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  1. Correlates of Chilean Adolescents’ Negative Attitudes Toward Cigarettes: The Role of Gender, Peer, Parental, and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bares, Cristina; Delva, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: We examined the association of peer, parental, and environmental factors with negative attitudes toward cigarettes among youth from Santiago, Chile. Methods: A total of 860 youth from Santiago, Chile, completed questions regarding their lifetime use of cigarettes, intentions to smoke, attitudes toward cigarettes, and questions that assessed peer, parental, and environmental factors. Results: For both boys and girls, peer disapproval of smoking was associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes and peer smoking was associated with less negative attitudes toward cigarettes. Peer pressure was significantly associated with more negative attitudes toward cigarettes for girls only. Parental smoking was associated with less negative attitudes and parental control with more negative attitudes, but these associations were significant in the overall sample only. School prevention efforts and exposure to cigarette ads were not associated with cigarette attitudes. Difficulty in accessing cigarettes was positively associated with negative attitudes for boys and girls. Conclusion: Smoking prevention efforts focus on attitude change, but scant information is available about the experiences that influence Chilean youth’s attitudes toward cigarettes. Results from the current study suggest that prevention efforts could benefit from gender-specific strategies. Girls’ but not boys’ attitudes were influenced by peer pressure. Moreover, negative attitudes toward cigarettes were associated with lower current smoking in girls only. Parental smoking was an important influence on youth’s attitudes toward cigarettes. Efforts to reduce smoking among Chilean youth may benefit from concurrently reducing parental smoking. PMID:22157230

  2. Comparative analysis of positive and negative attitudes toward statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghulami, Hassan Rahnaward; Ab Hamid, Mohd Rashid; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah

    2015-02-01

    Many statistics lecturers and statistics education researchers are interested to know the perception of their students' attitudes toward statistics during the statistics course. In statistics course, positive attitude toward statistics is a vital because it will be encourage students to get interested in the statistics course and in order to master the core content of the subject matters under study. Although, students who have negative attitudes toward statistics they will feel depressed especially in the given group assignment, at risk for failure, are often highly emotional, and could not move forward. Therefore, this study investigates the students' attitude towards learning statistics. Six latent constructs have been the measurement of students' attitudes toward learning statistic such as affect, cognitive competence, value, difficulty, interest, and effort. The questionnaire was adopted and adapted from the reliable and validate instrument of Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics (SATS). This study is conducted among engineering undergraduate engineering students in the university Malaysia Pahang (UMP). The respondents consist of students who were taking the applied statistics course from different faculties. From the analysis, it is found that the questionnaire is acceptable and the relationships among the constructs has been proposed and investigated. In this case, students show full effort to master the statistics course, feel statistics course enjoyable, have confidence that they have intellectual capacity, and they have more positive attitudes then negative attitudes towards statistics learning. In conclusion in terms of affect, cognitive competence, value, interest and effort construct the positive attitude towards statistics was mostly exhibited. While negative attitudes mostly exhibited by difficulty construct.

  3. Parental Influences on Adolescents' Negative Attitudes Toward Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Gniewosz, Burkhard; Noack, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Attitudes toward immigrants are a core component of adolescents' social identities. Although in a globalized world positive attitudes are functional, negative views toward immigrant are widespread. This study investigates the parent-adolescent transmission of attitudes toward immigrants between age 12 and 16. In a longitudinal five-wave cohort-sequential multi-informant survey study on German adolescents (N = 1289; 52.9 % female) and their parents (mothers N = 772; fathers N = 654), self-reported attitudes toward immigrants were measured at each time point. Changes in the adolescents' attitudes were predicted by maternal and paternal self-reported attitudes across time. Predictions of short-term changes revealed that the major effect of the parents' attitudes takes place in early adolescence (between grade 6 and 7). The prediction of the adolescents' long-term attitude changes indicates that these effects sustain until the age of 16. No between-parent differences were found. The results are discussed in terms of early adolescence being a sensitive period for parental effects on the development of adolescents' attitudes toward immigrants.

  4. On the Negative Attitude towards Left-Handedness of Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makashvili, Malkhaz; Taliashvili, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    Present study was aimed to determine the reasons behind negative attitude of some teachers to the left-handed writing of their pupils. Total of 745 primary school teachers of both sexes, mean age 34, Caucasians, citizens of the Republic Georgia, served as respondents in the study presented. Teachers were requested to answer in writing the…

  5. Alcohol makes others dislike you: reducing the positivity of teens' beliefs and attitudes toward alcohol use.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Anneke

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the effects of the portrayal of negative consequences of alcohol use on beliefs and attitudes toward alcohol consumption. In a between-subjects experiment (N = 108), participants were randomly assigned to watch one of three conditions. One group of participants watched a version of an edited episode of the reality program Jersey Shore in which alcohol use had negative consequences, another group watched a version of the episode in which alcohol use had more positive consequences, and a control group was not exposed to any program. Results showed that participants who saw the version with negative consequences had more negative beliefs about alcohol and more negative attitudes toward beer than participants who saw the more positive consequences and participants in the control condition. This indicates that the portrayal of negative consequences can have positive outcomes for viewers' health beliefs and attitudes, reducing their positivity toward alcohol use. PMID:22809293

  6. Neural Correlates of Attitude Change Following Positive and Negative Advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Junko; Ide, Hiroko; Kabashima, Ikuo; Kadota, Hiroshi; Takano, Kouji; Kansaku, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Understanding changes in attitudes towards others is critical to understanding human behaviour. Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards. This study aims to identify the neural correlates in the prefrontal cortices of changes in political attitudes toward others that are linked to social cognition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments have presented videos from previous electoral campaigns and television commercials for major cola brands and then used the subjects' self-rated affinity toward political candidates as behavioural indicators. After viewing negative campaign videos, subjects showing stronger fMRI activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lowered their ratings of the candidate they originally supported more than did those with smaller fMRI signal changes in the same region. Subjects showing stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex tended to increase their ratings more than did those with less activation. The same regions were not activated by viewing negative advertisements for cola. Correlations between the self-rated values and the neural signal changes underscore the metric representation of observed decisions (i.e., whether to support or not) in the brain. This indicates that neurometric analysis may contribute to the exploration of the neural correlates of daily social behaviour. PMID:19503749

  7. Neural correlates of attitude change following positive and negative advertisements.

    PubMed

    Kato, Junko; Ide, Hiroko; Kabashima, Ikuo; Kadota, Hiroshi; Takano, Kouji; Kansaku, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Understanding changes in attitudes towards others is critical to understanding human behaviour. Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards. This study aims to identify the neural correlates in the prefrontal cortices of changes in political attitudes toward others that are linked to social cognition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments have presented videos from previous electoral campaigns and television commercials for major cola brands and then used the subjects' self-rated affinity toward political candidates as behavioural indicators. After viewing negative campaign videos, subjects showing stronger fMRI activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lowered their ratings of the candidate they originally supported more than did those with smaller fMRI signal changes in the same region. Subjects showing stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex tended to increase their ratings more than did those with less activation. The same regions were not activated by viewing negative advertisements for cola. Correlations between the self-rated values and the neural signal changes underscore the metric representation of observed decisions (i.e., whether to support or not) in the brain. This indicates that neurometric analysis may contribute to the exploration of the neural correlates of daily social behaviour.

  8. Negative feedback system reduces pump oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenmann, W.

    1967-01-01

    External negative feedback system counteracts low frequency oscillations in rocket engine propellant pumps. The system uses a control piston to sense pump discharge fluid on one side and a gas pocket on the other.

  9. Liking is not the opposite of disliking: the functional separability of positive and negative attitudes toward minority groups.

    PubMed

    Pittinsky, Todd L; Rosenthal, Seth A; Montoya, R Matthew

    2011-04-01

    Two studies tested the hypotheses that positive and negative attitudes toward minority groups are not interchangeable in predicting positive versus negative behaviors toward those groups. In Study 1, positive attitudes about Latinos were a better predictor of a positive behavior toward Latinos than were negative attitudes or stereotyped positive attitudes. In Study 2, positive attitudes about African Americans were a better predictor of positive behavioral intentions toward that group than were negative attitudes, whereas negative attitudes were better predictors of negative behavioral intentions than were positive attitudes. Taken together, the studies support the perspective that positive and negative attitudes toward minority groups are theoretically and functionally distinct constructs. We conclude that it is important to measure both positive and negative attitudes to understand and predict behaviors toward minority groups.

  10. Competitive disadvantage makes attitudes towards rape less negative.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Kevin L; Pettersen, Cathrine

    2011-10-12

    Evolutionary theorists have argued that perceived competitive disadvantage may lead to more positive evaluation of, and greater likelihood of engaging in, risky and antisocial behavior. However, experimental studies have not yet examined the effects of competitive disadvantage on perceptions of rape. In the current study, we created a manipulation of perceived competitive status to test its effects on beliefs about rape. In one condition, participants were made to feel disadvantaged relative to male peers in terms of financial, physical, and intellectual power, whereas in the other condition they were made to feel advantaged. Participants were 120 heterosexual male undergraduate students. The manipulation was effective; compared to participants in the advantage condition, those in the disadvantage condition rated themselves as significantly worse off financially, shorter, in worse physical shape, and as having lower course marks than the average male student at the university. Compared to perceived competitive advantage, perceived disadvantage led to less negative attitudes towards rape. However, perceived competitive status did not significantly affect justifications and excuses for rape. Future studies using similar experimental manipulations can complement correlational studies and may contribute to greater clarity, precision, and sophistication of research and theory on the role of competitive disadvantage in rape.

  11. Reduced negative affect response in female psychopaths

    PubMed Central

    Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Angrilli, Alessandro; Calogero, Antonio; Harper, Jeremy; Olson, Lacy A.; Bernat, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Studies that investigate the differences between high and low psychopathic persons in brain activity during emotional facial expression processing are rare and commonly focus on males. The current study assessed whether previously reported behavioral differences would be reflected in differential brain activity in a sample of female offenders. The participants included 23 female forensic inpatients with high and low scores on the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R). ERPs were recorded during presentation of emotional facial expressions (i.e., fear, angry, and happy). Results revealed no differences in N170, P3 and late positive potential components between groups, but a significant difference in N2 only for angry and fear facial expressions, with high psychopathic participants showing lower reactivity. This N2 effect was found to be related to Factor 2 but not Factor 1 of the PCL-R. In time frequency analysis, theta activity underlying N2 best reflected these differences. Findings in this female sample are consistent with a cortical deficit in processing facial expression of negative emotions in psychopathic men. In addition, differences in processing seem to appear relatively early. PMID:23896396

  12. First thought, best thought: positive mood maintains and negative mood degrades implicit-explicit attitude correspondence.

    PubMed

    Huntsinger, Jeffrey R; Smith, Colin Tucker

    2009-02-01

    Two studies investigate the effect of mood on the relationship between implicit and explicit attitudes toward African Americans (Experiment 1) and implicit and explicit academic attitudes (Experiment 2). Because explicit and implicit attitudes are more related when people validate their automatic attitudes as true (the associative-propositional evaluation model) and because people tend to validate their immediate reactions when they are in positive rather than negative moods (the affect-as-information model), the authors predicted a stronger implicit-explicit attitude correspondence among positive versus negative mood participants. As predicted, in both studies, participants exhibited a significant correspondence between implicit and explicit attitudes when in positive moods but not when in negative moods.

  13. HPV vaccine information in the blogosphere: how positive and negative blogs influence vaccine-related risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intentions.

    PubMed

    Nan, Xiaoli; Madden, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    This research examines the impact of exposure to online blogs about the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on vaccine-related risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. In a controlled experiment (N = 341), college students were exposed to either a negative blog post about the HPV vaccine or a positive one. Compared to the control group, participants who had viewed the negative blog perceived the vaccine as less safe, held more negative attitudes toward the vaccine, and had reduced intentions to receive the vaccine. In contrast, exposure to the positive blog did not alter any vaccine-related risk perceptions, attitudes, or intentions. Implications of the findings for online vaccine risk communication are discussed.

  14. Analysis of Factors Influencing Negative Attitude toward Teacher Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogiegbaen, S. E. Aduwa; Uwameiye, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    This study critically examined the factors influencing public attitudes toward teacher education in Nigeria. It analysed a series of nationwide surveys of negative public attitude toward the teaching profession using parents and prospective university students as respondents. A questionnaire made up of 12 items was used to gather data on public…

  15. Effects of Negative Parental Attitudes on Female Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillman, Diane B.

    1989-01-01

    Surveyed female undergraduates (N=151) on perceptions of their parents' attitudes toward higher education. Found students perceiving nonencouragement reported interpersonal conflict with parents as well as financial difficulties. Suggests counselors address these concerns when counseling students who were not encouraged to attend college.…

  16. Addressing Negative Math Attitudes with Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrich, Allison; Sloughter, J. McLean; Anderson, Jeffrey; Bahuaud, Eric

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we share the results of our recent study of a quantitative literacy course with a service-learning component. Our study aims to answer the question: How did student attitudes shift as a result of participating in this course? We present and analyze statistics from pre- and post-surveys in five classes (N = 78) taught by two…

  17. Public familiarity with, knowledge of, and predictors of negative attitudes toward epilepsy in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saengpattrachai, Montri; Srinualta, Dumnern; Lorlertratna, Nithi; Pradermduzzadeeporn, Ekachai; Poonpol, Fakjit

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this nationwide survey was to assess familiarity with and knowledge of epilepsy, as well as to identify predictors of negative attitudes toward people with epilepsy, in Thailand. Of the 1581 people interviewed, 80.8% were familiar with the word epilepsy, but few knew anyone with the condition. The main reason given for avoiding helping a seizure victim was a lack of proper first-aid knowledge, not a negative attitude toward the person. The factors predicting negative attitudes in the Thai population were low educational level, unfamiliarity with epilepsy, and the misconception that epilepsy is a form of insanity. Different from most previous studies worldwide, the attitudes of friends and parents toward people with epilepsy were strongly positive. Social awareness of the public organization Epilepsy Society of Thailand was low; only 4.6% of the respondents knew about it. These data should be considered in a nationwide strategy to alleviate social discrimination against people with epilepsy.

  18. Learning to dislike alcohol: conditioning negative implicit attitudes toward alcohol and its effect on drinking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Havermans, Remco C.; Wiers, Reinout W.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Since implicit attitudes toward alcohol play an important role in drinking behavior, a possible way to obtain a behavioral change is changing these implicit attitudes. Objectives This study examined whether a change in implicit attitudes and in drinking behavior can be achieved via evaluative conditioning. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental condition and a control condition. In the experimental condition, participants were subjected to an evaluative conditioning procedure that consistently pairs alcohol-related cues with negative stimuli. In the control condition, alcohol-related cues were consistently paired with neutral stimuli during the evaluative conditioning phase. Implicit attitudes, explicit attitudes, and drinking behavior were measured before and after the evaluative conditioning phase. Results Following the evaluative conditioning procedure, participants in the experimental condition showed stronger negative implicit attitudes toward alcohol and consumed less alcohol compared to participants in the control condition. However, this effect was only found when the evaluative conditioning task paired alcohol-related cues with general negative pictures, but not when using pictures of frowning faces. Conclusions These results demonstrate that evaluative conditioning can effectively change implicit attitudes toward alcohol and also suggest that this procedure can be used to change drinking behavior. Hence, evaluative conditioning may be a useful new intervention tool to combat alcohol misuse. PMID:20431994

  19. Negative Affect in Victimized Children: The Roles of Social Withdrawal, Peer Rejection, and Attitudes toward Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, Edward J.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Fonagy, Peter; Twemlow, Stuart W.; Gamm, Bridget K.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity of mediating pathways in predicting self-assessed negative affect from shyness/social withdrawal, peer rejection, victimization by peers (overt and relational), and the attitude that aggression is legitimate and warranted. Participants were 296 3rd through 5th graders (156 girls, 140 boys) from 10 elementary…

  20. Xenophobia: Understanding the Roots and Consequences of Negative Attitudes toward Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakushko, Oksana

    2009-01-01

    The current xenophobic cultural environment in the United States makes it imperative that psychologists understand the nature of xenophobia and recognize its consequences. This article explores sociological, social psychological, and multicultural research to examine the causes of negative attitudes toward immigrants. Xenophobia is presented as a…

  1. Prediction of Negative Attitude from Congruity, Summation, and Logarithm Formulae for the Evaluation of Complex Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lynn R.

    1970-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to Compare the efficacy of an averaging (congruity) formula vs. an additive formula for the evaluation of complex stimuli when negative adjectives were used to describe the attitude topic. A logarithm formula proposed by Mannis, Gleason, and Dawes was also used. (DB)

  2. The effect of a negative mood priming challenge on dysfunctional attitudes, explanatory style, and explanatory flexibility.

    PubMed

    Fresco, David M; Heimberg, Richard G; Abramowitz, Adrienne; Bertram, Tara L

    2006-06-01

    Ninety-seven undergraduates, 48 of whom had a history of self-reported major depression, completed measures of mood and cognitive style (e.g. explanatory style, explanatory flexibility, dysfunctional attitudes) prior to and directly after a negative mood priming challenge that consisted of listening to sad music and thinking about an upsetting past event. Eighteen of the previously depressed participants endorsed baseline levels of depression, explanatory style for negative events, and dysfunctional attitudes higher than levels reported by never depressed participants or euthymic participants with a history of depression. All three groups (never depressed participants, dysphoric participants with a history of depression, euthymic participants with a history of depression) demonstrated increases in dysphoria and dysfunctional attitudes in response to the negative mood priming challenge. Dysphoric participants with a history of depression, but not the other two groups, evidenced modest increases in explanatory style following the negative mood priming challenge. Finally, euthymic participants with a history of depression, but not the other two groups, evidenced drops in explanatory flexibility. Findings from the present study suggest that the cognitive theories of depression may benefit from examining both cognitive content and cognitive flexibility when assessing risk for depression.

  3. Reduced anticipation of negative emotional events in alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Starita, Francesca; Làdavas, Elisabetta; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Alexithymia is characterized by difficulties in different domains of emotion processing, especially in relation to negative emotions. Nevertheless, its causal mechanisms remain elusive. Reduced anticipation of negative emotional events might be one such mechanism because it enables the individual to prepare to respond effectively to coming events. To test this, changes in skin conductance response (SCR) were recorded during classical fear conditioning in sixty participants with high (HA), medium (MA) and low (LA) levels of alexithymia. Two coloured squares were presented, one was reinforced with a mild electrical stimulation (CS+) while the other was never reinforced (CS-). Critically, despite all groups showing higher SCR to CS+ compared to CS-, SCR to CS+ was lower and extinguished earlier in HA compared to MA and LA. These differences appeared to be attributable neither to differences in the intensity of stimulation received, nor to SCR to the stimulation itself. Groups showed comparable SCR to CS- as well. Therefore, HA exhibited decreased anticipation of the occurrence of a negative emotional event. Disruption of this mechanism may then compromise effective emotion recognition, emotional response and response regulation, which characterise HA, and represent a unifying causal mechanism underlying the difficulties in emotion processing of this group. PMID:27278856

  4. Reduced anticipation of negative emotional events in alexithymia

    PubMed Central

    Starita, Francesca; Làdavas, Elisabetta; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Alexithymia is characterized by difficulties in different domains of emotion processing, especially in relation to negative emotions. Nevertheless, its causal mechanisms remain elusive. Reduced anticipation of negative emotional events might be one such mechanism because it enables the individual to prepare to respond effectively to coming events. To test this, changes in skin conductance response (SCR) were recorded during classical fear conditioning in sixty participants with high (HA), medium (MA) and low (LA) levels of alexithymia. Two coloured squares were presented, one was reinforced with a mild electrical stimulation (CS+) while the other was never reinforced (CS−). Critically, despite all groups showing higher SCR to CS+ compared to CS−, SCR to CS+ was lower and extinguished earlier in HA compared to MA and LA. These differences appeared to be attributable neither to differences in the intensity of stimulation received, nor to SCR to the stimulation itself. Groups showed comparable SCR to CS− as well. Therefore, HA exhibited decreased anticipation of the occurrence of a negative emotional event. Disruption of this mechanism may then compromise effective emotion recognition, emotional response and response regulation, which characterise HA, and represent a unifying causal mechanism underlying the difficulties in emotion processing of this group. PMID:27278856

  5. Mindfulness in schizophrenia: Associations with self-reported motivation, emotion regulation, dysfunctional attitudes, and negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Naomi T; Horan, William P; Green, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are gaining empirical support as alternative or adjunctive treatments for a variety of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. Emerging evidence now suggests that mindfulness-based treatments may also improve clinical features of schizophrenia, including negative symptoms. However, no research has examined the construct of mindfulness and its correlates in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined self-reported mindfulness in patients (n=35) and controls (n=25) using the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. We examined correlations among mindfulness, negative symptoms, and psychological constructs associated with negative symptoms and adaptive functioning, including motivation, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional attitudes. As hypothesized, patients endorsed lower levels of mindfulness than controls. In patients, mindfulness was unrelated to negative symptoms, but it was associated with more adaptive emotion regulation (greater reappraisal) and beliefs (lower dysfunctional attitudes). Some facets of mindfulness were also associated with self-reported motivation (behavioral activation and inhibition). These patterns of correlations were similar in patients and controls. Findings from this initial study suggest that schizophrenia patients may benefit from mindfulness-based interventions because they (a) have lower self-reported mindfulness than controls and (b) demonstrate strong relationships between mindfulness and psychological constructs related to adaptive functioning. PMID:26232242

  6. Mindfulness in schizophrenia: Associations with self-reported motivation, emotion regulation, dysfunctional attitudes, and negative symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Tabak, Naomi T.; Horan, William P.; Green, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are gaining empirical support as alternative or adjunctive treatments for a variety of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. Emerging evidence now suggests that mindfulness-based treatments may also improve clinical features of schizophrenia, including negative symptoms. However, no research has examined the construct of mindfulness and its correlates in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined self-reported mindfulness in patients (n=35) and controls (n=25) using the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. We examined correlations among mindfulness, negative symptoms, and psychological constructs associated with negative symptoms and adaptive functioning, including motivation, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional attitudes. As hypothesized, patients endorsed lower levels of mindfulness than controls. In patients, mindfulness was unrelated to negative symptoms, but it was associated with more adaptive emotion regulation (greater reappraisal) and beliefs (lower dysfunctional attitudes). Some facets of mindfulness were also associated with self-reported motivation (behavioral activation and inhibition). These patterns of correlations were similar in patients and controls. Findings from this initial study suggest that schizophrenia patients may benefit from mindfulness-based interventions because they (a) have lower self-reported mindfulness than controls and (b) demonstrate strong relationships between mindfulness and psychological constructs related to adaptive functioning. PMID:26232242

  7. Mindfulness in schizophrenia: Associations with self-reported motivation, emotion regulation, dysfunctional attitudes, and negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Naomi T; Horan, William P; Green, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are gaining empirical support as alternative or adjunctive treatments for a variety of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. Emerging evidence now suggests that mindfulness-based treatments may also improve clinical features of schizophrenia, including negative symptoms. However, no research has examined the construct of mindfulness and its correlates in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined self-reported mindfulness in patients (n=35) and controls (n=25) using the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. We examined correlations among mindfulness, negative symptoms, and psychological constructs associated with negative symptoms and adaptive functioning, including motivation, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional attitudes. As hypothesized, patients endorsed lower levels of mindfulness than controls. In patients, mindfulness was unrelated to negative symptoms, but it was associated with more adaptive emotion regulation (greater reappraisal) and beliefs (lower dysfunctional attitudes). Some facets of mindfulness were also associated with self-reported motivation (behavioral activation and inhibition). These patterns of correlations were similar in patients and controls. Findings from this initial study suggest that schizophrenia patients may benefit from mindfulness-based interventions because they (a) have lower self-reported mindfulness than controls and (b) demonstrate strong relationships between mindfulness and psychological constructs related to adaptive functioning.

  8. The Continuation of Prejudice: Addressing Negative Attitudes in Nurse Training and Continuing Professional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Paul; Stuart-Hamilton, Ian; Mayer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Measures of attitudes to ageing typically examine only explicit attitudes, treating attitude holders as a homogeneous group with regards to education levels. Implicit attitudes (i.e., the immediate attitudinal response before conscious processes amend that attitude to an explicit attitude) have been less commonly examined. The current study…

  9. Imagining intergroup contact can combat mental health stigma by reducing anxiety, avoidance and negative stereotyping.

    PubMed

    Stathi, Sofia; Tsantila, Katerina; Crisp, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Research has demonstrated widespread negative attitudes held toward people with mental health problems. Our study investigated whether a new prejudice reduction technique, imagined intergroup contact (Crisp & Turner, 2009), could combat stigma against people with mental illness, and the mediating processes through which it may exert this beneficial effect. We found that compared to a control condition, participants who imagined a positive encounter with a schizophrenic person reported weakened stereotypes and formed stronger intentions to engage in future social interactions with schizophrenic people in general. Importantly, these intentions were formed due to reduced feelings of anxiety about future interactions. We discuss the implications of these findings for improving the social inclusion of people with mental health problems.

  10. Medical Student Attitudes about Mental Illness: Does Medical-School Education Reduce Stigma?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…

  11. Consumer attitude and purchase intention towards processed meat products with natural compounds and a reduced level of nitrite.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yung; de Kok, Theo M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates consumer attitude and purchase intention towards processed meat products with added natural compounds and a reduced level of nitrite. The rationale for such innovation relates to nitrite's negative health image as a chemical additive among consumers, versus the perception of compounds from fruits and vegetables as being natural and healthy. Cross-sectional data were collected through online questionnaires on knowledge about, interest in, attitude and intentions towards such new type of processed meat products in Belgium, The Netherlands, Italy and Germany (n=2057). Consumers generally had limited knowledge about nitrite being added to meat products. Yet, they expressed favourable attitudes and purchase intentions towards the new processed meat products. Purchase intention associated positively with: attitude; preference for natural over chemical additives; perceived harmfulness of chemical additives; risk importance; domain specific innovativeness; awareness of nitrite added; education; general health interest; and processed meat consumption frequency. Consumers from Italy and Germany had a lower level of purchase intention compared to Belgium. Four consumer segments were identified based on attitude and purchase intention: 'enthusiasts' (39.3% of the sample), 'accepters' (11.9%), 'half-hearted' (42.3%) and 'uninterested' (6.6%). This study provides valuable insight for further product development and effective tailoring of marketing communication strategies of innovative processed meat products. PMID:27310600

  12. Consumer attitude and purchase intention towards processed meat products with natural compounds and a reduced level of nitrite.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yung; de Kok, Theo M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates consumer attitude and purchase intention towards processed meat products with added natural compounds and a reduced level of nitrite. The rationale for such innovation relates to nitrite's negative health image as a chemical additive among consumers, versus the perception of compounds from fruits and vegetables as being natural and healthy. Cross-sectional data were collected through online questionnaires on knowledge about, interest in, attitude and intentions towards such new type of processed meat products in Belgium, The Netherlands, Italy and Germany (n=2057). Consumers generally had limited knowledge about nitrite being added to meat products. Yet, they expressed favourable attitudes and purchase intentions towards the new processed meat products. Purchase intention associated positively with: attitude; preference for natural over chemical additives; perceived harmfulness of chemical additives; risk importance; domain specific innovativeness; awareness of nitrite added; education; general health interest; and processed meat consumption frequency. Consumers from Italy and Germany had a lower level of purchase intention compared to Belgium. Four consumer segments were identified based on attitude and purchase intention: 'enthusiasts' (39.3% of the sample), 'accepters' (11.9%), 'half-hearted' (42.3%) and 'uninterested' (6.6%). This study provides valuable insight for further product development and effective tailoring of marketing communication strategies of innovative processed meat products.

  13. Can negative attitudes toward patients with borderline personality disorder be changed? The effect of attending a STEPPS workshop.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Connie; Pfohl, Bruce; Blum, Nancee; Black, Donald W

    2011-12-01

    We sought to determine whether negative attitudes toward patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) can be modified through education. Mental health clinicians attended a 1-day workshop on the Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) group treatment program for BPD. A questionnaire to assess attitudes towards BPD was given to 271 clinicians before and after the workshop. Following the workshop, clinicians endorsed having significantly greater empathy toward patients with BPD, and having greater awareness of the distress and low self-esteem associated with the disorder. Significant improvement was seen in the clinicians' attitudes toward patients with BPD and their desire to work with them. Clinicians were significantly less likely to express dislike for BPD patients. They also reported feeling more competent in their ability to treat these patients. The study offers preliminary evidence that negative attitudes toward patients with BPD can be modified through education.

  14. Ambivalence, prejudice and negative behavioural tendencies towards out-groups: The moderating role of attitude basis.

    PubMed

    Costarelli, Sandro; Gerłowska, Justyna

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments explored the relations between prejudice (suppression), (cognitive) ambivalence and negative behavioural tendencies towards out-groups. The current work argues that expressing out-group ambivalence based on cognitive, but not affective, information is a strategy to justify one's otherwise suppressed prejudice, which may ultimately "cover" the discriminatory nature of out-group-directed negative behavioural tendencies. Two experiments show that (1) participants evaluating the out-group in a normative context inducing prejudice suppression are more likely to self-report ambivalent beliefs rather than ambivalent emotions concerning the out-group as compared with participants whose prejudice expression is induced and (2) high-prejudice participants compared with low-prejudice participants are more prone to out-group-directed negative behavioural tendencies when these latter are self-reported after the expression of ambivalent beliefs but not ambivalent emotions concerning the out-group, and when the expression of their prejudicial evaluations is salient but not when it is not. In light of the extent to which ambivalent attitudes towards out-groups are often seamlessly integrated into public discourse, the implications of the findings are discussed not only for intergroup research but also at the societal level.

  15. Mildly negative social encounters reduce physical pain sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Borsook, Terry K; MacDonald, Geoff

    2010-11-01

    While previous research has demonstrated a reduction in physical pain sensitivity in response to social exclusion, the manipulations employed have arguably been far removed from typical daily experience. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of relatively ordinary social encounters on the perception of pain. Healthy participants rated the intensity and unpleasantness of painful stimuli before and after engaging in a structured interaction with a confederate who was instructed to either be warm and friendly or indifferent. A control group was asked to perform a similar structured activity, but alone. Consistent with predictions, participants who experienced the mildly negative social exchange reported lower pain intensity and unpleasantness after the encounter relative to baseline, whereas those exposed to the positive social exchange did not evidence any change in pain ratings. These results were not mediated by changes in mood or perceived connectedness. If mildly negative social encounters can provoke an analgesic effect, it is possible that social hypoalgesia may be considerably more commonplace than previously realized. Discussion focuses on the role of stress-induced hypoalgesia, and the implications of the results for clinical assessments of pain.

  16. Values, attitudes, and frequency of meat consumption. Predicting meat-reduced diet in Australians.

    PubMed

    Hayley, Alexa; Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Hardiman, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Reduced consumption of meat, particularly red meat, is associated with numerous health benefits. While past research has examined demographic and cognitive correlates of meat-related diet identity and meat consumption behaviour, the predictive influence of personal values on meat-consumption attitudes and behaviour, as well as gender differences therein, has not been explicitly examined, nor has past research focusing on 'meat' generally addressed 'white meat' and 'fish/seafood' as distinct categories of interest. Two hundred and two Australians (59.9% female, 39.1% male, 1% unknown), aged 18 to 91 years (M = 31.42, SD = 16.18), completed an online questionnaire including the Schwartz Values Survey, and measures of diet identity, attitude towards reduced consumption of each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, as well as self-reported estimates of frequency of consumption of each meat type. Results showed that higher valuing of Universalism predicted more positive attitudes towards reducing, and less frequent consumption of, each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, while higher Power predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption of, these meats. Higher Security predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption, of white meat and fish/seafood, while Conformity produced this latter effect for fish/seafood only. Despite men valuing Power more highly than women, women valuing Universalism more highly than men, and men eating red meat more frequently than women, gender was not a significant moderator of the value-attitude-behaviour mediations described, suggesting that gender's effects on meat consumption may not be robust once entered into a multivariate model of MRD attitudes and behaviour. Results support past findings associating Universalism, Power, and Security values with meat-eating preferences, and extend these findings by articulating how these values relate specifically

  17. Values, attitudes, and frequency of meat consumption. Predicting meat-reduced diet in Australians.

    PubMed

    Hayley, Alexa; Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Hardiman, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Reduced consumption of meat, particularly red meat, is associated with numerous health benefits. While past research has examined demographic and cognitive correlates of meat-related diet identity and meat consumption behaviour, the predictive influence of personal values on meat-consumption attitudes and behaviour, as well as gender differences therein, has not been explicitly examined, nor has past research focusing on 'meat' generally addressed 'white meat' and 'fish/seafood' as distinct categories of interest. Two hundred and two Australians (59.9% female, 39.1% male, 1% unknown), aged 18 to 91 years (M = 31.42, SD = 16.18), completed an online questionnaire including the Schwartz Values Survey, and measures of diet identity, attitude towards reduced consumption of each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, as well as self-reported estimates of frequency of consumption of each meat type. Results showed that higher valuing of Universalism predicted more positive attitudes towards reducing, and less frequent consumption of, each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, while higher Power predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption of, these meats. Higher Security predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption, of white meat and fish/seafood, while Conformity produced this latter effect for fish/seafood only. Despite men valuing Power more highly than women, women valuing Universalism more highly than men, and men eating red meat more frequently than women, gender was not a significant moderator of the value-attitude-behaviour mediations described, suggesting that gender's effects on meat consumption may not be robust once entered into a multivariate model of MRD attitudes and behaviour. Results support past findings associating Universalism, Power, and Security values with meat-eating preferences, and extend these findings by articulating how these values relate specifically

  18. The effect of implicitly incentivized faking on explicit and implicit measures of doping attitude: when athletes want to pretend an even more negative attitude to doping.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Wanja; Schindler, Sebastian; Brand, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) aims to measure participants' automatic evaluation of an attitude object and is useful especially for the measurement of attitudes related to socially sensitive subjects, e.g. doping in sports. Several studies indicate that IAT scores can be faked on instruction. But fully or semi-instructed research scenarios might not properly reflect what happens in more realistic situations, when participants secretly decide to try faking the test. The present study is the first to investigate IAT faking when there is only an implicit incentive to do so. Sixty-five athletes (22.83 years ± 2.45; 25 women) were randomly assigned to an incentive-to-fake condition or a control condition. Participants in the incentive-to-fake condition were manipulated to believe that athletes with lenient doping attitudes would be referred to a tedious 45-minute anti-doping program. Attitudes were measured with the pictorial doping brief IAT (BIAT) and with the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS). A one-way MANOVA revealed significant differences between conditions after the manipulation in PEAS scores, but not in the doping BIAT. In the light of our hypothesis this suggests that participants successfully faked an exceedingly negative attitude to doping when completing the PEAS, but were unsuccessful in doing so on the reaction time-based test. This study assessed BIAT faking in a setting that aimed to resemble a situation in which participants want to hide their attempts to cheat. The two measures of attitude were differentially affected by the implicit incentive. Our findings provide evidence that the pictorial doping BIAT is relatively robust against spontaneous and naïve faking attempts. (B)IATs might be less prone to faking than implied by previous studies.

  19. The Effect of Implicitly Incentivized Faking on Explicit and Implicit Measures of Doping Attitude: When Athletes Want to Pretend an Even More Negative Attitude to Doping

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Wanja; Schindler, Sebastian; Brand, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) aims to measure participants’ automatic evaluation of an attitude object and is useful especially for the measurement of attitudes related to socially sensitive subjects, e.g. doping in sports. Several studies indicate that IAT scores can be faked on instruction. But fully or semi-instructed research scenarios might not properly reflect what happens in more realistic situations, when participants secretly decide to try faking the test. The present study is the first to investigate IAT faking when there is only an implicit incentive to do so. Sixty-five athletes (22.83 years ± 2.45; 25 women) were randomly assigned to an incentive-to-fake condition or a control condition. Participants in the incentive-to-fake condition were manipulated to believe that athletes with lenient doping attitudes would be referred to a tedious 45-minute anti-doping program. Attitudes were measured with the pictorial doping brief IAT (BIAT) and with the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS). A one-way MANOVA revealed significant differences between conditions after the manipulation in PEAS scores, but not in the doping BIAT. In the light of our hypothesis this suggests that participants successfully faked an exceedingly negative attitude to doping when completing the PEAS, but were unsuccessful in doing so on the reaction time-based test. This study assessed BIAT faking in a setting that aimed to resemble a situation in which participants want to hide their attempts to cheat. The two measures of attitude were differentially affected by the implicit incentive. Our findings provide evidence that the pictorial doping BIAT is relatively robust against spontaneous and naïve faking attempts. (B)IATs might be less prone to faking than implied by previous studies. PMID:25902142

  20. Client Violence and Its Negative Impacts on Work Attitudes of Child Protection Workers Compared to Community Service Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Junseob

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of client violence toward child protection workers and its negative impacts on the work attitudes of those workers compared with community service workers in South Korea. This study is based on the assumption that child protection workers are more vulnerable to violence than are community service workers…

  1. External Insect Morphology: A Negative Factor in Attitudes toward Insects and Likelihood of Incorporation in Future Science Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Ron; Wagler, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated if the external morphology of an insect had a negative effect on United States (US) preservice elementary teacher's attitudes toward insects and beliefs concerning the likelihood of incorporating insects into future science education settings. 270 US kindergarten through sixth grade preservice elementary teachers…

  2. Improving Negative Emotion Recognition in Young Offenders Reduces Subsequent Crime

    PubMed Central

    Hubble, Kelly; Bowen, Katharine L.; Moore, Simon C.; van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Children with antisocial behaviour show deficits in the perception of emotional expressions in others that may contribute to the development and persistence of antisocial and aggressive behaviour. Current treatments for antisocial youngsters are limited in effectiveness. It has been argued that more attention should be devoted to interventions that target neuropsychological correlates of antisocial behaviour. This study examined the effect of emotion recognition training on criminal behaviour. Methods Emotion recognition and crime levels were studied in 50 juvenile offenders. Whilst all young offenders received their statutory interventions as the study was conducted, a subgroup of twenty-four offenders also took part in a facial affect training aimed at improving emotion recognition. Offenders in the training and control groups were matched for age, SES, IQ and lifetime crime level. All offenders were tested twice for emotion recognition performance, and recent crime data were collected after the testing had been completed. Results Before the training there were no differences between the groups in emotion recognition, with both groups displaying poor fear, sadness and anger recognition. After the training fear, sadness and anger recognition improved significantly in juvenile offenders in the training group. Although crime rates dropped in all offenders in the 6 months following emotion testing, only the group of offenders who had received the emotion training showed a significant reduction in the severity of the crimes they committed. Conclusions The study indicates that emotion recognition can be relatively easily improved in youths who engage in serious antisocial and criminal behavior. The results suggest that improved emotion recognition has the potential to reduce the severity of reoffending. PMID:26121148

  3. Human attitudes towards herpetofauna: The influence of folklore and negative values on the conservation of amphibians and reptiles in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human values and folklore of wildlife strongly influence the effectiveness of conservation efforts. These values and folklore may also vary with certain demographic characteristics such as gender, age, or education. Reptiles and amphibians are among the least appreciated of vertebrates and are victims of many negative values and wrong ideas resulting from the direct interpretation of folklore. We try to demonstrate how these values and folklore can affect the way people relate to them and also the possible conservation impacts on these animals. Methods A questionnaire survey distributed to 514 people in the district of Évora, Portugal, was used to obtain data regarding the hypothesis that the existence of wrong ideas and negative values contributes to the phenomenon of human-associated persecution of these animals. A structural equation model was specified in order to confirm the hypothesis about the possible relationships between the presence of perceptions and negative values about amphibians and reptiles and persecution and anti-conservation attitudes. Sociodemographic variables were also added. Results The results of the model suggest that the presence of folklore and negative values clearly predicts persecution and anti-conservation attitudes towards amphibians and reptiles. Also, the existence of folklore varies sociodemographically, but negative values concerning these animals are widespread in the population. Conclusions With the use of structural equation models, this work is a contribution to the study of how certain ideas and values can directly influence human attitudes towards herpetofauna and how they can be a serious conservation issue. PMID:22316318

  4. Evaluation of Project Chrysalis: A School-based Intervention To Reduce Negative Consequences of Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kelly J.; Block, Audrey J.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated a school-based program that served female adolescents with histories of physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Found that participation produced healthier beliefs and attitudes about alcohol and other drug use and reduced initiation of tobacco and marijuana use. Findings support enrolling younger girls before they develop negative…

  5. The Role of Shame as a Mediator between Anti-Black Racial Identity Attitudes and Negative Affect in a Sample of African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    A sample of 168 African American undergraduates was surveyed to clarify past findings demonstrating a consistent relationship between endorsing negative attitudes about being African American and experiencing negative affect. Specifically, shame was tested as a mediator between participants' endorsement of preencounter attitudes (i.e., anti-Black…

  6. Reducing STD/HIV Stigmatizing Attitudes through Community Popular Opinion Leaders in Chinese Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Ronald E.; Wu, Zunyou; Li, Li; Detels, Roger; Rotheram-Borus, Mary J.

    2012-01-01

    Reducing STDs and HIV/AIDS incidence requires campaigns designed to change knowledge, attitudes, and practices of risky sexual behavior. In China, a significant obstacle to such changes is the stigma associated with these diseases. Thus 1 campaign intervention strategy is to train credible community leaders to discuss these issues in everyday…

  7. Efficiently Assessing Negative Cognition in Depression: An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beevers, Christopher G.; Strong, David R.; Meyer, Bjorn; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Miller, Ivan R.

    2007-01-01

    Despite a central role for dysfunctional attitudes in cognitive theories of depression and the widespread use of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, form A (DAS-A; A. Weissman, 1979), the psychometric development of the DAS-A has been relatively limited. The authors used nonparametric item response theory methods to examine the DAS-A items and…

  8. Reducing STD/HIV stigmatizing attitudes through community popular opinion leaders in Chinese markets

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Ronald E.; Wu, Zunyou; Li, Li; Detels, Roger; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2013-01-01

    Reducing STDs and HIV/AIDS incidence requires campaigns designed to change knowledge, attitudes and practices of risky sexual behavior and its consequences. In China, a significant obstacle to such changes is the stigma associated with these diseases. Thus one campaign intervention strategy is to train credible community popular opinion leaders to discuss these issues in everyday social venues. This study tested the effectiveness of such an approach on reducing HIV/AIDS stigma, across two years, from a sample of over 4500 market vendors, in three conditions. Results showed an increasing growth in market communication about intervention messages, and concomitant declines in stigmatizing attitudes, across time, with the greatest changes in community popular opinion leaders, significant changes in intervention non-opinion leaders, and little change in the control markets. PMID:24944433

  9. The Effectiveness of Peer Mediation on Reducing Middle School Violence and Negative Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cigainero, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of peer mediation on reducing violence and negative behaviors in middle school students. Negative behaviors included various ways students disrupt learning and included tardiness, absenteeism and truancy as well as classroom distractions of all forms. Three middle schools all in the same school…

  10. A slow life history is related to a negative attitude towards cousin marriages: a study in three ethnic groups in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Buunk, Abraham P; Hoben, Ashley D

    2013-06-24

    Little is known about current attitudes towards cousin marriages. Using data from a rural population in the Mexican state of Oaxaca, the present research examined how life history was related to attitudes towards cousin marriages in various ethnic groups. Participants were 205 parents from three ethnic groups. i.e., Mestizos (people of mixed descent, n = 103), indigenous Mixtecs (n = 65), and Blacks (n = 35). Nearly all men in this study were farm workers or fishermen. Participants reported more negative than positive attitudes towards cousin marriage, and women reported more negative attitudes than did men. The main objection against marrying a cousin was that it is wrong for religious reasons, whereas the risk of genetic defects was considered relatively unimportant. Cousin marriage was not considered to contribute to the quality and unity of marriage and the family. The three ethnic groups did not differ in their attitude towards cousin marriages. However, a slower life history was related to a more negative attitude towards cousin marriages, especially among Blacks, less so among Mixtecs, and not at all among Mestizos. In addition, and independent of the effect of life history, with increasing levels of parental control over mate choice, the attitude towards cousin marriage was more positive, but among men the attitude was more negative the more religious they were. The results are discussed in the context of theorizing on life history theory and the benefits and costs of cousin marriages.

  11. HIV-negative male couples' attitudes about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and using PrEP with a sexual agreement.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jason W; Lee, Ji-Young; Woodyatt, Cory; Bauermeister, José; Sullivan, Patrick; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-08-01

    One efficacious strategy to help prevent HIV is oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a daily regimen of antiretroviral treatment taken by HIV-negative individuals. Two of the recommendations of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for PrEP pertain to being in a relationship (i.e., male couples). Despite the recognition of how primary partners in male couples' relationships shape HIV risk and CDC's PrEP guidelines, there is a paucity of data that examine HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use and using PrEP with a sexual agreement. A sexual agreement is an explicit agreement made between two individuals about what sex and other related behaviors may occur within and outside of their relationship. In this qualitative study, we examine HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use and whether they thought PrEP could be integrated into a sexual agreement. Data for this study are drawn from couple-level interviews conducted in 2014 with 29 HIV-negative male couples who had a sexual agreement and were from Atlanta or Detroit. Both passive (e.g., flyers) and active (e.g., targeted Facebook advertisements) recruitment methods were used; the sample was stratified by agreement type. Thematic analysis was applied to identify the following themes regarding HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use: (1) PrEP and condom use; (2) concerns about PrEP (e.g., effectiveness, side effects, and promoting sexually risky behavior); and (3) accessibility of PrEP. Some thought PrEP could be a part of couples' agreement because it could help reduce sexual anxiety and sexual risk, and would help keep the couple safe. Others described PrEP use with an agreement as something for "others". Some were also concerned that incorporating PrEP could usurp the need for a sexual agreement in a couples' relationship. These themes highlight the need to improve informational messaging and promotion efforts about PrEP among HIV-negative male couples

  12. HIV-negative male couples' attitudes about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and using PrEP with a sexual agreement.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jason W; Lee, Ji-Young; Woodyatt, Cory; Bauermeister, José; Sullivan, Patrick; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-08-01

    One efficacious strategy to help prevent HIV is oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a daily regimen of antiretroviral treatment taken by HIV-negative individuals. Two of the recommendations of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for PrEP pertain to being in a relationship (i.e., male couples). Despite the recognition of how primary partners in male couples' relationships shape HIV risk and CDC's PrEP guidelines, there is a paucity of data that examine HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use and using PrEP with a sexual agreement. A sexual agreement is an explicit agreement made between two individuals about what sex and other related behaviors may occur within and outside of their relationship. In this qualitative study, we examine HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use and whether they thought PrEP could be integrated into a sexual agreement. Data for this study are drawn from couple-level interviews conducted in 2014 with 29 HIV-negative male couples who had a sexual agreement and were from Atlanta or Detroit. Both passive (e.g., flyers) and active (e.g., targeted Facebook advertisements) recruitment methods were used; the sample was stratified by agreement type. Thematic analysis was applied to identify the following themes regarding HIV-negative male couples' attitudes toward PrEP use: (1) PrEP and condom use; (2) concerns about PrEP (e.g., effectiveness, side effects, and promoting sexually risky behavior); and (3) accessibility of PrEP. Some thought PrEP could be a part of couples' agreement because it could help reduce sexual anxiety and sexual risk, and would help keep the couple safe. Others described PrEP use with an agreement as something for "others". Some were also concerned that incorporating PrEP could usurp the need for a sexual agreement in a couples' relationship. These themes highlight the need to improve informational messaging and promotion efforts about PrEP among HIV-negative male couples

  13. Young People and the Learning Partnerships Program: Shifting Negative Attitudes to Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Helen; Coffey, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses research which explored the impact of the Learning Partnerships program on young people's attitudes to help-seeking. The Learning Partnerships program brings classes of high school students into universities to teach pre-service teachers and doctors how to communicate effectively with adolescents about sensitive issues such…

  14. Age and Skin Tone as Predictors of Positive and Negative Racial Attitudes in Hispanic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes-Guinan, Katie

    2011-01-01

    Past research suggests that both White children and minority children, including Hispanics, hold pro-White biases. Although doll studies have been a popular way of assessing racial attitudes among children, several methodological issues have made it challenging to interpret the results from these studies. Furthermore, past research has failed to…

  15. Police use of handcuffs in the homeless population leads to long-term negative attitudes within this group.

    PubMed

    Krameddine, Yasmeen I; Silverstone, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    The police interact with homeless individuals frequently. However, there has been relatively little research on the attitudes of homeless individuals towards the police, and how police interactions may impact these. This is important since the attitudes of homeless individuals can impact how often they report crimes, and how well they support police when they are investigating crimes in this population. We interviewed 213 homeless individuals in a single city, representing approximately 10% of the total homeless population. They were interviewed at either homeless shelters, or events held specifically for the homeless population. Of these individuals, 75% were male, and 47% had interacted with a police officer within the past month. Self-reports suggested that 60% had a drug and/or alcohol issue and 78% had a mental illness. We found a highly statistically significant difference between the group that had been handcuffed and/or arrested compared to those that had not. This was across multiple domains and included how the individual regarded the police in terms of their empathy and communication skills, and how much they trusted the police. These changes were long-term, and if a homeless individual had been arrested or handcuffed (and verbal reporting suggested that being handcuffed was the by far the most important factor) then these negative attitudes lasted at least 2 years. The primary conclusion from this study is that when police handcuff a homeless individual, this can lead to long-term negative views about the police across several domains that appear to be long lasting, and were linked to feelings of not being respected by the police. It is therefore proposed that police officers should be made aware of the potential long-term negative consequences of this single action, and that police forces should consider providing specific training to minimize any unnecessary overuse of handcuffs.

  16. Attitudes and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tindle, Hilary; Davis, Esa; Kuller, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    Psychological attitudes are prospectively related to cardiovascular disease (CVD), but a causal relationship has not been demonstrated. Trait optimism/pessimism (positive or negative future expectation, respectively), and cynical hostility (mistrust of people), are attitudes with features of personality traits. These attitudes may affect CVD risk in several ways, by influencing an individual’s 1) adoption of health behaviors, 2) maladaptive stress responding resulting in direct alteration of physiology (i.e., autonomic dysfunction, thrombosis, arrhythmias), 3) development of traditional CVD risk factors, and 4) lack of adherence to therapy in both primary and secondary prevention. More adaptive attitudes may favorably influence CVD risk at each of these critical junctures. The genetic and environmental (i.e., social, economic, racial/ethnic) determinants of attitudes have not been extensively studied. In addition, it is important to understand how some of these environmental determinants may also moderate the association between attitudes and CVD. Clinical trials to modify attitudes for CVD risk reduction (either by reducing negative attitudes or by increasing positive attitudes) are difficult to conduct, but are necessary to determine whether attitudes can indeed be modified, and if, so, to quantify any CVD-related benefits. To address these questions we present a broad, multidisciplinary research agenda utilizing mixed methods and integrating principles of epidemiology, genetics, psychophysiology, and behavioral medicine over the lifecourse (Figure 1). This overview focuses on attitudes and CVD, but has broader implications for understanding how psychological factors relate to chronic diseases of adulthood. PMID:20554132

  17. Negative feedback from maternal signals reduces false alarms by collectively signalling offspring.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Jennifer A; Cocroft, Reginald B

    2012-09-22

    Within animal groups, individuals can learn of a predator's approach by attending to the behaviour of others. This use of social information increases an individual's perceptual range, but can also lead to the propagation of false alarms. Error copying is especially likely in species that signal collectively, because the coordination required for collective displays relies heavily on social information. Recent evidence suggests that collective behaviour in animals is, in part, regulated by negative feedback. Negative feedback may reduce false alarms by collectively signalling animals, but this possibility has not yet been tested. We tested the hypothesis that negative feedback increases the accuracy of collective signalling by reducing the production of false alarms. In the treehopper Umbonia crassicornis, clustered offspring produce collective signals during predator attacks, advertising the predator's location to the defending mother. Mothers signal after evicting the predator, and we show that this maternal communication reduces false alarms by offspring. We suggest that maternal signals elevate offspring signalling thresholds. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show that negative feedback can reduce false alarms by collectively behaving groups. PMID:22787019

  18. Negative feedback from maternal signals reduces false alarms by collectively signalling offspring.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Jennifer A; Cocroft, Reginald B

    2012-09-22

    Within animal groups, individuals can learn of a predator's approach by attending to the behaviour of others. This use of social information increases an individual's perceptual range, but can also lead to the propagation of false alarms. Error copying is especially likely in species that signal collectively, because the coordination required for collective displays relies heavily on social information. Recent evidence suggests that collective behaviour in animals is, in part, regulated by negative feedback. Negative feedback may reduce false alarms by collectively signalling animals, but this possibility has not yet been tested. We tested the hypothesis that negative feedback increases the accuracy of collective signalling by reducing the production of false alarms. In the treehopper Umbonia crassicornis, clustered offspring produce collective signals during predator attacks, advertising the predator's location to the defending mother. Mothers signal after evicting the predator, and we show that this maternal communication reduces false alarms by offspring. We suggest that maternal signals elevate offspring signalling thresholds. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show that negative feedback can reduce false alarms by collectively behaving groups.

  19. Consumer attitudes, barriers, and meal satisfaction associated with sodium-reduced meal intake at worksite cafeterias

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Targeting consumers who consume lunches at their worksite cafeterias would be a valuable approach to reduce sodium intake in South Korea. To assess the relationships between socio-demographic factors, consumer satisfaction, attitudes, barriers and the frequency of sodium-reduced meal intake. SUBJECTS/METHODS We implemented a cross-sectional research, analyzing data from 738 consumers aged 18 years or older (327 males and 411 females) at 17 worksite cafeterias in South Korea. We used the ordinary least squares regression analysis to determine the factors related to overall satisfaction with sodium-reduced meal. General linear models with LSD tests were employed to examine the variables that differed by the frequency of sodium-reduced meal intake. RESULTS Most subjects always or usually consumed the sodium-reduced meal (49%), followed by sometimes (34%) and rarely or never (18%). Diverse menus, taste and belief in the helpfulness of the sodium-reduced meal significantly increased overall satisfaction with the sodium-reduced diet (P < 0.05). We found importance of needs in the following order: 1) 'menu diversity' (4.01 points), 2) 'active promotion' (3.97 points), 3) 'display of nutrition labels in a visible location' (3.96 points), 4) 'improvement of taste' (3.88 points), and 5) 'education of sodium-reduction self-care behaviors' (3.82 points). CONCLUSION Dietitians could lead consumers to choose sodium-reduced meals by improving their taste and providing diverse menus for the sodium-reduced meals at worksite cafeterias. PMID:26634054

  20. The Effect of Positive and Negative Affect-Arousing Communications Upon Beliefs, Attitudes, Intentions, and Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Davis, Clive M.

    An experiment was performed to test two hypotheses. One was that there would be a curvilinear relationship between increased degrees of a negative communication and persuasion, and the other was that there would be a positive and linear relationship between a positive communication and persuasion. College undergraduate smokers and nonsmokers were…

  1. University Students' Research Orientations: Do Negative Attitudes Exist toward Quantitative Methods?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtonen, Mari

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines university social science and education students' views of research methodology, especially asking whether a negative research orientation towards quantitative methods exists. Finnish (n = 196) and US (n = 122) students answered a questionnaire concerning their views on quantitative, qualitative, empirical, and theoretical…

  2. Stigma, negative attitudes and discrimination towards mental illness within the nursing profession: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ross, C A; Goldner, E M

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the existing literature pertaining to stigma, negative attitudes and discrimination towards mental illness, specifically as viewed through the lens of the nursing profession. The results of the literature review were synthesized and analysed, and the major themes drawn from this were found to correspond with Schulze's model identifying three positions that healthcare workers may assume in relation to stigma of mental illness: 'stigmatizers', 'stigmatized' and 'de-stigmatizers'. In this paper, the nursing profession is examined from the perspectives of the first two major themes: the 'stigmatizers' and 'stigmatized'. Their primary sub-themes are identified and discussed: (1) Nurses as 'the stigmatizers': (a) nurses' attitudes in general medical settings towards patients with psychiatric illness and (b) psychiatric nurses; (2) Nurses as 'the stigmatized': (a) nurses who have mental illness and (b) stigma within the profession against psychiatric nurses and/or psychiatry in general. The secondary and tertiary sub-themes are also identified and reviewed. PMID:19594679

  3. Thermostats with attitudes: A sociological analysis of assumptions underlying common approaches to reducing residential energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevius, Monica Josefina

    2001-12-01

    This dissertation contributes to the emerging literature in the sociology of energy consumption by answering three important questions about the assumptions underlying popular approaches to reducing energy consumption behavior. The answers are gleaned from data on Wisconsin households gathered in 1998 and 1999. The first question has to do with the efficacy of a "cognitive fix" approach of attempting to change attitudes in hopes of changing behavior, and asks whether energy-related attitudes can predict actual energy savings. The results of a regression analysis of heating energy intensity revealed that a variable measuring respondents' attitudes toward energy conservation predict heating energy intensity, but the effect was overwhelmed by control variables for insulation and draftiness. These and other results offer some support for the cognitive fix approach of attitudinal change as a means of reducing energy consumption. The second question concerns a popular "technological fix" of subsidizing the replacement of manual thermostats with programmable ones, and asks whether programmable thermostats actually save significant home heating energy. The data show that households with programmable thermostats appear to use no less energy than do households with manual thermostats, and that it is behavioral norms, not the type of thermostat, that determine thermostat setting behavior. The results suggest strongly that in aggregate, the installation of programmable thermostats in residential households cannot be expected to deliver promised energy savings. The third question addressed is whether popular knowledge about global warming or the connection between energy use and global environmental change is growing, and if so, what is the likelihood that these prospective socio-cultural shifts might result in increased residential energy conservation. The analysis suggests that, compared to the findings of earlier studies, awareness of the environmental consequences of energy

  4. Countermeasure for reducing post-flight orthostatic intolerance: Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) experiment E140

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.

