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Sample records for reduce childhood diarrhoea

  1. Host factors in childhood diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Yunus, M

    1990-06-01

    Host factors play a significant role in children under five who are the worst sufferers of this widespread and global scourge, both in regard to mortality and morbidity. This study deals with some of the host factors in relation to diarrhoea in a rural population. Age was found to have a definite and direct relationship to diarrhoea. Male children were effected more. Poor hygiene, malnutrition and the receipt of supplementary feeds, were found to have a significant association with childhood diarrhoeas.

  2. Global burden of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Walker, Christa L Fischer; Rudan, Igor; Liu, Li; Nair, Harish; Theodoratou, Evropi; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; O'Brien, Katherine L; Campbell, Harry; Black, Robert E

    2013-04-20

    Diarrhoea and pneumonia are the leading infectious causes of childhood morbidity and mortality. We comprehensively reviewed the epidemiology of childhood diarrhoea and pneumonia in 2010-11 to inform the planning of integrated control programmes for both illnesses. We estimated that, in 2010, there were 1·731 billion episodes of diarrhoea (36 million of which progressed to severe episodes) and 120 million episodes of pneumonia (14 million of which progressed to severe episodes) in children younger than 5 years. We estimated that, in 2011, 700,000 episodes of diarrhoea and 1·3 million of pneumonia led to death. A high proportion of deaths occurs in the first 2 years of life in both diseases--72% for diarrhoea and 81% for pneumonia. The epidemiology of childhood diarrhoea and that of pneumonia overlap, which might be partly because of shared risk factors, such as undernutrition, suboptimum breastfeeding, and zinc deficiency. Rotavirus is the most common cause of vaccine-preventable severe diarrhoea (associated with 28% of cases), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (18·3%) of vaccine-preventable severe pneumonia. Morbidity and mortality from childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea are falling, but action is needed globally and at country level to accelerate the reduction.

  3. Hand washing with soap and WASH educational intervention reduces under-five childhood diarrhoea incidence in Jigjiga District, Eastern Ethiopia: A community-based cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hashi, Abdiwahab; Kumie, Abera; Gasana, Janvier

    2017-06-01

    Despite the tremendous achievement in reducing child mortality and morbidity in the last two decades, diarrhoea is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children in many developing countries, including Ethiopia. Hand washing with soap promotion, water quality improvements and improvements in excreta disposal significantly reduces diarrhoeal diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hand washing with soap and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) educational Intervention on the incidence of under-five children diarrhoea. A community-based cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in 24 clusters (sub-Kebelles) in Jigjiga district, Somali region, Eastern Ethiopia from February 1 to July 30, 2015. The trial compared incidence of diarrhoea among under-five children whose primary caretakers receive hand washing with soap and water, sanitation, hygiene educational messages with control households. Generalized estimating equation with a log link function Poisson distribution family was used to compute adjusted incidence rate ratio and the corresponding 95% confidence interval. The results of this study show that the longitudinal adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) of diarrhoeal diseases comparing interventional and control households was 0.65 (95% CI 0.57, 0.73) suggesting an overall diarrhoeal diseases reduction of 35%. The results are similar to other trials of WASH educational interventions and hand washing with soap. In conclusion, hand washing with soap practice during critical times and WASH educational messages reduces childhood diarrhoea in the rural pastoralist area.

  4. Solar Drinking Water Disinfection (SODIS) to Reduce Childhood Diarrhoea in Rural Bolivia: A Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mäusezahl, Daniel; Christen, Andri; Pacheco, Gonzalo Duran; Tellez, Fidel Alvarez; Iriarte, Mercedes; Zapata, Maria E.; Cevallos, Myriam; Hattendorf, Jan; Cattaneo, Monica Daigl; Arnold, Benjamin; Smith, Thomas A.; Colford, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Solar drinking water disinfection (SODIS) is a low-cost, point-of-use water purification method that has been disseminated globally. Laboratory studies suggest that SODIS is highly efficacious in inactivating waterborne pathogens. Previous field studies provided limited evidence for its effectiveness in reducing diarrhoea. Methods and Findings We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in 22 rural communities in Bolivia to evaluate the effect of SODIS in reducing diarrhoea among children under the age of 5 y. A local nongovernmental organisation conducted a standardised interactive SODIS-promotion campaign in 11 communities targeting households, communities, and primary schools. Mothers completed a daily child health diary for 1 y. Within the intervention arm 225 households (376 children) were trained to expose water-filled polyethyleneteraphtalate bottles to sunlight. Eleven communities (200 households, 349 children) served as a control. We recorded 166,971 person-days of observation during the trial representing 79.9% and 78.9% of the total possible person-days of child observation in intervention and control arms, respectively. Mean compliance with SODIS was 32.1%. The reported incidence rate of gastrointestinal illness in children in the intervention arm was 3.6 compared to 4.3 episodes/year at risk in the control arm. The relative rate of diarrhoea adjusted for intracluster correlation was 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.59–1.12). The median length of diarrhoea was 3 d in both groups. Conclusions Despite an extensive SODIS promotion campaign we found only moderate compliance with the intervention and no strong evidence for a substantive reduction in diarrhoea among children. These results suggest that there is a need for better evidence of how the well-established laboratory efficacy of this home-based water treatment method translates into field effectiveness under various cultural settings and intervention intensities. Further global

  5. Solar drinking water disinfection (SODIS) to reduce childhood diarrhoea in rural Bolivia: a cluster-randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mäusezahl, Daniel; Christen, Andri; Pacheco, Gonzalo Duran; Tellez, Fidel Alvarez; Iriarte, Mercedes; Zapata, Maria E; Cevallos, Myriam; Hattendorf, Jan; Cattaneo, Monica Daigl; Arnold, Benjamin; Smith, Thomas A; Colford, John M

    2009-08-01

    Solar drinking water disinfection (SODIS) is a low-cost, point-of-use water purification method that has been disseminated globally. Laboratory studies suggest that SODIS is highly efficacious in inactivating waterborne pathogens. Previous field studies provided limited evidence for its effectiveness in reducing diarrhoea. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in 22 rural communities in Bolivia to evaluate the effect of SODIS in reducing diarrhoea among children under the age of 5 y. A local nongovernmental organisation conducted a standardised interactive SODIS-promotion campaign in 11 communities targeting households, communities, and primary schools. Mothers completed a daily child health diary for 1 y. Within the intervention arm 225 households (376 children) were trained to expose water-filled polyethyleneteraphtalate bottles to sunlight. Eleven communities (200 households, 349 children) served as a control. We recorded 166,971 person-days of observation during the trial representing 79.9% and 78.9% of the total possible person-days of child observation in intervention and control arms, respectively. Mean compliance with SODIS was 32.1%. The reported incidence rate of gastrointestinal illness in children in the intervention arm was 3.6 compared to 4.3 episodes/year at risk in the control arm. The relative rate of diarrhoea adjusted for intracluster correlation was 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.59-1.12). The median length of diarrhoea was 3 d in both groups. Despite an extensive SODIS promotion campaign we found only moderate compliance with the intervention and no strong evidence for a substantive reduction in diarrhoea among children. These results suggest that there is a need for better evidence of how the well-established laboratory efficacy of this home-based water treatment method translates into field effectiveness under various cultural settings and intervention intensities. Further global promotion of SODIS for general use should be

  6. Global action plan for childhood diarrhoea: Developing research priorities

    PubMed Central

    Zipursky, Alvin; Wazny, Kerri; Black, Robert; Keenan, William; Duggan, Christopher; Olness, Karen; Simon, Jonathan; Simpson, Evan; Sherman, Philip; Santosham, Mathuram; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood diarrhoea remains a major public health problem responsible for the deaths of approximately 800 000 children annually, worldwide. The present study was undertaken to further define research priorities for the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea in low and middle income countries. We used the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) process for defining research priorities. This provided a transparent, systematic method of obtaining the opinions of experts regarding research priorities in childhood diarrhoea. The present report describes the deliberations of a workshop that reviewed these research priorities by stakeholders including colleagues from: government agencies, academic institutions, major funding agencies and non–governmental organizations. Methods The workshop included 38 participants, divided into four groups to consider issues in the categories of description, delivery, development and discovery. Each group received 20 to 23 questions/research priorities previously identified by the CHNRI process. Deliberations and conclusions of each group were summarized in separate reports that were further discussed in a plenary session including all workshop participants. Results The reports of the working groups emphasized the following five key points: 1) A common theme was the need to substantially increase the use of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc in the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea. There is a need for better definitions of those factors that supported and interfered with the use of these agents; 2) There is an urgent need to determine the long–term effects of chronic and recurrent bouts of diarrhoea on the physical and intellectual development of affected children; 3) Improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene facilities are critical steps required to reduce the incidence and severity of childhood diarrhoea; 4)Risk factors enhancing the susceptibility and clinical response to diarrhoea were

  7. Reducing deaths from diarrhoea through oral rehydration therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Victora, C. G.; Bryce, J.; Fontaine, O.; Monasch, R.

    2000-01-01

    In 1980, diarrhoea was the leading cause of child mortality, accounting for 4.6 million deaths annually. Efforts to control diarrhoea over the past decade have been based on multiple, potentially powerful interventions implemented more or less simultaneously. Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) was introduced in 1979 and rapidly became the cornerstone of programmes for the control of diarrhoeal diseases. We report on the strategy for controlling diarrhoea through case management, with special reference to ORT, and on the relationship between its implementation and reduced mortality. Population-based data on the coverage and quality of facility-based use of ORT are scarce, despite its potential importance in reducing mortality, especially for severe cases. ORT use rates during the 1980s are available for only a few countries. An improvement in the availability of data occurred in the mid-1990s. The study of time trends is hampered by the use of several different definitions of ORT. Nevertheless, the data show positive trends in diarrhoea management in most parts of the world. ORT is now given to the majority of children with diarrhoea. The annual number of deaths attributable to diarrhoea among children aged under 5 years fell from the estimated 4.6 million in 1980 to about 1.5 million today. Case studies in Brazil, Egypt, Mexico, and the Philippines confirm increases in the use of ORT which are concomitant with marked falls in mortality. In some countries, possible alternative explanations for the observed decline in mortality have been fairly confidently ruled out. Experience with ORT can provide useful guidance for child survival programmes. With adequate political will and financial support, cost-effective interventions other than that of immunization can be successfully delivered by national programmes. Furthermore, there are important lessons for evaluators. The population-based data needed to establish trends in health service delivery, outcomes and impact are not

  8. Reducing deaths from diarrhoea through oral rehydration therapy.

    PubMed

    Victora, C G; Bryce, J; Fontaine, O; Monasch, R

    2000-01-01

    In 1980, diarrhoea was the leading cause of child mortality, accounting for 4.6 million deaths annually. Efforts to control diarrhoea over the past decade have been based on multiple, potentially powerful interventions implemented more or less simultaneously. Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) was introduced in 1979 and rapidly became the cornerstone of programmes for the control of diarrhoeal diseases. We report on the strategy for controlling diarrhoea through case management, with special reference to ORT, and on the relationship between its implementation and reduced mortality. Population-based data on the coverage and quality of facility-based use of ORT are scarce, despite its potential importance in reducing mortality, especially for severe cases. ORT use rates during the 1980s are available for only a few countries. An improvement in the availability of data occurred in the mid-1990s. The study of time trends is hampered by the use of several different definitions of ORT. Nevertheless, the data show positive trends in diarrhoea management in most parts of the world. ORT is now given to the majority of children with diarrhoea. The annual number of deaths attributable to diarrhoea among children aged under 5 years fell from the estimated 4.6 million in 1980 to about 1.5 million today. Case studies in Brazil, Egypt, Mexico, and the Philippines confirm increases in the use of ORT which are concomitant with marked falls in mortality. In some countries, possible alternative explanations for the observed decline in mortality have been fairly confidently ruled out. Experience with ORT can provide useful guidance for child survival programmes. With adequate political will and financial support, cost-effective interventions other than that of immunization can be successfully delivered by national programmes. Furthermore, there are important lessons for evaluators. The population-based data needed to establish trends in health service delivery, outcomes and impact are not

  9. Effect of deep tube well use on childhood diarrhoea in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Escamilla, V; Wagner, B; Yunus, M; Streatfield, PK; van Geen, A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether the installation of deep tube wells to reduce exposure to groundwater arsenic in rural Bangladesh had an effect on the incidence of childhood diarrhoeal disease. Methods Episodes of diarrhoeal disease in children aged under 5 years that occurred on one specified day each month between 2005 and 2006 were reported to community health workers for six rural villages. A geographical information system containing details of household water use and sanitation in the villages was built using data obtained by a global positioning system survey. The information system also included health, spatial and demographic data. A field survey was carried out to determine whether households obtained drinking water from deep tube wells installed in 2005. The effect of deep tube well use on the incidence of childhood diarrhoea was assessed using a random effects negative binomial regression model. Findings The risk of childhood diarrhoea was 46% lower in the 179 households that used a deep tube well than in the 364 that used a shallow tube well (P = 0.032). Neither socioeconomic status, latrine density, population density nor study year had a significant influence on disease risk. The incidence of childhood diarrhoea declined dramatically between 2005 and 2006, irrespective of water source. Conclusion The introduction of deep tube wells to reduce arsenic in drinking water in rural Bangladesh had the additional benefit of lowering the incidence of diarrhoea among young children. PMID:21734766

  10. The effect of sodium tetraborate and alum in the management of acute childhood diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Aung, M M; U, P P

    1986-03-01

    The effect of oral rehydration (OR) has been well established in the management of dehydration in acute childhood diarrhoea. Many authors have been trying to find additives of all types which would be effective in retaining oral fluids and promoting their active absorption into the circulation. Any agent which will effectively reduce oral rehydration requirements should be considered for prospective studies. Amongst the traditional medicines, it was noticed that sodium tetraborate (borax) and alum reduced appreciably the fluid requirement in many cases of acute childhood diarrhoea. This traditional usage of these chemicals without any noticeable side effects has been described for centuries. During preliminary observations on 26 of our children given these salts no side effects were detected.

  11. Interventions to address deaths from childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea equitably: what works and at what cost?

    PubMed

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Das, Jai K; Walker, Neff; Rizvi, Arjumand; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Black, Robert E

    2013-04-20

    Global mortality in children younger than 5 years has fallen substantially in the past two decades from more than 12 million in 1990, to 6·9 million in 2011, but progress is inconsistent between countries. Pneumonia and diarrhoea are the two leading causes of death in this age group and have overlapping risk factors. Several interventions can effectively address these problems, but are not available to those in need. We systematically reviewed evidence showing the effectiveness of various potential preventive and therapeutic interventions against childhood diarrhoea and pneumonia, and relevant delivery strategies. We used the Lives Saved Tool model to assess the effect on mortality when these interventions are applied. We estimate that if implemented at present annual rates of increase in each of the 75 Countdown countries, these interventions and packages of care could save 54% of diarrhoea and 51% of pneumonia deaths by 2025 at a cost of US$3·8 billion. However, if coverage of these key evidence-based interventions were scaled up to at least 80%, and that for immunisations to at least 90%, 95% of diarrhoea and 67% of pneumonia deaths in children younger than 5 years could be eliminated by 2025 at a cost of $6·715 billion. New delivery platforms could promote equitable access and community platforms are important catalysts in this respect. Furthermore, several of these interventions could reduce morbidity and overall burden of disease, with possible benefits for developmental outcomes.

  12. Is there an association between bacteriological drinking water quality and childhood diarrhoea in developing countries?

    PubMed

    Jensen, P K; Jayasinghe, G; van der Hoek, W; Cairncross, S; Dalsgaard, A

    2004-11-01

    To investigate the association between bacteriological drinking water quality and incidence of diarrhoea, we conducted a 1-year prospective study in the southern Punjab, Pakistan. Diarrhoea episodes, drinking water sources and drinking water quality were monitored weekly among children younger than 5 years in 200 households. We found no association between the incidence of childhood diarrhoea and the number of Escherichia coli in the drinking water sources (the public domain). A possible trend was seen relating the number of E. coli in the household storage containers (the domestic domain) and diarrhoea incidence, but this did not reach statistical significance. Faecal contamination levels in household water containers were generally high even when the source water was of good quality. Under conditions such as this, it is questionable whether public water treatment will have a significant impact on the incidence of endemic childhood diarrhoea.

  13. The syndemics of childhood diarrhoea: a biosocial perspective on efforts to combat global inequities in diarrhoea-related morbidity and mortality.

    PubMed

    Bulled, Nicola; Singer, Merrill; Dillingham, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhoea remains the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years. Moreover, morbidity as a result of diarrhoea is high particularly in marginalised communities. Frequent bouts of diarrhoea have deleterious and irreversible effects on physical and cognitive development. Children are especially vulnerable given their inability to mount an active immune response to pathogen exposure. Biological limitations are exacerbated by the long-term effects of poverty, including reduced nutrition, poor hygiene and deprived home environments. Drawing from available literature, this paper uses syndemic theory to explore the role of adverse biosocial interactions in increasing the total disease burden of enteric infections in low-resources populations and assesses the limitations of recent global calls to action. The syndemic perspective describes situations in which adverse social conditions, including inequality, poverty and other forms of political and economic oppression, play a critical role in facilitating disease-disease interactions. Given the complex micro- and macro-nature of childhood diarrhoea, including interactions between pathogens, disease conditions and social environments, the syndemic perspective offers a way forward. While rarely the focus of health interventions, technologically advanced biomedical strategies are likely to be more effective if coupled with interventions that address the social conditions of disparity.

  14. The syndemics of childhood diarrhoea: A biosocial perspective on efforts to combat global inequities in diarrhoea-related morbidity and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Bulled, Nicola; Singer, Merrill; Dillingham, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhoea remains the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years. Moreover, morbidity as a result of diarrhoea is high particularly in marginalized communities. Frequent bouts of diarrhoea have deleterious and irreversible effects on physical and cognitive development. Children are especially vulnerable given their inability to mount an active immune response to pathogen exposure. Biological limitations are exacerbated by the long term effects of poverty, including reduced nutrition, poor hygiene, and deprived home environments. Drawing from available literature, this paper uses syndemic theory to explore the role of adverse biosocial interactions in increasing the total disease burden of enteric infections in low-resources populations and assess the limitations of recent global calls to action. The syndemic perspective describes situations in which adverse social conditions, including inequality, poverty, and other forms of political and economic oppression, play a critical role in facilitating disease-disease interactions. Given the complex micro and macro nature of childhood diarrhoea including interactions between pathogens, disease conditions and social environments, the syndemic perspective offers a way forward. While rarely the focus of health interventions, technologically advanced biomedical strategies are likely to be more effective if coupled with interventions that address the social conditions of disparity. PMID:25005132

  15. Vitamin A supplementation and increased prevalence of childhood diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Stansfield, S K; Pierre-Louis, M; Lerebours, G; Augustin, A

    1993-09-04

    There is uncertainty over whether vitamin A supplementation reduces morbidity among children with subclinical deficiency of the vitamin. Hence a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the effect of vitamin A supplementation on childhood morbidity was conducted among 11,124 children aged 6-83 months in the northwest of Haiti. After a random start, children were sequentially assigned by household units to receive either megadose vitamin A or placebo in three distribution cycles 4 months apart. 2 to 8 weeks after each administration of the vitamin A and placebo capsules, indicators of childhood morbidity were reassessed through interviews conducted in the homes of participating families. The vitamin A group was found to have an increased 2-week prevalence of all symptoms and signs of childhood morbidity assessed, including diarrhoea (rate ratio [RR] = 1.09, 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.14), rhinitis (RR = 1.02, 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.04), cold/flu symptoms (RR = 1.04, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.06), cough (RR = 1.07, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.11), and rapid breathing (RR = 1.18, 95% confidence interval 1.09-1.27). The study shows an increased 2-week prevalence of diarrhoea and the symptoms of respiratory infections after vitamin A supplementation.

  16. Knowledge and Use of Zinc Supplementation in the Management of Childhood Diarrhoea among Health Care Workers in Public Primary Health Facilities in Benin-City, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Omuemu, Vivian O.; Ofuani, Ifeanyi J.; Kubeyinje, Itse C.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc supplementation reduces the severity, duration and recurrence of childhood acute diarrhoea. These beneficial effects of zinc in the treatment of diarrhoea led to the inclusion of a 10-14 days treatment regimen by the WHO/UNICEF. This study assessed the level of knowledge and use of zinc supplementation in the management of childhood diarrhoea among health care workers in public primary health facilities in Benin-City, Nigeria. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was carried out among the total population of health care providers in public primary health facilities in Benin-City. Data collection was done using a pre-tested, structured, self-administered questionnaire and data was analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. Results: A total of 168 health care workers participated in the study. Two-thirds of them were aware of zinc supplementation but specific knowledge of zinc supplementation in the management of childhood acute diarrhoea was poor. Thirty-five percent of them prescribed zinc when managing childhood diarrhoea and only 10% of these do so for every case of childhood diarrhoea. About 84.6% of them prescribed the correct dose of zinc while less than half of them prescribe it for the correct duration. All but one of them prescribed zinc in addition to ORS in line with the WHO guideline. Discussion: The study revealed a gap in the knowledge and practice of use of zinc supplementation in the management of childhood diarrhoea. It is recommended that nationwide campaigns should be embarked on to promote the use of zinc supplementation in the clinical management of childhood diarrhoea. PMID:22980153

  17. Operational issues and trends associated with the pilot introduction of zinc for childhood diarrhoea in Bougouni district, Mali.

    PubMed

    Winch, Peter J; Gilroy, Kate E; Doumbia, Seydou; Patterson, Amy E; Daou, Zana; Diawara, Adama; Swedberg, Eric; Black, Robert E; Fontaine, Olivier

    2008-06-01

    Zinc for the treatment of childhood diarrhoea was introduced in a pilot area in southern Mali to prepare for a cluster-randomized effectiveness study and to inform policies on how to best introduce and promote zinc at the community level. Dispersible zinc tablets in 14-tablet blister packs were provided through community health centres and drug kits managed by community health workers (CHWs) in two health zones in Bougouni district, Mali. Village meetings and individual counselling provided by CHWs and head nurses at health centres were the principal channels of communication. A combination of methods were employed to (a) detect problems in communication about the benefits of zinc and its mode of administration; (b) identify and resolve obstacles to implementation of zinc through existing health services; and (c) describe household-level constraints to the adoption of appropriate home-management practices for diarrhoea, including administration of both zinc and oral rehydration solution (ORS). Population-based household surveys with caretakers of children sick in the previous two weeks were carried out before and four months after the introduction of zinc supplementation. Household follow-up visits with children receiving zinc from the health centres and CHWs were conducted on day 3 and 14 after treatment for a subsample of children. A qualitative process evaluation also was conducted to investigate operational issues. Preliminary evidence from this study suggests that the introduction of zinc does not reduce the use of ORS and may reduce inappropriate antibiotic use for childhood diarrhoea. Financial access to treatments, management of concurrent diarrhoea and fever, and high use of unauthorized drug vendors were identified as factors affecting the effectiveness of the intervention in this setting. The introduction of zinc, if not appropriately integrated with other disease-control strategies, has the potential to decrease the appropriate presumptive treatment of

  18. Reducing diarrhoea deaths in South Africa: costs and effects of scaling up essential interventions to prevent and treat diarrhoea in under-five children.

    PubMed

    Chola, Lumbwe; Michalow, Julia; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Hofman, Karen

    2015-04-17

    Diarrhoea is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in South African children, accounting for approximately 20% of under-five deaths. Though progress has been made in scaling up multiple interventions to reduce diarrhoea in the last decade, challenges still remain. In this paper, we model the cost and impact of scaling up 13 interventions to prevent and treat childhood diarrhoea in South Africa. Modelling was done using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). Using 2014 as the baseline, intervention coverage was increased from 2015 until 2030. Three scale up scenarios were compared: by 2030, 1) coverage of all interventions increased by ten percentage points; 2) intervention coverage increased by 20 percentage points; 3) and intervention coverage increased to 99%. The model estimates 13 million diarrhoea cases at baseline. Scaling up intervention coverage averted between 3 million and 5.3 million diarrhoea cases. In 2030, diarrhoeal deaths are expected to reduce from an estimated 5,500 in 2014 to 2,800 in scenario one, 1,400 in scenario two and 100 in scenario three. The additional cost of implementing all 13 interventions will range from US$510 million (US$9 per capita) to US$960 million (US$18 per capita), of which the health system costs range between US$40 million (less than US$1 per capita) and US$170 million (US$3 per capita). Scaling up 13 essential interventions could have a substantial impact on reducing diarrhoeal deaths in South African children, which would contribute toward reducing child mortality in the post-MDG era. Preventive measures are key and the government should focus on improving water, sanitation and hygiene. The investments required to achieve these results seem feasible considering current health expenditure.

  19. Association of water handling and child feeding practice with childhood diarrhoea in rural community of Southern Nepal.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Dilaram; Singh, Jitendra Kumar; Adhikari, Mandira; Gautam, Salila; Pandey, Pragya; Dayal, Vinita

    2017-05-30

    Diarrhoea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally. While the childhood diarrhoea and its association with child feeding, and hygiene, hand washing and water treatment are studied elsewhere, the association of water handling and child feeding with childhood diarrhoea is an understudied area in Nepal. This study aimed to investigate the association of water handling and child feeding practice with childhood diarrhoea among children of one to five years of age in Southern, Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Dhanusha district of Southern Nepal in 2013. A total of 284 mother-child pairs were selected using systemic random sampling. A four-week prevalence of childhood diarrhoea was reported using frequency distribution. The association of childhood diarrhoea with water handling and child feeding practices was ascertained using multiple logistic regressions after adjusting for potential confounders. The result of the study demonstrated that the four-week prevalence of childhood diarrhoea was 36.6%. Our finding showed that unsafe water handling practices were associated independently with childhood diarrhoea: untreated water (aOR 3.55; 95% CI: 1.13-11.10), uncovered water (aOR 2.14; 95% CI: 1.09-4.19). Similarly, partial breast feeding (aOR 4.35; 95% CI: 1.87-10.12) was also associated with higher odds of childhood diarrhoea. One third of children in Southern Nepal still had diarrhoea within the four weeks preceding the survey. As poor water handling and sub optimal infant feeding practice were major risk factors contributing to such a high burden of the disease, health promotion strategies such as promotion of safe water handling, improved hygiene and child feeding practices are recommended for the prevention of childhood diarrhoea in Southern Terai of Nepal. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Water-related factors and childhood diarrhoea in African informal settlements. A cross-sectional study in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Stéphanie; Ouédraogo, François de Charles; Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi

    2015-06-01

    Improved access to water is a key factor in reducing diarrhoeal diseases, a leading cause of death among children in sub-Saharan Africa. In terms of water access, sub-Saharan African cities are some of the worst off in the world, with 20% of populations supplied by an unimproved water source. This situation is even worse in informal settlement areas. Using cross-sectional data on access to water from a survey implemented in three informal neighbourhoods of the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System, logistic regressions are modelled to test the effect of different modalities of access to water on childhood diarrhoea. Our results show that the prevalence of diarrhoea in children is high: one-third of households with a child under 10 experienced an episode of childhood diarrhoea during the 2 weeks preceding the survey, even though 91% of the households surveyed have access to an improved water source. The results show that efforts to reduce childhood morbidity would be greatly enhanced by strengthening piped water access in informal settlement areas in Africa. In addition, this study confirms that, beyond the single measure of the main access to water, accurate variables that assess the accessibility to water are needed.

  1. Perceptions of childhood diarrhoea and its treatment in rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    de Zoysa, I; Carson, D; Feachem, R; Kirkwood, B; Lindsay-Smith, E; Loewenson, R

    1984-01-01

    In the course of a study on the acceptability and feasibility of home-based oral rehydration therapy in rural Zimbabwe, information was collected on attitudes and beliefs about diarrhoea and on action taken in response to an episode of diarrhoea in a child. Diarrhoea was found to be a perceived threat at community and family level and numerous possible causes of diarrhoea were described which were assigned to two broad classes: (1) 'physical' causes, such as a polluted environment, diet and teething and (2) 'social and spiritual' causes such as those associated with a depressed fontanelle. These domains were not, however, mutually exclusive; 76% of the described episodes of diarrhoea were attributed to 'physical' causes, 15% to 'social and spiritual' causes and 8% to a combination of both. Reported utilization rates of the formal health services were unexpectedly high. In contrast, we recorded a low demand for indigenous herbalists (n'angas). Home management was common and comprised the administration of indigenous herbal remedies, of sugar and salt solutions, of over-the-counter drugs or of enemas. These remedies were given on their own or alongside the treatment prescribed by a health worker. A number of variables were examined to assess their influence on health-seeking behaviour: perceived cause and severity of the illness, socio-demographic characteristics of the respondent or child and accessibility of the health services.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. The geographical co-distribution and socio-ecological drivers of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z; Hu, W; Tong, S

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY This study aimed to explore the spatio-temporal patterns, geographical co-distribution, and socio-ecological drivers of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea in Queensland. A Bayesian conditional autoregressive model was used to quantify the impacts of socio-ecological factors on both childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea at a postal area level. A distinct seasonality of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea was found. Childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea were mainly distributed in the northwest of Queensland. Mount Isa city was the high-risk cluster where childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea co-distributed. Emergency department visits (EDVs) for pneumonia increased by 3% per 10-mm increase in monthly average rainfall in wet seasons. By comparison, a 10-mm increase in monthly average rainfall may cause an increase of 4% in EDVs for diarrhoea. Monthly average temperature was negatively associated with EDVs for childhood diarrhoea in wet seasons. Low socioeconomic index for areas (SEIFA) was associated with high EDVs for childhood pneumonia. Future pneumonia and diarrhoea prevention and control measures in Queensland should focus more on Mount Isa.

  3. Effect of chlorination of drinking-water on water quality and childhood diarrhoea in a village in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Peter K; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Jayasinghe, Gayathri; van der Hoek, Wim; Cairncross, Sandy; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate the importance of public-domain transmission of pathogens in drinking-water, an intervention study was carried out by chlorinating the public water-supply system in a village in Pakistan. The water quality improved and reached a geometric mean of 3 Escherichia coli per 100 mL at the last standpipe of the water-supply system. Drinking-water source used and the occurrence of diarrhoea were monitored on a weekly basis over a six-month period among 144 children aged less than five years in the village. In this group, the children using chlorinated water from the water-supply scheme had a higher risk of diarrhoea than children using groundwater sources, controlled for confounding by season and availability of a toilet and a water-storage facility. The incidence of diarrhoea in the village (7.3 episodes per 10(3) person-days) was not statistically different from that in a neighbouring village where most children used water from a non-chlorinated water-supply system with very poor water quality. In this study area, under non-epidemic conditions, the reduction of faecal bacteria in the public drinking-water supply by chlorination does not seem to be a priority intervention to reduce childhood diarrhoea. However, the study was of limited size and cannot provide conclusive evidence.

  4. A hierarchical model for studying risk factors for childhood diarrhoea: a case-control study in a middle-income country.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Suzana R; Strina, Agostino; Jesus, Sandra R; Ribeiro, Hugo C; Cairncross, Sandy; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2008-08-01

    To identify factors associated with diarrhoea occurrence in children in a city in a middle-income country, with high access to water and sanitation. A case-control study in the city of Salvador, north-eastern Brazil was conducted from November 2002 to August 2004. The study population consisted of children presenting at a health facility. A total of 1688 cases of diarrhoea and 1676 controls were selected. Data collection was by a questionnaire and structured observation during home visits. The explanatory variables were grouped according to a conceptual model defined previously. Analysis was done using a hierarchical approach, to provide a more dynamic view of the transmission characteristics of childhood diarrhoea. Non-conditional logistic regression was used, and odds ratio and population-attributable fractions were estimated. Socioeconomic factors contributed most to determining diarrhoea occurrence, followed by interpersonal contact, while factors related to food preparation, the environment and water and sanitation made a smaller contribution. The findings indicate that the transmission of diarrhoea is influenced by factors from all hierarchical levels, with interpersonal transmission playing a relatively higher role than previously thought. This is compatible with a predominance of viruses and other agents spread by interpersonal routes including Shigella, Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Diarrhoea control strategies in similar settings (middle-income countries in which a large proportion of the population has access to water and sanitation) must give greater emphasis to policies geared towards reducing person-to-person transmission for the prevention of diarrhoea.

  5. Therapeutic impact of routine electrolyte testing in childhood diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Pillay-van Wyk, V; Swingler, G

    2010-01-01

    To report on the management of plasma sodium and potassium disturbances, identified by routine electrolyte testing in children. A prospective cohort study of patients admitted to the Diarrhoea Rehydration Unit of Red Cross Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. The patients were 530 children aged 6 weeks to 2 years with a primary diagnosis of diarrhoea. For plasma sodium levels <125 mmol/L (3.4%, 95% CI 2.0-0 5.3), 48 patients (95% CI 30-116) needed testing for one to receive a change of management. For plasma potassium levels <3 mmol/L (31.6%, 95% CI 27.6-35.6), fewer patients (6, 95% CI 5-7) needed testing for one to receive a change of management. Electrolyte abnormalities were detected and clinical management changed, but large numbers of patients needed to be tested for each change of management.

  6. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  7. Why are there delays in seeking treatment for childhood diarrhoea in India?

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Nisha; Upadhyay, Ravi Prakash

    2013-09-01

    To examine the barriers and facilitating factors for seeking treatment for childhood diarrhoea and to determine the main causes for delay in seeking treatment. Data from Indian Demographic and Health survey 2005-06 (NFHS-III) were used. Mothers were asked whether their children (<5-years) had suffered from diarrhoea during the 2 weeks preceding the survey. Data were collected on the time of seeking treatment after start of the illness and days waited to seek treatment after the diarrhoea started. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to find the determinants of seeking treatment at the health facility and the factors responsible for the 'delay' in seeking advice/treatment. Of a sample of 41 287 children, 3890 (9.4%) reportedly had diarrhoea. Sixty percentage of children with diarrhoea were taken to a health facility. Mother's education till higher secondary and above (OR 1.65; 95% CI, 1.08-2.54), richest (OR 1.76; 95% CI, 1.24-2.48) wealth index, and possession of a health card by the mother (OR 1.35; 95% CI, 1.12-1.62) increased the odds of seeking treatment. There was a strong gender bias; a male child had lower odds of experiencing a 'delay' in seeking treatment, compared with a female child (OR 0.71; 95% CI, 0.55-0.92). Access to a health facility still remains a major issue: treatment seeking was delayed when distance to a health facility was reported as a 'major problem' (OR 1.33; 95% CI, 1.01-1.76). Improved care seeking for childhood diarrhoea in India is still constrained by access to a health facility and requires expansion and strengthening of the public health system. The caregivers, especially the mothers need to be educated about the importance of seeking timely treatment and the benefits of oral rehydration solution. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Water sources are associated with childhood diarrhoea prevalence in rural east-central Mali.

    PubMed

    Plate, David K; Strassmann, Beverly I; Wilson, Mark L

    2004-03-01

    Water supply improvements generally reduce the incidence of diarrhoea. However, populations with limited access to a safe water supply may continue to draw water from unimproved sources, thereby increasing their risk of diarrhoea. Furthermore, young children who are not breastfed may be even more susceptible to water-borne diarrhoeal pathogens. Our study explored the interactive protective effects against diarrhoea of exclusively using improved water sources and breastfeeding among children in rural Mali. Interviews were conducted with parents or guardians of children under 7 years of age in seven villages with access to a variety of water supplies. Water sources used, breastfeeding status, demographics and recent diarrhoea symptoms were determined for 1117 children. The cross-sectional findings were used to compare diarrhoea prevalence among exclusive and non-exclusive users of improved water sources. Variation in prevalence by age and exclusive breastfeeding status was evaluated using chi-square and multivariate analyses. Children whose water was drawn exclusively from wells had a significantly lower prevalence of diarrhoea as compared with children whose water was drawn from a spring or stream (5.9% vs. 8.7%; P=0.04). The exclusive use of improved water sources had no impact on diarrhoea prevalence among children who were exclusively breastfed. Similarly, the strongest protective effect was observed among children who were not exclusively breastfed. Our results indicate that using surface water as a primary or secondary water source exposes children to greater risk of diarrhoeal disease than using only improved sources such as wells. It is particularly beneficial for young children who are not exclusively breastfed to be supplied with water drawn from improved sources.

  9. Reducing diarrhoea in Guatemalan children: randomized controlled trial of flocculant-disinfectant for drinking-water.

    PubMed Central

    Chiller, Tom M.; Mendoza, Carlos E.; Lopez, M. Beatriz; Alvarez, Maricruz; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Keswick, Bruce H.; Luby, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of a new point-of-use treatment for drinking-water, a commercially developed flocculant-disinfectant, on the prevalence of diarrhoea in children. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial among 514 rural Guatemalan households, divided into 42 neighbourhood clusters, for 13 weeks, from 4 November 2002 through 31 January 2003. Clusters assigned to water treatment with the flocculant-disinfectant were compared with those using their usual water-handling practices. The longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea was calculated as the proportion of total days with diarrhoea divided by the total number of days of observation. The prevalence of diarrhoea was compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. FINDINGS: The 1702 people in households receiving the disinfectant had a prevalence of diarrhoea that was 40% lower than that among the 1699 people using standard water-handling practices (0.9% versus 1.5%; P = 0.001). In households using the flocculant-disinfectant, children < 1 year of age had a 39% lower prevalence of diarrhoea than those in households using their standard practices (3.7% versus 6.0%; P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: In settings where families rarely treat drinking-water, we introduced a novel flocculant-disinfectant that reduced the longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea, especially among children aged < 1 year, among whom diarrhoea has been strongly associated with mortality. Successful introduction and use of this product could contribute to preventing diarrhoeal disease globally. PMID:16501712

  10. Determinants of percent expenditure of household income due to childhood diarrhoea in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Das, J; Das, S K; Ahmed, S; Ferdous, F; Farzana, F D; Sarker, M H R; Ahmed, A M S; Chisti, M J; Malek, M A; Rahman, A; Faruque, A S G; Mamun, A A

    2015-10-01

    There is limited information on percent expenditure of household income due to childhood diarrhoea especially in rural Bangladesh. A total of 4205 children aged <5 years with acute diarrhoea were studied. Percent expenditure was calculated as total expenditure for the diarrhoeal episode divided by monthly family income, multiplied by 100. Overall median percent expenditure was 3·04 (range 0·01-94·35). For Vibrio cholerae it was 6·42 (range 0·52-82·85), for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli 3·10 (range 0·22-91·87), for Shigella 3·17 (range 0·06-77·80), and for rotavirus 3·08 (range 0·06-48·00). In a multinomial logistic regression model, for the upper tertile of percent expenditure, significant higher odds were found for male sex, travelling a longer distance to reach hospital (⩾median of 4 miles), seeking care elsewhere before attending hospital, vomiting, higher frequency of purging (⩾10 times/day), some or severe dehydration and stunting. V. cholerae was the highest and rotavirus was the least responsible pathogen for percent expenditure of household income due to childhood diarrhoea.

  11. Practice and attitudes regarding the management of childhood diarrhoea among pharmacies in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saengcharoen, Woranuch; Lerkiatbundit, Sanguan

    2010-12-01

    to compare practice behaviour and attitudes of pharmacy personnel in the management of childhood diarrhoea between type I (requiring a pharmacist to be on duty) and type II (pharmacist not required) pharmacies, between those surveyed in 2008 and in 2001, and between new-generation (graduation ≤ 10 years) and old-generation (graduation >10 years) pharmacists. the setting was 115 pharmacies in a city in the south of Thailand. The study was separated into two phases: a simulated client method to evaluate history taking, drug dispensing and advice giving among pharmacy personnel and a questionnaire to measure attitudes and factors affecting diarrhoea treatment. in the simulated client method study, questions asked and advice given by the providers (the pharmacists or non-pharmacists responding to the simulated clients), especially in type II pharmacies, were insufficient. Only 5.2% of pharmacies correctly dispensed for a child with viral diarrhoea, using oral rehydration salts (ORS) alone. Appropriate ORS dispensing of providers was not affected by shop type, survey time or peer generation. However, 52.2% of providers inappropriately dispensed antibiotics for such illness. In the questionnaire study, 108 completed surveys were obtained (a response rate of 93.9%). The providers working in 2008 more strongly agreed that ORS was effective, safe, used by health professionals and requested by patients, relative to those in 2001 (P < 0.05). No potential factor influencing the actual ORS dispensing was identified. Nevertheless, antibiotic dispensing was affected by beliefs in producing recovery and high profit. practice and attitudes of pharmacy personnel were inappropriate in the management of childhood diarrhoea. Revision of the pharmacy curriculum did not result in improvement of practice as seen by the similarity of practice patterns among the 2001 and 2008 samples. Improvement of knowledge and practice behaviour among providers in pharmacies is needed.

  12. Chronic diarrhoea in children.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Alfredo; Lo Vecchio, Andrea; Berni Canani, Roberto

    2012-10-01

    Chronic diarrhoea in children shows an age related spectrum. In infants and young children a major role is related to persistent intestinal infections, intolerance to specific nutrients such as cow's milk protein, and toddler's diarrhoea. In older children and adolescents, inflammatory bowel diseases are strongly increasing and nonspecific diarrhoea is also frequent. Coeliac disease is a major cause of diarrhoea throughout childhood. In neonates, congenital diarrhoea is a rare but severe syndrome that includes several highly complex diseases. In children, diagnosis should be based on noninvasive techniques. Endoscopy should be decided based on clinical criteria, but also driven by noninvasive tests to assess the digestive absorptive functions and intestinal inflammation. A stepwise approach may reduce the need of endoscopy, also in the light of its relatively limited diagnostic yield compared to adult patients. Treatment of chronic diarrhoea in children is also substantially different from what is generally done in adults and includes a major role for nutritional interventions. Therefore chronic diarrhoea in children is a complex age-specific disorder that requires an age-specific management that is in many aspects distinct from that in adults.

  13. Effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination against childhood diarrhoea in El Salvador: case-control study

    PubMed Central

    de Palma, Orbelina; Cruz, Lilian; Ramos, Hector; de Baires, Amada; Villatoro, Nora; Pastor, Desiree; de Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Kerin, Tara; Bowen, Michael; Gentsch, Jon; Esposito, Douglas H; Parashar, Umesh; Tate, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a monovalent rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus disease and to assess its impact on diarrhoea in children aged less than 2 years after national introduction in El Salvador, a low-middle income country in Central America. Design Matched case-control study. Setting Seven hospitals in cities across El Salvador, January 2007 to June 2009. Participants 323 children aged less than 2 years admitted with laboratory confirmed rotavirus diarrhoea and 969 healthy controls matched for age and neighbourhood. Main outcome measure Effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination ((1–adjusted odds ratio of vaccination)×100) against rotavirus diarrhoea requiring hospital admission. Results Cases and controls were similar for breast feeding, premature birth, maternal education, and socioeconomic variables. G1P[8] strains were identified in 92% of rotavirus cases. Effectiveness of two doses of vaccination against diarrhoea requiring hospital admission was 76% (95% confidence interval 64% to 84%). Protection was significantly lower (P=0.046) among children aged 12 months or more (59%, 27% to 77%) compared with children aged 6-11 months (83%, 68% to 91%). One dose of vaccine was 51% (26% to 67%) effective. At the sentinel hospitals, all admissions for diarrhoea among children under 5 declined by 40% in 2008 and by 51% in 2009 from the prevaccine year 2006. Conclusions A monovalent rotavirus vaccine was highly effective against admissions for rotavirus diarrhoea in children aged less than 2 years in El Salvador and substantially reduced the number of such admissions in this low-middle income setting. The impact on disease epidemiology after vaccination, particularly among older children, warrants future attention. PMID:20551120

  14. Effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination against childhood diarrhoea in El Salvador: case-control study.

    PubMed

    de Palma, Orbelina; Cruz, Lilian; Ramos, Hector; de Baires, Amada; Villatoro, Nora; Pastor, Desiree; de Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Kerin, Tara; Bowen, Michael; Gentsch, Jon; Esposito, Douglas H; Parashar, Umesh; Tate, Jacqueline; Patel, Manish

    2010-06-15

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a monovalent rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus disease and to assess its impact on diarrhoea in children aged less than 2 years after national introduction in El Salvador, a low-middle income country in Central America. Matched case-control study. Seven hospitals in cities across El Salvador, January 2007 to June 2009. 323 children aged less than 2 years admitted with laboratory confirmed rotavirus diarrhoea and 969 healthy controls matched for age and neighbourhood. Effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination ((1-adjusted odds ratio of vaccination)x100) against rotavirus diarrhoea requiring hospital admission. Cases and controls were similar for breast feeding, premature birth, maternal education, and socioeconomic variables. G1P[8] strains were identified in 92% of rotavirus cases. Effectiveness of two doses of vaccination against diarrhoea requiring hospital admission was 76% (95% confidence interval 64% to 84%). Protection was significantly lower (P=0.046) among children aged 12 months or more (59%, 27% to 77%) compared with children aged 6-11 months (83%, 68% to 91%). One dose of vaccine was 51% (26% to 67%) effective. At the sentinel hospitals, all admissions for diarrhoea among children under 5 declined by 40% in 2008 and by 51% in 2009 from the prevaccine year 2006. A monovalent rotavirus vaccine was highly effective against admissions for rotavirus diarrhoea in children aged less than 2 years in El Salvador and substantially reduced the number of such admissions in this low-middle income setting. The impact on disease epidemiology after vaccination, particularly among older children, warrants future attention.

  15. Mass media can help improve treatment of childhood diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Rao, K V; Mishra, V K; Retherford, R D

    1998-08-01

    The Government of India has identified oral rehydration therapy (ORT) promotion as a priority child survival strategy. Since two-thirds of mothers in India are illiterate, radio and television have been important vehicles for educating mothers about the need to increase a child's fluid intake and continue feeding during episodes of diarrhea, to use prepackaged oral rehydration salts (ORS) or a recommended home-made solution (RHS), and to recognize symptoms that require treatment at a health facility. The effects of exposure to electronic media messages about childhood diarrhea on mothers' knowledge and use of ORT were investigated through data from the 1992-93 National Family Health Survey. the data set included 38,161 women who gave birth in the 4 years preceding the survey and 4558 children born 1-47 months before the survey who were sick with diarrhea at any time during the 2 weeks before the interview. 43% of mothers were aware of ORS. Only 18% of infants received ORS and 19% were given RHS during the recent diarrhea episode; 69% received neither ORS or RHS. Moreover, children with diarrhea were twice as likely to receive decreased amounts of breast milk and other fluids than to be given increased amounts. The low use of ORS is especially alarming since 61% of children with diarrhea in the previous 2 weeks were taken to a health facility for treatment. 94% of these children were given antibiotics or other unnecessary drugs. Both knowledge and use of ORS were significantly higher among mothers with regular (weekly) exposure to electronic media, even after controls for potential confounding factors. These findings indicate a need to strengthen education programs in this area for both mothers and health care providers.

  16. Acute childhood diarrhoea and maternal time allocation in the northern central Sierra of Peru.

    PubMed

    Bentley, M E; Elder, J; Fukumoto, M; Stallings, R H; Jacoby, E; Brown, K

    1995-03-01

    Interventions to improve child health depend, at least implicitly, on changing maternal knowledge and behaviour and a reallocation of maternal time. There have been few studies, however, of the time cost involved in the adoption of new health technologies and even fewer that examine changes in maternal activities in response to child illness. The present study examines maternal daytime activities and investigates changes that occur when children are ill. We examine the impact of acute childhood diarrhoea episodes on the activity patterns of the mother/caretaker in this setting. The results show that mothers alter their usual activity patterns only slightly in response to acute diarrhoea episodes in their children. They continue to perform the same variety of activities as when the children are healthy, although they are more likely to perform them with the child 'carried' on their back. There is some indication that diarrhoea perceived to be more severe did result in the mother acting as caretaker more frequently. These findings have important implications for health interventions that depend on changing the amount of maternal or caretaker time spent for child health technologies, but the implications may vary depending on the reasons for the observed lack of changes in caretaker activities.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of zinc as adjunct therapy for acute childhood diarrhoea in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Robberstad, Bjarne; Strand, Tor; Black, Robert E.; Sommerfelt, Halvor

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the incremental costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of zinc used as adjunct therapy to standard treatment of acute childhood diarrhoea, including dysentery, and to reassess the cost-effectiveness of standard case management with oral rehydration salt (ORS). METHODS: A decision tree was used to model expected clinical outcomes and expected costs under four alternative treatment strategies. The best available epidemiological, clinical and economic evidence was used in the calculations, and the United Republic of Tanzania was the reference setting. Probabilistic cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using a Monte-Carlo simulation technique and the potential impacts of uncertainty in single parameters were explored in one-way sensitivity analyses. FINDINGS: ORS was found to be less cost-effective than previously thought. The use of zinc as adjunct therapy significantly improved the cost-effectiveness of standard management of diarrhoea for dysenteric as well as non-dysenteric illness. The results were particularly sensitive to mortality rates in non-dysenteric diarrhoea, but the alternative interventions can be defined as highly cost-effective even in pessimistic scenarios. CONCLUSION: There is sufficient evidence to recommend the inclusion of zinc into standard case management of both dysenteric and non-dysenteric acute diarrhoea.A direct transfer of our findings from the United Republic of Tanzania to other settings is not justified, but there are no indications of large geographical differences in the efficacy of zinc. It is therefore plausible that our findings are also applicable to other developing countries. PMID:15500284

  18. Diarrhoea in close contacts as a risk factor for childhood haemolytic uraemic syndrome. The CPKDRC co-investigators.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, P. C.; Orrbine, E.; Lior, H.; Wells, G. A.; McLaine, P. N.

    1993-01-01

    To determine whether the risk factors for childhood haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) are similar to risk factors previously reported for Escherichia coli O 157. H7 gastroenteritis, we conducted a case-control study at eight paediatric hospitals in the summer of 1990. Thirty-four consecutive children with HUS were prospectively enrolled; all had diarrhoea and 88% had laboratory evidence of exposure to verotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC). The 102 controls were otherwise healthy children with minor acute injuries. Parents of all subjects responded to a questionnaire about each child's exposure to various foods, methods of food preparation, sources of water, travel, and individuals with diarrhoea. Children with HUS were significantly more likely than controls to have had close contact with an individual with diarrhoea in the 2 weeks before the onset of illness (74 v. 29%, P < 0.00001; odds ratio 7.0, 95% CI 2.7-18.5). The onset of diarrhoea in the contacts occurred a median of 6 days (range, 1- > 14 days) before the onset of diarrhoea in the HUS patients. Exposure to undercooked ground meat was not significantly more common in the patients with HUS (15 v. 8%; P = 0.05). These data provide evidence consistent with person-to-person transmission of VTEC in a substantial proportion of episodes of childhood HUS. PMID:8432328

  19. Non medical interventions for childhood diarrhoea control: way forward in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Khanal, V; Bhandari, R; Karkee, R

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases remain a major cause of mortality of children aged under-five years in the developing countries including Nepal. The transmission of diarrhoea mostly caused by biological agents and is facilitated by the behavioural, social and environmental factors. More recently, the concept of prevention altering these factors is getting momentum. To recommend the most effective non medical intervention that can prevent and control childhood diarrhoeal disease in Nepal. Literature review was conducted to analyse the successful interventions in developing countries. Peer review articles were accessed from "Science Direct", "Google Scholar", and "PubMed". Interventions focussing on social and environmental determinants of diarrhoea were included. Four interventions (with primary focus in social and environmental determinants of diarrhoeal disease) were purposively selected, summarized and discussed. Saniya programme (Burkina Faso 1995 to 1998) is considered successful in modifying the risk behaviours. Intensive hand washing programme (Pakistan 2002 to 2003), a cluster randomized controlled trail, was not sustainable as the results did not last long once the free supply of soap was stopped. School Led Total Sanitation (Nepal 2006) is a participatory, community centred program whose focus is on local ownership. This program approach is effective and feasible for scaling up in Nepal. Global Public Private Partnership for Hand washing with Soap (Ghana 2002) was based on the marketing researches and hence yielded effective results. Combination of School Led Total Sanitation and Global Public Private Partnership for hand washing with soap suits Nepal. These interventions focus on creating demand, changing behaviour and thereby, improving the sanitation status.

  20. Trends in the management of childhood diarrhoea in Egypt: 1979-1990.

    PubMed

    Miller, P C

    1992-12-01

    Until 1979, diarrhoeal disease accounted for roughly half of all infant and childhood deaths in Egypt, partly because curative care was largely inappropriate. The National Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases Project (NCDDP) addressed this problem from 1982 to 1991. Since 1979 many aspects of diarrhoeal disease in Egypt have been addressed in many studies. This paper reviews that literature, finding considerable improvements in case management, particularly in the use of oral rehydration solution and in feeding during diarrhoeal episodes. This is due primarily to the NCDDP. At the same time diarrhoeal mortality declined rapidly, both absolutely and as a percentage of total mortality. Persistent diarrhoeas, which have become an increasing proportion of the remaining mortality, have not been satisfactorily addressed, and irrational treatment with drugs remains a major problem.

  1. Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 reduces the duration of diarrhoea, length of emergency care and hospital stay in children with acute diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Dinleyici, E C; Kara, A; Dalgic, N; Kurugol, Z; Arica, V; Metin, O; Temur, E; Turel, O; Guven, S; Yasa, O; Bulut, S; Tanir, G; Yazar, A S; Karbuz, A; Sancar, M; Erguven, M; Akca, G; Eren, M; Ozen, M; Vandenplas, Y

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from the literature has shown that Saccharomyces boulardii provides a clinically significant benefit in the treatment of acute infectious diarrhoea in children. In this multicentre, randomised, prospective, controlled, single blind clinical trial performed in children with acute watery diarrhoea, we aimed to evaluate the impact of S. boulardii CNCM I-745 in hospitalised children, in children requiring emergency care unit (ECU) stay and in outpatient settings. The primary endpoint was the duration of diarrhoea (in hours). Secondary outcome measures were duration of hospitalisation and diarrhoea at the 3(rd) day of intervention. In the whole study group (363 children), the duration of diarrhoea was approximately 24 h shorter in the S. boulardii group (75.4±33.1 vs 99.8±32.5 h, P<0.001). The effect of S. boulardii (diarrhoea-free children) was observed starting at 48 h. After 72 h, only 27.3% of the children receiving probiotic still had watery diarrhoea, in contrast to 48.5% in the control group (P<0.001). The duration of diarrhoea was significantly reduced in the probiotic group in hospital, ECU and outpatient settings (P<0.001, P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively). The percentage of diarrhoea-free children was significantly larger after 48 and 72 h in all settings. The mean length of hospital stay was shorter with more than 36 h difference in the S. boulardii group (4.60±1.72 vs 6.12±1.71 days, P<0.001). The mean length of ECU stay was shorter with more than 19 h difference in the probiotic group (1.20±0.4 vs 2.0±0.3 days, P<0.001). No adverse effects related to the probiotic were noted. Because treatment can shorten the duration of diarrhoea and reduce the length of ECU and hospital stay, there is likely a social and economic benefit of S. boulardii CNCM I-745 in adjunction to oral rehydration solution in acute infectious gastroenteritis in children.

  2. Socio-economic determinants in selecting childhood diarrhoea treatment options in Sub-Saharan Africa: A multilevel model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea disease which has been attributed to poverty constitutes a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children aged five and below in most low-and-middle income countries. This study sought to examine the contribution of individual and neighbourhood socio-economic characteristics to caregiver's treatment choices for managing childhood diarrhoea at household level in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Multilevel multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to Demographic and Health Survey data conducted in 11 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The unit of analysis were the 12,988 caregivers of children who were reported to have had diarrhoea two weeks prior to the survey period. Results There were variability in selecting treatment options based on several socioeconomic characteristics. Multilevel-multinomial regression analysis indicated that higher level of education of both the caregiver and that of the partner, as well as caregivers occupation were associated with selection of medical centre, pharmacies and home care as compared to no treatment. In contrast, caregiver's partners' occupation was negatively associated with selection medical centre and home care for managing diarrhoea. In addition, a low-level of neighbourhood socio-economic disadvantage was significantly associated with selection of both medical centre and pharmacy stores and medicine vendors. Conclusion In the light of the findings from this study, intervention aimed at improving on care seeking for managing diarrhoea episode and other childhood infectious disease should jointly consider the influence of both individual SEP and the level of economic development of the communities in which caregivers of these children resides. PMID:21429217

  3. Efficacy of traditional rice-lentil-yogurt diet, lactose free milk protein-based formula and soy protein formula in management of secondary lactose intolerance with acute childhood diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Nizami, S Q; Bhutta, Z A; Molla, A M

    1996-06-01

    Secondary lactose intolerance is often a cause of prolongation of diarrhoeal episodes. As appropriate management of lactose intolerance is elimination of lactose from diet, expansive lactose free formulae are often prescribed in acute childhood diarrhoea without establishing diagnosis of lactose intolerance. Since cheap weaning diets made from locally available cereals have been found effective in management of persistent diarrhoea, we postulated that same weaning diet made of rice lentil and yogurt (K-Y diet) could be effectively used in management of acute childhood diarrhoea associated with secondary lactose intolerance. We compared this K-Y diet with milk protein-based lactose free and soy-protein formula. Thirty children between 3-18 months of age completed dietary trial for 72 h. Of these nine children received K-Y diet (Group A), four children received milk protein-based formula (Group B) and 11 children received soy protein formula (Group C). Stool frequency was significantly reduced in children in Group A (13 +/- 6 on day 1 to 6 +/- 5 on day 3) and in Group B (13 +/- 5 on day 1 to 7 +/- 4 on day 3), but not in Group C (13 +/- 4 on day 1 to 10 +/- 8 on day 3). No significant difference was observed in intake of diet, total calories intake, and fluid intake among the three groups. It is concluded that cheap weaning diet made of locally available cereals and yogurt can be used effectively in management of secondary lactose intolerance associated with acute childhood diarrhoea.

  4. Dietary supplementation and rapid catch-up growth after acute diarrhoea in childhood.

    PubMed

    Hoare, S; Poppitt, S D; Prentice, A M; Weaver, L T

    1996-10-01

    Diarrhoea is a major cause of short-term growth faltering in children of the developing world. If catch-up weight gain is delayed by inadequate dietary intake, or by further bouts of diarrhoea, progressive growth failure occurs. To test the hypothesis that early refeeding is as effective as later feeding after acute diarrhoea with weight loss, we measured the effects of a timed dietary intervention on weight gain after acute diarrhoea in underweight Gambian children. Thirty-four children aged 4-22 months with weight loss following acute diarrhoea were given a high-energy-protein supplement for 14 d beginning either immediately after rehydration or a fortnight later. With a 50% increase in energy intake and a 100% increase in protein intake there was a rapid and highly significant (P < 0.001) gain in weight within a fortnight whether the supplement was given immediately or 2 weeks after presentation. Rates of weight increase were similar whether supplementation was provided early or late, but over the full 28 d (of intervention and non-intervention) children who received late supplementation had greater overall weight gain (P < 0.02) than those supplemented early. Vigorous and early feeding with a high-energy-protein supplement should be central to the management of malnourished children with acute diarrhoea in developing countries, and may be as important as control of diarrhoea in preventing malnutrition and growth failure. This may be achieved in the community using locally available foods, in the face of continuing diarrhoea.

  5. Determinants of use rate of oral rehydration therapy for management of childhood diarrhoea in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ali, M; Atkinson, D; Underwood, P

    2000-09-01

    In rural Bangladesh, mothers were interviewed to identify factors that determine the use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) for management of diarrhoea in children aged less than 5 years. The point prevalence of diarrhoea among 1,600 children was 11.6%, with 46% having acute watery diarrhoea. The overall ORT-use rate was 29%; only 17% of the cases used it adequately. Common reasons for not using ORS included misperception about diarrhoea and age of patients. Other reasons included incorrect assessments, severity, and difficulties with the administration of oral rehydration solutions. Promotion of ORT can be effected by improving the level of understanding of mothers with regard to assessment of severity, early initiation of treatment regardless of age, sex, type of diarrhoea, breast-feeding, and nutrition status.

  6. Influencing factors for household water quality improvement in reducing diarrhoea in resource-limited areas.

    PubMed

    Zin, Thant; Mudin, Kamarudin D; Myint, Than; Naing, Daw K S; Sein, Tracy; Shamsul, B S

    2013-01-01

    Water and sanitation are major public health issues exacerbated by rapid population growth, limited resources, disasters and environmental depletion. This study was undertaken to study the influencing factors for household water quality improvement for reducing diarrhoea in resource-limited areas. Data were collected from articles and reviews from relevant randomized controlled trials, new articles, systematic reviews and meta-analyses from PubMed, World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and WELL Resource Centre For Water, Sanitation And Environmental Health. Water quality on diarrhoea prevention could be affected by contamination during storage, collection and even at point-of-use. Point-of-use water treatment (household-based) is the most cost-effective method for prevention of diarrhoea. Chemical disinfection, filtration, thermal disinfection, solar disinfection and flocculation and disinfection are five most promising household water treatment methodologies for resource-limited areas. Promoting household water treatment is most essential for preventing diarrhoeal disease. In addition, the water should be of acceptable taste, appropriate for emergency and non-emergency use.

  7. Water and hygiene interventions to reduce diarrhoea in rural Afghanistan: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Opryszko, Melissa C; Majeed, Sayed Waheedullah; Hansen, Peter M; Myers, Jessica A; Baba, Duza; Thompson, Richard E; Burnham, Gilbert

    2010-12-01

    A randomized controlled trial of four interventions was conducted using tubewells (n=2,486), liquid sodium hypochlorite ('Clorin') distributed with an improved water vessel (n=2,305), hygiene promotion (n=1,877), and a combination of the three (n=2,040) to create an evidence-base for water policy in Afghanistan. A fifth group served as a control (n=2,377). Interventions were randomized across 32 villages in Wardak province. Outcomes were measured through two household surveys separated by one year and twice-weekly household surveillance conducted over 16 months. The households receiving all three interventions showed reduction in diarrhoea compared with the control group, through both longitudinal surveillance data (IRR [95% CI]=0.61 [0.47-0.81]) and cross-sectional survey data (AOR [95% CI]=0.53 [0.30-0.93]). This reduction was significant when all household members were included, but did not reach significance when only children under five were considered. These results suggest multi-barrier methods are necessary where there are many opportunities for water contamination. Surveillance data suggested a greater impact of interventions on reducing diarrhoeal diseases than data from the surveys. Higher economic status as measured through household assets was associated with lower rates of diarrhoea and greater intervention uptake, excepting Clorin. Use of soap was also associated with lower prevalence of diarrhoea.

  8. Impact of a city-wide sanitation intervention in a large urban centre on social, environmental and behavioural determinants of childhood diarrhoea: analysis of two cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Genser, Bernd; Strina, Agostino; dos Santos, Lenaldo A; Teles, Carlos A; Prado, Matildes S; Cairncross, Sandy; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2008-08-01

    Poor socioeconomic status (SES) increases diarrhoea risk, mostly mediated by lack of sanitation, poor infrastructure and living conditions. The effectiveness of a city-wide sanitation intervention on diarrhoea in a large urban centre in Northeast Brazil has recently been demonstrated. This article aims to explore how this intervention altered the magnitude of relative and attributable risks of diarrhoea determinants and the pathways by which those factors affect diarrhoea risk. We investigated determinants of prevalence of diarrhoea in two cohort studies conducted before and after the intervention. Each study enrolled pre-school children followed up for 8 months. For both cohorts, we calculated relative, attributable and mediated risks of diarrhoea determinants by a hierarchical effect decomposition strategy. The intervention reduced diarrhoea and also changed attributable and relative risks of diarrhoea determinants by altering the pathways of mediation. Before the intervention SES was a major distal diarrhoea determinant (attributable risk: 24%) with 90% of risk mediated by other factors, mostly by lack of sanitation and poor infrastructure (53%). After the intervention, only 13% of risk was attributed to SES, with only 42% mediated by other factors (18% by lack of sanitation and poor infrastructure). The intervention reduced diarrhoea risk by reducing direct exposure to unfavourable sanitation conditions. At the same time it altered the effect and mediation pathways of most distal diarrhoea determinants, especially SES. This finding corroborates the importance of public sanitation measures in reducing the impact of poverty on diarrhoea. It also underlines the value of studying the impact of public health interventions to improve our understanding of health determinants.

  9. Can mobile phone messages to drug sellers improve treatment of childhood diarrhoea?--A randomized controlled trial in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Willa; Woodman, Benjamin; Chatterji, Minki

    2015-03-01

    Oral rehydration solution (ORS) and zinc are the recommended treatment in developing countries for the management of uncomplicated diarrhoea in children under five (World Health Organization and UNICEF 2004). However, drug sellers often recommend costly and unnecessary treatments instead. This article reports findings from an experiment to encourage licensed chemical sellers (LCS) in Ghana to recommend ORS and zinc for the management of childhood diarrhoea. The intervention consisted of mobile phone text messages (Short Message Service or SMS) sent to a randomly assigned group of LCS who had been trained on the diarrhoea management protocols recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The SMS campaign comprised informational messages and interactive quizzes sent over an 8-week period. The study measured the impact of the SMS messages on both reported and actual practices. Analysis of data from both face-to-face interviews and mystery client visits shows that the SMS intervention improved providers' self-reported practices but not their actual practices. The study also finds that actual practices deviate substantially from reported practices.

  10. Breastfeeding Reduces Childhood Obesity Risks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Collins, Candice; Ratliff, Melanie; Xie, Bin; Wang, Youfa

    2017-06-01

    The present study examined the effects of breastfeeding and its duration on the development of childhood obesity from 24 months through grade 6. U.S. longitudinal data collected from 1234 children were analyzed using logistic regression models and generalized estimating equation (GEE). Child height and weight were measured six times at ages of 24 months, 36 months, 54 months, grade 1, grade 3, and grade 6. During the early 1990s, prevalence of breastfeeding was low in the United States, 60% and 48% at 1 and 6 months, respectively. Nonsmoking, white, married mothers with both parents in the household, and with income above the poverty line, were more likely to breastfeed at 1 month of age of their babies. Obesity rate of the children increased with age from 24 months to grade 6. Logistic regression showed that breastfeeding at month 1 was associated with 53% (odds ratio [OR]: 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.30-0.73) and 47% (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.36-0.78) decreased risks for childhood obesity at grades 1 and 6, respectively. GEE analysis showed that breastfeeding at 1 month reduced risk for childhood obesity by 36% (95% CI: 0.47-0.88) from ages 24 months through grade 6. Regarding breastfeeding duration, more than 6 months (vs. never) was associated with a decreased risk for childhood obesity by 42% (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.36-0.94). Breastfeeding at 1 month and more than 6 months reduced the risk of childhood obesity. Rate of breastfeeding was low in the United States in the 1990s, which may have had long-term implications on children.

  11. Lactobacillus GG for treatment of acute childhood diarrhoea: An open labelled, randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Sunny; Upadhyay, Amit; Shah, Dheeraj; Teotia, Neeraj; Agarwal, Astha; Jaiswal, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Randomized controlled trials in developed countries have reported benefits of Lactobacillus GG (LGG) in the treatment of acute watery diarrhoea, but there is paucity of such data from India. The study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Lactobacillus GG in the treatment of acute diarrhoea in children from a semi-urban city in north India. Methods: In this open labelled, randomized controlled trial 200 children with acute watery diarrhoea, aged between 6 months to 5 years visiting outpatient department and emergency room of a teaching hospital in north India were enrolled. The children were randomized into receiving either Lactobacillus GG in dose of 10 billion cfu/day for five days or no probiotic medication in addition to standard WHO management of diarrhoea. Primary outcomes were duration of diarrhoea and time to change in consistency of stools. Results: Median (inter quartile range) duration of diarrhoea was significantly shorter in children in LGG group [60 (54-72) h vs. 78 (72-90) h; P<0.001]. Also, there was faster improvement in stool consistency in children receiving Lactobacillus GG than control group [36 (30-36) h vs. 42 (36-48) h; P<0.001]. There was significant reduction in average number of stools per day in LGG group (P<0.001) compared to the control group. These benefits were seen irrespective of rotavirus positivity in stool tests. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that the use of Lactobacillus GG in children with acute diarrhoea resulted in shorter duration and faster improvement in stool consistency as compared to the control group. PMID:24820831

  12. Evaluation of academic detailing programme on childhood diarrhoea management by primary healthcare providers in Banke district of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Saval; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham B Mohamed; Shankar, Pathiyil Ravi; Palaian, Subish; Mishra, Pranaya

    2013-06-01

    Academic detailing is rarely practised in developing countries. A randomized control trial on healthcare service was conducted to evaluate the impact of academic detailing programme on the adherence of primary healthcare providers in Banke district, Nepal, to childhood diarrhoea treatment guidelines recommended by World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund (WHO/UNICEF). The participants (N=209) were systematically divided into control and intervention groups. Four different academic detailing sessions on childhood diarrhoea management were given to participants in the intervention group. At baseline, 6% of the participants in the control and 8.3% in the intervention group were adhering to the treatment guidelines which significantly (p < 0.05) increased among participants in the intervention (65.1%) than in the control group (16.0%) at the first follow-up. At the second follow-up, 69.7% of participants in the intervention group were adhering to the guidelines, which was significantly (p < 0.05) greater than those in the control group (19.0%). Data also showed significant improvement in prescribing pattern of the participants in the intervention group compared to the control group. Therefore, academic detailing can be used for promoting adherence to treatment guidelines in developing countries, like Nepal.

