and makes a strong case for public health initiatives.

  1. Alcohol-related morbidity and mortality within siblings.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Grethe; Osler, Merete; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Andersen, Per Kragh; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Mortensen, Laust H

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the association between educational status and alcohol-related somatic and non-somatic morbidity and mortality among full siblings in comparison with non-related individuals. Cohort study. Denmark. Approximately 1.4 million full siblings born in Denmark between 1950 and 1979 were followed from age 28-58 years or censoring due to alcohol-related hospitalization and mortality. Cox regression analyses were used to estimate associations of educational status with alcohol-related outcomes. Results from cohort analyses based on non-related individuals and inter-sibling analyses were compared. A lower educational status was associated with a higher rate of alcohol-related outcomes, especially among the youngest (aged 28-37 years) and individuals born 1970-79. Compared with the cohort analyses, the associations attenuated slightly in the inter-sibling analysis. For example, in the cohort analysis, females with a basic school education born 1970-79 had an increased rate of alcohol-related non-somatic morbidity and mortality [hazard rate ratio (HR) = 4.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.27-5.02] compared to those with a vocational education. In the inter-sibling analysis, the HR attenuated (HR = 2.66, 95% CI = 1.95-3.63). For alcohol-related somatic outcomes the corresponding figures were HR = 3.47 (95% CI = 2.63-4.58) and HR = 3.36 (95% CI = 2.10-5.38), respectively. In general, the associations were stronger among females than males (aged 28-37) in the analyses of alcohol-related non-somatic outcomes. Health conditions earlier in life explained only a minor part of the associations. The association between educational status and alcohol-related somatic and non-somatic morbidity and mortality is only driven by familial factors to a small degree. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Effectiveness of Policies Maintaining or Restricting Days of Alcohol Sales on Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national laws and policies that limit the days of the week on which alcoholic beverages may be sold may be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms of laws and policies maintaining or reducing the days when alcoholic beverages may be sold. Outcomes assessed in 14 studies that met qualifying criteria were excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, including motor vehicle injuries and deaths, violence-related and other injuries, and health conditions. Qualifying studies assessed the effects of changes in days of sale in both on-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) and off-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages may not be consumed where purchased). Eleven studies assessed the effects of adding days of sale, and three studies assessed the effects of imposing a ban on sales on a given weekend day. The evidence from these studies indicated that increasing days of sale leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms and that reducing the number of days that alcoholic beverages are sold generally decreases alcohol-related harms. Based on these findings, when the expansion of days of sale is being considered, laws and policies maintaining the number of days of the week that alcoholic beverages are sold at on- and off-premises outlets in local, state, and national jurisdictions are effective public health strategies for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084079

  3. Effectiveness of policies maintaining or restricting days of alcohol sales on excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Hahn, Robert A; Kuzara, Jennifer L; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S; Toomey, Traci; Lawrence, Briana

    2010-12-01

    Local, state, and national laws and policies that limit the days of the week on which alcoholic beverages may be sold may be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms of laws and policies maintaining or reducing the days when alcoholic beverages may be sold. Outcomes assessed in 14 studies that met qualifying criteria were excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, including motor vehicle injuries and deaths, violence-related and other injuries, and health conditions. Qualifying studies assessed the effects of changes in days of sale in both on-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) and off-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages may not be consumed where purchased). Eleven studies assessed the effects of adding days of sale, and three studies assessed the effects of imposing a ban on sales on a given weekend day. The evidence from these studies indicated that increasing days of sale leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms and that reducing the number of days that alcoholic beverages are sold generally decreases alcohol-related harms. Based on these findings, when the expansion of days of sale is being considered, laws and policies maintaining the number of days of the week that alcoholic beverages are sold at on- and off-premises outlets in local, state, and national jurisdictions are effective public health strategies for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. College law enforcement and security department responses to alcohol-related incidents: a national study.

    PubMed

    Bernat, Debra H; Lenk, Kathleen M; Nelson, Toben F; Winters, Ken C; Toomey, Traci L

    2014-08-01

    Campus police and security personnel are often the first to respond to alcohol-related incidents on campus. The purpose of this study is to examine how campus law enforcement and security respond to alcohol-related incidents, and how consequences and communication differ based on characteristics of the incident. Directors of campus police/security from 343 colleges across the United States completed a survey regarding usual practice following serious, underage, and less serious alcohol incidents on and off campus. Campus law enforcement and security most commonly reported contacting campus officials. A minority reported issuing citations and referring students to the health center. Enforcement actions were more commonly reported for serious and underage incidents than for less serious incidents. Large (vs. small) colleges, public (vs. private) colleges, and those located in small (vs. large) towns more consistently reported taking actions against drinkers. Understanding how campus police and security respond to alcohol-related incidents is essential for reducing alcohol-related problems on college campuses. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. A working memory bias for alcohol-related stimuli depends on drinking score.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Klaus; Pajak, Katarzyna Malgorzata; Harkin, Ben; Jones, Barry

    2013-03-01

    We tested 44 participants with respect to their working memory (WM) performance on alcohol-related versus neutral visual stimuli. Previously an alcohol attentional bias (AAB) had been reported using these stimuli, where the attention of frequent drinkers was automatically drawn toward alcohol-related items (e.g., beer bottle). The present study set out to provide evidence for an alcohol memory bias (AMB) that would persist over longer time-scales than the AAB. The WM task we used required memorizing 4 stimuli in their correct locations and a visual interference task was administered during a 4-sec delay interval. A subsequent probe required participants to indicate whether a stimulus was shown in the correct or incorrect location. For each participant we calculated a drinking score based on 3 items derived from the Alcohol Use Questionnaire, and we observed that higher scorers better remembered alcohol-related images compared with lower scorers, particularly when these were presented in their correct locations upon recall. This provides first evidence for an AMB. It is important to highlight that this effect persisted over a 4-sec delay period including a visual interference task that erased iconic memories and diverted attention away from the encoded items, thus the AMB cannot be reduced to the previously reported AAB. Our finding calls for further investigation of alcohol-related cognitive biases in WM, and we propose a preliminary model that may guide future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. A time series analysis of presentations to Queensland health facilities for alcohol-related conditions, following the increase in 'alcopops' tax.

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Crowe, Elizabeth; Lawrence, David; White, Angela; Connor, Jason

    2013-08-01

    In response to concerns about the health consequences of high-risk drinking by young people, the Australian Government increased the tax on pre-mixed alcoholic beverages ('alcopops') favoured by this demographic. We measured changes in admissions for alcohol-related harm to health throughout Queensland, before and after the tax increase in April 2008. We used data from the Queensland Trauma Register, Hospitals Admitted Patients Data Collection, and the Emergency Department Information System to calculate alcohol-related admission rates per 100,000 people, for 15 - 29 year-olds. We analysed data over 3 years (April 2006 - April 2009), using interrupted time-series analyses. This covered 2 years before, and 1 year after, the tax increase. We investigated both mental and behavioural consequences (via F10 codes), and intentional/unintentional injuries (S and T codes). We fitted an auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, to test for any changes following the increased tax. There was no decrease in alcohol-related admissions in 15 - 29 year-olds. We found similar results for males and females, as well as definitions of alcohol-related harms that were narrow (F10 codes only) and broad (F10, S and T codes). The increased tax on 'alcopops' was not associated with any reduction in hospital admissions for alcohol-related harms in Queensland 15 - 29 year-olds.

  7. Alcohol-Related Blackouts, Negative Alcohol-Related Consequences, and Motivations for Drinking Reported by Newly Matriculating Transgender College Students

    PubMed Central

    Tupler, Larry A.; Zapp, Daniel; DeJong, William; Ali, Maryam; O’Rourke, Sarah; Looney, John; Swartzwelder, H. Scott

    2017-01-01

    Background Many transgender college students struggle with identity formation and other emotional, social, and developmental challenges associated with emerging adulthood. A potential maladaptive coping strategy employed by such students is heavy drinking. Prior literature has suggested greater consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences (ARCs) in transgender students compared with their cisgender peers, but little is known about their differing experiences with alcohol-related blackouts (ARBs). We examined the level of alcohol consumption, the frequency of ARBs and other ARCs, and motivations for drinking reported by the largest sample of transgender college students to date. Methods A Web survey from an alcohol-prevention program, AlcoholEdu for College™, assessed student demographics and drinking-related behaviors, experiences, and motivations of newly matriculating first-year college students. A self-reported drinking calendar was used to examine each of the following measures over the previous 14 days: number of drinking days, total number of drinks, and maximum number of drinks on any single day. A 7-point Likert scale was used to measure ARCs, ARBs, and drinking motivations. Transgender students of both sexes were compared with their cisgender peers. Results 989 of 422,906 students (0.2%) identified as transgender. Over a 14-day period, transgender compared with cisgender students were more likely to consume alcohol over more days, more total drinks, and a greater number of maximum drinks on a single day. Transgender students (36%) were more likely to report an ARB than cisgender students (25%) as well as more negative academic, confrontation-related, social, and sexual ARCs. Transgender respondents more often cited stress reduction, social anxiety, self-esteem issues, and the inherent properties of alcohol as motivations for drinking. For nearly all measures, higher values were yielded by male-to-female than female-to-male transgender students

  8. Alcohol-Related Blackouts, Negative Alcohol-Related Consequences, and Motivations for Drinking Reported by Newly Matriculating Transgender College Students.

    PubMed

    Tupler, Larry A; Zapp, Daniel; DeJong, William; Ali, Maryam; O'Rourke, Sarah; Looney, John; Swartzwelder, H Scott

    2017-05-01

    Many transgender college students struggle with identity formation and other emotional, social, and developmental challenges associated with emerging adulthood. A potential maladaptive coping strategy employed by such students is heavy drinking. Prior literature has suggested greater consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences (ARCs) in transgender students compared with their cisgender peers, but little is known about their differing experiences with alcohol-related blackouts (ARBs). We examined the level of alcohol consumption, the frequency of ARBs and other ARCs, and motivations for drinking reported by the largest sample of transgender college students to date. A Web survey from an alcohol-prevention program, AlcoholEdu for College™, assessed student demographics and drinking-related behaviors, experiences, and motivations of newly matriculating first-year college students. A self-reported drinking calendar was used to examine each of the following measures over the previous 14 days: number of drinking days, total number of drinks, and maximum number of drinks on any single day. A 7-point Likert scale was used to measure ARCs, ARBs, and drinking motivations. Transgender students of both sexes were compared with their cisgender peers. A total of 989 of 422,906 students (0.2%) identified as transgender. Over a 14-day period, transgender compared with cisgender students were more likely to consume alcohol over more days, more total drinks, and a greater number of maximum drinks on a single day. Transgender students (36%) were more likely to report an ARB than cisgender students (25%) as well as more negative academic, confrontation-related, social, and sexual ARCs. Transgender respondents more often cited stress reduction, social anxiety, self-esteem issues, and the inherent properties of alcohol as motivations for drinking. For nearly all measures, higher values were yielded by male-to-female than female-to-male transgender students. Transgender

  9. The Quik Fix study: a randomised controlled trial of brief interventions for young people with alcohol-related injuries and illnesses accessing emergency department and crisis support care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol is a major preventable cause of injury, disability and death in young people. Large numbers of young people with alcohol-related injuries and medical conditions present to hospital emergency departments (EDs). Access to brief, efficacious, accessible and cost effective treatment is an international health priority within this age group. While there is growing evidence for the efficacy of brief motivational interviewing (MI) for reducing alcohol use in young people, there is significant scope to increase its impact, and determine if it is the most efficacious and cost effective type of brief intervention available. The efficacy of personality-targeted interventions (PIs) for alcohol misuse delivered individually to young people is yet to be determined or compared to MI, despite growing evidence for school-based PIs. This study protocol describes a randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of telephone-delivered MI, PI and an Assessment Feedback/Information (AF/I) only control for reducing alcohol use and related harm in young people. Methods/design Participants will be 390 young people aged 16 to 25 years presenting to a crisis support service or ED with alcohol-related injuries and illnesses (including severe alcohol intoxication). This single blinded superiority trial randomized young people to (i) 2 sessions of MI; (ii) 2 sessions of a new PI or (iii) a 1 session AF/I only control. Participants are reassessed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months on the primary outcomes of alcohol use and related problems and secondary outcomes of mental health symptoms, functioning, severity of problematic alcohol use, alcohol injuries, alcohol-related knowledge, coping self-efficacy to resist using alcohol, and cost effectiveness. Discussion This study will identify the most efficacious and cost-effective telephone-delivered brief intervention for reducing alcohol misuse and related problems in young people presenting to crisis support

  10. The Quik Fix study: a randomised controlled trial of brief interventions for young people with alcohol-related injuries and illnesses accessing emergency department and crisis support care.

    PubMed

    Hides, Leanne; Kavanagh, David J; Daglish, Mark; Cotton, Susan; Connor, Jason P; Barendregt, Jan J; Young, Ross McD; Sanders, Davina; White, Angela; Mergard, Lance

    2014-08-08

    Alcohol is a major preventable cause of injury, disability and death in young people. Large numbers of young people with alcohol-related injuries and medical conditions present to hospital emergency departments (EDs). Access to brief, efficacious, accessible and cost effective treatment is an international health priority within this age group. While there is growing evidence for the efficacy of brief motivational interviewing (MI) for reducing alcohol use in young people, there is significant scope to increase its impact, and determine if it is the most efficacious and cost effective type of brief intervention available. The efficacy of personality-targeted interventions (PIs) for alcohol misuse delivered individually to young people is yet to be determined or compared to MI, despite growing evidence for school-based PIs. This study protocol describes a randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of telephone-delivered MI, PI and an Assessment Feedback/Information (AF/I) only control for reducing alcohol use and related harm in young people. Participants will be 390 young people aged 16 to 25 years presenting to a crisis support service or ED with alcohol-related injuries and illnesses (including severe alcohol intoxication). This single blinded superiority trial randomized young people to (i) 2 sessions of MI; (ii) 2 sessions of a new PI or (iii) a 1 session AF/I only control. Participants are reassessed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months on the primary outcomes of alcohol use and related problems and secondary outcomes of mental health symptoms, functioning, severity of problematic alcohol use, alcohol injuries, alcohol-related knowledge, coping self-efficacy to resist using alcohol, and cost effectiveness. This study will identify the most efficacious and cost-effective telephone-delivered brief intervention for reducing alcohol misuse and related problems in young people presenting to crisis support services or EDs. We expect efficacy will

  11. [Alcohol-related cognitive impairment and the DSM-5].

    PubMed

    Walvoort, S J W; Wester, A J; Doorakkers, M C; Kessels, R P C; Egger, J I M

    2016-01-01

    It is evident from the dsm-iv-tr that alcohol-related impairment is extremely difficult to classify accurately. As a result, cognitive deficits can easily be overlooked. The dsm-5, however, incorporates a new category, namely 'neurocognitive disorders', which may lead to significant improvements in clinical practice. To compare the classification of alcohol-related cognitive dysfunction in dsm-iv-tr and dsm-5 and to discuss the clinical relevance of the revised classification in the dsm-5. We compare the chapters of the dsm-iv-tr and the dsm-5 concerning alcohol-related cognitive impairment and describe the changes that have been made. The dsm-5 puts greater emphasis on alcohol-related neurocognitive impairment. Not only does dsm-5 distinguish between the degree of severity (major or minor neurocognitive disorder), it also distinguishes between the type of impairment (non-amnestic-type versus confabulating-amnestic type). It also makes a distinction between the durations of impairment (behavioural and/or persistent disorders). The dsm-5 gives a clearer description of alcohol-related neurocognitive dysfunction than does dsm-iv-tr and it stresses the essential role of neuropsychological assessment in the classification, diagnosis, and treatment of neurocognitive disorders.

  12. Experiences with Lean Six Sigma as improvement strategy to reduce parenteral medication administration errors and associated potential risk of harm.

    PubMed

    van de Plas, Afke; Slikkerveer, Mariëlle; Hoen, Saskia; Schrijnemakers, Rick; Driessen, Johanna; de Vries, Frank; van den Bemt, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    In this controlled before-after study the effect of improvements, derived from Lean Six Sigma strategy, on parenteral medication administration errors and the potential risk of harm was determined. During baseline measurement, on control versus intervention ward, at least one administration error occurred in 14 (74%) and 6 (46%) administrations with potential risk of harm in 6 (32%) and 1 (8%) administrations. Most administration errors with high potential risk of harm occurred in bolus injections: 8 (57%) versus 2 (67%) bolus injections were injected too fast with a potential risk of harm in 6 (43%) and 1 (33%) bolus injections on control and intervention ward. Implemented improvement strategies, based on major causes of too fast administration of bolus injections, were: Substitution of bolus injections by infusions, education, availability of administration information and drug round tabards. Post intervention, on the control ward in 76 (76%) administrations at least one error was made (RR 1.03; CI95:0.77-1.38), with a potential risk of harm in 14 (14%) administrations (RR 0.45; CI95:0.20-1.02). In 40 (68%) administrations on the intervention ward at least one error occurred (RR 1.47; CI95:0.80-2.71) but no administrations were associated with a potential risk of harm. A shift in wrong duration administration errors from bolus injections to infusions, with a reduction of potential risk of harm, seems to have occurred on the intervention ward. Although data are insufficient to prove an effect, Lean Six Sigma was experienced as a suitable strategy to select tailored improvements. Further studies are required to prove the effect of the strategy on parenteral medication administration errors.

  13. Experiences with Lean Six Sigma as improvement strategy to reduce parenteral medication administration errors and associated potential risk of harm

    PubMed Central

    van de Plas, Afke; Slikkerveer, Mariëlle; Hoen, Saskia; Schrijnemakers, Rick; Driessen, Johanna; de Vries, Frank; van den Bemt, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    In this controlled before-after study the effect of improvements, derived from Lean Six Sigma strategy, on parenteral medication administration errors and the potential risk of harm was determined. During baseline measurement, on control versus intervention ward, at least one administration error occurred in 14 (74%) and 6 (46%) administrations with potential risk of harm in 6 (32%) and 1 (8%) administrations. Most administration errors with high potential risk of harm occurred in bolus injections: 8 (57%) versus 2 (67%) bolus injections were injected too fast with a potential risk of harm in 6 (43%) and 1 (33%) bolus injections on control and intervention ward. Implemented improvement strategies, based on major causes of too fast administration of bolus injections, were: Substitution of bolus injections by infusions, education, availability of administration information and drug round tabards. Post intervention, on the control ward in 76 (76%) administrations at least one error was made (RR 1.03; CI95:0.77-1.38), with a potential risk of harm in 14 (14%) administrations (RR 0.45; CI95:0.20-1.02). In 40 (68%) administrations on the intervention ward at least one error occurred (RR 1.47; CI95:0.80-2.71) but no administrations were associated with a potential risk of harm. A shift in wrong duration administration errors from bolus injections to infusions, with a reduction of potential risk of harm, seems to have occurred on the intervention ward. Although data are insufficient to prove an effect, Lean Six Sigma was experienced as a suitable strategy to select tailored improvements. Further studies are required to prove the effect of the strategy on parenteral medication administration errors. PMID:28674608

  14. PTSD Symptoms, Emotion Dysregulation, and Alcohol-Related Consequences Among College Students With a Trauma History.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Jessica C; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Avery, Megan L; Bracken, Katherine L

    2015-01-01

    gender, impulse control difficulties remained a mediator for men and difficulties engaging in goal directed behavior for women. These analyses shed light on processes that may underlie "self-medication" of PTSD symptoms. Gender-specific interventions targeting emotion dysregulation may be effective in reducing alcohol-related consequences in individuals with PTSD. Women may possibly benefit from interventions that focus on difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior, while men may benefit from interventions that target impulse control difficulties when upset.

  15. Cold or calculating? Reduced activity in the subgenual cingulate cortex reflects decreased emotional aversion to harming in counterintuitive utilitarian judgment

    PubMed Central

    Wiech, Katja; Kahane, Guy; Shackel, Nicholas; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian; Tracey, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on moral decision-making has suggested that many common moral judgments are based on immediate intuitions. However, some individuals arrive at highly counterintuitive utilitarian conclusions about when it is permissible to harm other individuals. Such utilitarian judgments have been attributed to effortful reasoning that has overcome our natural emotional aversion to harming others. Recent studies, however, suggest that such utilitarian judgments might also result from a decreased aversion to harming others, due to a deficit in empathic concern and social emotion. The present study investigated the neural basis of such indifference to harming using functional neuroimaging during engagement in moral dilemmas. A tendency to counterintuitive utilitarian judgment was associated both with ‘psychoticism’, a trait associated with a lack of empathic concern and antisocial tendencies, and with ‘need for cognition’, a trait reflecting preference for effortful cognition. Importantly, only psychoticism was also negatively correlated with activation in the subgenual cingulate cortex (SCC), a brain area implicated in empathic concern and social emotions such as guilt, during counterintuitive utilitarian judgments. Our findings suggest that when individuals reach highly counterintuitive utilitarian conclusions, this need not reflect greater engagement in explicit moral deliberation. It may rather reflect a lack of empathic concern, and diminished aversion to harming others. PMID:23280149

  16. Study of method for reducing fuel consumption and amount of specific emissions of harmful substances with exhaust gases of passenger cars when using “climate control” system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burakova, L. N.; Anisimov, I. A.; Burakova, A. D.; Burakova, O. D.

    2018-05-01

    The article deals with the issue of improving fuel efficiency and the ecological nature of passenger cars, servicing the administrative and management personnel of the oil and gas complex. It is established that fuel consumption and the amount of specific emissions of harmful substances with exhaust gases of cars when using the “climate control” system depend on the effective ambient temperature, the color of the opaque car body elements, the power of the car engine and the interior volume. However, the simplest controlled factor is the color of the opaque car body elements, which is characterized by the coefficient of light reflection. In the course of experimental studies, the authors established the dependences of a change in fuel consumption and a share of reducing emissions of harmful substances with exhaust gases of passenger cars with the “climate control” system on the coefficient of light reflection. A method has been developed to reduce fuel consumption and the amount of specific emissions of harmful substances with the exhaust gases of passenger cars using the “climate control” system, which involves painting the vehicle roof white and allows reducing fuel consumption by 5.5-10.3%, and the amount of specific emissions of harmful substances by 0.8-2.3%.

  17. Interventions for promoting reintegration and reducing harmful behaviour and lifestyles in street-connected children and young people.

    PubMed

    Coren, Esther; Hossain, Rosa; Pardo, Jordi Pardo; Veras, Mirella M S; Chakraborty, Kabita; Harris, Holly; Martin, Anne J

    2013-07-01

    Numbers of street-connected children and young people run into many millions worldwide and include children and young people who live or work in street environments. Whether or not they remain connected to their families of origin, and despite many strengths and resiliencies, they are vulnerable to a range of risks and are excluded from mainstream social structures and opportunities. To summarise the effectiveness of interventions for street-connected children and young people that promote inclusion and reintegration and reduce harms. To explore the processes of successful intervention and models of change in this area, and to understand how intervention effectiveness may vary in different contexts. We searched the following bibliographic databases, from inception to 2012, and various relevant non-governmental and organisational websites: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE and PreMEDLINE; EMBASE and EMBASE Classic; CINAHL; PsycINFO; ERIC; Sociological Abstracts; Social Services Abstracts; Social Work Abstracts; Healthstar; LILACS; System for Grey literature in Europe (OpenGrey); ProQuest Dissertations and Theses; EconLit; IDEAS Economics and Finance Research; JOLIS Library Catalog of the holdings of the World Bank Group and IMF Libraries; BLDS (British Library for Development Studies); Google, Google Scholar. The review included data from harm reduction or reintegration promotion intervention studies that used a comparison group study design and were all randomised or quasi-randomised studies. Studies were included if they evaluated interventions aimed to benefit street-connected children and young people, aged 0 to 24 years, in all contexts. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Data were extracted on intervention delivery, context, process factors, equity and outcomes. Outcome measures were grouped according to whether they measured psychosocial outcomes, risky sexual

  18. Interventions for promoting reintegration and reducing harmful behaviour and lifestyles in street-connected children and young people.

    PubMed

    Coren, Esther; Hossain, Rosa; Pardo Pardo, Jordi; Veras, Mirella M S; Chakraborty, Kabita; Harris, Holly; Martin, Anne J

    2013-02-28

    Numbers of street-connected children and young people run into many millions worldwide and include children and young people who live or work in street environments. Whether or not they remain connected to their families of origin, and despite many strengths and resiliencies, they are vulnerable to a range of risks and are excluded from mainstream social structures and opportunities. To summarise the effectiveness of interventions for street-connected children and young people that promote inclusion and reintegration and reduce harms. To explore the processes of successful intervention and models of change in this area, and to understand how intervention effectiveness may vary in different contexts.. We searched the following bibliographic databases, from inception to 2012, and various relevant non-governmental and organisational websites: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE and PreMEDLINE; EMBASE and EMBASE Classic; CINAHL; PsycINFO; ERIC; Sociological Abstracts; Social Services Abstracts; Social Work Abstracts; Healthstar; LILACS; System for Grey literature in Europe (OpenGrey); ProQuest Dissertations and Theses; EconLit; IDEAS Economics and Finance Research; JOLIS Library Catalog of the holdings of the World Bank Group and IMF Libraries; BLDS (British Library for Development Studies); Google, Google Scholar. The review included data from harm reduction or reintegration promotion intervention studies that used a comparison group study design and were all randomised or quasi-randomised studies. Studies were included if they evaluated interventions aimed to benefit street-connected children and young people, aged 0 to 24 years, in all contexts. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Data were extracted on intervention delivery, context, process factors, equity and outcomes. Outcome measures were grouped according to whether they measured psychosocial outcomes, risky sexual

  19. In vino silentium? Individual, situational, and alcohol-related factors in reporting violence to the police.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Iain R

    2011-01-01

    This study identifies the individual, situational, and alcohol-related factors associated with reporting violent victimization to the police. Factors positively associated with reporting included older age and incident severity (the assailant's use of a weapon, incurring injury that required attendance at an emergency department). Factors negatively associated with reporting included higher educational qualifications, assault in the nighttime economy (NTE), and drinking more than two alcoholic drinks immediately prior to victimization. It is possible that drinkers engage in "moratorium" on reporting violence in the NTE. Recognizing and reducing the acceptability of violence in the NTE may help reduce incidence of alcohol-related violence. Organizations that use police records of violence to inform practice and policy should account for uneven distributions in reporting behavior when analyzing trends in violence.

  20. Experiences of alcohol-related harassment among medical students.

    PubMed

    Nagata-Kobayashi, Shizuko; Koyama, Hiroshi; Asai, Atsushi; Noguchi, Yoshinori; Maeno, Tetsuhiro; Fukushima, Osamu; Yamamoto, Wari; Koizumi, Shunzo; Shimbo, Takuro

    2010-12-01

    Although fatal accidents caused by alcohol-related harassment occur frequently among college students, this issue has not been adequately examined. This study set out to investigate the prevalence of alcohol-related harassment among medical students in Japan. A multi-institutional, cross-sectional survey was carried out across seven medical schools in Japan. A self-report anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 1152 medical students; 951 respondents (82.6%) satisfactorily completed it. From the responses, we determined the reported prevalences of the following types of alcohol-related harassment among medical students by senior medical students or doctors: (i) being coerced into drinking alcohol; (ii) being compelled to drink an alcoholic beverage all at once (the ikki drinking game); (iii) being deliberately forced to drink until unconscious, and (iv) being subjected to verbal abuse, physical abuse or sexual harassment in relation to alcohol. The prevalence of becoming a harasser among medical students was also measured. Multivariate regressions were used to assess the associations between experiences of alcohol-related harassment and student characteristics. A total of 821 respondents (86.3%) had experienced alcohol-related harassment and 686 (72.1%) had harassed others. Experiences of the ikki drinking game were frequently reported by both victims (n=686, 72.1% of all respondents) and harassers (n=595, 62.6% of all respondents). In multivariate regression, having an experience of alcohol-related harassment correlated with both being harassed (odds ratio [OR] 14.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 8.73-23.98) and being a harasser (OR 13.19, 95% CI 8.05-22.34). The presence of senior members of medical college clubs who were regular drinkers also correlated with both being harassed (OR 2.96, 95% CI 1.88-4.67) and being a harasser (OR 2.97, 95% CI 2.06-4.27). Alcohol-related harassment among medical students is common and tends to occur at drinking parties with

  1. Effects of Acute Alcohol Consumption on the Processing of Emotion in Faces: Implications for Understanding Alcohol-Related Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Attwood, Angela S.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    The negative consequences of chronic alcohol abuse are well known, but heavy episodic consumption ("binge drinking") is also associated with significant personal and societal harms. Aggressive tendencies are increased after alcohol but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. While effects on behavioural control are likely to be important, other effects may be involved given the widespread action of alcohol. Altered processing of social signals is associated with changes in social behaviours, including aggression, but until recently there has been little research investigating the effects of acute alcohol consumption on these outcomes. Recent work investigating the effects of acute alcohol on emotional face processing has suggested reduced sensitivity to submissive signals (sad faces) and increased perceptual bias towards provocative signals (angry faces) after alcohol consumption, which may play a role in alcohol-related aggression. Here we discuss a putative mechanism that may explain how alcohol consumption influences emotional processing and subsequent aggressive responding, via disruption of OFC-amygdala connectivity. While the importance of emotional processing on social behaviours is well established, research into acute alcohol consumption and emotional processing is still in its infancy. Further research is needed and we outline a research agenda to address gaps in the literature. PMID:24920135

  2. Regional alcohol consumption and alcohol-related mortality in Great Britain: novel insights using retail sales data.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Mark; Shipton, Deborah; Walsh, David; Whyte, Bruce; McCartney, Gerry

    2015-01-07

    Regional differences in population levels of alcohol-related harm exist across Great Britain, but these are not entirely consistent with differences in population levels of alcohol consumption. This incongruence may be due to the use of self-report surveys to estimate consumption. Survey data are subject to various biases and typically produce consumption estimates much lower than those based on objective alcohol sales data. However, sales data have never been used to estimate regional consumption within Great Britain (GB). This ecological study uses alcohol retail sales data to provide novel insights into regional alcohol consumption in GB, and to explore the relationship between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related mortality. Alcohol sales estimates derived from electronic sales, delivery records and retail outlet sampling were obtained. The volume of pure alcohol sold was used to estimate per adult consumption, by market sector and drink type, across eleven GB regions in 2010-11. Alcohol-related mortality rates were calculated for the same regions and a cross-sectional correlation analysis between consumption and mortality was performed. Per adult consumption in northern England was above the GB average and characterised by high beer sales. A high level of consumption in South West England was driven by on-trade sales of cider and spirits and off-trade wine sales. Scottish regions had substantially higher spirits sales than elsewhere in GB, particularly through the off-trade. London had the lowest per adult consumption, attributable to lower off-trade sales across most drink types. Alcohol-related mortality was generally higher in regions with higher per adult consumption. The relationship was weakened by the South West and Central Scotland regions, which had the highest consumption levels, but discordantly low and very high alcohol-related mortality rates, respectively. This study provides support for the ecological relationship between alcohol-related

  3. Exploring college students' use of general and alcohol-related social media and their associations with alcohol-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Eric W; Pinkleton, Bruce E; Weintraub Austin, Erica; Reyes-Velázquez, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol marketers have increasingly moved their advertising efforts into digital and social media venues. As a result, the purpose of this study is to investigate associations between students' use of social media, their exposure to alcohol marketing messages through social media, and their alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors. Public and private university students (N = 637) participated November and December 2011 and April 2012. College students completed online surveys to measure their exposure to social and online media generally, as well as their alcohol-related digital media use and alcohol use. Use of social media related to alcohol marketing predicted alcohol consumption and engaging in risky behaviors, whereas the use of social media more generally did not. Students' use of alcohol-related social media-marketing content associates with their problem drinking. Results have implications for alcohol abuse reduction efforts targeted at college students and suggest the importance of considering social, cultural, and cognitive factors in campaign planning and design.

  4. Cold or Calculating? Reduced Activity in the Subgenual Cingulate Cortex Reflects Decreased Emotional Aversion to Harming in Counterintuitive Utilitarian Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiech, Katja; Kahane, Guy; Shackel, Nicholas; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian; Tracey, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on moral decision-making has suggested that many common moral judgments are based on immediate intuitions. However, some individuals arrive at highly counterintuitive utilitarian conclusions about when it is permissible to harm other individuals. Such utilitarian judgments have been attributed to effortful reasoning that has…

  5. Alcohol-Related Content of Animated Cartoons: A Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Hugh; Shiffman, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    This study, based on a stratified (by decade of production) random sample of 1,221 animated cartoons and 4,201 characters appearing in those cartoons, seeks to determine the prevalence of alcohol-related content; how, if at all, the prevalence changed between 1930 and 1996 (the years spanned by this research); and the types of messages that animated cartoons convey about beverage alcohol and drinking in terms of the characteristics that are associated with alcohol use, the contexts in which alcohol is used in cartoons, and the reasons why cartoon characters purportedly consume alcohol. Approximately 1 cartoon in 11 was found to contain alcohol-related content, indicating that the average child or adolescent viewer is exposed to approximately 24 alcohol-related messages each week just from the cartoons that he/she watches. Data indicated that the prevalence of alcohol-related content declined significantly over the years. Quite often, alcohol consumption was shown to result in no effects whatsoever for the drinker, and alcohol use often occurred when characters were alone. Overall, mixed, ambivalent messages were provided about drinking and the types of characters that did/not consume alcoholic beverages. PMID:24350176

  6. TPH2 polymorphisms and alcohol-related suicide.

    PubMed

    Zupanc, Tomaž; Pregelj, Peter; Tomori, Martina; Komel, Radovan; Paska, Alja Videtič

    2011-02-18

    Substantial evidence from family, twin, and adoption studies corroborates implication of genetic and environmental factors, as well as their interactions, on suicidal behavior and alcoholism risk. Serotonergic disfunction seems to be involved in the pathophysiology of substance abuse, and has also an important role in suicidal behavior. Recent studies of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 showed mild or no association with suicide and alcohol-related suicide. We performed SNP and alcohol analysis on 388 suicide victims and 227 controls. The results showed association between suicide (Pχ²=0.043) and alcohol-related suicide (Pχ²=0.021) for SNP Rs1843809. A tendency for association was determined also for polymorphism Rs1386493 (Pχ²=0.055) and alcohol-related suicide. Data acquired from psychological autopsies in a subsample of suicide victims (n=79) determined more impulsive behavior (Pχ²=0.016) and verbal aggressive behavior (Pχ²=0.025) in the subgroup with alcohol misuse or dependency. In conclusion, our results suggest implication of polymorphisms in suicide and alcohol-related suicide, but further studies are needed to clarify the interplay among serotonergic system disfunction, suicide, alcohol dependence, impulsivity and the role of TPH2 enzyme. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The impact of alcohol-related presentations on a New Zealand hospital emergency department.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Rebecca; Das, Manidipa; Ardagh, Michael; Deely, Joanne M; Dodd, Stuart; Bartholomew, Nadia; Pearson, Scott; Spearing, Ruth; Williams, Tracey; Than, Martin

    2014-08-29

    To determine the impact of alcohol-related presentations on the Christchurch Hospital Emergency Department (ED). Over 42 8-hour shifts (2 weeks) between 15 November 2013 and 9 December 2013, patients attending the ED with recent alcohol consumption were classified as screen-positive (consumed alcohol in the 4 hours prior to presentation) or not. A subset of screen-positive patients was classified as impact-positive (alcohol consumption clearly contributed to the reason for presenting). Data were analysed in relation to days/shifts for gender, age, disruptive behaviour, medical reasons for presenting, and completeness of ED records. Of the 3619 patients screened in the study, 268 (7.4%) and 182 (5%) were screen-positive and impact-positive, respectively. Most patients attended the ED on the weekends (58%: 105/182), particularly on Saturday night (31%; 56/182). More males (118) than females (64) were impact-positive. Of the impact-positive males, most were 16-25 years old (37%; 44/118) or 41-61 years old (32%; 38/118), attended the ED on weekend night shifts (24%; 28/118), and sought treatment for non- interpersonal trauma (38%; 45/118) or interpersonal trauma due to violence (17%; 20/118). Of the female impact-positive patients, most were 16-25 years old (41%; 26/64) or 41-60 years old (33%; 21/64), and presented for deliberate self-harm (36%; 23/64) or non-interpersonal trauma (27%; 17/64). Of the 182 impact-positive patients, 86% (156) were recorded in the ED computer system. Alcohol-related presentations had a significant impact on the ED, particularly on weekends. Teenagers, young adults and middle-aged adults contributed to the alcohol-related patient impact on weekends. Male patients were a significant burden on Saturday evening and night shifts.

