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  1. Internal sphincterotomy reduces postoperative pain after Milligan Morgan haemorrhoidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Diana, Giuseppe; Guercio, Giovanni; Cudia, Bianca; Ricotta, Calogero

    2009-01-01

    Background Over the last few years, there has been increasing attention on surgical procedures to treat haemorrhoids. The Milligan-Morgan haemorrhoidectomy is still one of the most popular surgical treatments of haemorrhoids. The aim of the present work is to assess postoperative pain, together with other early and late complications, after Milligan-Morgan haemorrhoidectomy as we could observe in our experience before and after performing an internal sphincterotomy. Methods from January 1980 to May 2007, we operated 850 patients, but only 699 patients (median age 53) were included in the present study because they satisfied our inclusion criteria. The patients were divided into two groups: all the patients operated on before 1995 (group A); all the patients operated on after 1995 (group B). Since 1995 an internal sphincterotomy of about 1 cm has been performed at the end of the procedure. The data concerning the complications of these two groups were compared. All the patients received a check-up at one and six months after operation and a telephone questionnaire three years after operation to evalue medium and long term results. Results after one month 507 patients (72.5%) did not have any postoperative complication. Only 192 patients (27.46%) out of 699 presented postoperative complication and the most frequent one (23.03%) was pain. The number of patients who suffered from postoperative pain decreased significantly when performing internal sphincterotomy, going from 28.8% down to 10.45% (χ2: 10,880; p = 0,0001); 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 24.7 to 28.9 (group A) and 10.17 to 10.72 (group B). In 51 cases (7.29%) urinary retention was registered. Six cases of bleeding (0.85%) were registered. Medium and long term follow up did not show any difference among the two groups. Conclusion internal sphincterotomy: reduces significantly pain only in the first postoperative period, but not in the medium-long term follow up; does not increase the incidence of continence

  2. Topical metronidazole can reduce pain after surgery and pain on defecation in postoperative hemorrhoidectomy.

    PubMed

    Ala, Shahram; Saeedi, Majid; Eshghi, Fariborz; Mirzabeygi, Parastou

    2008-02-01

    Topical metronidazole (10 percent) has been previously demonstrated to decrease postoperative pain after hemorrhoidectomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical metronidazole (10 percent) in reducing postoperative and after-defecation pain of hemorrhoidectomy. A double-blind, randomized trial was conducted to compare posthemorrhoidectomy pain with use of topical metronidazole (10 percent) vs. placebo carrier, applied to surgical site. Forty-seven patients were randomly allocated to receive metronidazole (n=25) or placebo (n=22). Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale preoperatively and on postoperative hours 6 and 12 and at days 1, 2, 7, and 14. The use of narcotic, additional analgesics, and complications were recorded. (Pain scores were calculated and compared with baseline values and control group (t test, SPSS ver.10). Patients in the topical metronidazole group had significantly less postoperative pain than those in the placebo group up to day 14 (P pain was ranked significantly lower at day 2 (P=0.016) and patients required fewer additional analgesics postoperatively on days 2 and 7 (P reduce posthemorrhoidectomy discomfort, and postoperative defecation pain is reduced compared with that of the placebo control group.

  3. [Postoperative pain.].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, H

    1987-07-01

    A short survey about the different methods available for producing postoperative analgesia is given, the goal being to make it clear to the clinician that there are quite a number of techniques to be used although the everyday clinical practice often sticks to simple and not too effective methods of pain treatment following surgery. Initially presenting short informations about the neurophysiology of pain and the pathogenesis and causes of postoperative pain two main groups of producing analgesia are then discussed.Thefirst group deals with the systemic use of analgesics be it nonnarcotic analgesic antipyretics or narcotic analgesics (opioids). As for the first subgroup the peripheral action of these drugs (metamizol, acetylsalicylic acid, paracetamol) is brought about by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins. These substances can only be used for very moderate postoperative pain f.i. following head and neck surgery. The strong acting opioids belong to the second subgroup. Recent informations on receptor sites in the brain and cord and the subgrouping of the receptors throws new light on the understanding of the different effects of these drugs and on the pathomechanisms of agonistic, antagonistic and mixed activities. The clinically used opioids then are mentioned (morphine, fentanyl, methadon, pethidin, piritramide, tilidin, buprenorphin and pentazocine) and dosage, duration of action, antagonisms and untoward side effects are presented. Stress is laid on the recent development of patient-controlled analgesia with all its advantages. Thesecond main group of methods for postoperative analgesia consists of regional anesthesia techniques as there are brachial plexus block, intercostal block and the continuous epidural analgesia using both local anesthetics and spinal opioids. The brachial plexus block in continuous form is absolutely able to prevent pain after operations in the shoulder-arm-region and can be prolonged even for weeks using catheter techniques. The