  13. Evaluation of Academic Detailing Programme on Childhood Diarrhoea Management by Primary Healthcare Providers in Banke District of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham b. Mohamed; Shankar, Pathiyil Ravi; Palaian, Subish; Mishra, Pranaya

    2013-01-01

    Academic detailing is rarely practised in developing countries. A randomized control trial on healthcare service was conducted to evaluate the impact of academic detailing programme on the adherence of primary healthcare providers in Banke district, Nepal, to childhood diarrhoea treatment guidelines recommended by World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund (WHO/UNICEF). The participants (N=209) were systematically divided into control and intervention groups. Four different academic detailing sessions on childhood diarrhoea management were given to participants in the intervention group. At baseline, 6% of the participants in the control and 8.3% in the intervention group were adhering to the treatment guidelines which significantly (p<0.05) increased among participants in the intervention (65.1%) than in the control group (16.0%) at the first follow-up. At the second follow-up, 69.7% of participants in the intervention group were adhering to the guidelines, which was significantly (p<0.05) greater than those in the control group (19.0%). Data also showed significant improvement in prescribing pattern of the participants in the intervention group compared to the control group. Therefore, academic detailing can be used for promoting adherence to treatment guidelines in developing countries, like Nepal. PMID:23930342

  14. The influence of customer-medicine seller transactional dynamics on childhood diarrhoea management: a qualitative study in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Rosapep, Lauren; Sanders, Emily; Banke, Kathryn

    2017-01-10

    In 2004, the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) jointly revised the recommended treatment for acute paediatric diarrhoea to specify supplementing reduced osmolarity oral rehydration salts (ORS) with zinc. In many countries, however, a significant knowledge-practice gap persists in appropriate diarrhoea management among private healthcare providers. For example, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Strengthening Health Outcomes through the Private Sector (SHOPS) project recently demonstrated that over-the-counter medicine sellers (MS) in Ghana recommended inappropriate diarrhoea treatments, despite their demonstrated knowledge of appropriate treatment protocols. To explore and explain these results, we conducted 26 focus groups with MS and their customers using an indirect elicitation approach, presenting simulated drug shop transaction scenarios for each group to analyze and discuss. Through inductive and deductive data analysis, we found that the pattern of customer-MS interactions within the transactional context plays a critical role in shaping dispensing outcomes, not only in diarrhoea management but in other contexts as well. MS who engaged and negotiated with their customers were better able to introduce and promote the appropriate diarrhoea treatment protocol. Several factors hinder optimal interactions. Although MS in fact serve as frontline medical providers, they lack the perceived status of a clinician. Moreover, the need to maintain their customer base creates a power imbalance that favours accommodating customer requests and discourages educational interaction. Finally, many MS lack a complete understanding of the recommended treatment, limiting their ability to educate and negotiate. These findings have important implications for efforts to position community-level private providers to improve outcomes across a number of health areas; the study recommends three broad approaches

  15. Environmental factors associated with childhood norovirus diarrhoea in León, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Becker-Dreps, S; Cuthbertson, C C; Bucardo, F; Vinje, J; Paniagua, M; Giebultowicz, S; Espinoza, F; Emch, M

    2017-06-01

    Norovirus is detected in one in five diarrhoea episodes in children, yet little is known about environmental risk factors associated with this disease, especially in low-income settings. The objective of this study was to examine environmental risk factors, and spatial and seasonal patterns of norovirus diarrhoea episodes in children in León, Nicaragua. We followed a population-based cohort of children under age 5 years for norovirus diarrhoea over a 1-year period. At baseline, characteristics of each household were recorded. Households were geocoded and spatial locations of garbage dumps, rivers, and markets were collected. In bivariate analysis we observed younger children and those with animals in their households were more likely to have experienced norovirus episodes. In adjusted models, younger children remained at higher risk for norovirus episodes, but only modest associations were observed with family and environmental characteristics. We next identified symptomatic children living in the same household and within 500 m buffer zones around the household of another child infected with the same genotype. Norovirus diarrhoea episodes peaked early in the rainy season. These findings contribute to our understanding of environmental factors and norovirus infection.

  16. Hand-washing reduces diarrhoea episodes: a study in Lombok, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J M; Chandler, G N; Muslihatun; Jamiluddin

    1991-01-01

    Sixty-five mothers from Balai Lua, Central Lombok, Indonesia were given soap and an explanation of the faecal-oral route of diarrhoea transmission. This very simple health message was repeated and reinforced fortnightly when mothers were also asked whether any members of their family had suffered from diarrhoea over the previous 2 weeks. Children of these mothers experienced an 89% reduction in diarrhoea episodes compared to a control period before the intervention.

  17. Long-term impact of changing childhood malnutrition on rotavirus diarrhoea: Two decades of adjusted association with climate and socio-demographic factors from urban Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Das, Sumon Kumar; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Sarker, Mohammad Habibur Rahman; Das, Jui; Ahmed, Shawnawaz; Shahunja, K M; Nahar, Shamsun; Gibbons, Nora; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Rahman, Mustafizur; J Fuchs, George; Al Mamun, Abdullah; John Baker, Peter

    2017-01-01

    There is strong association between childhood rotavirus, diarrhoea, climate factors and malnutrition. Conversely, a significant nutritional transition (reduced under-nutrition) with a concurrent increasing trend of rotavirus infection in last decade was also observed among under 5 children, especially in developing countries including Bangladesh. Considering the pathophysiology of rotavirus, there might be an interaction of this nutrition transition which plays a pivotal role in increasing rotavirus infection in addition to climate and other man-made factors in urban areas such as Dhaka, Bangladesh. Relevant monthly data from 1993-2012 were extracted from the archive of the Diarrhoeal Disease Surveillance System of icddr, b and linked with data collected from the Dhaka station of the Bangladesh Meteorological Department (mean temperature, rainfall, sea level pressure and humidity). Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average time series models were deployed to determine the association between the monthly proportion of rotavirus infection and underweight, stunting and wasting adjusting for climate, socio-demographic and sanitation factors. The proportion of rotavirus cases among all causes diarrhoea increased from 20% in 1993 to 43% in 2012 (Chi squared for trend p = 0.010). In contrast, underweight, stunting and wasting decreased from 59%-29% (p<0.001); 53%-21% (p<0.001) and 32%-22% (p<0.001) respectively over the same period. Mean ambient temperature increased from 25.76°C-26.62°C (p = 0.07); mean rainfall, sea level pressure and mean humidity decreased from 234.92-111.75 mm (p = 0.5), 1008.30-1006.61 mm of hg (p = 0.02) and 76.63%-70.26% (p<0.001), respectively. In the adjusted model, a decrease in monthly proportion of underweight [coef.: -0.189 (95% CI:-0.376, -0.003)] and wasting [-0.265 (-0.455, -0.075)] were significantly and inversely associated with rotavirus infection. However, an inverse but insignificant association was observed for stunting

  18. Survey of Food-hygiene Practices at Home and Childhood Diarrhoea in Hanoi, Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Takanashi, Kumiko; Chonan, Yuko; Quyen, Dao To; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Poudel, Krishna C.

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the potential factors of food-hygiene practices of mothers on the prevalence of diarrhoea among their children. Mothers who had children aged 6 months–5 years were recruited in a hamlet in Viet Nam. The food-hygiene practices included hand-washing, method of washing utensils, separation of utensils for raw and cooked food, and the location where foods were prepared for cooking. A face-to-face interview was conducted, and data on 206 mothers were analyzed. The risk of diarrhoea was significantly higher among children whose mothers prepared food for cooking somewhere other than the table (typically on the ground) compared to children whose mothers prepared food on the table (adjusted odds ratio=2.85, 95% confidence interval 1.11–7.28). The results indicate that food-hygiene practices of mothers, such as avoiding preparing food for cooking on the ground, has a potential impact in preventing diarrhoea among children in Viet Nam. PMID:19902795

  19. Influence of demographic, socioeconomic and environmental variables on childhood diarrhoea in a rural area of Zaire.

    PubMed

    Manun'ebo, M N; Haggerty, P A; Kalengaie, M; Ashworth, A; Kirkwood, B R

    1994-02-01

    There have been very few longitudinal studies of diarrhoea morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. This longitudinal study of children aged 3-35 months from 18 clusters of villages reports an annual incidence rate of 6.3 episodes per child in a rural area of Zaire, which is higher than a cross-sectional estimate previously obtained in the same district. The study confirms that a child's risk of diarrhoeal attack is associated with age, water quality and sanitation, parental education and household size. The findings suggest also that birth interval may be an important risk factor for diarrhoeal morbidity.

  20. Cost of childhood diarrhoea in rural South Africa: exploring cost-effectiveness of universal zinc supplementation.

    PubMed

    Chhagan, Meera K; Van den Broeck, Jan; Luabeya, Kany-Kany Angelique; Mpontshane, Nontobeko; Bennish, Michael L

    2014-09-01

    To describe the cost of diarrhoeal illness in children aged 6-24 months in a rural South African community and to determine the threshold prevalence of stunting at which universal Zn plus vitamin A supplementation (VAZ) would be more cost-effective than vitamin A alone (VA) in preventing diarrhoea. We conducted a cost analysis using primary and secondary data sources. Using simulations we examined incremental costs of VAZ relative to VA while varying stunting prevalence. Data on efficacy and societal costs were largely from a South African trial. Secondary data were from local and international published sources. The trial included children aged 6-24 months. The secondary data sources were a South African health economics survey and the WHO-CHOICE (CHOosing Interventions that are Cost Effective) database. In the trial, stunted children supplemented with VAZ had 2·04 episodes (95 % CI 1·37, 3·05) of diarrhoea per child-year compared with 3·92 episodes (95 % CI 3·02, 5·09) in the VA arm. Average cost of illness was $Int 7·80 per episode (10th, 90th centile: $Int 0·28, $Int 15·63), assuming a minimum standard of care (oral rehydration and 14 d of therapeutic Zn). In simulation scenarios universal VAZ had low incremental costs or became cost-saving relative to VA when the prevalence of stunting was close to 20 %. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were sensitive to the cost of intervention and coverage levels. This simulation suggests that universal VAZ would be cost-effective at current levels of stunting in parts of South Africa. This requires further validation under actual programmatic conditions.

  1. Evaluation of a protocol to reduce the incidence of neonatal calf diarrhoea on dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Meganck, V; Hoflack, G; Piepers, S; Opsomer, G

    2015-01-01

    Calf diarrhoea causes substantial economic losses in cattle herds worldwide. Neonatal calves are particularly sensitive to infections with enteropathogens. The present study focused on prevention against the main infectious causes of neonatal calf diarrhoea i.e. Escherichia coli, rota- and coronavirus, and Cryptosporidium parvum. Dairy herds (n=24) with a high percentage of neonatal calves scouring (>10%) were included and calves were sampled for the presence of these four enteropathogens. To decrease diarrhoea problems among neonatal calves, a standard protocol was tested on 13 herds (treatment group) where both C. parvum and either E. coli or rota- or coronavirus were identified as being involved, the other 11 herds served as control group. The protocol consisted of 2 points of action: preventive vaccination of dams against E. coli, rota- and coronavirus, and preventive administration of halofuginone lactate to newborn calves. The average percentage of calves suffering from neonatal diarrhoea (39.7% versus 14.3%, P<0.01) and the average percentage of faecal samples positive for C. parvum (34% versus 11%, P<0.05) differed significantly between control herds and treatment herds after implementation of the protocol. No significant differences between control and treatment group were observed in the percentage of calves excreting E. coli, rotavirus and coronavirus, both before and at the end of the trial. Furthermore, risk factors potentially associated with the development of neonatal calf scours were determined. Non-significant results were obtained for the effect of the protocol on duration of diarrhoea and the effect of the colostral IgG quantity on the risk of diarrhoea. Passive immunity transfer status of the calves, measured both before the onset and at the end of the study, were non-significant between groups.

  2. Diarrhoea and Suboptimal Feeding Practices in Nigeria: Evidence from the National Household Surveys.

    PubMed

    Ogbo, Felix A; Page, Andrew; Idoko, John; Claudio, Fernanda; Agho, Kingsley E

    2016-07-01

    Globally, Nigeria has the largest burden of infectious diseases (including diarrhoea). Optimal feeding practices have been well-documented to protect against diarrhoea in other contexts; but this benefit has not been broadly studied in Nigeria. The study aimed to examine the association between diarrhoea and childhood feeding practices to provide country-specific evidence. Data from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey for the period spanning 1999-2013 were used. Prevalence of diarrhoea by infant and young child feeding indicators was estimated, and the association between diarrhoea and childhood feeding indicators was examined using multilevel regression analyses. Prevalence of diarrhoea was higher among children whose mothers did not initiate breast feeding within the first hour of birth, infants who were not exclusively breastfed, and infants who were prematurely introduced to complementary foods. Early initiation of breast feeding was significantly associated with lower risk of diarrhoea (RR 0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63, 0.74). Exclusively breastfed infants were less likely to develop diarrhoea compared to non-exclusively breastfed infants (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.44, 0.86). Predominant breast feeding was significantly associated with a lower risk of diarrhoea (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.54, 0.80). Bottle feeding and introduction of complementary foods were associated with a higher risk of diarrhoea. Early initiation of breast feeding as well as exclusive and predominant breast feeding protect against diarrhoea in Nigeria, while bottle feeding and introduction of complementary foods were risk factors for diarrhoea. Community- and facility-based initiatives are needed to improve feeding practices, and to reduce diarrhoea prevalence in Nigeria. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Supplementation with vitamin A reduces watery diarrhoea and respiratory infections in Mexican children.

    PubMed

    Long, Kurt Z; Rosado, Jorge L; DuPont, Herbert L; Hertzmark, Ellen; Santos, Jose Ignacio

    2007-02-01

    Previous clinical vitamin A trials have found no consistent effect on diarrhoeal disease and respiratory tract infection. These inconsistent results may be due to the distinct effects vitamin A supplementation has among children stratified by factors related to socio-economic status, nutritional status and season. We evaluated the effect of supplementation on the overall incidence of diarrhoeal disease and respiratory tract infections and on the incidence among children stratified by these factors. A total of 188 children, aged 6-15 months, from periurban, marginalized communities of Mexico City were assigned to receive vitamin A ( < 12 months of age, 20,000 IU retinol; >or= 12 months, 45,000 IU retinol) or a placebo every 2 months, and were followed for up to 15 months. Project personnel visited households twice a week to determine the onset and duration of diarrhoeal disease and respiratory tract infections. Vitamin A supplementation had no significant effect on risk of overall diarrhoeal disease but reduced mild watery diarrhoea (incidence rate ratio (RR) 0.69; 95 % CI 0.50, 0.93) and cough with fever (RR 0.69; 95 % CI 0.48, 0.98). Vitamin A supplementation decreased diarrhoeal disease during the summer (RR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.57, 0.94), among non-stunted children (RR 0.69; 95 % CI 0.52, 0.93) and among children from households with better socio-economic measures. Heterogeneity in the response to vitamin A supplementation may reflect heterogeneity in the aetiology and epidemiology of diarrhoeal disease and respiratory tract infections and the impact that supplementation has on the immune response.

  4. Impact of a standardized management protocol on mortality of children with diarrhoea: an update of risk factors for childhood death.

    PubMed

    Durley, Alison; Shenoy, Akhil; Faruque, A S G; Suskind, Robert; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2004-10-01

    In the developing world, diarrhoeal disease is a significant cause of childhood morbidity especially amongst severely malnourished children. As a direct result of improved acute-phase management of this group of patients, there has been a 47 per cent reduction in the death rate among severely malnourished children hospitalized at the ICDDR,B in Bangladesh. The change in the risk factors for death among children aged under 5 years presenting with diarrhoea was reassessed. The charts of 366 children under 5 years of age who were hospitalized for diarrhoeal disease in the year 1998 were retrospectively analysed. One hundred and eighty-three of these patients died and 183 of those who survived acted as controls. Univariate analysis found 12 significant risk factors on admission that impacted outcome. Only two factors, female sex and positive blood culture, remained significant in the multivariate analysis with odds ratios (95 per cent CI) of 2.05 (1.1-4.0) and 4.6 (1.7-12.4), respectively. Prior to the change in the protocol involving the management of severely malnourished children, only severe malnutrition and non-breastfeeding were found to be significant predictors of mortality.

  5. Traditional medicine used in childbirth and for childhood diarrhoea in Nigeria's Cross River State: interviews with traditional practitioners and a statewide cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sarmiento, Iván; Zuluaga, Germán; Andersson, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Examine factors associated with use of traditional medicine during childbirth and in management of childhood diarrhoea. Design Cross-sectional cluster survey, household interviews in a stratified last stage random sample of 90 census enumeration areas; unstructured interviews with traditional doctors. Setting Oil-rich Cross River State in south-eastern Nigeria has 3.5 million residents, most of whom depend on a subsistence agriculture economy. Participants 8089 women aged 15–49 years in 7685 households reported on the health of 11 305 children aged 0–36 months in July–August 2011. Primary and secondary outcome measures Traditional medicine used at childbirth and for management of childhood diarrhoea; covariates included access to Western medicine and education, economic conditions, engagement with the modern state and family relations. Cluster-adjusted analysis relied on the Mantel-Haenszel procedure and Mantel extension. Results 24.1% (1371/5686) of women reported using traditional medicine at childbirth; these women had less education, accessed antenatal care less, experienced more family violence and were less likely to have birth certificates for their children. 11.3% (615/5425) of young children with diarrhoea were taken to traditional medical practitioners; these children were less likely to receive BCG, to have birth certificates, to live in households with a more educated head, or to use fuel other than charcoal for cooking. Education showed a gradient with decreasing use of traditional medicine for childbirth (χ2 135.2) and for childhood diarrhoea (χ2 77.2). Conclusions Use of traditional medicine is associated with several factors related to cultural transition and to health status, with formal education playing a prominent role. Any assessment of the effectiveness of traditional medicine should anticipate confounding by these factors, which are widely recognised to affect health in their own right. PMID:27094939

  6. Traditional medicine used in childbirth and for childhood diarrhoea in Nigeria's Cross River State: interviews with traditional practitioners and a statewide cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Iván; Zuluaga, Germán; Andersson, Neil

    2016-04-19

    Examine factors associated with use of traditional medicine during childbirth and in management of childhood diarrhoea. Cross-sectional cluster survey, household interviews in a stratified last stage random sample of 90 census enumeration areas; unstructured interviews with traditional doctors. Oil-rich Cross River State in south-eastern Nigeria has 3.5 million residents, most of whom depend on a subsistence agriculture economy. 8089 women aged 15-49 years in 7685 households reported on the health of 11,305 children aged 0-36 months in July-August 2011. Traditional medicine used at childbirth and for management of childhood diarrhoea; covariates included access to Western medicine and education, economic conditions, engagement with the modern state and family relations. Cluster-adjusted analysis relied on the Mantel-Haenszel procedure and Mantel extension. 24.1% (1371/5686) of women reported using traditional medicine at childbirth; these women had less education, accessed antenatal care less, experienced more family violence and were less likely to have birth certificates for their children. 11.3% (615/5425) of young children with diarrhoea were taken to traditional medical practitioners; these children were less likely to receive BCG, to have birth certificates, to live in households with a more educated head, or to use fuel other than charcoal for cooking. Education showed a gradient with decreasing use of traditional medicine for childbirth (χ(2) 135.2) and for childhood diarrhoea (χ(2) 77.2). Use of traditional medicine is associated with several factors related to cultural transition and to health status, with formal education playing a prominent role. Any assessment of the effectiveness of traditional medicine should anticipate confounding by these factors, which are widely recognised to affect health in their own right. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Water disinfection and hygiene behaviour in an urban slum in Kenya: impact on childhood diarrhoea and influence of beliefs.

    PubMed

    Graf, Jürg; Meierhofer, Regula; Wegelin, Martin; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2008-10-01

    In this research project, we studied factors that presumably affect the incidence of diarrhoea among young children in urban slums in developing countries: consumption of safe drinks, hygiene behaviour, cleanliness of household surroundings and the quality of raw water. Beliefs concerning the causes of diarrhoea were also related to health-improving behaviour, namely the application of the water-treatment method SODIS (solar water disinfection) and hygiene behaviour. We conducted a survey in a shanty town in Nairobi, Kenya. Field workers interviewed 500 households. Analysis with regression models revealed that two out of the four postulated factors were significant: children have a lower risk of contracting diarrhoea when they consume high percentages of safe drinks and live in households with good hygiene. As regards beliefs, we found that biomedical knowledge of children's diarrhoea as well as the perceived social norm for treating water was associated with the use of SODIS and good hygiene.

  8. [Loperamide for acute infectious diarrhoea].

    PubMed

    Douma, Joeri A J; Smulders, Yvo M

    2015-01-01

    Many physicians are resistant to the idea of prescribing loperamide for acute infectious traveller's diarrhoea and community-acquired diarrhoea because of the fear of possible adverse effects. Large randomized trials with loperamide, either alone or as an adjunct to antibiotic treatment, have in fact revealed positive rather than negative effects. International guidelines now often support the use of loperamide for the treatment of infectious diarrhoea without dysentery. There seems to be no reason to systematically avoid loperamide in patients with dysentery, but caution is advised. Loperamide can be used as monotherapy or as an adjunct to antibiotic treatment in immunocompetent adults with acute infectious traveller's diarrhoea or community-acquired diarrhoea without severe comorbidities. This can reduce both the frequency of diarrhoea and the time until the diarrhoea stops without the risk of severe complications.

  9. Antibiotic treatment of diarrhoea is associated with decreased time to the next diarrhoea episode among young children in Vellore, India

    PubMed Central

    Rogawski, Elizabeth T; Westreich, Daniel J; Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Adair, Linda S; Sandler, Robert S; Sarkar, Rajiv; Kattula, Deepthi; Ward, Honorine D; Meshnick, Steven R; Kang, Gagandeep

    2015-01-01

    Background Antibiotics are commonly given for the treatment of childhood diarrhoea, but are not indicated in most cases. Antibiotics modify the gastrointestinal microbiota, which may have unanticipated effects on the risk of subsequent diarrhoea. Methods In a prospective observational cohort study, we assessed the effect of caregiver-reported antibiotic treatment for diarrhoea on the timing of a child’s next episode among 434 children followed from birth to 3 years of age in Vellore, India. We estimated median time differences and time ratios from inverse probability of exposure-weighted Kaplan-Meier curves for the time to next diarrhoea episode, comparing children who did and did not receive antibiotics for the previous episode. Results Study children had more than five diarrhoea episodes on average in the first 3 years of life, and more than a quarter of all episodes were treated with antibiotics. Children who received antibiotics for their first diarrhoea episode had their second episode on average 8 weeks earlier (median time difference: −8, 95% confidence interval: −10, −3) than children who did not receive antibiotics. The effects of antibiotics on subsequent diarrhoea were greatest at earlier episodes and younger ages, and cefixime had a slightly larger effect compared with cotrimoxazole. Conclusions Antibiotic treatment of diarrhoea was associated with reduced time to a subsequent diarrhoea episode, especially among younger infants. Whereas rational use of antibiotics has been advocated to reduce antimicrobial resistance in populations, we show that overuse of antibiotics may also have a direct adverse effect on individual patients. PMID:25929259

  10. Animal livestock and the risk of hospitalized diarrhoea in children under 5 years in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thiem, Vu Dinh; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Suzuki, Motoi; Tho, Le Huu; Yanai, Hideki; Ariyoshi, Koya; Anh, Dang Duc; Yoshida, Lay-Myint

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the association between environmental exposure to livestock and incidence of diarrhoea among Vietnamese children. A population-based cohort of 353,525 individuals, living in 75,828 households in Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam, with baseline data covering geo-referenced information on demography, socio-economic status and household animals was investigated. Geographic information system was applied to calculate the density of livestock. The data were linked to hospitalized diarrhoea cases of children under 5 years recorded at two hospitals treating patients from the area as inpatients in the study area. Overall, 3116 children with diarrhoea were hospitalized during the study period. The incidence of diarrhoea hospitalization was 60.8/1000 child-years. Male gender, age <2 years, higher number of household members and lack of tap water were significantly associated with an increased risk of diarrhoea. There was no evidence that ownership of livestock increased the risk of diarrhoea. In spatial analysis, we found no evidence that a high density of any animals was associated with an increased risk of diarrhoea. Exposure to animals near or in households does not seem to constitute a major risk for diarrhoea in children under the age of 5 in Vietnam. Public health interventions to reduce childhood diarrhoea burden should focus on well-recognized causes such as sanitation, personal hygiene, access to adequate clean water supply and vaccination. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Childhood diarrhoea in Danish day care centres could be associated with infant colic, low birthweight and antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Hebbelstrup Jensen, Betina; Röser, Dennis; Andreassen, Bente Utoft; Olsen, Katharina E P; Nielsen, Henrik Vedel; Roldgaard, Bent Bjørn; Schjørring, Susanne; Mirsepasi-Lauridsen, Hengameh Chloé; Jørgensen, Steffen L; Mortensen, Esben Munk; Petersen, Andreas Munk; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhoea is very common in children attending day care centres. The aim of this study was to examine certain predisposing risk factors for an association with diarrhoea, including foreign travel, treatment with antibiotics, having household pets, infant colic, bottle feeding, using a pacifier and low birthweight. A dynamic one-year follow-up cohort study comprising 179 children from 36 day care centres was conducted from September 2009 to July 2013 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Questionnaires were sent to the children's parents or legal guardians every two months for a year, requesting information on gastrointestinal symptoms and exposure. A logistic regression was performed to identify the odds ratios of different risk factors for diarrhoea. The odds ratios for diarrhoea were 1.97 (0.93-4.20) for children with a history of infant colic, 1.91 (0.90-4.04) for low birthweight children and 1.45 (0.74-2.82) for children who had used antibiotics. Having a pet in the household had a possible protective effect towards diarrhoeal events, with an odds ratio of 0.47 (0.20-1.09). A history of infant colic, low birthweight, and to a lesser extent antibiotic use, possibly increased the risk of diarrhoea in Danish children in day care centres. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Factors influencing physicians' prescribing behaviour in the treatment of childhood diarrhoea: knowledge may not be the clue.

    PubMed

    Paredes, P; de la Peña, M; Flores-Guerra, E; Diaz, J; Trostle, J

    1996-04-01

    Proper diarrhoea treatment has received greater attention during the last 10 years. However, the unjustified use of medicines to treat simple episodes of acute diarrhoea continues to divert attention and available resources away from appropriate treatment. A study to identify the factors determining prescribing practices for diarrhoea treatment was carried out in a peri-urban part of Lima, Peru in 1991. Physicians were interviewed, and then their practice was assessed by visits of confederates with healthy children described as ill, by interviews with mothers of sick children leaving the clinic, or by both of these methods. Physicians' reported practices in treating diarrhoea cases were compared to their actual practices. Although physicians' knowledge of drug management seemed to influence the low frequency of prescription of antidiarrhoeal drugs, it did not have the same influence on prescription of antimicrobials. Our results suggest that the diagnostic process and consequently the treatment decision do not follow a scientific rationale for this illness. The physicians' prescribing practices seemed to be more related to agreement with social expectations and the caretakers' perception of the physicians' role than they were to the standard biomedical rules of diarrhoea management.

  13. Traveller's diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Al-Abri, Seif S; Beeching, Nick J; Nye, Fred J

    2005-06-01

    Traveller's diarrhoea affects over 50% of travellers to some destinations and can disrupt holidays and business trips. This review examines the main causes and epidemiology of the syndrome, which is associated with poor public health infrastructure and hygiene practices, particularly in warmer climates. Although travellers may be given common sense advice on avoidance of high-risk foods and other measures to prevent traveller's diarrhoea, adherence to such advice is sometimes difficult and the evidence for its effectiveness is contradictory. However, non-antimicrobial means for prevention of traveller's diarrhoea are favoured in most settings. A simple stepwise approach to the management of traveller's diarrhoea includes single doses or 3-day courses of antimicrobials, often self administered. The antibiotics of choice are currently fluoroquinolones or azithromycin, with an emerging role for rifaximin. In the long term, there will be greater benefit and effect on the health of local inhabitants and travellers from improving public health and hygiene standards at tourist destinations.

  14. [Congenital diarrhoea].

    PubMed

    Buda, Piotr; Friedman-Gruszczyńska, Joanna; Książyk, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Congenital diarrhoea of heterogenic etiology is a rare cause of chronic diarrhoea. Characteristic features are: onset in the first weeks of life, life-threatening severe dehydratation and electrolyte disorders leading to a necessity of long-term parenteral nutrition. The clinical onset may be delayed and the degree of diarrhoea may be modest, making the diagnosis difficult. The main causes of congenital diarrhoea such as intestine electrolytes, carbohydrates, lipid and protein transport disorders and congenital enzymatic deficiencies, enterocyte polarization disorders, hormonal, immunological, metabolic, genetic and congenital anatomic disorders are presented in the paper. Some of them, such as: microvillus inclusion disease, tufting enteropathy, intestinal anedocrynosis, IPEX syndrome (immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy X-linked syndrome) have been described recently. One of the basic investigations, when congenital diarrhea is suspected, is general examination of the stool, its electrolyte concentration and serum electrolytes and blood gas analysis. Often, small bowel biopsy with histological examination (with the use of electronic microscopy and PAS staining) is indicated. In some cases molecular examination is possible and indicated. In differential diagnosis other, more frequent causes of chronic diarrhea of infancy, have to be excluded. In most of the cases of congenital diarrhoea there is no casual treatment available - usually long-term parenteral nutrition is necessary.

  15. The impact of an urban sewerage system on childhood diarrhoea in Tehran, Iran: a concurrent control field trial.

    PubMed

    Kolahi, Ali-Asghar; Rastegarpour, Ali; Sohrabi, Mohammad-Reza

    2009-05-01

    The stepwise implementation of the Tehran Sewerage Project provided a convenient setting for which health impacts of an urban sewerage system could be examined with appropriate controls. In 2001, Tehran municipal districts 17 and 18 had no sewerage system connections, but areas within these districts had been planned to be connected by 2006. These areas were chosen as an intervention group. Neighbouring areas, with a similar socio-economic status, that had not been planned to connect to the sewerage system by 2006, were chosen as controls. Homes within designated areas were randomized and surveyed twice to determine diarrhoea incidences for children aged 6-60 months, once in 2001, before connection to the sewerage system, and once again in 2006, after the intervention. By 2006, 76% of the homes in the intervention zones were connected to the sewerage system. In the first stage of the study, diarrhoea incidences for intervention and control groups were 18.6 and 16.6%, respectively. In the second stage, incidences decreased to 10.1 and 10.5%, respectively. Data collected from 4179 children demonstrated that the diarrhoea incidence had decreased by 46% in the intervention group, whereas it had decreased by 37% in the controls.

  16. Local barriers and solutions to improve care-seeking for childhood pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria in Kenya, Nigeria and Niger: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Bedford, K Juliet A; Sharkey, Alyssa B

    2014-01-01

    We present qualitative research findings on care-seeking and treatment uptake for pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria among children under 5 in Kenya, Nigeria and Niger. The study aimed to determine the barriers caregivers face in accessing treatment for these conditions; to identify local solutions that facilitate more timely access to treatment; and to present these findings as a platform from which to develop context-specific strategies to improve care-seeking for childhood illness. Kenya, Nigeria and Niger are three high burden countries with low rates of related treatment coverage, particularly in underserved areas. Data were collected in Homa Bay County in Nyanza Province, Kenya; in Kebbi and Cross River States, Nigeria; and in the Maradi and Tillabéri regions of Niger. Primary caregivers of children under 5 who did not regularly engage with health services or present their child at a health facility during illness episodes were purposively selected for interview. Data underwent rigorous thematic analysis. We organise the identified barriers and related solutions by theme: financial barriers; distance/location of health facilities; socio-cultural barriers and gender dynamics; knowledge and information barriers; and health facility deterrents. The relative importance of each differed by locality. Participant suggested solutions ranged from community-level actions to facility-level and more policy-oriented actions, plus actions to change underlying problems such as social perceptions and practices and gender dynamics. We discuss the feasibility and implications of these suggested solutions. Given the high burden of childhood morbidity and mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria in Kenya, Nigeria and Niger, this study provides important insights relating to demand-side barriers and locally proposed solutions. Significant advancements are possible when communities participate in both problem identification and resolution, and are engaged as important

  17. Local Barriers and Solutions to Improve Care-Seeking for Childhood Pneumonia, Diarrhoea and Malaria in Kenya, Nigeria and Niger: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bedford, K. Juliet A.; Sharkey, Alyssa B.

    2014-01-01

    We present qualitative research findings on care-seeking and treatment uptake for pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria among children under 5 in Kenya, Nigeria and Niger. The study aimed to determine the barriers caregivers face in accessing treatment for these conditions; to identify local solutions that facilitate more timely access to treatment; and to present these findings as a platform from which to develop context-specific strategies to improve care-seeking for childhood illness. Kenya, Nigeria and Niger are three high burden countries with low rates of related treatment coverage, particularly in underserved areas. Data were collected in Homa Bay County in Nyanza Province, Kenya; in Kebbi and Cross River States, Nigeria; and in the Maradi and Tillabéri regions of Niger. Primary caregivers of children under 5 who did not regularly engage with health services or present their child at a health facility during illness episodes were purposively selected for interview. Data underwent rigorous thematic analysis. We organise the identified barriers and related solutions by theme: financial barriers; distance/location of health facilities; socio-cultural barriers and gender dynamics; knowledge and information barriers; and health facility deterrents. The relative importance of each differed by locality. Participant suggested solutions ranged from community-level actions to facility-level and more policy-oriented actions, plus actions to change underlying problems such as social perceptions and practices and gender dynamics. We discuss the feasibility and implications of these suggested solutions. Given the high burden of childhood morbidity and mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria in Kenya, Nigeria and Niger, this study provides important insights relating to demand-side barriers and locally proposed solutions. Significant advancements are possible when communities participate in both problem identification and resolution, and are engaged as important

  18. [Traveller's diarrhoea].

    PubMed

    Vila, Jordi; Oliveira, Ines; Zboromyrska, Yuliya; Gascon, Joaquim

    2016-11-01

    Traveller's diarrhoea (TD) is acquired primarily through ingestion of food and drinks contaminated with pathogens that cause diarrhoea. They can be bacteria, protozoa, helminths, and viruses. Globally, the most common causes of TD are two pathotypes of Escherichia coli (enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative) and Campylobacter, although there are significant variations by geographic area visited. Most TD occurs in individuals traveling to low-middle income countries. The type of travel, length of stay, traveller's age, and the presence of certain underlying conditions are important risk factors to consider for the acquisition of TD. While TD is usually a mild and self-limiting disease, half of travellers with TD experience some limitation of activities during their trip, while up to 10% will experience persistent diarrhoea or other complications. The purpose of this article is to provide an updated microbiological, epidemiological, and clinical profile of traveller's diarrhoea, including known risk factors, as well as to make recommendations on the prevention and treatment of TD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. Diarrhoea in Kwashiorkor

    PubMed Central

    Wharton, Brian; Howells, Glan; Phillips, Ian

    1968-01-01

    Diarrhoea was a common problem in the kwashiorkor seen in Kampala, contributing to the mortality and delay in recovery. Enteric infection was found in only a few children (8%), but when present it caused particularly severe diarrhoea and was frequently complicated by septicaemia. Sugar intolerance often occurred to lactose and other sugars, both monosaccharide and disaccharide. The children were most commonly intolerant of lactose, and some of these may have had a hereditary lactase deficiency. Antibiotics are rarely indicated for the treatment of diarrhoea in kwashiorkor in Kampala. If reducing substances are found in the stool of a child on a milk diet, a diet based on sucrose is substituted, and if intolerance persists a fructose diet is given. A few children are intolerant of all sugars, including fructose, and for these the prognosis is grave. Imagesp610-a PMID:4881339

  20. Water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions to reduce diarrhoea in less developed countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fewtrell, Lorna; Kaufmann, Rachel B; Kay, David; Enanoria, Wayne; Haller, Laurence; Colford, John M

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have reported the results of interventions to reduce illness through improvements in drinking water, sanitation facilities, and hygiene practices in less developed countries. There has, however, been no formal systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the evidence of the relative effectiveness of these interventions. We developed a comprehensive search strategy designed to identify all peer-reviewed articles, in any language, that presented water, sanitation, or hygiene interventions. We examined only those articles with specific measurement of diarrhoea morbidity as a health outcome in non-outbreak conditions. We screened the titles and, where necessary, the abstracts of 2120 publications. 46 studies were judged to contain relevant evidence and were reviewed in detail. Data were extracted from these studies and pooled by meta-analysis to provide summary estimates of the effectiveness of each type of intervention. All of the interventions studied were found to reduce significantly the risks of diarrhoeal illness. Most of the interventions had a similar degree of impact on diarrhoeal illness, with the relative risk estimates from the overall meta-analyses ranging between 0.63 and 0.75. The results generally agree with those from previous reviews, but water quality interventions (point-of-use water treatment) were found to be more effective than previously thought, and multiple interventions (consisting of combined water, sanitation, and hygiene measures) were not more effective than interventions with a single focus. There is some evidence of publication bias in the findings from the hygiene and water treatment interventions.

  1. Health workers' perspectives, knowledge and skills regarding community case management of childhood diarrhoea and pneumonia: a qualitative inquiry for an implementation research project "Nigraan" in District Badin, Sindh, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Fauziah; Perveen, Shagufta; Aftab, Wafa; Zahidie, Aysha; Sangrasi, Kashif; Qazi, Shamim Ahmad

    2016-09-01

    Pakistan's Lady Health Worker Programme aims to provide care to children sick with pneumonia and diarrhoea, which continues to cause 27 % under-five mortality in Pakistan. The quality of supervision received by Lady Health Workers (LHWs) in the programme influence their knowledge and skills, in turn impacting their ability to provide care. This study is part of an implementation research project titled "Nigraan" (an Urdu word meaning supervisor), and explores LHW and Lady Health Supervisor (LHS) perspectives regarding the role of supervision in improving LHWs performance and motivation in district Badin, Sindh, Pakistan. Their knowledge and skills regarding integrated community case management (iCCM) of diarrhoea and pneumonia were also assessed. Fourteen focus group discussions and 20 in-depth interviews were conducted as part of this qualitative inquiry. Analysis was done using QSR NVivo version 10. Most LHWs and LHSs identified pneumonia and diarrhoea as two major causes of death among children under-five. Poverty, illiteracy, poor hygiene and lack of clean drinking water were mentioned as underlying causes of high mortality due to diarrhoea and pneumonia. LHWs and LHSs gaps in knowledge included classification of dehydration, correctly preparing ORS and prescribing correct antibiotics in pneumonia. Lack of training, delayed salaries and insufficient medicines and other supplies were identified as major factors impeding appropriate knowledge and skill development for iCCM of childhood diarrhoea and pneumonia. LHWs considered adequate supervision and the presence of LHSs during household visits as a factor facilitating their performance. LHWs did not have a preference for written or verbal feedback, but LHSs considered written individual feedback to LHWs to be more useful than group and verbal feedback. LHWs have knowledge and skill gaps that prevent them from providing effective care for diarrhoea and pneumonia. Enhanced supportive feedback from LHSs could

  2. Diarrhoea in adults (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction An estimated 4.6 billion cases of diarrhoea occurred worldwide in 2004, resulting in 2.2 million deaths. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for acute diarrhoea in adults living in resource-rich countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults from resource-rich countries travelling to resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute mild-to-moderate diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? What are the effects of treatments for acute severe diarrhoea in adults living in resource-poor countries? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 72 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics, antimotility agents, antisecretory agents, bismuth subsalicylate, diet, intravenous rehydration, nasogastric tube rehydration, oral rehydration solutions (amino acid oral rehydration solution, bicarbonate oral rehydration solution, reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution, rice-based oral rehydration solution, standard oral rehydration solution), vitamin A supplementation, and zinc supplementation. PMID:21718555

  3. Careseeking for childhood diarrhoea at the primary level of care in communities in Cross River State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ekpo, Oluranti

    2016-12-01

    Risk factors for care-seeking choices for childhood diarrhea in Nigeria are poorly understood. They are essential to the control of childhood illnesses because diarrhea is an important cause of childhood mortality. This study explored the contributors to care-seeking choices in Cross River State, Nigeria. Caregivers of children aged 0-59months in 1240 randomly selected households in Cross River State were involved in this cross-sectional study. Questionnaires were used to collect information on demographics, knowledge of illness, and care-seeking patterns, and observed associations were explored using logistic regression. Care was given at home (50.4%, n=142; as recommended), at the health center (27%, n=76), and at the local drug store (19.1%, n=54). Main reasons for care sought were health education (31.9%, n=94), treatment cost (18%, n=53), and experiences (16.6%, n=49). Caregivers living in the mainly urban area of Calabar Municipality [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=2.81 (1.26-6.26)] and the mainly rural area of Obanliku [AOR=3.59 (1.94-6.64)], were more likely to give home treatment. Choice of treatment was only associated with area of residence. Influencers of care-seeking behavior, especially for childhood diarrhea, are complex and need to be better understood to encourage enhanced care for young children with diarrhea.

  4. The potential use of cholestyramine to reduce the risk of developing Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea in patients receiving long-term intravenous ceftriaxone.

    PubMed

    Puri, B K; Hakkarainen-Smith, J S; Monro, Jean A

    2015-01-01

    Intravenous pharmacotherapy with the third-generation cephalosporin ceftriaxone is unfortunately associated with a relatively high incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea. Cholestyramine (colestyramine) is an anion-binding resin which can bind luminal C.difficile toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB) and which may be beneficial in the treatment of recurrent antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis. We therefore hypothesised that concomitant oral cholestyramine might reduce the risk of C.difficile-associated diarrhoea in patients receiving long-term intravenous ceftriaxone. A pilot study was carried out in which it was found that only three out of 46 (6.5%) such patients being treated with 2 g ceftriaxone daily for Lyme borreliosis, who also received 4 g cholestyramine daily, developed C.difficile-associated diarrhoea. This is smaller than a published report of the incidence of this complication in six out of 26 (23.1%) patients following 1-3 days' treatment with 1 g intravenous ceftriaxone, but without oral cholestyramine (p=0.06). We therefore recommend that a larger, double-blind placebo-controlled trial be carried out to test this hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Research on improving infant feeding practices to prevent diarrhoea or reduce its severity: memorandum from a JHU/WHO meeting.

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    In developing countries the highest incidence of diarrhoea occurs among infants who are given fluids or foods to supplement or replace breast-feeding, and numerous studies have been conducted to examine the relationship between feeding practices during the weaning period and the risk of diarrhoea and malnutrition. This Memorandum summarizes current knowledge about the potential impact of improved infant feeding practices on diarrhoeal morbidity and mortality and describes experiences gained with interventions to promote improved practices. Further research activities to examine the role of improved infant feeding practices in the control of diarrhoeal diseases and to identify more effective approaches to the promotion of such practices in the context of a public health programme are also proposed. Finally, methodological issues concerning the design, implementation, and analysis of intervention studies are reviewed. PMID:2706725

  6. Combining drinking water treatment and hand washing for diarrhoea prevention, a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Luby, Stephen P; Agboatwalla, Mubina; Painter, John; Altaf, Arshad; Billhimer, Ward; Keswick, Bruce; Hoekstra, Robert M

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of point of use water treatment with flocculent-disinfectant on reducing diarrhoea and the additional benefit of promoting hand washing with soap. The study was conducted in squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan, where diarrhoea is a leading cause of childhood death. Interventions were randomly assigned to 47 neighbourhoods. Households in 10 neighbourhoods received diluted bleach and a water vessel; nine neighbourhoods received soap and were encouraged to wash hands; nine neighbourhoods received flocculent-disinfectant water treatment and a water vessel; 10 neighbourhoods received disinfectant-disinfectant water treatment and soap and were encouraged to wash hands; and nine neighbourhoods were followed as controls. Field workers visited households at least once a week from April to December 2003 to promote use of the interventions and to collect data on diarrhoea. Study participants in control neighbourhoods had diarrhoea on 5.2% of days. Compared to controls, participants living in intervention neighbourhoods had a lower prevalence of diarrhoea: 55% (95% CI 17%, 80%) lower in bleach and water vessel neighbourhoods, 51% (95% CI 12%, 76%) lower in hand washing promotion with soap neighbourhoods, 64% lower (95% CI 29%, 90%) in disinfectant-disinfectant neighbourhoods, and 55% (95% CI 18%, 80%) lower in disinfectant-disinfectant plus hand washing with soap neighbourhoods. With an intense community-based intervention and supplies provided free of cost, each of the home-based interventions significantly reduced diarrhoea. There was no benefit by combining hand washing promotion with water treatment.

  7. Diarrhoea-related hospitalizations in children before and after implementation of monovalent rotavirus vaccination in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Esparza-Aguilar, Marcelino; Sánchez-Uribe, Edgar; Desai, Rishi; Parashar, Umesh D; Richardson, Vesta; Patel, Manish

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess, by socioeconomic setting, the effect of nationwide vaccination against species A rotavirus (RVA) on childhood diarrhoea-related hospitalizations in Mexico. Methods Data on children younger than 5 years who were hospitalized for diarrhoea in health ministry hospitals between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2011 were collected from monthly discharge reports. Human development indexes were used to categorize the states where hospitals were located as having generally high, intermediate or low socioeconomic status. Annual rates of hospitalization for diarrhoea – per 10 000 hospitalizations for any cause – were calculated. Administrative data were used to estimate vaccine coverage. Findings In the states with high, intermediate and low socioeconomic status, coverage with a two-dose monovalent RVA vaccine – among children younger than 5 years – had reached 93%, 86% and 71%, respectively, by 2010. The corresponding median annual rates of hospitalization for diarrhoea – per 10 000 admissions – fell from 1001, 834 and 1033 in the “prevaccine” period of 2003–2006, to 597, 497 and 705 in the “postvaccine” period from 2008 to 2011, respectively. These decreases correspond to rate reductions of 40% (95% confidence interval, CI: 38–43), 41% (95% CI: 38–43) and 32% (95% CI: 29–34), respectively. Nationwide, RVA vaccination appeared to have averted approximately 16 500 hospitalizations for childhood diarrhoea in each year of the postvaccine period. Conclusion Monovalent RVA vaccination has substantially reduced childhood diarrhoea-related hospitalizations for four continuous years in discretely different socioeconomic populations across Mexico. PMID:24623905

  8. Clinical management of diarrhoea in children.

    PubMed

    Poka, Harry; Duke, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhoea is one of the commonest reasons children require health care in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Acute watery diarrhoea is the commonest form, and is due to viruses. Oral rehydration solution, zinc and continued breastfeeding are highly effective treatments that can be delivered in homes and health facilities. Antibiotics are not useful in acute watery diarrhoea--they make it worse. Deaths from acute watery diarrhoea should be rare if basic curative services are available. Persistent diarrhoea (lasting longer than 14 days) is commonly associated with other co-morbidities, including malnutrition, anaemia, HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection, parasite (such as Giardia) or worm infections and environmental enteropathy. Educating parents on handwashing, food preparation, water purification, improvements in sanitation and the home environment, breastfeeding, nutrition and immunization are essential in preventing diarrhoea. Cholera appeared in PNG in 2009, causing over 500 deaths in all age groups. Cholera emerged because of limited access to safe, clean drinking water and poor sanitation. Addressing these will have beneficial effects not only on cholera but also on all causes of diarrhoea and many other common childhood infections.

  9. Drug-induced diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Chassany, O; Michaux, A; Bergmann, J F

    2000-01-01

    Diarrhoea is a relatively frequent adverse event, accounting for about 7% of all drug adverse effects. More than 700 drugs have been implicated in causing diarrhoea; those most frequently involved are antimicrobials, laxatives, magnesium-containing antacids, lactose- or sorbitol-containing products, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, prostaglandins, colchicine, antineoplastics, antiarrhythmic drugs and cholinergic agents. Certain new drugs are likely to induce diarrhoea because of their pharmacodynamic properties; examples include anthraquinone-related agents, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, lipase inhibitors and cholinesterase inhibitors. Antimicrobials are responsible for 25% of drug-induced diarrhoea. The disease spectrum of antimicrobial-associated diarrhoea ranges from benign diarrhoea to pseudomembranous colitis. Several pathophysiological mechanisms are involved in drug-induced diarrhoea: osmotic diarrhoea, secretory diarrhoea, shortened transit time, exudative diarrhoea and protein-losing enteropathy, and malabsorption or maldigestion of fat and carbohydrates. Often 2 or more mechanisms are present simultaneously. In clinical practice, 2 major types of diarrhoea are seen: acute diarrhoea, which usually appears during the first few days of treatment, and chronic diarrhoea, lasting more than 3 or 4 weeks and which can appear a long time after the start of drug therapy. Both can be severe and poorly tolerated. In a patient presenting with diarrhoea, the medical history is very important, especially the drug history, as it can suggest a diagnosis of drug-induced diarrhoea and thereby avoid multiple diagnostic tests. The clinical examination should cover severity criteria such as fever, rectal emission of blood and mucus, dehydration and bodyweight loss. Establishing a relationship between drug consumption and diarrhoea or colitis can be difficult when the time elapsed between the start of the drug and the onset of symptoms is long, sometimes up to several

  10. Reducing Childhood Obesity through U.S. Federal Policy

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Alyson H.; Flottemesch, Thomas J.; Maciosek, Michael V.; Jenson, Jennifer; Barclay, Gillian; Ashe, Marice; Sanchez, Eduardo J.; Story, Mary; Teutsch, Steven M.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity prevalence remains high in the U.S., especially among racial/ethnic minorities and low-income populations. Federal policy is important in improving public health given its broad reach. Information is needed about federal policies that could reduce childhood obesity rates and by how much. Purpose To estimate the impact of three federal policies on childhood obesity prevalence in 2032, after 20 years of implementation. Methods Criteria were used to select the three following policies to reduce childhood obesity from 26 recommended policies: afterschool physical activity programs, a $0.01/ounce sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) excise tax, and a ban on child-directed fast food TV advertising. For each policy, the literature was reviewed from January 2000 through July 2012 to find evidence of effectiveness and create average effect sizes. In 2012, a Markov microsimulation model estimated each policy’s impact on diet or physical activity, and then BMI, in a simulated school-aged population in 2032. Results The microsimulation predicted that afterschool physical activity programs would reduce obesity the most among children aged 6–12 years (1.8 percentage points) and the advertising ban would reduce obesity the least (0.9 percentage points). The SSB excise tax would reduce obesity the most among adolescents aged 13–18 years (2.4 percentage points). All three policies would reduce obesity more among blacks and Hispanics than whites, with the SSB excise tax reducing obesity disparities the most. Conclusions All three policies would reduce childhood obesity prevalence by 2032. However, a national $0.01/ounce SSB excise tax is the best option. PMID:25175764

  11. Secretory diarrhoea: mechanisms and emerging therapies.

    PubMed

    Thiagarajah, Jay R; Donowitz, Mark; Verkman, Alan S

    2015-08-01

    Diarrhoeal disease remains a major health burden worldwide. Secretory diarrhoeas are caused by certain bacterial and viral infections, inflammatory processes, drugs and genetic disorders. Fluid secretion across the intestinal epithelium in secretory diarrhoeas involves multiple ion and solute transporters, as well as activation of cyclic nucleotide and Ca(2+) signalling pathways. In many secretory diarrhoeas, activation of Cl(-) channels in the apical membrane of enterocytes, including the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels, increases fluid secretion, while inhibition of Na(+) transport reduces fluid absorption. Current treatment of diarrhoea includes replacement of fluid and electrolyte losses using oral rehydration solutions, and drugs targeting intestinal motility or fluid secretion. Therapeutics in the development pipeline target intestinal ion channels and transporters, regulatory proteins and cell surface receptors. This Review describes pathogenic mechanisms of secretory diarrhoea, current and emerging therapeutics, and the challenges in developing antidiarrhoeal therapeutics.

  12. Investigation of chronic diarrhoea in infancy.

    PubMed

    Pezzella, Vincenza; De Martino, Lucia; Passariello, Annalisa; Cosenza, Linda; Terrin, Gianluca; Berni Canani, Roberto

    2013-11-01

    Diarrhoea in infants and young children is defined as >200g/day of stools, and occurs when there is an imbalance between intestinal fluids absorption and secretion. This may be caused by either a decreased absorption (osmotic diarrhoea) or an increased secretion (secretory diarrhoea). Chronic diarrhoea defines intestinal loss of water and electrolytes with increased stool frequency, reduced consistency and larger volume over more than 14days. This disorder in children shows a wide range of aetiologies depending on the age. The knowledge of common and rare aetiologies is important to optimize the diagnostic approach. A stepwise approach, starting with a comprehensive history, physical examination, inspection and collection of stool samples, helps to devise appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic management. In this article we discuss the pathophysiology, aetiology and possible approach to chronic diarrhoea in infancy.

  13. Secretory diarrhoea: mechanisms and emerging therapies

    PubMed Central

    Thiagarajah, Jay R.; Donowitz, Mark; Verkman, Alan S.

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhoeal disease remains a major health burden worldwide. Secretory diarrhoeas are caused by certain bacterial and viral infections, inflammatory processes, drugs and genetic disorders. Fluid secretion across the intestinal epithelium in secretory diarrhoeas involves multiple ion and solute transporters, as well as activation of cyclic nucleotide and Ca2+ signalling pathways. In many secretory diarrhoeas, activation of Cl− channels in the apical membrane of enterocytes, including the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and Ca2+-activated Cl− channels, increases fluid secretion, while inhibition of Na+ transport reduces fluid absorption. Current treatment of diarrhoea includes replacement of fluid and electrolyte losses using oral rehydration solutions, and drugs targeting intestinal motility or fluid secretion. Therapeutics in the development pipeline target intestinal ion channels and transporters, regulatory proteins and cell surface receptors. This Review describes pathogenic mechanisms of secretory diarrhoea, current and emerging therapeutics, and the challenges in developing antidiarrhoeal therapeutics. PMID:26122478

  14. Napping Reduces Emotional Attention Bias during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cremone, Amanda; Kurdziel, Laura B. F.; Fraticelli-Torres, Ada; McDermott, Jennifer M.; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.

    2017-01-01

    Sleep loss alters processing of emotional stimuli in preschool-aged children. However, the mechanism by which sleep modifies emotional processing in early childhood is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that a nap, compared to an equivalent time spent awake, reduces biases in attention allocation to affective information. Children (n = 43;…

  15. Using performance-based regulation to reduce childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sugarman, Stephen D; Sandman, Nirit

    2008-01-01

    Background Worldwide, the public health community has recognized the growing problem of childhood obesity. But, unlike tobacco control policy, there is little evidence about what public policies would work to substantially reduce childhood obesity. Public health leaders currently tend to support traditional "command and control" schemes that order private enterprises and governments to stop or start doing specific things that, is it hoped, will yield lower childhood obesity rates. These include measures such as 1) taking sweetened beverages out of schools, 2) posting calorie counts on fast-food menu boards, 3) labeling foods with a "red light" if they contain high levels of fat or sugar, 4) limiting the density of fast food restaurants in any neighborhood, 5) requiring chain restaurants to offer "healthy" alternatives, and 6) eliminating junk food ads on television shows aimed at children. Some advocates propose other regulatory interventions such as 1) influencing the relative prices of healthy and unhealthy foods through taxes and/or subsidies and 2) suing private industry for money damages as a way of blaming childhood obesity on certain practices of the food industry (such as its marketing, product composition, or portion size decisions). The food industry generally seeks to deflect blame for childhood obesity onto others, such as parents and schools. PMID:19017402

  16. Using performance-based regulation to reduce childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, Stephen D; Sandman, Nirit

    2008-11-18

    Worldwide, the public health community has recognized the growing problem of childhood obesity. But, unlike tobacco control policy, there is little evidence about what public policies would work to substantially reduce childhood obesity. Public health leaders currently tend to support traditional "command and control" schemes that order private enterprises and governments to stop or start doing specific things that, is it hoped, will yield lower childhood obesity rates. These include measures such as 1) taking sweetened beverages out of schools, 2) posting calorie counts on fast-food menu boards, 3) labeling foods with a "red light" if they contain high levels of fat or sugar, 4) limiting the density of fast food restaurants in any neighborhood, 5) requiring chain restaurants to offer "healthy" alternatives, and 6) eliminating junk food ads on television shows aimed at children. Some advocates propose other regulatory interventions such as 1) influencing the relative prices of healthy and unhealthy foods through taxes and/or subsidies and 2) suing private industry for money damages as a way of blaming childhood obesity on certain practices of the food industry (such as its marketing, product composition, or portion size decisions). The food industry generally seeks to deflect blame for childhood obesity onto others, such as parents and schools.

  17. Infant feeding practices and diarrhoea in sub-Saharan African countries with high diarrhoea mortality.

    PubMed

    Ogbo, Felix A; Agho, Kingsley; Ogeleka, Pascal; Woolfenden, Sue; Page, Andrew; Eastwood, John

    2017-01-01

    The impacts of optimal infant feeding practices on diarrhoea have been documented in some developing countries, but not in countries with high diarrhoea mortality as reported by the World Health Organisation/United Nations Children's Fund. We aimed to investigate the association between infant feeding practices and diarrhoea in sub-Saharan African countries with high diarrhoea mortality. The study used the most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets collected in nine sub-Saharan African countries with high diarrhoea mortality, namely: Burkina Faso (2010, N = 9,733); Demographic Republic of Congo (2013; N = 10,458); Ethiopia (2013, N = 7,251); Kenya (2014, N = 14,034); Mali (2013, N = 6,365); Niger (2013, N = 7,235); Nigeria (2013, N = 18,539); Tanzania (2010, N = 5,013); and Uganda (2010, N = 4,472). Multilevel logistic regression models that adjusted for cluster and sampling weights were used to investigate the association between infant feeding practices and diarrhoea in these nine African countries. Diarrhoea prevalence was lower among children whose mothers practiced early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive and predominant breastfeeding. Early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding were significantly associated with lower risk of diarrhoea (OR = 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77-0.85, P<0.001 and OR = 0.50; 95%CI: 0.43-0.57, respectively). In contrast, introduction of complementary foods (OR = 1.31; 95%CI: 1.14-1.50) and continued breastfeeding at one year (OR = 1.27; 95%CI: 1.05-1.55) were significantly associated with a higher risk of diarrhoea. Early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding are protective of diarrhoea in sub-Saharan African countries with high diarrhoea mortality. To reduce diarrhoea mortality and also achieve the health-related sustainable development goals in sub-Saharan African, an integrated, multi-agency strategic partnership within each country is needed to improve optimal infant

  18. Vomiting and diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Patrick, M K

    1994-10-01

    Diarrhoea and vomiting are common symptoms in infants up to six months of age. While the symptoms often reflect a gastrointestinal disorder the attending physician needs to be aware of possible non gastrointestinal causes. Such symptoms occurring in the newborn often point to congenital causes. Dehydration and nutrition are the key points needing attention in the management of diarrhoea in infants. Drugs virtually have no role in the management of diarrhoea and vomiting in infants.

  19. Role of Antidiarrhoeal Drugs as Adjunctive Therapies for Acute Diarrhoea in Children

    PubMed Central

    Faure, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Acute diarrhoea is a leading cause of child mortality in developing countries. Principal pathogens include Escherichia coli, rotaviruses, and noroviruses. 90% of diarrhoeal deaths are attributable to inadequate sanitation. Acute diarrhoea is the second leading cause of overall childhood mortality and accounts for 18% of deaths among children under five. In 2004 an estimated 1.5 million children died from diarrhoea, with 80% of deaths occurring before the age of two. Treatment goals are to prevent dehydration and nutritional damage and to reduce duration and severity of diarrhoeal episodes. The recommended therapeutic regimen is to provide oral rehydration solutions (ORS) and to continue feeding. Although ORS effectively mitigates dehydration, it has no effect on the duration, severity, or frequency of diarrhoeal episodes. Adjuvant therapy with micronutrients, probiotics, or antidiarrhoeal agents may thus be useful. The WHO recommends the use of zinc tablets in association with ORS. The ESPGHAN/ESPID treatment guidelines consider the use of racecadotril, diosmectite, or probiotics as possible adjunctive therapy to ORS. Only racecadotril and diosmectite reduce stool output, but no treatment has yet been shown to reduce hospitalisation rate or mortality. Appropriate management with validated treatments may help reduce the health and economic burden of acute diarrhoea in children worldwide. PMID:23533446

  20. Travellers' diarrhoea: causes, prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Rhoswen; Bennett, Clare

    This article describes the prevention and treatment of travellers' diarrhoea, the leading cause of illness in people travelling abroad. The most common cause of travellers' diarrhoea worldwide is bacterial pathogens, which account for up to 80% of cases. Exercising caution over dietary selection and personal hygiene is the most common method used for reducing the risk of acquiring travellers' diarrhoea. Antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics and bismuth subsalicylate have all been indicated for the prevention of this distressing condition. Treatments include antimotility agents, oral rehydration salts and antibiotics.

  1. Infectious causes of chronic diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Lisa; Surawicz, Christina M

    2012-10-01

    Infections are an uncommon cause of chronic diarrhoea. Parasites are most likely, including protozoa like giardia, cryptosporidia and cyclospora. Bacteria are unlikely to cause chronic diarrhoea in immunocompetent individuals with the possible exception of Yersinia, Plesiomonas and Aeromonas. Infectious diarrhoea can trigger other causes of chronic diarrhoea, including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome and "Brainerd-type" diarrhoea. A thorough evaluation should detect most infections causing chronic diarrhoea.

  2. Prevention of childhood obesity by reducing soft drinks.

    PubMed

    James, J; Kerr, D

    2005-09-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is a global problem. There are a variety of environmental factors that may be contributing to this increase. One such factor may be the increased consumption of soft drinks. This review will describe some of the latest research that has examined the association between obesity and the consumption of soft drinks. The association between the consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity has been established in three separate American studies. It has been found that children who consume these drinks have a higher energy intake and are more likely to become overweight. In adult women, the consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks has been associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes. In the United Kingdom, a school-based initiative focusing on reducing the consumption of these drinks has also been effective in preventing a further increase in obesity. There is an association between obesity and consumption of soft drinks. Initiatives focusing on reducing the consumption of these drinks may help to prevent a further increase in childhood obesity.

  3. Oral zinc for treating diarrhoea in children.

    PubMed

    Lazzerini, Marzia; Ronfani, Luca

    2013-01-31

    In developing countries, diarrhoea causes around two million child deaths annually. Zinc supplementation during acute diarrhoea is currently recommended by the World Health Organization and UNICEF. To evaluate oral zinc supplementation for treating children with acute or persistent diarrhoea. In February 2012, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 11), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, mRCT, and reference lists. We also contacted researchers. Randomized controlled trials comparing oral zinc supplementation with placebo in children aged one month to five years with acute or persistent diarrhoea, including dysentery. Both authors assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias, extracted and analysed data, and drafted the review. Diarrhoea duration and severity were the primary outcomes. We summarized dichotomous outcomes using risk ratios (RR) and continuous outcomes using mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where appropriate, we combined data in meta-analyses (using the fixed- or random-effects model) and assessed heterogeneity.The quality of evidence has been assessed using the GRADE methods Twenty-four trials, enrolling 9128 children, met our inclusion criteria. The majority of the data is from Asia, from countries at high risk of zinc deficiency, and may not be applicable elsewhere. Acute diarrhoea. There is currently not enough evidence from well conducted randomized controlled trials to be able to say whether zinc supplementation during acute diarrhoea reduces death or hospitalization (very low quality evidence).In children aged greater than six months with acute diarrhoea, zinc supplementation may shorten the duration of diarrhoea by around 10 hours (MD -10.44 hours, 95% CI -21.13 to 0.25; 2175 children, six trials, low quality evidence), and probably reduces the number of children whose diarrhoea persists until day seven (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.88; 3865 children

  4. Effect of city-wide sanitation programme on reduction in rate of childhood diarrhoea in northeast Brazil: assessment by two cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Mauricio L; Genser, Bernd; Strina, Agostino; Teixeira, Maria Gloria; Assis, Ana Marlucia O; Rego, Rita F; Teles, Carlos A; Prado, Matildes S; Matos, Sheila MA; Santos, Darci N; dos Santos, Lenaldo A; Cairncross, Sandy

    2007-01-01

    Summary Background A city-wide sanitation intervention was started in Salvador, Brazil, in 1997 to improve sewerage coverage from 26% of households to 80%. Our aim was to investigate the epidemiological effect of this city-wide sanitation programme on diarrhoea morbidity in children less than 3 years of age. Methods The investigation was composed of two longitudinal studies done in 1997–98 before the intervention (the sanitation programme) and in 2003–04 after the intervention had been completed. Each study consisted of a cohort of children (841 in the preintervention study and 1007 in the postintervention study; age 0–36 months at baseline) who were followed up for a maximum of 8 months. Children were sampled from 24 sentinel areas that were randomly chosen to represent the range of environmental conditions in the study site. At the start of each study an individual or household questionnaire was applied by trained fieldworkers; an environmental survey was done in each area before and after introduction of the sanitation programme to assess basic neighbourhood and household sanitation conditions. Daily diarrhoea data were obtained during home visits twice per week. The effect of the intervention was estimated by a hierarchical modelling approach fitting a sequence of multivariate regression models. Findings Diarrhoea prevalence fell by 21% (95% CI 18–25%)—from 9·2 (9·0–9·5) days per child-year before the intervention to 7·3 (7·0–7·5) days per child-year afterwards. After adjustment for baseline sewerage coverage and potential confounding variables, we estimated an overall prevalence reduction of 22% (19–26%). Interpretation Our results show that urban sanitation is a highly effective health measure that can no longer be ignored, and they provide a timely support for the launch of 2008 as the International Year of Sanitation. PMID:17993362

  5. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli and other causes of childhood diarrhoea: a case-control study in children living in a wastewater-use area in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hien, Bui Thi Thu; Trang, Do Thuy; Scheutz, Flemming; Cam, Phung Dac; Mølbak, Kåre; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2007-08-01

    A case-control study was conducted to identify the aetiology of diarrhoeal diseases in pre-school children in a suburban area of Hanoi where the use of untreated wastewater in agriculture and aquaculture is a common practice. Stool specimens and clinical information were collected from 111 pairs of children with diarrhoea and healthy controls. A total of 73 cases (66 %) and 41 controls (36 %) had an enteric pathogen. The pathogens most often associated with diarrhoea were rotavirus (17 % of cases) and Entamoeba histolytica (15 %), followed by Shigella (5 %). Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) was found in 23 % of both patients and controls. Characterization of DEC by serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility test and PFGE showed that DEC represented by different pathotypes belonged to various serotypes. Except for three enterotoxigenic E. coli strains, typing by PFGE revealed no correlation between pathotype and serotype of DEC strains. This suggests a high prevalence of a variety of DEC subtypes in this area. For this particular region, vaccine development strategies targeting rotavirus and Shigella are likely to be of public health benefit, whereas the role of DEC and preventive measures need to be further elaborated.

  6. Pneumonia research to reduce childhood mortality in the developing world

    PubMed Central

    Scott, J. Anthony G.; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Peiris, J.S. Malik; Holtzman, Douglas; Mulhollan, E. Kim

    2008-01-01

    Pneumonia is an illness, usually caused by infection, in which the lungs become inflamed and congested, reducing oxygen exchange and leading to cough and breathlessness. It affects individuals of all ages but occurs most frequently in children and the elderly. Among children, pneumonia is the most common cause of death worldwide. Historically, in developed countries, deaths from pneumonia have been reduced by improvements in living conditions, air quality, and nutrition. In the developing world today, many deaths from pneumonia are also preventable by immunization or access to simple, effective treatments. However, as we highlight here, there are critical gaps in our understanding of the epidemiology, etiology, and pathophysiology of pneumonia that, if filled, could accelerate the control of pneumonia and reduce early childhood mortality. PMID:18382741

  7. Does Economic Growth Reduce Childhood Undernutrition in Ethiopia?

    PubMed

    Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Shumetie, Arega; Yesigat, Habtamu

    2016-01-01

    Policy discussions and debates in the last couple of decades emphasized efficiency of development policies for translating economic growth to development. One of the key aspects in this regard in the developing world is achieving improved nutrition through economic development. Nonetheless, there is a dearth of literature that empirically verifies the association between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in low- and middle-income countries. Thus, the aim of the study is to assess the interplay between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in Ethiopia. The study used pooled data of three rounds (2000, 2005 and 2010) from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Ethiopia. A multilevel mixed logistic regression model with robust standard errors was utilized in order to account for the hierarchical nature of the data. The dependent variables were stunting, underweight, and wasting in children in the household. The main independent variable was real per capita income (PCI) that was adjusted for purchasing power parity. This information was obtained from World Bank. A total of 32,610 children were included in the pooled analysis. Overall, 11,296 (46.7%) [46.0%-47.3%], 8,197(33.8%) [33.2%-34.4%] and 3,175(13.1%) [12.7%-13.5%] were stunted, underweight, and wasted, respectively. We found a strong correlation between prevalence of early childhood undernutrition outcomes and real per capita income (PCI). The proportions of stunting (r = -0.1207, p<0.0001), wasting (r = -0.0338, p<0.0001) and underweight (r = -0.1035, p<0.0001) from the total children in the household were negatively correlated with the PCI. In the final model adjustment with all the covariates, economic growth substantially reduced stunting [β = -0.0016, SE = 0.00013, p<0.0001], underweight [β = -0.0014, SE = 0.0002, p<0.0001] and wasting [β = -0.0008, SE = 0.0002, p<0.0001] in Ethiopia over a decade. Economic growth reduces child undernutrition in Ethiopia

  8. Does Economic Growth Reduce Childhood Undernutrition in Ethiopia?

    PubMed Central

    Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Shumetie, Arega; Yesigat, Habtamu

    2016-01-01

    Background Policy discussions and debates in the last couple of decades emphasized efficiency of development policies for translating economic growth to development. One of the key aspects in this regard in the developing world is achieving improved nutrition through economic development. Nonetheless, there is a dearth of literature that empirically verifies the association between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in low- and middle-income countries. Thus, the aim of the study is to assess the interplay between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in Ethiopia. Methods The study used pooled data of three rounds (2000, 2005 and 2010) from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Ethiopia. A multilevel mixed logistic regression model with robust standard errors was utilized in order to account for the hierarchical nature of the data. The dependent variables were stunting, underweight, and wasting in children in the household. The main independent variable was real per capita income (PCI) that was adjusted for purchasing power parity. This information was obtained from World Bank. Results A total of 32,610 children were included in the pooled analysis. Overall, 11,296 (46.7%) [46.0%-47.3%], 8,197(33.8%) [33.2%-34.4%] and 3,175(13.1%) [12.7%-13.5%] were stunted, underweight, and wasted, respectively. We found a strong correlation between prevalence of early childhood undernutrition outcomes and real per capita income (PCI). The proportions of stunting (r = -0.1207, p<0.0001), wasting (r = -0.0338, p<0.0001) and underweight (r = -0.1035, p<0.0001) from the total children in the household were negatively correlated with the PCI. In the final model adjustment with all the covariates, economic growth substantially reduced stunting [β = -0.0016, SE = 0.00013, p<0.0001], underweight [β = -0.0014, SE = 0.0002, p<0.0001] and wasting [β = -0.0008, SE = 0.0002, p<0.0001] in Ethiopia over a decade. Conclusion Economic growth

  9. Oral zinc for treating diarrhoea in children.

    PubMed

    Lazzerini, Marzia; Wanzira, Humphrey

    2016-12-20

    In developing countries, diarrhoea causes around 500,000 child deaths annually. Zinc supplementation during acute diarrhoea is currently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). To evaluate oral zinc supplementation for treating children with acute or persistent diarrhoea. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 5), MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, CINAHL, mRCT, and reference lists up to 30 September 2016. We also contacted researchers. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared oral zinc supplementation with placebo in children aged one month to five years with acute or persistent diarrhoea, including dysentery. Both review authors assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias, extracted and analysed data, and drafted the review. The primary outcomes were diarrhoea duration and severity. We summarized dichotomous outcomes using risk ratios (RR) and continuous outcomes using mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where appropriate, we combined data in meta-analyses (using either a fixed-effect or random-effects model) and assessed heterogeneity.We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Thirty-three trials that included 10,841 children met our inclusion criteria. Most included trials were conducted in Asian countries that were at high risk of zinc deficiency. Acute diarrhoeaThere is currently not enough evidence from well-conducted RCTs to be able to say whether zinc supplementation during acute diarrhoea reduces death or number of children hospitalized (very low certainty evidence).In children older than six months of age, zinc supplementation may shorten the average duration of diarrhoea by around half a day (MD -11.46 hours, 95% CI -19.72 to -3.19; 2581 children, 9 trials, low certainty evidence), and probably reduces the number of children whose diarrhoea persists until day seven (RR 0

  10. Oral zinc for treating diarrhoea in children

    PubMed Central

    Lazzerini, Marzia; Wanzira, Humphrey

    2016-01-01

    Background In developing countries, diarrhoea causes around 500,000 child deaths annually. Zinc supplementation during acute diarrhoea is currently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). Objectives To evaluate oral zinc supplementation for treating children with acute or persistent diarrhoea. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 5), MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, CINAHL, mRCT, and reference lists up to 30 September 2016. We also contacted researchers. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared oral zinc supplementation with placebo in children aged one month to five years with acute or persistent diarrhoea, including dysentery. Data collection and analysis Both review authors assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias, extracted and analysed data, and drafted the review. The primary outcomes were diarrhoea duration and severity. We summarized dichotomous outcomes using risk ratios (RR) and continuous outcomes using mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where appropriate, we combined data in meta-analyses (using either a fixed-effect or random-effects model) and assessed heterogeneity. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results Thirty-three trials that included 10,841 children met our inclusion criteria. Most included trials were conducted in Asian countries that were at high risk of zinc deficiency. Acute diarrhoea There is currently not enough evidence from well-conducted RCTs to be able to say whether zinc supplementation during acute diarrhoea reduces death or number of children hospitalized (very low certainty evidence). In children older than six months of age, zinc supplementation may shorten the average duration of diarrhoea by around half a day (MD −11.46 hours, 95% CI −19.72 to −3.19; 2581 children, 9 trials, low

  11. Reducing the global burden of childhood unintentional injuries.

    PubMed

    Alonge, Olakunle; Hyder, Adnan A

    2014-01-01

    Among 1-19-year olds, unintentional injuries accounted for 12% of 5.1 million global deaths from injuries in 2010. Despite this high burden, childhood injuries have not received much attention in global health. This paper describes the major causes of deaths from childhood unintentional injuries and provides a review of interventions for reducing this burden. About 627,741 deaths were due to unintentional injuries in 2010 among 1-19-year olds. The proportionate mortality increased with age-from 12.6% among 1-4-year olds to 28.8% among 15-19-year olds. Deaths from Western sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia accounted for more than 50% of all deaths. Rates in these regions are 68.0 and 36.4 per 100 000 population, respectively, compared to 6.4 in Western Europe. Road traffic injuries (RTI) are the commonest cause of death, followed by deaths from drowning, burns and falls. Male children are more predisposed to unintentional injuries except for burns which occur more frequently among females in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Effective solutions exist--including barriers for preventing drowning; safer stoves for burns; child restraint systems for RTI--but the effectiveness of these measures need to be rigorously tested in LMICs. The general lack of a coordinated global response to the burden of childhood unintentional injuries is of concern. The global community must create stronger coalitions and national or local plans for action. Death rates for this paper may have been underestimated, and there is need for longitudinal studies to accurately measure the impact of injuries in LMICs.