    1993-01-01

    Investigators have shown that after 1-2 weeks of bed rest ingestion of 1000 ml of a salt water solution during 4 hours of continuous exposure to 30 mm Hg of lower body negative pressure will protect plasma volume and orthostatic function for up to 24 hours. We hypothesize that a similar countermeasure will reduce the effects of fluid loss induced by headward fluid shift during space flight. The objective of this flight experiment is to evaluate the efficacy of the proposed countermeasure in reversing these effects on the cardiovascular system. Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) involves exposing the legs and lower abdomen to reduced air pressure. The LBNP device is an air-tight chamber that seals the subject's waist to enclose the lower body. As used in this experiment, LBNP provides both the candidate treatment as well as the means of assessing the effectiveness of the treatment.

  5. "Treating" prejudice: an exposure-therapy approach to reducing negative reactions toward stigmatized groups.

    PubMed

    Birtel, Michèle D; Crisp, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    One of the ways in which therapists treat anxiety disorders is to expose patients to a fear-evoking stimulus within a safe environment before encouraging more positive stimulus-related thoughts. In the study reported here, we adapted these psychotherapeutic principles of exposure therapy to test the hypothesis that imagining a positive encounter with a member of a stigmatized group would be more likely to promote positive perceptions when it was preceded by an imagined negative encounter. The results of three experiments targeting a range of stigmatized groups (adults with schizophrenia, gay men, and British Muslims) supported this hypothesis. Compared with purely positive interventions, interventions in which a single negative encounter was imagined just prior to imagining a positive encounter resulted in significantly reduced prejudice. Furthermore, reduced anxiety uniquely derived from the mixed-valence imagery task statistically explained enhanced intentions to engage positively with the previously stigmatized group in the future.

  6. HIV-negative partnered men’s attitudes toward using an in-home rapid HIV test and associated factors among a sample of US HIV-negative and HIV-discordant male couples

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Jason W.; Sullivan, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many MSM acquire HIV while in a same-sex relationship. Studies with gay male couples have demonstrated that relationship characteristics and testing behaviors are important to examine for HIV prevention. Recently, an in-home rapid HIV test (HT) has become available for purchase in the US. However, HIV-negative partnered men’s attitudes toward using an HT, and whether characteristics of their relationship affect their use of HTs remain largely unknown. This information is relevant for development of HIV prevention interventions targeting at-risk HIV-negative and discordant male couples. Methods To assess HIV-negative partnered men’s attitudes and associated factors toward using an HT, a cross-sectional Internet-based survey was used to collect dyadic data from a national sample of 275 HIV-negative and 58 HIV-discordant gay male couples. Multivariate multilevel modeling was used to identify behavioral and relationship factors associated with 631 HIV-negative partnered men’s attitudes toward using an HT. Results HIV-negative partnered men were “very likely” to use an HT. More positive attitudes toward using an HT were associated with being in a relationship of mixed or nonwhite race and with one or both men recently having had sex with a casual male partner. Less positive attitudes toward using an HT were associated with both partners being well educated, with greater resources (investment size) in the relationship, and with one or both men having a primary care provider. Conclusions These findings may be used to help improve testing rates via promotion of HTs among gay male couples. PMID:25668643

  7. The Peer Attitudes toward Children Who Stutter Scale: Reliability, Known Groups Validity, and Negativity of Elementary School-Age Children's Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langevin, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Peer Attitudes Toward Children who Stutter (PATCS) scale (Langevin, M., & Hagler, P. (2004). Development of a scale to measure peer attitudes toward children who stutter. In A.K. Bothe (Ed.), Evidence-based treatment of stuttering: empirical bases and clinical applications (pp. 139-171). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum…

  8. Effectiveness of negative-thought-reduction, meditation and placebo training treatment in reducing anger.

    PubMed

    Dua, J K; Swinden, M L

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-nine highly angry subjects who obtained high scores on Spielberger's Trait component of State-Trait Anger Scale went through a thought-listing procedure to determine their negative self-statements in response to high, medium, and low anger-arousing situations. It was found that subjects made more negative self-statements in response to a high anger-arousing situation compared to the medium and low anger-arousing situations. The subjects were divided into four groups. Subjects in one group were trained to reduce their negative thoughts, subjects in a second group were trained to meditate, subjects in the third group were asked to imagine the high anger-arousing situations (placebo procedure), and subjects in the fourth group were given no treatment. It was found that the subjects in the Negative-thought-reduction, Meditation and Placebo groups showed improvement in trait anger, anger aroused through high-anger situations, anger scores across a wide variety of situations, unconstructive coping, and anger measured through physiological symptoms. The gains made through intervention were maintained at a 6-week follow-up. The No-treatment Group showed no significant change in anger scores across a wide variety of situations, unconstructive coping, and physiological symptom scores but showed a small but significant improvement in trait anger and in anger aroused by high-anger situations.

  9. Emotional event-related potentials are reduced if negative pictures presented at fixation are unattended.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Stefan; Sand, Anders; Norberg, Joakim; Andersson, Per

    2011-05-20

    Viewing of emotional pictures elicits two event-related potentials (ERPs) to emotional versus neutral pictures: an early posterior negativity (EPN) and a late positive potential (LPP). Because it is unresolved whether these indexes of emotional processing are reduced to task-irrelevant pictures at fixation, negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture Set (IAPS) were shown at fixation together with 6 letters that surrounded the pictures. In separate tasks, participants were instructed to attend either the pictures or the letters. When the pictures were task relevant, results showed an EPN and LPP. In contrast, when the pictures were task irrelevant, the EPN was eliminated and the LPP reduced. Performance was high in both tasks (hit rates>87%), but somewhat better when the pictures were relevant. However, analyses showed no relationship between this performance difference and the differences in EPN and LPP between tasks. These results suggest that emotional processing of strong, negative pictures is sensitive to manipulations of attention even if the pictures are shown at fixation.

  10. The Art of Living Together: Reducing Stereotyping and Prejudicial Attitudes through the Arab-Jewish Class Exchange Program (CEP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Rony; Abu-Raiya, Hisham; Gelkopf, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a newly developed Arab-Jewish Class Exchange Program (CEP) in reducing stereotyping and prejudicial attitudes between Israeli-Jewish and Israeli-Palestinian children. The CEP builds on the core principles of contact theory and is designed to help participants cultivate empathy and tolerance toward the other.…

  11. Reduced striatal dopamine DA D2 receptor function in dominant-negative GSK-3 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Sintes, Raquel; Bortolozzi, Analia; Artigas, Francesc; Lucas, José J

    2014-09-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase with constitutive activity involved in cellular architecture, gene expression, cell proliferation, fate decision and apoptosis, among others. GSK-3 expression is particularly high in brain where it may be involved in neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer׳s disease, bipolar disorder and major depression. A link with schizophrenia is suggested by the antipsychotic drug-induced GSK-3 regulation and by the involvement of the Akt/GSK-3 pathway in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Taking advantage of the previous development of dominant negative GSK-3 transgenic mice (Tg) showing a selective reduction of GSK-3 activity in forebrain neurons but not in dopaminergic neurons, we explored the relationship between GSK-3 and dopaminergic neurotransmission in vivo. In microdialysis experiments, local quinpirole (DA D2-R agonist) in dorsal striatum reduced dopamine (DA) release significantly less in Tg mice than in wild-type (WT) mice. However, local SKF-81297 (selective DA D1-R agonist) in dorsal striatum reduced DA release equally in both control and Tg mice indicating a comparable function of DA D1-R in the direct striato-nigral pathway. Likewise, systemic quinpirole administration - acting preferentially on presynaptic DA D2- autoreceptors to modulate DA release-reduced striatal DA release similarly in both control and Tg mice. Quinpirole reduced locomotor activity and induced c-fos expression in globus pallidus (both striatal DA D2-R-mediated effects) significantly more in WT than in Tg mice. Taking together, the present results show that dominant negative GSK-3 transgenic mice show reduced DA D2-R-mediated function in striatum and further support a link between dopaminergic neurotransmission and GSK-3 activity.

  12. The facial massage reduced anxiety and negative mood status, and increased sympathetic nervous activity.

    PubMed

    Hatayama, Tomoko; Kitamura, Shingo; Tamura, Chihiro; Nagano, Mayumi; Ohnuki, Koichiro

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of 45 min of facial massage on the activity of autonomic nervous system, anxiety and mood in 32 healthy women. Autonomic nervous activity was assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) with spectral analysis. In the spectral analysis of HRV, we evaluated the high-frequency components (HF) and the low- to high-frequency ratio (LF/HF ratio), reflecting parasympathetic nervous activity and sympathetic nervous activity, respectively. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Profile of Mood Status (POMS) were administered to evaluate psychological status. The score of STAI and negative scale of POMS were significantly reduced following the massage, and only the LF/HF ratio was significantly enhanced after the massage. It was concluded that the facial massage might refresh the subjects by reducing their psychological distress and activating the sympathetic nervous system.

  13. Reduced TCR signaling potential impairs negative selection but does not result in autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sujin; Song, Ki-Duk; Lesourne, Renaud; Lee, Jan; Pinkhasov, Julia; Li, Liqi; El-Khoury, Dalal; Love, Paul E

    2012-09-24

    Negative selection and regulatory T (T reg) cell development are two thymus-dependent processes necessary for the enforcement of self-tolerance, and both require high-affinity interactions between the T cell receptor (TCR) and self-ligands. However, it remains unclear if they are similarly impacted by alterations in TCR signaling potential. We generated a knock-in allele (6F) of the TCR ζ chain gene encoding a mutant protein lacking signaling capability whose expression is controlled by endogenous ζ regulatory sequences. Although negative selection was defective in 6F/6F mice, leading to the survival of autoreactive T cells, 6F/6F mice did not develop autoimmune disease. We found that 6F/6F mice generated increased numbers of thymus-derived T reg cells. We show that attenuation of TCR signaling potential selectively impacts downstream signaling responses and that this differential effect favors Foxp3 expression and T reg cell lineage commitment. These results identify a potential compensatory pathway for the enforcement of immune tolerance in response to defective negative selection caused by reduced TCR signaling capability. PMID:22945921

  14. Prefrontal Electrical Stimulation in Non-depressed Reduces Levels of Reported Negative Affects from Daily Stressors.

    PubMed

    Austin, Adelaide; Jiga-Boy, Gabriela M; Rea, Sara; Newstead, Simon A; Roderick, Sian; Davis, Nick J; Clement, R Marc; Boy, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Negative emotional responses to the daily life stresses have cumulative effects which, in turn, impose wide-ranging negative constraints on emotional well being and neurocognitive performance (Kalueff and Nutt, 2007; Nadler et al., 2010; Charles et al., 2013). Crucial cognitive functions such as memory and problem solving, as well more short term emotional responses (e.g., anticipation of- and response to- monetary rewards or losses) are influenced by mood. The negative impact of these behavioral responses is felt at the individual level, but it also imposes major economic burden on modern healthcare systems. Although much research has been undertaken to understand the underlying mechanisms of depressed mood and design efficient treatment pathways, comparatively little was done to characterize mood modulations that remain within the boundaries of a healthy mental functioning. In one placebo-controlled experiment, we applied daily prefrontal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) at five points in time, and found reliable improvements on self-reported mood evaluation. Using a new team of experimenters, we replicated this finding in an independent double-blinded placebo-controlled experiment and showed that stimulation over a shorter period of time (3 days) is sufficient to create detectable mood improvements. Taken together, our data show that repeated bilateral prefrontal tDCS can reduce psychological distress in non-depressed individuals. PMID:26973591

  15. Prefrontal Electrical Stimulation in Non-depressed Reduces Levels of Reported Negative Affects from Daily Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Adelaide; Jiga-Boy, Gabriela M.; Rea, Sara; Newstead, Simon A.; Roderick, Sian; Davis, Nick J.; Clement, R. Marc; Boy, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Negative emotional responses to the daily life stresses have cumulative effects which, in turn, impose wide-ranging negative constraints on emotional well being and neurocognitive performance (Kalueff and Nutt, 2007; Nadler et al., 2010; Charles et al., 2013). Crucial cognitive functions such as memory and problem solving, as well more short term emotional responses (e.g., anticipation of- and response to- monetary rewards or losses) are influenced by mood. The negative impact of these behavioral responses is felt at the individual level, but it also imposes major economic burden on modern healthcare systems. Although much research has been undertaken to understand the underlying mechanisms of depressed mood and design efficient treatment pathways, comparatively little was done to characterize mood modulations that remain within the boundaries of a healthy mental functioning. In one placebo-controlled experiment, we applied daily prefrontal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) at five points in time, and found reliable improvements on self-reported mood evaluation. Using a new team of experimenters, we replicated this finding in an independent double-blinded placebo-controlled experiment and showed that stimulation over a shorter period of time (3 days) is sufficient to create detectable mood improvements. Taken together, our data show that repeated bilateral prefrontal tDCS can reduce psychological distress in non-depressed individuals. PMID:26973591

  16. Can reduced predation offset negative effects of sea louse parasites on chum salmon?

    PubMed

    Peacock, Stephanie J; Connors, Brendan M; Krkosek, Martin; Irvine, James R; Lewis, Mark A

    2014-02-01

    The impact of parasites on hosts is invariably negative when considered in isolation, but may be complex and unexpected in nature. For example, if parasites make hosts less desirable to predators then gains from reduced predation may offset direct costs of being parasitized. We explore these ideas in the context of sea louse infestations on salmon. In Pacific Canada, sea lice can spread from farmed salmon to migrating juvenile wild salmon. Low numbers of sea lice can cause mortality of juvenile pink and chum salmon. For pink salmon, this has resulted in reduced productivity of river populations exposed to salmon farming. However, for chum salmon, we did not find an effect of sea louse infestations on productivity, despite high statistical power. Motivated by this unexpected result, we used a mathematical model to show how a parasite-induced shift in predation pressure from chum salmon to pink salmon could offset negative direct impacts of sea lice on chum salmon. This shift in predation is proposed to occur because predators show an innate preference for pink salmon prey. This preference may be more easily expressed when sea lice compromise juvenile salmon hosts, making them easier to catch. Our results indicate how the ecological context of host-parasite interactions may dampen, or even reverse, the expected impact of parasites on host populations.

  17. Can reduced predation offset negative effects of sea louse parasites on chum salmon?

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Stephanie J.; Connors, Brendan M.; Krkošek, Martin; Irvine, James R.; Lewis, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of parasites on hosts is invariably negative when considered in isolation, but may be complex and unexpected in nature. For example, if parasites make hosts less desirable to predators then gains from reduced predation may offset direct costs of being parasitized. We explore these ideas in the context of sea louse infestations on salmon. In Pacific Canada, sea lice can spread from farmed salmon to migrating juvenile wild salmon. Low numbers of sea lice can cause mortality of juvenile pink and chum salmon. For pink salmon, this has resulted in reduced productivity of river populations exposed to salmon farming. However, for chum salmon, we did not find an effect of sea louse infestations on productivity, despite high statistical power. Motivated by this unexpected result, we used a mathematical model to show how a parasite-induced shift in predation pressure from chum salmon to pink salmon could offset negative direct impacts of sea lice on chum salmon. This shift in predation is proposed to occur because predators show an innate preference for pink salmon prey. This preference may be more easily expressed when sea lice compromise juvenile salmon hosts, making them easier to catch. Our results indicate how the ecological context of host–parasite interactions may dampen, or even reverse, the expected impact of parasites on host populations. PMID:24352951

  18. Can reduced predation offset negative effects of sea louse parasites on chum salmon?

    PubMed

    Peacock, Stephanie J; Connors, Brendan M; Krkosek, Martin; Irvine, James R; Lewis, Mark A

    2014-02-01

    The impact of parasites on hosts is invariably negative when considered in isolation, but may be complex and unexpected in nature. For example, if parasites make hosts less desirable to predators then gains from reduced predation may offset direct costs of being parasitized. We explore these ideas in the context of sea louse infestations on salmon. In Pacific Canada, sea lice can spread from farmed salmon to migrating juvenile wild salmon. Low numbers of sea lice can cause mortality of juvenile pink and chum salmon. For pink salmon, this has resulted in reduced productivity of river populations exposed to salmon farming. However, for chum salmon, we did not find an effect of sea louse infestations on productivity, despite high statistical power. Motivated by this unexpected result, we used a mathematical model to show how a parasite-induced shift in predation pressure from chum salmon to pink salmon could offset negative direct impacts of sea lice on chum salmon. This shift in predation is proposed to occur because predators show an innate preference for pink salmon prey. This preference may be more easily expressed when sea lice compromise juvenile salmon hosts, making them easier to catch. Our results indicate how the ecological context of host-parasite interactions may dampen, or even reverse, the expected impact of parasites on host populations. PMID:24352951

  19. Negative infrared photocurrent response in layered WS{sub 2}/reduced graphene oxide hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Ratha, Satyajit; Rout, Chandra Sekhar E-mail: csrout@iitbbs.ac.in; Simbeck, Adam J.; Late, Dattatray J. E-mail: csrout@iitbbs.ac.in; Nayak, Saroj K.

    2014-12-15

    We report high performance IR photocurrent response of two-dimensional hybrid materials consisting of layered WS{sub 2} nanosheets and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). Comparative photocurrent response studies of WS{sub 2} nanosheets, RGO, and WS{sub 2}/RGO hybrids were carried out by performing current-voltage (I-V) and time-dependent current measurements with a laser excitation source having a wavelength of 808 nm. The experimental investigations indicate that WS{sub 2}/RGO hybrids show negative photocurrent response, whereas WS{sub 2} and RGO show positive photocurrent response. The negative photocurrent response of the WS{sub 2}/RGO hybrids is explained using a band alignment diagram and attributed to a charge transfer mechanism between WS{sub 2} and RGO. This analysis is further corroborated by first-principles density functional calculations. The fabricated device based on WS{sub 2}/RGO hybrids shows a photosensitivity R{sub λ} of about 6 AW{sup −1} and a quantum efficiency η of ∼924%, which demonstrates high sensitivity of the hybrid material towards IR detection. WS{sub 2}/RGO hybrids are therefore promising candidates for potential applications in optoelectronic circuits and low cost, high performance, and reliable photodetectors.

  20. The relationship between contact and attitudes: Reducing prejudice toward individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Keith, Jessica M; Bennetto, Loisa; Rogge, Ronald D

    2015-12-01

    Increases in intellectual and developmental disability (IDD) diagnoses coupled with higher rates of inclusion in school and community settings, has created more opportunities for exposure and integration between those with IDD and the mainstream population. Previous research has found that increased contact can lead to more positive attitudes toward those with IDD. The current study further investigated this impact of contact on attitudes by examining the influence of the quality and quantity of contact on both explicit and implicit levels of prejudice, while also considering potential mediation via intergroup anxiety and implicit attitudes. Based on past research and theory, we predicted that contact (especially quality contact) would have a strong relationship with explicit and implicit positive attitudes toward individuals with IDD. In the present study, 550 people completed a survey and short task that measured their level of contact with individuals with IDD across their lifetime, their current attitudes toward these individuals, and other constructs that are thought to influence this relationship. Multiple regression analyses suggested consistent links between higher quality of contact and lower levels of prejudice toward individuals with IDD at both the explicit and implicit levels. After controlling for quality of contact, higher quantity of contact was either not significantly associated with our measures of prejudice or was, importantly, associated with higher levels of prejudice. Additional analyses support intergroup anxiety and implicit positive attitudes as significant mediators in the associations between quality of contact and the various dimensions of explicit prejudice. Thus, it would seem that it is the quality of interpersonal interactions that is most strongly related to positive attitudes toward individuals with IDD, making it crucial to take care when developing inclusion opportunities in community settings.

  1. Mothers' depressive symptoms predict both increased and reduced negative reactivity: aversion sensitivity and the regulation of emotion.

    PubMed

    Dix, Theodore; Moed, Anat; Anderson, Edward R

    2014-07-01

    This study examined whether, as mothers' depressive symptoms increase, their expressions of negative emotion to children increasingly reflect aversion sensitivity and motivation to minimize ongoing stress or discomfort. In multiple interactions over 2 years, negative affect expressed by 319 mothers and their children was observed across variations in mothers' depressive symptoms, the aversiveness of children's immediate behavior, and observed differences in children's general negative reactivity. As expected, depressive symptoms predicted reduced maternal negative reactivity when child behavior was low in aversiveness, particularly with children who were high in negative reactivity. Depressive symptoms predicted high negative reactivity and steep increases in negative reactivity as the aversiveness of child behavior increased, particularly when high and continued aversiveness from the child was expected (i.e., children were high in negative reactivity). The findings are consistent with the proposal that deficits in parenting competence as depressive symptoms increase reflect aversion sensitivity and motivation to avoid conflict and suppress children's aversive behavior.

  2. Glucagon-like peptide 2 therapy reduces negative effects of diarrhea on calf gut.

    PubMed

    Connor, E E; Kahl, S; Elsasser, T H; Baldwin, R L; Fayer, R; Santin-Duran, M; Sample, G L; Evock-Clover, C M

    2013-03-01

    Damage to the intestinal epithelium reduces nutrient absorption and animal growth, and can have negative long-term health effects on livestock. Because the intestinotropic hormone glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) has been shown to contribute to gut integrity, reduce inflammation, and improve nutrient absorption, the present study was designed to determine whether administration of GLP-2 to calves with coccidiosis in the first month of life affects intestinal growth and mediates negative effects of the proinflammatory response. Holstein bull calves (n=19) were assigned to 4 treatment groups of 4 to 5 calves each: (1) infected with Eimeria bovis, GLP-2 treated; (2) noninfected, GLP-2 treated; (3) infected with E. bovis, buffer treated; and (4) noninfected, buffer treated. Infected calves received 100,000 to 200,000 sporulated E. bovis oocysts suspended in milk replacer on d 0 of the study. On d 18, calves in the GLP-2 groups received a subcutaneous injection of 50 μg of bovine GLP-2/kg of body weight twice daily for 10 d, and calves in the buffer-treated groups received an equivalent volume of sodium bicarbonate buffer only. On d 28, calves were slaughtered 2h after injection of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Intestinal tissues were measured and villus height, crypt depth, and BrdU immunostaining were evaluated in segments of the small intestine. Nitrotyrosine immunostaining, a measure of nitro-oxidative damage, was evaluated in the ileum and cecum. No GLP-2 treatment by E. bovis infection interaction was observed for any parameter measured, with the exception of nitrotyrosine immunostaining in the cecum. Large intestinal weight was greater in infected than noninfected calves and with GLP-2 treatment relative to buffer treatment. Calves that received GLP-2 also had greater small intestinal weight but no difference in cell proliferation, as assessed by BrdU labeling, relative to buffer-treated calves. No treatment effects were detected for villus height, crypt depth

  3. Clinicians’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Infections with Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli in Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Juyan Julia; Patel, Sameer J.; Jia, Haomiao; Weisenberg, Scott A.; Furuya, E. Yoko; Kubin, Christine J.; Alba, Luis; Rhee, Kyu; Saiman, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess how healthcare professionals caring for patients in intensive care units (ICUs) understand and use antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) for multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB). Design A knowledge, attitude and practice survey assessed ICU clinicians knowledge of antimicrobial resistance, confidence interpreting susceptibility testing, and beliefs regarding the impact of susceptibility testing on patient outcomes. Setting 16 ICUs affiliated with New York-Presbyterian Hospital. Participants Attending physicians and subspecialty residents with primary clinical responsibilities in adult or pediatric ICUs and infectious diseases (ID) subspecialists and clinical pharmacists. Methods Participants completed an anonymous electronic survey. Responses included 4-level Likert scales dichotomized for analysis. Multivariate analyses were performed using Generalized Estimating Equations logistic regression to account for correlation of respondents from the same ICU. Results The response rate was 51% (178/349 eligible participants) of whom 120 (67%) were ICU physicians. Those caring for adult patients were more knowledgeable about antimicrobial activity and more familiar with MDR-GNB infections. Only 33% and 12% of ICU physicians were familiar with standardized and specialized AST methods, respectively, but >95% believed AST improved patient outcomes. When adjusted for demographic and healthcare provider characteristics, those familiar with treatment of MDR-GNB bloodstream infections, those aware of resistance mechanisms, and those aware of AST methods were more confident they could interpret AST and/or request additional in vitro testing. Conclusions Our study uncovered knowledge gaps and educational needs that could serve as the foundation for future interventions. Familiarity with MDR-GNB increased overall knowledge and familiarity with AST increased confidence interpreting these results. PMID:23388362

  4. Hepatic glucose output in humans measured with labeled glucose to reduce negative errors

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, J.C.; Brown, G.; Matthews, D.R.; Turner, R.C. )

    1989-10-01

    Steele and others have suggested that minimizing changes in glucose specific activity when estimating hepatic glucose output (HGO) during glucose infusions could reduce non-steady-state errors. This approach was assessed in nondiabetic and type II diabetic subjects during constant low dose (27 mumol.kg ideal body wt (IBW)-1.min-1) glucose infusion followed by a 12 mmol/l hyperglycemic clamp. Eight subjects had paired tests with and without labeled infusions. Labeled infusion was used to compare HGO in 11 nondiabetic and 15 diabetic subjects. Whereas unlabeled infusions produced negative values for endogenous glucose output, labeled infusions largely eliminated this error and reduced the dependence of the Steele model on the pool fraction in the paired tests. By use of labeled infusions, 11 nondiabetic subjects suppressed HGO from 10.2 +/- 0.6 (SE) fasting to 0.8 +/- 0.9 mumol.kg IBW-1.min-1 after 90 min of glucose infusion and to -1.9 +/- 0.5 mumol.kg IBW-1.min-1 after 90 min of a 12 mmol/l glucose clamp, but 15 diabetic subjects suppressed only partially from 13.0 +/- 0.9 fasting to 5.7 +/- 1.2 at the end of the glucose infusion and 5.6 +/- 1.0 mumol.kg IBW-1.min-1 in the clamp (P = 0.02, 0.002, and less than 0.001, respectively).

  5. Strategies to Reduce Negative Socialization in the First Years of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hushman, Glenn; Napper-Owens, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    Transitioning into a new role can be difficult in any walk of life, and this is no different for physical educators entering a new teaching environment. In a new setting, a physical educator may go through a socialization process where beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and teaching philosophies are influenced. Teacher socialization research suggests…

  6. Evaluation of a Workshop to Reduce Negative Perceptions of Statistics in Undergraduate Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Michelle; Neumann, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The authors evaluated whether a brief group workshop that combined psycho-education and learning strategies improved self-efficacy, attitudes, and anxiety regarding statistics in psychology students. The workshop was completed in Week 1 of a compulsory 1st-year psychology statistics course. Prior to the workshop, the attendees (n = 10) did not…

  7. Contemplative/emotion training reduces negative emotional behavior and promotes prosocial responses.

    PubMed

    Kemeny, Margaret E; Foltz, Carol; Cavanagh, James F; Cullen, Margaret; Giese-Davis, Janine; Jennings, Patricia; Rosenberg, Erika L; Gillath, Omri; Shaver, Phillip R; Wallace, B Alan; Ekman, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Contemplative practices are believed to alleviate psychological problems, cultivate prosocial behavior and promote self-awareness. In addition, psychological science has developed tools and models for understanding the mind and promoting well-being. Additional effort is needed to combine frameworks and techniques from these traditions to improve emotional experience and socioemotional behavior. An 8-week intensive (42 hr) meditation/emotion regulation training intervention was designed by experts in contemplative traditions and emotion science to reduce "destructive enactment of emotions" and enhance prosocial responses. Participants were 82 healthy female schoolteachers who were randomly assigned to a training group or a wait-list control group, and assessed preassessment, postassessment, and 5 months after training completion. Assessments included self-reports and experimental tasks to capture changes in emotional behavior. The training group reported reduced trait negative affect, rumination, depression, and anxiety, and increased trait positive affect and mindfulness compared to the control group. On a series of behavioral tasks, the training increased recognition of emotions in others (Micro-Expression Training Tool), protected trainees from some of the psychophysiological effects of an experimental threat to self (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST), appeared to activate cognitive networks associated with compassion (lexical decision procedure), and affected hostile behavior in the Marital Interaction Task. Most effects at postassessment that were examined at follow-up were maintained (excluding positive affect, TSST rumination, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia recovery). Findings suggest that increased awareness of mental processes can influence emotional behavior, and they support the benefit of integrating contemplative theories/practices with psychological models and methods of emotion regulation.

  8. The contact caveat: negative contact predicts increased prejudice more than positive contact predicts reduced prejudice.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Fiona Kate; Paolini, Stefania; Pedersen, Anne; Hornsey, Matthew J; Radke, Helena R M; Harwood, Jake; Rubin, Mark; Sibley, Chris G

    2012-12-01

    Contact researchers have largely overlooked the potential for negative intergroup contact to increase prejudice. In Study 1, we tested the interaction between contact quantity and valence on prejudice toward Black Australians (n = 1,476), Muslim Australians (n = 173), and asylum seekers (n = 293). In all cases, the association between contact quantity and prejudice was moderated by its valence, with negative contact emerging as a stronger and more consistent predictor than positive contact. In Study 2, White Americans (n = 441) indicated how much positive and negative contact they had with Black Americans on separate measures. Although both quantity of positive and negative contact predicted racism and avoidance, negative contact was the stronger predictor. Furthermore, negative (but not positive) contact independently predicted suspicion about Barack Obama's birthplace. These results extend the contact hypothesis by issuing an important caveat: Negative contact may be more strongly associated with increased racism and discrimination than positive contact is with its reduction.

  9. [Papanicolau smears: reducing the false negative rate by improving the method].

    PubMed

    Biran, Galya; Levy, Tally

    2004-03-01

    Screening for cervical carcinoma precursors by Papanicolau (Pap) smears diminishes the incidence of cervical cancer in screened populations. The Pap smear test has a considerable rate of false negatives and in order to improve its efficiency and sensitivity several types of technologies were developed, two of which are discussed in this review. One entails measures for collecting cells from the cervix into a liquid medium and preparing single layer smears from these cells. Using this method, a thin and clean smear is obtained, in comparison to the regular Pap smear. The liquid-based test improves sample adequacy and increases the diagnostic accuracy of low-grade and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. The second type of technology is computerized deciphering of cervical smears, which are prepared either by the regular method or using the previously mentioned thin smear. the computerized deciphering is based on structural measurements of cells via an instrument that is programmed to differentiate between cellular components, thus categorizing the smears into those which are normal and those that require further evaluation by a cytopathologist. Alternatively the computer can display the most abnormal cells in the smear to the cytopathologist. In this manner, the workload of the cytopathologist is reduced while the test efficiency and sensitivity are increased.

  10. Data for default network reduced functional connectivity in meditators, negatively correlated with meditation expertise.

    PubMed

    Berkovich-Ohana, Aviva; Harel, Michal; Hahamy, Avital; Arieli, Amos; Malach, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    FMRI data described here was recorded during resting-state in Mindfulness Meditators (MM) and control participants (see "Task-induced activity and resting-state fluctuations undergo similar alterations in visual and DMN areas of long-term meditators" Berkovich-Ohana et al. (2016) [1] for details). MM participants were also scanned during meditation. Analyses focused on functional connectivity within and between the default mode network (DMN) and visual network (Vis). Here we show data demonstrating that: 1) Functional connectivity within the DMN and the Visual networks were higher in the control group than in the meditators; 2) Data show an increase for the functional connectivity between the DMN and the Visual networks in the meditators compared to controls; 3) Data demonstrate that functional connectivity both within and between networks reduces during meditation, compared to the resting-state; and 4) A significant negative correlation was found between DMN functional connectivity and meditation expertise. The reader is referred to Berkovich-Ohana et al. (2016) [1] for further interpretation and discussion. PMID:27508242

  11. Remote pattern reversal reduces the proximal negative response of the goldfish retina.

    PubMed

    Olsen, B T; Seim, T; Valberg, A

    1982-02-01

    1. Using the eyecup preparation, proximal negative responses (PNR) to small test spots of different irradiance were recorded with (a) a stationary peripheral black and white grating surrounding the test spot, and (b) with contrast reversal of the same grating. In the latter case, the PNR-amplitude was reduced by a magnitude that was dependent on the frequency of contrast reversal. The reduction was maximum (approximately 50%) for a frequency of 8-10 Hz. 2. The attenuation was constant for PNR-amplitudes greater than half the maximum value, but increased for smaller responses. The fact that the intensity-response curve was not merely shifted towards higher values on the log intensity axis, indicates that the suppression was an effect neither of stray light nor of adaptive processes in the distal retina. 3. The effect of a single shift of the grating (by half a cycle) on the PNR was studied at different delays between grating shift and test spot presentation. Strong suppression of the PNR was found for delays between 100 ms (shift preceding test spot) and -50 ms (test spot preceding grating shift), with a maximum at about 30 ms. 4. This long-range effect of peripheral transient stimulation is of inhibitory nature, and probably related to Werblin's windmill effect.

  12. Suspending in School Suspension?: Is ISS a Valid Means of Disciplinary Action to Reduce Negative Student Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahynes, Leron M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explored whether or not In School Suspensions (ISS) is effective in reducing student behavioral problems. Research was conducted with 6-8th grade students in a rural middle school in the upstate of South Carolina for the purposes of determining if ISS, in its current design a viable and effective method to reduce negative student…

  13. Urine testing for norcodeine, norhydrocodone, and noroxycodone facilitates interpretation and reduces false negatives.

    PubMed

    Cone, Edward J; Zichterman, Anne; Heltsley, Rebecca; Black, David L; Cawthon, Beverly; Robert, Tim; Moser, Frank; Caplan, Yale H

    2010-05-20

    noroxycodone is useful in interpretation of opiate drug source and reduces potential false negatives that would occur without tests for these unique metabolites.

  14. Atnoa1 mutant Arabidopsis plants induce compensation mechanisms to reduce the negative effects of the mutation.

    PubMed

    Majláth, Imre; Szalai, Gabriella; Papp, István; Vanková, Radomíra; Janda, Tibor

    2011-07-15

    Alterations in temperature adaptation processes and changes in the content of stress-related compounds, polyamines and salicylic acid were evaluated in Atnoa1 (NO-associated 1) Arabidopsis mutant. The F(v)/F(m) chlorophyll-a fluorescence induction parameter and the actual quantum yield were significantly lower in the Atnoa1 mutant than in the wild-type. In the wild-type Col-0, the fastest increase in the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) occurred in plants pre-treated at low temperature (4 °C), while the slowest was in those adapted to 30 °C. The NPQ showed not only a substantially increased level in the light-adapted state, but also more rapid light induction after the dark-adapted state in the Atnoa1 mutant than in the wild-type. The results of freezing tests indicated that both the wild-type and the mutant had better freezing tolerance after cold hardening, since no significant differences were found between the genotypes. The level of putrescine increased substantially, while that of spermine decreased by the end of the cold-hardening (4°C, 4d) period. The quantity of spermidine in Atnoa1 was significantly higher than in Col-0, at both control and cold-hardening temperatures. A similar trend was observed for spermine, but only under control conditions. The mutant plants showed substantially higher salicylic acid (SA) contents for both the free and bound forms. This difference was significant not only in the control, but also in the cold-hardened plants. These results suggest that there is a compensation mechanism in Atnoa1 mutant Arabidopsis plants to reduce the negative effects of the mutation. These adaptation processes include the stimulation of photoprotection and alterations in the SA and polyamine compositions. PMID:21392840

  15. Stress reduces use of negative feedback in a feedback-based learning task.

    PubMed

    Petzold, Antje; Plessow, Franziska; Goschke, Thomas; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2010-04-01

    In contrast to the well-established effects of stress on learning of declarative material, much less is known about stress effects on reward- or feedback-based learning. Differential effects on positive and negative feedback especially have received little attention. The objective of this study, thus, was to investigate effects of psychosocial stress on feedback-based learning with a particular focus on the use of negative and positive feedback during learning. Participants completed a probabilistic selection task in both a stress and a control condition. The task allowed quantification of how much participants relied on positive and negative feedback during learning. Although stress had no effect on general acquisition of the task, results indicate that participants used negative feedback significantly less during learning after stress compared with the control condition. An enhancing effect of stress on use of positive feedback failed to reach significance. These findings suggest that stress acts differentially on the use of positive and negative feedback during learning.

  16. Successes with Reversing the Negative Student Attitudes Developed in Typical Biology Classes for 8th and 10th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacieminoglu, Esme; Ali, Mohamed Moustafa; Oztas, Fulya; Yager, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare changes in attitudes of students about their study of biology in the classes thought by five biology teachers who experienced an Iowa Chautauqua workshop with and two non-Chautauqua teachers who had no experience with any professional development program. The results indicated that there are significant…

  17. Everybody Belongs: Changing Negative Attitudes toward Classmates with Disabilities. Garland Reference Library of Social Science. Critical Education Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Arthur H.

    This book provides guidance to facilitate the inclusion of students with disabilities in general education classrooms, examining the concept of disability and attitudes toward disability. The book explains that the evil prosthesis of Captain Hook, the comical speech of Porky Pig, and the bumbling antics of Mr. Magoo are all examples of images in…

  18. Clinician Attitudes, Screening Practices, and Interventions to Reduce Firearm-Related Injury.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Paul J D; Ameli, Jonathan; Carter, Patrick M; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Ranney, Megan L

    2016-01-01

    Firearm injury is a leading cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality in the United States. We sought to systematically identify and summarize existing literature on clinical firearm injury prevention screening and interventions. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycInfo, and ClinicalTrials.gov for English-language original research (published 1992-2014) on clinical screening methods, patient-level firearm interventions, or patient/provider attitudes on the same. Unrelated studies were excluded through title, abstract, and full-text review, and the remaining articles underwent data abstraction and quality scoring. Of a total of 3,260 unique titles identified, 72 were included in the final review. Fifty-three articles examined clinician attitudes/practice patterns; prior training, experience, and expectations correlated with clinicians' regularity of firearm screening. Twelve articles assessed patient interventions, of which 6 were randomized controlled trials. Seven articles described patient attitudes; all were of low methodological quality. According to these articles, providers rarely screen or counsel their patients-even high-risk patients-about firearm safety. Health-care-based interventions may increase rates of safe storage of firearms for pediatric patients, suicidal patients, and other high-risk groups. Some studies show that training clinicians can increase rates of effective firearm safety screening and counseling. Patients and families are, for the most part, accepting of such screening and counseling. However, the current literature is, by and large, not high quality. Rigorous, large-scale, adequately funded studies are needed.

  19. Consumer attitude towards sodium reduction in meat products and acceptability of fermented sausages with reduced sodium content.

    PubMed

    Guàrdia, M D; Guerrero, L; Gelabert, J; Gou, P; Arnau, J

    2006-07-01

    Lowering salt content in meat products is possible from a technological and sensorial point of view, although little information is available about the consumers' attitude and acceptance of these products. Attitude towards low salt meat products, following the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) proposed by Ajzen, was evaluated by 392 consumers. Acceptability of small calibre fermented sausages with 50% molar substitution of NaCl by six different mixtures of KCl (0-50%) and K-lactate (0-50%) and the control (22g NaCl/kg) was determined by 98 consumers. The preference of the previous best two treatments was compared to the batch control by 279 consumers. In general consumers had a positive attitude towards low salt meat products, being higher for women than for men. Women showed stronger ideas and higher Perceived Control on the Behaviour towards reduced sodium meat products than men. Smokers showed lower intense beliefs than non-smokers. Consumers with a basic level of education were more affected by what other people important for them thought they should do. The final model obtained using the Theory of Planned Behaviour showed a good predictive capacity (R(2)=0.60) and a good internal consistency. Regarding the acceptability study, batches with substitution levels of 50% and 40% by K-lactate, showed lower overall acceptance than the control batch. Significant differences in acceptability were found regarding the gender and place of residence of the consumers. The preference study showed no differences between the batch control and batches with 50% KCl and 40% KCl + 10% of K-lactate substitution levels. According to these results and from a sensorial point of view, it is possible to reduce NaCl content in small calibre fermented sausages by 50% and obtain a product acceptable for consumers.

  20. Consumer attitude towards sodium reduction in meat products and acceptability of fermented sausages with reduced sodium content.

    PubMed

    Guàrdia, M D; Guerrero, L; Gelabert, J; Gou, P; Arnau, J

    2006-07-01

    Lowering salt content in meat products is possible from a technological and sensorial point of view, although little information is available about the consumers' attitude and acceptance of these products. Attitude towards low salt meat products, following the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) proposed by Ajzen, was evaluated by 392 consumers. Acceptability of small calibre fermented sausages with 50% molar substitution of NaCl by six different mixtures of KCl (0-50%) and K-lactate (0-50%) and the control (22g NaCl/kg) was determined by 98 consumers. The preference of the previous best two treatments was compared to the batch control by 279 consumers. In general consumers had a positive attitude towards low salt meat products, being higher for women than for men. Women showed stronger ideas and higher Perceived Control on the Behaviour towards reduced sodium meat products than men. Smokers showed lower intense beliefs than non-smokers. Consumers with a basic level of education were more affected by what other people important for them thought they should do. The final model obtained using the Theory of Planned Behaviour showed a good predictive capacity (R(2)=0.60) and a good internal consistency. Regarding the acceptability study, batches with substitution levels of 50% and 40% by K-lactate, showed lower overall acceptance than the control batch. Significant differences in acceptability were found regarding the gender and place of residence of the consumers. The preference study showed no differences between the batch control and batches with 50% KCl and 40% KCl + 10% of K-lactate substitution levels. According to these results and from a sensorial point of view, it is possible to reduce NaCl content in small calibre fermented sausages by 50% and obtain a product acceptable for consumers. PMID:22062487

  1. Combined non-adaptive light and smell stimuli lowered blood pressure, reduced heart rate and reduced negative affect.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shan; Jacob, Tim J C

    2016-03-15

    Bright light therapy has been shown to have a positive impact on seasonal affective disorder (SAD), depression and anxiety. Smell has also has been shown to have effects on mood, stress, anxiety and depression. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of light and smell in a non-adaptive cycle. Human subjects were given smell (lemon, lavender or peppermint) and light stimuli in a triangular wave (60scycle) for 15min. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored before and after each session for 5 consecutive days and a Profile of Mood States (POMS) test was administered before and after the sensory stimulation on days 1, 3 and 5. The light-smell stimulus lowered blood pressure, both systolic and diastolic, and reduced heart rate for all odours compared to control. Of the two sensory stimuli, the odour stimulus contributed most to this effect. The different aromas in the light-smell combinations could be distinguished by their different effects on the mood factors with lemon inducing the greatest mood changes in Dejection-Depression, Anger-Hostility, Tension-Anxiety. In conclusion, combined light and smell stimulation was effective in lowering blood pressure, reducing heart rate and improving mood. The combination was more effective than either smell or light stimuli alone, suggesting that a light-smell combination would be a more robust and efficacious alternative treatment for depression, anxiety and stress. PMID:26780148

  2. Combined non-adaptive light and smell stimuli lowered blood pressure, reduced heart rate and reduced negative affect.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shan; Jacob, Tim J C

    2016-03-15

    Bright light therapy has been shown to have a positive impact on seasonal affective disorder (SAD), depression and anxiety. Smell has also has been shown to have effects on mood, stress, anxiety and depression. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of light and smell in a non-adaptive cycle. Human subjects were given smell (lemon, lavender or peppermint) and light stimuli in a triangular wave (60scycle) for 15min. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored before and after each session for 5 consecutive days and a Profile of Mood States (POMS) test was administered before and after the sensory stimulation on days 1, 3 and 5. The light-smell stimulus lowered blood pressure, both systolic and diastolic, and reduced heart rate for all odours compared to control. Of the two sensory stimuli, the odour stimulus contributed most to this effect. The different aromas in the light-smell combinations could be distinguished by their different effects on the mood factors with lemon inducing the greatest mood changes in Dejection-Depression, Anger-Hostility, Tension-Anxiety. In conclusion, combined light and smell stimulation was effective in lowering blood pressure, reducing heart rate and improving mood. The combination was more effective than either smell or light stimuli alone, suggesting that a light-smell combination would be a more robust and efficacious alternative treatment for depression, anxiety and stress.

  3. Negative feedback within a mutualism: host-specific growth of mycorrhizal fungi reduces plant benefit.

    PubMed Central

    Bever, James D

    2002-01-01

    A basic tenet of ecology is that negative feedback on abundance plays an important part in the coexistence of species within guilds. Mutualistic interactions generate positive feedbacks on abundance and therefore are not thought to contribute to the maintenance of diversity. Here, I report evidence of negative feedback on plant growth through changes in the composition of their mutualistic fungal symbionts, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Negative feedback results from asymmetries in the delivery of benefit between plant and AM fungal species in which the AM fungus that grows best with the plant Plantago lanceolata is a poor growth promoter for Plantago. Growth of Plantago is, instead, best promoted by the AM fungal species that accumulate with a second plant species, Panicum sphaerocarpon. The resulting community dynamic leads to a decline in mutualistic benefit received by Plantago, and can contribute to the coexistence of these two competing plant species. PMID:12573075

  4. Efficacy of Creative Clay Work for Reducing Negative Mood: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimport, Elizabeth R.; Robbins, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Clay work has long been used in art therapy to achieve therapeutic goals. However, little empirical evidence exists to document the efficacy of such work. The present study randomly assigned 102 adult participants to one of four conditions following induction of a negative mood: (a) handling clay with instructions to create a pinch pot, (b)…

  5. Using Reframing to Reduce Negative Statements in Social Conversation for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koegel, Lynn Kern; Navab, Anahita; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Koegel, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of teaching the reframing of negative statements through self-management and video-feedback on social conversation in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A multiple baseline design across five participants showed that, following intervention, all were able to increase their positive and neutral statements…

  6. The Meaning of Collective Terrorist Threat: Understanding the Subjective Causes of Terrorism Reduces Its Negative Psychological Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of…

  7. Measuring Negative Attitudes towards Overweight and Obesity in the German Population – Psychometric Properties and Reference Values for the German Short Version of the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS)

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Janine; Luppa, Melanie; Ruzanska, Ulrike; Sikorski, Claudia; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obesity is one of the leading public health problems worldwide. Obese individuals are often stigmatized and the psychosocial consequences of overweight and obesity are the subject of current research. To detect stigmatizing attitudes towards obese people, the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS) was developed in the USA in the early nineties. In addition, the 14-item short form of the FPS was constructed. The FPS belongs to the most commonly used instruments for measuring negative attitudes towards obese people because of its good psychometric properties. For the recently developed German short form of the FPS, however, the comprehensive investigation of the psychometric properties and the determination of reference values are still pending. Thus, the main objectives of this study were the evaluation of the psychometric quality of the scale as well as the calculation of reference values. Methods The study was based on a representative survey in the German general population. A sample of 1,657 subjects (18–94 years) was assessed via structured telephone interviews including the 14-item German version of the FPS. Descriptive statistics and inference-statistical analyses were conducted. Reference values in terms of percentage ranks were calculated. Results Substantial evidence for the reliability and validity of the German short version of the FPS was found. This study, for the first time in Germany, provides age-specific reference values for the German short form of the FPS allowing the interpretation of individual test scores. Conclusion Facing the far-reaching consequences of experienced stigmatization of obese individuals, these study results provide an important basis for further studies aiming at the investigation of negative attitudes towards overweight and obesity. PMID:25474195

  8. Feeling bad and looking worse: negative affect is associated with reduced perceptions of face-healthiness.

    PubMed

    Mirams, Laura; Poliakoff, Ellen; Zandstra, Elizabeth H; Hoeksma, Marco; Thomas, Anna; El-Deredy, Wael

    2014-01-01

    Some people perceive themselves to look more, or less attractive than they are in reality. We investigated the role of emotions in enhancement and derogation effects; specifically, whether the propensity to experience positive and negative emotions affects how healthy we perceive our own face to look and how we judge ourselves against others. A psychophysical method was used to measure healthiness of self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Participants who self-reported high positive (N = 20) or negative affectivity (N = 20) judged themselves against healthy (red-tinged) and unhealthy looking (green-tinged) versions of their own and stranger's faces. An adaptive staircase procedure was used to measure perceptual thresholds. Participants high in positive affectivity were un-biased in their face health judgement. Participants high in negative affectivity on the other hand, judged themselves as equivalent to less healthy looking versions of their own face and a stranger's face. Affective traits modulated self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Face health judgement was also related to physical symptom perception and self-esteem; high physical symptom reports were associated a less healthy self-image and high self-reported (but not implicit) self-esteem was associated with more favourable social comparisons of healthiness. Subject to further validation, our novel face health judgement task could have utility as a perceptual measure of well-being. We are currently investigating whether face health judgement is sensitive to laboratory manipulations of mood. PMID:25259802

  9. Implantation reduces the negative effects of bio-logging devices on birds.

    PubMed

    White, Craig R; Cassey, Phillip; Schimpf, Natalie G; Halsey, Lewis G; Green, Jonathan A; Portugal, Steven J

    2013-02-15

    Animal-borne logging or telemetry devices are widely used for measurements of physiological and movement data from free-living animals. For such measurements to be relevant, however, it is essential that the devices themselves do not affect the data of interest. A recent meta-analysis reported an overall negative effect of these devices on the birds that bear them, i.e. on nesting productivity, clutch size, nest initiation date, offspring quality, body condition, flying ability, foraging behaviours, energy expenditure and survival rate. Method of attachment (harness, collar, glue, anchor, implant, breast-mounted or tailmount) had no influence on the strength of these effects but anchored and implanted transmitters had the highest reported rates of device-induced mortality. Furthermore, external devices, but not internal devices, caused an increase in 'device-induced behaviour' (comfort behaviours such as preening, fluffing and stretching, and unrest activities including unquantifiable 'active' behaviours). These findings suggest that, with the exception of device-induced behaviour, external attachment is preferable to implantation. In the present study we undertake a meta-analysis of 183 estimates of device impact from 39 studies of 36 species of bird designed to explicitly compare the effects of externally attached and surgically implanted devices on a range of traits, including condition, energy expenditure and reproduction. In contrast to a previous study, we demonstrate that externally attached devices have a consistent detrimental effect (i.e. negative influences on body condition, reproduction, metabolism and survival), whereas implanted devices have no consistent effect. We also show that the magnitude of the negative effect of externally attached devices decreases with time. We therefore conclude that device implantation is preferable to external attachment, providing that the risk of mortality associated with the anaesthesia and surgery required for

  10. Feeling Bad and Looking Worse: Negative Affect Is Associated with Reduced Perceptions of Face-Healthiness

    PubMed Central

    Mirams, Laura; Poliakoff, Ellen; Zandstra, Elizabeth H.; Hoeksma, Marco; Thomas, Anna; El-Deredy, Wael

    2014-01-01

    Some people perceive themselves to look more, or less attractive than they are in reality. We investigated the role of emotions in enhancement and derogation effects; specifically, whether the propensity to experience positive and negative emotions affects how healthy we perceive our own face to look and how we judge ourselves against others. A psychophysical method was used to measure healthiness of self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Participants who self-reported high positive (N = 20) or negative affectivity (N = 20) judged themselves against healthy (red-tinged) and unhealthy looking (green-tinged) versions of their own and stranger’s faces. An adaptive staircase procedure was used to measure perceptual thresholds. Participants high in positive affectivity were un-biased in their face health judgement. Participants high in negative affectivity on the other hand, judged themselves as equivalent to less healthy looking versions of their own face and a stranger’s face. Affective traits modulated self-image and social comparisons of healthiness. Face health judgement was also related to physical symptom perception and self-esteem; high physical symptom reports were associated a less healthy self-image and high self-reported (but not implicit) self-esteem was associated with more favourable social comparisons of healthiness. Subject to further validation, our novel face health judgement task could have utility as a perceptual measure of well-being. We are currently investigating whether face health judgement is sensitive to laboratory manipulations of mood. PMID:25259802

  11. The Effects of a Distracting N-Back Task on Recognition Memory Are Reduced by Negative Emotional Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Buratto, Luciano G.; Pottage, Claire L.; Brown, Charity; Morrison, Catriona M.; Schaefer, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Memory performance is usually impaired when participants have to encode information while performing a concurrent task. Recent studies using recall tasks have found that emotional items are more resistant to such cognitive depletion effects than non-emotional items. However, when recognition tasks are used, the same effect is more elusive as recent recognition studies have obtained contradictory results. In two experiments, we provide evidence that negative emotional content can reliably reduce the effects of cognitive depletion on recognition memory only if stimuli with high levels of emotional intensity are used. In particular, we found that recognition performance for realistic pictures was impaired by a secondary 3-back working memory task during encoding if stimuli were emotionally neutral or had moderate levels of negative emotionality. In contrast, when negative pictures with high levels of emotional intensity were used, the detrimental effects of the secondary task were significantly attenuated. PMID:25330251

  12. The effects of a distracting N-back task on recognition memory are reduced by negative emotional intensity.

    PubMed

    Buratto, Luciano G; Pottage, Claire L; Brown, Charity; Morrison, Catriona M; Schaefer, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Memory performance is usually impaired when participants have to encode information while performing a concurrent task. Recent studies using recall tasks have found that emotional items are more resistant to such cognitive depletion effects than non-emotional items. However, when recognition tasks are used, the same effect is more elusive as recent recognition studies have obtained contradictory results. In two experiments, we provide evidence that negative emotional content can reliably reduce the effects of cognitive depletion on recognition memory only if stimuli with high levels of emotional intensity are used. In particular, we found that recognition performance for realistic pictures was impaired by a secondary 3-back working memory task during encoding if stimuli were emotionally neutral or had moderate levels of negative emotionality. In contrast, when negative pictures with high levels of emotional intensity were used, the detrimental effects of the secondary task were significantly attenuated. PMID:25330251

  13. Reduced negativity effect in older adults' memory for emotional pictures: the heterogeneity-homogeneity list paradigm.

    PubMed

    Grühn, Daniel; Scheibe, Susanne; Baltes, Paul B

    2007-09-01

    Using the heterogeneity-homogeneity list paradigm, the authors investigated 48 young adults' (20-30 years) and 48 older adults' (65-75 years) recognition memory for emotional pictures. The authors obtained no evidence for a positivity bias in older adults' memory: Age differences were primarily driven by older adults' diminished ability to remember negative pictures. The authors further found a strong effect of list types: Pictures, particularly neutral ones, were better recognized in homogeneous (blocked) lists than in heterogeneous (mixed) ones. Results confirm those of a previous study by D. Grühn, J. Smith, and P. B. Baltes (2005) that used a different type of to-be-remembered material, that is, pictures instead of words.

  14. Triple Negative Breast Cancers Have a Reduced Expression of DNA Repair Genes

    PubMed Central

    Andreis, Daniele; Bertoni, Ramona; Giardini, Roberto; Fox, Stephen B.; Broggini, Massimo; Bottini, Alberto; Zanoni, Vanessa; Bazzola, Letizia; Foroni, Chiara; Generali, Daniele; Damia, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    DNA repair is a key determinant in the cellular response to therapy and tumor repair status could play an important role in tailoring patient therapy. Our goal was to evaluate the mRNA of 13 genes involved in different DNA repair pathways (base excision, nucleotide excision, homologous recombination, and Fanconi anemia) in paraffin embedded samples of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) compared to luminal A breast cancer (LABC). Most of the genes involved in nucleotide excision repair and Fanconi Anemia pathways, and CHK1 gene were significantly less expressed in TNBC than in LABC. PARP1 levels were higher in TNBC than in LABC. In univariate analysis high level of FANCA correlated with an increased overall survival and event free survival in TNBC; however multivariate analyses using Cox regression did not confirm FANCA as independent prognostic factor. These data support the evidence that TNBCs compared to LABCs harbour DNA repair defects. PMID:23825533

  15. Cognitive dissonance and attitudes toward unpleasant medical screenings.

    PubMed

    Ent, Michael R; Gerend, Mary A

    2016-09-01

    Two studies suggest that cognitive dissonance can lead people to adopt negative attitudes toward beneficial-yet unpleasant-medical screenings. People who thought that they were candidates for an unpleasant medical screening reported less favorable attitudes toward the screening than people who thought that they were ineligible (Study 1). The unpleasantness of a medical screening affected candidates' attitudes toward the screening to a greater extent than non-candidate's attitudes (Study 2). Limitations, including ambiguity regarding the extent to which participants' attitudes were affected specifically by dissonance, are discussed. This preliminary research suggests people attempt to reduce dissonance associated with their anticipated behavior.

  16. Paranoid males have reduced lateralisation for processing of negative emotions: an investigation using the chimeric faces test.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Victoria J; McKay, Ryan T

    2014-01-01

    Reduced strength of lateralisation in patients with schizophrenia has been reported in a number of studies. However the exact nature of this relationship remains unclear. In this study, lateralisation for processing emotional faces was measured using the chimeric faces test and examined in relation to paranoia in a non-clinical sample. For males only, those with higher scores on a paranoia questionnaire had reduced lateralisation for processing negative facial emotion. For females there were no significant relationships. These findings suggest that atypical patterns of lateralisation for processing emotional stimuli may be implicated in, or associated with, increased levels of paranoia.