  4. Ice packs reduce postoperative midline incision pain and narcotic use: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Ammara A; Johnson, Timothy V; Shrewsberry, Adam B; Nourparvar, Paymon; Madni, Tarik; Watkins, Colyn J; Feingold, Paul L; Kooby, David A; Maithel, Shishir K; Staley, Charles A; Master, Viraj A

    2014-09-01

    Postoperative pain is an unavoidable consequence of open abdominal surgery. Although cryotherapy, the application of ice to a surgical wound site, has been shown to be effective in reducing postoperative pain in orthopaedic, gynecologic, and hernia operations, it has not been assessed in patients who undergo major open abdominal operations. We hypothesized that patients who receive cryotherapy would report lower pain scores as a primary outcomes measure. Patients undergoing abdominal operations with midline incisions were randomized to receive cryotherapy for a minimum of 24 hours in time intervals dictated by patient preference vs no cryotherapy. The primary outcome of pain relief was assessed with visual analog pain scores (VAS). The study was powered to detect a clinically significant difference in VAS between the control and cryotherapy group. Comparisons between groups were measured by Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U test for parametric and nonparametric data, respectively. There were 55 patients randomized: 28 to the control group and 27 to the cryotherapy group. For the primary measure, mean postoperative pain score on postoperative days (PODs) 1 and 3 after surgery was significantly lower between the control and cryotherapy groups on the visual analog pain scale (p < 0.005). Narcotic use was decreased in the cryotherapy group on POD 1 by 3.9 morphine equivalents (p = 0.008). No statistically significant difference was found between the 2 treatment groups with respect to length of hospital stay, pulmonary complications, and wound infection rate in terms of secondary measures. Ice packs are a simple, cost-effective adjuvant for decreasing postoperative pain and narcotic use in patients undergoing major abdominal operations. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reducing Postoperative Pain from Tonsillectomy Using Monopolar Electrocautery by Cooling the Oropharynx

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Lucas; Nissen, Leonardo; Sela, Gustavo; Amara, Yara; Fonseca, Vinicius

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate intraoperative cooling of the oropharynx to reduce postoperative pain in tonsillectomy using monopolar electrocautery. Methods Sixty-six patients, age 1 to 12 years, were selected for the study, 33 in the control group and 33 in the experimental group. After randomization, patients underwent subcapsular dissection and hemostasis with monopolar electrocautery. Patients in the experimental group had the oropharynx cooled after tonsil dissection and hemostasis for 10 minutes. The procedure was done through the oral cavity by irrigation with 500 mL of 0.9% saline, in temperatures between 5°C and 10°C, for 5 minutes. The evaluation of postoperative pain was made with the pain visual analog scale (VAS) for 10 days. As complementary data on the evaluation of pain, we recorded daily use of ketoprofen for pain relief. Results Pain after tonsillectomy assessed by VAS was significantly lower in the experimental group at days 0, 5, and 6 (p < 0.05). There were no differences in the use of ketoprofen between the groups. Conclusion Cooling of the oropharynx after tonsillectomy promotes clinically significant reduction in postoperative pain, without additional complications. PMID:25992083

  6. Preoperative pregabalin prolongs duration of spinal anesthesia and reduces early postoperative pain

    PubMed Central

    Park, MiHye; Jeon, Younghoon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The administration of oral pregabalin preoperatively has been reported to reduce acute postoperative pain. However, no clinical study to date has yet fully investigated whether or not pregabalin premedication affects sensory and motor blocks using spinal anesthesia and its effect upon early postoperative pain management. This prospective, randomized, and double-blind clinical study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a single dose of pregabalin in terms of spinal blockade duration and its potential opioid-sparing effect during the first 24 hours subsequent to urogenital surgery. Methods: Forty-four patients scheduled for urogenital surgery under spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated to 2 groups: group C (no premedication; orally administered placebo 2 hours before surgery) and group P (orally administered 150 mg pregabalin 2 hours before surgery). Results: The duration of sensory and motor blockade was significantly prolonged in group P patients when compared with that in group C patients, and the pain scores at postoperative 6 and 24 hours were significantly lower in group P patients. Requests for analgesics during the first postoperative 24 hours were lower among group P patients. Conclusion: Premedication with a single dose of 150 mg pregabalin before surgery promoted the efficacy of intrathecal bupivacaine and improved postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing urogenital surgery under spinal anesthesia. PMID:27603398

  7. [Postoperative pain in craniotomy].