  12. Randomised clinical trial: alosetron improves quality of life and reduces restriction of daily activities in women with severe diarrhoea-predominant IBS

    PubMed Central

    Cremonini, F; Nicandro, J P; Atkinson, V; Shringarpure, R; Chuang, E; Lembo, A

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea (IBS-D) experience restriction in daily activities and decreased health-related quality of life (QOL). Aim To investigate effects of alosetron on patient-reported health-related QOL, satisfaction and productivity in women with severe IBS-D. Methods A total of 705 women (severe IBS-D, Rome II criteria) randomised to alosetron 0.5 mg QD, 1 mg QD, 1 mg BID, or placebo for 12 weeks were studied. IBSQOL, treatment satisfaction, daily activities, and lost workplace productivity (LWP) were evaluated at randomisation and Week 12. Results One or more doses of alosetron significantly improved all IBSQOL domains except for sexual function from baseline vs. placebo. The magnitude of IBSQOL changes was consistent with a clinically meaningful effect. Alosetron 0.5 mg QD and 1 mg BID significantly reduced IBS interference with social/leisure activities and LWP from baseline vs. placebo [social/leisure (mean ±S.E.) days lost: −6.7 ± 0.8, −7.0 ± 0.9, P < 0.01; LWP (mean ± S.E.) h lost: −11.0 ± 3.3, −21.1 ± 4.1, P < 0.05 respectively]. Significantly more patients treated with alosetron reported satisfaction vs. placebo. Improvements in IBSQOL, LWP, and treatment satisfaction significantly correlated with global improvement of IBS symptoms. The incidence of adverse events with alosetron was low with constipation being the most commonly reported event. A single case of ischaemic colitis occurred, in a patient receiving alosetron 0.5 mg QD. Conclusions In women with severe IBS-D, alosetron treatment, including 0.5 mg QD, resulted in statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements in health-related QOL, restriction of daily activities and treatment satisfaction over placebo. IBS symptom improvement corresponded with positive changes in IBSQOL, LWP and treatment satisfaction. PMID:22779693

  13. An intensive family intervention clinic for reducing childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Endevelt, Ronit; Elkayam, Orit; Cohen, Rinat; Peled, Ronit; Tal-Pony, Limor; Michaelis Grunwald, Ruth; Valinsky, Liora; Porath, Avi; Heymann, Anthony David

    2014-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent obesity constitute a significant public health concern. Family health care settings with multidisciplinary teams provide an opportunity for weight loss treatment. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of intensive treatment designed to reduce weight using a parent-child lifestyle modification intervention in a family health care clinic for obese and overweight children who had failed previous treatment attempts. This was a practice-based 6-month intervention at Maccabi Health Care Services, an Israeli health maintenance organization, consisting of parental education, individual child consultation, and physical activity classes. We included in the intervention 100 obese or overweight children aged 5 to 14 years and their parents and 943 comparison children and their parents. Changes in body mass index z-scores, adjusted for socioeconomic status, were analyzed, with a follow-up at 14 months and a delayed follow-up at an average of 46.7 months. The mean z-score after the intervention was lower in the intervention group compared to the comparison group (1.74 and 1.95, respectively; P = .019). The intervention group sustained the reduction in z-score after an average of 46.7 months (P < .001). Of the overweight or obese children, 13% became normal weight after the intervention, compared with 4% of the comparison children. This multidisciplinary team treatment of children and their parents in family health care clinics positively affected measures of childhood obesity. Additional randomized trials are required to verify these findings.

  14. Infant feeding practices and diarrhoea in sub-Saharan African countries with high diarrhoea mortality

    PubMed Central

    Ogbo, Felix A.; Agho, Kingsley; Ogeleka, Pascal; Woolfenden, Sue; Page, Andrew; Eastwood, John

    2017-01-01

    Background The impacts of optimal infant feeding practices on diarrhoea have been documented in some developing countries, but not in countries with high diarrhoea mortality as reported by the World Health Organisation/United Nations Children’s Fund. We aimed to investigate the association between infant feeding practices and diarrhoea in sub-Saharan African countries with high diarrhoea mortality. Method The study used the most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets collected in nine sub-Saharan African countries with high diarrhoea mortality, namely: Burkina Faso (2010, N = 9,733); Demographic Republic of Congo (2013; N = 10,458); Ethiopia (2013, N = 7,251); Kenya (2014, N = 14,034); Mali (2013, N = 6,365); Niger (2013, N = 7,235); Nigeria (2013, N = 18,539); Tanzania (2010, N = 5,013); and Uganda (2010, N = 4,472). Multilevel logistic regression models that adjusted for cluster and sampling weights were used to investigate the association between infant feeding practices and diarrhoea in these nine African countries. Results Diarrhoea prevalence was lower among children whose mothers practiced early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive and predominant breastfeeding. Early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding were significantly associated with lower risk of diarrhoea (OR = 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77–0.85, P<0.001 and OR = 0.50; 95%CI: 0.43–0.57, respectively). In contrast, introduction of complementary foods (OR = 1.31; 95%CI: 1.14–1.50) and continued breastfeeding at one year (OR = 1.27; 95%CI: 1.05–1.55) were significantly associated with a higher risk of diarrhoea. Conclusion Early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding are protective of diarrhoea in sub-Saharan African countries with high diarrhoea mortality. To reduce diarrhoea mortality and also achieve the health-related sustainable development goals in sub-Saharan African, an integrated, multi-agency strategic partnership within each

  15. A contingent valuation study to estimate the parental willingness-to-pay for childhood diarrhoea and gender bias among rural households in India

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Mo; Khondoker, Farhana

    2004-01-01

    We used contingent valuation technique to estimate the parental willingness to pay for an episode of diarrhoea among 324 children of both sexes aged between five and seven years in two rural villages of Chennai in India. The aim was to examine if there was any gender bias in the parental willingness to treat children for a diarrhoeal episode, and if so to what extent. The willingness to pay was specified as a hedonic function of the duration and severity of an episode, and of parents' socioeconomic characteristics. The findings suggest that parents were willing to pay more to protect their male child compared to the female child suffering from a diarrhoeal episode. The median willingness to pay to avoid an episode for male and female children were calculated at Rs. 33.7 (approx. US$ 0.72) and Rs. 25.2 (approx. US$ 0.54) respectively – a difference of around 34%. After adjusting for the greater duration and severity of the illness, it was found that the difference between the two medians increased to 51%. PMID:15214964

  16. A contingent valuation study to estimate the parental willingness-to-pay for childhood diarrhoea and gender bias among rural households in India.

    PubMed

    Amin, Mo; Khondoker, Farhana

    2004-06-24

    We used contingent valuation technique to estimate the parental willingness to pay for an episode of diarrhoea among 324 children of both sexes aged between five and seven years in two rural villages of Chennai in India. The aim was to examine if there was any gender bias in the parental willingness to treat children for a diarrhoeal episode, and if so to what extent. The willingness to pay was specified as a hedonic function of the duration and severity of an episode, and of parents' socioeconomic characteristics. The findings suggest that parents were willing to pay more to protect their male child compared to the female child suffering from a diarrhoeal episode. The median willingness to pay to avoid an episode for male and female children were calculated at Rs. 33.7 (approx. US$ 0.72) and Rs. 25.2 (approx. US$ 0.54) respectively - a difference of around 34%. After adjusting for the greater duration and severity of the illness, it was found that the difference between the two medians increased to 51%.

  17. Lactose intolerance in persistent diarrhoea during childhood: the role of a traditional rice-lentil (Khitchri) and yogurt diet in nutritional management.

    PubMed

    Bhutta, Z A; Nizami, S Q; Isani, Z

    1997-01-01

    Lactose intolerance is frequently encountered in children with persistent diarrhoea (PD). Selection of an appropriate milk-based formulation is a major management problem in the developing world. In a consecutive series of studies, we evaluated the role of feeding a traditional rice-lentil (khitchri) diet alone (KY) or in combination with either soy formula (KY-Soy) a dilute buffalo milk (KY-B), in children (age 6 months-3 years) with PD. Serial observations of stool output, caloric intake and weight gain of these children over a 14 day period indicated satisfactory tolerance of the KY diet with adequate weight gain. The weight gain and stool output was however higher in lactose intolerant children, with the worst results seen with K-Y and buffalo milk combination. While lactose intolerant children with PD do have higher. rates of therapeutic failure, our data indicates that a traditional diet and yogurt combination can be used satisfactorily for nutritional rehabilitation in over 80% of such children.

  18. Diarrhoea in children: an interface between developing and developed countries.

    PubMed

    Thapar, Nikhil; Sanderson, Ian R

    2004-02-21

    Despite much progress in the understanding of pathogenesis and of management, diarrhoeal illnesses remain one of the most important causes of global childhood mortality and morbidity. Infections account for most illnesses, with pathogens employing ingenious mechanisms to establish disease. In the developed world, an upsurge in immune-mediated gut disorders might have resulted from a disruption of normal bacterial-epithelial cross-talk and impaired maturation of the gut's immune system. Oral rehydration therapies are the mainstay of management of gastroenteritis, and their composition continues to improve. Malnutrition remains the major adverse prognostic indicator for diarrhoea-related mortality, emphasising the importance of nutrition in early management. Drugs are of little use, except for specific indications although new agents that target mechanisms of secretory diarrhoea show promise, as do probiotics. However, preventive strategies on a global scale might ultimately hold the greatest potential to reduce the burden of diarrhoeal disease. These strategies include vaccines and, most importantly, policies to address persisting inequalities between the developed and developing worlds with respect to nutrition, sanitation, and access to safe drinking water.

  19. Etiological agents of diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, A R; Paul, M; Pal, S C; Sen, D

    1990-01-01

    Two decades of research have established newer pathogens and techniques in establishing several organisms of diarrhoeal diseases as aetiological agents. It is now possible to detect an agent in 80% of the situation of diarrhoea in a standard laboratory. The brief review describes the list of pathogens, their diagnostic techniques with short description on clinical and epidemiological status.

  20. Diarrhoea in children in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Vince, J D

    1995-12-01

    National data for diarrhoeal disease in children can only be used as a very rough guide to morbidity and mortality, since they are based on incomplete reporting. Furthermore, when only one diagnosis per attendance, admission or cause of death is recorded, the true importance of diarrhoea as a cause of morbidity and mortality may be obscured. This may in part explain discrepancies between figures recorded in national and hospital statistics and those recorded in detailed studies of diarrhoeal admissions. While there appear to be quite marked differences in the relative importance of diarrhoea in different parts of the country, and while diarrhoeal disease is less of a scourge than in some other parts of the world, it is nevertheless a major cause of attendance at health facilities, the second or third most common cause of admission to many of the hospitals in the country, and a significant and often preventable cause of death. Limited studies of diarrhoeal aetiology indicate the major importance of rotavirus, Shigella and enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. The control of diarrhoeal diseases in children is based not only on early and appropriate treatment, but also on preventive strategies. These include breastfeeding (which has saved the lives of many thousands of Papua New Guinean children and which is once again under threat), ensuring good host defence by good nutrition, immunization and early treatment of childhood illness, and ensuring satisfactory sanitation and hygiene. Increasing fluid intake to prevent dehydration remains the most important part of the early management of acute diarrhoeal disease. In the management of children with dehydration, UNICEF glucose-based oral rehydration therapy is widely available but not used as well as it should be. There are significant advantages in cereal-based oral rehydration solutions, and the use of such solutions, locally prepared, should be encouraged. Breastfeeding should be continued during

  1. Diarrhoea in the critically ill.

    PubMed

    Reintam Blaser, Annika; Deane, Adam M; Fruhwald, Sonja

    2015-04-01

    To summarize existing evidence on definition, epidemiology, mechanisms, risk factors, consequences, outcome and management of diarrhoea in the critically ill. In health, diarrhoea is defined as the passage of three or more loose or liquid stools per day. In the critically ill, the diagnosis is yet to be formalized and reported prevalence of diarrhoea varies according to the definition used. Recent studies estimate the prevalence between 14 and 21% and describe risk factors for diarrhoea in critically ill patients. The precipitant of diarrhoea always needs to be identified, as targeted therapies are important for several causes. Although the majority of patients with diarrhoea require only supportive care, it is always essential to exclude, or confirm and treat infectious diarrhoea. There is little evidence to support delaying or withdrawing provision of enteral nutrition in patients with diarrhoea, and we recommend continuing enteral nutrition whenever possible. However, the consequences of diarrhoea - hypovolaemia, electrolyte disturbances, malnutrition, skin lesions and contamination of wounds - should be avoided or at least recognized promptly. A definition of diarrhoea and a practical approach to identify the precipitant and to manage diarrhoea in critically ill patients are proposed.

  2. Mixed reality virtual pets to reduce childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Kyle; Ahn, Sun Joo; Moore, James; Brown, Scott; Robertson, Thomas P; Marable, Amanda; Basu, Aryabrata

    2014-04-01

    Novel approaches are needed to reduce the high rates of childhood obesity in the developed world. While multifactorial in cause, a major factor is an increasingly sedentary lifestyle of children. Our research shows that a mixed reality system that is of interest to children can be a powerful motivator of healthy activity. We designed and constructed a mixed reality system that allowed children to exercise, play with, and train a virtual pet using their own physical activity as input. The health, happiness, and intelligence of each virtual pet grew as its associated child owner exercised more, reached goals, and interacted with their pet. We report results of a research study involving 61 children from a local summer camp that shows a large increase in recorded and observed activity, alongside observational evidence that the virtual pet was responsible for that change. These results, and the ease at which the system integrated into the camp environment, demonstrate the practical potential to impact the exercise behaviors of children with mixed reality.

  3. Napping reduces emotional attention bias during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Cremone, Amanda; Kurdziel, Laura B F; Fraticelli-Torres, Ada; McDermott, Jennifer M; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2016-06-10

    Sleep loss alters processing of emotional stimuli in preschool-aged children. However, the mechanism by which sleep modifies emotional processing in early childhood is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that a nap, compared to an equivalent time spent awake, reduces biases in attention allocation to affective information. Children (n = 43; M = 55.40 months, SD = 8.05 months) completed a Dot Probe task, which provides a measure of attention biases to emotional stimuli, following a mid-day nap and an equivalent interval spent awake. No emotional attention biases emerged when children napped. However, when nap-deprived, children exhibited biases towards negative and positive stimuli. This emotional bias after wake was greater in children who napped habitually. Gender differences also emerged such that females were more attentive to positive emotional stimuli whereas males showed heightened attention to negative emotional stimuli, regardless of having napped or not. Moreover, greater slow wave activity (SWA) during the nap was associated with faster responding, which suggests that SWA may promote efficiency of attention allocation. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JIoZ8mzxQgg.

  4. Breast-feeding reduces the risk for childhood eczema.

    PubMed

    Kull, Inger; Böhme, Maria; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik; Nordvall, Lennart; Pershagen, Göran; Wickman, Magnus

    2005-09-01

    The evidence for a preventive effect of breast-feeding on the development of eczema in childhood remains controversial. To investigate the effect of breast-feeding in various phenotypes of eczema to 4 years. A birth cohort of 4089 children made up the study base. Data on breast-feeding, allergic symptoms, and potential confounders were obtained from questionnaires when the children were 2 months and 1, 2, and 4 years old. At 4 years, blood specific IgE was analyzed. Children with symptoms of eczema and asthma during the period of breast-feeding were excluded in most analyses on risk assessment of eczema and asthma, respectively, to avoid disease-related modification of exposure. Exclusive breast-feeding for >or=4 months reduced the risk for eczema at the age of 4 years (odds ratio [OR], 0.78; 95% CI, 0.63--0.96) irrespective of combination with asthma, sensitization to common allergens, or parental allergic disease. This decreased risk was most evident for children with onset of eczema during the first 2 years persisting to 4 years (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.45--0.77). Among children with early-onset eczema, irrespective of persistency, followed by late onset of asthma or early-onset asthma irrespective of persistency, followed by late-onset eczema to 4 years, a protective effect of breast-feeding was also seen (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.30--0.76). Breast-feeding 4 months or more reduces the risk for eczema and onset of the allergy march to age 4.

  5. Improved sanitation and income are associated with decreased rates of hospitalization for diarrhoea in Brazilian infants.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Ion G; Queiroz, José W; Cabral, Angela P; Lieberman, Joshua A; Jeronimo, Selma M B

    2009-05-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Brazilian children. However, from 1992 to 2001 there was a significant decline in hospitalizations for acute diarrhoea in children below 1 year of age in Brazil. A significant improvement in child health was also observed in the state of Rio Grande do Norte (RN), with a decrease in child mortality from 70 to 40 deaths per 1000. Using distributed lag analysis we analysed a number of factors possibly connected with decreased hospitalization in RN and found that hospitalization was correlated up to lag 3 with poverty (P<0.001) and inflation (P<0.001). Improvements in public health infrastructure such as better waste collection, presence of city water supply and increased sanitation, socio-economic variables such as education and literacy, and increased investment in health services were all important in reducing severe early childhood diarrhoeas and thus directly associated with the decrease in hospitalization. We also observed a positive seasonal correlation between rainfall and hospitalizations with an increased in rainfall impacting positively on hospitalization in all lags. The data suggests that increased buying power and reductions in poverty played a crucial role in reducing hospitalizations for acute diarrhoea in infants in RN.

  6. Antimicrobial therapy of acute diarrhoea: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Lübbert, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhoea is one of the most commonly occurring diseases. This article presents a review of the current state of the treatment of acute infectious diarrhoea, as well as of the most important pathogens. The general principles of the therapy of diarrhoea are exemplified, followed by a description of the targeted antimicrobial therapy of the most important bacterial gastrointestinal infections, including salmonellosis, shigellosis and Campylobacter infections, as well as infections with pathogenic Escherichia coli strains, yersiniosis and cholera. Diarrhoea caused by toxigenic Clostridium difficile strains has increased in incidence and in severity. These infections will therefore be described in detail, including important new aspects of treatment. Symptomatic therapy is still the most important component of the treatment of infectious diarrhoea. However, empirical antibiotic therapy should be considered for severely ill patients with a high frequency of stools, fever, bloody diarrhoea, underlying immune deficiency, advanced age or significant comorbidities. Increasing resistance, in particular against fluoroquinolones, must be taken into consideration. Therapy with motility inhibitors is not recommended for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections, Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), and severe colitis. The macrocyclic antibiotic fidaxomicin can reduce the rate of recurrent disease in CDI. Furthermore, evidence for the benefits of faecal microbiota transplantation as a treatment option for multiple recurrences of CDI is increasing. In conclusion, the treatment of acute diarrhoea is still primarily supportive. General empirical antibiotic therapy for acute diarrhoea is not evidence-based.

  7. Investigation of the faecal microbiota associated with canine chronic diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jie; Frantz, Nolan; Khoo, Christina; Gibson, Glenn R; Rastall, Robert A; McCartney, Anne L

    2010-02-01

    Diarrhoea is a common problem in dogs and can result in disturbance of the normal intestinal microbiota. However, little is known about the gastrointestinal microbiota of dogs with chronic diarrhoea and controlled canine studies of dietary management are scarce. The aims of this study were to investigate the predominant faecal microbiota of chronic diarrhoea dogs and to examine the effect(s) of a fibre blend on the canine faecal microbiota. A 3-week fibre supplementation feeding study was performed in nine chronic diarrhoea and eight control dogs. Atopobium cluster, Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group and Clostridium cluster XIV were the predominant bacterial groups in all dogs. Chronic diarrhoea dogs had significantly higher Bacteroides counts at baseline and significantly lower Atopobium cluster counts following fibre supplementation compared with control dogs. Atopobium cluster levels increased significantly in control dogs, while counts of sulphate-reducing bacteria decreased significantly and Clostridium clusters I and II counts increased significantly in chronic diarrhoea dogs during fibre supplementation. Microbial profiles (detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) demonstrated interindividual variation, with greater similarity seen between the chronic diarrhoea and control dogs' profiles after fibre supplementation compared with baseline. In conclusion, fibre supplementation induced changes in the canine faecal microbiota, with greater resemblance between the microbiota of chronic diarrhoea and control dogs after this dietary modulation.

  8. Does an L-glutamine-containing, Glucose-free, Oral Rehydration Solution Reduce Stool Output and Time to Rehydrate in Children with Acute Diarrhoea? A Double-blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Claudia; Villa, Sofía; Mota, Felipe R.; Calva, Juan J.

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed whether an oral rehydration solution (ORS) in which glucose is replaced by L-glutamine (L-glutamine ORS) is more effective than the standard glucose-based rehydration solution recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO-ORS) in reducing the stool volume and time to rehydrate in acute diarrhoea. In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial in a Mexican hospital, 147 dehydrated children, aged 1–60 month(s), were assigned either to the WHO-ORS (74 children), or to the L-glutamine ORS (73 children) and followed until successful rehydration. There were no significant differences between the groups in stool output during the first four hours, time to successful rehydration, volume of ORS required for rehydration, urinary output, and vomiting. This was independent of rotavirus-associated infection. An L-glutamine-containing glucose-free ORS seems not to offer greater clinical benefit than the standard WHO-ORS in mildly-to-moderately-dehydrated children with acute non-cholera diarrhoea. PMID:18330060

  9. Does an L-glutamine-containing, glucose-free, oral rehydration solution reduce stool output and time to rehydrate in children with acute diarrhoea? A double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Claudia; Villa, Sofía; Mota, Felipe R; Calva, Juan J

    2007-09-01

    This study assessed whether an oral rehydration solution (ORS) in which glucose is replaced by L-glutamine (L-glutamine ORS) is more effective than the standard glucose-based rehydration solution recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO-ORS) in reducing the stool volume and time to rehydrate in acute diarrhoea. In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial in a Mexican hospital, 147 dehydrated children, aged 1-60 month(s), were assigned either to the WHO-ORS (74 children), or to the L-glutamine ORS (73 children) and followed until successful rehydration. There were no significant differences between the groups in stool output during the first four hours, time to successful rehydration, volume of ORS required for rehydration, urinary output, and vomiting. This was independent of rotavirus-associated infection. An L-glutamine-containing glucose-free ORS seems not to offer greater clinical benefit than the standard WHO-ORS in mildly-to-moderately-dehydrated children with acute non-cholera diarrhoea.

  10. Population segmentation: an approach to reducing childhood obesity inequalities.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Hashum; Lowe, Susan

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this study are threefold: (1) to investigate the relationship between socio-economic status (inequality) and childhood obesity prevalence within Birmingham local authority, (2) to identify any change in childhood obesity prevalence between deprivation quintiles and (3) to analyse individualised Birmingham National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) data using a population segmentation tool to better inform obesity prevention strategies. Data from the NCMP for Birmingham (2010/2011 and 2014/2015) were analysed using the deprivation scores from the Income Domain Affecting Children Index (IDACI 2010). The percentage of children with excess weight was calculated for each local deprivation quintile. Population segmentation was carried out using the Experian's Mosaic Public Sector 6 (MPS6) segmentation tool. Childhood obesity levels have remained static at the national and Birmingham level. For Year 6 pupils, obesity levels have increased in the most deprived deprivation quintiles for boys and girls. The most affluent quintile shows a decreasing trend of obesity prevalence for boys and girls in both year groups. For the middle quintiles, the results show fluctuating trends. This research highlighted the link in Birmingham between obesity and socio-economic factors with the gap increasing between deprivation quintiles. Obesity is a complex problem that cannot simply be addressed through targeting most deprived populations, rather through a range of effective interventions tailored for the various population segments that reside within communities. Using population segmentation enables a more nuanced understanding of the potential barriers and levers within populations on their readiness for change. The segmentation of childhood obesity data will allow utilisation of social marketing methodology that will facilitate identification of suitable methods for interventions and motivate individuals to sustain behavioural change. Sequentially, it will also inform

  11. An evaluation of an operations research project to reduce childhood stunting in a food-insecure area in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Fenn, Bridget; Bulti, Assaye T; Nduna, Themba; Duffield, Arabella; Watson, Fiona

    2012-09-01

    To determine which interventions can reduce linear growth retardation (stunting) in children aged 6-36 months over a 5-year period in a food-insecure population in Ethiopia. We used data collected through an operations research project run by Save the Children UK: the Child Caring Practices (CCP) project. Eleven neighbouring villages were purposefully selected to receive one of four interventions: (i) health; (iii) nutrition education; (iii) water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH); or (iv) integrated comprising all interventions. A comparison group of three villages did not receive any interventions. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted at baseline (2004) and for impact evaluation (2009) using the same quantitative and qualitative tools. The primary outcome was stunted growth in children aged 6-36 months measured as height (or length)-for-age Z-scores (mean and prevalence). Secondary outcomes were knowledge of health seeking, infant and young child feeding and preventive practices. Amhara, Ethiopia. Children aged 6-36 months. The WASH intervention group was the only group to show a significant increase in mean height-for-age Z-score (+0·33, P = 0·02), with a 12·1 % decrease in the prevalence of stunting, compared with the baseline group. This group also showed significant improvements in mothers' knowledge of causes of diarrhoea and hygiene practices. The other intervention groups saw non-significant impacts for childhood stunting but improvements in knowledge relating to specific intervention education messages given. The study suggests that an improvement in hygiene practices had a significant impact on stunting levels. However, there may be alternative explanations for this and further evidence is required.

  12. Nutritional consequences of chronic diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Gorospe, Emmanuel C; Oxentenko, Amy S

    2012-10-01

    There is an undeniable link between gastrointestinal disorders and malnutrition. Chronic diarrhoea is one of the most common gastrointestinal conditions that can impact a patient's nutritional status. The nutritional consequences will depend on the cause of the diarrhoea as well as the location and extent of gastrointestinal involvement. In general, malabsorption plays a central role in the interaction between malnutrition and chronic diarrhoea. Malabsorption can result in both nutritional deficits and diarrhoea. With severe malnutrition, chronic diarrhoea can persist due to impaired immune function and poor mucosal recovery. Food intolerance and an inappropriate diet in the setting of malabsorption may also contribute to chronic diarrhoea. Patients may attribute their gastrointestinal symptoms to specific dietary intake, which can lead to self-imposed indiscriminate dietary restrictions. Therefore, disease-specific treatment in conjunction with appropriate nutritional counselling and intervention is recommended in the prevention and treatment of malnutrition in patients with chronic diarrhoea. Specialized nutritional support through enteral or parenteral administration may be required to treat severe caloric and micronutrient deficiencies. In this review, we aim to summarize the mechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of the nutritional consequences of chronic diarrhoea.

  13. Nifuroxazide in acute diarrhoea: OTC preparation. Irrational.

    PubMed

    1999-12-01

    (1) Nifuroxazide, an intestinal antibacterial agent, is now available in France, without a prescription, for the treatment of acute diarrhoea in adults. (2) According to the only available comparative randomised trial, there is no effect on dehydration. Relative to a placebo, the mean number of stools is reduced by about one per day during the first two days of treatment, with no significant difference thereafter.

  14. Risk factors for persistent diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Shahid, N S; Sack, D A; Rahman, M; Alam, A N; Rahman, N

    1988-10-22

    With a systematically sampled population of children aged under 5 attending this centre for diarrhoeal disease research during 1983-5 a retrospective analysis of persistent diarrhoea (defined as greater than 14 days' duration) was performed to identify the possible risk factors for this syndrome. Of the 4155 children included in the analysis, 410 (10%) gave a history of persistent diarrhoea. A comparison with children with acute diarrhoea matched for age showed that 11 factors were correlated with persistent diarrhoea, and strongly associated factors were stools with blood or mucus, or both, lower respiratory tract infection, malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, and antibiotic use before presentation. The peak age was 2 years, and there was no sex difference. Deaths occurred more often in the group with persistent diarrhoea. Although Shigella spp, Campylobacter jejuni, and Giardia lamblia were frequently identified, their rates of isolation were not significantly higher among patients with persistent diarrhoea. No seasonal variation was observed in the rates of persistent diarrhoea. Although the introduction of family food to the diet was associated with higher rates, this factor was difficult to separate from the age dependent risks.

  15. Risk factors for persistent diarrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, N. S.; Sack, D. A.; Rahman, M.; Alam, A. N.; Rahman, N.

    1988-01-01

    With a systematically sampled population of children aged under 5 attending this centre for diarrhoeal disease research during 1983-5 a retrospective analysis of persistent diarrhoea (defined as greater than 14 days' duration) was performed to identify the possible risk factors for this syndrome. Of the 4155 children included in the analysis, 410 (10%) gave a history of persistent diarrhoea. A comparison with children with acute diarrhoea matched for age showed that 11 factors were correlated with persistent diarrhoea, and strongly associated factors were stools with blood or mucus, or both, lower respiratory tract infection, malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, and antibiotic use before presentation. The peak age was 2 years, and there was no sex difference. Deaths occurred more often in the group with persistent diarrhoea. Although Shigella spp, Campylobacter jejuni, and Giardia lamblia were frequently identified, their rates of isolation were not significantly higher among patients with persistent diarrhoea. No seasonal variation was observed in the rates of persistent diarrhoea. Although the introduction of family food to the diet was associated with higher rates, this factor was difficult to separate from the age dependent risks. PMID:3142603

  16. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A

    2015-01-01

    -risk population showed significant reduction in mean episodes of diarrhoea (1.68 fewer) in the intervention group (Mean difference 1.68, 95% CI 1.93 to 1.43; one trial, 148 participants, moderate quality evidence). There was increase in hand washing frequency, seven times per day in the intervention group versus three times in the control in this hospital trial (one trial, 148 participants, moderate quality evidence). We found no trials evaluating or reporting the effects of hand washing promotions on diarrhoea-related deaths, all-cause-under five mortality, or costs. Authors' conclusions Hand washing promotion probably reduces diarrhoea episodes in both child day-care centres in high-income countries and among communities living in LMICs by about 30%. However, less is known about how to help people maintain hand washing habits in the longer term. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea Review question This Cochrane Review summarises trials evaluating the effects of promoting hand washing on the incidence of diarrhoea among children and adults in day-care centres, schools, communities, or hospitals. After searching for relevant trials up to 27 May 2015, we included 22 randomized controlled trials conducted in both high-income countries (HICs) and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). These trials enrolled 69,309 children and 148 adults. How does hand washing prevent diarrhoea and how might hand washing be promoted Diarrhoea causes many deaths in children below five years of age, mostly in LMICs. The organisms causing diarrhoea are transmitted from person to person through food and water contaminated with faeces, or through person-to-person contact. Hand washing after defecation, or after cleaning a baby's bottom, and before preparing and eating food, can therefore reduce the risk of diarrhoea. Hand washing can be promoted through group or individual training on hygiene education, germ-health awareness, use of posters, leaflets, comic books

  17. The Role of Exercise in Reducing Childhood and Adolescent PTSD, Anxiety, and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motta, Robert W.; McWilliams, Meredith E.; Schwartz, Jennifer T.; Cavera, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the role of physical exercise in reducing childhood and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. A good deal of the existing research on the influence of exercise in reducing negative emotional states and enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy has been conducted with adult samples. Comparatively few…

  18. The Role of Exercise in Reducing Childhood and Adolescent PTSD, Anxiety, and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motta, Robert W.; McWilliams, Meredith E.; Schwartz, Jennifer T.; Cavera, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the role of physical exercise in reducing childhood and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. A good deal of the existing research on the influence of exercise in reducing negative emotional states and enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy has been conducted with adult samples. Comparatively few…

  19. Effect of cryptosporidial and giardial diarrhoea on social maturity, intelligence and physical growth in children in a semi-urban slum in south India.

    PubMed

    Ajjampur, S S R; Koshy, B; Venkataramani, M; Sarkar, R; Joseph, A A; Jacob, K S; Ward, H; Kang, G

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood diarrhoea is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Recurrent and persistent diarrhoea affect growth and cognition in children as young as 6 years. To evaluate the effect of early childhood cryptosporidial and giardial diarrhoea on growth and development in children in a semi-urban slum in India. This is the first report of such assessment at 3 years of age. This study was undertaken on 116 children who were part of an ongoing birth cohort study (n=452) of rotaviral and cryptosporidial diarrhoea between June and December 2005. Social quotients (SQ) assessed by the Vineland Social Maturity Scale, intelligence quotients (IQ) assessed by the Seguin Form Board Test, physical growth parameters and sociodemographic data in 84 children with a history of cryptosporidial or giardial diarrhoea were compared with those of 32 without diarrhoea. Children with a past history of giardial diarrhoea showed a trend towards lower SQ (p=0.09) and had significantly lower IQ (p=0.04) and increased wasting (p=0.04). Cryptosporidial diarrhoea was not associated with poor IQ, SQ or physical growth. This study demonstrates the long-term effect of protozoan diarrhoea, especially that caused by giardia, on both intelligence and physical growth in Indian children as early as 3 years of age and re-inforces the need for early detection and prevention of early childhood protozoan diarrhoea.

  20. Serum Zinc Concentrations in Children with Acute Bloody and Watery Diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Mahyar, Abolfazl; Ayazi, Parviz; Chegini, Victoria; Sahmani, Mehdi; Oveisi, Sonia; Esmaeily, Shiva

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The role of zinc in the pathogenesis of diarrhoea is controversial. This study was conducted to compare serum zinc levels in children with acute diarrhoea to those found in healthy children. Methods: This case-control study was carried out at the Qazvin Children’s Hospital in Qazvin, Iran, between July 2012 and January 2013. A total of 60 children with acute diarrhoea (12 children with bloody diarrhoea and 48 children with watery diarrhoea) and 60 healthy children were included. Zinc levels for all subjects were measured using a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer and data were analysed and compared between groups. Results: Mean serum zinc levels in the patients with acute bloody diarrhoea, acute watery diarrhoea and the control group were 74.1 ± 23.7 μg/dL, 169.4 ± 62.7 μg/dL and 190.1 ± 18.0 μg/dL, respectively (P = 0.01). Hypozincaemia was observed in 50.0% of children with acute bloody diarrhoea and 12.5% of those with acute watery diarrhoea. None of the patients in the control group had hypozincaemia (P = 0.01). Conclusion: Children with acute bloody diarrhoea had significantly reduced serum zinc levels in comparison to healthy children. However, a study with a larger sample size is needed to examine the significance of this trend. PMID:26629379

  1. The Role of Mindfulness in Reducing the Adverse Effects of Childhood Stress and Trauma.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Robin; Sibinga, Erica M

    2017-02-28

    Research suggests that many children are exposed to adverse experiences in childhood. Such adverse childhood exposures may result in stress and trauma, which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality into adulthood. In general populations and trauma-exposed adults, mindfulness interventions have demonstrated reduced depression and anxiety, reduced trauma-related symptoms, enhanced coping and mood, and improved quality of life. Studies in children and youth also demonstrate that mindfulness interventions improve mental, behavioral, and physical outcomes. Taken together, this research suggests that high-quality, structured mindfulness instruction may mitigate the negative effects of stress and trauma related to adverse childhood exposures, improving short- and long-term outcomes, and potentially reducing poor health outcomes in adulthood. Future work is needed to optimize implementation of youth-based mindfulness programs and to study long-term outcomes into adulthood.

  2. The Role of Mindfulness in Reducing the Adverse Effects of Childhood Stress and Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Robin; Sibinga, Erica M.

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that many children are exposed to adverse experiences in childhood. Such adverse childhood exposures may result in stress and trauma, which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality into adulthood. In general populations and trauma-exposed adults, mindfulness interventions have demonstrated reduced depression and anxiety, reduced trauma-related symptoms, enhanced coping and mood, and improved quality of life. Studies in children and youth also demonstrate that mindfulness interventions improve mental, behavioral, and physical outcomes. Taken together, this research suggests that high-quality, structured mindfulness instruction may mitigate the negative effects of stress and trauma related to adverse childhood exposures, improving short- and long-term outcomes, and potentially reducing poor health outcomes in adulthood. Future work is needed to optimize implementation of youth-based mindfulness programs and to study long-term outcomes into adulthood. PMID:28264496

  3. Does eating yogurt prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhoea?

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Shaun; Hart, Andrew; Clark, Allan; Harvey, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Background Probiotic capsules have been shown to reduce the incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in a number of settings. If probiotic yogurt were equally efficacious then it would provide a simple and cost-effective means of preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Aim To investigate whether eating live bio yogurt at the time of taking oral antibiotics can prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Design of study This study was a three-arm (bio yogurt, commercial yogurt, no yogurt) randomised controlled trial with double blinding between the two yogurt arms. Setting A single primary care general practice surgery in Hingham, Norfolk. The study population included all ages except babies. Method Patients aged over 1 year who required a 1-week course of antibiotics were included in the study. There was complete follow up for 369 patients. The intervention was the consumption of 150 ml of live strawberry-flavoured yogurt for 12 days, starting on the first day of taking the antibiotic. Diarrhoea was defined as ‘three or more loose stools per day over at least 2 consecutive days’ within 12 days of starting the antibiotics. Results Of the 120 patients in the no-yogurt group, 17 (14%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.0 to 21.5) developed diarrhoea. Of the 118 given commercial yogurt, 13 (11%, 95% CI =6.6 to 17.9) developed diarrhoea; nine of the 131 patients (7%; 95% CI = 3.7 to 12.5) given bio yogurt developed diarrhoea (P = 0.17). Conclusion Overall, this study failed to demonstrate that yogurt has any effect on antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. PMID:18252070

  4. Reduced Eye Gaze Explains "Fear Blindness" in Childhood Psychopathic Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadds, Mark R.; El Masry, Yasmeen; Wimalaweera, Subodha; Guastella, Adam J.

    2008-01-01

    A study to test whether psychopathic traits are associated with reduced attention to the eye region of other people's faces is conducted. It is seen that attention to other people's eyes is reduced in young people with high psychopathic traits, which accounts for their problems with fear recognition.

  5. Reduced Eye Gaze Explains "Fear Blindness" in Childhood Psychopathic Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadds, Mark R.; El Masry, Yasmeen; Wimalaweera, Subodha; Guastella, Adam J.

    2008-01-01

    A study to test whether psychopathic traits are associated with reduced attention to the eye region of other people's faces is conducted. It is seen that attention to other people's eyes is reduced in young people with high psychopathic traits, which accounts for their problems with fear recognition.

  6. Reduced olfactory bulb volume in adults with a history of childhood maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Negoias, Simona; Symmank, Anja; Schellong, Julia; Joraschky, Peter; Hummel, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    The human olfactory bulb (OB) is the first relay station of the olfactory pathway and may have the potential for postnatal neurogenesis in early childhood. In animals, chronic stress affects the OB and olfactory functioning. For humans, it has been shown that major depressive disorder is accompanied by reduced OB volume and reduced olfactory function. However, it is not clear if major stress in childhood development also affects olfactory functioning and OB volume in humans. OB volume was measured and olfactory function was tested in 17 depressive patients with and 10 without a history of severe childhood maltreatment (CM). CM patients exhibited a significantly reduced olfactory threshold and identification ability. The OB volume of the CM patients was significantly reduced to 80% of the non-CM patients. In conclusion, postnatal neurogenesis might be by reduced in CM, which may affect olfactory function of the brain in later life. Alternatively, a reduced OB volume may enhance psychological vulnerability in the presence of adverse childhood conditions although other areas not analyzed in this study may also be involved.

  7. Reduced bone mineral density in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Arikoski, P; Komulainen, J; Voutilainen, R; Riikonen, P; Parviainen, M; Tapanainen, P; Knip, M; Kröger, H

    1998-01-01

    Osteoporosis and pathologic fractures are occasionally found in patients with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This study was performed to determine the degree of possible osteopenia in long-term survivors of childhood ALL. Lumbar spine (L2-L4) and femoral neck bone mineral densities (BMDs) (g/cm2) were measured in 29 survivors (aged 12 to 30 years, median 17) of childhood ALL 2 to 20 (median 8) years after discontinuation of chemotherapy. These results were compared with those from 273 healthy controls and expressed as a percentage of the age- and sex-matched control values (mean +/- standard deviation). Lumbar and femoral BMDs were significantly reduced in survivors of childhood ALL. Particularly, male gender (lumbar: 91.7 +/- 10.4%, p = 0.008; femoral: 91.9 +/- 11.3%, p = 0.005) and a history of cranial irradiation (lumbar: 93.0 +/- 8.9%, p = 0.005; femoral: 94.4 +/- 13.3%, p = 0.03) were associated with low lumbar and femoral BMDs. The detected deficit in bone density in survivors of childhood ALL may predispose these patients to osteoporotic fractures later in adulthood. A follow-up of BMD in survivors of childhood ALL should facilitate the identification of patients who would require specific therapeutic interventions to prevent further decrease of their skeletal mass and preserve their BMD.

  8. Reducing childhood obesity through U.S. federal policy: a microsimulation analysis.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Alyson H; Flottemesch, Thomas J; Maciosek, Michael V; Jenson, Jennifer; Barclay, Gillian; Ashe, Marice; Sanchez, Eduardo J; Story, Mary; Teutsch, Steven M; Brownson, Ross C

    2014-11-01

    Childhood obesity prevalence remains high in the U.S., especially among racial/ethnic minorities and low-income populations. Federal policy is important in improving public health given its broad reach. Information is needed about federal policies that could reduce childhood obesity rates and by how much. To estimate the impact of three federal policies on childhood obesity prevalence in 2032, after 20 years of implementation. Criteria were used to select the three following policies to reduce childhood obesity from 26 recommended policies: afterschool physical activity programs, a $0.01/ounce sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) excise tax, and a ban on child-directed fast food TV advertising. For each policy, the literature was reviewed from January 2000 through July 2012 to find evidence of effectiveness and create average effect sizes. In 2012, a Markov microsimulation model estimated each policy's impact on diet or physical activity, and then BMI, in a simulated school-aged population in 2032. The microsimulation predicted that afterschool physical activity programs would reduce obesity the most among children aged 6-12 years (1.8 percentage points) and the advertising ban would reduce obesity the least (0.9 percentage points). The SSB excise tax would reduce obesity the most among adolescents aged 13-18 years (2.4 percentage points). All three policies would reduce obesity more among blacks and Hispanics than whites, with the SSB excise tax reducing obesity disparities the most. All three policies would reduce childhood obesity prevalence by 2032. However, a national $0.01/ounce SSB excise tax is the best option. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Interactions between gastrointestinal nematode parasites and diarrhoea in sheep: pathogenesis and control.

    PubMed

    Williams, Andrew R; Palmer, Dieter G

    2012-06-01

    Diarrhoea is a major impediment to profitable sheep production in many countries as it predisposes animals to blowfly strike and contaminates wool and meat carcasses. While it is accepted that nematode parasites are a major cause of diarrhoea in grazing animals, less is known about what facets of the host-parasite relationship lead to diarrhoea and what the most appropriate control strategies are. In this review, the relationship between gastrointestinal nematode infection and diarrhoea is discussed and it is concluded that in many cases, particularly in immunologically mature sheep, diarrhoea is not due to parasite infection per se but rather due to immunopathological processes. Mechanisms that lead to faecal softening in immune sheep are considered, and the question addressed as to whether anthelmintic treatment and selective breeding of naturally parasite-resistant sheep will effectively reduce the occurrence of diarrhoea.

  10. Legislative and regulatory strategies to reduce childhood unintentional injuries.

    PubMed

    Schieber, R A; Gilchrist, J; Sleet, D A

    2000-01-01

    Laws and regulations are among the most effective mechanisms for getting large segments of the population to adopt safety behaviors. These have been applied at both the state and federal levels for diverse injury issues. Certain legal actions are taken to prevent the occurrence of an otherwise injury-producing event, while other legal actions are designed to prevent injury once an event has occurred. At the federal level, effective laws and regulations have been directed at dangers posed by unsafe manufactured products or motor vehicle design. At the state level, effective safety laws and regulations have been directed at encouraging safety behaviors and regulating the use of motor vehicles or other forms of transportation. In this article, six legislative efforts are described to point out pros and cons of the legislative approach to promoting safety. Three such efforts are aimed at preventing injury-producing events from occurring: mandating child-resistant packaging for prescription drugs and other hazardous substances, regulating tap water temperature by presetting a safe hot-water heater temperature at the factory, and graduated licensing. Three other examples illustrate the value and complexities of laws designed to prevent injuries once an injury-producing event does occur: mandatory bicycle helmet use, sleep-wear standards, and child safety seat use. This article concludes with specific recommendations, which include assessing the value of laws and regulations, preventing the rescission of laws and regulations known to work, refining existing laws to eliminate gaps in coverage, developing regulations to adapt to changing technology, exploring new legal means to encourage safe behavior, and increasing funding for basic and applied research and community programs. Further reductions in childhood injury rates will require that leaders working in the field of injury prevention together provide the creativity to devise new safety devices and programs, incentives

  11. Differentiation of osmotic and secretory diarrhoea by stool carbohydrate and osmolar gap measurements

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Rodriguez, J. A.; Salazar-Lindo, E.; Leon-Barua, R.

    1997-01-01

    

 Clinical features and laboratory tests that determine carbohydrate in faeces were evaluated to determine which was best able to distinguish between osmotic and secretory diarrhoea in infants and children. For this purpose 80 boys aged 3 to 24 months, with acute watery diarrhoea, were studied prospectively. The faecal osmolar gap (FOG) was calculated as: serum osmolarity − [2 × (faecal sodium + potassium concentration)]. Fifty eight patients were classified as having predominantly osmotic diarrhoea (FOG >100 mosmol/l), and 22 as having predominantly secretory diarrhoea (FOG ⩽100 mosmol/l). The two groups were comparable in their clinical features on admission, in the results of blood and urine tests, and in the evolution of their diarrhoeal illness. Evidence of steatorrhoea (by positive Sudan III test) and of acid faecal pH on admission were significantly more frequent in patients with osmotic diarrhoea. Mean (SD) faecal osmolarity was not significantly different between the two groups (319 (80) mosmol/l in secretory diarrhoea v 361 (123) mosmol/l in osmotic diarrhoea). Tests for reducing substances in faeces such as Benedict's test—with and without hydrolysis—and glucose strip, all showed a positive and significant association with osmotic diarrhoea (p <0.05, <0.025, <0.05, respectively). The presence of excess reducing substances (Benedict's test with hydrolysis >++) on admission was the most sensitive and specific test with the best predictive value for differentiating between the two types of watery diarrhoea.

 PMID:9370895

  12. Improving the Nation's Health. Step One: Reduce Toxic Stress in Early Childhood. Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louv, Richard

    2006-01-01

    To reduce risk factors for adult disease in our society, we must tackle the problem of toxic stress in early childhood. This condition is associated with the excessive release of a stream of hormones whose persistent elevation can disrupt the wiring of the developing brain and the functioning of the immune system. Children who experience toxic…

  13. Improving the Nation's Health. Step One: Reduce Toxic Stress in Early Childhood. Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louv, Richard

    2006-01-01

    To reduce risk factors for adult disease in our society, we must tackle the problem of toxic stress in early childhood. This condition is associated with the excessive release of a stream of hormones whose persistent elevation can disrupt the wiring of the developing brain and the functioning of the immune system. Children who experience toxic…

  14. Reduced eye gaze explains "fear blindness" in childhood psychopathic traits.

    PubMed

    Dadds, Mark R; El Masry, Yasmeen; Wimalaweera, Subodha; Guastella, Adam J

    2008-04-01

    Damage to the amygdala produces deficits in the ability to recognize fear due to attentional neglect of other people's eyes. Interestingly, children with high psychopathic traits also show problems recognizing fear; however, the reasons for this are not known. This study tested whether psychopathic traits are associated with reduced attention to the eye region of other people's faces. Adolescent males (N = 100; age mean 12.4 years, SD 2.2) were stratified by psychopathic traits and assessed using a Tobii eye tracker to measure primacy, number, and duration of fixations to the eye and mouth regions of emotional faces presented via the UNSW Facial Emotion Task. High psychopathic traits predicted poor fear recognition (1.21 versus 1.35; p < .05) and lower number (1.85 versus 2.51; p < .001) and duration (375 versus 620 ms; p < .001) of eye fixations, and fewer first foci to the eye region (1.01 versus 2.01; p < .001). There were no differences in gaze indices to the mouth region. All indices of gaze to the eye region correlated positively with accurate recognition of fear for the high psychopathy group, especially the number of times that subjects looked at the eyes first (r = .50; p < .01). Attention to other people's eyes is reduced in young people with high psychopathic traits, thus accounting for their problems with fear recognition, and is consistent with amygdala dysfunction failing to promote attention to emotional salience in the environment.

  15. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli detected by 16-plex PCR in children with and without diarrhoea in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bonkoungou, I J O; Lienemann, T; Martikainen, O; Dembelé, R; Sanou, I; Traoré, A S; Siitonen, A; Barro, N; Haukka, K

    2012-09-01

    The importance of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in Africa is poorly understood, and is unknown in Burkina Faso. This study investigated the occurrence of five major DEC pathogroups in primary cultures of stool samples from 658 Burkinabe children under 5 years old using 16-plex PCR for virulence-associated genes. At least one DEC pathogroup was detected in 45% of 471 children with diarrhoea and in 29% of 187 children without diarrhoea (p <0.001). More than one DEC pathogroup was detected in 11% of children with and 1% of children without diarrhoea (p <0.001). Enteroaggregative E. coli was the most common pathogroup in both children with diarrhoea (26%) and children without diarrhoea (21%). Enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli were detected significantly more often in children with diarrhoea (16% and 13%) than in children without diarrhoea (5% and 4%; p <0.001 for both pathogroups). Shiga toxin-producing E. coli and enteroinvasive E. coli were detected only in children with diarrhoea (2% and 1%, respectively). Diarrhoeagenic E. coli, especially enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic, may be important, unrecognized causes of childhood diarrhoea in Burkina Faso.

  16. Definitions, pathophysiology, and evaluation of chronic diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Lawrence R

    2012-10-01

    Definitions for 'chronic diarrhoea' are arbitrary and are not evidence-based. The duration of illness that would differentiate acute from chronic diarrhoea is often taken as four weeks and serves best to exclude most infectious causes of diarrhoea which run their courses within that time interval. Patients tend to identify loose stool consistency rather than increased frequency of bowel movements when they say that they have diarrhoea. Some patients complaining of diarrhoea have frequent passage of formed stools and some have fecal incontinence. It is incumbent on the treating physician to inquire exactly what is meant by diarrhoea by a given patient. The pathophysiology of diarrhoea is complex, but generally comes down to explaining why there is excess water in stools. This can result from impaired absorption, excess secretion or retention of intraluminal fluid due to osmotic forces generated by poorly absorbed substances. The evaluation of diarrhoea is challenging. An algorithmic approach is feasible.

  17. Current drug therapy of protozoal diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Y K; Gupta, Madhur; Aneja, S; Kohli, K

    2004-01-01

    Protozoal infections of the gastrointestinal tract occur worldwide and have substantial morbidity and mortality. Prevalence is higher in the economically deprived regions of the world, especially the developing countries. Infections like amoebiasis and giardiasis have a worldwide distribution, being endemic in India. Apart from producing GI symptoms, growth and development of children is also impaired. It is seen that protozoa multiply rapidly in their hosts and as there is a lack of effective vaccines, chemotherapy has been the only practiced way to treat individuals and reduce transmission. The current treatment modalities for protozoal diarrhoea include 5-nitrosoimidazoles, iodoquinol, diloxanide furoate, paromomycin, chloroquine, and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole.

  18. Ending preventable child deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea by 2025. Development of the integrated Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Shamim; Aboubaker, Samira; MacLean, Rachel; Fontaine, Olivier; Mantel, Carsten; Goodman, Tracey; Young, Mark; Henderson, Peggy; Cherian, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Despite the existence of low-cost and effective interventions for childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea, these conditions remain two of the leading killers of young children. Based on feedback from health professionals in countries with high child mortality, in 2009, WHO and Unicef began conceptualising an integrated approach for pneumonia and diarrhoea control. As part of this initiative, WHO and Unicef, with support from other partners, conducted a series of five workshops to facilitate the inclusion of coordinated actions for pneumonia and diarrhoea into the national health plans of 36 countries with high child mortality. This paper presents the findings from workshop and post-workshop follow-up activities and discusses the contribution of these findings to the development of the integrated Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhoea, which outlines the necessary actions for elimination of preventable child deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea by 2025. Though this goal is ambitious, it is attainable through concerted efforts. By applying the lessons learned thus far and continuing to build upon them, and by leveraging existing political will and momentum for child survival, national governments and their supporting partners can ensure that preventable child deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea are eventually eliminated.

  19. Probiotics: current trends in the treatment of diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Sujatha S; Jalgaonkar, Sharmila; Shahani, S; Kulkarni, Vijaya N

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, research into and public interest in probiotics and probiotic foods have risen. Lactobacilli and bifidobacterium are the most commonly used probiotics while yoghurt and kefir are popular foods containing probiotics. Probiotics have been used to manage diarrhoea. Many things cause diarrhoea, including bacterial, viral and protozoal infections, radiation and antibiotic therapy. Different studies have found that probiotics may also enhance the immune response, reduce serum cholesterol, prevent colonic cancer, prevent dental caries, prevent ulcers due to Helicobacter pylori, maintain urogenital health, and ameliorate hepatic encephalopathy. Further studies are required to establish their role in these conditions.

  20. Assessing Community Readiness to Reduce Childhood Diarrheal Disease and Improve Food Security in Dioro, Mali.

    PubMed

    Borresen, Erica C; Stone, Cordelia; Boré, Abdoulaye; Cissoko, Alima; Maiga, Ababacar; Koita, Ousmane A; Ryan, Elizabeth P

    2016-06-08

    Diarrhea and malnutrition represent leading causes of death for children in Mali. Understanding a community's needs and ideas are critical to ensure the success of prevention and treatment interventions for diarrheal disease, as well as to improve food security to help reduce malnutrition. The objective of this study was to incorporate the Community Readiness Model (CRM) for the issues of childhood diarrheal disease and food security in Mali to measure baseline community readiness prior to any program implementation. Thirteen key respondents residing in Dioro, Mali were selected based on varied social roles and demographics and completed two questionnaires on these public health issues. The overall readiness score to reduce childhood diarrheal disease was 5.75 ± 1.0 standard deviation (preparation stage). The overall readiness score to improve food security was 5.5 ± 0.5 standard deviation (preparation stage). The preparation stage indicates that at least some of the community have basic knowledge regarding these issues, and want to act locally to reduce childhood diarrhea and improve food security and nutrition. Proposed activities to increase community readiness on these issues are provided and are broad enough to allow opportunities to implement community- and culturally-specific activities by the Dioro community.

  1. Assessing Community Readiness to Reduce Childhood Diarrheal Disease and Improve Food Security in Dioro, Mali

    PubMed Central

    Borresen, Erica C.; Stone, Cordelia; Boré, Abdoulaye; Cissoko, Alima; Maiga, Ababacar; Koita, Ousmane A.; Ryan, Elizabeth P.

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhea and malnutrition represent leading causes of death for children in Mali. Understanding a community’s needs and ideas are critical to ensure the success of prevention and treatment interventions for diarrheal disease, as well as to improve food security to help reduce malnutrition. The objective of this study was to incorporate the Community Readiness Model (CRM) for the issues of childhood diarrheal disease and food security in Mali to measure baseline community readiness prior to any program implementation. Thirteen key respondents residing in Dioro, Mali were selected based on varied social roles and demographics and completed two questionnaires on these public health issues. The overall readiness score to reduce childhood diarrheal disease was 5.75 ± 1.0 standard deviation (preparation stage). The overall readiness score to improve food security was 5.5 ± 0.5 standard deviation (preparation stage). The preparation stage indicates that at least some of the community have basic knowledge regarding these issues, and want to act locally to reduce childhood diarrhea and improve food security and nutrition. Proposed activities to increase community readiness on these issues are provided and are broad enough to allow opportunities to implement community- and culturally-specific activities by the Dioro community. PMID:27338428

  2. Three Interventions That Reduce Childhood Obesity Are Projected To Save More Than They Cost To Implement.

    PubMed

    Gortmaker, Steven L; Wang, Y Claire; Long, Michael W; Giles, Catherine M; Ward, Zachary J; Barrett, Jessica L; Kenney, Erica L; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Afzal, Amna Sadaf; Resch, Stephen C; Cradock, Angie L

    2015-11-01

    Policy makers seeking to reduce childhood obesity must prioritize investment in treatment and primary prevention. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of seven interventions high on the obesity policy agenda: a sugar-sweetened beverage excise tax; elimination of the tax subsidy for advertising unhealthy food to children; restaurant menu calorie labeling; nutrition standards for school meals; nutrition standards for all other food and beverages sold in schools; improved early care and education; and increased access to adolescent bariatric surgery. We used systematic reviews and a microsimulation model of national implementation of the interventions over the period 2015-25 to estimate their impact on obesity prevalence and their cost-effectiveness for reducing the body mass index of individuals. In our model, three of the seven interventions--excise tax, elimination of the tax deduction, and nutrition standards for food and beverages sold in schools outside of meals--saved more in health care costs than they cost to implement. Each of the three interventions prevented 129,000-576,000 cases of childhood obesity in 2025. Adolescent bariatric surgery had a negligible impact on obesity prevalence. Our results highlight the importance of primary prevention for policy makers aiming to reduce childhood obesity. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. Evidence for antibiotic induced Clostridium perfringens diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Modi, N; Wilcox, M

    2001-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a well documented cause of antibiotic associated diarrhoea in hospitalised patients, but may account for only approximately 20% of all cases. This leader reviews the current knowledge and understanding of the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and diagnosis of non-food borne Clostridium perfringens diarrhoea. Although enterotoxigenic C perfringens has been implicated in some C difficile negative cases of antibiotic associated diarrhoea, C perfringens enterotoxin detection methods are not part of the routine laboratory investigation of such cases. Testing for C perfringens enterotoxin in faecal samples from patients with antibiotic associated diarrhoea and sporadic diarrhoea on a routine basis would have considerable resource implications. Therefore, criteria for initiating investigations and optimum laboratory tests need to be established. In addition, establishing the true burden of C perfringens antibiotic associated diarrhoea is important before optimum control and treatment measures can be defined. Key Words: Clostridium perfringens • Clostridium difficile • hospital acquired infective diarrhoea PMID:11577119

  4. Faecal consistency and risk factors for diarrhoea and constipation in cats in UK rehoming shelters.

    PubMed

    German, Allison C; Cunliffe, Nigel A; Morgan, Kenton L

    2017-01-01

    factor for diarrhoea. Describing the prevalence and risk factors for diarrhoea and constipation in cats will assist their management in this population. Understanding and managing constipation may be more important than interventions to reduce severe diarrhoea.

  5. Zinc and low osmolarity oral rehydration salts for diarrhoea: a renewed call to action

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Olivier; Young, Mark W; Black, Robert E

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In 2004, WHO and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) released a joint statement recommending a new lower osmolarity oral rehydration salts (ORS) formulation and zinc supplementation for diarrhoea management. More than 5 years later, diarrhoea remains the second leading cause of death and few children in developing countries are receiving these life-saving interventions. Many countries are stalled in the technicalities of adapting national policy, while others struggle to find the funds for start-up activities. For nearly all countries, zinc supplements for children are not available locally; thus, zinc procurement continues to be a major obstacle. Global resources have not been sufficient to bring diarrhoea management to the forefront; thus, the introduction of these new recommendations has remained slow. Revitalizing diarrhoea management must become an international priority if we are going to reduce the burden of diarrhoea deaths and overall child mortality around the world. PMID:19876545

  6. Risk factors and case management of acute diarrhoea in North Gondar Zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mediratta, Rishi P; Feleke, Amsalu; Moulton, Lawrence H; Yifru, Sisay; Sack, R Bradley

    2010-06-01

    In Ethiopia, evidence is lacking about maternal care-taking and environmental risk factors that contribute to acute diarrhoea and the case management of diarrhoea. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors and to understand the management of acute diarrhoea. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for interviewing mothers of 440 children in a prospective, matched, case-control study at the University of Gondar Referral and Teaching Hospital in Gondar, Ethiopia. Results of multivariate analysis demonstrated that children who were breastfed and not completely weaned and mothers who were farmers were protective factors; risk factors for diarrhoea included sharing drinking-water and introducing supplemental foods. Children presented with acute diarrhoea for 3.9 days with 4.3 stools per day. Mothers usually did not increase breastmilk and other fluids during diarrhoea episodes and generally did not take children with diarrhoea to traditional healers. Incorporating messages about the prevention and treatment of acute diarrhoea into child-health interventions will help reduce morbidity and mortality associated with this disease.

  7. Risk Factors and Case Management of Acute Diarrhoea in North Gondar Zone, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mediratta, Rishi P.; Feleke, Amsalu; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Yifru, Sisay

    2010-01-01

    In Ethiopia, evidence is lacking about maternal care-taking and environmental risk factors that contribute to acute diarrhoea and the case management of diarrhoea. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors and to understand the management of acute diarrhoea. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for interviewing mothers of 440 children in a prospective, matched, case-control study at the University of Gondar Referral and Teaching Hospital in Gondar, Ethiopia. Results of multivariate analysis demonstrated that children who were breastfed and not completely weaned and mothers who were farmers were protective factors; risk factors for diarrhoea included sharing drinking-water and introducing supplemental foods. Children presented with acute diarrhoea for 3.9 days with 4.3 stools per day. Mothers usually did not increase breastmilk and other fluids during diarrhoea episodes and generally did not take children with diarrhoea to traditional healers. Incorporating messages about the prevention and treatment of acute diarrhoea into child-health interventions will help reduce morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. PMID:20635636

  8. Acute diarrhoea: an unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Avinash; Lee, C Y; Murthy, G Divakara

    2009-01-01

    An obese diabetic male presented with self limiting diarrhoea of 1 day duration, which had started after he ate sausages. Examination was unrevealing except for persistent low blood pressure. Computed tomographic (CT) scan, done to rule out retroperitoneal bleed, incidentally showed air in the gall bladder. He underwent emergent cholecystectomy, and a gangrenous gall bladder that grew Clostridium perfringens was removed. Emphysematous cholecystitis is not so infrequent, although only rarely does it present as diarrhoea alone. A high index of clinical suspicion is necessary as even advanced presentation can be subtle and appropriate radio imaging essential. Although abdominal radiograph and ultrasound could be useful, a CT scan is diagnostic. The CT scan and its classical finding confirmed the diagnosis, and it reiterates the importance of timely identification and urgent action, as emphysematous cholecystitis is associated with high mortality. PMID:21686790

  9. Diarrhoea complicating severe acute malnutrition in Kenyan children: a prospective descriptive study of risk factors and outcome.

    PubMed

    Talbert, Alison; Thuo, Nahashon; Karisa, Japhet; Chesaro, Charles; Ohuma, Eric; Ignas, James; Berkley, James A; Toromo, Christopher; Atkinson, Sarah; Maitland, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) accounts for two million deaths worldwide annually. In those hospitalised with SAM, concomitant infections and diarrhoea are frequent complications resulting in adverse outcome. We examined the clinical and laboratory features on admission and outcome of children with SAM and diarrhoea at a Kenyan district hospital. A 4-year prospective descriptive study involving 1,206 children aged 6 months to 12 years, hospitalized with SAM and managed in accordance with WHO guidelines. Data on clinical features, haematological, biochemical and microbiological findings for children with diarrhoea (≥ 3 watery stools/day) were systematically collected and analyzed to identify risk factors associated with poor outcome. At admission 592 children (49%) had diarrhoea of which 122 (21%) died compared to 72/614 (12%) deaths in those without diarrhoea at admission (Χ(2) = 17.6 p<0.001). A further 187 (16%) children developed diarrhoea after 48 hours of admission and 33 died (18%). Any diarrhoea during admission resulted in a significantly higher mortality 161/852 (19%) than those uncomplicated by diarrhoea 33/351 (9%) (Χ(2) = 16.6 p<0.001). Features associated with a fatal outcome in children presenting with diarrhoea included bacteraemia, hyponatraemia, low mid-upper arm circumference <10 cm, hypoxia, hypokalaemia and oedema. Bacteraemia had the highest risk of death (adjusted OR 6.1; 95% C.I 2.3, 16.3 p<0.001); and complicated 24 (20%) of fatalities. Positive HIV antibody status was more frequent in cases with diarrhoea at admission (23%) than those without (15%, Χ(2) = 12.0 p = 0.001) but did not increase the risk of death in diarrhoea cases. Children with SAM complicated by diarrhoea had a higher risk of death than those who did not have diarrhoea during their hospital stay. Further operational and clinical research is needed to reduce mortality in children with SAM in the given setting.

  10. Prevention of diarrhoea in young children in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Huttly, S. R.; Morris, S. S.; Pisani, V.

    1997-01-01

    An updated review of nonvaccine interventions for the prevention of childhood diarrhoea in developing countries is presented. The importance of various key preventive strategies (breast-feeding, water supply and sanitation improvements) is confirmed and certain aspects of others (promotion of personal and domestic hygiene, weaning education/food hygiene) are refined. Evidence is also presented to suggest that, subject to cost-effectiveness examination, two other strategies-vitamin A supplementation and the prevention of low birth weight-should be promoted to the first category of interventions, as classified by Feachem, i.e. those which are considered to have high effectiveness and strong feasibility. PMID:9185369

  11. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A

    2015-09-03

    group (Mean difference 1.68, 95% CI 1.93 to 1.43; one trial, 148 participants, moderate quality evidence). There was increase in hand washing frequency, seven times per day in the intervention group versus three times in the control in this hospital trial (one trial, 148 participants, moderate quality evidence).We found no trials evaluating or reporting the effects of hand washing promotions on diarrhoea-related deaths, all-cause-under five mortality, or costs. Hand washing promotion probably reduces diarrhoea episodes in both child day-care centres in high-income countries and among communities living in LMICs by about 30%. However, less is known about how to help people maintain hand washing habits in the longer term.

  12. Neighborhoods, Schools and Obesity: The Potential for Place-Based Approaches to Reduce Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Elbel, Brian; Corcoran, Sean P.; Schwartz, Amy Ellen

    2016-01-01

    A common policy approach to reducing childhood obesity aims to shape the environment in which children spend most of their time: neighborhoods and schools. This paper uses richly detailed data on the body mass index (BMI) of all New York City public school students in grades K-8 to assess the potential for place-based approaches to reduce child obesity. We document variation in the prevalence of obesity across NYC public schools and census tracts, and then estimate the extent to which this variation can be explained by differences in individual-level predictors (such as race and household income). Both unadjusted and adjusted variability across neighborhoods and schools suggest place-based policies have the potential to meaningfully reduce child obesity, but under most realistic scenarios the improvement would be modest. PMID:27309533

  13. Treatment of cholera-like diarrhoea with oral rehydration.

    PubMed

    Atia, A; Buchman, A L

    2010-09-01

    Cholera diarrhoea remains a major global health problem that has caused seven pandemics. The pathogenesis of cholera is attributable to the production of cholera toxin by the causative pathogen, Vibrio cholerae. The toxin causes increased production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and this results in massive water and electrolyte secretion into the intestinal lumen. These changes manifest clinically as the painless defecation of voluminous stools that resemble 'rice water', leading to severe dehydration. The cornerstone in the management of cholera diarrhoea is the use of oral rehydration solutions (ORS) to replace the water and electrolytes lost as stools. The World Health Organization recommends the use of ORS of 'reduced osmolarity' for the treatment of acute non-cholera diarrhoea and the use of rice-based ORS for the management of cholera diarrhoea. Although several attempts have been made to improve ORS, studies to evaluate some of the modifications, which include the addition of amylase-resistant starch, the use of amino acids (such as glycine, alanine and glutamine) as sodium cotransporters, and zinc-supplemented ORS, are still needed.