  17. Increasing water stress negatively affects pear fruit growth by reducing first its xylem and then its phloem inflow.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Brunella; Losciale, Pasquale; Manfrini, Luigi; Zibordi, Marco; Anconelli, Stefano; Galli, Fabio; Pierpaoli, Emanuele; Corelli Grappadelli, Luca

    2014-10-15

    Drought stress negatively affects many physiological parameters and determines lower yields and fruit size. This paper investigates on the effects of prolonged water restriction on leaf gas exchanges, water relations and fruit growth on a 24-h time-scale in order to understand how different physiological processes interact to each other to face increasing drought stress and affect pear productive performances during the season. The diurnal patterns of tree water relations, leaf gas exchanges, fruit growth, fruit vascular and transpiration flows were monitored at about 50, 95 and 145 days after full bloom (DAFB) on pear trees of the cv. Abbé Fétel, subjected to two irrigation regimes, corresponding to a water restitution of 100% and 25% of the estimated Etc, respectively. Drought stress progressively increased during the season due to lower soil tensions and higher daily vapour pressure deficits (VPDs). Stem water potential was the first parameter to be negatively affected by stress and determined the simultaneous reduction of fruit xylem flow, which at 95 DAFB was reflected by a decrease in fruit daily growth. Leaf photosynthesis was reduced only from 95 DAFB on, but was not immediately reflected by a decrease in fruit phloem flow, which instead was reduced only at 145 DAFB. This work shows how water stress negatively affects pear fruit growth by reducing first its xylem and then its phloem inflow. This determines a progressive increase in the phloem relative contribution to growth, which lead to the typical higher dry matter percentages of stressed fruit.

  18. Reducing False Negative Reads in RFID Data Streams Using an Adaptive Sliding-Window Approach

    PubMed Central

    Massawe, Libe Valentine; Kinyua, Johnson D. M.; Vermaak, Herman

    2012-01-01

    Unreliability of the data streams generated by RFID readers is among the primary factors which limit the widespread adoption of the RFID technology. RFID data cleaning is, therefore, an essential task in the RFID middleware systems in order to reduce reading errors, and to allow these data streams to be used to make a correct interpretation and analysis of the physical world they are representing. In this paper we propose an adaptive sliding-window based approach called WSTD which is capable of efficiently coping with both environmental variation and tag dynamics. Our experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach. PMID:22666027

  19. Microwave oscillator with reduced phase noise by negative feedback incorporating microwave signals with suppressed carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. J.; Saunders, J.

    1989-01-01

    Oscillator configurations which reduce the effect of 1/f noise sources for both direct feedback and stabilized local oscillator (STALO) circuits are developed and analyzed. By appropriate use of carrier suppression, a small signal is generated which suffers no loss of loop phase information or signal-to-noise ratio. This small signal can be amplified without degradation by multiplicative amplifier noise, and can be detected without saturation of the detector. Together with recent advances in microwave resonator Qs, these circuit improvements will make possible lower phase noise than can be presently achieved without the use of cryogenic devices.

  20. Chewing gum alleviates negative mood and reduces cortisol during acute laboratory psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Scholey, Andrew; Haskell, Crystal; Robertson, Bernadette; Kennedy, David; Milne, Anthea; Wetherell, Mark

    2009-06-22

    The notion that chewing gum may relieve stress was investigated in a controlled setting. A multi-tasking framework which reliably evokes stress and also includes performance measures was used to induce acute stress in the laboratory. Using a randomised crossover design forty participants (mean age 21.98 years) performed on the multi-tasking framework at two intensities (on separate days) both while chewing and not chewing. Order of workload intensity and chewing conditions were counterbalanced. Before and after undergoing the platform participants completed the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Bond-Lader visual analogue mood scales, a single Stress Visual Analogue Scale and provided saliva samples for cortisol measurement. Baseline measures showed that both levels of the multi-tasking framework were effective in significantly reducing self-rated alertness, calmness and contentment while increasing self-rated stress and state anxiety. Cortisol levels fell during both levels of the stressor during the morning, reflecting the predominance of a.m. diurnal changes, but this effect was reversed in the afternoon which may reflect a measurable stress response. Pre-post stressor changes (Delta) for each measure at baseline were subtracted from Delta scores under chewing and no chewing conditions. During both levels of stress the chewing gum condition was associated with significantly better alertness and reduced state anxiety, stress and salivary cortisol. Overall performance on the framework was also significantly better in the chewing condition. The mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown but may involve improved cerebral blood flow and/or effects secondary to performance improvement during gum chewing. PMID:19268676

  1. Judgmental Bias in the Rating of Attitude Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruvold, William H.

    1975-01-01

    Judges holding divergent attitudes rated two sets of statements regarding uses of water reclaimed from sewage. Results showed a close linear relationship between item scale values obtained from positive and negative attitudinal groups, and a somewhat reduced rating range for judges holding unfavorable personal attitudes toward reuse. (Author/RC)

  2. The film festival “AUSNAHME|ZUSTAND” (State of Emergency)--do feature films and documentaries on mental health reduce stigma and influence help-seeking attitudes?

    PubMed

    Conrad, Ines; Schulze, Beate; Corrieri, Sandro; Heider, Dirk; Schomerus, Georg; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2014-12-30

    The study aims at evaluating the impact of the Germany-wide film festival “AUSNAHME|ZUSTAND” on social distance and help-seeking attitudes of the adolescent audience. The festival, on the subject of mental health, was staged for the second time, aiming to give a podium to the topic mental health and to inform and entertain an adolescent audience that has not been in close contact with the subject before. A pre-post test was carried out to look for the effect of feature films and documentaries on social distance of the audience towards people with mental illness and on the change in help-seeking attitudes. A total of 532 young people with a mean age of 15.6 were questioned during the film festival in Leipzig. As the results show, the effect on the viewers׳ social distance and their help-seeking attitudes strongly depend on the content of the feature films and documentaries. Two films improved attitudes – one both social distance and help-seeking, one only help-seeking. One film increased social distance, and two films did not affect either outcome. Age, gender, and knowing someone with mental health problems also turned out to be decisive factors influencing the development of social distance and help-seeking attitudes. Feature films or documentaries about mental illness can reduce social distance or influence help-seeking attitudes, but effects strongly depend on the particular film. PMID:25441016

  3. The film festival “AUSNAHME|ZUSTAND” (State of Emergency)--do feature films and documentaries on mental health reduce stigma and influence help-seeking attitudes?

    PubMed

    Conrad, Ines; Schulze, Beate; Corrieri, Sandro; Heider, Dirk; Schomerus, Georg; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2014-12-30

    The study aims at evaluating the impact of the Germany-wide film festival “AUSNAHME|ZUSTAND” on social distance and help-seeking attitudes of the adolescent audience. The festival, on the subject of mental health, was staged for the second time, aiming to give a podium to the topic mental health and to inform and entertain an adolescent audience that has not been in close contact with the subject before. A pre-post test was carried out to look for the effect of feature films and documentaries on social distance of the audience towards people with mental illness and on the change in help-seeking attitudes. A total of 532 young people with a mean age of 15.6 were questioned during the film festival in Leipzig. As the results show, the effect on the viewers׳ social distance and their help-seeking attitudes strongly depend on the content of the feature films and documentaries. Two films improved attitudes – one both social distance and help-seeking, one only help-seeking. One film increased social distance, and two films did not affect either outcome. Age, gender, and knowing someone with mental health problems also turned out to be decisive factors influencing the development of social distance and help-seeking attitudes. Feature films or documentaries about mental illness can reduce social distance or influence help-seeking attitudes, but effects strongly depend on the particular film.

  4. Reductive dechlorination reduces negative impact of PCBs on in vitro fertilization

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, K.; Mousa, M.; Quensen, J.

    1995-12-31

    The variety of toxic effects ascribed to commercial PCB mixtures is likely because the individual congeners differ in their modes of toxicity and potencies. Similarly, a change in the congener composition of a PCB mixture due to reductive dechlorination by anaerobic microorganisms might be expected to alter the toxicological properties of that PCB mixture. In this study, Aroclors 1,242 and 1,254 were reductively dechlorinated using cultures of microorganisms from two different sites. The resulting dechlorination products and Aroclors were then tested for their effects on in vitro fertilization using mouse gametes. In general, percent fertilization increased with the extent of dechlorination. For example, fertilization in treatments with 10 {micro}g/ml of either Aroclor was only 40% of that in controls without Aroclor, but equal total molar concentrations of the dechlorination products produced by River Raisin microorganisms had no significant effect on fertilization. By this measure, therefore, the microbial dechlorination of PCBs appears to have a beneficial effect in reducing reproductive toxicity.

  5. Video games as a means to reduce age-related cognitive decline: attitudes, compliance, and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Boot, Walter R; Champion, Michael; Blakely, Daniel P; Wright, Timothy; Souders, Dustin J; Charness, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated broad benefits of video game play to perceptual and cognitive abilities. These broad improvements suggest that video game-based cognitive interventions may be ideal to combat the many perceptual and cognitive declines associated with advancing age. Furthermore, game interventions have the potential to induce higher rates of intervention compliance compared to other cognitive interventions as they are assumed to be inherently enjoyable and motivating. We explored these issues in an intervention that tested the ability of an action game and a "brain fitness" game to improve a variety of abilities. Cognitive abilities did not significantly improve, suggesting caution when recommending video game interventions as a means to reduce the effects of cognitive aging. However, the game expected to produce the largest benefit based on previous literature (an action game) induced the lowest intervention compliance. We explain this low compliance by participants' ratings of the action game as less enjoyable and by their prediction that training would have few meaningful benefits. Despite null cognitive results, data provide valuable insights into the types of video games older adults are willing to play and why. PMID:23378841

  6. Video games as a means to reduce age-related cognitive decline: attitudes, compliance, and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Boot, Walter R; Champion, Michael; Blakely, Daniel P; Wright, Timothy; Souders, Dustin J; Charness, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated broad benefits of video game play to perceptual and cognitive abilities. These broad improvements suggest that video game-based cognitive interventions may be ideal to combat the many perceptual and cognitive declines associated with advancing age. Furthermore, game interventions have the potential to induce higher rates of intervention compliance compared to other cognitive interventions as they are assumed to be inherently enjoyable and motivating. We explored these issues in an intervention that tested the ability of an action game and a "brain fitness" game to improve a variety of abilities. Cognitive abilities did not significantly improve, suggesting caution when recommending video game interventions as a means to reduce the effects of cognitive aging. However, the game expected to produce the largest benefit based on previous literature (an action game) induced the lowest intervention compliance. We explain this low compliance by participants' ratings of the action game as less enjoyable and by their prediction that training would have few meaningful benefits. Despite null cognitive results, data provide valuable insights into the types of video games older adults are willing to play and why.

  7. Video Games as a Means to Reduce Age-Related Cognitive Decline: Attitudes, Compliance, and Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Boot, Walter R.; Champion, Michael; Blakely, Daniel P.; Wright, Timothy; Souders, Dustin J.; Charness, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated broad benefits of video game play to perceptual and cognitive abilities. These broad improvements suggest that video game-based cognitive interventions may be ideal to combat the many perceptual and cognitive declines associated with advancing age. Furthermore, game interventions have the potential to induce higher rates of intervention compliance compared to other cognitive interventions as they are assumed to be inherently enjoyable and motivating. We explored these issues in an intervention that tested the ability of an action game and a “brain fitness” game to improve a variety of abilities. Cognitive abilities did not significantly improve, suggesting caution when recommending video game interventions as a means to reduce the effects of cognitive aging. However, the game expected to produce the largest benefit based on previous literature (an action game) induced the lowest intervention compliance. We explain this low compliance by participants’ ratings of the action game as less enjoyable and by their prediction that training would have few meaningful benefits. Despite null cognitive results, data provide valuable insights into the types of video games older adults are willing to play and why. PMID:23378841

  8. Reduced repetition suppression in the occipital visual cortex during repeated negative Chinese personality-trait word processing.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Fuqiang; Zheng, Li; Li, Lin; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Qianfeng

    2014-12-01

    Reduced neural activation have been consistently observed during repeated items processing, a phenomenon termed repetition suppression. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether and how stimuli of emotional valence affects repetition suppression by adopting Chinese personality-trait words as materials. Seventeen participants were required to read the negative and neutral Chinese personality-trait words silently. And then they were presented with repeated and novel items during scanning. Results showed significant repetition suppression in the inferior occipital gyrus only for neutral personality-trait words, whereas similar repetition suppression in the left inferior temporal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus was revealed for both the word types. These results indicated common and distinct neural substrates during processing Chinese repeated negative and neutral personality-trait words.

  9. Attitudes Towards PrEP and Anticipated Condom Use Among Concordant HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Colleen C; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Bircher, Anja E; Campbell, Chadwick K; Grisham, Kirk; Neilands, Torsten B; Wilson, Patrick A; Dworkin, Shari

    2015-07-01

    Since the July 2012 approval by the FDA of emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) for use as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, its feasibility and acceptability has been under study. HIV-discordant couples are likely targets for PrEP but little is known about how this new prevention tool impacts relationships. We examined, among gay male couples, the acceptability of individual and partner use of PrEP and intentions to use condoms with primary and outside partners in the context of PrEP use. Data are from two independent samples of couples recruited in the San Francisco bay area and New York City-a qualitative one (N=48 couples) between March and November, 2011, and a quantitative one (N=171 couples) between June, 2012 and May, 2013. Data were categorized by couple HIV status and general linear models; chi-square tests of independence were used to examine condom-use intentions with primary and outside partners, by sexual risk profile, and race. Almost half of the HIV-negative couples felt PrEP was a good HIV prevention strategy for themselves and their partner. Over half reported that they would not change their current condom use if they or their partner were taking PrEP. However, approximately 30% of HIV-negative couples reported that they would stop using condoms or use them less with primary and outside partners if they were on PrEP or if their partner was on PrEP. A large percentage of couples view PrEP positively. However, to ensure safety for both partners, future programing must consider those who intend not to use condoms while on PrEP.

  10. Attitudes Towards PrEP and Anticipated Condom Use Among Concordant HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Colleen C; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Bircher, Anja E; Campbell, Chadwick K; Grisham, Kirk; Neilands, Torsten B; Wilson, Patrick A; Dworkin, Shari

    2015-07-01

    Since the July 2012 approval by the FDA of emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) for use as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, its feasibility and acceptability has been under study. HIV-discordant couples are likely targets for PrEP but little is known about how this new prevention tool impacts relationships. We examined, among gay male couples, the acceptability of individual and partner use of PrEP and intentions to use condoms with primary and outside partners in the context of PrEP use. Data are from two independent samples of couples recruited in the San Francisco bay area and New York City-a qualitative one (N=48 couples) between March and November, 2011, and a quantitative one (N=171 couples) between June, 2012 and May, 2013. Data were categorized by couple HIV status and general linear models; chi-square tests of independence were used to examine condom-use intentions with primary and outside partners, by sexual risk profile, and race. Almost half of the HIV-negative couples felt PrEP was a good HIV prevention strategy for themselves and their partner. Over half reported that they would not change their current condom use if they or their partner were taking PrEP. However, approximately 30% of HIV-negative couples reported that they would stop using condoms or use them less with primary and outside partners if they were on PrEP or if their partner was on PrEP. A large percentage of couples view PrEP positively. However, to ensure safety for both partners, future programing must consider those who intend not to use condoms while on PrEP. PMID:26057304

  11. Attitudes Towards PrEP and Anticipated Condom Use Among Concordant HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Deepalika; Bircher, Anja E.; Campbell, Chadwick K.; Grisham, Kirk; Neilands, Torsten B.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Dworkin, Shari

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Since the July 2012 approval by the FDA of emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) for use as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, its feasibility and acceptability has been under study. HIV-discordant couples are likely targets for PrEP but little is known about how this new prevention tool impacts relationships. We examined, among gay male couples, the acceptability of individual and partner use of PrEP and intentions to use condoms with primary and outside partners in the context of PrEP use. Data are from two independent samples of couples recruited in the San Francisco bay area and New York City—a qualitative one (N=48 couples) between March and November, 2011, and a quantitative one (N=171 couples) between June, 2012 and May, 2013. Data were categorized by couple HIV status and general linear models; chi-square tests of independence were used to examine condom-use intentions with primary and outside partners, by sexual risk profile, and race. Almost half of the HIV-negative couples felt PrEP was a good HIV prevention strategy for themselves and their partner. Over half reported that they would not change their current condom use if they or their partner were taking PrEP. However, approximately 30% of HIV-negative couples reported that they would stop using condoms or use them less with primary and outside partners if they were on PrEP or if their partner was on PrEP. A large percentage of couples view PrEP positively. However, to ensure safety for both partners, future programing must consider those who intend not to use condoms while on PrEP. PMID:26057304

  12. The negative inotropic action of canrenone is mediated by L-type calcium current blockade and reduced intracellular calcium transients

    PubMed Central

    Costa, AR; Torres, LB; Medei, E; Ricardo, RA; França, JP; Smaili, S; Nascimento, JHM; Oshiro, MEM; Bassani, JWM; Ferreira, AT; Tucci, PJF

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Adding spironolactone to standard therapy in heart failure reduces morbidity and mortality, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We analysed the effect of canrenone, the major active metabolite of spironolactone, on myocardial contractility and intracellular calcium homeostasis. Experimental approach: Left ventricular papillary muscles and cardiomyocytes were isolated from male Wistar rats. Contractility of papillary muscles was assessed with force transducers, Ca2+ transients by fluorescence and Ca2+ fluxes by electrophysiological techniques. Key results: Canrenone (300–600 µmol·L−1) reduced developed tension, maximum rate of tension increase and maximum rate of tension decay of papillary muscles. In cardiomyocytes, canrenone (50 µmol·L−1) reduced cell shortening and L-type Ca2+ channel current, whereas steady-state activation and inactivation, and reactivation curves were unchanged. Canrenone also decreased the Ca2+ content of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, intracellular Ca2+ transient amplitude and intracellular diastolic Ca2+ concentration. However, the time course of [Ca2+]i decline during transients evoked by caffeine was not affected by canrenone. Conclusion and implications: Canrenone reduced L-type Ca2+ channel current, amplitude of intracellular Ca2+ transients and Ca2+ content of sarcoplasmic reticulum in cardiomyocytes. These changes are likely to underlie the negative inotropic effect of canrenone. PMID:19663883

  13. Can We Reduce Negative Blood Cultures With Clinical Scores and Blood Markers? Results From an Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Laukemann, Svenja; Kasper, Nina; Kulkarni, Prasad; Steiner, Deborah; Rast, Anna Christina; Kutz, Alexander; Felder, Susan; Haubitz, Sebastian; Faessler, Lukas; Huber, Andreas; Fux, Christoph A.; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Only a small proportion of blood cultures routinely performed in emergency department (ED) patients is positive. Multiple clinical scores and biomarkers have previously been examined for their ability to predict bacteremia. Conclusive clinical validation of these scores and biomarkers is essential. This observational cohort study included patients with suspected infection who had blood culture sampling at ED admission. We assessed 5 clinical scores and admission concentrations of procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), lymphocyte and white blood cell counts, the neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR), and the red blood cell distribution width (RDW). Two independent physicians assessed true blood culture positivity. We used logistic regression models with area under the curve (AUC) analysis. Of 1083 patients, 104 (9.6%) had positive blood cultures. Of the clinical scores, the Shapiro score performed best (AUC 0.729). The best biomarkers were PCT (AUC 0.803) and NLCR (AUC 0.700). Combining the Shapiro score with PCT levels significantly increased the AUC to 0.827. Limiting blood cultures only to patients with either a Shapiro score of ≥4 or PCT > 0.1 μg/L would reduce negative sampling by 20.2% while still identifying 100% of positive cultures. Similarly, a Shapiro score ≥3 or PCT >0.25 μg/L would reduce cultures by 41.7% and still identify 96.1% of positive blood cultures. Combination of the Shapiro score with admission levels of PCT can help reduce unnecessary blood cultures with minimal false negative rates. The study was registered on January 9, 2013 at the ‘ClinicalTrials.gov’ registration web site (NCT01768494). PMID:26656373

  14. Superior performance of asymmetric supercapacitor based on reduced graphene oxide-manganese carbonate as positive and sono-chemically reduced graphene oxide as negative electrode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Milan; Kumar, J. Sharath; Khanra, Partha; Samanta, Pranab; Koo, Hyeyoung; Murmu, Naresh Chandra; Kuila, Tapas

    2016-01-01

    A novel strategy to synthesize hierarchical rod like MnCO3 on the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets by a facile and cost-effective hydrothermal method is demonstrated. The chelating action of citric acid facilitates the formation a complex intermediate of Mn2+ and citrate ions, which finally results a 3D MnCO3/RGO (MRGO) composite with high electrical conductivity (˜1056 S m-1), good surface area (59 m2 g-1) and high pore volume (0.3 cm3 g-1). The specific capacitance (SC) of the MRGO composite is ˜1120 F g-1 at a current density of 2 A g-1 in three electrode system. An asymmetric device has been designed with MRGO as positive and sono-chemically reduced RGO (SRGO) as negative electrode material. The asymmetric device (MRGO//SRGO) shows the SC of ˜318 F g-1 (at 2 A g-1) and energy density of ˜113 W h kg-1 (at 1600 W kg-1). The true energy density (1.7 W h kg-1) has been calculated considering the total weight of the device. The MRGO//SRGO device can power a wall clock for ˜13 min after full charging. The Nyquist plot of the asymmetric cell has been simulated with Z-View software to measure the solution resistance, charge-transfer resistance and Warburg elements.

  15. Synthesis of cobalt oxide-reduced graphene nanocomposite and its enhanced electrochemical properties as negative material for alkaline secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanan; Wang, Xiaofeng; An, Cuihua; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2014-12-01

    A potential negative electrode material Co3O4@rGO is synthesized via a facile reflux condensation route. The electrochemical performances of Co3O4@rGO composite for alkaline rechargeable Ni/Co batteries have been systemically investigated for the first time. The reduced-graphene can remarkably enhance the electrochemical activity of Co3O4 materials, leading to a notable improvement of discharge capacity, cycle stability and rate capability. Interestingly, the maximum discharge capacity of Co3O4@rGO-20 (additive amount of GO is 20 mg) electrode can reach 511.4 mAh g-1 with the capacity retention of 89.1% after 100 cycles at a discharge current of 100 mA g-1. A properly electrochemical reaction mechanism of Co3O4@rGO electrode is also constructed in detail.

  16. Telomere length is severely and similarly reduced in JAK2V617F-positive and -negative myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, L; Belisle, C; Mollica, L; Provost, S; Roy, D-C; Gilliland, DG; Levine, RL; Busque, L

    2015-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal stem cell disorders characterized by chronic proliferation of hematopoietic progenitors. We studied the telomere length (TL) of 335 MPN patients and 93 gender- and age-matched controls using a quantitative PCR method (relative TL calculated as the ratio of the amount of telomere DNA vs single-copy DNA: T/S ratio). TL was markedly reduced in MPN patients compared with controls (T/S 0.561 vs 0.990, P<0.001). In JAK2V617F MPN patients, TL correlated inversely with allelic burden (P<0.001). Patients homozygous for the mutation (allelic burden 90–100%) had the shortest TL, even when compared with patients with lower allele burdens consistent with a dominant heterozygous population (allelic burden 55–65%) (T/S 0.367 vs 0.497, P = 0.037). This suggests that the high degree of proliferation of the MPN clone reduces TL and suggests the possibility that TL shortening may be indicative of progressive genomic instability during MPN progression. The TL of JAK2V617F-negative MPN patients was similar to JAK2V617F-positive counterparts (T/S 0.527 vs 0.507, P = 0.603), suggesting that the yet-to-be-discovered causative mutation(s) impact the mutated stem cell similarly to JAK2V617F, and that TL measurement may prove useful in the diagnostic workup of JAK2V617F-negative MPN. PMID:19005480

  17. miR-134 in extracellular vesicles reduces triple-negative breast cancer aggression and increases drug sensitivity.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Keith; Lowry, Michelle C; Corcoran, Claire; Martinez, Vanesa G; Daly, Melissa; Rani, Sweta; Gallagher, William M; Radomski, Marek W; MacLeod, Roderick A F; O'Driscoll, Lorraine

    2015-10-20

    Exosomes (EVs) have relevance in cell-to-cell communication carrying pro-tumorigenic factors that participate in oncogenesis and drug resistance and are proposed to have potential as self-delivery systems. Advancing on our studies of EVs in triple-negative breast cancer, here we more comprehensively analysed isogenic cell line variants and their EV populations, tissues cell line variants and their EV populations, as well as breast tumour and normal tissues. Profiling 384 miRNAs showed EV miRNA content to be highly representative of their cells of origin. miRNAs most substantially down-regulated in aggressive cells and their EVs originated from 14q32. Analysis of miR-134, the most substantially down-regulated miRNA, supported its clinical relevance in breast tumours compared to matched normal breast tissue. Functional studies indicated that miR-134 controls STAT5B which, in turn, controls Hsp90. miR-134 delivered by direct transfection into Hs578Ts(i)8 cells (in which it was greatly down-regulated) reduced STAT5B, Hsp90, and Bcl-2 levels, reduced cellular proliferation, and enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Delivery via miR-134-enriched EVs also reduced STAT5B and Hsp90, reduced cellular migration and invasion, and enhanced sensitivity to anti-Hsp90 drugs. While the differing effects achieved by transfection or EV delivery are likely to be, at least partly, due to specific amounts of miR-134 delivered by these routes, these EV-based studies identified miRNA-134 as a potential biomarker and therapeutic for breast cancer. PMID:26416415

  18. Lysophosphatidylcholine reduces the organ injury and dysfunction in rodent models of Gram-negative and Gram-positive shock

    PubMed Central

    Murch, Oliver; Collin, Marika; Sepodes, Bruno; Foster, Simon J; Mota-Filipe, Helder; Thiemermann, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) modulates the inflammatory response and reduces mortality in animal models of sepsis. Here, we investigate the effects of LPC from synthetic (sLPC) and natural, soy bean derived LPC, (nLPC) sources on the organ injury/dysfunction caused by systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or peptidoglycan (PepG) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA). Rats were subjected to (i) endotoxaemia (LPS 6 mg kg–1 i.v.) and treated with sLPC (1–100 mg kg−1), (ii) endotoxaemia and treated with nLPC (10 mg kg−1) or (iii) Gram-positive shock (PepG 10 mg kg–1 and LTA 3 mg kg–1 i.v.) and treated with sLPC (10 mg kg−1). Endotoxaemia or Gram-positive shock for 6 h resulted in increases in serum makers of renal dysfunction and liver, pancreatic and neuromuscular injury. Administration of sLPC, at 1 or 2 h after LPS, dose dependently (1–10 mg kg−1) reduced the organ injury/dysfunction. High doses of sLPC (30 and 100 mg kg−1) were shown to be detrimental in endotoxaemia. sLPC also afforded protection against the organ injury/dysfunction caused by Gram-positive shock. nLPC was found to be protective in endotoxaemic animals. The beneficial effects of sLPC were associated with an attenuation in circulating levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). In conclusion, LPC dose and time dependently reduces the organ injury and circulating IL-1β levels caused by Gram-negative or Gram-positive shock in the rat. Thus, we speculate that appropriate doses of LPC may be useful in reducing the degree of organ injury and dysfunction associated with shock of various aetiologies. PMID:16751791

  19. miR-134 in extracellular vesicles reduces triple-negative breast cancer aggression and increases drug sensitivity.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Keith; Lowry, Michelle C; Corcoran, Claire; Martinez, Vanesa G; Daly, Melissa; Rani, Sweta; Gallagher, William M; Radomski, Marek W; MacLeod, Roderick A F; O'Driscoll, Lorraine

    2015-10-20

    Exosomes (EVs) have relevance in cell-to-cell communication carrying pro-tumorigenic factors that participate in oncogenesis and drug resistance and are proposed to have potential as self-delivery systems. Advancing on our studies of EVs in triple-negative breast cancer, here we more comprehensively analysed isogenic cell line variants and their EV populations, tissues cell line variants and their EV populations, as well as breast tumour and normal tissues. Profiling 384 miRNAs showed EV miRNA content to be highly representative of their cells of origin. miRNAs most substantially down-regulated in aggressive cells and their EVs originated from 14q32. Analysis of miR-134, the most substantially down-regulated miRNA, supported its clinical relevance in breast tumours compared to matched normal breast tissue. Functional studies indicated that miR-134 controls STAT5B which, in turn, controls Hsp90. miR-134 delivered by direct transfection into Hs578Ts(i)8 cells (in which it was greatly down-regulated) reduced STAT5B, Hsp90, and Bcl-2 levels, reduced cellular proliferation, and enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Delivery via miR-134-enriched EVs also reduced STAT5B and Hsp90, reduced cellular migration and invasion, and enhanced sensitivity to anti-Hsp90 drugs. While the differing effects achieved by transfection or EV delivery are likely to be, at least partly, due to specific amounts of miR-134 delivered by these routes, these EV-based studies identified miRNA-134 as a potential biomarker and therapeutic for breast cancer.

  20. Reduced sensitivity to both positive and negative reinforcement in mice over-expressing the 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Line, Samantha J; Barkus, Chris; Rawlings, Nancy; Jennings, Katie; McHugh, Stephen; Sharp, Trevor; Bannerman, David M

    2014-12-01

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) transporter (5-HTT) is believed to play a key role in both normal and pathological psychological states. Much previous data suggest that the s allele of the polymorphic regulatory region of the 5-HTT gene promoter is associated with reduced 5-HTT expression and vulnerability to psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and depression. In comparison, the l allele, which increases 5-HTT expression, is generally considered protective. However, recent data link this allele to both abnormal 5-HT signalling and psychopathic traits. Here, we studied the processing of aversive and rewarding cues in transgenic mice that over-express the 5-HTT (5-HTTOE mice). Compared with wild-type mice, 5-HTTOE mice froze less in response to both a tone that had previously been paired with footshock, and the conditioning context. In addition, on a decision-making T-maze task, 5-HTTOE mice displayed reduced preference for a larger, delayed reward and increased preference for a smaller, immediate reward, suggesting increased impulsiveness compared with wild-type mice. However, further inspection of the data revealed that 5-HTTOE mice displayed a relative insensitivity to reward magnitude, irrespective of delay. In contrast, 5-HTTOE mice appeared normal on tests of spatial working and reference memory, which required an absolute choice between options associated with either reward or no reward. Overall, the present findings suggest that 5-HTT over-expression results in a reduced sensitivity to both positive and negative reinforcers. Thus, these data show that increased 5-HTT expression has some maladaptive effects, supporting recent suggestions that l allele homozygosity may be a potential risk factor for disabling psychiatric traits.

  1. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, William C.; Rosenstiel, Todd N.; Guenther, Alex; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Barsanti, Kelley

    2015-05-01

    An expected global increase in bioenergy-crop cultivation as an alternative to fossil fuels will have consequences on both global climate and local air quality through changes in biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced through the substitution of next-generation bioenergy crops such as eucalyptus, giant reed, and switchgrass for fossil fuels, the choice of species has important ramifications for human health, potentially reducing the benefits of conversion due to increases in ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels as a result of large changes in biogenic emissions. Using the Community Earth System Model we simulate the conversion of marginal and underutilized croplands worldwide to bioenergy crops under varying future anthropogenic emissions scenarios. A conservative global replacement using high VOC-emitting crop profiles leads to modeled population-weighted O3 increases of 5-27 ppb in India, 1-9 ppb in China, and 1-6 ppb in the United States, with peak PM2.5 increases of up to 2 μg m-3. We present a metric for the regional evaluation of candidate bioenergy crops, as well as results for the application of this metric to four representative emissions profiles using four replacement scales (10-100% maximum estimated available land). Finally, we assess the total health and climate impacts of biogenic emissions, finding that the negative consequences of using high-emitting crops could exceed 50% of the positive benefits of reduced fossil fuel emissions in value.

  2. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, William C.; Rosenstiel, Todd N.; Guenther, Alex; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Barsanti, Kelley

    2015-05-06

    An expected global increase in bioenergy-crop cultivation as an alternative to fossil fuels will have consequences on both global climate and local air quality through changes in biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced through the substitution of next-generation bioenergy crops such as eucalyptus, giant reed, and switchgrass for fossil fuels, the choice of species has important ramifications for human health, potentially reducing the benefits of conversion due to increases in ozone (O₃) and fine particulate matter (PM₂̣₅) levels as a result of large changes in biogenic emissions. Using the Community Earth System Model we simulate the conversion of marginal and underutilized croplands worldwide to bioenergy crops under varying future anthropogenic emissions scenarios. A conservative global replacement using high VOC-emitting crop profiles leads to modeled population-weighted O₃ increases of 5–27 ppb in India, 1–9 ppb in China, and 1–6 ppb in the United States, with peak PM₂̣₅ increases of up to 2 μgm⁻³. We present a metric for the regional evaluation of candidate bioenergy crops, as well as results for the application of this metric to four representative emissions profiles using four replacement scales (10–100% maximum estimated available land). Finally, we assess the total health and climate impacts of biogenic emissions, finding that the negative consequences of using high-emitting crops could exceed 50% of the positive benefits of reduced fossil fuel emissions in value.

  3. Reducing the negative human-health impacts of bioenergy crop emissions through region-specific crop selection

    DOE PAGES

    Porter, William C.; Rosenstiel, Todd N.; Guenther, Alex; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Barsanti, Kelley

    2015-05-06

    An expected global increase in bioenergy-crop cultivation as an alternative to fossil fuels will have consequences on both global climate and local air quality through changes in biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). While greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced through the substitution of next-generation bioenergy crops such as eucalyptus, giant reed, and switchgrass for fossil fuels, the choice of species has important ramifications for human health, potentially reducing the benefits of conversion due to increases in ozone (O₃) and fine particulate matter (PM₂̣₅) levels as a result of large changes in biogenic emissions. Using the Community Earth Systemmore » Model we simulate the conversion of marginal and underutilized croplands worldwide to bioenergy crops under varying future anthropogenic emissions scenarios. A conservative global replacement using high VOC-emitting crop profiles leads to modeled population-weighted O₃ increases of 5–27 ppb in India, 1–9 ppb in China, and 1–6 ppb in the United States, with peak PM₂̣₅ increases of up to 2 μgm⁻³. We present a metric for the regional evaluation of candidate bioenergy crops, as well as results for the application of this metric to four representative emissions profiles using four replacement scales (10–100% maximum estimated available land). Finally, we assess the total health and climate impacts of biogenic emissions, finding that the negative consequences of using high-emitting crops could exceed 50% of the positive benefits of reduced fossil fuel emissions in value.« less

  4. Reduced sensitivity to both positive and negative reinforcement in mice over-expressing the 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Line, Samantha J; Barkus, Chris; Rawlings, Nancy; Jennings, Katie; McHugh, Stephen; Sharp, Trevor; Bannerman, David M

    2014-12-01

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) transporter (5-HTT) is believed to play a key role in both normal and pathological psychological states. Much previous data suggest that the s allele of the polymorphic regulatory region of the 5-HTT gene promoter is associated with reduced 5-HTT expression and vulnerability to psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and depression. In comparison, the l allele, which increases 5-HTT expression, is generally considered protective. However, recent data link this allele to both abnormal 5-HT signalling and psychopathic traits. Here, we studied the processing of aversive and rewarding cues in transgenic mice that over-express the 5-HTT (5-HTTOE mice). Compared with wild-type mice, 5-HTTOE mice froze less in response to both a tone that had previously been paired with footshock, and the conditioning context. In addition, on a decision-making T-maze task, 5-HTTOE mice displayed reduced preference for a larger, delayed reward and increased preference for a smaller, immediate reward, suggesting increased impulsiveness compared with wild-type mice. However, further inspection of the data revealed that 5-HTTOE mice displayed a relative insensitivity to reward magnitude, irrespective of delay. In contrast, 5-HTTOE mice appeared normal on tests of spatial working and reference memory, which required an absolute choice between options associated with either reward or no reward. Overall, the present findings suggest that 5-HTT over-expression results in a reduced sensitivity to both positive and negative reinforcers. Thus, these data show that increased 5-HTT expression has some maladaptive effects, supporting recent suggestions that l allele homozygosity may be a potential risk factor for disabling psychiatric traits. PMID:25283165

  5. Implicit attitude generalization occurs immediately; explicit attitude generalization takes time.

    PubMed

    Ranganath, Kate A; Nosek, Brian A

    2008-03-01

    People are able to explicitly resist using knowledge about one person to evaluate another person from the same group. After learning about positive and negative behaviors performed by one individual from each of two different groups, participants were introduced briefly to new individuals from the groups. Implicit evaluations of the original individuals readily generalized to the new individuals; explicitly, participants resisted such generalization. Days later, both implicit and explicit evaluations of the original individuals generalized to the new individuals. The results suggest that associative links (e.g., shared group membership) are sufficient for implicit attitude generalization, but deliberative logic (e.g., individual group members are not necessarily the same) can reduce explicit generalization by association. When knowledge distinguishing who did what is unavailable, such as after forgetting, associative knowledge provides the basis of explicit evaluation. We conclude that a simple association linking one individual to another can produce implicit attitude generalization immediately and explicit attitude generalization eventually.

  6. The meaning of collective terrorist threat: understanding the subjective causes of terrorism reduces its negative psychological impact.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Postmes, Tom; Koeppl, Julia; Conway, Lianne; Fredriksson, Tom

    2011-05-01

    This article hypothesized that the possibility to construct intellectual meaning of a terrorist attack (i.e., whether participants can cognitively understand why the perpetrators did their crime) reduces the negative psychological consequences typically associated with increased terrorist threat. Concretely, the authors investigated the effect of intellectual meaning (induced by providing additional information about potential economic, cultural, and historical reasons for the terrorist attack) on perceived terrorist threat and associated emotional well-being. Study 1 revealed that pictures of terrorist attacks elicited less experienced terrorist threat when they were presented with background information about the terrorists' motives (meaning provided) rather than without additional background information (no meaning provided). Study 2 replicated this effect with a different manipulation of terrorist threat (i.e., newspaper article) and clarified the underlying psychological process: Participants in the high terror salience condition with meaning provided experienced less terrorist threat and thus more emotional well-being in the face of crisis than participants in the high terror salience condition without meaning provided. Theoretical and practical implications in the context of psychological health and mass media effects are discussed.

  7. Psychological motives versus health concerns: predicting smoking attitudes and promoting antismoking attitudes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chingching

    2009-01-01

    This article describes findings from 2 studies of smoking attitudes and behavior among Taiwanese adolescents. In the first, a survey, the motivations to gain positive external rewards, enhance positive internal affect, and reduce negative internal affect were all found to predict positive attitudes toward smoking, the intention to smoke, and actual smoking behavior. Concern for short-term health consequences was negatively associated with these outcomes (although concern for long-term consequences was not). In the 2nd study, smokers responded more defensively to ad messages arguing against psychological rewards from smoking than to health-consequence messages, and actually had more positive attitudes toward their own smoking behavior after viewing the antirewards ads. In contrast, nonsmokers responded more favorably to ads arguing against the psychological rewards of smoking than to ads highlighting health consequences, and also strengthened their antismoking attitudes after exposure to the ads that downplayed psychological rewards. Implications for antismoking campaigns are discussed. PMID:19204853

  8. Supine Treadmill Exercise in Lower Body Negative Pressure Combined with Resistive Exercise Counteracts Bone Loss, Reduced Aerobic Upright Exercise Capacity and Reduced Muscle Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meuche, Sabine; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Smith, S. M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term exposure to weightlessness leads to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. In this report, the effectiveness of combined supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (LBNPex) and flywheel resistive exercise (Rex) countermeasures was determined to prevent bone loss, reduced aerobic upright exercise capacity and reduced muscle strength. We hypothesized that exercise subjects would show less decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) and knee extensor strength (KES) than control subjects. Sixteen healthy female subjects participated in a 60-d 6(sup 0) head-down tilt bed rest (BR) study after providing written informed consent. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: a non-exercising control group CON or an exercise group EX performing LBNPex 2-4 d/wk and Rex every 3rd-d. VO2pk was measured with a maximal, graded, upright treadmill test performed pre-BR and on 3-d after BR. BMD was assessed before and 3-d after BR. Isokinetic KES was measured before and 5-d after BR. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were performed. Statistical significance was set at p less than 0.05. CON experienced a significant decrease in BMD in the trochanter (PRE: 0.670 plus or minus 0.045; POST: 0.646 plus or minus 0.352 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and in the whole hip (PRE=0.894 plus or minus 0.059; POST: 0.858 plus or minus 0.057 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD also decreased significantly in EX in the trochanter (PRE: 0.753 plus or minus 0.0617; POST: 0.741 plus or minus 0.061 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and whole hip (PRE: 0.954 plus or minus 0.067; POST: 0.935 plus or minus 0.069 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD losses were significantly less in EX than in CON subjects. VO2pk was significantly decreased in the CON after BR (PRE: 38.0 plus or minus 4.8; POST: 29.9 plus or minus 4.2 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute), but not in the EX (PRE: 39.0 plus or minus 2.0; POST

  9. Attitudes and attitude change.

    PubMed

    Bohner, Gerd; Dickel, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes and attitude change remain core topics of contemporary social psychology. This selective review emphasizes work published from 2005 to 2009. It addresses constructionist and stable-entity conceptualizations of attitude, the distinction between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and implications of the foregoing for attitude change. Associative and propositional processes in attitude change are considered at a general level and in relation to evaluative conditioning. The role of bodily states and physical perceptions in attitude change is reviewed. This is followed by an integrative perspective on processing models of persuasion and the consideration of meta-cognitions in persuasion. Finally, effects of attitudes on information processing, social memory, and behavior are highlighted. Core themes cutting across the areas reviewed are attempts at integrative theorizing bringing together formerly disparate phenomena and viewpoints. PMID:20809791

  10. Reading is for girls!? The negative impact of preschool teachers' traditional gender role attitudes on boys' reading related motivation and skills

    PubMed Central

    Wolter, Ilka; Braun, Edith; Hannover, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    According to gender stereotypes, reading is for girls. In this study, we investigated the role of preschool teachers in transmitting such gendered expectations. We suggest that boys are less motivated to read in preschool, and less competent in reading 1 year later in primary school, if their preschool teacher holds a traditional gender role attitude than if the teacher has egalitarian beliefs. In 135 independent dyads of a female preschool teacher (N = 135) and one boy (n = 65) or one girl (n = 70) we measured teacher's gender role attitude, child's reading related motivation as well as precursors of reading skills in preschool, and child's reading skills at the end of first grade in primary school. As expected, the more traditional preschool teachers' gender role attitude was, the weaker was boys' motivation to (learn to) read while girls' motivation was unrelated to teachers' gender role attitude. In either gender, motivation in preschool predicted reading skills at the end of first grade. PMID:26379592

  11. Reading is for girls!? The negative impact of preschool teachers' traditional gender role attitudes on boys' reading related motivation and skills.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Ilka; Braun, Edith; Hannover, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    According to gender stereotypes, reading is for girls. In this study, we investigated the role of preschool teachers in transmitting such gendered expectations. We suggest that boys are less motivated to read in preschool, and less competent in reading 1 year later in primary school, if their preschool teacher holds a traditional gender role attitude than if the teacher has egalitarian beliefs. In 135 independent dyads of a female preschool teacher (N = 135) and one boy (n = 65) or one girl (n = 70) we measured teacher's gender role attitude, child's reading related motivation as well as precursors of reading skills in preschool, and child's reading skills at the end of first grade in primary school. As expected, the more traditional preschool teachers' gender role attitude was, the weaker was boys' motivation to (learn to) read while girls' motivation was unrelated to teachers' gender role attitude. In either gender, motivation in preschool predicted reading skills at the end of first grade.

  12. Feeling worse to feel better: pain-offset relief simultaneously stimulates positive affect and reduces negative affect.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Joseph C; Lee, Kent M; Hanna, Eleanor K; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2013-04-01

    Although pain itself induces negative affect, the removal (or offset) of pain induces a powerful state of relief. Despite being implicated in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenomena, relief remains a poorly understood emotion. In particular, some theorists associate relief with increased positive affect, whereas others associate relief with diminished negative affect. In the present study, we examined the affective nature of relief in a pain-offset paradigm with psychophysiological measures that were specific to negative valence (startle eyeblink reactivity) and positive valence (startle postauricular reactivity). Results revealed that pain offset simultaneously stimulates positive affect and diminishes negative affect for at least several seconds. Results also indicated that pain intensity differentially affects the positive and negative valence aspects of relief. These findings clarify the affective nature of relief and provide insight into why people engage in both normal and abnormal behaviors associated with relief.

  13. Dietary antioxidants at supranutritional doses improve oxidative status and reduce the negative effects of heat stress in sheep.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, S S; Celi, P; Leury, B J; Clarke, I J; Dunshea, F R

    2014-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the impact of heat (thermal) stress and dietary antioxidant supplementation on the oxidative and physiological status of sheep. Twenty-four Merino × Poll Dorset crossbred ewes were housed in 1 of 2 climatic chambers (thermoneutral or heat stress) and offered either a control (10 IU vitamin E/kg DM and 0.24 mg Se/kg DM) or high antioxidant (100 IU vitamin E/kg DM and 1.20 mg Se/kg DM) diet. The sheep were exposed to 2 thermal (temperature) treatments (thermoneutral [TN]: 18-21°C and 26-30% relative humidity; and heat stress [HS]: 28-40°C and 40-50% relative humidity) for 2 wk in a single reversal design. After 1 wk of dietary treatment, animals in 1 chamber were subjected to HS for 1 wk, with the temperature being increased to 40°C between 0900 and 1700 h and then maintained at 28°C overnight. Those sheep in the TN group were maintained at 18 to 21°C. Physiological parameters were recorded 4 times a day (0900, 1300, 1700, and 2100 h) and blood samples were collected on d 1 and 7 of heat treatment. Plasma samples and red blood cell lysates were assayed for oxidative stress biomarkers. The thermal treatments were then reversed and the above measures repeated. All measured physiological parameters were elevated (P < 0.001) by thermal treatment. Respiration rate was lower during HS in sheep supplemented with antioxidants as indicated by a diet × temperature × time interaction (P = 0.010). There was 13% decline (P = 0.014) in feed intake of the unsupplemented animals during HS whereas the same was maintained in sheep supplemented with high doses of antioxidants. Plasma reactive oxygen metabolites concentrations were reduced (114 vs. 85 units/dL; P < 0.005) while biological antioxidant potential tended to be increased (3,688 vs. 3,985 μmol/L; P = 0.070) in heat stressed sheep supplemented with antioxidants. The oxidative stress index was 30% lower (P < 0.001) in supplemented sheep (2.16 ± 0.06 arbitrary units

  14. A Depression Training Session With Consumer Educators to Reduce Stigmatizing Views and Improve Pharmacists’ Depression Care Attitudes and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Tim; Laekeman, Gert; Foulon, Veerle

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To measure the impact of a depression training day for pharmacists that included a 75-minute session with a consumer educator. Design. The training day included interactive lectures on depression; the effects and side effects of and indications for the use of antidepressants; adherence issues; non-drug treatment options for depression; and basic skills in communication. Pharmacists also participated in a session with a consumer educator and in counseling exercises that included role playing. Assessment. The study used a randomized, clustered, comparative design to measure pharmacists' stigma, attitudes, and current practice related to the provision of pharmaceutical care to people with depression. Mean scores for depression-care practice after the training session were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group. Analysis of the changes between baseline and postintervention measures in both the control and intervention groups confirmed a significant difference in the change in both social distance and practice but no significant difference in the change in attitude between the 2 groups of pharmacists. Conclusion. A continuing-education depression training day for pharmacists that involve consumer educators may improve the care delivered in the community pharmacy to people with depression. PMID:23966723

  15. Negative phototropism is seen in Arabidopsis inflorescences when auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level by an Aux/IAA dominant mutation, axr2.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsuko; Sasaki, Shu; Matsuzaki, Jun; Yamamoto, Kotaro T

    2015-01-01

    Inflorescences of a dominant mutant of Arabidopsis Aux/IAA7, axr2, showed negative phototropism with a similar fluence response curve to the positive phototropism of wild-type stems. Application of a synthetic auxin, NAA, and an inhibitor of polar auxin transport, NPA, increased and decreased respectively the magnitude of the phototropic response in the wild type, while in axr2 application of NAA reduced the negative phototropic response and NPA had no effect. Decapitation of the apex induced a small negative phototropism in wild-type stems, and had no effect in axr2 plants. Inflorescences of the double mutants of auxin transporters, pgp1 pgp19, showed no phototropic response, while decapitation resulted in a negative phototropic response. These results suggest that negative phototropism can occur when the level of auxin or of auxin signaling is reduced to a minimal level, and that in plant axial organs the default phototropic response to unilateral blue light may be negative. Expression of axr2 protein by an endodermis-specific promoter resulted in agravitropism of inflorescences in a similar way to that of axr2, but phototropism was normal, confirming that the endodermis does not play a critical role in phototropism.

  16. Reduced sensitivity to neutral feedback versus negative feedback in subjects with mild depression: Evidence from event-related potentials study.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Song, Xinxin; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Xiaoran; Li, Jiayi; Lin, Fengtong; Hu, Zhonghua; Zhang, Xinxin; Cui, Hewei; Wang, Wenmiao; Li, Hong; Cong, Fengyu; Roberson, Debi

    2015-11-01

    Many previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have linked the feedback related negativity (FRN) component with medial frontal cortex processing and associated this component with depression. Few if any studies have investigated the processing of neutral feedback in mildly depressive subjects in the normal population. Two experiments compared brain responses to neutral feedback with behavioral performance in mildly depressed subjects who scored highly on the Beck Depression Inventory (high BDI) and a control group with lower BDI scores (low BDI). In the first study, the FRN component was recorded when neutral, negative or positive feedback was pseudo-randomly delivered to the two groups in a time estimation task. In the second study, real feedback was provided to the two groups in the same task in order to measure their actual accuracy of performance. The results of experiment one (Exp. 1) revealed that a larger FRN effect was elicited by neutral feedback than by negative feedback in the low BDI group, but no significant difference was found between neutral condition and negative condition in the High BDI group. The present findings demonstrated that depressive tendencies influence the processing of neutral feedback in medial frontal cortex. The FRN effect may work as a helpful index for investigating cognitive bias in depression in future studies. PMID:26432379

  17. Reducing the risk of heart disease among Indian Australians: knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding food practices – a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Ritin; Rolley, John X.; Rajaratnam, Rohan; Everett, Bronwyn; Davidson, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Australia has a growing number of Asian Indian immigrants. Unfortunately, this population has an increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Dietary adherence is an important strategy in reducing risk for CHD. This study aimed to gain greater understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs relating to food practices in Asian Indian Australians. Methods Two focus groups with six participants in each were recruited using a convenience sampling technique. Verbatim transcriptions were made and thematic content analysis undertaken. Results Four main themes that emerged from the data included: migration as a pervasive factor for diet and health; importance of food in maintaining the social fabric; knowledge and understanding of health and diet; and elements of effective interventions. Discussion Diet is a complex constructed factor in how people express themselves individually, in families and communities. There are many interconnected factors influencing diet choice that goes beyond culture and religion to include migration and acculturation. Conclusions Food and associated behaviors are an important aspect of the social fabric. Entrenched and inherent knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and traditions frame individuals’ point of reference around food and recommendations for an optimal diet. PMID:26051008

  18. Fearless Dominance and reduced feedback-related negativity amplitudes in a time-estimation task – Further neuroscientific evidence for dual-process models of psychopathy☆

    PubMed Central

    Schulreich, Stefan; Pfabigan, Daniela M.; Derntl, Birgit; Sailer, Uta

    2013-01-01

    Dual-process models of psychopathy postulate two etiologically relevant processes. Their involvement in feedback processing and its neural correlates has not been investigated so far. Multi-channel EEG was collected while healthy female volunteers performed a time-estimation task and received negative or positive feedback in form of signs or emotional faces. The affective-interpersonal factor Fearless Dominance, but not Self-Centered Impulsivity, was associated with reduced feedback-related negativity (FRN) amplitudes. This neural dissociation extends previous findings on the impact of psychopathy on feedback processing and further highlights the importance of distinguishing psychopathic traits and extending previous (neuroscientific) models of psychopathy. PMID:23607997

  19. Activating health goals reduces (increases) hedonic evaluation of food brands for people who harbor highly positive (negative) affect toward them.

    PubMed

    Connell, Paul M; Mayor, Lauren F

    2013-06-01

    Associations of pleasure and fun with junk foods have the potential to create considerable challenges for efforts to improve diets. The aim of this research was to determine whether activating health goals had the potential to exploit mixed motivations (i.e., health and pleasure) that people have related to food, and subsequently strip junk foods of the expected pleasure derived from them. In study 1, 98 participants evaluated a soft drink brand after being primed (not primed) for health. In study 2, 93 participants evaluated a presweetened breakfast cereal brand after being primed (not primed) for health. In both studies, participants who harbored highly positive feelings for the food brands devalued their hedonic judgments of them when they were primed for health. However, in an unexpected result, participants in both studies who harbored highly negative feelings for the food brands revalued their hedonic judgments of them (i.e., increased the favorability) when they were primed for health. Thus, increasing health salience is only effective in decreasing expected pleasure derived from junk foods for people who harbor positive affect toward junk food brands, and is likely counterproductive for people who harbor negative affect toward junk food brands.

  20. Activating health goals reduces (increases) hedonic evaluation of food brands for people who harbor highly positive (negative) affect toward them.

    PubMed

    Connell, Paul M; Mayor, Lauren F

    2013-06-01

    Associations of pleasure and fun with junk foods have the potential to create considerable challenges for efforts to improve diets. The aim of this research was to determine whether activating health goals had the potential to exploit mixed motivations (i.e., health and pleasure) that people have related to food, and subsequently strip junk foods of the expected pleasure derived from them. In study 1, 98 participants evaluated a soft drink brand after being primed (not primed) for health. In study 2, 93 participants evaluated a presweetened breakfast cereal brand after being primed (not primed) for health. In both studies, participants who harbored highly positive feelings for the food brands devalued their hedonic judgments of them when they were primed for health. However, in an unexpected result, participants in both studies who harbored highly negative feelings for the food brands revalued their hedonic judgments of them (i.e., increased the favorability) when they were primed for health. Thus, increasing health salience is only effective in decreasing expected pleasure derived from junk foods for people who harbor positive affect toward junk food brands, and is likely counterproductive for people who harbor negative affect toward junk food brands. PMID:23428938

  1. Reducing Complexity: A Regularized Non-negative Matrix Approximation (NNMA) Approach to X-ray Spectromicroscopy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, Rachel Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy combines microscopy and spectroscopy to provide rich information about the chemical organization of materials down to the nanoscale. But with richness also comes complexity: natural materials such as biological or environmental science specimens can be composed of complex spectroscopic mixtures of different materials. The challenge becomes how we could meaningfully simplify and interpret this information. Approaches such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis have been used in previous studies, but with some limitations that we will describe. This leads us to develop a new approach based on a development of non-negative matrix approximation (NNMA) analysis with both sparseness and spectra similarity regularizations. We apply this new technique to simulated spectromicroscopy datasets as well as a preliminary study of the large-scale biochemical organization of a human sperm cell. NNMA analysis is able to select major features of the sperm cell without the physically erroneous negative weightings or thicknesses in the calculated image which appeared in previous approaches.

  2. Demographic Group Differences in Adolescents' Time Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.; Dixson, Dante D.; Baik, Sharon H.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African…

  3. Pseudoinefficacy: negative feelings from children who cannot be helped reduce warm glow for children who can be helped

    PubMed Central

    Västfjäll, Daniel; Slovic, Paul; Mayorga, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    In a great many situations where we are asked to aid persons whose lives are endangered, we are not able to help everyone. What are the emotional and motivational consequences of “not helping all”? In a series of experiments, we demonstrate that negative affect arising from children that could not be helped decreases the warm glow of positive feeling associated with aiding the children who can be helped. This demotivation from the children outside of our reach may be a form of “pseudoinefficacy” that is non-rational. We should not be deterred from helping whomever we can because there are others we are not able to help. PMID:26042058

  4. Literature review and summary of perceptions, attitudes, beliefs, and marketing of potentially reduced exposure products: communication implications.