  8. Alcohol-related presentations to the Royal Perth Hospital Emergency Department: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    McLay, Stuart Vb; MacDonald, Ellen; Fatovich, Daniel M

    2017-10-01

    To quantify and describe alcohol-related presentations to our ED, as part of the binational Alcohol Harm in Emergency Departments study. A prospective observational study at Royal Perth Hospital of every patient attending ED for the 168-h period commencing 08.00 hours Monday 1 December 2014. Patient presentations were classified as alcohol-related (alcohol-positive) using predefined criteria. These patients were compared to alcohol-negative patients on a range of demographic and clinical descriptors. Two hundred and thirteen (15.2%) of 1403 patients screened were alcohol-positive. Compared with alcohol-negative patients, alcohol-positive patients were more likely to be male (148/213, 69.5% vs 636/1190, 53.4%, P < 0.001) and younger (mean 38 years vs 48 years, P < 0.001). They were more likely to arrive in police custody (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.3-9.5, P = 0.005), and be admitted to the State Adult Major Trauma Unit (OR 4.2, 95% CI 2.1-8.3, P < 0.001). Forty-two (19.7%) of 213 patients had injuries suspected to be caused by an alcohol-affected third party. The ED length of stay and admission rate were not significantly different between the groups. 15.2% of patient presentations over the study week were alcohol-related. These patients were more likely to present with injury; one in five having injuries suspected to be caused by a third party affected by alcohol. This is a significant public health problem. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  9. Alcohol-related dementia: an update of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of dementia relating to excessive alcohol use have received increased research interest in recent times. In this paper, the neuropathology, nosology, epidemiology, clinical features, and neuropsychology of alcohol-related dementia (ARD) and alcohol-induced persisting amnestic syndrome (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, or WKS) are reviewed. Neuropathological and imaging studies suggest that excessive and prolonged use of alcohol may lead to structural and functional damage that is permanent in nature; however, there is debate about the relative contributions of the direct toxic effect of alcohol (neurotoxicity hypothesis), and the impact of thiamine deficiency, to lasting damage. Investigation of alcohol-related cognitive impairment has been further complicated by differing definitions of patterns of alcohol use and associated lifestyle factors related to the abuse of alcohol. Present diagnostic systems identify two main syndromes of alcohol-related cognitive impairment: ARD and WKS. However, 'alcohol-related brain damage' is increasingly used as an umbrella term to encompass the heterogeneity of these disorders. It is unclear what level of drinking may pose a risk for the development of brain damage or, in fact, whether lower levels of alcohol may protect against other forms of dementia. Epidemiological studies suggest that individuals with ARD typically have a younger age of onset than those with other forms of dementia, are more likely to be male, and often are socially isolated. The cognitive profile of ARD appears to involve both cortical and subcortical pathology, and deficits are most frequently observed on tasks of visuospatial function as well as memory and higher-order (executive) tasks. The WKS appears more heterogeneous in nature than originally documented, and deficits on executive tasks commonly are reported in conjunction with characteristic memory deficits. Individuals with alcohol-related disorders have the potential to at least

  10. Assessing the impacts of Saskatchewan's minimum alcohol pricing regulations on alcohol-related crime.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Tim; Zhao, Jinhui; Sherk, Adam; Callaghan, Russell C; Macdonald, Scott; Gatley, Jodi

    2017-07-01

    Saskatchewan's introduction in April 2010 of minimum prices graded by alcohol strength led to an average minimum price increase of 9.1% per Canadian standard drink (=13.45 g ethanol). This increase was shown to be associated with reduced consumption and switching to lower alcohol content beverages. Police also informally reported marked reductions in night-time alcohol-related crime. This study aims to assess the impacts of changes to Saskatchewan's minimum alcohol-pricing regulations between 2008 and 2012 on selected crime events often related to alcohol use. Data were obtained from Canada's Uniform Crime Reporting Survey. Auto-regressive integrated moving average time series models were used to test immediate and lagged associations between minimum price increases and rates of night-time and police identified alcohol-related crimes. Controls were included for simultaneous crime rates in the neighbouring province of Alberta, economic variables, linear trend, seasonality and autoregressive and/or moving-average effects. The introduction of increased minimum-alcohol prices was associated with an abrupt decrease in night-time alcohol-related traffic offences for men (-8.0%, P < 0.001), but not women. No significant immediate changes were observed for non-alcohol-related driving offences, disorderly conduct or violence. Significant monthly lagged effects were observed for violent offences (-19.7% at month 4 to -18.2% at month 6), which broadly corresponded to lagged effects in on-premise alcohol sales. Increased minimum alcohol prices may contribute to reductions in alcohol-related traffic-related and violent crimes perpetrated by men. Observed lagged effects for violent incidents may be due to a delay in bars passing on increased prices to their customers, perhaps because of inventory stockpiling. [Stockwell T, Zhao J, Sherk A, Callaghan RC, Macdonald S, Gatley J. Assessing the impacts of Saskatchewan's minimum alcohol pricing regulations on alcohol-related

  11. ALDH2 polymorphism and alcohol-related cancers in Asians: a public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jeffrey S; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Chen, Che-Hong

    2017-03-03

    The occurrence of more than 200 diseases, including cancer, can be attributed to alcohol drinking. The global cancer deaths attributed to alcohol-consumption rose from 243,000 in 1990 to 337,400 in 2010. In 2010, cancer deaths due to alcohol consumption accounted for 4.2% of all cancer deaths. Strong epidemiological evidence has established the causal role of alcohol in the development of various cancers, including esophageal cancer, head and neck cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer. The evidence for the association between alcohol and other cancers is inconclusive. Because of the high prevalence of ALDH2*2 allele among East Asian populations, East Asians may be more susceptible to the carcinogenic effect of alcohol, with most evidence coming from studies of esophageal cancer and head and neck cancer, while data for other cancers are more limited. The high prevalence of ALDH2*2 allele in East Asian populations may have important public health implications and may be utilized to reduce the occurrence of alcohol-related cancers among East Asians, including: 1) Identification of individuals at high risk of developing alcohol-related cancers by screening for ALDH2 polymorphism; 2) Incorporation of ALDH2 polymorphism screening into behavioral intervention program for promoting alcohol abstinence or reducing alcohol consumption; 3) Using ALDH2 polymorphism as a prognostic indicator for alcohol-related cancers; 4) Targeting ALDH2 for chemoprevention; and 5) Setting guidelines for alcohol consumption among ALDH2 deficient individuals. Future studies should evaluate whether these strategies are effective for preventing the occurrence of alcohol-related cancers.

  12. Interventions for promoting reintegration and reducing harmful behaviour and lifestyles in street-connected children and young people.

    PubMed

    Coren, Esther; Hossain, Rosa; Pardo Pardo, Jordi; Bakker, Brittany

    2016-01-13

    Millions of street-connected children and young people worldwide live or work in street environments. They are vulnerable to many risks, whether or not they remain connected to families of origin, and despite many strengths and resiliencies, they are excluded from mainstream social structures and opportunities. Primary research objectivesTo evaluate and summarise the effectiveness of interventions for street-connected children and young people that aim to:• promote inclusion and reintegration;• increase literacy and numeracy;• facilitate access to education and employment;• promote mental health, including self esteem;• reduce harms associated with early sexual activity and substance misuse. Secondary research objectives• To explore whether effects of interventions differ within and between populations, and whether an equity gradient influences these effects, by extrapolating from all findings relevance for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) (Peters 2004).• To describe other health, educational, psychosocial and behavioural effects, when appropriate outcomes are reported.• To explore the influence of context in design, delivery and outcomes of interventions.• To explore the relationship between numbers of components and duration and effects of interventions.• To highlight implications of these findings for further research and research methods to improve evidence in relation to the primary research objective.• To consider adverse or unintended outcomes. We searched the following bibliographic databases, searched for the original review, from inception to 2012, and various relevant non-governmental and organisational websites: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE and Pre-MEDLINE; EMBASE and EMBASE Classic; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); PsycINFO; Education Resource Information Center (ERIC); Sociological Abstracts; Social Services Abstracts; Social Work Abstracts; Healthstar

  13. Exploring College Students' Use of General and Alcohol-Related Social Media and Their Associations with Alcohol-Related Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Eric W.; Pinkleton, Bruce E.; Weintraub Austin, Erica; Reyes-Velázquez, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol marketers have increasingly moved their advertising efforts into digital and social media venues. As a result, the purpose of this study is to investigate associations between students' use of social media, their exposure to alcohol marketing messages through social media, and their alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors.…

  14. Harm reduction with pharmacotherapy for homeless people with alcohol dependence: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Susan E.; Saxon, Andrew J.; Duncan, Mark H.; Smart, Brian F.; Merrill, Joseph O.; Malone, Daniel K.; Jackson, T. Ron; Clifasefi, Seema L.; Joesch, Jutta; Ries, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Interventions requiring abstinence from alcohol are neither preferred by nor shown to be highly effective with many homeless individuals with alcohol dependence. It is therefore important to develop lower-threshold, patient-centered interventions for this multimorbid and high-utilizing population. Harm-reduction counseling requires neither abstinence nor use reduction and pairs a compassionate style with patient-driven goal-setting. Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX), a monthly injectable formulation of an opioid receptor antagonist, reduces craving and may support achievement of harm-reduction goals. Together, harm-reduction counseling and XR-NTX may support alcohol harm reduction and quality-of-life improvement. Aims Study aims include testing: a) the relative efficacy of XR-NTX and harm-reduction counseling compared to a community-based, supportive-services-as-usual control, b) theory-based mediators of treatment effects, and c) treatment effects on publicly funded service costs. Methods This RCT involves four arms: a) XR-NTX+harm-reduction counseling, b) placebo+harm-reduction counseling, c) harm-reduction counseling only, and d) community-based, supportive-services-as-usual control conditions. Participants are currently/formerly homeless, alcohol dependent individuals (N=300). Outcomes include alcohol variables (i.e., craving, quantity/frequency, problems and biomarkers), health-related quality of life, and publicly funded service utilization and associated costs. Mediators include 10-point motivation rulers and the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale. XR-NTX and harm-reduction counseling are administered every 4 weeks over the 12-week treatment course. Follow-up assessments are conducted at weeks 24 and 36. Discussion If found efficacious, XR-NTX and harm-reduction counseling will be well-positioned to support reductions in alcohol-related harm, decreases in costs associated with publicly funded service utilization, and increases in quality of life among

  15. Harm reduction with pharmacotherapy for homeless people with alcohol dependence: protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Collins, Susan E; Saxon, Andrew J; Duncan, Mark H; Smart, Brian F; Merrill, Joseph O; Malone, Daniel K; Jackson, T Ron; Clifasefi, Seema L; Joesch, Jutta; Ries, Richard K

    2014-07-01

    Interventions requiring abstinence from alcohol are neither preferred by nor shown to be highly effective with many homeless individuals with alcohol dependence. It is therefore important to develop lower-threshold, patient-centered interventions for this multimorbid and high-utilizing population. Harm-reduction counseling requires neither abstinence nor use reduction and pairs a compassionate style with patient-driven goal-setting. Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX), a monthly injectable formulation of an opioid receptor antagonist, reduces craving and may support achievement of harm-reduction goals. Together, harm-reduction counseling and XR-NTX may support alcohol harm reduction and quality-of-life improvement. Study aims include testing: a) the relative efficacy of XR-NTX and harm-reduction counseling compared to a community-based, supportive-services-as-usual control, b) theory-based mediators of treatment effects, and c) treatment effects on publicly funded service costs. This RCT involves four arms: a) XR-NTX+harm-reduction counseling, b) placebo+harm-reduction counseling, c) harm-reduction counseling only, and d) community-based, supportive-services-as-usual control conditions. Participants are currently/formerly homeless, alcohol dependent individuals (N=300). Outcomes include alcohol variables (i.e., craving, quantity/frequency, problems and biomarkers), health-related quality of life, and publicly funded service utilization and associated costs. Mediators include 10-point motivation rulers and the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale. XR-NTX and harm-reduction counseling are administered every 4weeks over the 12-week treatment course. Follow-up assessments are conducted at weeks 24 and 36. If found efficacious, XR-NTX and harm-reduction counseling will be well-positioned to support reductions in alcohol-related harm, decreases in costs associated with publicly funded service utilization, and increases in quality of life among homeless, alcohol

  16. Harmful Alcohol Use on Campus: Impact on Young People at University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickwood, Debra; George, Amanda; Parker, Rhian; Mikhailovich, Katja

    2011-01-01

    Young people at university are more likely to consume alcohol at harmful levels than their same-age peers who are not at university, and harmful alcohol use affects many aspects of campus life. This study aimed to investigate alcohol use and alcohol-related harms, both experienced and witnessed, among students at an Australian university. An…

  17. Prospective Effects of Family Cohesion on Alcohol-Related Problems in Adolescence: Similarities and Differences by Race/Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Reeb, Ben T; Chan, Sut Yee Shirley; Conger, Katherine J; Martin, Monica J; Hollis, Nicole D; Serido, Joyce; Russell, Stephen T

    2015-10-01

    Research increasingly finds that race/ethnicity needs to be taken into account in the modelling of associations between protective factors and adolescent drinking behaviors in order to understand family effects and promote positive youth development. The current study examined racial/ethnic variation in the prospective effects of family cohesion on adolescent alcohol-related problems using a nationally representative sample. Data were drawn from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health and included 10,992 (50% female) non-Hispanic Asian, non-Hispanic Black, Latino, and non-Hispanic White 7th-12th graders. Consistent with Hirschi's social control theory of youth delinquency, higher levels of family cohesion predicted lower levels of future adolescent alcohol-related problems, independent of race/ethnicity, sex, age, baseline alcohol-related problems, and family socioeconomic status. Findings from moderation analyses indicated that the magnitude of associations differed across groups such that the protective effect of family cohesion was strongest among White adolescents. For Latino adolescents, family cohesion was not associated with alcohol-related problems. Future longitudinal cross-racial/ethnic research is needed on common and unique mechanisms underlying differential associations between family processes and adolescent high-risk drinking. Understanding these processes could help improve preventive interventions, identify vulnerable subgroups, and inform health policy aimed at reducing alcohol-related health disparities.

  18. Emotion dysregulation and peer drinking norms uniquely predict alcohol-related problems via motives.

    PubMed

    Simons, Raluca M; Hahn, Austin M; Simons, Jeffrey S; Murase, Hanako

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the relationships between emotion dysregulation, peer drinking norms, drinking motives, and alcohol-related outcomes among 435 college students. We examined the mediating roles of drinking motives when predicting alcohol consumption and related problems from the subscales of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz and Roemer, 2004) via negative and positive reinforcement models. First, we hypothesized that individuals who lack in emotion regulation strategies or have difficulties in accepting negative emotions are more likely to drink to cope. Additionally, we hypothesized that individuals who act impulsively or become distracted when upset as well as those with higher peer drinking norms are more likely to drink for social and enhancement motives. The results of the path model indicated that limited access to emotion regulation strategies significantly predicted alcohol-related problems via both depression and anxiety coping motives, but did not predict alcohol consumption. Nonacceptance of emotional responses was not significantly associated with coping motives. Impulsivity had a significant direct relationship with alcohol problems. Difficulty in engaging in goal-directed behaviors predicted both enhancement and social motives, but only enhancement motives in turn predicted consumption. Norms indirectly predicted problems via enhancement motives and consumption. The results indicated that using alcohol to reduce negative or to increase positive emotions increases alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Overall, results advance our understanding of the mechanisms of increased alcohol use and problems among college students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Alcohol Policies and Alcohol-Related Motor Vehicle Crash Fatalities Among Young People in the US.

    PubMed

    Hadland, Scott E; Xuan, Ziming; Sarda, Vishnudas; Blanchette, Jason; Swahn, Monica H; Heeren, Timothy C; Voas, Robert B; Naimi, Timothy S

    2017-03-01

    Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of death among young people in the United States. We examined the relationship between states' alcohol policy environments and alcohol-related MVC fatalities among children, adolescents, and young adults under the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years. We used the Alcohol Policy Scale (APS), an assessment of 29 alcohol policies across 50 states and Washington, DC, developed with the assistance of an interdisciplinary Delphi panel. Using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System, we examined APS scores in relation to fatalities of people ≤20 years old from 2000 to 2013 occurring in crashes in which ≥1 involved driver had a blood alcohol content ≥0.08%. Logistic regression was used with a 1-year lag between policies and MVC fatalities and adjusted for potential confounders. Of 84 756 MVC fatalities of those ≤20 years old during the study period, 23 757 (28.0%) were alcohol related, including deaths of 11 006 (46.3%) drivers, 10 212 (43.0%) passengers, and 2539 (10.7%) pedestrians, cyclists, and others. People killed in alcohol-related MVCs were predominantly male (72.7%) and older (65.5% were 18-20 years old), and 51.2% were non-Hispanic white. Restrictive policy environments were associated with fewer fatalities (adjusted odds ratio, 0.91 per 10-percentage-point increase in APS score; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.94). The association was observed for drivers and passengers, male and female decendents, and children, adolescents, and young adults. More restrictive alcohol policies are associated with reduced alcohol-related MVC mortality among young people. Studies should scrutinize the relationship between policies and fatalities to highlight mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Alcohol-related problems in primary care patients in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abiodun, O A

    1996-04-01

    A total of 440 (50.1%) drinking patients were found in a study of 878 primary care patients in Nigeria, of whom 126 (28.6%) of drinking patients were observed to have alcohol-related problems. Those with alcohol-related problems were significantly more likely to be males, middle-aged and to belong to higher occupational groups. In addition, they were also more likely to be separated, divorced or widowed, made more frequent visits to health care facilities and were more likely to have associated mental morbidity. The primary health care (PHC) workers did not recognize these problem drinkers in their care. The need to improve the ability of PHC workers to detect and manage primary care patients with alcohol-related problems in developing countries through the use of reliable and valid short alcohol screening instruments (e.g. CAGE, AUDIT) and brief intervention techniques is emphasized. It is also suggested that, on a long-term basis, the training curricula for medical and paramedical primary care personnel in third world countries should include more hours on alcohol education.

  1. Association of State Alcohol Policies With Alcohol-Related Motor Vehicle Crash Fatalities Among US Adults.

    PubMed

    Naimi, Timothy S; Xuan, Ziming; Sarda, Vishnudas; Hadland, Scott E; Lira, Marlene C; Swahn, Monica H; Voas, Robert B; Heeren, Timothy C

    2018-05-29

    Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of mortality. However, the association between the restrictiveness of the alcohol policy environment (ie, based on multiple existing policies) and alcohol-related crash fatalities has not been characterized previously to date. To examine the association between the restrictiveness of state alcohol policy environments and the likelihood of alcohol involvement among those dying in motor vehicle crashes in the United States. This investigation was a repeated cross-sectional study in which state alcohol policies (operationalized by the Alcohol Policy Scale [APS]) from 1999 to 2014 were related to motor vehicle crash fatalities from 2000 to 2015 using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (1-year lag). Alternating logistic regression models and generalized estimating equations were used to account for clustering of multiple deaths within a crash and of multiple crashes occurring within states. The study also examined independent associations of mutually exclusive subgroups of policies, including consumption-oriented policies vs driving-oriented policies. The study setting was the 50 US states. Participants were 505 614 decedents aged at least 21 years from motor vehicle crashes from 2000 to 2015. Odds that a crash fatality was alcohol related (fatality stemmed from a crash in which ≥1 driver had a blood alcohol concentration [BAC] ≥0.08%). From 2000 to 2015, there were 505 614 adult motor vehicle crash fatalities in the United States, of which 178 795 (35.4%) were alcohol related. Each 10-percentage point increase in the APS score (corresponding to more restrictive state policies) was associated with reduced individual-level odds of alcohol involvement in a crash fatality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.90; 95% CI, 0.89-0.91); results were consistent among most demographic and crash-type strata. More restrictive policies also had protective associations with alcohol involvement among crash fatalities

  2. Effective psychological and psychosocial approaches to reduce repetition of self-harm: a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jo; Spittal, Matthew J; Carter, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the efficacy of psychological and psychosocial interventions for reductions in repeated self-harm. Design We conducted a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression to examine the efficacy of psychological and psychosocial interventions to reduce repeat self-harm in adults. We included a sensitivity analysis of studies with a low risk of bias for the meta-analysis. For the meta-regression, we examined whether the type, intensity (primary analyses) and other components of intervention or methodology (secondary analyses) modified the overall intervention effect. Data sources A comprehensive search of MEDLINE, PsycInfo and EMBASE (from 1999 to June 2016) was performed. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled trials of psychological and psychosocial interventions for adult self-harm patients. Results Forty-five trials were included with data available from 36 (7354 participants) for the primary analysis. Meta-analysis showed a significant benefit of all psychological and psychosocial interventions combined (risk ratio 0.84; 95% CI 0.74 to 0.96; number needed to treat=33); however, sensitivity analyses showed that this benefit was non-significant when restricted to a limited number of high-quality studies. Meta-regression showed that the type of intervention did not modify the treatment effects. Conclusions Consideration of a psychological or psychosocial intervention over and above treatment as usual is worthwhile; with the public health benefits of ensuring that this practice is widely adopted potentially worth the investment. However, the specific type and nature of the intervention that should be delivered is not yet clear. Cognitive–behavioural therapy or interventions with an interpersonal focus and targeted on the precipitants to self-harm may be the best candidates on the current evidence. Further research is required. PMID:27660314

  3. Dyadic conflict, drinking to cope, and alcohol-related problems: A psychometric study and longitudinal actor-partner interdependence model.

    PubMed

    Lambe, Laura; Mackinnon, Sean P; Stewart, Sherry H

    2015-10-01

    The motivational model of alcohol use posits that individuals may consume alcohol to cope with negative affect. Conflict with others is a strong predictor of coping motives, which in turn predict alcohol-related problems. Two studies examined links between conflict, coping motives, and alcohol-related problems in emerging adult romantic dyads. It was hypothesized that the association between conflict and alcohol-related problems would be mediated by coping-depression and coping-anxiety motives. It was also hypothesized that this would be true for actor (i.e., how individual factors influence individual behaviors) and partner effects (i.e., how partner factors influence individual behaviors) and at the between- (i.e., does not vary over the study period) and within-subjects (i.e., varies over the study period) levels. Both studies examined participants currently in a romantic relationship who consumed ≥12 alcoholic drinks in the past year. Study 1 was cross-sectional using university students (N = 130 students; 86.9% female; M = 21.02 years old, SD = 3.43). Study 2 used a 4-wave, 4-week longitudinal design with romantic dyads (N = 100 dyads; 89% heterosexual; M = 22.13 years old, SD = 5.67). In Study 2, coping-depression motives emerged as the strongest mediator of the conflict-alcohol-related problems association, and findings held for actor effects but not partner effects. Supplemental analyses revealed that this mediational pathway only held among women. Within any given week, alcohol-related problems changed systematically in the same direction between romantic partners. Interventions may wish to target coping-depression drinking motives within couples in response to conflict to reduce alcohol-related problems. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Defining harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Single, E

    1995-01-01

    Harm reduction attempts to reduce the adverse consequences of drug use among persons who continue to use drugs. It developed in response to the excesses of a "zero tolerance approach". Harm reduction emphasizes practical rather than idealized goals. It has been expanded from illicit drugs to legal drugs and is grounded in the evolving public health and advocacy movements. Harm reduction has proved to be effective and it has gained increasing official acceptance; for example, it is now the basis of Canada's Drug Strategy. However, the concept is still poorly defined, as virtually any drug policy or programme, even abstinence-oriented programmes, attempt to reduce drug-related harm. The principle feature of harm reduction is the acceptance of the fact that some drug users cannot be expected to cease their drug use at the present time. Harm reduction is neutral about the long term goals of intervention while according a high priority to short-term realizable goals. Harm reduction should be neutral about legalization. The essence of the concept is to ameliorate adverse consequences of drug use while, at least in the short term, drug use continues.

  5. Influence of affordability of alcohol on educational disparities in alcohol-related mortality in Finland and Sweden: a time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Herttua, Kimmo; Östergren, Olof; Lundberg, Olle; Martikainen, Pekka

    2017-12-01

    Prices of alcohol and income tend to influence how much people buy and consume alcohol. Price and income may be combined into one measure, affordability of alcohol. Research on the association between affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related harm is scarce. Furthermore, no research exists on how this association varies across different subpopulations. We estimated the effects of affordability of alcohol on alcohol-related mortality according to gender and education in Finland and Sweden. Vector-autoregressive time series modelling was applied to the quarter-annual aggregations of alcohol-related deaths and affordability of alcohol in Finland in 1988-2007 and in Sweden in 1991-2008. Alcohol-related mortality was defined using information on both underlying and contributory causes of death. We calculated affordability of alcohol index using information on personal taxable income and prices of various types of alcohol. Among Finnish men with secondary education, an increase of 1% in the affordability of total alcohol was associated with an increase of 0.028% (95% CI 0.004 to 0.053) in alcohol-related mortality. Similar associations were also found for affordability for various types of alcohol and for beer only in the lowest education group. We found few other significant positive associations for other subpopulations in Finland or Sweden. However, reverse associations were found among secondary-educated Swedish women. Overall, the associations between affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality were relatively weak. Increased affordability of total alcoholic beverages was associated with higher rates of alcohol-related mortality only among Finnish men with secondary education. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Harm from others' drinking-related aggression, violence and misconduct in five Asian countries and the implications.

    PubMed

    Waleewong, Orratai; Laslett, Anne-Marie; Chenhall, Richard; Room, Robin

    2018-06-01

    Harm from alcohol-attributable aggression and violence is linked to diminished personal safety and reduced physical and mental health and wellbeing in many countries. But there has been limited evidence on these harms in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study measured harm from others' drinking-related aggression, violence and misconduct in five Asian LMICs (Thailand, Sri Lanka, India, Vietnam, and Lao PDR), aiming to compare the magnitude and pattern of harm across countries by gender, age group, educational level, rurality, and country-level indicators. Data from 9832 respondents from the WHO/Thai Health International Collaborative Research Project on the Harm from Others' Drinking undertaken between 2012 and 2014 were analysed. 50-73% of respondents from five countries reported being harmed at least once in the past year. Public disorder and feeling unsafe due to someone else's drinking was frequently reported, followed by harassment, assaults and threats, traffic harm, and property damage. In most countries, men were more likely than women to report traffic harms, property harm, and assaults, whereas women were more likely to report feeling unsafe in public. Being young, less educated, living in urban areas, and one's own drinking were significant predictors of more harm from others' drinking for both genders. This study revealed a consistently high prevalence of alcohol-related aggression and violence in the five Asian countries. Patterns of harm within countries and populations at most risk for different forms of harms were identified. Alongside services for those affected, efforts to strengthen alcohol policies are needed in each society. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Language acquisition for deaf children: Reducing the harms of zero tolerance to the use of alternative approaches.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Tom; Kushalnagar, Poorna; Mathur, Gaurav; Napoli, Donna Jo; Padden, Carol; Rathmann, Christian; Smith, Scott R

    2012-04-02

    the child runs the risk of becoming linguistically deprived. Linguistic deprivation constitutes multiple personal harms as well as harms to society (in terms of costs to our medical systems and in loss of potential productive societal participation).

  8. Normative Beliefs, Expectancies, and Alcohol-Related Problems among College Students; Implications for Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fearnow-Kenny, Melodie D.; Wyrick, David L.; Hansen, William B.; Dyreg, Doug; Beau, Dan B.

    2001-01-01

    Investigation (1) examined interrelations among normative beliefs, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol-related problems, and (2) investigated whether alcohol-related expectancies mediate associations between normative beliefs and alcohol-related problems. Analyses revealed that alcohol expectancies mediate the relationship between normative beliefs…

  9. Cigarette design and marketing features are associated with increased smoking susceptibility and perception of reduced harm among smokers in 27 EU countries.

    PubMed

    Agaku, Israel T; Omaduvie, Uyoyo T; Filippidis, Filippos T; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the role of cigarette design and marketing characteristics in initial smoking, cigarette brand choice and the perception of reduced harm of cigarette brands among adults in the European Union in 2012. Data were from the Eurobarometer 385 (V.77.1) survey conducted in 2012 (n=26 566). Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess associations between cigarette design/marketing features with aspects of initial smoking (among current and former smokers), cigarette brand choice and perception of reduced harm of cigarette brands (among current smokers; p<0.05). Respondents aged ≥55 years had lower OR than 15-24-year-olds of reporting initial smoking because of the presence of menthol flavour (adjusted OR (AOR)=0.42; 95% CI 0.24 to 0.72) or a specific sweet, fruity or spicy flavour (AOR=0.38; 95% CI 0.20 to 0.73). Females had higher OR than males of reporting initial smoking because of the presence of menthol flavour (AOR=2.89; 95% CI 2.07 to 4.02). Furthermore, female smokers were more likely to choose a cigarette brand based on specific tastes such as menthol or spicy, fruity or sweet flavours (AOR=1.33; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.56), or on the levels of tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide (AOR=1.30; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.52). Characteristics such as light-coloured packaging, the shape and size of cigarettes and the pack, the use of terms in the brand name such as 'silver' or 'blue' or descriptors such as 'natural' or 'organic' were all associated with perceptions of reduced harm among specific demographic groups. These findings call for a stronger regulation of tobacco ingredients, packaging features and other marketing strategies that may increase the attractiveness of tobacco products or promote perceptions of harm reduction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. When the cats are away: the impact of sporting events on assault- and alcohol-related emergency department attendances.

    PubMed

    Miller, Peter; McDonald, Louise; McKenzie, Stephen; O'Brien, Kerry; Staiger, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Despite the attention given to the broad topic of alcohol and violence, there are few studies of this relationship in the context of sporting events and their impact on alcohol-related hospital emergency department (ED) attendances, none of which are Australian. De-identified patient records from Barwon Health's Geelong Hospital ED were analysed from 1 July 2005 to 16 February 2010. Information contained in these records included age, gender, suburb of residence, attendance date and time, arrival mode and reason for attendance. The ED triage database was searched for attendances relating to alcohol, drugs and assault of which 16,940 cases were returned. There was a substantial increase in annual alcohol-related ED attendances from 2006 to 2009. Hierarchical binary logistic regression analyses showed that having a game on a particular day did not contribute to the model, but there were significantly more ED attendances for assaults on days when the Geelong Cats won. There were no significant predictors of ED attendance for alcohol-related harm in the variables studied. The findings of the study suggest that there are significantly more assault-related attendances at the ED in Geelong when the local national football team, the Geelong Cats, won. None of the variables under investigation appears to have impacted on alcohol-related attendances which were not assaults (i.e. injuries or intoxication). It appears that increases in ED attendances associated with the success of a local sporting team are not significantly associated with alcohol use and are more influenced by other factors. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  11. Alcohol-related aggression-social and neurobiological factors.

    PubMed

    Beck, Anne; Heinz, Andreas

    2013-10-01

    Alcohol-related aggression and violence are a widespread cause of personal suffering with high socioeconomic costs. In 2011, nearly one in three violent acts in Germany was committed under the influence of alcohol (31.8%). The link between alcohol consumption and aggression is promoted by various interacting factors. In this review, based on a selective search for pertinent literature in PubMed, we analyze and summarize information from original articles, reviews, and book chapters about alcohol and aggression and discuss the neurobiological basis of aggressive behavior. Aggression is promoted both by the cognitive deficits arising in connection with acute or chronic alcohol use and by prior experience of violence in particular situations where alcohol was drunk. Only a minority of persons who drink alcohol become aggressive. On the other hand, alcohol abuse and dependence together constitute the second most commonly diagnosed cause of suicide (15-43%). Current research indicates that the individual tendency toward alcohol-induced aggression depends not just on neurobiological factors, but also on personal expectations of the effects of alcohol, on prior experience of violent conflicts, and on the environmental conditions of early childhood, especially social exclusion and discrimination. Gene-environment interactions affecting the serotonergic and other neurotransmitter systems play an important role. Potential (but not yet adequately validated) therapeutic approaches involve reinforcing cognitive processes or pharmacologically modulating serotonergic neurotransmission (and other target processes). Alcohol-related aggression has manifold social and neurobiological causes. Specific treatments must be tested in controlled trials.

  12. How economic crises affect alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems: a realist systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Suhrcke, Marc; Toffolutti, Veronica; van de Mheen, Dike; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    Economic crises are complex events that affect behavioral patterns (including alcohol consumption) via opposing mechanisms. With this realist systematic review, we aimed to investigate evidence from studies of previous or ongoing crises on which mechanisms (How?) play a role among which individuals (Whom?). Such evidence would help understand and predict the potential impact of economic crises on alcohol consumption. Medical, psychological, social, and economic databases were used to search for peer-reviewed qualitative or quantitative empirical evidence (published January 1, 1990-May 1, 2014) linking economic crises or stressors with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. We included 35 papers, based on defined selection criteria. From these papers, we extracted evidence on mechanism(s), determinant, outcome, country-level context, and individual context. We found 16 studies that reported evidence completely covering two behavioral mechanisms by which economic crises can influence alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. The first mechanism suggests that psychological distress triggered by unemployment and income reductions can increase drinking problems. The second mechanism suggests that due to tighter budget constraints, less money is spent on alcoholic beverages. Across many countries, the psychological distress mechanism was observed mainly in men. The tighter budget constraints mechanism seems to play a role in all population subgroups across all countries. For the other three mechanisms (i.e., deterioration in the social situation, fear of losing one's job, and increased non-working time), empirical evidence was scarce or absent, or had small to moderate coverage. This was also the case for important influential contextual factors described in our initial theoretical framework. This realist systematic review suggests that among men (but not among women), the net impact of economic crises will be an increase in harmful

  13. Demographic Risk Factors for Alcohol-Related Aggression In and Around Licensed Venues.

    PubMed

    Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Curtis, Ashlee; Meurer, Hannah; Miller, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Few studies have examined the role of gender and both area-level and individual socio-economic status (SES) as independent predictors of alcohol-related aggression (ARA) in and around licensed venues. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between gender, area-level SES and individual SES (operationalised as occupational category) and ARA in and around licensed venues. The sample comprised 697 men and 649 women aged 16-47, who completed a patron intercept survey as part of a larger study assessing trends in harm and stakeholders' views surrounding local community level interventions in dealing with alcohol-related problems in the night-time economy. Binary logistic regression analyses showed that age, gender, occupational category, area-level SES and level of intoxication at time of interview were all significant predictors of involvement in ARA. Being male doubled the odds of involvement in ARA, while age was a protective factor. Blue collar workers had more than double the odds of ARA involvement of professionals, while those living in the most socio-economically disadvantaged areas were over twice as likely to report experiencing ARA compared to those living in the most advantaged areas. However, assessment of the predictive model by gender revealed that effects of age, occupational category and area-level SES were restricted to male participants, with greater intoxication no longer predictive. ARA among patrons was significantly more likely to occur among men, those in blue collar occupations, and individuals living in low SES areas, suggesting both individual and area-level disadvantage may play a role in ARA. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of alcohol retail privatization on excessive alcohol consumption and related harms: a community guide systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Robert A; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S; Toomey, Traci L; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Lawrence, Briana; Campbell, Carla Alexia

    2012-04-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is the third-leading cause of preventable death in the U.S. This systematic review is one in a series exploring effectiveness of interventions to reduce alcohol-related harms. The focus of this review was on studies evaluating the effects of the privatization of alcohol retail sales on excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Using Community Guide methods for conducting systematic reviews, a systematic search was conducted in multiple databases up to December 2010. Reference lists of acquired articles and review papers were also scanned for additional studies. A total of 17 studies assessed the impact of privatizing retail alcohol sales on the per capita alcohol consumption, a well-established proxy for excessive alcohol consumption; 9 of these studies also examined the effects of privatization on the per capita consumption of alcoholic beverages that were not privatized. One cohort study in Finland assessed the impact of privatizing the sales of medium-strength beer (MSB) on self-reported alcohol consumption. One study in Sweden assessed the impact of re-monopolizing the sale of MSB on alcohol-related harms. Across the 17 studies, there was a 44.4% median increase in the per capita sales of privatized beverages in locations that privatized retail alcohol sales (interquartile interval: 4.5% to 122.5%). During the same time period, sales of nonprivatized alcoholic beverages decreased by a median of 2.2% (interquartile interval: -6.6% to -0.1%). Privatizing the sale of MSB in Finland was associated with a mean increase in alcohol consumption of 1.7 liters of pure alcohol per person per year. Re-monopolization of the sale of MSB in Sweden was associated with a general reduction in alcohol-related harms. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, there is strong evidence that privatization of retail alcohol sales leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Family-focussed interventions to reduce harm from smoking in primary school-aged children: A systematic review of evaluative studies.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nicola; Luckett, Tim; Davidson, Patricia M; DiGiacomo, Michelle

    2017-08-01

    Children living in families where adults smoke are exposed to harmful effects of tobacco smoke and risk a predisposition to smoking initiation. Interventions to support families to reduce risk of harm from smoking have been developed and tested. The purpose of this review is to identify effective family-based interventions used to promote smoke-free home environments in families with primary school age children (aged 5-12years). A systematic search of MEDLINE, Cochrane and CINAHL electronic databases was conducted. Narrative synthesis of included articles was completed. Guidelines for reporting behaviour change interventions were used to summarise and compare intervention timing, content, intensity and delivery. Quality of included studies was critiqued using United States Preventative Services Taskforce (USPST) procedures for internal and external validity. Narrative synthesis was based on methods described by Popay and colleagues. Nineteen articles that evaluated 14 intervention studies focussed on child smoking prevention (n=5), parent smoking cessation (n=4) and environmental tobacco smoke reduction (n=6). Interventions and outcomes were heterogeneous, and were rarely informed by theoretical frameworks relating to family, parenting or child development. Family based interventions may be an important strategy to reduce the effects of smoking for children. There is a need for interventions to be informed by theory relevant to children, parenting and families. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Queensland Alcohol-related violence and Night Time Economy Monitoring project (QUANTEM): a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Miller, Peter G; Ferris, Jason; Coomber, Kerri; Zahnow, Renee; Carah, Nicholas; Jiang, Heng; Kypri, Kypros; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Clough, Alan; Livingston, Michael; de Andrade, Dominique; Room, Robin; Callinan, Sarah; Curtis, Ashlee; Mayshak, Richelle; Droste, Nicolas; Lloyd, Belinda; Matthews, Sharon; Taylor, Nicholas; Crane, Meredythe; Thorn, Michael; Najman, Jake

    2017-10-05

    Alcohol-related harm is a substantial burden on the community in Australia and internationally, particularly harm related to risky drinking practices of young people in the night-time economy. This protocol paper describes a study that will report on the changes in a wide range of health and justice outcome measures associated with major policy changes in the state of Queensland, Australia. A key element includes trading hours restrictions for licensed premises to 2 am for the state and 3 am in Safe Night Precincts (SNPs). Other measures introduced include drinks restrictions after midnight, increased patron banning measures for repeat offenders, mandatory ID scanning of patrons in late-night venues, and education campaigns. The primary aim of the study is to evaluate change in the levels of harm due to these policy changes using administrative data (e.g., police, hospital, ambulance, and court data). Other study elements will investigate the impact of the Policy by measuring foot traffic volume in SNPs, using ID scanner data to quantify the volume of people entering venues and measure the effectiveness of banning notices, using patron interviews to quantify the levels of pre-drinking, intoxication and illicit drug use within night-time economy districts, and to explore the impacts of the Policy on business and live music, and costs to the community. The information gathered through this project aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the Policy and to draw on these findings to inform future prevention and enforcement approaches by policy makers, police, and venue staff.

  17. Problem Drinking, Alcohol-Related Violence, and Homelessness among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Swahn, Monica H; Culbreth, Rachel; Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Topalli, Volkan; Wright, Eric; Kasirye, Rogers

    2018-05-24

    This paper examines problem drinking, alcohol-related violence, and homelessness among youth living in the slums of Kampala—an understudied population at high-risk for both alcohol use and violence. This study is based on a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2014 with youth living in the slums and streets of Kampala, Uganda ( n = 1134), who were attending Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in centers. The analyses for this paper were restricted to youth who reported current alcohol consumption ( n = 346). Problem drinking patterns were assessed among youth involved in alcohol-related violence. Mediation analyses were conducted to examine the impact of homelessness on alcohol-related violence through different measures of problem drinking. Nearly 46% of youth who consumed alcohol were involved in alcohol-related violence. Problem drinkers were more likely to report getting in an accident (χ² = 6.8, df = 1, p = 0.009), having serious problems with parents (χ² = 21.1, df = 1, p < 0.0001) and friends (χ² = 18.2, df = 1, p < 0.0001), being a victim of robbery (χ² = 8.8, df = 1, p = 0.003), and going to a hospital (χ² = 15.6, df = 1, p < 0.0001). For the mediation analyses, statistically significant models were observed for frequent drinking, heavy drinking, and drunkenness. Interventions should focus on delaying and reducing alcohol use in this high-risk population.

  18. Reduced graphene oxide-mediated Z-scheme BiVO4/CdS nanocomposites for boosted photocatalytic decomposition of harmful organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Clament Sagaya Selvam, N; Kim, Yeong Gyeong; Kim, Dong Jin; Hong, Won-Hwa; Kim, Woong; Park, Sung Hyuk; Jo, Wan-Kuen

    2018-09-01

    The efficient photocatalytic degradation of harmful organic pollutants (isoniazid (ISN) and 1,4-dioxane (DX)) via the Z-scheme electron transfer mechanism was accomplished using a photostable composite photocatalyst consisting of BiVO 4 , CdS, and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). Compared to their pristine counterparts, the RGO-mediated Z-scheme CdS/BiVO 4 (CdS/RGO-BiVO 4 ) nanocomposites exhibited superior degradation activities, mainly attributed to the prolonged charge separation. RGO was found to be involved in visible-light harvesting and acted as a solid-state electron mediator at the CdS/BiVO 4 interface to realize an effective Z-scheme electron transfer pathway, avoid photocatalyst self-oxidation, and lengthen the life span of charge carriers. The results of reactive species scavenging experiments, photoluminescence measurements, and transient photocurrent measurements, as well as the calculated band potentials of the synthesized photocatalysts, supported the Z-scheme electron/hole pair separation mechanism. Additionally, the intermediates formed during the degradation of ISN and DX were identified, and a possible fragmentation pattern was proposed. This systematic work aims to develop photostable Z-scheme composites as unique photocatalytic systems for the efficient removal of harmful organic pollutants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms of alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Adrienne J; Beck, Anne; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Sterzer, Philipp; Heinz, Andreas

    2011-06-02

    Alcohol-related violence is a serious and common social problem. Moreover, violent behaviour is much more common in alcohol-dependent individuals. Animal experiments and human studies have provided insights into the acute effect of alcohol on aggressive behaviour and into common factors underlying acute and chronic alcohol intake and aggression. These studies have shown that environmental factors, such as early-life stress, interact with genetic variations in serotonin-related genes that affect serotonergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. This leads to increased amygdala activity and impaired prefrontal function that, together, predispose to both increased alcohol intake and impulsive aggression. In addition, acute and chronic alcohol intake can further impair executive control and thereby facilitate aggressive behaviour.