  14. Diagnosis of Pneumonia in Children with Dehydrating Diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Ronan, Anne; Khan, Wasif Ali; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for diagnosis of pneumonia are based on the history of cough or difficult breathing and age-adjusted respiration rates. Metabolic acidosis associated with dehydrating diarrhoea also influences the respiration rate. Two hundred and four children, aged 2 to 59 months, with dehydrating diarrhoea and a history of cough and/or fast breathing, were enrolled in a prospective study. Pneumonia diagnoses were made on enrollment and again 6 hours post-enrollment (after initial rehydration), using the WHO guidelines. These were compared with investigators’ clinical diagnosis based on history and findings of physical examination and a chest x-ray at the same time points. Using the WHO guidelines, 149/152 (98%) infants in the 2-11 months age-group and 38/40 (95%) children in the 12-59 months age-group were diagnosed to have pneumonia on enrollment, which dropped to 107 (70%) and 30 (75%) respectively at 6 hours post-enrollment. The specificity of the WHO guidelines for diagnosis of pneumonia was very low (6.9%) at enrollment but increased to 65.5% at 6 hours post-enrollment, after initial rehydration. The specificity of the WHO guidelines for diagnosis of pneumonia in young children is significantly reduced in dehydrating diarrhoea. For young children with dehydrating diarrhoea, rehydration, clinical and radiological assessments are useful in identifying those with true pneumonia. PMID:24847588

  15. Diagnosis of pneumonia in children with dehydrating diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Saha, Debasish; Ronan, Anne; Khan, Wasif Ali; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2014-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for diagnosis of pneumonia are based on the history of cough or difficult breathing and age-adjusted respiration rates. Metabolic acidosis associated with dehydrating diarrhoea also influences the respiration rate. Two hundred and four children, aged 2 to 59 months, with dehydrating diarrhoea and a history of cough and/or fast breathing, were enrolled in a prospective study. Pneumonia diagnoses were made on enrollment and again 6 hours post-enrollment (after initial rehydration), using the WHO guidelines. These were compared with investigators' clinical diagnosis based on history and findings of physical examination and a chest x-ray at the same time points. Using the WHO guidelines, 149/152 (98%) infants in the 2-11 months age-group and 38/40 (95%) children in the 12-59 months age-group were diagnosed to have pneumonia on enrollment, which dropped to 107 (70%) and 30 (75%) respectively at 6 hours post-enrollment. The specificity of the WHO guidelines for diagnosis of pneumonia was very low (6.9%) at enrollment but increased to 65.5% at 6 hours post-enrollment, after initial rehydration. The specificity of the WHO guidelines for diagnosis of pneumonia in young children is significantly reduced in dehydrating diarrhoea. For young children with dehydrating diarrhoea, rehydration, clinical and radiological assessments are useful in identifying those with true pneumonia.

  16. Guidance on the management of diarrhoea during cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Andreyev, Jervoise; Ross, Paul; Donnellan, Clare; Lennan, Elaine; Leonard, Pauline; Waters, Caroline; Wedlake, Linda; Bridgewater, John; Glynne-Jones, Rob; Allum, William; Chau, Ian; Wilson, Richard; Ferry, David

    2014-09-01

    Diarrhoea induced by chemotherapy in cancer patients is common, causes notable morbidity and mortality, and is managed inconsistently. Previous management guidelines were based on poor evidence and neglect physiological causes of chemotherapy-induced diarrhoea. In the absence of level 1 evidence from randomised controlled trials, we developed practical guidance for clinicians based on a literature review by a multidisciplinary team of clinical oncologists, dietitians, gastroenterologists, medical oncologists, nurses, pharmacist, and a surgeon. Education of patients and their carers about the risks associated with, and management of, chemotherapy-induced diarrhoea is the foundation for optimum treatment of toxic effects. Adequate--and, if necessary, repeated--assessment, appropriate use of loperamide, and knowledge of fluid resuscitation requirements of affected patients is the second crucial step. Use of octreotide and seeking specialist advice early for patients who do not respond to treatment will reduce morbidity and mortality. In view of the burden of chemotherapy-induced diarrhoea, appropriate multidisciplinary research to assess meaningful endpoints is urgently required.

  17. Reducing racial/ethnic disparities in childhood obesity: the role of early life risk factors.

    PubMed

    Taveras, Elsie M; Gillman, Matthew W; Kleinman, Ken P; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L

    2013-08-01

    obesity. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Racial/ethnic disparities in childhood adiposity and obesity are determined by factors operating in infancy and early childhood. Efforts to reduce obesity disparities should focus on preventing early life risk factors.

  18. Reducing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Childhood Obesity: The Role of Early Life Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Taveras, Elsie M.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Kleinman, Ken P.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.

    2013-01-01

    factors operating in infancy and early childhood. Efforts to reduce obesity disparities should focus on preventing early life risk factors. PMID:23733179

  19. Unexplained diarrhoea in HIV-1 infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular diarrhoea, are common in non-treated HIV-1 infected individuals. Although various enteric pathogens have been implicated, the aetiology of diarrhoea remains unexplained in a large proportion of HIV-1 infected patients. Our aim is to identify the cause of diarrhoea for patients that remain negative in routine diagnostics. Methods In this study stool samples of 196 HIV-1 infected persons, including 29 persons with diarrhoea, were examined for enteropathogens and HIV-1. A search for unknown and unexpected viruses was performed using virus discovery cDNA-AFLP combined with Roche-454 sequencing (VIDISCA-454). Results HIV-1 RNA was detected in stool of 19 patients with diarrhoea (66%) compared to 75 patients (45%) without diarrhoea. In 19 of the 29 diarrhoea cases a known enteropathogen could be identified (66%). Next to these known causative agents, a range of recently identified viruses was identified via VIDISCA-454: cosavirus, Aichi virus, human gyrovirus, and non-A non-B hepatitis virus. Moreover, a novel virus was detected which was named immunodeficiency-associated stool virus (IASvirus). However, PCR based screening for these viruses showed that none of these novel viruses was associated with diarrhoea. Notably, among the 34% enteropathogen-negative cases, HIV-1 RNA shedding in stool was more frequently observed (80%) compared to enteropathogen-positive cases (47%), indicating that HIV-1 itself is the most likely candidate to be involved in diarrhoea. Conclusion Unexplained diarrhoea in HIV-1 infected patients is probably not caused by recently described or previously unknown pathogens, but it is more likely that HIV-1 itself plays a role in intestinal mucosal abnormalities which leads to diarrhoea. PMID:24410947

  20. Helping northern Ethiopian communities reduce childhood mortality: population-based intervention trial.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammed; Asefaw, Teklehaimanot; Byass, Peter; Beyene, Hagos; Pedersen, F. Karup

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: More than 10 million children die each year mostly from preventable causes and particularly in developing countries. WHO guidelines for the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) are intended to reduce childhood mortality and are being implemented in Ethiopia. As well as specific clinical interventions, the role of the community in understanding and acting on childhood sickness is an important factor in improving survival. This trial sought to assess the effect on survival of community-based health promotion activities. METHODS: Two districts in northern Ethiopia were studied, each with a random sample of more than 4000 children less than 5 years old. Regular six-monthly visits were made to document deaths among children. After the first year, communities in one district were educated about issues of good childcare and caring for sick children while the other district received this information only after the trial ended. FINDINGS: Although overall mortality was higher in the post-intervention period, most of the increase was seen in the control area. A Cox proportional hazards model gave an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.66 (95% confidence interval = 0.46-0.95) for the intervention area compared with the control area in the post-intervention period, with no significant pre-intervention difference. Significant survival advantages were found for females, children of younger fathers, those with married parents, those living in larger households, and those whose nearest health facility was a health centre. For all of the children who died, only 44% of parents or caregivers had sought health care before the child's death. CONCLUSION: This non-specific community-based public health intervention, as an addition to IMCI strategies in local health facilities, appears to have significantly reduced childhood mortality in these communities. The possibility that such interventions may not effectively reach certain social groups (for example single parents) is

  1. Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Clasen, Thomas F; Alexander, Kelly T; Sinclair, David; Boisson, Sophie; Peletz, Rachel; Chang, Howard H; Majorin, Fiona; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    unimproved water sources (30 studies) and unimproved or unclear sanitation (34 studies). The primary outcome in most studies was self-reported diarrhoea, which is at high risk of bias due to the lack of blinding in over 80% of the included studies. Source-based water quality improvements There is currently insufficient evidence to know if source-based improvements such as protected wells, communal tap stands, or chlorination/filtration of community sources consistently reduce diarrhoea (one cluster-RCT, five CBA studies, very low quality evidence). We found no studies evaluating reliable piped-in water supplies delivered to households. Point-of-use water quality interventions On average, distributing water disinfection products for use at the household level may reduce diarrhoea by around one quarter (Home chlorination products: RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.91; 14 trials, 30,746 participants, low quality evidence; flocculation and disinfection sachets: RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.82, four trials, 11,788 participants, moderate quality evidence). However, there was substantial heterogeneity in the size of the effect estimates between individual studies. Point-of-use filtration systems probably reduce diarrhoea by around a half (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.59, 18 trials, 15,582 participants, moderate quality evidence). Important reductions in diarrhoea episodes were shown with ceramic filters, biosand systems and LifeStraw® filters; (Ceramic: RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.53; eight trials, 5763 participants, moderate quality evidence; Biosand: RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.57; four trials, 5504 participants, moderate quality evidence; LifeStraw®: RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.93; three trials, 3259 participants, low quality evidence). Plumbed in filters have only been evaluated in high-income settings (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.94, three trials, 1056 participants, fixed effects model). In low-income settings, solar water disinfection (SODIS) by distribution of plastic bottles with instructions

  2. Chronic diarrhoea: investigation, treatment and nursing care.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Chris

    Chronic diarrhoea is a distressing symptom of a number of conditions. This article explains the assessment of patients at the initial outpatient visit through the various investigations and finally medical and surgical treatment. Emphasis is placed on the nursing management of chronic diarrhoea, particularly the treatment of physical effects such as dehydration and perianal skin soreness, and the psychological aspects of care.

  3. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

  4. Diarrhoea among Vietnamese refugees in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, S V; Santos Ocampo, P D; Ka, E K; Tecson, L V

    1982-09-01

    A 6-month survey of diarrhoeas in Vietnamese refugee camp children was carried out and was responsible for 32.5% of pediatric consultations. One hundred twenty cases were studied and underwent laboratory work-up. Peak incidence was in the 4-6 years. Diarrhoea was observed to be at its peak in April and June which coincides with the increase in the number of transients and with the rainy season. Diarrhoea with fever and abdominal pain were the most prominent clinical symptoms. Only 8.3% grew bacterial pathogens' enteropathogenic E. coli being the most common followed by Staphylococcus aureus. It is apparent that a causative agent other than a bacterial pathogen such as a virus may play a major role in diarrhoeas in Vietnamese refugee infants and children. The lack of environmental sanitation and health education play a major role in the causation of diarrhoea in these refugee children.

  5. Spatial and temporal patterns of diarrhoea in Bhutan 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Wangdi, Kinley; Clements, Archie Ca

    2017-07-21

    To describe spatiotemporal patterns of diarrhoea in Bhutan, and quantify the association between climatic factors and the distribution and dynamics of the disease. Nationwide data on diarrhoea were obtained for 2003 to 2013 from the Health Information and Management System (HIMS), Ministry of Health, Bhutan. Climatic variables were obtained from the Department of Hydro Met Services, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Bhutan. Seasonal trend decomposition was used to examine secular trends and seasonal patterns of diarrhoea. A Bayesian conditional autoregressive (CAR) model was used to quantify the relationship between monthly diarrhoea, maximum temperature, rainfall, age and gender. The monthly average diarrhoea incidence was highly seasonal. Diarrhoea incidence increased by 0.6% (95% CrI: 0.5-0.6%) for every degree increase in maximum temperature; and 5% (95 Cr I: 4.9-5.1%) for a 1 mm increase in rainfall. Children aged <5 years were found to be 74.2% (95% CrI: 74.1-74.4) more likely to experience diarrhoea than children and adults aged ≥5 years and females were 4.9% (95% CrI: 4.4-5.3%) less likely to suffer from diarrhoea as compared to males. Significant residual spatial clustering was found after accounting for climate and demographic variables. Diarrhoea incidence was highly seasonal, with positive associations with maximum temperature and rainfall and negative associations with age and being female. This calls for public health actions to reduce future risks of climate change with great consideration of local climatic conditions. In addition, protection of <5 years children should be prioritize through provision of rotavirus vaccination, safe and clean drinking water, and proper latrines.

  6. By how much would limiting TV food advertising reduce childhood obesity?

    PubMed

    Veerman, J Lennert; Van Beeck, Eduard F; Barendregt, Jan J; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2009-08-01

    There is evidence suggesting that food advertising causes childhood obesity. The strength of this effect is unclear. To inform decisions on whether to restrict advertising opportunities, we estimate how much of the childhood obesity prevalence is attributable to food advertising on television (TV). We constructed a mathematical simulation model to estimate the potential effects of reducing the exposure of 6- to 12-year-old US children to TV advertising for food on the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Model input was based on body measurements from NHANES 2003-04, the CDC-2000 cut-offs for weight categories, and literature that relates advertising to consumption levels and consumption to body mass. In an additional analysis we use a Delphi study to obtain experts' estimates of the effect of advertising on consumption. Based on literature findings, the model predicts that reducing the exposure to zero would decrease the average BMI by 0.38 kg/m(-2) and lower the prevalence of obesity from 17.8 to 15.2% (95% uncertainty interval 14.8-15.6) for boys and from 15.9% to 13.5% (13.1-13.8) for girls. When estimates are based on expert opinion, these values are 11.0% (7.7-14.0) and 9.9% (7.2-12.4), respectively. This study suggests that from one in seven up to one in three obese children in the USA might not have been obese in the absence of advertising for unhealthy food on TV. Limiting the exposure of children to marketing of energy-dense food could be part of a broader effort to make children's diets healthier.

  7. By how much would limiting TV food advertising reduce childhood obesity?

    PubMed Central

    Van Beeck, Eduard F.; Barendregt, Jan J.; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is evidence suggesting that food advertising causes childhood obesity. The strength of this effect is unclear. To inform decisions on whether to restrict advertising opportunities, we estimate how much of the childhood obesity prevalence is attributable to food advertising on television (TV). Methods: We constructed a mathematical simulation model to estimate the potential effects of reducing the exposure of 6- to 12-year-old US children to TV advertising for food on the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Model input was based on body measurements from NHANES 2003–04, the CDC-2000 cut-offs for weight categories, and literature that relates advertising to consumption levels and consumption to body mass. In an additional analysis we use a Delphi study to obtain experts’ estimates of the effect of advertising on consumption. Results: Based on literature findings, the model predicts that reducing the exposure to zero would decrease the average BMI by 0.38 kg/m−2 and lower the prevalence of obesity from 17.8 to 15.2% (95% uncertainty interval 14.8–15.6) for boys and from 15.9% to 13.5% (13.1–13.8) for girls. When estimates are based on expert opinion, these values are 11.0% (7.7–14.0) and 9.9% (7.2–12.4), respectively. Conclusion: This study suggests that from one in seven up to one in three obese children in the USA might not have been obese in the absence of advertising for unhealthy food on TV. Limiting the exposure of children to marketing of energy-dense food could be part of a broader effort to make children's diets healthier. PMID:19324935

  8. Primary care interventions to reduce childhood obesity and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: Food for thought for oral health professionals.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Diane; Moultrie, Nicolette M; Sites, Elsbeth; Crawford, Patricia B

    2017-06-01

    Childhood obesity remains a significant threat to America's children. Health care leaders have increasingly called upon oral health professionals to integrate healthy weight promotion and enhanced sugar-sweetened beverage counseling into their professional practices. The aim of this scoping review is to examine recent evidence regarding the effectiveness of primary care childhood obesity interventions that have potential for adoption by oral health professionals. Medine, and PubMed were searched from 2010 to 2016 for review articles and studies reporting patient outcomes or policy outcomes relevant to primary care childhood obesity interventions for children ages 2-11 years. Additional articles were accessed through relevant websites, journals, and references. Our screening criteria included interventions that could be adopted by oral health professionals. Forty-two articles met inclusion criteria. Effective interventions fell into four domains: family-based programs, motivational interviewing, office-based practice tools, and policy interventions. Despite strong evidence linking the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages to childhood obesity, our review did not find evidence of primary care programs effectively targeting and reducing childhood sugary drinks. Effective primary care interventions for addressing childhood obesity have been identified, although only short-term effectiveness has been demonstrated. Dissemination of these practices as well as further research and advocacy are needed. Childhood obesity and poor oral health share many common risk factors. Additional research should focus on the benefits and feasibility of widespread interdisciplinary medical-oral health collaboration in addressing the two most prevalent diseases of childhood. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  9. Intractable diarrhoea of infancy and latent otomastoiditis.

    PubMed Central

    Salazar de Sousa, J; da Silva, A; da Costa Ribeiro, V

    1980-01-01

    In 16 infants with intractable diarrhoea, latent otomastoiditis was found in 9 (3 at necropsy and 6 at myringotomy-antrotomy). In 5 of the 6 operated group, surgery was followed by a striking cessation of the diarrhoea and with weight gain. It is concluded that (1) latent otomastoiditis may be a perpetuating factor in intractable diarrhoea; (2) myringotomy-antrotomy should be considered if other forms of treatment have failed, and especially if there is leucocytosis; (3) mastoiditis with diffuse osteitis seems to be associated with a poor prognosis. PMID:7458392

  10. Aetiology of acute diarrhoea in adults.

    PubMed

    Jewkes, J; Larson, H E; Price, A B; Sanderson, P J; Davies, H A

    1981-05-01

    We have studied 73 adults with acute diarrhoea and identified a micro-organism or toxin likely to be the cause in 58%. In addition to routinely cultured bacteria, Campylobacter coli/jejuni and Clostridium difficile were important pathogens in the community. Patients who developed diarrhoea after antibiotic use had a distinctive clinical syndrome and comprised the third largest group of cases. Clinical, epidemiological, and histological features in an additional group with negative cultures and no antibiotic history suggest that an additional bacterial pathogen remains to be identified as a cause of acute diarrhoea in adults.

  11. An unusual cause of chronic diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Deesomsak, M; Sawanyawisuth, K; Prachayakul, V

    2014-03-01

    We report a patient presenting with chronic diarrhoea of unidentified etiology. Laboratory results showed microcytic anemia, peripheral eosinophilia with negative results of stool sample smears and stool concentration technique. Ancylostoma duodenale was found in the caecum and terminal ileum during colonoscopy. The patient was treated with a 3-day course of 400 mg albendazole and iron supplement. The diarrhoea disappeared shortly after treatment. Physicians particularly in tropical areas should be aware of hookworms as causative agents of chronic diarrhoea and it may be found in the large intestine.

  12. [Bloody diarrhoea - causes, diagnostics and therapy].

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Henriette; Vavricka, Stephan R

    2014-09-01

    Bloody diarrhoea is always a warning sign and should prompt a more thorough history on duration and accompanying symptoms as well as current medications (antibiotics, NSAR) and diseases (HIV, IBD, transplant organ recipients). In this review the most common bacterial, viral and parasitical causes of bloody diarrhoea as well as radiation and ischemic colitis will be discussed. Additionally important diagnostic tools such as stool cultures and calprotectin for infectious causes auf diarrhoea and imaging tools (CT and endoscopy) for ischemic disease are presented. The causes of bloody diarroea in immunosuppressed patients and IBD are additionally addressed.

  13. Enteral-tube-feeding diarrhoea: manipulating the colonic microbiota with probiotics and prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Kevin

    2007-08-01

    Diarrhoea is a common and serious complication of enteral tube feeding. Its pathogenesis involves antibiotic prescription, enteropathogenic colonization and abnormal colonic responses, all of which involve an interaction with the colonic microbiota. Alterations in the colonic microbiota have been identified in patients receiving enteral tube feeding and these changes may be associated with the incidence of diarrhoea. Preventing negative alterations in the colonic microbiota has therefore been investigated as a method of reducing the incidence of diarrhoea. Probiotics and prebiotics may be effective because of their suppression of enteropathogenic colonization, stimulation of immune function and modulation of colonic metabolism. Randomized controlled trials of probiotics have produced contrasting results, although Saccharomyces boulardii has been shown to reduce the incidence of diarrhoea in patients in the intensive care unit receiving enteral tube feeding. Prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides have been shown to increase the concentration of faecal bifidobacteria in healthy subjects consuming enteral formula, although this finding has not yet been confirmed in patients receiving enteral tube feeding. Furthermore, there are no clinical trials investigating the effect of a prebiotic alone on the incidence of diarrhoea. Further trials of the efficacy of probiotics and prebiotics, alone and in combination, in preventing diarrhoea in this patient group are warranted.

  14. Can Early Omega-3 Fatty Acid Exposure Reduce Risk of Childhood Allergic Disease?

    PubMed

    Miles, Elizabeth A; Calder, Philip C

    2017-07-21

    A causal link between increased intake of omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and increased incidence of allergic disease has been suggested. This is supported by biologically plausible mechanisms, related to the roles of eicosanoid mediators produced from the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid. Fish and fish oils are sources of long chain omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs. These fatty acids act to oppose the actions of n-6 PUFAs particularly with regard to eicosanoid synthesis. Thus, n-3 PUFAs may protect against allergic sensitisation and allergic manifestations. Epidemiological studies investigating the association between maternal fish intake during pregnancy and allergic outcomes in infants/children of those pregnancies suggest protective associations, but the findings are inconsistent. Fish oil provision to pregnant women is associated with immunologic changes in cord blood. Studies performed to date indicate that provision of fish oil during pregnancy may reduce sensitisation to common food allergens and reduce prevalence and severity of atopic eczema in the first year of life, with a possible persistence until adolescence. A recent study reported that fish oil consumption in pregnancy reduces persistent wheeze and asthma in the offspring at ages 3 to 5 years. Eating oily fish or fish oil supplementation in pregnancy may be a strategy to prevent infant and childhood allergic disease.

  15. Asthma in childhood reduces smoking initiation in subsequent teens among males.

    PubMed

    Verlato, Giuseppe; Bortolami, Oscar; Accordini, Simone; Olivieri, Mario; Cappa, Veronica; Bugiani, Massimiliano; Corsico, Angelo; Pirina, Pietro; Villani, Simona; de Marco, Roberto

    2011-03-01

    The association between smoking habits and asthma is complex because subjects with asthma could avoid smoking, whereas smoking could increase asthma severity or incidence. The relation between asthma in childhood (0-10 years) and smoking initiation in the second decade (11-20 years) was investigated using the database of the Italian Study on Asthma in Young Adults, performed in 1998-2000 on people aged 20-45 years. The cumulative incidence of smoking initiation was compared among (1) subjects not reporting asthma attacks in the first 20 years of life (n = 17,384), (2) subjects reporting asthma onset in the first decade and no disease remission by the age of 20 years (n = 305), (3) subjects reporting asthma onset in the first decade and remission in the first and second decades (n = 573). Among men, the cumulative incidence of smoking onset was higher among nonasthmatics (49%) than among asthmatics (35.6%), and intermediate among asthmatics with disease remission (44.2%) (p = .001). These differences were larger in males born between 1953 and 1965, and tended to decrease in males born between 1966 and 1979: cumulative incidence of smoking onset decreased from 54.3% to 43.8% in nonasthmatics, whereas it remained stable in asthmatics (from 36.8% to 35%). Women, instead, had similar cumulative incidence of smoking initiation, irrespective of asthma onset or remission (p = .849). Asthma in childhood reduces smoking initiation during the subsequent teenage in men, but not in women. This protective effect tends to fade when asthma remission occurs. In the last decades, smoking initiation has decreased among nonasthmatic males, but not among asthmatic males. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Octreotide in the treatment of refractory diarrhoea and intestinal fistulae.

    PubMed Central

    Farthing, M J

    1994-01-01

    Persistent, refractory diarrhoea continues to be an important clinical problem. The mechanisms involved are associated with reduced intestinal absorption and increased intestinal secretion. Reduced intestinal absorption can result from small intestinal resection or from disorders in which there is damage to the small intestine. Motility disorders may also impair absorptive function. The rationale for using octreotide in refractory diarrhoea, intestinal motility disorders, and fistulae relates to its ability to promote intestinal absorption and inhibit gastric, pancreatic, and intestinal secretion. Several clinical studies in patients with short bowel syndrome have reported a reduction of intestinal output in patients taking octreotide compared with controls. Additionally, a number of studies have shown that octreotide improves secretory diarrhoea resulting from neuroendocrine tumours, intestinal infections in AIDS patients, and intestinal graft v host disease. Octreotide may be of use in patients suffering from intestinal motility disorders such as those associated with systemic sclerosis. Octreotide may also be of value in promoting closure of gastrointestinal and pancreatic fistulae. PMID:8206397

  17. Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Clasen, T; Roberts, I; Rabie, T; Schmidt, W; Cairncross, S

    2006-07-19

    Diarrhoeal diseases are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity, especially among young children in developing countries. While many of the infectious agents associated with diarrhoeal disease are potentially waterborne, the evidence for reducing diarrhoea in settings where it is endemic by improving the microbiological quality of drinking water has been equivocal. To assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (December 2005), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2005, Issue 4), MEDLINE (December 2005), EMBASE (December 2005), and LILACS (December 2005). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, contacted researchers and organizations working in the field, and checked references from identified studies. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing interventions aimed at improving the microbiological quality of drinking water with no intervention in children and adults living in settings where diarrhoeal disease is endemic. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We used meta-analyses to estimate pooled measures of effect, where appropriate, and investigated potential sources of heterogeneity using subgroup analyses. Thirty trials (including 38 independent comparisons) covering over 53,000 participants met the inclusion criteria. Differences between the trials limited the comparability of results and pooling by meta-analysis. In general, the evidence suggests that interventions to improve the microbiological quality of drinking water are effective in preventing diarrhoea both for populations of all ages and children less than five years old. Subgroup analyses suggest that household interventions are more effective in preventing diarrhoea than interventions at the water source. Effectiveness was positively associated with compliance. Effectiveness was not conditioned on the presence of improved

  18. Drug-induced, factitious, & idiopathic diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Bincy P; Sellin, Joseph H

    2012-10-01

    The aetiology of diarrhoea can often be simple to identify, but in some cases may pose a challenge. The diagnosis of drug-induced diarrhoea can easily be sorted based on timing of the symptom with onset of a new drug. Treatment can vary from simply monitoring and eventual resolution with continuation of the drug, to discontinuation of the offending agent. In cases where a drug cannot always be stopped, additional medications can help control the symptom. Factitious diarrhoea can present a diagnostic challenge if the evaluating physician does not suspect its possibility. Typically a careful history, and in some cases, stool testing can provide clues. The diagnosis of idiopathic diarrhoea is often made when exhaustive testing provides no definite aetiology and the goal of management is supportive care and symptomatic treatment.

  19. Pediatric Clinicians Can Help Reduce Rates of Early Childhood Caries: Effects of a Practice Based Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kressin, Nancy R.; Nunn, Martha E.; Singh, Harpreet; Orner, Michelle B.; Pbert, Lori; Hayes, Catherine; Culler, Corinna; Glicken, Stephan R.; Palfrey, Sean; Geltman, Paul L.; Cadoret, Cynthia; Henshaw, Michelle M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Early childhood caries (ECC) is a serious and preventable disease which pediatric clinicians can help address by counseling to reduce risk. Research Design We implemented a multifaceted practice-based intervention in a pediatric outpatient clinic treating children vulnerable to ECC (N = 635), comparing results to those from a similar nearby clinic providing usual care (N = 452). Intervention We provided communication skills training using the approach of patient centered counseling, edited the electronic medical record to prompt counseling, and provided parents/caregivers with an educational brochure. Outcome Measures We assessed changes in provider knowledge about ECC after the intervention, and examined providers' counseling practices and incidence of ECC over time by site, controlling for baseline ECC, patient sociodemographics and parents'/caregivers' practice of risk factors (diet, oral hygiene, tooth-monitoring), among 1045 children with complete data. Results Provider knowledge about ECC increased after the intervention training (percentage correct answers improved from 66% to 79%). Providers at the intervention site used more counseling strategies, which persisted after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics. Children at the intervention site had a 77% reduction in risk for developing ECC at follow up, after controlling for age and race/ethnicity, sociodemographics and ECC risk factors; P ≤ 0.004. Conclusions The multifaceted intervention was associated with increased provider knowledge and counseling, and significantly attenuated incidence of ECC. If validated by additional studies, similar interventions could have the potential to make a significant public health impact on reducing ECC among young children. PMID:19786919

  20. Reducing early childhood caries in a Medicaid population: a systems model analysis.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Burton L; Hirsch, Gary; Frosh, Marcy; Kumar, Jayanth

    2015-04-01

    Despite early childhood caries (ECC) being largely preventable, its repair accounts for a disproportionate share of Medicaid expenditures. In this study, the authors model disease reductions and cost savings from ECC management alternatives. The authors apply system dynamics modeling to the New York State Medicaid population of young children to compare potential outcomes of 9 preventive interventions (water fluoridation, fluoride varnish, fluoride toothpaste, medical screening and fluoride varnish application, bacterial transmission reduction, motivational interviewing, dental prevention visits, secondary prevention, and combinations) and the effect of defluoridating New York City. Model simulations help project 10-year disease reductions and net savings from water fluoridation, motivational interviewing, and fluoride toothpaste. Interventions requiring health professionals cost more than they save. Interventions that target children at high risk, begin early, and combine multiple strategies hold greatest potential. Defluoridating New York City would increase disease and costs dramatically. The variety of population-level and individual-level interventions available to control ECC differ substantially in their capacity to improve children's oral health and reduce state Medicaid expenditures. Using Medicaid and health department dollars to deliver ECC preventive and management interventions holds strong promise to improve children's oral health while reducing state dental expenditures in Medicaid. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Can appropriate diagnosis and treatment of childhood asthma reduce excessive antibiotic usage?

    PubMed

    Gedik, Ahmet Hakan; Cakir, Erkan; Ozkaya, Emin; Ari, Engin; Nursoy, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the frequency of antibiotic usage and the number of asthma episodes before and after the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric asthma patients who were followed up by specialists. Included in this study were 334 patients (211 males and 123 females) of 2-16 years of age who were diagnosed with asthma and followed up for at least 1 year in our clinic. The frequency of antibiotic usage and the number of asthma episodes in the year prior to diagnosis and treatment were compared to these same variables after 1 year of follow-up by specialists. The median age was 84 months (range: 24-192) and 212 (63%) children were at school or in day care centers. Atopy and a family history of asthma were present in 200 (60%) of the patients, and 137 (41%) reported that at least one member of their household smoked. Antibiotics were used a median number of 7 times [interquartile range (IQR) = 6] in the year before the asthma diagnosis, and 2 times (IQR = 3) during the year after treatment (p < 0.001). The mean number of asthma episodes before diagnosis, i.e. 4 (IQR = 8) was reduced to 0 (IQR = 2) in the year after treatment when the patients were followed up by specialists (p < 0.001). This study shows that appropriate diagnosis and treatment of childhood asthma significantly reduce the frequency of antibiotic usage and the number of asthmatic episodes. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Extending Prednisolone Treatment Does Not Reduce Relapses in Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kist-van Holthe, Joana E.; van Rijswijk, Nienske; de Mos, Nienke I.; Hop, Wim C.J.; Wetzels, Jack F.M.; van der Heijden, Albert J.; Nauta, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged prednisolone treatment for the initial episode of childhood nephrotic syndrome may reduce relapse rate, but whether this results from the increased duration of treatment or a higher cumulative dose remains unclear. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 69 hospitals in The Netherlands. We randomly assigned 150 children (9 months to 17 years) presenting with nephrotic syndrome to either 3 months of prednisolone followed by 3 months of placebo (n=74) or 6 months of prednisolone (n=76), and median follow-up was 47 months. Both groups received equal cumulative doses of prednisolone (approximately 3360 mg/m2). Among the 126 children who started trial medication, relapses occurred in 48 (77%) of 62 patients who received 3 months of prednisolone and 51 (80%) of 64 patients who received 6 months of prednisolone. Frequent relapses, according to international criteria, occurred with similar frequency between groups as well (45% versus 50%). In addition, there were no statistically significant differences between groups with respect to the eventual initiation of prednisolone maintenance and/or other immunosuppressive therapy (50% versus 59%), steroid dependence, or adverse effects. In conclusion, in this trial, extending initial prednisolone treatment from 3 to 6 months without increasing cumulative dose did not benefit clinical outcome in children with nephrotic syndrome. Previous findings indicating that prolonged treatment regimens reduce relapses most likely resulted from increased cumulative dose rather than the treatment duration. PMID:23274956

  3. Watery diarrhoea and an islet cell tumour

    PubMed Central

    Hindle, W.; McBrien, D. J.; Creamer, B.

    1964-01-01

    It is suggested that there are two hormonal syndromes associated with noninsulin-secreting islet cell tumours and this case is an example of the non-gastrin-secreting type with watery diarrhoea and hypokalaemia. The patient had histamine-fast achlorhydria and a normal gastric biopsy and no gastrin was recovered from the tumour tissue. The watery diarrhoea was isosmotic with plasma and was increased by an intravenous saline load. There was a dramatic response to steroids. PMID:14209921

  4. Formula with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces incidence of allergy in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Foiles, Amanda M; Kerling, Elizabeth H; Wick, Jo A; Scalabrin, Deolinda M F; Colombo, John; Carlson, Susan E

    2016-03-01

    Allergy has sharply increased in affluent Western countries in the last 30 years. N-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) may protect the immune system against development of allergy. We prospectively categorized illnesses by body system in a subset of 91 children from the Kansas City cohort of the DIAMOND (DHA Intake and Measurement of Neural Development) study who had yearly medical records through 4 years of age. As infants, they were fed either a control formula without LCPUFA (n = 19) or one of three formulas with LCPUFA from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) (n = 72). Allergic illnesses in the first year were lower in the combined LCPUFA group compared to the control. LCPUFAs significantly delayed time to first allergic illness (p = 0.04) and skin allergic illness (p = 0.03) and resulted in a trend to reduced wheeze/asthma (p = 0.1). If the mother had no allergies, LCPUFAs reduced the risk of any allergic diseases (HR = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.1, 0.56, p = 0.0.001) and skin allergic diseases (HR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.93, p = 0.04). In contrast, if the mother had allergies, LCPUFAs reduced wheezing/asthma (HR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.07, 0.9, p = 0.02). LCPUFA supplementation during infancy reduced the risk of skin and respiratory allergic diseases in childhood with effects influenced by maternal allergies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Formula with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces incidence of allergy in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Foiles, Amanda M.; Kerling, Elizabeth H.; Wick, Jo A.; Scalabrin, Deolinda M.F.; Colombo, John; Carlson, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Allergy has sharply increased in affluent Western countries in the last 30 years. N-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) may protect the immune system against development of allergy. Methods We prospectively categorized illnesses by body system in a subset of 91 children from the Kansas City cohort of the DIAMOND (DHA Intake and Measurement of Neural Development) study who had yearly medical records through 4 years of age. As infants, they were fed either a control formula without LCPUFA (n=19) or one of three formulas with LCPUFA from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) (n=72). Results Allergic illnesses in the first year were lower in the combined LCPUFA group compared to the control. LCPUFAs significantly delayed time to first allergic illness (p=0.04) and skin allergic illness (p=0.03); and resulted in a trend to reduced wheeze/asthma (p=0.1). If the mother had no allergies, LCPUFAs reduced the risk of any allergic diseases (HR = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.1, 0.56, p=0.0.001) and skin allergic diseases (HR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.93, p=0.04). In contrast, if the mother had allergies, LCPUFAs reduced wheezing/asthma (HR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.07, 0.9, p = 0.02). Conclusions LCPUFA supplementation during infancy reduced the risk of skin and respiratory allergic diseases in childhood with effects influenced by maternal allergies. PMID:26613373

  6. Laboratory diagnosis of infectious diarrhoea syndrome; a three years study in two hospitals of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Damian, Maria; Tatu-Chiţoiu, Dorina; Usein, Codruţa-Romaniţa; Oprişan, Gabriela; Palade, Andi-Marian; Dinu, Sorin; Szmal, Camelia; Ciontea, Simona Adriana; Ceciu, Stefania; Condei, Maria; Persu, Ana; Baicuş, Anda; Pop, Mariana; Neagoe, Ionela; Steriu, Dan; Codreanu, Radu; Graur, Marian; Cretu, Michaela Carmen; Cilievici, Suzana; Nica, Maria; Ecovoiu, Alexandru; Gavrili, Lucian

    2009-01-01

    Infectious diarrhoea is a syndrome caused by a variety of bacterial, viral and parasitic organisms which represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. The wide diversity of etiological agents impairs the surveillance and the diagnosis and affects the correct treatment applied to reduce the long-term complications. Besides well known enteric pathogens such as Salmonella, Shigella and Yersinia, a high number of emergent and re-emergent aetiologies are now recognised to be at the origin of diarrhoea. The lack of a correct diagnostic algorithm and adequate methods of analyses leads to under-evaluation and incertitude in an important number of clinical cases. Our study was designed as a complex analysis of the stool specimens collected from the patients, in the purpose to improve the laboratory diagnostic and to enhance the number of confirmed cases of infectious diarrhoea. A number of 756 samples from inpatients with diarrhoea were tested targeting pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria, viruses and parasites by classical and molecular methods. We documented that, in case of non-Salmonella, non-Shigella, non-Yersinia diarrhoea, the quality of diagnostic was improved by increasing the percentage of positive specimens to 22.49% compared to 11.12% when only bacteria, 5.56% when only viruses and 4.10% when only parasites were investigated. The laboratory data are of great value in evaluating the diarrhoea syndrome offering the documentation for an accurate epidemiological response and an adequate treatment.

  7. The associations between feeding modes and diarrhoea among urban children in a newly developed country.

    PubMed

    al-Ali, F M; Hossain, M M; Pugh, R N

    1997-07-01

    The protective effect of breastfeeding against infantile diarrhoea may be less pronounced in areas with modern water supply and sanitation facilities. This finding raises the question whether protection by breastfeeding against infantile diarrhoea in developing countries will decline with improvement in water supply and sanitation. To address this question a historical cohort study of the associations between feeding modes and diarrhoea incidence and severity in children aged 0-14 months at baseline was done in Al Ain city, United Arab Emirates. In this city in a newly developed country, modern water supply and sanitation facilities have become available to everyone during the last two decades. During three months of follow-up of 249 children, the nonbreastfed had more diarrhoea than did the partly breastfed, who in turn had more diarrhoea than did the fully breastfed. After multivariate adjustment, this dose-response effect was consistent for three measures of diarrhoeal morbidity in each child: occurrence or non-occurrence of incidence episodes, number of episodes, and total severity score. However, significant differences were seen only between the nonbreastfed and fully breastfed subgroups. These results indicate that in Al Ain, despite the universal access to modern water supply and sanitation facilities, breastfeeding plays an important role in reducing the incidence and severity of infantile diarrhoea. This observation is particularly important given the growing concern that, as an unwanted effect of 'modernisation', breastfeeding is on the decline in Al Ain and comparable populations elsewhere.

  8. Acute diarrhoea in a community cohort of children who received an oral rotavirus vaccine in Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Sarah Cristina Fontes; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Kirby, Andrew; Barreto, Isis Pinheiro; Souza, Liane Desiderio de; Oliveira, Oderlan Carvalho; Correia, Jailson de Barros; Dove, Winifred; Cunliffe, Nigel A; Cuevas, Luis E

    2011-05-01

    Rotavirus is an important cause of childhood diarrhoea. A monovalent rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix®) was introduced into the Immunization Program of Brazil in 2006. In this study, we describe the incidence and burden of disease of rotavirus diarrhoea in two cohorts of children (vaccinated and unvaccinated). We followed two groups of 250 children under one year old, who were enrolled in December 2006 from a low-income residential area in Northeast Brazil. The children were monitored every two weeks for two years. Stool samples from children with diarrhoea were examined for the presence of rotavirus. Rotaviruses were genotyped using real time-polymerase chain reaction. The mean numbers of all-cause diarrhoea episodes/child (adjusted for age) in the first year were 0.87 and 0.84, in vaccinated and unvaccinated children, respectively. During the second year, the number of episodes/child decreased to 0.52 and 0.42. Only 16 (4.9%) of 330 stool samples were rotavirus-positive (10 vaccinated and 6 unvaccinated children) and only P[4]G2 rotaviruses were identified. All-cause diarrhoea episodes were more severe in unvaccinated children in the first year of age (p < 0.05), while vaccinated children had more severe episodes 18 months after vaccination. Rotavirus diarrhoea incidence was very low in both groups.

  9. Expanding Exposure: Can Increasing the Daily Duration of Head Start Reduce Childhood Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisvold, David E.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2011-01-01

    Coinciding with the work requirements of welfare reform in the mid-1990s, the early childhood education program, Head Start, significantly expanded to increase the availability of full-day classes. Using unique administrative data, we examine the effect of full-day compared to half-day attendance on childhood obesity. This effect is identified…

  10. Expanding Exposure: Can Increasing the Daily Duration of Head Start Reduce Childhood Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisvold, David E.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2011-01-01

    Coinciding with the work requirements of welfare reform in the mid-1990s, the early childhood education program, Head Start, significantly expanded to increase the availability of full-day classes. Using unique administrative data, we examine the effect of full-day compared to half-day attendance on childhood obesity. This effect is identified…

  11. Interventions to reduce childhood antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory infections: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanhong; Walley, John; Chou, Roger; Tucker, Joseph D; Harwell, Joseph I; Wu, Xinyin; Yin, Jia; Zou, Guanyang; Wei, Xiaolin

    2016-06-20

    Antibiotics are overprescribed for children with upper respiratory infections (URIs), leading to unnecessary expenditures, adverse events and antibiotic resistance. This study assesses whether interventions antibiotic prescription rates (APR) for childhood URIs can be reduced and what factors impact intervention effectiveness. MEDLINE, Embase, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Global Health, WHO website, United States CDC website and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched by December 2015. Cluster or individual-patient randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs that examined interventions to change APR for children with URIs were selected for meta-analysis. Educational interventions for clinicians and/or parents were compared with usual care. Of 6074 studies identified, 13 were included. All were conducted in high-income countries. Interventions were associated with lower APR versus usual care (OR 0.63 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.81, p<0.001). A patient-clinician communication approach was the most effective type of intervention, with a pooled OR 0.41 (95% CI 0.20 to 0.83; p<0.001) for clinicians and 0.26 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.91; p=0.04) for parents. Interventions that targeted clinicians and parents were significant, with a pooled OR of 0.52 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.78; p=0.002). Insignificant effects were observed for targeting clinicians and parents alone, with a pooled OR of 0.88 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.16; p=0.37) and 0.50 (95% CI 0.10 to 2.51, p=0.40), respectively. Educational interventions are effective in reducing antibiotic prescribing for childhood URIs. Interventions targeting clinicians and parents are more effective than those for either group alone. The most effective interventions address patient-clinician communication. Studies in low-income to middle-income countries are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Efficacy of the North American Guidelines for Children’s Agricultural Tasks in Reducing Childhood Agricultural Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Gadomski, Anne; Ackerman, Susan; Burdick, Patrick; Jenkins, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed whether active dissemination of the North American Guidelines for Children’s Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT) reduced childhood agricultural injuries. Methods. In this randomized controlled trial, lay educators visited intervention farms to review NAGCAT. New York State farms with resident or working children were randomized. Control farms were visited only to collect baseline data. Data on childhood injuries, tasks, and hours worked were obtained quarterly for 21 months. Injury rates per farm were compared between the treatment and control groups, along with time span to occurrence of an injury and to violation of NAGCAT age guidelines. Results. Intervention farms were less likely than control farms to violate NAGCAT age guidelines in the areas of all-terrain-vehicle use and tractor and haying operations. Cox proportional hazards regression models showed a significant protective effect of the intervention on preventable injuries after adjustment for important covariates. Conclusions. Our results showed that dissemination of NAGCAT reduced rates of work-related childhood agricultural injuries. A comprehensive public health approach is needed to reduce non–work-related childhood injuries. PMID:16507741

  13. Childhood Vaccination Against Seasonal Influenza to Reduce the Overall Burden of Disease: Ethical Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Martakis, Kyriakos; Thangavelu, Kruthika; Schröder-Bäck, Peter

    2017-07-11

    Introduction Childhood immunisation against seasonal influenza promises to reduce the burden of disease through herd immunity. The option of intranasal vaccination seemed to offer a more acceptable vaccination for children, as they are perceived to be less invasive. Yet, intranasal vaccines have been recently proven not to be as effective as presumed. In Germany, contradictory recommendations of the Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) first, to use and then, in October 2016, not use these vaccines have been issued for the 2016-2017 season, whereas recommendations not to use them were already issued in the USA (CDC, ACIP). This controversy spurs the discussion of immunisation programmes for children again. Despite studies discussing the effectiveness of a comprehensive immunisation programme targeting children also in the German and wider European context, an accompanying ethical discussion is missing. Methodology We discuss several policy options from different key ethical perspectives that are widely used in public health: if seasonal influenza vaccination should be intensively offered to or even made mandatory for children to decrease the societal burden of the disease. Results Various ethical perspectives reflect the question how to balance individual autonomy, personal benefit and population benefit differently. Discussion A convincing justification for suggestions on immunisation policies has to balance norms anchored in different ethical theories. There are good reasons to offer immunisation programmes against seasonal influenza to children, using a voluntary, possibly incentive-based approach. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Capitalizing on Advances in Science to Reduce the Health Consequences of Early Childhood Adversity.

    PubMed

    Shonkoff, Jack P

    2016-10-01

    Advances in biology are providing deeper insights into how early experiences are built into the body with lasting effects on learning, behavior, and health. Numerous evaluations of interventions for young children facing adversity have demonstrated multiple, positive effects but they have been highly variable and difficult to sustain or scale. New research on plasticity and critical periods in development, increasing understanding of how gene-environment interaction affects variation in stress susceptibility and resilience, and the emerging availability of measures of toxic stress effects that are sensitive to intervention provide much-needed fuel for science-informed innovation in the early childhood arena. This growing knowledge base suggests 4 shifts in thinking about policy and practice: (1) early experiences affect lifelong health, not just learning; (2) healthy brain development requires protection from toxic stress, not just enrichment; (3) achieving breakthrough outcomes for young children facing adversity requires supporting the adults who care for them to transform their own lives; and (4) more effective interventions are needed in the prenatal period and first 3 years after birth for the most disadvantaged children and families. The time has come to leverage 21st-century science to catalyze the design, testing, and scaling of more powerful approaches for reducing lifelong disease by mitigating the effects of early adversity.

  15. Influence of enteric bacteria, parasite infections and nutritional status on diarrhoea occurrence among 6-60 months old children admitted at a Regional Hospital in Morogoro, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Oketcho, Rebecca; Nyaruhucha, Cornelio N M; Taybalip, Saifuddin; Karimuribo, Esron D

    2012-04-01

    While nutritional, microbiological and immunological factors have been implicated in childhood diarrhoea in many countries, there is limited aetiological information in Morogoro Region of Tanzania. A case-control study was conducted to establish whether diarrhoea in 6-60 months old children admitted at a Regional Hospital in Morogoro, was attributable to enteric bacteria and/or parasites and the contribution of under-nutrition, as measured by weight-for-age below -2 SD. From January to September 2011, children admitted at the Hospital with (cases) and without diarrhoea (controls), were obtained by convenience sampling. Children's stool, weights, ages and information on socioeconomic, feeding, water and sanitation factors were obtained. Stool samples were analysed for Escherichia coli O157, Shigella dysentriae, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella species and enteric parasites. Logistic regression was used to identify their association with diarrhoea occurrence; and survival analysis used to assess associated risk, using associated-hazard ratios (HR). Commonest bacteria isolated were Salmonella, more from controls, 45 (29.6%), than cases, 25 (16.6%); S. dysentriae and C. jejuni were only isolated from cases, while E coli O157 was not found. Enteric parasites were least prevalent; 4 (2.6%) for cases and 2 (1.3%) for controls. Although under-weight children had 38% increased risk of having diarrhoea than normal ones, this was not significant (HR = 0.98, p=0.928). Other factors found to significantly. (p<0.05) influence diarrhoea occurrence included age when breastfeeding stopped, food(s) given, feeding utensils and the child's toilet. In conclusion, childhood diarrhoea occurrence should warrant microbiological testing, for timely, appropriate treatment and prevention of transmission to others. Prevention and control measures for diarrhoea in children in Morogoro should include adequate breastfeeding, proper disposal of children's faeces and feeding children using cups

  16. Impact of NGO Training and Support Intervention on Diarrhoea Management Practices in a Rural Community of Bangladesh: An Uncontrolled, Single-Arm Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Ahmed S.; Islam, Mohammad Rafiqul; Koehlmoos, Tracey P.; Raihan, Mohammad Jyoti; Hasan, Mohammad Mehedi; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Larson, Charles P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objective The evolving Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) sector in Bangladesh provides health services directly, however some NGOs indirectly provide services by working with unlicensed providers. The primary objective of this study was to examine the impact of NGO training of unlicensed providers on diarrhoea management and the scale up of zinc treatment in rural populations. Methods An uncontrolled, single-arm trial for a training and support intervention on diarrhoea outcomes was employed in a rural sub-district of Bangladesh during 2008. Two local NGOs and their catchment populations were chosen for the study. The intervention included training of unlicensed health care providers in the management of acute childhood diarrhoea, particularly emphasizing zinc treatment. In addition, community-based promotion of zinc treatment was carried out. Baseline and endline ecologic surveys were carried out in intervention and control villages to document changes in treatments received for diarrhoea in under-five children. Results Among surveyed household with an active or recent acute childhood diarrhoea episode, 69% sought help from a health provider. Among these, 62.8% visited an unlicensed private provider. At baseline, 23.9% vs. 22% of control and intervention group children with diarrhoea had received zinc of any type. At endline (6 months later) this had changed to 15.3% vs. 30.2%, respectively. The change in zinc coverage was significantly higher in the intervention villages (p<0.01). Adherence with giving zinc for 10 days or more was significantly higher in the intervention households (9.2% vs. 2.5%; p<0.01). Child's age, duration of diarrhoea, type of diarrhoea, parental year of schooling as well as oral rehydration solution (ORS) and antibiotic usage were significant predictors of zinc usage. Conclusion Training of unlicensed healthcare providers through NGOs increased zinc coverage in the diarrhoea management of under-five children in rural Bangladesh

  17. Impact of NGO training and support intervention on diarrhoea management practices in a rural community of Bangladesh: an uncontrolled, single-arm trial.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ahmed S; Islam, Mohammad Rafiqul; Koehlmoos, Tracey P; Raihan, Mohammad Jyoti; Hasan, Mohammad Mehedi; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Larson, Charles P

    2014-01-01

    The evolving Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) sector in Bangladesh provides health services directly, however some NGOs indirectly provide services by working with unlicensed providers. The primary objective of this study was to examine the impact of NGO training of unlicensed providers on diarrhoea management and the scale up of zinc treatment in rural populations. An uncontrolled, single-arm trial for a training and support intervention on diarrhoea outcomes was employed in a rural sub-district of Bangladesh during 2008. Two local NGOs and their catchment populations were chosen for the study. The intervention included training of unlicensed health care providers in the management of acute childhood diarrhoea, particularly emphasizing zinc treatment. In addition, community-based promotion of zinc treatment was carried out. Baseline and endline ecologic surveys were carried out in intervention and control villages to document changes in treatments received for diarrhoea in under-five children. Among surveyed household with an active or recent acute childhood diarrhoea episode, 69% sought help from a health provider. Among these, 62.8% visited an unlicensed private provider. At baseline, 23.9% vs. 22% of control and intervention group children with diarrhoea had received zinc of any type. At endline (6 months later) this had changed to 15.3% vs. 30.2%, respectively. The change in zinc coverage was significantly higher in the intervention villages (p<0.01). Adherence with giving zinc for 10 days or more was significantly higher in the intervention households (9.2% vs. 2.5%; p<0.01). Child's age, duration of diarrhoea, type of diarrhoea, parental year of schooling as well as oral rehydration solution (ORS) and antibiotic usage were significant predictors of zinc usage. Training of unlicensed healthcare providers through NGOs increased zinc coverage in the diarrhoea management of under-five children in rural Bangladesh households. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02143921.

  18. Association of prenatal and early childhood stress with reduced lung function in 7-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alison G; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu M; Rosa, Maria J; Cohen, Sheldon; Coull, Brent A; Wright, Robert O; Morgan, Wayne J; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-08-01

    No prior study has examined associations between prenatal and early-life stress on childhood lung function or identified critical windows of exposure. To prospectively examine associations between prenatal and early-life stress and childhood lung function. Stress was indexed by a maternal negative life events (NLEs) score ascertained during pregnancy and between 1 and 2 years post partum. Spirometry was performed when children were a mean (SD) of 6.99 (0.89) years old. Associations of prenatal and early postnatal stress with spirometry z scores were examined in 199 children using linear regression. Effect modification by child sex was explored. Most mothers were minorities (65% Hispanic, 21% African American), had 12 years or less of education (67%), and did not smoke prenatally (78%). The highest level of prenatal stress (≥5 NLEs) was associated with lower levels of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (z score = -0.53, P = .03), forced vital capacity (FVC) (z score = -0.49, P = .04), and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% (FEF25%-75%) (z score = -0.68, P = .01) after covariate adjustment; effects were similar for postnatal stress considered separately. In sex-stratified analyses, high postnatal stress (≥5 NLEs) was associated with lower FEV1 (z score = -0.76, P = .01), FVC (z score = -0.77, P = .01), and FEF25%-75% (z score = -0.67, P = .02) in boys but not girls, although the interaction term was not significant (P for interaction >.10). These are the first prospective data that link perinatal stress with reduced child lung function. High levels of stress in the prenatal and postnatal periods were associated with symmetric reductions in FEV1 and FVC consistent with impaired lung growth. Given that lung function growth patterns are established by 7 years of age, these findings have lifelong implications. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Industrial Exposures at Birth are Associated with Reduced Forced Vital Capacity in Childhood

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Previous studies have reported associations of ambient air pollutant exposures with childhood decrements in lung volumes. While the current study was designed primarily to examine traffic exposures, we also examined the impact of other early life exposures on pulmonary...

  20. Industrial Exposures at Birth are Associated with Reduced Forced Vital Capacity in Childhood

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Previous studies have reported associations of ambient air pollutant exposures with childhood decrements in lung volumes. While the current study was designed primarily to examine traffic exposures, we also examined the impact of other early life exposures on pulmonary...

  1. Effect of Boswellia serrata on intestinal motility in rodents: inhibition of diarrhoea without constipation

    PubMed Central

    Borrelli, Francesca; Capasso, Francesco; Capasso, Raffaele; Ascione, Valeria; Aviello, Gabriella; Longo, Rocco; Izzo, Angelo A

    2006-01-01

    Clinical studies suggest that the Ayurvedic plant Boswellia serrata may be effective in reducing diarrhoea in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of a Boswellia serrata gum resin extract (BSE) on intestinal motility and diarrhoea in rodents. BSE depressed electrically-, acetylcholine-, and barium chloride-induced contractions in the isolated guinea-pig ileum, being more potent in inhibiting the contractions induced by acetylcholine and barium chloride. The inhibitory effect of BSE on acetylcholine-induced contractions was reduced by the L-type Ca2+ channel blockers verapamil and nifedipine, but not by the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid, by the phosphodiesterase type IV inhibitor rolipram or by the lipoxygenase inhibitor zileuton. 3-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid, one of the main active ingredients of B. serrata, inhibited acetylcholine-induced contractions. BSE inhibited upper gastrointestinal transit in croton oil-treated mice as well as castor oil-induced diarrhoea. However, BSE did not affect intestinal motility in control mice, both in the small and in the large intestine. It is concluded that BSE directly inhibits intestinal motility with a mechanism involving L-type Ca2+ channels. BSE prevents diarrhoea and normalizes intestinal motility in pathophysiological states without slowing the rate of transit in control animals. These results could explain, at least in part, the clinical efficacy of this Ayurvedic remedy in reducing diarrhoea in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:16633355

  2. Reducing childhood obesity through policy change: acting now to prevent obesity.

    PubMed

    Frieden, Thomas R; Dietz, William; Collins, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity is epidemic in the United States, and is expected to increase the rates of many chronic diseases. Increasing physical activity and improving nutrition are keys to obesity prevention and control. But changing individual behavior is difficult. A comprehensive, coordinated strategy is needed. Policy interventions that make healthy dietary and activity choices easier are likely to achieve the greatest benefits. There is emerging evidence on how to address childhood obesity, but we must take action now to begin to reverse the epidemic.

  3. Understanding gut-immune interactions in management of acute infectious diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Calder, P; Hall, V

    2012-11-01

    This article discusses the role that immunity plays in the risk of diarrhoea and the potential role for probiotics in the management of acute infectious diarrhoea in older people, including antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea.

  4. Adherence and virulence genes of Escherichia coli from children diarrhoea in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Benevides-Matos, Najla; Pieri, Fabio A.; Penatti, Marilene; Orlandi, Patrícia P.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen most commonly associated with endemic forms of childhood diarrhoea is Escherichia coli . Studies of epidemiological characteristics of HEp-2 cell-adherent E. coli in diarrhoeal disease are required, particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was evaluate the presence and significance of adherent Escherichia coli from diarrhoeal disease in children. The prevalence of LA, AA, and DA adherence patterns were determined in HEp-2 cells, the presence of virulence genes and the presence of the O serogroups in samples obtained from 470 children with acute diarrhoea and 407 controls in Porto Velho, Rondônia, Brazil. E. coli isolates were identified by PCR specific for groups of adherent E. coli . Out of 1,156 isolates obtained, 128 (11.0%) were positive for eae genes corresponding to EPEC, however only 38 (29.6%) of these amplified bfpA gene . EAEC were isolated from 164 (14.1%) samples; of those 41(25%), 32 (19%) and 16 (9.7%) amplified eagg , aggA or aafA genes, respectively and aggA was significantly associated with diarrhoea ( P = 0.00006). DAEC identified by their adhesion pattern and there were few isolates. In conclusion, EAEC was the main cause of diarrhoea in children, especially when the aggA gene was present, followed by EPEC and with a negligible presence of DAEC. PMID:26221098

  5. Adherence and virulence genes of Escherichia coli from children diarrhoea in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Benevides-Matos, Najla; Pieri, Fabio A; Penatti, Marilene; Orlandi, Patrícia P

    2015-03-01

    The bacterial pathogen most commonly associated with endemic forms of childhood diarrhoea is Escherichia coli . Studies of epidemiological characteristics of HEp-2 cell-adherent E. coli in diarrhoeal disease are required, particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was evaluate the presence and significance of adherent Escherichia coli from diarrhoeal disease in children. The prevalence of LA, AA, and DA adherence patterns were determined in HEp-2 cells, the presence of virulence genes and the presence of the O serogroups in samples obtained from 470 children with acute diarrhoea and 407 controls in Porto Velho, Rondônia, Brazil. E. coli isolates were identified by PCR specific for groups of adherent E. coli . Out of 1,156 isolates obtained, 128 (11.0%) were positive for eae genes corresponding to EPEC, however only 38 (29.6%) of these amplified bfpA gene . EAEC were isolated from 164 (14.1%) samples; of those 41(25%), 32 (19%) and 16 (9.7%) amplified eagg , aggA or aafA genes, respectively and aggA was significantly associated with diarrhoea ( P = 0.00006). DAEC identified by their adhesion pattern and there were few isolates. In conclusion, EAEC was the main cause of diarrhoea in children, especially when the aggA gene was present, followed by EPEC and with a negligible presence of DAEC.

  6. Exploration of diarrhoea seasonality and its drivers in China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhiwei; Hu, Wenbiao; Zhang, Yewu; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Su, Hong; Huang, Cunrui; Tong, Shilu; Guo, Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the diarrhoea seasonality and its potential drivers as well as potential opportunities for future diarrhoea control and prevention in China. Data on weekly infectious diarrhoea cases in 31 provinces of China from 2005 to 2012, and data on demographic and geographic characteristics, as well as climatic factors, were complied. A cosinor function combined with a Poisson regression was used to calculate the three seasonal parameters of diarrhoea in different provinces. Regression tree analysis was used to identify the predictors of diarrhoea seasonality. Diarrhoea cases in China showed a bimodal distribution. Diarrhoea in children <5 years was more likely to peak in fall-winter seasons, while diarrhoea in persons > = 5 years peaked in summer. Latitude was significantly associated with spatial pattern of diarrhoea seasonality, with peak and trough times occurring earlier at high latitudes (northern areas), and later at low latitudes (southern areas). The annual amplitudes of diarrhoea in persons > = 5 years increased with latitude (r = 0.62, P<0.001). Latitude 27.8° N and 38.65° N were the latitudinal thresholds for diarrhoea seasonality in China. Regional-specific diarrhoea control and prevention strategies may be optimal for China. More attention should be paid to diarrhoea in children <5 years during fall-winter seasons. PMID:25649629

  7. Exploration of diarrhoea seasonality and its drivers in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiwei; Hu, Wenbiao; Zhang, Yewu; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Su, Hong; Huang, Cunrui; Tong, Shilu; Guo, Qing

    2015-02-04

    This study investigated the diarrhoea seasonality and its potential drivers as well as potential opportunities for future diarrhoea control and prevention in China. Data on weekly infectious diarrhoea cases in 31 provinces of China from 2005 to 2012, and data on demographic and geographic characteristics, as well as climatic factors, were complied. A cosinor function combined with a Poisson regression was used to calculate the three seasonal parameters of diarrhoea in different provinces. Regression tree analysis was used to identify the predictors of diarrhoea seasonality. Diarrhoea cases in China showed a bimodal distribution. Diarrhoea in children <5 years was more likely to peak in fall-winter seasons, while diarrhoea in persons > = 5 years peaked in summer. Latitude was significantly associated with spatial pattern of diarrhoea seasonality, with peak and trough times occurring earlier at high latitudes (northern areas), and later at low latitudes (southern areas). The annual amplitudes of diarrhoea in persons > = 5 years increased with latitude (r = 0.62, P<0.001). Latitude 27.8° N and 38.65° N were the latitudinal thresholds for diarrhoea seasonality in China. Regional-specific diarrhoea control and prevention strategies may be optimal for China. More attention should be paid to diarrhoea in children <5 years during fall-winter seasons.

  8. Incidence and determinants of acute diarrhoea in Malaysia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Gurpreet, K; Tee, G H; Amal, N M; Paramesarvathy, R; Karuthan, C

    2011-04-01

    Acute diarrhoea is a major health problem in many parts of the world, contributing to about 1.8 million deaths globally. The objectives of the study were to assess the incidence, determinants, and severity of acute diarrhoea in the population. A nation-wide cross-sectional survey involving about 57,000 respondents was conducted via face-to-face interview among eligible respondents of all ages. An acute diarrhoeal episode was defined as having three or more episodes of loose stools in any 24-hour period within the past four weeks before the interview. The severity was measured by duration of acute diarrhoea and associated symptoms. The variables tested as determinants were age, sex, ethnicity, the highest educational level, total monthly household income, and locality. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate procedures meant for complex study design were used in the analyses. The four-week incidence of acute diarrhoea was 5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.8-5.2]. The incidence of acute diarrhoea among the estimated population was the highest among young adults aged 20-29 years, Other Bumiputras (the pre-dominant ethnic group in East Malaysia), those with tertiary-level of education, those earning a monthly household income of less than RM 400, and rural dwellers. Only age, ethnicity, the highest level of education attained, and locality were significantly associated with acute diarrhoea in bivariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, these four variables were found to be the determinants of acute diarrhoea. Sex and monthly household income were excluded from the model. The mean duration of acute diarrhoea was 2.0 days (standard deviation 1.3). Forty-six percent of the respondents reported stomach cramps as an associated symptom. The findings revealed that acute diarrhoea is still a major public-health concern in Malaysia and grossly under-notified. There is a need for intensification of public-health intervention efforts to reduce the incidence of acute diarrhoea

  9. Incidence and Determinants of Acute Diarrhoea in Malaysia: A Population-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Tee, G.H.; Amal, N.M.; Paramesarvathy, R.; Karuthan, C.

    2011-01-01

    Acute diarrhoea is a major health problem in many parts of the world, contributing to about 1.8 million deaths globally. The objectives of the study were to assess the incidence, determinants, and severity of acute diarrhoea in the population. A nation-wide cross-sectional survey involving about 57,000 respondents was conducted via face-to-face interview among eligible respondents of all ages. An acute diarrhoeal episode was defined as having three or more episodes of loose stools in any 24-hour period within the past four weeks before the interview. The severity was measured by duration of acute diarrhoea and associated symptoms. The variables tested as determinants were age, sex, ethnicity, the highest educational level, total monthly household income, and locality. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate procedures meant for complex study design were used in the analyses. The four-week incidence of acute diarrhoea was 5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.8-5.2]. The incidence of acute diarrhoea among the estimated population was the highest among young adults aged 20-29 years, Other Bumiputras (the pre-dominant ethnic group in East Malaysia), those with tertiary-level of education, those earning a monthly household income of less than RM 400, and rural dwellers. Only age, ethnicity, the highest level of education attained, and locality were significantly associated with acute diarrhoea in bivariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, these four variables were found to be the determinants of acute diarrhoea. Sex and monthly household income were excluded from the model. The mean duration of acute diarrhoea was 2.0 days (standard deviation 1.3). Forty-six percent of the respondents reported stomach cramps as an associated symptom. The findings revealed that acute diarrhoea is still a major public-health concern in Malaysia and grossly under-notified. There is a need for intensification of public-health intervention efforts to reduce the incidence of acute diarrhoea

  10. Diarrhoea Complicating Severe Acute Malnutrition in Kenyan Children: A Prospective Descriptive Study of Risk Factors and Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Talbert, Alison; Thuo, Nahashon; Karisa, Japhet; Chesaro, Charles; Ohuma, Eric; Ignas, James; Berkley, James A.; Toromo, Christopher; Atkinson, Sarah; Maitland, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Background Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) accounts for two million deaths worldwide annually. In those hospitalised with SAM, concomitant infections and diarrhoea are frequent complications resulting in adverse outcome. We examined the clinical and laboratory features on admission and outcome of children with SAM and diarrhoea at a Kenyan district hospital. Methods A 4-year prospective descriptive study involving 1,206 children aged 6 months to 12 years, hospitalized with SAM and managed in accordance with WHO guidelines. Data on clinical features, haematological, biochemical and microbiological findings for children with diarrhoea (≥3 watery stools/day) were systematically collected and analyzed to identify risk factors associated with poor outcome. Results At admission 592 children (49%) had diarrhoea of which 122 (21%) died compared to 72/614 (12%) deaths in those without diarrhoea at admission (Χ2 = 17.6 p<0.001). A further 187 (16%) children developed diarrhoea after 48 hours of admission and 33 died (18%). Any diarrhoea during admission resulted in a significantly higher mortality 161/852 (19%) than those uncomplicated by diarrhoea 33/351 (9%) (Χ2 = 16.6 p<0.001). Features associated with a fatal outcome in children presenting with diarrhoea included bacteraemia, hyponatraemia, low mid-upper arm circumference <10 cm, hypoxia, hypokalaemia and oedema. Bacteraemia had the highest risk of death (adjusted OR 6.1; 95% C.I 2.3, 16.3 p<0.001); and complicated 24 (20%) of fatalities. Positive HIV antibody status was more frequent in cases with diarrhoea at admission (23%) than those without (15%, Χ2 = 12.0 p = 0.001) but did not increase the risk of death in diarrhoea cases. Conclusion Children with SAM complicated by diarrhoea had a higher risk of death than those who did not have diarrhoea during their hospital stay. Further operational and clinical research is needed to reduce mortality in children with SAM in the given setting. PMID:22675542

  11. Carob bean juice: a powerful adjunct to oral rehydration solution treatment in diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Akşit, S; Cağlayan, S; Cukan, R; Yaprak, I

    1998-04-01

    In children, the treatment of acute diarrhoea with the World Health Organization (WHO) standard oral rehydration solution (ORS) provides effective rehydration but does not reduce the severity of diarrhoea. In community practice, carob bean has been used to treat diarrhoeal diseases in Anatolia since ancient times. In order to test clinical antidiarrhoeal effects of carob bean juice (CBJ), 80 children, aged 4-48 months, who were admitted to SSK Tepecik Teaching Hospital with acute diarrhoea and mild or moderate dehydration, were randomly assigned to receive treatment with either standard WHO ORS alone or a combination of standard WHO ORS and CBJ. Three patients were excluded from the study because of excessive vomiting. In the children receiving ORS + CBJ the duration of diarrhoea was shortened by 45%, stool output was reduced by 44% and ORS requirement was decreased by 38% compared with children receiving ORS alone. Weight gain was similar in the two groups at 24 h after the initiation of the study. Hypernatraemia was detected in three patients in the ORS group but in none of those in the ORS + CBJ group. The use of CBJ in combination with ORS did not lead to any clinical metabolic problem. We therefore conclude that CBJ may have a role in the treatment of children's diarrhoea after it has been technologically processed, and that further studies would be justified.

  12. Oral zinc supplements are ineffective for treating acute dehydrating diarrhoea in 5-12-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Negi, Ruchita; Dewan, Pooja; Shah, Dheeraj; Das, Shukla; Bhatnagar, Shinjini; Gupta, Piyush

    2015-08-01

    Many countries have guidelines recommending the use of oral zinc in acute dehydrating diarrhoea in children aged 2 months to 5 years of age, but no guidelines exist for older children. This study tested how effective existing recommendations are in children from 5 to 12 years of age. Children hospitalised with acute dehydrating diarrhoea (n = 134) were randomised to receive 40 mg of oral zinc sulphate tablets or a placebo for 14 days. The primary outcome variable was the time taken for diarrhoea to stop. Secondary outcome variables included time taken for rehydration, duration of hospitalisation and recurrence of diarrhoea in the next 3 months. The median time for resolution of diarrhoea was 60 h in both groups. The zinc group was marginally better, but not statistically significant, for resolution (hazard ratio = 0.89, 95% CI 0.63-1.24), rehydration (hazard ratio = 0.93, 95% CI 0.66-1.32) and hospitalisation (hazard ratio = 0.94, 95% CI 0.67-1.34). The risk ratio of recurrence for zinc versus placebo (95% CI) was 0.65 [0.37-1.23] [p = 0.11]. Daily zinc supplements (40 mg for 14 days) in children aged 5-12 years with acute dehydrating diarrhoea did not shorten the duration of diarrhoea or reduce subsequent episodes. Further adequately sized, community-based trials are needed. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Clinical risk factors, bacterial aetiology, and outcome of urinary tract infection in children hospitalized with diarrhoea in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    DAS, R; Ahmed, T; Saha, H; Shahrin, L; Afroze, F; Shahid, A S M S B; Shahunja, K M; Bardhan, P K; Chisti, M J

    2017-04-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in children aged <5 years with diarrhoea, but little is known about risk factors, aetiology and outcome of such children. We aimed to evaluate these knowledge gaps of UTI in children aged <5 years with diarrhoea. We enrolled all children aged <5 years with diarrhoea admitted to Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, between May 2011 and April 2013, who had history of fever (⩾38 °C) and obtained a urine sample for culture. Diarrhoea with UTI (confirmed by culture) constituted cases (n = 26) and those without UTI constituted controls (n = 78). Threefold controls were randomly selected. The case-fatality rate was comparable in cases and controls (4% vs. 1%, P = 0·439). Escherichia coli (69%) and Klebsiella (15%) were the most commonly isolated pathogens. Persistent diarrhoea, pneumonia and prior antibiotics use were identified as risk factors for UTI in logistic regression analysis (P < 0·05 for all). Thus, children with diarrhoea presenting with persistent diarrhoea, pneumonia, and prior antibiotic use should be investigated for UTI for their prompt management that may reduce morbidity.

  14. Diarrhoea during enteral nutrition is predicted by the poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrate (FODMAP) content of the formula.