    PubMed

    Pederson, Linda L; Nelson, David E

    2007-05-01

    Potentially reduced exposure products (PREPs) have continued to enter the market during the 1990s and first part of the 21st century. Attempts by the tobacco industry to develop and market products with implied reductions in adverse health effects (i.e., harm reduction) are not new. Over the last half of the 20th century, the tobacco industry developed and marketed several products that purported to reduce the health risks associated with smoking cigarettes. Among these were filtered cigarettes in the 1950s and light and ultra-light cigarettes in the 1970s and 1980s. This review summarizes published and unpublished research that is directly relevant to the marketing, advertising, and communication about PREPs. The marketing strategies for these new products do not appear to differ from those used by the tobacco industry for light and ultra-light cigarettes. Although smokers report not using the new products in large numbers because of dissatisfaction with taste, they are interested in using products with reduced risk. Despite the absence of explicit health claims by the industry for PREPs, many smokers believe that these products are safer based on the advertising claims of reduced exposure and a belief that claims are approved by the government. No data are available to indicate that PREPs are useful for prevention or cessation of smoking, nor does specific research exist to suggest what health communication messages will provide smokers with accurate information about these products. PMID:17454709

  5. Attitudes toward cosmetic surgery patients: the role of culture and social contact.

    PubMed

    Tam, Kim-Pong; Ng, Henry Kin-Shing; Kim, Young-Hoon; Yeung, Victoria Wai-Lan; Cheung, Francis Yue-Lok

    2012-01-01

    Cosmetic surgery is increasingly popular globally, but how cosmetic surgery patients are socially evaluated is largely unknown. The present research documents attitudes toward these patients in multiple cultures (Hong Kong, Japan, and the United States). Across these cultures, attitudes toward cosmetic surgery patients were predominantly negative: Participants ascribed more negative attributes to cosmetic surgery patients and found cosmetic surgery not acceptable. Also, participants in Hong Kong and Japan were not willing to form social relationships, particularly intimate ones, with these patients. These attitudes were less negative in the United States than in Hong Kong and Japan, partly because social contact, which reduced negativity in attitudes toward cosmetic surgery patients, was more prevalent in the United States. These findings bear important implications for the subjective well-being of cosmetic surgery patients, who very often expect improvement in their social relationships through the surgery. PMID:22822685

  6. Attitudes toward cosmetic surgery patients: the role of culture and social contact.

    PubMed

    Tam, Kim-Pong; Ng, Henry Kin-Shing; Kim, Young-Hoon; Yeung, Victoria Wai-Lan; Cheung, Francis Yue-Lok

    2012-01-01

    Cosmetic surgery is increasingly popular globally, but how cosmetic surgery patients are socially evaluated is largely unknown. The present research documents attitudes toward these patients in multiple cultures (Hong Kong, Japan, and the United States). Across these cultures, attitudes toward cosmetic surgery patients were predominantly negative: Participants ascribed more negative attributes to cosmetic surgery patients and found cosmetic surgery not acceptable. Also, participants in Hong Kong and Japan were not willing to form social relationships, particularly intimate ones, with these patients. These attitudes were less negative in the United States than in Hong Kong and Japan, partly because social contact, which reduced negativity in attitudes toward cosmetic surgery patients, was more prevalent in the United States. These findings bear important implications for the subjective well-being of cosmetic surgery patients, who very often expect improvement in their social relationships through the surgery.

  7. Car drivers' attitudes towards motorcyclists: a survey.

    PubMed

    Crundall, David; Bibby, Peter; Clarke, David; Ward, Patrick; Bartle, Craig

    2008-05-01

    Motorcyclists are over-represented in UK traffic accident statistics. Many car-motorcycle accidents are however due to the inappropriate actions of car drivers. It is predicted that car drivers at risk of collision with motorcycles have divergent attitudes and beliefs about motorcyclists compared to safer drivers, which may lead to a deficient mental model guiding their interactions with motorcyclists. To assess car drivers' attitudes towards motorcyclists, a survey was undertaken. Respondents filled in 26 general and motorcycle-related items and the 24 items of the reduced Driver Behaviour Questionnaire. Compared to an experienced dual driver group (who both drive cars and ride motorcycles), all other drivers showed divergent beliefs and attitudes. Four factors were extracted from the motorcycle items: negative attitudes, empathic attitudes, awareness of perceptual problems, and spatial understanding. Car drivers with a moderate amount of experience (between 2 and 10 years driving) held the most negative views and reported the most violations. The results have lead to several suggestions for interventions aimed at decreasing the divergence between drivers' perceptions of motorcyclists, and the perceptions of experienced dual drivers.

  8. Differences in Attitudes Toward Nudity in Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, M. Wayne; Judd, Ben B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated variations in attitudes toward female nudity and sex in advertising for several different market segments. More negative attitudes were found for females generally and females from smaller towns, who read more magazines, and watch more TV. Negative attitudes also were associated with younger males and males who attend church…

  9. Pathways from childhood abuse to prospective revictimization: depression, sex to reduce negative affect, and forecasted sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Miron, Lynsey R; Orcutt, Holly K

    2014-11-01

    Research suggests that adverse events in childhood, such as childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, confer risk for later sexual assault. Psychological distress, coping strategies, and sexual behavior may help explain the path from childhood abuse to revictimization. The present study explored how the use of sex to regulate negative affect (SRNA) operates independently, and in combination with other psychosocial factors to increase college women's (N=541) risk of experiencing prospective adult sexual assault (ASA). Sequential multiple mediator models in Mplus were used to assess the effect of three different forms of childhood abuse on prospective ASA, both independently and while controlling for other forms of childhood abuse. The indirect effect of adolescent sexual assault (AdolSA), depressive symptoms, SRNA, and participants' response to a sex-related vignette was tested using bias-corrected bootstrapping. In the full path model, childhood emotional abuse and AdolSA predicted ASA, while childhood physical and sexual abuse were directly associated with AdolSA, but not ASA. Additionally, depressive symptoms and participants' estimate of their likely behavior in a sex-related vignette directly predicted prospective ASA. Results using bootstrapping revealed that a history of childhood abuse predicted prospective ASA via diverse direct and indirect paths, as well as through a similar multiple mediator path. Overall, findings suggest that a combination of affective, coping, and sexual expectancy factors contribute to risk for revictimization in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Future research directions and targets for risk-reduction programming are discussed.

  10. Stress hormones reduce the efficacy of paclitaxel in triple negative breast cancer through induction of DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, A; Attar, M; Nazario, L; Bathula, C; Zhang, A; Hochbaum, D; Roy, E; Cooper, K L; Oesterreich, S; Davidson, N E; Neumann, C A; Flint, M S

    2015-01-01

    Background: The mechanisms by which stress hormones impact triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) etiology and treatment are unclear. We have previously shown that stress hormones, cortisol, and catecholamines induce rapid DNA damage and impact DNA repair in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. This study investigates whether stress hormones increase DNA damage in breast cancer cells and if this impacts drug efficacy. Methods: We first screened a panel of 39 breast cancer cell lines for expression of adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptors and examined if stress hormones induce DNA damage and alter cell cycle regulation in vitro. A TNBC xenograft model was used to assess the impact of restraint stress on tumour growth and chemosensitivity to paclitaxel. Results: We found that stress hormones induced DNA damage, phosphorylation of ATR, which was accompanied by an up-regulation of the G1 cell kinase inhibitor p21 and a cell cycle halt of TNBCs in the G1 phase. p21 knockdown abrogated G1 arrest by stress hormones. We also demonstrated that stress significantly decreased efficacy of paclitaxel. Conclusion: We describe a novel mechanism through which stress hormones can induce drug resistance to paclitaxel, which may have profound implications for treating drug resistance in patients with TNBC. PMID:25880007

  11. Internalized societal attitudes moderate the impact of weight stigma on avoidance of exercise.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Novak, Sarah A

    2011-04-01

    Experiences with weight stigma negatively impact both psychological outcomes (e.g., body dissatisfaction, depression) and behavioral outcomes (e.g., dieting, exercise). However, not everyone is equally affected by experiences with weight stigma. This study examined whether internalized societal attitudes about weight moderated the impact of weight stigma. Adult participants (n = 111) completed measures of experiences with weight stigma, as well as two indexes of internalized societal attitudes (the moderators): Internalized anti-fat attitudes and internalization of societal standards of attractiveness. Psychological outcomes included self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimic symptoms; behavioral outcomes included avoidance of exercise and self-reported exercise behavior. Weight stigma was positively correlated with body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimic symptoms, and was negatively correlated with state and trait self-esteem. Both indexes of internalized attitudes moderated the association between weight stigma and avoidance of exercise: Individuals high in anti-fat attitudes and high in internalization of societal standards of attractiveness were more motivated to avoid exercise if they also experienced a high degree of weight stigma; individuals low in anti-fat attitudes and low in internalization were relatively unaffected. Avoidance of exercise was negatively correlated with self-reported strenuous exercise. These findings suggest that weight stigma can negatively influence motivation to exercise, particularly among individuals who have internalized societal attitudes about weight. Reducing internalization might be a means of minimizing the negative impact of weight stigma and of facilitating healthy weight management efforts. PMID:20948515

  12. LiF Reduces MICs of Antibiotics against Clinical Isolates of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Syed, H. C.; Ravaoarinoro, M.

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem yet the development of new antibiotics has slowed to a trickle, giving rise to the use of combination therapy to eradicate infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined inhibitory effect of lithium fluoride (LiF) and commonly used antimicrobials on the growth of the following bacteria: Enterococcus faecalis, Staphyloccoccus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The in vitro activities of ceftazidime, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, streptomycin, erythromycin, amoxicillin, and ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, alone or combined with LiF were performed by microdilution method. MICs were determined visually following 18–20 h of incubation at 37°C. We observed reduced MICs of antibiotics associated with LiF ranging from two-fold to sixteen-fold. The strongest decreases of MICs observed were for streptomycin and erythromycin associated with LiF against Acinetobacter baumannii and Streptococcus pneumoniae. An eight-fold reduction was recorded for streptomycin against S. pneumoniae whereas an eight-fold and a sixteen-fold reduction were obtained for erythromycin against A. baumannii and S. pneumoniae. This suggests that LiF exhibits a synergistic effect with a wide range of antibiotics and is indicative of its potential as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy. PMID:22518143

  13. In vivo NGF deprivation reduces SNS expression and TTX-R sodium currents in IB4-negative DRG neurons.

    PubMed

    Fjell, J; Cummins, T R; Fried, K; Black, J A; Waxman, S G

    1999-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests that changes in sodium channel expression and localization may be involved in some pathological pain syndromes. SNS, a tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium channel, is preferentially expressed in small dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, many of which are nociceptive. TTX-R sodium currents and SNS mRNA expression have been shown to be modulated by nerve growth factor (NGF) in vitro and in vivo. To determine whether SNS expression and TTX-R currents in DRG neurons are affected by reduced levels of systemic NGF, we immunized adult rats with NGF, which causes thermal hypoalgesia in rats with high antibody titers to NGF. DRG neurons cultured from rats with high antibody titers to NGF, which do not bind the isolectin IB4 (IB4(-)) but do express TrkA, were studied with whole cell patch-clamp and in situ hybridization. Mean TTX-R sodium current density was decreased from 504 +/- 77 pA/pF to 307 +/- 61 pA/pF in control versus NGF-deprived neurons, respectively. In comparison, the mean TTX-sensitive sodium current density was not significantly different between control and NGF-deprived neurons. Quantification of SNS mRNA hybridization signal showed a significant decrease in the signal in NGF-deprived neurons compared with the control neurons. The data suggest that NGF has a major role in the maintenance of steady-state levels of TTX-R sodium currents and SNS mRNA in IB4(-) DRG neurons in adult rats in vivo. PMID:10036280

  14. Application of municipal solid waste compost reduces the negative effects of saline water in Hordeum maritimum L.

    PubMed

    Lakhdar, Abdelbasset; Hafsi, Chokri; Rabhi, Mokded; Debez, Ahmed; Montemurro, Francesco; Abdelly, Chedly; Jedidi, Naceur; Ouerghi, Zeineb

    2008-10-01

    The efficiency of composted municipal solid wastes (MSW) to reduce the adverse effects of salinity was investigated in Hordeum maritimum under greenhouse conditions. Plants were cultivated in pots filled with soil added with 0 and 40tha(-1) of MSW compost, and irrigated twice a week with tap water at two salinities (0 and 4gl(-1) NaCl). Harvests were achieved at 70 (shoots) and 130 (shoots and roots) days after sowing. At each cutting, dry weight (DW), NPK nutrition, chlorophyll, leaf protein content, Rubisco (ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) capacity, and contents of potential toxic elements were determined. Results showed that compost supply increased significantly the biomass production of non salt-treated plants (+80%). This was associated with higher N and P uptake in both shoots (+61% and +80%, respectively) and roots (+48% and +25%, respectively), while lesser impact was observed for K+. In addition, chlorophyll and protein contents as well as Rubisco capacity were significantly improved by the organic amendment. MSW compost mitigated the deleterious effect of salt stress on the plant growth, partly due to improved chlorophyll and protein contents and Rubisco capacity (-15%, -27% and -14%, respectively, in combined treatment, against -45%, -84% and -25%, respectively, in salt-stressed plants without compost addition), which presumably favoured photosynthesis and alleviated salt affect on biomass production by 21%. In addition, plants grown on amended soil showed a general improvement in their heavy metals contents Cu2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+ (in combined treatment: 190%, 53%, 168% and 174% in shoots and 183%, 42%, 42% and 114% in roots, respectively) but remained lower than phytotoxic values. Taken together, these findings suggest that municipal waste compost may be safely applied to salt-affected soils without adverse effects on plant physiology. PMID:18308562

  15. Improving medical student attitudes toward older patients through a "council of elders" and reflective writing experience.

    PubMed

    Westmoreland, Glenda R; Counsell, Steven R; Sennour, Youcef; Schubert, Cathy C; Frank, Kathryn I; Wu, Jingwei; Frankel, Richard M; Litzelman, Debra K; Bogdewic, Stephen P; Inui, Thomas S

    2009-02-01

    In an effort to reduce "agism" which is prevalent among medical trainees, a new geriatrics educational experience for medical students aimed at improving attitudes toward older patients was developed. Each 90-minute Older Adult Session included four components: initial reflective writing exercise; introduction to the session; 75-minute dialogue with the "Council of Elders," a group of active, "well" older adults; and final reflective writing exercise. The new session was provided to 237 first- and second-year medical students during the 2006/07 academic year at Indiana University School of Medicine. Session evaluation included comparing scores on the 14-item Geriatrics Attitude Scale administered before and after the session, identifying attitude changes in the reflective writing exercises, and a student satisfaction survey. Student responses on the Geriatrics Attitude Scale after the session were significantly improved in seven of 14 items, demonstrating better attitudes toward being with and listening to older people and caring for older patients. Analysis of the reflective writings revealed changing of negative to positive or reinforced positive attitudes in 27% of medical students, with attitudes not discernable in the remaining 73% (except one student, in whom positive attitudes changed to negative). Learner satisfaction with the Older Adult Session was high, with 98% agreeing that the session had a positive effect on insight into the care of older adults. A Council of Elders coupled with a reflective writing exercise is a promising new approach to improving attitudes of medical students toward their geriatric patients.

  16. Nursing home employee attitudes towards AIDS.

    PubMed

    Sarvela, P D; Moore, J R

    1989-01-01

    This article examines nursing home employee attitudes toward issues related to AIDS and is based on data collected from 343 employees from 13 nursing homes in rural, small towns in sourthern Illinois during the spring of 1988. Results suggested that a large majority of the employees had negative attitudes toward people with AIDS. For example, 67% of the sample indicated that it was more important to limit the spread of AIDS rather than to protect the rights of people with AIDS. Furthermore, 42% suggested that AIDS patients should be sent to sanitariums to protect others from AIDS. Greater than half of the sample (56%) responded that they would feel uncomfortable around people with AIDS. About one third (32%) felt that being around someone with AIDS would put their health in danger, and 21% would be afraid to even take care of a family member with AIDS. With regard to job-specific AIDS attitudes, 51% indicated that health-care workers should be able to refuse to work with AIDS patients, and another 46% felt that hospitals and nursing homes should be able to refuse to admit people with AIDS. In addition to these and other results, this article presents a brief discussion concerning possible educational strategies which might be implemented in this setting to reduce the negative attitudes of these employees. Considerations are also presented for nursing home administrators, who face the problem of developing effective policies for dealing with the rising number of AIDS patients who will be admitted to their facilities.

  17. Negativity bias and basic values.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Shalom H

    2014-06-01

    Basic values explain more variance in political attitudes and preferences than other personality and sociodemographic variables. The values most relevant to the political domain are those likely to reflect the degree of negativity bias. Value conflicts that represent negativity bias clarify differences between what worries conservatives and liberals and suggest that relations between ideology and negativity bias are linear. PMID:24970450

  18. Gremlin-1 Overexpression in Mouse Lung Reduces Silica-Induced Lymphocyte Recruitment – A Link to Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis through Negative Correlation with CXCL10 Chemokine

    PubMed Central

    Koli, Katri; Sutinen, Eva; Rönty, Mikko; Rantakari, Pia; Fortino, Vittorio; Pulkkinen, Ville; Greco, Dario; Sipilä, Petra; Myllärniemi, Marjukka

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by activation and injury of epithelial cells, the accumulation of connective tissue and changes in the inflammatory microenvironment. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibitor protein gremlin-1 is associated with the progression of fibrosis both in human and mouse lung. We generated a transgenic mouse model expressing gremlin-1 in type II lung epithelial cells using the surfactant protein C (SPC) promoter and the Cre-LoxP system. Gremlin-1 protein expression was detected specifically in the lung after birth and did not result in any signs of respiratory insufficiency. Exposure to silicon dioxide resulted in reduced amounts of lymphocyte aggregates in transgenic lungs while no alteration in the fibrotic response was observed. Microarray gene expression profiling and analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytokines indicated a reduced lymphocytic response and a downregulation of interferon-induced gene program. Consistent with reduced Th1 response, there was a downregulation of the mRNA and protein expression of the anti-fibrotic chemokine CXCL10, which has been linked to IPF. In human IPF patient samples we also established a strong negative correlation in the mRNA expression levels of gremlin-1 and CXCL10. Our results suggest that in addition to regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk during tissue injury, gremlin-1 modulates inflammatory cell recruitment and anti-fibrotic chemokine production in the lung. PMID:27428020

  19. Expression of an exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase gene in Mesorhizobium spp. reduces the negative effects of salt stress in chickpea.

    PubMed

    Brígido, Clarisse; Nascimento, Francisco X; Duan, Jin; Glick, Bernard R; Oliveira, Solange

    2013-12-01

    Our goal was to study the symbiotic performance of two Mesorhizobium ciceri strains, transformed with an exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase gene (acdS), in chickpea plants under salinity stress. The EE-7 (salt-sensitive) and G-55 (salt-tolerant) M. ciceri strains were transformed with an acdS gene present on plasmid pRKACC. Salinity significantly reduced the overall growth of plants inoculated with either wild-type strains. Although the growth of plants inoculated with either salt-sensitive or salt-tolerant strain was reduced under salinity, the salt-tolerant strain showed a higher ability to nodulate chickpea under salt stress compared with the salt-sensitive strain. The shoot dry weight was significantly higher in plants inoculated with the acdS-transformed salt-sensitive strain compared with the plants inoculated with the native strain in the presence of salt. The negative effects of salt stress were also reduced in nodulation when using acdS-transformed strains in comparison with the wild-type strains. Interestingly, by expressing the exogenous acdS gene, the salt-sensitive strain was able to induce nodules in the same extent as the salt-tolerant strain. Although preliminary, these results suggest that genetic modification of a Mesorhizobium strain can improve its symbiotic performance under salt stress and indicate that ACC deaminase can play an important role in facilitating plant-rhizobium interaction under salinity conditions.

  20. Gremlin-1 Overexpression in Mouse Lung Reduces Silica-Induced Lymphocyte Recruitment - A Link to Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis through Negative Correlation with CXCL10 Chemokine.

    PubMed

    Koli, Katri; Sutinen, Eva; Rönty, Mikko; Rantakari, Pia; Fortino, Vittorio; Pulkkinen, Ville; Greco, Dario; Sipilä, Petra; Myllärniemi, Marjukka

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by activation and injury of epithelial cells, the accumulation of connective tissue and changes in the inflammatory microenvironment. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibitor protein gremlin-1 is associated with the progression of fibrosis both in human and mouse lung. We generated a transgenic mouse model expressing gremlin-1 in type II lung epithelial cells using the surfactant protein C (SPC) promoter and the Cre-LoxP system. Gremlin-1 protein expression was detected specifically in the lung after birth and did not result in any signs of respiratory insufficiency. Exposure to silicon dioxide resulted in reduced amounts of lymphocyte aggregates in transgenic lungs while no alteration in the fibrotic response was observed. Microarray gene expression profiling and analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytokines indicated a reduced lymphocytic response and a downregulation of interferon-induced gene program. Consistent with reduced Th1 response, there was a downregulation of the mRNA and protein expression of the anti-fibrotic chemokine CXCL10, which has been linked to IPF. In human IPF patient samples we also established a strong negative correlation in the mRNA expression levels of gremlin-1 and CXCL10. Our results suggest that in addition to regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk during tissue injury, gremlin-1 modulates inflammatory cell recruitment and anti-fibrotic chemokine production in the lung. PMID:27428020

  1. Evaluation of a national programme to reduce inappropriate use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections: effects on consumer awareness, beliefs, attitudes and behaviour in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wutzke, Sonia E; Artist, Margaret A; Kehoe, Linda A; Fletcher, Miriam; Mackson, Judith M; Weekes, Lynn M

    2007-03-01

    The over-use of antibiotics, in particular, inappropriate use to treat upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), is a global public health concern. In an attempt to reduce inappropriate use of antibiotics for URTIs, and, in particular, to modify patient misconceptions about the effectiveness of antibiotics for URTIs, Australia's National Prescribing Service Ltd (NPS) has undertaken a comprehensive, multistrategic programme for health professionals and the community. Targeted strategies for the community, via the NPS common colds community campaign, commenced in 2000 and have been repeated annually during the winter months. Community strategies were closely integrated, using the same tagline, key messages and visual images, and were delivered in numerous settings including general practice, community pharmacy, child-care centres and community groups. Strategies included written information via newsletters and brochures, mass media activity using billboards, television, radio and magazines and small grants to promote local community education. The evaluation used multiple methods and data sources to measure process, impact and outcomes. Consistent with intervention messages, the integrated nationwide prescriber and consumer programme is associated with modest but consistent positive changes in consumer awareness, beliefs, attitudes and behaviour to the appropriate use of antibiotics for URTIs. These positive changes among the community are corroborated by a national decline in total antibiotic prescriptions dispensed in the community (from 23.08 million prescriptions in 1998-99 to 21.44 million in 2001-02) and, specifically, by a decline among the nine antibiotics commonly used for URTI such that by 2003 nationally 216,000 fewer prescriptions for URTI are written each year by general practitioners.

  2. Knowledge of pathologically versus clinically negative lymph nodes is associated with reduced use of radioactive iodine post-thyroidectomy for low-risk papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Ruel, Ewa; Thomas, Samantha; Dinan, Michaela A; Perkins, Jennifer M; Roman, Sanziana A; Sosa, Julie Ann

    2016-06-01

    Cervical lymph node metastases are common in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Clinically negative lymph nodes confer uncertainty about true lymph node status, potentially prompting empiric postoperative radioactive iodine (RAI) administration even in low-risk patients. We examined the association of clinically (cN0) versus pathologically negative (pN0) lymph nodes with utilization of RAI for low-risk PTC. Using the National Cancer Database 1998-2011, adults with PTC who underwent total thyroidectomy for Stage I/II tumors 1-4 cm were evaluated for receipt of RAI based on cN0 versus pN0 status. Cut-point analysis was conducted to determine the number of pN0 nodes associated with the greatest decrease in the odds of receipt of RAI. Survival models and multivariate analyses predicting RAI use were conducted separately for all patients and patients <45 years. 64,980 patients met study criteria; 39,778 (61.2 %) were cN0 versus 25,202 (38.8 %) pN0. Patients with pN0 nodes were more likely to have negative surgical margins and multifocal disease (all p < 0.001). The mean negative nodes reported in surgical pathology specimens was 4; ≥5 pathologically negative lymph nodes provided the best cut-point associated with reduced RAI administration (OR 0.91, CI 0.85-0.97). After multivariable adjustment, pN0 patients with ≥5 nodes examined were less likely to receive RAI compared to cN0 patients across all ages (OR 0.89, p < 0.001) and for patients aged <45 years (0R 0.86, p = 0.001). Patients with <5 pN0 nodes did not differ in RAI use compared to cN0 controls. Unadjusted survival was improved for pN0 versus cN0 patients across all ages (p < 0.001), but not for patients <45 years (p = 0.11); adjusted survival for all ages did not differ (p = 0.13). Pathological confirmation of negative lymph nodes in patients with PTC appears to influence the decision to administer postoperative RAI if ≥5 negative lymph nodes are removed. It is possible that fewer excised

  3. Attitudes towards the Human Genome Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahroudi, Julie; Shaw, Geraldine

    Attitudes concerning the Human Genome Project were reported by faculty (N=40) and students (N=66) from a liberal arts college. Positive attitudes toward the project involved privacy, insurance and health, economic purposes, reproductive purposes, genetic counseling, religion and overall opinions. Negative attitudes were expressed regarding…

  4. Role of negative emotion in communication about CO2 risks.

    PubMed

    Meijnders, A L; Midden, C J; Wilke, H A

    2001-10-01

    This article describes how the effectiveness of risk communication is determined by the interaction between emotional and informative elements. An experiment is described that examined the role of negative emotion in communication about CO2 risks. This experiment was based on the elaboration likelihood model and the related heuristic systematic model of attitude formation. The results indicated that inducing fear of CO2 risks leads to systematic processing of information about energy conservation as a risk-reducing strategy. In turn, this results in more favorable attitudes toward energy conservation if strong arguments are provided. Individual differences in concern seem to have similar effects. PMID:11798129

  5. Demographic group differences in adolescents' time attitudes.

    PubMed

    Andretta, James R; Worrell, Frank C; Mello, Zena R; Dixson, Dante D; Baik, Sharon H

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African Americans and Asian Americans reported higher scores for negative time attitudes and lower scores for positive time attitudes than European Americans and Latinos, with medium sizes. Adolescents in the low socioeconomic status group reported a less favorable evaluation of their past than middle and high SES peers, but there were no meaningful differences in time attitudes by gender. Findings indicate that middle SES adolescents, high school juniors and seniors, Latinos, and European Americans had higher representation in positive time attitude clusters (i.e., Positives and Balanced) than high SES adolescents, high school freshmen and sophomores, and African Americans.

  6. What Does "Positive" Attitude Really Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Martino, Pietro; Zan, Rosetta

    2003-01-01

    In this communication we analyze a dichotomy that pervades research on attitude in mathematics education: the classification of attitude as positive/negative. After highlighting the ambiguity of the term "positive", and some problems related to it, we suggest that the positive/negative dichotomy is too simplistic to take into account the deep…

  7. Attitudes toward Children with Severe Burns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holaday, Margot; Wolfson, Aaron

    1997-01-01

    Examined reasons for negative attitudes toward children with severe burns by surveying 226 counseling and rehabilitation students. Results suggest that pessimistic expectations and negative attitudes built on conjecture are due to four sources: social standards of beauty, emotionality of the observer, reminders of personal vulnerability, and…

  8. Creating Positive Attitudes towards English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elyildirim, Selma; Ashton, Sally

    2006-01-01

    The author reviews research on the connections between attitudes and language learning, and between attitudes and motivation. The article suggests that language learners' motivation and attitudes can influence learning outcomes, and that effective teaching can change negative attitudes. It describes a classroom action research project that was…

  9. Final Technical Report HFC Concrete: A Low­Energy, Carbon-Dioxide­Negative Solution for reducing Industrial Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Larry McCandlish, Principal Investigator; Dr. Richard Riman, Co-Principal Investigator

    2012-05-14

    Solidia/CCSM received funding for further research and development of its Low Temperature Solidification Process (LTS), which is used to create hydrate-free concrete (HFC). LTS/HFC is a technology/materials platform that offers wide applicability in the built infrastructure. Most importantly, it provides a means of making concrete without Portland cement. Cement and concrete production is a major consumer of energy and source of industrial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The primary goal of this project was to develop and commercialize a novel material, HFC, which by replacing traditional concrete and cement, reduces both energy use and GHG emissions in the built infrastructure. Traditional concrete uses Portland Cement (PC) as a binder. PC production involves calcination of limestone at {approx}1450 C, which releases significant amounts of CO{sub 2} gas to the atmosphere and consumes a large amount of energy due to the high temperature required. In contrast, HFC is a carbonate-based hydrate-free concrete (HFC) that consumes CO{sub 2} gas in its production. HFC is made by reaction of silicate minerals with CO{sub 2} at temperatures below 100 C, more than an order-of-magnitude below the temperature required to make PC. Because of this significant difference in temperature, it is estimated that we will be able to reduce energy use in the cement and concrete industry by up to 30 trillion Btu by 2020. Because of the insulating properties of HFC, we believe we will also be able to significantly reduce energy use in the Building sector, though the extent of this saving is not yet quantified. It is estimated that production of a tonne of PC-based concrete requires about 6.2 million Btu of energy and produces over 1 tonne of CO{sub 2} emissions (Choate, 2003). These can be reduced to 1.9 million Btu and 0.025 tonnes of CO{sub 2} emissions per tonne of HFC (with overall CO{sub 2}-negativity possible by increasing carbonation yield). In this way, by replacing PC

  10. Aortic distensibility is reduced during intense lower body negative pressure and is related to low frequency power of systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Aaron A; Bredin, Shannon S D; Cote, Anita T; Drury, C Taylor; Warburton, Darren E R

    2013-03-01

    As sympathetic activity approximately doubles during intense lower body negative pressure (LBNP) of -60 mmHg or greater, we examined the relationship between surrogate markers of sympathetic activation and central arterial distensibility during severe LBNP. Eight participants were exposed to progressive 8-min stages of LBNP of increasing intensity (-20, -40, -60, and -80 mmHg), while recording carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cPWV), stroke volume (SV), heart rate, and beat-by-beat blood pressure. The spectral power of low frequency oscillations in SBP (SBP(LF)) was used as a surrogate indicator of sympathetically modulated vasomotor modulation. Total arterial compliance (C) was calculated as C = SV/pulse pressure. Both cPWV and C were compared between baseline, 50 % of the maximally tolerated LBNP stage (LBNP(50)), and the maximum fully tolerated stage of LBNP (LBNP(max)). No change in mean arterial pressure (MAP) occurred over LBNP. An increase in cPWV (6.5 ± 2.2; 7.2 ± 1.4; 9.0 ± 2.5 m/s; P = 0.004) occurred during LBNP(max). Over progressive LBNP, SBP(LF) increased (8.5 ± 4.6; 9.3 ± 5.8; 16.1 ± 12.9 mmHg(2); P = 0.04) and C decreased significantly (18.3 ± 6.8; 14.3 ± 4.1; 11.6 ± 4.8 ml/mmHg × 10; P = 0.03). The mean correlation (r) between cPWV and SBP(LF) was 0.9 ± 0.03 (95 % CI 0.79-0.99). Severe LBNP increased central stiffness and reduced total arterial compliance. It appears that increased sympathetic vasomotor tone during LBNP is associated with reduced aortic distensibility in the absence of changes in MAP.

  11. An Audit-Based, Infectious Disease Specialist-Guided Antimicrobial Stewardship Program Profoundly Reduced Antibiotic Use Without Negatively Affecting Patient Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Nilholm, Hannah; Holmstrand, Linnea; Ahl, Jonas; Månsson, Fredrik; Odenholt, Inga; Tham, Johan; Melander, Eva; Resman, Fredrik

    2015-04-01

    Background.  Antimicrobial stewardship programs are increasingly implemented in hospital care. They aim to simultaneously optimize outcomes for individual patients with infections and reduce financial and health-associated costs of overuse of antibiotics. Few studies have examined the effects of antimicrobial stewardship programs in settings with low proportions of antimicrobial resistance, such as in Sweden. Methods.  An antimicrobial stewardship program was introduced during 5 months of 2013 in a department of internal medicine in southern Sweden. The intervention consisted of audits twice weekly on all patients given antibiotic treatment. The intervention period was compared with a historical control consisting of patients treated with antibiotics in the same wards in 2012. Studied outcome variables included 28-day mortality and readmission, length of hospital stay, and use of antibiotics. Results.  A reduction of 27% in total antibiotic use (2387 days of any antibiotic) was observed in the intervention period compared with the control period. The reduction was due to fewer patients started on antibiotics as well as to significantly shorter durations of antibiotic courses (P < .001). An earlier switch to oral therapy and a specific reduction in use of third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones was also evident. Mortality, total readmissions, and lengths of stay in hospital were unchanged compared with the control period, whereas readmissions due to a nonresolved infection were fewer during the intervention of 2013. Conclusions.  This study demonstrates that an infectious disease specialist-guided antimicrobial stewardship program can profoundly reduce antibiotic use in a low-resistance setting with no negative effect on patient outcome.

  12. Extensive protein hydrolysate formula effectively reduces regurgitation in infants with positive and negative challenge tests for cow’s milk allergy

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, Y; De Greef, E

    2014-01-01

    Aim Cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA) is treated using an elimination diet with an extensive protein hydrolysate. We explored whether a thickened or nonthickened version was best for infants with suspected CMPA, which commonly causes regurgitation/vomiting. Methods Diagnosis of CMPA was based on a positive challenge test. We compared the efficacy of two casein extensive hydrolysates (eCH), a nonthickened version (NT-eCH) and a thickened version (T-eCH), using a symptom-based score covering regurgitation, crying, stool consistency, eczema, urticarial and respiratory symptoms. Results A challenge was performed in 52/72 infants with suspected CMPA and was positive in 65.4%. All confirmed CMPA cases tolerated eCH. The symptom-based score decreased significantly in all infants within a month, and the highest reduction was in those with confirmed CMPA. Regurgitation was reduced in all infants (6.4 ± 3.2–2.8 ± 2.9, p < 0.001), but fell more with the T-eCH (−4.2 ± 3.2 regurgitations/day vs. −3.0 ± 4.5, ns), especially in infants with a negative challenge (−3.9 ± 4.0 vs. −1.9 ± 3.4, ns). Conclusion eCH fulfilled the criteria for a hypoallergenic formula, and the NT-eCH and T-eCH formulas both reduced CMPA symptoms. The symptom-based score is useful for evaluating how effective dietary treatments are for CMPA. PMID:24575806

  13. Health workers' attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services for unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adolescents in developing countries face a range of sexual and reproductive health problems. Lack of health care service for reproductive health or difficulty in accessing them are among them. In this study we aimed to examine health care workers' attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services to unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia. Methods We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional survey among 423 health care service providers working in eastern Ethiopia in 2010. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and logistic regression were performed to drive proportions and associations. Results The majority of health workers had positive attitudes. However, nearly one third (30%) of health care workers had negative attitudes toward providing RH services to unmarried adolescents. Close to half (46.5%) of the respondents had unfavorable responses toward providing family planning to unmarried adolescents. About 13% of health workers agreed to setting up penal rules and regulations against adolescents that practice pre-marital sexual intercourse. The multivariate analysis indicated that being married (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.44 - 3.06), lower education level (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.04 - 1.99), being a health extension worker (OR 2.49; 95% CI 1.43 - 4.35), lack of training on reproductive health services (OR 5.27; 95% CI 1.51 - 5.89) to be significantly associated with negative attitudes toward provision of sexual and reproductive services to adolescents. Conclusions The majority of the health workers had generally positive attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health to adolescents. However, a minority has displayed negatives attitudes. Such negative attitudes will be barriers to service utilization by adolescents and hampers the efforts to reduce sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies among unmarried adolescents. We therefore call for a targeted effort toward alleviating negative

  14. Relationships Among Premenstrual Symptom Reports, Menstrual Attitudes, and Mindfulness

    PubMed Central

    Lustyk, M. Kathleen B.; Gerrish, Winslow G.; Douglas, Haley; Bowen, Sarah; Marlatt, G. Alan

    2016-01-01

    The physical and affective symptoms of a broad range of conditions are improved following mindfulness-based practices. One set of symptoms that has yet to be explored through the lens of mindfulness, however, is that associated with the premenstruum. Also, given the relationships among negative attitudes towards menstruation and amplified symptom reporting, it is reasonable to expect that mindfulness qualities cultivated through practices aimed at dispelling negative anticipatory and judgmental thinking will moderate these relationships. Thus, in this study we examined interrelationships among premenstrual symptom severity reports (PMSR), menstrual attitudes, and mindfulness qualities in a sample of 127 women (age range 18–26 years). Results revealed several statistically significant positive relationships between menstrual attitudes and PMSR. Also, higher scores on measures of mindfulness were significantly associated with lower PMSR. Moderating effects revealed that mindfulness significantly buffered the relationships between menstrual attitudes and PMSR, specifically between: anticipation of menses onset and PMSR as well as anticipation of menses onset and premenstrual water retention. These results may offer the first empirical evidence of relationships among menstrual attitudes, PMSR, and mindfulness qualities. Results from this study align with the body of research showing that mindfulness is predictive of improved symptomatology and well-being across varied conditions. We conclude with discussion supporting the development of a mindfulness-based intervention aimed at reducing symptom severity in premenstrual symptom sufferers. PMID:27162560

  15. Attitude towards psychiatry among medical students.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ashish

    2012-10-01

    The proportion of medical graduates opting for psychiatry in career has been observed to be distinctly less compared to those choosing other specialties. The study was undertaken to find out the attitudes of newly entrant medical students towards psychiatry in comparison to other specialties. Sixty-two students of first year MBBS were administered a questionnaire to assess their attitudes towards various specialties. Only 1 student (1.5%) opted for psychiatry as a career choice, another 2 students (3%) considered it as a strong possibility, 71.5% negated psychiatry as a career choice. Students rated psychiatry significantly lower than other specialties in regards to financially rewarding, enjoyable and satisfying work, intellectually challenging, scientific basis, prestige among others, lifestyle. Psychiatry was also rated as poor on prospects of having a bright and interesting future. The present study suggests that new entrants in medical college harbour a negative attitude towards psychiatry, which has not changed over the last three to four decades. A conscious effort in trying to make psychiatry an active and interesting component of medical education and an improved portrayal of this field in society thereby reducing stigma associated with it would be of immense importance in generating interest in this field among newly entrant medical students. PMID:23738403

  16. Potentiated clinoptilolite: artificially enhanced aluminosilicate reduces symptoms associated with endoscopically negative gastroesophageal reflux disease and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Potgieter, Wilna; Samuels, Caroline Selma; Snyman, Jacques Renè

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The cation exchanger, a potentiated clinoptilolite (Absorbatox™ 2.4D), is a synthetically enhanced aluminosilicate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible benefits of a potentiated clinoptilolite as a gastroprotective agent in reducing the severity of clinical symptoms and signs associated with 1) endoscopically negative gastroesophageal reflux disease (ENGORD) and 2) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) medication. Methods and patients Two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot studies, the ENGORD and NSAID studies, were conducted. After initial negative gastroscopy, a total of 25 patients suffering from ENGORD were randomized to receive either placebo capsules or 750 mg Absorbatox twice daily for 14 days. The NSAID study recruited 23 healthy patients who received orally either 1,500 mg Absorbatox or placebo three times daily, plus 500 mg naproxen twice daily. Patients underwent gastroscopic evaluation of their stomach linings prior to and on day 14 of the study. Gastric biopsies were obtained and evaluated via the upgraded Sydney system, whereas visible gastric events and status of the gastric mucosa were evaluated via a 0–3 rating scale. During both studies, patients recorded gastric symptoms in a daily symptom diary. Results In the ENGORD study, patients who received the potentiated clinoptilolite reported a significant reduction (P≤0.05) in severity of symptoms including reduction in heartburn (44%), discomfort (54%), and pain (56%). Symptom-free days improved by 41% compared to the group who received placebo (not significant). This was over and above the benefits seen with the proton pump inhibitor. In the NSAID study, the reduction in gastric symptom severity was echoed in the group who received the potentiated clinoptilolite. Treatment with the potentiated clinoptilolite resulted in significant prevention (P≤0.05) of mucosal erosion severity as graded by the gastroenterologist. Conclusion Absorbatox is a

  17. [Attitudes toward psychotherapy in the general population].

    PubMed

    Petrowski, Katja; Hessel, Aike; Körner, Annett; Weidner, Kerstin; Brähler, Elmar; Hinz, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Attitudes towards psychotherapy are important predictors for the acceptance and usage of psychotherapy. A survey examined attitudes towards psychotherapy in a sample representative of the German population including 2089 persons between 14 to 92 years of age. Two thirds of the sample indicated a positive attitude towards psychotherapy. Men as well as individuals with lower education reported a more negative attitude towards psychotherapy than women and persons with higher educational level. Education had a medium effect size (d=0.44). Individuals with somatoform symptoms did not indicate a more negative attitude towards psychotherapy than the general population. Even though the majority of the population has a more positive attitude towards psychotherapy, this positive attitude does not apply for all groups of the -population.

  18. The complexity and ambivalence of immigration attitudes: ambivalent stereotypes predict conflicting attitudes toward immigration policies.

    PubMed

    Reyna, Christine; Dobria, Ovidiu; Wetherell, Geoffrey

    2013-07-01

    Americans' conflicted attitudes toward immigrants and immigration has stymied immigration reform for decades. In this article, we explore the nuanced nature of stereotypes about immigrants and how they relate to ambivalent attitudes toward immigrant groups and the disparate array of immigration policies that affect them. Using item response theory and multiple regression analysis, we identified and related stereotypes of different immigrant groups to group-based and policy attitudes. Results demonstrate that ambivalent stereotypes mapped onto ambivalent group-based and immigration policy attitudes. Specifically, stereotypes that portray groups in positive or sympathetic ways predicted positive attitudes toward the group and more supportive attitudes toward policies that facilitate their immigration to the United States. Conversely, negative qualities predicted negative attitudes toward the same group and support for policies that prevent the group from immigrating. Results are discussed in light of current theory related to stereotype content, complementarity of stereotypes, and broader implications for immigration attitudes and policy.

  19. Isolation and characterization of a new gram-negative, acetone-degrading, nitrate-reducing bacterium from soil, Paracoccus solventivorans sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Siller, H; Rainey, F A; Stackebrandt, E; Winter, J

    1996-10-01

    An acetone-degrading, nitrate-reducing, coccoid to rod-shaped bacterium, strain L1, was isolated from soil on the site of a natural gas company. Cells of the logarithmic growth phase reacted gram positive, while those of the stationary growth phase were gram negative. Single organisms were 0.4 to 0.5 by 0.9 to 1.5 microns in size, nonmotile, and non-spore forming and had poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate inclusions. The doubling time of strain L1 on acetone-CO2-nitrate at the optimal pH of 7 to 8 and the optimal temperature of 30 to 37 degrees C was 12 h. More than 0.2% NaCl or 10 mM thiosulfate inhibited growth. For oxygen or nitrate respiration, acetone and a few organic chemicals were utilized as carbon sources whereas many others could not be used (for details, see Results). Bicarbonate (or CO2) was essential for growth on acetone but not for growth on acetoacetate. The growth yields for acetone-CO2 and acetoacetate were 28.3 and 27.3 g/mol, respectively. With acetone as the carbon source, poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate accounted for up to 40% of the cellular dry weight. The DNA of strain L1 had a G + C content of 68.5 mol% (as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography of nucleotides) or 70 mol% (as determined by the TM method). The sequence of the gene coding for the 16S rRNA led to the classification of strain L1 in the paracoccus group of the alpha subclass of the Proteobacteria. The new isolate is named Paracoccus solventivorans sp. nov. DSM 6637. PMID:8863446

  20. Are Jamaicans really that stigmatizing? A comparison of mental health help-seeking attitudes.

    PubMed

    Jackson Williams, D

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that there is a high level of stigma surrounding mental illness in the English-speaking Caribbean, limited knowledge about aetiology and scepticism about the effectiveness of treatment. Further, in spite of experiencing symptoms of distress, a growing body of literature has suggested that Caribbean nationals hold negative attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. It has been suggested that these attitudes may be even more negative than for other populations. This paper presents the results of two studies which sought to examine this assumption. It was hypothesized that Jamaicans would hold more negative attitudes toward seeking professional mental health services than samples from other populations. Data regarding attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help were collected from 339 Jamaican adolescents. In study 1, a review of the literature was conducted. Three published studies that utilized the same measure of help-seeking attitudes, had a sample similar in age, and published their sample size, means and standard deviations, which were compared to the Jamaican sample. In study 2, data from the Jamaican sample were compared to a sample of African-American adolescents (n = 81). Results did not support the hypothesis. Jamaicans were generally found to be either similar or more positive in their attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. These encouraging results are discussed. Suggestions for improving education and reducing mental health stigma are presented.

  1. Factors affecting attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Sahlstrom, Kimberly J; Jeglic, Elizabeth L

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and factors influencing those attitudes. Additionally, the influences of perpetrator characteristics such as age, gender, and ethnicity on societal attitudes towards intervention requirements were also investigated. Overall, attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders and their treatment amenability were negative. No differences in attitudes toward juvenile sex offenders were found between those who had been victims of sexual abuse and those that had not. Sex offenses committed by juvenile female sex offenders were viewed to be more serious and require more intervention than those committed by juvenile male sex offenders. PMID:19042245

  2. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy With Instillation (NPWTi) Better Reduces Post-debridement Bioburden in Chronically Infected Lower Extremity Wounds Than NPWT Alone

    PubMed Central

    Goss, S.G.; Schwartz, J.A.; Facchin, F.; Avdagic, E.; Gendics, C.; Lantis, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective An overabundance of bacteria in the chronic wound plays a significant role in the decreased ability for primary closure. One means of decreasing the bioburden in a wound is to operatively debride the wound for wound bed optimization prior to application of other therapy, such as Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT). We undertook a prospective pilot study to assess the efficacy of wound bed preparation for a standard algorithm (sharp surgical debridement followed by NPWT) versus one employing sharp surgical debridement followed by Negative Pressure Wound Therapy with Instillation (NPWTi). Methods Thirteen patients, corresponding to 16 chronic lower leg and foot wounds were taken to the operating room for debridement. The patients were sequentially enrolled in 2 treatment groups: the first receiving treatment with operative debridement followed by 1 week of NPWT with the instillation of quarter strength bleach solution; the other receiving a standard algorithm consisting of operative debridement and 1 week of NPWT. Quantitative cultures were taken pre-operatively after sterile preparation and draping of the wound site (POD # 0, pre-op), post-operatively once debridement was completed (POD # 0, post-op), and on post-operative day 7 after operative debridement (POD # 7, post-op). Results After operative debridement (post-operative day 0) there was a mean of 3 (±1) types of bacteria per wound. The mean CFU/gram tissue culture was statistically greater – 3.7 × 106 (±4 × 106) in the NPWTi group, while in the standard group (NPWT) the mean was 1.8 × 106 (±2.36 × 106) CFU/gram tissue culture (p = 0.016); at the end of therapy there was no statistical difference between the two groups (p = 0.44). Wounds treated with NPWTi had a mean of 2.6 × 105 (±3 × 105) CFU/gram of tissue culture while wounds treated with NPWT had a mean of 2.79 × 106 (±3.18 × 106) CFU/gram of tissue culture (p = 0.43). The mean absolute reduction in

  3. The Sociocultural Context of Mexican-Origin Pregnant Adolescents' Attitudes Toward Teen Pregnancy and Links to Future Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Killoren, Sarah E; Zeiders, Katharine H; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2016-05-01

    Given the negative developmental risks associated with adolescent motherhood, it is important to examine the sociocultural context of adolescent mothers' lives to identify those most at risk for poor outcomes. Our goals were to identify profiles of Mexican-origin pregnant adolescents' cultural orientations and their attitudes toward teen pregnancy, and to investigate how these profiles were linked to adolescents' pregnancy intentions, family resources, and short-term family, educational, and parenting outcomes. With a sample of 205 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers, we identified three profiles based on cultural orientations and attitudes toward teen pregnancy: Bicultural-Moderate Attitudes, Acculturated-Moderate Attitudes, and Enculturated-Low Attitudes. The results indicated that enculturated pregnant adolescents had the least favorable attitudes toward teen pregnancy, and the lowest levels of family income, pregnancy intentions, pregnancy support, and educational expectations compared to acculturated and bicultural pregnant adolescents; acculturated adolescents (with the highest family income and high levels of pregnancy support) had the highest levels of parenting efficacy 10 months postpartum. Our findings suggest that enculturated adolescent mothers (with less positive attitudes toward teen pregnancy) may benefit from educational support programs and enculturated and bicultural adolescent mothers (with moderately positive attitudes toward teen pregnancy) may benefit from programs to increase parenting efficacy. Such targeted interventions may, in turn, reduce the likelihood of adolescent mothers experiencing negative educational and parenting outcomes.

  4. Desulfoprunum benzoelyticum gen. nov., sp. nov., a Gram-stain-negative, benzoate-degrading, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Junghare, Madan; Schink, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    A strictly anaerobic, mesophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain KoBa311(T), isolated from the wastewater treatment plant at Konstanz, Germany, was characterized phenotypically and phylogenetically. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, oval to short rods, 3-5 µm long and 0.8-1.0 µm wide with rounded ends, dividing by binary fission and occurring singly or in pairs. The strain grew optimally in freshwater medium and the optimum temperature was 30 °C. Strain KoBa311(T) showed optimum growth at pH 7.3-7.6. Organic electron donors were oxidized completely to carbon dioxide concomitant with sulfate reduction to sulfide. At excess substrate supply, substrates were oxidized incompletely and acetate (mainly) and/or propionate accumulated. The strain utilized short-chain fatty acids, alcohols (except methanol) and benzoate. Sulfate and DMSO were used as terminal electron acceptors for growth. The genomic DNA G+C content was 52.3 mol% and the respiratory quinone was menaquinone MK-5 (V-H2). The major fatty acids were C16:0, C16:1ω7c/ω6c and C18:1ω7c. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed strain KoBa311(T) within the family Desulfobulbaceae in the class Deltaproteobacteria. Its closest related bacterial species on the basis of the distance matrix were Desulfobacterium catecholicum DSM 3882(T) (93.0% similarity), Desulfocapsa thiozymogenes (93.1%), Desulforhopalus singaporensis (92.9%), Desulfopila aestuarii (92.4%), Desulfopila inferna JS_SRB250Lac(T) (92.3%) and Desulfofustis glycolicus (92.3%). On the basis of phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain KoBa311(T) was distinct from any related type species. Therefore, strain KoBa311(T) is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Desulfoprunum benzoelyticum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Desulfoprunum benzoelyticum is KoBa311(T) ( =DSM 28570(T) =KCTC 15441(T)). PMID:25278560

  5. Stereotype threat among older employees: relationship with job attitudes and turnover intentions.

    PubMed

    von Hippel, Courtney; Kalokerinos, Elise K; Henry, Julie D

    2013-03-01

    Stereotype threat, or the belief that one may be the target of demeaning stereotypes, leads to acute performance decrements and reduced psychological well-being. The current research examined stereotype threat among older employees, a group that is the target of many negative stereotypes. Study 1 surveyed older workers in two different organizations regarding their experiences of stereotype threat, their job attitudes and work mental health, and their intentions to resign or retire. Across both samples, feelings of stereotype threat were related to more negative job attitudes and poorer work mental health. In turn, these negative job attitudes were associated with intentions to resign and (possibly) retire. In Study 2, younger and older employees were surveyed. The results indicated that only for older employees were feelings of stereotype threat negatively related to job attitudes, work mental health, and intentions to resign. The implications of these findings for understanding job attitudes and intentions among older workers are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Phonetic Measures of Reduced Tongue Movement Correlate with Negative Symptom Severity in Hospitalized Patients with First-Episode Schizophrenia-Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Covington, Michael A.; Lunden, S.L. Anya; Cristofaro, Sarah L.; Wan, Claire Ramsay; Bailey, C. Thomas; Broussard, Beth; Fogarty, Robert; Johnson, Stephanie; Zhang, Shayi; Compton, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Aprosody, or flattened speech intonation, is a recognized negative symptom of schizophrenia, though it has rarely been studied from a linguistic/phonological perspective. To bring the latest advances in computational linguistics to the phenomenology of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, a clinical first-episode psychosis research team joined with a phonetics/computational linguistics team to conduct a preliminary, proof-of-concept study. Methods Video recordings from a semi-structured clinical research interview were available from 47 first-episode psychosis patients. Audio tracks of the video recordings were extracted, and after review of quality, 25 recordings were available for phonetic analysis. These files were de-noised and a trained phonologist extracted a 1-minute sample of each patient’s speech. WaveSurfer 1.8.5 was used to create, from each speech sample, a file of formant values (F0, F1, F2, where F0 is the fundamental frequency and F1 and F2 are resonance bands indicating the moment-by-moment shape of the oral cavity). Variability in these phonetic indices was correlated with severity of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom scores using Pearson correlations. Results A measure of variability of tongue front-to-back position—the standard deviation of F2—was statistically significantly correlated with the severity of negative symptoms (r=−0.446, p=0.03). Conclusion This study demonstrates a statistically significant and meaningful correlation between negative symptom severity and phonetically measured reductions in tongue movements during speech in a sample of first-episode patients just initiating treatment. Further studies of negative symptoms, applying computational linguistics methods, are warranted. PMID:23102940

  7. Cognitive Predictors of Children's Attitudes toward Alcohol and Cocaine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Lisa J.; Sigelman, Carol K.; Brewster, Albert B.; Leach, Diane B.; Mack, Keisha L.; Rinehart, Cheryl S.; Sorongon, Alberto G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines age differences in, and associations among, children's attitudes and intentions regarding alcohol and cocaine use and possible cognitive underpinnings of such orientations. Attitudes and intentions were negative and became less negative with age for alcohol, but more negative with age for cocaine. The cognitive predictors contributed to…

  8. Retraining Attitudes and Stereotypes to Affect Motivation and Cognitive Capacity under Stereotype Threat

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Chad E.; Schmader, Toni

    2010-01-01

    A series of experiments used a retraining paradigm to test the effects of attitudes and stereotypes on individuals’ motivation and processing capacity in stereotype threatening contexts. Women trained to have a more positive math attitude exhibited increased math motivation (Study 1). This effect was not observed for men but was magnified among women when negative stereotypes were either primed subtly (Study 2) or indirectly reinforced (Study 3). Although attitudes had no effect on working memory capacity, women retrained to associate their gender with being good at math exhibited increased working memory capacity (Studies 3 and 4) that in turn mediated increased math performance (Study 4) in a stereotype threatening context. Results suggest that although positive attitudes can motivate stigmatized individuals to engage with threatening domains, stereotypes need to be retrained to give them the cognitive capacity critical for success. Implications for interventions to reduce stereotype threat are discussed. PMID:20822288

  9. Retraining attitudes and stereotypes to affect motivation and cognitive capacity under stereotype threat.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Chad E; Schmader, Toni

    2010-11-01

    In a series of experiments, a retraining paradigm was used to test the effects of attitudes and stereotypes on individuals' motivation and cognitive capacity in stereotype-threatening contexts. Women trained to have a more positive math attitude exhibited increased math motivation (Study 1). This effect was not observed for men but was magnified among women when negative stereotypes were either primed subtly (Study 2) or indirectly reinforced (Study 3). Although attitudes had no effect on working memory capacity, women retrained to associate their gender with being good at math exhibited increased working memory capacity (Studies 3 and 4), which in turn mediated increased math performance (Study 4) in a stereotype-threatening context. Results suggest that although positive attitudes can motivate stigmatized individuals to engage with threatening domains, stereotypes need to be retrained to give them the cognitive capacity critical for success. Implications for interventions to reduce stereotype threat are discussed.

  10. Attitudes toward electroconvulsive therapy in Romanian psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Gazdag, Gábor; Zsargó, Eszter; Kerti, Katalin Margit; Grecu, Iosif Gábos

    2011-09-01

    Use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is influenced by the attitudes of the psychiatrists. The aim of this pilot survey was to assess the knowledge about and attitudes toward ECT in Romanian psychiatrists. Participants of a scientific meeting were requested to fill a 29-item questionnaire. Answers reflecting false concepts or negative attitudes toward ECT were more than 20% in 15 of 21 items, which highlights the urgent need to improve psychiatrists' education and training about ECT in Romania.

  11. Patient Deception: Nursing Students' Beliefs and Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Drew A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined nursing students' beliefs about indicators of deception and their attitudes toward patient deception. Fifty-eight participants from various nursing programs at a southwestern university completed a Detection of Deception Questionnaire and Attitudes Toward Patient Deception Scale. Findings indicated that nursing students have a number of inaccurate beliefs about deception and possess a number of negative attitudes toward patients who lie. Implications for nursing education are discussed.

  12. Patient Deception: Nursing Students' Beliefs and Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Drew A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined nursing students' beliefs about indicators of deception and their attitudes toward patient deception. Fifty-eight participants from various nursing programs at a southwestern university completed a Detection of Deception Questionnaire and Attitudes Toward Patient Deception Scale. Findings indicated that nursing students have a number of inaccurate beliefs about deception and possess a number of negative attitudes toward patients who lie. Implications for nursing education are discussed. PMID:25783815

  13. [Alcohol and alcoholism: attitudes of nursing students].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Divane; Bittencourt, Marina Nolli

    2013-01-01

    This is a descriptive exploratory study that aimed to verify nursing students' attitudes facing to the alcoholic drinks, alcoholism and alcoholics, according to their position in face of an attitudes scale items. For data collection, it was used the Scale of Attitudes to alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholic, applied to 144 nursing students. The results showed a tendency to negative attitudes of these students in face of alcoholism, alcoholic person and alcoholic drinks, since most participants were placed in category indifferent or disagree with the positive items, agreeing with negative scale items. We conclude that this trend of negative attitudes is connected to insufficient attention given to the subject during the nurses' education, being verified the need for greater importance to be given to this problem.

  14. Science Anxiety, Science Attitudes, and Constructivism: A Binational Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Fred B.; Kastrup, Helge; Udo, Maria; Hislop, Nelda; Shefner, Rachel; Mallow, Jeffry

    2013-08-01

    Students' attitudes and anxieties about science were measured by responses to two self-report questionnaires. The cohorts were Danish and American students at the upper secondary- and university-levels. Relationships between and among science attitudes, science anxiety, gender, and nationality were examined. Particular attention was paid to constructivist attitudes about science. These fell into at least three broad conceptual categories: Negativity of Science Toward the Individual, Subjective Construction of Knowledge, and Inherent Bias Against Women. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses revealed that these dimensions of constructivist attitudes were equally applicable and had the same meaning in both cultures. Gender differences in mean levels of constructivist attitudes were found; these varied across the two cultures. Constructivist beliefs were associated with science anxiety, but in different ways for females and males, and for Danes and Americans. In agreement with earlier studies, females in both the US and Danish cohorts were significantly more science anxious than males, and the gender differences for the Americans were larger than those for the Danes. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for reducing science anxiety by changing constructivist beliefs.