  20. Alcohol-related problems: emergency physicians' current practice and attitudes.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Maria; Richardson, Lynne D; Wilets, Ilene; D'Onofrio, Gail

    2006-04-01

    To determine whether emergency physicians' (EPs) attitudes affect their support and practice of brief intervention in the Emergency Department (ED), EPs completed an anonymous survey. EPs were asked about their attitudes toward patients with alcohol problems, current ED screening, use of brief intervention, and barriers to use of brief intervention. Chi-square analysis was used and a step-wise regression model was constructed. Respondents reported a high prevalence of patients with alcohol-related problems: 18% in a typical shift. Eighty-one percent said it is important to advise patients to change behavior; half said using a brief intervention is important. Attending physicians had significantly less alcohol education than residents, but were significantly more likely to support the use of brief intervention. Support was not associated with gender, race, census, hours of education, or personal experience. EPs who felt that brief intervention was an integral part of their job were more likely to use it in their daily practice.

  1. Energy drinks and alcohol-related risk among young adults.

    PubMed

    Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    Energy drink consumption, with or without concurrent alcohol use, is common among young adults. This study sought to clarify risk for negative alcohol outcomes related to the timing of energy drink use. The authors interviewed a community sample of 481 young adults, aged 18-25, who drank alcohol in the last month. Past-30-day energy drink use was operationalized as no-use, use without concurrent alcohol, and concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol ("within a couple of hours"). Negative alcohol outcomes included past-30-day binge drinking, past-30-day alcohol use disorder, and drinking-related consequences. Just over half (50.5%) reported no use of energy drinks,18.3% reported using energy drinks without concurrent alcohol use, and 31.2% reported concurrent use of energy drinks and alcohol. Relative to those who reported concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol, and controlling for background characteristics and frequency of alcohol consumption, those who didn't use energy drinks and those who used without concurrent alcohol use had significantly lower binge drinking, negative consequences, and rates of alcohol use disorder (P < .05 for all outcomes). There were no significant differences between the no-use and energy drink without concurrent alcohol groups on any alcohol-related measure (P > .10 for all outcomes). Concurrent energy drink and alcohol use is associated with increased risk for negative alcohol consequences in young adults. Clinicians providing care to young adults could consider asking patients about concurrent energy drink and alcohol use as a way to begin a conversation about risky alcohol consumption while addressing 2 substances commonly used by this population.

  2. The effect of alcohol outlets, sales and trading hours on alcohol-related injuries presenting at emergency departments in Perth, Australia, from 2002 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Hobday, Michelle; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Liang, Wenbin; Meuleners, Lynn

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have investigated the combined effects of alcohol sales, outlet numbers and trading hours on alcohol-related harms. This study aimed to test whether associations: (i) exist between alcohol-related emergency department (ED) injuries and alcohol sales and counts of outlets; (ii) vary between on- and off-premises outlets; and (iii) vary by trading hours conditions [extended trading permits (ETP) versus standard hours]. Panel study using 117 postcodes over 8 years (2002-10): 936 data points. Perth, Australia. ED injury presentations, aggregated to postcode-level. Alcohol-related injuries were identified using time-based surrogate measures: night injuries (n=51,241) and weekend night injuries (n=30,682). Measures of alcohol availability included number of outlets with standard and extended trading hours and mean sales per postcode. Negative binomial regression modelling with random effects was used to examine associations between availability and alcohol-related injury, controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. (i) Night injuries were associated significantly with counts of on-premises outlets [incident rate ratio (IRR)=1.046; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.014-1.078] and sales per off-premises outlet (IRR=1.019; 95% CI=1.004-1.035); (ii) counts of on-premises outlets were positively associated with alcohol-related injury while counts of off-premises outlets indicated a negative association; and (iii) weekend night injuries increased by about 5% per on-premises outlet with an ETP (IRR=1.049; 95% CI=1.015-1.084) and by less than 1% for outlets with standard trading hours (IRR=1.008; 95% CI=1.004-1.013). Regions of Perth, Australia with greater off-premises alcohol sales and counts of on-premises alcohol outlets, particularly those with extended trading hours, appear to have higher levels of alcohol-related injuries. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. The Angel and the Devil on your shoulder: Friends mitigate and exacerbate 21st birthday alcohol-related consequences.

    PubMed

    Fillo, Jennifer; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Anthenien, Amber M; Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M

    2017-11-01

    Twenty-first birthdays are associated with heavier drinking and more negative consequences than any other high-risk drinking event. Friends are the strongest social influence on young adult drinking; however, previous research on college students' drinking has often only examined individuals' perceptions of "friends" generally. Unfortunately, this may obscure the positive influence of some friends and the negative influence of others. Using data drawn from a larger intervention study aimed at reducing 21st birthday drinking, this research examined how specific friends (N = 166) who were present at 21st birthday celebrations may have exacerbated or mitigated celebrants' (N = 166) experience of alcohol-related consequences, as well as how characteristics of that friendship moderate these effects. Controlling for sex, alcohol consumption, and friend prointoxication intentions for the celebrants' 21st birthday drinking, higher friend prosafety/support intentions predicted the celebrants experiencing fewer alcohol-related consequences. Higher prosafety/support intentions also buffered participants from the negative influence of friend prointoxication intentions. Furthermore, the closeness of the friendship moderated this effect. At high levels of closeness, having a friend with lower prosafety/support intentions was associated with more alcohol-related consequences for the celebrant. Post hoc analyses revealed that this effect may have been driven by discrepancies between celebrants' and friends' reports of friendship closeness; celebrants' perception of closeness that was higher than the friends' perception was associated with the celebrant experiencing more alcohol-related consequences. Results demonstrate the ways that specific friends can both mitigate and exacerbate 21st birthday alcohol-related consequences. The implications of the present findings for incorporating specific friends into drinking-related interventions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c

  4. Changes in Patient-Reported Alcohol-Related Advice Following Veterans Health Administration Implementation of Brief Alcohol Interventions.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Laura J; Williams, Emily C; Lapham, Gwen T; Rubinsky, Anna D; Kivlahan, Daniel R; Bradley, Katharine A

    2016-05-01

    Brief alcohol interventions are recommended for primary care patients who screen positive for alcohol misuse, but implementation is challenging. The U.S. Veterans Health Administration (Veterans Affairs [VA]) implemented brief interventions for patients with alcohol misuse in 2008, and rates of brief interventions documented in the electronic medical record increased from 24% to 78% (2008-2011). This study examined whether an independent measure of brief interventions-patient-reported alcohol-related advice-also increased among VA outpatients who screened positive for alcohol misuse on a mailed survey. This retrospective cross-sectional study included VA outpatient respondents to the VA's Survey of Healthcare Experiences of Patients (SHEP; 2007-2011) who reported past-year alcohol use and answered a question about alcohol-related advice. Alcohol-related advice was defined as a report of past-year advice from a VA clinician to abstain from or reduce drinking. The adjusted prevalence of alcoholrelated advice among patients who screened positive for alcohol misuse (SHEP AUDIT-C ≥ 5) was estimated for each year. Among patients with alcohol misuse (n = 61,843), the adjusted prevalence of alcohol-related advice increased from 40.4% (95% CI [39.3%, 41.5%]) in 2007 to 55.5% (95% CI [53.3%, 57.8%]) in 2011. Rates of alcoholrelated advice increased significantly each year except the last. The VA's efforts to implement brief interventions were associated with increased patient-reported alcohol-related advice over time, with a majority of patients with alcohol misuse reporting its receipt. Other systems considering similar approaches to implementation may benefit from collecting patient-reported measures of brief interventions for an additional perspective on implementation.

  5. A Multi-Country Study of Harms to Children Because of Others’ Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Laslett, Anne-Marie; Rankin, Georgia; Waleewong, Orratai; Callinan, Sarah; Hoang, Hanh T. M.; Florenzano, Ramon; Hettige, Siri; Obot, Isidore; Siengsounthone, Latsamy; Ibanga, Akanidomo; Hope, Ann; Landberg, Jonas; Vu, Hanh T. M.; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon; Rekve, Dag; Room, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to ascertain and compare the prevalence and correlates of alcohol-related harms to children cross-nationally. Method: National and regional sample surveys of randomly selected households included 7,848 carers (4,223 women) from eight countries (Australia, Chile, Ireland, Lao People’s Democratic Republic [PDR], Nigeria, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam). Country response rates ranged from 35% to 99%. Face-to-face or telephone surveys asking about harm from others’ drinking to children ages 0–17 years were conducted, including four specific harms: that because of others’ drinking in the past year children had been (a) physically hurt, (b) verbally abused, (c) exposed to domestic violence, or (d) left unsupervised. Results: The prevalence of alcohol-related harms to children varied from a low of 4% in Lao PDR to 14% in Vietnam. Alcohol-related harms to children were reported by a substantial minority of families in most countries, with only Lao PDR and Nigeria reporting significantly lower levels of harm. Alcohol-related harms to children were dispersed sociodemographically and were concentrated in families with heavy drinkers. Conclusions: Family-level drinking patterns were consistently identified as correlates of harm to children because of others’ drinking, whereas sociodemographic factors showed few obvious correlations. PMID:28317499

  6. Involving service users in intervention design: a participatory approach to developing a text-messaging intervention to reduce repetition of self-harm.

    PubMed

    Owens, Christabel; Farrand, Paul; Darvill, Ruth; Emmens, Tobit; Hewis, Elaine; Aitken, Peter

    2011-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To engage a group of people with relevant lived experience in the development of a text-messaging intervention to reduce repetition of self-harm. BACKGROUND Contact-based interventions, such as follow-up letters, postcards and telephone calls, have shown potential to reduce repetition of self-harm in those who present at Accident and Emergency departments. Text messaging offers a low-cost alternative that has not been tested. We set out to develop a text-based intervention. The process of intervention development is rarely reported and little is known about the impact of service user involvement on intervention design. METHOD We held a series of six participatory workshops and invited service users and clinicians to help us work out how to get the right message to the right person at the right time, and to simulate and test prototypes of an intervention. RESULTS Service users rejected both the idea of a generic, 'one size fits all' approach and that of 'audience segmentation', maintaining that text messages could be safe and effective only if individualized. This led us to abandon our original thinking and develop a way of supporting individuals to author their own self-efficacy messages and store them in a personal message bank for withdrawal at times of crisis. CONCLUSIONS This paper highlights both the challenge and the impact of involving consumers at the development stage. Working with those with lived experience requires openness, flexibility and a readiness to abandon or radically revise initial plans, and may have unexpected consequences for intervention design. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Involving service users in intervention design: a participatory approach to developing a text‐messaging intervention to reduce repetition of self‐harm

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Christabel; Farrand, Paul; Darvill, Ruth; Emmens, Tobit; Hewis, Elaine; Aitken, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To engage a group of people with relevant lived experience in the development of a text‐messaging intervention to reduce repetition of self‐harm. Background  Contact‐based interventions, such as follow‐up letters, postcards and telephone calls, have shown potential to reduce repetition of self‐harm in those who present at Accident and Emergency departments. Text messaging offers a low‐cost alternative that has not been tested. We set out to develop a text‐based intervention. The process of intervention development is rarely reported and little is known about the impact of service user involvement on intervention design. Method  We held a series of six participatory workshops and invited service users and clinicians to help us work out how to get the right message to the right person at the right time, and to simulate and test prototypes of an intervention. Results  Service users rejected both the idea of a generic, ‘one size fits all’ approach and that of ‘audience segmentation’, maintaining that text messages could be safe and effective only if individualized. This led us to abandon our original thinking and develop a way of supporting individuals to author their own self‐efficacy messages and store them in a personal message bank for withdrawal at times of crisis. Conclusions  This paper highlights both the challenge and the impact of involving consumers at the development stage. Working with those with lived experience requires openness, flexibility and a readiness to abandon or radically revise initial plans, and may have unexpected consequences for intervention design. PMID:20860777

  8. Combining motivational and volitional approaches to reducing excessive alcohol consumption in pre-drinkers: a theory-based intervention protocol.

    PubMed

    Caudwell, Kim M; Mullan, Barbara A; Hagger, Martin S

    2016-01-16

    Pre-drinking refers to the consumption of alcohol at home or a private residence prior to attending a subsequent social event. We present the study protocol of an online theory-based intervention to reduce pre-drinking and related harm in pre-drinking undergraduates, using behavior change techniques targeting the motivational and volitional phases of behaviour. A fully randomized 2 (autonomy support: present vs. absent) x 2 (implementation intention: present vs. absent) between-participants design will be used to ascertain the effectiveness of the intervention in reducing pre-drinking alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. Participants will complete a range of theory-based measures prior to being allocated to one of the four experimental conditions. Four weeks later, participants will complete a follow-up questionnaire comprised of theoretical and behavioral measures. The main and interactive effects of the intervention components in reducing our primary dependent variables, namely, pre-drinking alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm at four-week follow-up will be tested. Baseline alcohol consumption and demographic information will be included in the analysis as covariates. This online intervention is the first to be developed to reduce pre-drinking alcohol consumption, a behaviour linked to increased risk of alcohol-related harm. The intervention targets motivational and volitional components of the behaviour change process and is therefore likely to lead to greater reductions in pre-drinking alcohol consumption and experience of alcohol-related harm compared to either approach in isolation. If successful, the intervention can be implemented across various contexts and in populations where pre-drinking is prevalent. ACTRN12614001102662 . Registered 16 October 2014.

  9. The Probiotic Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum Reduces Feed Conversion and Protects from Potentially Harmful Intestinal Microorganisms and Necrotic Enteritis in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Eeckhaut, Venessa; Wang, Jun; Van Parys, Alexander; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Joossens, Marie; Falony, Gwen; Raes, Jeroen; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics which do not result in the development and spread of microbial resistance are among the candidate replacements for antibiotics previously used as growth promotors. In this study the effect of in-feed supplementation of the butyrate producing Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum strain 25-3T on performance, intestinal microbiota and prevention of necrotic enteritis (NE), a disease caused by Clostridium perfringens was evaluated in broilers. For the performance study, day old Ross 308 chicks were randomly allocated into two treatment groups and fed either a non-supplemented diet or a diet supplemented with 109 cfu lyophilized B. pullicaecorum per kg feed for 40 days. On day 40 broilers administered B. pullicaecorum had a significant lower bodyweight (2675 g vs. 2762 g; p = 0.0025) but supplementation of B. pullicaecorum decreased the feed conversion ratio significantly (1.518 vs. 1.632; p < 0.0001). Additionally, ingestion of the Butyricicoccus strain significantly lowered the abundance of Campylobacter spp. in the caecum and Enterococcus and Escherichia/Shigella spp. in the ileum at day 40. In feed supplementation of B. pullicaecorum in the NE trials resulted in a significant decrease in the number of birds with necrotic lesions compared with the untreated control group. These studies show that supplementation of B. pullicaecorum is able to improve feed conversion, to reduce the abundance of some potentially important pathogens in the caeca and ileum and to contribute to the prevention of NE in broilers, making the strain a potential valuable probiotic. PMID:27708624

  10. The relationship between a less gender-stereotypical parenthood and alcohol-related care and death: A registry study of Swedish mothers and fathers

    PubMed Central

    Månsdotter, Anna; Backhans, Mona; Hallqvist, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Background In general men tend to drink more alcohol and experience more alcohol-related sickness, injuries and mortality than women. In this paper, the overall hypothesis was that increased gender similarity in the division of parental duties would lead to convergence in alcohol-related harm. The aim was to analyse whether the risk of alcohol harm differs between parents who fit a gender-stereotypical versus those with a less gender-stereotypical division of childcare and paid work. Methods The study sample was a retrospective registry-based cohort study of all Swedish couples who had their first child together in 1978 (N = 49,120). A less gender-stereotypical parenthood was indicated by paternity leave for fathers (1978–1979) and full-time work for mothers (1980). The outcome was inpatient care and/or death caused by alcohol psychosis, alcoholism, liver disease, or alcohol intoxication in the two decades following (1981–2001). Our main statistical method was multivariate logistic regression with odds ratios used to estimate relative risks. Results The main results show that fathers who took paternity leave had 18% lower risk of alcohol-related care and/or death than other fathers. Mothers who worked full-time about two years after having a child had 71% higher risk than mothers who were unemployed or worked part-time. Conclusion A less gender-stereotypical division of duties between parents in early parenthood may contribute to a long-term decreased gender disparity regarding risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. In order to know more about the causal direction however, future research has to consider subjects' drinking patterns in the years prior to parenthood. PMID:18793385

  11. The relationship between a less gender-stereotypical parenthood and alcohol-related care and death: a registry study of Swedish mothers and fathers.

    PubMed

    Månsdotter, Anna; Backhans, Mona; Hallqvist, Johan

    2008-09-15

    In general men tend to drink more alcohol and experience more alcohol-related sickness, injuries and mortality than women. In this paper, the overall hypothesis was that increased gender similarity in the division of parental duties would lead to convergence in alcohol-related harm. The aim was to analyse whether the risk of alcohol harm differs between parents who fit a gender-stereotypical versus those with a less gender-stereotypical division of childcare and paid work. The study sample was a retrospective registry-based cohort study of all Swedish couples who had their first child together in 1978 (N = 49,120). A less gender-stereotypical parenthood was indicated by paternity leave for fathers (1978-1979) and full-time work for mothers (1980). The outcome was inpatient care and/or death caused by alcohol psychosis, alcoholism, liver disease, or alcohol intoxication in the two decades following (1981-2001). Our main statistical method was multivariate logistic regression with odds ratios used to estimate relative risks. The main results show that fathers who took paternity leave had 18% lower risk of alcohol-related care and/or death than other fathers. Mothers who worked full-time about two years after having a child had 71% higher risk than mothers who were unemployed or worked part-time. A less gender-stereotypical division of duties between parents in early parenthood may contribute to a long-term decreased gender disparity regarding risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. In order to know more about the causal direction however, future research has to consider subjects' drinking patterns in the years prior to parenthood.

  12. Alcohol industry corporate social responsibility initiatives and harmful drinking: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mialon, Melissa; McCambridge, Jim

    2018-04-25

    There is growing awareness of the detrimental effects of alcohol industry commercial activities, and concern about possible adverse impacts of its corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives, on public health. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize and examine what is known about CSR initiatives undertaken by alcohol industry actors in respect of harmful drinking globally. We searched for peer-reviewed studies published since 1980 of alcohol industry CSR initiatives in seven electronic databases. The basic search strategy was organized around the three constructs of 'alcohol', 'industry' and 'corporate social responsibility'. We performed the searches on 21 July 2017. Data from included studies were analyzed inductively, according to the extent to which they addressed specified research objectives. A total of 21 studies were included. We identified five types of CSR initiatives relevant to the reduction of harmful drinking: alcohol information and education provision; drink driving prevention; research involvement; policy involvement and the creation of social aspects organizations. Individual companies appear to undertake different CSR initiatives than do industry-funded social aspects organizations. There is no robust evidence that alcohol industry CSR initiatives reduce harmful drinking. There is good evidence, however, that CSR initiatives are used to influence the framing of the nature of alcohol-related issues in line with industry interests. This research literature is at an early stage of development. Alcohol policy measures to reduce harmful drinking are needed, and the alcohol industry CSR initiatives studied so far do not contribute to the attainment of this goal.

  13. Exposure to alcohol advertisements and teenage alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed

    Grenard, Jerry L; Dent, Clyde W; Stacy, Alan W

    2013-02-01

    This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents' jobs, and parents' education. Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence.

  14. Alcohol-Related Dementia and Neurocognitive Impairment: A Review Study

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Ankur; Chandra, Mina; Choudhary, Mona; Dayal, Prabhoo; Anand, Kuljeet Singh

    2016-01-01

    Context Alcohol consumption has escalated rapidly in many countries over the past decade. Evidence suggests a correlation between alcohol use and cognitive decline. We have systematically reviewed the concept and controversies, epidemiology, nosology, neuropathology and neurobiology, neuropsychology and management updates of alcohol-related dementia (ARD) in this paper. Evidence Acquisition We retrieved papers for this review by searching the PubMed database for terms “alcohol and dementia”, “alcohol and cognitive impairment”, and “alcohol and wernicke-korsakoff” mentioned in the title of the published papers. A total of 131 studies showed up. Appropriate studies were shortlisted and included (n = 72). Cross-references if relevant were considered from the selected studies. Eligible articles were fully read by the authors and the results were compiled. Results The prolonged and excessive use of alcohol may lead to structural and functional brain damage, leading to ARD. The cognitive deficits are most frequently observed in domains of visuospatial functions, memory and executive tasks, with a potential of partial recovery if abstinence is maintained. However, there are doubts regarding the etiopathogenesis, nosological status, prevalence and diagnostic criteria for ARD, due to difficulty in assessment and various confounding factors. Conclusions With growing cohort of young and middle-aged people, there is a probable risk of upsurge of ARD. Presently, there are dilemmas over the diagnosis of independent ARD. Thus, there is a need to develop evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis and management of ARD through further systematic studies. PMID:27818965

  15. Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

  16. PREVALENCE AND PSYCHOSOCIAL CORRELATES OF ALCOHOL-RELATED SEXUAL ASSAULT AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Donna E.; Griffin, Melinda A.; Boekeloo, Bradley O.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the psychosocial correlates of alcohol-related sexual assault. Undergraduate students (N = 551) were recruited to complete a web-based survey. The outcome was a composite of 2 items: “experienced an unwanted sexual advance” or “was the victim of sexual assault or date rape” as a result of another’s alcohol use. The predictors were substance use, other alcohol-related interpersonal violence victimization, and alcohol-related protective behaviors. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Females reported higher prevalence of alcohol-related sexual assault than did males (20.4% vs. 6.6%). Females who reported binge drinking (OR = 7.74) and other alcohol-related interpersonal violence (OR = 5.03) were more likely to report alcohol-related sexual assault whereas only other alcohol-related interpersonal violence was associated with alcohol-related sexual assault (OR = 43.75) among males. The findings suggest that alcohol-related sexual assault is associated with other risk factors that deserve further attention through longitudinal research and intervention efforts. PMID:19149143

  17. Prevalence and psychosocial correlates of alcohol-related sexual assault among university students.

    PubMed

    Howard, Donna E; Griffin, Melinda A; Boekeloo, Bradley O

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the psychosocial correlates of alcohol-related sexual assault. Undergraduate students (N = 551) were recruited to complete a web-based survey. The outcome was a composite of 2 items: "experienced an unwanted sexual advance" or "was the victim of sexual assault or date rape" as a result of another's alcohol use. The predictors were substance use, other alcohol-related interpersonal violence victimization, and alcohol-related protective behaviors. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Females reported higher prevalence of alcohol-related sexual assault than did males (20.4% vs. 6.6%). Females who reported binge drinking (OR = 7.74) and other alcohol-related interpersonal violence (OR = 5.03) were more likely to report alcohol-related sexual assault whereas only other alcohol-related interpersonal violence was associated with alcohol-related sexual assault (OR = 43.75) among males. The findings suggest that alcohol-related sexual assault is associated with other risk factors that deserve further attention through longitudinal research and intervention efforts.

  18. Social anxiety and drinking refusal self-efficacy moderate the relationship between drinking game participation and alcohol-related consequences

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Napper, Lucy E.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Participation in drinking games is associated with excessive drinking and alcohol risks. Despite the growing literature documenting the ubiquity and consequences of drinking games, limited research has examined the influence of psychosocial factors on the experience of negative consequences as the result of drinking game participation. Objectives The current event-level study examined the relationships among drinking game participation, social anxiety, drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) and alcohol-related consequences in a sample of college students. Methods Participants (n =976) reported on their most recent drinking occasion in the past month in which they did not preparty. Results After controlling for sex, age, and typical drinking, higher levels of social anxiety, lower levels of DRSE, and playing drinking games predicted greater alcohol-related consequences. Moreover, two-way interactions (Social Anxiety × Drinking Games, DRSE × Drinking Games) demonstrated that social anxiety and DRSE each moderated the relationship between drinking game participation and alcohol-related consequences. Participation in drinking games resulted in more alcohol problems for students with high social anxiety, but not low social anxiety. Students with low DRSE experienced high levels of consequences regardless of whether they participated in drinking games; however, drinking game participation was associated with more consequences for students confident in their ability to resist drinking. Conclusion Findings highlight the important role that social anxiety and DRSE play in drinking game-related risk, and hence provide valuable implications for screening at-risk students and designing targeted harm reduction interventions that address social anxiety and drink refusal in the context of drinking games. PMID:25192207

  19. Social anxiety and drinking refusal self-efficacy moderate the relationship between drinking game participation and alcohol-related consequences.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Shannon R; Napper, Lucy E; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2014-09-01

    Participation in drinking games is associated with excessive drinking and alcohol risks. Despite the growing literature documenting the ubiquity and consequences of drinking games, limited research has examined the influence of psychosocial factors on the experience of negative consequences as the result of drinking game participation. The current event-level study examined the relationships among drinking game participation, social anxiety, drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) and alcohol-related consequences in a sample of college students. Participants (n = 976) reported on their most recent drinking occasion in the past month in which they did not preparty. After controlling for sex, age, and typical drinking, higher levels of social anxiety, lower levels of DRSE, and playing drinking games predicted greater alcohol-related consequences. Moreover, two-way interactions (Social Anxiety × Drinking Games, DRSE × Drinking Games) demonstrated that social anxiety and DRSE each moderated the relationship between drinking game participation and alcohol-related consequences. Participation in drinking games resulted in more alcohol problems for students with high social anxiety, but not low social anxiety. Students with low DRSE experienced high levels of consequences regardless of whether they participated in drinking games; however, drinking game participation was associated with more consequences for students confident in their ability to resist drinking. Findings highlight the important role that social anxiety and DRSE play in drinking game-related risk, and hence provide valuable implications for screening at-risk students and designing targeted harm reduction interventions that address social anxiety and drink refusal in the context of drinking games.

  20. The educational potential of alcohol-related flushing among Chinese young people

    PubMed Central

    Shell, Duane F.; Huang, Zhaoqing; Qian, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This paper describes Chinese university students' understanding of the meaning of the alcohol-related flushing response and how they reacted to their own and someone else's flushing in a group drinking situation. Method: The researcher surveyed 530 Chinese university students about their understanding of flushing and their perception of how people respond to a person who visibly flushes while drinking alcohol. Findings: Most students did not know about the physiological cause of flushing. There were significant gender differences in both reactions to and perception of responses to a person who flushes. There was no direct relationship between flushing and drinking behaviour. Conclusions: This description of flushing behaviour and responses to a flushing person is discussed in terms of educational opportunities to change behaviours that could reduce the cancer related risks of this visibly at-risk group. PMID:25983401

  1. Different pathways explain alcohol related problems in female and male college students

    PubMed Central

    Pedrelli, P.; Collado, A.; Shapero, B. G.; Brill, C.; MacPherson, L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Comprehensive models elucidating the intricate associations of depressive symptoms, coping motives, alcohol use, alcohol-related problems (ARP) and gender among young adults have been scarcely examined. This study investigated relationships among these variables and the effect of gender on these pathways. Methods College students (N = 163; 49.7% female) completed self-report measures on alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, coping motives, and ARPs. Results Structural equation modeling showed that the association between depressive symptoms and ARPs was mediated by coping motives in both females and males. However, frequency of heavy alcohol use mediated the association between depressive symptoms and ARPs in females but not in males. Conclusions Different models explain the association between depressive symptoms and ARPs in male and female college students. Prevention programs aimed at reducing ARPs should focus on increasing alcohol screening among students with depressive symptoms, teaching coping skills, and emphasizing moderation in alcohol consumption. PMID:27219280

  2. Seasonality of alcohol-related phenomena in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Silm, Siiri; Ahas, Rein

    2005-03-01

    We studied alcohol consumption and its consequences as a seasonal phenomenon in Estonia and analysed the social and environmental factors that may cause its seasonal rhythm. There are two important questions when researching the seasonality of human activities: (1) whether it is caused by natural or social factors, and (2) whether the impact of the factors is direct or indirect. Often the seasonality of social phenomena is caused by social factors, but the triggering mechanisms are related to environmental factors like temperature, precipitation, and radiation via the circannual calendar. The indicators of alcohol consumption in the current paper are grouped as: (1) pre-consumption phenomena, i.e. production, tax and excise, sales (beer, wine and vodka are analysed separately), and (2) post-consumption phenomena, i.e. alcohol-related crime and traffic accidents and the number of people detained in lockups and admitted to alcohol treatment clinics. In addition, seasonal variability in the amount of alcohol advertising has been studied, and a survey has been carried out among 87 students of Tartu University. The analysis shows that different phenomena related to alcohol have a clear seasonal rhythm in Estonia. The peak period of phenomena related to beer is in the summer, from June to August and the low point is during the first months of the year. Beer consumption correlates well with air temperature. The consumption of vodka increases sharply at the end of the year and in June; the production of vodka does not have a significant correlation with negative temperatures. The consumption of wine increases during summer and in December. The consequences of alcohol consumption, expressed as the rate of traffic accidents or the frequency of medical treatment, also show seasonal variability. Seasonal variability of alcohol consumption in Estonia is influenced by natural factors (temperature, humidity, etc.) and by social factors (celebrations, vacations, etc.). However

  3. Seasonality of alcohol-related phenomena in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silm, Siiri; Ahas, Rein

    2005-03-01

    We studied alcohol consumption and its consequences as a seasonal phenomenon in Estonia and analysed the social and environmental factors that may cause its seasonal rhythm. There are two important questions when researching the seasonality of human activities: (1) whether it is caused by natural or social factors, and (2) whether the impact of the factors is direct or indirect. Often the seasonality of social phenomena is caused by social factors, but the triggering mechanisms are related to environmental factors like temperature, precipitation, and radiation via the circannual calendar. The indicators of alcohol consumption in the current paper are grouped as: (1) pre-consumption phenomena, i.e. production, tax and excise, sales (beer, wine and vodka are analysed separately), and (2) post-consumption phenomena, i.e. alcohol-related crime and traffic accidents and the number of people detained in lockups and admitted to alcohol treatment clinics. In addition, seasonal variability in the amount of alcohol advertising has been studied, and a survey has been carried out among 87 students of Tartu University. The analysis shows that different phenomena related to alcohol have a clear seasonal rhythm in Estonia. The peak period of phenomena related to beer is in the summer, from June to August and the low point is during the first months of the year. Beer consumption correlates well with air temperature. The consumption of vodka increases sharply at the end of the year and in June; the production of vodka does not have a significant correlation with negative temperatures. The consumption of wine increases during summer and in December. The consequences of alcohol consumption, expressed as the rate of traffic accidents or the frequency of medical treatment, also show seasonal variability. Seasonal variability of alcohol consumption in Estonia is influenced by natural factors (temperature, humidity, etc.) and by social factors (celebrations, vacations, etc.). However

  4. Computer-aided diagnosis of alcoholism-related EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Acharya, U Rajendra; S, Vidya; Bhat, Shreya; Adeli, Hojjat; Adeli, Amir

    2014-12-01

    Alcoholism is a severe disorder that affects the functionality of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and alters the behavior of the affected person. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals can be used as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of subjects with alcoholism. The neurophysiological interpretation of EEG signals in persons with alcoholism (PWA) is based on observation and interpretation of the frequency and power in their EEGs compared to EEG signals from persons without alcoholism. This paper presents a review of the known features of EEGs obtained from PWA and proposes that the impact of alcoholism on the brain can be determined by computer-aided analysis of EEGs through extracting the minute variations in the EEG signals that can differentiate the EEGs of PWA from those of nonaffected persons. The authors advance the idea of automated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of alcoholism by employing the EEG signals. This is achieved through judicious combination of signal processing techniques such as wavelet, nonlinear dynamics, and chaos theory and pattern recognition and classification techniques. A CAD system is cost-effective and efficient and can be used as a decision support system by physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of alcoholism especially those who do not specialize in alcoholism or neurophysiology. It can also be of great value to rehabilitation centers to assess PWA over time and to monitor the impact of treatment aimed at minimizing or reversing the effects of the disease on the brain. A CAD system can be used to determine the extent of alcoholism-related changes in EEG signals (low, medium, high) and the effectiveness of therapeutic plans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevention of deaths from harmful drinking in the United States: the potential effects of tax increases and advertising bans on young drinkers.

    PubMed

    Hollingworth, William; Ebel, Beth E; McCarty, Carolyn A; Garrison, Michelle M; Christakis, Dimitri A; Rivara, Frederick P

    2006-03-01

    Harmful alcohol consumption is a leading cause of death in the United States. The majority of people who die from alcohol use begin drinking in their youth. In this study, we estimate the impact of interventions to reduce the prevalence of drinking among youth on subsequent drinking patterns and alcohol-attributable mortality. We first estimated the effect of public health interventions to decrease harmful drinking among youth from literature reviews and used life table methods to estimate alcohol-attributable years of life lost by age 80 years among the cohort of approximately 4 million U.S. residents aged 20 in the year 2000. Then, from national survey data on transitions in drinking habits by age, we modeled the impact of interventions on alcohol-attributable mortality. A tax increase and an advertising ban were the most effective interventions identified. In the absence of intervention, there would be 55,259 alcohol-attributable deaths over the lifetime of the cohort. A tax-based 17% increase in the price of alcohol of dollar 1 per six pack of beer could reduce deaths from harmful drinking by 1,490, equivalent to 31,130 discounted years of potential life saved or 3.3% of current alcohol-attributable mortality. A complete ban on alcohol advertising would reduce deaths from harmful drinking by 7,609 and result in a 16.4% decrease in alcohol-related life-years lost. A partial advertising ban would result in a 4% reduction in alcohol-related life-years lost. Interventions to prevent harmful drinking by youth can result in reductions in adult mortality. Among interventions shown to be successful in reducing youthful drinking prevalence, advertising bans appear to have the greatest potential for premature mortality reduction.

  6. Associations between heavy episodic drinking and alcohol related injuries: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol is a significant risk factor for injuries. This study addresses 1) whether the risk of alcohol related injury increases with frequency of heavy episodic drinking (HED) in a linear fashion, and 2) whether a small group of high risk drinkers accounts for the majority of alcohol related injuries. Methods We applied a case – control design. Cases were BAC positive injured patients (n = 534) and controls were respondents to a general population survey in Norway (n = 1947). Age and gender adjusted association between self-reported past year HED frequency and alcohol related injury risk was estimated in logistic regression models for all alcohol related injuries and for violence injuries and accident injuries separately. Results An increase in HED was associated with an increase in risk of alcohol related injury, resembling a linear risk function. The small fraction of high risk drinkers (6.6%) accounted for 41.6% of all alcohol related injuries, thus lending support to the validity of the prevention paradox. Conclusion There is a strong relationship between frequency of heavy episodic drinking and risk of alcohol related injuries, yet the majority of alcohol related injuries are found among drinkers who are not in the high risk group. PMID:24228707

  7. Ethnic Variations in Liver- and Alcohol-Related Disease Hospitalisations and Mortality: The Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage Study.

    PubMed

    Bhala, Neeraj; Cézard, Genevieve; Ward, Hester J T; Bansal, Narinder; Bhopal, Raj

    2016-09-01

    Preventing alcohol-related harms, including those causing liver disease, is a public health priority in the UK, especially in Scotland, but the effects of ethnicity are not known. We assessed liver- and alcohol-related events (hospitalisations and deaths) in Scotland using self-reported measures of ethnicity. Linking Scottish NHS hospital admissions and mortality to the Scottish Census 2001, we explored ethnic differences in hospitalisations and mortality (2001-2010) of all liver diseases, alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and specific alcohol-related diseases (ARD). Risk ratios (RR) were calculated using Poisson regression with robust variance, by sex, adjusted for age, country of birth and the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) presented below. The White Scottish population was the standard reference population with 95% confidence intervals (CI) calculated to enable comparison (multiplied by 100 for results). For all liver diseases, Chinese had around 50% higher risks for men (RR 162; 95% CI 127-207) and women (141; 109-184), as did Other South Asian men (144; 104-201) and Pakistani women (140; 116-168). Lower risks for all liver diseases occurred in African origin men (42; 24-74), other White British men (72; 63-82) and women (80; 70-90) and other White women (80; 67-94). For ALD, White Irish had a 75% higher risk for men (175; 107-287). Other White British men had about a third lower risk of ALD (63; 50-78), as did Pakistani men (65; 42-99). For ARD, almost 2-fold higher risks existed for White Irish men (182; 161-206) and Any Mixed Background women (199; 152-261). Lower risks of ARD existed in Pakistani men (67; 55-80) and women (48; 33-70), and Chinese men (55; 41-73) and women (54; 32-90). Substantial variations by ethnicity exist for both alcohol-related and liver disease hospitalisations and deaths in Scotland: these exist in subgroups of both White and non-White populations and practical actions are required to ameliorate these differences. © The

  8. A Dyadic Growth Approach to Partner Regulation Attempts on Changes in Drinking and Negative Alcohol-Related Consequences.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M

    2016-12-05

    Many individuals engage in regulation attempts to manage or reduce their partner's alcohol use. Research on partner social control behaviors has shown that regulation attempts generally factor into negative (i.e., punishing) and positive (i.e., rewarding) dimensions. In the alcohol domain, partner drinking has been associated with poorer relationship functioning through punishment. This research applied a dyadic growth model approach to investigate changes in alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences over 6 months, and evaluated whether partner regulation attempts (punishment and reward) were influential (i.e., successful) in these changes. Married couples (N = 123 dyads) completed web-based measures of partner regulation attempts, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related consequences three times over a 6-month period. Results from dyadic growth curve analyses showed that partner punishment was significantly associated with increases in alcohol-related consequences-and marginally associated with increases in alcohol consumption-over the 6-month period. Partner reward was associated with decreases in consumption over the study period. These effects were not different for husbands and wives. Conclusion/Importance: Results support previous research demonstrating deleterious impact of partner punishing control strategies and provide important implications for future interventions and treatment.

  9. Emotional reactions to alcohol-related words: Differences between low- and high-risk drinkers.

    PubMed

    Gantiva, Carlos; Delgado, Rafael; Romo-González, Tania

    2015-11-01

    Research that has examined responses to alcohol-related words in drinkers has mostly linked such responses to memory, attentional, and perceptual bias. However, studies of emotional processing in alcoholics have not received much attention. The main goal of the present study was to identify the features and differences of emotional responses to alcohol-related words in low- and high-risk drinkers. A total of 149 low-risk drinkers and 125 high-risk drinkers evaluated five alcohol-related words and 15 words from the Affective Norms for English Words in the dimensions of valence, arousal, and dominance using the Self-Assessment Manikin. The results indicated that high-risk drinkers evaluated alcohol-related words as more appetitive and arousing. These results, together with findings in the attention and memory research literature, suggest that alcohol-related words can serve as conditioned cues in alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Social anxiety and alcohol-related sexual victimization: A longitudinal pilot study of college women.

    PubMed

    Schry, Amie R; Maddox, Brenna B; White, Susan W

    2016-10-01

    We sought to examine social anxiety as a risk factor for alcohol-related sexual victimization among college women. Women (Time 1: n = 574; Time 2: n = 88) who reported consuming alcohol at least once during the assessment timeframe participated. Social anxiety, alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, and sexual victimization were assessed twice, approximately two months apart. Logistic regressions were used to examine social anxiety as a risk factor for alcohol-related sexual victimization at both time points. Longitudinally, women high in social anxiety were approximately three times more likely to endorse unwanted alcohol-related sexual experiences compared to women with low to moderate social anxiety. This study suggests social anxiety, a modifiable construct, increases risk for alcohol-related sexual victimization among college women. Implications for clinicians and risk-reduction program developers are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Community pharmacists require additional support to develop capacity in delivering alcohol-related health information to older adults.