    PubMed

    Halmos, E P; Muir, J G; Barrett, J S; Deng, M; Shepherd, S J; Gibson, P R

    2010-10-01

    Although it is recognized that diarrhoea commonly complicates enteral nutrition, the causes remain unknown. To identify factors associated with diarrhoea in patients receiving enteral nutrition with specific attention to formula composition. Medical histories of in-patients receiving enteral nutrition were identified by ICD-10-AM coding and randomly selected from the year 2003 to 2008. Clinical and demographic data were extracted. Formulas were classified according to osmolality, fibre and FODMAP (fermentable oligo-, di- and mono-saccharides and polyols) content. Formula FODMAP levels ranged from 10.6 to 36.5 g/day. Of 160 patients receiving enteral nutrition, 61% had diarrhoea. Univariate analysis showed diarrhoea was associated with length of stay >21 days (OR 4.2), enteral nutrition duration >11 days (OR 4.0) and antibiotic use (OR 2.1). After adjusting for influencing variables through a logistic regression model, a greater than five-fold reduction in risk of developing diarrhoea was seen in patients initiated on Isosource 1.5 (P = 0.029; estimated OR 0.18). The only characteristic unique to this formula was its FODMAP content, being 47-71% lower than any other formula. Length of stay and enteral nutrition duration independently predicted diarrhoea development, while being initiated on a lower FODMAP formula reduced the likelihood of diarrhoea. As retrospective evaluation does not support a cause-effect relationship, an interventional study investigating FODMAPs in enteral formula is indicated. 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhoea in Africa: a review to assess the need for rotavirus immunization.

    PubMed Central

    Cunliffe, N. A.; Kilgore, P. E.; Bresee, J. S.; Steele, A. D.; Luo, N.; Hart, C. A.; Glass, R. I.

    1998-01-01

    Rapid progress towards the development of rotavirus vaccines has prompted a reassessment of the disease burden of rotavirus diarrhoea in developing countries and the possible impact of these vaccines in reducing diarrhoeal morbidity and mortality among infants and young children. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus diarrhoea among hospitalized and clinic patients in African countries through a review of 43 published studies of the etiology of diarrhoea. The studies were carried out from 1975 through 1992, and only those in which a sample of more than 100 patients with diarrhoea were specifically screened for rotavirus by using an established diagnostic test were included. Rotavirus was detected in a median of 24% of children hospitalized for diarrhoea and in 23% who were treated as outpatients; 38% of the hospitalized patients with rotavirus were < 6 months and 81% were < 1 year of age. Rotavirus was detected year-round in nearly every country and generally exhibited distinct seasonal peaks during the dry months. In 5 countries where rotavirus strains had been G-typed, 74% of strains were of one of the four common serotypes (G1 to G4), G1 was the predominant serotype, and 26% were non-typeable. This cumulative experience from 15 African countries suggests that rotavirus is the most important cause of severe diarrhoea in African children and that most strains in circulation today belong to common G types that are included in reassortant vaccines. Wherever large numbers of cases of rotavirus diarrhoea occur early in infancy, immunization at birth may protect the children before their first symptomatic infection. PMID:9868844

  16. Use of oral sodium cromoglycate in persistent diarrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    Bolin, T D

    1980-01-01

    Twenty patients with persistent diarrhoea participated in a randomised, double-blind trial of oral sodium cromoglycate and placebo. Eight patients noted significant improvement in their diarrhoea while taking sodium cromoglycate and this did not correlate with the presence of other atopic diseases, a history of food intolerance, or the presence of lactase deficiency. The results suggest that some patients with diarrhoea of unknown cause may have food allergy as a major contributing cause for their diarrhoea. PMID:6777263

  17. Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Clasen, Thomas F; Alexander, Kelly T; Sinclair, David; Boisson, Sophie; Peletz, Rachel; Chang, Howard H; Majorin, Fiona; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-10-20

    outcome in most studies was self-reported diarrhoea, which is at high risk of bias due to the lack of blinding in over 80% of the included studies. Source-based water quality improvementsThere is currently insufficient evidence to know if source-based improvements such as protected wells, communal tap stands, or chlorination/filtration of community sources consistently reduce diarrhoea (one cluster-RCT, five CBA studies, very low quality evidence). We found no studies evaluating reliable piped-in water supplies delivered to households. Point-of-use water quality interventionsOn average, distributing water disinfection products for use at the household level may reduce diarrhoea by around one quarter (Home chlorination products: RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.91; 14 trials, 30,746 participants, low quality evidence; flocculation and disinfection sachets: RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.82, four trials, 11,788 participants, moderate quality evidence). However, there was substantial heterogeneity in the size of the effect estimates between individual studies.Point-of-use filtration systems probably reduce diarrhoea by around a half (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.59, 18 trials, 15,582 participants, moderate quality evidence). Important reductions in diarrhoea episodes were shown with ceramic filters, biosand systems and LifeStraw® filters; (Ceramic: RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.53; eight trials, 5763 participants, moderate quality evidence; Biosand: RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.57; four trials, 5504 participants, moderate quality evidence; LifeStraw®: RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.93; three trials, 3259 participants, low quality evidence). Plumbed in filters have only been evaluated in high-income settings (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.94, three trials, 1056 participants, fixed effects model).In low-income settings, solar water disinfection (SODIS) by distribution of plastic bottles with instructions to leave filled bottles in direct sunlight for at least six hours before drinking probably reduces

  18. Association of vitamin D status with incidence of enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli diarrhoea in children of urban Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A M S; Soares Magalhaes, R J; Long, K Z; Ahmed, T; Alam, Md A; Hossain, Md I; Islam, Md M; Mahfuz, M; Mondal, D; Haque, R; Mamun, A A

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the association between vitamin D status and diarrhoeal episodes by enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enteroaggregative (EAEC) E. coli in underweight and normal-weight children aged 6-24 months in urban Bangladesh. Cohorts of 446 normal-weight and 466 underweight children were tested separately for ETEC, EPEC and EAEC from diarrhoeal stool samples collected during 5 months of follow-up while considering vitamin D status at enrolment as the exposure. Cox proportional hazards models with unordered failure events of the same type were used to determine diarrhoeal risk factors after adjusting for sociodemographic and concurrent micronutrient status. Vitamin D status was not independently associated with the risk of incidence of ETEC, EPEC and EAEC diarrhoea in underweight children, but moderate-to-severe retinol deficiency was associated with reduced risk for EPEC diarrhoea upon adjustment. Among normal-weight children, insufficient vitamin D status and moderate-to-severe retinol deficiency were independently associated with 44% and 38% reduced risk of incidence of EAEC diarrhoea, respectively. These children were at higher risk of ETEC diarrhoea with vitamin D deficiency status when adjusted for micronutrient status only. This study demonstrates for the first time that normal-weight children with insufficient vitamin D status have a reduced risk of EAEC diarrhoea than children with sufficient status. Moderate-to-severe deficiency of serum retinol is associated with reduced risk of EPEC and EAEC diarrhoea in underweight and normal-weight children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Enterovirus-related diarrhoea in Guangdong, China: clinical features and implications in hand, foot and mouth disease and herpangina.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong-Tao; Yi, Hai-Su; Guo, Yong-Hui; Pan, Yu-Xian; Tao, Shao-Hua; Wang, Bin; Chen, Man-Jun; Yang, Mei; Yu, Nan

    2016-03-16

    A series of complications caused by enteroviruses, including meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis, acute cardiopulmonary failure, respiratory infection, and myocardial injury have been reported in hand, foot and mouth disease/herpangina (HFMD/HA). However, the complication of diarrhoea caused by enteroviruses has been neglected, and a summary of its clinical features and impact on HFMD/HA is unavailable. We included inpatients with HFMD/HA admitted to the Paediatric Department of Zhujiang Hospital during 2009-2012. We summarised and compared clinical data for cases with and without diarrhoea, and determined enterovirus serotypes by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and genotyping based on a partial-length fragment of viral protein 1 or the 5'-untranslated region. There were 804 inpatients with HFMD/HA and 28 (3.5%) presented with diarrhoea. Gastrointestinal symptoms were mild in most cases of diarrhoea (82.1%), with high prevalence of no dehydration (82.1%), short duration of diarrhoea (78.6%) and watery stools (75.0%). The prevalence of multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (10.7 vs 0.40%) (p = 0.001), hepatic injury (14.3 vs 3.4%) (p = 0.019), myocardial injury (21.4 vs 6.1%) (p = 0.002) and convulsion (21.4 vs 7.2%) (p = 0.016) was significantly higher in the diarrhoea than no diarrhoea group. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding prevalence of death, altered consciousness, paralysis, central nervous system involvement, or acute respiratory infection. Most patients with diarrhoea caused by enteroviruses circulating in Guangdong Province in 2009-2012 had mild or moderate gastrointestinal symptoms. Although enterovirus-related diarrhoea caused additional multi-organ dysfunction syndrome, hepatic injury and myocardial injury in children with HFMD/HA, timely intervention efficiently reduced disease severity and improved outcome.

  20. Microbial aetiology of acute diarrhoea in children under five years of age in Khartoum, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Amir; Abd, Hadi; Sandstrom, Gunnar

    2015-04-01

    Diarrhoea is one of leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent estimations suggested the number of deaths is close to 2.5 million. This study examined the causative agents of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age in suburban areas of Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 437 stool samples obtained from children with diarrhoea were examined by culture and PCR for bacteria, by microscopy and PCR for parasites and by immunoassay for detection of rotavirus A. Of the 437 samples analysed, 211 (48%) tested positive for diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli, 96 (22%) for rotavirus A, 36 (8%) for Shigella spp., 17 (4%) for Salmonella spp., 8 (2%) for Campylobacter spp., 47 (11%) for Giardia intestinalis and 22 (5%) for Entamoeba histolytica. All isolates of E. coli (211, 100 %) and Salmonella (17, 100%), and 30 (83%) isolates of Shigella were sensitive to chloramphenicol; 17 (100%) isolates of Salmonella, 200 (94%) isolates of E. coli and (78%) 28 isolates of Shigella spp. were sensitive to gentamicin. In contrast, resistance to ampicillin was demonstrated in 100 (47%) isolates of E. coli and 16 (44%) isolates of Shigella spp. In conclusion, E. coli proved to be the main cause of diarrhoea in young children in this study, followed by rotavirus A and protozoa. Determination of diarrhoea aetiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of diarrhoeal pathogens and improved hygiene are important for clinical management and controlled strategic planning to reduce the burden of infection.

  1. Surveillance of diarrhoea in small animal practice through the Small Animal Veterinary Surveillance Network (SAVSNET).

    PubMed

    Jones, P H; Dawson, S; Gaskell, R M; Coyne, K P; Tierney, A; Setzkorn, C; Radford, A D; Noble, P-J M

    2014-09-01

    Using the Small Animal Veterinary Surveillance Network (SAVSNET), a national small animal disease-surveillance scheme, information on gastrointestinal disease was collected for a total of 76 days between 10 May 2010 and 8 August 2011 from 16,223 consultations (including data from 9115 individual dogs and 3462 individual cats) from 42 premises belonging to 19 UK veterinary practices. During that period, 7% of dogs and 3% of cats presented with diarrhoea. Adult dogs had a higher proportional morbidity of diarrhoea (PMD) than adult cats (P <0.001). This difference was not observed in animals <1 year old. Younger animals in both species had higher PMDs than adult animals (P < 0.001). Neutering was associated with reduced PMD in young male dogs. In adult dogs, miniature Schnauzers had the highest PMD. Most animals with diarrhoea (51%) presented having been ill for 2-4 days, but a history of vomiting or haemorrhagic diarrhoea was associated with a shorter time to presentation. The most common treatments employed were dietary modification (66% of dogs; 63% of cats) and antibacterials (63% of dogs; 49% of cats). There was variability in PMD between different practices. The SAVNET methodology facilitates rapid collection of cross-sectional data regarding diarrhoea, a recognised sentinel for infectious disease, and characterises data that could benchmark clinical practice and support the development of evidence-based medicine.

  2. Aspects on Feed Related Prophylactic Measures Aiming to Prevent Post Weaning Diarrhoea in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Melin, L; Wallgren, P

    2002-01-01

    The ability of feed related measures to prevent or reduce post weaning diarrhoea (PWD) was examined in a split litter study including 30 pigs from 6 litters allotted into 5 groups. Four groups were exposed to 3 pathogenic strains of E. coli via the environment at weaning. Three of them were given zinc oxide, lactose+fibres or non-pathogenic strains of E. coli as probiotics. The challenged and the unchallenged control groups were given a standard creep feed. Diarrhoea was observed in all challenged groups but not among uninfected animals, and the incidence of diarrhoea was lower in the group given non-pathogenic E. coli compared to all other challenged groups. The severity of PWD also differed between litters. When corrected for mortality due to PWD, a decreased incidence of diarrhoea was also seen in the groups given zinc oxide or lactose+fibres. The dominating serotype of E. coli within faecal samples varied from day to day, also among diarrhoeic pigs, indicating that diarrhoea was not induced by one single serotype alone. The diversity of the faecal coliform populations decreased in all piglets during the first week post weaning, coinciding with an increased similarity between these populations among pigs in the challenged groups. This indicated an influence of the challenge strains, which ceased during the second week. The group given lactose+fibres was least affected with respect to these parameters. In conclusion feed related measures may alleviate symptoms of PWD. PMID:12831176

  3. Arrowroot as a treatment for diarrhoea in irritable bowel syndrome patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cooke, C; Carr, I; Abrams, K; Mayberry, J

    2000-01-01

    Arrowroot is an old-fashioned remedy for diarrhoea, but no clinical studies have been done to evaluate its effectiveness. The aim of this pilot study was to assess its efficacy as a treatment for diarrhoea in 11 patients, all of whom had irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea as a feature. The patients were interviewed and a questionnaire completed on entry into the trial. They then took 10 mL arrowroot powder three times a day for one month and discontinued the treatment for the subsequent month. Questionnaires were completed after one month on treatment and at the end of the trial after one month off treatment. Arrowroot reduced diarrhoea and had a long-term effect on constipation. It also eased abdominal pain. Arrowroot is an effective treatment for diarrhoea. Its action could be explained by several theories which relate to an increase in faecal bulk and thus a more efficient bowel action. The number of patients was small, and further studies are needed to substantiate preliminary results.

  4. Brief oral health promotion intervention among parents of young children to reduce early childhood dental decay

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe untreated dental decay affects a child’s growth, body weight, quality of life as well as cognitive development, and the effects extend beyond the child to the family, the community and the health care system. Early health behavioural factors, including dietary practices and eating patterns, can play a major role in the initiation and development of oral diseases, particularly dental caries. The parent/caregiver, usually the mother, has a critical role in the adoption of protective health care behaviours and parental feeding practices strongly influence children’s eating behaviours. This study will test if an early oral health promotion intervention through the use of brief motivational interviewing (MI) and anticipatory guidance (AG) approaches can reduce the incidence of early childhood dental decay and obesity. Methods The study will be a randomised controlled study with parents and their new-born child/ren who are seen at 6–12 weeks of age by a child/community health nurse. Consenting parents will complete a questionnaire on oral health knowledge, behaviours, self-efficacy, oral health fatalism, parenting stress, prenatal and peri-natal health and socio-demographic factors at study commencement and at 12 and 36 months. Each child–parent pair will be allocated to an intervention or a standard care group, using a computer-generated random blocks. The standard group will be managed through the standard early oral health screening program; “lift the lip”. The intervention group will be provided with tailored oral health counselling by oral health consultants trained in MI and AG. Participating children will be examined at 24, and 36 months for the occurrence of dental decay and have their height and weight recorded. Dietary information obtained from a food frequency chart will be used to determine food and dietary patterns. Data analysis will use intention to treat and per protocol analysis and will use tests of independent

  5. Brief oral health promotion intervention among parents of young children to reduce early childhood dental decay.

    PubMed

    Arrow, Peter; Raheb, Joseph; Miller, Margaret

    2013-03-20

    Severe untreated dental decay affects a child's growth, body weight, quality of life as well as cognitive development, and the effects extend beyond the child to the family, the community and the health care system. Early health behavioural factors, including dietary practices and eating patterns, can play a major role in the initiation and development of oral diseases, particularly dental caries. The parent/caregiver, usually the mother, has a critical role in the adoption of protective health care behaviours and parental feeding practices strongly influence children's eating behaviours. This study will test if an early oral health promotion intervention through the use of brief motivational interviewing (MI) and anticipatory guidance (AG) approaches can reduce the incidence of early childhood dental decay and obesity. The study will be a randomised controlled study with parents and their new-born child/ren who are seen at 6-12 weeks of age by a child/community health nurse. Consenting parents will complete a questionnaire on oral health knowledge, behaviours, self-efficacy, oral health fatalism, parenting stress, prenatal and peri-natal health and socio-demographic factors at study commencement and at 12 and 36 months. Each child-parent pair will be allocated to an intervention or a standard care group, using a computer-generated random blocks. The standard group will be managed through the standard early oral health screening program; "lift the lip". The intervention group will be provided with tailored oral health counselling by oral health consultants trained in MI and AG.Participating children will be examined at 24, and 36 months for the occurrence of dental decay and have their height and weight recorded. Dietary information obtained from a food frequency chart will be used to determine food and dietary patterns. Data analysis will use intention to treat and per protocol analysis and will use tests of independent proportions and means. Multivariate

  6. Prevalence and identification of Cryptosporidium species in paediatric patients with diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Sirisena, U M; Iddawela, W M D R; Noordeen, F; Wickramasinghe, S

    2014-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in children with diarrhoea, identify associated factors and identify the parasite using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). A total of 138 diarrhoeic faecal samples were collected between August 2011 and February 2013, from children under 12 years of age, admitted to paediatric units of Teaching Hospitals, Kandy and Peradeniya, Sirimawo Bandaranayake Childrens' Hospital, Peradeniya and District General Hospital, Matale. One hundred faecal samples collected from healthy children were used as controls. All control and test samples were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts with Modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) method and PCR. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection among children with diarrhoea was 5.7%. All the cases positive for Cryptosporidium were below 3 years of age. The majority (7 out of 8) of the positive cases had watery diarrhoea while none of the healthy children excreted Cryptosporidium oocysts in the faeces. Of the 8 positive cases, 6 had a history of animal contact. A large proportion of positive cases used pipe borne municipal water. The majority (66.6%) of positive cases did not consume boiled cooled water. We were able to identify C. parvum from one of the eight cases that had diarrhoea. The current study shows that Cryptosporidium is one of the aetiological agents responsible for childhood watery diarrhoea in Sri Lanka, thus stressing the importance of routine stool examination for Cryptosporidium oocysts. This study recommends boiling water as an important measure to prevent the transmission of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Further molecular studies are needed to determine the other species of Cryptosporidium responsible for cryptosporidiosis in children in Sri Lanka.

  7. Characterization of rotavirus causing acute diarrhoea in children in Kathmandu, Nepal, showing the dominance of serotype G12.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Shamshul; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Rijal, Basista Prasad; Parajuli, Keshab; Mishra, Shyam Kumar; Dahal, Rajan Kumar; Shrestha, Shovita; Tandukar, Sarmila; Chaudhary, Raina; Kattel, Hari Prasad; Basnet, Amul; Pokhrel, Bharat Mani

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases are a major problem in developing countries. Though precise data on childhood mortality associated with diarrhoeal diseases in Nepal are not available, it has been estimated that approximately 25 % of child deaths are associated with diarrhoeal disease, particularly acute diarrhoea. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of rotavirus causing acute diarrhoea in children less than 5 years of age. A total of 525 children with acute diarrhoea in a children's hospital of Kathmandu, Nepal, were enrolled between April and September 2011. The incidence of acute diarrhoea due to rotavirus was 25.9 % (136/525) as determined by ELISA. The percentage of rotavirus-infected males was higher (64.5 %) than females (35.5 %). The frequency of rotavirus cases was higher in children less than 2 years of age, among which the majority of cases (80.2 %) were in children between 6 and 24 months old (P<0.01). Genotypic characterization by RT-PCR revealed that the serotype G12 represented 55.9 % of cases in this study associated with P-types of either P[6], P[4] or P[8]. Further to this, a total of eight G/P combinations were identified, G12P[6] being the most common strain type of rotavirus in Nepal, with a prevalence rate of 46.4 %. The aim of this study was to find out the major genotypes of rotavirus causing acute diarrhoea in children.

  8. Diarrhoea and garbage disposal in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rego, R F; Moraes, L R S; Dourado, I

    2005-01-01

    The association of infantile diarrhoea with the presence of garbage in the environment was investigated in Canabrava, a peripheral neighbourhood of Salvador, northeast of Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with all the 184 children aged less than two years residing in Canabrava, which is located close to the city garbage dump. Variables selected for study included the method used for the disposal of excrement, type of floor, mother's education, unemployment of the head of the family, regularity of the water supply, presence of toilet, storage of garbage inside the house, age, gender, duration of breastfeeding, and the number of people per room. The estimated prevalence of diarrhoea was 21.2%. Exposure to garbage in the environment was found to be the most important factor associated with diarrhoea (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.98, 95% CI 1.56-10.13). Other important variables were the mother's education (AOR = 2.79, 95% CI 1.09-7.13), maternal breastfeeding (AOR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.05-5.04), and unemployment of the head of the family (AOR = 2.09, 95% CI 0.93-4.69). These findings indicate the necessity of adopting solutions in the public domain and of intersectorial policies for the reduction of diarrhoea.

  9. Diarrhoea due to small bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joseph A.; Rubio-Tapia, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Small intestinal diseases are a common, though often overlooked cause of diarrhoeal illness. Fully 1% of the Caucasian population are affected by coeliac disease and a substantial portion of children living in poverty in the developing world are affected by environmental enteropathy. These are but two examples of the many diseases that cause mucosal injury to the primary digestive and absorptive organ in our body. While diarrhoea may be a common, though not universally seen symptom of small bowel mucosal disease, the consequent malabsorption can lead to substantial malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies. The small intestine, unlike the colon, has been relatively inaccessible, and systematic evaluation is often necessary to identify and treat small intestinal mucosal diseases that lead to diarrhoea. Immunodeficiency states, including HIV enteropathy, adult autoimmune enteropathy, drug-associated enteropathy, and tropical sprue continue to occur and require specific therapy. All patients with severe diarrhoea or diarrhoea associated with features suggestive of malabsorption may have a disease of the small intestinal mucosa that requires careful evaluation and targeted management. PMID:23384804

  10. Prevention and treatment of diarrhoea with Saccharomyces boulardii in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Shan, L-S; Hou, P; Wang, Z-J; Liu, F-R; Chen, N; Shu, L-H; Zhang, H; Han, X-H; Han, X-X; Cai, X-X; Shang, Y-X; Vandenplas, Y

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether Saccharomyces boulardii prevents and treats diarrhoea and antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) in children. A total of 333 hospitalised children with acute lower respiratory tract infection were enrolled in a 2-phase open randomised controlled trial. During the 1st phase, all children received intravenous antibiotics (AB). They were randomly allocated to group A (S. boulardii 500 mg/day + AB, n=167) or group B (AB alone, n=166) and followed for 2 weeks. Diarrhoea was defined as ≥3 loose/watery stools/day during at least 2 days, occurring during treatment and/or up to 2 weeks after AB therapy had stopped. AAD was considered when diarrhoea was caused by Clostridium difficile or when stool cultures remained negative. In the 2nd phase of the study, group B patients who developed diarrhoea were randomly allocated to two sub-groups: group B1 (S. boulardii + oral rehydration solution (ORS)) and group B2 (ORS alone). Data from 283 patients were available for analysis. Diarrhoea prevalence was lower in group A than in group B (11/139 (7.9%) vs. 42/144 (29.2%); relative risk (RR): 0.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.1-0.5). S. boulardii reduced the risk of AAD (6/139 (4.3%) vs. 28/144 (19.4%); RR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.1-0.5). When group B patients developed diarrhoea (n=42), S. boulardii treatment during 5 days (group B1) resulted in lower stool frequency (P<0.05) and higher recovery rate (91.3% in group B1 vs. 21.1% in B2; P<0.001). The mean duration of diarrhoea in group B1 was shorter (2.31±0.95 vs. 8.97±1.07 days; P<0.001). No adverse effects related to S. boulardii were observed. S. boulardii appeared to be effective in the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea and AAD in children treated with intravenous antibiotics.

  11. A review of diarrhoea aetiology in Papua New Guinea, 1995-2012.

    PubMed

    Toliman, Pamela J; Guwada, Carlton; Sou, Kevin W

    2013-01-01

    The large contribution of diarrhoea to morbidity and mortality rates in Papua New Guinea (PNG) warrants a significant response to diagnosing aetiology, determining appropriate management and reducing risk factors that facilitate transmission of enteric pathogens. We conducted a review of literature to assess the extent of research published on the aetiology of diarrhoea in PNG between 1995 and 2012. Of 54 peer-reviewed articles that were selected for review, 25 pertained to aetiology. While the majority of articles described typhoid fever and non-typhoid salmonellosis, shigellosis, rotavirus, pigbel and cholera were also represented in the literature reviewed.

  12. Oxidative Stress Induced Damage to Paternal Genome and Impact of Meditation and Yoga - Can it Reduce Incidence of Childhood Cancer?

    PubMed

    Rima, Dada; Shiv, Basant Kumar; Bhavna, Chawla; Shilpa, Bisht; Saima, Khan

    2016-01-09

    follow-up. Results: The seminal mean ROS levels (p<0.05), sperm DFI (p<0.001), 8-OHdG (p<0.01) levels were significantly higher in fathers of children with RB, as compared to controls and the relative mean telomere length in the sperm was shorter. Levels of ROS were significantly reduced in tobacco users (p<0.05) as well as in alcoholics (p<0.05) after intervention. DFI reduced significantly (p<0.05) after 6 months of yoga and meditation practice in all groups. The levels of oxidative DNA damage marker 8-OHdG were reduced significantly after 3 months (p<0.05) and 6 months (p<0.05) of practice. Conclusions: Our results suggest that OS and ODD DNA may contribute to the development of childhood cancer. This may be due to accumulation of oxidized mutagenic base 8OHdG , and elevated MDA levels which results in MDA dimers which are also mutagenic, aberrant methylation pattern, altered gene expression which affect cell proliferation and survival through activation of transcription factors. Increased mt DNA mutations and aberrant repair of mt and nuclear DNA due to highly truncatred DNA repair mechanisms all contribute to sperm genome hypermutability and persistant oxidative DNA damage. Oxidative stress is also associated with genome wide hypomethylation, telomere shortening and mitochondrial dysfunction leading to genome hypermutability and instability. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report decline in OS and ODD and improvement in sperm DNA integrity following adoption of meditation and yoga based life style modification.This may reduce disease burden in next generation and reduce incidence of childhood cancers. Creative Commons Attribution License

  13. A staged intervention dental health promotion programme to reduce early childhood caries.

    PubMed

    Davies, G M; Duxbury, J T; Boothman, N J; Davies, R M; Blinkhorn, A S

    2005-06-01

    This paper reports the results of a community trial to assess the effects of a multi-stage dental health promotion programme in reducing Early Childhood Caries (ECC). Two health districts (Primary Care Groups) were matched for dental disease levels and socio-demographic factors. One was randomly allocated to be the test Primary Care Group (PCG), the other the control PCG. Children in the test PCG received a series of interventions to support positive dental health behaviour from the age of 8 to 32 months. Interviews were conducted with parents of children aged 21 months and clinical examinations were undertaken on a larger cohort of children aged 3-4 years in test and control PCGs. The interventions were gift bags containing a trainer cup, toothpaste containing 1,450 ppm F and toothbrush, and advice given to the children's parents on attendance at designated clinics and medical practices and further paste and brushes posted to the children's homes. Parents were interviewed on the telephone. Examinations took place at Children's Centres and nursery departments attached to primary schools. Severity and prevalence of ECC and general caries and proportion of parents reporting adopting dentally healthy behaviours. In the test PCG the prevalence of ECC in children who had received the interventions was 16.6% compared with 23.5% of children in the control area, a reduction of 29% (p=0.003). The mean dmft (1.17) and prevalence of general caries experience (28.7%) in the test children were also significantly lower than for children in the control PCG (1.72: 39.2%) (p=0.001). Analysis from a community perspective, which included data from all children examined in both areas, showed the prevalence of ECC in the test and control PCGs was 21.3% and 22.8% respectively and the mean dmft 1.47 and 1.72. The proportion with general caries experience remained statistically significant in favour of the test area 33.8% vs 39.9% (p=0.01). Parents in the test PCG were more likely to

  14. Healthy hospital food initiatives in the United States: time to ban sugar sweetened beverages to reduce childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Wojcicki, Janet M

    2014-01-01

    While childhood obesity is a global problem, the extent and severity of the problem in United States, has resulted in a number of new initiatives, including recent hospital initiatives to limit the sale of sweetened beverages and other high calorie drinks in hospital vending machines and cafeterias. These proposed policy changes are not unique to United States, but are more comprehensive in the number of proposed hospitals that they will impact. Meanwhile, however, it is advised, that these initiatives should focus on banning sugar sweetened beverages, including sodas, 100% fruit juice and sports drinks, from hospital cafeterias and vending machines instead of limiting their presence, so as to ensure the success of these programs in reducing the prevalence of childhood obesity. If US hospitals comprehensively remove sugar sweetened beverages from their cafeterias and vending machines, these programs could subsequently become a model for efforts to address childhood obesity in other areas of the world. Conclusion Hospitals should be a model for health care reform in their communities and removing sugar sweetened beverages is a necessary first step. PMID:23445326

  15. Healthy hospital food initiatives in the United States: time to ban sugar sweetened beverages to reduce childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M

    2013-06-01

    While childhood obesity is a global problem, the extent and severity of the problem in United States, has resulted in a number of new initiatives, including recent hospital initiatives to limit the sale of sweetened beverages and other high calorie drinks in hospital vending machines and cafeterias. These proposed policy changes are not unique to United States, but are more comprehensive in the number of proposed hospitals that they will impact. Meanwhile, however, it is advised, that these initiatives should focus on banning sugar sweetened beverages, including sodas, 100% fruit juice and sports drinks, from hospital cafeterias and vending machines instead of limiting their presence, so as to ensure the success of these programs in reducing the prevalence of childhood obesity. If US hospitals comprehensively remove sugar sweetened beverages from their cafeterias and vending machines, these programs could subsequently become a model for efforts to address childhood obesity in other areas of the world. Hospitals should be a model for health care reform in their communities and removing sugar sweetened beverages is a necessary first step. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Role of tachykinins in castor oil diarrhoea in rats.

    PubMed

    Croci, T; Landi, M; Emonds-Alt, X; Le Fur, G; Maffrand, J P; Manara, L

    1997-06-01

    1. We set out to ascertain the role of tachykinins, neurokinin A and substance P, in castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats as disclosed by the inhibitory effect of the non-peptide NK1- and NK2-receptor antagonists. SR 140333 and SR 48968, respectively. 2. SR 48968 (0.02 to 20 micrograms kg-1, s.c. or p.o.), and the opioid receptor agonist loperamide (1-10 mg kg-1, p.o.), dose-dependently prevented castor oil effects: % inhibition vs castor oil, diarrhoea 0 to 100, increase in faecal mass 7 to 90 and water content 16 to 90. SR 140333 (0.02 to 20 micrograms kg-1, s.c.) and the platelet activating factor antagonist SR 27417 (5 to 500 micrograms kg-1, p.o.) did not prevent the increase in faecal water content, but reduced faecal mass (35 to 66%) and diarrhoea (0 to 57%). 3. The R-enantiomers of tachykinin NK1 and NK2 receptor antagonists, SR 140603 and SR 48605 (both at 2 or 20 micrograms kg-1, s.c.) had no effect other than reducing faecal mass at the highest dose tested. 4. SR 48968 (20 micrograms kg-1, p.o.) but not loperamide (10 mg kg-1, p.o.) given 24 h before castor oil, still slightly but significantly reduced by 30% the increase of faecal mass output; both treatments significantly reduced (30 to 70%) the effect of castor oil on faecal water content, although the incidence of diarrhoea was only slightly less than in controls. 5. In castor oil-treated rats, naloxone (2 mg kg-1, s.c.) completely blocked the antidiarrhoeal action of loperamide (10 mg kg-1, p.o.) but not of SR 48968 (20 micrograms kg-1, p.o.): a similar result was obtained on faecal mass and water content. 6. Castor oil strongly increased the occurrence of manometrically recorded propulsive giant contractions (500 to 1000% over control values) of transverse and distal colon, this effect being significantly prevented (80 to 100%) by SR 48968 and loperamide and partially by SR 140333 (35% distal colon, 70% transverse colon). 7. In castor oil free rats, loperamide but not SR 48968 or SR 140333

  17. Reducing risk of Anthracycline-related heart failure after childhood cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Childhood cancer survivors are at a 15-fold risk of developing heart failure (HF) compared to age-matched controls. There is a strong dose-dependent association between anthracyclines and risk of HF;the incidence approaches 20% at cumulative doses between 300-600 mg/m2, and exceeds 30% for doses >600 mg/m2. Outcome following HF is poor;5-year survival rate is |

  18. Lactose intolerance among severely malnourished children with diarrhoea admitted to the nutrition unit, Mulago hospital, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nyeko, Richard; Kalyesubula, Israel; Mworozi, Edison; Bachou, Hanifa

    2010-05-06

    Lactose intolerance is a common complication of diarrhoea in infants with malnutrition and a cause of treatment failure. A combination of nutritional injury and infectious insults in severe protein energy malnutrition reduces the capacity of the intestinal mucosa to produce lactase enzyme necessary for the digestion of lactose. The standard management of severe malnutrition involves nutritional rehabilitation with lactose-based high energy formula milk. However, some of these children may be lactose intolerant, possibly contributing to the high rate of unfavorable treatment outcomes. This study was therefore designed to establish the prevalence of lactose intolerance and associated factors in this population. A descriptive cross sectional study involving 196 severely malnourished children with diarrhoea aged 3-60 months was done in Mwanamugimu Nutrition Unit (MNU), Mulago hospital between October 2006 and February 2007. During the study period, 196 severely malnourished children with diarrhoea were recruited, 50 (25.5%) of whom had evidence of lactose intolerance (stool reducing substance >or= 1 + [0.5%] and stool pH < 5.5) and it occurred more commonly in children with kwashiorkor 27/75 (36.0%) than marasmic-kwashiorkor 6/25 (24.0%) and marasmus 17/96 (17.7%). Oedematous malnutrition (p = 0.032), perianal skin erosion (p = 0.044), high mean stool frequency (p = < 0.001) and having >or=2 diarrhoea episodes in the previous 3 months (p = 0.007) were the independent predictors of lactose intolerance. Other factors that were significantly associated with lactose intolerance on bi-variate analysis included: young age of 3-12 months; lack of up to-date immunization; persistent diarrhoea; vomiting; dehydration, and abdominal distension. Exclusive breastfeeding for less than 4 months and worsening of diarrhoea on initiation of therapeutic milk were the other factors. The prevalence of lactose intolerance in this study setting of 25.5% is relatively high. Routine screening

  19. Diarrhoea morbidity patterns in Central Region of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Asamoah, Alexander; Ameme, Donne Kofi; Sackey, Samuel Oko; Nyarko, Kofi Mensah; Afari, Edwin Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diarrhoea diseases remain a major public health threat with nearly 1.7 billion cases annually worldwide occurring in all age groups. In Ghana diarrhoea kills about 14,000 children under five years annually. We therefore analysed data to determine the morbidity pattern of diarrhoea diseases in the Central Region of Ghana. Methods Health facility morbidity data was reviewed from 2008-2012. Monthly data on diarrhoeal diseases were extracted from District Health Information Management System database by sex, age group and districts. Data for bloody diarrhoea were extracted from monthly surveillance report forms. Data was analysed descriptively and expressed as frequencies and proportionate morbidity rates (pmr). Aberrations were determined using C2 threshold. Results The total cases of all morbidity from 2008 to 2012 were 7,642,431. Diarrhoea diseases formed 4% (306854/7642431) of total morbidity. Children under one year (pmr= 8.4%) and males (pmr= 4.4%) were the most affected. Bloody diarrhea formed 2.2% (6835/306854) of diarrhoea cases with 0.7 %(45/6835) laboratory confirmed. Diarrhoea cases peaked from January to March throughout the study period with highest frequency 9.3% (28511/306854) in June. The mean monthly distribution of diarrhoea cases was 25571.17±1389.91. Poorest districts had significantly lower odds of getting bloody diarrhoea than non-poorest districts OR = 0.73 (95%CI = 0.70-0.77). Conclusion Diarrhoea characterized 4% of total morbidity presenting at health facilities in the region from 2008 to 2012. The diarrhoea morbidity rate decreased with increased age. Diarrhoea was higher among non poorest districts. The rate was highest in the month of June over the five year period. Bloody diarrhoea cases were mostly untested. We recommended that stool samples should be taken for laboratory testing for bloody diarrhoea cases. PMID:28149442

  20. Prognostic factors for persistent diarrhoea managed in a community setting.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, N; Bahl, R; Saxena, M; Taneja, S; Bhan, M K

    2000-10-01

    Two hundred and five cases (mean age 13.4, SD 9.5) of persistent diarrhoea (PD) of 14-28 days duration, attending an urban slum clinic and treated according to standard WHO guidelines, were monitored at weekly intervals to obtain an estimate of treatment failure rates and to identify its clinical predictors. Vitamin and micronutrients (daily 2RDA) were additionally provided. Only 9 (8.2%) of 109 children with criteria for hospital care accepted in-patient care. Weight gain was considered inadequate if the daily increment between enrollment and day 7 of follow up was < 10 g at age 0-3 months, < 5 g at 4-6 months, and any weight loss for those older than 6 months. Recovery was considered delayed if diarrhoea ceased 7 days after enrollment. Overall, 28.3% cases had inadequate weight gain and 25.6% had delayed recovery. The non-breast milk calorie intake was 11.2% during infancy and 40.6% at later ages of the recommended intakes. In a logistic regression model, initial watery stool frequency greater than median (adjusted OR 2.30, p = 0.01), age < or = 6 months (adjusted OR 2.24, p = 0.04) and low consumption of micronutrient mixture (adjusted OR 2.62, p = 0.01) were associated with an increased risk of delayed recovery. In a Cox proportional hazards model for time to recovery from diarrhoea, low consumption of the micronutrient mixture and age < or = 6 months reduced the chances of recovery by 29% and 37% respectively. Low consumption of the prescribed micronutrient mixture (adjusted OR 2.21, p = 0.04), fever (adjusted OR 1.91, p = 0.05) and diarrhoea continuing beyond study day 7 (adjusted OR 2.29, p = 0.03) increased the risk of inadequate weight gain. Breast feeding status and animal milk consumption did not influence weight gain or recovery. Due to the low compliance for advised hospitalisation, approaches for care at community level itself need to be evolved. Focus should be on increasing the overall dietary intake and provision of generous but safe amount of

  1. Exclusive or Partial Breastfeeding for 6 Months Is Associated With Reduced Milk Sensitization and Risk of Eczema in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chih-Yung; Liao, Sui-Ling; Su, Kuan-Wen; Tsai, Ming-Han; Hua, Man-Chin; Lai, Shen-Hao; Chen, Li-Chen; Yao, Tsung-Chieh; Yeh, Kuo-Wei; Huang, Jing-Long

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There is insufficient evidence to confirm the association between breastfeeding and allergic outcomes later in life. This study aimed to determine the relationships between different breastfeeding patterns and allergen sensitizations and risk of developing atopic diseases in early childhood. A total of 186 children from a birth cohort in the Prediction of Allergies in Taiwanese Children study for a 4-year follow-up period were enrolled. Total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and specific IgE antibodies against food and inhalant allergens were measured sequentially at 6 months as well as at 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 years of age. A significantly lower prevalence of milk sensitization was found in children at ages 1 and 1.5 years who were exclusively or partially breastfed for ≥6 months. Breastfeeding ≥6 months was significantly associated with a reduced risk of developing eczema but not allergic rhinitis and asthma at ages 1 and 2 years. Compared with exclusive breastfeeding ≥6 months, partial breastfeeding <6 months was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing eczema at ages 1 and 2 years. As with exclusive breastfeeding, partial breastfeeding for at least 6 months appears to be associated with a reduced prevalence of milk sensitization as well as a reduced risk of developing eczema in early childhood. PMID:27082611

  2. Association of climate variability and childhood diarrhoeal disease in rural Bangladesh, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Yunus, M; Streatfield, P K; Emch, M

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effects of meteorological factors, particularly, extreme weather events, on the prevalence of childhood diarrhoeal disease in Matlab, Bangladesh. Logistic regression models were used to examine impacts of temperature, rainfall and the extreme weather factors (the number of hot days and days with heavy rainfall) on childhood diarrhoea from 2000 to 2006 at the bari (cluster of dwellings) level. The results showed that the increases in the number of hot days and days with heavy rainfall were associated with an increase in daily diarrhoea cases by 0·8-3·8% and 1-6·2%, respectively. The results from multivariable stepwise models showed that the extreme weather factors were still positively associated with childhood diarrhoea, while the associations for average temperature and rainfall could be negative after other variables were controlled. The findings showed that not only the intensity, but also the frequency of extreme weather events had significant effects on childhood diarrhoea.

  3. Reducing childhood obesity through coordinated care: Development of a park prescription program

    PubMed Central

    Messiah, Sarah E; Jiang, Sandy; Kardys, Jack; Hansen, Eric; Nardi, Maria; Forster, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Major hindrances to controlling the current childhood obesity epidemic include access to prevention and/or treatment programs that are affordable, provide minimal barriers for participation, and are available to the general public. Moreover, successful childhood obesity prevention efforts will require coordinated partnerships in multiple sectors such as government, health care, school/afterschool, and the community but very few documented sustainable programs currently exist. Effective, community-based health and wellness programs with a focus on maintaining healthy weight via physical activity and healthy eating have the potential to be a powerful referral resource for pediatricians and other healthcare professionals who have young patients who are overweight/obese. The Miami Dade County Department of Parks, Recreation and Open Spaces in partnership with the University of Miami UHealth Systems have created a “Park Prescription Program (Parks Rx 4HealthTM)” that formally coordinates pediatricians, families, parents, caregivers, and child/adolescents to provide daily obesity-prevention activities. This Parks Rx 4HealthTM program that we describe here allows UHealth pediatricians to seamlessly refer their overweight and obese patients to Fit2PlayTM, an evidence-based, park-based afterschool health and wellness program. Measurable outcomes that include body mass index, blood pressure, fitness, and nutrition knowledge are being collected at baseline and at 3-and 6-mo after referral to document patient progress. Results are then shared with the referring physician so they can follow up with the patient if necessary. Identifying successful models that integrate primary care, public health, and community-based efforts is important to accelerating progress in preventing childhood obesity. Effective, community-based health and wellness programs with a focus on physical activity and nutrition education could be a powerful referral resource for pediatricians who have

  4. [Chronic diarrhoea: Definition, classification and diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bañares, Fernando; Accarino, Anna; Balboa, Agustín; Domènech, Eugeni; Esteve, Maria; Garcia-Planella, Esther; Guardiola, Jordi; Molero, Xavier; Rodríguez-Luna, Alba; Ruiz-Cerulla, Alexandra; Santos, Javier; Vaquero, Eva

    2016-10-01

    Chronic diarrhoea is a common presenting symptom in both primary care medicine and in specialized gastroenterology clinics. It is estimated that >5% of the population has chronic diarrhoea and nearly 40% of these patients are older than 60 years. Clinicians often need to select the best diagnostic approach to these patients and choose between the multiple diagnostic tests available. In 2014 the Catalan Society of Gastroenterology formed a working group with the main objective of creating diagnostic algorithms based on clinical practice and to evaluate diagnostic tests and the scientific evidence available for their use. The GRADE system was used to classify scientific evidence and strength of recommendations. The consensus document contains 28 recommendations and 6 diagnostic algorithms. The document also describes criteria for referral from primary to specialized care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  5. Escherichia coli O 27 in adult diarrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, B. C.; Rowe, B.; Kendall, M.; Turnbull, P. C.; Ghosh, A. C.

    1976-01-01

    Escherichia coli O 27 H 7 was found in 16 stool samples submitted during a Caribbean cruise (Cruise Z) by 29 patients reporting with diarrhoea. A retrospective search revealed E. coli O 27 H 7 in 11 of 20 and 2 of 14 stool cultures from patients on two previous cruises (Y and X respectively) and in a culture from fresh cream (Cruise Y). The repeated occurrence of E. coli O 27 H 7 in the absence of any other apparent cause suggested that this serotype may have been responsible for the diarrhoea. The results of pathogenicity tests suggested that this strain elaborated heat-stable (ST) enterotoxin. The possibility that food may have been the vector is discussed. PMID:794406

  6. Diarrhoea, ascites and eosinophilia: an unusual triad.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Tom K; Winter, Desmond C

    2007-12-01

    The onset of diarrhoea and cramp-like abdominal pain following consumption of an identified food type is not an uncommon presentation to many practitioners. However, when it fails to settle and is associated with unusual features both on examination and on initial work-up, then a more complex diagnostic and therapeutic conundrum needs to be considered. We report on such a case where the onset of diarrhoea was associated with ascites and peripheral eosinophilia. A variety of causes including parasitic and tuberculous infection were excluded. A diagnosis of eosinophilic enteritis was made based on definite criteria, and appropriate management was instituted. In this report we discuss the diagnostic criteria and some of the proposed pathophysiologic theories in order to explain this unusual disease process.

  7. Intermittent slow sand filtration for preventing diarrhoea among children in Kenyan households using unimproved water sources: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Sangya-Sangam K; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Darby, Jeannie; Kariuki, Z G; Jenkins, Marion W

    2009-11-01

    Measure effectiveness of intermittent slow sand filtration for reducing child diarrhoea among households using unimproved water sources in rural Kenya. A randomized controlled trail was conducted among populations meeting a high-risk profile for child diarrhoea from drinking river water in the River Njoro watershed. Intervention households (30) were provided the concrete BioSand Filter and instructed on filter use and maintenance. Control households (29) continued normal practices. Longitudinal monthly monitoring of diarrhoea (seven-day daily prevalence recall) and of influent, effluent, and drinking water quality for fecal coliform was conducted for 6 months. Intervention households had better drinking water quality than control households (fecal coliform geometric mean, 30.0 CFU vs. 89.0 CFU/100 ml, P < 0.001) and reported significantly fewer diarrhoea days (86 days over 626 child-weeks) compared to controls (203 days over 558 child-weeks) among children up to 15 (age-adjusted RR 0.46; 95 % CI = 0.22, 0.96). Greater child diarrhoea reduction due to the intervention (age-adjusted RR 0.23, 95 % CI = 0.10, 0.51) was observed among the sub-group using unimproved water sources all of the time. Intermittent slow sand filtration, a non-commercial technology, produces similar observed effects on child diarrhoea as commercial POU products, adding to the range of effective options for poor populations (chlorination, ceramic filtration, solar disinfection, flocculation/disinfection).

  8. [Probiotics, prebiotics and zinc in the therapy and prevention of acute infectious diarrhoea in children: state of the art].

    PubMed

    Salvatore, S; Luini, C; Arrigo, S; Salmaso, M; Morando, L; Nespoli, L; Vandenplas, Y

    2007-12-01

    Selected probiotics (mainly Lactobacilli, and particularly LGG, and Saccharomyces boulardii) have recently demonstrated a therapeutic efficacy in acute diarrhoea, if used in the early phase of infection and at high concentration. Further data are needed to clarify their effect for prevention and travellers' diarrhoea. The mechanisms of action of probiotics need to be fully elucidated but seem to include a complex interaction of epithelial, molecular, metabolic and immune responses. There is an increasing evidence that different micro-organisms show different properties and efficacy. An accurate identification and selection of the strains, the dose and the patients are thus crucial for a correct therapeutic approach. Prebiotics can modify the intestinal flora and interact with the immune system of the host against specific pathogens. However, clinical trials are currently limited and a beneficial effect of prebiotics in acute diarrhoea is still lacking. In developing countries zinc supplementation demonstrated a significant reduction of fecal excretion, duration, severity and persistency of diarrhoea. Moreover, zinc may improve immune status, intestinal permeability, epithelial and enzymatic functions, and transport of electrolytes. The use of zinc in addition to oral rehydration solution (ORS) could thus theoretically improve the treatment and reduce the complications of diarrhoea worldwide. However, in developed countries, no trial using zinc supplementation in patients with acute diarrhoea has been published yet and the cost-benefit ratio of zinc supplementation needs to be assessed.

  9. Availability of irrigation water for domestic use in Pakistan: its impact on prevalence of diarrhoea and nutritional status of children.

    PubMed

    van der Hoek, Wim; Feenstra, Sabiena G; Konradsen, Flemming

    2002-03-01

    This study assessed whether availability of water for domestic use had any impact on nutritional status of children in an area where people depend on irrigation water for all their domestic water needs. During May 1998-April 1999, data on the occurrence of diarrhoea among 167 children aged less than five years were collected from 10 villages in the command area of the Hakra 6R canal in southern Punjab, Pakistan. Anthropometric measurements were taken at the end of the study period. Additional surveys were conducted to collect information on the availability of water, sanitary facilities, hygiene, and socioeconomic status. Height-for-age and longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea were used as outcome measures. Quantity of water available in households was a strong predictor of height-for-age and prevalence of diarrhoea. Children from households with a large storage capacity for water in the house had a much lower prevalence of diarrhoea and stunting than children from families without this facility. Having a toilet was protective for diarrhoea and stunting. Increased quantity of water for domestic use and provision of toilet facilities were the most important interventions to reduce burden of diarrhoea and malnutrition in this area. An integrated approach to water management is needed in irrigation schemes, so that supply of domestic water is given priority when allocating water in time and space within the systems.

  10. Effects of a probiotic Enterococcus faecium strain supplemented from birth to weaning on diarrhoea patterns and performance of piglets.

    PubMed

    Zeyner, A; Boldt, E

    2006-02-01

    This placebo-controlled double-blind study was conducted to evaluate effects of Enterococcus faecium DSM 10663 NCIMB 10415 (EcF) orally given from birth to weaning on diarrhoea and performance of piglets. At the first 3 days postnatum (p.n.), piglets from 54 [verum group (VG)] and 60 [placebo group (PG)] sows got 1 g of a gel directly per mouth by a dosing device. Gel for the VG contained 2.8 x 10(9) colony forming units (CFU) EcF/g. From day 4 p.n. until weaning (24 +/- 3.2 days p.n.) a liquid additive was given that administered twice a day 1.26 x 10(9) CFU EcF to each VG piglet. In case of diarrhoea, an electrolyte solution was used which provided daily 2.9 and 5.8 (week 1 and >or= 2, respectively) x 10(8) CFU EcF per VG piglet. Diarrhoea scores were defined as follows: (i) no diarrhoea; (ii) piglets developed diarrhoea, but were vital and (iii) piglets suffered from diarrhoea and additionally looked pale, developed rough coat, showed slackening of the flank and lethargy. Counts of viable born, stillborn and weaned piglets were normal and not different between groups (p > 0.05). Placebo group vs. VG piglets suffered more frequently from diarrhoea (40.0 vs. 14.8%, p < 0.05). Duration of diarrhoea was not affected by feeding EcF (2.2 +/- 0.81 days, p > 0.05). Diarrhoea score was lower in VG vs. PG (1.2 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.54, p < 0.05) and the daily weight gain (DWG) was higher by 17 g/day (p < 0.05). Results suggest that the daily oral supplementation of EcF from birth to weaning reduces the portion of piglets suffering from diarrhoea. This may improve performance, as the higher DWG indicates. In contrast, no obvious benefit seems to result from an additional supply of EcF via electrolyte solution when diarrhoea is always present.

  11. Modelling the Ecological Comorbidity of Acute Respiratory Infection, Diarrhoea and Stunting among Children Under the Age of 5 Years in Somalia.

    PubMed

    Kinyoki, Damaris K; Manda, Samuel O; Moloney, Grainne M; Odundo, Elijah O; Berkley, James A; Noor, Abdisalan M; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess spatial co-occurrence of acute respiratory infections (ARI), diarrhoea and stunting among children of the age between 6 and 59 months in Somalia. Data were obtained from routine biannual nutrition surveys conducted by the Food and Agriculture Organization 2007-2010. A Bayesian hierarchical geostatistical shared component model was fitted to the residual spatial components of the three health conditions. Risk maps of the common spatial effects at 1×1 km resolution were derived. The empirical correlations of the enumeration area proportion were 0.37, 0.63 and 0.66 for ARI and stunting, diarrhoea and stunting and ARI and diarrhoea, respectively. Spatially, the posterior residual effects ranged 0.03-20.98, 0.16-6.37 and 0.08-9.66 for shared component between ARI and stunting, diarrhoea and stunting and ARI and diarrhoea, respectively. The analysis showed clearly that the spatial shared component between ARI, diarrhoea and stunting was higher in the southern part of the country. Interventions aimed at controlling and mitigating the adverse effects of these three childhood health conditions should focus on their common putative risk factors, particularly in the South in Somalia.

  12. Systematic review with meta-analysis: Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Szajewska, H; Kołodziej, M

    2015-10-01

    Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea is a common complication of antibiotic use, but it can be prevented with administration of probiotics. To update our 2005 meta-analysis on the effectiveness of Saccharomyces boulardii in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children and adults. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases were searched up until May 2015, with no language restrictions, for randomised controlled trials; additional references were obtained from reviewed articles. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. Twenty-one randomised controlled trials (4780 participants), among which 16 were new trials, met the inclusion criteria for this updated systematic review. Administration of S. boulardii compared with placebo or no treatment reduced the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (as defined by the study investigators) in patients treated with antibiotics from 18.7% to 8.5% (risk ratio, RR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.38-0.57, number needed to treat, NNT: 10; 95% CI: 9-13). In children, S. boulardii reduced the risk from 20.9% to 8.8% (6 randomised controlled trials, n=1653, RR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.3-0.6); in adults, from 17.4% to 8.2% (15 randomised controlled trials, n=3114, RR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.38-0.63). Moreover, S. boulardii reduced the risk of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea; however, this reduction was significant only in children (2 randomised controlled trials, n = 579, RR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.08-0.73) and not in adults (9 randomised controlled trials, n = 1441, RR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.47-1.34). This meta-analysis confirms that S. boulardii is effective in reducing the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children and adults. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effects of improved water supply and sanitation on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma.

    PubMed Central

    Esrey, S. A.; Potash, J. B.; Roberts, L.; Shiff, C.

    1991-01-01

    A total of 144 studies were analysed to examine the impact of improved water supply and sanitation facilities on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma. These diseases were selected because they are widespread and illustrate the variety of mechanisms through which improved water and sanitation can protect people. Disease-specific median reduction levels were calculated for all studies, and separately for the more methodologically rigorous ones. For the latter studies, the median reduction in morbidity for diarrhoea, trachoma, and ascariasis induced by water supplies and/or sanitation was 26%, 27%, and 29%, respectively; the median reduction for schistosomiasis and dracunculiasis was higher, at 77% and 78%, respectively. All studies of hookworm infection were flawed apart from one, which reported a 4% reduction in incidence. For hookworm infection, ascariasis, and schistosomiasis, the reduction in disease severity, as measured in egg counts, was greater than that in incidence or prevalence. Child mortality fell by 55%, which suggests that water and sanitation have a substantial impact on child survival. Water for personal and domestic hygiene was important in reducing the rates of ascariasis, diarrhoea, schistosomiasis, and trachoma. Sanitation facilities decreased diarrhoea morbidity and mortality and the severity of hookworm infection. Better water quality reduced the incidence of dracunculiasis, but its role in diarrhoeal disease control was less important than that of sanitation and hygiene. PMID:1835675

  14. Prevention of diarrhoea in children with HIV infection or exposure to maternal HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Eliza H; Smith, Nathan A; Azman, Hana; McLeod, Deanna; Rutherford, George W

    2010-06-16

    Diarrhoea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among infants and children worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a condition that similarly disproportionately affects low- and middle-income countries; of the nearly 2.1 million children under age 15 years living with HIV/AIDS, the large majority reside in sub-Saharan Africa. Infants and children with HIV infection have more frequent and more severe diarrhoea than children without HIV. Interventions including vitamin A, zinc and cotrimoxazole may contribute substantially to preventing diarrhoea in children with HIV infection or exposure to HIV. We perform a systematic review of randomised controlled trials and nonrandomised studies that examine the effectiveness of vitamin A, zinc and cotrimoxazole on mortality and morbidity from diarrhoea in HIV-infected and -exposed infants and children. Electronic databases including Pubmed, Central and EMBASE were searched without limits to language from 1980 to April 2010. Conference database searches were performed, experts were contacted and bibliographies were handsearched. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomised studies (NRSs) that examined the effectiveness of the three interventions were included. Two reviewers independently assessed citations for eligibility and double-extracted included studies. Assessment of bias of individual studies was performed independently by both reviewers. Only two summary estimates were performed due to heterogeneity in study design and interventions. Four RCTs were identified for vitamin A. One RCT was identified for zinc. One RCT and two NRSs were identified for cotrimoxazole. Vitamin A reduced mortality overall in children with HIV infection (four studies). A pooled estimate of three studies for reduction in mortality from vitamin A compared to placebo had a relative risk (DerSimonian and Laird method, random effects) of 0

  15. Household wealth, residential status and the incidence of diarrhoea among children under-five years in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi; Amo-Adjei, Joshua

    2016-09-01

    This study examines the impact that the joint effect of household wealth quintile and urban-rural residence has on the incidence of diarrhoea among Ghanaian children. Data for this paper were drawn from the Ghana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) of 2006. Descriptive and logistic regression was applied to analyse data on 3466 children. Rural residents are less likely, albeit insignificant, to report diarrhoea compared with those in urban areas. Significant wealth gradients are manifested in childhood experiences of diarrhoea. However, an interaction of wealth with residence does not show significant disparities. Controlling for other important covariates of childhood, the odds of diarrhoea incidence were significantly higher among: the rural poorer (OR=4.869; 95% CI=0.792, 29.94), the rural middle (OR=7.477; 95% CI=1.300, 42.99), the rural richer (OR=6.162; 95% CI=0.932, 40.74) and the rural richest (OR=6.152; 95% CI=0.458, 82.54). Apart from residential status and wealth quintile, female children (OR=0.441; 95% CI=0.304, 0.640), older children (OR=0.968; 95% CI=0.943, 0.993), having a mother with secondary and higher education (OR=0.313; 95% CI) had lesser odds of experiencing diarrhoea. The findings show that there is a need to apportion interventions intended to improve child health outcomes even beyond residential status and household wealth position. Copyright © 2015 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence and treatment of giardiasis in chronic diarrhoea and malnutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, P B; Marsh, M N; Phillips, M B; Dewit, O; Neale, G; Cevallos, A M; Yamson, P; Farthing, M J

    1991-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of giardiasis in Gambian children with chronic diarrhoea and to assess their response to treatment, 31 children with chronic diarrhoea and malnutrition were investigated for giardiasis using a combination of serology (specific antigiardia IgM antibody) and microscopy of faeces and jejunal biopsy specimens. Fourteen of 31 children with chronic diarrhoea had giardiasis compared with only four of 33 healthy age and sex matched control children. Four of 15 malnourished children without diarrhoea were giardia positive. Twenty-three children with chronic diarrhoea were reinvestigated after treatment with metronidazole; giardia was found in 11 of them. These results show that giardia is highly prevalent in children with chronic diarrhoea and malnutrition and that the infection does not respond to standard therapeutic measures. PMID:2025005

  17. Reducing Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) by Building Community Capacity: A Summary of Washington Family Policy Council Research Findings

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Judy; Porter, Laura; Longhi, Dario; Becker-Green, Jody; Dreyfus, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Community capacity for organization and collaboration has been shown to be a powerful tool for improving the health and well-being of communities. Since 1994 the Washington State Family Policy Council has supported the development of community capacity in 42 community public health and safety networks. Community networks bring local communities together to restructure natural supports and local resources to meet the needs of families and children, and increase cross-system coordination and flexible funding streams to improve local services and policy. In this study, researchers sought to demonstrate the strong impact of the community networks’ capacity to interrupt health and social problems. Findings suggest that community networks reduce health and safety problems for the entire community population. Further, community networks with high community capacity reduced adverse childhood experiences (ACE) in young adults ages 18–34. PMID:22970785

  18. Effect of zinc supplementation started during diarrhoea on morbidity and mortality in Bangladeshi children: community randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Baqui, Abdullah H; Black, Robert E; Arifeen, Shams El; Yunus, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Joysnamoy; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Vaughan, J Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect on morbidity and mortality of providing daily zinc for 14 days to children with diarrhoea. Design Cluster randomised comparison. Setting Matlab field site of International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. Participants 8070 children aged 3-59 months contributed 11 881 child years of observation during a two year period. Intervention Children with diarrhoea in the intervention clusters were treated with zinc (20 mg per day for 14 days); all children with diarrhoea were treated with oral rehydration therapy. Main outcome measures Duration of episode of diarrhoea, incidence of diarrhoea and acute lower respiratory infections, admission to hospital for diarrhoea or acute lower respiratory infections, and child mortality. Results About 40% (399/1007) of diarrhoeal episodes were treated with zinc in the first four months of the trial; the rate rose to 67% (350/526) in month 5 and to >80% (364/434) in month 7 and was sustained at that level. Children from the intervention cluster received zinc for about seven days on average during each episode of diarrhoea. They had a shorter duration (hazard ratio 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.65 to 0.90) and lower incidence of diarrhoea (rate ratio 0.85, 0.76 to 0.96) than children in the comparison group. Incidence of acute lower respiratory infection was reduced in the intervention group but not in the comparison group. Admission to hospital of children with diarrhoea was lower in the intervention group than in the comparison group (0.76, 0.59 to 0.98). Admission for acute lower respiratory infection was lower in the intervention group, but this was not statistically significant (0.81, 0.53 to 1.23). The rate of non-injury deaths in the intervention clusters was considerably lower (0.49, 0.25 to 0.94). Conclusions The lower rates of child morbidity and mortality with zinc treatment represent substantial benefits from a simple and inexpensive intervention that can be incorporated

  19. Nursing strategies to reduce the incidence of early childhood caries in culturally diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Hallas, Donna; Fernandez, Jill; Lim, Lily; Carobene, Macy

    2011-06-01

    In the United States, early childhood caries (ECC) is a major unmet health care need adversely affecting the overall health of young children from diverse ethnic populations. Nurses who work in the newborn nursery, pediatrics, public, and community health centers have a unique opportunity to positively influence a change in this epidemic of ECC. Guided by Leininger's theory of cultural care, these authors describe ways to implement a comprehensive culturally sensitive oral health education program for parents of newborns and infants. Interventions based on the best available evidence for oral health education, a culturally sensitive caries risk assessment, recommendations for fluoride varnish treatments, and ways for parents to establish a dental home for the infant by 12 months old are presented. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Care-Seeking for Diarrhoea in Southern Malawi: Attitudes, Practices and Implications for Diarrhoea Control

    PubMed Central

    Masangwi, Salule; Ferguson, Neil; Grimason, Anthony; Morse, Tracy; Kazembe, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    This paper examined care-seeking behaviour and its associated risk factors when a family member had diarrhoea. Data was obtained from a survey conducted in Chikwawa, a district in Southern Malawi. Chikwawa is faced with a number of environmental and socioeconomic problems and currently diarrhoea morbidity in the district is estimated at 24.4%, statistically higher than the national average of 17%. Using hierarchically built data from a survey of 1403 households nested within 33 communities, a series of two level binary logistic regression models with Bayesian estimation were used to determine predictors of care-seeking behaviour. The results show that 68% of mothers used oral rehydration solutions (ORS) the last time a child in their family had diarrhoea. However, when asked on the action they take when a member of their household has diarrhoea two thirds of the mothers said they visit a health facility. Most respondents (73%) mentioned distance and transport costs as the main obstacles to accessing their nearest health facility and the same proportion of respondents mentioned prolonged waiting time and absence of health workers as the main obstacles encountered at the health facilities. The main predictor variables when a member of the family had diarrhoea were maternal age, distance to the nearest health facility, school level, and relative wealth, household diarrhoea endemicity, and household size while the main predictor variables when a child had diarrhoea were existence of a village health committee (VHC), distance to the nearest health facility, and maternal age. Most households use ORS for the treatment of diarrhoea and village health committees and health surveillance assistants (HSAs) are important factors in this choice of treatment. Health education messages on the use and efficacy of ORS to ensure proper and prescribed handling are important. There is need for a comprehensive concept addressing several dimensions of management and proper coordination

  1. Care-Seeking for Diarrhoea in Southern Malawi: Attitudes, Practices and Implications for Diarrhoea Control.

    PubMed

    Masangwi, Salule; Ferguson, Neil; Grimason, Anthony; Morse, Tracy; Kazembe, Lawrence

    2016-11-15

    This paper examined care-seeking behaviour and its associated risk factors when a family member had diarrhoea. Data was obtained from a survey conducted in Chikwawa, a district in Southern Malawi. Chikwawa is faced with a number of environmental and socioeconomic problems and currently diarrhoea morbidity in the district is estimated at 24.4%, statistically higher than the national average of 17%. Using hierarchically built data from a survey of 1403 households nested within 33 communities, a series of two level binary logistic regression models with Bayesian estimation were used to determine predictors of care-seeking behaviour. The results show that 68% of mothers used oral rehydration solutions (ORS) the last time a child in their family had diarrhoea. However, when asked on the action they take when a member of their household has diarrhoea two thirds of the mothers said they visit a health facility. Most respondents (73%) mentioned distance and transport costs as the main obstacles to accessing their nearest health facility and the same proportion of respondents mentioned prolonged waiting time and absence of health workers as the main obstacles encountered at the health facilities. The main predictor variables when a member of the family had diarrhoea were maternal age, distance to the nearest health facility, school level, and relative wealth, household diarrhoea endemicity, and household size while the main predictor variables when a child had diarrhoea were existence of a village health committee (VHC), distance to the nearest health facility, and maternal age. Most households use ORS for the treatment of diarrhoea and village health committees and health surveillance assistants (HSAs) are important factors in this choice of treatment. Health education messages on the use and efficacy of ORS to ensure proper and prescribed handling are important. There is need for a comprehensive concept addressing several dimensions of management and proper coordination

  2. Reduced cardiorespiratory fitness in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tonorezos, Emily S; Snell, Peter G; Moskowitz, Chaya S; Eshelman-Kent, Debra A; Liu, Jennifer E; Chou, Joanne F; Smith, Stephanie M; Dunn, Andrea L; Church, Timothy S; Oeffinger, Kevin C

    2013-08-01

    Adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at increased cardiovascular risk. Studies of factors including treatment exposures that may modify risk of low cardiorespiratory fitness in this population have been limited. To assess cardiorespiratory fitness, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) was measured in 115 ALL survivors (median age, 23.5 years; range 18-37). We compared VO2 max measurements for ALL survivors to those estimated from submaximal testing in a frequency-matched (age, gender, race/ethnicity) 2003-2004 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) cohort. Multivariable linear regression models were constructed to evaluate the association between therapeutic exposures and outcomes of interest. Compared to NHANES participants, ALL survivors had a substantially lower VO2 max (mean 30.7 vs. 39.9 ml/kg/min; adjusted P < 0.0001). For any given percent total body fat, ALL survivors had an 8.9 ml/kg/min lower VO2 max than NHANES participants. For key treatment exposure groups (cranial radiotherapy [CRT], anthracycline chemotherapy, or neither), ALL survivors had substantially lower VO2 max compared with NHANES participants (all comparisons, P < 0.001). Almost two-thirds (66.7%) of ALL survivors were classified as low cardiorespiratory fitness compared with 26.3% of NHANES participants (adjusted P < 0.0001). In multivariable models including only ALL survivors, treatment exposures were modestly associated with VO2 max. Among females, CRT was associated with low VO2 max (P = 0.02), but anthracycline exposure was not (P = 0.58). In contrast, among males, anthracycline exposure ≥ 100 mg/m(2) was associated with low VO2 max (P = 0.03), but CRT was not (P = 0.54). Adult survivors of childhood ALL have substantially lower levels of cardiorespiratory fitness compared with a similarly aged non-cancer population. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Parenting strategies for reducing the risk of childhood depression and anxiety disorders: A Delphi consensus study.

    PubMed

    Yap, Marie Bee Hui; Fowler, Michelle; Reavley, Nicola; Jorm, Anthony Francis

    2015-09-01

    Substantial evidence that some modifiable parental factors are associated with childhood depression and anxiety indicates that parents can play a crucial role in the prevention of these disorders in their children. However, more effective translation of research evidence is required. This study employed the Delphi methodology to establish expert consensus on parenting strategies that are important for preventing depression or anxiety disorders in children aged 5-11 years. A literature search identified 289 recommendations for parents. These were presented to a panel of 44 international experts over three survey rounds, who rated their preventive importance. 171 strategies were endorsed as important or essential for preventing childhood depression or anxiety disorders by ≥90% of the panel. These were written into a parenting guidelines document, with 11 subheadings: Establish and maintain a good relationship with your child, Be involved and support increasing autonomy, Encourage supportive relationships, Establish family rules and consequences, Encourage good health habits, Minimise conflict in the home, Help your child to manage emotions, Help your child to set goals and solve problems, Support your child when something is bothering them, Help your child to manage anxiety, and Encourage professional help seeking when needed. This study relied on experts from Western countries; hence the strategies identified may not be relevant for all ethnic groups. This study produced new parenting guidelines that are supported by research evidence and/or international experts, which can now be promoted in Western English-speaking communities to help parents protect their children from depression and anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Frequency of diarrhoea as a predictor of elevated blood pressure in children

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Juan Jaime; Davies, Alisha R.; Smith, George Davey; Smeeth, Liam; Cabrera, Lilia; Gilman, Robert H.; García, Héctor H.; Ortega, Ynes R.; Cama, Vitaliano A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Diarrhoeal illness is a major public health problem for children worldwide, particularly among developing countries, and is a proxy condition for severe dehydration. It has been hypothesized that severe dehydration in the first 6 months of life could be associated with increased blood pressure later in life. This study aimed to explore whether frequency of diarrhoea is associated with elevated blood pressure in children in a setting with a high incidence of diarrhoeal disease. Methods The present study is a cross-sectional study of blood pressure among children from a longitudinal child diarrhoeal disease cohort in Lima, Peru. From 2001 to 2006, daily diarrhoeal surveillance was made. Children were revisited in 2006 and blood pressure was measured. Diarrhoeal exposures were evaluated in terms of total number of diarrhoea days, number of episodes of diarrhoea, persistent diarrhoeal episodes and by the quartiles of daily incidence and episode incidence of diarrhoea. Results The overall incidence of diarrhoeal episodes at age under 1 year was 4.35 (95% confidence interval: 3.79-4.98) and under 5 years was 2.80 (95% confidence interval: 2.69-2.92). No association was observed between the total number of diarrhoeal days, diarrhoeal episodes or diarrhoeal incidence rates with childhood blood pressure. There was weak evidence that hospital admission due to severe dehydration in the first year of life showed a gradient towards an increase in both, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion In the first study to date to examine the association in a setting with a high incidence of diarrhoeal disease, diarrhoeal frequency did not show an association with increased blood pressure. Our observations of elevated levels of blood pressure among those admitted into hospitals in the first year of life are in line with the original hypothesis of dehydration in early infancy and high blood pressure. However, the effect of episodes of severe dehydration on later blood

  5. A tale of two obesCities: the role of municipal governance in reducing childhood obesity in New York City and London.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Libman, Kimberly; O'Keefe, Eileen

    2010-09-01

    As rates of childhood obesity and overweight rise around the world, researchers and policy makers seek new ways to reverse these trends. Given the concentration of the world's population, income inequalities, unhealthy diets, and patterns of physical activity in cities, urban areas bear a disproportionate burden of obesity. To address these issues, in 2008, researchers from the City University of New York and London Metropolitan University created the Municipal Responses to Childhood Obesity Collaborative. The Collaborative examined three questions: What role has city government played in responding to childhood obesity in each jurisdiction? How have municipal governance structures in each city influenced its capacity to respond effectively? How can policy and programmatic interventions to reduce childhood obesity also reduce the growing socioeconomic and racial/ethnic inequities in its prevalence? Based on a review of existing initiatives in London and New York City, the Collaborative recommended 11 broad strategies by which each city could reduce childhood obesity. These recommendations were selected because they can be enacted at the municipal level; will reduce socioeconomic and racial/ethnic inequalities in obesity; are either well supported by research or are already being implemented in one city, demonstrating their feasibility; build on existing city assets; and are both green and healthy.