  15. Negatively-marked MCQ assessments that reward partial knowledge do not introduce gender bias yet increase student performance and satisfaction and reduce anxiety.

    PubMed

    Bond, A Elizabeth; Bodger, Owen; Skibinski, David O F; Jones, D Hugh; Restall, Colin J; Dudley, Edward; van Keulen, Geertje

    2013-01-01

    Multiple-choice question (MCQ) examinations are increasingly used as the assessment method of theoretical knowledge in large class-size modules in many life science degrees. MCQ-tests can be used to objectively measure factual knowledge, ability and high-level learning outcomes, but may also introduce gender bias in performance dependent on topic, instruction, scoring and difficulty. The 'Single Answer' (SA) test is often used in which students choose one correct answer, in which they are unable to demonstrate partial knowledge. Negatively marking eliminates the chance element of guessing but may be considered unfair. Elimination testing (ET) is an alternative form of MCQ, which discriminates between all levels of knowledge, while rewarding demonstration of partial knowledge. Comparisons of performance and gender bias in negatively marked SA and ET tests have not yet been performed in the life sciences. Our results show that life science students were significantly advantaged by answering the MCQ test in elimination format compared to single answer format under negative marking conditions by rewarding partial knowledge of topics. Importantly, we found no significant difference in performance between genders in either cohort for either MCQ test under negative marking conditions. Surveys showed that students generally preferred ET-style MCQ testing over SA-style testing. Students reported feeling more relaxed taking ET MCQ and more stressed when sitting SA tests, while disagreeing with being distracted by thinking about best tactics for scoring high. Students agreed ET testing improved their critical thinking skills. We conclude that appropriately-designed MCQ tests do not systematically discriminate between genders. We recommend careful consideration in choosing the type of MCQ test, and propose to apply negative scoring conditions to each test type to avoid the introduction of gender bias. The student experience could be improved through the incorporation of the

  16. Overcoming Graduate Students' Negative Perceptions of Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalayants, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Although there has been some attention in the literature to such issues as students' attitudes toward statistics, instructors are still constantly faced with the challenge to engage students; understand their perceptions, motivations, and interests; and deal with their reluctance and negative attitudes toward the field of statistics. The purpose…

  17. Library Automation: A Measure of Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molholt, Pat A.

    Findings of the study described in this report indicate that the attitudes of library school students toward library automation were not changed significantly by a semester of relevant coursework. It has been hypothesized that these students would have a somewhat negative attitude toward automation, but that through relevant course instruction…

  18. Attitudes toward Embodied Old Age among Swedes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberg, Peter; Tornstam, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Messages in the consumer culture are often youth oriented, aiming at the prevention of the bodily decay associated with biological aging. In gerontological discourses, this has been hypothesized to generate negative attitudes toward embodied aging and old age. Studies about general attitudes toward old age show that younger respondents have more…

  19. Negative and positive externalities in intergroup conflict: exposure to the opportunity to help the outgroup reduces the inclination to harm it.

    PubMed

    Weisel, Ori

    2015-01-01

    Outgroup hate, in the context of intergroup conflict, can be expressed by harming the outgroup, but also by denying it help. Previous work established that this distinction-whether the externality on the outgroup is negative or positive-has an important effect on the likelihood of outgroup hate emerging as a motivation for individual participation in intergroup conflict. The current work uses a within-subject design to examine the behavior of the same individuals in intergroup conflict with negative and positive externalities on the outgroup. Each participant made two choices, one for each type of externality, and the order was counter balanced. The main results are that (1) behavior is fairly consistent across negative and positive externalities, i.e., the tendency to display outgroup hate by harming the outgroup is correlated with the tendency to display outgroup hate by avoiding to help the outgroup; (2) People are reluctant to harm the outgroup after being exposed to the opportunity to help it; (3) Groupness-the degree to which people care about their group and its well-being-is related to outgroup hate only when participants encounter the opportunity to harm the outgroup first (before they encounter the opportunity to help it). In this setting the relationship between groupness and outgroup hate spilled over to the subsequent interaction, where it was possible to help the outgroup. When the opportunity to help the outgroup was encountered first, groupness was not related to outgroup hate.

  20. Clinical Data as an Adjunct to Ultrasound Reduces the False-Negative Malignancy Rate in BI-RADS 3 Breast Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, S.; Schoenenberger, C.-A.; Zanetti-Dällenbach, R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Ultrasound (US) is a well-established diagnostic procedure for breast examination. We investigated the malignancy rate in solid breast lesions according to their BI-RADS classification with a particular focus on false-negative BI-RADS 3 lesions. We examined whether patient history and clinical findings could provide additional information that would help determine further diagnostic steps in breast lesions. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study by exploring US BI-RADS in 1469 breast lesions of 1201 patients who underwent minimally invasive breast biopsy (MIBB) from January 2002 to December 2011. Results: The overall sensitivity and specificity of BI-RADS classification was 97.4% and 66.4%, respectively, with a positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 65% and 98%, respectively. In 506 BI-RADS 3 lesions, histology revealed 15 malignancies (2.4% malignancy rate), which corresponds to a false-negative rate (FNR) of 2.6%. Clinical evaluation and patient requests critically influenced the further diagnostic procedure, thereby prevailing over the recommendation given by the BI-RADS 3 classification. Conclusion: Clinical criteria including age, family and personal history, clinical examination, mammography and patient choice ensure adequate diagnostic procedures such as short-term follow-up or MIBB in patients with lesions classified as US-BI-RADS 3. PMID:27689181

  1. Negative and positive externalities in intergroup conflict: exposure to the opportunity to help the outgroup reduces the inclination to harm it

    PubMed Central

    Weisel, Ori

    2015-01-01

    Outgroup hate, in the context of intergroup conflict, can be expressed by harming the outgroup, but also by denying it help. Previous work established that this distinction—whether the externality on the outgroup is negative or positive—has an important effect on the likelihood of outgroup hate emerging as a motivation for individual participation in intergroup conflict. The current work uses a within-subject design to examine the behavior of the same individuals in intergroup conflict with negative and positive externalities on the outgroup. Each participant made two choices, one for each type of externality, and the order was counter balanced. The main results are that (1) behavior is fairly consistent across negative and positive externalities, i.e., the tendency to display outgroup hate by harming the outgroup is correlated with the tendency to display outgroup hate by avoiding to help the outgroup; (2) People are reluctant to harm the outgroup after being exposed to the opportunity to help it; (3) Groupness—the degree to which people care about their group and its well-being—is related to outgroup hate only when participants encounter the opportunity to harm the outgroup first (before they encounter the opportunity to help it). In this setting the relationship between groupness and outgroup hate spilled over to the subsequent interaction, where it was possible to help the outgroup. When the opportunity to help the outgroup was encountered first, groupness was not related to outgroup hate. PMID:26582994

  2. Clinical Data as an Adjunct to Ultrasound Reduces the False-Negative Malignancy Rate in BI-RADS 3 Breast Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, S.; Schoenenberger, C.-A.; Zanetti-Dällenbach, R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Ultrasound (US) is a well-established diagnostic procedure for breast examination. We investigated the malignancy rate in solid breast lesions according to their BI-RADS classification with a particular focus on false-negative BI-RADS 3 lesions. We examined whether patient history and clinical findings could provide additional information that would help determine further diagnostic steps in breast lesions. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study by exploring US BI-RADS in 1469 breast lesions of 1201 patients who underwent minimally invasive breast biopsy (MIBB) from January 2002 to December 2011. Results: The overall sensitivity and specificity of BI-RADS classification was 97.4% and 66.4%, respectively, with a positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 65% and 98%, respectively. In 506 BI-RADS 3 lesions, histology revealed 15 malignancies (2.4% malignancy rate), which corresponds to a false-negative rate (FNR) of 2.6%. Clinical evaluation and patient requests critically influenced the further diagnostic procedure, thereby prevailing over the recommendation given by the BI-RADS 3 classification. Conclusion: Clinical criteria including age, family and personal history, clinical examination, mammography and patient choice ensure adequate diagnostic procedures such as short-term follow-up or MIBB in patients with lesions classified as US-BI-RADS 3.

  3. Development and Assessment of Traditional and Innovative Media to Reduce Individual HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma Attitudes and Beliefs in India

    PubMed Central

    Catalani, Caricia; Castaneda, Diego; Spielberg, Freya

    2013-01-01

    Although stigma is considered a major barrier to effective response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, there is a lack of evidence on effective interventions. This media intervention took place among key HIV-vulnerable communities in Southern India. Two HIV stigma videos were created using techniques from traditional film production and new media digital storytelling. A series of 16 focus group discussions were held in 4 rural and 4 urban sites in South India, with specific groups for sex workers, men who have sex with men, young married women, and others. Focus groups with viewers of the traditional film (8 focus groups, 80 participants) and viewers of the new media production (8 focus groups, 69 participants) revealed the mechanisms through which storyline, characters, and esthetics influence viewers’ attitudes and beliefs about stigma. A comparative pre-/post-survey showed that audiences of both videos significantly improved their stigma scores. We found that a simple illustrated video, produced on a limited budget by amateurs, and a feature film, produced with an ample budget by professionals, elicited similar responses from audiences and similar positive short-term outcomes on stigma. PMID:24350190

  4. Ambivalent sexism, attitudes towards menstruation and menstrual cycle-related symptoms.

    PubMed

    Marván, Ma Luisa; Vázquez-Toboada, Rocío; Chrisler, Joan C

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between ambivalent sexism and beliefs and attitudes towards menstruation, and, in turn, to study the influence of these variables on menstrual cycle-related symptoms. One hundred and six Mexican women completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, the Beliefs about and Attitudes toward Menstruation Questionnaire and the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire. The higher scores on benevolent sexism were associated with the most positive attitudes towards menstruation and also with the belief that a menstruating woman should or should not do some activities and that menstruation keeps women from their daily activities. The higher scores on hostile sexism were associated with rejection of menstruation as well as with feelings of embarrassment about it. Beliefs about and attitudes towards menstruation predicted menstrual cycle-related symptoms related to negative affect, impaired concentration and behavioural changes, but did not predict somatic symptoms. These results will be useful to health professionals and advocates who want to change the negative expectations and stereotypes of premenstrual and menstrual women and reduce the sexism and negative attitudes towards women that are evident in Mexican culture.

  5. Ideological asymmetry in the relationship between epistemic motivation and political attitudes.

    PubMed

    Federico, Christopher M; Deason, Grace; Fisher, Emily L

    2012-09-01

    Research on the psychological bases of political attitudes tends to dwell on the attitudes of conservatives, rarely placing a conscious thematic emphasis on what motivates liberals to adopt the attitudes they do. This research begins to address this imbalance by examining whether the need for cognitive closure is equally associated with conservatism in policy attitudes among those who broadly identify with the liberal and conservative labels. Counterintuitively, we predict and find that the need for closure is most strongly associated with policy conservatism among those who symbolically identify as liberals or for whom liberal considerations are made salient. In turn, we also find that the need for closure is associated with reduced ideological consistency in issue attitudes among liberal identifiers but not conservative identifiers. Although supportive of our predictions, these results run counter to a simple "rigidity of the right" hypothesis, which would predict a positive link between need for closure and policy conservatism regardless of ideological self-description, and the "ideologue" hypothesis, which would predict a positive link between these variables among conservative identifiers and a negative one among liberal identifiers. We discuss the implications these findings for understanding the motivations underlying liberals' and conservatives' attitudes and suggest that future research attend to the important distinction between ideology in the sense of symbolic identification with conservatism versus liberalism and ideology in the sense of an average tilt to the right or left in one's policy attitudes. PMID:22731763

  6. Attitudes without Objects: Evidence for a Dispositional Attitude, its Measurement, and its Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Hepler, Justin; Albarracin, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that individuals may differ in the dispositional tendency to have positive versus negative attitudes, a trait termed the Dispositional Attitude. Across four studies, we developed a 16-item Dispositional Attitude Measure (DAM) and investigated its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and predictive validity. DAM scores were (a) positively correlated with positive affect traits, curiosity-related traits, and individual pre-existing attitudes, (b) negatively correlated with negative affect traits, and (c) uncorrelated with theoretically unrelated traits. Dispositional attitudes also significantly predicted the valence of novel attitudes while controlling for theoretically relevant traits (such as the big-five and optimism). The dispositional attitude construct represents a new perspective in which attitudes are not simply a function of the properties of the stimuli under consideration, but are also a function of the properties of the evaluator. We discuss the intriguing implications of dispositional attitudes for many areas of research, including attitude formation, persuasion, and behavior prediction. PMID:23586409

  7. Do Attitudes about Writing Change as Composition Skills Improve?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basile, Donald D.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the methods and findings of a study of the improvements in remedial writing students' writing ability on their attitudes toward their writing ability, instructors, and classes. Relates positive changes in self-confidence and attitudes toward teachers, ability, and classes, but increasingly negative attitudes toward grading. (WL)

  8. Attitudes toward Invertebrates: Are Educational "Bug Banquets" Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looy, Heather; Wood, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Scientists have used educational presentations and "bug banquets" to alter widespread negative attitudes toward invertebrates. In this article, the authors explore whether such presentations have a measurable affect on attitudes. Junior high, high school, and university students completed an attitude survey focusing on invertebrates in general and…

  9. Teacher-Trainees Attitudes towards Physical Education in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitonga, E. R.; Andanje, M.; Wanderi, P. M.; Bailasha, N.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the attitudes of teacher trainees towards physical education (PE). It was hypothesised that teacher-trainees have negative attitudes towards PE. A total of 132 teacher trainees were randomly selected from a teacher Training College in Kenya completed a questionnaire adapted from Wear's attitude scale with equivalent forms.…

  10. Selective expression of a dominant-negative type Iα PKA regulatory subunit in striatal medium spiny neurons impairs gene expression and leads to reduced feeding and locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Linghai; Gilbert, Merle L; Zheng, Ruimao; McKnight, G Stanley

    2014-04-01

    Striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) mediate many of the physiological effects of dopamine, including the regulation of feeding and motor behaviors. Dopaminergic inputs from the midbrain modulate MSN excitability through pathways that involve cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA), but the physiological role of specific PKA isoforms in MSN neurons remains poorly understood. One of the major PKA regulatory (R) subunit isoforms expressed in MSNs is RIIβ, which localizes the PKA holoenzyme primarily to dendrites by interaction with AKAP5 and other scaffolding proteins. However, RI (RIα and RIβ) subunits are also expressed in MSNs and the RI holoenzyme has a weaker affinity for most scaffolding proteins and tends to localize in the cell body. We generated mice with selective expression of a dominant-negative RI subunit (RIαB) in striatal MSNs and show that this dominant-negative RIαB localizes to the cytoplasm and specifically inhibits type I PKA activity in the striatum. These mice are normal at birth; however, soon after weaning they exhibit growth retardation and the adult mice are hypophagic, lean, and resistant to high-fat diet-induced hyperphagia and obesity. The RIαB-expressing mice also exhibit decreased locomotor activity and decreased dopamine-regulated CREB phosphorylation and c-fos gene expression in the striatum. Our results demonstrate a critical role for cytoplasmic RI-PKA holoenzyme in gene regulation and the overall physiological function of MSNs. PMID:24695708

  11. ANXA1 inhibits miRNA-196a in a negative feedback loop through NF-kB and c-Myc to reduce breast cancer proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yi; Anbalagan, Durkeshwari; Lee, Lay Hoon; Samy, Ramar Perumal; Shanmugam, Muthu K.; Kumar, Alan Prem; Sethi, Gautam; Lobie, Peter E.; Lim, Lina H.K.

    2016-01-01

    MiRNAs are endogenous ~22 nt RNAs which play critical regulatory roles in a wide range of biological and pathological processes, which can act as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes depending on their target genes. We have recently shown that ANXA1 inhibits the expression of miRNAs including miR196a. Here, we show that miR196a was highly expressed in ER+ MCF-7 breast cancer cells when compared to normal mammary gland cells, with expression levels negatively correlating to ANXA1. ANXA1 inhibits the biogenesis of oncogenic miR-196a by suppressing primary-miR196a indirectly through the stimulation of c-myc and NFkB expression and activity in breast cancer cells. In a negative feedback loop, miR-196a directly inhibits ANXA1 and enhances breast cancer cell proliferation in vitro. Finally, miR196a promotes breast tumor growth in vivo. This study reports a novel regulatory circuit between ANXA1, NF-kB, c-myc and miR-196a which regulates breast cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. PMID:27105503

  12. Zero tolerance for unhealthy attitudes.

    PubMed

    Dean, Erin

    2016-02-01

    A report published last year by Stonewall revealed the persistence of negative attitudes to LGBT people in health and social care services, with a significant problem existing between staff. Managers' failure to support employees and challenge remarks, however subtle, are part of the problem. PMID:26838631

  13. Variation in Sexual Behaviors in a Cohort of Adolescent Females: The Role of Personal, Perceived Peer and Family Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Melanie A.; Bost, James E.; Adimora, Ada A.; Orr, Donald P.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about how adolescent sexual behaviors develop and the influence of personal or perceived social attitudes. We sought to describe how personal, perceived peer and perceived family attitudes towards adolescent sexual activity influences adolescent females’ sexual behaviors over time. Methods Between 1999–2006, 358 English-speaking females, aged 14–17 were recruited from three urban adolescent clinics. Participants completed quarterly and annual questionnaires over 4 years. Primary outcomes were engagement in eight sexual behaviors: kissing, having breasts or genitals touched, touching partners’ genitals, and oral (giving or receiving), anal, or vaginal sex. Three attitudinal scales assessed personal importance of abstinence, perceived peer beliefs about when to have sex and perceived family beliefs that adolescent sex is negative.. We used generalized estimating equations to identify predictors of each sexual behavior and compared whether personal, perceived peer or perceived family attitudes predicted sexual behaviors over time. Results The odds of reporting each sexual behavior increased with age but were lower among those whose personal or perceived family attitudes were less positive. Participants’ personal attitudes towards adolescent sex were the strongest predictor of engagement in all eight sexual behaviors even after controlling for perceived peer and perceived family attitudes. Conclusions Female adolescent’s personal attitudes towards abstinence appear to be the strongest predictor of engagement in a variety of sexual behaviors. Efforts to influence adolescent attitudes towards abstinence may be an important approach to reducing sexual behaviors that increase the risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. PMID:21185529

  14. Short-Duration Low-Direct-Current Electrical Field Treatment Is a Practical Tool for Considerably Reducing Counts of Gram-Negative Bacteria Entrapped in Gel Beads

    PubMed Central

    Zvitov, R.; Zohar-Perez, C.; Nussinovitch, A.

    2004-01-01

    Application of a direct-current electrical field for very short times can serve as a practical nonthermal procedure to reduce or modify the microbial distribution in gel beads. The viability of Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens entrapped in alginate and agarose beads decreases as the field intensity and duration of electrical field increase. PMID:15184192

  15. A FLUCTUATING SALINITY REGIME MITIGATES THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF REDUCED SALINITY ON THE ESTUARINE MACROALGA, ENTEROMORPHA INTESTINALIS (L.) LINK. (R827637)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    We tested the response of Enteromorpha intestinalis to fluctuating reduced salinity regimes which may occur in coastal estuaries due to both natural and anthropogenic influences. In a fully crossed two factor experiment, we subjected E. intestinalis<...

  16. A FLUCTUATING SALINITY REGIME MITIGATES THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF REDUCED SALINITY ON THE ESTUARINE MACROALGA, ENTEROMORPHA INTESTINALIS (L.) LINK. (R825381)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    We tested the response of Enteromorpha intestinalis to fluctuating reduced salinity regimes which may occur in coastal estuaries due to both natural and anthropogenic influences. In a fully crossed two factor experiment, we subjected E. intestinalis<...

  17. Control of bovine virus diarrhoea at the herd level: reducing the risk of false negatives in the detection of persistently infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Laureyns, Jozef; Ribbens, Stefaan; de Kruif, Aart

    2010-04-01

    The need to detect and eliminate cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is key to the control of BVD and has been shown to be very effective in eradicating BVDV from infected herds. However, because of pitfalls in the detection procedures, some PI animals can be missed and, as a result, are not identified and removal is delayed. The high prevalence of BVDV in cattle populations in some countries (such as Belgium and neighbouring countries) means there is a high risk of reinfection of a herd from which BVDV has been eradicated. Based on both practical experience and a literature study, this review considers those points that are critical to minimising the number of false negatives in the detection of PI cattle.

  18. Spatial assessment of attitudes toward tigers in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Carter, Neil H; Riley, Shawn J; Shortridge, Ashton; Shrestha, Binoj K; Liu, Jianguo

    2014-03-01

    In many regions around the world, wildlife impacts on people (e.g., crop raiding, attacks on people) engender negative attitudes toward wildlife. Negative attitudes predict behaviors that undermine wildlife management and conservation efforts (e.g., by exacerbating retaliatory killing of wildlife). Our study (1) evaluated attitudes of local people toward the globally endangered tiger (Panthera tigris) in Nepal's Chitwan National Park; and (2) modeled and mapped spatial clusters of attitudes toward tigers. Factors characterizing a person's position in society (i.e., socioeconomic and cultural factors) influenced attitudes toward tigers more than past experiences with tigers (e.g., livestock attacks). A spatial cluster of negative attitudes toward tigers was associated with concentrations of people with less formal education, people from marginalized ethnic groups, and tiger attacks on people. Our study provides insights and descriptions of techniques to improve attitudes toward wildlife in Chitwan and many regions around the world with similar conservation challenges.

  19. Spatial assessment of attitudes toward tigers in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Carter, Neil H; Riley, Shawn J; Shortridge, Ashton; Shrestha, Binoj K; Liu, Jianguo

    2014-03-01

    In many regions around the world, wildlife impacts on people (e.g., crop raiding, attacks on people) engender negative attitudes toward wildlife. Negative attitudes predict behaviors that undermine wildlife management and conservation efforts (e.g., by exacerbating retaliatory killing of wildlife). Our study (1) evaluated attitudes of local people toward the globally endangered tiger (Panthera tigris) in Nepal's Chitwan National Park; and (2) modeled and mapped spatial clusters of attitudes toward tigers. Factors characterizing a person's position in society (i.e., socioeconomic and cultural factors) influenced attitudes toward tigers more than past experiences with tigers (e.g., livestock attacks). A spatial cluster of negative attitudes toward tigers was associated with concentrations of people with less formal education, people from marginalized ethnic groups, and tiger attacks on people. Our study provides insights and descriptions of techniques to improve attitudes toward wildlife in Chitwan and many regions around the world with similar conservation challenges. PMID:23836312

  20. Motion models in attitude estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, D.; Wheeler, Z.; Sedlak, J.

    1994-01-01

    Attitude estimator use observations from different times to reduce the effects of noise. If the vehicle is rotating, the attitude at one time needs to be propagated to that at another time. If the vehicle measures its angular velocity, attitude propagating entails integrating a rotational kinematics equation only. If a measured angular velocity is not available, torques can be computed and an additional rotational dynamics equation integrated to give the angular velocity. Initial conditions for either of these integrations come from the estimation process. Sometimes additional quantities, such as gyro and torque parameters, are also solved for. Although the partial derivatives of attitude with respect to initial attitude and gyro parameters are well known, the corresponding partial derivatives with respect to initial angular velocity and torque parameters are less familiar. They can be derived and computed numerically in a way that is analogous to that used for the initial attitude and gyro parameters. Previous papers have demonstrated the feasibility of using dynamics models for attitude estimation but have not provided details of how each angular velocity and torque parameters can be estimated. This tutorial paper provides some of that detail, notably how to compute the state transition matrix when closed form expressions are not available. It also attempts to put dynamics estimation in perspective by showing the progression from constant to gyro-propagated to dynamics-propagated attitude motion models. Readers not already familiar with attitude estimation will find this paper an introduction to the subject, and attitude specialists may appreciate the collection of heretofore scattered results brought together in a single place.

  1. Implicit Attitudes towards People with Intellectual Disabilities: Their Relationship with Explicit Attitudes, Social Distance, Emotions and Contact.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michelle Clare; Scior, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Implicit attitude research has expanded rapidly over the last decade and is seen as very promising as it counters biases present in much attitude research such as social desirability. However, most research in the area of intellectual disabilities has focused on explicit attitudes alone. This study examined implicit attitudes to this population and also examined their association with emotional reactions and contact, which have previously been found to have a significant influence on attitudes and stigma. A web based survey consisting of a single target Implicit Association Test, measures of explicit attitudes, social distance, and emotional reactions towards and contact with individuals with intellectual disabilities was completed by 326 adult UK residents. Implicit attitudes were not significantly associated with explicit attitudes, social distance or emotional reactions. Instead there were small to moderate associations between emotional reactions and explicit attitudes and social distance. Implicit attitudes did not vary according to participants' level of contact with individuals with intellectual disabilities, type of the contact relationship (voluntary versus involuntary), gender or educational attainment. In contrast, these participant characteristics did affect explicit attitudes and social distance. Implicit attitudes towards individuals with intellectual disabilities were somewhat negative and, unlike explicit attitudes and stigma, did not vary according to participant demographics or contact. As they may have a negative impact on the lives of people with intellectual disabilities, implicit attitudes merit increased attention in research and interventions in the intellectual disabilities field.

  2. Implicit Attitudes towards People with Intellectual Disabilities: Their Relationship with Explicit Attitudes, Social Distance, Emotions and Contact

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michelle Clare; Scior, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Implicit attitude research has expanded rapidly over the last decade and is seen as very promising as it counters biases present in much attitude research such as social desirability. However, most research in the area of intellectual disabilities has focused on explicit attitudes alone. This study examined implicit attitudes to this population and also examined their association with emotional reactions and contact, which have previously been found to have a significant influence on attitudes and stigma. A web based survey consisting of a single target Implicit Association Test, measures of explicit attitudes, social distance, and emotional reactions towards and contact with individuals with intellectual disabilities was completed by 326 adult UK residents. Implicit attitudes were not significantly associated with explicit attitudes, social distance or emotional reactions. Instead there were small to moderate associations between emotional reactions and explicit attitudes and social distance. Implicit attitudes did not vary according to participants’ level of contact with individuals with intellectual disabilities, type of the contact relationship (voluntary versus involuntary), gender or educational attainment. In contrast, these participant characteristics did affect explicit attitudes and social distance. Implicit attitudes towards individuals with intellectual disabilities were somewhat negative and, unlike explicit attitudes and stigma, did not vary according to participant demographics or contact. As they may have a negative impact on the lives of people with intellectual disabilities, implicit attitudes merit increased attention in research and interventions in the intellectual disabilities field. PMID:26366575

  3. Do Online Comments Influence the Public's Attitudes Toward an Organization? Effects of Online Comments Based on Individuals' Prior Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kang Hoon; Lee, Moon J

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of reading different types of online comments about a company on people's attitude change based on individual's prior attitude toward the company. Based on Social Judgment Theory, several hypotheses were tested. The results showed that the effects of online comments interact with individuals' prior attitudes toward a corporation. People with a strong negative attitude toward a corporation were less influenced by other's online comments than people with a neutral attitude in general. However, people with a prior negative attitude were more affected by refutational two-sided comments than one-sided comments. The results suggest that the effects of user generated content should be studied in a holistic manner, not only by investigating the effects of online content itself, but also by examining how others' responses to the content shape or change individuals' attitudes based on their prior attitudes. PMID:25901633

  4. Consumer versus dentist attitudes toward dental services advertising.

    PubMed

    Hite, R E; Bellizzi, J A; Andrus, D M

    1988-03-01

    The authors report the findings of a consumer survey and a dentist survey that were used to examine attitudes toward the advertising of dental services. The results clearly indicate positive consumer attitudes and negative dentist attitudes toward such advertising. Relatively few consumer demographic differences are noted, though younger dentists appear to have more positive attitudes toward dental services advertising than their older colleagues. The results suggest significant opportunities for dentists in dental services advertising.

  5. Noise screen for attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodden, John J. (Inventor); Stevens, Homer D. (Inventor); Hong, David P. (Inventor); Hirschberg, Philip C. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An attitude control system comprising a controller and a noise screen device coupled to the controller. The controller is adapted to control an attitude of a vehicle carrying an actuator system that is adapted to pulse in metered bursts in order to generate a control torque to control the attitude of the vehicle in response to a control pulse. The noise screen device is adapted to generate a noise screen signal in response to the control pulse that is generated when an input attitude error signal exceeds a predetermined deadband attitude level. The noise screen signal comprises a decaying offset signal that when combined with the attitude error input signal results in a net attitude error input signal away from the predetermined deadband level to reduce further control pulse generation.

  6. Positive expectations encourage generalization from a positive intergroup interaction to outgroup attitudes.

    PubMed

    Deegan, Matthew P; Hehman, Eric; Gaertner, Samuel L; Dovidio, John F

    2015-01-01

    The current research reveals that while positive expectations about an anticipated intergroup interaction encourage generalization of positive contact to outgroup attitudes, negative expectations restrict the effects of contact on outgroup attitudes. In Study 1, when Blacks and Whites interacted with positive expectations, interaction quality predicted outgroup attitudes to a greater degree than when groups interacted with negative expectations. When expectations (Studies 2 and 3) and the actual interaction quality (Study 4) were manipulated orthogonally, negative expectations about the interaction predicted negative outgroup attitudes, regardless of actual interaction quality. By contrast, participants holding positive expectations who experienced a positive interaction expressed positive outgroup attitudes, whereas when they experienced a negative interaction, they expressed outgroup attitudes as negative as those with negative expectations. Across all four studies, positive expectations encouraged developing outgroup attitudes consistent with interaction quality.

  7. Positive expectations encourage generalization from a positive intergroup interaction to outgroup attitudes.

    PubMed

    Deegan, Matthew P; Hehman, Eric; Gaertner, Samuel L; Dovidio, John F

    2015-01-01

    The current research reveals that while positive expectations about an anticipated intergroup interaction encourage generalization of positive contact to outgroup attitudes, negative expectations restrict the effects of contact on outgroup attitudes. In Study 1, when Blacks and Whites interacted with positive expectations, interaction quality predicted outgroup attitudes to a greater degree than when groups interacted with negative expectations. When expectations (Studies 2 and 3) and the actual interaction quality (Study 4) were manipulated orthogonally, negative expectations about the interaction predicted negative outgroup attitudes, regardless of actual interaction quality. By contrast, participants holding positive expectations who experienced a positive interaction expressed positive outgroup attitudes, whereas when they experienced a negative interaction, they expressed outgroup attitudes as negative as those with negative expectations. Across all four studies, positive expectations encouraged developing outgroup attitudes consistent with interaction quality. PMID:25326475

  8. Inhibition of β2-adrenergic receptor reduces triple-negative breast cancer brain metastases: The potential benefit of perioperative β-blockade.

    PubMed

    Choy, Cecilia; Raytis, John L; Smith, David D; Duenas, Matthew; Neman, Josh; Jandial, Rahul; Lew, Michael W

    2016-06-01

    In response to recent studies, we investigated an association between perioperative β-blockade and breast cancer metastases. First, a retrospective study examining perioperative β-blocker use and cancer recurrence and metastases was conducted on 1,029 patients who underwent breast cancer surgery at the City of Hope Cancer Center between 2000 and 2010. We followed the clinical study and examined proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro of primary and brain-metastatic breast cancer cells in response to β2-activation and inhibition. We also investigated in vivo the metastatic potential of propranolol-treated metastatic cells. For stage II breast cancer patients, perioperative β-blockade was associated with decreased cancer recurrence using Cox regression analysis (hazard's ratio =0.51; 95% CI: 0.23-0.97; p=0.041). Triple-negative (TN) brain-metastatic cells were found to have increased β2-adrenergic receptor mRNA and protein expression relative to TN primary cells. In response to β2-adrenergic receptor activation, TN brain-metastatic cells also exhibited increased cell proliferation and migration relative to the control. These effects were abrogated by propranolol. Propranolol decreased β2-adrenergic receptor-activated invasion. In vivo, propranolol treatment of TN brain-metastatic cells decreased establishment of brain metastases. Our results suggest that stress and corresponding β2-activation may promote the establishment of brain metastases of TN breast cancer cells. In addition, our data suggest a benefit to perioperative β-blockade during surgery-induced stress with respect to breast cancer recurrence and metastases.

  9. High Levels of Nucleolar Spindle-Associated Protein and Reduced Levels of BRCA1 Expression Predict Poor Prognosis in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xin; Li, Shan; Yao, Ling; Yang, Xue-Li; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Nucleolar spindle-associated protein (NuSAP1) is an important mitosis-related protein, and aberrant NuSAP1 expression is associated with abnormal spindles and mitosis. This study investigated the prognostic value of NuSAP1 in breast cancer. Methods Two sets of tissue microarrays (TMAs) that included samples from 450 breast cancer patients were constructed, of which 250 patients were training set and the other 200 patients were validation set. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to determine the NuSAP1 levels. A Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate the prognostic value of NuSAP1 in breast cancer. A stepwise Cox analysis was performed to construct a risk-prediction model for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). All statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software. Results There were 108 (43.5%) and 88 (44.0%) patients expressed NuSAP1 in the training set and validation set respectively. High levels of NuSAP1 expression were related to poor disease-free survival (DFS) in both training (P = 0.028) and validation (P = 0.006) cohorts, particularly in TNBC. With combination of two cohorts, both NuSAP1 (HR = 4.136, 95% CI: 1.956–8.747, P < 0.001) and BRCA1 (HR = 0.383, 95% CI: 0.160–0.915, P = 0.031) were independent prognostic indicators of DFS in TNBC. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that the combination of NuSAP1 and BRCA1 significantly improved the prognostic power compared with the traditional model (0.778 versus 0.612, P < 0.001). Conclusions Our study confirms the prognostic value of NuSAP1 in breast cancer. The combination of NuSAP1 and BRCA1 could improve the DFS prediction accuracy in TNBC. PMID:26485712

  10. Stochasticity and bifurcations in a reduced model with interlinked positive and negative feedback loops of CREB1 and CREB2 stimulated by 5-HT.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lijie; Yang, Zhuoqin; Bi, Yuanhong

    2016-04-01

    The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element-binding protein (CREB) family of transcription factors is crucial in regulating gene expression required for long-term memory (LTM) formation. Upon exposure of sensory neurons to the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT), CREB1 is activated via activation of the protein kinase A (PKA) intracellular signaling pathways, and CREB2 as a transcriptional repressor is relieved possibly via phosphorylation of CREB2 by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Song et al. [18] proposed a minimal model with only interlinked positive and negative feedback loops of transcriptional regulation by the activator CREB1 and the repressor CREB2. Without considering feedbacks between the CREB proteins, Pettigrew et al. [8] developed a computational model characterizing complex dynamics of biochemical pathways downstream of 5-HT receptors. In this work, to describe more simply the biochemical pathways and gene regulation underlying 5-HT-induced LTM, we add the important extracellular sensitizing stimulus 5-HT as well as the product Ap-uch into the Song's minimal model. We also strive to examine dynamical properties of the gene regulatory network under the changing concentration of the stimulus, [5-HT], cooperating with the varying positive feedback strength in inducing a high state of CREB1 for the establishment of long-term memory. Different dynamics including monostability, bistability and multistability due to coexistence of stable steady states and oscillations is investigated by means of codimension-2 bifurcation analysis. At the different positive feedback strengths, comparative analysis of deterministic and stochastic dynamics reveals that codimension-1 bifurcation with respect to [5-HT] as the parameter can predict diverse stochastic behaviors resulted from the finite number of molecules, and the number of CREB1 molecules more and more preferentially resides near the high steady state with increasing [5-HT], which contributes to long

  11. Ambivalent Attitudes in a Communication Process: An Integrated Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chingching

    2012-01-01

    In a communication process that involves a target subject (what is being communicated about) and a source, existing attitudes (positive or negative) toward the target or the source influence communication effects. People also may hold ambivalent attitudes (positive and negative) toward the target or the source, but the implications of such…

  12. The Effect of Unintended Interracial Contact Upon Racial Interaction and Attitude Change. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Stuart W.

    This was a study of the influence of unintended interracial contact and characteristics of the contact situation on attitude-related action and attitude change. It was designed to determine if persons with initially negative racial attitudes would change these attitudes by an experimental experience. The research subjects were white students from…

  13. Constant attitude orbit transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cress, Peter; Evans, Michael

    A two-impulse orbital transfer technique is described in which the spacecraft attitude remains constant for both burns, eliminating the need for attitude maneuvers between the burns. This can lead to significant savings in vehicle weight, cost and complexity. Analysis is provided for a restricted class of applications of this transfer between circular orbits. For those transfers with a plane change less than 30 deg, the total velocity cost of the maneuver is less than twelve percent greater than that of an optimum plane split Hohmann transfer. While this maneuver does not minimize velocity requirement, it does provide a means of achieving necessary transfer while substantially reducing the cost and complexity of the spacecraft.

  14. Reducing Teacher Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docking, R. A.; Docking, E.

    1984-01-01

    Reports on a case study of inservice training conducted to enhance the teacher/student relationship and reduce teacher anxiety. Found significant improvements in attitudes, classroom management activities, and lower anxiety among teachers. (MD)

  15. HAND1 gene expression is negatively regulated by the High Mobility Group A1 proteins and is drastically reduced in human thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Martinez Hoyos, J; Ferraro, A; Sacchetti, S; Keller, S; De Martino, I; Borbone, E; Pallante, P; Fedele, M; Montanaro, D; Esposito, F; Cserjesi, P; Chiariotti, L; Troncone, G; Fusco, A

    2009-02-12

    HMGA1 proteins exert their major physiological function during embryonic development and play a critical role in neoplastic transformation. Here, we show that Hand1 gene, which codes for a transcription factor crucial for differentiation of trophoblast giant cells and heart development, is upregulated in hmga1 minus embryonic stem cells. We demonstrate that HMGA1 proteins bind directly to Hand1 promoter both in vitro and in vivo and inhibit Hand1 promoter activity. We have also investigated HAND1 expression in human thyroid carcinoma cell lines and tissues, in which HMGA proteins are overexpressed, with respect to normal thyroid; an inverse correlation between HMGA1 and HAND1 expression was found in all thyroid tumor histotypes. A correlation between HAND1 gene repression and promoter hypermethylation was found in anaplastic carcinomas but not in other thyroid tumor histotypes. Therefore, we can hypothesize that HMGA1 overexpression plays a key role on HAND1 silencing in differentiated thyroid carcinomas and that promoter hypermethylation occurs in later stages of thyroid tumor progression. Finally, the restoration of the HAND1 gene expression reduces the clonogenic ability of two human thyroid carcinoma-derived cell lines, suggesting that HAND1 downregulation may have a role in the process of thyroid carcinogenesis.

  16. Instructional strategies to improve women's attitudes toward science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newbill, Phyllis Leary

    Although negative attitudes toward science are common among women and men in undergraduate introductory science classes, women's attitudes toward science tend to be more negative than men's. The reasons for women's negative attitudes toward science include lack of self-confidence, fear of association with social outcasts, lack of women role models in science, and the fundamental differences between traditional scientific and feminist values. Attitudes are psychological constructs theorized to be composed of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components. Attitudes serve functions, including social expressive, value expressive, utilitarian, and defensive functions, for the people who hold them. To change attitudes, the new attitudes must serve the same function as the old one, and all three components must be treated. Instructional designers can create instructional environments to effect attitude change. In designing instruction to improve women's attitudes toward science, instructional designers should (a) address the emotions that are associated with existing attitudes, (b) involve credible, attractive women role models, and (c) address the functions of the existing attitudes. Two experimental instructional modules were developed based on these recommendations, and two control modules were developed that were not based on these recommendations. The asynchronous, web-based modules were administered to 281 undergraduate geology and chemistry students at two universities. Attitude assessment revealed that attitudes toward scientists improved significantly more in the experimental group, although there was no significant difference in overall attitudes toward science. Women's attitudes improved significantly more than men's in both the experimental and control groups. Students whose attitudes changed wrote significantly more in journaling activities associated with the modules. Qualitative analysis of journals revealed that the guidelines worked exactly as predicted

  17. Disentangling Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients' Implicit and Explicit Attitudes toward Methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Linn, Annemiek J; Vandeberg, Lisa; Wennekers, Annemarie M; Vervloet, Marcia; van Dijk, Liset; van den Bemt, Bart J F

    2016-01-01

    Medication non-adherence is a major public health problem that has been termed an 'invisible epidemic.' Non-adherence is not only associated with negative clinical consequences but can also result in substantial healthcare costs. Up to now, effective adherence interventions are scarce and a more comprehensive model of adherence determinants is required to target the determinants for not taking the medication as prescribed. Current approaches only included explicit attitudes such as self-reported evaluations of medication as determinants, neglecting the role of associative processes that shape implicit attitudes. Implicit processes can predict daily behavior more accurately than explicit attitudes. Our aim is to assess explicit and implicit attitudes toward medication and explore the relation with beliefs, adherence and clinical (laboratory) outcomes in chronically ill patients. Fifty two Rheumatic Arthritis (RA) patients' attitudes toward Methotrexate (MTX) were explicitly (self-reported) and implicitly (Single-Category Implicit Association Test) assessed and related to the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire, the Compliance Questionnaire on Rheumatology and laboratory parameters [Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), C-Reactive Protein (CRP)]. Results show that explicit attitudes were positive and health-related. Implicit attitudes were, however, negative and sickness-related. Half of the patients displayed explicitly positive but implicitly negative attitudes. Explicit attitudes were positively related to ESR. A positive relationship between implicit attitudes and disease duration was observed. In this study, we have obtained evidence suggesting that the measurement of implicit attitudes and associations provides different information than explicit, self-reported attitudes toward medication. Since patients' implicit attitudes deviated from explicit attitudes, we can conclude that the relationship between implicit attitudes and medication adherence is worthwhile

  18. Disentangling Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients’ Implicit and Explicit Attitudes toward Methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Linn, Annemiek J.; Vandeberg, Lisa; Wennekers, Annemarie M.; Vervloet, Marcia; van Dijk, Liset; van den Bemt, Bart J. F.

    2016-01-01

    Medication non-adherence is a major public health problem that has been termed an ‘invisible epidemic.’ Non-adherence is not only associated with negative clinical consequences but can also result in substantial healthcare costs. Up to now, effective adherence interventions are scarce and a more comprehensive model of adherence determinants is required to target the determinants for not taking the medication as prescribed. Current approaches only included explicit attitudes such as self-reported evaluations of medication as determinants, neglecting the role of associative processes that shape implicit attitudes. Implicit processes can predict daily behavior more accurately than explicit attitudes. Our aim is to assess explicit and implicit attitudes toward medication and explore the relation with beliefs, adherence and clinical (laboratory) outcomes in chronically ill patients. Fifty two Rheumatic Arthritis (RA) patients’ attitudes toward Methotrexate (MTX) were explicitly (self-reported) and implicitly (Single-Category Implicit Association Test) assessed and related to the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire, the Compliance Questionnaire on Rheumatology and laboratory parameters [Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), C-Reactive Protein (CRP)]. Results show that explicit attitudes were positive and health-related. Implicit attitudes were, however, negative and sickness-related. Half of the patients displayed explicitly positive but implicitly negative attitudes. Explicit attitudes were positively related to ESR. A positive relationship between implicit attitudes and disease duration was observed. In this study, we have obtained evidence suggesting that the measurement of implicit attitudes and associations provides different information than explicit, self-reported attitudes toward medication. Since patients’ implicit attitudes deviated from explicit attitudes, we can conclude that the relationship between implicit attitudes and medication adherence is

  19. Disentangling Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients' Implicit and Explicit Attitudes toward Methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Linn, Annemiek J; Vandeberg, Lisa; Wennekers, Annemarie M; Vervloet, Marcia; van Dijk, Liset; van den Bemt, Bart J F

    2016-01-01

    Medication non-adherence is a major public health problem that has been termed an 'invisible epidemic.' Non-adherence is not only associated with negative clinical consequences but can also result in substantial healthcare costs. Up to now, effective adherence interventions are scarce and a more comprehensive model of adherence determinants is required to target the determinants for not taking the medication as prescribed. Current approaches only included explicit attitudes such as self-reported evaluations of medication as determinants, neglecting the role of associative processes that shape implicit attitudes. Implicit processes can predict daily behavior more accurately than explicit attitudes. Our aim is to assess explicit and implicit attitudes toward medication and explore the relation with beliefs, adherence and clinical (laboratory) outcomes in chronically ill patients. Fifty two Rheumatic Arthritis (RA) patients' attitudes toward Methotrexate (MTX) were explicitly (self-reported) and implicitly (Single-Category Implicit Association Test) assessed and related to the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire, the Compliance Questionnaire on Rheumatology and laboratory parameters [Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), C-Reactive Protein (CRP)]. Results show that explicit attitudes were positive and health-related. Implicit attitudes were, however, negative and sickness-related. Half of the patients displayed explicitly positive but implicitly negative attitudes. Explicit attitudes were positively related to ESR. A positive relationship between implicit attitudes and disease duration was observed. In this study, we have obtained evidence suggesting that the measurement of implicit attitudes and associations provides different information than explicit, self-reported attitudes toward medication. Since patients' implicit attitudes deviated from explicit attitudes, we can conclude that the relationship between implicit attitudes and medication adherence is worthwhile

  20. High Radiation Dose May Reduce the Negative Effect of Large Gross Tumor Volume in Patients With Medically Inoperable Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Lujun; West, Brady T.; Hayman, James A.; Lyons, Susan; Cease, Kemp; Kong, F.-M. . E-mail: Fengkong@med.umich.edu

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the effect of radiation dose varies with gross tumor volume (GTV) in patients with stage I/II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Included in the study were 114 consecutive patients with medically inoperable stage I/II NSCLC treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy between 1992 and 2004. The median biologic equivalent dose (BED) was 79.2 Gy (range, 58.2-124.5 Gy). The median GTV was 51.8 cm{sup 3} (range, 2.1-727.8 cm{sup 3}). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Kaplan-Meier estimation and Cox regression models were used for survival analyses. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that there was a significant interaction between radiation dose and GTV (p < 0.001). In patients with BED {<=}79.2 Gy (n = 68), the OS medians for patients with GTV >51.8 cm{sup 3} and {<=}51.8 cm{sup 3} were 18.2 and 23.9 months, respectively (p 0.015). If BED was >79.2 Gy (n = 46), no significant difference was found between GTV groups (p = 0.681). For patients with GTV >51.8 cm{sup 3} (n = 45), the OS medians in those with BED >79.2 Gy and {<=}79.2 Gy were 30.4 and 18.2 months, respectively (p < 0.001). If GTV was {<=}51.8 cm{sup 3} (n = 45), the difference was no longer significant (p = 0.577). Conclusion: High-dose radiation is more important for patients with larger tumors and may be effective in reducing the adverse outcome associated with large GTV. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding.

  1. The Effect of Attitude toward the Elderly on Behavior toward an Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnott, Jan D.; And Others

    Many people hold negative attitudes toward older adults, and these attitudes often are associated with negative behavior toward the old. To explore the behavioral correlates of attitudes toward the elderly, 105 male and female college students, with a mean age of 24.5 years, participated in a two-phase experiment. During phase one, all subjects…

  2. Teachers' attitudes toward testing practices.

    PubMed

    Monsaas, J A; Engelhard, G

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate how teachers' attitudes toward testing practices affect the way teachers prepare and administer standardized tests. Classroom teachers (N = 186) from Georgia took the testing practices instrument developed to measure the three variables (behavior, attitude, and pressure) examined in this study. Attitudes were negatively correlated with behavior; teachers who felt that the testing practices were dishonest were less likely to engage in them. Pressure to increase standardized test scores was positively correlated with behavior; the greater the perceived pressure (subjective norms) to increase test scores, the greater the likelihood that teachers had engaged in more test preparation activities. The data also suggest that the amount of test preparation was greater in the lower grades than in the upper grades and that teachers in schools with more low-socioeconomic-status (SES) students tended to engage in more test preparation activities than their colleagues in higher SES schools.

  3. Attitudes towards psychotherapy manuals among clinicians treating eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Waller, Glenn; Mountford, Victoria A; Tatham, Madeleine; Turner, Hannah; Gabriel, Chloe; Webber, Rebecca

    2013-12-01

    Clinicians have relatively low uptake and implementation of evidence-based psychotherapies for the eating disorders, and this problem appears to be associated with low use of manualized approaches. This study examines clinicians' positive and negative attitudes to manuals, and possible beliefs and emotional factors that might drive those attitudes. The participants were 125 psychological therapists working with eating-disordered patients. Each completed standardised measures of attitudes to manuals and emotional states. A number of beliefs about the content of manuals were associated with both positive attitudes to the outcome of treatment and negative attitudes to their impact on the treatment process. In addition, a more positive mood was associated with more positive attitudes. Suggestions are made regarding how attitudes might be made more positive, in order to facilitate the use of evidence-based therapies for eating disorders.

  4. Sexuality attitudes: the impact of trauma.

    PubMed

    Broman, Clifford L

    2003-11-01

    This study examines the relationship between traumatic events and attitudes toward sexuality. Our results show that suffering trauma is related to more accepting attitudes concerning sexuality. Generally, people who suffer negative events, many of which are traumatic, are more likely to see both pornography and having a homosexual friend or family member as acceptable. Traumatic events that are sex-related or related to other physical assault proved to be most significant in the prediction of sexuality attitudes for women only. The results are specified by gender: Trauma predicts attitudes toward pornography for women but not for men, and traumatic events are associated with attitudes concerning homosexuality for women. These results are discussed in light of the previous research, and suggestions for future research made.

  5. Attitudes toward euthanasia among Swedish medical students.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Marit; Strang, Peter; Milberg, Anna

    2007-10-01

    Attitudes toward euthanasia differ between individuals and populations, and in many studies the medical profession is more reluctant than the general public. Our goal was to explore medical students' attitude toward euthanasia. A questionnaire containing open-ended questions was answered anonymously by 165 first- and fifth-year medical students. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis with no predetermined categories. The students' arguments opposing euthanasia were based on opinions of 1. euthanasia being morally wrong, 2. fear of possible negative effects on society, 3. euthanasia causing strain on physicians and 4. doubts about the true meaning of requests of euthanasia from patients. Arguments supporting euthanasia were based on 1. patients' autonomy and 2. the relief of suffering, which could be caused by severe illnesses, reduced integrity, hopelessness, social factors and old age. There are several contradictions in the students' arguments and the results indicate a possible need for education focusing on the possibility of symptom control in palliative care and patients' perceived quality of life.

  6. London Education and Inclusion Project (LEIP): Exploring Negative and Null Effects of a Cluster-Randomised School-Intervention to Reduce School Exclusion—Findings from Protocol-Based Subgroup Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Obsuth, Ingrid; Cope, Aiden; Sutherland, Alex; Pilbeam, Liv; Murray, Aja Louise; Eisner, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents subgroup analyses from the London Education and Inclusion Project (LEIP). LEIP was a cluster-randomised controlled trial of an intervention called Engage in Education-London (EiE-L) which aimed to reduce school exclusions in those at greatest risk of exclusion. Pupils in the control schools attended an hour-long employability seminar. Minimisation was used to randomly assign schools to treatment and control following baseline data collection. The study involved 36 schools (17 in treatment—373 pupils; 19 in control—369 pupils) with >28% free school meal eligibility across London and utilised on pupil self-reports, teacher reports as well as official records to assess the effectiveness of EiE-L. Due to multiple data sources, sample sizes varied according to analysis. Analyses of pre-specified subgroups revealed null and negative effects on school exclusion following the intervention. Our findings suggest that the design and implementation of EiE-L may have contributed to the negative outcomes for pupils in the treatment schools when compared to those in the control schools. These findings call into question the effectiveness of bolt-on short-term interventions with pupils, particularly those at the highest risk of school exclusion and when they are faced with multiple problems. This is especially pertinent given the possibility of negative outcomes. Trial Registration: Controlled Trials: ISRCTN23244695 PMID:27045953

  7. Negative necrotaxis.

    PubMed

    Ragot, R

    1993-01-01

    We studied necrotaxis in several strains of protists and compared the reaction of living cells in the vicinity of cells killed by a ruby laser. Negative necrotaxis was observed for the unicellular green alga Euglena gracilis, whereas Chlamydomonas was shown to exhibit positive necrotaxis. The cellular colony Pandorina morum exhibited no reaction to the killing of nearby colonies. Both the colorless cryptomonad Chilomonas paramecium and the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis exhibited negative necrotaxis following the lysis of vitally stained specimens of their own species. They also exhibited negative necrotaxis following the lysis of Euglena cells. It was also demonstrated that the cellular content of Euglena cells lysed by heat or by a mechanical procedure acts as a repellent to intact Euglena cells. These results suggest that the negative necrotaxis provoked in Euglena by the laser irradiation is probably due to the chemotactic effect produced by the release of cell content in the extracellular medium. This cell content could, according to its chemical composition, act either as a repellent, an attractant, or be inactive. The sensitivity of cells (specific or nonspecific ion channels or chemoreceptors) are also of prime importance in the process.

  8. Effectiveness of a school-based intervention for enhancing adolescents' positive attitudes towards people with mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Giannakopoulos, George; Assimopoulos, Haris; Petanidou, Dimitra; Tzavara, Chara; Kolaitis, Gerasimos; Tsiantis, John

    2012-01-01

    High school students are a common target group in initiatives addressing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, these initiatives are rarely evaluated and documented. The aim of our paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based educational intervention for improving adolescents' attitudes and reducing the desire for social distance from people with mental illness living in their community. A total of 161 students aged 16–18 years old were questioned at baseline assessment and 86 of them received a three-workshop educational intervention while 75 students comprised the control group. A follow-up assessment 1 month post intervention evaluated its impact. Attitudes and the social distance were assessed through the Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill scale and a 10-statement questionnaire based on the Self-report Inventory of Fear and Behavioural Intentions, respectively. Data from 140 subjects were analyzed. All attitude dimensions and half of the measured social distance statements were significantly improved in the intervention group at follow up assessment compared to controls. However, the statements measuring more intimate types of social relationships did not change significantly post intervention. In conclusion, short educational interventions can be effective to some extent in reducing discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental illness. However, effective interventions to address deeply held negative stereotypes will require further research. PMID:25478117

  9. When training boomerangs - Negative outcomes associated with Cockpit Resource Management programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Wilhelm, John A.

    1989-01-01

    Participants' self-reports and measures of attitudes regarding flightdeck management indicate that Cockpit Resource Management training is positively received and causes highly significant changes in attitudes regarding crew coordination and personal capabilities. However, a subset of participants react negatively to the training and show boomerangs (negative change) in attitudes. Explorations into the causes of this effect pinpoint personality factors and group dynamics as critical determinants of reactions to training and the magnitude and direction of attitude change.

  10. Attitudes of Young Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnell, Michael O.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reports results of an extensive field test of a reading attitudes survey. Finds that students tend to demonstrate mildly favorable attitudes in grades 2-6, but these attitudes deteriorate to neutral to mildly unfavorable attitudes in the fifth and sixth grade. (RS)

  11. Attitudes toward emotions.

    PubMed

    Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Amodio, David M; Gable, Philip A

    2011-12-01

    The present work outlines a theory of attitudes toward emotions, provides a measure of attitudes toward emotions, and then tests several predictions concerning relationships between attitudes toward specific emotions and emotional situation selection, emotional traits, emotional reactivity, and emotion regulation. The present conceptualization of individual differences in attitudes toward emotions focuses on specific emotions and presents data indicating that 5 emotions (anger, sadness, joy, fear, and disgust) load on 5 separate attitude factors (Study 1). Attitudes toward emotions predicted emotional situation selection (Study 2). Moreover, attitudes toward approach emotions (e.g., anger, joy) correlated directly with the associated trait emotions, whereas attitudes toward withdrawal emotions (fear, disgust) correlated inversely with associated trait emotions (Study 3). Similar results occurred when attitudes toward emotions were used to predict state emotional reactivity (Study 4). Finally, attitudes toward emotions predicted specific forms of emotion regulation (Study 5).