    PubMed

    Dare, Julie; Wilkinson, Celia; Garlepp, Michael; Lo, Johnny; Allsop, Steve

    2017-08-01

    This qualitative study explored the barriers and enablers influencing Western Australian (WA) community pharmacists' knowledge, confidence, willingness and practice in engaging older clients (>60 years) in alcohol-related health discussions. Two focus groups were conducted with a total of 14 community pharmacists who had previously completed a formative quantitative survey (n = 63), and indicated willingness to participate in a follow-up focus group. Focus group questions, informed by the survey results, explored participants' perceptions about barriers and enablers to delivering health information and advice about alcohol to older clients (60+ years). Shaw and colleagues' theoretical framework was used to understand barriers and enablers in relation to role legitimacy, role adequacy and role support. Participants acknowledged that providing health information about alcohol to older clients is a legitimate part of a community pharmacist's role, and most were confident performing this role in situations perceived as core to their professional practice, such as while dispensing medicines. However, many participants identified limited knowledge, skills and confidence in assisting older clients who may have alcohol issues, beyond advising them on medication and alcohol use. Structural barriers such as time and financial barriers were also identified. Routine professional practice including dispensing medicine and home medicine reviews may provide valuable opportunities to engage older clients in alcohol-related discussions. However, limited knowledge concerning appropriate strategies to assist older clients reduce their alcohol consumption, coupled with limited skills and confidence among community pharmacists in raising sensitive alcohol-related issues with clients, suggest the need for specific alcohol-related training and support. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  12. Non-Employment Histories of Middle-Aged Men and Women Who Died from Alcohol-Related Causes: A Longitudinal Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Paljärvi, Tapio; Martikainen, Pekka; Leinonen, Taina; Pensola, Tiina; Mäkelä, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Background Long-term patterning of non-employment among problem drinkers is poorly understood. We determined the level and timing of non-employment, and the relative contribution of various types of non-employment among middle-aged persons who died of alcohol-related causes. Methods We conducted a longitudinal retrospective register-based study of Finnish men and women aged 45–64 years who died of alcohol-related causes (n = 15 552) or other causes (n = 39 166) in the period 2000–07, or who survived (n = 204 422) until the end of 2007. We traced back the number of days in employment and non-employment for up to 17 years before death or before the end of the study period for the survivors. Results The majority (≥56%) of persons who died of alcohol-related causes were in employment up to ten years before death. Over the 17-year period before death, those who died of alcohol-related causes were in employment on average two years less (mean 6.3 years, 95%CI 6.2–6.4) than those dying of other causes (8.2, 8.1–8.3), and five years less than survivors (11.6, 11.5–11.7), when sex and age were adjusted for. The relative role of various types of non-employment differed markedly across the two mortality groups. Among those who died of alcohol-related causes, unemployment accounted for 54% of the total burden of non-employment, in comparison with 29% among those who died of other causes. In contrast, disability pension accounted for 41% of the total burden of non-employment among those who died of alcohol-related causes, but 65% among those who died of other causes. Conclusions The results indicate the feasibility of preventing movement out of employment among middle-aged men and women with severe alcohol-related harm, provided that they are identified early on during their working careers and offered effective interventions. PMID:24874518

  13. Disparities in Alcohol-related Problems among White, Black and Hispanic Americans

    PubMed Central

    Mulia, Nina; Ye, Yu; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Zemore, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Background This study assesses racial/ethnic disparities in negative social consequences of drinking and alcohol dependence symptoms among white, black and Hispanic Americans. We examine whether and how disparities relate to heavy alcohol consumption and pattern, and the extent to which social disadvantage (poverty, unfair treatment, and racial/ethnic stigma) accounts for observed disparities. Methods We analyzed data from the 2005 U.S. National Alcohol Survey, an RDD telephone survey conducted with adults ages 18 and older in the 50 states and the District of Columbia (N=6,919). Given large racial/ethnic differences in abstinence rates, core analyses were restricted to current drinkers (N=4,080). Logistic regression was used to assess disparities in alcohol-related problems at three levels of heavy drinking, measured using a composite variable incorporating frequency of heavy episodic drinking, frequency of drunkenness, and maximum amount consumed in a single day. A mediational approach was used to assess the role of social disadvantage. Results African American and Hispanic drinkers were significantly more likely than white drinkers to report social consequences of drinking and alcohol dependence symptoms. Even after adjusting for differences in heavy drinking and demographic characteristics, disparities in problems remained. The racial/ethnic gap in alcohol problems was greatest among those reporting little or no heavy drinking, and gradually diminished to nonsignificance at the highest level of heavy drinking. Social disadvantage, particularly in the form of racial/ethnic stigma, appeared to contribute to racial/ethnic differences in problems. Conclusions These findings suggest that to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in alcohol-related problems, public health efforts must do more than reduce heavy drinking. Future research should address the possibility of drink size underestimation, identify the particular types of problems that disproportionately affect

  14. Disparities in alcohol-related problems among white, black, and Hispanic Americans.

    PubMed

    Mulia, Nina; Ye, Yu; Greenfield, Thomas K; Zemore, Sarah E

    2009-04-01

    This study assesses racial/ethnic disparities in negative social consequences of drinking and alcohol dependence symptoms among white, black, and Hispanic Americans. We examine whether and how disparities relate to heavy alcohol consumption and pattern, and the extent to which social disadvantage (poverty, unfair treatment, and racial/ethnic stigma) accounts for observed disparities. We analyzed data from the 2005 U.S. National Alcohol Survey, a nationally representative telephone-based survey of adults ages 18 and older (N = 6,919). Given large racial/ethnic differences in abstinence rates, core analyses were restricted to current drinkers (N = 4,080). Logistic regression was used to assess disparities in alcohol-related problems at 3 levels of heavy drinking, measured using a composite variable incorporating frequency of heavy episodic drinking, frequency of drunkenness, and maximum amount consumed in a single day. A mediational approach was used to assess the role of social disadvantage. African American and Hispanic drinkers were significantly more likely than white drinkers to report social consequences of drinking and alcohol dependence symptoms. Even after adjusting for differences in heavy drinking and demographic characteristics, disparities in problems remained. The racial/ethnic gap in alcohol problems was greatest among those reporting little or no heavy drinking, and gradually diminished to nonsignificance at the highest level of heavy drinking. Social disadvantage, particularly in the form of racial/ethnic stigma, appeared to contribute to racial/ethnic differences in problems. These findings suggest that to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in alcohol-related problems, public health efforts must do more than reduce heavy drinking. Future research should address the possibility of drink size underestimation, identify the particular types of problems that disproportionately affect racial/ethnic minorities, and investigate social and cultural

  15. Sharing of Alcohol-Related Content on Social Networking Sites: Frequency, Content, and Correlates.

    PubMed

    Erevik, Eilin K; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Vedaa, Øystein; Andreassen, Cecilie S; Pallesen, Ståle

    2017-05-01

    The present study aimed to explore students' reports of their sharing of alcohol-related content on different social networking sites (i.e., frequency of sharing and connotations of alcohol-related posts), and to identify indicators of such posting. Students at the four largest institutions for higher education in Bergen, Norway, were invited to participate in an Internet-based survey. The sample size was 11,236 (a 39.4% response rate). The survey included questions about disclosure of alcohol-related content on social networking sites, alcohol use (using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test), personality factors (using the Mini-IPIP), and demographic characteristics. Binary logistic regressions were used to analyze indicators of frequent sharing of alcohol-related content depicting positive and negative aspects of alcohol use. A majority of the students had posted alcohol-related content (71.0%), although few reported having done so frequently. Positive aspects of alcohol use (e.g., enjoyment or social community) were most frequently shared. Young, single, and extroverted students with high alcohol consumption were more likely to report frequent sharing of alcohol-related content. Positive attitudes toward posting alcohol-related content and reports of exposure to such content particularly increased the likelihood of one's own posting of alcohol-related content. Positive aspects of alcohol use seem to be emphasized on social networking sites. Sharing of alcohol-related content is associated with heightened alcohol use, which implies that such sites can be relevant for prevention agents. Social influence from social networking sites, such as exposure to others' alcohol-related content, is associated with one's own sharing of similar content.

  16. Harm reduction-a systematic review on effects of alcohol reduction on physical and mental symptoms.

    PubMed

    Charlet, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Based on the knowledge that alcohol misuse causes a multitude of diseases and increased mortality, this systematic review examines whether a reduction of the individual alcohol consumption can contribute to a minimization of health risks within a harm reduction approach. In fact, the reviewed 63 studies indicate that interventions aiming at alcohol reduction (including total abstinence as one possible therapeutic aim) indeed resulted in or were associated with positive effects in harmful, hazardous or alcohol-dependent drinkers. Major benefits were observed for reducing alcohol-associated injuries, recovery of ventricular heart function in alcoholic cardiomyopathy, blood pressure lowering, normalization of biochemical parameter, body weight reduction, histological improvement in pre-cirrhotic alcohol-related liver disease and slowed progression of an already existing alcohol-attributable liver fibrosis. Furthermore, reduced withdrawal symptoms, prevalence of psychiatric episodes and duration of in-patient hospital days, improvement of anxiety and depression symptoms, self-confidence, physical and mental quality of life, fewer alcohol-related adverse consequences as well as lower psychosocial stress levels and better social functioning can result from reduced alcohol intake. The reviewed literature demonstrated remarkable socioeconomic cost benefits in areas such as the medical health-care system or workforce productivity. Individuals with heightened vulnerability further benefit significantly from alcohol reduction (e.g. hypertension, hepatitis C, psychiatric co-morbidities, pregnancy, but also among adolescents and young adults). Concluding, the reviewed studies strongly support and emphasize the importance and benefits of early initial screening for problematic alcohol use followed by brief and other interventions in first contact medical health-care facilities to reduce alcohol intake. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. User Preferences for Content, Features, and Style for an App to Reduce Harmful Drinking in Young Adults: Analysis of User Feedback in App Stores and Focus Group Interviews

    PubMed Central

    Khadjesari, Zarnie; Fincham-Campbell, Stephanie; Deluca, Paolo; Watson, Rod; Drummond, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Background Electronic screening and brief intervention (eSBI) is effective in reducing weekly alcohol consumption when delivered by a computer. Mobile phone apps demonstrate promise in delivering eSBI; however, few have been designed with an evidence-based and user-informed approach. Objective This study aims to explore from a user perspective, preferences for content, appearance, and operational features to inform the design of a mobile phone app for reducing quantity and frequency of drinking in young adults engaged in harmful drinking (18-30 year olds). Methods Phase 1 included a review of user reviews of available mobile phone apps that support a reduction in alcohol consumption. Apps were identified on iTunes and Google Play and were categorized into alcohol reduction support, entertainment, blood alcohol content measurement (BAC), or other. eSBI apps with ≥18 user reviews were subject to a content analysis, which coded praise, criticism, and recommendations for app content, functionality, and esthetics. Phase 2 included four focus groups with young adults drinking at harmful levels and residing in South London to explore their views on existing eSBI apps and preferences for future content, functionality, and appearance. Detailed thematic analysis of the data was undertaken. Results In Phase 1, of the 1584 apps extracted, 201 were categorized as alcohol reduction, 154 as BAC calculators, 509 as entertainment, and 720 as other. We classified 32 apps as eSBI apps. Four apps had ≥18 user reviews: Change for Life Drinks Tracker, Drinksmeter, Drinkaware, and Alcohol Units Calculator. The highest proportion of content praises were for information and feedback provided in the apps (12/27, 44%), followed by praise for the monitoring features (5/27, 19%). Many (8/12, 67%) criticisms were for the drinking diary; all of these were related to difficulty entering drinks. Over half (18/32, 56%) of functionality criticisms were descriptions of software bugs, and over

  18. User Preferences for Content, Features, and Style for an App to Reduce Harmful Drinking in Young Adults: Analysis of User Feedback in App Stores and Focus Group Interviews.

    PubMed

    Milward, Joanna; Khadjesari, Zarnie; Fincham-Campbell, Stephanie; Deluca, Paolo; Watson, Rod; Drummond, Colin

    2016-05-24

    Electronic screening and brief intervention (eSBI) is effective in reducing weekly alcohol consumption when delivered by a computer. Mobile phone apps demonstrate promise in delivering eSBI; however, few have been designed with an evidence-based and user-informed approach. This study aims to explore from a user perspective, preferences for content, appearance, and operational features to inform the design of a mobile phone app for reducing quantity and frequency of drinking in young adults engaged in harmful drinking (18-30 year olds). Phase 1 included a review of user reviews of available mobile phone apps that support a reduction in alcohol consumption. Apps were identified on iTunes and Google Play and were categorized into alcohol reduction support, entertainment, blood alcohol content measurement (BAC), or other. eSBI apps with ≥18 user reviews were subject to a content analysis, which coded praise, criticism, and recommendations for app content, functionality, and esthetics. Phase 2 included four focus groups with young adults drinking at harmful levels and residing in South London to explore their views on existing eSBI apps and preferences for future content, functionality, and appearance. Detailed thematic analysis of the data was undertaken. In Phase 1, of the 1584 apps extracted, 201 were categorized as alcohol reduction, 154 as BAC calculators, 509 as entertainment, and 720 as other. We classified 32 apps as eSBI apps. Four apps had ≥18 user reviews: Change for Life Drinks Tracker, Drinksmeter, Drinkaware, and Alcohol Units Calculator. The highest proportion of content praises were for information and feedback provided in the apps (12/27, 44%), followed by praise for the monitoring features (5/27, 19%). Many (8/12, 67%) criticisms were for the drinking diary; all of these were related to difficulty entering drinks. Over half (18/32, 56%) of functionality criticisms were descriptions of software bugs, and over half of those (10/18, 56%) were for app

  19. Alcohol craving and demand mediate the relation between posttraumatic stress symptoms and alcohol-related consequences.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Jessica C; Meshesha, Lidia Z; Teeters, Jenni B; Pickover, Alison M; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Murphy, James G

    2015-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms are associated with alcohol-related consequences, but there is a need to understand mediators that may help explain the reasons for this relationship. Individuals with PTS may experience elevated craving and alcohol reward value (demand), which may contribute to risk for alcohol-related consequences. We examined relationships between PTS status, craving, alcohol demand, and alcohol-related consequences in PTS-positive (n = 64) and PTS-negative (n = 200) college students (M age = 21.7; 77% women; 54% Caucasian; 34% African American) who endorsed past-month alcohol use. We tested craving and alcohol demand as mediators of the relation between PTS status and alcohol-related consequences. Craving (B = .04, SE = .02, 95% CI [.01, .10]), demand intensity (B = .02, SE = .02, 95% CI [.001, .07]), and demand elasticity (B = .05, SE = .03, 95% CI [.006, .12]) significantly mediated the association between PTS symptoms and alcohol-related consequences. Craving remained a significant mediator in a multiple mediators model (B = .08, SE = .04, 95% CI [.03, .19]). Craving and alcohol demand may partially explain the relation between PTS status and alcohol-related consequences. Craving may be especially salient for individuals with PTS symptoms, as it may lead to more severe alcohol-related consequences even in the absence of elevated alcohol consumption. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Alcohol on campus: alcohol-related emergencies in undergraduate college students.

    PubMed

    Wright, S W; Norton, V C; Dake, A D; Pinkston, J R; Slovis, C M

    1998-10-01

    We reviewed demographic factors associated with alcohol-related disorders in undergraduates seen in the emergency department (ED) and determined the incidence of alcohol-related ED visits among undergraduates. This prospective, observational study was done in a university-affiliated emergency department. Demographic variables and incidence of students with alcohol-related disorders were analyzed. Of the 616 students seen in the ED during 1 academic year, 101 (16%) had an alcohol-related disorder. White students and freshmen were overrepresented. There were equal numbers of male and female students. The overall annual incidence for an alcohol-related visit among undergraduates was 1.7% per academic year. The incidence for freshmen was 2.9%. Four students were admitted; one died of a severe head injury. We estimate that 1 of every 15 undergraduates at our college comes to our ED with an alcohol-related problem during their 4-year college career. Younger and nonminority students were more commonly seen; there was no difference by sex. Serious outcomes included one death. This study probably underestimates the true incidence of alcohol-related disorders among students on campus.

  1. Consideration of driver home county prohibition and alcohol-related vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Schulte Gary, Sarah Lynn; Aultman-Hall, Lisa; McCourt, Matt; Stamatiadis, Nick

    2003-09-01

    This study examines the characteristics of alcohol-related crashes in wet versus dry counties in the state of Kentucky, USA and incorporates the location of driver residences through use of geographic information system (GIS) analysis. Between 1991 and 1997, 39344 alcohol-related crashes by Kentucky residents on Kentucky State roads were reported. The location of the crash and the home ZIP code from the driver's address were used to consider distance from home in the GIS. Analysis of the crash data revealed that a similar proportion of crashes in wet and dry counties are alcohol-related but that a higher proportion of dry counties residents are involved in an alcohol-related crash. However, when the distance from home variable is considered, several results suggest that dry county residents may be driving further when consuming alcohol. In part due to the rural nature of dry counties, drivers from dry counties have both alcohol-related and non-alcohol related crashes farther from their homes than residents from wet counties. Alcohol-related crashes by dry county residents in wet counties are the greatest average distance from home while crashes by wet county residents in wet counties are the smallest average distance. Drivers from dry counties over 21 years of age have alcohol-related crashes significantly farther from home than those under 21 who would not legally be admitted to drinking establishments in the wet counties. Furthermore, residents from dry counties that do not border wet counties have alcohol-related crashes on average farther from home than the border county residents. These last three results provide circumstantial evidence that some dry county drivers may be driving to wet counties to consume alcohol thus increasing impaired driving exposure. In conclusion, by considering crash location and driver residence, these findings indicate that county-level prohibition is not necessarily effective in improving highway safety.

  2. Fatal alcohol-related traffic crashes increase subsequent to changes to and from daylight savings time.

    PubMed

    Hicks, G J; Davis, J W; Hicks, R A

    1998-06-01

    On the hypothesis that sleepiness and alcohol interact to increase the risk of alcohol-related traffic fatalities, the percentages of alcohol-related fatal traffic crashes were assessed for the entire state of New Mexico for the years 1989-1992, for each of the seven days that preceded the changes to and from Daylight Savings Time and for each of the 14 days which followed the changes to and from Daylight Savings Time. Consistent with our hypothesis the percentage of alcohol-related fatal crashes increased significantly during the first seven days after these changes in Daylight Savings Time.

  3. The effectiveness of adolescent-specific prenatal interventions on improving attendance and reducing harm during and after birth: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tibingana-Ahimbisibwe, Brenda; Katabira, Catherine; Mpalampa, Lena; Harrison, Roger A

    2016-08-18

    attendance and reduce the risk of PTB and low birth rate but their effect on perinatal death is uncertain. There is a distinct lack of evidence of the effectiveness of these interventions for adolescents living in low-middle income countries, despite having the majority of adolescent pregnancies, and associated risk of harm. No high-quality intervention studies were identified. Robust, cluster-based RCTs are an urgent necessity to quantify the impact of these interventions and to identify factors contributing to their success.

  4. Study of a method for reducing fuel consumption and the amount of specific emissions of harmful substances with exhaust gases of passenger cars when using the “climate control” system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burakova, L. N.; Anisimov, I. A.; Burakova, A. D.; Burakova, O. D.

    2018-05-01

    The article deals with the issue of improving the fuel economy and environmental friendliness of motor vehicles which serve the administrative and management personnel of the oil and gas industry. It is established that fuel consumption and the amount of specific emissions of harmful substances with exhaust gases of cars when using the “climate control” system depend on the effective ambient temperature, the color of the opaque car body elements, the power of the car engine and the interior volume. However, the simplest controlled factor is the color of the opaque car body elements, which is characterized by the coefficient of light reflection. In the course of experimental studies, we established the dependences of a change in fuel consumption and a share of reducing emissions of harmful substances with exhaust gases of passenger cars with the “climate control” system on the coefficient of light reflection. A method has been developed to reduce fuel consumption and the amount of specific emissions of harmful substances with the exhaust gases of passenger cars using the “climate control” system, which involves painting the vehicle roof white and allows reducing fuel consumption by 5.5-10.3%, and the amount of specific emissions of harmful substances by 0.8-2.3%.

  5. Reducing harm from HIV/AIDS misconceptions among female sex workers in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico: A cross sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Angela M; Ojeda, Victoria D; Nguyen, Lucie; Lozada, Remedios; Martínez, Gustavo A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2012-08-06

    HIV prevalence is increasing among female sex workers (FSWs) in Mexico's Northern border region, who experience multiple occupational risks. Improving vulnerable populations' education, empowerment, and access to preventive services are important components of harm reduction strategies. Given the increasing interest in adapting harm reduction principles from drug use to sex work and other public health responses to the HIV epidemic, we used a sex work harm reduction framework to guide our investigation of FSWs' HIV knowledge. From 2004-2006, FSWs aged ≥18 years in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez participated in a behavioral intervention study and completed structured interviews. Measures included HIV knowledge assessment and factors within each domain of our theoretical framework for sex work harms: (1) socio-demographic factors that may lead to sex work, (2) sex work characteristics and behaviors that may lead to harm, and (3) mutually reinforcing harms that lead to sex work and result from it (e.g., drug abuse). Negative binomial regression identified factors independently associated with suboptimal HIV knowledge (i.e., incorrect responses during the HIV knowledge assessment). Among 924 FSWs, the median proportion of incorrect responses was nearly one third (28% incorrect). Examination of item responses revealed misconceptions regarding specific transmission and prevention mechanisms, including prevention of mother to child transmission. Suboptimal HIV knowledge was independently associated with older age, lower education, living in Tijuana (vs. Ciudad Juarez), inconsistent condom use for vaginal sex with male clients, and lacking prior HIV testing. Our application of a sex work harm reduction framework to the study of FSWs' HIV knowledge is an important first step in enhancing HIV prevention efforts in Northern Mexican border cities. Our findings imply that interventions should identify and discredit local HIV misconceptions to improve knowledge of specific HIV

  6. Reducing harm from HIV/AIDS misconceptions among female sex workers in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico: A cross sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV prevalence is increasing among female sex workers (FSWs) in Mexico’s Northern border region, who experience multiple occupational risks. Improving vulnerable populations’ education, empowerment, and access to preventive services are important components of harm reduction strategies. Given the increasing interest in adapting harm reduction principles from drug use to sex work and other public health responses to the HIV epidemic, we used a sex work harm reduction framework to guide our investigation of FSWs’ HIV knowledge. Methods From 2004–2006, FSWs aged ≥18 years in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez participated in a behavioral intervention study and completed structured interviews. Measures included HIV knowledge assessment and factors within each domain of our theoretical framework for sex work harms: (1) socio-demographic factors that may lead to sex work, (2) sex work characteristics and behaviors that may lead to harm, and (3) mutually reinforcing harms that lead to sex work and result from it (e.g., drug abuse). Negative binomial regression identified factors independently associated with suboptimal HIV knowledge (i.e., incorrect responses during the HIV knowledge assessment). Results Among 924 FSWs, the median proportion of incorrect responses was nearly one third (28% incorrect). Examination of item responses revealed misconceptions regarding specific transmission and prevention mechanisms, including prevention of mother to child transmission. Suboptimal HIV knowledge was independently associated with older age, lower education, living in Tijuana (vs. Ciudad Juarez), inconsistent condom use for vaginal sex with male clients, and lacking prior HIV testing. Conclusions Our application of a sex work harm reduction framework to the study of FSWs’ HIV knowledge is an important first step in enhancing HIV prevention efforts in Northern Mexican border cities. Our findings imply that interventions should identify and discredit local HIV

  7. The effect of short-term alcohol restriction on risk of alcohol-related injury: A state wide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenbin; Gilmore, William; Chikritzhs, Tanya

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol consumption and related harms are largely determined by both demand and supply of alcohol. Across Western Australia, under state licensing laws, there are state-wide alcohol sales restrictions imposed on Good Friday and Christmas Day each year. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the Good Friday and Christmas Day state-wide alcohol restrictions on the risk of alcohol-related injuries presenting at emergency departments. This is a population-based cohort study using ED injury presentation data for the period 1st January 2002 to 1st January 2015. Risk of injury during the alcohol-related time of day affected by the alcohol restrictions (intervention periods, including Good Friday and Christmas Day) were compared to the same time of day over a number of control days. Multivariable Poisson regression model was used to perform the analysis. The crude injury risk was considerably lower during the alcohol restriction periods compared to control periods in both metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas. The protective effect observed on the days of the alcohol restrictions remained significant, and largely unchanged, when potential confounding effects were controlled for. The significant reduction in alcohol-related injury presentations observed for public holiday periods with alcohol restrictions were likely caused by the alcohol restriction policy and its direct effect on alcohol supply. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Vulnerability to alcohol-related problems: a policy brief with implications for the regulation of alcohol marketing.

    PubMed

    Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine; Noel, Jonathan K; Ritson, E Bruce

    2017-01-01

    The concern that alcohol advertising can have detrimental effects on vulnerable viewers has prompted the development of codes of responsible advertising practices. This paper evaluates critically the concept of vulnerability as it applies to (1) susceptibility to alcohol-related harm and (2) susceptibility to the effects of marketing, and describes its implications for the regulation of alcohol marketing. We describe the findings of key published studies, review papers and expert reports to determine whether these two types of vulnerability apply to population groups defined by (1) age and developmental history; (2) personality characteristics; (3) family history of alcoholism; (4) female sex and pregnancy risk; and (5) history of alcohol dependence and recovery status. Developmental theory and research suggest that groups defined by younger age, incomplete neurocognitive development and a history of alcohol dependence may be particularly vulnerable because of the disproportionate harm they experience from alcohol and their increased susceptibility to alcohol marketing. Children may be more susceptible to media imagery because they do not have the ability to compensate for biases in advertising portrayals and glamorized media imagery. Young people and people with a history of alcohol dependence appear to be especially vulnerable to alcohol marketing, warranting the development of new content and exposure guidelines focused on protecting those groups to improve current self-regulation codes promoted by the alcohol industry. If adequate protections cannot be implemented through this mechanism, statutory regulations should be considered. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Alcohol-related hot-spot analysis and prediction : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-05-01

    This project developed methods to more accurately identify alcohol-related crash hot spots, ultimately allowing for more effective and efficient enforcement and safety campaigns. Advancements in accuracy came from improving the calculation of spatial...

  10. Age of drinking onset, driving after drinking, and involvement in alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed whether persons who begin drinking at younger ages are more likely to report drunk driving and alcohol-related crash involvement over the life course, even after controlling analytically for diagnosis of alcohol dependence and oth...

  11. The cost of harmful alcohol use in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Matzopoulos, R G; Truen, S; Bowman, B; Corrigall, J

    2014-02-01

    The economic, social and health costs associated with alcohol-related harms are important measures with which to inform alcohol management policies and laws. This analysis builds on previous cost estimates for South Africa. We reviewed existing international best-practice costing frameworks to provide the costing definitions and dimensions. We sourced data from South African costing literature or, if unavailable, estimated costs using socio-economic and health data from secondary sources. Care was taken to avoid possible causes of cost overestimation, in particular double counting and, as far as possible, second-round effects of alcohol abuse. The combined total tangible and intangible costs of alcohol harm to the economy were estimated at 10 - 12% of the 2009 gross domestic product (GDP). The tangible financial cost of harmful alcohol use alone was estimated at R37.9 billion, or 1.6% of the 2009 GDP. The costs of alcohol-related harms provide a substantial counterbalance to the economic benefits highlighted by the alcohol industry to counter stricter regulation. Curtailing these costs by regulatory and policy interventions contributes directly and indirectly to social well-being and the economy. CONCLUSIONS; Existing frameworks that guide the regulation and distribution of alcohol frequently focus on maximising the contribution of the alcohol sector to the economy, but should also take into account the associated economic, social and health costs. Current interventions do not systematically address the most important causes of harm from alcohol, and need to be informed by reliable evidence of the ongoing costs of alcohol-related harms.

  12. An Evaluation of Retail Outlets as Part of a Community Prevention Trial to Reduce Sales of Harmful Legal Products to Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courser, Matthew W.; Holder, Harold D.; Collins, David; Johnson, Knowlton; Ogilvie, Kristen

    2007-01-01

    Communities across the nation have become increasingly concerned about inhalant use and use of harmful legal products among youth because of increasing prevalence rates and deleterious health consequences from abusing these products. The increasing concern of communities about inhaling and ingesting legal products has been coupled with increasing…

  13. Negative and positive externalities in intergroup conflict: exposure to the opportunity to help the outgroup reduces the inclination to harm it.

    PubMed

    Weisel, Ori

    2015-01-01

    Outgroup hate, in the context of intergroup conflict, can be expressed by harming the outgroup, but also by denying it help. Previous work established that this distinction-whether the externality on the outgroup is negative or positive-has an important effect on the likelihood of outgroup hate emerging as a motivation for individual participation in intergroup conflict. The current work uses a within-subject design to examine the behavior of the same individuals in intergroup conflict with negative and positive externalities on the outgroup. Each participant made two choices, one for each type of externality, and the order was counter balanced. The main results are that (1) behavior is fairly consistent across negative and positive externalities, i.e., the tendency to display outgroup hate by harming the outgroup is correlated with the tendency to display outgroup hate by avoiding to help the outgroup; (2) People are reluctant to harm the outgroup after being exposed to the opportunity to help it; (3) Groupness-the degree to which people care about their group and its well-being-is related to outgroup hate only when participants encounter the opportunity to harm the outgroup first (before they encounter the opportunity to help it). In this setting the relationship between groupness and outgroup hate spilled over to the subsequent interaction, where it was possible to help the outgroup. When the opportunity to help the outgroup was encountered first, groupness was not related to outgroup hate.

  14. Negative and positive externalities in intergroup conflict: exposure to the opportunity to help the outgroup reduces the inclination to harm it

    PubMed Central

    Weisel, Ori

    2015-01-01

    Outgroup hate, in the context of intergroup conflict, can be expressed by harming the outgroup, but also by denying it help. Previous work established that this distinction—whether the externality on the outgroup is negative or positive—has an important effect on the likelihood of outgroup hate emerging as a motivation for individual participation in intergroup conflict. The current work uses a within-subject design to examine the behavior of the same individuals in intergroup conflict with negative and positive externalities on the outgroup. Each participant made two choices, one for each type of externality, and the order was counter balanced. The main results are that (1) behavior is fairly consistent across negative and positive externalities, i.e., the tendency to display outgroup hate by harming the outgroup is correlated with the tendency to display outgroup hate by avoiding to help the outgroup; (2) People are reluctant to harm the outgroup after being exposed to the opportunity to help it; (3) Groupness—the degree to which people care about their group and its well-being—is related to outgroup hate only when participants encounter the opportunity to harm the outgroup first (before they encounter the opportunity to help it). In this setting the relationship between groupness and outgroup hate spilled over to the subsequent interaction, where it was possible to help the outgroup. When the opportunity to help the outgroup was encountered first, groupness was not related to outgroup hate. PMID:26582994

  15. The Effect of Restricting Opening Hours on Alcohol-Related Violence

    PubMed Central

    Duailibi, Sergio; Ponicki, William; Grube, Joel; Pinsky, Ilana; Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Raw, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Objective. We investigated whether limiting the hours of alcoholic beverage sales in bars had an effect on homicides and violence against women in the Brazilian city of Diadema. The policy to restrict alcohol sales was introduced in July 2002 and prohibited on-premises alcohol sales after 11 pm. Methods. We analyzed data on homicides (1995 to 2005) and violence against women (2000 to 2005) from the Diadema (population 360 000) police archives using log-linear regression analyses. Results. The new restriction on drinking hours led to a decrease of almost 9 murders a month. Assaults against women also decreased, but this effect was not significant in models in which we controlled for underlying trends. Conclusions. Introducing restrictions on opening hours resulted in a significant decrease in murders, which confirmed what we know from the literature: restricting access to alcohol can reduce alcohol-related problems. Our results give no support to the converse view, that increasing availability will somehow reduce problems. PMID:17971559

  16. Impaired Insulin/IGF Signaling in Experimental Alcohol-Related Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Van Anh; Le, Tran; Tong, Ming; Silbermann, Elizabeth; Gundogan, Fusun; de la Monte, Suzanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol-related myopathy (Alc-M) is highly prevalent among heavy drinkers, although its pathogenesis is not well understood. We hypothesize that Alc-M is mediated by combined effects of insulin/IGF resistance and oxidative stress, similar to the effects of ethanol on liver and brain. We tested this hypothesis using an established model in which adult rats were pair-fed for 8 weeks with isocaloric diets containing 0% (N = 8) or 35.5% (N = 13) ethanol by caloric content. Gastrocnemius muscles were examined by histology, morphometrics, qRT-PCR analysis, and ELISAs. Chronic ethanol feeding reduced myofiber size and mRNA expression of IGF-1 polypeptide, insulin, IGF-1, and IGF-2 receptors, IRS-1, and IRS-2. Multiplex ELISAs demonstrated ethanol-associated inhibition of insulin, IRS-1, Akt, and p70S6K signaling, and increased activation of GSK-3β. In addition, ethanol-exposed muscles had increased 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal immunoreactivity, reflecting lipid peroxidation, and reduced levels of mitochondrial Complex IV, Complex V, and acetylcholinesterase. These results demonstrate that experimental Alc-M is associated with inhibition of insulin/IGF/IRS and downstream signaling that mediates metabolism and cell survival, similar to findings in alcoholic liver and brain degeneration. Moreover, the increased oxidative stress, which could be mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction, may have led to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, which itself is sufficient to cause myofiber atrophy and degeneration. PMID:23016132

  17. Cost per incident of alcohol-related crime in New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Joshua M; Doran, Christopher M; Shakeshaft, Anthony P

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a per incident of crime cost measure for New South Wales that is suitable for the use within cost-effectiveness studies of interventions aimed at reducing the burden of alcohol. This paper seeks to quantify the individual cost of an assault, property damage, sexual offence and disorderly conduct in New South Wales. Costs regarding the criminal act, police involvement, prosecution in criminal courts and incarceration are estimated and then using a four-stage probability analysis, the expected cost per incident is calculated. It is found that expected cost per incident for assault, sexual offence, property damage and disorderly conduct (in 2006 dollar values) is $3982, $5976, $1166 and $501 respectively. A large total cost figure is a powerful policy motivator; however, for the purpose of economic analysis it is often more useful to estimate the per incident cost. This research furthers the existing research on cost of crime estimates and facilitates future cost-effectiveness and other economic analysis of interventions that reduce alcohol-related crime. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  18. Brand preferences of underage drinkers who report alcohol-related fights and injuries

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Sarah P.; Siegel, Michael B.; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Background A significant body of research has demonstrated an association between adolescent alcohol consumption and subsequent fights and injuries. To date, however, no research has identified which brands are associated with alcohol-related fights and injuries among underage drinkers. Objectives We aimed to: 1) report the prevalence of alcohol-related fights and injuries among a national sample of underage drinkers in the U.S. and 2) describe the relationship between specific alcohol brand consumption and these alcohol-related negative consequences. Methods We recruited 1,031 self-reported drinkers (ages 13–20 years) via an internet panel maintained by Knowledge Networks to complete an online survey. Respondents reported their past-month overall and brand-specific alcohol consumption, risky drinking behavior, and past-year alcohol-related fights and injuries. Results Over one-quarter of the respondents (26.7%, N=232) reported at least one alcohol-related fight or injury in the past year. Heavy episodic drinkers were over six times more likely to report one of these negative alcohol-related consequences (AOR: 6.4, 95% CI: 4.1–9.9). Respondents of black race and those from higher-income households were also significantly more likely to report that experience (AOR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3–3.7; AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1–3.0 and 1.1–3.2, respectively). We identified eight alcohol brands that were significantly associated with alcohol-related fights and injuries. Conclusions/Importance Alcohol-related fights and injuries were frequently reported by adolescent respondents. Eight alcohol brands were significantly more popular among drinkers who experienced these adverse consequences. These results point to the need for further research on brand-specific correlates of underage drinking and negative health outcomes. PMID:25612075

  19. Brand preferences of underage drinkers who report alcohol-related fights and injuries.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Sarah P; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; Jernigan, David H

    2015-04-01

    A significant body of research has demonstrated an association between adolescent alcohol consumption and subsequent fights and injuries. To date, however, no research has identified which brands are associated with alcohol-related fights and injuries among underage drinkers. We aimed to: (1) report the prevalence of alcohol-related fights and injuries among a national sample of underage drinkers in the U.S. and (2) describe the relationship between specific alcohol brand consumption and these alcohol-related negative consequences. We recruited 1,031 self-reported drinkers (ages 13-20 years) via an internet panel maintained by Knowledge Networks to complete an online survey. Respondents reported their past-month overall and brand-specific alcohol consumption, risky drinking behavior, and past-year alcohol-related fights and injuries. Over one-quarter of the respondents (26.7%, N = 232) reported at least one alcohol-related fight or injury in the past year. Heavy episodic drinkers were over six times more likely to report one of these negative alcohol-related consequences (AOR: 6.4, 95% CI: 4.1-9.9). Respondents of black race and those from higher-income households were also significantly more likely to report that experience (AOR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.7; AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.0 and 1.1-3.2, respectively). We identified eight alcohol brands that were significantly associated with alcohol-related fights and injuries. CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: Alcohol-related fights and injuries were frequently reported by adolescent respondents. Eight alcohol brands were significantly more popular among drinkers who experienced these adverse consequences. These results point to the need for further research on brand-specific correlates of underage drinking and negative health outcomes.

  20. Harm Reduction From Below

    PubMed Central

    Van Schipstal, Inge; Berning, Moritz; Murray, Hayley

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on how recreational drug users in the Netherlands and in online communities navigate the risks and reduce the harms they associate with psychoactive drug use. To do so, we examined the protective practices they invent, use, and share with their immediate peers and with larger drug experimenting communities online. The labor involved in protective practices and that which ultimately informs harm reduction from below follows three interrelated trajectories: (1) the handling and sharing of drugs to facilitate hassle-free drug use, (2) creating pleasant and friendly spaces that we highlight under the practices of drug use attunements, and (3) the seeking and sharing of information in practices to spread the good high. We focus not only on users’ concerns but also on how these concerns shape their approach to drugs, what young people do to navigate uncertainties, and how they reach out to and create different sources of knowledge to minimize adversities and to improve highs. Harm reduction from below, we argue, can best be seen in the practices of sharing around drug use and in the caring for the larger community of drug-using peers. PMID:27721525

  1. Impact of Alcohol Tax Increase on Maryland College Students' Alcohol-Related Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Smart, Mieka J; Yearwood, Safiya S; Hwang, Seungyoung; Thorpe, Roland J; Furr-Holden, C Debra

    2018-05-12

    This study A) assessed whether levels of alcohol-related disciplinary actions on college campuses changed among MD college students after the 2011 Maryland (MD) state alcohol tax increase from 6% to 9%, and B) determined which school-level factors impacted the magnitude of changes detected. A quasi-experimental interrupted time series (ITS) analysis of panel data containing alcohol-related disciplinary actions on 33 MD college campuses in years 2006-2013. Negative binomial regression models were used to examine whether there was a statistically significant difference in counts of alcohol-related disciplinary actions comparing time before and after the tax increase. The ITS anaysis showed an insignificant relationship between alcohol-related disciplinary actions and tax implementation (β = -.27; p =.257) but indicated that alcohol-related disciplinary actions decreased significantly over the time under study (β = -.05; p =.022). Alcohol related disciplinary actions did decrease over time in the years of study, and this relationship was correlated with several school-level characteristics, including school price, school funding type, types of degrees awarded, and specialty. School price may serve as a proxy mediator or confounder of the effect of time on disciplinary actions.