  6. A Tale of Two ObesCities: The Role of Municipal Governance in Reducing Childhood Obesity in New York City and London

    PubMed Central

    Libman, Kimberly; O’Keefe, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    As rates of childhood obesity and overweight rise around the world, researchers and policy makers seek new ways to reverse these trends. Given the concentration of the world’s population, income inequalities, unhealthy diets, and patterns of physical activity in cities, urban areas bear a disproportionate burden of obesity. To address these issues, in 2008, researchers from the City University of New York and London Metropolitan University created the Municipal Responses to Childhood Obesity Collaborative. The Collaborative examined three questions: What role has city government played in responding to childhood obesity in each jurisdiction? How have municipal governance structures in each city influenced its capacity to respond effectively? How can policy and programmatic interventions to reduce childhood obesity also reduce the growing socioeconomic and racial/ethnic inequities in its prevalence? Based on a review of existing initiatives in London and New York City, the Collaborative recommended 11 broad strategies by which each city could reduce childhood obesity. These recommendations were selected because they can be enacted at the municipal level; will reduce socioeconomic and racial/ethnic inequalities in obesity; are either well supported by research or are already being implemented in one city, demonstrating their feasibility; build on existing city assets; and are both green and healthy. PMID:20811951

  7. Preventing diarrhoea with household ceramic water filters: assessment of a pilot project in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Clasen, Thomas F; Brown, Joseph; Collin, Simon M

    2006-06-01

    In an attempt to prevent diarrhoea in a rural community in central Bolivia, an international non-governmental organization implemented a pilot project to improve drinking water quality using gravity-fed, household-based, ceramic water filters. We assessed the performance of the filters by conducting a five-month randomized controlled trial among all 60 households in the pilot community. Water filters eliminated thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms from almost all intervention households and significantly reduced turbidity, thereby improving water aesthetics. Most importantly, the filters were associated with a 45.3% reduction in prevalence of diarrhoea among the study population (p = 0.02). After adjustment for household clustering and repeated episodes in individuals and controlling for age and baseline diarrhoea, prevalence of diarrhoea among the intervention group was 51% lower than controls, though the protective effect was only borderline significant (OR 0.49, 95% CI: 0.24, 1.01; p = 0.05). A follow-up survey conducted approximately 9 months after deployment of the filters found 67% being used regularly, 13% being used intermittently, and 21% not in use. Water samples from all regularly used filters were free of thermotolerant coliforms.

  8. Diarrhoea and effects of different water sources, sanitation and hygiene behaviour in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Tumwine, James K; Thompson, John; Katua-Katua, Munguti; Mujwajuzi, Mark; Johnstone, Nick; Porras, Ina

    2002-09-01

    Apart from "Drawers of Water (DOW I)" published in 1972, there have been only a handful of published studies on domestic water use and environmental health in East Africa, based on direct observations or other reliable research methods. The objective of this study was to carry out a repeat analysis of domestic water use and environmental health in East Africa based on DOW I. The study was conducted in the same sites as DOW I. Field assistants spent at least 1 day in each household observing and conducting semi-structured interviews. They measured the amount of water collected, recorded the amount of water used in the home, and noted household socio-demographic characteristics, prevalence of diarrhoea, state and use of latrines, sources of water and conditions of use. We surveyed 1015 households in 33 sites in Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya in 1997. From 1967 to 1997, the prevalence of diarrhoea, in the week preceding the survey, increased from 6% to 18% in Kenya and from 16% to 21% in Uganda; it declined slightly in Tanzania (11-8%). Determinants of diarrhoea morbidity included poor hygiene (unsafe disposal of faeces and wastewater), education level of household head, obtaining water from surface sources or wells and per capita water used for cleaning. Hygiene practices are an important complement to improved water and sanitation in reducing diarrhoea morbidity.

  9. Cytokine activation is predictive of mortality in Zambian patients with AIDS-related diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Zulu, Isaac; Hassan, Ghaniah; Njobvu R N, Lungowe; Dhaliwal, Winnie; Sianongo, Sandie; Kelly, Paul

    2008-11-13

    Mortality in Zambian AIDS patients is high, especially in patients with diarrhoea, and there is still unacceptably high mortality in Zambian patients just starting anti-retroviral therapy. We set out to determine if high concentrations of serum cytokines correlate with mortality. Serum samples from 30 healthy controls (HIV seropositive and seronegative) and 50 patients with diarrhoea (20 of whom died within 6 weeks) were analysed. Concentrations of tumour necrosis factor receptor p55 (TNFR p55), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, interferon (IFN)-gamma and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured by ELISA, and correlated with mortality after 6 weeks follow-up. Apart from IL-12, concentrations of all cytokines, TNFR p55 and CRP increased with worsening severity of disease, showing highly statistically significant trends. In a multivariable analysis high TNFR p55, IFN-gamma, CRP and low CD4 count (CD4 count <100) were predictive of mortality. Although nutritional status (assessed by body mass index, BMI) was predictive in univariate analysis, it was not an independent predictor in multivariate analysis. High serum concentrations of TNFR p55, IFN-gamma, CRP and low CD4 count correlated with disease severity and short-term mortality in HIV-infected Zambian adults with diarrhoea. These factors were better predictors of survival than BMI. Understanding the cause of TNFR p55, IFN-gamma and CRP elevation may be useful in development of interventions to reduce mortality in AIDS patients with chronic diarrhoea in Africa.

  10. The impoverished gut--a triple burden of diarrhoea, stunting and chronic disease.

    PubMed

    Guerrant, Richard L; DeBoer, Mark D; Moore, Sean R; Scharf, Rebecca J; Lima, Aldo A M

    2013-04-01

    More than one-fifth of the world's population live in extreme poverty, where a lack of safe water and adequate sanitation enables high rates of enteric infections and diarrhoea to continue unabated. Although oral rehydration therapy has greatly reduced diarrhoea-associated mortality, enteric infections still persist, disrupting intestinal absorptive and barrier functions and resulting in up to 43% of stunted growth, affecting one-fifth of children worldwide and one-third of children in developing countries. Diarrhoea in children from impoverished areas during their first 2 years might cause, on average, an 8 cm growth shortfall and 10 IQ point decrement by the time they are 7-9 years old. A child's height at their second birthday is therefore the best predictor of cognitive development or 'human capital'. To this 'double burden' of diarrhoea and malnutrition, data now suggest that children with stunted growth and repeated gut infections are also at increased risk of developing obesity and its associated comorbidities, resulting in a 'triple burden' of the impoverished gut. Here, we Review the growing evidence for this triple burden and potential mechanisms and interventions that must be understood and applied to prevent the loss of human potential and unaffordable societal costs caused by these vicious cycles of poverty.

  11. A case-control study of pathogen and lifestyle risk factors for diarrhoea in dogs.

    PubMed

    Stavisky, Jenny; Radford, Alan David; Gaskell, Rosalind; Dawson, Susan; German, Alex; Parsons, Bryony; Clegg, Simon; Newman, Jenny; Pinchbeck, Gina

    2011-05-01

    Diarrhoea is a common and multi-factorial condition in dogs, the aetiology of which is often incompletely understood. A case-control study was carried out to compare the carriage of some common canine enteric pathogens (enteric coronavirus, parvovirus, distemper, endoparasites, Campylobacter and Salmonella spp.), as well as lifestyle factors such as vaccination history, diet and contact with other species, in dogs presenting at first opinion veterinary practices with and without diarrhoea. Multivariable conditional logistic regression showed that dogs in the study which scavenged or had had a recent change of diet (OR 3.5, p=0.002), had recently stayed in kennels (OR 9.5, p=0.01), or were fed a home-cooked diet (OR 4, p=0.002) were at a significantly greater risk of diarrhoea, whilst being female (OR 0.4, p=0.01), currently up to date with routine vaccinations (OR 0.4, p=0.05) and having contact with horse faeces (OR 0.4, p=0.06) were associated with a reduced risk. None of the pathogens tested for was a significant factor in the final multivariable model suggesting that in this predominantly vaccinated population, diarrhoea may be more associated with lifestyle risk factors than specific pathogens. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Lactobacillus supplementation for diarrhoea related to chemotherapy of colorectal cancer: a randomised study

    PubMed Central

    Österlund, P; Ruotsalainen, T; Korpela, R; Saxelin, M; Ollus, A; Valta, P; Kouri, M; Elomaa, I; Joensuu, H

    2007-01-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy is frequently associated with diarrhoea. We compared two 5-FU-based regimens and the effect of Lactobacillus and fibre supplementation on treatment tolerability. Patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (n=150) were randomly allocated to receive monthly 5-FU and leucovorin bolus injections (the Mayo regimen) or a bimonthly 5-FU bolus plus continuous infusion (the simplified de Gramont regimen) for 24 weeks as postoperative adjuvant therapy. On the basis of random allocation, the study participants did or did not receive Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation (1–2 × 1010 per day) and fibre (11 g guar gum per day) during chemotherapy. Patients who received Lactobacillus had less grade 3 or 4 diarrhoea (22 vs 37%, P=0.027), reported less abdominal discomfort, needed less hospital care and had fewer chemotherapy dose reductions due to bowel toxicity. No Lactobacillus-related toxicity was detected. Guar gum supplementation had no influence on chemotherapy tolerability. The simplified de Gramont regimen was associated with fewer grade 3 or 4 adverse effects than the Mayo regimen (45 vs 89%), and with less diarrhoea. We conclude that Lactobacillus GG supplementation is well tolerated and may reduce the frequency of severe diarrhoea and abdominal discomfort related to 5-FU-based chemotherapy. PMID:17895895

  13. The impoverished gut—a triple burden of diarrhoea, stunting and chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Guerrant, Richard L.; DeBoer, Mark D.; Moore, Sean R.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Lima, Aldo A. M.

    2013-01-01

    More than one-fifth of the world’s population live in extreme poverty, where a lack of safe water and adequate sanitation enables high rates of enteric infections and diarrhoea to continue unabated. Although oral rehydration therapy has greatly reduced diarrhoea-associated mortality, enteric infections still persist, disrupting intestinal absorptive and barrier functions and resulting in up to 43% of stunted growth, affecting one-fifth of children worldwide and one-third of children in developing countries. Diarrhoea in children from impoverished areas during their first 2 years might cause, on average, an 8 cm growth shortfall and 10 IQ point decrement by the time they are 7–9 years old. A child’s height at their second birthday is therefore the best predictor of cognitive development or ‘human capital’. To this ‘double burden’ of diarrhoea and malnutrition, data now suggest that children with stunted growth and repeated gut infections are also at increased risk of developing obesity and its associated comorbidities, resulting in a ‘triple burden’ of the impoverished gut. Here, we Review the growing evidence for this triple burden and potential mechanisms and interventions that must be understood and applied to prevent the loss of human potential and unaffordable societal costs caused by these vicious cycles of poverty. PMID:23229327

  14. Factors associated with diarrhoea in young children and incidence of symptomatic rotavirus infection in rural West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Panda, S; Deb, A K; Chawla-Sarkar, M; Ramamurthy, T; Ganguly, S; Pradhan, P; Chakraborty, A; Desai, S; Gupte, M D; Dhere, R

    2014-09-01

    Socio-behavioural factors and pathogens associated with childhood diarrhoea are of global public health concern. Our survey in 696 children aged ⩽2 years in rural West Bengal detected rotavirus as sole pathogen in 8% (17/199) of diarrhoeic stool specimens. Other organisms were detected along with rotavirus in 11% of faecal specimens. A third of the children with rotavirus diarrhoea, according to Vesikari score, had severe illness. The top four rotavirus genotypes were G9P[4] (28%), G1P[8] (19%), G2P[4] (14%) and G8P[4] (8%). In the multivariate model, the practice of 'drawing drinking water by dipping a pot in the storage vessel' [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2·21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·03-4·74, P = 0·041], and 'children aged ⩽6 months with non-exclusive breastfeeding' (aOR 2·07, 95% CI 1·1-3·82, P = 0·024) had twice the odds of having diarrhoea. Incidence of rotavirus diarrhoea was 24/100 child-years in children aged >6-18 months, 19/100 child-years in children aged >18-24 months and 5/100 child-years in those aged ⩽6 months. Results have translational implications for future interventions including vaccine development.

  15. Oral therapy of infant diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Ransome-Kuti, O; Bamisaiye, A

    1978-08-26

    Immediate oral therapy at home by the mother using a sugar-salt solution offers a real prospect of reducing mortality from gastroenteritis among preschool children in the developing world. The sugar-salt solution enables the mother to take action against a disease which is the most frequent cause of death among young children. In Lagos, Nigeria, knowledge of the treatment has diffused rapidly in a low-income community served by a clinic run by the Institute of Child Health. In a recent study, women expecting their 1st child and others who had never used the service were able to describe the sugar-salt solution treatment taught to all who attend the clinic. However, of the 217 women who described the method, less than 1/2 (34%) could give the correct proportions of sugar and salt to be used (4 teaspoons and 1/4 teaspoon respectively in a standard local beer bottle filled with water). Most errors involved the use of too much salt. In nearly 1/2 these cases, 4 times too much salt was described, and in 3 cases, 16 times too much salt. Under these circumstances, we can expect a possible increase in children admitted with hypernatremia, a situation which would bring the method into disrepute. Any attempt to transfer health skills to mothers in developing countries must recognize, as in this example, the problems posed by lack of education and unfamiliarity with measurement terms such as "1/4" or even "a teaspoon." What is required is a simple measuring spoon giving the actual quantity to be used. Manufactured on a large scale in plastic, this would be inexpensive. Ideally, every mother of a preschool child should have 1, but where this is not possible, all health workers should have such spoons so that they can measure into a mother's hand the correct amounts. In this way the mother can make correct use of a treatment which has such potential for saving lives.

  16. Diarrhoea in the ICU: respective contribution of feeding and antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Diarrhoea is frequently reported in the ICU. Little is known about diarrhoea incidence and the role of the different risk factors alone or in combination. This prospective observational study aims at determining diarrhoea incidence and risk factors in the first 2 weeks of ICU stay, focusing on the respective contribution of feeding, antibiotics, and antifungal drugs. Methods Out of 422 patients consecutively admitted into a mixed medical–surgical ICU during a 2-month period, 278 patients were included according to the following criteria: ICU stay >24 hours, no admission diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding, and absence of enterostomy or colostomy. Diarrhoea was defined as at least three liquid stools per day. Diarrhoea episodes occurring during the first day in the ICU, related to the use of laxative drugs or Clostridium difficile infection, were not analysed. Multivariate and stratified analyses were performed to determine diarrhoea risk factors, and the impact of the combination of enteral nutrition (EN) with antibiotics or antifungal drugs. Results A total of 1,595 patient-days were analysed. Diarrhoea was observed in 38 patients (14%) and on 83 patient-days (incidence rate: 5.2 per 100 patient-days). The median day of diarrhoea onset was the sixth day, and 89% of patients had ≤4 diarrhoea days. The incidence of C. difficile infection was 0.7%. Diarrhoea risk factors were EN covering >60% of energy target (relative risk = 1.75 (1.02 to 3.01)), antibiotics (relative risk = 3.64 (1.26 to 10.51)) and antifungal drugs (relative risk = 2.79 (1.16 to 6.70)). EN delivery per se was not a diarrhoea risk factor. In patients receiving >60% of energy target by EN, diarrhoea risk was increased by the presence of antibiotics (relative risk = 4.8 (2.1 to 13.7)) or antifungal drugs (relative risk = 5.0 (2.8 to 8.7)). Conclusion Diarrhoea incidence during the first 2 weeks in a mixed population of patients in a tertiary ICU is 14%. Diarrhoea risk factors are

  17. Diarrhoea in the ICU: respective contribution of feeding and antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Ronan; Graf, Séverine; Clerc, Aurélie; Delieuvin, Nathalie; Heidegger, Claudia Paula; Pichard, Claude

    2013-07-24

    Diarrhoea is frequently reported in the ICU. Little is known about diarrhoea incidence and the role of the different risk factors alone or in combination. This prospective observational study aims at determining diarrhoea incidence and risk factors in the first 2 weeks of ICU stay, focusing on the respective contribution of feeding, antibiotics, and antifungal drugs. Out of 422 patients consecutively admitted into a mixed medical-surgical ICU during a 2-month period, 278 patients were included according to the following criteria: ICU stay >24 hours, no admission diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding, and absence of enterostomy or colostomy. Diarrhoea was defined as at least three liquid stools per day. Diarrhoea episodes occurring during the first day in the ICU, related to the use of laxative drugs or Clostridium difficile infection, were not analysed. Multivariate and stratified analyses were performed to determine diarrhoea risk factors, and the impact of the combination of enteral nutrition (EN) with antibiotics or antifungal drugs. A total of 1,595 patient-days were analysed. Diarrhoea was observed in 38 patients (14%) and on 83 patient-days (incidence rate: 5.2 per 100 patient-days). The median day of diarrhoea onset was the sixth day, and 89% of patients had ≤4 diarrhoea days. The incidence of C. difficile infection was 0.7%. Diarrhoea risk factors were EN covering >60% of energy target (relative risk = 1.75 (1.02 to 3.01)), antibiotics (relative risk = 3.64 (1.26 to 10.51)) and antifungal drugs (relative risk = 2.79 (1.16 to 6.70)). EN delivery per se was not a diarrhoea risk factor. In patients receiving >60% of energy target by EN, diarrhoea risk was increased by the presence of antibiotics (relative risk = 4.8 (2.1 to 13.7)) or antifungal drugs (relative risk = 5.0 (2.8 to 8.7)). Diarrhoea incidence during the first 2 weeks in a mixed population of patients in a tertiary ICU is 14%. Diarrhoea risk factors are EN covering >60% of energy target, use of

  18. Tropheryma whipplei associated with diarrhoea in young children.

    PubMed

    Fenollar, F; Minodier, P; Boutin, A; Laporte, R; Brémond, V; Noël, G; Miramont, S; Richet, H; Benkouiten, S; Lagier, J-C; Gaudart, J; Jouve, J-L; Raoult, D

    2016-10-01

    Tropheryma whipplei was detected in preliminary studies in faeces of young children with diarrhoea and also in faeces of asymptomatic persons, not only in Europe but also in Africa. In this study, the link between this bacterium and the presence of acute diarrhoea was evaluated in a large group of children. From December 2009 to January 2013, rectal swabs collected from 3796 children in the emergency departments of university hospitals in Marseille, France, were analysed: 555 children (245 female and 310 male, from 6 days to 6 years old) with acute diarrhoea defined as at least three loose stools per day for <1 week and 3241 children (1444 female and 1797 male, from 22 days to 6 years old) without diarrhoea. Specific quantitative real-time PCR was performed to detect the presence of T. whipplei and of two enteric pathogens Clostridium difficile and Giardia duodenalis. Tropheryma whipplei was significantly more common in children with diarrhoea (22/555, 4%) than without (56/3241, 1.7%; p 0.001). Neither C. difficile nor G. duodenalis showed this association. For C. difficile, 39 of 531 (7.3%) children with diarrhoea were positive versus 184 of 3119 (5.9%) of children without diarrhoea (p 0.25). For G. duodenalis, 2 of 529 (0.37%) children with diarrhoea were positive versus 5 of 3119 (0.16%) children without diarrhoea (p 0.26). Tropheryma whipplei was found more commonly in autumn. Tropheryma whipplei is significantly associated with diarrhoea in children, suggesting that the bacterium may be a cause of acute diarrhoea.

  19. Adverse childhood experiences associate to reduced glutamate levels in the hippocampus of patients affected by mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Sara; Locatelli, Clara; Falini, Andrea; Colombo, Cristina; Benedetti, Francesco

    2016-11-03

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) can possibly permanently alter the stress response system, affect the glutamatergic system and influence hippocampal volume in mood disorders. The aim of the study is to investigate the association between glutamate levels in the hippocampus, measured through single proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and ACE in patients affected by mood disorders and healthy controls. Higher levels of early stress associate to reduced levels of Glx/Cr in the hippocampus in depressed patients but not in healthy controls. Exposure to stress during early life could lead to a hypofunctionality of the glutamatergic system in the hippocampus of depressed patients. Abnormalities of glutamatergic signaling could then possibly underpin the structural and functional abnormalities observed in patients affected by mood disorders.

  20. Reduced thalamic volume in men with antisocial personality disorder or schizophrenia and a history of serious violence and childhood abuse.

    PubMed

    Kumari, V; Gudjonsson, G H; Raghuvanshi, S; Barkataki, I; Taylor, P; Sumich, A; Das, K; Kuipers, E; Ffytche, D H; Das, M

    2013-05-01

    Violent behaviour has been associated with presence of certain mental disorders, most notably antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and schizophrenia, childhood abuse, and multiple brain abnormalities. This study examined for the first time, to the authors' knowledge, the role of psychosocial deprivation (PSD), including childhood physical and sexual abuse, in structural brain volumes of violent individuals with ASPD or schizophrenia. Fifty-six men (26 with ASPD or schizophrenia and a history of serious violence, 30 non-violent) underwent magnetic resonance imaging and were assessed on PSD. Stereological volumetric brain ratings were examined for group differences and their association with PSD ratings. PSD-brain associations were examined further using voxel-based-morphometry. The findings revealed: reduced thalamic volume in psychosocially-deprived violent individuals, relative to non-deprived violent individuals and healthy controls; negative association between thalamic volume and abuse ratings (physical and sexual) in violent individuals; and trend-level negative associations between PSD and hippocampal and prefrontal volumes in non-violent individuals. The voxel-based-morphometry analysis detected a negative association between PSD and localised grey matter volumes in the left inferior frontal region across all individuals, and additionally in the left middle frontal and precentral gyri in non-violent individuals. Violent mentally-disordered individuals with PSD, relative to those with no or minimal PSD, suffer from an additional brain deficit, i.e., reduced thalamic volume; this may affect sensory information processing, and have implications for management, of these individuals. PSD may have a stronger relationship with volumetric loss of stress-linked regions, namely the frontal cortex, in non-violent individuals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduced visual cortex gray matter volume and thickness in young adults who witnessed domestic violence during childhood.

    PubMed

    Tomoda, Akemi; Polcari, Ann; Anderson, Carl M; Teicher, Martin H

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to interparental violence is associated with negative outcomes, such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and reduced cognitive abilities. However, little is known about the potential effects of witnessing domestic violence during childhood on gray matter volume (GMV) or cortical thickness. High-resolution 3.0 T volumetric scans (Siemens Trio Scanner) were obtained on 52 subjects (18-25 years) including 22 (6 males/16 females) with a history of visually witnessing episodes of domestic violence, and 30 (8 males/22 females) unexposed control subjects, with neither a current nor past DSM-IV Axis I or II disorder. Potential confounding effects of age, gender, level of parental verbal aggression, parental education, financial stress, full scale IQ, and total GMV, or average thickness were modeled using voxel based morphometry and FreeSurfer. Witnessing domestic violence subjects had a 6.1% GMV reduction in the right lingual gyrus (BA18) (P = 0.029, False Discovery Rate corrected peak level). Thickness in this region was also reduced, as was thickness in V2 bilaterally and left occipital pole. Theses regions were maximally sensitive to exposure to witnessing domestic violence between 11-13 years of age. Regional reductions in GMV and thickness were observed in both susceptible and resilient witnessing domestic violence subjects. Results in subjects witnessing domestic violence were similar to previously reported results in subjects with childhood sexual abuse, as the primary region affected was visual cortex. Brain regions that process and convey the adverse sensory input of the abuse may be specifically modified by this experience, particularly in subjects exposed to a single type of maltreatment. Exposure to multiple types of maltreatment is more commonly associated with morphological alterations in corticolimbic regions. These findings fit with preclinical studies showing that visual cortex is a highly plastic structure.

  2. Zinc sulphate for treatment and prevention of diarrhoea and other conditions in children in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Duke, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Over the last 10 years more than 40 randomized trials of zinc sulphate in diarrhoea have been done in developing countries throughout the world. Almost all have shown a benefit of zinc therapy for 5-10 days, if given with oral rehydration solution, in reducing the severity and duration of severe diarrhoea and preventing diarrhoea in the subsequent 3 months. Zinc has also been proven to reduce mortality in the management of children with severe malnutrition. Two studies have shown a benefit of zinc treatment on the clinical resolution of pneumonia and another study from Africa showed that zinc adjuvant treatment led to a significant reduction in mortality from pneumonia. Despite this overwhelming evidence, few countries in the Asia-Pacific region have scaled up the use of zinc in the treatment or prevention of diarrhoea or other infections. The reasons for this are several, including obstacles to incorporating new treatments into routine drug procurement and distribution mechanisms, and failure to appreciate the steps involved in the promotion of new routine treatments. A much higher priority must be given to ensuring that children with malnutrition, diarrhoea and other infections have access to zinc and oral rehydration solution--both of which are low-cost and life-saving treatments.

  3. Elevated maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy are associated with reduced childhood IQ

    PubMed Central

    LeWinn, Kaja Z; Stroud, Laura R; Molnar, Beth E; Ware, James H; Koenen, Karestan C; Buka, Stephen L

    2009-01-01

    Background In animal models, there is evidence to suggest a causal link between maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy and offspring outcomes; however, evidence for this relationship in humans is inconclusive. We address important confounders of this association by estimating the relationship between maternal cortisol levels in late pregnancy and childhood IQ in a birth cohort and in a subsample of siblings. Methods This study included 832 children who were members of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. Maternal serum collected between 1959 and 1966 during the third trimester of pregnancy was analysed for free cortisol. We investigated the relationship between maternal cortisol in quintiles and full, verbal and performance scale scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at age 7 years, adjusting for prenatal and family characteristics. We repeated this analysis among 74 discordant sibling pairs using a fixed effects approach, which adjusts for shared family characteristics. Results Maternal cortisol levels were negatively related to full-scale IQ, an effect driven by verbal IQ scores. Compared with those in the lowest quintile of cortisol exposure, the verbal IQ of children in the highest quintile of exposure was 3.83 points lower [95% confidence interval (CI): −6.44 to −1.22]. Within sibling pairs, being in the highest quintile of exposure was associated with verbal IQ scores 5.5 points lower (95% CI: −11.24 to 0.31) compared with the other quintiles. Conclusion These findings are consistent with prior human and animal studies, and suggest that exposure to high levels of maternal cortisol during pregnancy may be negatively related to offspring cognitive skills independently of family attributes that characterize the postnatal environment. PMID:19423658

  4. Diarrhoea in irradiated patients: a prospective multicentre observational study.

    PubMed

    Pergolizzi, Stefano; Maranzano, Ernesto; De Angelis, Verena; Lupattelli, Marco; Frata, Paolo; Spagnesi, Stefano; Frisio, Maria Luisa; Mandoliti, Giovanni; Delia, Pietro; Malinverni, Giuseppe; Trippa, Fabio; Fabbietti, Letizia; Parisi, Salvatore; De Vecchi, Pietro; Sansotta, Giuseppe; Giorgetti, Celestino; Bergami, Tiziano; Orecchia, Roberto; Portaluri, Maurizio; Signor, Marco; Pontoriero, Antonio; Santacaterina, Anna; Di Gennaro, Davide

    2013-11-01

    To determine the incidence of cancer treatment-induced diarrhoea in patients submitted to irradiation. Forty-five Italian radiation oncology departments took part in this prospective observational study and a total of 1020 patients were enrolled. The accrual lasted three consecutive weeks; evaluation was based on diary cards filled in daily by patients during radiotherapy and one week after cessation. Diary cards recorded both the onset and intensity of diarrhoea. A total of 1004 patients were eligible for this analysis. 147/1004 (14.6%) patients had diarrhoea. The median minimum number of daily events was 1 (range 1-7) with a median maximum events of 3 (range 1-23). 82/147 patients (56.2%) had a drug prescription for diarrhoea. In the evaluation of the onset of diarrhoea, in multivariate analysis, we found the following factors to be statistically significant predictors of an increased likelihood of diarrhoea: primitive tumour site, therapeutic purpose and field size. Patients with abdominal-pelvic cancer, treated with curative purpose and using large field sizes are at high risk of cancer treatment-induced diarrhoea. Diarrhoea was also observed in patients treated at other sites. In this population group there is the need for more stringent monitoring during the delivery of radiation therapy. Copyright © 2013 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of methanol rhizome extract of Nymphaea lotus Linn. (Nymphaeaceae) in animal models of diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Bello, Fatima Hauwa; Maiha, Bilkisu B; Anuka, Joseph A

    2016-08-22

    Nymphaea lotus, which is widely distributed throughout tropical Africa, enjoys a number of ethnomedical uses in Nigeria. Traditionally, the rhizomes of N. lotus are used to cure diarrhoea. This study aims to evaluate the antidiarrhoeal activity of the methanol rhizome extract of N. lotus plant in laboratory animals. The extract was screened for activity against castor oil-induced diarrhoea and magnesium sulphate-induced diarrhoea as well as effect on gastric transit time in mice. The effect of methanol rhizome extract of Nymphaea lotus on the perfused isolated tissue preparation was also determined. For castor oil-induced diarrhoea, the extract at doses of 200, 400 and 800mg/kg produced significant reduction in the frequency of diarrhoea (at p<0.001, p<0.001 and p<0.01 respectively). The extract at 800mg/kg produced a significant delay in onset of diarrhoea (p<0.05) comparable to loperamide (3mg/kg). The frequency of magnesium sulphate-induced diarrhoea was also significantly reduced in the groups treated with 200, 400 and 800mg/kg of the extract at p<0.001, p<0.001 and p<0.01 respectively. At doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg, the protection produced was comparable to loperamide, 3mg/kg. All treated groups produced significant reduction in the transit of charcoal meal along the intestinal tract at p<0.001. The extract at low concentration (4×10(-4)-6.4×10(-2)mg/ml) had contractile effect on the tone of contraction of the rabbit jejunum while at higher concentrations (8×10(-2)-512×10(-2)mg/ml) produced significant reduction in the tone and rate of spontaneous contraction of rabbit jejunum. The extract at lower concentrations (4×10(-4)-2×10(-2)mg/ml) has no effect on contraction of the guinea pig ileum while higher concentrations (4×10(-2)-512×10(-2)mg/ml) produced significant relaxant activity on guinea pig ileum. This study has shown that the methanol rhizome extract of N. lotus has antidiarrhoeal properties thus justifying its use by the local population for

  6. Bromelain protects piglets from diarrhoea caused by oral challenge with K88 positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, D; Mynott, T

    1998-01-01

    Background—K88 positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (K88+ ETEC) is an important cause of diarrhoea in young piglets. K88+ ETEC pathogenesis relies on attachment to specific glycoprotein receptors located on the intestinal mucosa. Proteolytic treatment of these receptors in vitro and in vivo prevents attachment of K88+ ETEC to piglet small intestines and may be of clinical use to prevent K88+ ETEC pathogenesis. 
Aims—To determine whether bromelain, a proteolytic extract obtained from pineapple stems, would protect piglets against K88+ ETEC diarrhoea and to confirm and extend earlier findings on the effects of bromelain on K88+ ETEC receptors in vivo. 
Methods—Bromelain (0, 12.5, or 125 mg) was orally administered to just weaned piglets for 10 days. One day following commencement of bromelain treatment, piglets were challenged with K88+ ETEC (5 × 1010 K88ac:0149) for seven days. Intestinal contents from unchallenged piglets were obtained via an intestinal fistula, and tested for their ability to bind K88+ ETEC before and after bromelain treatment. 
Results—Both doses of bromelain were successful in reducing the incidence of K88+ ETEC diarrhoea and protected piglets from life threatening disease. Bromelain treated pigs also had significantly increased weight gain compared with untreated pigs. Bromelain only temporarily inhibited K88+ ETEC receptor activity, with receptor activity being regenerated 30 hours following treatment, consistent with the regeneration of new enterocytes. 
Conclusion—Results show that bromelain can temporarily inactivate ETEC receptors in vivo and protect against ETEC induced diarrhoea. Bromelain may therefore be an effective prophylaxis against ETEC infection. 

 Keywords: enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli; K88 ETEC; ETEC receptors; diarrhoea; bromelain PMID:10189844

  7. The potential role of breast-feeding and other factors in helping to reduce early childhood caries.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Lee S; Erwin, Katherine; Lense, Elizabeth; Hicks, James

    2008-01-01

    Dental caries is the most common chronic disease in US children. Early childhood caries (ECC) is particularly virulent and can interfere with a child's ability to eat, grow, speak, and communicate. Studies on whether breast-feeding or bottle-feeding are more likely to reduce ECC have proven inconclusive. The study population included 175 children, aged 1 to 5, receiving dental care at the Hughes Spalding Children's Hospital in Atlanta, GA. Participation included a dental exam, chart data abstraction, and a personal interview with the mother. Too few exclusively breast-fed children prevented the adequate study of breast-feeding. However, children exclusively bottle-fed for at least 1.5 years had more decayed or filled tooth surfaces than children breast-fed part of that time but well short of a year. No bottle at night nor juice at irregular times, the mother's brushing of her child's teeth, and adequate dental care in the mother seemed to reduce ECC. Our results suggest measures that might reduce ECC risk. Medical providers must discuss oral health with new mothers and educate them on the important role they play in keeping their babies' teeth healthy

  8. Is Campylobacter involved in antibiotic associated diarrhoea?

    PubMed

    Vaishnavi, Chetana; Kaur, Sukhminderjit

    2005-10-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important cause of acute bacterial diarrhoea. In developing countries like India, children gain immunity early during infancy. However, the incidence is higher in non-immune hosts. Antibiotic use destabilizes the gut flora and can inhibit the local immune responses, thereby compromising resistance to a variety of infections. It is not yet known whether antibiotic intake can also precipitate C. jejuni enteritis as the infectious dose is low and attack rates are high. We made a preliminary study to determine the prevalence of C. jejuni in hospitalized patients receiving antibiotics for various ailments. One hundred and thirty eight stool samples submitted for Clostridium difficile toxin assay were additionally cultured for C. jejuni in blood-free campylobacter selectivity agar. All suspected colonies were subjected to Gram staining, oxidase, catalase and nalidixic acid sensitivity tests. Confirmation of C. jejuni was done by the hippurate hydrolysis test. Of the 138 faecal samples investigated, 14 (10.1%) grew C. jejuni and 11 of them belonged to adults. Two of these 14 samples were also positive for C. difficile toxin. Though not as yet reported, C. jejuni may also be involved in antibiotic associated diarrhoea due to lowered immunity in the host. It may cause enteritis either by itself or in synergy with C. difficile infection.

  9. Cryptosporidium, chronic diarrhoea and the proximal small intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, A D; Thomas, A G; Walker-Smith, J A

    1992-01-01

    The association between Cryptosporidium, chronic diarrhoea and a proximal small intestinal mucosal enteropathy was reviewed over a six and a half year period. One hundred and twenty three children with cryptosporidiosis and no clinical evidence of immune deficiency were identified. 50% of children excreting only Cryptosporidium had chronic diarrhoea. Most cases (63%) of chronic diarrhoea occurred in the first two years of life. A mild to moderate enteropathy was present in all nine children undergoing a small intestinal biopsy and seven showed the presence of Cryptosporidium adhering to villous epithelium. All patients eventually recovered spontaneously. Cryptosporidium is a cause of chronic diarrhoea and a proximal small intestinal mucosal enteropathy in children without immune deficiency. Screening for the parasite should be part of the investigative procedures in children with chronic diarrhoea. Images Figure 4 PMID:1398230

  10. A novel method for rapidly diagnosing the causes of diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Probert, C S J; Jones, P R H; Ratcliffe, N M

    2004-01-01

    Background: The microbiological diagnosis of infectious diarrhoea may take several days using conventional techniques. In order to determine whether flatus can be used to make a rapid diagnosis, the volatile organic compounds associated with diarrhoea were analysed. Methods: Stool samples were collected from 35 patients with infectious diarrhoea and from six healthy controls. Gaseous compounds were extracted from a headspace using solid phase microextraction and analysed using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. Results: Characteristic patterns of volatile gases were found for the main causes of infectious diarrhoea in hospitals. Furan species without indoles indicated Clostridium difficile, ethyl dodecanoate indicated rotavirus, ammonia without ethyl dodecanoate suggested other enteric viruses, and the absence of hydrocarbons and terpenes indicated Campylobacter infection. Conclusion: These results could be the basis of rapid near patient diagnosis of infectious diarrhoea. PMID:14684577

  11. Diarrhoea prevalence in children under five years of age in rural Burundi: an assessment of social and behavioural factors at the household level

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Katharina; Tabatabai, Patrik; Rudolph, Jochen; Marx, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of child mortality worldwide. Low- and middle-income countries are particularly burdened with this both preventable and treatable condition. Targeted interventions include the provision of safe water, the use of sanitation facilities and hygiene education, but are implemented with varying local success. Objective To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with diarrhoea in children under five years of age in rural Burundi. Design A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 551 rural households in northwestern Burundi. Areas of inquiry included 1) socio-demographic information, 2) diarrhoea period prevalence and treatment, 3) behaviour and knowledge, 4) socio-economic indicators, 5) access to water and water chain as well as 6) sanitation and personal/children's hygiene. Results A total of 903 children were enrolled. The overall diarrhoea prevalence was 32.6%. Forty-six per cent (n=255) of households collected drinking water from improved water sources and only 3% (n=17) had access to improved sanitation. We found a lower prevalence of diarrhoea in children whose primary caretakers received hygiene education (17.9%), boiled water prior to its utilisation (19.4%) and were aged 40 or older (17.9%). Diarrhoea was associated with factors such as the mother's age being less than 25 and the conviction that diarrhoea could not be prevented. No gender differences were detected regarding diarrhoea prevalence or the caretaker's decision to treat. Conclusions Diarrhoea prevalence can be reduced through hygiene education and point-of use household water treatment such as boiling. In order to maximise the impact on children's health in the given rural setting, future interventions must assure systematic and regular hygiene education at the household and community level. PMID:25150028

  12. Diarrhoea prevalence in children under five years of age in rural Burundi: an assessment of social and behavioural factors at the household level.

    PubMed

    Diouf, Katharina; Tabatabai, Patrik; Rudolph, Jochen; Marx, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Background Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of child mortality worldwide. Low- and middle-income countries are particularly burdened with this both preventable and treatable condition. Targeted interventions include the provision of safe water, the use of sanitation facilities and hygiene education, but are implemented with varying local success. Objective To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with diarrhoea in children under five years of age in rural Burundi. Design A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 551 rural households in northwestern Burundi. Areas of inquiry included 1) socio-demographic information, 2) diarrhoea period prevalence and treatment, 3) behaviour and knowledge, 4) socio-economic indicators, 5) access to water and water chain as well as 6) sanitation and personal/children's hygiene. Results A total of 903 children were enrolled. The overall diarrhoea prevalence was 32.6%. Forty-six per cent (n=255) of households collected drinking water from improved water sources and only 3% (n=17) had access to improved sanitation. We found a lower prevalence of diarrhoea in children whose primary caretakers received hygiene education (17.9%), boiled water prior to its utilisation (19.4%) and were aged 40 or older (17.9%). Diarrhoea was associated with factors such as the mother's age being less than 25 and the conviction that diarrhoea could not be prevented. No gender differences were detected regarding diarrhoea prevalence or the caretaker's decision to treat. Conclusions Diarrhoea prevalence can be reduced through hygiene education and point-of use household water treatment such as boiling. In order to maximise the impact on children's health in the given rural setting, future interventions must assure systematic and regular hygiene education at the household and community level.

  13. Diarrhoea prevalence in children under five years of age in rural Burundi: an assessment of social and behavioural factors at the household level.

    PubMed

    Diouf, Katharina; Tabatabai, Patrik; Rudolph, Jochen; Marx, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of child mortality worldwide. Low- and middle-income countries are particularly burdened with this both preventable and treatable condition. Targeted interventions include the provision of safe water, the use of sanitation facilities and hygiene education, but are implemented with varying local success. To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with diarrhoea in children under five years of age in rural Burundi. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 551 rural households in northwestern Burundi. Areas of inquiry included 1) socio-demographic information, 2) diarrhoea period prevalence and treatment, 3) behaviour and knowledge, 4) socio-economic indicators, 5) access to water and water chain as well as 6) sanitation and personal/children's hygiene. A total of 903 children were enrolled. The overall diarrhoea prevalence was 32.6%. Forty-six per cent (n=255) of households collected drinking water from improved water sources and only 3% (n=17) had access to improved sanitation. We found a lower prevalence of diarrhoea in children whose primary caretakers received hygiene education (17.9%), boiled water prior to its utilisation (19.4%) and were aged 40 or older (17.9%). Diarrhoea was associated with factors such as the mother's age being less than 25 and the conviction that diarrhoea could not be prevented. No gender differences were detected regarding diarrhoea prevalence or the caretaker's decision to treat. Diarrhoea prevalence can be reduced through hygiene education and point-of use household water treatment such as boiling. In order to maximise the impact on children's health in the given rural setting, future interventions must assure systematic and regular hygiene education at the household and community level.

  14. Gut parasites in HIV-seropositive Zambian adults with diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Khumalo-Ngwenya, B; Luo, N P; Chintu, C; Sunkutu, R; Sakala-Kazembe, F; Baboo, K S; Mathewson, J; Zumla, A

    1994-06-01

    We undertook a nine month study to define the frequency of parasitic infections in adults with diarrhoea presenting at the medical filter clinic and the Dermatovenereology clinic of the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. A total of 287 patients with diarrhoea were enrolled in the study; 130 from the adult medicine filter clinic recruitment consulting room and 157 patients from the Dermatovenereology clinic. Of 130 patients from the adult filter clinic, 85 (65%) were HIV-seropositive and 45 (35%) were seronegative for HIV. Out of 85 HIV-seropositive patients, 58 (68.2%) had acute diarrhoea and 27 (31.8%) had chronic diarrhoea. Of the 45 HIV-seronegative patients, 35 (77%) had acute diarrhoea and 10 (23%) had chronic diarrhoea. All of the 157 patients recruited from the Dermatovenereology clinic were HIV-seropositive. Of these, 97 (62%) had chronic diarrhoea; 7 (4%) had acute diarrhoea, and 53 (34%) patients had no diarrhoea. The common parasites detected were Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Entamoeba coli, and Cryptosporidium spp. Isospora belli and Cryptosporidium spp were seen only in the HIV-seropositive group. In the Dermatovenereology clinic there was a statistically significant difference between parasite detection rate of Isospora belli and Cryptosporidium spp in HIV-seropositive patients with chronic diarrhoea compared to asymptomatic HIV-seropositive individuals P < 0.01 and p = 0.05, respectively). A significant difference in detection rates of Entamoeba coli was seen between the HIV-seropositive group in the Dermatovenereology clinic [17 (10.8%) out of 157] compared to 1 (1.5%) out of 85 in the adult medicine filter clinic.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Multifaceted allergen avoidance during infancy reduces asthma during childhood with the effect persisting until age 18 years.

    PubMed

    Scott, Martha; Roberts, Graham; Kurukulaaratchy, Ramesh J; Matthews, Sharon; Nove, Andrea; Arshad, S Hasan

    2012-12-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease that often starts in childhood. The key risk factors are a child's environment and their genetic characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of environmental modification in the first 12 months of life on the prevalence of asthma in high-risk individuals. Children (n=120) considered at high risk of allergic disorders (either dual heredity or single heredity and a high cord total IgE), were enrolled in a single-blinded, randomised controlled trial. Infants in the intervention arm were either breast fed with the mother on a low allergen diet or given an extensively hydrolysed formula. Exposure to house dust mite allergen was reduced. The control group followed standard advice. Children were assessed at ages 1, 2, 4, 8 and 18 years for the presence of asthma and atopy. At 18 years of age, there was a significantly lower prevalence of asthma in the prevention group compared with the control group (OR: 0.23, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.70, p=0.01), primarily due to asthma that developed during childhood but persisted until age 18 years. Repeated-measure analysis showed that there was an overall reduction in asthma prevalence from 1 to 18 years (OR: 0.51, CI 0.32 to 0.81, p=0.04). Prevalence of atopy was not significantly different between the two groups at age 18. Comprehensive allergen avoidance in the first year of life is effective in preventing asthma onset in individuals considered at high risk due to heredity. The effect occurs in the early years, but persists through to adulthood.

  16. Short message service reduces dropout in childhood obesity treatment: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    de Niet, Judith; Timman, Reinier; Bauer, Stephanie; van den Akker, Erica; de Klerk, Cora; Kordy, Hans; Passchier, Jan

    2012-11-01

    Lifestyle programs can reduce the level of overweight in children; however, maintenance results and adherence to treatment are difficult to achieve. New technologies, such as the Short Message Service (SMS), might be a promising tool for enhancing interventions. The effect of an SMS approach aimed at improving treatment results and reducing dropout rates in a pediatric lifestyle intervention, is explored. Overweight and obese children (N = 141; age 7-12 years) participating in a lifestyle program were randomly assigned to an intervention group receiving an SMS Maintenance Treatment (SMSMT) for 38 weeks (n = 73) or to a control group receiving no SMSMT (n = 68). Children were asked to send weekly self-monitoring data on exercise, eating behavior, and emotional well-being. In return, they received tailored feedback messages. A differential decrease in BMI was analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA and dropout with logistic regression analysis. We found no significant difference in BMI decrease between the two groups after 12 months; however, we showed that the SMSMT group had 3.25 times less probability of dropping out after 1 year (p = .01) than controls. In the first 3 months of SMSMT, the SMSMT completers sent 0.80 SMSs per week, which reduced to 0.50 SMSs in the final 3 months. Younger children sent more SMSs (p = .03). These results indicate that SMSMT is effective in reducing dropout rates from a pediatric lifestyle intervention. Future research should examine the effectiveness of SMSMT on weight management and related psychosocial variables.

  17. Does Writing about Past Childhood Abuse Reduce Psychological and Physical Symptoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antal, Holly M.; Range, Lillian M.

    2009-01-01

    To see if writing about former abuse reduced depression, somatic, and sleep complaints, 664 undergraduates were screened for past physical or sexual abuse. Of those abused, 88 consenting students were randomly assigned to no-writing control or writing (20 minutes on 4 different days) about abuse or trivial topics. All completed pre-, post-, and…

  18. Fighting an Epidemic: The Role of Schools in Reducing Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyle, Sara A.; Sharkey, Jill; Yetter, Georgette; Felix, Erika; Furlong, Michael J.; Poston, W. S. Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Obesity among children and adolescents is a major public health concern affecting the physical and emotional health of youth while increasing their risk of reduced quality and duration of life. Schools and communities have begun to galvanize to address this epidemic and need quality empirical information to guide their policy, programming, and…

  19. Fighting an Epidemic: The Role of Schools in Reducing Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyle, Sara A.; Sharkey, Jill; Yetter, Georgette; Felix, Erika; Furlong, Michael J.; Poston, W. S. Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Obesity among children and adolescents is a major public health concern affecting the physical and emotional health of youth while increasing their risk of reduced quality and duration of life. Schools and communities have begun to galvanize to address this epidemic and need quality empirical information to guide their policy, programming, and…

  20. Pathways from childhood abuse to prospective revictimization: depression, sex to reduce negative affect, and forecasted sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Miron, Lynsey R; Orcutt, Holly K

    2014-11-01

    Research suggests that adverse events in childhood, such as childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, confer risk for later sexual assault. Psychological distress, coping strategies, and sexual behavior may help explain the path from childhood abuse to revictimization. The present study explored how the use of sex to regulate negative affect (SRNA) operates independently, and in combination with other psychosocial factors to increase college women's (N=541) risk of experiencing prospective adult sexual assault (ASA). Sequential multiple mediator models in Mplus were used to assess the effect of three different forms of childhood abuse on prospective ASA, both independently and while controlling for other forms of childhood abuse. The indirect effect of adolescent sexual assault (AdolSA), depressive symptoms, SRNA, and participants' response to a sex-related vignette was tested using bias-corrected bootstrapping. In the full path model, childhood emotional abuse and AdolSA predicted ASA, while childhood physical and sexual abuse were directly associated with AdolSA, but not ASA. Additionally, depressive symptoms and participants' estimate of their likely behavior in a sex-related vignette directly predicted prospective ASA. Results using bootstrapping revealed that a history of childhood abuse predicted prospective ASA via diverse direct and indirect paths, as well as through a similar multiple mediator path. Overall, findings suggest that a combination of affective, coping, and sexual expectancy factors contribute to risk for revictimization in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Future research directions and targets for risk-reduction programming are discussed.

  1. Pathways from Childhood Abuse to Prospective Revictimization: Depression, Sex to Reduce Negative Affect, and Forecasted Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Miron, Lynsey R.; Orcutt, Holly K.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that adverse events in childhood, such as childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, confer risk for later sexual assault. Psychological distress, coping strategies, and sexual behavior may help explain the path from childhood abuse to revictimization. The present study explored how the use of sex to regulate negative affect (SRNA) operates independently, and in combination with other psychosocial factors to increase college women’s (N = 541) risk of experiencing prospective adult sexual assault (ASA). Sequential multiple mediator models in Mplus were used to assess the effect of three different forms of childhood abuse on prospective ASA, both independently and while controlling for other forms of childhood abuse. The indirect effect of adolescent sexual assault (AdolSA), depressive symptoms, SRNA, and participants’ response to a sex-related vignette was tested using bias-corrected bootstrapping. In the full path model, childhood emotional abuse and AdolSA predicted ASA, while childhood physical and sexual abuse were directly associated with AdolSA, but not ASA. Additionally, depressive symptoms and participants’ estimate of their likely behavior in a sex-related vignette directly predicted prospective ASA. Results using bootstrapping revealed that a history of childhood abuse predicted prospective ASA via diverse direct and indirect paths, as well as through a similar multiple mediator path. Overall, findings suggest that a combination of affective, coping, and sexual expectancy factors contribute to risk for revictimization in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Future research directions and targets for risk-reduction programming will be discussed. PMID:25455965

  2. The aetiology of diarrhoea, pneumonia and respiratory colonization of HIV-exposed infants randomized to breast- or formula-feeding.

    PubMed

    Zash, Rebecca M; Shapiro, Roger L; Leidner, Jean; Wester, Carolyn; McAdam, Alexander J; Hodinka, Richard L; Thior, Ibou; Moffat, Claire; Makhema, Joseph; McIntosh, Kenneth; Essex, Max; Lockman, Shahin

    2016-08-01

    Diarrhoea and pneumonia are common causes of childhood death in sub-Saharan Africa but there are few studies describing specific pathogens. The study aimed to describe the pathogens associated with diarrhoea, pneumonia and oropharyngeal colonization in children born to HIV-infected women (HIV-exposed infants). The Mashi Study randomized 1200 HIV-infected women and their infants to breastfeed for 6 months with ZDV prophylaxis or formula-feed with 4 weeks of ZDV. Children were tested for HIV by PCR at 1, 4, 7, 9 and 12 months and by ELISA at 18 months. Pre-defined subsets of children were sampled during episodes of diarrhoea (n = 300) and pneumonia (n = 85). Stool was tested for bacterial pathogens, rotavirus and parasites. Children with pneumonia underwent bacterial blood culture, and testing of nasopharyngeal aspirates for viral pathogens by PCR. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from a consecutive subset of 561 infants at the routine 3-month visit for bacterial culture. The median age (range) at sampling was 181 days for diarrhoea (0-730) and 140 days for pneumonia (2-551). Pathogens were identified in 55 (18%) children with diarrhoea and 32 (38%) with pneumonia. No differences in pathogens by child HIV status (HIV-infected vs HIV-uninfected) or feeding strategy were identified. Campylobacter was the most common diarrhoeal pathogen (7%). Adenovirus (22%) and other viruses (19%) were the primary pathogens isolated during pneumonias. More formula-fed infants had oropharyngeal colonization by pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria (16.8% vs 6.2%, P = 0.003), which was associated with a non-significant increased risk of pneumonia (OR 2.2, 95% CI 0.8-5.7). A trend toward oropharyngeal bacterial colonization was observed in formula-fed infants. Although viruses were most commonly detected during pneumonia, respiratory colonization by Gram-negative bacteria may have contributed to pneumonia in formula-fed infants.

  3. Review article: the clinical management of congenital chloride diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Wedenoja, S; Höglund, P; Holmberg, C

    2010-02-15

    Congenital chloride diarrhoea in a newborn is a medical emergency, requiring early diagnostics and treatment to prevent severe dehydration and infant mortality. While most of the 250 cases reported arise from Finland, Poland and Arab countries, single cases with this autosomal recessive disorder appear worldwide. Such congenital chloride diarrhoea rarity makes diagnosis difficult. Life-long salt substitution with NaCl and KCl stabilizes fluid, electrolyte and acid-base balance diagnosis. When properly treated, the long-term outcome is favourable. To summarize data on congenital chloride diarrhoea diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment, and to provide guidelines for both acute and long-term management of congenital chloride diarrhoea. Data are based on MEDLINE search for 'chloride diarrhoea', in addition to clinical experience in the treatment of the largest known series of patients. Treatment of congenital chloride diarrhoea involves (i) life-long salt substitution; (ii) management of acute dehydration and hypokalaemia during gastroenteritis or other infections; and (iii) recognition and treatment of other manifestations of the disease, such as intestinal inflammation, renal impairment and male subfertility. This review summarizes data on congenital chloride diarrhoea and provides guidelines for treatment. After being a mostly paediatric problem, adult patients constitute a rare challenge for gastroenterologists worldwide.

  4. Prevalence of diarrhoea and risk factors among children under five years old in Mbour, Senegal: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Thiam, Sokhna; Diène, Aminata N; Fuhrimann, Samuel; Winkler, Mirko S; Sy, Ibrahima; Ndione, Jacques A; Schindler, Christian; Vounatsou, Penelope; Utzinger, Jürg; Faye, Ousmane; Cissé, Guéladio

    2017-07-06

    Diarrhoeal diseases remain an important cause of mortality and morbidity among children, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. In Senegal, diarrhoea is responsible for 15% of all deaths in children under the age of five and is the third leading cause of childhood deaths. For targeted planning and implementation of prevention strategies, a context-specific understanding of the determinants of diarrhoeal diseases is needed. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors of diarrhoeal diseases in children under the age of five in Mbour, Senegal. Between February and March 2014, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in four zones of Mbour to estimate the burden of diarrhoeal diseases (i.e. diarrhoea episodes in the 2 weeks preceding the survey) and associated risk factors. The zones covered urban central, peri-central, north peripheral and south peripheral areas. Overall, 596 households were surveyed by a questionnaire, yielding information on sociodemographic, environmental and hygiene behavioural factors. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of diarrhoea. The reported prevalence of diarrhoea among children under the age of five during the 2 weeks preceding the survey was 26%. Without adjustment, the highest diarrhoea prevalence rates were observed in the peri-central (44.8%) and urban central zones (36.3%). Multivariable regression revealed significant associations between diarrhoeal diseases and unemployment of mothers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18-2.23), use of open bags for storing household waste (aOR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.00-3.02), evacuation of household waste in public streets (aOR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.20-3.55), no treatment of stored drinking water (aOR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.11-2.56) and use of shared toilets (aOR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.11-2.56). We found a high prevalence of diarrhoea in children under the age of five

  5. Disease Control After Reduced Volume Conformal and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Thomas E.; Kun, Larry E.; Hua, Chia-Ho; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Sanford, Robert A.; Boop, Frederick A.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To estimate the rate of disease control after conformal radiation therapy using reduced clinical target volume (CTV) margins and to determine factors that predict for tumor progression. Methods and Materials: Eighty-eight children (median age, 8.5 years; range, 3.2-17.6 years) received conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy between 1998 and 2009. The study group included those prospectively treated from 1998 to 2003, using a 10-mm CTV, defined as the margin surrounding the solid and cystic tumor targeted to receive the prescription dose of 54 Gy. The CTV margin was subsequently reduced after 2003, yielding 2 groups of patients: those treated with a CTV margin greater than 5 mm (n=26) and those treated with a CTV margin less than or equal to 5 mm (n=62). Disease progression was estimated on the basis of additional variables including sex, race, extent of resection, tumor interventions, target volume margins, and frequency of weekly surveillance magnetic resonance (MR) imaging during radiation therapy. Median follow-up was 5 years. Results: There was no difference between progression-free survival rates based on CTV margins (>5 mm vs ≤5 mm) at 5 years (88.1% ± 6.3% vs 96.2% ± 4.4% [P=.6386]). There were no differences based on planning target volume (PTV) margins (or combined CTV plus PTV margins). The PTV was systematically reduced from 5 to 3 mm during the time period of the study. Factors predictive of superior progression-free survival included Caucasian race (P=.0175), no requirement for cerebrospinal fluid shunting (P=.0066), and number of surveillance imaging studies during treatment (P=.0216). Patients whose treatment protocol included a higher number of weekly surveillance MR imaging evaluations had a lower rate of tumor progression. Conclusions: These results suggest that targeted volume reductions for radiation therapy using smaller margins are feasible and safe but require careful monitoring. We are currently investigating

  6. Childhood diarrhoeal deaths in seven low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ahmed Ehsanur; Moinuddin, Md; Molla, Mitike; Worku, Alemayehu; Hurt, Lisa; Kirkwood, Betty; Mohan, Sanjana Brahmawar; Mazumder, Sarmila; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Raza, Farrukh; Mrema, Sigilbert; Masanja, Honorati; Kadobera, Daniel; Waiswa, Peter; Bahl, Rajiv; Zangenberg, Mike; Muhe, Lulu

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the clinical characteristics of children who died from diarrhoea in low- and middle-income countries, such as the duration of diarrhoea, comorbid conditions, care-seeking behaviour and oral rehydration therapy use. The study included verbal autopsy data on children who died from diarrhoea between 2000 and 2012 at seven sites in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Pakistan, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania, respectively. Data came from demographic surveillance sites, randomized trials and an extended Demographic and Health Survey. The type of diarrhoea was classified as acute watery, acute bloody or persistent and risk factors were identified. Deaths in children aged 1 to 11 months and 1 to 4 years were analysed separately. The proportion of childhood deaths due to diarrhoea varied considerably across the seven sites from less than 3% to 30%. Among children aged 1-4 years, acute watery diarrhoea accounted for 31-69% of diarrhoeal deaths, acute bloody diarrhoea for 12-28%, and persistent diarrhoea for 12-56%. Among infants aged 1-11 months, persistent diarrhoea accounted for over 30% of diarrhoeal deaths in Ethiopia, India, Pakistan, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. At most sites, more than 40% of children who died from persistent diarrhoea were malnourished. Persistent diarrhoea remains an important cause of diarrhoeal death in young children in low- and middle-income countries. Research is needed on the public health burden of persistent diarrhoea and current treatment practices to understand why children are still dying from the condition.

  7. Childhood diarrhoeal deaths in seven low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Ahmed Ehsanur; Moinuddin, Md; Molla, Mitike; Worku, Alemayehu; Hurt, Lisa; Kirkwood, Betty; Mohan, Sanjana Brahmawar; Mazumder, Sarmila; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Raza, Farrukh; Mrema, Sigilbert; Masanja, Honorati; Kadobera, Daniel; Waiswa, Peter; Bahl, Rajiv; Zangenberg, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of children who died from diarrhoea in low- and middle-income countries, such as the duration of diarrhoea, comorbid conditions, care-seeking behaviour and oral rehydration therapy use. Methods The study included verbal autopsy data on children who died from diarrhoea between 2000 and 2012 at seven sites in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Pakistan, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania, respectively. Data came from demographic surveillance sites, randomized trials and an extended Demographic and Health Survey. The type of diarrhoea was classified as acute watery, acute bloody or persistent and risk factors were identified. Deaths in children aged 1 to 11 months and 1 to 4 years were analysed separately. Findings The proportion of childhood deaths due to diarrhoea varied considerably across the seven sites from less than 3% to 30%. Among children aged 1–4 years, acute watery diarrhoea accounted for 31–69% of diarrhoeal deaths, acute bloody diarrhoea for 12–28%, and persistent diarrhoea for 12–56%. Among infants aged 1–11 months, persistent diarrhoea accounted for over 30% of diarrhoeal deaths in Ethiopia, India, Pakistan, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. At most sites, more than 40% of children who died from persistent diarrhoea were malnourished. Conclusion Persistent diarrhoea remains an important cause of diarrhoeal death in young children in low- and middle-income countries. Research is needed on the public health burden of persistent diarrhoea and current treatment practices to understand why children are still dying from the condition. PMID:25378757

  8. Does accident prevention education reduce the incidence of childhood accidents in the home?

    PubMed

    Close, Jessica

    2002-12-01

    This mini-review examines whether accident prevention education reduces the incidence of home accidents among children under the age of 5 years. The Cochrane Library, Medline, CINAHL and Embase databases were searched for randomized controlled studies (RCTs) and systematic reviews of RCTs that compared parents who received accident prevention education with those that did not. Only two RCTs met the inclusion criteria for analysis in this review. The results of these studies showed that there was no statistically significant difference in accidents between the two groups but the quality of the trials was low. An RCT in process (Watson et al, 2002) looks likely to provide evidence of a high standard, so that practice decisions regarding accident prevention education can be made.

  9. Interventions targeting absences increase adherence and reduce abandonment of childhood cancer treatment in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Salaverria, Carmen; Rossell, Nuria; Hernandez, Angelica; Fuentes Alabi, Soad; Vasquez, Roberto; Bonilla, Miguel; Lam, Catherine G; Ribeiro, Raul C

    2015-09-01

    In El Salvador, about 200 new cases of pediatric cancer are diagnosed each year, and survival rates approach 70%. Although treatment is available at no cost, abandonment of therapy has remained at a steady yearly rate of 13% during the past decade. A time sensitive adherence tracking procedure (TS-ATP) was recently implemented to detect missed appointments, identify their causes, and intervene promptly. Procedure The study team was informed daily of patient/family failure to attend medical appointments in the pediatric oncology unit; the families were contacted and interviewed to ascertain and address the reasons. Patients who did not return after this initial contact were contacted again through local health clinics and municipalities. Law enforcement was a last resort for patients undergoing frontline treatment with a good prognosis., The system was adapted to clinical urgency: families of patients undergoing induction therapy were contacted within 24 hr, those in other therapy phases, within 48 hr, and those who had completed treatment, within one week. Reasons for absence were obtained by telephone or in person. The annual rate of abandonment was reduced from 13-3% during the 2 years period. There were 1,111 absences reported and 1,472 contacts with caregivers and institutions. The three main reasons for absences were financial needs (165, 23%), unforeseen barriers (116, 16%), and domestic needs (86, 12%). Use of the treatment adherence tracking system to locate and communicate with patients/families after missed appointments and the allocated aid stemming from these interviews substantially reduced abandonment and non-adherence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. INTERVENTIONS TARGETING ABSENCES INCREASE ADHERENCE AND REDUCE ABANDONMENT OF CHILDHOOD CANCER TREATMENT IN EL SALVADOR

    PubMed Central

    Salaverria, Carmen; Rossell, Nuria; Hernandez, Angelica; Alabi, Soad Fuentes; Vasquez, Roberto; Bonilla, Miguel; Lam, Catherine G.; Ribeiro, Raul C.

    2015-01-01

    Background In El Salvador, about 200 new cases of pediatric cancer are diagnosed each year, and survival rates approach 70%. Although treatment is available at no cost, abandonment of therapy has remained at a steady yearly rate of 13% during the past decade. A time sensitive adherence tracking procedure (TS-ATP) was recently implemented to detect missed appointments, identify their causes, and intervene promptly. Procedure The study team was informed daily of patient/family failure to attend medical appointments in the pediatric oncology unit; the families were contacted and interviewed to ascertain and address the reasons. Patients who did not return after this initial contact were contacted again through local health clinics and municipalities. Law enforcement was a last resort for patients undergoing frontline treatment with a good prognosis., The system was adapted to clinical urgency: families of patients undergoing induction therapy were contacted within 24 hours, those in other therapy phases, within 48 hours, and those who had completed treatment, within one week. Reasons for absence were obtained by telephone or in person. Results The annual rate of abandonment was reduced from 13% to 3% during the 2-year period. There were 1111 absences reported and 1472 contacts with caregivers and institutions. The three main reasons for absences were financial needs (165, 23%), unforeseen barriers (116, 16%), and domestic needs (86, 12%). Conclusions Use of the treatment adherence tracking system to locate and communicate with patients/families after missed appointments and the allocated aid stemming from these interviews substantially reduced abandonment and non-adherence. PMID:25925227

  11. Effect of a single dose of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii on the occurrence of porcine neonatal diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Hancox, L R; Le Bon, M; Richards, P J; Guillou, D; Dodd, C E R; Mellits, K H

    2015-11-01

    Piglet neonatal diarrhoea is an important issue in modern pig production and is linked to increased mortality and poor growth rates, affecting long-term pig health, increasing use of medication and cost of production. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii (SB) is a probiotic yeast with documented clinical efficacy in the prevention and treatment of diarrhoeal diseases in humans. The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the effect of SB on occurrence and severity of neonatal diarrhoea in piglets, mortality and growth rate. Forty-six litters (606 piglets) were randomly allocated to a control or SB treatment (n=23 per treatment). Within 24 h of farrowing, piglets assigned to the SB treatment received a single oral dose of a paste containing 3.3×10(9) CFU of SB CNCM I-107(9). Piglets from the control litters received a placebo paste. Piglet weight, mortality and diarrhoea were recorded up to day 7 of age. It was shown that numbers of diarrhoea days were significantly correlated with increased mortality rate and reduced weight gain (P<0.05). SB treatment had no effect on growth or mortality in diarrhoeic litters. However, SB-supplemented litters had significantly lower faecal scores, indicating firmer faeces (P<0.01) and fewer numbers of diarrhoeic days (P<0.01) during the 1(st) week of life. Reduction in the number of diarrhoeic litters compared with the control group was observed following the probiotic administration (P<0.05). These results highlight the detrimental effects of neonatal diarrhoea on pre-weaning performance and suggest that SB, by reducing diarrhoea duration and severity, has the potential of improving enteric health in the early stages of life in pigs.

  12. Effectiveness of Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus for the management of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in healthy adults: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Evans, Malkanthi; Salewski, Ryan P; Christman, Mary C; Girard, Stephanie-Anne; Tompkins, Thomas A

    2016-07-01

    Broad-spectrum antibiotic use can disrupt the gastrointestinal microbiota resulting in diarrhoea. Probiotics may be beneficial in managing this type of diarrhoea. The aim of this 10-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 supplementation on antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in healthy adults. Subjects were randomised to receive 1 week of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (875 mg/125 mg) once per day, plus a daily dose of 8×109 colony-forming units of a multi-strain probiotic (n 80) or placebo (n 80). The probiotic or placebo intervention was maintained for 1 week after completion of the antibiotic. Primary study outcomes of consistency and frequency of bowel movements were not significantly different between the probiotic and placebo groups. The secondary outcomes of diarrhoea-like defecations, Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale scores, safety parameters and adverse events were not significantly different between the probiotic intervention and the placebo. A post hoc analysis on the duration of diarrhoea-like defecations showed that probiotic intervention reduced the length of these events by 1 full day (probiotic, 2·70 (sem 0·36) d; placebo, 3·71 (sem 0·36) d; P=0·037; effect size=0·52). In conclusion, this study provides novel evidence that L. helveticus R0052 and L. rhamnosus R0011 supplementation significantly reduced the duration of diarrhoea-like defecations in healthy adults receiving antibiotics.

  13. Preventing childhood obesity by reducing consumption of carbonated drinks: cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    James, Janet; Thomas, Peter; Cavan, David; Kerr, David

    2004-01-01

    Objective To determine if a school based educational programme aimed at reducing consumption of carbonated drinks can prevent excessive weight gain in children. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting Six primary schools in southwest England. Participants 644 children aged 7-11 years. Intervention Focused educational programme on nutrition over one school year. Main outcome measures Drink consumption and number of overweight and obese children. Results Consumption of carbonated drinks over three days decreased by 0.6 glasses (average glass size 250 ml) in the intervention group but increased by 0.2 glasses in the control group (mean difference 0.7, 95% confidence interval 0.1 to 1.3). At 12 months the percentage of overweight and obese children increased in the control group by 7.5%, compared with a decrease in the intervention group of 0.2% (mean difference 7.7%, 2.2% to 13.1%). Conclusion A targeted, school based education programme produced a modest reduction in the number of carbonated drinks consumed, which was associated with a reduction in the number of overweight and obese children. PMID:15107313

  14. [Effect of counselling school teachers on healthy lifestyle on the impact of a program to reduce childhood obesity].

    PubMed

    Kain, Juliana; Leyton, Bárbara; Concha, Fernando; Salazar, Gabriela; Lobos, Luz; Vio, Fernando

    2010-02-01

    In 2007, a preventive strategy for childhood obesity, that included food education and an increase in physical activity, was implemented in seven public schools located in Santiago. In four of these schools, a counseling program about healthy lifestyles for teachers was also carried out. To test if counseling had an effect in the intervention for children. Anthropometric measures were assessed in children at baseline and after two years of intervention. Teachers were also evaluated with anthropometry and a blood sample was obtained to measure blood glucose and serum lipids. Four hundred twelve children from schools whose teachers had counseling and 237 children from schools whose teachers did not have it were evaluated. Twenty-eight teachers with and 19 with no counseling were assessed. In children, the overall prevalence of obesity decreased from 20.2 to 18.3% (p = 0.03). This reduction was only significant among females. BMIZ score decreased significantly in children of both genders. No effect of counseling was observed on weight reduction. Among teachers that received counseling, the prevalence of obesity decreased from 25 to 22.4%, with significant improvements in blood glucose and HDL cholesterol. Counseling directed at teachers did not improve the effect of a program to reduce obesity among schoolchildren.

  15. Costs of treating diarrhoea in a children's hospital in Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, M.; Kumate-Rodríguez, J.; Mota-Hernández, F.