  12. Patterns of Welfare Attitudes in the Australian Population

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Timothy P.; Butterworth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The study of community attitudes toward welfare and welfare recipients is an area of increasing interest. This is not only because negative attitudes can lead to stigmatization and discrimination, but because of the relevance of social attitudes to policy decisions. We quantify the attitudes toward welfare in the Australian population using attitude data from a nationally representative survey (N = 3243). Although there was broad support for the social welfare system, negative attitudes are held toward those who receive welfare benefits. Using canonical correlation analysis we identify multivariate associations between welfare attitudes and respondent demographic characteristics. A primary attitudinal dimension of welfare positivity was found amongst those with higher levels of education, life instability, and personal exposure to the welfare system. Other patterns of negative welfare attitudes appeared to be motivated by beliefs that the respondent’s personal circumstances indicate their deservingness. Moreover, a previously unidentified and unconsidered subset of respondents was identified. This group had positive attitudes toward receiving government benefits despite having no recent experience of welfare. They did, however, possess many of the characteristics that frequently lead to welfare receipt. These results provide insights into not only how attitudinal patterns segment across the population, but are of relevance to policy makers considering how to align welfare reform with community attitudes. PMID:26554361

  13. Ethnic and adoption attitudes among Guatemalan University students.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Judith L; González-Oliva, Ana Gabriela; Mylonas, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    Intercountry adoptions from Guatemala were highly controversial, because of the large numbers of children being adopted to the USA, along with evidence of corruption and child theft. Since the implementation of the Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption in 2008, Guatemala's central authority for adoption has prioritized domestic placements for children over intercountry adoption. A possible attitudinal barrier to domestic adoption in Guatemala-negative attitudes and prejudice against Indigenous people-was investigated through questionnaires measuring attitudes toward adoption and attitudes toward and social distance from the two major ethnic groups (Ladino and Indigenous). Guatemalan university students (N = 177, 61 % men) were recruited from basic required courses at a private university. Results showed that attitudes toward adoption in general were more favorable than toward interethnic adoption, with the most negative attitudes toward adoption of Ladino children by Indigenous parents. Multiple regression and analysis of covariance models revealed that female gender, experience with adoption and more positive attitudes about Indigenous persons were associated with more positive attitudes toward adoption. The findings imply that negative attitudes toward Indigenous persons are associated with negative attitudes toward adoption, and serve as barriers to promoting domestic adoption in Guatemala. PMID:26702374

  14. Ethnic and adoption attitudes among Guatemalan University students.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Judith L; González-Oliva, Ana Gabriela; Mylonas, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    Intercountry adoptions from Guatemala were highly controversial, because of the large numbers of children being adopted to the USA, along with evidence of corruption and child theft. Since the implementation of the Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption in 2008, Guatemala's central authority for adoption has prioritized domestic placements for children over intercountry adoption. A possible attitudinal barrier to domestic adoption in Guatemala-negative attitudes and prejudice against Indigenous people-was investigated through questionnaires measuring attitudes toward adoption and attitudes toward and social distance from the two major ethnic groups (Ladino and Indigenous). Guatemalan university students (N = 177, 61 % men) were recruited from basic required courses at a private university. Results showed that attitudes toward adoption in general were more favorable than toward interethnic adoption, with the most negative attitudes toward adoption of Ladino children by Indigenous parents. Multiple regression and analysis of covariance models revealed that female gender, experience with adoption and more positive attitudes about Indigenous persons were associated with more positive attitudes toward adoption. The findings imply that negative attitudes toward Indigenous persons are associated with negative attitudes toward adoption, and serve as barriers to promoting domestic adoption in Guatemala.

  15. Examination of a multi-factorial model of body-related experiences during pregnancy: the relationships among physical symptoms, sleep quality, depression, self-esteem, and negative body attitudes.

    PubMed

    Kamysheva, Ekaterina; Skouteris, Helen; Wertheim, Eleanor H; Paxton, Susan J; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate relationships among women's body attitudes, physical symptoms, self-esteem, depression, and sleep quality during pregnancy. Pregnant women (N=215) at 15-25 weeks gestation completed a questionnaire including four body image subscales assessing self-reported feeling fat, attractiveness, strength/fitness, and salience of weight and shape. Women reported on 29 pregnancy-related physical complaints, and completed the Beck Depression Inventory, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. In regressions, controlling for retrospective reports of body image, more frequent and intense physical symptoms were related to viewing the self as less strong/fit, and to poorer sleep quality and more depressive symptoms. In a multi-factorial model extending previous research, paths were found from sleep quality to depressive symptoms to self-esteem; self-esteem was found to be a mediator associated with lower scores on feeling fat and salience of weight and shape, and on higher perceived attractiveness. PMID:18463009

  16. Implicit and explicit attitudes towards lesbians and gay men.

    PubMed

    Steffens, Melanie C

    2005-01-01

    Attitudes towards lesbians and gay men, as assessed with questionnaires, have become more and more positive in the last decades. An open question is, however, whether that trend reflects true change or rather a growing reluctance to admit negative attitudes (to others and self). New procedures measuring implicit attitudes may help find an answer. In three studies with 208 students at a German university, attitudes towards lesbians and gay men were measured with explicit scales and with an Implicit Association Test (Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) adapted for that purpose. Explicit attitudes were very positive. However, implicit attitudes were relatively negative instead, except for female participants' implicit attitudes towards lesbians which were repeatedly as positive as were their attitudes towards heterosexuals. The internal consistencies of the implicit tests were exemplary. Correlations with sexual orientation as well as with explicit homosexuality-related and gender-related attitudes attested to their validity. However, context effects were found for different implicit attitudes measured in close succession, and correlations of implicit homosexuality-related and gender-related attitudes could not be detected.

  17. Responses to formal performance appraisal feedback: the role of negative affectivity.

    PubMed

    Lam, Simon S K; Yik, Michelle S M; Schaubroeck, John

    2002-02-01

    This study examined the effects of performance appraisal feedback on job and organizational attitudes of tellers (N = 329) in a large international bank. Negative affectivity moderated the link between favorable appraisal feedback and job attitudes. Among the higher rated performers, attitudes were improved 1 month after being notified of favorable appraisal results (Time 2). Improved attitudes persisted 6 months after the performance appraisal (Time 3) among tellers with low negative affectivity but not among those with high negative affectivity. Among the lower rated performers, mean levels of attitudes did not change significantly during the study. PMID:11924542

  18. Evidence that attitude accessibility augments the relationship between speeding attitudes and speeding behavior: a test of the MODE model in the context of driving.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Mark A; Lee, Emme; Robertson, Jamie S; Innes, Rhona

    2015-01-01

    According to the MODE model of attitude-to-behavior processes, attitude accessibility augments attitude-behavior correspondence, reflecting an automatic influence of attitudes on behavior. We therefore tested whether attitude accessibility moderates the attitude-behavior relationship in a context that is governed by characteristically automatic behavior, namely driving. In study 1 (correlational design), participants (N=130) completed online questionnaire measures of the valences and accessibilities of their attitudes towards speeding. Two weeks later, online questionnaire measures of subsequent speeding behavior were obtained. Attitude valence was a significantly better predictor of behavior at high (mean+1SD) versus low (mean-1SD) levels of attitude accessibility. In study 2 (experimental design), attitude accessibility was manipulated with a repeated attitude expression task. Immediately after the manipulation, participants (N=122) completed online questionnaire measures of attitude valence and accessibility, and two weeks later, subsequent speeding behavior. Increased attitude accessibility in the experimental (versus control) condition generated an increase in attitude-behavior correspondence. The findings are consistent with the MODE model's proposition that attitudes can exert an automatic influence on behavior. Interventions to reduce speeding could usefully increase the accessibility of anti-speeding attitudes and reduce the accessibility of pro-speeding attitudes.

  19. Faculty attitudes about interprofessional education

    PubMed Central

    Beck Dallaghan, Gary L.; Hoffman, Erin; Lyden, Elizabeth; Bevil, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background Interprofessional education (IPE) is an important component to training health care professionals. Research is limited in exploring the attitudes that faculty hold regarding IPE and what barriers they perceive to participating in IPE. The purpose of this study was to identify faculty attitudes about IPE and to identify barriers to participating in campus-wide IPE activities. Methods A locally used questionnaire called the Nebraska Interprofessional Education Attitudes Scale (NIPEAS) was used to assess attitudes related to interprofessional collaboration. Questions regarding perceived barriers were included at the end of the questionnaire. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were used to analyze the results in aggregate as well as by college. In addition, open-ended questions were analyzed using an immersion/crystallization framework to identify themes. Results The results showed that faculty had positive attitudes of IPE, indicating that is not a barrier to participating in IPE activities. Most common barriers to participation were scheduling conflicts (χ4,2852=19.17, p=0.001), lack of department support (χ4,2852=10.09, p=0.039), and lack of awareness of events (χ4,2852=26.38, p=0.000). Narrative comments corroborated that scheduling conflicts are an issue because of other priorities. Those who commented also added to the list of barriers, including relevance of the activities, location, and prior negative experiences. Discussion With faculty attitudes being positive, the exploration of faculty's perceived barriers to IPE was considered even more important. Identifying these barriers will allow us to modify our IPE activities from large, campus-wide events to smaller activities that are longitudinal in nature, embedded within current curriculum and involving more authentic experiences. PMID:27357910

  20. Attitudes toward sex in the aged.

    PubMed

    LaTorre, R A; Kear, K

    1977-05-01

    Eighty university students and 40 staff members of a nursing home for the aged rated their reactions to three stories: a neutral (decision-making) story, a coital story, and a masturbatory story. For each story, the age and gender of the main character were varied. Results indicated an absence of negative attitudes toward sex in the aged. However, sex in the aged was less credible than sex in young people. Nursing home staff members had more negative attitudes toward sexual stories than did the students. Gender of rater had little effect. Coitus was rated more favorably for the male character than for the female character, and the reverse was true for masturbation.

  1. A cotton Raf-like MAP3K gene, GhMAP3K40, mediates reduced tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress in Nicotiana benthamiana by negatively regulating growth and development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaobo; Wang, Ji; Zhu, Ming; Jia, Haihong; Liu, Dongdong; Hao, Lili; Guo, Xingqi

    2015-11-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades mediate various responses in plants. As the top component, MAP3Ks deserve more attention; however, little is known about the role of MAP3Ks, especially in cotton, a worldwide economic crop. In this study, a gene encoding a putative Raf-like MAP3K, GhMAP3K40, was isolated. GhMAP3K40 expression was induced by stress and multiple signal molecules. The plants overexpressing GhMAP3K40 had an enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress at the germination stage. However, at the seedling stage, the transgenic plants suffered more severe damage after drought, exposure to pathogens and oxidative stress. The defence-related genes and the antioxidant system were activated in transgenic palnts, suggesting that GhMAP3K40 positively regulate the defence response. The transgenic plants were less able to prevent pathogenic invasion, which was due to defects in the cell structure of the leaves. The root system of the control plants were stronger compared with the transgenic plants. These results indicated a negative role of GhMAP3K40 in growth and development and GhMAP3K40 possibly caused the defects by down-regulating the lignin biosynthesis. Overall, these results suggest that GhMAP3K40 may positively regulate defence response but cause reduced tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress by negatively regulating growth and development. PMID:26475184

  2. A cotton Raf-like MAP3K gene, GhMAP3K40, mediates reduced tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress in Nicotiana benthamiana by negatively regulating growth and development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaobo; Wang, Ji; Zhu, Ming; Jia, Haihong; Liu, Dongdong; Hao, Lili; Guo, Xingqi

    2015-11-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades mediate various responses in plants. As the top component, MAP3Ks deserve more attention; however, little is known about the role of MAP3Ks, especially in cotton, a worldwide economic crop. In this study, a gene encoding a putative Raf-like MAP3K, GhMAP3K40, was isolated. GhMAP3K40 expression was induced by stress and multiple signal molecules. The plants overexpressing GhMAP3K40 had an enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress at the germination stage. However, at the seedling stage, the transgenic plants suffered more severe damage after drought, exposure to pathogens and oxidative stress. The defence-related genes and the antioxidant system were activated in transgenic palnts, suggesting that GhMAP3K40 positively regulate the defence response. The transgenic plants were less able to prevent pathogenic invasion, which was due to defects in the cell structure of the leaves. The root system of the control plants were stronger compared with the transgenic plants. These results indicated a negative role of GhMAP3K40 in growth and development and GhMAP3K40 possibly caused the defects by down-regulating the lignin biosynthesis. Overall, these results suggest that GhMAP3K40 may positively regulate defence response but cause reduced tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress by negatively regulating growth and development.

  3. The attitude of Japanese family caregivers toward the elderly with dementia.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Mitani, N; Tamura, M; Deguchi, Y; Ito, K; Sugishita, C

    2000-10-01

    This research examined family caregivers' attitudes toward their elderly relatives living with dementia. A convenience sample of fifty-nine Japanese caregivers was used. Caregiver attitudes were investigated multi-dimensionally (negative attitude, attitude of acceptance, and attitude of active interaction) using a questionnaire developed specifically for this study. The dimensions did not correlate with one another but were associated with different caregiver/elderly characteristics: i.e., negative attitude with short stay use, length of time caregivers and elderly relatives were living together and problem behaviors; attitude of acceptance with sleeping pill use and the type of relationship; and attitude of active interaction with dementia diagnosis. The results have implications for nurses in facilitating constructive caregiver attitudes. PMID:10785532

  4. The attitude of Japanese family caregivers toward the elderly with dementia.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Mitani, N; Tamura, M; Deguchi, Y; Ito, K; Sugishita, C

    2000-10-01

    This research examined family caregivers' attitudes toward their elderly relatives living with dementia. A convenience sample of fifty-nine Japanese caregivers was used. Caregiver attitudes were investigated multi-dimensionally (negative attitude, attitude of acceptance, and attitude of active interaction) using a questionnaire developed specifically for this study. The dimensions did not correlate with one another but were associated with different caregiver/elderly characteristics: i.e., negative attitude with short stay use, length of time caregivers and elderly relatives were living together and problem behaviors; attitude of acceptance with sleeping pill use and the type of relationship; and attitude of active interaction with dementia diagnosis. The results have implications for nurses in facilitating constructive caregiver attitudes.

  5. Exploring the Impact of Toxic Attitudes and a Toxic Environment on the Veterinary Healthcare Team

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Irene C.; Coe, Jason B.; Adams, Cindy L.; Conlon, Peter D.; Sargeant, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this qualitative study was to compare veterinarians’ and Registered Veterinary Technicians’ (RVT’s) perceptions of the veterinary healthcare team with respect to the impact of toxic attitudes and a toxic environment. Focus group interviews using a semi-structured interview guide and follow up probes were held with four veterinarian groups (23 companion animal veterinarians) and four Registered Veterinary Technician groups (26 RVTs). Thematic analysis of the discussions indicated both veterinarian and RVT participants felt team members with manifestations of toxic attitudes negatively impacted veterinary team function. These manifestations included people being disrespectful, being resistant to change, always wanting to be the “go to person,” avoiding conflict, and lacking motivation. When conflict was ignored, or when people with toxic attitudes were not addressed, a toxic environment often resulted. A toxic environment sometimes manifested when “broken communication and tension between staff members” occurred as a result of employees lacking confidence, skills, or knowledge not being managed properly. It also occurred when employees did not feel appreciated, when there was difficulty coping with turnover, and when there were conflicting demands. The presence of people manifesting a toxic attitude was a source of frustration for both veterinarian and RVT participants. Prompt and consistent attention to negative behaviors is recommended to reduce the development of a toxic environment. PMID:26779492

  6. Exploring the Impact of Toxic Attitudes and a Toxic Environment on the Veterinary Healthcare Team.

    PubMed

    Moore, Irene C; Coe, Jason B; Adams, Cindy L; Conlon, Peter D; Sargeant, Jan M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this qualitative study was to compare veterinarians' and Registered Veterinary Technicians' (RVT's) perceptions of the veterinary healthcare team with respect to the impact of toxic attitudes and a toxic environment. Focus group interviews using a semi-structured interview guide and follow up probes were held with four veterinarian groups (23 companion animal veterinarians) and four Registered Veterinary Technician groups (26 RVTs). Thematic analysis of the discussions indicated both veterinarian and RVT participants felt team members with manifestations of toxic attitudes negatively impacted veterinary team function. These manifestations included people being disrespectful, being resistant to change, always wanting to be the "go to person," avoiding conflict, and lacking motivation. When conflict was ignored, or when people with toxic attitudes were not addressed, a toxic environment often resulted. A toxic environment sometimes manifested when "broken communication and tension between staff members" occurred as a result of employees lacking confidence, skills, or knowledge not being managed properly. It also occurred when employees did not feel appreciated, when there was difficulty coping with turnover, and when there were conflicting demands. The presence of people manifesting a toxic attitude was a source of frustration for both veterinarian and RVT participants. Prompt and consistent attention to negative behaviors is recommended to reduce the development of a toxic environment. PMID:26779492

  7. Framing (implicitly) matters: the role of religion in attitudes toward immigrants and Muslims in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joel; Antalíková, Radka

    2014-12-01

    Denmark is currently experiencing the highest immigration rate in its modern history. Population surveys indicate that negative public attitudes toward immigrants actually stem from attitudes toward their (perceived) Islamic affiliation. We used a framing paradigm to investigate the explicit and implicit attitudes of Christian and Atheist Danes toward targets framed as Muslims or as immigrants. The results showed that explicit and implicit attitudes were more negative when the target was framed as a Muslim, rather than as an immigrant. Interestingly, implicit attitudes were qualified by the participants' religion. Specifically, analyses revealed that Christians demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward immigrants than Muslims. Conversely, Atheists demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward Muslims than Atheists. These results suggest a complex relationship between religion, and implicit and explicit prejudice. Both the religious affiliation of the perceiver and the perceived religious affiliation of the target are key factors in social perception. PMID:25231272

  8. Framing (implicitly) matters: the role of religion in attitudes toward immigrants and Muslims in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joel; Antalíková, Radka

    2014-12-01

    Denmark is currently experiencing the highest immigration rate in its modern history. Population surveys indicate that negative public attitudes toward immigrants actually stem from attitudes toward their (perceived) Islamic affiliation. We used a framing paradigm to investigate the explicit and implicit attitudes of Christian and Atheist Danes toward targets framed as Muslims or as immigrants. The results showed that explicit and implicit attitudes were more negative when the target was framed as a Muslim, rather than as an immigrant. Interestingly, implicit attitudes were qualified by the participants' religion. Specifically, analyses revealed that Christians demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward immigrants than Muslims. Conversely, Atheists demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward Muslims than Atheists. These results suggest a complex relationship between religion, and implicit and explicit prejudice. Both the religious affiliation of the perceiver and the perceived religious affiliation of the target are key factors in social perception.

  9. How Do Attitudes toward Mental Health Treatment Vary by Age, Gender, and Ethnicity/Race in Young Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Jodi M.; Alegria, Margarita; Prihoda, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates attitudes toward seeking mental health treatment in a national epidemiological sample. Young adults reported the most negative attitudes, as compared to older adults. Males reported more negative attitudes, as compared to females, a consistent finding in young adults. The gender difference was not consistent in Latinos…

  10. Consumer Perceived Risk, Attitude and Online Shopping Behaviour; Empirical Evidence from Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sylvester, Michele; Zakuan, Norhayati; Ismail, Khalid; Mat Ali, Kamarudin

    2014-06-01

    The development of e-commerce has increased the popularity of online shopping worldwide. In Malaysia, it was reported that online shopping market size was RM1.8 billion in 2013 and it is estimated to reach RM5 billion by 2015. However, online shopping was rated 11th out of 15 purposes of using internet in 2012. Consumers' perceived risks of online shopping becomes a hot topic to research as it will directly influence users' attitude towards online purchasing, and their attitude will have significant impact to the online purchasing behaviour. The conceptualization of consumers' perceived risk, attitude and online shopping behaviour of this study provides empirical evidence in the study of consumer online behaviour. Four types of risks - product risk, financial, convenience and non-delivery risks - were examined in term of their effect on consumers' online attitude. A web-based survey was employed, and a total of 300 online shoppers of a Malaysia largest online marketplace participated in this study. The findings indicated that product risk, financial and non-delivery risks are hazardous and negatively affect the attitude of online shoppers. Convenience risk was found to have positive effect on consumers' attitude, denoting that online buyers of this site trusted the online seller and they encountered less troublesome with the site. It also implies that consumers did not really concern on non-convenience aspect of online shopping, such as handling of returned products and examine the quality of products featured in the online seller website. The online buyers' attitude was significantly and positively affects their online purchasing behaviour. The findings provide useful model for measuring and managing consumers' perceived risk in internet-based transaction to increase their involvement in online shopping and to reduce their cognitive dissonance in the e-commerce setting.

  11. Cortical thinning, functional connectivity, and mood-related impulsivity in schizophrenia: relations to aggressive attitudes and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hoptman, Matthew J.; Antonius, Daniel; Mauro, Cristina J.; Parker, Emily M.; Javitt, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aggression in schizophrenia is a major societal issue, leading to physical harm, stigmatization, patient distress, and higher healthcare costs. Impulsivity is associated with aggression in schizophrenia, but it is multidetermined. The subconstruct of urgency is likely to play an important role in this aggression, with positive urgency referring to rash action in context of positive emotion, and negative urgency to rash action in context of negative emotion. Method We examined urgency and its neural correlates in 33 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 31 healthy controls. Urgency was measured using the Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance and Sensation Seeking scale. Aggressive attitudes were measured using the Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Results Positive urgency, negative urgency, and aggressive attitudes were significantly and selectively elevated in patients (1.21< Cohen’s ds < 1.50). Positive and negative urgency significantly correlated with Aggression Questionnaire total score (rs>.48) and each uniquely accounted for a significant portion of the variance in aggression over and above the effect of group. Urgency measures correlated with reduced cortical thickness in ventral prefrontal regions including right frontal pole, medial and lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and inferior frontal gyri, and rostral anterior cingulate cortex. In patients, reduced resting state functional connectivity in some of these regions was associated with higher urgency. Conclusions Findings highlight the key role of urgency in aggressive attitudes in people with schizophrenia and suggest neural substrates of these behaviors. They also suggest behavioral and neural targets for interventions to remediate urgency and aggression. PMID:25073506

  12. Korean University Students' Attitudes and Motivation towards Studying English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geddes, Aaron J.

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify the attitudes of Korean university students towards studying English and to determine if attending after-school English academies has had a negative impact on their attitudes towards studying English. The study also sought to determine if studying English leads to anxiety, and more importantly if…

  13. Intergenerational Contact, Attitudes, and Stereotypes of Adolescents and Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meshel, David S.

    2004-01-01

    Contradictory findings characterize the literature on the efficacy of intergenerational programs that bring children and older persons together for joint activities to promote more positive attitudes and stereotypes. Nor is it clear whether cross-generational attitudes are negative to begin with. The research reported in this paper operationalized…

  14. Examining Teachers' Attitudes toward a Required Environmental Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Judith Chen-Hsuan; Monroe, Martha C.

    2010-01-01

    Requiring teachers to partake in environmental education (EE) may generate negative reactions since elementary teachers can be overloaded with meeting standards and student performance goals. This study explores teachers' attitudes toward a required EE program, Lagoon Quest. We compare attitudes among teachers with and without prior Lagoon Quest,…

  15. Urban Middle-School Students' Attitudes toward a Defined Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharia, Zacharias; Barton, Angela Calabrese

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that urban students and students of color have exceptionally negative attitudes toward school science and their futures in that field as compared with white students and nonurban students. In this paper we summarize research findings on students' attitudes toward science. We note that most of the studies of students'…

  16. Influence of Item Direction on Student Responses in Attitude Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Noma Jo; Grissom, Stephen

    To investigate the effects of wording in attitude test items, a five-point Likert-type rating scale was administered to 173 undergraduate education majors. The test measured attitudes toward college and self, and contained 38 positively-worded items. Thirty-eight negatively-worded items were also written to parallel the positive statements.…

  17. White Student Attitudes toward Blacks and Hispanics: Programming Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Timothy J.; Sedlacek, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Assessed attitudes of 171 white college freshmen toward blacks and Hispanics in different personal and social situations. Student responses to the Situational Attitude Scale revealed that subjects had more negative feelings toward blacks and Hispanics than toward persons whose race was not noted, particularly in situations involving close personal…

  18. Conditioning Children's Attitudes toward Alcohol, Smoking and Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Laura P.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Classical conditioning procedures were used to change the attitudes and choice of social behavior of elementary and secondary students associated with drinking, smoking, and the use of drugs. The experimental group expressed more negative attitudes toward smoking and drinking and chose the use of drugs less frequently. (Author/BW)

  19. Attitude Strength: An Extra-Content Aspect of Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwitt, Linda F.

    Attitude strength is considered as an extra-content aspect of attitude. A model of the relationship of attitude strength to attitude direction and behavior proposes that attitude strength is comprised of three dimensions that moderate the relationship between attitude direction and behavior. The dimensions are parallel to the tripartite dimensions…

  20. Leptin Reduces the Expression and Increases the Phosphorylation of the Negative Regulators of GLUT4 Traffic TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 in Muscle of ob/ob Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sáinz, Neira; Rodríguez, Amaia; Catalán, Victoria; Becerril, Sara; Ramírez, Beatriz; Lancha, Andoni; Burgos-Ramos, Emma; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2012-01-01

    Leptin improves insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. Our goal was to determine whether proteins controlling GLUT4 traffic are altered by leptin deficiency and in vivo leptin administration in skeletal muscle of wild type and ob/ob mice. Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice were divided in three groups: control, leptin-treated (1 mg/kg/d) and leptin pair-fed ob/ob mice. Microarray analysis revealed that 1,546 and 1,127 genes were regulated by leptin deficiency and leptin treatment, respectively. Among these, we identified 24 genes involved in intracellular vesicle-mediated transport in ob/ob mice. TBC1 domain family, member 1 (Tbc1d1), a negative regulator of GLUT4 translocation, was up-regulated (P = 0.001) in ob/ob mice as compared to wild types. Importantly, leptin treatment reduced the transcript levels of Tbc1d1 (P<0.001) and Tbc1d4 (P = 0.004) in the leptin-treated ob/ob as compared to pair-fed ob/ob animals. In addition, phosphorylation levels of TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 were enhanced in leptin-treated ob/ob as compared to control ob/ob (P = 0.015 and P = 0.023, respectively) and pair-fed ob/ob (P = 0.036 and P = 0.034, respectively) mice. Despite similar GLUT4 protein expression in wild type and ob/ob groups a different immunolocalization of this protein was evidenced in muscle sections. Leptin treatment increased GLUT4 immunoreactivity in gastrocnemius and extensor digitorum longus sections of leptin-treated ob/ob mice. Moreover, GLUT4 protein detected in immunoprecipitates from TBC1D4 was reduced by leptin replacement compared to control ob/ob (P = 0.013) and pair-fed ob/ob (P = 0.037) mice. Our findings suggest that leptin enhances the intracellular GLUT4 transport in skeletal muscle of ob/ob animals by reducing the expression and activity of the negative regulators of GLUT4 traffic TBC1D1 and TBC1D4. PMID:22253718

  1. Euthanasia attitude; A comparison of two scales

    PubMed Central

    Aghababaei, Naser; Farahani, Hojjatollah; Hatami, Javad

    2011-01-01

    The main purposes of the present study were to see how the term “euthanasia” influences people’s support for or opposition to euthanasia; and to see how euthanasia attitude relates to religious orientation and personality factors. In this study two different euthanasia attitude scales were compared. 197 students were selected to fill out either the Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS) or Wasserman’s Attitude Towards Euthanasia scale (ATE scale). The former scale includes the term “euthanasia”, the latter does not. All participants filled out 50 items of International Personality Item Pool, 16 items of the the HEXACO openness, and 14 items of Religious Orientation Scale-Revised. Results indicated that even though the two groups were not different in terms of gender, age, education, religiosity and personality, mean score on the ATE scale was significantly higher than that of the EAS. Euthanasia attitude was negatively correlated with religiosity and conscientiousness and it was positively correlated with psychoticism and openness. It can be concluded that analyzing the attitude towards euthanasia with the use of EAS rather than the ATE scale results in lower levels of opposition against euthanasia. This study raises the question of whether euthanasia attitude scales should contain definitions and concepts of euthanasia or they should describe cases of it. PMID:23908751

  2. Body appreciation and attitudes toward menstruation.

    PubMed

    Chrisler, Joan C; Marván, Maria Luisa; Gorman, Jennifer A; Rossini, Meghan

    2015-01-01

    Menstruation is an important function of the female body, yet it has rarely been included in research on body image. As women's attitudes toward menstruation are so often negative, this study was designed to examine whether women with positive body image would have more positive attitudes toward menstruation. Seventy-two American women, ages 18-45 years, were recruited online to complete the Body Appreciation Scale (Avalos et al., 2005) and the Beliefs about and Attitudes toward Menstruation Scale (Marván et al., 2006) and to answer some questions about their interest in menstrual suppression. Linear regressions showed that higher scores on body appreciation predicted more positive attitudes toward and beliefs about menstruation, but were not related to interest in menstrual suppression. Our findings may be useful in designing interventions to increase women's comfort with their bodies and bodily functions.

  3. The menstrual attitude questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Brooks-Gunn, J; Ruble, D N

    1980-09-01

    In order to examine the relationship of attitudes about menstruation to self-reports of menstrual-related symptomatology as well as to other aspects of behavior, an instrument to measure attitudes concerning menstruation was developed. After constructing the Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ), the factor analytic structure of the original MAQ sample was replicated on a second sample. Summary statistics are presented for college women, college men, and adolescent girls, and the relationship between menstrual-related attitudes, expectations, and experience is examined.

  4. Mental health first aid training for the Chinese community in Melbourne, Australia: effects on knowledge about and attitudes toward people with mental illness

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate in members of the Chinese community in Melbourne the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training on knowledge about mental disorders and on attitudes to people with mental illness. The hypotheses were that at the end of the training participants would have increased knowledge of mental disorders and related treatments, and decreased negative attitudes towards people with mental disorders. Methods Respondents were 108 participants of three MHFA training workshops for the Chinese community in Melbourne conducted by a qualified MHFA trainer. Participants completed the research questionnaire prior to the commencement of the training (pre-test) and at its completion (post-test). The questionnaires assessed participants' ability to recognize a mental disorder (depression and schizophrenia) described in the vignettes, knowledge about the professional help and treatment, and negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Results Between pre- and post-test there was significant improvement in the recognition of mental disorders, beliefs about treatment became more concordant with health professionals, and negative attitudes reduced. Conclusion The MHFA training course for general members of the Chinese community in Melbourne produced significant positive change in the level of mental health literacy and reductions in stigmatizing attitudes. The evidence from this study, together with the accumulated evidence of the benefits of MHFA training in the general Australian community, suggests that this approach should be scaled up to a level where it can have an impact on the whole of the Chinese community in Australia. PMID:20576137

  5. Attitudes of Dental Faculty toward Individuals with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Leonard A.; Grace, Edward G., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of one dental school's faculty concerning attitudes toward homosexual or heterosexual patients with either Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or leukemia found significant negative biases both toward individuals with AIDS and toward homosexuals. (MSE)

  6. Faculty Attitudes toward Male Revenue and Nonrevenue Student-Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engstrom, Cathy McHugh; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study of attitudes of a random sample of faculty at a major, public, research university in the East indicated that faculty perceived male revenue and nonrevenue athletes negatively in situations dealing with athletic competence, special services, and recognition. (JPS)

  7. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  8. A general geometric theory of attitude determination from directional sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, B. T.

    1976-01-01

    A general geometric theory of spacecraft attitude determination from external reference direction sensors was presented. Outputs of different sensors are reduced to two kinds of basic directional measurements. Errors in these measurement equations are studied in detail. The partial derivatives of measurements with respect to the spacecraft orbit, the spacecraft attitude, and the error parameters form the basis for all orbit and attitude determination schemes and error analysis programs and are presented in a series of tables. The question of attitude observability is studied with the introduction of a graphical construction which provides a great deal of physical insight. The result is applied to the attitude observability of the IMP-8 spacecraft.

  9. How children with facial differences are perceived by non-affected children and adolescents: perceiver effects on stereotypical attitudes.

    PubMed

    Masnari, Ornella; Schiestl, Clemens; Weibel, Lisa; Wuttke, Franziska; Landolt, Markus A

    2013-09-01

    Children with a facial difference are presumed to be at risk of social stigmatization. The purposes of this study were twofold: (1) to assess the effect of facial differences on social perceptions by unaffected children and adolescents; and (2) to identify perceiver characteristics that predict stereotypical attitudes toward facial differences. Participants were 344 non-affected children and adolescents, ages 8-17 years. Participants rated digitally altered images of 12 children depicted either with or without a facial difference. Results show that participants attributed less favorable characteristics to children with a facial difference than to those without. Moreover, participants reported less willingness to interact with or befriend a child with a facial difference. Significant predictors of low discriminative attitudes were older participant age and previous contact with someone with a facial difference. Our data call attention to the need for public education programs targeted at reducing negative attitudes toward facial differences.

  10. A painful reminder: the role of level and salience of attitude importance in cognitive dissonance.

    PubMed

    Starzyk, Katherine B; Fabrigar, Leandre R; Soryal, Ashley S; Fanning, Jessie J

    2009-01-01

    In his seminal book, L. Festinger (1957) emphasized the role of attitude importance in cognitive dissonance. This study (N = 308) explored whether people's use of dissonance reduction strategies differs as a function of level of attitude importance and whether the personal importance of an attitude is salient. Results showed that level and salience of attitude importance interacted to affect high-choice (HC) participants' tendency to use attitude change and trivialization to reduce dissonance. When HC participants were not reminded of the personal importance of their attitude (i.e., it was not salient), they changed their attitudes equally irrespective of attitude importance, but engaged in greater trivialization with increasing levels of importance. In contrast, when attitude importance was salient, HC participants changed their attitudes less with increasing attitude importance and showed no evidence of trivializing under any level of importance.

  11. A Key to the Future: The Attitudes and Values of Adolescent Europeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziebertz, Hans-Georg; Kay, William K.

    2009-01-01

    Based on original empirical data collected from adolescents in Europe (N = 9003) this paper focuses the lifeworlds of young people. It analyses negative and positive patterns of attitude and combines them with further concepts: personal life perspectives, various key values and political attitudes. Technically, the attitude towards Europe acts as…

  12. Is Contact with People with Disabilities a Guarantee for Positive Implicit and Explicit Attitudes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Sascha; Grumm, Mandy; Fingerle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In the past 50 years research on attitudes toward people with disabilities has repeatedly revealed negative attitudes by predominantly using self-report measures. The main aim of the present contribution was to develop an Implicit Association Test (IAT) to assess implicit attitudes toward people with disabilities. For this purpose 47 university…

  13. The Communication Attitude Test (CAT-S): Normative Values for 220 Swedish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannisson, Tove B.; Wennerfeldt, Susanna; Havstam, Christina; Naeslund, Maria; Jacobson, Kajsa; Lohmander, Anette

    2009-01-01

    Background: The risk of developing a negative attitude to communication as a consequence of having a speech disorder has been in focus for decades in research concerning fluency disorders in relation to both children and adults. The Communication Attitude Test (CAT), which was created to measure children's attitudes towards their own…

  14. Evangelical Christian College Students and Attitudes toward Gay Rights: A California University Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Joshua R.; Himes, Heather L.; Kwon, Ellen Miller; Bollinger, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Research demonstrates that Evangelical Christians generally hold more negative attitudes toward gays and lesbians, and are less supportive of gay rights than the general U.S. population. To assess these attitudes, undergraduate students at an Evangelical Christian university in California (N = 319) completed the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay…

  15. Euthanasia: A National Survey of Attitudes toward Voluntary Termination of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgenson, David E.; Neubecker, Ron C.

    1980-01-01

    A study on the attitudes of adults related to the voluntary termination of life showed that those persons with favorable attitudes toward suicide were also favorable toward euthanasia. Religiosity was negatively associated with pro-euthanasia attitudes. Whites and males were more favorable toward euthanasia than Blacks and females. (Author)

  16. "Disgusting" Animals: Primary School Children's Attitudes and Myths of Bats and Spiders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of animals may influence children's beliefs and behaviour toward them, thus building positive attitudes toward animals is one of main goals of environmental education programmes. Although keeping animals contributes to the increase of children's positive attitudes toward wild animals, pet owners show similar negative attitudes toward…

  17. Predicting Educational Outcomes and Psychological Well-Being in Adolescents Using Time Attitude Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.

    2014-01-01

    Using cluster analysis of Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (ATAS) scores in a sample of 300 adolescents ("M" age = 16 years; "SD" = 1.25; 60% male; 41% European American; 25.3% Asian American; 11% African American; 10.3% Latino), the authors identified five time attitude profiles based on positive and negative attitudes toward…

  18. Negative Bodily Self in Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orbach, Israel; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Sheffer, Amir; Meged, Sorin; Har-Even, Dov; Stein, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the relationship between suicidal behavior and aspects of bodily perception and parental care. Measures of bodily perception included measures of tactile sensitivity, body attitudes, and body experiences. Measures of parental care included parental bonding, negative and positive touch, and early maltreatment.…

  19. Portuguese adolescents' attitudes toward sexual minorities: transphobia, homophobia, and gender role beliefs.

    PubMed

    Costa, Pedro Alexandre; Davies, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men are common and widespread in Western societies. However, few studies have addressed attitudes toward transgender individuals. In addition, although research has shown that homophobic harassment and bullying is highly common among adolescents, little is known about adolescent's attitudes toward sexual minorities. This study aimed to fill these gaps in knowledge, by investigating adolescents' attitudes toward transgender individuals and possible attitudinal correlates of those attitudes. Participants (N = 188; 62 males and 126 females) were recruited in high schools in Lisbon, Portugal. Age ranged from 15 to 19 years (M = 17; SD = .96). Participants completed a questionnaire booklet measuring attitudes toward transgender individuals, lesbians, and gay men, and gender role beliefs. Results revealed that attitudes toward transgender individuals were significantly correlated with all attitude measures. Specifically, it was revealed that those participants who endorsed negative attitudes toward transgender individuals were also endorsing of negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men and tended to adhere to traditional gender roles. A significant gender effect was found with males being more negative toward sexual minorities than females, but these negative attitudes were more extreme toward gay men than toward lesbian women. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Socioeconomic inequalities in attitudes towards cancer: an international cancer benchmarking partnership study

    PubMed Central

    Quaife, Samantha L.; Winstanley, Kelly; Robb, Katie A.; Simon, Alice E.; Ramirez, Amanda J.; Forbes, Lindsay J.L.; Brain, Kate E.; Gavin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) differences in attitudes towards cancer have been implicated in the differential screening uptake and the timeliness of symptomatic presentation. However, the predominant emphasis of this work has been on cancer fatalism, and many studies focus on specific community subgroups. This study aimed to assess SES differences in positive and negative attitudes towards cancer in UK adults. A population-based sample of UK adults (n=6965, age≥50 years) completed the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer scale, including six belief items: three positively framed (e.g. ‘Cancer can often be cured’) and three negatively framed (e.g. ‘A cancer diagnosis is a death sentence’). SES was indexed by education. Analyses controlled for sex, ethnicity, marital status, age, self-rated health, and cancer experience. There were few education-level differences for the positive statements, and overall agreement was high (all>90%). In contrast, there were strong differences for negative statements (all Ps<0.001). Among respondents with lower education levels, 57% agreed that ‘treatment is worse than cancer’, 27% that cancer is ‘a death sentence’ and 16% ‘would not want to know if I have cancer’. Among those with university education, the respective proportions were 34, 17 and 6%. Differences were not explained by cancer experience or health status. In conclusion, positive statements about cancer outcomes attract near-universal agreement. However, this optimistic perspective coexists alongside widespread fears about survival and treatment, especially among less-educated groups. Health education campaigns targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged groups might benefit from a focus on reducing negative attitudes, which is not necessarily achieved by promoting positive attitudes. PMID:25734238

  1. An animal rights attitude survey of undergraduate psychology students.

    PubMed

    Vigorito, M

    1996-08-01

    An animal rights attitude survey of 46 statements on various issues related to animal rights was given to 112 freshmen who were near the end of their first college course in introductory psychology and to 63 junior and senior psychology majors. A factor analysis yielded a multidimensional structure with attitudes toward animal research, nonresearch, environment, and evolution as factors. Beginning psychology students had a more negative attitude toward animal research than did psychology majors; however, psychology majors displayed a more positive attitude toward the environment and toward animal rights issues not involving animal research.

  2. Bad Attitudes: Why Design Students Dislike Teamwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Richard; Abbasi, Neda

    2016-01-01

    Positive experiences of teamwork in design contexts significantly improve students' satisfaction with teaching and their attitudes towards future teamwork. Thus, an understanding of the factors leading to negative and positive team experiences can inform strategies to support effective teamwork. This paper examines design students' perceptions and…

  3. A Cultural Program for Changing Racial Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ijaz, M. Ahmed; Ijaz, I. Helene

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the difficulties in changing negative racial attitudes in students and describes a Canadian, elementary-level cultural program which succeeded in improving them. The program used folk dances, music, crafts and role playing to show how cultural differences in East Indian, Canadian and other cultures were manifestations of essentially…

  4. Attitudes of Children Established by Classical Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnabei, Fred; And Others

    This study examined the attitudes of children established by classical conditioning. Subjects were 4th graders (26 males and 31 females). Each child was randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. A posttest-only design was used with positive and negative word associations presented to the experimental group, and neutral word…

  5. Appalachian English Stereotypes: Language Attitudes in Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luhman, Reid

    1990-01-01

    Employs the matched guise technique to compare attitudes in Kentucky about Appalachian English and Standard American English held by speakers of both language varieties. The study suggests that speakers of Appalachian English partially accept low status evaluation of their dialect, but reject other negative stereotypes about their community…

  6. Gender differences in attitudes impeding colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    , and 3) embarrassment for females and; 1) avoidant procrastination with underlying fatalism, 2) unnecessary health care and 3) uncomfortable vulnerability for males. Respondents adopted similar attitudes towards fecal occult blood testing, flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy, and were comparable in decision stage across tests. Gender differences were neither closely tied to screening stage nor modality. Women had more consistent physician relationships, were more screening-knowledgeable and better able to articulate views on screening. Men reported less consistent physician relationships, were less knowledgeable and kept decision-making processes vague and emotionally distanced (i.e. at ‘arm’s length’). Conclusions Marked differences were observed in obstructive CRCS attitudes per gender. Females articulated reservations about CRCS-associated distress and males suppressed negative views while ambiguously procrastinating about the task of completing screening. Future interventions could seek to reduce CRCS-related stress (females) and address the need to overcome procrastination (males). PMID:23706029

  7. Spacecraft Attitude Determination Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This document is presentation in viewgraph form, which outlines the methods of determining spacecraft attitude. The presentation reviews several parameterizations relating to spacecraft attitude, such as Euler's Theorem, Rodriques parameters, and Euler-Rodriques parameters or Quaternion. Onboard attitude determination is the norm, using either single frame or filtering methods. The presentation reviews several mathematical representations of attitude. The mechanisms for determining attitude on board the Hubble Space Telescope, the Tropical Rainfall and Measuring Mission and the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer are reviewed. Wahba's problem, Procrustes Problem, and some solutions are also summarized.

  8. Awareness of Implicit Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M.; Hirsh, Holen K.; Blair, Irene V.

    2013-01-01

    Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming IAT measures of implicit attitudes toward five different social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across four studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2–4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants’ predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. All together, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes. PMID:24294868

  9. Awareness of implicit attitudes.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M; Hirsh, Holen K; Blair, Irene V

    2014-06-01

    Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming Implicit Association Test (IAT) measures of implicit attitudes toward 5 social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across 4 studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2-4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants' predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. Altogether, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes.

  10. Synthesis of 2D/2D Structured Mesoporous Co3O4 Nanosheet/N-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide Composites as a Highly Stable Negative Electrode for Lithium Battery Applications.

    PubMed

    Sennu, Palanichamy; Kim, Hyo Sang; An, Jae Youn; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Lee, Yun-Sung

    2015-08-01

    Mesoporous Co3O4 nanosheets (Co3 O4 -NS) and nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO) are synthesized by a facile hydrothermal approach, and the N-rGO/Co3O4 -NS composite is formulated through an infiltration procedure. Eventually, the obtained composites are subjected to various characterization techniques, such as XRD, Raman spectroscopy, surface area analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and TEM. The lithium-storage properties of N-rGO/Co3O4 -NS composites are evaluated in a half-cell assembly to ascertain their suitability as a negative electrode for lithium-ion battery applications. The 2D/2D nanostructured mesoporous N-rGO/Co3O4 -NS composite delivered a reversible capacity of about 1305 and 1501 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 80 mA g(-1) for the 1st and 50th cycles, respectively. Furthermore, excellent cyclability, rate capability, and capacity retention characteristics are noted for the N-rGO/Co3O4 -NS composite. This improved performance is mainly related to the existence of mesoporosity and a sheet-like 2D hierarchical morphology, which translates into extra space for lithium storage and a reduced electron pathway. Also, the presence of N-rGO and carbon shells in Co3O4 -NS should not be excluded from such exceptional performance, which serves as a reliable conductive channel for electrons and act as synergistically to accommodate volume expansion upon redox reactions. Ex-situ TEM, impedance spectroscopy, and XPS, are also conducted to corroborate the significance of the 2D morphology towards sustained lithium storage.

  11. Interprofessional Collaboration and Turf Wars How Prevalent Are Hidden Attitudes?*

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chadwick L. R.; Manga, Jasmin; McGregor, Marion; Michailidis, Christos; Stavros, Demetrios; Woodhouse, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Interprofessional collaboration in health care is believed to enhance patient outcomes. However, where professions have overlapping scopes of practice (eg, chiropractors and physical therapists), "turf wars" can hinder effective collaboration. Deep-rooted beliefs, identified as implicit attitudes, provide a potential explanation. Even with positive explicit attitudes toward a social group, negative stereotypes may be influential. Previous studies on interprofessional attitudes have mostly used qualitative research methodologies. This study used quantitative methods to evaluate explicit and implicit attitudes of physical therapy students toward chiropractic. Methods: A paper-and-pencil instrument was developed and administered to 49 individuals (students and faculty) associated with a Canadian University master's entry-level physical therapy program after approval by the Research Ethics Board. The instrument evaluated explicit and implicit attitudes toward the chiropractic profession. Implicit attitudes were determined by comparing response times of chiropractic paired with positive versus negative descriptors. Results: Mean time to complete a word association task was significantly longer (t = 4.75, p =.00) when chiropractic was associated with positive rather than negative words. Explicit and implicit attitudes were not correlated (r = 0.13, p =.38). Conclusions: While little explicit bias existed, individuals associated with a master's entry-level physical therapy program appeared to have a significant negative implicit bias toward chiropractic PMID:22778528

  12. Best Practices for Measuring Students’ Attitudes toward Learning Science

    PubMed Central

    Lovelace, Matthew; Brickman, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Science educators often characterize the degree to which tests measure different facets of college students’ learning, such as knowing, applying, and problem solving. A casual survey of scholarship of teaching and learning research studies reveals that many educators also measure how students’ attitudes influence their learning. Students’ science attitudes refer to their positive or negative feelings and predispositions to learn science. Science educators use attitude measures, in conjunction with learning measures, to inform the conclusions they draw about the efficacy of their instructional interventions. The measurement of students’ attitudes poses similar but distinct challenges as compared with measurement of learning, such as determining validity and reliability of instruments and selecting appropriate methods for conducting statistical analyses. In this review, we will describe techniques commonly used to quantify students’ attitudes toward science. We will also discuss best practices for the analysis and interpretation of attitude data. PMID:24297288

  13. Comparing project-based learning to direct instruction on students' attitude to learn science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugen, Marlen Ingvard

    Students' attitude towards learning science transform during their middle school years. Research provides data showing the affect of different teaching methods on students' attitude. Two teaching methods compared were project-based learning and direct instruction. Project-based learning uses inquiry to promote student attitude by engaging them and increasing their curiosity in the natural world. Direct instruction uses lecture, worksheets, tests, and labs. The Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) survey was used to measure student's attitude. The TOSRA has seven subscales labeled as Social Implications of Science, Normality of Scientists, Attitude to Scientific Inquiry, Adaptation to Scientific Attitudes, Enjoyment of Science Lessons, Leisure Interest in Science, and Career Interest in Science. A student's age and gender were variables also used to determine the affect on transformation of attitude using two different teaching methods. The TOSRA survey showed both positive and negative transformation of students' attitude towards science.

  14. Insights for integrated conservation from attitudes of people toward protected areas near Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Guerbois, Chloe; Dufour, Anne-Beatrice; Mtare, Godfrey; Fritz, Herve

    2013-08-01

    Increase in human settlements at the edge of protected areas (PAs) is perceived as a major threat to conservation of biodiversity. Although it is crucial to integrate the interests of surrounding communities into PA management, key drivers of changes in local populations and the effects of conservation on local livelihoods and perceptions remain poorly understood. We assessed population changes from 1990 to 2010 in 9 villages located between 2 PAs with different management policies (access to natural resources or not). We conducted semi-directive interviews at the household level (n =217) to document reasons for settlement in the area and villager's attitudes toward the PAs. We examined drivers of these attitudes relative to household typology, feelings about conservation, and concerns for the future with mixed linear models. Population increased by 61% from 2000 to 2010, a period of political and economic crisis in Zimbabwe. Forty-seven percent of immigrants were attracted by the area; others had been resettled from other villages or were returning to family lands. Attitudes toward PAs were generally positive, but immigrants attracted by the area and who used resources within the PA with fewer restrictions expressed more negative attitudes toward PAs. Household location, losses due to wild animals, and restrictions on access to natural resources were the main drivers of this negative attitude. Profit-seeking migrants did not expect these constraints and were particularly concerned with local overpopulation and access to natural resources. To avoid socio-ecological traps near PAs (i.e., unforeseen reduced adaptive capacity) integrated conservation should address mismatches between management policy and local expectations. This requires accounting for endogenous processes, for example, local socio-ecological dynamics and values that shape the coexistence between humans and wildlife.

  15. Cerebral correlates of faking: evidence from a brief implicit association test on doping attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Sebastian; Wolff, Wanja; Kissler, Johanna M.; Brand, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Direct assessment of attitudes toward socially sensitive topics can be affected by deception attempts. Reaction-time based indirect measures, such as the Implicit Association Test (IAT), are less susceptible to such biases. Neuroscientific evidence shows that deception can evoke characteristic ERP differences. However, the cerebral processes involved in faking an IAT are still unknown. We randomly assigned 20 university students (15 females, 24.65 ± 3.50 years of age) to a counterbalanced repeated-measurements design, requesting them to complete a Brief-IAT (BIAT) on attitudes toward doping without deception instruction, and with the instruction to fake positive and negative doping attitudes. Cerebral activity during BIAT completion was assessed using high-density EEG. Event-related potentials during faking revealed enhanced frontal and reduced occipital negativity, starting around 150 ms after stimulus presentation. Further, a decrease in the P300 and LPP components was observed. Source analyses showed enhanced activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus between 150 and 200 ms during faking, thought to reflect the suppression of automatic responses. Further, more activity was found for faking in the bilateral middle occipital gyri and the bilateral temporoparietal junction. Results indicate that faking reaction-time based tests alter brain processes from early stages of processing and reveal the cortical sources of the effects. Analyzing the EEG helps to uncover response patterns in indirect attitude tests and broadens our understanding of the neural processes involved in such faking. This knowledge might be useful for uncovering faking in socially sensitive contexts, where attitudes are likely to be concealed. PMID:26074798

  16. Insights for integrated conservation from attitudes of people toward protected areas near Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Guerbois, Chloe; Dufour, Anne-Beatrice; Mtare, Godfrey; Fritz, Herve

    2013-08-01

    Increase in human settlements at the edge of protected areas (PAs) is perceived as a major threat to conservation of biodiversity. Although it is crucial to integrate the interests of surrounding communities into PA management, key drivers of changes in local populations and the effects of conservation on local livelihoods and perceptions remain poorly understood. We assessed population changes from 1990 to 2010 in 9 villages located between 2 PAs with different management policies (access to natural resources or not). We conducted semi-directive interviews at the household level (n =217) to document reasons for settlement in the area and villager's attitudes toward the PAs. We examined drivers of these attitudes relative to household typology, feelings about conservation, and concerns for the future with mixed linear models. Population increased by 61% from 2000 to 2010, a period of political and economic crisis in Zimbabwe. Forty-seven percent of immigrants were attracted by the area; others had been resettled from other villages or were returning to family lands. Attitudes toward PAs were generally positive, but immigrants attracted by the area and who used resources within the PA with fewer restrictions expressed more negative attitudes toward PAs. Household location, losses due to wild animals, and restrictions on access to natural resources were the main drivers of this negative attitude. Profit-seeking migrants did not expect these constraints and were particularly concerned with local overpopulation and access to natural resources. To avoid socio-ecological traps near PAs (i.e., unforeseen reduced adaptive capacity) integrated conservation should address mismatches between management policy and local expectations. This requires accounting for endogenous processes, for example, local socio-ecological dynamics and values that shape the coexistence between humans and wildlife. PMID:23866038

  17. Cerebral correlates of faking: evidence from a brief implicit association test on doping attitudes.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Sebastian; Wolff, Wanja; Kissler, Johanna M; Brand, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Direct assessment of attitudes toward socially sensitive topics can be affected by deception attempts. Reaction-time based indirect measures, such as the Implicit Association Test (IAT), are less susceptible to such biases. Neuroscientific evidence shows that deception can evoke characteristic ERP differences. However, the cerebral processes involved in faking an IAT are still unknown. We randomly assigned 20 university students (15 females, 24.65 ± 3.50 years of age) to a counterbalanced repeated-measurements design, requesting them to complete a Brief-IAT (BIAT) on attitudes toward doping without deception instruction, and with the instruction to fake positive and negative doping attitudes. Cerebral activity during BIAT completion was assessed using high-density EEG. Event-related potentials during faking revealed enhanced frontal and reduced occipital negativity, starting around 150 ms after stimulus presentation. Further, a decrease in the P300 and LPP components was observed. Source analyses showed enhanced activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus between 150 and 200 ms during faking, thought to reflect the suppression of automatic responses. Further, more activity was found for faking in the bilateral middle occipital gyri and the bilateral temporoparietal junction. Results indicate that faking reaction-time based tests alter brain processes from early stages of processing and reveal the cortical sources of the effects. Analyzing the EEG helps to uncover response patterns in indirect attitude tests and broadens our understanding of the neural processes involved in such faking. This knowledge might be useful for uncovering faking in socially sensitive contexts, where attitudes are likely to be concealed.

  18. Modular design attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chichester, F. D.

    1984-01-01

    A sequence of single axismodels and a series of reduced state linear observers of minimum order are used to reconstruct inaccessible variables pertaining to the modular attitude control of a rigid body flexible suspension model of a flexible spacecraft. The single axis models consist of two, three, four, and five rigid bodies, each interconnected by a flexible shaft passing through the mass centers of the bodies. Modal damping is added to each model. Reduced state linear observers are developed for synthesizing the inaccessible modal state variables for each modal model.

  19. Attitudes towards mental illness of nursing students in a Baccalaureate programme in Jamaica: a questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J; Stennett, R

    2015-10-01

    There is longstanding evidence of nurses demonstrating negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Student nurses' fear or discomfort with mentally ill patients results in poorer outcomes for patients and students' dissatisfaction with their experience of mental health nursing. There is evidence of negative attitudes towards mental illness in the Jamaican society; however, no studies have explored whether these attitudes are held by nursing students. The aim of the study was to examine the attitudes of nursing students towards mental illness. A questionnaire survey was conducted with a convenience sample of 143 third-year nursing students who were enrolled in a baccalaureate programme. Data were collected using the Attitudes Towards Acute Mental Health Scale (ATAMHS). A response rate of 71% was achieved for the survey. The findings indicated that the student nurses held an overall negative attitude towards mental illness, with a general perception that mentally ill people are dangerous. The student nurses were divided in their opinions in a number of areas, suggesting a possible conflict of opinions. Negative attitudes towards mental illness impact client outcomes and the career choices made by nurses. This study provides baseline data within the Jamaican context that adds to the evidence on nursing students' attitude to mental illness. Further research is needed to explore whether nursing education and clinical experience enables student nurses in Jamaica to develop a more positive attitude towards mental illness and mental health nursing and whether cultural factors contribute to negative attitudes.

  20. Lateral Attitude Change.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Tina; Dickel, Nina; Liersch, Benjamin; Rees, Jonas; Süssenbach, Philipp; Bohner, Gerd

    2015-08-01

    The authors propose a framework distinguishing two types of lateral attitude change (LAC): (a) generalization effects, where attitude change toward a focal object transfers to related objects, and (b) displacement effects, where only related attitudes change but the focal attitude does not change. They bring together examples of LAC from various domains of research, outline the conditions and underlying processes of each type of LAC, and develop a theoretical framework that enables researchers to study LAC more systematically in the future. Compared with established theories of attitude change, the LAC framework focuses on lateral instead of focal attitude change and encompasses both generalization and displacement. Novel predictions and designs for studying LAC are presented.

  1. Evidence-informed recommendations to reduce dissemination bias in clinical research: conclusions from the OPEN (Overcome failure to Publish nEgative fiNdings) project based on an international consensus meeting

    PubMed Central

    Meerpohl, Joerg J; Schell, Lisa K; Bassler, Dirk; Gallus, Silvano; Kleijnen, Jos; Kulig, Michael; La Vecchia, Carlo; Marušić, Ana; Ravaud, Philippe; Reis, Andreas; Schmucker, Christine; Strech, Daniel; Urrútia, Gerard; Antes, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    dissemination bias and several initiatives to reduce it, the problem of dissemination bias has not been resolved. Tailored recommendations based on a comprehensive approach will hopefully help increase transparency in biomedical research by overcoming the failure to disseminate negative findings. PMID:25943371

  2. Universalism, conservation and attitudes toward minority groups.

    PubMed

    Beierlein, Constanze; Kuntz, Anabel; Davidov, Eldad

    2016-07-01

    Findings from previous studies corroborate the hypothesis that universalism and conservation values are associated with negative attitudes toward immigration. In the current study we examine whether universalism and conservation values also play a critical role in the explanation of attitudes toward other minority groups. Drawing on previous research on group-focused enmity, we explore its relations with universalism and conservation values in a German sample. Employing structural equation modeling, we find that individuals who prioritize universalism values approve of various minorities more whereas those who prioritize conservation values exhibit more disapproval.

  3. Cockpit management attitudes.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, R L

    1984-10-01

    Distinctions are drawn between personality traits and attitudes. The stability of the personality and the malleability of attitudes are stressed. These concepts are related to pilot performance, especially in the areas of crew coordination and cockpit resource management. Airline pilots were administered a Cockpit Management Attitudes questionnaire; empirical data from that survey are reported and implications of the data for training in crew coordination are discussed.