    PubMed

    Peón, Andréa Ungaro; Diccini, Solange

    2005-01-01

    In the postoperative period, 47% to 75% of the patients report some degree of pain. This study aimed to evaluate pain in the pre and postoperative period of patients submitted to craniotomy. This prospective research was carried out at the neurosurgery unit of a large Brazilian hospital. For a quantitative evaluation of pain, the verbal numeric 0-10 rating scale was used. Forty patients with a mean age of 36 years were evaluated. In the preoperative period, 34 (85%) patients indicated headache as the main cause of pain. In the postoperative period, 37 (93%) patients complained of pain while three (7%) reported absence of pain. Pain peaks were observed on the 2nd postoperative day, when 12 (32%) of the patients reported severe pain and 10 (27%) moderate pain. Absence of severe pain occurred after the 8th postoperative day. It was concluded that protocols of analgesia in craniotomy are needed, such as training nurses to better evaluate and handle pain.

  8. [Chronic postoperative pain].

    PubMed

    Cachemaille, Matthieu; Blanc, Catherine

    2016-06-22

    Chronic postoperative pain remains a frequent pathology whose global impact approximates 20 and 30% and accounts for 20% of the consultations in a pain center. Risk factors consider firstly each patient's feature and comorbidity and also different surgical procedures with their technical approach. Neuropathic pain compared to nociceptive pain is a great component in the postoperative period and needs to be recognized by specific tests (DN4). Pain prevention involves risk factors' detection, appropriate anesthetic support and effective postoperative pain management. Treatment is based on the type of pain and includes a multimodal analgesia with interventional pain therapy.

  9. Postoperative pain management.

    PubMed

    Joshi, G P

    1994-01-01

    Inadequately treated pain is a major cause of unanticipated hospital admissions after ambulatory surgery. The ability to provide adequate pain relief by simple methods that are readily available to the day-care patient in his or her home environment is one of the major challenges for providers of ambulatory surgery and anesthesia. The increasing number of extensive and painful surgical procedures (e.g., laparoscopic cholecystectomy, laminectomy, knee construction, hysterectomies) being undertaken on an ambulatory basis presents new challenges with respect to acute postoperative pain. Hence the availability of more sophisticated and effective treatment modalities, such as ambulatory PCA and continuous local and regional anesthetic blocks, with minimal side effects, are necessary to optimize the benefits of ambulatory surgery for both patient and health care provider. However, outcome studies are needed to evaluate the effect of these newer therapeutic approaches with respect to postoperative side effects and other important recovery parameters. Recent studies suggest that factors other than pain per se must be controlled to reduce postoperative morbidity and facilitate the recovery process. Not surprisingly, the anesthetic technique can influence analgesic requirement in the early postoperative period. Although oral analgesic agents will continue to play an important role, the adjunctive use of local anesthetic agents is likely to assume an even greater role in the future. Use of drug combinations (e.g., opiates and local anesthetics, opiates and NSAIDs) may provide improved analgesia with fewer side effects. Finally, safer and simpler analgesic delivery systems are needed to improve our ability to provide cost-effective pain relief after ambulatory surgery. In conclusion, as a result of our enhanced understanding of the mechanisms of acute pain and the physiological basis of nociception, the provision of "stress-free" anesthesia with minimal postoperative