  2. Gender matters: the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol-related consequences.

    PubMed

    Schry, Amie R; Norberg, Melissa M; Maddox, Brenna B; White, Susan W

    2014-01-01

    Identification of risk factors for alcohol-related consequences is an important public health concern. Both gender and social anxiety have been associated with alcohol-related consequences broadly, but it is unknown whether these variables are differentially related to specific types of alcohol-related consequences for American college students. In the present study, 573 undergraduate students (M(age) = 19.86 years, SD = 1.40; range 18 to 25; 68.9% female) completed an on-line assessment of social anxiety, alcohol use, and four types of alcohol-related consequences (personal, social, physical, and role). Poisson regressions were run to examine social anxiety, gender, and the interaction between social anxiety and gender as predictors of each type of alcohol-related consequences. After controlling for alcohol use, social anxiety was positively associated with all four types of consequences, and females endorsed higher rates of physical, personal, and role consequences. The interaction between social anxiety and gender was statistically significant only for physical consequences, with social anxiety having a stronger effect for males. These findings, which diverge somewhat from those of a prior study with Australian college students, are discussed in the context of a biopsychosocial model of social anxiety and substance use problems. This study highlights the importance of further investigating cultural differences in the relationships among social anxiety, gender, and alcohol-related consequences.

  3. Gender Matters: The Relationship between Social Anxiety and Alcohol-Related Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Schry, Amie R.; Norberg, Melissa M.; Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Identification of risk factors for alcohol-related consequences is an important public health concern. Both gender and social anxiety have been associated with alcohol-related consequences broadly, but it is unknown whether these variables are differentially related to specific types of alcohol-related consequences for American college students. Methods In the present study, 573 undergraduate students (M age = 19.86 years, SD = 1.40; range 18 to 25; 68.9% female) completed an on-line assessment of social anxiety, alcohol use, and four types of alcohol-related consequences (personal, social, physical, and role). Poisson regressions were run to examine social anxiety, gender, and the interaction between social anxiety and gender as predictors of each type of alcohol-related consequences. Results After controlling for alcohol use, social anxiety was positively associated with all four types of consequences, and females endorsed higher rates of physical, personal, and role consequences. The interaction between social anxiety and gender was statistically significant only for physical consequences, with social anxiety having a stronger effect for males. Discussion and Conclusions These findings, which diverge somewhat from those of a prior study with Australian college students, are discussed in the context of a biopsychosocial model of social anxiety and substance use problems. Scientific Significance This study highlights the importance of further investigating cultural differences in the relationships among social anxiety, gender, and alcohol-related consequences. PMID:25541722

  4. Spatial analysis of alcohol-related motor vehicle crash injuries in southeastern Michigan.

    PubMed

    Meliker, Jaymie R; Maio, Ronald F; Zimmerman, Marc A; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Smith, Sarah C; Wilson, Mark L

    2004-11-01

    Temporal, behavioral and social risk factors that affect injuries resulting from alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes have been characterized in previous research. Much less is known about spatial patterns and environmental associations of alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes. The aim of this study was to evaluate geographic patterns of alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes and to determine if locations of alcohol outlets are associated with those crashes. In addition, we sought to demonstrate the value of integrating spatial and traditional statistical techniques in the analysis of this preventable public health risk. The study design was a cross-sectional analysis of individual-level blood alcohol content, traffic report information, census block group data, and alcohol distribution outlets. Besag and Newell's spatial analysis and traditional logistic regression both indicated that areas of low population density had more alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes than expected (P < 0.05). There was no significant association between alcohol outlets and alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes using distance analyses, logistic regression, and Chi-square. Differences in environmental or behavioral factors characteristic of areas of low population density may be responsible for the higher proportion of alcohol-related crashes occurring in these areas.

  5. Attitudes and beliefs of emergency department staff regarding alcohol-related presentations.

    PubMed

    Indig, Devon; Copeland, Jan; Conigrave, Katherine M; Rotenko, Irene

    2009-01-01

    This study examined emergency department (ED) staff attitudes and beliefs about alcohol-related ED presentations in order to recommend improved detection and brief intervention strategies. The survey was conducted at two inner-Sydney hospital EDs in 2006 to explore ED clinical staff's attitudes, current practice and barriers for managing alcohol-related ED presentations. The sample included N=78 ED staff (54% nurses, 46% doctors), representing a 30% response rate. Management of alcohol-related problems was not routine among ED staff, with only 5% usually formally screening for alcohol problems, only 16% usually conducting brief interventions, and only 27% usually providing a referral to specialist treatment services. Over 85% of ED staff indicated that lack of patient motivation made providing alcohol interventions very difficult. Significant predictors of good self-reported practice among ED staff for patients with alcohol problems included: being a doctor, being confident and having a sense of responsibility towards managing patients with alcohol-related problems. This study reported that many staff lack the confidence or sense of clinical responsibility to fully and appropriately manage ED patients with alcohol-related problems. ED staff appear to require additional training, resources and support to enhance their management of patients with alcohol-related problems.

  6. Effects of caffeine on alcohol-related changes in behavioural control and perceived intoxication in light caffeine consumers.

    PubMed

    Attwood, Angela S; Rogers, Peter J; Ataya, Alia F; Adams, Sally; Munafò, Marcus R

    2012-06-01

    Caffeinated alcoholic beverages have been associated with increased risk of alcohol-related harms. However, few studies have examined these combined effects on behavioural control, which is believed to underlie many of the negative effects of alcohol consumption. In addition, studies have often omitted subjective measures, and none have directly assessed the role of caffeine consumer history. To examine the combined effects of alcohol and caffeine on measures of behavioural control and perceived intoxication in abstinent, light caffeine consumers. Participants (n = 28; 50% male) attended four sessions at which they consumed one of the following beverages in a randomised order: placebo, alcohol alone (0.6 g/kg), caffeine alone (2.0 mg/kg), and alcohol/caffeine. They completed measures of mood, intoxication, anxiety and alcohol craving before and after a task battery comprising measures of behavioural control and reaction time performance. Caffeine attenuated alcohol-related performance deficits on stop-signal accuracy, had no effect on go-no-go performance deficits, and worsened accuracy on the Stroop task. Caffeine did not influence absolute changes in perceived intoxication but there was suggestion that caffeine may have changed the nature of intoxication with increases in stimulation. Caffeine appears to have mixed effects on alcohol intoxication that are task-dependent. We found increased stimulation in the alcohol/caffeine condition, supporting the contention that caffeinated alcoholic beverages enable an individual to drink for longer. Future research should model real world drinking behaviour by examining how these effects change across multiple drink administrations.

  7. Distances to on- and off-premise alcohol outlets and experiences of alcohol-related amenity problems.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Claire; Livingston, Michael

    2012-06-01

    There are a number of studies in recent years that have examined the relationship of alcohol outlets to the incidence of alcohol-related problems. Only a small number of these studies examine the types of alcohol-related problems which may be considered amenity problems, such as neighbourhood disturbance, litter and noise. This paper examines the association between the proximity of someone's home to alcohol outlets and their experience of public amenity problems. Data came from an Australian general population survey: the Alcohol's Harm to Others Survey (2008). Two thousand six hundred and forty-nine Australians aged 18 years and over were asked about their experiences of a number of amenity-type problems and the distance they lived to the nearest on- and off-premise alcohol outlet. Bivariate results showed that respondents living closer to on- and off-premise outlets reported more problems, with minor differences by distance to on- and off-premise outlet. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, controlling for possible confounding effects of the respondent and neighbourhood characteristics, living closer to on-premise outlets was independently associated with reporting being kept awake or disturbed at night and living closer to an off-premise outlet was independently associated with reporting property damage. A possible interpretation of the results is that respondents living close to on- and off-premise outlets experience more amenity problems than those living further away, but that these experiences are concentrated among demographic groups who live in these areas. Direction of influence cannot be inferred from these cross-sectional findings. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  8. Disruption of Long-Term Alcohol-Related Memory Reconsolidation: Role of β-Adrenoceptors and NMDA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wouda, Jelte A.; Diergaarde, Leontien; Riga, Danai; van Mourik, Yvar; Schoffelmeer, Anton N. M.; De Vries, Taco J.

    2010-01-01

    Disrupting reconsolidation of drug-related memories may be effective in reducing the incidence of relapse. In the current study we examine whether alcohol-related memories are prone to disruption by the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol (10 mg/kg) and the NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 (0.1 mg/kg) following their reactivation. In operant chambers, male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer a 12% alcohol solution. After 3 weeks of abstinence, the animals were placed in the self-administration cages and were re-exposed to the alcohol-associated cues for a 20-min retrieval period, immediately followed by a systemic injection of either propranolol, MK801 or saline. Rats were tested for cue-induced alcohol seeking on the following day. Retrieval session, injection and test were repeated on two further occasions at weekly intervals. Both propranolol and MK801 administration upon reactivation did not reduce alcohol seeking after the first reactivation test. However, a significant reduction of alcohol seeking was observed over three post-training tests in propranolol treated animals, and MK801 treated animals showed a strong tendency toward reduced alcohol seeking (p = 0.06). Our data indicate that reconsolidation of alcohol-related memories can be disrupted after a long post-training interval and that particularly β-adrenergic receptors may represent novel targets for pharmacotherapy of alcoholism, in combination with cue-exposure therapies. PMID:21152256

  9. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems on Campus: Vandalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Joel; Finn, Peter

    This bulletin provides suggestions for the components of a comprehensive approach to reducing student vandalism on college and university campuses. Numerous facets of the problem are addressed, including: the association of binge drinking with vandalism and school policies that tolerate or even facilitate binge drinking; a school's drinking…

  10. Mental health, sleep quality, drinking motives, and alcohol-related consequences: a path-analytic model.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Shannon R; Lac, Andrew; Labrie, Joseph W; Hummer, Justin F; Pham, Andy

    2013-11-01

    Poor mental health, sleep problems, drinking motivations, and high-risk drinking are prevalent among college students. However, research designed to explicate the interrelationships among these health risk behaviors is lacking. This study was designed to assess the direct and indirect influences of poor mental health (a latent factor consisting of depression, anxiety, and stress) to alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences through the mediators of global sleep quality and drinking motives in a comprehensive model. Participants were 1,044 heavy-drinking college students (66.3% female) who completed online surveys. A hybrid structural equation model tested hypotheses involving relations leading from poor mental health to drinking motives and poorer global sleep quality to drinking outcomes. Results showed that poor mental health significantly predicted all four subscales of drinking motivations (social, coping, conformity, and enhancement) as well as poor sleep. Most of the drinking motives and poor sleep were found to explain alcohol use and negative alcohol consequences. Poor sleep predicted alcohol consequences, even after controlling for all other variables in the model. The hypothesized mediational pathways were examined with tests of indirect effects. This is the first study to assess concomitantly the relationships among three vital health-related domains (mental health, sleep behavior, and alcohol risk) in college students. Findings offer important implications for college personnel and interventionists interested in reducing alcohol risk by focusing on alleviating mental health problems and poor sleep quality.

  11. Perceptions about Dormitory Wing-Mates and Alcohol-Related Secondhand Effects Among College Freshmen

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Elizabeth N.; Novik, Melinda G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study examined secondhand effects college students experienced from others’ alcohol use and their relationship with student characteristics and alcohol-related perceptions about wing-mates. Participants Incoming freshmen (n=509) residing in predominantly freshmen dormitories. Methods A web-based survey was administered two months into the 2006 fall academic semester. Linear Mixed Modeling was utilized to examine the independent relationships of secondhand effects with student characteristics and perceptions. Results Most (80%) students experienced at least one secondhand effect. Perceiving wing-mate acceptance and expectation of alcohol use, and inability to protect against wing-mate secondhand effects as well as being female and a drinker were related to experiencing secondhand effects. Conclusions Incoming college freshmen frequently experienced secondhand effects. Involving dormitory wings in norms-based interventions aimed at reducing secondhand effects warrant evaluation. Further research is also warranted on skill-building among college students to resist and intervene into others’ drinking and on Resident Advisor negotiation of their roles as both engenderers of trust/cooperation and enforcers of alcohol rules. PMID:19433400

  12. An Event-Level Examination of Sex Differences and Subjective Intoxication in Alcohol-Related Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Patrick D.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Fromme, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-based experimental research has demonstrated that the pharmacological effects of alcohol can increase aggressive responding. Given mixed findings and concerns regarding task validity, however, it remains uncertain whether this effect holds constant across men and women and whether variability in subjective alcohol intoxication contributes to alcohol-related aggression. In the present investigation, we used four years of event-level data in a sample of 1,775 college students (140,618 total observations) to provide a test of laboratory-derived findings on the link between alcohol and aggression in an alternative methodology. We found support for several such findings: 1) Within-person increases in alcohol intoxication, as assessed by estimated blood alcohol concentrations (eBACs), were associated with increases in the probability of aggression at the drinking-episode level; 2) This association was significantly stronger among men than among women; and 3) Within-person variability and between-persons individual differences in levels of subjective alcohol intoxication were associated with aggression over and beyond eBACs. Cross-methodological replication can reduce the impact of constraints specific to experimental studies on conclusions regarding alcohol’s relation with aggression. PMID:23421356

  13. Categorization abilities for emotional and nonemotional stimuli in patients with alcohol-related Korsakoff syndrome.

    PubMed

    Labudda, Kirsten; von Rothkirch, Nadine; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias

    2010-06-01

    To investigate whether patients with alcohol-related Korsakoff syndrome (KR) have emotion-specific or general deficits in multicategoric classification performance. Earlier studies have shown reduced performance in classifying stimuli according to their emotional valence in patients with KS. However, it is unclear whether such classification deficits are of emotion-specific nature or whether they can also occur when nonemotional classifications are demanded. In this study, we examined 35 patients with alcoholic KS and 35 healthy participants with the Emotional Picture Task (EPT) to assess valence classification performance, the Semantic Classification Task (SCT) to assess nonemotional categorizations, and an extensive neuropsychologic test battery. KS patients exhibited lower classification performance in both tasks compared with the healthy participants. EPT and SCT performance were related to each other. EPT and SCT performance correlated with general knowledge and EPT performance in addition with executive functions. Our results indicate a common underlying mechanism of the patients' reductions in emotional and nonemotional classification performance. These deficits are most probably based on problems in retrieving object and category knowledge and, partially, on executive functioning.

  14. Effects of alcohol tax increases on alcohol-related disease mortality in Alaska: time-series analyses from 1976 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Alexander C; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M; Wagenaar, Bradley H

    2009-08-01

    We evaluated the effects of tax increases on alcoholic beverages in 1983 and 2002 on alcohol-related disease mortality in Alaska. We used a quasi-experimental design with quarterly measures of mortality from 1976 though 2004, and we included other states for comparison. Our statistical approach combined an autoregressive integrated moving average model with structural parameters in interrupted time-series models. We observed statistically significant reductions in the numbers and rates of deaths caused by alcohol-related disease beginning immediately after the 1983 and 2002 alcohol tax increases in Alaska. In terms of effect size, the reductions were -29% (Cohen's d = -0.57) and -11% (Cohen's d = -0.52) for the 2 tax increases. Statistical tests of temporary-effect models versus long-term-effect models showed little dissipation of the effect over time. Increases in alcohol excise tax rates were associated with immediate and sustained reductions in alcohol-related disease mortality in Alaska. Reductions in mortality occurred after 2 tax increases almost 20 years apart. Taxing alcoholic beverages is an effective public health strategy for reducing the burden of alcohol-related disease.

  15. A Self-Awareness Intervention Manipulation for Heavy Drinking Men’s Alcohol-Related Aggression Toward Women

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of the present investigation was to directly examine a theoretically-based, self-awareness intervention manipulation for at-risk men’s alcohol-related aggression toward women. This study was developed in response to a call in the literature for research to (1) empirically investigate specific intervention techniques that reduce aggression, and (2) identify in whom such interventions will have the greatest impact. Method A community sample (77% African-American) of 94 heavy drinking males age 21 years and older (M = 35.61) completed a battery of questionnaires that assessed alcohol consumption and perpetration of aggression toward women during the past year as well as dispositional masculine gender role stress. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention manipulation designed to focus attention onto inhibitory, self-awareness cues or a control group. Following beverage consumption, participants were provoked with a gender-relevant provocation from a female confederate and participants’ physical aggression was measured using a shock-based aggression task. Results Men who received the intervention manipulation, relative to control, enacted significantly less alcohol-related physical aggression toward the female confederate. This finding held for men who reported lower, but not higher, levels of masculine gender role stress. Conclusions Findings support the development of interventions that aim to redirect intoxicated men’s attention toward stimuli that is non-aggressive, non-provocative, and/or prohibitive of aggressive behavior. However, caution is warranted that en masse dissemination of such interventions may not impact the most at-risk men for alcohol-related violence toward women. PMID:27176660

  16. Alcohol-related biases in selective attention and action tendency make distinct contributions to dysregulated drinking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sharbanee, Jason M; Stritzke, Werner G K; Wiers, Reinout W; MacLeod, Colin

    2013-10-01

    To assess whether alcohol-related biases in selective-attention and action tendency uniquely or concurrently predict the ability to regulate alcohol consumption. Two groups of undergraduate social drinkers (total n = 55) who differed in their ability to regulate their alcohol consumption completed a novel Selective-Attention/Action-Tendency Task (SA/ATT), which assessed separately alcohol-related biases in selective attention and action tendency. University of Western Australia, Australia. Dysregulated drinking was operationalized as a self-reported high level of alcohol consumption on the Alcohol Consumption Questionnaire, and a high desire to reduce consumption on the Brief Readiness to Change Algorithm. Selective attention and action tendency were assessed using the SA/ATT, working memory was assessed using the operation-span task and participant characteristics were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES). Results indicated that (i) there was no significant association between alcohol-related biases in selective attention and action tendency, r = 0.16, P = 0.274, and (ii) biases towards alcohol, in both selective attention, β = 1.01, odds ratio = 2.74, P = 0.022, and action tendency, β = 1.24, odds ratio = 3.45, P = 0.015, predicted independent variance in dysregulated-drinker status. Biases in selective attention and action tendency appear to be distinct mechanisms that contribute independently to difficulty regulating alcohol consumption. Treatment components that could be combined to target both mechanisms could enhance treatment outcomes for alcohol-use disorders. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Effects of Specific Alcohol Control Policy Measures on Alcohol-Related Mortality in Russia from 1998 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Khaltourina, Daria; Korotayev, Andrey

    2015-09-01

    To elucidate the possible effects of alcohol control policy measures on alcohol-related mortality in Russia between 1998 and 2013. Trends in mortality, alcohol production and sales were analyzed in conjunction with alcohol control legislative measures. Correlation analysis of health and alcohol market indicators was performed. Ethyl alcohol production was the strongest correlate of alcohol-related mortality, which is probably due to the fact that ethyl alcohol is used for both recorded and unrecorded alcohol production. Measures producing greatest mortality reduction effect included provisions which reduced ethyl alcohol production (introduction of minimum authorized capital for ethyl alcohol and liquor producers in 2006 and the requirement for distillery dreg processing), as well as measures to tax and denaturize ethanol-containing liquids in 2006. Liquor tax decrease in real terms was associated with rising mortality in 1998-1999, while excise tax increase was associated with mortality reduction in 2004 and since 2012. Conventional alcohol control measures may also have played a moderately positive role. Countries with high alcohol-related mortality should aim for a reduction in spirits consumption as a major health policy. Alcohol market centralization and reduction of the number of producers can have immediate strong effects on mortality. These measures should be combined with an increase in alcohol taxes and prices, as well as other established alcohol policy measures. In 2015 in Russia, this is not being implemented. In Russia, legislation enforcement including excise tax collection remains the major challenge. Another challenge will be the integration into the Eurasian Economic Union. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  18. Binge drinking and alcohol-related problems among U.S.-born Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek; Takamatsu, Stephanie; Castellanos, Jeanett

    2012-07-01

    Binge drinking (five drinks or more in a 2-h sitting for men or four or more drinks in a 2-h sitting for women) and alcohol-related problems are a growing problem among Asian American young adults. The current study examines the sociocultural (i.e., generational status and ethnic identity) determinants of binge drinking and alcohol-related problems across U.S.-born, young-adult, Asian American ethnic groups. Data were collected from 1,575 Asian American undergraduates from a public university in Southern California. Chinese Americans consisted of the largest Asian ethnicity in the study, followed by Vietnamese, Filipino, Korean, South Asian, Japanese, Multi-Asian, and "other Asian American." Participants completed a web-based assessment of binge drinking, alcohol-related problems, ethnic identity, descriptive norms (i.e., perceived peer drinking norms), and demographic information. An analysis of variance was used to determine potential gender and ethnic differences in binge drinking and alcohol-related problems. Negative binomial regression was selected to examine the relationship between the predictors and outcomes in our model. There were no gender differences between Asian American men and women in regards to binge drinking; however, men reported more alcohol-related problems. Japanese Americans reported the highest number of binge-drinking episodes and alcohol-related problems, followed by Filipino and Multi-Asian Americans (e.g., Chinese and Korean). Living off-campus; higher scores in descriptive norms; Greek status; and belonging to the ethnic groups Japanese, Filipino, Multi-Asian, Korean, and South Asian increased the risk of engaging in binge drinking. Quantity of alcohol consumed, Greek status, gender, Filipino, South Asian, other Asian, and lower ethnic identity scores were related to alcohol-related problems. Using one of the largest samples collected to date on sociocultural determinants and drinking among U.S.-born Asian American young adults, the

  19. Preventing alcohol-related traffic injury: a health promotion approach.

    PubMed

    Howat, Peter; Sleet, David; Elder, Randy; Maycock, Bruce

    2004-09-01

    The conditions that give rise to drinking and driving are complex, with multiple and interrelated causes. Prevention efforts benefit from an approach that relies on the combination of multiple interventions. Health promotion provides a useful framework for conceptualizing and implementing actions to reduce drinking and driving since it involves a combination of educational, behavioral, environmental, and policy approaches. This review draws on data from a range of settings to characterize the effectiveness of various interventions embedded within the health promotion approach. Interventions considered part of the health promotion approach include: (1) economic interventions (2) organizational interventions, (3) policy interventions, and (4) health education interventions, including the use of media, school and community education, and public awareness programs. Effective health promotion strengthens the skills and capabilities of individuals to take action and the capacity of groups or communities to act collectively to exert control over the determinants of alcohol-impaired driving. There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of some components of health promotion, including economic and retailer interventions, alcohol taxation, reducing alcohol availability, legal and legislative strategies, and strategies addressing the servers of alcohol. There is also evidence for the effectiveness of sobriety checkpoints, lower BAC laws, minimum legal drinking age laws, and supportive media promotion programs. Other interventions with moderate evidence of effectiveness include restricting alcohol advertising and promotion, and actions involving counter advertising. Health education interventions alone that have insufficient evidence for effectiveness include passive server training programs, school drug and alcohol education programs, community mobilization efforts, and health warnings. Because each intervention builds on the strengths of every other one, ecological

  20. Alcohol-Related Sexual Assault Victimization Among Adolescents: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Correlates*

    PubMed Central

    YOUNG, AMY; GREY, MELISSA; ABBEY, ANTONIA; BOYD, CAROL J.; McCABE, SEAN ESTEBAN

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence and describe the characteristics of alcohol-related sexual assault among middle and high school students. Method A Web-based, self-administered survey was used to collect data on 7th- through 12th-grade students (n = 1,037) in a large metropolitan area in the Midwest. A modified version of the Sexual Experiences Survey was used to ask students about their sexual victimization experiences so as to examine the involvement of alcohol within specific assault events. The sample was equally distributed by biological gender and ethnicity (white vs black) and was, on average (SD), 14 (2) years of age. Results Findings from the study indicate that alcohol was involved in approximately 12%–20% of the assault cases, depending on age and gender of the respondent. For females, the presence of alcohol during assault differed significantly based on the location at which the assault occurred, ranging from 6% (at the survivor’s home) to 29% (at parties or someone else’s home). Furthermore, alcohol-related assault among females was more likely to involve physical force than non-alcohol-related assault. Conclusions Results are discussed in light of the risk factors of alcohol-related assault among adolescents as well as the nature of social contexts that fosters alcohol-related sexual assault among both adolescents and college students. PMID:18080063

  1. Discrimination and alcohol-related problems among college students: a prospective examination of mediating effects.

    PubMed

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim

    2011-06-01

    Discrimination is a risk factor for health-risk behaviors, including alcohol abuse. Far less is known about the mechanisms through which discrimination leads to alcohol-related problems, particularly during high-risk developmental periods such as young adulthood. The present study tested a mediation model using prospective data from a large, diverse sample of 1539 college students. This model hypothesized that discrimination would be associated with established cognitive (positive alcohol expectancies) and affective (negative affect and coping motives) risk factors for alcohol-related problems, which would account for the prospective association between discrimination and alcohol problems. Structural equation modeling indicated that discrimination was associated cross-sectionally with negative affect and more coping motives for drinking, but not with greater alcohol expectancies. Coping motives mediated the prospective relationship between discrimination and alcohol-related problems. Additionally, results indicated significant indirect effects from discrimination to alcohol-related problems through negative affect and coping motives. These associations were evident for multiple groups confronting status-based discrimination, including women, racial/ethnic minorities, and lesbian/gay/bisexual individuals. This study identified potential affective mechanisms linking discrimination to alcohol-related problems. Results suggest several avenues for prevention and intervention efforts with individuals from socially disadvantaged groups. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Alcohol Craving and Demand Mediate the Relation between Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Alcohol-Related Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Tripp, Jessica C.; Meshesha, Lidia Z.; Teeters, Jenni B.; Pickover, Alison; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Murphy, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms are associated with alcohol-related consequences, but there is a need to understand mediators that may help explain the reasons for this relationship. Individuals with PTS may experience elevated craving and alcohol reward value (demand), which may contribute to risk for alcohol-related consequences. Method We examined relationships between PTS status, craving, alcohol demand, and alcohol-related consequences in PTS-positive (n = 64) and PTS-negative (n = 200) college students (M age = 21.7; 77% women; 54% Caucasian; 34% African American) who endorsed past-month alcohol use. We tested craving and alcohol demand as mediators of the relation between PTS status and alcohol problems. Results Craving (B = .04, SE = .02, 95% CI = .01 – .10), demand intensity (B = .05, SE = .03, 95% CI = .0009 – .17), and demand elasticity (B = .05, SE = .03, 95% CI = .006 – .03) significantly mediated the association between PTS symptoms and alcohol problems. Craving remained a significant mediator in a multiple mediators model (B = .08, SE = .04, 95% CI = .03 – .19). Conclusions Craving and alcohol demand may partially explain the relation between PTS status and alcohol-related consequences. Craving may be especially salient for individuals with PTS symptoms, as it may lead to more severe alcohol-related consequences even in the absence of elevated alcohol consumption. PMID:26375513

  3. “Let’s get Wasted!” and Other Apps: Characteristics, Acceptability, and Use of Alcohol-Related Smartphone Applications

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Emma R; Horyniak, Danielle R; Jenkinson, Rebecca; Dietze, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Smartphone applications (“apps”) offer a number of possibilities for health promotion activities. However, young people may also be exposed to apps with incorrect or poor quality information, since, like the Internet, apps are mostly unregulated. Little is known about the quality of alcohol-related apps or what influence they may have on young people’s behavior. Objective To critically review popular alcohol-related smartphone apps and to explore young people’s opinions of these apps, their acceptability, and use for alcohol-related health promotion. Methods First, a content analysis of 500 smartphone apps available via Apple iTunes and Android Google Play stores was conducted. Second, all available blood alcohol concentration (BAC) apps were tested against four individual case profiles of known BAC from a previous study. Third, two focus group discussions explored how young people use alcohol-related apps, particularly BAC apps. Results 384 apps were included; 50% (192) were entertainment apps, 39% (148) were BAC apps, and 11% (44) were health promotion and/or stop drinking–related apps. When testing the BAC apps, there was wide variation in results, with apps tending to overestimate BAC scores compared with recorded scores. Participants were skeptical of the accuracy of BAC apps, and there was an overall concern that these apps would be used as a form of entertainment, further encouraging young people to drink, rather than reduce their drinking and risk taking. Conclusions The majority of popular alcohol-related apps encouraged alcohol consumption. Apps estimating blood alcohol concentration were widely available but were highly unreliable. Health departments and prominent health organizations need to endorse alcohol smartphone apps that are accurate and evidence-based to give specific apps credibility in the ever-expanding market of unregulated apps. PMID:25100681

  4. Identification of specific problems and countermeasures targets for reducing alcohol related casualties

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1975-12-01

    Police reports of accidents were analyzed in terms of accident characteristic and driver behaviors to determine the problems of drinking drivers. Analyses were conducted to profile the culpable drinkers and to compare them to culpable nondrinkers in ...

  5. Identification of specific problems and countermeasures targets for reducing alcohol related casualties

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1978-08-01

    Police reports of accidents were analyzed in terms of accident characteristics and driver behaviors to determine the problems of drinking drivers. Analyses were conducted to profile the culpable drinkers and to compare them to culpable nondrinkers in...

  6. A test of theory of planned behavior in Korea: participation in alcohol-related social gatherings.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Sun; Lee, Dong Wook

    2009-12-01

    Two studies are reported using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to predict and explain joining and not joining alcohol-related social gatherings among Korean undergraduates in various engineering majors. Specifically, considering that the attitudinal component of TPB is behavioral-outcome-based, the current study investigated whether the outcomes of engaging in a behavior and of not engaging in a behavior would similarly predict intentions to engage in a behavior and intentions to not engage in a behavior. The current study also examined whether intentions to engage and intentions to not engage would be significantly related to self-reported behavior a week later. Participants in Study 1 reported TPB components (attitudes toward behavior, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intentions) concerning joining alcohol-related social gatherings. Participants in Study 2 reported TPB components concerning not joining alcohol-related social gatherings. Additionally, a week later, the participants in both studies reported their participation in alcohol-related social gatherings from the past week. Generally, the results showed that the TPB components were significantly associated with undergraduates' intentions to join and intentions to not join. Specifically, conversation-related attitudes and senior-junior relationship-related attitudes were significantly related to intentions to join, and only group-related attitudes were significantly related to intentions to not join. Intentions to join and intentions to not join were not significantly related to self-reported behavior of joining alcohol-related social gatherings a week later. The findings from the current research provide some evidence that joining or not joining alcohol-related social gatherings may not be mere behavioral opposites, predictable by the presence or absence of the same behavioral outcomes. These two aspects of the behavior may require assessment of different behavioral

  7. Ethnic group variations in alcohol-related hospital admissions in England: does place matter?

    PubMed

    Barry, Eleanor; Laverty, Anthony A; Majeed, Azeem; Millett, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The health burden of alcohol use is socially and geographically patterned in many countries. Less is known about variations in this burden between ethnic groups and whether this differs across place of residence. National cross-sectional study using hospital admission data in England. Alcohol-related admission rates, where an alcohol-related condition was either the primary diagnosis (considered as the reason for admission) or a comorbidity, were calculated using ethnic group specific rates for English regions. In 2010/11 there were a total of 264,870 alcohol-related admissions in England. Admission rates were higher in the North of England than elsewhere (e.g. for primary diagnosis 161 per 100,000 population in the North vs. 62 per 100,000 in the South). These patterns were not uniform across ethnic groups however. For example, admission rates for alcohol-related comorbidity were four times higher among White Irish in London compared with those in the South of England (306 to 76 per 100,000) and four times higher in Indians living in the Midlands compared with those in the South of England (128 to 29 per 100,000). These patterns were similar for admissions with a comorbid alcohol-related condition. Geographical location may be an important determinant of within and between ethnic group variations in alcohol-related hospital admissions in England. While a number of factors were not examined here, this descriptive analysis suggests that this heterogeneity should be taken into account when planning interventions and services for the prevention and management of alcohol misuse.

  8. Predictive Effects of Good Self-Control and Poor Regulation on Alcohol-Related Outcomes: Do Protective Behavioral Strategies Mediate?

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Matthew R.; Kite, Benjamin A.; Henson, James M.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined whether use of protective behavioral strategies mediated the relationship between self-control constructs and alcohol-related outcomes. According to the two-mode model of self-control, good self-control (planfulness; measured with Future Time Perspective, Problem Solving, and Self-Reinforcement) and poor regulation (impulsivity; measured with Present Time Perspective, Poor Delay of Gratification, Distractibility) are theorized to be relatively independent constructs rather than opposite ends of a single continuum. The analytic sample consisted of 278 college student drinkers (68% women) who responded to a battery of surveys at a single time point. Using a structural equation model based on the two-mode model of self-control, we found that good self-control predicted increased use of three types of protective behavioral strategies (Manner of Drinking, Limiting/Stopping Drinking, and Serious Harm Reduction). Poor regulation was unrelated to use of protective behavioral strategies, but had direct effects on alcohol use and alcohol problems. Further, protective behavioral strategies mediated the relationship between good self-control and alcohol use. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22663345

  9. A comparison of contributing factors between alcohol related single vehicle motorcycle and car crashes.

    PubMed

    Maistros, Alexander; Schneider, William H; Savolainen, Peter T

    2014-06-01

    Alcohol related crashes have accounted for approximately 35% of fatal crashes per year since 1994 nationwide, with approximately 30% involving impairment over the legal blood alcohol content limit of 0.08%. Educational campaigns and law enforcement efforts are two components of multi-faceted programs aimed toward reducing impaired driving. It is crucial that further research be conducted to guide the implementation of enforcement and educational programs. This research attempts to provide such guidance by examining differences in alcohol-involved crashes involving motorcycles and passenger cars. Prior safety research has shown that motorcyclists follow a significantly different culture than the average passenger car operator. These cultural differences may be reflected by differences in the contributing factors affecting crashes and the severity of the resulting injuries sustained by the driver or motorcyclist. This research is focused on single-vehicle crashes only, in order to isolate modal effects from the contribution of additional vehicles. The crash data provided for this study are from the Ohio Department of Public Safety from 2009 through 2012. The injury severity data are analysed through the development of two mixed logit models, one for motorcyclists and one for passenger car drivers. The models quantify the effects of various factors, including horizontal curves, speeds, seatbelt use, and helmet use, which indicate that the required motor skills and balance needed for proper motorcycle operation compounded with a lack of mechanical protection make motorcyclists more prone to severe injuries, particularly on curves and in collisions with roadside objects. The findings of this study have been incorporated into combined motorcycle and sober driving educational safety campaigns. The results have shown to be favorable in supporting national campaign messages with local justification and backing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Harm, change, and time.

    PubMed

    Belshaw, Christopher

    2012-10-01

    What is harm? I offer an account that involves the victim's either suffering some adverse intrinsic change or being prevented from enjoying some beneficial intrinsic change. No one is harmed, I claim, in virtue of relational changes alone. Thus (excepting for contrived cases), there are neither posthumous harms nor, in life, harms of the undiscovered betrayal, slander, reputation-damaging variety. Further, two widespread moves in the philosophy of death are rejected. First, death and posthumous are not to be assimilated--death does bring about adverse internal change and harms us straightforwardly. Second, Pitcher-type accounts of posthumous harm are criticized--posthumous events can thwart the satisfaction of my interests, but I am not harmed either just when this occurs or, earlier, when I first acquire or invest in those interests. We have other ways of describing what is going on.

  11. Ecology of Harmful Algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelke, Daniel L.

    2007-07-01

    Edna Graneli and Jefferson T. Turner, Editors;Ecological Studies Series, Vol. 189; Springer; ISBN 3540322094; 413 pp.; 2006; $195 Harmful algal blooms (HABs) affect commercially and recreationally important species, human health, and ecosystem functioning. Hallmark events are the visually stunning blooms where waters are discolored and filled with ichthyotoxin-producing algae that lead to large fish kills. Of most concern, however, are HABs that pose a threat to human health. For example, some phycotoxins bioaccumulate in the guts and tissues of commercially and recreationally important species that when consumed by humans, may result in nausea, paralysis, memory loss, and even death. In addition to the deleterious impacts of phycotoxins, HABs can be problematic in other ways. For example, the decay of blooms often leads to low dissolved oxygen in subsurface waters. Blooms also reduce light penetration into the water column. Both processes disrupt ecosystems and in some cases have completely destroyed benthic communities.

  12. Indicators of alcohol consumption and attributable harm for monitoring and surveillance in European Union countries.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Jürgen; Scafato, Emanuele

    2011-03-01

    Alcohol is a major risk factor for burden of disease and injury in Europe, and contributes markedly to between region differences in life expectancy. Monitoring and surveillance systems have shown to be a key factor in implementing effective policies. The aim of this paper is to propose a system of indicators for alcohol consumption and attributable harm which can be used as an over-time monitoring tool at the country level as well as for comparisons between countries. A systematic research in electronic data bases was conducted but most of the information was derived from ongoing international efforts to establish alcohol monitoring and surveillance systems. European Union. Countries. Exposure to alcohol, mortality, burden of disease. Adult per capita alcohol consumption, prevalence of abstention, and frequency of drinking more than 60 g pure alcohol in one occasion are proposed as a minimal set of alcohol exposure indicators, which can quickly be implemented in all EU countries. With respect to health harm indicators, the best minimal choice which can be implemented quickly in all countries of the EU would be alcohol-attributable years of life lost due to premature death. In addition, country specific indicators could be added, when alcohol places specific burden on specific diseases. National and European Union-wide monitoring systems for alcohol exposure and attributable harm to inform public health-related policy decisions could be implemented easily. The establishement of such monitoring systems would follow the recent World Assembly resolution for a global strategy to reduce alcohol-related harm. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Harm reduction principles for healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    Hawk, Mary; Coulter, Robert W S; Egan, James E; Fisk, Stuart; Reuel Friedman, M; Tula, Monique; Kinsky, Suzanne

    2017-10-24

    Harm reduction refers to interventions aimed at reducing the negative effects of health behaviors without necessarily extinguishing the problematic health behaviors completely. The vast majority of the harm reduction literature focuses on the harms of drug use and on specific harm reduction strategies, such as syringe exchange, rather than on the harm reduction philosophy as a whole. Given that a harm reduction approach can address other risk behaviors that often occur alongside drug use and that harm reduction principles have been applied to harms such as sex work, eating disorders, and tobacco use, a natural evolution of the harm reduction philosophy is to extend it to other health risk behaviors and to a broader healthcare audience. Building on the extant literature, we used data from in-depth qualitative interviews with 23 patients and 17 staff members from an HIV clinic in the USA to describe harm reduction principles for use in healthcare settings. We defined six principles of harm reduction and generalized them for use in healthcare settings with patients beyond those who use illicit substances. The principles include humanism, pragmatism, individualism, autonomy, incrementalism, and accountability without termination. For each of these principles, we present a definition, a description of how healthcare providers can deliver interventions informed by the principle, and examples of how each principle may be applied in the healthcare setting. This paper is one of the firsts to provide a comprehensive set of principles for universal harm reduction as a conceptual approach for healthcare provision. Applying harm reduction principles in healthcare settings may improve clinical care outcomes given that the quality of the provider-patient relationship is known to impact health outcomes and treatment adherence. Harm reduction can be a universal precaution applied to all individuals regardless of their disclosure of negative health behaviors, given that health

  14. Positive and Negative Alcohol-Related Consequences: Associations with Past Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Christine M.; Maggs, Jennifer L.; Neighbors, Clayton; Patrick, Megan E.