    1989-01-01

    The treatment received by children aged under 5 years with diarrhoea was studied in the Hospital Infantil de México (Federico Goméz), Mexico City. The costs of treatment were calculated and estimates were made of how these had changed since the establishment of an oral rehydration unit in the hospital in 1985. The results indicate that drug treatment of outpatients was generally appropriate and inexpensive. In contrast, the cost of drugs for inpatients was considerably higher. The seriousness of the cases justified much of this additional expense for inpatients, but there is evidence that the costs could be reduced further without jeopardizing the quality of the care. Diagnostic tests were relatively expensive, frequently failed to identify diarrhoeal etiology, and their results correlated poorly with the treatment prescribed. The oral rehydration unit resulted in significant savings by causing a 25% fall in the number of inpatients with diarrhoea. PMID:2766450

  16. Interventions to Reduce Harm from Smoking with Families in Infancy and Early Childhood: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Nicola; Luckett, Tim; Davidson, Patricia M.; Di Giacomo, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to adult smoking can have deleterious effects on children. Interventions that assist families with smoking cessation/reduction and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) avoidance can improve child health outcomes and reduce the risk of smoking initiation. The purpose of this review was to describe the state of the science of interventions with families to promote smoke-free home environments for infants and young children, including parent smoking reduction and cessation interventions, ETS reduction, and anti-smoking socialisation interventions, using the socio-ecological framework as a guide. A systematic review of peer-reviewed articles identified from journal databases from 2000 to 2014 was undertaken. Of 921 articles identified, 28 were included in the review. Considerable heterogeneity characterised target populations, intervention types, complexity and intensity, precluding meta-analysis. Few studies used socio-ecological approaches, such as family theories or concepts. Studies in early parenthood (child age newborn to one year) tended to focus on parent smoking cessation, where studies of families with children aged 1–5 years were more likely to target household SHSe reduction. Results suggest that interventions for reduction in ETS may be more successful than for smoking cessation and relapse prevention in families of children aged less than 5 years. There is a need for a range of interventions to support families in creating a smoke free home environment that are both tailored and targeted to specific populations. Interventions that target the social and psychodynamics of the family should be considered further, particularly in reaching vulnerable populations. Consideration is also required for approaches to interventions that may further stigmatise families containing smokers. Further research is required to identify successful elements of interventions and the contexts in which they are most effective. PMID:25785496

  17. Interventions to reduce harm from smoking with families in infancy and early childhood: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nicola; Luckett, Tim; Davidson, Patricia M; Di Giacomo, Michelle

    2015-03-16

    Exposure to adult smoking can have deleterious effects on children. Interventions that assist families with smoking cessation/reduction and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) avoidance can improve child health outcomes and reduce the risk of smoking initiation. The purpose of this review was to describe the state of the science of interventions with families to promote smoke-free home environments for infants and young children, including parent smoking reduction and cessation interventions, ETS reduction, and anti-smoking socialisation interventions, using the socio-ecological framework as a guide. A systematic review of peer-reviewed articles identified from journal databases from 2000 to 2014 was undertaken. Of 921 articles identified, 28 were included in the review. Considerable heterogeneity characterised target populations, intervention types, complexity and intensity, precluding meta-analysis. Few studies used socio-ecological approaches, such as family theories or concepts. Studies in early parenthood (child age newborn to one year) tended to focus on parent smoking cessation, where studies of families with children aged 1-5 years were more likely to target household SHSe reduction. Results suggest that interventions for reduction in ETS may be more successful than for smoking cessation and relapse prevention in families of children aged less than 5 years. There is a need for a range of interventions to support families in creating a smoke free home environment that are both tailored and targeted to specific populations. Interventions that target the social and psychodynamics of the family should be considered further, particularly in reaching vulnerable populations. Consideration is also required for approaches to interventions that may further stigmatise families containing smokers. Further research is required to identify successful elements of interventions and the contexts in which they are most effective.

  18. The World Health Organization's global target for reducing childhood stunting by 2025: rationale and proposed actions.

    PubMed

    de Onis, Mercedes; Dewey, Kathryn G; Borghi, Elaine; Onyango, Adelheid W; Blössner, Monika; Daelmans, Bernadette; Piwoz, Ellen; Branca, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    In 2012, the World Health Organization adopted a resolution on maternal, infant and young child nutrition that included a global target to reduce by 40% the number of stunted under-five children by 2025. The target was based on analyses of time series data from 148 countries and national success stories in tackling undernutrition. The global target translates to a 3.9% reduction per year and implies decreasing the number of stunted children from 171 million in 2010 to about 100 million in 2025. However, at current rates of progress, there will be 127 million stunted children by 2025, that is, 27 million more than the target or a reduction of only 26%. The translation of the global target into national targets needs to consider nutrition profiles, risk factor trends, demographic changes, experience with developing and implementing nutrition policies, and health system development. This paper presents a methodology to set individual country targets, without precluding the use of others. Any method applied will be influenced by country-specific population growth rates. A key question is what countries should do to meet the target. Nutrition interventions alone are almost certainly insufficient, hence the importance of ongoing efforts to foster nutrition-sensitive development and encourage development of evidence-based, multisectoral plans to address stunting at national scale, combining direct nutrition interventions with strategies concerning health, family planning, water and sanitation, and other factors that affect the risk of stunting. In addition, an accountability framework needs to be developed and surveillance systems strengthened to monitor the achievement of commitments and targets. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Seizure characteristics of epilepsy in childhood after acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yuji; Natsume, Jun; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Naoko; Azuma, Yoshiteru; Tsuji, Takeshi; Okumura, Akihisa; Kubota, Tetsuo; Ando, Naoki; Saitoh, Shinji; Miura, Kiyokuni; Negoro, Tamiko; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Kojima, Seiji

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify characteristics of post-encephalopathic epilepsy (PEE) in children after acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD), paying particular attention to precise diagnosis of seizure types. Among 262 children with acute encephalopathy/encephalitis registered in a database of the Tokai Pediatric Neurology Society between 2005 and 2012, 44 were diagnosed with AESD according to the clinical course and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and were included in this study. Medical records were reviewed to investigate clinical data, MRI findings, neurologic outcomes, and presence or absence of PEE. Seizure types of PEE were determined by both clinical observation by pediatric neurologists and ictal video-electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. Of the 44 patients after AESD, 10 (23%) had PEE. The period between the onset of encephalopathy and PEE ranged from 2 to 39 months (median 8.5 months). Cognitive impairment was more severe in patients with PEE than in those without. Biphasic seizures and status epilepticus during the acute phase of encephalopathy did not influence the risk of PEE. The most common seizure type of PEE on clinical observation was focal seizures (n = 5), followed by epileptic spasms (n = 4), myoclonic seizures (n = 3), and tonic seizures (n = 2). In six patients with PEE, seizures were induced by sudden unexpected sounds. Seizure types confirmed by ictal video-EEG recordings were epileptic spasms and focal seizures with frontal onset, and all focal seizures were startle seizures induced by sudden acoustic stimulation. Intractable daily seizures remain in six patients with PEE. We demonstrate seizure characteristics of PEE in children after AESD. Epileptic spasms and startle focal seizures are common seizure types. The specific seizure types may be determined by the pattern of diffuse subcortical white matter injury in AESD and age-dependent reorganization of the brain

  20. Reduced burden of childhood diarrheal diseases through increased access to water and sanitation in India: A modeling analysis.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Arindam; Megiddo, Itamar; Ashok, Ashvin; Verma, Amit; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2016-08-31

    Each year, more than 300,000 children in India under the age of five years die from diarrheal diseases. Clean piped water and improved sanitation are known to be effective in reducing the mortality and morbidity burden of diarrhea but are not yet available to close to half of the Indian population. In this paper, we estimate the health benefits (reduced cases of diarrheal incidence and deaths averted) and economic benefits (measured by out-of-pocket treatment expenditure averted and value of insurance gained) of scaling up the coverage of piped water and improved sanitation among Indian households to a near-universal 95% level. We use IndiaSim, a previously validated, agent-based microsimulation platform to model disease progression and individual demographic and healthcare-seeking behavior in India, and use an iterative, stochastic procedure to simulate health and economic outcomes over time. We find that scaling up access to piped water and improved sanitation could avert 43,352 (95% uncertainty range [UR] 42,201-44,504) diarrheal episodes and 68 (95% UR 62-74) diarrheal deaths per 100,000 under-5 children per year, compared with the baseline. We estimate a saving of (in 2013 US$) $357,788 (95% $345,509-$370,067) in out-of-pocket diarrhea treatment expenditure, and $1646 (95% UR $1603-$1689) in incremental value of insurance per 100,000 under-5 children per year over baseline. The health and financial benefits are highly progressive, i.e. they reach poorer households more. Thus, scaling up access to piped water and improved sanitation can lead to large and equitable reductions in the burden of childhood diarrheal diseases in India.

  1. Comprehensive Oral Health Care to Reduce the Incidence of Severe Early Childhood Caries (s-ECC) in Urban China.

    PubMed

    Si, Yan; Guo, Yan; Yuan, Chao; Xu, Tao; Zheng, Shu Guo

    2016-03-01

    To explore the effectiveness of comprehensive oral health care to reduce the caries incidence for children with severe early childhood caries (s-ECC) in an urban area in China. A total of 357 children aged 3 to 4 years old and diagnosed with s-ECC were recruited in this randomised controlled, single-blinded clinical trial for 1 year. Children of two different kindergarten classes were enrolled in this study and randomly divided into a test group (205 children) and a control group (152 children). The test group received comprehensive oral health care, which included: oral health examination, oral health education, topical fluoride application and dental treatment, and the children in the control group only received the oral health examination. The evaluation of the oral health questionnaire for parents was also performed. An evaluation was carried out at the time of recruitment and 1 year later to explore the effectiveness of the comprehensive oral health care model. The differences in decayed teeth (dt), decayed tooth surfaces (ds), filled teeth (ft), filled tooth surfaces (fs) and the ratio of ft /(dt + ft) between the two groups were statistically significant (P < 0.001) at 1 year. The incidence of caries in the control group was higher than that of the test group (P = 0.02). The rate of awareness of oral health knowledge (P = 0.01) and the practice of good diet habits (P = 0.02) by parents in the test group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The present study demonstrated that the comprehensive oral health care program reduces and prevents caries amongst children with s-ECC.

  2. Factors influencing the prescribing patterns in acute watery diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Choudhry, A J; Mubasher, M

    1997-01-01

    Two hundred sixty-two randomly sampled general physicians of Lahore were interviewed to study the current practices and factors affecting the management of acute watery diarrhoea (AWD) in children below 5 years of age. Among the physicians, 19% prescribed ORS alone, 61% ORS with some drug, 15% drugs alone and 5% increased fluid intake only. Physicians in government sector, recent graduates and those trained in a paediatrics unit prescribed more on the WHO guidelines (p<0.05). Attending a diarrhoea training unit (DTU) course, reading WHO guidelines for management of diarrhoea and total number of patients seen daily had no significant effect on prescribing practices. Two hundred fifty-five (97%) physicians thought that majority of other physicians prescribed drugs for the management of acute watery diarrhoea to satisfy the mothers of the children, their belief in the effectiveness of drugs and competition in practice.

  3. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children: protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kołodziej, Maciej; Szajewska, Hania

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Administration of some probiotics appears to reduce the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD). The effects of probiotics are strain-specific, thus, the efficacy and safety of each probiotic strain should be established separately. We aim to assess the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 administration for the prevention of diarrhoea and AAD in children. Methods and analysis A total of 250 children younger than 18 years treated with antibiotics will be enrolled in a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial in which they will additionally receive L. reuteri DSM 17938 at a dose 108 colony-forming units or an identically appearing placebo, orally, twice daily, for the entire duration of antibiotic treatment. The primary outcome measures will be the frequencies of diarrhoea and AAD. Diarrhoea will be defined according to 1 of 3 definitions: (1) ≥3 loose or watery stools per day for a minimum of 48 hours during antibiotic treatment; (2) ≥3 loose or watery stools per day for a minimum of 24 hours during antibiotic treatment; or (3) ≥2 loose or watery stools per day for a minimum of 24 hours during antibiotic treatment. AAD will be diagnosed in cases of diarrhoea, defined clinically as above, caused by Clostridium difficile or for otherwise unexplained diarrhoea (ie, negative laboratory stool tests for infectious agents). Ethics and dissemination The Bioethics Committee approved the study protocol. The findings of this trial will be submitted to a peer-reviewed paediatric journal. Abstracts will be submitted to relevant national and international conferences. Trial registration number NCT02871908. PMID:28057659

  4. Development of intestinal microflora and occurrence of diarrhoea in sucking foals: effects of Bacillus cereus var. toyoi supplementation.

    PubMed

    John, Jenny; Roediger, Kathrin; Schroedl, Wieland; Aldaher, Nada; Vervuert, Ingrid

    2015-02-14

    Almost all foals develop transient diarrhoea within the first weeks of life. Studies indicated different viral, bacterial, and parasitic causes, such as rotavirus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, and Cryptosporidium are discussed. But little is known about the development of intestinal microflora in foals. The present study investigated whether the supplementation with Bacillus cereus var. toyoi would modify the developing intestinal microflora and consequently reduce diarrhoea in foals. From birth, the foals were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: placebo (10 mL isotonic NaCl, n = 8), low dosage (LD; 5 × 10(8) cfu B. cereus var. toyoi, n = 7) and high dosage (HD; 2 × 10(9) cfu B. cereus var. toyoi, n = 10). Treatment groups were supplemented orally once a day for 58 days. Faeces scoring and sampling were performed within the first 24 h after birth and on day 9, 16, 23, 30, 44, 58 of the foal's life and also on the first day of diarrhoea. Culture-plate methods were used to analyse the bacterial microflora. Eighty-eight per cent of the foals developed diarrhoea (placebo 7/8, LD 5/7, HD 10/10) during the first 58 days of life. Bacillus cereus var. toyoi supplementation had no effect on bacterial microflora. Clostridium perfringens and enterobacteria were equally prevalent in foals with diarrhoea and those who were not afflicted. We conclude that the supplementation of B. cereus var. toyoi had no effect on the occurrence of diarrhoea and health status in the foals.

  5. Reduced forced vital capacity in childhood associated with exposures to petroleum-related compounds at birth residence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Previous studies have reported associations of ambient air pollutant exposures with childhood decrements in lung volumes. While the current study was designed primarily to examine traffic exposures, we also examined the impact of other early life exposures on pulmonary...

  6. Reduced forced vital capacity in childhood associated with exposures to petroleum-related compounds at birth residence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Previous studies have reported associations of ambient air pollutant exposures with childhood decrements in lung volumes. While the current study was designed primarily to examine traffic exposures, we also examined the impact of other early life exposures on pulmonary...

  7. Associations between presence of handwashing stations and soap in the home and diarrhoea and respiratory illness, in children less than five years old in rural western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kamm, K. B.; Feikin, D. R.; Bigogo, G. M.; Aol, G.; Audi, A.; Cohen, A. L.; Shah, M. M.; Yu, J.; Breiman, R. F.; Ram, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We tested whether soap presence in the home or a designated handwashing station was associated with diarrhoea and respiratory illness in Kenya. METHODS In April 2009, we observed presence of a handwashing station and soap in households participating in a longitudinal health surveillance system in rural Kenya. Diarrhoea and acute respiratory illness (ARI) in children < 5 years old were identified using parent-reported syndromic surveillance collected January–April 2009. We used multivariate generalised linear regression to estimate differences in prevalence of illness between households with and without the presence of soap in the home and a handwashing station. RESULTS Among 2547 children, prevalence of diarrhoea and ARI was 2.3 and 11.4 days per 100 child-days, respectively. Soap was observed in 97% of households. Children in households with soap had 1.3 fewer days of diarrhoea/100 child-days (95% CI −2.6, −0.1) than children in households without soap. ARI prevalence was not associated with presence of soap. A handwashing station was identified in 1.4% of households and was not associated with a difference in diarrhoea or ARI prevalence. CONCLUSIONS Soap presence in the home was significantly associated with reduced diarrhoea, but not ARI, in children in rural western Kenya. Whereas most households had soap in the home, almost none had a designated handwashing station, which may prevent handwashing at key times of hand contamination. PMID:24405627

  8. Associations between presence of handwashing stations and soap in the home and diarrhoea and respiratory illness, in children less than five years old in rural western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kamm, K B; Feikin, D R; Bigogo, G M; Aol, G; Audi, A; Cohen, A L; Shah, M M; Yu, J; Breiman, R F; Ram, P K

    2014-04-01

    We tested whether soap presence in the home or a designated handwashing station was associated with diarrhoea and respiratory illness in Kenya. In April 2009, we observed presence of a handwashing station and soap in households participating in a longitudinal health surveillance system in rural Kenya. Diarrhoea and acute respiratory illness (ARI) in children < 5 years old were identified using parent-reported syndromic surveillance collected January-April 2009. We used multivariate generalised linear regression to estimate differences in prevalence of illness between households with and without the presence of soap in the home and a handwashing station. Among 2547 children, prevalence of diarrhoea and ARI was 2.3 and 11.4 days per 100 child-days, respectively. Soap was observed in 97% of households. Children in households with soap had 1.3 fewer days of diarrhoea/100 child-days (95% CI -2.6, -0.1) than children in households without soap. ARI prevalence was not associated with presence of soap. A handwashing station was identified in 1.4% of households and was not associated with a difference in diarrhoea or ARI prevalence. Soap presence in the home was significantly associated with reduced diarrhoea, but not ARI, in children in rural western Kenya. Whereas most households had soap in the home, almost none had a designated handwashing station, which may prevent handwashing at key times of hand contamination. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Role of probiotic in preventing acute diarrhoea in children: a community-based, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled field trial in an urban slum.

    PubMed

    Sur, D; Manna, B; Niyogi, S K; Ramamurthy, T; Palit, A; Nomoto, K; Takahashi, T; Shima, T; Tsuji, H; Kurakawa, T; Takeda, Y; Nair, G B; Bhattacharya, S K

    2011-06-01

    Acute diarrhoea remains a major public health challenge in developing countries. We examined the role of a probiotic in the prevention of acute diarrhoea to discover if there was an effect directed towards a specific aetiology. A double-blind, randomized, controlled field trial involving 3758 children aged 1-5 years was conducted in an urban slum community in Kolkata, India. Participants were given either a probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota or a nutrient drink daily for 12 weeks. They were followed up for another 12 weeks. The primary outcome of this study was the occurrence of first episodes of diarrhoea. We assessed this during 12 weeks of intake of study agent and also for 12 weeks of follow-up. There were 608 subjects with diarrhoea in the probiotic group and 674 subjects in the nutrient group during the study period of 24 weeks. The level of protective efficacy for the probiotic was 14% (95% confidence interval 4-23, P<0·01 in adjusted model). The reduced occurrence of acute diarrhoea in the probiotic group compared to nutrient group was not associated with any specific aetiology. No adverse event was observed in children of either probiotic or nutrient groups. The study suggests that daily intake of a probiotic drink can play a role in prevention of acute diarrhoea in young children in a community setting of a developing country.

  10. Protracted diarrhoea of infancy: evidence in support of an autoimmune variant.

    PubMed Central

    Mirakian, R; Richardson, A; Milla, P J; Walker-Smith, J A; Unsworth, J; Savage, M O; Bottazzo, G F

    1986-01-01

    Circulating autoantibodies to enterocytes were detected by indirect immunofluorescence in 14 out of 25 patients with idiopathic protracted diarrhoea of infancy. Similar specificities were not found in 50 control children with nongastroenterological disorders. The immunofluorescence pattern was more accentuated on the apical border of mature enterocytes. Enterocyte autoantibodies were mainly of IgG class (13/14), but 11 sera were positive for IgM and IgA classes, and five out of 14 positive sera also had the ability to fix complement. Absorption of sera positive for autoantibodies with an IgA coupled immunoabsorbent did not modify the intensity of the staining, indicating that these antibodies were not directed against secretory IgA. High titres and the complement fixing ability of enterocyte autoantibodies indicated a poorer prognosis despite the use of immunosuppressive drugs. Organ specific and non-organ specific autoimmune diseases or corresponding autoantibodies or both were often found in children with enterocyte autoantibodies and their family. These data show the existence of an autoimmune variant of protracted diarrhoea of infancy, despite the rare occurrence of autoimmune diseases in childhood. Images p1134-a PMID:3094805

  11. Incidence rates and risk factor analyses for owner reported vomiting and diarrhoea in Labrador Retrievers - findings from the Dogslife Cohort.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Carys A; Bronsvoort, B Mark de C; Handel, Ian G; Querry, Damon; Rose, Erica; Summers, Kim M; Clements, Dylan N

    2017-05-01

    Dogslife collects data directly from owners of Labrador Retrievers across the UK including information regarding signs of illness irrespective of whether the signs precipitated a veterinary visit. In December 2015, the cohort comprised 6084 dogs aged up to six years and their owners had made 2687 and 2601 reports of diarrhoea and vomiting respectively. The co-occurrence of vomiting and diarrhoea with other signs was described and the frequencies and durations of the two signs were examined with reference to veterinary visitation. Age-specific illness rates were described and Cox Proportional Hazards models were used to estimate risk factors. Just 37% of diarrhoea reports were associated with a veterinary visit and the proportion was even lower for vomiting at 28%; indicating that studies of veterinary practice data miss the majority of signs of gastrointestinal upset. In terms of frequency and duration, diarrhoea typically needed to last two days before the dog would be taken to the vet but if the dog vomited at least every six hours, the owner would be more likely to take the dog to the vet after one day. The illness rates of both signs peaked when the dogs were aged between three and six months. There was also a seasonal pattern to the incidents with the lowest hazards for both in May. Diarrhoea incidents peaked in August-September each year but, while vomiting appeared to be higher in September, it peaked in February. Having another dog in the household was associated with a lower hazard for both vomiting and diarrhoea but having a cat was only associated with a reduced hazard of vomiting. In addition to the distinct seasonal patterns of reporting, there were clear differences in the geographic risks for the two signs. The hazard of diarrhoea was positively associated with human population density within Great Britain (according to home post code) whereas no significant geographical association was found with vomiting. This study is particularly relevant for dog

  12. Bacteriocin production by Shigella sonnei isolated from faeces of children with acute diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Mireille Angela Bernardes; Mendes, Edilberto Nogueira; Apolônio, Ana Carolina Morais; Farias, Luiz De Macêdo; Magalhães, Paula Prazeres

    2010-02-01

    Shigella is a common agent of diarrhoea, a worldwide major health problem. The bacterium produces bacteriocins; however, the role of these substances as a virulence factor is completely unknown. With the aim to search for colicin production by Shigella sonnei, to evaluate the influence of culture conditions on bacteriocin expression, and to characterize the substance partially, 16 S. sonnei strains isolated from children with diarrhoea were tested for antagonism against members of the intestinal microbiota or agents of diarrhoea. Nine strains exhibited isoantagonism and heteroantagonism against S. flexneri and diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli. Autoantagonism and antagonism against the intestinal microbiota were not detected. Culture medium and incubation conditions influenced antagonism expression. Antagonism resulting from bacteriophages, low pH, fatty acids, hydrogen peroxide, and chloroform was excluded. The activity of the intracellular fraction obtained with 75% ammonium sulphate was preserved at pH 1.0-11.0, and was found to be reduced by organic solvents and affected by high temperatures and proteases. The antagonistic spectrum and the in vitro conditions for better antagonism expression suggest that the role of colicin in S. sonnei virulence, if any, would be expressed prior to infection, and may regulate population density of enteropathogens by helping in organism transmission.

  13. Racecadotril for acute diarrhoea in children: systematic review and meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Morris; Akobeng, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Objective Racecadotril is an antisecretory agent that can prevent fluid/electrolyte depletion from the bowel as a result of acute diarrhoea without affecting intestinal motility. An up-to-date systematic review is indicated to summarise the evidence on racecadotril for the treatment of acute diarrhoea in children. Design A Cochrane format systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Data extraction and assessment of methodological quality were performed independently by two reviewers. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Patients Children with acute diarrhoea, as defined by the primary studies. Interventions RCTs comparing racecadotril with placebo or other interventions. Main outcome measurs Duration of illness, stool output/volume and adverse events. Results Seven RCTs were included, five comparing racecadotril with placebo or no intervention, one with pectin/kaolin and one with loperamide. Moderate to high risk of bias was present in all studies. There was no significant difference in efficacy or adverse events between racecadotril and loperamide. A meta-analysis of three studies with 642 participants showed significantly shorter duration of symptoms with racecadotril compared with placebo (mean difference −53.48 h, 95% CI −65.64 to −41.33). A meta-analysis of five studies with 949 participants showed no significant difference in adverse events between racecadotril and placebo (risk ratio 0.99, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.34). Conclusions There is some evidence that racecadotril is more effective than placebo or no intervention in reducing the duration of illness and stool output in children with acute diarrhoea. However, the overall quality of the evidence is limited due to sparse data, heterogeneity and risk of bias. Racecadotril appears to be safe and well tolerated. PMID:26715673

  14. Autism: Will vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and early childhood reduce the recurrence rate of autism in newborn siblings?

    PubMed

    Stubbs, G; Henley, K; Green, J

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in the world including the vulnerable group of pregnant women. Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is hypothesized to contribute to the cause of autism. Further, it is hypothesized that vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and early childhood will reduce the recurrence rate of autism in newborn siblings. To investigate the hypothesis an open label prospective study was performed prescribing vitamin D during pregnancy to mothers of children with autism at a dose of 5000IU/day. The newborn siblings were at high risk for the recurrence of autism. The newborn infants were also prescribed vitamin D, 1000IU/day to their third birthday. The newborn siblings were followed for three years and during that time, were assessed for autism on two separate occasions: at 18months and 36months of age. The results were compared to the reported recurrence rates in siblings of autistic children in the literature. The final outcome was 1 out of 19 (5%) developed autism in contrast to the recurrence rate of approximately 20% in the literature. We did not have a control group, nor was there blinding. The results are promising, however, this is a preliminary study with very small numbers and was uncontrolled. Further study with larger numbers is indicated. The ethics of prescribing a low dosage of vitamin D such as 400IU D3/day to a control group of mothers in comparison to a large dose such as 5000IU D3/day are problematic in our opinion. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Rotavirus diarrhoea and future prospects for prevention.

    PubMed

    Diggle, Linda

    Rotavirus is a highly contagious cause of vomiting and diarrhoea in young children (Glass et al, 2006). It is transmitted via the faecal-oral route and almost every child will experience an episode of rotavirus infection before the age of five years. Although this infection leads to millions of deaths per year in developing countries, good access to dehydration therapies in the UK means that we experience few rotavirus deaths. Nevertheless, rotavirus infection can cause misery for the child and presents indirect costs for parents. It also poses a substantial burden on primary care and paediatric wards, particularly during the busy winter period, with nosocomial infection adding, on average, a further four days to a child's stay in hospital. With no antiviral treatment available, management of the poorly child must focus on prevention of dehydration. Recently, two new generation rotavirus vaccines have been licensed with each undergoing extensive and large clinical trials. These vaccines offer new hope for the prevention of this condition.

  16. The importance of breastfeeding in rotaviral diarrhoeas.

    PubMed

    Prameela, K K; Vijaya, L R

    2012-04-01

    Globally, rotaviral vaccines in use today have contributed to the reduction of the incidence of rotaviral diarrhoeas. Despite the substantial protection conferred by the current vaccines against the rotaviral strains, it is only prudent to recognise that other protective factors, like breastfeeding, also provide some degree of protection against this disease. This article has attempted to review some important mechanisms of protection in breast milk against the rotaviruses and highlight the oft forgotten non-immunoglobulin fraction in breast milk as an additional tool of protection against rotavirus disease. The adaptive capacity of breast milk to environment is another compelling reason to continue breastfeeding as it can usefully complement and be significant in the use of many vaccines. Vital immunoprotective constituents in breast milk beneficially protect the infant by initiating and strengthening many immune responses and should be borne in mind as essential tools of defence even in an era where vaccines play a pivotal role in the combat against certain diseases. It is impressive that besides nutritive advantages, the suckling infant enjoys appreciable immunoprotection via exclusive breastfeeding.

  17. Vaccines for preventing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur R; Zaman, K; Sinclair, David; Qadri, Firdausi

    2013-07-05

    Infection with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) bacteria is a common cause of diarrhoea in adults and children in developing countries and is a major cause of 'travellers' diarrhoea' in people visiting or returning from endemic regions. A killed whole cell vaccine (Dukoral®), primarily designed and licensed to prevent cholera, has been recommended by some groups to prevent travellers' diarrhoea in people visiting endemic regions. This vaccine contains a recombinant B subunit of the cholera toxin that is antigenically similar to the heat labile toxin of ETEC. This review aims to evaluate the clinical efficacy of this vaccine and other vaccines designed specifically to protect people against diarrhoea caused by ETEC infection. To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of vaccines for preventing ETEC diarrhoea. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and http://clinicaltrials.gov up to December 2012. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing use of vaccines to prevent ETEC with use of no intervention, a control vaccine (either an inert vaccine or a vaccine normally given to prevent an unrelated infection), an alternative ETEC vaccine, or a different dose or schedule of the same ETEC vaccine in healthy adults and children living in endemic regions, intending to travel to endemic regions, or volunteering to receive an artificial challenge of ETEC bacteria. Two authors independently assessed each trial for eligibility and risk of bias. Two independent reviewers extracted data from the included studies and analyzed the data using Review Manager (RevMan) software. We reported outcomes as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Twenty-four RCTs, including 53,247 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Four studies assessed the protective

  18. Zinc adjunct therapy reduces case fatality in severe childhood pneumonia: a randomized double blind placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Pneumonia is a leading cause of children's deaths in developing countries and hinders achievement of the fourth Millennium Development Goal. This goal aims to reduce the under-five mortality rate, by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015. Few studies have examined the impact of zinc adjunct therapy on the outcome of childhood pneumonia. We determined the effect of zinc as adjunct therapy on time to normalization of respiratory rate, temperature and oxygen saturation. We also studied the effect of zinc adjunct therapy on case fatality of severe childhood pneumonia (as a secondary outcome) in Mulago Hospital, Uganda. Methods In this double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 352 children aged 6 to 59 months, with severe pneumonia were randomized to zinc (20 mg for children ≥12 months, and 10 mg for those < 12 months) or a placebo once daily for seven days, in addition to standard antibiotics for severe pneumonia. Children were assessed every six hours. Oxygen saturation was normal if it was above 92% (breathing room air) for more than 15 minutes. The respiratory rate was normal if it was consistently (more than 24 hours) below 50 breaths per minute in infants and 40 breaths per minute in children above 12 months of age. Temperature was normal if consistently below 37.5°C. The difference in case fatality was expressed by the risk ratio between the two groups. Results Time to normalization of the respiratory rate, temperature and oxygen saturation was not significantly different between the two arms. Case fatality was 7/176 (4.0%) in the zinc group and 21/176 (11.9%) in the placebo group: Relative Risk 0.33 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.76). Relative Risk Reduction was 0.67 (95% CI 0.24 to 0.85), while the number needed to treat was 13. Among HIV infected children, case fatality was higher in the placebo (7/27) than in the zinc (0/28) group; RR 0.1 (95% CI 0.0, 1.0). Among 127 HIV uninfected children receiving the placebo, case fatality was 7

  19. Exposure-response relationship of neighbourhood sanitation and children's diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youngmee Tiffany; Lou, Wendy; Cheng, Yu-Ling

    2017-07-01

    To assess the association of neighbourhood sanitation coverage with under-five children's diarrhoeal morbidity and to evaluate its exposure-response relationship. We used the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 29 developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, conducted between 2010 and 2014. The primary outcome was two-week incidence of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age (N = 269014). We conducted three-level logistic regression analyses and applied cubic splines to assess the trend between neighbourhood-level coverage of improved household sanitation and diarrhoeal morbidity. A significant association between neighbourhood-level coverage of improved household sanitation and diarrhoeal morbidity (OR [95% CI] = 0.68 [0.62-0.76]) was found. Exposure-relationship analyses results showed improved sanitation coverage threshold at 0.6. We found marginal degree of association (OR [95% CI] = 0.82 [0.77-0.87]) below the threshold, which, beyond the threshold, sharply increased to OR of 0.44 (95% CI: 0.29-0.67) at sanitation coverage of 1 (i.e. neighbourhood-wide use of improved household sanitation). Similar exposure-response trends were identified for urban and rural subgroups. Our findings suggest that neighbourhood sanitation plays a key role in reducing diarrhoeal diseases and that increase in sanitation coverage may only have minimal impact on diarrhoeal illness, unless sufficiently high coverage is achieved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Evaluation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG using an Escherichia coli K88 model of piglet diarrhoea: Effects on diarrhoea incidence, faecal microflora and immune responses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Xu, Yong-Qian; Liu, Hao-Yu; Lai, Ting; Ma, Jin-Lei; Wang, Jiu-Feng; Zhu, Yao-Hong

    2010-02-24

    Probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) has been demonstrated to adhere to pig intestinal mucus, and is able to displace and inhibit pathogens, including Escherichia coli (E. coli), in vitro. However, currently there are few data concerning the effects of LGG on piglet health. The objectives of this study were to assess the effectiveness of LGG in reducing the incidence and severity of post-weaning diarrhoea in piglets, and to investigate its mechanisms of action. Eighteen weaned barrows were allocated to nonchallenged control (NCN), challenged control (CCN) and LGG treatment (LGG) groups. Diarrhoea incidence was significantly lower in group LGG than group CCN after E. coli challenge. Faecal coliform bacteria counts were significantly increased, while lactobacilli and bifidobacteria counts were decreased, in group CCN compared with the other groups after challenge. In the jejunum and ileum, secretory immunoglobin A (SIgA) concentrations were significantly higher in group LGG than in group CCN. In group LGG, administration of short-term LGG before E. coli infection attenuated the elevation of serum IL-6 induced by E. coli. Significantly higher concentrations of TNF-alpha were observed in group LGG than NCN and CCN at 6h. IL-1beta concentrations in group NCN were significantly higher than LGG at 6h and higher than CCN at 24h. In conclusion, LGG was effective in ameliorating diarrhoea in post-weaning piglets induced by E. coli K88, possibly via modulation of intestinal microflora, enhancement of intestinal antibody defence, and regulation of production of systemic inflammatory cytokines.

  1. Bovine viral diarrhoea: pathogenesis and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lanyon, Sasha R; Hill, Fraser I; Reichel, Michael P; Brownlie, Joe

    2014-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is the most prevalent infectious disease of cattle. It causes financial losses from a variety of clinical manifestations and is the subject of a number of mitigation and eradication schemes around the world. The pathogenesis of BVDV infection is complex, with infection pre- and post-gestation leading to different outcomes. Infection of the dam during gestation results in fetal infection, which may lead to embryonic death, teratogenic effects or the birth of persistently infected (PI) calves. PI animals shed BVDV in their excretions and secretions throughout life and are the primary route of transmission of the virus. These animals can usually be readily detected by virus or viral antigen detection assays (RT-PCR, ELISA), except in the immediate post-natal period where colostral antibodies may mask virus presence. PI calves in utero (the 'Trojan cow' scenario) currently defy detection with available diagnostic tests, although dams carrying PI calves have been shown to have higher antibody levels than seropositive cows carrying non-PI calves. Acute infection with BVDV results in transient viraemia prior to seroconversion and can lead to reproductive dysfunction and immunosuppression leading to an increased incidence of secondary disease. Antibody assays readily detect virus exposure at the individual level and can also be used in pooled samples (serum and milk) to determine herd exposure or immunity. Diagnostic tests can be used to diagnose clinical cases, establish disease prevalence in groups and detect apparently normal but persistently infected animals. This review outlines the pathogenesis and pathology of BVD viral infection and uses this knowledge to select the best diagnostic tests for clinical diagnosis, monitoring, control and eradication efforts. Test methods, types of samples and problems areas of BVDV diagnosis are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rhubarb Tannins Extract Inhibits the Expression of Aquaporins 2 and 3 in Magnesium Sulphate-Induced Diarrhoea Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunfang; Zheng, Yanfang; Xu, Wen; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Tannins, a group of major active components of Chinese rhubarb and widely distributed in nature, have a significant antidiarrhoeal activity. Aquaporins (AQPs) 2 and 3 play important roles in regulating water transfer during diarrhoea. The present study aims to determine the effect of the total tannins extract of rhubarb on aquaporins (AQPs) 2 and 3 in diarrhoea mice and HT-29 cells both induced by magnesium sulphate (MgSO4). Our results showed that rhubarb tannins extract (RTE) significantly decreased the faecal water content in colon and evaluation index of defecation of diarrhoea mice. Interestingly, RTE could markedly reduce the mRNA and protein expression levels of AQPs 2 and 3 in apical and lateral mucosal epithelial cells in the colons of diarrhoea mice and HT-29 cells both induced by MgSO4 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, RTE suppressed the production of cyclic monophosphate- (cAMP-) dependent protein kinase A catalytic subunits α (PKA C-α) and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB, Ser133) in MgSO4-induced HT-29 cells. Our data showed for the first time that RTE inhibit AQPs 2 and 3 expression in vivo and in vitro via downregulating PKA/p-CREB signal pathway, which accounts for the antidiarrhoeal effect of RTE. PMID:25215286

  3. Rhubarb tannins extract inhibits the expression of aquaporins 2 and 3 in magnesium sulphate-induced diarrhoea model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunfang; Zheng, Yanfang; Xu, Wen; Wang, Hui; Lin, Na

    2014-01-01

    Tannins, a group of major active components of Chinese rhubarb and widely distributed in nature, have a significant antidiarrhoeal activity. Aquaporins (AQPs) 2 and 3 play important roles in regulating water transfer during diarrhoea. The present study aims to determine the effect of the total tannins extract of rhubarb on aquaporins (AQPs) 2 and 3 in diarrhoea mice and HT-29 cells both induced by magnesium sulphate (MgSO4). Our results showed that rhubarb tannins extract (RTE) significantly decreased the faecal water content in colon and evaluation index of defecation of diarrhoea mice. Interestingly, RTE could markedly reduce the mRNA and protein expression levels of AQPs 2 and 3 in apical and lateral mucosal epithelial cells in the colons of diarrhoea mice and HT-29 cells both induced by MgSO4 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, RTE suppressed the production of cyclic monophosphate- (cAMP-) dependent protein kinase A catalytic subunits α (PKA C-α) and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB, Ser133) in MgSO4-induced HT-29 cells. Our data showed for the first time that RTE inhibit AQPs 2 and 3 expression in vivo and in vitro via downregulating PKA/p-CREB signal pathway, which accounts for the antidiarrhoeal effect of RTE.

  4. Are School Nurses an Overlooked Resource in Reducing Childhood Obesity? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Krista; Travers, Jasmine; Smaldone, Arlene

    2016-01-01

    Background: Schools are a key setting for childhood obesity interventions, yet nurses are not often included in delivering these interventions. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine school-based interventions involving nurses in a role beyond anthropometric measurement for effect on change in body measures.…

  5. Are School Nurses an Overlooked Resource in Reducing Childhood Obesity? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Krista; Travers, Jasmine; Smaldone, Arlene

    2016-01-01

    Background: Schools are a key setting for childhood obesity interventions, yet nurses are not often included in delivering these interventions. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine school-based interventions involving nurses in a role beyond anthropometric measurement for effect on change in body measures.…

  6. Diarrhoea among infants in a crowded area of Djakarta, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Lie Kian; Rukmono, B.; Oemijati, Sri; Sahab, K.; Newell, K. W.; Hway, Sie Ting; Talogo, R. Widodo

    1966-01-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases are common in Djakarta, Indonesia, especially among infants and young children. A study has been made of possible bacterial and parasitic causes of outbreaks in a group of 156 infants in a crowded area of the city. Before the study was complete, 60 infants had left the area and 30 had died; diarrhoea was probably the direct or indirect cause of 13 of the deaths. Diarrhoea was associated with pathogenic Escherichia coli in about 20% of the cases studied; other causes of diarrhoea were Shigella, less frequent, and rare among infants below the age of 6 months; Salmonella, insignificant; Giardia lamblia, common, but not usually associated with diarrhoea; Entamoeba histolytica and Isospora belli, relatively rare. The role of Trichuris trichiura was probably important, but was difficult to assess. Many diarrhoea cases were not associated with either pathogenic bacteria or parasites. Other potential causes, not considered in this study, include enteropathogenic virus infection, parenteral infections, faulty diet and malnutrition. Further investigation is considered desirable. PMID:5296127

  7. Diarrhoea risk factors in enterally tube fed critically ill patients: a retrospective audit.

    PubMed

    Jack, Leanne; Coyer, Fiona; Courtney, Mary; Venkatesh, Bala

    2010-12-01

    Diarrhoea in the enterally tube fed (ETF) intensive care unit (ICU) patient is a multi-factorial problem. Diarrhoeal aetiologies in this patient cohort remain debatable; however, the consequences of diarrhoea have been well established and include electrolyte imbalance, dehydration, bacterial translocation, peri anal wound contamination and sleep deprivation. This study examined the incidence of diarrhoea and explored factors contributing to the development of diarrhoea in the ETF, critically ill, adult patient. After institutional ethical review and approval, a single centre medical chart audit was undertaken to examine the incidence of diarrhoea in ETF, critically ill patients. Retrospective, non-probability sequential sampling was used of all emergency admission adult ICU patients who met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Fifty patients were audited. Faecal frequency, consistency and quantity were considered important criteria in defining ETF diarrhoea. The incidence of diarrhoea was 78%. Total patient diarrhoea days (r=0.422; p=0.02) and total diarrhoea frequency (r=0.313; p=0.027) increased when the patient was ETF for longer periods of time. Increased severity of illness, peripheral oxygen saturation (Sp02), glucose control, albumin and white cell count were found to be statistically significant factors for the development of diarrhoea. Diarrhoea in ETF critically ill patients is multi-factorial. The early identification of diarrhoea risk factors and the development of a diarrhoea risk management algorithm is recommended. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Idiopathic Intractable Diarrhoea Leading to Torsade de Pointes

    PubMed Central

    Mouyis, Kyriacos; Okonko, Darlington; Missouris, Constantinos G.

    2016-01-01

    An 81-year-old lady was admitted to our hospital with a 3-year history of noninfective diarrhoea and recurrent syncopal events over the last 3 months. Her initial electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed trigeminy and prolonged QTc interval. She had a structurally normal heart with no coronary artery disease. Investigations revealed low potassium at 3.0 mmol/L. Sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy suggested a possible diagnosis of diverticulitis. Soon after admission she had an unresponsive episode with spontaneous recovery. Telemetry and Holter analysis confirmed multiple episodes of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (Torsade de Pointes). Following electrolyte supplementation the episodes of polymorphic VT improved. Due to the protracted nature of the diarrhoea, the recurrent syncopal events, and recurrent hypokalaemia documented over recent years, an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) was sanctioned by the multidisciplinary team (MDT). In summary, chronic diarrhoea may result in life threatening polymorphic VT due to hypokalaemia and QTc prolongation. In these patients an ICD may be considered. PMID:27313906

  9. Tropheryma whipplei in children with diarrhoea in rural Ghana.

    PubMed

    Vinnemeier, C D; Klupp, E M; Krumkamp, R; Rolling, T; Fischer, N; Owusu-Dabo, E; Addo, M M; Adu-Sarkodie, Y; Käsmaier, J; Aepfelbacher, M; Cramer, J P; May, J; Tannich, E

    2016-01-01

    Tropheryma whipplei has been hypothesized to be able to cause diarrhoea, but data from young children are scarce. In this hospital-based case-control study 534 stool samples of children aged between 2 months and 15 years from rural Ghana were analysed for the presence of T. whipplei. Overall stool prevalence of T. whipplei was high (27.5%). Although there was no difference in T. whipplei carriage overall between cases and controls, cases aged between 0 and 12 months carried T. whipplei in their stool twice as often as controls without diarrhoea. The results from this study may support the hypothesis that T. whipplei can cause diarrhoea in first-time infection.

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of severely malnourished children with diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Iannotti, Lora L; Trehan, Indi; Clitheroe, Kathryn L; Manary, Mark J

    2015-04-01

    Children with severe acute malnutrition complicated by diarrhoea require special care due to their unique physiological vulnerability and increased mortality risks. A systematic literature review (1950-2013) was conducted to identify the most effective diagnostic and therapeutic measures for the community-based management of severely malnourished children with diarrhoea. No studies directly addressed this question, so the search was broadened to include inpatient care. Of the 129 studies identified, 32 were selected for full review and found to contain varying degrees of indirectness, inconsistency and bias. Evidence from diagnostic studies point to the use of both prolonged and persistent diarrhoea as morbidity markers, rapid hypoglycaemia diagnosis and the frequent aetiological role of Cryptosporidium. Therapeutic studies suggest benefits from routine antiparasitic medication and feeding regimens with ready-to-use-therapeutic foods, lactose-free diets and zinc supplementation. Existing rehydration treatment guidelines were affirmed, but the utility of glutamine and low osmolarity feeds were inconclusive.

  11. Bufavirus genotype 3 in Turkish children with severe diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Altay, A; Yahiro, T; Bozdayi, G; Matsumoto, T; Sahin, F; Ozkan, S; Nishizono, A; Söderlund-Venermo, M; Ahmed, K

    2015-10-01

    Recently a parvovirus called bufavirus (BuV) has been implicated as a causative agent of diarrhoea. To further reveal the epidemiology and genetic characteristics of BuV, this study was performed in Turkish children with diarrhoea. BuV was detected in 1.4% (8/583) of stool samples. All stool samples from healthy children (n = 148) were negative for BuV. Diarrhoea in BuV-positive patients was severe and occurred mainly during the colder months of the year. Complete genome sequences were generated from four BuVs. Only BuV3 was found, which was genetically and phylogenetically similar to Bhutanese BuV3, indicating that BuV3 is prevalent in Asian countries.

  12. Captopril in congenital chloride diarrhoea: a case study.

    PubMed

    Bin Islam, Shoeb; Mazumder, Ramendra Nath; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Sharifuzzaman; Sahreen, Lubaba; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Haque Alam, Nur

    2015-03-01

    An 11 months 22 days old girl presented with a history of watery diarrhoea since birth, failure to thrive, and developmental delay. Her diagnosis was congenital chloride diarrhoea (CCD) with raised level of chloride (>90 mmol/L) in stool in the absence of cystic fibrosis. Management of CCD included replacement of NaCl, KCl, and correction of dehydration. Diarrhoea of the patient was resolved with Captopril, which was initially provided to the patient for managing heart failure. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of CCD that shows the beneficial effect of Captopril. Therefore, we suggest that further study is warranted as to the potential for Captopril as additional option in the treatment for CCD. We present this case report with the informed consent of the patient's guardian.

  13. Treatment with histamine-type 2 receptor antagonists and omeprazole increase the risk of diarrhoea in neonatal foals treated in intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Furr, M; Cohen, N D; Axon, J E; Sanchez, L C; Pantaleon, L; Haggett, E; Campbell, R; Tennent-Brown, B

    2012-02-01

    The use of anti-ulcer medication in the neonatal intensive care unit (ICU) is common due to the concern for development of catastrophic gastric ulcerdisease. In man, however, the use of acid-suppressive medication has been shown in some studies to be a substantial riskfactorfor the development of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD), bacteraemia and neonatal sepsis. The purpose of the study reported herein is to evaluate the influence of anti-ulcer medications on the development of diarrhoea in the neonatalfoal. The use of anti-ulcer medication does not alter the incidence of diarrhoea in foals treated in an ICU. The records of 1710 foals from 6 different equine hospitals were examined and the use of anti-ulcer drugs was recorded. The presence of in-hospital acquired diarrhoea, CDAD, Clostridium perfringens-associated diarrhoea, neonatal sepsis and salmonellosis were documented. In addition, the presence of gastric ulceration, duration of hospital stay and short-term outcome were examined. The use of anti-ulcer medications increased the odds of in-hospital diarrhoea by 2.0 (95% CI 1.4-2.9; P < 0.0001), relative to the use of no anti-ulcer medication. There was no significant association of anti-ulcer medication with CDAD (P = 0.3189) (OR 2.0; 95% CI 0.4-9.5). Further, results indicated that decreased prevalence of gastric ulceration was not associated with use of anti-ulcer drugs among foals in the study for which these data were known (P = 0.5522). Use of anti-ulcer drugs increases the odds of developing diarrhoea, and may not reduce the incidence of gastric ulceration in hospitalised equine neonates. The use of anti-ulcer drugs in neonatal foals being treated in a hospital setting should be carefully evaluated on an individual basis to determine if such use is warranted.

  14. Rotavirus and Serotonin Cross-Talk in Diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Nordgren, Johan; Karlsson, Thommie; Sharma, Sumit; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Svensson, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) has been shown to infect and stimulate secretion of serotonin from human enterochromaffin (EC) cells and to infect EC cells in the small intestine of mice. It remains to identify which intracellularly expressed viral protein(s) is responsible for this novel property and to further establish the clinical role of serotonin in RV infection. First, we found that siRNA specifically silencing NSP4 (siRNANSP4) significantly attenuated secretion of serotonin from Rhesus rotavirus (RRV) infected EC tumor cells compared to siRNAVP4, siRNAVP6 and siRNAVP7. Second, intracellular calcium mobilization and diarrhoeal capacity from virulent and avirulent porcine viruses correlated with the capacity to release serotonin from EC tumor cells. Third, following administration of serotonin, all (10/10) infants, but no (0/8) adult mice, responded with diarrhoea. Finally, blocking of serotonin receptors using Ondansetron significantly attenuated murine RV (strain EDIM) diarrhoea in infant mice (2.9 vs 4.5 days). Ondansetron-treated mice (n = 11) had significantly (p < 0.05) less diarrhoea, lower diarrhoea severity score and lower total diarrhoea output as compared to mock-treated mice (n = 9). Similarly, Ondansetron-treated mice had better weight gain than mock-treated animals (p < 0.05). A most surprising finding was that the serotonin receptor antagonist significantly (p < 0.05) also attenuated total viral shedding. In summary, we show that intracellularly expressed NSP4 stimulates release of serotonin from human EC tumor cells and that serotonin participates in RV diarrhoea, which can be attenuated by Ondansetron. PMID:27459372

  15. Epidemiological methods in diarrhoea studies—an update

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Arnold, Benjamin F; Boisson, Sophie; Genser, Bernd; Luby, Stephen P; Barreto, Mauricio L; Clasen, Thomas; Cairncross, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality but is difficult to measure in epidemiological studies. Challenges include the diagnosis based on self-reported symptoms, the logistical burden of intensive surveillance and the variability of diarrhoea in space, time and person. Methods We review current practices in sampling procedures to measure diarrhoea, and provide guidance for diarrhoea measurement across a range of study goals. Using 14 available data sets, we estimated typical design effects for clustering at household and village/neighbourhood level, and measured the impact of adjusting for baseline variables on the precision of intervention effect estimates. Results Incidence is the preferred outcome measure in aetiological studies, health services research and vaccine trials. Repeated prevalence measurements (longitudinal prevalence) are appropriate in high-mortality settings where malnutrition is common, although many repeat measures are rarely useful. Period prevalence is an inadequate outcome if an intervention affects illness duration. Adjusting point estimates for age or diarrhoea at baseline in randomized trials has little effect on the precision of estimates. Design effects in trials randomized at household level are usually <2 (range 1.0–3.2). Design effects for larger clusters (e.g. villages or neighbourhoods) vary greatly among different settings and study designs (range 0.1–25.8). Conclusions Using appropriate sampling strategies and outcome measures can improve the efficiency, validity and comparability of diarrhoea studies. Allocating large clusters in cluster randomized trials is compromized by unpredictable design effects and should be carried out only if the research question requires it. PMID:22268237

  16. Rotavirus and Serotonin Cross-Talk in Diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Bialowas, Sonja; Hagbom, Marie; Nordgren, Johan; Karlsson, Thommie; Sharma, Sumit; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Svensson, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) has been shown to infect and stimulate secretion of serotonin from human enterochromaffin (EC) cells and to infect EC cells in the small intestine of mice. It remains to identify which intracellularly expressed viral protein(s) is responsible for this novel property and to further establish the clinical role of serotonin in RV infection. First, we found that siRNA specifically silencing NSP4 (siRNANSP4) significantly attenuated secretion of serotonin from Rhesus rotavirus (RRV) infected EC tumor cells compared to siRNAVP4, siRNAVP6 and siRNAVP7. Second, intracellular calcium mobilization and diarrhoeal capacity from virulent and avirulent porcine viruses correlated with the capacity to release serotonin from EC tumor cells. Third, following administration of serotonin, all (10/10) infants, but no (0/8) adult mice, responded with diarrhoea. Finally, blocking of serotonin receptors using Ondansetron significantly attenuated murine RV (strain EDIM) diarrhoea in infant mice (2.9 vs 4.5 days). Ondansetron-treated mice (n = 11) had significantly (p < 0.05) less diarrhoea, lower diarrhoea severity score and lower total diarrhoea output as compared to mock-treated mice (n = 9). Similarly, Ondansetron-treated mice had better weight gain than mock-treated animals (p < 0.05). A most surprising finding was that the serotonin receptor antagonist significantly (p < 0.05) also attenuated total viral shedding. In summary, we show that intracellularly expressed NSP4 stimulates release of serotonin from human EC tumor cells and that serotonin participates in RV diarrhoea, which can be attenuated by Ondansetron.

  17. Mechanism and treatment of diarrhoea due to Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli: roles of drugs and prostaglandins.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, G H

    1996-04-01

    The primary objectives of these studies were to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of the potential antisecretory and antimicrobial drugs in the treatment of diarrhoea due to Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). The drugs evaluated were chlorpromazine (CPZ), nicotinic acid, berberine, indomethacin, chloroquine, tetracycline, furazolidone, and bioflorin. Additionally, the role of prostaglandins (PGs) in the pathogenesis of cholera diarrhoea has been studied. The drug studies were carried out as placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials in patients with active diarrhoea due to vibrio cholerae and ETEC. All patients received intravenous (i.v.) or oral rehydration solutions (ORS), but no other medications except the study drugs. Results indicate that CPZ (1 mg/kg or 4 mg/kg), berberine (200 mg), and nicotinic acid (2 g) all reduced stool volumes from 30% to more than 50% in diarrhoeal patients without significant side effects. It appeared that berberine was more effective in ETEC diarrhoea than in cholera. However, chloroquine, indomethacin, clonidine, and bioflorin had no clinically useful effects. Among the antimicrobial agents, a single dose of tetracycline was found to be effective in cholera, because the drug significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the total stool volume from 20.9 +/- 15.9 to 10.5 +/- 8.6 (liters in 6-days, mean +/- SD) compared to furazolidone. Drugs other than antimicrobial and antisecretory agents were also evaluated in the treatment of cholera. It has been shown that treatment with bioflorin, which is a bacterial preparation of lyophilized Streptococcus faecium, did not significantly (p > 0.05) reduce fluid-loss in cholera. Additional studies in animals indicated that treatment with short chain glucose polymers, alone or in combination with a chloride blocking agent, anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (A9C), significantly reduced intestinal secretion in a rat model of secretory diarrhoea. For the first time it was

  18. Reducing lead in air and preventing childhood exposure near lead smelters: learning from the U.S. experience.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Marianne

    2015-05-01

    Childhood lead exposure and poisoning near primary lead smelters continues in developed and developing countries. In the United States, the problem of lead poisoning in children caused by smelter emissions was first documented in the early 1970s. In 1978, Environmental Protection Agency set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for lead. Attainment of this lead standard in areas near operating lead smelters took twenty to thirty years. Childhood lead exposure and poisoning continued to occur after the lead National Ambient Air Quality Standards were set and before compliance was achieved. This article analyzes and discusses the factors that led to the eventual achievement of the 1978 lead National Ambient Air Quality Standards near primary smelters and the reduction of children's blood lead levels in surrounding communities. Factors such as federal and state regulation, monitoring of emissions, public health activities such as blood lead surveillance and health education, relocation of children, environmental group and community advocacy, and litigation all played a role.

  19. Delta Healthy Sprouts: a randomized comparative effectiveness trial to promote maternal weight control and reduce childhood obesity in the Mississippi Delta.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jessica L; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Goodman, Melissa H

    2014-05-01

    Excessive and inadequate gestational weight gain can complicate a woman's pregnancy and put her and her child at risk for poor delivery and birth outcomes. Further, feeding and activity habits established early in life can significantly impact the development of childhood obesity. The on-going Delta Healthy Sprouts Project is a randomized, controlled, comparative trial testing the efficacy of two Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting programs on weight status and health behaviors of 150 mothers and their infants residing in the rural Mississippi Delta region of the United States. Women are enrolled in their second trimester of pregnancy and randomized to one of two treatment arms. The control arm curriculum is based on Parents as Teachers, an evidence based approach to increase parental knowledge of child development and improve parenting practices. The experimental arm, labeled Parents as Teachers Enhanced, builds upon the control curriculum by including culturally tailored nutrition and physical activity components specifically designed for the gestational and postnatal periods. We hypothesize that, as compared to the control arm, the experimental arm will be more effective in preventing inappropriate gestational weight gain, reducing postnatal weight retention, and decreasing infant obesity rates. We also will evaluate mother and child dietary and physical activity outcomes, breastfeeding initiation and continuation, and child feeding practices. The Delta Healthy Sprouts Project tests a novel, combined approach to maternal weight management and childhood obesity prevention in pregnant women and their children at high risk for obesity and chronic disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Supplementation with Lactobacillus paracasei or Pediococcus pentosaceus does not prevent diarrhoea in neonatal pigs infected with Escherichia coli F18.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Anders D; Cilieborg, Malene S; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Mørkbak, Anne Louise; Sangild, Per Torp

    2017-07-01

    Infectious diarrhoea is a worldwide problem in newborns. Optimal bacterial colonisation may enhance gut maturation and protect against pathogenic bacteria after birth. We hypothesised that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) administration prevents pathogen-induced diarrhoea in formula-fed newborns. Newborn caesarean-delivered, colostrum-deprived term piglets on parenteral nutrition for the first 15 h, were used as models for sensitive newborn infants. A commercially available probiotic strain, Lactobacillus paracasei F19 (LAP, 2·6×108 colony-forming units (CFU)/kg per d) and a novel LAB isolate, Pediococcus pentosaceus (PEP, 1·3×1010 CFU/kg per d), were administered for 5 d with or without inoculation of the porcine pathogen, Escherichia coli F18 (F18, 1010 CFU/d). This resulted in six treatment groups: Controls (n 9), LAP (n 10), PEP (n 10), F18 (n 10), F18-LAP (n 10) and F18-PEP (n 10). The pathogen challenge increased diarrhoea and density of F18 in the intestinal mucosa (P<0·05). LAB supplementation further increased the diarrhoea score, relative to F18 alone (P<0·01). Intestinal structure and permeability were similar among groups, whereas brush border enzymes were affected in variable intestinal regions with decreased activities in most cases after F18 and LAB inoculation. Bacterial density in colon mucosa increased after F18 inoculation (P<0·05) but was unaffected by LAB supplementation. In colon contents, acetic and butyric acids were increased by PEP (P<0·05). The LAB used in this study failed to reduce E. coli-induced diarrhoea in sensitive newborn pigs. In vulnerable newborns there may be a delicate balance among bacterial composition and load, diet and the host. Caution may be required when administering LAB to compromised newborns suffering from enteric infections.

  1. Prescription of fixed dose combination drugs for diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Amit

    2007-01-01

    Fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of an antiprotozoal and an antibacterial, for treatment of diarrhoea, have been available in the Indian pharmaceutical market for about a decade. There is little evidence to substantiate this combination therapy. We evaluated 2,163 physician prescriptions for diarrhoea and found that 59 per cent of prescriptions were for FDCs. This is unethical because prescribing such combinations exposes a patient to higher risks of adverse drug reactions and also increases the chances of drug resistance. Physicians' prescribing practices in India are influenced by socioeconomic factors and the pharmaceutical industry's marketing techniques that include giving incentives to physicians to prescribe certain drugs.

  2. Travellers' diarrhoea - pros and cons of different prophylactic measures.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Angelika; Wiedermann, Ursula

    2009-10-01

    Travellers' diarrhoea is the most likely cause for disturbing travel arrangements. At an average, 30-40% of tourists are concerned, depending on the travel destination. Due to the high impact on the travellers' health this topic is still of utmost importance in travel medicine. A wide spectrum of enteropathogens can be accountable, with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli being the major causing pathogen among other bacteria, parasites and viruses. Here we discuss advantages and disadvantages of different prophylactic measures against travellers' diarrhoea. The effectiveness but also the relevance of hygiene education, vaccination and antibiotic or probiotic application will be discussed in the context of the travellers' different risk profiles.

  3. Enteric pathogens and factors associated with acute bloody diarrhoea, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Njuguna, Charles; Njeru, Ian; Mgamb, Elizabeth; Langat, Daniel; Makokha, Anselimo; Ongore, Dismas; Mathenge, Evan; Kariuki, Samuel

    2016-09-06

    Shigellosis is the major cause of bloody diarrhoea worldwide and is endemic in most developing countries. In Kenya, bloody diarrhoea is reported weekly as part of priority diseases under Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response System (IDSR) in the Ministry of Health. We conducted a case control study with 805 participants (284 cases and 521 controls) between January and December 2012 in Kilifi and Nairobi Counties. Kilifi County is largely a rural population whereas Nairobi County is largely urban. A case was defined as a person of any age who presented to outpatient clinic with acute diarrhoea with visible blood in the stool in six selected health facilities in the two counties within the study period. A control was defined as a healthy person of similar age group and sex with the case and lived in the neighbourhood of the case. The main presenting clinical features for bloody diarrhoea cases were; abdominal pain (69 %), mucous in stool (61 %), abdominal discomfort (54 %) and anorexia (50 %). Pathogen isolation rate was 40.5 % with bacterial and protozoal pathogens accounting for 28.2 % and 12.3 % respectively. Shigella was the most prevalent bacterial pathogen isolated in 23.6 % of the cases while Entamoeba histolytica was the most prevalent protozoal pathogen isolated in 10.2 % of the cases. On binary logistic regression, three variables were found to be independently and significantly associated with acute bloody diarrhoea at 5 % significance level; storage of drinking water separate from water for other use (OR = 0.41, 95 % CI 0.20-0.87, p = 0.021), washing hands after last defecation (OR = 0.24, 95 % CI 0.08-.076, p = 0.015) and presence of coliforms in main source water (OR = 2.56, CI 1.21-5.4, p = 0.014). Rainfall and temperature had strong positive correlation with bloody diarrhoea. The main etiologic agents for bloody diarrhoea were Shigella and E. histolytica. Good personal hygiene practices such as washing hands

  4. Impact of Anthelminthic Treatment in Pregnancy and Childhood on Immunisations, Infections and Eczema in Childhood: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mawa, Patrice A.; Nampijja, Margaret; Muhangi, Lawrence; Kihembo, Macklyn; Lule, Swaib A.; Rutebarika, Diana; Apule, Barbara; Akello, Florence; Akurut, Hellen; Oduru, Gloria; Naniima, Peter; Kizito, Dennison; Kizza, Moses; Kizindo, Robert; Tweyongere, Robert; Alcock, Katherine J.; Muwanga, Moses; Elliott, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Helminth infections may modulate immune responses to unrelated pathogens and allergens; these effects may commence prenatally. We addressed the hypothesis that anthelminthic treatment in pregnancy and early childhood would improve responses to immunisation and modulate disease incidence in early childhood with both beneficial and detrimental effects. Methods and Findings A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in Entebbe, Uganda [ISRCTN32849447]. In three independent randomisations, 2507 pregnant women were allocated to receive single-dose albendazole or placebo, and praziquantel or placebo; 2016 of their offspring were randomised to receive quarterly single-dose albendazole or placebo from age 15 months to 5 years. Primary outcomes were post-immunisation recall responses to BCG and tetanus antigens, and incidence of malaria, diarrhoea, and pneumonia; incidence of eczema was an important secondary outcome. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Of 2345 live births, 1622 (69%) children remained in follow-up at age 5 years. 68% of mothers at enrolment, and 11% of five-year-olds, had helminth infections. Maternal hookworm and Schistosoma mansoni were effectively treated by albendazole and praziquantel, respectively; and childhood hookworm and Ascaris by quarterly albendazole. Incidence rates of malaria, diarrhoea, pneumonia, and eczema were 34, 65, 10 and 5 per 100 py, respectively. Albendazole during pregnancy caused an increased rate of eczema in the children (HR 1.58 (95% CI 1.15–2.17), p = 0.005). Quarterly albendazole during childhood was associated with reduced incidence of clinical malaria (HR 0.85 (95% CI 0.73–0.98), p = 0.03). There were no consistent effects of the interventions on any other outcome. Conclusions Routine use of albendazole in pregnancy may not always be beneficial, even in tropical developing countries. By contrast, regular albendazole treatment in preschool children may have an additional

  5. Underlying and proximate determinants of diarrhoea-specific infant mortality rates among municipalities in the state of Céara, north-east Brazil: an ecological study.

    PubMed

    De Souza, A C; Petersont, K E; Cufino, E; do Amaral, M I; Gardner, J

    2001-04-01

    This ecological study examines the variations in diarrhoea-specific infant mortality rates among municipalities in the State of Ceará, north-east Brazil, using data from a community health workers' programme. Diarrhoea is the main cause of postneonatal deaths in Ceará, and diarrhoea mortality rates vary substantially among municipalities, from 7 to 50 per thousand live births. To determine the inter-relationships between potential predictors of diarrhoea-specific infant mortality, eleven variables were classified into proximate determinants (i.e. adequate weight gain and exclusive breast-feeding in first 4 months) and underlying determinants (i.e. health services and socioeconomic variables). The health services variables included percentage with prenatal care up-to-date, participation in growth monitoring and immunization up-to-date, while the socioeconomic factors included female illiteracy rate, per capita gross municipality product and percentage of households with low income, percentage of households with inadequate water supply and inadequate sanitation, and urbanization. Using linear regression analysis variables were included from each group to build regression models. The significant determinants of variability in diarrhoea-specific infant mortality between municipalities were prevalence of infants exclusively breast-feeding, percentage of infants with adequate weight gain, percentage of pregnant women with prenatal care up-to-date, female illiteracy rate and inadequate water supply. These findings suggest that community-based promotion of exclusive breast-feeding in the first 4 months and care-giving behaviours that prevent weight faltering, including weaning practices and feeding during and following diarrhoea episodes, may further reduce municipality-level diarrhoea-specific mortality. Primary heath care strategies addressing these two proximate determinants provide only a partial solution to reducing diarrhoeal disease mortality. Improvements in

  6. Effect of washing hands with soap on diarrhoea risk in the community: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Val; Cairncross, Sandy

    2003-05-01

    We set out to determine the impact of washing hands with soap on the risk of diarrhoeal diseases in the community with a systematic review with random effects meta-analysis. Our data sources were studies linking handwashing with diarrhoeal diseases. Seven intervention studies, six case-control, two cross-sectional, and two cohort studies were located from electronic databases, hand searching, and the authors' collections. The pooled relative risk of diarrhoeal disease associated with not washing hands from the intervention trials was 1.88 (95% CI 1.31-2.68), implying that handwashing could reduce diarrhoea risk by 47%. When all studies, when only those of high quality, and when only those studies specifically mentioning soap were pooled, risk reduction ranged from 42-44%. The risks of severe intestinal infections and of shigellosis were associated with reductions of 48% and 59%, respectively. In the absence of adequate mortality studies, we extrapolate the potential number of diarrhoea deaths that could be averted by handwashing at about a million (1.1 million, lower estimate 0.5 million, upper estimate 1.4 million). Results may be affected by the poor quality of many of the studies and may be inflated by publication bias. On current evidence, washing hands with soap can reduce the risk of diarrhoeal diseases by 42-47% and interventions to promote handwashing might save a million lives. More and better-designed trials are needed to measure the impact of washing hands on diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections in developing countries.

  7. Exclusive or Partial Breastfeeding for 6 Months Is Associated With Reduced Milk Sensitization and Risk of Eczema in Early Childhood: The PATCH Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chih-Yung; Liao, Sui-Ling; Su, Kuan-Wen; Tsai, Ming-Han; Hua, Man-Chin; Lai, Shen-Hao; Chen, Li-Chen; Yao, Tsung-Chieh; Yeh, Kuo-Wei; Huang, Jing-Long

    2016-04-01

    There is insufficient evidence to confirm the association between breastfeeding and allergic outcomes later in life. This study aimed to determine the relationships between different breastfeeding patterns and allergen sensitizations and risk of developing atopic diseases in early childhood. A total of 186 children from a birth cohort in the Prediction of Allergies in Taiwanese Children study for a 4-year follow-up period were enrolled. Total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and specific IgE antibodies against food and inhalant allergens were measured sequentially at 6 months as well as at 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 years of age. A significantly lower prevalence of milk sensitization was found in children at ages 1 and 1.5 years who were exclusively or partially breastfed for ≥6 months. Breastfeeding ≥6 months was significantly associated with a reduced risk of developing eczema but not allergic rhinitis and asthma at ages 1 and 2 years. Compared with exclusive breastfeeding ≥6 months, partial breastfeeding <6 months was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing eczema at ages 1 and 2 years. As with exclusive breastfeeding, partial breastfeeding for at least 6 months appears to be associated with a reduced prevalence of milk sensitization as well as a reduced risk of developing eczema in early childhood.

  8. Dietary specific antibodies in spray-dried immune plasma prevent enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 (ETEC) post weaning diarrhoea in piglets.

    PubMed

    Niewold, T A; van Dijk, A J; Geenen, P L; Roodink, H; Margry, R; van der Meulen, J

    2007-10-06

    In order to establish the mechanism of spray dried plasma powder (SDPP) in improving pig health and performance, a diet containing either 8% SDPP, spray dried immune plasma powder (SDIPP), or control protein (soybean and whey) ration was fed to piglets in an experimental model of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 (ETEC) post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD). SDIPP was obtained from pigs immunized with a vaccine containing ETEC fimbrial subunit F4 and heat-labile toxin (LT), and SDPP from non-immunized controls. Average daily growth (ADG) was determined, and daily samples of rectal faeces were assessed for diarrhoea (as percentage of dry matter), and ETEC excretion (in CFU/g). SDPP and SDIPP significantly (p<0.05) reduced diarrhoea, and SDIPP significantly reduced ETEC excretion. ADG was not significantly (p>0.05) affected. After the experiment, 30% of piglets tested F4 receptor positive (F4R+). A significant correlation between F4R status and morbidity was found. In F4R+ animals, SDIPP significantly improved diarrhoea and ADG, and decreased ETEC excretion, and SDPP significantly improved diarrhoea and ADG. Surprisingly, SDPP reduced diarrhoea in F4R+ animals without significant reduction of ETEC excretion, which is most likely related to the presence of anti-LT antibodies in SDPP. The results show that oral protection against ETEC by SDPP is attributable to spontaneous antibodies, in this case anti-LT antibodies. Furthermore, the results indicate that the combination of anti-LT and anti-F4 antibodies as in SDIPP is most effective in ETEC prevention. Finally, the F4R distribution in the herd should be taken into account to correctly assess efficacy.