  4. Cockpit management attitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Distinctions are drawn between personality traits and attitudes. The stability of the personality and the malleability of attitudes are stressed. These concepts are related to pilot performance, especially in the areas of crew coordination and cockpit resource management. Airline pilots were administered a Cockpit Management Attitudes questionnaire; empirical data from that survey are reported and implications of the data for training in crew coordination are discussed.

  5. Kalman Filter for Spinning Spacecraft Attitude Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Sedlak, Joseph E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a Kalman filter using a seven-component attitude state vector comprising the angular momentum components in an inertial reference frame, the angular momentum components in the body frame, and a rotation angle. The relatively slow variation of these parameters makes this parameterization advantageous for spinning spacecraft attitude estimation. The filter accounts for the constraint that the magnitude of the angular momentum vector is the same in the inertial and body frames by employing a reduced six-component error state. Four variants of the filter, defined by different choices for the reduced error state, are tested against a quaternion-based filter using simulated data for the THEMIS mission. Three of these variants choose three of the components of the error state to be the infinitesimal attitude error angles, facilitating the computation of measurement sensitivity matrices and causing the usual 3x3 attitude covariance matrix to be a submatrix of the 6x6 covariance of the error state. These variants differ in their choice for the other three components of the error state. The variant employing the infinitesimal attitude error angles and the angular momentum components in an inertial reference frame as the error state shows the best combination of robustness and efficiency in the simulations. Attitude estimation results using THEMIS flight data are also presented.

  6. Attitude Control Subsystem for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewston, Alan W.; Mitchell, Kent A.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the on-orbit operation of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The three ACTS control axes are defined, including the means for sensing attitude and determining the pointing errors. The desired pointing requirements for various modes of control as well as the disturbance torques that oppose the control are identified. Finally, the hardware actuators and control loops utilized to reduce the attitude error are described.

  7. Pathways to hostile collective action: The roles of general attitudes toward the advantaged group and situational anger.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Wang, Erping

    2012-12-01

    Collective action is a group behavior that aims to improve the status, power, or influence of an entire group. The present study focused on hostile collective action performed for releasing negative emotions, and explored a pathway including the roles of general attitudes toward the advantaged group and situational group-based anger in predicting the disadvantaged groups' hostile collective action. Group-level data were collected via a laboratory experiment. The results obtained using multiple regression analysis suggested that general attitudes toward the advantaged group formed before the trigger event predicted hostile collective action indirectly through the mediating effects of situational group-based anger and collective action tendencies, which were both produced after that trigger event. In addition, situational group-based anger predicted hostile collective action fully through collective action tendencies. These pathways provided a continuous process of hostile collective action in which general attitudes toward the advantaged group that were formed before the trigger events would influence situational group-based anger when the trigger events occurred, and then affected hostile collective action for responding to these events. Thus, hostile collective action could be predicted before the trigger events by monitoring the disadvantaged groups' attitudes toward the advantaged group. Moreover, reducing destructive collective action by improving intergroup attitudes through some effective interventions was discussed in this study.

  8. Gender-based attitudes, HIV misconceptions and feelings towards marginalized groups are associated with stigmatization in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Bharat, Shalini; Ramakrishna, Jayashree; Heylen, Elsa; Ekstrand, Maria L

    2014-11-01

    Summary This study examined the association of gender-based attitudes, HIV misconceptions and community feelings for marginalized groups with stigmatizing responses towards people with HIV/AIDS in Mumbai, India. Participants included 546 men and women sampled in hospital settings during 2007-2008. Structured measures were used to assess avoidance intentions and denial of rights of people with HIV/AIDS. Mean age of participants was 32 years; 42% had less than 10 years of education. Higher HIV transmission misconceptions (β=0.47; p<0.001), more traditional gender attitudes (β=0.11; p<0.01) and more negative feelings towards HIV-positive people (β=0.23; p<0.001) were related to higher avoidance intentions. Endorsement of denial of rights was also significantly associated with higher transmission misconceptions (β=0.20; p<0.001), more traditional gender attitudes (β=0.33; p<0.001) and greater negative feelings towards HIV-positive people (β=0.12; p<0.05), as well as with a lower education level (β=-0.10; p<0.05). The feelings respondents had towards people with HIV/AIDS were more strongly correlated with their feelings towards those with other diseases (tuberculosis, leprosy) than with feelings they had towards those associated with 'immoral' behaviour (e.g. sex workers). Eliminating HIV transmission misconceptions and addressing traditional gender attitudes are critical for reducing HIV stigma in Indian society. PMID:24524379

  9. Methamphetamine use, attitudes about condoms, and sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nadine; Mausbach, Brent T; Ulibarri, Monica D; Semple, Shirley J; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-04-01

    This study examined attitudes about condoms as a moderator of the relationship between methamphetamine use and sexual risk behavior in a sample of 297 HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM). To test for a moderating effect of attitudes towards condoms, an interaction term was included in multiple regression analysis along with age, income, negative condom attitudes, frequency of methamphetamine use, and Beck depression score. A post hoc analysis was conducted to determine the relations between methamphetamine use and unprotected sex for persons with more vs. less negative attitudes toward condoms. These analyses indicated that when individuals had more negative attitudes toward condoms, the relation between methamphetamine frequency and unprotected sex was significant, while among participants with less negative attitudes toward condoms, no significant association was found. Addressing methamphetamine-using MSM's attitudes about condoms can serve as a form of harm reduction for those who are not yet ready or willing to discontinue methamphetamine use.

  10. Cryo-negative staining.

    PubMed

    Adrian, M; Dubochet, J; Fuller, S D; Harris, J R

    1998-01-01

    A procedure is presented for the preparation of thin layers of vitrified biological suspensions in the presence of ammonium molybdate, which we term cryo-negative staining. The direct blotting of sample plus stain solution on holey carbon supports produces thin aqueous films across the holes, which are routinely thinner than the aqueous film produced by conventional negative staining on a continuous carbon layer. Because of this, a higher than usual concentration of negative stain (ca. 16% rather than 2%) is required for cryo-negative staining in order to produce an optimal image contrast. The maintenance of the hydrated state, the absence of adsorption to a carbon film and associated sample flattening, together with reduced stain granularity, generates high contrast cryo-images of superior quality to conventional air-dry negative staining. Image features characteristic of unstained vitrified cryo-electron microscopic specimens are present, but with reverse contrast. Examples of cryo-negative staining of several particulate biological samples are shown, including bacteriophage T2, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), bovine liver catalase crystals, tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV), keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) types 1 and 2, the 20S proteasome from moss and the E. coli chaperone GroEL. Densitometric quantitation of the mass-density of cryo-negatively stained bacteriophage T2 specimens before and after freeze-drying within the TEM indicates a water content of 30% in the vitreous specimen. Determination of the image resolution from cryo-negatively stained TMV rods and catalase crystals shows the presence of optical diffraction data to ca. 10 A and 11.5 A, respectively. For cryo-negatively stained vitrified catalase crystals, electron diffraction shows that atomic resolution is preserved (to better than 20 diffraction orders and less than 3 A). The electron diffraction resolution is reduced to ca. 10 A when catalase crystal specimens are

  11. Negative Mass Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, F.

    Schrödinger's analysis of the Dirac equation gives a hint for the existence of negative masses hidden behind positive masses. But their use for propulsion by reducing the inertia of matter for example, in the limit of macroscopic bodied with zero rest mass, depends on a technical solution to free them from their imprisonment by positive masses. It appears that there are basically two ways this might be achieved: 1. By the application of strong electromagnetic or gravitational fields or by high particle energies. 2. By searching for places in the universe where nature has already done this separation, and from where the negative masses can be mined. The first of these two possibilities is for all practical means excluded, because if possible at all, it would depend on electromagnetic or gravitational fields with strength beyond what is technically attainable, or on extremely large likewise not attainable particle energies. With regard to the 2nd possibility, it has been observed that non-baryonic cold dark matter tends to accumulate near the center of galaxies, or places in the universe which have a large gravitational potential well. Because of the equivalence principle of general relativity, the attraction towards the center of a gravitational potential well, produced by a positive mass, is for negative masses the same as for positive masses, and large amounts of negative masses might have over billions of years been trapped in these gravitational potential wells. Now it just happens that the center of the moon is a potential well, not too deep that it cannot be reached by making a tunnel through the moon, not possible for the deeper potential well of the earth, where the temperature and pressure are too high. Making a tunnel through the moon, provided there is a good supply of negative mass, could revolutionize interstellar space flight. A sequence of thermonuclear shape charges would make such tunnel technically feasible.

  12. Heterosexual attitudes toward same-sex marriage.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, David A; Rieger, Gerulf; Roloff, Michael E

    2010-01-01

    Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexual men and women. However, the attitudinal difference between gay male and lesbian marriage was related to homophobia in men but not in women. That is, for men only, being less homophobic toward lesbians than toward gay men was associated with favoring lesbian over gay men marriage. Considering these results, the role of gender in attitudes toward same-sex marriage seems to be as an important moderator of homophobia.

  13. The Impact of College Student Money Attitudes on Credit Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Marguerite; Carpenter, Jason M.

    2009-01-01

    Growing concern among academics, policymakers and educators to address credit abuse among college students prompts a need for greater understanding of the determinants of these negative behaviors. The present study investigates the impact of individuals' money attitudes on both negative and positive credit behaviors within a single empirical model…

  14. Male and Female College Presidents: Leadership Behaviors and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Karen J.; Tack, Martha W.

    A study on differences between the leadership behaviors and attitudes of male and female college presidents is presented. Women are rarely represented in top academic administrative positions in higher education. Reasons include sex discrimination, negative perceptions of them as administrators, and negative evaluation of their administrative…

  15. An empirical investigation of insanity defense attitudes: exploring factors related to bias.

    PubMed

    Bloechl, Angela L; Vitacco, Michael J; Neumann, Craig S; Erickson, Steven E

    2007-01-01

    This study's primary aim was to evaluate factors that influence attitudes toward the insanity defense in a sample of 578 college undergraduates. In addition to a comprehensive demographics survey, participants completed the Insanity Defense Attitude Scale-Revised (IDAS-R) and the Attitude Toward the Death Penalty (ATDP) Scale. Favorable attitude toward capital punishment and misperceptions about overuse of the insanity defense were related to negative attitudes toward the insanity defense. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that possessing a favorable attitude toward capital punishment was the most robust predictor of a negative attitude toward the insanity defense. These findings provide valuable information about factors that create and maintain biases against the insanity defense and suggest areas of inquiry that could aid attorneys in selecting unbiased jurors.

  16. Lifespan Attitudes toward Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Gail; Maiden, Robert

    To more fully understand how attitudes toward death and dying develop and change across the lifespan, 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 2 and 18 years and 90 male and female subjects between the ages of 18 and 97 were administered questionnaires and interviews about dying. The results revealed that children's attitudes were…

  17. Pornography and Attitude Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Douglas H.; Wehmer, Gerald

    1971-01-01

    The results indicate that a voluntary three hour exposure to erotic pictures, some of which have been defined as being legally obscene," does not lead to a change in a person's attitudes toward such materials or in attitudes toward their censorship. (Author)

  18. Teachers' Attitudes toward Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elhoweris, Hala; Alsheikh, Negmeldin

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) investigate current teachers' attitudes toward inclusion, and to (b) explore possible difference in the general and special education teachers' attitudes toward inclusion of students with disabilities in the integrated education classroom. A total of 10 participants from a large mid-western state university…

  19. Language Learners' Acculturation Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafieyan, Vahid; Orang, Maryam; Bijami, Maryam; Nejad, Maryam Sharafi; Eng, Lin Siew

    2014-01-01

    Learning a language involves knowledge of both linguistic competence and cultural competence. Optimal development of linguistic competence and cultural competence, however, requires a high level of acculturation attitude toward the target language culture. To this end, the present study explored the acculturation attitudes of 70 Iranian…

  20. Management Attitudes toward Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamber of Commerce of the United States, Washington, DC.

    In an attempt to discover management attitudes toward productivity, including management's views about worker attitudes and their motivation, managerial practices and organization, and possible changes to effect improvements in productivity, the United States Chamber of Commerce surveyed a sample of 1,870 top business executives across the country…

  1. Promoting Positive Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Schools have been preoccupied with pupils' attainment in recent years. Consequently there has been a risk of neglecting other important aspects of learning mathematics. One of these is pupils' attitudes and affective responses. In this article, the author discusses the impact of pupils' attitudes on their attainment in mathematics and the…

  2. Marine Attitude Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…

  3. Transmission of social attitudes.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, N G; Eaves, L J; Heath, A C; Jardine, R; Feingold, L M; Eysenck, H J

    1986-01-01

    Data gathered in Australia and England on the social attitudes of spouses and twins are largely consistent with a genetic model for family resemblance in social attitudes. There is substantial assortative mating and little evidence of vertical cultural inheritance. PMID:3459179

  4. Attitudes and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iben, Miriam F.

    1991-01-01

    Examines seventh and eighth grade students in Australia, Japan, and the United States for attitudes related to mathematics, and the relationship these attitudes have to students' development of abstract mathematical thought and spatial relations. Study uses the Iowa Algebra Aptitude Test, Differential Aptitude Test-Spatial Relations, and the…

  5. Measuring Attitude Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Deborah S.; Kristiansen, Connie M.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the Attitude Functions Inventory (AFI), which assesses the extent to which a person's attitude fulfills each of four psychological functions. Reports findings of a study, involving 249 undergraduates, that tested the construct validity of the AFI. Suggests that the AFI provides conceptually meaningful measures of the functions of…

  6. From Memory to Attitude: The Neurocognitive Process beyond Euthanasia Acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Enke, Martin; Meyer, Patric; Flor, Herta

    2016-01-01

    Numerous questionnaire studies on attitudes towards euthanasia produced conflicting results, precluding any general conclusion. This might be due to the fact that human behavior can be influenced by automatically triggered attitudes, which represent ingrained associations in memory and cannot be assessed by standard questionnaires, but require indirect measures such as reaction times (RT) or electroencephalographic recording (EEG). Event related potentials (ERPs) of the EEG and RT during an affective priming task were assessed to investigate the impact of automatically triggered attitudes and were compared to results of an explicit questionnaire. Explicit attitudes were ambivalent. Reaction time data showed neither positive nor negative associations towards euthanasia. ERP analyses revealed an N400 priming effect with lower mean amplitudes when euthanasia was associated with negative words. The euthanasia-related modulation of the N400 component shows an integration of the euthanasia object in negatively valenced associative neural networks. The integration of all measures suggests a bottom-up process of attitude activation, where automatically triggered negative euthanasia-relevant associations can become more ambiguous with increasing time in order to regulate the bias arising from automatic processes. These data suggest that implicit measures may make an important contribution to the understanding of euthanasia-related attitudes. PMID:27088244

  7. Neuroticism and attitudes toward action in 19 countries.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Molly E; Hepler, Justin; Li, Hong; Albarracín, Dolores

    2015-06-01

    Although individuals scoring high on Neuroticism tend to avoid taking action when faced with challenges, Neuroticism is also characterized by impulsivity. To explore cognitive biases related to this costly behavior pattern, we tested whether individuals who rated themselves as higher in Neuroticism would evaluate the general concepts of action and inaction as, respectively, more negative and positive. We further investigated whether anxiety and depression would mediate and individualism-collectivism would moderate these relations in a large international sample. Participants (N = 3,827 college students; 69% female) from 19 countries completed surveys measuring Neuroticism, attitudes toward action and inaction, depression, anxiety, and individualism-collectivism. Hierarchical linear models tested the above predictions. Neuroticism negatively correlated with attitudes toward action and positively correlated with attitudes toward inaction. Furthermore, anxiety was primarily responsible for emotionally unstable individuals' less positive attitudes toward action, and individuals who endorsed more collectivistic than individualistic beliefs showed a stronger negative association between Neuroticism and attitudes toward action. Researchers and practitioners interested in understanding and remediating the negative consequences of Neuroticism should pay greater attention to attitudes toward action and inaction, particularly focusing on their links with anxiety and individualism-collectivism. PMID:24684688

  8. From Memory to Attitude: The Neurocognitive Process beyond Euthanasia Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Enke, Martin; Meyer, Patric; Flor, Herta

    2016-01-01

    Numerous questionnaire studies on attitudes towards euthanasia produced conflicting results, precluding any general conclusion. This might be due to the fact that human behavior can be influenced by automatically triggered attitudes, which represent ingrained associations in memory and cannot be assessed by standard questionnaires, but require indirect measures such as reaction times (RT) or electroencephalographic recording (EEG). Event related potentials (ERPs) of the EEG and RT during an affective priming task were assessed to investigate the impact of automatically triggered attitudes and were compared to results of an explicit questionnaire. Explicit attitudes were ambivalent. Reaction time data showed neither positive nor negative associations towards euthanasia. ERP analyses revealed an N400 priming effect with lower mean amplitudes when euthanasia was associated with negative words. The euthanasia-related modulation of the N400 component shows an integration of the euthanasia object in negatively valenced associative neural networks. The integration of all measures suggests a bottom-up process of attitude activation, where automatically triggered negative euthanasia-relevant associations can become more ambiguous with increasing time in order to regulate the bias arising from automatic processes. These data suggest that implicit measures may make an important contribution to the understanding of euthanasia-related attitudes.

  9. From Memory to Attitude: The Neurocognitive Process beyond Euthanasia Acceptance.

    PubMed

    Enke, Martin; Meyer, Patric; Flor, Herta

    2016-01-01

    Numerous questionnaire studies on attitudes towards euthanasia produced conflicting results, precluding any general conclusion. This might be due to the fact that human behavior can be influenced by automatically triggered attitudes, which represent ingrained associations in memory and cannot be assessed by standard questionnaires, but require indirect measures such as reaction times (RT) or electroencephalographic recording (EEG). Event related potentials (ERPs) of the EEG and RT during an affective priming task were assessed to investigate the impact of automatically triggered attitudes and were compared to results of an explicit questionnaire. Explicit attitudes were ambivalent. Reaction time data showed neither positive nor negative associations towards euthanasia. ERP analyses revealed an N400 priming effect with lower mean amplitudes when euthanasia was associated with negative words. The euthanasia-related modulation of the N400 component shows an integration of the euthanasia object in negatively valenced associative neural networks. The integration of all measures suggests a bottom-up process of attitude activation, where automatically triggered negative euthanasia-relevant associations can become more ambiguous with increasing time in order to regulate the bias arising from automatic processes. These data suggest that implicit measures may make an important contribution to the understanding of euthanasia-related attitudes. PMID:27088244

  10. Neuroticism and attitudes toward action in 19 countries.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Molly E; Hepler, Justin; Li, Hong; Albarracín, Dolores

    2015-06-01

    Although individuals scoring high on Neuroticism tend to avoid taking action when faced with challenges, Neuroticism is also characterized by impulsivity. To explore cognitive biases related to this costly behavior pattern, we tested whether individuals who rated themselves as higher in Neuroticism would evaluate the general concepts of action and inaction as, respectively, more negative and positive. We further investigated whether anxiety and depression would mediate and individualism-collectivism would moderate these relations in a large international sample. Participants (N = 3,827 college students; 69% female) from 19 countries completed surveys measuring Neuroticism, attitudes toward action and inaction, depression, anxiety, and individualism-collectivism. Hierarchical linear models tested the above predictions. Neuroticism negatively correlated with attitudes toward action and positively correlated with attitudes toward inaction. Furthermore, anxiety was primarily responsible for emotionally unstable individuals' less positive attitudes toward action, and individuals who endorsed more collectivistic than individualistic beliefs showed a stronger negative association between Neuroticism and attitudes toward action. Researchers and practitioners interested in understanding and remediating the negative consequences of Neuroticism should pay greater attention to attitudes toward action and inaction, particularly focusing on their links with anxiety and individualism-collectivism.

  11. Attitudes and persuasion.

    PubMed

    Crano, William D; Prislin, Radmila

    2006-01-01

    Study of attitudes and persuasion remains a defining characteristic of contemporary social psychology. This review outlines recent advances, with emphasis on the relevance of today's work for perennial issues. We reiterate the distinction between attitude formation and change, and show its relevance for persuasion. Single- and dual-process models are discussed, as are current views on dissonance theory. Majority and minority influence are scrutinized, with special emphasis on integrative theoretical innovations. Attitude strength is considered, and its relevance to ambivalence and resistance documented. Affect, mood, and emotion effects are reviewed, especially as they pertain to fear arousal and (un)certainty. Finally, we discuss attitude-behavior consistency, perhaps the reason for our interest in attitudes in the first place, with emphasis on self-interest and the theory of planned behavior. Our review reflects the dynamism and the reach of the area, and suggests a sure and sometimes rapid accumulation of knowledge and understanding. PMID:16318599

  12. Sport fans: evaluating the consistency between implicit and explicit attitudes toward favorite and rival teams.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Jay L; Brown, Roderick O

    2014-04-01

    Sport fans often foster very positive attitudes for their favorite teams and less favorable attitudes for opponents. The current research was designed to evaluate the consistency that might exist between implicit and explicit measures of those attitudes. College students (24 women, 16 men) performed a version of the Implicit Association Test related to their favorite and rival teams. Participants also reported their attitudes for these teams explicitly, via self-report instruments. When responding to the IAT, participants' responses were faster when they paired positive words with concepts related to favorite teams and negative words with rival teams, indicating implicit favorability for favorite teams and implicit negativity for rival teams. This pattern of implicit favorability and negativity was consistent with what participants reported explicitly via self-report. The importance of evaluating implicit attitudes and the corresponding consistency with explicit attitudes are discussed.

  13. Exploring Aging Attitudes through a Puppet Making Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteland, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational programs often reduce ageism and stereotypical thinking. This author uses a mixed methods case study to investigate how attitudes may change when older adults and children participate in an intergenerational art project. The research question, "Is there a positive correlation in children's attitudes toward older adults and…

  14. Preliminary Validation of the Sex Trafficking Attitudes Scale.

    PubMed

    Houston-Kolnik, Jaclyn D; Todd, Nathan R; Wilson, Midge

    2016-09-01

    This study presents the Sex Trafficking Attitudes Scale (STAS), assessing cognitive, behavioral, and affective attitudes toward the sex trafficking of women and girls. Across two studies, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed and confirmed six subscales: (a) Knowledge About Sex Trafficking, (b) Awareness of Sex Trafficking, (c) Attitudes Toward Ability to Leave Sex Trafficking, (d) Attitudes Toward Helping Survivors, (e) Empathic Reactions Toward Sex Trafficking, and (f) Efficacy to Reduce Sex Trafficking. Results showed support for convergent validity as the subscales were associated with related measures. The STAS holds promise to expand research and inform efforts to support trafficking survivors.

  15. Attitudes of local communities towards conservation of mangrove forests: A case study from the east coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badola, Ruchi; Barthwal, Shivani; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2012-01-01

    The ecological and economic importance of mangrove ecosystems is well established and highlighted by studies establishing a correlation between the protective function of mangroves and the loss of lives and property caused by coastal hazards. Nevertheless, degradation of this ecosystem remains a matter of concern, emphasizing the fact that effective conservation of natural resources is possible only with an understanding of the attitudes and perceptions of local communities. In the present study, we examined the attitudes and perceptions of local communities towards mangrove forests through questionnaire surveys in 36 villages in the Bhitarkanika Conservation Area, India. The sample villages were selected from 336 villages using hierarchical cluster analysis. The study revealed that local communities in the area had positive attitudes towards conservation and that their demographic and socio-economic conditions influenced people's attitudes. Local communities valued those functions of mangrove forests that were directly linked to their wellbeing. Despite human-wildlife conflict, the attitudes of the local communities were not altogether negative, and they were willing to participate in mangrove restoration. People agreed to adopt alternative resources if access to forest resources were curtailed. Respondents living near the forests, who could not afford alternatives, admitted that they would resort to pilfering. Hence, increasing their livelihood options may reduce the pressure on mangrove forests. In contrast with other ecosystems, the linkages of mangrove ecosystem services with local livelihoods and security are direct and tangible. It is therefore possible to develop strong local support for sustainable management of mangrove forests in areas where a positive attitude towards mangrove conservation prevails. The current debates on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) and payment for ecosystem services provide ample scope for

  16. Attitude Determination Using Two Vector Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    1998-01-01

    Many spacecraft attitude determination methods use exactly two vector measurements. The two vectors are typically the unit vector to the Sun and the Earth's magnetic field vector for coarse "sun-mag" attitude determination or unit vectors to two stars tracked by two star trackers for fine attitude determination. TRIAD, the earliest published algorithm for determining spacecraft attitude from two vector measurements, has been widely used in both ground-based and onboard attitude determination. Later attitude determination methods have been based on Wahba's optimality criterion for n arbitrarily weighted observations. The solution of Wahba's problem is somewhat difficult in the general case, but there is a simple closed-form solution in the two-observation case. This solution reduces to the TRIAD solution for certain choices of measurement weights. This paper presents and compares these algorithms as well as sub-optimal algorithms proposed by Bar-Itzhack, Harman, and Reynolds. Some new results will be presented, but the paper is primarily a review and tutorial.

  17. Attitude Determination Using Two Vector Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    1999-01-01

    Many spacecraft attitude determination methods use exactly two vector measurements. The two vectors are typically the unit vector to the Sun and the Earth's magnetic field vector for coarse "sun-mag" attitude determination or unit vectors to two stars tracked by two star trackers for fine attitude determination. TRIAD, the earliest published algorithm for determining spacecraft attitude from two vector measurements, has been widely used in both ground-based and onboard attitude determination. Later attitude determination methods have been based on Wahba's optimality criterion for n arbitrarily weighted observations. The solution of Wahba's problem is somewhat difficult in the general case, but there is a simple closed-form solution in the two-observation case. This solution reduces to the TRIAD solution for certain choices of measurement weights. This paper presents and compares these algorithms as well as sub-optimal algorithms proposed by Bar-Itzhack, Harman, and Reynolds. Some new results will be presented, but the paper is primarily a review and tutorial.

  18. Assisted suicide: factors affecting public attitudes.

    PubMed

    Worthen, L T; Yeatts, D E

    Public support for assisted suicide has been growing despite the ethical questions raised by members of the medical profession. Previous research suggests that age, gender, experience, and religiosity are factors affecting individuals' attitudes. This study examines the effect of demographic and ideological factors, as well as individuals' caregiving experiences, on attitudes toward assisted suicide. Random-digit-dialing procedures produced a sample of 156 residents of Denton, Texas, in March 1998. T-tests were conducted to measure significance, while gamma values were used to measure level of association and percent reduction in error. The data indicate that age, gender, and caregiving experience were not significant predictors of attitudes. Situational factors, including whether a physician or friend/family member should assist and whether a child or a terminally ill patient experiencing no pain should receive assistance, all were highly significant and positively associated with attitudes toward assisted suicide. Respondents were most likely to support physician-assisted suicide for individuals experiencing no pain. The data also indicated that the depth of commitment to the beliefs that suffering has meaning, that life belongs to God, and that physician-assisted suicide is murder, were highly significant and negatively associated with attitudes toward assisted suicide.

  19. Promoting Positive Attitudes towards Science "and" Religion among Sixth-Form Pupils: Dealing with Scientism and Creationism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 187 female students, attending a sixth-form study day on religious studies, completed a questionnaire containing four scales concerned with assessing: attitude towards theistic religion, attitude towards science, scientism and creationism. The data demonstrated a negative correlation between attitude towards religion and attitude…

  20. Prospective Elementary Teachers' Perceptions of Gender Differences in Children's Attitudes toward Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Catherine S.; Sinicrope, Rose

    2013-01-01

    Prospective elementary teachers hold preconceived ideas about elementary school students' attitudes toward mathematics. We found that there exists a gender bias with prospective teachers expecting girls to have negative attitudes toward mathematics and boys more likely to have positive attitudes toward mathematics. We found that these…

  1. Removing Bias towards World Englishes: The Development of a Rater Attitude Instrument Using Indian English as a Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Tammy Huei-Lien

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the attitudes of raters of English speaking tests towards the global spread of English and the challenges in rating speakers of Indian English in descriptive speaking tasks. The claims put forward by language attitude studies indicate a validity issue in English speaking tests: listeners tend to hold negative attitudes towards…

  2. The Attitudes toward Prostitutes and Prostitution Scale: A New Tool for Measuring Public Attitudes toward Prostitutes and Prostitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Lia; Peled, Einat

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary developments in social attitudes toward prostitution and prostitutes influence both social policies and the social work profession. Understanding individuals' attitudes toward these issues is necessary for the development of social interventions and policies aimed at reducing stigmata attached to them. This article describes a new…

  3. Computer Oriented Exercises on Attitudes and U.S. Gasoline Consumption, Attitude. Student Guide. Computer Technology Program Environmental Education Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This is the student guide in a set of five computer-oriented environmental/energy education units. Contents of this guide present: (1) the three gasoline consumption-reducing options for which attitudes are to be explored; (2) exercises; and (3) appendices including an energy attitudes survey. (MR)

  4. Assessing the construct validity of the AIDS Attitude Scale.

    PubMed

    Bruce, K E; Reid, B C

    1998-02-01

    To assess the construct validity of the AIDS Attitude Scale (AAS) (Shrum, Turner, & Bruce, 1989), we administered it and related attitude scales to introductory psychology students (n = 279) and gay/lesbian support group members (n = 38). A subset of the students (n = 105) participated in a concurrent validity study; students donating items to an AIDS food pantry scored more tolerantly on the AAS than other students. AAS scores also differentiated subjects expected to have more tolerant attitudes toward people living with HIV and AIDS from other respondents, indicating known groups validity. As expected, AAS scores were positively correlated with attitudes about homosexuals and negatively correlated with authoritarian beliefs. However, AAS scores were not related to death anxiety. Attitudes about AIDS were distinguishable from related constructs using factor analysis. Together, these data provide evidence for the construct validity of the AAS. The need for valid assessment tools and uses of the AAS are discussed.

  5. Attitudes to teaching mathematics: Further development of a measurement instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Relich, Joe; Way, Jenni; Martin, Andrew

    1994-07-01

    The evidence that a relationship exists between attitudes to teaching mathematics and the formation of positive attitudes to mathematics among pupils is somewhat tenuous. Nevertheless, there is a strong belief among pre-service teacher educators that positive attitudes need to be fostered in teacher education students, particularly for prospective primary school teachers. Unfortunately, the research evidence suggests that high proportions of pre-service teachers hold negative attitudes towards mathematics. Although many instruments measuring affect in areas such as self-concept, anxiety, etc. have appeared in the literature over the years, no comprehensive instrument on attitudes is available to help teacher educators monitor attitudinal changes among their pre-service student teachers to the teaching of mathematics. This research re-examines an earlier attempt to develop such an instrument in Australia (Nisbet, 1991) and posits an alternative and refined version.

  6. On the Dominance of Attitude Emotionality.

    PubMed

    Rocklage, Matthew D; Fazio, Russell H

    2016-02-01

    Many situations in our lives require us to make relatively quick decisions as whether to approach or avoid a person or object, buy or pass on a product, or accept or reject an offer. These decisions are particularly difficult when there are both positive and negative aspects to the object. How do people go about navigating this conflict to come to a summary judgment? Using the Evaluative Lexicon (EL), we demonstrate across three studies, 7,700 attitude expressions, and nearly 50 different attitude objects that when positivity and negativity conflict, the valence that is based more on emotion is more likely to dominate. Furthermore, individuals are also more consistent in the expression of their univalent summary judgments when they involve greater emotionality. In sum, valence that is based on emotion tends to dominate when resolving ambivalence and also helps individuals to remain consistent when offering quick judgments.

  7. African American parents' behaviors and attitudes about substance use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Paschal, Angelia M; Lewis, Rhonda K; Sly, Jamilia

    2007-01-01

    Limited information exists about African American parents' substance use and attitudes, independent of how they relate to their children. This study examined whether the behaviors and attitudes of a sample of African American parents differed from the general population of adults. Results indicated their attitudes were relatively more conservative, and that alcohol and illicit drug use were lower. Cigarette and marijuana use were comparable. Correlations between attitudes and behaviors were found. Findings suggest that increased educational efforts are needed among parents, especially about cigarettes, marijuana, and the negative impact these attitudes and behaviors may have on their children.

  8. Panoramic attitude sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meek, I. C.

    1976-01-01

    Each subassembly, design analysis, and final calibration data on all assemblies for the Panormic Attitude Sensor (PAS) are described. The PAS is used for course attitude determination on the International Ultraviolet Explorer Spacecraft (IUE). The PAS contains a sun sensor which is sensitive only to the sun's radiation and a mechanically scanned sensor which is sensitive to the earth, moon, and the sun. The signals from these two sensors are encoded and sent back in the telemetry data stream to determine the spacecraft attitude.

  9. Mathematical attitude development from a vygotskian perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Lyn

    1993-10-01

    An analysis of mathematical life history interviews, Vygotsky's developmental theories, and research on attitudes toward mathematics, guided the creation of the attitudinal model presented in this paper. Examination and interpretation of the life histories of a sample of mathematics professors confirmed the model's utility and the importance of four `bridging' experiences: significant interactions with materials, mentoring experiences, significant peer interactions, and negative experiences. Implications of the model for curriculum planning and development are also explored.

  10. Effects of Knowledge on Attitude Formation and Change Toward Genetically Modified Foods.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoqin; Xie, Xiaofei

    2015-05-01

    In three waves, this study investigates the impact of risk and benefit knowledge on attitude formation toward genetically modified (GM) foods as well as the moderating effect of knowledge level on attitude change caused by receiving information. The data in Wave 1 (N = 561) demonstrate that both benefit and risk knowledge either directly contribute to attitude formation or indirectly affect attitudes through the mediating roles of benefit and risk perceptions. Overall, benefit and risk knowledge affect consumer attitudes positively and negatively, respectively. In Wave 2, 486 participants from Wave 1 were provided with information about GM foods, and their attitudes were assessed. Three weeks later, 433 of these participants again reported their attitudes. The results indicate that compared with the benefit and mixed information, risk information has a greater and longer lasting impact on attitude change, which results in lower acceptance of GM foods. Furthermore, risk information more strongly influences participants with a higher knowledge level. The moderating effect of knowledge on attitude change may result from these participants' better understanding of and greater trust in the information. These findings highlight the important role of knowledge in attitude formation and attitude change toward GM foods as well as the necessity of considering the determinants of attitude formation in attitude change studies. PMID:25693867

  11. Effects of Knowledge on Attitude Formation and Change Toward Genetically Modified Foods.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoqin; Xie, Xiaofei

    2015-05-01

    In three waves, this study investigates the impact of risk and benefit knowledge on attitude formation toward genetically modified (GM) foods as well as the moderating effect of knowledge level on attitude change caused by receiving information. The data in Wave 1 (N = 561) demonstrate that both benefit and risk knowledge either directly contribute to attitude formation or indirectly affect attitudes through the mediating roles of benefit and risk perceptions. Overall, benefit and risk knowledge affect consumer attitudes positively and negatively, respectively. In Wave 2, 486 participants from Wave 1 were provided with information about GM foods, and their attitudes were assessed. Three weeks later, 433 of these participants again reported their attitudes. The results indicate that compared with the benefit and mixed information, risk information has a greater and longer lasting impact on attitude change, which results in lower acceptance of GM foods. Furthermore, risk information more strongly influences participants with a higher knowledge level. The moderating effect of knowledge on attitude change may result from these participants' better understanding of and greater trust in the information. These findings highlight the important role of knowledge in attitude formation and attitude change toward GM foods as well as the necessity of considering the determinants of attitude formation in attitude change studies.

  12. Attitude Design for the LADEE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galal, Ken; Nickel, Craig; Sherman, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    challenge analysts faced was in the design of LADEE maneuver attitudes. A flight rule requiring pre-maneuver verification of in-flight maneuver conditions by ground operators prior to burn execution resulted in the need to accommodate long periods in the maneuver attitude. This in turn complicated efforts to satisfy star tracker interference and communication constraints in lunar orbit. In response to this challenge, a graphical method was developed and used to survey candidate rotation angles about the thrust vector. This survey method is described and an example of its use on a particular LADEE maneuver is discussed. Finally, the software and methodology used to satisfy LADEE's attitude requirements are also discussed in the context of LADEE's overall activity planning effort. In particular, the way in which strategic schedules of instrument and engineering activities were translated into actual attitude profiles at the tactical level, then converted into precise quaternion commands to achieve those pointing goals is explained. In order to reduce the risk of time-consuming re-planning efforts, this process included the generation of long-term projections of constraint violation predictions for individual attitude profiles that could be used to establish keep-out time-frames for particular attitude profiles. The challenges experienced and overall efficacy of both the overall LADEE ground system and the attitude components of the Flight Dynamics System in meeting LADEE's varied pointing requirements are discussed.

  13. Attitudes toward people with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Brillhart, B A; Jay, H; Wyers, M E

    1990-01-01

    Attitudes toward people with disabilities are learned, emotionally toned predispositions. This study compares such attitudes held by nursing faculty, beginning nursing students, graduating nursing students, registered nurses, and people with disabilities. Results of the study indicate that persons with disabilities were significantly more positive in their attitudes. Faculty held the least positive attitude, closely followed by graduating nursing students.

  14. Attitudes toward menstruation. International Committee on Applied Research in Population.

    PubMed

    Whelan, E M

    1975-04-01

    Historically, various interpretations of the menstrual process have been reflected in a wide, and usually negative, range of social attitudes toward menstruation. Recent clinical experience with continuation of the modern hormonal and mechanical methods of contraception that induce changes in the normal menstrual pattern suggests the need to understand current variations in attitudes and practices related to menstruation. This paper briefly outlines historical Western, Orthodox Jewish and Muslim, and contemporary US women's attitudes toward menstruation and begins to explore their relationship to contraceptive continuation.

  15. Older Adults Talk Technology: Technology Usage and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Mitzner, Tracy L.; Boron, Julie B.; Fausset, Cara Bailey; Adams, Anne E.; Charness, Neil; Czaja, Sara J.; Dijkstra, Katinka; Fisk, Arthur D.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Sharit, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Older adults (n = 113) participated in focus groups discussing their use of and attitudes about technology in the context of their home, work, and healthcare. Participants reported using a wide variety of technology items, particularly in their homes. Positive attitudes (i.e., likes) outnumbered negative attitudes (i.e., dislikes), suggesting that older adults perceive the benefits of technology use to outweigh the costs of such use. Positive attitudes were most frequently related to how the technology supported activities, enhanced convenience, and contained useful features. Negative attitudes were most frequently associated with technology creating inconveniences, unhelpful features, as well as security and reliability concerns. Given that older adults reported more positive than negative attitudes about the technologies they use, these results contradict stereotypes that older adults are afraid or unwilling to use technology. These findings also highlight the importance of perceived benefits of use and ease of use for models of technology acceptance. Emphasizing the benefits of technology in education and training programs may increase future technology adoption. PMID:20967133

  16. Experiencing ownership over a dark-skinned body reduces implicit racial bias.

    PubMed

    Maister, Lara; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Günther; Tsakiris, Manos

    2013-08-01

    Previous studies have investigated how existing social attitudes towards other races affect the way we 'share' their bodily experiences, for example in empathy for pain, and sensorimotor mapping. Here, we ask whether it is possible to alter implicit racial attitudes by experimentally increasing self-other bodily overlap. Employing a bodily illusion known as the 'Rubber Hand Illusion', we delivered multisensory stimulation to light-skinned Caucasian participants to induce the feeling that a dark-skinned hand belonged to them. We then measured whether this could change their implicit racial biases against people with dark skin. Across two experiments, the more intense the participants' illusion of ownership over the dark-skinned rubber hand, the more positive their implicit racial attitudes became. Importantly, it was not the pattern of multisensory stimulation per se, but rather, it was the change in the subjective experience of body ownership that altered implicit attitudes. These findings suggest that inducing an overlap between the bodies of self and other through illusory ownership is an effective way to change and reduce negative implicit attitudes towards outgroups.

  17. Experiencing ownership over a dark-skinned body reduces implicit racial bias

    PubMed Central

    Maister, Lara; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Günther; Tsakiris, Manos

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated how existing social attitudes towards other races affect the way we ‘share’ their bodily experiences, for example in empathy for pain, and sensorimotor mapping. Here, we ask whether it is possible to alter implicit racial attitudes by experimentally increasing self-other bodily overlap. Employing a bodily illusion known as the ‘Rubber Hand Illusion’, we delivered multisensory stimulation to light-skinned Caucasian participants to induce the feeling that a dark-skinned hand belonged to them. We then measured whether this could change their implicit racial biases against people with dark skin. Across two experiments, the more intense the participants’ illusion of ownership over the dark-skinned rubber hand, the more positive their implicit racial attitudes became. Importantly, it was not the pattern of multisensory stimulation per se, but rather, it was the change in the subjective experience of body ownership that altered implicit attitudes. These findings suggest that inducing an overlap between the bodies of self and other through illusory ownership is an effective way to change and reduce negative implicit attitudes towards outgroups. PMID:23680793

  18. Perceived social norms, expectations, and attitudes toward corporal punishment among an urban community sample of parents.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Catherine A; Hamvas, Lauren; Rice, Janet; Newman, Denise L; DeJong, William

    2011-04-01

    Despite the fact that corporal punishment (CP) is a significant risk factor for increased aggression in children, child physical abuse victimization, and other poor outcomes, approval of CP remains high in the United States. Having a positive attitude toward CP use is a strong and malleable predictor of CP use and, therefore, is an important potential target for reducing use of CP. The Theory of Planned Behavior suggests that parents' perceived injunctive and descriptive social norms and expectations regarding CP use might be linked with CP attitudes and behavior. A random-digit-dial telephone survey of parents from an urban community sample (n = 500) was conducted. Perceived social norms were the strongest predictors of having positive attitudes toward CP, as follows: (1) perceived approval of CP by professionals (β = 0.30), (2) perceived descriptive norms of CP use (β = 0.22), and (3) perceived approval of CP by family and friends (β = 0.19); also, both positive (β = 0.13) and negative (β = -0.13) expected outcomes for CP use were strong predictors of these attitudes. Targeted efforts are needed to both assess and shift the attitudes and practices of professionals who influence parents regarding CP use; universal efforts, such as public education campaigns, are needed to educate parents and the general public about the high risk/benefit ratio for using CP and the effectiveness of non-physical forms of child discipline.

  19. Perceived social norms, expectations, and attitudes toward corporal punishment among an urban community sample of parents.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Catherine A; Hamvas, Lauren; Rice, Janet; Newman, Denise L; DeJong, William

    2011-04-01

    Despite the fact that corporal punishment (CP) is a significant risk factor for increased aggression in children, child physical abuse victimization, and other poor outcomes, approval of CP remains high in the United States. Having a positive attitude toward CP use is a strong and malleable predictor of CP use and, therefore, is an important potential target for reducing use of CP. The Theory of Planned Behavior suggests that parents' perceived injunctive and descriptive social norms and expectations regarding CP use might be linked with CP attitudes and behavior. A random-digit-dial telephone survey of parents from an urban community sample (n = 500) was conducted. Perceived social norms were the strongest predictors of having positive attitudes toward CP, as follows: (1) perceived approval of CP by professionals (β = 0.30), (2) perceived descriptive norms of CP use (β = 0.22), and (3) perceived approval of CP by family and friends (β = 0.19); also, both positive (β = 0.13) and negative (β = -0.13) expected outcomes for CP use were strong predictors of these attitudes. Targeted efforts are needed to both assess and shift the attitudes and practices of professionals who influence parents regarding CP use; universal efforts, such as public education campaigns, are needed to educate parents and the general public about the high risk/benefit ratio for using CP and the effectiveness of non-physical forms of child discipline. PMID:21336503

  20. Cross-sectional survey of attitudes and beliefs about back pain in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Darlow, Ben; Perry, Meredith; Stanley, James; Mathieson, Fiona; Melloh, Markus; Baxter, G David; Dowell, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore the prevalence of attitudes and beliefs about back pain in New Zealand and compare certain beliefs based on back pain history or health professional exposure. Design Population-based cross-sectional survey. Setting Postal survey. Participants New Zealand residents and citizens aged 18 years and above. 1000 participants were randomly selected from the New Zealand Electoral Roll. Participants listed on the Electoral Roll with an overseas postal address were excluded. 602 valid responses were received. Measures Attitudes and beliefs about back pain were measured with the Back Pain Attitudes Questionnaire (Back-PAQ). The interaction between attitudes and beliefs and (1) back pain experience and (2) health professional exposure was investigated. Results The lifetime prevalence of back pain was reported as 87% (95% CI 84% to 90%), and the point prevalence as 27% (95% CI 24% to 31%). Negative views about the back and back pain were prevalent, in particular the need to protect the back to prevent injury. People with current back pain had more negative overall scores, particularly related to back pain prognosis. There was uncertainty about links between pain and injury and appropriate physical activity levels during an episode of back pain. Respondents had more positive views about activity if they had consulted a health professional about back pain. The beliefs of New Zealanders appeared to be broadly similar to those of other Western populations. Conclusions A large proportion of respondents believed that they needed to protect their back to prevent injury; we theorise that this belief may result in reduced confidence to use the back and contribute to fear avoidance. Uncertainty regarding what is a safe level of activity during an episode of back pain may limit participation. People experiencing back pain may benefit from more targeted information about the positive prognosis. The provision of clear guidance about levels of activity may enable

  1. Attitude profile design program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Attitude Profile Design (APD) Program was designed to be used as a stand-alone addition to the Simplex Computation of Optimum Orbital Trajectories (SCOOT). The program uses information from a SCOOT output file and the user defined attitude profile to produce time histories of attitude, angular body rates, and accelerations. The APD program is written in standard FORTRAN77 and should be portable to any machine that has an appropriate compiler. The input and output are through formatted files. The program reads the basic flight data, such as the states of the vehicles, acceleration profiles, and burn information, from the SCOOT output file. The user inputs information about the desired attitude profile during coasts in a high level manner. The program then takes these high level commands and executes the maneuvers, outputting the desired information.

  2. Autonomous attitude determination systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowrie, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    A summary of autonomous attitude determination systems is presented by separating it into four areas: types of attitude determination systems which can be automated, a description of the attitude determination problem and its solution, specific types of sensors, and the processor requirements of two automated systems. The sensors used in attitude determination have been characteristically carried on-board the spacecraft in the past, so the major development requirement of automated systems is in the area of on-board processors. It is concluded that standardization of computers is not as beneficial as the standardization of computer architecture and the basic components which go into making them. It is also concluded that charge-coupled devices (CCD) or other solid state star tracking devices offer considerable advantages over the image-dissector type of star tracker.

  3. Attitudes towards euthanasia.

    PubMed Central

    Winget, C; Kapp, F T; Yeaworth, R C

    1977-01-01

    There are an infinite variety of attitudes to euthanasia, each individual response to the concept being influenced by many factors. Consequently there is a literature on the subject ranging from the popular article to papers in specialized journals. This study, however, has taken a well defined sample of people, inviting them to answer a questionnaire which was designed to elicit their attitudes to euthanasia in a way which could be analysed statistically. Nor surprisingly attitudes appeared to 'harden' as those answering the questionnaire grew more experienced in dealing with patients and also more professionally established. Thus it was found that of the seven groups questioned practising physicians showed more positive attitudes to euthanasia and their responses did not differ significantly from those of senior medical students. It is these groups which actually or potentially have to resolve the clinical dilemma posed by the dying patient. PMID:859163

  4. Spacecraft Attitude Representations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    1999-01-01

    The direction cosine matrix or attitude matrix is the most fundamental representation of the attitude, but it is very inefficient: It has six redundant parameters, it is difficult to enforce the six (orthogonality) constraints. the four-component quaternion representation is very convenient: it has only one redundant parameter, it is easy to enforce the normalization constraint, the attitude matrix is a homogeneous quadratic function of q, quaternion kinematics are bilinear in q and m. Euler angles are extensively used: they often have a physical interpretation, they provide a natural description of some spacecraft motions (COBE, MAP), but kinematics and attitude matrix involve trigonometric functions, "gimbal lock" for certain values of the angles. Other minimum (three-parameter) representations: Gibbs vector is infinite for 180 deg rotations, but useful for analysis, Modified Rodrigues Parameters are nonsingular, no trig functions, Rotation vector phi is nonsingular, but requires trig functions.

  5. Meningitis - gram-negative

    MedlinePlus

    Gram-negative meningitis ... Acute bacterial meningitis can be caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Meningococcal and H. influenzae meningitis are caused by Gram-negative bacteria and are covered in detail in other articles. This article ...

  6. [Greek students' attitudes towards mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Antoniadis, D; Gouti, A; Kaloudi, E; Τourlende, N; Douzenis, A; Christodoulou, C; Lykouras, L; Livaditis, M; Samakouri, M

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes and beliefs of the population regarding the mentally ill have been universally subject of many researches. Research of different groups' opinion for mental disorders has given remarkable findings that assist in the right design of psychiatric services. Objective of this thesis is to study the attitude of students towards mental illness. In particular, it intends to study the differences derived from the age, gender, place of birth, kind of studies, year of study, duration of stay at the place of studies and the existence of mental disorders in the student's family. Data were collected from 536 students randomly selected from Universities and Technological Institutions both in Athens and Thessaloniki. In general, the participants are being divided based on the subject of their studies in undergraduates of human sciences, exact sciences, social and health sciences. The short version of the scale "Community Attitudes Toward the Mentality III" (CAMI) was used, which consists of 26 questions sorted to four subscales (domination scale, humanism scale, social exclusion scale and the scale measuring the community beliefs regarding the care of mentally ill), along with a special questionnaire in order to collect social and demographic data. Students' attitudes towards mental illness are influenced by demographic factors, the department they are studying at and the year of study. Female gender (p=0.000), personal contact with mentally ill (p=0.012), studying in Universities (p=0.031) and especially social sciences (p=0.009) are associated with positive attitudes. On the contrary, less years of studying are associated with negative attitudes whereas older students appear to score less in the Domination Scale (p=0.000). It is significant that the place of birth (p=0,335) and the duration of stay at the place of studies (r=0.735) did not show any association with the variables studied in this research. However these results cannot be compared with older researches

  7. Assessing Knowledge of, and Attitudes to, HIV/AIDS among University Students in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Haroun, Dalia; El Saleh, Ola; Wood, Lesley; Mechli, Rola; Al Marzouqi, Nada; Anouti, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Background The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is among the top two regions in the world with the fastest growing HIV epidemic. In this context, risks and vulnerability are high as the epidemic is on the rise with evidence indicating significantly increasing HIV prevalence, new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths. Objective The aim of the survey was to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes related to HIV/AIDS among a wide group of university students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods In a cross-sectional survey, a total sample of 2,294 students (406 male; 1,888 female) from four universities in three different Emirates in the UAE were approached to take part in the study. Students self-completed a questionnaire that was designed to measure their knowledge and attitudes to HIV/AIDS. Results The overall average knowledge score of HIV.AIDS was 61%. Non-Emirati and postgraduates demonstrated higher levels of knowledge compared to Emirati and undergraduate students respectively. No significant differences between males and females; and marital status were found. Eighty-five percent of students expressed negative attitudes towards people living with HIV, with Emirati and single students significantly holding more negative attitudes compared to non-Emiratis and those that are married respectively. Conclusions The findings provide strong evidence that there is a need to advocate for appropriate National HIV/AIDS awareness raising campaigns in universities to reduce the gaps in knowledge and decrease stigmatizing attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:26913902

  8. Medical students and interns’ knowledge about and attitude towards homosexuality

    PubMed Central

    Banwari, G; Mistry, K; Soni, A; Parikh, N; Gandhi, H

    2015-01-01

    Background and Rationale: Medical professionals’ attitude towards homosexuals affects health care offered to such patients with a different sexual orientation. There is absence of literature that explores the attitudes of Indian medical students or physicians towards homosexuality. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate Indian medical students and interns’ knowledge about homosexuality and attitude towards homosexuals. Materials and Methods: After IEC approval and written informed consent, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a purposive sample of undergraduate medical students and interns studying in one Indian medical college. The response rate was 80.5%. Only completely and validly filled responses (N = 244) were analyzed. The participants filled the Sex Education and Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire (SEKHQ) and the Attitudes towards Homosexuals Questionnaire (AHQ). SEKHQ consisted of 32 statements with response chosen from ‘true’, ‘false’, or ‘don’t know’. AHQ consisted of 20 statements scorable on a 5-point Likert scale. Multiple linear regression was used to find the predictors of knowledge and attitude. Results: Medical students and interns had inadequate knowledge about homosexuality, although they endorsed a neutral stance insofar as their attitude towards homosexuals is concerned. Females had more positive attitudes towards homosexuals. Knowledge emerged as the most significant predictor of attitude; those having higher knowledge had more positive attitudes. Conclusion: Enhancing knowledge of medical students by incorporation of homosexuality related health issues in the curriculum could help reduce prejudice towards the sexual minority and thus impact their future clinical practice. PMID:25766341

  9. Health Professionals' Attitudes and Emotions towards Working with Adults with Intellectual Disability (ID) and Mental Ill Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, N.; Kent, S.; Rose, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Mainstream mental health services are providing more care for individuals with an intellectual disability (ID); this has implications for staff and service users. Attitudes of staff towards people with ID in mental health services may be negative and negative staff attitudes may have a detrimental impact on service provision. Design: A…

  10. Mood and trust in intuition interactively orchestrate correspondence between implicit and explicit attitudes.

    PubMed

    Huntsinger, Jeffrey R

    2011-09-01

    The goal of the current research was to subject the prediction that affect and trust in intuition would interactively shape implicit and explicit attitude correspondence to empirical assessment. In four experiments, either trust versus distrust in intuition was measured or manipulated and positive or negative moods were induced. The outcome of interest was correspondence between implicit and explicit academic attitudes (Experiments 1-2) and self-attitudes (Experiments 3-4). As predicted, affect served as information about chronically or temporarily accessible tendencies to trust or distrust their intuitions, with positive affect validating and negative affect invalidating such tendencies, which in turn shaped correspondence between implicit and explicit attitudes. By drawing together these two seemingly unrelated lines of research, these experiments provide important insights into the sometimes mysterious circumstances in which implicit attitudes are translated into explicit attitude reports.

  11. Ew, that's icky: Assessing children's attitudes towards the insects of Connecticut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeks, Faith Jean-Ellen

    This study investigated children's attitudes towards insects, focusing on how attitudes change from fascination to repulsion as the children age. This study involved 127 elementary students (grades 4-6) and 139 high school students (grades 9-12) from New Haven public schools. Students were administered Likert type surveys to evaluate their attitudes after viewing photos of 8 common insects of Connecticut; the butterfly, ladybug, dragonfly, ant, moth, cricket, beetle, and fly. Scores from elementary school students were compared with high school students to determine if attitudes towards insects became less favorable as the children age. The results were also analyzed to determine if attitudinal changes were consistent between girls and boys. It was found that elementary school students did not hold more negative attitudes than high school students, but girls did hold more negative attitudes towards insects than boys.

  12. Predicted torque equilibrium attitude utilization for Space Station attitude control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Renjith R.; Heck, Michael L.; Robertson, Brent P.

    1990-01-01

    An approximate knowledge of the torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) is shown to improve the performance of a control moment gyroscope (CMG) momentum management/attitude control law for Space Station Freedom. The linearized equations of motion are used in conjunction with a state transformation to obtain a control law which uses full state feedback and the predicted TEA to minimize both attitude excursions and CMG peak and secular momentum. The TEA can be computationally determined either by observing the steady state attitude of a 'controlled' spacecraft using arbitrary initial attitude, or by simulating a fixed attitude spacecraft flying in desired orbit subject to realistic environmental disturbance models.

  13. Stigmatizing attitudes towards people with pedophilia and their malleability among psychotherapists in training.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Sara; Philipp, Kathleen; Hoyer, Juergen

    2015-02-01

    Offering counseling and psychotherapy to patients with pedophilia is considered an essential part of sexual abuse prevention by many experts in the field. Yet, professionals' willingness to offer treatment might be compromised by stigmatizing attitudes towards these patients. In the present study, we developed and tested a 10-min online intervention (including educational material and a video about a person with pedophilia) to reduce stigma and increase motivation to work with this particular patient group. Psychotherapists in training were either assigned to the anti-stigma intervention group (n=68) or the control group (n=69) that received information about violence-free parenting. In the anti-stigma condition, agreement with the stereotypes controllability and dangerousness, anger, reduced pity and social distance were significantly reduced after the intervention, compared to the control group, while motivation to work with this group remained unchanged. The effects persisted, though slightly reduced in size, for perceived controllability, anger and social distance at follow-up. Our results suggest that stigmatizing attitudes, negative affective responses and social distance regarding people with pedophilia among psychotherapists in training can be positively influenced by a low-cost intervention. Practical implications of these findings for high quality health care and child sexual abuse prevention are discussed.