    2011-01-01

    While recent attention suggests that positive and negative alcohol-related expectancies are important determinants of alcohol use, less is known about what types of consequences young people report actually experiencing when drinking alcohol. The present study (N = 742, 54% women) examined positive (Fun/Social, Relaxation/Coping, Positive Image)…

  15. Alcohol-related risk of driver fatalities: an update using 2007 data.

    PubMed

    Voas, Robert B; Torres, Pedro; Romano, Eduardo; Lacey, John H

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the relative risk of being involved in an alcohol-related crash has changed over the decade from 1996 to 2007, a period during which there has been little evidence of a reduction in the percentage of all fatal crashes involving alcohol. We compared blood-alcohol information for the 2006 and 2007 crash cases (N = 6,863, 22.8% of them women) drawn from the U.S. Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) with control blood-alcohol data from participants in the 2007 U.S. National Roadside Survey (N = 6,823). Risk estimates were computed and compared with those previously obtained from the 1996 FARS and roadside survey data. Although the adult relative risk of being involved in a fatal alcohol-related crash apparently did not change from 1996 to 2007, the risk for involvement in an alcohol-related crash for underage women has increased to the point where it has become the same as that for underage men. Further, the risk that sober underage men will become involved in a fatal crash has doubled over the 1996-2007 period. Compared with estimates obtained from a decade earlier, young women in this study are at an increased risk of involvement in alcohol-related crashes. Similarly, underage sober drivers in this study are more at risk of involvement in a crash than they were a decade earlier.

  16. Social and Environmental Predictors of Alcohol-Related Legal Infractions in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juth, Vanessa; Smyth, Joshua M.; Thompson, Kevin; Nodes, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Research on alcohol consumption among college students is often limited by self-reported outcomes and a narrow focus of predictor factors. This study examined both traditional risk factors for alcohol use as well as broader factors (e.g., weather, seasons) in predicting objective negative outcomes of alcohol use--alcohol-related legal infractions…

  17. Teaching Students with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Possible Prenatal Alcohol-Related Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Special Education Branch.

    This guide provides a review of the characteristics of children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or possible prenatal alcohol-related effects (PPAE) and describes specific intervention strategies. Section 1 offers a general review of the diagnostic procedures, the prevalence of FAS and the physical, educational, and behavioral characteristics of…

  18. Alcohol-Related Posts from Young People on Social Networking Sites: Content and Motivations.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Hanneke; Gebhardt, Winifred A; van den Putte, Bas

    2017-07-01

    Many young people place alcohol-related posts on social networking sites (SNS) which can result in undesirable effects. Although several recent studies have investigated the occurrence of alcohol-related SNS use, it is neither clear (a) what type of alcohol posts are placed on SNS, (b) the motivations to place alcohol posts, nor (c) which young people are most likely to place alcohol posts. This study addressed these three goals. A large cross-sectional study among young participants (12-30 years; N = 561) assessed the posting of different types of alcohol posts, the motivations to (not) post these posts, and potential differences in posting between subgroups (i.e., in terms of age, gender, and religion). Participants reported that they most often placed moderate, instead of more extreme, alcohol posts, in particular, when alcohol was present in the post "by chance". Furthermore, they indicated to post alcohol-related content mostly for entertainment reasons. Finally, we found differences in self-reported posting and motivations to post according to age, gender, and religion. These findings provide relevant implications for future interventions aiming to decrease alcohol posts, for example, by making participants aware of their posting behavior and by targeting specific at risk groups. Future research should explore the effectiveness of such intervention strategies and should investigate whether alcohol posts lead to an underestimation of alcohol-related risks.

  19. Different Pathways Explain Alcohol-Related Problems in Female and Male College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrelli, Paola; Collado, Anahi; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Brill, Charlotte; MacPherson, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Comprehensive models elucidating the intricate associations of depressive symptoms, coping motives, alcohol use, alcohol-related problems (ARPs), and gender among young adults have been scarcely examined. This study investigated relationships among these variables and the effect of gender on these pathways. Methods: College students (N…

  20. Perfectionism, Perceived Stress, Drinking to Cope, and Alcohol-Related Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Van Arsdale, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the association between perfectionism (categorized by adaptive perfectionistic, maladaptive perfectionistic, or nonperfectionistic groups), perceived stress, drinking alcohol to cope, and alcohol-related problems in a large sample of college students (N = 354). Maladaptive perfectionists reported significantly higher levels…

  1. Alcohol-Related Incident Guardianship and Undergraduate College Parties: Enhancing the Social Norms Marketing Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbertson, Troy A.

    2006-01-01

    This randomized experiment examines the effects of contextual information on undergraduate college student's levels of alcohol-related incident guardianship at college parties. The research is conceptualized using routine activities theory and the theory of planned behavior. The experiment examines attitudinal variations about heavy drinking…

  2. Alcohol-related problems and life satisfaction predict motivation to change among mandated college students.

    PubMed

    Diulio, Andrea R; Cero, Ian; Witte, Tracy K; Correia, Christopher J

    2014-04-01

    The present study investigated the role specific types of alcohol-related problems and life satisfaction play in predicting motivation to change alcohol use. Participants were 548 college students mandated to complete a brief intervention following an alcohol-related policy violation. Using hierarchical multiple regression, we tested for the presence of interaction and quadratic effects on baseline data collected prior to the intervention. A significant interaction indicated that the relationship between a respondent's personal consequences and his/her motivation to change differs depending upon the level of concurrent social consequences. Additionally quadratic effects for abuse/dependence symptoms and life satisfaction were found. The quadratic probes suggest that abuse/dependence symptoms and poor life satisfaction are both positively associated with motivation to change for a majority of the sample; however, the nature of these relationships changes for participants with more extreme scores. Results support the utility of using a multidimensional measure of alcohol related problems and assessing non-linear relationships when assessing predictors of motivation to change. The results also suggest that the best strategies for increasing motivation may vary depending on the types of alcohol-related problems and level of life satisfaction the student is experiencing and highlight potential directions for future research. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Alcohol-Related Vehicular Death Rates for College Students in the Commonwealth of Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, James; Bauerle, Jennifer; Keller, Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Determine rate of college student alcohol-related vehicular traffic fatalities in Virginia during 2007. Participants: Undergraduates at colleges and universities in Virginia. Methods: Institutions with membership in the American College Health Association were invited to participate in a survey. Data collected from institutional reports…

  4. The Effects of Sleep Problems and Depression on Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattenmaker McGann, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature provides an overview of the multiple relationships between alcohol use, protective behavioral strategies (PBS), alcohol-related negative consequences, depression, and sleep problems among college students, as well as differences by individual level characteristics, such as age, gender, and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this…

  5. Alcohol-Related Emergency Department Visits Associated with Collegiate Football Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shook, Janice; Hiestand, Brian C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In 2003, after several post-college football game riots, multiple strategies including strict enforcement of open container laws were instituted by the authors' city and university. The authors compared alcohol-related visits to the on-campus emergency department (ED) associated with home football games in 2002 and 2006, hypothesizing…

  6. Sexual orientation, treatment utilization, and barriers for alcohol related problems: Findings from a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Allen, Junior Lloyd; Mowbray, Orion

    2016-04-01

    Gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) individuals appear to have an increased likelihood of alcohol use disorders and treatment utilization for alcohol related problems compared to heterosexual individuals. Despite this increase, treatment utilization rates among GLB individuals remain low. In an effort to address this, our paper examined whether or not GLB individuals encounter unique barriers when pursuing treatment for alcohol related problems. Using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol Related Conditions (NESARC), we examined service sector specific factors, some of which included (a) utilization rates, (b) self-reported treatment barriers, and (c) whether or not there were emergent differences among GLB individuals, after controlling for socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. Findings indicated that GLB individuals reported higher severity rates for alcohol use disorders when compared to heterosexual individuals, and were significantly more likely to utilize treatment services for alcohol related problems, however, not across all treatment sectors. While similar patterns were observed when examining barriers to treatment, bisexual individuals reported significantly more barriers than heterosexual and gay/lesbian individuals. These findings underscored the importance of identifying and developing interventions that addresses treatment barriers associated with alcohol use service utilization among GLB populations, and creating improved outreach and education programs to better address stigmas associated with substance use and sexuality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An Examination of College Students' Receptiveness to Alcohol-Related Information and Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Matthew M.; Jouriles, Ernest N.; Walters, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    This project examined the reliability and validity of a newly developed measure of college students' receptiveness to alcohol related information and advice. Participants were 116 college students who reported having consumed alcohol at some point in their lifetime. Participants completed a measure of receptiveness to alcohol-related…

  8. Spatial relationships between alcohol-related road crashes and retail alcohol availability.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Christopher; Ponicki, William R; Gruenewald, Paul J; Wiebe, Douglas J; Smith, Karen

    2016-05-01

    This study examines spatial relationships between alcohol outlet density and the incidence of alcohol-related crashes. The few prior studies conducted in this area used relatively large spatial units; here we use highly resolved units from Melbourne, Australia (Statistical Area level 1 [SA1] units: mean land area=0.5 km(2); SD=2.2 km(2)), in order to assess different micro-scale spatial relationships for on- and off-premise outlets. Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson models were used to assess cross-sectional relationships of three-year counts of alcohol-related crashes (2010-2012) attended by Ambulance Victoria paramedics to densities of bars, restaurants, and off-premise outlets controlling for other land use, demographic and roadway characteristics. Alcohol-related crashes were not related to bar density within local SA1 units, but were positively related to bar density in adjacent SA1 units. Alcohol-related crashes were negatively related to off-premise outlet density in local SA1 units. Examined in one metropolitan area using small spatial units, bar density is related to greater crash risk in surrounding areas. Observed negative relationships for off-premise outlets may be because the origins and destinations of alcohol-affected journeys are in distal locations relative to outlets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel strategies to mine alcoholism-related haplotypes and genes by combining existing knowledge framework.

    PubMed

    Zhang, RuiJie; Li, Xia; Jiang, YongShuai; Liu, GuiYou; Li, ChuanXing; Zhang, Fan; Xiao, Yun; Gong, BinSheng

    2009-02-01

    High-throughout single nucleotide polymorphism detection technology and the existing knowledge provide strong support for mining the disease-related haplotypes and genes. In this study, first, we apply four kinds of haplotype identification methods (Confidence Intervals, Four Gamete Tests, Solid Spine of LD and fusing method of haplotype block) into high-throughout SNP genotype data to identify blocks, then use cluster analysis to verify the effectiveness of the four methods, and select the alcoholism-related SNP haplotypes through risk analysis. Second, we establish a mapping from haplotypes to alcoholism-related genes. Third, we inquire NCBI SNP and gene databases to locate the blocks and identify the candidate genes. In the end, we make gene function annotation by KEGG, Biocarta, and GO database. We find 159 haplotype blocks, which relate to the alcoholism most possibly on chromosome 1 approximately 22, including 227 haplotypes, of which 102 SNP haplotypes may increase the risk of alcoholism. We get 121 alcoholism-related genes and verify their reliability by the functional annotation of biology. In a word, we not only can handle the SNP data easily, but also can locate the disease-related genes precisely by combining our novel strategies of mining alcoholism-related haplotypes and genes with existing knowledge framework.

  10. Curiosity Killed the Cocktail? Curiosity, Sensation Seeking, and Alcohol-related Problems in College Women

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Kristen P.; Mullins, Peter M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Blayney, Jessica A.

    2010-01-01

    Curiosity, composed of two factors: exploration and absorption, has been previously associated with life satisfaction, life meaningfulness, and enhanced positive affect. It also shares some overlap with sensation seeking, which has been linked to alcohol use and other addictive behaviors. The present research explored the association between curiosity and college women’s problematic drinking in the context of sensation seeking. Participants (79 women) completed questionnaires measuring curiosity, sensation seeking, alcohol consumption, and consequences related to alcohol consumption. A zero-inflated negative binomial model indicated that curiosity and sensation seeking accounted for unique variance in alcohol-related problems after controlling for drinking. The curiosity factors had opposing relationships to alcohol-related problems: higher scores on absorption were associated with more alcohol related problems whereas higher scores on exploration were associated with fewer alcohol related problems. Should findings be replicated, the curiosity factors may represent additional prevention and intervention targets. Future directions for research about curiosity and drinking and for the inclusion of positive psychology constructs in addictive behaviors research are discussed. PMID:20080358

  11. The moderating role of implicit alcohol-related cognitions in hazardous alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, Lucia; Obasi, Ezemenari M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study applied the Go/No-Go Association Test (GNAT; Nosek & Banaji, 2001) to measure alcohol-related implicit cognitions. Additionally, it assessed the role of implicit cognitions as a potential moderator in the relationship between explicit predictors of alcohol use and hazardous drinking behavior. University undergraduate students (N = 214) completed self-report questionnaires assessing reasons for drinking and reported alcohol use. Participants also completed two GNATs assessing implicit-alcohol-related cognitions associated with attitude (good-bad) and perceived safety (safe-dangerous). As expected, participants held implicit appraisals of alcohol as ‘‘bad’’ and ‘‘dangerous’’ in the context of nonalcoholic drinks, and as ‘‘good’’ and ‘‘safe’’ in the context of licit and illicit drugs. Implicit alcohol-related cognitions moderated the relationship between drinking to cope with negative affect and hazardous drinking and drinking due to cues or craving and hazardous drinking. These findings highlight the multidimensional nature of implicit cognitions and the role of negative implicit alcohol-related associations in moderating relationships between explicit processes and subsequent alcohol use behaviors. PMID:26989352

  12. Alcohol Involvement in Suicide and Self-Harm.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Celine; Griffin, Eve; Corcoran, Paul; McAuliffe, Carmel; Perry, Ivan J; Arensman, Ella

    2017-11-01

    Alcohol misuse and alcohol consumption are significant risk factors for suicidal behavior. This study sought to identify factors associated with alcohol consumption in cases of suicide and nonfatal self-harm presentations. Suicide cases in Cork, Ireland, from September 2008 to June 2012 were identified through the Suicide Support and Information System. Emergency department presentations of self-harm in the years 2007-2013 were obtained from the National Self-Harm Registry Ireland. Alcohol consumption was detected in the toxicology of 44% out of 307 suicide cases. Only younger age was significantly associated with having consumed alcohol among suicides. Alcohol consumption was noted in the case notes in 21% out of 8,145 self-harm presentations. Logistic regression analyses indicated that variables associated with having consumed alcohol in a self-harm presentation included male gender, older age, overdose as a method, not being admitted to a psychiatric ward, and presenting out-of-hours. Data was limited to routinely collected variables by the two different monitoring systems. Alcohol consumption commonly precedes suicidal behavior, and several factors differentiated alcohol-related suicidal acts. Self-harm cases, in particular, differ in profile when alcohol is consumed and may require a tailored clinical approach to minimize risk of further nonfatal or fatal self-harm.

  13. Homicide in Chicago from 1890 to 1930: prohibition and its impact on alcohol- and non-alcohol-related homicides.

    PubMed

    Asbridge, Mark; Weerasinghe, Swarna

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the current paper is to examine the impact of the enactment of constitutional prohibition in the United States in 1920 on total homicides, alcohol-related homicides and non-alcohol-related homicides in Chicago. Data are drawn from the Chicago Historical Homicide Project, a data set chronicling 11 018 homicides in Chicago between 1870 and 1930. Interrupted time-series and autoregression integrated moving average (ARIMA) models are employed to examine the impact of prohibition on three separate population-adjusted homicide series. All models control for potential confounding from World War I demobilization and from trend data drawn from Wesley Skogan's Time-Series Data from Chicago. Total and non-alcohol-related homicide rates increased during prohibition by 21% and 11%, respectively, while alcohol-related homicides remained unchanged. For other covariates, alcohol-related homicides were related negatively to the size of the Chicago police force and positively to police expenditures and to the proportion of the Chicago population aged 21 years and younger. Non-alcohol-related homicides were related positively to police expenditures and negatively to the size of the Chicago police force. While total and non-alcohol-related homicides in the United States continued to rise during prohibition, a finding consistent with other studies, the rate of alcohol-related homicides remained unchanged. The divergent impact of prohibition on alcohol- and non-alcohol-related homicides is discussed in relation to previous studies of homicide in this era.

  14. Binge Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems among U.S-Born Asian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Derek; Takamatsu, Stephanie; Castellanos, Jeanett

    2012-01-01

    Binge drinking (five drinks or more in a 2-hour sitting for men, or four or more drinks in a 2-hour sitting for women) and alcohol-related problems are a growing problem among Asian American young adults. The current study examines the socio-cultural (i.e., generational status and ethnic identity) determinants of binge drinking and alcohol-related problems across U.S.-born, young adult, Asian American ethnic groups. Data were collected from 1,575 Asian American undergraduates from a public university in Southern California. Chinese Americans consisted of the largest Asian ethnicity in the study followed by Vietnamese, Filipino, Korean, South Asian, Japanese, Multi-Asian, and “other Asian American”. Participants completed a web-based assessment of binge drinking, alcohol-related problems, ethnic identity, descriptive norms (i.e., perceived peer drinking norms) and demographic information. An analysis of variance was used to determine potential gender and ethnic differences in binge drinking and alcohol-related problems. Negative binomial regression was selected to examine the relationship between the predictors and outcomes in our model. There were no gender differences between Asian American men and women in regards to binge drinking, however men reported more alcohol-related problems. Japanese Americans reported the highest number of binge drinking episodes and alcohol-related problems, followed by Filipino, and Multi-Asian Americans (e.g., Chinese and Korean). Living off-campus, higher scores in descriptive norms, Greek status, and belonging to the ethnic groups Japanese, Filipino, Multi-Asian, Korean, and South Asian increased the risk of engaging in binge drinking. Quantity of alcohol consumed, Greek status, gender, Filipino, South Asian “Other” Asian, and lower ethnic identity scores were related to alcohol-related problems. Using one of the largest samples collected to date on socio-cultural determinants and drinking among U.S.-born Asian American

  15. Cost-effectiveness analyses of self-harm strategies aimed at reducing the mortality of pesticide self-poisonings in Sri Lanka: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Lizell Bustamante; Eddleston, Michael; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Pearson, Melissa; Agampodi, Suneth; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Konradsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 803 900 people worldwide died as a result of self-harm in 2012. The deliberate ingestion of pesticides has been identified as the method most frequently used to commit fatal self-harm globally. In Sri Lanka, it is estimated that up to 60% of all suicides are committed using this method. The aim of the present study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of an ongoing safe storage intervention currently taking place in a rural Sri Lankan district and to model the cost-effectiveness of implementing the safe storage intervention as well as four potential interventions (legislative, medical management, follow-up contact and mobile phone contact) on a national level. Methods and analysis Study design for all the strategies is a cost-effectiveness analysis. A governmental perspective is adopted. The time horizon for tracking the associated costs and health outcomes of the safe storage intervention on district level runs over 3 years. The time horizon is extended to 5 years when modelling a full national roll-out of the respective interventions. The discounting of costs and health outcomes are undertaken at the recommended real rate of 3%. Threshold analyses of the modelled strategies are employed to assess the strategies potential for cost-effectiveness, running scenarios with health outcome improvements ranging from 1% to 100%. Sensitivity analyses are also performed. The main outcome measures of the safe storage intervention are incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was granted for the safe storage project from the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, in March of 2008. An amendment for the present study was granted from Rajarata University of Sri Lanka in November of 2013. Findings will be disseminated to public and private stakeholders in local and national government in Sri Lanka as well as the wider academic audience through peer-reviewed publications and international conferences. Trial

  16. Reducing the harm of stress: medications to rescue the prefrontal cortex and overcome bad habits: the science of stress: focus on the brain, breaking bad habits, and chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lu E

    2011-12-01

    Our brain is sensitive to stress. Both acute and chronic stress cause cognitive deficits and induce chronic disorders such as drug addiction. In a June 2011 conference at Yale entitled "The Science of Stress: Focus on the Brain, Breaking Bad Habits, and Chronic Disease," Drs. Amy Arnsten and Sherry Mckee discussed the roles of prefrontal cortex in the treatment of stress impairments and addiction. Medications to strengthen the prefrontal function, such as prazosin and guanfacine, may reduce the harm of stress and help overcome smoking and alcohol abuse.

  17. Commentary on 'interventions for promoting re-integration and reducing harmful behaviour and lifestyles in street-connected children and young people' with a response from the review authors.

    PubMed

    Christian, Rahila U

    2013-07-01

    This is a commentary on a Cochrane review, published in the issue of EBCH, first published as: Coren E, Hossain R, Pardo Pardo J, Veras MMS, Chakraborty K, Harris H, Martin AJ. Interventions for promoting re-integration and reducing harmful behaviour and lifestyles in street-connected children and young people. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD009823. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009823.pub2. Copyright © 2013 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Experiences and Attitudes of Collegiate Athletic Trainers Regarding Alcohol-Related Unintentional Injury in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, James W.; Metz, Stacie M.; Entriken, Jack; Brenner, Christina J.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Alcohol-related unintentional injury (ARUI) has been an unexamined consequence of alcohol consumption by collegiate athletes. It has a potentially devastating effect on their athletic performances and careers. Awareness of this problem in athletes could have a huge effect on what athletic trainers (ATs) do to recognize, treat, and prevent it in a collegiate athlete population. Objective: To examine the experiences and attitudes among collegiate and university ATs about ARUI in the athletes in their care. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Web-based survey. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 1767 e-mail addresses for collegiate and university ATs within National Athletic Trainers' Association Districts 1, 2, 3, and 9. Main Outcome Measure(s): We calculated frequencies, percentages, and attitudes of ATs regarding ARUI in collegiate athletes during the 2010–2011 academic year. Results: The resulting sample size for the analysis was 459 (26.0%) participants of the initial total sample. More than 56% (n = 260) of the ATs reported that they had evaluated, treated, or referred if needed at least 1 ARUI in a collegiate athlete. On average, these ATs had evaluated, treated, or referred if needed 3 alcohol-related unintentional injuries within the 2010–2011academic year. About 73% (n = 331) of ATs agreed that ARUI is a serious problem. Nearly 80% (n = 358) indicated they believe ATs should receive more training to identify student–athletes with alcohol-related problems. Conclusions: Alcohol-related unintentional injury is a common and serious consequence of alcohol use among collegiate athletes. Many ATs also view it as a serious problem yet would like more training in how to address it. Alcohol-related unintentional injury may have important negative effects on the careers and athletic performances of athletes. Researchers need to determine how prevalent ARUI is in the collegiate athlete population and what ATs can do to address it. PMID:24377956

  19. Differential trajectories of alcohol-related behaviors across the first year of college by parenting profiles

    PubMed Central

    Abar, Caitlin C.; Turrisi, Robert J.; Mallett, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which profiles of perceived parenting are associated with trajectories of alcohol-related behaviors across the first year of college. Method Participants were surveyed five times from the summer prior to college to the fall of the second year. A total 285 college students were enrolled from the incoming classes of consecutive cohorts of students at a large, public university in the Northeastern U.S. At baseline, participants provided information on their parents’ alcohol-related behaviors (e.g., parental modeling of use; perceived approval of underage use) and parenting characteristics (e.g., parental monitoring; parent-child relationship quality). Students also reported on their personal alcohol-related behaviors at each time point. Results Latent profile analysis was used to identify four subgroups based on the set of parenting characteristics: High Quality (14%) – highest parent-teen relationship quality; High Monitoring (31%) – highest parental monitoring and knowledge; Low Involvement (30%) – poor relationship quality, little monitoring and communication; and Pro-Alcohol (21%) – highest parental modeling and approval. Students were then assigned to profiles, and their alcohol-related behaviors were examined longitudinally using latent growth curve modeling. In general, students in the Pro-Alcohol profile displayed the highest baseline levels of typical weekend drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and peak BAC, in addition to showing steeper increases in typical weekend drinking across the first year of college. Discussion Results support the notion that parental behaviors remain relevant across the first year of college. Differential alcohol-related behaviors across parenting profiles highlight the potential for tailored college intervention. PMID:23915366

  20. The effects of minimum legal drinking age 21 laws on alcohol-related driving in the United States.

    PubMed

    McCartt, Anne T; Hellinga, Laurie A; Kirley, Bevan B

    2010-04-01

    To examine trends in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related crashes among people younger than 21 in the United States and to review evidence on the effects of minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws. Trends in alcohol-related crashes and alcohol consumption among young people were examined, and studies on the effects of lowering and raising the drinking age were reviewed. MLDA laws underwent many changes during the 20th century in the United States. Since July 1988, the MLDA has been 21 in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Surveys tracking alcohol consumption among high school students and young adults found that drinking declined since the late 1970 s, and most of the decline occurred by the early 1990 s. These were the years when states were establishing, or reinstating, a MLDA-21. Among fatally injured drivers ages 16-20, the percentage with positive BACs declined from 61% in 1982 to 31% in 1995, a bigger decline than for older age groups; declines occurred among the ages directly affected by raising MLDAs (ages 18-20) and among young teenagers not directly affected (ages 16-17). Almost all studies designed specifically to gauge the effects of drinking age changes show MLDAs of 21 reduce drinking, problematic drinking, drinking and driving, and alcohol-related crashes among young people. Yet many underage people still drink, many drink and drive, and alcohol remains an important risk factor in serious crashes of young drivers, especially as they progress through the teenage years. Stepped-up enforcement of MLDA and drinking and driving laws can reduce underage drinking. Recent efforts to lower MLDAs to 18 and issue licenses to drink upon completion of alcohol education have gained local and national media attention. There is no evidence that alcohol education can even partially replace the effect of MLDA-21. The cause and effect relationship between MLDAs of 21 and reductions in highway crashes is clear. Initiatives to lower the drinking age to 18

  1. Investigation of the Association Between Alcohol Outlet Density and Alcohol-Related Hospital Admission Rates in England: Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, John; Green, Mark; Strong, Mark; Pearson, Tim; Meier, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Background Availability of alcohol is a major policy issue for governments, and one of the availability factors is the density of alcohol outlets within geographic areas. Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the association between alcohol outlet density and hospital admissions for alcohol-related conditions in a national (English) small area level ecological study. Methods This project will employ ecological correlation and cross-sectional time series study designs to examine spatial and temporal relationships between alcohol outlet density and hospital admissions. Census units to be used in the analysis will include all Lower and Middle Super-Output Areas (LSOAs and MSOAs) in England (53 million total population; 32,482 LSOAs and 6781 MSOAs). LSOAs (approximately 1500 people per LSOA) will support investigation at a fine spatial resolution. Spatio-temporal associations will be investigated using MSOAs (approximately 7500 people per MSOA). The project will use comprehensive coverage data on alcohol outlets in England (from 2003, 2007, 2010, and 2013) from a commercial source, which has estimated that the database includes 98% of all alcohol outlets in England. Alcohol outlets may be classified into two broad groups: on-trade outlets, comprising outlets from which alcohol can be purchased and consumed on the premises (eg, pubs); and off-trade outlets, in which alcohol can be purchased but not consumed on the premises (eg, off-licenses). In the 2010 dataset, there are 132,989 on-trade and 51,975 off-trade outlets. The longitudinal data series will allow us to examine associations between changes in outlet density and changes in hospital admission rates. The project will use anonymized data on alcohol-related hospital admissions in England from 2003 to 2013 and investigate associations with acute (eg, admissions for injuries) and chronic (eg, admissions for alcoholic liver disease) harms. The investigation will include the examination of conditions that

  2. Harmful Use of Alcohol: A Shadow over Sub-Saharan Africa in Need of Workable Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Borges, Carina; Parry, Charles D.H.; Babor, Thomas F.

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable burden of disease in Africa are expected to rise in the near future, yet. increasing alcohol-related harm receives little attention from policymakers and from the population in general. Even where new legislation is proposed it is rarely enacted into law. Being at the center of social and cultural activities in many countries, alcohol’s negative role in society and contribution to countries’ burden of disease are rarely questioned. After the momentum created by the adoption in 2010 of the WHO Global Strategy and the WHO Regional Strategy (for Africa) to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol, and the WHO Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases, in 2013, little seems to have been done to address the increasing use of alcohol, its associated burden and the new challenges that derive from the growing influence of the alcohol industry in Africa. In this review, we argue that to have a positive impact on the health of African populations, action addressing specific features of alcohol policy in the continent is needed, namely focusing on particularities linked to alcohol availability, like unrecorded and illicit production, outlet licensing, the expansion of formal production, marketing initiatives and taxation policies. PMID:28346373

  3. Harmful Use of Alcohol: A Shadow over Sub-Saharan Africa in Need of Workable Solutions.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Borges, Carina; Parry, Charles D H; Babor, Thomas F

    2017-03-27

    Alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable burden of disease in Africa are expected to rise in the near future, yet. increasing alcohol-related harm receives little attention from policymakers and from the population in general. Even where new legislation is proposed it is rarely enacted into law. Being at the center of social and cultural activities in many countries, alcohol's negative role in society and contribution to countries' burden of disease are rarely questioned. After the momentum created by the adoption in 2010 of the WHO Global Strategy and the WHO Regional Strategy (for Africa) to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol, and the WHO Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases, in 2013, little seems to have been done to address the increasing use of alcohol, its associated burden and the new challenges that derive from the growing influence of the alcohol industry in Africa. In this review, we argue that to have a positive impact on the health of African populations, action addressing specific features of alcohol policy in the continent is needed, namely focusing on particularities linked to alcohol availability, like unrecorded and illicit production, outlet licensing, the expansion of formal production, marketing initiatives and taxation policies.

  4. Predicting and measuring premises-level harm in the night-time economy.

    PubMed

    Moore, Simon C; Brennan, Iain; Murphy, Simon

    2011-01-01

    To assess associations between measures of premises-level alcohol-related harm and risk factors for harm. Thirty-two licensed premises with a history of on-premises violent assault were recruited. An environmental survey of the drinking context of each premises was undertaken. Levels of patron intoxication were assessed using a breathalyser and a visual assessment of customers at each premises. Premise-level violence was identified via routine police and hospital emergency department data. Analyses examined associations between hospital and police data, surveyor and objective ratings of intoxication and the relationship between intoxication, drinking context and violence at the premises level. Hospital and police data were associated. Aggregate levels of surveyor-rated intoxication were associated with aggregate alcometer breath alcohol levels. Analyses further suggest that premises with the highest levels of violence also had customers whose entry-exit change in intoxication was greatest, were open for longer hours, had alcohol promotions and had visible security staff present. Police and hospital data can be used to identify violent premises and to assess outcomes from premises-level interventions to reduce violence. Relatively low-cost observational survey methods can be used to identify high-risk premises, and can be used as outcomes for premises-level interventions. Features of premises that promote intoxication are associated with violence, suggesting that targeting resources at risky premises will likely address two public health concerns: excessive intoxication and assault-related injury.

  5. [Self-harming behaviour].

    PubMed

    Kool, Nienke; Pollen, Wim; van Meijel, Berno

    2010-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of self-harm, a 28-year-old female patient and a 19-year-old female patient with self-harming behaviour are presented. The first patient refused treatment of cut wounds when the doctor enquired about the reason for self-harm. The second patient was referred for mental health care. These cases illustrate the complexity of this behaviour for the patient and the caregiver. Self-harm is often a symbol of underlying problems and serves multiple psychological functions. It is mostly used by patients to cope with unbearable emotions for which they have no other solution. The self-harm invokes different feelings in caregivers which tend to influence the attitude of the caregiver towards the patient. It is very important that caregivers are aware of their feelings and use them professionally. People who self-harm should not be judged, but treated respectfully and attention should be paid to their suffering.

  6. Pervasive, hard-wired and male: Qualitative study of how UK adolescents view alcohol-related aggression

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Lydia; Young, Bridget; Fereday, Richard; Coyne, Sarah M.; Qualter, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    Laboratory studies of alcohol-inexperienced adolescents show that aggression can be primed by alcohol-related stimuli, suggesting that alcohol-related aggression is partly socially learned. Script theory proposes that alcohol-related aggression ‘scripts’ for social behaviors are culturally-available and learned by individuals. The purpose of the study was to understand the content and origins of alcohol-related aggression scripts learned by adolescents. This qualitative focus group study of 40 adolescents (ages 14–16 years) examined alcohol-related aggression scripts. Participants believed aggression and severe injury to be pervasive when young people drink. Viewed through a biological lens, participants described aggression as an ‘instinctive’ and ‘hard-wired’ male trait facilitated by intoxication. As such, alcohol-related aggression was not seen as intended or personally controllable and participants did not see it in moral terms. Females were largely viewed as either bystanders of inter-male aggression or potential victims of male sexual aggression. Participants attributed their views on the frequency and nature of alcohol-related aggression to current affairs and reality television, which they felt portrayed a reality of which they had little experience. The origins of the explicitly biological frameworks that participants used seemed to lie in pre-existing beliefs about the nature of gender differences. Perceptions of the pervasiveness of male alcohol-related aggression, and the consequent failure to view alcohol-related aggression in moral terms, could dispose some young people to alcohol-related aggression. Interventions could target (1) the beliefs that alcohol-related aggression is pervasive and uncontrollable in males, and (2) participants’ dysfunctional views of masculinity that underpin those beliefs. PMID:29408910

  7. Pervasive, hard-wired and male: Qualitative study of how UK adolescents view alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lydia; Brown, Stephen L; Young, Bridget; Fereday, Richard; Coyne, Sarah M; Qualter, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    Laboratory studies of alcohol-inexperienced adolescents show that aggression can be primed by alcohol-related stimuli, suggesting that alcohol-related aggression is partly socially learned. Script theory proposes that alcohol-related aggression 'scripts' for social behaviors are culturally-available and learned by individuals. The purpose of the study was to understand the content and origins of alcohol-related aggression scripts learned by adolescents. This qualitative focus group study of 40 adolescents (ages 14-16 years) examined alcohol-related aggression scripts. Participants believed aggression and severe injury to be pervasive when young people drink. Viewed through a biological lens, participants described aggression as an 'instinctive' and 'hard-wired' male trait facilitated by intoxication. As such, alcohol-related aggression was not seen as intended or personally controllable and participants did not see it in moral terms. Females were largely viewed as either bystanders of inter-male aggression or potential victims of male sexual aggression. Participants attributed their views on the frequency and nature of alcohol-related aggression to current affairs and reality television, which they felt portrayed a reality of which they had little experience. The origins of the explicitly biological frameworks that participants used seemed to lie in pre-existing beliefs about the nature of gender differences. Perceptions of the pervasiveness of male alcohol-related aggression, and the consequent failure to view alcohol-related aggression in moral terms, could dispose some young people to alcohol-related aggression. Interventions could target (1) the beliefs that alcohol-related aggression is pervasive and uncontrollable in males, and (2) participants' dysfunctional views of masculinity that underpin those beliefs.

  8. Alcohol-related problems and intimate partner violence among white, black, and Hispanic couples in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Cunradi, C B; Caetano, R; Clark, C L; Schafer, J

    1999-09-01

    This study analyzes gender and ethnic/racial differences in the prevalence of alcohol-related problems among white, black and Hispanic couples in the United States, and assesses their contribution to the risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). Our study population consisted of 1440 white, black, and Hispanic couples obtained through a multistage area household probability sample from the 1995 National Alcohol Survey. Alcohol-related problems (i.e., drinking consequences and alcohol dependence symptoms in the last 12 months) were assessed among respondents and their partners. Male-to-female and female-to-male partner violence (MFPV, FMPV) were measured separately using the Conflict Tactics Scale. Alcohol-related problems were more prevalent among men than women. Our bivariate analysis demonstrated a significant positive association between male alcohol-related problems and IPV across racial/ethnic groups, and a similar association between female alcohol-related problems and IPV for white and black couples. In the multivariate logistic regression analyses, however, many of these associations were attenuated. After controlling for sociodemographic and psychosocial covariates, male alcohol-related problems were no longer significantly associated with an increased risk of MFPV among white or Hispanic couples. Female alcohol-related problems predicted FMPV, but not MFPV, among white couples. Among black couples, however, male and female alcohol-related problems remained strong predictors of intimate partner violence. Alcohol-related problems are important predictors of intimate partner violence, and the exact association between problems and violence seems to be ethnic-specific. Alcohol-related problems, rather than level of alcohol consumption, may be the more relevant factor to consider in the alcohol-partner violence association. Future research is needed to explore the temporal relationships between the development of alcohol-related problems and the occurrence of

  9. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Alcohol-related Problems: Differences by Gender and Level of Heavy Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Witbrodt, Jane; Mulia, Nina; Zemore, Sarah E.; Kerr, William C.

    2014-01-01

    reducing heavy drinking might not address disparities in alcohol-related problems that exist at low levels of heavy drinking. Future research should consider the potential role of environmental and genetic factors in these disparities. PMID:24730475

  10. Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems Before and After Military Combat Deployment

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Isabel G.; Ryan, Margaret A. K.; Hooper, Tomoko I.; Smith, Tyler C.; Amoroso, Paul J.; Boyko, Edward J.; Gackstetter, Gary D.; Wells, Timothy S.; Bell, Nicole S.