  9. Early childhood stunting is associated with poor psychological functioning in late adolescence and effects are reduced by psychosocial stimulation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Susan P; Chang, Susan M; Powell, Christine A; Simonoff, Emily; Grantham-McGregor, Sally M

    2007-11-01

    Stunting is associated with deficits in cognition and school achievement from early childhood to late adolescence; however, there has been little investigation of emotional and behavioral outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine whether linear growth retardation (stunting) in early childhood is associated with poorer psychological functioning in late adolescence. The study was a prospective cohort study of stunted and nonstunted children. Participants were identified at age 9-24 mo by a survey of poor neighborhoods in Kingston, Jamaica, and a 2-y intervention trial of supplementation and stimulation was conducted in the stunted children. Psychological functioning was assessed at age 17 y in 103 of 129 stunted children enrolled and 64 of 84 nonstunted participants. Anxiety, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and antisocial behavior were reported by participants using interviewer-administered questionnaires and attention deficit, hyperactivity, and oppositional behavior were reported by parent interviews. The stunted participants reported significantly more anxiety (regression coefficient = 3.03; 95% CI = 0.99, 5.08) and depressive symptoms (0.37; 95% CI = 0.01, 0.72) and lower self-esteem (-1.67; 95% CI = -0.38, -2.97) than nonstunted participants and were reported by their parents to be more hyperactive (1.29; 95% CI = 0.12, 2.46). Effect sizes were 0.4-0.5 SD. Participants who received stimulation in early childhood differed from the nonstunted group in hyperactivity only. Children stunted before age 2 y thus have poorer emotional and behavioral outcomes in late adolescence. The findings expand the range of disadvantages associated with early stunting, which affects 151 million children <5 y old in developing countries.

  10. Synbiotics could not reduce the scoring of childhood atopic dermatitis (SCORAD): a randomized double blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Alireza; Moin, Mostafa; Pourpak, Zahra; Gharagozlou, Mohammad; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Aghamohamadi, Asghar; Sajedi, Vahid; soheili, Habib; Sotoodeh, Soheila; Movahedi, Masoud

    2011-03-01

    Despite preliminary evidence, the role of probiotic and synbiotic in treatment of the atopic dermatitis has shown varying results. We aimed to evaluate whether synbiotic supplementation decrease severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) in childhood. In a randomized double blind-placebo controlled trial, we evaluated the synbiotic supplementation efficiency on the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Infants aged 1-36 months with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis were randomized (n=41) and received either synbiotic (probiotic plus prebiotic) (n=20) or placebo (n=21) daily as a powder for two months. Emollient (Eucerin) and topical corticosteroid (Hydrocortisone) were permitted. Children were scored for severity of atopic dermatitis (SCORAD). Also allergen Skin Prick Tests (SPT), IgE blood level and eosinophil count were measured at first visit. Patients' SCORAD were reevaluated at the end of intervention. We followed 36 out of 41 subjects for two months (drop out rate = 9%). In the whole group, the mean Total SCORAD (at base line 40.93) decreased by 56% (p=0.00). The mean Objective SCORAD (at base line 31.29) decreased by 53% (p=0.00). There was no significant difference in the mean decrease of total SCORAD between placebo (22.3) and synbiotic groups (24.2). There was also no difference between two intervention groups in the mean decrease of total SCORAD regarding to different demographic, clinical and para clinical subgroups. This study could not confirm synbiotic as an effective treatment for childhood atopic dermatitis and further studies are needed. These findings challenge the role of synbiotics in the treatment of childhood atopic dermatitis.

  11. Water, sanitation and hygiene for the prevention of diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Cairncross, Sandy; Hunt, Caroline; Boisson, Sophie; Bostoen, Kristof; Curtis, Val; Fung, Isaac CH; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background Ever since John Snow’s intervention on the Broad St pump, the effect of water quality, hygiene and sanitation in preventing diarrhoea deaths has always been debated. The evidence identified in previous reviews is of variable quality, and mostly relates to morbidity rather than mortality. Methods We drew on three systematic reviews, two of them for the Cochrane Collaboration, focussed on the effect of handwashing with soap on diarrhoea, of water quality improvement and of excreta disposal, respectively. The estimated effect on diarrhoea mortality was determined by applying the rules adopted for this supplement, where appropriate. Results The striking effect of handwashing with soap is consistent across various study designs and pathogens, though it depends on access to water. The effect of water treatment appears similarly large, but is not found in few blinded studies, suggesting that it may be partly due to the placebo effect. There is very little rigorous evidence for the health benefit of sanitation; four intervention studies were eventually identified, though they were all quasi-randomized, had morbidity as the outcome, and were in Chinese. Conclusion We propose diarrhoea risk reductions of 48, 17 and 36%, associated respectively, with handwashing with soap, improved water quality and excreta disposal as the estimates of effect for the LiST model. Most of the evidence is of poor quality. More trials are needed, but the evidence is nonetheless strong enough to support the provision of water supply, sanitation and hygiene for all. PMID:20348121

  12. Water, sanitation and hygiene for the prevention of diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Cairncross, Sandy; Hunt, Caroline; Boisson, Sophie; Bostoen, Kristof; Curtis, Val; Fung, Isaac C H; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter

    2010-04-01

    Ever since John Snow's intervention on the Broad St pump, the effect of water quality, hygiene and sanitation in preventing diarrhoea deaths has always been debated. The evidence identified in previous reviews is of variable quality, and mostly relates to morbidity rather than mortality. We drew on three systematic reviews, two of them for the Cochrane Collaboration, focussed on the effect of handwashing with soap on diarrhoea, of water quality improvement and of excreta disposal, respectively. The estimated effect on diarrhoea mortality was determined by applying the rules adopted for this supplement, where appropriate. The striking effect of handwashing with soap is consistent across various study designs and pathogens, though it depends on access to water. The effect of water treatment appears similarly large, but is not found in few blinded studies, suggesting that it may be partly due to the placebo effect. There is very little rigorous evidence for the health benefit of sanitation; four intervention studies were eventually identified, though they were all quasi-randomized, had morbidity as the outcome, and were in Chinese. We propose diarrhoea risk reductions of 48, 17 and 36%, associated respectively, with handwashing with soap, improved water quality and excreta disposal as the estimates of effect for the LiST model. Most of the evidence is of poor quality. More trials are needed, but the evidence is nonetheless strong enough to support the provision of water supply, sanitation and hygiene for all.

  13. Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in emergency department observation unit patients.

    PubMed

    Haran, J P; Wu, G; Bucci, V; Fischer, A; Keang, L; Boyer, E W; Hibberd, P L

    2016-07-01

    Clostridium difficile diarrhoea is an urgent threat to patients, but little is known about the role of antibiotic administration that starts in emergency department observation units (EDOUs). We studied risk factors for antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) and C. difficile infection (CDI) in EDOU patients. This prospective cohort study enrolled adult patients discharged after EDOU antibiotic treatment between January 2013 and 2014. We obtained medical histories, EDOU treatment and occurrence of AAD and CDI over 28 days after discharge. We enrolled and followed 275 patients treated with antibiotics in the EDOU. We found that 52 (18·6%) developed AAD and four (1·5%) had CDI. Patients treated with vancomycin [relative risk (RR) 0·52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·3-0·9] were less likely to develop AAD. History of developing diarrhoea with antibiotics (RR 3·11, 95% CI 1·92-5·03) and currently failing antibiotics (RR 1·90, 95% CI 1·14-3·16) were also predictors of AAD. Patients with CDI were likely to be treated with clindamycin. In conclusion, AAD occurred in almost 20% of EDOU patients with risk factors including a previous history of diarrhoea with antibiotics and prior antibiotic therapy, while the risk of AAD was lower in patients receiving treatment regimens utilizing intravenous vancomycin.

  14. Genetically reduced FAAH activity may be a risk for the development of anxiety and depression in persons with repetitive childhood trauma.

    PubMed

    Lazary, Judit; Eszlari, Nora; Juhasz, Gabriella; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2016-06-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors are addressed for promising anxiolytics, but human studies on genetically reduced FAAH activity, stress and affective phenotypes are scarce. We investigated the effect of a functional polymorphism of FAAH (FAAH C385A or rs324420; low FAAH activity and high anandamide concentration are associated with the A allele) together with childhood adversity on the anxious and depressive phenotypes in 858 subjects from the general population. Phenotypes were measured by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS), the depression and anxiety subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-DEP, BSI-ANX) and the State-Trait Anxiety scales (STAI-S, STAI-T). Childhood Adversity Questionnaire (CHA) was used to assess early life traumas. Frequency of the A allele was greater among subjects with high ZSDS scores compared to the CC genotype. Furthermore, FAAH C385A and the CHA have shown a robust gene-environment interaction, namely, significantly higher anxiety and depression scores were exhibited by individuals carrying the A allele if they had high CHA scores compared to CC carriers. These data provided preliminary evidence that genetically reduced FAAH activity and repetitive stress in the childhood are associated with increased vulnerability for anxiety and depression in later life. Our results together with earlier experimental data suggest that permanently elevated anandamide level together with early life stress may cause a lifelong damage on stress response probably via the downregulation of CB1R during the neurodevelopment in the brain. It may also point to pharmacogenomic consequences, namely ineffectiveness or adverse effects of FAAH inhibitors in this subpopulation.

  15. Bacterial microflora of the upper gastrointestinal tract in infants with protracted diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Challacombe, D. N.; Richardson, Judith M.; Rowe, B.; Anderson, Charlotte M.

    1974-01-01

    The aerobic and anaerobic bacterial microflora of the upper gastrointestinal tract in infants with protracted diarrhoea has been described and compared with a group of control infants without diarrhoea. The duodenal juice of patients with protracted diarrhoea was rarely sterile and was characterized by an increase in numbers and types of microorganisms and by the presence of coliforms, particularly Esch. coli. In individual patients the same serotypes of Esch. coli were found throughout the intestinal tract. The presence of Esch. coli in the upper small intestine may be as important to the aetiology of protracted diarrhoea as it is to acute diarrhoea. PMID:4598080

  16. Effect of zinc in tablet and suspension formulations in the treatment of acute diarrhoea among young children in an emergency setting of earthquake affected region of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Habib, Muhammad Atif; Soofi, Sajid Bashir; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2010-12-01

    A longitudinal cohort study was conducted at Camp Hospital Batagram in August 2006 to ascertain the effect of Zinc utilization in tablet and suspension formulations on the frequency and recovery rates of diarrhoea among young children in the emergency settings of earthquake affected region of Pakistan. Two hundred patients were recruited and followed up, the patients were allocated either of the 2 groups i.e. A (zinc in tablets form) and B (zinc in suspension form). Both groups also received WHO recommended treatment for diarrhoea. Most of the cases recovered from the illness within 3 days after presentation. Significant p-values were established among Zinc use and reduction in frequency of stools on Day 2 and 3, with better outcome in group B. The study supports the notion that zinc reduces the frequency and improves recovery rates of diarrhoea in any form and has better compliance and outcomes with the use in suspension form.

  17. Polymer-based oral rehydration solution for treating acute watery diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Gregorio, Germana V; Gonzales, Maria Liza M; Dans, Leonila F; Martinez, Elizabeth G

    2016-01-01

    (752 participants) evaluated this comparison, and seven trials used rice as a polymer source. Polymer-based ORS may decrease mean stool output in the first 24 hours by 24 mL/kg (mean difference (MD) −24.60 mL/kg, 95% CI −40.69 to −8.51; one trial, 99 participants, low quality evidence). The average duration of diarrhoea may be reduced by eight hours (MD −8.24 hours, 95% CI −13.17 to −3.30; I² statistic = 86%, five trials, 364 participants, low quality evidence) with polymer ORS but results are heterogeneous. Limited trials showed no observed difference in the risk of unscheduled use of intravenous fluid (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.02; I² statistic = 30%; four trials, 376 participants, very low quality evidence), vomiting (very low quality evidence), and hyponatraemia (very low quality evidence). Polymer-based ORS versus glucose-based ORS (osmolarity ≥ 310) Twenty-seven trials (3532 participants) evaluated this comparison using a variety of polymers. On average, polymer ORS may reduce the total stool output in the first 24 hours by around 65 mL/kg (MD −65.47 mL/kg, 95% CI −83.92 to −47.03; 16 trials, 1483 participants, low quality evidence), and may reduce the duration of diarrhoea by around eight hours (MD −8.57 hours; SD −13.17 to −4.03; 16 trials, 1137 participants, low quality evidence) with substantial heterogeneity. The proportion of participants that required intravenous hydration was low in most trials with fewer in the polymer ORS group (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.98; 19 trials, 1877 participant, low quality evidence) . Subgroup analysis by type of pathogen suggested an effect on unscheduled intravenous fluid in those infected with mixed pathogens (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.96; 11 trials, 928 participants, low quality evidence), but not in participants positive for Vibrio cholerae (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.34; 7 trials, 535 participants, low quality evidence). No difference was observed in the number of patients who developed vomiting

  18. Congenital chloride diarrhoea. Clinical analysis of 21 Finnish patients.

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, C; Perheentupa, J; Launiala, K; Hallman, N

    1977-01-01

    Clinical findings in 21 Finnish children with congenital chloride diarrhoea are reported. Inheritance of this disease by the autosomal recessive mode is established. All children were born 1-8 weeks prematurely. Hydramnios was present in every case and no meconium was observed; intrauterine onset of diarrhoea is thus apparent. In most cases the diarrhoea or passing of large volumes of "urine" was noted on the first day of life and the abdomen was usually large and distended. The neonatla weight loss was abnormally large, and was associated with hypochloraemia and hyponatraemia. Some infants survived the neonatal period without adequate therapy. They presented later with failure to thrive and usually had hypochloraemia, hypokalaemia, and metabolic alkalosis associated with hyperaldosteronism. However, these features may be absent and the diagnosis is based on a history of hydramnios and diarrhoea, and a faecal Cl- concentration which always exceeds 90 mmol/l when fluid and electrolyte deficits have been corrected. Lower faecal Cl- concentrations were seen only in chronic hypochloraemia, which is also associated with achloriduria. Adequate treatment consists of full continuous replacement of the faecal losses of water, NaCl, and KCl. This should be given intravenously in the early neonatal period; later a solution can be taken orally with meals. The dose has to be adjusted to maintain normal serum electrolyte concentrations, normal blood pH, and some chloriduria. This therapy prevents the renal lesions and the retarded growth and psychomotor development which were seen in the children who were diagnosed late and in those who received inadequate replacement therapy. The watery diarrhoea persists and increases slightly with age, though patients learn to live with their disease and to make an adequate social adjustment. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 7 Fig. 10 PMID:324405

  19. Methods for reducing lead exposure in young children and other risk groups: an integrated summary of a report to the U.S. Congress on childhood lead poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Mushak, P; Crocetti, A F

    1990-01-01

    As part of a Congressionally mandated report on U.S. childhood lead poisoning prepared by the Federal government (U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry [ATSDR]), the authors have analyzed the relative effectiveness of measures to reduce source-specific lead exposure of U.S. children. An integrated overview of this analysis is presented in this article. Two national actions, the Federally mandated phasedown of lead in gasoline by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the voluntary phasedown of lead use in domestic food can production, are examples of centrally directed initiatives that have been relatively successful in limiting childhood lead exposure in the U.S. Efforts to abate lead-based paint exposure of children have largely failed. This is especially true for the nation's 21 million residential units with the highest lead content paint. Similarly, abatement of lead exposure from contaminated dusts and soils has generally been unsuccessful. Comprehensive measures to reduce lead exposure from drinking water in residences and public facilities, e.g., elementary schools, are only now being promulgated or implemented. The full extent of their effectiveness remains to be demonstrated. There are many miscellaneous but potentially severe exposure sources that are difficult to control but require attention, such as poorly glazed foodware and ethno-specific preparations. PMID:2088738

  20. Lactose vs. lactose free regimen in children with acute diarrhoea: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lozano, J M; Céspedes, J A

    1994-03-01

    To determine whether the routine use of a lactose free formula (AL-110, Nestle Labs.) in hospitalized children aged one to 24 months reduces the duration of acute diarrhea (AD). After being stratified according to age and nutritional state, 28 and 24 patients were randomly allocated to receive AL-110 or lactose formula, respectively. The main outcome was the duration of diarrhoea after refeeding, both in hours and days. Secondary outcomes were evaluated by blind observers. Results were compared using t test, the Mann-Whitney test and Chi square. No differences were found between the diets without and with lactose regarding duration of diarrhoea in hours (mean, 41.9 h vs 54.4 h; p = 0.247) or days (median, 0 d vs 0 d; p = 0.717), the percentage of failures (3.6% vs 8.3; p = 0.2), and the mean weight increment (0.78 kg vs. 0.82 kg; p = 0.788). The study power to find a 50% (27h) reduction of AD duration was 71%. Although the power of this trial was slightly below that previously fixed (80%), the results suggest that routine use of lactose free formula does not reduce the duration of AD in hospitalized children.

  1. How is diarrhoea managed in UK care homes? A survey with implications for recognition and control of Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Hazel J; Maddock, Liz; Andrews, Sue; Trail, Peter; Loades, Nancy; Purcell, Bernadette; Iversen, Angela; Llewelyn, Martin J; Cassell, Jackie A

    2010-12-01

    Policy and regulatory efforts to reduce Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) rates now focus increasingly on the community setting, especially residential and nursing homes for the elderly. We aimed to describe how potentially infectious diarrhoea is managed in care homes, and to explore related infection control and human waste management practices. A questionnaire was sent to all care homes in Sussex, asking about management of diarrhoea and related infection control practices. Response rate was 41%. Residents with diarrhoea were reported to be isolated promptly in 36% of homes, and 78.2% of homes reported always wearing appropriate personal protective equipment. Most homes waited over 24 h before sending stool samples for testing. Human waste was disposed of by automated sluice in only 26% of care homes. Bedpans were washed in residents' sinks in 20.7% of residential homes, and in communal baths in 9.6%. This study shows that most care homes are not fully compliant with current infection prevention and control guidance, and that some unacceptable practices are occurring. In order to reduce potential for transmission of CDI and other diarrhoeal infection in care homes, infection prevention and control practices must be improved, with early diagnosis and control.

  2. Can probiotic administration during pregnancy and the first year of life effectively reduce the risk of infections and allergic diseases in childhood?

    PubMed

    Esposito, S; Castellazzi, L; Garbarino, F

    2014-01-01

    Infections and allergic disorders are common pediatric diseases. It has been reported that probiotics, which are live microorganisms, confer health benefits to hosts when administered in appropriate amounts. Probiotics have been widely used in the treatment of pediatric infections and allergic disorders through modulating the microbial environment of host. However, it is still not clear whether probiotic administration during pregnancy and/or the first year of life is an efficient approach for the prevention of infections and allergic diseases in childhood. The present study aims to address this question through reviewing previous publications on this topic. Analysis of previous studies suggests that probiotic administration during pregnancy and/or the first year of life could reduce the prevalence of infectious diseases in infancy. The effects of probiotic administration during pregnancy and/or the first year of life on the prevention of allergic disorders are still not clear. In addition, the available studies differ in probiotic species, number of probiotics, dosage of probiotics, inclusion and exclusion criteria, outcomes, and diagnostic and follow-up methods. These differences highlight further studies for better understanding the effects of probiotic administration on the prevention of infections and allergic diseases in childhood.

  3. Prevalence and on-farm risk factors for diarrhoea in meat lamb flocks in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Sweeny, Joshua P A; Ryan, U M; Robertson, I D; Jacobson, C

    2012-06-01

    Diarrhoea is a widespread problem for sheep enterprises worldwide. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted using a questionnaire to determine the prevalence of diarrhoea and associated risk factors where there was evidence of recent diarrhoea (active diarrhoea or fresh faecal soiling of breech fleece) for meat lambs on farms in southern Western Australia during 2010. The response rate was 41.4% (139/336). Evidence of recent diarrhoea was reported on 64.8% of farms, with a mean of 6.9% lambs affected per farm. Location of a farm and a higher annual rainfall were associated with an increased diarrhoea prevalence. Binary logistic regression analysis suggested that the drinking water source was associated with the incidence of diarrhoea, since lamb flocks supplied with dam water were 117 times (95% CI: 18.2, 754.8) more likely to have observed diarrhoea or fresh breech fleece faecal soiling than lamb flocks supplied with other sources of water. Faecal worm egg counts were used by 65% of respondents to determine whether an anthelmintic treatment was warranted and 74% of respondents administered a treatment to their meat lambs. In response to a range of diarrhoea scenarios presented to respondents (5%, 25% and 50% of the flock with evidence of recent diarrhoea), 15.1% would have elected to administer an anthelmintic treatment regardless of differences in prevalence.

  4. Interventions aimed at reducing obesity in early childhood: a meta-analysis of programs that involve parents.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, H Melis; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Mesman, Judi; van der Veek, Shelley

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is a growing problem even in very young childhood, resulting in high costs for individuals and society. As a response, numerous obesity prevention and intervention programs have been developed. Previous research has shown that early intervention programs are more effective when parents are involved, but the effectiveness of specific aspects of programs with parental involvement has not been investigated. This meta-analysis aims to investigate the features related to the effectiveness of different types of obesity intervention programs involving parents and targeting young children (0-6-year-olds). The Web of Science, PubMed, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and ERIC databases were searched for childhood obesity prevention and intervention programs involving parents. Data were analyzed using the Comprehensive Meta-analysis (CMA) software. Fifty studies with effect sizes measured at short-term follow-up (within 3 months from the end of the intervention) and 26 studies with effect sizes measured at long-term follow-up (all reported in a total of 49 publications) were identified. The combined effect size of interventions was small but significant at short-term follow-up (d = .08, p < .01). The results suggested the presence of a potential publication bias in studies providing results at long-term follow-up, with a nonsignificant adjusted effect size (d = .02), which indicated that obesity interventions were not effective at long-term follow-up. Multivariate meta-regression analyses showed that interventions were more effective when including either interactive sessions or educational materials as opposed to those including both interactive sessions and noninteractive educational materials. No other moderators regarding sample characteristics, study design, or methodological quality were significant. Interventions targeting young children that require parental involvement are effective at short-term follow-up, specifically when interventions include one mode of

  5. Climate change and waterborne diarrhoea in northern India: impacts and adaptation strategies.

    PubMed

    Moors, Eddy; Singh, Tanya; Siderius, Christian; Balakrishnan, Sneha; Mishra, Arabinda

    2013-12-01

    Although several studies show the vulnerability of human health to climate change, a clear comprehensive quantification of the increased health risks attributable to climate change is lacking. Even more complicated are assessments of adaptation measures for this sector. We discuss the impact of climate change on diarrhoea as a representative of a waterborne infectious disease affecting human health in the Ganges basin of northern India. A conceptual framework is presented for climate exposure response relationships based on studies from different countries, as empirical studies and appropriate epidemiological data sets for India are lacking. Four climate variables are included: temperature, increased/extreme precipitation, decreased precipitation/droughts and relative humidity. Applying the conceptual framework to the latest regional climate projections for northern India shows increases between present and future (2040s), varying spatially from no change to an increase of 21% in diarrhoea incidences, with 13.1% increase on average for the Ganges basin. We discuss three types of measures against diarrhoeal disease: reactive actions, preventive actions and national policy options. Preventive actions have the potential to counterbalance this expected increase. However, given the limited progress in reducing incidences over the past decade consorted actions and effective implementation and integration of existing policies are needed.

  6. Laxative-induced Diarrhoea: A Continuing Clinical Problem

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, J. H.; Sladen, G. E.; James, O. F. W.; Sarner, M.; Misiewicz, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    Seven women spent an average of 127 days in hospital and were extensively investigated, including a laparotomy, before their complaints of abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and weight loss were shown to be due to excessive taking of laxatives. All denied taking laxatives and in none were the characteristic features of the effects of cathartics on the colon seen on sigmoidoscopy or radiological examination. Hypokalaemia and other electrolyte abnormalities were common and were thought to be due to a combination of severe diarrhoea and vomiting. The rectal mucosa was seen to be abnormal on biopsy only in the three patients who had taken senna preparations. The diagnosis was not easy and was finally established either by analysis of the urine and stools or by searching the patient's ward locker. PMID:4817188

  7. Enterocolitis without diarrhoea in an adult patient: a clinical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Gaurang Nandkishor; Sharma, Amit; Khorasani-Zadeh, Arman; John, Savio

    2014-03-04

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of bloody diarrhoea in the USA. We report a case of a young woman who presented with a clinical picture reminiscent of acute appendicitis. Ultrasonography and CT of the abdomen performed subsequently revealed evidence of colitis. Quite unexpectedly, she had no symptoms of diarrhoea and the stool Gram stain and culture were negative. Nevertheless, due to high clinical suspicion of infectious colitis, appendectomy was deferred. Blood culture was later reported positive for Campylobacter species and the patient responded to quinolones. With this case report we try to highlight one of the unusual presentations of C jejuni infection, closely mimicking acute appendicitis in the absence of classical symptoms of bacterial enteritis. In such cases, a high index of suspicion, astute history taking skills and the proper use of imaging studies can save the patient from the surgical knife.

  8. Life threatening hyperkalaemia with diarrhoea during ACE inhibition.

    PubMed

    McGuigan, J; Robertson, S; Isles, C

    2005-02-01

    A 67 year old woman developed acute renal failure with serum potassium 9.4 mmol/l requiring emergency dialysis after seven days of diarrhoea while taking an ACE inhibitor for vascular disease. Review of the literature, the British National Formulary, and the patient information leaflets for each of the 11 ACE inhibitors currently marketed in the UK suggests that this potentially life threatening complication of ACE inhibition is not yet widely recognised.

  9. Diarrhoea after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: incidence and main determinants.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Mikhail; Spilias, Dean C; Tong, Lien K

    2008-06-01

    Data on the effect of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) on bowel function are controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of postcholecystectomy diarrhoea (PCD) and to identify patient characteristics that can be used as predictors in daily practice. In 100 consecutive patients who underwent LC, data were obtained from clinical records and telephone survey 6-12 months postoperatively using standardized questionnaire. Postoperatively, 19 patients had diarrhoea, including 17 with new onset. Two patients with preoperative and postoperative diarrhoea were excluded from further analysis. Of 98 patients (mean age 58.1 +/- 19.4 years; 62 women) 34 were younger than 50 years, 33 were overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/cm(2)) and 29 were obese (BMI >30 kg/cm(2)). PCD was significantly associated with younger age (odds ratio (OR) 3.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-9.96; P = 0.026), higher BMI (OR 1.1; 95%CI 1.01-1.18; P = 0.019) and food intolerance postoperatively (OR 3.4; 95%CI 1.18-10.08; P = 0.025). PCD was most common with combination of two or three of the following factors: age <50 years, male sex, BMI >25 kg/cm(2). The highest risk of developing PCD was observed in obese men younger than 50 (OR 26.1), and the lowest in persons aged >50 years with BMI <25 kg/cm(2) (OR = 0.8). After LC, 17% of patients reported troublesome new-onset diarrhoea. PCD was independently associated with younger age, especially <50, and postoperative food intolerance. Coexistence of age <50 with high BMI and male sex was predictive for PCD.

  10. Adhesive Escherichia coli in inflammatory bowel disease and infective diarrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, D. A.; Axon, A. T.

    1988-01-01

    The clinical features of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are similar to those of infections of the bowel, although their cause is uncertain. Many bacteria that cause intestinal diseases adhere to the gut mucosa, and adhesion of pathogenic Escherichia coli is resistant to D-mannose. The adhesive properties of isolates of E coli were assessed by assay of adhesion to buccal epithelial cells with mannose added. The isolates were obtained from patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (50 with a relapse of ulcerative colitis, nine with ulcerative colitis in remission, 13 with Crohn's disease, and 11 with infectious diarrhoea not due to E coli) and 22 controls. The median index of adhesion to buccal epithelial cells (the proportion of cells with more than 50 adherent bacteria) for E coli from patients with ulcerative colitis in relapse was significantly higher (43%) than that for controls (5%) and patients with infectious diarrhoea (14%). The index was not significantly different among isolates from patients with ulcerative colitis in relapse, Crohn's disease (53%), and ulcerative colitis in remission (30%). If an index of adhesion of greater than 25% is taken as indicating an adhesive strain 86% of isolates of E coli from patients with inflammatory bowel disease were adhesive compared with 27% from patients with infective diarrhoea and none from controls. The adhesive properties of the isolates from patients with inflammatory bowel disease were similar to those of pathogenic intestinal E coli, raising the possibility that they may have a role in the pathogenesis of the condition; the smaller proportion of adhesive isolates in patients with infective diarrhoea due to other bacteria suggests that the organism may be of primary importance rather than arising secondarily. Images a PMID:3044496

  11. Coverage of diarrhoea-associated Escherichia coli isolates from different origins with two types of phage cocktails.

    PubMed

    Bourdin, Gilles; Navarro, Armando; Sarker, Shafiqul A; Pittet, Anne-C; Qadri, Firdausi; Sultana, Shamima; Cravioto, Alejandro; Talukder, Kaisar A; Reuteler, Gloria; Brüssow, Harald

    2014-03-01

    Eighty-nine T4-like phages from our phage collection were tested against four collections of childhood diarrhoea-associated Escherichia coli isolates representing different geographical origins (Mexico versus Bangladesh), serotypes (69 O, 27 H serotypes), pathotypes (ETEC, EPEC, EIEC, EAEC, VTEC, Shigella), epidemiological settings (community and hospitalized diarrhoea) and years of isolation. With a cocktail consisting of 3 to 14 T4-like phages, we achieved 54% to 69% coverage against predominantly EPEC isolates from Mexico, 30% to 53% against mostly ETEC isolates from a prospective survey in Bangladesh, 24% to 61% against a mixture of pathotypes isolated from hospitalized children in Bangladesh, and 60% coverage against Shigella isolates. In comparison a commercial Russian phage cocktail containing a complex mixture of many different genera of coliphages showed 19%, 33%, 50% and 90% coverage, respectively, against the four above-mentioned collections. Few O serotype-specific phages and no broad-host range phages were detected in our T4-like phage collection. Interference phenomena between the phage isolates were observed when constituting larger phage cocktails. Since the coverage of a given T4-like phage cocktail differed with geographical area and epidemiological setting, a phage composition adapted to a local situation is needed for phage therapy approaches against E. coli pathogens. © 2014 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Coverage of diarrhoea-associated Escherichia coli isolates from different origins with two types of phage cocktails

    PubMed Central

    Bourdin, Gilles; Navarro, Armando; Sarker, Shafiqul A; Pittet, Anne-C; Qadri, Firdausi; Sultana, Shamima; Cravioto, Alejandro; Talukder, Kaisar A; Reuteler, Gloria; Brüssow, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Eighty-nine T4-like phages from our phage collection were tested against four collections of childhood diarrhoea-associated Escherichia coli isolates representing different geographical origins (Mexico versus Bangladesh), serotypes (69 O, 27 H serotypes), pathotypes (ETEC, EPEC, EIEC, EAEC, VTEC, Shigella), epidemiological settings (community and hospitalized diarrhoea) and years of isolation. With a cocktail consisting of 3 to 14 T4-like phages, we achieved 54% to 69% coverage against predominantly EPEC isolates from Mexico, 30% to 53% against mostly ETEC isolates from a prospective survey in Bangladesh, 24% to 61% against a mixture of pathotypes isolated from hospitalized children in Bangladesh, and 60% coverage against Shigella isolates. In comparison a commercial Russian phage cocktail containing a complex mixture of many different genera of coliphages showed 19%, 33%, 50% and 90% coverage, respectively, against the four above-mentioned collections. Few O serotype-specific phages and no broad-host range phages were detected in our T4-like phage collection. Interference phenomena between the phage isolates were observed when constituting larger phage cocktails. Since the coverage of a given T4-like phage cocktail differed with geographical area and epidemiological setting, a phage composition adapted to a local situation is needed for phage therapy approaches against E. coli pathogens. PMID:24528873

  13. [Childhood obesity].

    PubMed

    Chueca, M; Azcona, C; Oyárzabal, M

    2002-01-01

    Obesity during childhood and adolescence is an increasingly frequent cause for medical consultation. The increase in the prevalence of this disease, which has been considered as an epidemic by the World Health Organisation, is worrying. Obesity is a complex disease, whose aetiology still remains to be clarified due to the numerous factors involved: environmental, genetic, life style and behavioural, neuroendocrinological and metabolic. The persistence of childhood obesity until adulthood significantly increases the risk of suffering from diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Treatment of obesity is complicated and few patients regularly attend follow up examinations. A multidisciplinary team is required to carry out a suitable treatment, composed of paediatricians, dieticians, nurses, psychologists and psychiatrists. Successful treatment of obesity resides in reducing the calorie intake in relation to energy expenditure, and at the time providing instruction in appropriate eating habits and life styles that in the long term will promote the maintenance of the ideal weight.

  14. Acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome in dogs: 108 cases.

    PubMed

    Mortier, F; Strohmeyer, K; Hartmann, K; Unterer, S

    2015-06-13

    No prospective studies including large numbers of dogs with acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS) are published so far. The aim of this case-control study was to describe signalment, history, clinical signs, laboratory values and course of disease in dogs with AHDS. Dogs (108) with idiopathic acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea (<3 days) were prospectively enrolled. Clinical assessment was performed by calculation of the 'AHDS index' (0-18). The hospital population and 21 healthy dogs served as control groups. Dogs with AHDS had a significantly lower body weight (median 9.8 kg) and age (median five years) than other dogs of the hospital population (20 kg; 10 years) (P<0.001). Predisposed breeds were Yorkshire terrier, miniature pinscher, miniature schnauzer and Maltese. The syndrome was more likely to occur during winter. Vomiting preceded the onset of bloody diarrhoea in 80 per cent of dogs and haematemesis was observed in half of those cases. Median AHDS index at presentation was 12 (range 3-17). Haematocrit was generally high (median 57.1 per cent; range 33-76 per cent), but exceeded 60 per cent only in 31.4 per cent of dogs. Haematocrit of 48.1 per cent of dogs was above reference range, as was monocyte (50.0 per cent), segmented (59.6 per cent) and band neutrophil count (45.2 per cent). A rapid clinical improvement occurred during the first 48 hours. British Veterinary Association.

  15. Evaluating a novel intervention to reduce trauma symptoms and sexual risk taking: qualitative exit interviews with sexual minority men with childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S Wade; Goshe, Brett M; Marquez, Samantha M; Safren, Steven A; O'Cleirigh, Conall

    2017-07-12

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) continues to affect sexual minority men (SMM) at disproportionate levels and contributes to multiple negative health outcomes, including sexual-risk taking and HIV acquisition. This paper presents qualitative evaluative feedback from SMM (N = 9) who participated in a 10-session Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-Trauma and Sexual Health (CBT-TSH) intervention to reduce CSA-related posttraumatic stress reaction and distress. The treatment was designed to increase accurate sexual risk appraisals and to improve self-care health behaviors related to HIV/STI acquisition. The researchers identified four emerging themes: (1) motivation to participate, (2) response to cognitive therapy, (3) process of change, and (4) considerations for intervention improvement. These qualitative findings provide useful feedback on the acceptability of an innovative program that integrates CBT for trauma related to CSA with sexual risk-reduction counseling.

  16. Risk factors for hospital admission of Brazilian children with non-rotavirus diarrhoea: a case control-study.

    PubMed

    Ichihara, Maria Yury T; Rodrigues, Laura C; Santos, Carlos A S T; Teixeira, Maria da Glória L C; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2015-07-01

    Rotavirus has been the leading cause of severe cases of acute diarrhoea (AD) among children worldwide; however, in the same areas, a large reduction in AD related to rotavirus has been observed after the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine. In Brazil, where there is a high rotavirus vaccine coverage, AD caused by pathogens other than rotavirus is still a frequent cause of outpatient visits and hospitalisations among children under 5 years. A hospital-based case-control study enrolled children aged 4 to 24 months admitted to 10 hospitals from all five Brazilian Regions. Cases (n=1178) were children admitted with diarrhoea who tested negative for rotavirus in a stool sample. Controls (n=2515) were children admitted without diarrhoea, frequency matched to cases by sex and age group. We estimated odds ratios using logistic regression, in a hierarchical approach according to a previously defined conceptual framework. Population-attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated for each variable, each block and for all significant variables in the latter model adjusted. The factors studied accounted for 41% of the non-rotavirus AD hospital admissions and the main risk factors included lack of adequate excreta disposal (PAF=12%), untreated drinking water (PAF=11%) and a history of previous hospitalization due to AD (PAF=21%). Low socio-economic conditions, no public water supply, crowding and low weight-for-age made smaller contributions. These findings further our knowledge of risk factors associated with severe AD in the post-rotavirus vaccination era. We recommend further increase in coverage of basic sanitation, improvements in water quality and further expansion of primary healthcare coverage to reduce the occurrence of non-rotavirus severe diarrhoea and subsequent hospitalization of Brazilian children. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  17. Reaching a consensus on management practices and vaccine development targets for mitigation of infectious diarrhoea among deployed US military forces.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Mark S; Tribble, David R

    2008-04-01

    This study is part of a research effort to identify and quantify factors related to the cost-effectiveness of a vaccine acquisition strategy to reduce the burden of infectious diarrhoea on US military personnel deployed overseas. Where evidence is lacking in the scientific literature, or considerable uncertainty exists, it is often necessary to develop best estimates with ranges of certainty. To this end, a modified 'Delphi' survey technique to obtain the best estimates for uncertain parameters including clinical care-seeking behaviour for acute diarrhoea, routine diarrhoea management in a deployed setting, and vaccine development time frames and costs were developed from a diverse panel of experts. The study was conducted in three survey iterations. During each iteration, participants were contacted and given 2-3 weeks to complete a web-based survey designed to ascertain estimates, ranges of variability, and level of certainty for these estimates. In all, 25 of 43 solicited experts agreed to participate in the study. These included three (12%) experts who identified themselves primarily as being currently involved in Vaccine Industry, six (24%) Academic/Military Diarrheal Vaccine Development, five (20%) Military Product Acquisition, five (20%) Military Preventive Medicine, two (8%) Tropical/Travel Medicine and four (16%) Military Clinical Infectious Disease. Management practices in deployed military populations (for both provider and self-treatment) were consistent with recently published literature. Similar target time frames for vaccine licensure were established for Enterotoxigenic E. coli, Campylobacter, Shigella and Norovirus of around 9-11 years. Targets for vaccine efficacy appear to be lower than currently licensed travel vaccines (60-80%), and there was consensus on more conservative adverse event rates. These data should prove useful to researchers and policy makers working in the area of vaccine acquisition for the US military and provide continued

  18. L-isoleucine-supplemented oral rehydration solution in the treatment of acute diarrhoea in children: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Alam, N H; Raqib, R; Ashraf, H; Qadri, F; Ahmed, S; Zasloff, M; Agerberth, B; Salam, M A; Gyr, N; Meier, R

    2011-06-01

    Antimicrobial peptides represent an important component of the innate immune defenses of living organisms, including humans. They are broad-spectrum surface-acting agents secreted by the epithelial cells of the body in response to infection. Recently, L-isoleucine and its analogues have been found to induce antimicrobial peptides. The objectives of the study were to examine if addition of L-isoleucine to oral rehydration salts (ORS) solution would reduce stool output and/or duration of acute diarrhoea in children and induce antimicrobial peptides in intestine. This double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted at the Dhaka Hospital of ICDDR,B. Fifty male children, aged 6-36 months, with acute diarrhoea and some dehydration, attending the hospital, were included in the study. Twenty-five children received L-isoleucine (2 g/L)-added ORS (study), and 25 received ORS without L-isoleucine (control). Stool weight, ORS intake, and duration of diarrhoea were the primary outcomes. There was a trend in reduction in mean +/- standard deviation (SD) daily stool output (g) of children in the L-isoleucine group from day 2 but it was significant on day 3 (388 +/- 261 vs. 653 +/- 446; the difference between mean [95% confidence interval (CI) (-)265 (-509, -20); p = 0.035]. Although the cumulative stool output from day 1 to day 3 reduced by 26% in the isoleucine group, it was not significant. Also, there was a trend in reduction in the mean +/- SD intake of ORS solution (mL) in the L-isoleucine group but it was significant only on day 1 (410 +/- 169 vs. 564 +/- 301), the difference between mean (95% CI) (-)154 (-288, -18); p = 0.04. The duration (hours) of diarrhoea was similar in both the groups. A gradual increase in stool concentrations of beta-defensin 2 and 3 was noted but they were not significantly different between the groups. L-isoleucine-supplemented ORS might be beneficial in reducing stool output and ORS intake in children with acute watery diarrhoea. A further

  19. Ending Preventable Child Deaths from Pneumonia and Diarrhoea in Afghanistan: An Analysis of Intervention Coverage Scenarios Using the Lives Saved Tool

    PubMed Central

    Yousufi, Khaksar; Sultana, Sharmina; Ali, Alawi Sayed; Varkey, Sherin

    2017-01-01

    Background. Despite improvements in child health, Afghanistan still has a heavy burden of deaths due to preventable causes: 17% of under-5 deaths are due to pneumonia and 12% are due to diarrhoea. Objective. This article describes the situation of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea in Afghanistan, including efforts to prevent, protect, and treat the two diseases. It estimates lives saved by scaling up interventions. Methods. A secondary analysis of data was conducted and future scenarios were modelled to estimate lives saved by scaling up a package of interventions. Results. The analysis reveals that 10,795 additional child deaths could be averted with a moderate scale-up of interventions, decreasing the under-five mortality rate in Afghanistan from 55 per 1,000 live births in 2015 to 40 per 1,000 in 2020. In an ambitious scale-up scenario, an additional 15,096 lives could be saved. There would be a 71% reduction in child deaths due to these two causes between 2016 and 2020 in the ambitious scenario compared to 47% reduction in the moderate scenario. Conclusion. Significant reductions in child mortality can be achieved through scale-up of essential interventions to prevent and treat pneumonia and diarrhoea. Strengthened primary health care functions and multisector collaboration on child health are suggested. PMID:28298932

  20. Evaluation of an algorithm for the treatment of persistent diarrhoea: a multicentre study. International Working Group on Persistent Diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Described are the findings of a multicentre cohort study to test an algorithm for the treatment of persistent diarrhoea relying on the use of locally available, inexpensive foods, vitamin and mineral supplementation, and the selective use of antibiotics to treat associated infections. The initial diet (A) contained cereals, vegetable oil, and animal milk or yoghurt. The diet (B) offered when the patient did not improve with the initial regimen was lactose free, and the energy from cereals was partially replaced by simple sugars. A total of 460 children with persistent diarrhoea, aged 4-36 months, were enrolled at study centres in Bangladesh, India, Mexico, Pakistan, Peru, and Viet Nam. The study population was young (11.5 +/- 5.7 months) and malnourished (mean weight-for-age Z-score, -3.03 +/- 0.86), and severe associated conditions were common (45% required rehydration or treatment of severe infections on admission). The overall success rate of the treatment algorithm was 80% (95% CI, 76-84%). The recovery rate among all children with only diet A was 65% (95% CI, 61-70%), and was 71% (95% CI, 62-81%) for those evaluated after receiving diet B. The children at the greatest risk for treatment failure were those who had acute associated illnesses (including cholera, septicaemia, and urinary tract infections), required intravenous antibiotics, and had the highest initial purging rates. Our results indicate that the short-term treatment of persistent diarrhoea can be accomplished safely and effectively, in the majority of patients, using an algorithm relying primarily on locally available foods and simple clinical guidelines. This study should help establish rational and effective treatment for persistent diarrhoea.

  1. Evaluation of an algorithm for the treatment of persistent diarrhoea: a multicentre study. International Working Group on Persistent Diarrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Described are the findings of a multicentre cohort study to test an algorithm for the treatment of persistent diarrhoea relying on the use of locally available, inexpensive foods, vitamin and mineral supplementation, and the selective use of antibiotics to treat associated infections. The initial diet (A) contained cereals, vegetable oil, and animal milk or yoghurt. The diet (B) offered when the patient did not improve with the initial regimen was lactose free, and the energy from cereals was partially replaced by simple sugars. A total of 460 children with persistent diarrhoea, aged 4-36 months, were enrolled at study centres in Bangladesh, India, Mexico, Pakistan, Peru, and Viet Nam. The study population was young (11.5 +/- 5.7 months) and malnourished (mean weight-for-age Z-score, -3.03 +/- 0.86), and severe associated conditions were common (45% required rehydration or treatment of severe infections on admission). The overall success rate of the treatment algorithm was 80% (95% CI, 76-84%). The recovery rate among all children with only diet A was 65% (95% CI, 61-70%), and was 71% (95% CI, 62-81%) for those evaluated after receiving diet B. The children at the greatest risk for treatment failure were those who had acute associated illnesses (including cholera, septicaemia, and urinary tract infections), required intravenous antibiotics, and had the highest initial purging rates. Our results indicate that the short-term treatment of persistent diarrhoea can be accomplished safely and effectively, in the majority of patients, using an algorithm relying primarily on locally available foods and simple clinical guidelines. This study should help establish rational and effective treatment for persistent diarrhoea. PMID:9002328

  2. "Childhood" in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hymes, James L., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Whether the irreversible, inevitable movement toward group living for young children becomes a boon to childhood or the bane of childhood depends on whether we remember or whether we forget childhood. (Author)

  3. Constipation and diarrhoea - common adverse drug reactions? A cross sectional study in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Constipation and diarrhoea are common complaints and often reported as adverse drug reactions. This study aimed at finding associations between drugs and constipation and diarrhoea in a general population. Methods A selection of inhabitants in Oppland County, Norway participated in a cross-sectional survey. Information about demographics, diseases including gastrointestinal complaints classified according to the Rome II criteria and use of drugs were collected on questionnaires. Constipation was defined as functional constipation and constipation predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), and diarrhoea as functional diarrhoea and diarrhoea predominant IBS. Associations between drugs and constipation and diarrhoea were examined with multivariable logistic regression models. Based on the multivariable model, the changes in prevalence (risk difference) of the abdominal complaints for non-users and users of drugs were calculated. Results In total 11078 subjects were invited, 4622 completed the questionnaires, 640 (13.8%) had constipation and 407 (8.8%) had diarrhoea. To start using drugs increased the prevalence of constipation and diarrhoea with 2.5% and 2.3% respectively. Polypharmacy was an additional risk factor for diarrhoea. Use of furosemide, levothyroxine sodium and ibuprofen was associated with constipation, and lithium and carbamazepine with diarrhoea. The excess drug related prevalence varied from 5.3% for the association between ibuprofen and constipation to 27.5% for the association between lithium and diarrhoea. Conclusions Use of drugs was associated with constipation and diarrhoea in the general population. The associations are most likely adverse drug reactions and show that drug-induced symptoms need to be considered in subjects with these complaints. PMID:21332973

  4. A longitudinal study on diarrhoea and vomiting in young dogs of four large breeds

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prospective studies to document the occurrence of canine diarrhoea and vomiting are relatively scarce in dogs, and the majority of published studies are based on information from clinical records. This study investigates the incidence risk of diarrhoea and vomiting as well as potential risk factors. Methods A cohort study of 585 privately owned dogs of four breeds: Newfoundland, Labrador retriever, Leonberger, and Irish wolfhound. The owners maintained a continuous log regarding housing, exercise, nutrition, and health of their dogs. Episodes of diarrhoea and vomiting were recorded in a consecutive manner in a booklet. The owners completed the questionnaires and reported information at three, four, six, 12, 18, and 24/25 months of age, called observational ages. Associations with potential risk factors for diarrhoea and vomiting were investigated in separate generalized estimating equation analyses. Results The incidence of both diarrhoea and vomiting was influenced by breed. Both diarrhoea and vomiting were relatively common in young dogs, occurring most frequently during the first months of life. After three months of age, the odds of diarrhoea were significantly lower when compared to the observational period seven weeks to three months (OR ranging from 0.31 to 0.70 depending on the period). More males than females suffered from diarrhoea (OR = 1.42). The occurrence of diarrhoea was more common in dogs that also experienced episode(s) of vomiting during the study period (OR = 5.43) and vice versa (OR = 5.50). In the majority of dogs episodes of diarrhoea and vomiting did not occur at the same time. Dogs in urban areas had higher odds (OR = 1.88) of getting diarrhoea compared to dogs living in rural areas. The occurrence of both diarrhoea and vomiting demonstrated a seasonal variation with higher incidence during the summer months. Conclusion Both diarrhoea and vomiting occurred most frequently during the first months of life. The incidence of

  5. A longitudinal study on diarrhoea and vomiting in young dogs of four large breeds.

    PubMed

    Sævik, Bente K; Skancke, Ellen M; Trangerud, Cathrine

    2012-02-02

    Prospective studies to document the occurrence of canine diarrhoea and vomiting are relatively scarce in dogs, and the majority of published studies are based on information from clinical records. This study investigates the incidence risk of diarrhoea and vomiting as well as potential risk factors. A cohort study of 585 privately owned dogs of four breeds: Newfoundland, Labrador retriever, Leonberger, and Irish wolfhound. The owners maintained a continuous log regarding housing, exercise, nutrition, and health of their dogs. Episodes of diarrhoea and vomiting were recorded in a consecutive manner in a booklet. The owners completed the questionnaires and reported information at three, four, six, 12, 18, and 24/25 months of age, called observational ages.Associations with potential risk factors for diarrhoea and vomiting were investigated in separate generalized estimating equation analyses. The incidence of both diarrhoea and vomiting was influenced by breed. Both diarrhoea and vomiting were relatively common in young dogs, occurring most frequently during the first months of life. After three months of age, the odds of diarrhoea were significantly lower when compared to the observational period seven weeks to three months (OR ranging from 0.31 to 0.70 depending on the period). More males than females suffered from diarrhoea (OR = 1.42). The occurrence of diarrhoea was more common in dogs that also experienced episode(s) of vomiting during the study period (OR = 5.43) and vice versa (OR = 5.50). In the majority of dogs episodes of diarrhoea and vomiting did not occur at the same time. Dogs in urban areas had higher odds (OR = 1.88) of getting diarrhoea compared to dogs living in rural areas. The occurrence of both diarrhoea and vomiting demonstrated a seasonal variation with higher incidence during the summer months. Both diarrhoea and vomiting occurred most frequently during the first months of life. The incidence of diarrhoea and vomiting was significantly

  6. Infectious diarrhoea in antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV/AIDS patients in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Wanyiri, Jane W.; Kanyi, Henry; Maina, Samuel; Wang, David E.; Ngugi, Paul; O'Connor, Roberta; Kamau, Timothy; Waithera, Tabitha; Kimani, Gachuhi; Wamae, Claire N.; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Ward, Honorine D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The objectives of this study were to investigate the aetiological agents, risk factors and clinical features associated with diarrhoea in HIV/AIDS patients in Kenya. Methods Sociodemographic, epidemiological and clinical data were obtained for 164 HIV/AIDS patients (70 with and 94 without diarrhoea) recruited from Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. Stool samples were examined for enteric pathogens by microscopy and bacteriology. Results Intestinal protozoa and fungi were identified in 70% of patients, more frequently in those with diarrhoea (p<0.001). Helminths were detected in 25.6% of patients overall, and bacterial pathogens were identified in 51% of patients with diarrhoea. Polyparasitism was more common in patients with diarrhoea than those without (p<0.0001). Higher CD4+ T-cell count (OR = 0.995, 95% CI 0.992–0.998) and water treatment (OR = 0.231, 95% CI 0.126–0.830) were associated with a lower risk of diarrhoea, while close contact with cows (OR = 3.200, 95% CI 1.26–8.13) or pigs (OR = 11.176, 95% CI 3.76–43.56) were associated with a higher risk of diarrhoea. Conclusions Multiple enteric pathogens that are causative agents of diarrhoea were isolated from stools of antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV/AIDS patients, indicating a need for surveillance, treatment and promotion of hygienic practices. PMID:24026463

  7. Infectious diarrhoea in antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV/AIDS patients in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Wanyiri, Jane W; Kanyi, Henry; Maina, Samuel; Wang, David E; Ngugi, Paul; O'Connor, Roberta; Kamau, Timothy; Waithera, Tabitha; Kimani, Gachuhi; Wamae, Claire N; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Ward, Honorine D

    2013-10-01

    Diarrhoea is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The objectives of this study were to investigate the aetiological agents, risk factors and clinical features associated with diarrhoea in HIV/AIDS patients in Kenya. Sociodemographic, epidemiological and clinical data were obtained for 164 HIV/AIDS patients (70 with and 94 without diarrhoea) recruited from Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. Stool samples were examined for enteric pathogens by microscopy and bacteriology. Intestinal protozoa and fungi were identified in 70% of patients, more frequently in those with diarrhoea (p<0.001). Helminths were detected in 25.6% of patients overall, and bacterial pathogens were identified in 51% of patients with diarrhoea. Polyparasitism was more common in patients with diarrhoea than those without (p<0.0001). Higher CD4(+) T-cell count (OR = 0.995, 95% CI 0.992-0.998) and water treatment (OR = 0.231, 95% CI 0.126-0.830) were associated with a lower risk of diarrhoea, while close contact with cows (OR = 3.200, 95% CI 1.26-8.13) or pigs (OR = 11.176, 95% CI 3.76-43.56) were associated with a higher risk of diarrhoea. Multiple enteric pathogens that are causative agents of diarrhoea were isolated from stools of antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV/AIDS patients, indicating a need for surveillance, treatment and promotion of hygienic practices.

  8. Prognostic factors that increase the risk for reduced white matter volumes and deficits in attention and learning for survivors of childhood cancers.

    PubMed

    Reddick, Wilburn E; Taghipour, Delaram J; Glass, John O; Ashford, Jason; Xiong, Xiaoping; Wu, Shengjie; Bonner, Melanie; Khan, Raja B; Conklin, Heather M

    2014-06-01

    In children, CNS-directed cancer therapy is thought to result in decreased cerebral white matter volumes (WMV) and subsequent neurocognitive deficits. This study was designed as a prospective validation of the purported reduction in WMV, associated influential factors, and its relationship to neurocognitive deficits in a very large cohort of both acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and malignant brain tumors (BT) survivors in comparison to an age similar cohort of healthy sibling controls. The effects of host characteristics and CNS treatment intensity on WMV were investigated in 383 childhood cancer survivors (199 ALL, 184 BT) at least 12 months post-completion of therapy and 67 healthy siblings that served as a control group. t-Tests and multiple variable linear models were used to assess cross-sectional WMV and its relation with neurocognitive function. BT survivors had lower WMV than ALL survivors, who had less than the control group. Increased CNS treatment intensity, younger age at treatment, and greater time since treatment were significantly associated with lower WMV. Additionally, cancer survivors did not perform as well as the control group on neurocognitive measures of intelligence, attention, and academic achievement. Reduced WMV had a larger impact on estimated IQ among females and children treated at a younger age. Survivors of childhood cancer that have undergone higher intensity therapy at a younger age have significantly less WMV than their peers and this difference increases with time since therapy. Decreased WMV is associated with significantly lower scores in intelligence, attention, and academic performance in survivors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Interventions to Reduce Prejudice and Enhance Inclusion and Respect for Ethnic Differences in Early Childhood: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboud, Frances E.; Tredoux, Colin; Tropp, Linda R.; Brown, Christia Spears; Niens, Ulrike; Noor, Noraini M.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted of studies evaluating the effects of interventions aimed at reducing ethnic prejudice and discrimination in young children. Articles published between 1980 and 2010 and including children of 8 years and under were identified, harvested, and assessed for quality, both for the exposure/program as well as for the…

  10. Interventions to Reduce Prejudice and Enhance Inclusion and Respect for Ethnic Differences in Early Childhood: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboud, Frances E.; Tredoux, Colin; Tropp, Linda R.; Brown, Christia Spears; Niens, Ulrike; Noor, Noraini M.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted of studies evaluating the effects of interventions aimed at reducing ethnic prejudice and discrimination in young children. Articles published between 1980 and 2010 and including children of 8 years and under were identified, harvested, and assessed for quality, both for the exposure/program as well as for the…

  11. Reducing quality-of-care disparities in childhood asthma: La Red de Asma Infantil intervention in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Lara, Marielena; Ramos-Valencia, Gilberto; González-Gavillán, Jesús A; López-Malpica, Fernando; Morales-Reyes, Beatriz; Marín, Heriberto; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Mario H; Mitchell, Herman

    2013-03-01

    Although children living in Puerto Rico have the highest asthma prevalence of all US children, little is known regarding the quality-of-care disparities they experience nor the adaptability of existing asthma evidence-based interventions to reduce these disparities. The objective of this study was to describe our experience in reducing quality-of-care disparities among Puerto Rican children with asthma by adapting 2 existing evidence-based asthma interventions. We describe our experience in adapting and implementing 2 previously tested asthma evidence-based interventions: the Yes We Can program and the Inner-City Asthma Study intervention. We assessed the feasibility of combining key components of the 2 interventions to reduce asthma symptoms and estimated the potential cost savings associated with reductions in asthma-related hospitalizations and emergency department visits. A total of 117 children with moderate and severe asthma participated in the 12-month intervention in 2 housing projects in San Juan, Puerto Rico. A community-academic team with the necessary technical and cultural competences adapted and implemented the intervention. Our case study revealed the feasibility of implementing the combined intervention, henceforth referred to as La Red intervention, in the selected Puerto Rican communities experiencing a disproportionately high level of asthma burden. After 1-year follow-up, La Red intervention significantly reduced asthma symptoms and exceeded reductions of the original interventions. Asthma-related hospitalizations and emergency department use, and their associated high costs, were also significantly reduced. Asthma evidence-based interventions can be adapted to improve quality of care for children with asthma in a different cultural community setting.

  12. Efficacy of Diosmectite (Smecta)® in the Treatment of Acute Watery Diarrhoea in Adults: A Multicentre, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Khediri, Faouzi; Mrad, Abdennebi Ilhem; Azzouz, Moussadek; Doughi, Hedi; Najjar, Taoufik; Mathiex-Fortunet, Hélène; Garnier, Philippe; Cortot, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Background. Although diosmectite has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of acute watery diarrhoea in children, its efficacy in adults still needs to be assessed. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the efficacy of diosmectite on the time to recovery in adults with acute diarrhoea. Methods. A total of 346 adults with at least three watery stools per day over a period of less than 48 hours were prospectively randomized to diosmectite (6 g tid) or placebo during four days. The primary endpoint was time to diarrhoea recovery. Results. In the intention-to-treat population, median time to recovery was 53.8 hours (range [3.7–167.3]) with diosmectite (n = 166) versus 69.0 hours [2.2–165.2] with placebo, (n = 163; P = .029), which corresponds to a difference of 15.2 hours. Diosmectite was well tolerated. Conclusion. Diosmectite at 6 g tid was well tolerated and reduced the time to recovery of acute watery diarrhoea episode in a clinically relevant manner. PMID:21760777

  13. Evaluation of the effects of Olea europaea L. subsp. africana (Mill.) P.S. Green (Oleaceae) leaf methanol extract against castor oil-induced diarrhoea in mice.

    PubMed

    Amabeoku, George J; Bamuamba, Kapinga

    2010-03-01

    Olea europaea L. subsp. africana (Mill.) P.S. Green is widely used in South Africa by traditional medicine practitioners to treat diarrhoea. However, little is known scientifically about this South African species in the treatment of diarrhoea. The main aim of the study therefore was to investigate the antidiarrhoeal effect of the leaf methanol extract of the plant species in mice. The antidiarrhoeal activity of the leaf methanol extract of O. europaea subsp. africana was studied using a castor oil-induced diarrhoeal test. The antipropulsive activity of the plant extract was also investigated using the charcoal meal transit test. Standard methods were used to investigate the acute toxicity and effect of O. europaea subsp. africana on castor oil-induced intraluminal fluid accumulation. Leaf methanol extract of O. europaea subsp. africana and loperamide, a standard antidiarrhoeal drug, significantly reduced the number of diarrhoeal episodes induced by castor oil, significantly decreased the stool mass, significantly delayed the onset of the diarrhoea and protected the animals against castor oil-induced diarrhoea. Both O. europaea subsp. africana and loperamide significantly decreased the gastrointestinal transit of charcoal meal and castor oil-induced intraluminal fluid accumulation in mice. The LD50 value was found to be 3475 mg/kg (p.o.). The results obtained suggest that the leaf methanol extract of O. europaea subsp. africana has an antidiarrhoeal property and that, given orally, it may be non-toxic and/or safe in mice.

  14. Polymer-based oral rehydration solution for treating acute watery diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Gregorio, Germana V; Gonzales, Maria Liza M; Dans, Leonila F; Martinez, Elizabeth G

    2016-12-13

    . Polymer-based ORS may decrease mean stool output in the first 24 hours by 24 mL/kg (mean difference (MD) -24.60 mL/kg, 95% CI -40.69 to -8.51; one trial, 99 participants, low quality evidence). The average duration of diarrhoea may be reduced by eight hours (MD -8.24 hours, 95% CI -13.17 to -3.30; I² statistic = 86%, five trials, 364 participants, low quality evidence) with polymer ORS but results are heterogeneous. Limited trials showed no observed difference in the risk of unscheduled use of intravenous fluid (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.02; I² statistic = 30%; four trials, 376 participants, very low quality evidence), vomiting (very low quality evidence), and hyponatraemia (very low quality evidence). Polymer-based ORS versus glucose-based ORS (osmolarity ≥ 310) Twenty-seven trials (3532 participants) evaluated this comparison using a variety of polymers. On average, polymer ORS may reduce the total stool output in the first 24 hours by around 65 mL/kg (MD -65.47 mL/kg, 95% CI -83.92 to -47.03; 16 trials, 1483 participants, low quality evidence), and may reduce the duration of diarrhoea by around eight hours (MD -8.57 hours; SD -13.17 to -4.03; 16 trials, 1137 participants, low quality evidence) with substantial heterogeneity. The proportion of participants that required intravenous hydration was low in most trials with fewer in the polymer ORS group (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.98; 19 trials, 1877 participant, low quality evidence) . Subgroup analysis by type of pathogen suggested an effect on unscheduled intravenous fluid in those infected with mixed pathogens (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.96; 11 trials, 928 participants, low quality evidence), but not in participants positive for Vibrio cholerae (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.34; 7 trials, 535 participants, low quality evidence). No difference was observed in the number of patients who developed vomiting (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.14; 10 trials, 584 participants, very low quality evidence), hyponatraemia (RR 1.82, 95% CI 0

  15. A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial to Reduce Childhood Diarrhea Using Hollow Fiber Water Filter and/or Hygiene–Sanitation Educational Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Lindquist, Erik D.; George, C. M.; Perin, Jamie; Neiswender de Calani, Karen J.; Norman, W. Ray; Davis, Thomas P.; Perry, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Safe domestic potable water supplies are urgently needed to reduce childhood diarrheal disease. In periurban neighborhoods in Cochabamba, Bolivia, we conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of a household-level hollow fiber filter and/or behavior change communication (BCC) on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) to reduce the diarrheal disease in children less than 5 years of age. In total, 952 households were followed for a period of 12 weeks post-distribution of the study interventions. Households using Sawyer PointONE filters had significantly less diarrheal disease compared with the control arm during the intervention period, which was shown by diarrheal prevalence ratios of 0.21 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.15–0.30) for the filter arm and 0.27 (95% CI = 0.22–0.34) for the filter and WASH BCC arm. A non-significant reduction in diarrhea prevalence was reported in the WASH BCC study arm households (0.71, 95% CI = 0.59–0.86). PMID:24865680

  16. A cluster randomized controlled trial to reduce childhood diarrhea using hollow fiber water filter and/or hygiene-sanitation educational interventions.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Erik D; George, C M; Perin, Jamie; Neiswender de Calani, Karen J; Norman, W Ray; Davis, Thomas P; Perry, Henry

    2014-07-01

    Safe domestic potable water supplies are urgently needed to reduce childhood diarrheal disease. In periurban neighborhoods in Cochabamba, Bolivia, we conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of a household-level hollow fiber filter and/or behavior change communication (BCC) on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) to reduce the diarrheal disease in children less than 5 years of age. In total, 952 households were followed for a period of 12 weeks post-distribution of the study interventions. Households using Sawyer PointONE filters had significantly less diarrheal disease compared with the control arm during the intervention period, which was shown by diarrheal prevalence ratios of 0.21 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.15-0.30) for the filter arm and 0.27 (95% CI = 0.22-0.34) for the filter and WASH BCC arm. A non-significant reduction in diarrhea prevalence was reported in the WASH BCC study arm households (0.71, 95% CI = 0.59-0.86).

  17. The effect of New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhoea Syndrome (NNPDS) on average daily gain and mortality in 4 Danish pig herds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The study evaluated the effect of New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhoea Syndrome (NNPDS) on average daily gain (ADG) and mortality and described the clinical manifestations in four herds suffering from the syndrome. NNPDS is a diarrhoeic syndrome affecting piglets within the first week of life, which is not caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) type A/C, Clostridium difficile (C. difficile), rotavirus A, coronavirus, Cystoisospora suis, Strongyloides ransomi, Giardia spp or Cryptosporidium spp. Results Piglets were estimated to have a negative ADG of 9 and 14 g when diarrhoeic for 1 day and >1 day respectively. However, if only diarrhoeic on the day of birth, no negative effect on ADG was seen. Piglets originating from severely affected litters were estimated to have a reduced ADG of 38 g. The study did not show an overall effect of diarrhoea on mortality, but herd of origin, sow parity, birth weight, and gender were significantly associated with mortality. In one of the herds, approximately 25% of the diarrhoeic piglets vs. 6% of the non-diarrhoeic piglets died, and 74% of necropsied piglets were diagnosed with enteritis. These findings indicate that the high mortality seen in this herd was due to diarrhoea. Conclusions NNPDS negatively affected ADG in piglets, and even piglets that were diarrhoeic for one day only experienced a reduction in ADG. However, the study showed that diarrhoea restricted to the day of birth did not affect ADG and suggested this phenomenon to be unrelated to the syndrome. Since the diarrhoeal status of the litter had important effects on ADG, future research on NNPDS probably ought to focus on piglets from severely affected litters. The study showed important dissimilarities in the course of diarrhoea between the herds, and one herd was considerably more affected than the others. Within this herd, NNPDS seemed to be associated with a higher mortality, whereas in general the

  18. Evaluation of farmers' diagnostic performance for detection of diarrhoea in nursery pigs using digital pictures of faecal pools.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Ken S; Strunz, Anne M

    2013-10-18

    have similar diagnostic performance in relation to diarrhoea. False positive classification of non-diarrhoeic pigs appears to be a larger problem than false negative classification of diarrhoeic pigs under Danish conditions. If these results can be confirmed under practical conditions, training in, and validation of, clinical diagnoses may be an important factor in reducing antibiotic consumption in the pig industry.

  19. Water, sanitation and hygiene in developing countries: interventions and diarrhoea--a review.

    PubMed

    Fewtrell, L; Colford, J M

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a search to identify all English language papers (published between 1 January 1985 and 26 June 2003) with evidence on the effectiveness of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in developing countries, in which diarrhoea morbidity in non-outbreak conditions was reported. A total of 39 studies were identified as relevant after an initial review of over 2000 titles. Data were extracted and, where possible, combined using meta-analysis to provide a summary estimate of the effectiveness of specific interventions, including water supply and water treatment. Most of the interventions (including multiple interventions, hygiene and water quality) were found to significantly reduce the levels of diarrhoeal illness, with the greatest impact being seen for hygiene and household treatment interventions (after removal of studies classed as poor quality). Sanitation interventions could not be assessed as only a single study suitable for meta-analysis was identified.

  20. Role of oral rehydration therapy in controlling epidemic of cholera and watery diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Kamalesh

    2003-06-01

    Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is basically oral administration of liquid containing various electrolytes in specific proportions to prevent and treat dehydration. This treatment facilitates safe and optimal absorption of water and essential electrolytes such as sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride in dehydrated patients. Successful ORT was experienced in cholera patients in Kolkata and Dhaka which was followed by the development of oral rehydration salt (ORS). This procedure can be safely implemented at home. ORT reduced mortality rate both in cholera and non-cholera watery diarrhoea. The various health authorities must support preparedness before pre-positioning of adequate stocks of ORS packets for emergency situations. Health workers should have been the knowledge to prepare ORS solutions.

  1. Reducing disease burden and health inequalities arising from chronic disease among indigenous children: an early childhood caries intervention in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maaori are the Indigenous people of New Zealand and do not enjoy the same oral health status as the non-Indigenous majority. To overcome oral health disparities, the life course approach affords a valid foundation on which to develop a process that will contribute to the protection of the oral health of young infants. The key to this process is the support that could be provided to the parents or care givers of Maaori infants during the pregnancy of the mother and the early years of the child. This study seeks to determine whether implementing a kaupapa Maaori (Maaori philosophical viewpoint) in an early childhood caries (ECC) intervention reduces dental disease burden among Maaori children. The intervention consists of four approaches to prevent early childhood caries: dental care provided during pregnancy, fluoride varnish application to the teeth of children, motivational interviewing, and anticipatory guidance. Methods/design The participants are Maaori women who are expecting a child and who reside within the Maaori tribal area of Waikato-Tainui. This randomised-control trial will be undertaken utilising the principles of kaupapa Maaori research, which encompasses Maaori leadership, Maaori relationships, Maaori customary practices, etiquette and protocol. Participants will be monitored through clinical and self-reported information collected throughout the ECC intervention. Self-report information will be collected in a baseline questionnaire during pregnancy and when children are aged 24 and 36 months. Clinical oral health data will be collected during standardised examinations at ages 24 and 36 months by calibrated dental professionals. All participants receive the ECC intervention benefits, with the intervention delayed by 24 months for participants who are randomised to the control-delayed arm. Discussion The development and evaluation of oral health interventions may produce evidence that supports the application of the principles of kaupapa

  2. Reducing disease burden and health inequalities arising from chronic disease among indigenous children: an early childhood caries intervention in Aotearoa/New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Broughton, John R; Maipi, Joyce Te H; Person, Marie; Thomson, W Murray; Morgaine, Kate C; Tiakiwai, Sarah-Jane; Kilgour, Jonathan; Berryman, Kay; Lawrence, Herenia P; Jamieson, Lisa M

    2013-12-13

    Maaori are the Indigenous people of New Zealand and do not enjoy the same oral health status as the non-Indigenous majority. To overcome oral health disparities, the life course approach affords a valid foundation on which to develop a process that will contribute to the protection of the oral health of young infants. The key to this process is the support that could be provided to the parents or care givers of Maaori infants during the pregnancy of the mother and the early years of the child. This study seeks to determine whether implementing a kaupapa Maaori (Maaori philosophical viewpoint) in an early childhood caries (ECC) intervention reduces dental disease burden among Maaori children. The intervention consists of four approaches to prevent early childhood caries: dental care provided during pregnancy, fluoride varnish application to the teeth of children, motivational interviewing, and anticipatory guidance. The participants are Maaori women who are expecting a child and who reside within the Maaori tribal area of Waikato-Tainui.This randomised-control trial will be undertaken utilising the principles of kaupapa Maaori research, which encompasses Maaori leadership, Maaori relationships, Maaori customary practices, etiquette and protocol. Participants will be monitored through clinical and self-reported information collected throughout the ECC intervention. Self-report information will be collected in a baseline questionnaire during pregnancy and when children are aged 24 and 36 months. Clinical oral health data will be collected during standardised examinations at ages 24 and 36 months by calibrated dental professionals. All participants receive the ECC intervention benefits, with the intervention delayed by 24 months for participants who are randomised to the control-delayed arm. The development and evaluation of oral health interventions may produce evidence that supports the application of the principles of kaupapa Maaori research in the research

  3. Effectiveness of cleaning and health education in reducing childhood lead poisoning among children residing near superfund sites in Missouri.

    PubMed