  14. Stigmatizing attitudes towards people with pedophilia and their malleability among psychotherapists in training.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Sara; Philipp, Kathleen; Hoyer, Juergen

    2015-02-01

    Offering counseling and psychotherapy to patients with pedophilia is considered an essential part of sexual abuse prevention by many experts in the field. Yet, professionals' willingness to offer treatment might be compromised by stigmatizing attitudes towards these patients. In the present study, we developed and tested a 10-min online intervention (including educational material and a video about a person with pedophilia) to reduce stigma and increase motivation to work with this particular patient group. Psychotherapists in training were either assigned to the anti-stigma intervention group (n=68) or the control group (n=69) that received information about violence-free parenting. In the anti-stigma condition, agreement with the stereotypes controllability and dangerousness, anger, reduced pity and social distance were significantly reduced after the intervention, compared to the control group, while motivation to work with this group remained unchanged. The effects persisted, though slightly reduced in size, for perceived controllability, anger and social distance at follow-up. Our results suggest that stigmatizing attitudes, negative affective responses and social distance regarding people with pedophilia among psychotherapists in training can be positively influenced by a low-cost intervention. Practical implications of these findings for high quality health care and child sexual abuse prevention are discussed. PMID:25085206

  15. Farmers' attitudes toward mandatory water-saving policies: A case study in two basins in northwest China.

    PubMed

    Chang, Genying; Wang, Lu; Meng, Liuyi; Zhang, Wenxia

    2016-10-01

    China began to implement stringent water-saving policies in 2012. Mandatory water-saving measures implemented in arid inland river basins include the measures of allocating surface water among upper, middle and lower beaches, restricting household agricultural water use, closing wells, reducing farmland and increasing water prices. These measures have negative influences on the agricultural production of farmers. This study aimed to reveal the demographic and psychological correlates of farmers' attitudes toward these policies. The participants included 672 farmers in the Heihe River Basin and the Shule River Basin in northwest China. Structural equation analyses showed that farmers' awareness of the beneficial consequences of restricting household agricultural water and their perception of policy enforcement had significant relationships with their attitudes toward water-saving policies, whereas the effects of the New Ecological Paradigm and collectivism on farmers' attitudes were mediated through their awareness of beneficial consequences and their perception of policy enforcement. Multivariable regression analyses revealed that as a whole, there were no significant correlations between demographic variables and farmers' attitudes. Policy implications include propagandizing these policies among local farmers, strengthening open and fair policy enforcement, and cautiously using water prices as an instrument to control irrigation water. PMID:27420168

  16. Associations between visual attention, implicit and explicit attitude and behaviour for physical activity.

    PubMed

    Calitri, Raff; Lowe, Rob; Eves, Frank F; Bennett, Paul

    2009-11-01

    The current study explored associations between previous physical activity and both implicit and explicit attitudes, as well as visual attention and activity motivation (intention). Analyses were performed on participants initially unaware of the physical activity focus of the study (N = 98). Higher levels of physical activity were associated with positive implicit attitudes and an attentional bias towards exercise cues. There was a quadratic ('U' shaped) relationship between implicit attitude and attention: the more extreme individuals' implicit attitudes towards exercise (positive or negative) the greater their attentional bias to exercise cues. Furthermore, explicit attitude moderated the relationship between attentional bias and physical activity: attentional bias to exercise cues was associated with higher levels of physical activity only for those who had a strong positive explicit attitude. Findings suggested that implicit cognitions are linked with previous physical activity. Future research should consider strategies for strengthening positive implicit and explicit attitudes and directing attention to cues signalling healthy behaviour.

  17. Dealing With Uncertainty: Testing Risk- and Ambiguity-Attitude Across Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Blankenstein, Neeltje E; Crone, Eveline A; van den Bos, Wouter; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes to risk (known probabilities) and attitudes to ambiguity (unknown probabilities) are separate constructs that influence decision making, but their development across adolescence remains elusive. We administered a choice task to a wide adolescent age-range (N = 157, 10-25 years) to disentangle risk- and ambiguity-attitudes using a model-based approach. Additionally, this task was played in a social context, presenting choices from a high risk-taking peer. We observed age-related changes in ambiguity-attitude, but not risk-attitude. Also, ambiguity-aversion was negatively related to real-life risk taking. Finally, the social context influenced only risk-attitudes. These results highlight the importance of disentangling risk- and ambiguity-attitudes in adolescent risk taking.

  18. Dealing With Uncertainty: Testing Risk- and Ambiguity-Attitude Across Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Blankenstein, Neeltje E; Crone, Eveline A; van den Bos, Wouter; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes to risk (known probabilities) and attitudes to ambiguity (unknown probabilities) are separate constructs that influence decision making, but their development across adolescence remains elusive. We administered a choice task to a wide adolescent age-range (N = 157, 10-25 years) to disentangle risk- and ambiguity-attitudes using a model-based approach. Additionally, this task was played in a social context, presenting choices from a high risk-taking peer. We observed age-related changes in ambiguity-attitude, but not risk-attitude. Also, ambiguity-aversion was negatively related to real-life risk taking. Finally, the social context influenced only risk-attitudes. These results highlight the importance of disentangling risk- and ambiguity-attitudes in adolescent risk taking. PMID:27028162

  19. Improving nutrient management practices in agriculture: The role of risk-based beliefs in understanding farmers' attitudes toward taking additional action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Robyn S.; Howard, Gregory; Burnett, Elizabeth A.

    2014-08-01

    A recent increase in the amount of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) entering the western Lake Erie basin is likely due to increased spring storm events in combination with issues related to fertilizer application and timing. These factors in combination with warmer lake temperatures have amplified the spread of toxic algal blooms. We assessed the attitudes of farmers in northwest Ohio toward taking at least one additional action to reduce nutrient loss on their farm. Specifically, we (1) identified to what extent farm and farmer characteristics (e.g., age, gross farm sales) as well as risk-based beliefs (e.g., efficacy, risk perception) influenced attitudes, and (2) assessed how these characteristics and beliefs differ in their predictive ability based on unobservable latent classes of farmers. Risk perception, or a belief that negative impacts to profit and water quality from nutrient loss were likely, was the most consistent predictor of farmer attitudes. Response efficacy, or a belief that taking action on one's farm made a difference, was found to significantly influence attitudes, although this belief was particularly salient for the minority class of farmers who were older and more motivated by profit. Communication efforts should focus on the negative impacts of nutrient loss to both the farm (i.e., profit) and the natural environment (i.e., water quality) to raise individual perceived risk among the majority, while the minority need higher perceived efficacy or more specific information about the economic effectiveness of particular recommended practices.

  20. Stages of Consistent Condom Use, Partner Intimacy, Condom Use Attitude, and Self-Efficacy in African-American Crack Cocaine Users

    PubMed Central

    Pallonen, Unto E.; Timpson, Sandra C.; Ross, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how condom use attitude, self-efficacy, and partner intimacy related to five stages of consistent condom use. Interview data were collected from sexually active, heterosexual, African-American crack cocaine smokers (N = 366). Dependent measures assessed both the participants’ own responses and their perceptions about their last sex partner’s own personal condom use attitude and participants’ condom use self-efficacy expectations. Partner intimacy was assessed both as a continuous attitudinal and as a discrete relationship measure. Less than 10% were classified as consistent condom users. Two thirds of inconsistent users were in the Precontemplation (PC) stage. The contemplation (C) and preparation (P) stages were equal among the remainder of the inconsistent condom users. Higher partner intimacy reduced modestly readiness for consistent condom use. The stage but not the intimacy group was related to the condom use attitudes and self-efficacy measures. Last partners’ perceived own negative attitudes were significantly related to the stages of consistent condom use and was especially low in the action (A) and maintenance (M) stages. Participants’ own negative attitudes were unrelated to the stages. Of the self-efficacy measures, both participants’ performance and situational condom use self-efficacies increased significantly after the PC stage and were highest in the P, A, and M stages. However, situational self-efficacy accounted for most of performance self-efficacy variance. In sum, consistent condom use was rare. A partner’s attitudes and the participants’ own situational self-efficacy expectations, rather than intimacy, determined the readiness to adopt consistent condom use. PMID:18574684

  1. Suicide-Bereaved Individuals' Attitudes Toward Therapists.

    PubMed

    Ward-Ciesielski, Erin F; Wielgus, Madeline D; Jones, Connor B

    2014-12-01

    Background: Suicide-bereaved individuals represent an important group impacted by suicide. Understanding their experiences following the suicide of a loved one is an important research domain, despite receiving limited attention. Although suicide-bereaved individuals may benefit from mental health treatment, their attitudes toward therapy and therapists are poorly understood. Aims: The present study aimed to understand the extent to which bereaved individuals' attitudes toward therapy and therapists are impacted by whether their loved one was in therapy at the time of death. Method: Suicide-bereaved individuals (N = 243) from the United States were recruited to complete an online survey about their experience with and attitudes toward therapy and therapists following the suicide of a loved one. Results: Bereaved individuals whose loved one was in therapy at the time of death (N = 48, 19.8%) reported more negative and less positive attitudes toward the treating therapist than those whose loved one was not in therapy at the time of death (N = 81, 33.3%) or whose loved one was never in therapy/the deceased's therapy status was unknown (N = 114, 46.9%). Conclusion: The deceased's involvement with a therapist appears to be an important factor impacting the experience of bereaved individuals and should be considered when attempting to engage these individuals in postvention.

  2. Attitude Sensor Pseudonoise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashmall, Joseph A.; Lennox, Scott E.

    2005-01-01

    Even assuming perfect attitude sensors and gyros, sensor measurements on a vibrating spacecraft have apparent errors. These apparent sensor errors, referred to as pseudonoise, arise because gyro and sensor measurements are performed at discrete times. This paper explains the concept of pseudonoise, quantifies its behavior, and discusses the effect of vibrations that are nearly commensurate with measurement periods. Although pseudonoise does not usually affect attitude determination it does affect sensor performance evaluation. Attitude rates are usually computed from differences between pairs of accumulated angle measurements at different times and are considered constant in the periods between measurements. Propagation using these rates does not reproduce exact instantaneous spacecraft attitudes except at the gyro measurement times. Exact sensor measurements will therefore be inconsistent with estimates based on the propagated attitude. This inconsistency produces pseudonoise. The characteristics of pseudonoise were determined using a simple, one-dimensional model of spacecraft vibration. The statistical properties of the deviations of measurements from model truth were determined using this model and a range of different periods of sensor and rate measurements. This analysis indicates that the magnitude of pseudonoise depends on the ratio of the spacecraft vibration period to the time between gyro measurements and can be as much as twice the amplitude of the vibration. In cases where the vibration period and gyro or sensor measurement period are nearly commensurate, unexpected changes in pseudonoise occur.

  3. University of Malaya dental students' attitudes towards communication skills learning: implications for dental education.

    PubMed

    Nor, Nor Azlida M; Yusof, Zamros Y M; Shahidan, Mohd Noor F M

    2011-12-01

    The Ministry of Higher Education in Malaysia has called for the implementation of a soft skills module in all public universities in Malaysia. In response to this and as part of curriculum development efforts for a new integrated program for 2011, a study was undertaken to improve the University of Malaya (UM) Faculty of Dentistry's communication skills course. One of the study objectives was to investigate dental students' attitudes towards communication skills learning and the association between their attitudes and demographic and education-related characteristics. A cross-sectional survey--using a self-administered twenty-four-item adapted Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) that contained both positive (PAS) and negative (NAS) attitude subscales--was carried out targeting all final-year dental students at the UM and the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). A total of 148 students completed the survey, yielding a response rate of 88.1 percent. Overall, UKM students had significantly more positive attitudes towards communication skills learning (PAS score: mean=48.69, SD=4.48, p<0.001) than UM students (mean=46.03, SD=4.22). There was no statistically significant difference in negative attitudes between the two groups. UKM students with more positive attitudes tended to be female (p<0.05). UM students with more negative attitudes perceived themselves as poor communicators (p<0.05), and UKM students with more negative attitudes tended to have poor English proficiency (p<0.05). This study found that both UM and UKM final-year dental students have positive and negative attitudes towards learning communication skills. These attitudes were significantly associated with certain background and education-related attributes. Outcomes of this study served as a valuable guide in strengthening the communication skills course for the UM's new, integrated dental curriculum. PMID:22184601

  4. University of Malaya dental students' attitudes towards communication skills learning: implications for dental education.

    PubMed

    Nor, Nor Azlida M; Yusof, Zamros Y M; Shahidan, Mohd Noor F M

    2011-12-01

    The Ministry of Higher Education in Malaysia has called for the implementation of a soft skills module in all public universities in Malaysia. In response to this and as part of curriculum development efforts for a new integrated program for 2011, a study was undertaken to improve the University of Malaya (UM) Faculty of Dentistry's communication skills course. One of the study objectives was to investigate dental students' attitudes towards communication skills learning and the association between their attitudes and demographic and education-related characteristics. A cross-sectional survey--using a self-administered twenty-four-item adapted Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) that contained both positive (PAS) and negative (NAS) attitude subscales--was carried out targeting all final-year dental students at the UM and the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). A total of 148 students completed the survey, yielding a response rate of 88.1 percent. Overall, UKM students had significantly more positive attitudes towards communication skills learning (PAS score: mean=48.69, SD=4.48, p<0.001) than UM students (mean=46.03, SD=4.22). There was no statistically significant difference in negative attitudes between the two groups. UKM students with more positive attitudes tended to be female (p<0.05). UM students with more negative attitudes perceived themselves as poor communicators (p<0.05), and UKM students with more negative attitudes tended to have poor English proficiency (p<0.05). This study found that both UM and UKM final-year dental students have positive and negative attitudes towards learning communication skills. These attitudes were significantly associated with certain background and education-related attributes. Outcomes of this study served as a valuable guide in strengthening the communication skills course for the UM's new, integrated dental curriculum.

  5. Does self-stigma reduce the probability of seeking mental health information?

    PubMed

    Lannin, Daniel G; Vogel, David L; Brenner, Rachel E; Abraham, W Todd; Heath, Patrick J

    2016-04-01

    An important first step in seeking counseling may involve obtaining information about mental health concerns and treatment options. Researchers have suggested that some people may avoid such information because it is too threatening due to self-stigma and negative attitudes, but the link to actual help-seeking decisions has not been tested. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-stigma and attitudes negatively impact decisions to seek information about mental health concerns and counseling. Probit regression models with 370 undergraduates showed that self-stigma negatively predicted decisions to seek both mental health and counseling information, with attitudes toward counseling mediating self-stigma's influence on these decisions. Among individuals experiencing higher levels of distress, the predicted probabilities of seeking mental health information (8.5%) and counseling information (8.4%) for those with high self-stigma were nearly half of those with low self-stigma (17.1% and 15.0%, respectively). This suggests that self-stigma may hinder initial decisions to seek mental health and counseling information, and implies the need for the development of early interventions designed to reduce help-seeking barriers. PMID:26323042

  6. Changes in attitudes towards war and violence after September 11, 2001.

    PubMed

    Carnagey, Nicholas L; Anderson, Craig A

    2007-01-01

    Two inter-related studies examined the effect of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on attitudes towards war and violence. A three-wave between-subjects analysis revealed that attitudes towards war became more positive after September 11, 2001 and remained high over a year afterwards. Self-reported trait physical aggression also rose after September 11. Attitudes towards penal code violence (PCV) became more positive immediately after September 11, but were somewhat reduced a year afterward. A two-wave within subjects study revealed that war attitudes became even more positive at 2 months post-September 11. Attitudes towards PCV became less positive during this time period, but only for women. Other aggression-related attitudes were not affected in either study. These studies demonstrate that a large-scale event can change attitudes, but those attitudes must be directly relevant to the event. PMID:17441012

  7. Dental student attitudes towards communication skills instruction and clinical application.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Carly T

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated dental students' attitudes towards communication skills instruction and clinical application and explored the impact of a one-semester course and year in school on students' attitudes, measured by the Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Demographic characteristics and self-assessment of communication skills were also analyzed. The study employed a pretest-posttest survey design combined with cross-sectional data. Participants were first- and fourth-year students at a U.S. dental school. Out of a possible 120 students, 106 (fifty-seven D1 and forty-nine D4) participated in the pretest, an 88 percent response rate; out of a possible 121 students, 115 (fifty-seven D1 and fifty-eight D4) participated in the posttest, a 95 percent response rate. In the results, D4 students consistently demonstrated less positive attitudes towards communication skills instruction and more negative attitudes regarding the importance of interpersonal skills in clinical encounters than did their D1 counterparts. A single communications course had no discernible effect on attitudes or self-assessments for either cohort. Females reported more positive attitudes towards clinical application of interpersonal skills than did males. Gender significantly interacted with two demographic variables: primary language and parent as health care professional. Female children of health care professionals reported poorer attitudes towards clinical communication skills training and application than did their male counterparts. Generally, parental occupation in health care moderated the decrease in positive attitudes over time towards clinical usefulness of communication skills. The D4 students rated their communication skills higher than did the D1 students. Students who demonstrated more positive attitudes towards communication skills training and application were more likely to say their own skills needed improvement.

  8. Menstruation across time: menarche, menstrual attitudes, experiences, and behaviors.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Marianne E; Korfine, Lauren

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between early and current menstrual experiences. The primary hypothesis was that women who reported positive menarcheal experiences (including menstrual education and menarche) would tend to report positive current menstrual attitudes, experiences, and/or behaviors, and vice versa for women who reported negative menarcheal experiences. In this survey-based study, college-aged women (n = 327) were screened by completing a questionnaire concerning their menarcheal experiences. Women who had extremely negative ("negative group," n = 46) or extremely positive ("positive group," n = 38) early menstrual experiences returned to complete questionnaires concerning current menstrual attitudes, experiences, and behaviors. Early and current menstrual experiences were most strongly associated in the domain of menstrual attitudes. Women in the negative group reported more negative menstrual attitudes than did women in the positive group. There were additional associations between early menstrual experiences and measures of body image and health behaviors. Positive group participants reported more positive body image and better general health behaviors. Results suggest that early menstrual experiences may be related to menstrual experiences later in life. This study invites further investigation of the psychology of menstruation and suggests connecting menstruation with other women's health issues.

  9. [Exploratory factor analysis and psychometric properties of the Valencia Scale on attitudes and beliefs toward hypnosis].

    PubMed

    Capafons, Antonio; Morales, Claudia; Espejo, Begoña; Cabañas, Sonia

    2006-11-01

    Exploratory factor analysis and psychometric properties of the valencia scale on attitudes and beliefs toward hypnosis. Therapist version. This investigation examines the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Valencia Scale on Attitudes and Beliefs toward Hypnosis-Therapist version. Data from 775 professional psychologists belonging to the Spanish Association of Psychologists were used for the exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Retest included data from 426 participants who answered to the test. The EFA revealed eight factors (Fear, Memory, Help, Control, Collaboration, Interest, Magic and Marginal). Each factor showed good internal consistency and reliability, similar to the client version of this scale. ANOVA indicate that some variables (having scientific knowledge, having received practical information on hypnosis, to use hypnosis, and to show interest in receiving more theoretical and practical information on hypnosis), tend to reduce inadequate beliefs and negative attitudes toward hypnosis. Our results provide the basis for carrying out confirmatory factor analysis and studies of convergent validity on the scale, and of the sensitivity of the scale to change.

  10. Nature and operation of attitudes.

    PubMed

    Ajzen, I

    2001-01-01

    This survey of attitude theory and research published between 1996 and 1999 covers the conceptualization of attitude, attitude formation and activation, attitude structure and function, and the attitude-behavior relation. Research regarding the expectancy-value model of attitude is considered, as are the roles of accessible beliefs and affective versus cognitive processes in the formation of attitudes. The survey reviews research on attitude strength and its antecedents and consequences, and covers progress made on the assessment of attitudinal ambivalence and its effects. Also considered is research on automatic attitude activation, attitude functions, and the relation of attitudes to broader values. A large number of studies dealt with the relation between attitudes and behavior. Research revealing additional moderators of this relation is reviewed, as are theory and research on the link between intentions and actions. Most work in this context was devoted to issues raised by the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior. The present review highlights the nature of perceived behavioral control, the relative importance of attitudes and subjective norms, the utility of adding more predictors, and the roles of prior behavior and habit. PMID:11148298

  11. Implementing energy education focusing on attitudes and concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmer, D.C. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Forty-two secondary science and social studies teachers from 11 high schools in Lincoln and Omaha, Nebraska administered the Youth Energy Survey (Michigan Energy Extension Service) to their classes (N = 3129), received survey results and interpretive data, and were invited to request innovative energy-education materials from the Nebraska State Energy Office. All teachers completed a modified form of the Youth Energy Survey (Adult Energy Survey) and the Stages of Concern Questionnaire. (1) Comparison of 1981 student energy attitude scores with 1979 scores showed more positive scores on five scales, more negative scores for one scale (nuclear energy), and no change on three scales. (2) With no exceptions, mean teacher attitude scores were more positive than were student attitude scores. Teachers classified in the impact concern stage had consistently more positive attitude scores than did teachers in either the self or task concern groups. (3) There appears to be little or no relationship between teacher and student energy attitudes. (4) Teachers with impact concerns about energy education had the most negative energy attitudes. (5) The ratio of request/no request responses for energy-education materials was uniformly consistent across all teacher concern states. Three out of four teachers in the study requested no energy-education materials. (6) Teacher search behavior for alternatives to existing curriculum materials was significantly increased when the Youth Energy Survey was administered to classes and the results of the survey returned to teachers.

  12. Fast Quaternion Attitude Estimation from Two Vector Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Many spacecraft attitude determination methods use exactly two vector measurements. The two vectors are typically the unit vector to the Sun and the Earth's magnetic field vector for coarse "sun-mag" attitude determination or unit vectors to two stars tracked by two star trackers for fine attitude determination. Existing closed-form attitude estimates based on Wahba's optimality criterion for two arbitrarily weighted observations are somewhat slow to evaluate. This paper presents two new fast quaternion attitude estimation algorithms using two vector observations, one optimal and one suboptimal. The suboptimal method gives the same estimate as the TRIAD algorithm, at reduced computational cost. Simulations show that the TRIAD estimate is almost as accurate as the optimal estimate in representative test scenarios.

  13. Measuring implicit attitudes: A positive framing bias flaw in the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP).

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Brian; Watson, Derrick G; Brown, Gordon D A

    2016-02-01

    How can implicit attitudes best be measured? The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP), unlike the Implicit Association Test (IAT), claims to measure absolute, not just relative, implicit attitudes. In the IRAP, participants make congruent (Fat Person-Active: false; Fat Person-Unhealthy: true) or incongruent (Fat Person-Active: true; Fat Person-Unhealthy: false) responses in different blocks of trials. IRAP experiments have reported positive or neutral implicit attitudes (e.g., neutral attitudes toward fat people) in cases in which negative attitudes are normally found on explicit or other implicit measures. It was hypothesized that these results might reflect a positive framing bias (PFB) that occurs when participants complete the IRAP. Implicit attitudes toward categories with varying prior associations (nonwords, social systems, flowers and insects, thin and fat people) were measured. Three conditions (standard, positive framing, and negative framing) were used to measure whether framing influenced estimates of implicit attitudes. It was found that IRAP scores were influenced by how the task was framed to the participants, that the framing effect was modulated by the strength of prior stimulus associations, and that a default PFB led to an overestimation of positive implicit attitudes when measured by the IRAP. Overall, the findings question the validity of the IRAP as a tool for the measurement of absolute implicit attitudes. A new tool (Simple Implicit Procedure:SIP) for measuring absolute, not just relative, implicit attitudes is proposed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. College Students' Intentions to Seek Help for Suicidal Ideation: Accounting for the Help-Negation Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakunina, Elena S.; Rogers, James R.; Waehler, Charles A.; Werth, James L., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Prior research has identified a negative association between suicidal ideation and help-seeking, a phenomenon called "help-negation." Help-negation has been documented to occur for both professional and nonprofessional sources of help. In this study help-seeking attitudes, stigma concerns, and perceptions of social support were examined as…

  15. Effect of Drug and Alcohol Education on Attitudes of High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lignell, Constance; Davidhizar, Ruth

    1991-01-01

    Examined effects of 3-week alcohol and drug education course on attitudes about alcohol and drugs in ninth grade students (n=180). Results showed mean attitude score changed in desired direction after education indicating negative feelings toward drugs and alcohol use and abuse, polydrug use, dependency, social pressure, and media pressure and…

  16. Comparison of Drug Attitudes of College Freshmen: Metropolitan Area Vs. University Community Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boardman, William K.

    A "Social Attitude Questionnaire" was used to obtain anonymous replies from 481 University of Houston (U.H.) and 470 University of Georgia (U. Ga.) freshmen concerning drug use and related attitudes. Among the most significant results were: (1) more U.H. freshmen endorsed negative statements about their parents than did U. Ga. students; (2) the…

  17. Attitudes toward Psychiatry among Final-Year Medical Students in Kumasi, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugharne, Richard; Appiah-Poku, John; Laugharne, Jon; Shankar, Rohit

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Most sub-Saharan African countries have fewer psychiatrists than one per one million people. One possible reason could be that medical students have a negative attitude toward the specialty. The authors evaluated the attitudes toward a career in psychiatry of final-year medical students in Kumasi, Ghana, and compare these with attitudes…

  18. Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior toward Charismatic Megafauna: The Case of Dolphins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen

    2005-01-01

    Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…

  19. A Survey of Natural Resource and National Parks Knowledge and Attitudes of Dominican Republic Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berroa, Juan Leonel Batista; Roth, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a study designed to ascertain the level of ecological knowledge and attitudes of citizens of the Dominican Republic regarding national parks and natural resources. Overall, the level of ecological knowledge was determined to be very low and attitudes toward parks and resources seemed to be negative. (CW)

  20. Staff Attitudes towards Sexuality in Relation to Gender of People with Intellectual Disability: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Rhea; Gore, Nick; McCarthy, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Research has found staff attitudes regarding the sexuality of people with intellectual disability (ID) to be negative but influenced by several factors. The current study aimed to examine whether gender of people with ID affects such attitudes. Method: Semistructured interviews were completed with 10 staff members and analysed using…

  1. The Relationship among Attitudes, Behaviors, and Biomedical Measures of Adolescents "At Risk" for Cardiovascular Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyanju, Matthew; Creswell, William H.

    1987-01-01

    A study monitoring health behaviors and attitudes of 93 adolescents considered at risk for cardiovascular disease revealed a greater than normal proportion of negative behaviors involving smoking, diet, alcohol abuse, and stress among subjects and a positive relationship among health status, health attitudes, and health behavior. (Author/CB)

  2. Mothers' Beliefs about Infant Size: Associations with Attitudes and Infant Feeding Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holub, Shayla C.; Dolan, Elaine A.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined maternal attitudes toward infant body size, but extant work suggests there might be less negativity toward overweight sizes and less positivity toward thin sizes for infants than older children. Fifty mothers of 12 to 25 month-old infants completed questionnaires examining attitudes toward infants', children's and their…

  3. Differential Sensitivity to Administration Format of Measures of Attitudes toward Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmes, Edward; Campbell, Alistair

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Reluctance to reveal sensitive or socially undesirable attitudes has posed a problem for measurement of personal attributes such as attitudes toward older people. These have long been documented to be negative and likely arise both from fears of one's own aging and the modern societal emphasis on youth. In order to increase our knowledge…

  4. Cognitive Styles and Socialized Attitudes of Men Who Batter: Where Should We Intervene?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisikovits, Zvi C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Attempted to differentiate among violent and nonviolent Israeli men (n=120) and predict their physical violence. Violent and nonviolent men could be differentiated primarily on basis of their attitudes and, to lesser degree, on basis of cognitions. Batterers' physical violence was significantly predicted by men's negative attitudes toward battered…

  5. Psychological Contract Breach and Job Attitudes: A Meta-Analysis of Age as a Moderator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, P. Matthijs; De Lange, Annet H.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; Van Der Velde, Mandy E. G.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of age in the relation between psychological contract breach and the development of job attitudes. Based on affective events, social exchange, and lifespan theory, we hypothesized that (1) psychological contract breach would be related negatively to job attitudes, and (2) that age would moderate…

  6. Attitudes toward Peers with Physical Disabilities at High School: Applying the Integrated Threat Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bustillos, Antonio; Silvan-Ferrero, Maria del Prado

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study attitudes toward people with disabilities from the viewpoint of the integrated threat theory of prejudice. This theory postulates that threat may cause negative attitudes toward a group and posits that such threat may come from different sources. To test this model, a study was carried out with high school…

  7. "Me and Maths": Towards a Definition of Attitude Grounded on Students' Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Martino, Pietro; Zan, Rosetta

    2010-01-01

    The attitude construct is widely used by teachers and researchers in mathematics education. Often, however, teachers' diagnosis of a "negative attitude" is a causal attribution of students' failure, perceived as global and uncontrollable, rather than an accurate interpretation of students' behaviour, capable of steering future action. In order to…

  8. Counselor Demographics, Ageist Attitudes, and Multicultural Counseling Competence among Counselors and Counselor Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Rebecca G.; Hays, Danica G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship among counselors' self-reported multicultural counseling competence and their attitudes of the geriatric population. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between participants' attitudes of the geriatric population and their self-reported multicultural counseling…

  9. English as a Foreign Language at the University of Yaounde 1: Attitudes and Pedagogic Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enongene, Eric Ekembe

    2013-01-01

    Learners' goals and attitudes constitute an essential determinant of how they learn the target language. Whether positive or negative, they determine classroom practices and are affected by what happens in the classroom (Dörnyei 2003). The complex relationship between learners' attitudes and the actual teaching of English as a foreign language at…

  10. Attitudes of Speech and Language Therapists towards Stammering: 1985 and 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crichton-Smith, Isobel; Wright, Jannet; Stackhouse, Joy

    2003-01-01

    Background: Past research has indicated that speech and language therapists hold some negative attitudes towards people who stammer, their parents and the treatment of stammering. However, studies on attitudes towards stammering have predominantly focussed on therapists in the USA. Recent trends towards earlier intervention suggest that more…

  11. An Analysis of Chinese High School Students' Attitudes toward Persons with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Disabilities and negative attitudes toward individuals with disabilities permeate human history, from ancient Greece to modern society. The study of attitude toward disabilities, mostly in western countries, has provided information for the development of policy concerning the rights of individuals with disabilities. Complying with international…

  12. Impact of an Oncology Course on the Attitudes of Freshman Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Marilyn H.; And Others

    Previous attempts to change the prevailing negative attitudes of health professionals toward cancer and cancer patients have consisted mainly of elective courses for small groups of students at advanced levels of medical training. In order to develop more positive attitudes, the Cancer Coordinating Committee at the Medical College of Pennsylvania…

  13. Do Inquiring Minds Have Positive Attitudes? The Science Education of Preservice Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Morton, Karisma; Moore, Chelsea; Chimonidou, Antonia; LaBrake, Cynthis; Kopp, Sacha

    2015-01-01

    Owing to their potential impact on students' cognitive and noncognitive outcomes, the negative attitudes toward science held by many elementary teachers are a critical issue that needs to be addressed. This study focuses on the science education of preservice elementary teachers with the goal of improving their attitudes "before" they…

  14. Attitudes toward Professional Psychological Help Seeking in South Asian Students: Role of Stigma and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, Prerna G.; Metz, Kristina; Carlson, Cindy I.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined (a) the roles of perceived and personal stigma on attitudes toward professional psychological help seeking and (b) the effects of these constructs across gender in South Asians. Personal stigma and being male was negatively associated with attitudes toward professional psychological help seeking; no difference in the…

  15. Korean Speech-Language Pathologists' Attitudes toward Stuttering According to Clinical Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyungjae

    2014-01-01

    Background: Negative attitudes toward stuttering and people who stutter (PWS) are found in various groups of people in many regions. However the results of previous studies examining the influence of fluency coursework and clinical certification on the attitudes of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) toward PWS are equivocal. Furthermore, there…

  16. Attitudes toward Communication Skills among Students'-Teachers' in Jordanian Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad; Al-Dababneh, Kholoud A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the positive and negative attitudes among 289 students of class teachers and childhood teachers' disciplines using the communication skills attitude scale (CSAS) in Jordanian public universities. GPA, year level of students were recorded. Overall results of study revealed that the mean of positive…

  17. Developmental instrument supplies accurate attitude and attitude-rate data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Three orthogonal-plane projection provides accuracy of readout of both attitude and attitude-rate information in an easily interpreted, uncluttered arrangement where blind navigation of a moving body is involved. The longitudinal length of the projection is constant, and independent of the pitch and roll attitudes of the moving body.

  18. Satellite attitude control simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debra, D. B.; Powell, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Work was conducted to develop an extremely low drift rate gyroscope and a very precise star tracker. A proposed relativity satellite will measure very accurately the theoretically predicted 'relativistic' precession of the gyroscope relative to an inertial reference frame provided by the star tracker. Aspects of precision spinning attitude control are discussed together with questions of gyro operation, and the hopping mode for lunar transportation. For the attitude control system of the lunar hopper, a number of control laws were investigated. The studies indicated that some suboptimal controls should be adequate for the system.

  19. Instrument Attitude Precision Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan

    2004-01-01

    A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

  20. Countering antivaccination attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Horne, Zachary; Powell, Derek; Hummel, John E.; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2015-01-01

    Three times as many cases of measles were reported in the United States in 2014 as in 2013. The reemergence of measles has been linked to a dangerous trend: parents refusing vaccinations for their children. Efforts have been made to counter people’s antivaccination attitudes by providing scientific evidence refuting vaccination myths, but these interventions have proven ineffective. This study shows that highlighting factual information about the dangers of communicable diseases can positively impact people’s attitudes to vaccination. This method outperformed alternative interventions aimed at undercutting vaccination myths. PMID:26240325

  1. Adolescent attitudes to authority.

    PubMed

    Coleman, J; Coleman, E Z

    1984-06-01

    This study is concerned with adolescent attitudes to authority. In particular the investigation focuses on notions of the ideal authority figure, attitudes to the sorts of conflicts experienced at home and in school, and on the types of resolutions to conflicts preferred by young people. Subjects were 43 adolescents from working class areas in outer London boroughs, all of whom were given a semistructured interview. Results indicated important differences in the amount of control required at home and in the school, and showed adolescents of 14 and 15 to have relatively little need for autonomy but a very considerable need for support from parents and teachers.

  2. Differential relations between two types of contact and implicit and explicit racial attitudes.

    PubMed

    Prestwich, Andrew; Kenworthy, Jared B; Wilson, Michelle; Kwan-Tat, Natasha

    2008-12-01

    Contact with out-group members has been associated with more favourable explicit attitudes towards the out-group in general, largely via the mediation of reduced intergroup anxiety. In addition, there is now a growing body of evidence suggesting that contact relates to automatically activated evaluations termed implicit attitudes. However, research has not fully illuminated the mechanisms through which contact with outgroup members impacts on implicit attitudes. A study investigating this issue assessed White participants' (N=105) explicit attitudes, implicit attitudes, intergroup anxiety, and contact quantity and quality about Asians. Greater contact quality was related to more positive explicit attitudes, while contact quantity was associated with more positive implicit attitudes. Both effects were mediated by reduced intergroup anxiety.

  3. Food attitudes and well-being: The role of culture.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arauz, Gloriana; Ramírez-Esparza, Nairán; Smith-Castro, Vanessa

    2016-10-01

    Previous cross-cultural studies have found differences in food attitudes. For example, Americans are more concerned about weight gain than people from France and India. This study aimed to add on the literature on cross-cultural differences in food attitudes by comparing Euro-Americans with Costa Ricans on three different food attitudes: concern about gaining weight, food negativity, and the belief in the link between diet and health. This study also analyzes the implications of food attitudes on well-being. Specifically, within and across cultures, analyses were done to test the relationship between food attitudes and both anxiety and depression. Results showed that Costa Ricans are significantly less concerned about weight and less food negative than Euro-Americans. In further analyses an interaction was revealed, in which Costa Ricans that are high on weight concern but low on food negativity show lower levels of depression, compared to Euro-Americans. Results and implications for further research are discussed. PMID:27215838

  4. Public perceptions about HIV/AIDS and discriminatory attitudes toward people living with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Iran.

    PubMed

    Masoudnia, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    Negative and discriminatory attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are one of the biggest experienced challenges by people suffering from HIV, and these attitudes have been regarded as a serious threat to the fundamental rights of all infected people who are affected or associated with this disease in Iran. This study aimed to determine the relationship between public perception about HIV/AIDS and discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA . The present study was conducted using a descriptive and survey design. Data were collected from 450 patients (236 male and 214 female) in Tehran and Yazd cities. The research instruments were modified HIV-related knowledge/attitude and perception questions about PLWHA, and discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA. The results showed that prevalence of discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA in the studied population was 60.0%. There was a significant negative correlation between citizens' awareness about HIV/AIDS, HIV-related attitudes, negative perception toward people with HIV/AIDS symptoms and their discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA (p < .01). The hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that components of public perception about HIV/AIDS explained for 23.7% of the variance of discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA. Negative public perceptions about HIV/AIDS in Iran associated with discriminatory attitudes toward PLWHA and cultural beliefs in Iran tend to stigmatize and discriminate against the LWHA.

  5. Stigma and hostility towards pregnant smokers: does individuating information reduce the effect?

    PubMed

    Wigginton, Britta; Lee, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Australia is at the forefront of tobacco control, yet 17% of Australian women smoke during pregnancy. Negative attitudes to smoking are intensified when the smoker is pregnant, consistent with a discourse that encourages surveillance of pregnant women. Such overt anti-smoking attitudes create a context which may make it difficult for pregnant smokers to seek assistance to stop. However, there is little evidence on the extent to which pregnant smokers are stigmatised by community members. We used vignettes to examine the degree of smoking-related stigma expressed by 595 Australian university students who rated a woman, described as a mother who was smoking or not, and pregnant or not. Further, we examined whether provision of individuating information reduced the degree of stigma. Mothers described as smokers were rated more negatively than those not, particularly if they were pregnant: smokers were perceived as unhealthy, and also as bad mothers. Provision of individuating information slightly reduced these effects. These findings support the view that smokers--particularly if pregnant--are subject to negative moral judgement. Our findings contribute to the ethical debate about stigma-inducing tobacco control efforts, and suggest that anti-smoking campaigns that contextualise smoking in pregnancy might reduce stigma and assist cessation. PMID:23343130

  6. Uniaxial aerodynamic attitude control of artificial satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sazonov, V. V.

    1983-01-01

    Within the context of a simple mechanical model the paper examines the movement of a satellite with respect to the center of masses under conditions of uniaxial aerodynamic attitude control. The equations of motion of the satellite take account of the gravitational and restorative aerodynamic moments. It is presumed that the aerodynamic moment is much larger than the gravitational, and the motion equations contain a large parameter. A two-parameter integrated surface of these equations is constructed in the form of formal series in terms of negative powers of the large parameter, describing the oscillations and rotations of the satellite about its lengthwise axis, approximately oriented along the orbital tangent. It is proposed to treat such movements as nominal undisturbed motions of the satellite under conditions of aerodynamic attitude control. A numerical investigation is made for the above integrated surface.

  7. Fur Trappers' Attitudes toward the Upper Missouri Sioux, 1820-1860.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strayer, Brian F.

    1979-01-01

    Fur traders and trappers had very different views about and relationships with individual Indian tribes. Article discusses the historical context of hostile, negative attitudes held by the wild, White "mountain men" toward the Indians among whom they worked. (DS)

  8. Marital Attitude Trajectories across Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study seeks to address the implicit assumption in the developmental literature that marital attitudes are static by investigating how various marital attitudes might change across adolescence. Longitudinal change for three marital attitudes in relation to family structure, educational aspirations, race and gender are examined.…

  9. Attitude Assessment in Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollen, F. A.

    1972-01-01

    Describes construction of an attitude scale and its use in assessing attitudes of college students in relation to the discovery method of teaching. Study revealed that attitudes can be changed by training which involves working with children in real classrooms. (PS)

  10. College Students' Attitudes toward Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Pedro T.

    This paper reports a survey conducted at a private midwestern university to investigate 143 undergraduate students' attitudes toward computers. The study used a 10-item questionnaire called General Attitudes toward Computers. Results indicated that students had positive attitudes toward computers. There were no significant differences in attitudes…

  11. Changing attitudes through persuasive communication.

    PubMed

    Clarke, A

    Nurses are uniquely placed to provide effective health education with the aim of promoting attitude and behavioural change. This article explores the literature relating to attitude formation, attitude change and the nature of persuasive communication, and identifies specific strategies that will be useful to all nurses.

  12. Class Attitudes among Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner, James F.; Lancaster, Diana M.

    Class attitudes among dental students were studied at Louisiana State University in spring 1986, with attention to attitudes toward leadership, faculty and administration, study habits, labs and clinics, information acquisition, social life, and class unification. Class attitudes became more uniform and deeply held as the classes progressed…

  13. Attitudes towards chemistry among engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivo Delgado, Carlos J.

    The attitudes towards chemistry of the engineering students enrolled in an introductory course at the Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico were explored (n = 115). A mixed methodology was used in an exploratory-oriented research approach. The first stage consisted of the administration of a Likert scale attitudinal survey which was validated during the study's design process. The survey allowed collecting information about the participant's attitudes towards their personal opinion, their perspectives about peer's or relatives' opinion, relevant aspects of the discipline, and difficulty-increasing factors in the chemistry course. The scale internal reliability was measured in a pilot study with a convenience simple, obtaining an acceptable coefficient (Cronbach alpha = 0.731). Survey results evidenced a mainly neutral attitude towards the chemistry course, not highly negative or highly positive, in contrast with other studies in this field. On the other hand, the normality hypothesis was tested for the scores obtained by participants in the survey. Although the pilot study sample had an approximately normal distribution, the scores in obtained by the participants in the survey failed the normality test criteria. The second stage of the study was accomplished using a case study. Among the survey participants, some students were invited to in-depth interviews to elucidate the reasons why they have certain attitudes towards chemistry. Study time, instructor, motivation, term of study, and course schedule are the factors that interviewees agreed as contributors to success or failure in the chemistry course. Interview's participants emphasized that study time is determinant to pass the class. This methodological approach, quantitative followed by qualitative, was useful in describing the attitudes towards chemistry among university students of engineering.

  14. Towards Automating Spacecraft Attitude Sensor Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedlak, Joseph; Welter, Gary; Ottenstein, Neil

    2003-01-01

    With a view towards reducing cost and complexity for spacecraft early mission support at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), efforts are being made to automate the attitude sensor calibration process. This paper addresses one of the major components needed by such a system. The beneficiaries of an improved calibration process are missions that demand moderate to high precision attitude knowledge or that need to perform accurate attitude slews. Improved slew accuracy reduces the time needed for re-acquisition of fine-pointing after each attitude maneuver, Rapid target acquisition can be very important for astronomical targeting or for off-nadir surface feature targeting by Earth-oriented spacecraft. The normal sequence of on-orbit calibration starts with alignment calibration of the star trackers and possibly the Sun sensor. Their relative alignment needs to be determined using a sufficiently large data set so their fields of view are adequately sampled. Next, the inertial reference unit (IRU) is calibrated for corrections to its alignment and scale factors. The IRU biases are estimated continuously by the onboard attitude control system, but the IRU alignment and scale factors are usually determined on the ground using a batch-processing method on a data set that includes several slews sufficient to give full observability of all the IRU calibration parameters. Finally, magnetometer biases, alignment, and its coupling to the magnetic torquers are determined in order io improve momentum management and occasionally for use in the attitude determination system. The detailed approach used for automating calibrations will depend on whether the automated system resides on the ground or on the spacecraft with an ultimate goal of autonomous calibration. Current efforts focus on a ground-based system driving subsystems that could run either on the ground or onboard. The distinction is that onboard calibration should process the data sequentially rather than in a

  15. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, Regan W.

    1984-01-01

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions.

  16. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, R.W.

    1984-05-08

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions. 8 figs.

  17. Attitudes towards Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Norman; Skryabina, Elena A.

    2002-01-01

    Unlike in many other countries, physics in secondary education in Scotland is highly popular, with large numbers opting for study at the Higher Grade from which entry to higher education is possible. This paper reports a project which explored attitudes towards physics in Scotland, looking at students aged from about 10 to 20 years old. Overall, over 850 school pupils were surveyed along with 208 level 1 and 2 university physics students. The work was carried out mainly by use of questionnaires and interviewing. The approach allowed the development of 'snap shots' of attitudes held by pupils simultaneously at various stages of education. These attitudes can be compared at the different stages, although care must be taken in such comparison to allow for varying degrees of self-selection. The main factors attracting school pupils into a study of physics are described, together with the pattern of attitude changes which take place with age. From the picture obtained, it is possible to determine areas of the curriculum where there are difficulties. The enormous success of the applications-led course for Standard Grade is apparent in attracting and retaining pupils within physics, including girls. The outcomes suggest some ways by which physics curriculum planners can develop courses in physics which will prove attractive and robust.

  18. Student Attitude Inventory - 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmore, Gerald M.; Aleamoni, Lawrence M.

    This 42-item Student Attitude Inventory (SAI) was administered to entering college freshmen at the University of Illinois (see TM 001 015). The SAI items are divided into nine categories on the basis of content as follows: voting behavior, drug usage, financial, Viet Nam war, education, religious behavior, pollution, housing, and alienation. A…

  19. National Freshman Attitudes Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    When they arrive at college, most of today's first-year students bring with them a strong desire to complete their education, yet many are also bringing serious doubts about their ability to afford it and the adequacy of their academic preparation. These findings are among the highlights of this new report on the attitudes of American first-year…

  20. Environmental Attitudes Semantic Differential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehne, Paul R.; Goulard, Cary J.

    This booklet is an evaluation instrument which utilizes semantic differential data to assess environmental attitudes. Twelve concepts are included: regulated access to beaches, urban planning, dune vegetation, wetlands, future cities, reclaiming wetlands for building development, city parks, commercial development of beaches, existing cities,…

  1. Attitude Surveys Document Sampler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Albert, Comp.

    This packet presents results of a series of attitude surveys representing a variety of purposes, methods and defined publics. They range from a simple questionnaire prepared and mailed to a small group of key individuals by a public relations staff to scientifically derived surveys purchased from Louis Harris and Associates and other research…

  2. Learning from Attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Domingos S. L.

    2004-12-01

    From 1985 to 1989, I worked at the Kapteyn Laboratory - which is part of the Astronomy Faculty of the University of Groningen, The Netherlands - on my doctoral thesis project. During the whole period Prof. Hugo van Woerden was the Chairman of the Laboratory. From my recollections of that time I tell here three episodes in which Prof. van Woerden's attitudes are put in focus.

  3. Student Attitudes Towards Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Michael A. J.

    1976-01-01

    The attitudes of 127 college students toward 30 different animals was assessed via a like/dislike questionnaire. Results indicated that female students disliked more animals than did males, and that non-Biology majors disliked more animals than did Biology majors. (SL)

  4. Confronting Student Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, John E.; And Others

    Text and accompanying exercises are provided in this two-part learning module that was designed to acquaint instructors with techniques for influencing student attitudes. Part I defines five attitudinal concepts, beginning with those which are most resistant to being changed and then discussing those which are less resistant to change: (1) beliefs…

  5. Attitude Is Everything

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jazelle

    2009-01-01

    In the past 10 years, college and university administrators have been embracing online learning as the next logical step in higher education, but not all faculty have been on board. Studies conducted by the Sloan Consortium, an association that promotes online learning, suggest that faculty attitudes have become a barrier to successful online…

  6. COBE nonspinning attitude propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, D.

    1989-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft will exhibit complex attitude motion consisting of a spin rate of approximately -0.8 revolution per minute (rpm) about the x-axis and simultaneous precession of the spin axis at a rate of one revolution per orbit (rpo) about the nearly perpendicular spacecraft-to-Sun vector. The effect of the combined spinning and precession is to make accurate attitude propagation difficult and the 1-degree (3 sigma) solution accuracy goal problematic. To improve this situation, an intermediate reference frame is introduced, and the angular velocity divided into two parts. The nonspinning part is that which would be observed if there were no rotation about the X-axis. The spinning part is simply the X-axis component of the angular velocity. The two are propagated independently and combined whenever the complete attitude is needed. This approach is better than the usual one-step method because each of the two angular velocities look nearly constant in their respective reference frames. Since the angular velocities are almost constant, the approximations made in discrete time propagation are more nearly true. To demonstrate the advantages of this nonspinning method, attitude is propagated as outlined above and is then compared with the results of the one-step method. Over the 100-minute COBE orbit, the one-step error grows to several degrees while the nonspinning error remains negligible.

  7. Science Center and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daneshamooz, Saeed; Alamolhodaei, Hassan; Darvishian, Saeed; Daneshamooz, Soniya

    2013-01-01

    The project team gathered data with the assistance of Recreational and Cultural Organization of Mashhad Municipality, Organization of Mashhad Municipality and Science and Astronomy Science Center of Mashhad Municipality, Khorasan Razavi, Islamic Republic of Iran. This paper discusses the effect of science center on attitude of students who visit…

  8. Thoughts on Attitude Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Norman

    2006-01-01

    Attitude measurement has had a somewhat chequered history since the possibility of achieving it successfully was demonstrated by Thurstone in 1929. It has been an important area in science education, particularly in the context of falling uptakes in the physical sciences in many countries, and there have been many attempts to measure learner…

  9. Attitudes to animal euthanasia do not correlate with acceptance of human euthanasia or suicide.

    PubMed

    Ogden, U; Kinnison, T; May, S A

    2012-08-18

    Several reasons have been suggested for the elevated risk of suicide experienced by those in the veterinary profession. The current study aimed to investigate possible links between veterinarians' attitudes to 'convenience' or non-justified animal euthanasia and attitudes towards human euthanasia and suicide. Veterinary students and graduates had a negative attitude towards convenience animal euthanasia, but their attitudes changed over time (pre-clinical studies, clinical studies and recently graduated). A greater tolerance to euthanasia was displayed in the later years of study and post qualification - primarily by males. Attitudes towards both human euthanasia and suicide, however, remained stable over time and indicated on average a neutral stance. No correlations were found between attitudes to convenience euthanasia and either human euthanasia or suicide, suggesting a tolerance to convenience euthanasia of animals does not lead to desensitisation in valuing human life and a changed attitude to human euthanasia or suicide, or vice versa. Attitudes to human euthanasia and suicide were predictably correlated, perhaps suggesting an overarching attitude towards control over human death. The results of the current study throw into question the argument that it is the changes in attitudes to animal life that affect veterinarian's attitudes to human life and contribute to the high suicide rate. PMID:22791520

  10. Sentential Negation in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  11. Psychiatrists׳ fear of death is associated with negative emotions toward borderline personality disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Ehud; Shrira, Amit; Hermesh, Hagai; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Iancu, Iulian

    2015-08-30

    This study examines the relationship between psychiatrists׳ fear of death and negative emotions toward patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). A survey (N=120) demonstrated that fear of death is associated with stronger negative attitudes toward BPD patients, after controlling for attitudes toward suicide. Our findings emphasize the importance of psychiatrists׳ awareness to their fear of death as a relevant factor for their emotions toward BPD patients.

  12. Enhancing imagined contact to reduce prejudice against people with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    West, Keon; Holmes, Emily; Hewstone, Miles

    2015-01-01

    Four studies investigated the effect of imagining intergroup contact on prejudice against people with schizophrenia. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that a neutral imagined contact task can have negative effects, compared to a control condition, even when paired with incidental positive information (Experiment 2). Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrated, however, that an integrated positive imagined contact scenario does result in less intergroup anxiety and more positive attitudes, even toward this challenging group. Analyses of participants’ descriptions of the imagined interactions in and across the first three studies confirm that positive and high quality imagined contact is important for reducing prejudice, but failing to ensure that imagined contact is positive may have deleterious consequences. We emphasize the importance of investigating the quality of the imagined contact experience, and discuss the implications for using imagined contact as a prejudice-reducing intervention. PMID:26435686

  13. Employing music exposure to reduce prejudice and discrimination.

    PubMed

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Schwab, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Whereas previous research has mainly focused on negative effects of listening to music on intergroup attitudes and behavior, the present three experiments examined whether music exposure could reduce prejudice and discrimination. In fact, those participants who had listened to songs with pro-integration (relative to neutral) lyrics expressed less prejudice (Studies 1 and 3) and were less aggressive against (Study 2) and more helpful toward an outgroup member (Study 3). These effects were unaffected by song liking as well as mood and arousal properties of the songs employed, suggesting that it is indeed the pro-integration content of the lyrics that drives the effects. It is discussed to what extent music exposure could be employed to effectively reduce prejudice and discrimination in the real world.

  14. Impact of a homonegativity awareness workshop on attitudes toward homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Rye, B J; Meaney, Glenn J

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of a homonegativity awareness workshop on attitudes toward homosexuality and examined individual difference variables associated with attitude change. Participants included 71 female and 43 male students (approximate mean age = 23). Compared to a control group of introductory psychology students, participants were less homonegative and erotophobic (F(1, 359) = 62.47 and 15.92, ps < .001) after the workshop. Implications for contact with gay and lesbian persons through structured intervention programs on attitudes toward homosexuality are discussed in terms of both the practice and theory of reducing prejudice and discrimination.

  15. Attitudes towards individuals with disabilities as measured by the implicit association test: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michelle Clare; Scior, Katrina

    2014-02-01

    Research investigating attitudes towards individuals with disabilities has largely focused on self-reported explicit attitudes. Given that factors such as social desirability may influence explicit attitudes, researchers have developed tools which instead assess less consciously controllable implicit attitudes. Considering research on implicit attitudes thus seems pertinent. A review of studies measuring implicit attitudes towards individuals with physical disabilities (visual, motor or hearing) or intellectual disabilities via the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) was carried out. Systematic searches of PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE, PUBMED, Scopus and Web of Science databases identified relevant articles published between January 2000 and September 2012. Seventeen articles (reporting on 18 studies that employed the IAT) were identified. These investigated implicit attitudes towards individuals with; physical disabilities (N=13), intellectual disabilities (N=3), both physical and intellectual disabilities (N=1), and 'unspecified disabilities' (N=1). Across all studies, moderate to strong negative implicit attitudes were found and there was little to no association between explicit and implicit attitudes. Individuals' beliefs about the controllability of their future, sensitivity to the concept of disease, and contact with individuals with disabilities appear to be associated with implicit attitudes. A consistent pattern of moderate to strong negative implicit attitudes towards individuals with disabilities was evident. These studies provide a starting point, but methodological issues related to sampling and the employed IATs limit the generalizability of these results. Further research investigating implicit attitudes towards specific disability types, with a wider subject pool are necessary as well as further investigation of factors that contribute to these attitudes.

  16. Attitudes towards individuals with disabilities as measured by the implicit association test: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michelle Clare; Scior, Katrina

    2014-02-01

    Research investigating attitudes towards individuals with disabilities has largely focused on self-reported explicit attitudes. Given that factors such as social desirability may influence explicit attitudes, researchers have developed tools which instead assess less consciously controllable implicit attitudes. Considering research on implicit attitudes thus seems pertinent. A review of studies measuring implicit attitudes towards individuals with physical disabilities (visual, motor or hearing) or intellectual disabilities via the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) was carried out. Systematic searches of PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE, PUBMED, Scopus and Web of Science databases identified relevant articles published between January 2000 and September 2012. Seventeen articles (reporting on 18 studies that employed the IAT) were identified. These investigated implicit attitudes towards individuals with; physical disabilities (N=13), intellectual disabilities (N=3), both physical and intellectual disabilities (N=1), and 'unspecified disabilities' (N=1). Across all studies, moderate to strong negative implicit attitudes were found and there was little to no association between explicit and implicit attitudes. Individuals' beliefs about the controllability of their future, sensitivity to the concept of disease, and contact with individuals with disabilities appear to be associated with implicit attitudes. A consistent pattern of moderate to strong negative implicit attitudes towards individuals with disabilities was evident. These studies provide a starting point, but methodological issues related to sampling and the employed IATs limit the generalizability of these results. Further research investigating implicit attitudes towards specific disability types, with a wider subject pool are necessary as well as further investigation of factors that contribute to these attitudes. PMID:24316588

  17. Impact of family environment on future mental health professionals' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men.

    PubMed

    Kissinger, Daniel B; Lee, Sang Min; Twitty, Lisa; Kisner, Harrison

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between dimensions of functioning in the family of origin of graduate students in helping profession programs and their attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. One hundred forty-three participants completed the Family Environment Scale (FES-R: Moos & Moos, 1986), the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men scale (ATLG: Herek, 1994), and demographic questions. Results suggest that three family dimensions (conflict, intellectual-cultural orientation, and moral-religious emphasis) significantly predicted attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. The results also revealed that younger students held more negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men than their older peers. Implications for educators, researchers, and practitioners are discussed.

  18. Neonatal nurses' knowledge of and attitudes toward caring for cocaine-exposed infants and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, M A; Marecki, M; Wooldridge, P J; Sherman, L M

    1996-03-01

    The knowledge, attitudes, and backgrounds of 215 nurses employed in the nurseries of six hospitals were studied by means of a questionnaire survey. The nurses' attitudes toward the mothers of cocaine-addicted infants were found to be generally negative and/or judgmental and their knowledge to be low. More experience with nursing cocaine-addicted infants and greater acuity of the neonatal unit in which the nurse worked correlated with more positive attitudes toward the infants but not toward their mothers. Knowledge and attitude correlated positively with formal education, inservice education, and self-education, but the correlations were weak.

  19. Parents' Attitudes and Expectations about Children's Cross-Gender Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandnabba, N. Kenneth; Ahlberg, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Assessed parents' attitudes toward cross-gender behavior of boys and girls. Responses of 224 white Finnish parents of 5-year olds reveal that cross-gender boys are regarded more negatively than cross-gender girls. Men perceived more societal acceptance of cross-gender boys than did women. It is thought that cross-gender boys were more likely to…

  20. Attitudes of Mathematics and Language Teachers towards New Educational Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmannova, Marie; Novotna, Jarmila; Hadj-Moussova, Zuzana

    2003-01-01

    The paper brings the results of research into affective barriers lying at the base of negative attitudes of mathematics and language teachers towards new educational trends, i.e. the teaching of mathematics in the English language in monolingual Czech secondary school classrooms. To find blocks to the use of new approaches the method of unfinished…