    2009-01-01

    Context High rates of alcohol misuse after deployment have been reported among personnel returning from past conflicts, yet investigations of alcohol misuse after return from the current wars in Iraq and Afghanistan are lacking. Objectives To determine whether deployment with combat exposures was associated with new-onset or continued alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and alcohol-related problems. Design, Setting, and Participants Data were from Millennium Cohort Study participants who completed both a baseline (July 2001 to June 2003; n=77 047) and follow-up (June 2004 to February 2006; n=55 021) questionnaire (follow-up response rate=71.4%). After we applied exclusion criteria, our analyses included 48 481 participants (active duty, n=26 613; Reserve or National Guard, n=21 868). Of these, 5510 deployed with combat exposures, 5661 deployed without combat exposures, and 37 310 did not deploy. Main Outcome Measures New-onset and continued heavy weekly drinking, binge drinking, and alcohol-related problems at follow-up. Results Baseline prevalence of heavy weekly drinking, binge drinking, and alcohol-related problems among Reserve or National Guard personnel who deployed with combat exposures was 9.0%, 53.6%, and 15.2%, respectively; follow-up prevalence was 12.5%, 53.0%, and 11.9%, respectively; and new-onset rates were 8.8%, 25.6%, and 7.1%, respectively. Among active-duty personnel, new-onset rates were 6.0%, 26.6%, and 4.8%, respectively. Reserve and National Guard personnel who deployed and reported combat exposures were significantly more likely to experience new-onset heavy weekly drinking (odds ratio [OR], 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36–1.96), binge drinking (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.24–1.71), and alcohol-related problems (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.33–2.01) compared with nondeployed personnel. The youngest members of the cohort were at highest risk for all alcohol-related outcomes. Conclusion Reserve and National Guard personnel and younger service

  11. Quantifying alcohol-related emergency admissions in a UK tertiary referral hospital: a cross-sectional study of chronic alcohol dependency and acute alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Vardy, J; Keliher, T; Fisher, J; Ritchie, F; Bell, C; Chekroud, M; Clarey, F; Blackwood, L; Barry, L; Paton, E; Clark, A; Connelly, R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol is responsible for a proportion of emergency admissions to hospital, with acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependency (CAD) implicated. This study aims to quantify the proportion of hospital admissions through our emergency department (ED) which were thought by the admitting doctor to be (largely or partially) a result of alcohol consumption. Setting ED of a UK tertiary referral hospital. Participants All ED admissions occurring over 14 weeks from 1 September to 8 December 2012. Data obtained for 5497 of 5746 admissions (95.67%). Primary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions related to alcohol as defined by the admitting ED clinician. Secondary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions due to alcohol diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication or CAD according to ICD-10 criteria. Results 1152 (21.0%, 95% CI 19.9% to 22.0%) of emergency admissions were thought to be due to alcohol. 74.6% of patients admitted due to alcohol had CAD, and significantly greater than the 26.4% with ‘Severe’ or ‘Very Severe’ acute alcohol intoxication (p<0.001). Admissions due to alcohol differed to admissions not due to alcohol being on average younger (45 vs 56 years, p<0.001) more often male (73.4% vs 45.1% males, p<0.001) and more likely to have a diagnosis synonymous with alcohol or related to recreational drug use, pancreatitis, deliberate self-harm, head injury, gastritis, suicidal ideation, upper gastrointestinal bleeds or seizures (p<0.001). An increase in admissions due to alcohol on Saturdays reflects a surge in admissions with acute alcohol intoxication above the weekly average (p=0.003). Conclusions Alcohol was thought to be implicated in 21% of emergency admissions in this cohort. CAD is responsible for a significantly greater proportion of admissions due to alcohol than acute intoxication. Interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related admissions must incorporate measures to tackle CAD. PMID:27324707

  12. Quantifying alcohol-related emergency admissions in a UK tertiary referral hospital: a cross-sectional study of chronic alcohol dependency and acute alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Vardy, J; Keliher, T; Fisher, J; Ritchie, F; Bell, C; Chekroud, M; Clarey, F; Blackwood, L; Barry, L; Paton, E; Clark, A; Connelly, R

    2016-06-20

    Alcohol is responsible for a proportion of emergency admissions to hospital, with acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependency (CAD) implicated. This study aims to quantify the proportion of hospital admissions through our emergency department (ED) which were thought by the admitting doctor to be (largely or partially) a result of alcohol consumption. ED of a UK tertiary referral hospital. All ED admissions occurring over 14 weeks from 1 September to 8 December 2012. Data obtained for 5497 of 5746 admissions (95.67%). Proportion of emergency admissions related to alcohol as defined by the admitting ED clinician. Proportion of emergency admissions due to alcohol diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication or CAD according to ICD-10 criteria. 1152 (21.0%, 95% CI 19.9% to 22.0%) of emergency admissions were thought to be due to alcohol. 74.6% of patients admitted due to alcohol had CAD, and significantly greater than the 26.4% with 'Severe' or 'Very Severe' acute alcohol intoxication (p<0.001). Admissions due to alcohol differed to admissions not due to alcohol being on average younger (45 vs 56 years, p<0.001) more often male (73.4% vs 45.1% males, p<0.001) and more likely to have a diagnosis synonymous with alcohol or related to recreational drug use, pancreatitis, deliberate self-harm, head injury, gastritis, suicidal ideation, upper gastrointestinal bleeds or seizures (p<0.001). An increase in admissions due to alcohol on Saturdays reflects a surge in admissions with acute alcohol intoxication above the weekly average (p=0.003). Alcohol was thought to be implicated in 21% of emergency admissions in this cohort. CAD is responsible for a significantly greater proportion of admissions due to alcohol than acute intoxication. Interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related admissions must incorporate measures to tackle CAD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Alcohol-Related Problems and Risk of Suicide among College Students: The Mediating Roles of Belongingness and Burdensomeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship among alcohol-related problems, perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and suicide proneness in undergraduate college students (N = 996) was examined. As hypothesized, alcohol-related problems, perceived burdensomeness, and thwarted belongingness were all significantly and positively correlated with suicide proneness.…

  14. Alcohol-Related Problems in High-Risk Groups. EURO Reports and Studies 109. Report on a WHO Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Martin, Ed.

    Alcohol consumption has risen dramatically in many countries since the Second World War. Accompanying this rise has been a rise in alcohol-related problems, including liver cirrhosis mortality, alcohol dependence, and alcohol-related crimes and accidents. Alcohol misuse presents huge health, social, and legal problems throughout most of Europe and…

  15. Anxiety sensitivity, coping motives, emotion dysregulation, and alcohol-related outcomes in college women: a moderated-mediation model.

    PubMed

    Chandley, Rachel B; Luebbe, Aaron M; Messman-Moore, Terri L; Ward, Rose Marie

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the relation of anxiety sensitivity to alcohol-related outcomes via coping drinking motives in college women. Further, the impact of emotion dysregulation on the mediational path between anxiety sensitivity and alcohol-related outcomes was investigated. A sample of 223 female undergraduate drinkers from a midwestern university completed self-report surveys assessing alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, anxiety sensitivity, coping drinking motives, and emotion dysregulation. Anxiety sensitivity was indirectly related to both alcohol-related problems and alcohol use via coping motives. The indirect effect of anxiety sensitivity on alcohol-related problems (but not alcohol use) was qualified by the level of emotion dysregulation. As individuals reported more emotion dysregulation, the strength of the relation between coping drinking motives and alcohol-related problems increased. Results replicate and extend the link between anxiety sensitivity and alcohol outcomes via the mechanism of negative reinforcement, and they further support the importance of emotion dysregulation in explaining alcohol-related problems among college women. Implications for treatment and prevention of alcohol-related problems in college women are discussed.

  16. Measuring and preventing alcohol use and related harm among young people in Asian countries: a thematic review.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Heng; Xiang, Xiaojun; Hao, Wei; Room, Robin; Zhang, Xiaojie; Wang, Xuyi

    2018-01-01

    The paper reviews alcohol consumption patterns and alcohol-related social and health issues among 15-29-year old young people in Asian countries, and discusses strategies for preventing and controlling alcohol use and related harms. We searched Google Scholar, PubMed, and Web of Science for reports, reviews and journal articles published in English between 1st Jan 1990 and 31st August 2016. Forty-one reports, reviews and journal papers were identified and included in the final review. The current drinking levels and prevalence among young people are markedly different between eight included Asian countries, ranging from 4.2% in Malaysia to 49.3% in China. In a majority of the selected Asian countries, over 15% of total deaths among young men and 6% among young women aged 15-29 years are attributable to alcohol use. Alcohol use among young people is associated with a number of harms, including stress, family violence, injuries, suicide, and sexual and other risky behaviours. Alcohol policies, such as controlling sales, social supply and marketing, setting up/raising a legal drinking age, adding health warning labels on alcohol containers, and developing a surveillance system to monitor drinking pattern and risky drinking behaviour, could be potential means to reduce harmful use of alcohol and related harm among young people in Asia. The review reveals that drinking patterns and behaviours vary across eight selected Asian countries due to culture, policies and regional variations. The research evidence holds substantial policy implications for harm reduction on alcohol drinking among young people in Asian countries -- especially for China, which has almost no alcohol control policies at present.

  17. Self-harm.

    PubMed

    Skegg, Keren

    The term self-harm is commonly used to describe a wide range of behaviours and intentions including attempted hanging, impulsive self-poisoning, and superficial cutting in response to intolerable tension. As with suicide, rates of self-harm vary greatly between countries. 5-9% of adolescents in western countries report having self-harmed within the previous year. Risk factors include socioeconomic disadvantage, and psychiatric illness--particularly depression, substance abuse, and anxiety disorders. Cultural aspects of some societies may protect against suicide and self-harm and explain some of the international variation in rates of these events. Risk of repetition of self-harm and of later suicide is high. More than 5% of people who have been seen at a hospital after self-harm will have committed suicide within 9 years. Assessment after self-harm includes careful consideration of the patient's intent and beliefs about the lethality of the method used. Strong suicidal intent, high lethality, precautions against being discovered, and psychiatric illness are indicators of high suicide risk. Management after self-harm includes forming a trusting relationship with the patient, jointly identifying problems, ensuring support is available in a crisis, and treating psychiatric illness vigorously. Family and friends may also provide support. Large-scale studies of treatments for specific subgroups of people who self-harm might help to identify more effective treatments than are currently available. Although risk factors for self-harm are well established, aspects that protect people from engaging in self-harm need to be further explored.

  18. A UK student survey investigating the effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2016-12-01

    Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot sufficiently control for differences in personal characteristics between these groups. In order to determine whether AMED consumers drink more alcohol on occasions they consume AMED compared to those when they drink AO additional within-subjects comparisons are required. Therefore, this UK student survey assessed both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks, using a within-subject design. A total of 1873 students completed the survey, including 732 who consumed AMED. It was found that AMED consumers drank significantly less alcohol when they consumed AMED compared to when they drank AO (p < 0.001). In line with reduced alcohol consumption significantly fewer negative alcohol-related consequences were reported on AMED occasions compared to AO occasions (p < 0.001). These findings suggest that mixing alcohol with energy drinks does not increase total alcohol consumption or alcohol-related negative consequences.

  19. Self-Harm

    MedlinePlus

    ... value. Skipping classes to change bandages or avoiding social occasions to prevent people from seeing your scars is a sign that your habit is negatively affecting work and relationships. Why People Self-harm Self-harm is not a mental illness, but ...

  20. Effects of alcohol taxes on alcohol-related mortality in Florida: Time-series analyses from 1969–2004

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Over a hundred studies have established the effects of beverage alcohol taxes and prices on sales and drinking behaviors. Yet, relatively few studies have examined effects of alcohol taxes on alcohol-related mortality. We evaluated effects of multiple changes in alcohol tax rates in the State of Florida from 1969–2004 on disease (not injury) mortality. Methods A time-series quasi-experimental research design was used, including non-alcohol deaths within Florida and other states’ rates of alcohol-related mortality for comparison. A total of 432 monthly observations of mortality in Florida were examined over the 36-year period. Analyses included ARIMA, fixed-effects, and random effects models, including a noise model, tax independent variables, and structural covariates. Results We found significant reductions in mortality related to chronic heavy alcohol consumption following legislatively induced increases in alcohol taxes in Florida. The frequency of deaths (t=−2.73, p=.007) and the rate per population (t=−2.06, p=.04) declined significantly. The elasticity effect estimate is −0.22 (t=−1.88, p=.06), indicating a 10% increase in tax is associated with a 2.2% decline in deaths. Conclusions Increased alcohol taxes are associated with significant and sizable reductions in alcohol-attributable mortality in Florida. Results indicate that 600–800 lives per year could be saved if real tax rates were returned to 1983 levels (when the last tax increase occurred). Findings highlight the role of tax policy as an effective means for reducing deaths associated with chronic heavy alcohol use. PMID:20659073

  1. Effects of alcohol taxes on alcohol-related mortality in Florida: time-series analyses from 1969 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2010-11-01

    Over a hundred studies have established the effects of beverage alcohol taxes and prices on sales and drinking behaviors. Yet, relatively few studies have examined effects of alcohol taxes on alcohol-related mortality. We evaluated effects of multiple changes in alcohol tax rates in the state of Florida from 1969 to 2004 on disease (not injury) mortality. A time-series quasi-experimental research design was used, including non-alcohol deaths within Florida and other states' rates of alcohol-related mortality for comparison. A total of 432 monthly observations of mortality in Florida were examined over the 36-year period. Analyses included ARIMA, fixed-effects, and random-effects models, including a noise model, tax independent variables, and structural covariates. We found significant reductions in mortality related to chronic heavy alcohol consumption following legislatively induced increases in alcohol taxes in Florida. The frequency of deaths (t = -2.73, p = 0.007) and the rate per population (t = -2.06, p = 0.04) declined significantly. The elasticity effect estimate is -0.22 (t = -1.88, p = 0.06), indicating a 10% increase in tax is associated with a 2.2% decline in deaths. Increased alcohol taxes are associated with significant and sizable reductions in alcohol-attributable mortality in Florida. Results indicate that 600 to 800 lives per year could be saved if real tax rates were returned to 1983 levels (when the last tax increase occurred). Findings highlight the role of tax policy as an effective means for reducing deaths associated with chronic heavy alcohol use. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. Perceptions of Australasian emergency department staff of the impact of alcohol-related presentations.

    PubMed

    Egerton-Warburton, Diana; Gosbell, Andrew; Wadsworth, Angela; Moore, Katie; Richardson, Drew B; Fatovich, Daniel M

    2016-03-07

    To survey emergency department (ED) clinical staff about their perceptions of alcohol-related presentations. A mixed methods online survey of ED clinicians in Australia and New Zealand, conducted from 30 May to 7 July 2014. The frequency of aggression from alcohol-affected patients or their carers experienced by ED staff; the perceived impact of alcohol-related presentations on ED function, waiting times, other patients and staff. In total, 2002 ED clinical staff completed the survey, including 904 ED nurses (45.2%) and 1016 ED doctors (50.7%). Alcohol-related verbal aggression from patients had been experienced in the past 12 months by 97.9% of respondents, and physical aggression by 92.2%. ED nurses were the group most likely to have felt unsafe because of the behaviour of these patients (92% reported such feelings). Alcohol-related presentations were perceived to negatively or very negatively affect waiting times (noted by 85.5% of respondents), other patients in the waiting room (94.4%), and the care of other patients (88.3%). Alcohol-affected patients were perceived to have a negative or very negative impact on staff workload (94.2%), wellbeing (74.1%) and job satisfaction (80.9%). Verbal and physical aggression by alcohol-affected patients is commonly experienced by ED clinical staff. This has a negative impact on the care of other patients, as well as on staff wellbeing. Managers of health services must ensure a safe environment for staff and patients. More importantly, a comprehensive public health approach to changing the prevailing culture that tolerates alcohol-induced unacceptable behaviour is required.

  3. Alcohol-related deaths contribute to socioeconomic differentials in mortality in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hemström, Orjan

    2002-12-01

    This study aims at estimating the contribution of alcohol to socioeconomic mortality differentials in Sweden. Data were obtained from a Census-linked Deaths Registry. Participants in the 1980 and 1990 censuses were included with a follow-up of mortality 1990-1995. Socioeconomic status was assigned from occupation in 1990 or 1980. Alcohol-related deaths were defined from underlying or contributory causes. Poison regressions were applied to compute age-adjusted mortality rate ratios for all-causes, alcohol-related and other causes among 30-79-year-olds. The contribution of alcohol to mortality differentials was calculated from absolute differences. Around 5% (9,547) of all deaths were alcohol-related (30-79 years). For both sexes, manual workers, lower nonmanuals, entrepreneurs and unclassifiable groups had significantly higher alcohol-related mortality than did upper nonmanuals. Male farmers had significantly lower such mortality. The contribution of alcohol to excess mortality over that of upper nonmanuals was greatest among middle-aged (40-59 years) men who were manual workers or who belonged to a group of 'unclassifiable & others' (25-35%). It was of considerable size also for middle-aged lower nonmanuals (both sexes), male entrepreneurs, female manual workers and 'unclassifiable & others'. Among men, the total contribution of alcohol (30-79 years) was estimated at 16% for manual workers, 10% for lower nonmanuals and 7% for entrepreneurs; and among women, 6% (manual workers, lower nonmanuals) and 3% (entrepreneurs). Although deaths related to alcohol were probably underreported (e.g. accidents), alcohol clearly contributes to socioeconomic mortality differentials in Sweden. The size of this contribution depends strongly on age (peak among the middle-aged) and gender (greatest among men).

  4. Prevalence of alcohol-related pathologies at autopsy: Estonian Forensic Study of Alcohol and Premature Death

    PubMed Central

    Tuusov, Jana; Lang, Katrin; Väli, Marika; Pärna, Kersti; Tõnisson, Mailis; Ringmets, Inge; McKee, Martin; Helander, Anders; Leon, David A

    2014-01-01

    Aims Alcohol can induce diverse serious pathologies, yet this complexity may be obscured when alcohol-related deaths are classified according to a single underlying cause. We sought to quantify this issue and its implications for analysing mortality data. Design, Setting and Participants Cross-sectional study included 554 men aged 25–54 in Estonia undergoing forensic autopsy in 2008–09. Measurements Potentially alcohol-related pathologies were identified following macroscopic and histological examination. Alcohol biomarkers levels were determined. For a subset (26%), drinking behaviour was provided by next-of-kin. The Estonian Statistics Office provided underlying cause of death. Findings Most deaths (75%) showed evidence of potentially alcohol-related pathologies, and 32% had pathologies in two or more organs. The liver was most commonly affected [60.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 56.3–64.6] followed by the lungs (18.6%, 95% CI = 15.4–22.1), stomach (17.5%, 95% CI = 14.4–20.9), pancreas (14.1%, 95% CI = 11.3–17.3), heart (4.9%, 95% CI = 3.2–7.0) and oesophagus (1.4%, 95% CI = 0.6–2.8). Only a minority with liver pathology had a second pathology. The number of pathologies correlated with alcohol biomarkers (phosphatidylethanol, gamma-glytamyl transpeptidase in blood, ethylglucuronide, ethylsulphate in urine). Despite the high prevalence of liver pathology, few deaths had alcoholic liver disease specified as the underlying cause. Conclusion The majority of 554 men aged 25–54 undergoing forensic autopsy in Estonia in 2008–09 showed evidence of alcohol-related pathology. However, the recording of deaths by underlying cause failed to capture the scale and nature of alcohol-induced pathologies found. PMID:25066373

  5. Drinking, driving, and crashing: a traffic-flow model of alcohol-related motor vehicle accidents.

    PubMed

    Gruenewald, Paul J; Johnson, Fred W

    2010-03-01

    This study examined the influence of on-premise alcohol-outlet densities and of drinking-driver densities on rates of alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes. A traffic-flow model is developed to represent geographic relationships between residential locations of drinking drivers, alcohol outlets, and alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes. Cross-sectional and time-series cross-sectional spatial analyses were performed using data collected from 144 geographic units over 4 years. Data were obtained from archival and survey sources in six communities. Archival data were obtained within community areas and measured activities of either the resident population or persons visiting these communities. These data included local and highway traffic flow, locations of alcohol outlets, population density, network density of the local roadway system, and single-vehicle nighttime (SVN) crashes. Telephone-survey data obtained from residents of the communities were used to estimate the size of the resident drinking and driving population. Cross-sectional analyses showed that effects relating on-premise densities to alcohol-related crashes were moderated by highway trafficflow. Depending on levels of highway traffic flow, 10% greater densities were related to 0% to 150% greater rates of SVN crashes. Time-series cross-sectional analyses showed that changes in the population pool of drinking drivers and on-premise densities interacted to increase SVN crash rates. A simple traffic-flow model can assess the effects of on-premise alcohol-outlet densities and of drinking-driver densities as they vary across communities to produce alcohol-related crashes. Analyses based on these models can usefully guide policy decisions on the sitting of on-premise alcohol outlets.

  6. Prevalence of alcohol-related problems among the Slavs and Arabs in Belarus: a university survey.

    PubMed

    Welcome, Menizibeya O; Razvodovsky, Yury E; Pereverzev, Vladimir A

    2011-05-01

    Alcohol abuse is a major problem among students in Belarus. Alcohol-related problems might vary among students of different cultural backgrounds. To examine the different patterns in alcohol use and related problems among students of different cultural groups--the Slavs and Arabs, in major Belarusian universities. 1465 university students (1345 Slavs and 120 Arabs) from three major universities in Minsk, Belarus, were administered the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Cut, Annoyed, Guilty and Eye questionnaire, and the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, including other alcohol-related questions. Overall, 91.08% (n = 1225) Slavs and 60.83% (n = 73) Arabs were alcohol users. A total of 16.28% (n = 219) Slavs and 32.50% (n = 39) Arabs were identified as problem drinkers. Different patterns of alcohol use and related problems were characterized for the Slavs and Arabs. The level of alcohol-related problems was higher among the Arabs, compared to the Slavs. Significant differences in the pattern of alcohol use and related problems exist among the students of various cultural groups--the Slavs and Arabs in Minsk, Belarus. This is the first empirical study to investigate the prevalence of alcohol use and related problems among the Arab and Slav students in Belarus.

  7. Sexual identity and alcohol-related outcomes: contributions of workplace harassment.

    PubMed

    Nawyn, S J; Richman, J A; Rospenda, K M; Hughes, T L

    2000-01-01

    While workplace sexual harassment has received a great deal of attention in both the popular media and scientific literature, less attention has been directed to the differential occurrence of sexual harassment among lesbians, gay men, and heterosexual men and women, and the relationships between these experiences and alcohol-related outcomes. Additionally, the distribution of alcohol-related outcomes of non-sexual forms of workplace harassment among these groups have not been adequately explored. Using data from a university-based study of workplace harassment and alcohol use (N = 2492), we focus on exposure to workplace harassment and alcohol-related outcomes for lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals compared to heterosexual men and women. Lesbian/bisexual women did not differ significantly from heterosexual women in their experiences of workplace harassment. However, stronger linkages between harassment and increased alcohol consumption and problems were found for lesbian and bisexual women than for heterosexual women. Gay/bisexual men, on the other hand, experienced significantly more sexual harassment than heterosexual men, but did not report a corresponding increase in alcohol use and abuse. Implications for future research on sexual identity, alcohol use, and workplace harassment are discussed.

  8. Alcohol-related aggression during the college years: theories, risk factors and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Giancola, Peter R

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the research literature on alcohol-related aggression with a focus on college students. Data from both survey studies and experimental laboratory investigations conducted on college students are reviewed. Various methodological approaches to studying the alcohol-aggression relation, and their associated limitations, are then presented and discussed. The literature indicates that alcohol consumption facilitates aggressive behavior and increases the risk of being the victim of a violent act, particularly in heavy drinkers. Results from these studies are then placed into a context by reviewing 12 influential theories of aggression and alcohol-related aggression. On the basis of these theories and empirical data, a preliminary risk profile is presented to help identify which factors are likely to be important in predicting who will and who will not become aggressive after drinking alcohol. Although much research is still needed to elucidate the intricate causes of alcohol-related aggression, current prevention efforts might focus on modifying key risk factors such as poor cognitive functioning and inaccurate expectations about the effects of alcohol. Other prevention efforts directed specifically at college students might focus on helping them to identify risky situations that might facilitate the expression of intoxicated aggression.

  9. Alcohol-related expectancies in adults and adolescents: Similarities and disparities.

    PubMed

    Monk, Rebecca L; Heim, Derek

    2016-03-02

    This study aimed to contrast student and not student outcome expectancies, and explore the diversity of alcohol-related cognitions within a wider student sample. Participants (n=549) were college students (higher education-typically aged 15-18 years), university students (further education-typically aged 18-22 years) and business people (white collar professionals <50 years) who completed questionnaires in their place of work or education. Overall positive expectancies were higher in the college students than in the business or university samples. However, not all expectancy subcategories followed this pattern. Participant groups of similar age were therefore alike in some aspects of their alcohol-related cognitions but different in others. Similarly, participant groups whom are divergent in age appeared to be alike in some of their alcohol-related cognitions, such as tension reduction expectancies. Research often homogenises students as a specific sub-set of the population, this paper hi-lights that this may be an over-simplification. Furthermore, the largely exclusive focus on student groups within research in this area may also be an oversight, given the diversity of the findings demonstrated between these groups.

  10. Climate Adaptation and Harmful Algal Blooms

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA supports local, state and tribal efforts to maintain water quality. A key element of its efforts is to reduce excess nutrient pollution and the resulting adverse impacts, including harmful algal blooms.

  11. Why "do no harm"?

    PubMed

    Sharpe, V A

    1997-01-01

    Edmund Pellegrino has argued that the dramatic changes in American health care call for critical reflection on the traditional norms governing the therapeutic relationship. This paper offers such reflection on the obligation to "do no harm." Drawing on work by Beauchamp and Childress and Pellegrino and Thomasma, I argue that the libertarian model of medical ethics offered by Engelhardt cannot adequately sustain an obligation to "do no harm." Because the obligation to "do no harm" is not based simply on a negative duty of nonmaleficence but also on a positive duty of beneficence, I argue that it is best understood to derive from the fiduciary nature of the healing relationship.

  12. Socioeconomic Disparities in Alcohol-Related Mortality in Sweden, 1991-2006: A Register-Based Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Budhiraja, Meenal; Landberg, Jonas

    2016-05-01

    To examine whether apparent stability of overall alcohol-related mortality in Sweden during a period when traditionally strict alcohol policies went through a series of liberalizations and overall alcohol mortality remained stable, concealed a heterogeneity across socioeconomic groups (defined by educational level); and whether an increase occurred in the contribution of alcohol-related mortality to overall mortality differentials. Drawing on cause of death data linked to census records for the period 1991-2006, we computed annual age-standardized and sex-specific rates of alcohol-related mortality for groups with low, intermediate and high education. Alcohol-related mortality was considerably higher in lower educational groups for both men and women. For men, the trends in alcohol-related mortality were roughly stable for all education groups, and there were no signs of increasing inequalities by education. For women, alcohol-related mortality increased significantly for the low-education group whereas the two higher education groups showed no significant time trends, thus resulting in a widened educational gap in alcohol mortality for women. Alcohol's contribution to the overall mortality differentials declined for men and was basically unchanged for women. The findings provide only partial support to the hypothesis that the liberalizations of Swedish alcohol policy have been followed by a general increase in socioeconomic disparities in alcohol-related mortality. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  13. Emergency department-based brief intervention to reduce risky driving and hazardous/harmful drinking in young adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Marilyn S; Lyons, Michael S; Fargo, Jamison D; Sommers, Benjamin D; McDonald, Catherine C; Shope, Jean T; Fleming, Michael F

    2013-10-01

    Risky driving and hazardous drinking are associated with significant human and economic costs. Brief interventions for more than one risky behavior have the potential to reduce health-compromising behaviors in populations with multiple risk-taking behaviors such as young adults. Emergency department (ED) visits provide a window of opportunity for interventions meant to reduce both risky driving and hazardous drinking. We determined the efficacy of a Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) protocol addressing risky driving and hazardous drinking. We used a randomized controlled trial design with follow-ups through 12 months. ED patients aged 18 to 44 who screened positive for both behaviors (n = 476) were randomized to brief intervention (BIG), contact control (CCG), or no-contact control (NCG) groups. The BIG (n = 150) received a 20-minute assessment and two 20-minute interventions. The CCG (n = 162) received a 20-minute assessment at baseline and no intervention. The NCG (n = 164) were asked for contact information at baseline and had no assessment or intervention. Outcomes at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months were self-reported driving behaviors and alcohol consumption. Outcomes were significantly lower in BIG compared with CCG through 6 or 9 months, but not at 12 months: Safety belt use at 3 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08 to 0.65); 6 months (AOR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.42); and 9 months (AOR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.06 to 0.56); binge drinking at 3 months (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] 0.84; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.97) and 6 months (ARR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.97); and ≥5 standard drinks/d at 3 months (AOR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.91) and 6 months (AOR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.98). No substantial differences were observed between BIG and NCG at 12 months. Our findings indicate that SBIRT reduced risky driving and hazardous drinking in young adults, but its effects did not persist after 9 months. Future research should

  14. Emergency Department–Based Brief Intervention to Reduce Risky Driving and Hazardous/Harmful Drinking in Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sommers, Marilyn S.; Lyons, Michael S.; Fargo, Jamison D.; Sommers, Benjamin D.; McDonald, Catherine C.; Shope, Jean T.; Fleming, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Risky driving and hazardous drinking are associated with significant human and economic costs. Brief interventions for more than one risky behavior have the potential to reduce health-compromising behaviors in populations with multiple risk-taking behaviors such as young adults. Emergency department (ED) visits provide a window of opportunity for interventions meant to reduce both risky driving and hazardous drinking. Methods We determined the efficacy of a Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) protocol addressing risky driving and hazardous drinking. We used a randomized controlled trial design with follow-ups through 12 months. ED patients aged 18 to 44 who screened positive for both behaviors (n = 476) were randomized to brief intervention (BIG), contact control (CCG), or no-contact control (NCG) groups. The BIG (n = 150) received a 20-minute assessment and two 20-minute interventions. The CCG (n = 162) received a 20-minute assessment at baseline and no intervention. The NCG (n = 164) were asked for contact information at baseline and had no assessment or intervention. Outcomes at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months were self-reported driving behaviors and alcohol consumption. Results Outcomes were significantly lower in BIG compared with CCG through 6 or 9 months, but not at 12 months: Safety belt use at 3 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08 to 0.65); 6 months (AOR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.42); and 9 months (AOR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.06 to 0.56); binge drinking at 3 months (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] 0.84; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.97) and 6 months (ARR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.97); and ≥ 5 standard drinks/d at 3 months (AOR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.91) and 6 months (AOR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.98). No substantial differences were observed between BIG and NCG at 12 months. Conclusions Our findings indicate that SBIRT reduced risky driving and hazardous drinking in young adults, but its effects did not

  15. Why are alcohol-related emergency department presentations under-detected? An exploratory study using nursing triage text.

    PubMed

    Indig, Devon; Copeland, Jan; Conigrave, K M; Rotenko, Irene

    2008-11-01

    This study examined two methods of detecting alcohol-related emergency department (ED) presentations, provisional medical diagnosis and nursing triage text, and compared patient and service delivery characteristics to determine which patients are being missed from formal diagnosis in order to explore why alcohol-related ED presentations are under-detected. Data were reviewed for all ED presentations from 2004 to 2006 (n = 118,881) for a major teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia. Each record included two nursing triage free-text fields, which were searched for over 60 alcohol-related terms and coded for a range of issues. Adjusted odds ratios were used to compare diagnostically coded alcohol-related presentations to those detected using triage text. Approximately 4.5% of ED presentations were identified as alcohol-related, with 24% of these identified through diagnostic codes and the remainder identified by triage text. Diagnostic coding was more likely if the patient arrived by ambulance [odds ratio (OR) = 2.35] or showed signs of aggression (OR = 1.86). Failure to code alcohol-related issues was more than three times (OR = 3.23) more likely for patients with injuries. Alcohol-related presentations place a high demand on ED staff and less than one-quarter have an alcohol-related diagnosis recorded by their treating doctor. In order for routine ED data to be more effective for detecting alcohol-related ED presentations, it is recommended that additional resources such as an alcohol health worker be employed in Australian hospitals. These workers can educate and support ED staff to identify more clearly and record the clinical signs of alcohol and directly provide brief interventions.

  16. In field conditions, commercial pigment grade TiO2 was not harmful to terrestrial isopods but reduced leaf litter fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Jemec, Anita; Kos, Monika; Drobne, Damjana; Koponen, Ismo Kalevi; Vukić, Jovan; Ferreira, Nuno G C; Loureiro, Susana; McShane, Heather V A

    2016-11-15

    We investigated the effects of a commercial pigment grade rutile TiO2 on the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber in three locations that differed in terms of abiotic and biotic conditions: the laboratory, open air, and the closed barn. Mortality and isopod energy reserves (digestive gland total proteins, lipids and carbohydrates) were not affected following 14days exposure to up to 1000mg TiO2 per kg dry leaves (mg/kg) under any experimental scenario. However, in the field tests, isopods consumption of TiO2-coated leaves was reduced compared to that of uncoated leaves and the decrease was not dose-dependent. The highest reduction was in the closed barn (45-56%) rather than in the open-air (38-40%). In laboratory-based food choice tests, isopods neither preferred nor avoided leaves coated with TiO2, suggesting that rather than sensing the TiO2 on the leaves directly, the isopods under open-air and barn exposure responded to altered attractiveness and/or palatability of the TiO2 amended leaves. We propose that this could be due to altered microbial population on the leaves, a hypothesis that requires further investigation. Although short-term exposure to atmospheric deposition of up to 1000mg/kg commercial TiO2 is unlikely to pose an immediate threat to isopod mortality and energy balance, reduced leaf feeding may have implications for the decomposition of plant material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Demographic and socioeconomic factors influencing disparities in prevalence of alcohol-related injury among underserved trauma patients in a safety-net hospital.

    PubMed

    Nweze, Ikenna C; DiGiacomo, Jody C; Shin, Silvia S; Gupta, Camilla; Ramakrishnan, Rema; Angus, Lambros D G

    2016-12-01

    interventions toward specific populations to help reduce the burden of alcohol-related injury. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Harmful Algal Bloom Webinar

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The problem is complex. Excessive nitrogen and phosphorous levels can cause harmful algal blooms. Different algal/cyanobacteria strains bloom under different conditions. Different strains produce different toxins at varying amounts.

  19. Self-harm

    MedlinePlus

    ... have trouble stopping. Examples of self-harm include Cutting yourself (such as using a razor blade, knife, ... them a sense of relief. Some people use cutting as a means to cope with a problem. ...

  20. A Real-Time Fast-Flow Tube Study of VOC and Particulate Emissions from Electronic, Potentially Reduced-Harm, Conventional, and Reference Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Sandra L.; Epstein, Scott A.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Staimer, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco-free electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), which are currently not regulated by the FDA, have become widespread as a “safe” form of smoking. One approach to evaluate the potential toxicity of e-cigarettes and other types of potentially “reduced-harm” cigarettes is to compare their emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including reactive organic electrophillic compounds such as acrolein, and particulate matter to those of conventional and reference cigarettes. Our newly designed fast-flow tube system enabled us to analyze VOC composition and particle number concentration in real-time by promptly diluting puffs of mainstream smoke obtained from different brands of combustion cigarettes and e-cigarettes. A proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTRMS) was used to analyze real-time cigarette VOC emissions with a 1 s time resolution. Particles were detected with a condensation particle counter (CPC). This technique offers real-time analysis of VOCs and particles in each puff without sample aging and does not require any sample pretreatment or extra handling. Several important determining factors in VOC and particle concentration were investigated: (1) puff frequency; (2) puff number; (3) tar content; (4) filter type. Results indicate that electronic cigarettes are not free from acrolein and acetaldehyde emissions and produce comparable particle number concentrations to those of combustion cigarettes, more specifically to the 1R5F reference cigarette. Unlike conventional cigarettes, which emit different amounts of particles and VOCs each puff, there was no significant puff dependence in the e-cigarette emissions. Charcoal filter cigarettes did not fully prevent the emission of acrolein and other VOCs. PMID:26726281

  1. Avoidance of alcohol-related stimuli in alcohol-dependent inpatients.

    PubMed

    Townshend, J M; Duka, T

    2007-08-01

    Previous research has shown an attentional bias toward drug-related stimuli in heavy social drinkers. Attentional orientation to drug-related cues may lead to increased craving and preoccupation with the drug and impaired ability to focus attention on nondrug-related activities, resulting in renewed drug taking or relapse from drug abstinence. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alcohol-dependent inpatients would differ in their selective attention toward alcohol-related stimuli in comparison with a group of social drinking controls. Thirty-five alcohol-dependent inpatients were compared with a group of 39 social drinking controls matched for age, sex, and verbal IQ. Attentional bias was assessed using alcohol-related pictures in a dot probe detection task. Questionnaires were used to examine outcome expectancies after alcohol consumption, anxiety, mood, and craving. The alcoholic inpatients showed a bias away from the alcohol-related stimuli, scored higher on alcohol outcome expectancies, and on anxiety measures (both state and trait). They also presented with more negative mood compared with the control group. Craving was higher in the alcoholic group for the factor "loss of control over drinking." Alcoholic inpatients undergoing treatment based on the 12-step treatment of Alcoholics Anonymous (Minnesota model), which includes counseling, and intensive group, individual, and family psychotherapy, show an avoidance for drug-related stimuli and a perception of loss of control over drinking. We suggest that their increased perception of loss of control over drinking produces the avoidance from the drug-related stimuli.

  2. Still a difficult business? Negotiating alcohol-related problems in general practice consultations.

    PubMed

    Rapley, Tim; May, Carl; Frances Kaner, Eileen

    2006-11-01

    This paper describes general practitioners' (GPs) experiences of detecting and managing alcohol and alcohol-related problems in consultations. We undertook qualitative research in two phases in the North-East of England. Initially, qualitative interviews with 29 GPs explored their everyday work with patients with alcohol-related issues. We then undertook group interviews--two with GPs and one with a primary care team--where they discussed and challenged findings of the interviews. The GPs reported routinely discussing alcohol with patients with a range of alcohol-related problems. GPs believed that this work is important, but felt that until patients were willing to accept that their alcohol consumption was problematic they could achieve very little. They tentatively introduced alcohol as a potential problem, re-introduced the topic periodically, and then waited until the patient decided to change their behaviour. They were aware that they could identify and manage more patients. A lack of time and having to work with the multiple problems that patients brought to consultations were the main factors that stopped GPs managing more risky drinkers. Centrally, we compared the results of our study with [Thom, B., & Tellez, C. (1986). A difficult business-Detecting and managing alcohol-problems in general-practice. British Journal of Addiction, 81, 405-418] seminal study that was undertaken 20 years ago. We show how the intellectual, moral, emotional and practical difficulties that GPs currently face are quite similar to those faced by GPs from 20 years ago. As the definition of what could constitute abnormal alcohol consumption has expanded, so the range of consultations that they may have to negotiate these difficulties in has also expanded.

  3. Social inequalities and gender differences in the experience of alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed

    Grittner, Ulrike; Kuntsche, Sandra; Graham, Kathryn; Bloomfield, Kim

    2012-01-01

    To examine the influence of country-level characteristics and individual socio-economic status (SES) on individual alcohol-related consequences. Data from 42,655 men and women collected by cross-sectional surveys in 25 countries of the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study study were used. The individual SES was measured by the highest attained educational level. Alcohol-related consequences were defined as the self-report of at least one internal or one external consequence in the last year. The relationship between individuals' education and alcohol-related consequences was examined by meta-analysis. In a second step, the individual level data and country data were combined in multilevel models. As country-level indicators, we used the purchasing power parity of the gross national income (GNI), the Gini coefficient and the Gender Gap Index. Lower educated men and women were more likely to report consequences than higher educated men and women even after controlling for drinking patterns. For men, this relation was significant for both internal and external problems. For women, it was only significant for external problems. The GNI was significantly associated with reporting external consequences for men such that in lower income countries men were more likely to report social problems. The fact that problems accrue more quickly for lower educated persons even if they drink in the same manner can be linked to the social or environmental dimension surrounding problems. That is, those of fewer resources are less protected from the experience of a problem or the impact of a stressful life event.

  4. Social Inequalities and Gender Differences in the Experience of Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Grittner, Ulrike; Kuntsche, Sandra; Graham, Kathryn; Bloomfield, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To examine the influence of country-level characteristics and individual socio-economic status (SES) on individual alcohol-related consequences. Methods: Data from 42,655 men and women collected by cross-sectional surveys in 25 countries of the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study study were used. The individual SES was measured by the highest attained educational level. Alcohol-related consequences were defined as the self-report of at least one internal or one external consequence in the last year. The relationship between individuals’ education and alcohol-related consequences was examined by meta-analysis. In a second step, the individual level data and country data were combined in multilevel models. As country-level indicators, we used the purchasing power parity of the gross national income (GNI), the Gini coefficient and the Gender Gap Index. Results: Lower educated men and women were more likely to report consequences than higher educated men and women even after controlling for drinking patterns. For men, this relation was significant for both internal and external problems. For women, it was only significant for external problems. The GNI was significantly associated with reporting external consequences for men such that in lower income countries men were more likely to report social problems. Conclusion: The fact that problems accrue more quickly for lower educated persons even if they drink in the same manner can be linked to the social or environmental dimension surrounding problems. That is, those of fewer resources are less protected from the experience of a problem or the impact of a stressful life event. PMID:22542707

  5. Long-Term Mortality of Patients with an Alcohol-Related Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sanvisens, Arantza; Zuluaga, Paola; Fuster, Daniel; Rivas, Inmaculada; Tor, Jordi; Marcos, Miguel; Chamorro, Antonio J; Muga, Roberto

    2017-07-01

    To characterize a series of contemporary patients with alcohol-related Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) or Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) and to update the current prognosis of disease. Retrospective and prospective study of patients diagnosed with an alcohol-related WE or KS between 2002 and 2011 in a tertiary hospital. Socio-demographic, alcohol use characteristics, signs and symptoms, co-morbidity and blood parameters were obtained at admission. Patients were followed up until 2013 and causes of death were ascertained through the review of charts. Sixty-one patients were included (51 with WE and 10 with KS). Among patients with WE, 78% were men and age at diagnosis was 57 years (interquartile range (IQR): 49-66). Twenty-three percent fulfilled the classic WE triad. Regarding Caine's criteria for WE, 70.6% presented with at least two out of four signs or symptoms. Median follow-up of patients with WE syndrome was 5.3 years (IQR: 2.6-8.8), the cumulated mortality was 45% and death rate of 7.4 × 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.8-10.9). Overall, 50% of patients would be expected to die within 8 years of WE episode and main causes of death included serious bacterial infections (44.5%) and cancer (33.3%). Survival of patients with an alcohol-related Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is poor; pursuing treatment of alcohol use disorder and early diagnosis of thiamine deficiency is a priority for improving clinical outcomes. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  6. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism and alcohol-related phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Nedic, Gordana; Perkovic, Matea Nikolac; Sviglin, Korona Nenadic; Muck-Seler, Dorotea; Borovecki, Fran; Pivac, Nela

    2013-01-10

    Alcoholism is a chronic psychiatric disorder affecting neural pathways that regulate motivation, stress, reward and arousal. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates mood, response to stress and interacts with neurotransmitters and stress systems involved in reward pathways and addiction. Aim of the study was to evaluate the association between a single nucleotide polymorphism (BDNF Val66Met or rs6265) and alcohol related phenotypes in Caucasian patients. In ethnically homogenous Caucasian subjects of the Croatian origin, the BDNF Val66Met genotype distribution was determined in 549 male and 126 female patients with alcohol dependence and in 655 male and 259 female healthy non-alcoholic control subjects. Based on the structured clinical interview, additional detailed clinical interview, the Brown-Goodwin Scale, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Clinical Global Impression scores, alcoholic patients were subdivided into those with or without comorbid depression, aggression, delirium tremens, withdrawal syndrome, early/late onset of alcohol abuse, prior suicidal attempt during lifetime, current suicidal behavior, and severity of alcohol dependence. The results showed no significant association between BDNF Val66Met variants and alcohol dependence and/or any of the alcohol related phenotypes in either Caucasian women, or men, with alcohol dependence. There are few limitations of the study. The overall study sample size was large (N=1589) but not well-powered to detect differences in BDNF Val66Met genotype distribution between studied groups. Healthy control women were older than female alcoholic patients. Only one BDNF polymorphism (rs6265) was studied. In conclusion, these data do not support the view that BDNF Val66Met polymorphism correlates with the specific alcohol related phenotypes in ethnically homogenous medication-free Caucasian subjects with alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 'We lost because of his drunkenness': the social processes linking alcohol use to self-harm in the context of daily life stress in marriages and intimate relationships in rural Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Jane Brandt; Agampodi, Thilini; Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund; Siribaddana, Sisira; Konradsen, Flemming; Rheinländer, Thilde

    2017-01-01

    Harmful alcohol use has been found to cause detriment to the consumers and those around them. Research carried out in Sri Lanka has described the socioeconomic consequences to families owing to alcohol consumption. However, the social processes around alcohol use and how it could result in behaviour such as self-harm was unclear. With an outset in daily life stressors in marriages and intimate relationships we explored alcohol use in families with a recent case of self-harm. Qualitative data were collected for 11 months in 2014 and 2015 in the North Central and North Western provinces of Sri Lanka. Narrative life story interviews with 19 individuals who had self-harmed where alcohol was involved and 25 of their relatives were conducted. Ten focus group discussions were carried out in gender and age segregated groups. An inductive content analysis was carried out. Participants experienced two types of daily life stressors: non-alcohol-related stressors, such as violence and financial difficulties, and alcohol-related stressors. The alcohol-related stressors aggravated the non-alcohol-related daily life stressors within marriages and intimate relationships, which resulted in conflict between partners and subsequent self-harm. Women were disproportionately influenced by daily life stressors and were challenged in their ability to live up to gendered norms of marriage. Further, women were left responsible for their own and their husband's inappropriate behaviour. Self-harm appeared to be a possible avenue of expressing distress. Gendered alcohol and marriage norms provided men with acceptable excuses for their behaviour, whether it was alcohol consumption, conflicts or self-harm. This study found that participants experienced both alcohol-related and non-alcohol-related daily life stressors. These two categories of daily life stressors, gender inequalities and alcohol norms should be considered when planning alcohol and self-harm prevention in this setting. Life

  8. ‘We lost because of his drunkenness’: the social processes linking alcohol use to self-harm in the context of daily life stress in marriages and intimate relationships in rural Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Jane Brandt; Agampodi, Thilini; Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund; Siribaddana, Sisira; Konradsen, Flemming; Rheinländer, Thilde

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Harmful alcohol use has been found to cause detriment to the consumers and those around them. Research carried out in Sri Lanka has described the socioeconomic consequences to families owing to alcohol consumption. However, the social processes around alcohol use and how it could result in behaviour such as self-harm was unclear. With an outset in daily life stressors in marriages and intimate relationships we explored alcohol use in families with a recent case of self-harm. Methods Qualitative data were collected for 11 months in 2014 and 2015 in the North Central and North Western provinces of Sri Lanka. Narrative life story interviews with 19 individuals who had self-harmed where alcohol was involved and 25 of their relatives were conducted. Ten focus group discussions were carried out in gender and age segregated groups. An inductive content analysis was carried out. Results Participants experienced two types of daily life stressors: non-alcohol-related stressors, such as violence and financial difficulties, and alcohol-related stressors. The alcohol-related stressors aggravated the non-alcohol-related daily life stressors within marriages and intimate relationships, which resulted in conflict between partners and subsequent self-harm. Women were disproportionately influenced by daily life stressors and were challenged in their ability to live up to gendered norms of marriage. Further, women were left responsible for their own and their husband’s inappropriate behaviour. Self-harm appeared to be a possible avenue of expressing distress. Gendered alcohol and marriage norms provided men with acceptable excuses for their behaviour, whether it was alcohol consumption, conflicts or self-harm. Conclusions This study found that participants experienced both alcohol-related and non-alcohol-related daily life stressors. These two categories of daily life stressors, gender inequalities and alcohol norms should be considered when planning alcohol and self-harm

  9. Alcohol-related incident guardianship and undergraduate college parties: enhancing the social norms marketing approach.

    PubMed

    Gilbertson, Troy A

    2006-01-01

    This randomized experiment examines the effects of contextual information on undergraduate college student's levels of alcohol-related incident guardianship at college parties. The research is conceptualized using routine activities theory and the theory of planned behavior. The experiment examines attitudinal variations about heavy drinking differentiated by sex, athletic status, and location of the drinking event. The sex and athletic status variables produce statistically effects on the dependent variables, while location of the drinking event is not significant. The article concludes by discussing the importance of context as it pertains to the social norms marketing strategy utilized in much college alcohol programming, and suggests a more directed marketing approach.

  10. [Trans-Cultural Prevention of Alcohol-Related Disorders in Elderly Immigrants].

    PubMed

    Bermejo, I; Frank, F

    2015-09-01

    In migrants alcohol-related problems increase with increasing age. This group, in particular, is hardly reached by alcohol-specific care offers. Thus our project aimed at the identification of target group-specific barriers to health-care use by means of a cross-sectional study (n=435). Based on these results a trans-cultural concept for alcohol prevention among elderly migrants was developed and evaluated in a cluster-randomised controlled trial (n=176). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Alcohol-Related Problems and Risk for Suicide among College Students: The Mediating Roles of Belongingness and Burdensomeness

    PubMed Central

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations among alcohol-related problems, perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and suicide proneness in undergraduate college students (N = 996). As hypothesized, alcohol-related problems, perceived burdensomeness, and thwarted belongingness were all significantly and positively correlated with suicide proneness. The relation between experiencing alcohol-related problems and suicide proneness was, in part, accounted for by perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. Additionally, the mediation via perceived burdensomeness was significantly stronger than the mediation via thwarted belongingness. Results suggest that it would be advisable for clinicians to be aware of students’ experiences with alcohol-related problems in conjunction with their levels of burdensomeness and belongingness when assessing for suicide risk PMID:21883409

  12. The Role of Specific Alcohol-Related Problems in Predicting Depressive Experiences in a Cross-Sectional National Household Survey.

    PubMed

    McBride, Orla; Cheng, Hui G; Slade, Tim; Lynskey, Michael T

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the type of alcohol-related problems that commonly occur before the onset of depressive experiences to shed light on the mechanisms underlying the alcohol-depression comorbidity relationship. Data were from the 1992 USA National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. Analytical sample comprised of drinkers with a prior to past year (PPY) history of alcohol-related problems with or without any experiences of depressed mood in the past year (PY). The prevalence of PPY alcohol-related problems was examined, as well as the ability of specific alcohol problems to predict PY experiences of depressed mood. The type of depressed mood experienced by drinkers with PPY history of alcohol-related problems was compared to those without. All but one alcohol-related problem PPY was more frequently endorsed among drinkers with PY experiences of depressed mood. Controlling for confounders, five alcohol-related problems experienced PPY were significantly predictive of depressed mood PY: tolerance, drinking longer than intended, inability to perform important social and occupational roles/obligations, as well as drinking in physically hazardous situations. Drinkers with alcohol-related problems PPY more frequently experienced difficulties with concentration, energy, and thoughts of death, than those without. Alcohol-related problems are likely associated with depressive experiences through a complex network, whereby experiences of physical dependence and negative consequences increase the likelihood of negative affect. Novel study designs are necessary to fully understand the complex mechanisms underlying this comorbidity. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  13. The green eyed monster in the bottle: Relationship contingent self-esteem, romantic jealousy, and alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed

    DiBello, Angelo M; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Hadden, Benjamin W; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-10-01

    Previous research suggests that both jealousy and relationship contingent self-esteem (RCSE) are related to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. No work, however, has examined these two constructs together as they relate to motives for alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. The current study aims to build upon emerging literature examining different types of jealousy (i.e., emotional, cognitive, and behavioral), relationship quality (i.e., satisfaction, commitment, closeness), RCSE, and alcohol use. More specifically, the current study aimed to examine the associations between RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems, in the context of the different types of jealousy. Moreover, the current study aimed to assess whether the associations between RCSE, jealousy, and drinking outcomes vary as a function of relationship quality. Two hundred and seventy seven individuals (87% female) at a large southern university participated in the study. They completed measures of RCSE, relationship satisfaction, commitment, closeness, and jealousy as well as alcohol-related outcomes. Using PROCESS, moderated mediational analyses were used to evaluate different types of jealousy as mediators of the association between RCSE and drinking to cope/alcohol-related problems. Further, we aimed to examine whether relationship quality moderated the association between RCSE and jealousy in predicting alcohol-related variables. Results indicated that cognitive jealousy mediated the association between both RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems. Further, relationship satisfaction, commitment, and closeness were all found to moderate the association between RSCE and cognitive jealousy such that at lower, but not higher levels of satisfaction, commitment, and closeness, cognitive jealousy mediated the association between RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Unplanned Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems: A Preliminary Test of the Model of Unplanned Drinking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Matthew R.; Henson, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Much research links impulsivity with alcohol use and problems. In two studies, unplanned (or impulsive) drinking is assessed directly to determine whether it has direct effects on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. In study 1, we examined whether unplanned drinking serves as a proximal mediator of the effects of impulsivity-like traits on alcohol-related outcomes. With a sample of 211 college student drinkers, we found that the Unplanned Drinking Scale was significantly related to alcohol use, and perhaps more importantly, had a direct effect on alcohol-related problems even after controlling for frequency and quantity of alcohol use. Further, unplanned drinking partially mediated the effects of negative urgency on alcohol-related problems. In study 2, we examined whether unplanned drinking accounts for unique variance in alcohol-related outcomes when controlling for use of protective behavioral strategies. With a sample of 170 college students, we replicated the findings of Study 1 in that the Unplanned Drinking Scale had a significant direct effect on alcohol-related problems even after controlling for alcohol use; further, this effect was maintained when controlling for use of protective behavioral strategies. Limitations include the modest sample sizes and the cross-sectional design. Future directions for testing the Model of Unplanned Drinking Behavior are proposed. PMID:23276312

  15. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior.

  16. Is prostitution harmful?

    PubMed

    Moen, Ole Martin

    2014-02-01

    A common argument against prostitution states that selling sex is harmful because it involves selling something deeply personal and emotional. More and more of us, however, believe that sexual encounters need not be deeply personal and emotional in order to be acceptable--we believe in the acceptability of casual sex. In this paper I argue that if casual sex is acceptable, then we have few or no reasons to reject prostitution. I do so by first examining nine influential arguments to the contrary. These arguments purport to pin down the alleged additional harm brought about by prostitution (compared to just casual sex) by appealing to various aspects of its practice, such as its psychology, physiology, economics and social meaning. For each argument I explain why it is unconvincing. I then weight the costs against the benefits of prostitution, and argue that, in sum, prostitution is no more harmful than a long line of occupations that we commonly accept without hesitation.

  17. The Influence of Gender and Sexual Orientation on Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Tonda L.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Although there are wide differences in alcohol use patterns among countries, men are consistently more likely than women to be drinkers and to drink heavily. Studies of alcohol use among sexual minorities (SMs), however, reflect a more complex picture. Such research has found higher rates of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among SM persons than among heterosexuals and greater differences between SM and heterosexual women than between SM and heterosexual men. A variety of factors may contribute to differences in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems between men and women and between SM and heterosexual people. An improved understanding of these factors is important to guide prevention and treatment efforts. Although there is a dearth of literature on use of alcohol by SMs in many parts of the world, especially lower- and middle-income countries, we attempt to review and integrate the sparse data that are available from these lower-resourced countries. The global perspective presented in this article is the first attempt to go beyond a general review of literature in the Western world to document the gender paradox in alcohol use among heterosexuals and SMs in diverse countries worldwide. PMID:27159819

  18. Marketing and alcohol-related traffic fatalities: impact of alcohol advertising targeting minors.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan C; Geller, E Scott

    2009-10-01

    Alcohol-related youth traffic fatalities continue as a major public-health concern. While state and federal laws can be useful in tackling this problem, the efficacy of many laws has not been empirically demonstrated. We examined the impact of state laws prohibiting alcohol advertising to target minors. Using statistics obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), youth alcohol-related, single-vehicle, driver traffic fatalities were compared by state as a function of whether the state has a law prohibiting alcohol advertising that targets minors. Overall, states possessing this law experienced 32.9% fewer of the above specified traffic fatalities. DISCUSSION AND IMPACT ON INDUSTRY: The results suggest that not only are youth drinking rates affected by alcohol advertisements targeting youth, but also drink-driving behaviors. Indeed, we estimate that if this type of legislation were adopted in the 26 states that do not prohibit targeting of minors with alcohol advertising, then 400 youth lives could be saved annually.

  19. Using autopsy brain tissue to study alcohol-related brain damage in the genomic age.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Greg T; Sheedy, Donna; Kril, Jillian J

    2014-01-01

    The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre at the University of Sydney, Australia, is one of the few human brain banks dedicated to the study of the effects of chronic alcoholism. The bank was affiliated in 1994 as a member of the National Network of Brain Banks and also focuses on schizophrenia and healthy control tissue. Alcohol abuse is a major problem worldwide, manifesting in such conditions as fetal alcohol syndrome, adolescent binge drinking, alcohol dependency, and alcoholic neurodegeneration. The latter is also referred to as alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD). The study of postmortem brain tissue is ideally suited to determining the effects of long-term alcohol abuse, but it also makes an important contribution to understanding pathogenesis across the spectrum of alcohol misuse disorders and potentially other neurodegenerative diseases. Tissue from the bank has contributed to 330 peer-reviewed journal articles including 120 related to alcohol research. Using the results of these articles, this review chronicles advances in alcohol-related brain research since 2003, the so-called genomic age. In particular, it concentrates on transcriptomic approaches to the pathogenesis of ARBD and builds on earlier reviews of structural changes (Harper et al. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2003;27:951) and proteomics (Matsumoto et al. Expert Rev Proteomics 2007;4:539). Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Using autopsy brain tissue to study alcohol-related brain damage in the genomic age

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Greg T; Sheedy, Donna; Kril, Jillian J

    2013-01-01

    The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre (NSW TRC) at the University of Sydney, Australia is one of the few human brain banks dedicated to the study of the effects of chronic alcoholism. The bank was affiliated in 1994 as a member of the National Network of Brain Banks and also focuses on schizophrenia and healthy control tissue. Alcohol abuse is a major problem worldwide, manifesting in such conditions as fetal alcohol syndrome, adolescent binge drinking, alcohol dependency and alcoholic neurodegeneration. The latter is also referred to as alcohol-related brain disease (ARBD). The study of postmortem brain tissue is ideally suited to determining the effects of long-term alcohol abuse, but it also makes an important contribution to understanding pathogenesis across the spectrum of alcohol misuse disorders and potentially other neurodegenerative diseases. Tissue from the bank has contributed to 330 peer-reviewed journal articles including 120 related to alcohol research. Using the results of these articles, this review chronicles advances in alcohol-related brain research since 2003, the so-called genomic age. In particular it concentrates on transcriptomic approaches to the pathogenesis of ARBD and builds on earlier reviews of structural changes (Harper et al. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2003;27:951–61) and proteomics (Matsumoto et al. Expert Rev Proteomics 2007;4:539–52). PMID:24033426

  1. Constitutional and functional genetics of human alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nahon, Pierre; Nault, Jean-Charles

    2017-11-01

    Exploration of the constitutional genetics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has identified numerous variants associated with a higher risk of liver cancer in alcoholic cirrhotic patients. Although Genome-Wide Association studies have not been carried out in the field of alcohol-related HCC, common single nucleotide polymorphisms conferring a small increase in the risk of liver cancer risk have been identified and shown to modulate ethanol metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, iron or lipid metabolism. Specific patterns of gene mutations including CTNNB1, TERT, ARID1A and SMARCA2 exist in alcohol-related HCC. Moreover, a specific mutational process observed at the nucleotide level by next generation sequencing has revealed cooperation between alcohol and tobacco in the development of HCC. Combining this genetic information with epidemiological and clinical data that might define specific HCC risk classes and refine surveillance strategies needs to be assessed in large prospective cohorts of patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Social impressions while drinking account for the relationship between alcohol-related problems and social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Julia D; Matthews, Russell A

    2012-04-01

    Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear particularly vulnerable to experiencing alcohol-related problems; yet we know little about factors that may account for this relationship. One possibility is that socially anxious individuals hold beliefs about the impressions they make on others while drinking and these beliefs play an important role in their drinking behaviors. The present study used exploratory factor analysis among participants with clinically elevated social anxiety (n=166) to develop a measure, the Social Impressions while Drinking Scale (SIDS), to assess beliefs regarding others' impressions of drinking behaviors that may be particularly relevant to socially anxious individuals. A valuations scale was also developed to assess the importance of each belief. Empirically-derived subscales were identified with adequate reliability. Among socially anxious participants, the Gregarious and Sexual Facilitation subscales were uniquely related to drinking problems and frequency respectively. Individuals with clinically meaningful social anxiety achieved higher scores on all SIDS subscales compared to those with lower social anxiety (n=166). Several SIDS scales mediated the relations between social anxiety group status and drinking problems (Interaction Fears, Observation Fears, Aggression, Gregariousness). Results highlight the importance of examining beliefs specific to high-risk populations in assessing their alcohol-related behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gender orientation and alcohol-related weight control behavior among male and female college students.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Robert L; Barr, Peter B

    2017-01-01

    We examine weight control behavior used to (a) compensate for caloric content of heavy alcohol use; and (b) enhance the psychoactive effects of alcohol among college students. We evaluate the role of gender orientation and sex. Participants completed an online survey (N = 651; 59.9% women; 40.1% men). Weight control behavior was assessed via the Compensatory-Eating-and-Behaviors-in Response-to-Alcohol-Consumption-Scale. Control variables included sex, race/ethnicity, age, and depressive symptoms. Gender orientation was measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory. The prevalence and probability of alcohol-related weight control behavior using ordinal logistic regression are reported. Men and women do not significantly differ in compensatory-weight-control-behavior. However, regression models suggest that recent binge drinking, other substance use, and masculine orientation are positively associated with alcohol-related weight control behavior. Sex was not a robust predictor of weight control behavior. Masculine orientation should be considered a possible risk factor for these behaviors and considered when designing prevention and intervention strategies.

  4. A mediational model of racial discrimination and alcohol-related problems among african american college students.

    PubMed

    Boynton, Marcella H; O'Hara, Ross E; Covault, Jonathan; Scott, Denise; Tennen, Howard

    2014-03-01

    Racial discrimination has been identified as an important predictor of alcohol-related outcomes for African Americans. The goal of the current study was to extend previously found links between lifetime discrimination, alcohol use, and alcohol problems as well as to elucidate the affective mechanisms underlying these associations, as moderated by gender. A multiple-groups structural equation model was computed using survey data collected from 619 students from a historically Black college/university. The final model provided excellent fit to the data, explaining 6% of the variance in alcohol consumption and 37% of the variance in alcohol problems. Discrimination was a significant predictor of alcohol-related problems but not, by and large, level of use. For men, anger-but not discrimination-specific anger-was a significant partial mediator of the link between discrimination and both alcohol use and alcohol problems. Depression partially mediated the link between discrimination and alcohol problems for both men and women. The results suggest that, for African Americans whose drinking leads to drinking-related problems, discrimination and poor affective self-regulation are highly relevant and predictive factors, especially for men.

  5. Evaluation of a Pilot Implementation to Integrate Alcohol-Related Care within Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Bobb, Jennifer F.; Lee, Amy K.; Lapham, Gwen T.; Oliver, Malia; Ludman, Evette; Achtmeyer, Carol; Parrish, Rebecca; Caldeiro, Ryan M.; Lozano, Paula; Richards, Julie E.; Bradley, Katharine A.

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol use is a major cause of disability and death worldwide. To improve prevention and treatment addressing unhealthy alcohol use, experts recommend that alcohol-related care be integrated into primary care (PC). However, few healthcare systems do so. To address this gap, implementation researchers and clinical leaders at Kaiser Permanente Washington partnered to design a high-quality Program of Sustained Patient-centered Alcohol-related Care (SPARC). Here, we describe the SPARC pilot implementation, evaluate its effectiveness within three large pilot sites, and describe the qualitative findings on barriers and facilitators. Across the three sites (N = 74,225 PC patients), alcohol screening increased from 8.9% of patients pre-implementation to 62% post-implementation (p < 0.0001), with a corresponding increase in assessment for alcohol use disorders (AUD) from 1.2 to 75 patients per 10,000 seen (p < 0.0001). Increases were sustained over a year later, with screening at 84.5% and an assessment rate of 81 patients per 10,000 seen across all sites. In addition, there was a 50% increase in the number of new AUD diagnoses (p = 0.0002), and a non-statistically significant 54% increase in treatment within 14 days of new diagnoses (p = 0.083). The pilot informed an ongoing stepped-wedge trial in the remaining 22 PC sites. PMID:28885557

  6. Does beverage type and drinking context matter in an alcohol-related injury? Evidence from emergency department patients in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Andreuccetti, Gabriel; Carvalho, Heraclito B; Ye, Yu; Bond, Jason; Monteiro, Maristela; Borges, Guilherme; Cherpitel, Cheryl J

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have already substantiated alcohol's causal role in injuries. Yet the role that alcoholic beverage preferences and the drinking context play in the risk for injury is still under-investigated. In this study, a cross-national comparison of the association between alcohol and injury focusing on beverage type preference and the drinking context is reported. Emergency department (ED) injured patients were interviewed in eight countries from the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region. Data on the type of alcoholic beverage, total alcohol volume, and the place where the injury occurred were obtained from patients who reported any alcohol consumption within 6h prior to being injured. Patients who did not drink prior to injury were also asked about their typical drinking pattern and the injury place. Differences within- and between-groups were evaluated regarding patients' typical drinking and drinking before injury. Beer was the most prevalent beverage type usually consumed among injured patients across countries, however, patients who drank before injury had a higher typical consumption of spirits than those not drinking prior to injury. The total alcohol volume typically consumed and drinking in public settings were also found to be positively associated with alcohol-related injury. A similar beverage-specific association with alcohol-related injury was found across LAC countries, mainly attributed to beer consumption, and spirits drinkers seem to have a greater chance of becoming involved in injury events. Future prevention strategies should inform the public about harms from drinking associated with the context in which drinking takes place. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Alcohol use, alcohol-related aggression and intimate partner abuse: A cross-sectional survey of convicted versus general population men in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Elizabeth Allison; Ireland, Lana; Forsyth, Alasdair; Godwin, Jon; Laxton, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Scotland has a particular problem with alcohol, and the links between intimate partner abuse (IPA) and alcohol appear stronger here than elsewhere across Europe. This study explored differences in alcohol use, related aggression and relationship conflict across a number of groups: men convicted for intimate partner abuse, men convicted of general offences and men recruited from community sports teams. Participants (n = 64) completed three questionnaires exploring their experiences of alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, AUDIT); alcohol and aggression (Alcohol Related Aggression Questionnaire, ARAQ-28), and relationship conflict (Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, CTS-2). There were significant differences across the groups in terms of AUDIT and ARAQ-28 scores, IPA and general offenders scored higher than the community sample. CTS-2 scores showed significant differences: both offender groups reported more use of negotiation and psychological abuse, than the community men, and IPA offenders reported causing more physical harm than either general offenders or the community sample. ARAQ-28 scores correlated with psychological abuse for general offenders. Alcohol use was very high across all groups, but the community group did not endorse an aggression-precipitating view of alcohol and did not report high IPA. Discussed is the need for cross-cultural research to explore putative mediators and moderators in the relationship between alcohol, aggressiveness and IPA. [Gilchrist EA, Ireland L, Forsyth A, Godwin J, Laxton T. Alcohol use, alcohol-related aggression and intimate partner abuse: A cross-sectional survey of convicted versus general population men in Scotland. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:20-23]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  8. Investigating local policy drivers for alcohol harm prevention: a comparative case study of two local authorities in England.

    PubMed

    Mooney, John D; Holmes, John; Gavens, Lucy; de Vocht, Frank; Hickman, Matt; Lock, Karen; Brennan, Alan

    2017-10-18

    The considerable challenges associated with implementing national level alcohol policies have encouraged a renewed focus on the prospects for local-level policies in the UK and elsewhere. We adopted a case study approach to identify the major characteristics and drivers of differences in the patterns of local alcohol policies and services in two contrasting local authority (LA) areas in England. Data were collected via thirteen semi-structured interviews with key informants (including public health, licensing and trading standards) and documentary analysis, including harm reduction strategies and statements of licensing policy. A two-stage thematic analysis was used to categorize all relevant statements into seven over-arching themes, by which document sources were then also analysed. Three of the seven over-arching themes (drink environment, treatment services and barriers and facilitators), provided for the most explanatory detail informing the contrasting policy responses of the two LAs: LA1 pursued a risk-informed strategy via a specialist police team working proactively with problem premises and screening systematically to identify riskier drinking. LA2 adopted a more upstream regulatory approach around restrictions on availability with less emphasis on co-ordinated screening and treatment measures. New powers over alcohol policy for LAs in England can produce markedly different policies for reducing alcohol-related harm. These difference are rooted in economic, opportunistic, organisational and personnel factors particular to the LAs themselves and may lead to closely tailored solutions in some policy areas and poorer co-ordination and attention in others.

  9. Using alcohol intoxication goggles (Fatal Vision® goggles) to detect alcohol related impairment in simulated driving.

    PubMed

    McCartney, Danielle; Desbrow, Ben; Irwin, Christopher

    2017-01-02

    trials compared to their respective baseline drives. LC increased significantly from baseline on the AB trial only. Longitudinal control: Speed was not affected by any of the experimental treatments; however, SDSP increased significantly from baseline on the FVG trial. A significant reduction in distance headway and minimum distance headway was detected on the FVG trial compared to baseline. Hazard perception: Neither AB nor FVG trials were influential on CRT. Subjective mood ratings were significantly altered on the AB and FVG trials compared to baseline and placebo conditions. Participants reported reduced willingness and ability to drive under the active treatments (AB and FVG) than the placebo treatments (PB and PG). FVGs may have some utility in replicating alcohol-related impairment on specific driving performance measurements. Hence, the equipment may offer an alternative approach to researching the impact of alcohol intoxication on simulated driving performance among populations where the provision of alcohol would otherwise be unethical (e.g., prelicensed drivers).

  10. Alcohol-induced blackouts as predictors of other drinking related harms among emerging young adults

    PubMed Central

    Hingson, Ralph; Zha, Wenxing; Simons-Morton, Bruce; White, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol-related blackouts are periods of amnesia that reflect the failure of the brain to record memories of what transpires while drinking. This paper examined the incidence, predictors, and behavioral correlates of blackouts among emerging adults and examined whether questions about blackouts could serve as better markers of risk for other alcohol related harms than questions about levels of consumption. Methods In 2012-2013, 1,463 (68%) of 2,140 respondents one-year past high school reported having consumed alcohol. They were asked whether, in the past six months because of drinking, they forgot where they were or what they did. The survey also explored demographics, substance use behaviors, and other alcohol-related problems in the past six months. Chi square and logistic regression analyses explored bivariate and multivariate predictors of blackouts and other alcohol-related problems. Results Twenty percent of respondents who ever drank alcohol reported a blackout in the past six months. Blackouts were more prevalent among females and those who, in the past 30 days, used multiple drugs, more frequently binged, were drunk, smoked, had lower body weight, and lived in college dorms. After controlling for drinking levels, having a blackout was the strongest independent predictor of most other alcohol problems examined, including in the past six months because of drinking, missing class or work, getting behind in work or school, doing something respondents later regretted, arguing with friends, experiencing an overdose, and total number of alcohol problems reported. It was also an independent predictor of hangovers, damaging property, getting hurt, and trouble with police. Conclusion Because blackouts indicate drinking at levels that result in significant cognitive and behavioral impairment, questions about blackouts could serve as important, simple screeners for the risk of experiencing other alcohol related harms. Additional work on this subject is

  11. Alcohol-Induced Blackouts as Predictors of Other Drinking Related Harms Among Emerging Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Hingson, Ralph; Zha, Wenxing; Simons-Morton, Bruce; White, Aaron

    2016-04-01

    Alcohol-related blackouts are periods of amnesia that reflect the failure of the brain to record memories of what transpires while drinking. This paper examined the incidence, predictors, and behavioral correlates of blackouts among emerging adults and examined whether questions about blackouts could serve as better markers of risk for other alcohol related harms than questions about levels of consumption. In 2012 to 2013, 1,463 (68%) of 2,140 respondents 1-year past high school reported having consumed alcohol. They were asked whether, in the past 6 months because of drinking, they forgot where they were or what they did. The survey also explored demographics, substance use behaviors, and other alcohol-related problems in the past 6 months. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses explored bivariate and multivariate predictors of blackouts and other alcohol-related problems. Twenty percent of respondents who ever drank alcohol reported a blackout in the past 6 months. Blackouts were more prevalent among females and those who, in the past 30 days, used multiple drugs, more frequently binged, were drunk, smoked, had lower body weight, and lived in college dorms. After controlling for drinking levels, having a blackout was the strongest independent predictor of most other alcohol problems examined, including in the past 6 months because of drinking, missing class or work, getting behind in work or school, doing something respondents later regretted, arguing with friends, experiencing an overdose, and total number of alcohol problems reported. It was also an independent predictor of hangovers, damaging property, getting hurt, and trouble with police. Because blackouts indicate drinking at levels that result in significant cognitive and behavioral impairment, questions about blackouts could serve as important, simple screeners for the risk of experiencing other alcohol related harms. Additional work on this subject is warranted. Published 2016. This article is a U

  12. Harmful Algal Blooms Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project represents the Agency’s first effort to unify harmful algal blooms (HABs) research that had been previously carried out in isolation within various laboratories. A unified program is the most efficient way generate useful results for the Agency’s decision...

  13. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  14. The Role of Discrimination in Alcohol-related Problems in Samples of Heavy Drinking HIV-Negative and Positive Men who have Sex with Men (MSM)

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Tyler B.; Pantalone, David W.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Monti, Peter M.; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Heavy drinking is a major public health concern among men who have sex with men (MSM), as it is in many other populations. However, the consequences of heavy drinking among MSM may be particularly severe, especially for sexual risk behavior, due to the relatively high prevalence of HIV. Minority stress models suggest that, among members of marginalized groups, discrimination may be associated with heavier alcohol use as these individuals increasingly drink to cope with such experiences. Past studies have provided some support for this association. However, they have not explored the role other drinking motives play, how these relationships might differ across MSM who are HIV-positive versus HIV-negative, or how this relationship extends to alcohol-related problems. Methods In this study, we used path modeling to explore associations between perceived discrimination experiences, drinking motives, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems in samples of heavy drinking MSM with and without HIV. Results In both HIV-negative and positive MSM, perceived discrimination was significantly positively associated with alcohol problems. Drinking to cope appears to play an important role in this relationship in both samples. Reporting more discrimination experiences was associated with drinking more frequently for sexual reasons among both groups. While the total effect of drinking to facilitate sex was positively associated with alcohol-related problems, sex motives did not mediate associations between discrimination and either drinking outcome. Conclusion These results suggest that interventions addressing discrimination and specific drinking motivations may be useful in helping reduce alcohol use of heavy drinking MSM. PMID:27481457

  15. The role of discrimination in alcohol-related problems in samples of heavy drinking HIV-negative and positive men who have sex with men (MSM).

    PubMed

    Wray, Tyler B; Pantalone, David W; Kahler, Christopher W; Monti, Peter M; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2016-09-01

    Heavy drinking is a major public health concern among men who have sex with men (MSM), as it is in many other populations. However, the consequences of heavy drinking among MSM may be particularly severe, especially for sexual risk behavior, due to the relatively high prevalence of HIV. Minority stress models suggest that, among members of marginalized groups, discrimination may be associated with heavier alcohol use as these individuals increasingly drink to cope with such experiences. Past studies have provided some support for this association. However, they have not explored the role other drinking motives play, how these relationships might differ across MSM who are HIV-positive versus HIV-negative, or how this relationship extends to alcohol-related problems. In this study, we used path modeling to explore associations between perceived discrimination experiences, drinking motives, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems in samples of heavy drinking MSM with and without HIV. In both HIV-negative and positive MSM, perceived discrimination was significantly positively associated with alcohol problems. Drinking to cope appears to play an important role in this relationship in both samples. Reporting more discrimination experiences was associated with drinking more frequently for sexual reasons among both groups. While the total effect of drinking to facilitate sex was positively associated with alcohol-related problems, sex motives did not mediate associations between discrimination and either drinking outcome. These results suggest that interventions addressing discrimination and specific drinking motivations may be useful in helping reduce alcohol use of heavy drinking MSM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Alcohol-related driving in China: Countermeasure implications of research conducted in two cities.

    PubMed

    Jia, Keqin; Fleiter, Judy; King, Mark; Sheehan, Mary; Ma, Wenjun; Lei, Jing; Zhang, Jianzhen

    2016-10-01

    Drunk driving (blood alcohol concentration (BAC) 80mg/100ml) was upgraded to become a criminal offence under China's Criminal Law in May 2011. While this had a major road safety benefit, there was still a high level of alcohol related crashes and fatalities. This paper develops recommendations based on a programme of research undertaken in 2012 that examined the perceptions of general motor vehicle drivers, convicted drunk driving offenders and traffic police about drinking and driving and law enforcement in the cities of Guangzhou and Yinchuan. Alcohol misuse problems were also explored using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). This paper integrates the findings to examine existing problems in alcohol management, law enforcement, education and rehabilitation and provides recommendations for addressing alcohol-related driving in China. A multi-study cross-sectional research programme was conducted in two Chinese cities involving general drivers, drunk driving offenders and traffic police. In total, 16 traffic police officers were interviewed and 105 traffic police officers were surveyed. In addition, 207 drunk driving offenders in detention facilities and 802 general motor vehicle drivers were surveyed. Traffic police resources including human resources and facilities such as breathalysers were reported as insufficient in both cities. There were problems reported in the process of law enforcement, and shortcomings in police knowledge of factors involved in drink/drunk driving and in the practice of conducting breath alcohol testing (BAT). Knowledge about legal BAC levels and how to keep under the legal limit was very low among general motor vehicle drivers and drunk driving offenders. Proportions with alcohol misuse problems in the two driver groups were high, especially among offenders. Recommendations to manage alcohol-related driving are proposed for the three groups of traffic police, general motor vehicle drivers and drunk driving offenders

  17. Neuropsychological rehabilitation in alcohol-related brain damage: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Svanberg, Jenny; Evans, Jonathan J

    2013-01-01

    The evidence base for rehabilitating alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD) is still in its infancy. The aim of this review was to collate evidence of intervention studies for ARBD and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS), to offer some indication of methodological quality, and to suggest directions for future research in this area. A comprehensive search strategy resulted in systematic review of 16 studies investigating neurorehabilitation of cognitive impairment relating to ARBD. Most studies addressed rehabilitation of the memory impairments associated with Korsakoff's syndrome, although one study seeking to remediate executive functioning impairment was also included. Three studies outlining service models or approaches were included, with the aim of generating advances in service development for this population. The reviewed studies were of varying methodology, allowing only tentative conclusions. However, the available evidence suggested benefits of a number of memory rehabilitation strategies. Options for practice are suggested.

  18. Alcohol-related predictors of adolescent driving: gender differences in crashes and offenses.

    PubMed

    Shope, J T; Waller, P F; Lang, S W

    1996-11-01

    Demographic and alcohol-related data collected from eight-grade students (age 13 years) were used in logistic regression to predict subsequent first-year driving crashes and offenses (age 17 years). For young men's crashes and offenses, good-fitting models used living situation (both parents or not), parents' attitude about teen drinking (negative or neutral), and the interaction term. Young men who lived with both parents and reported negative parental attitudes regarding teen drinking were less likely to have crashes and offenses. For young women's crashes, a good-fitting model included friends' involvement with alcohol. Young women who reported that their friends were not involved with alcohol were least likely to have crashes. No model predicting young women's offenses emerged.

  19. Advanced transgenic approaches to understand alcohol-related phenotypes in animals.

    PubMed

    Bilbao, Ainhoa

    2013-01-01

    During the past two decades, the use of genetically manipulated animal models in alcohol research has greatly improved the understanding of the mechanisms underlying alcohol addiction. In this chapter, we present an overview of the progress made in this field by summarizing findings obtained from studies of mice harboring global and conditional mutations in genes that influence alcohol-related phenotypes. The first part reviews behavioral paradigms for modeling the different phases of the alcohol addiction cycle and other alcohol-induced behavioral phenotypes in mice. The second part reviews the current data available using genetic models targeting the main neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems involved in the reinforcement and stress pathways, focusing on the phenotypes modeling the alcohol addiction cycle. Finally, the third part will discuss the current findings and future directions, and proposes advanced transgenic mouse models for their potential use in alcohol research.

  20. Adolescent alcohol-related risk cognitions: the roles of social norms and social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Litt, Dana M; Stock, Michelle L

    2011-12-01

    The present study examined the impact of socially based descriptive norms on willingness to drink alcohol, drinker prototype favorability, affective alcohol attitudes, and perceived vulnerability for alcohol-related consequences within the Prototype Willingness model. Descriptive norms were manipulated by having 189 young adolescents view experimenter-created profile pages from the social networking site Facebook, which either showed older peers drinking or not. The results provided evidence that descriptive norms for alcohol use, as portrayed by Facebook profiles, significantly impact willingness to use, prototypes, attitudes toward use, and perceived vulnerability. A multiple mediation analysis indicated that prototypes, attitudes, and perceptions of use mediated the relationship between the content of the Facebook profile and willingness. These results indicate that adolescents who perceive that alcohol use is normative, as evidenced by Facebook profiles, are at higher risk for cognitions shown to predict alcohol use than adolescents who do not see alcohol use portrayed as frequently on Facebook.