  10. Preoperative dexamethasone reduces postoperative pain, nausea and vomiting following mastectomy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dexamethasone has been reported to reduce postoperative symptoms after different surgical procedures. We evaluated the efficacy of preoperative dexamethasone in ameliorating postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), and pain after mastectomy. Methods In this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 70 patients scheduled for mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection were analyzed after randomization to treatment with 8 mg intravenous dexamethasone (n = 35) or placebo (n = 35). All patients underwent standardized procedures for general anesthesia and surgery. Episodes of PONV and pain score were recorded on a visual analogue scale. Analgesic and antiemetic requirements were also recorded. Results Demographic and medical variables were similar between groups. The incidence of PONV was lower in the dexamethasone group at the early postoperative evaluation (28.6% vs. 60%; p = 0.02) and at 6 h (17.2% vs. 45.8%; p = 0.03). More patients in the placebo group required additional antiemetic medication (21 vs. 8; p = 0.01). Dexamethasone treatment significantly reduced postoperative pain just after surgery (VAS score, 4.54 ± 1.55 vs. 5.83 ± 2.00; p = 0.004), at 6 h (3.03 ± 1.20 vs. 4.17 ± 1.24; p < 0.0005) and at 12 h (2.09 ± 0.85 vs. 2.54 ± 0.98; p = 0.04). Analgesics were required in more patients of the control group (21 vs. 10; p = 0.008). There were no adverse events, morbidity or mortality. Conclusions Preoperative intravenous dexamethasone (8 mg) can significantly reduce the incidence of PONV and pain in patients undergoing mastectomy with axillary dissection for breast cancer. Trial registration number NCT01116713 PMID:21182781

  11. Preoperative education and use of analgesic before onset of pain routinely for post-thoracotomy pain control can reduce pain effect and total amount of analgesics administered postoperatively.

    PubMed

    Kol, Emine; Alpar, Sule Ecevit; Erdoğan, Abdullah

    2014-03-01

    homogeneous distribution in both patient groups. The rate of pain, which was defined as sharp, stabbing, and exhausting, was higher in the control group than in the study group, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p < .05). As the doses of analgesics used for pain management in both groups were compared, it was determined that analgesic consumption was lower in the study group than in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (p < .05). As a result, it was determined that preoperative thoracic pain management education and analgesics administered postoperatively, before the onset of pain, reduced the amount of analgesics used in the first postoperative 48 hours.

  12. Does Preincisional Infiltration with Bupivacaine Reduce Postoperative Pain in Laparoscopic Bariatric Surgery?

    PubMed

    Moncada, Rafael; Martinaitis, Linas; Landecho, Manuel; Rotellar, Fernando; Sanchez-Justicia, Carlos; Bellver, Manuel; de la Higuera, Magdalena; Silva, Camilo; Osés, Beatriz; Martín, Elena; Pérez, Susana; Hernandez-Lizoain, Jose Luis; Frühbeck, Gema; Valentí, Victor

    2016-02-01

    Current evidence suggests that local anesthetic wound infiltration should be employed as part of multimodal postoperative pain management. There is scarce data concerning the benefits of this anesthetic modality in laparoscopic weight loss surgery. Therefore, we analyzed the influence of trocar site infiltration with bupivacaine on the management of postoperative pain in laparoscopic bariatric surgery. This retrospective randomized study included 47 patients undergoing primary obesity surgery between January and September 2014. Laparoscopic gastric bypass was performed in 39 cases and sleeve gastrectomy in 8 cases. Patients were stratified into two groups depending on whether preincisional infiltration with bupivacaine and epinephrine was performed (study group, 27 patients) or not (control group, 20 patients). Visual analogue scale (VAS), International Pain Outcomes questionnaire, and rescue medication records were reviewed to assess postoperative pain. VAS scores in the study group and sleeve gastrectomy group were lower than those in the control and gastric bypass groups in the first 4 h postoperatively without reaching statistical significance (p > 0.05). VAS scores did not differ in any other period of time. No statistically significant differences in pain perception were registered according to the patient's pain outcomes questionnaire or the need for rescue medication. The present study did not conclusively prove the efficacy of bupivacaine infiltration by any of the three evaluation methods analyzed. Nevertheless, preincisional infiltration provides good level of comfort in the immediate postoperative period when analgesia is most urgent.

  13. [Pathophysiology of postoperative pain].

    PubMed

    Wordliczek, J; Dobrogowski, J

    2000-01-01

    The rapid progress in neurophysiology and neuropharmacology has made it possible to understand an entire series of pain-related processes. The discovery of endogenic opioid system, the noradrenergic and serotoninergic antinociceptive systems, peripheral opioid receptors and of the role of NMDA, muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in nociception allowed for an optimization of pain treatment through the use of new drugs and therapies. An appropriate pain treatment procedure prevents the development of persistent postoperative pain, which is described as a pathological chronic pain that endures following the operation despite normal healing process having taken place in affected tissues.

  14. [Factors affecting postoperative pain].

    PubMed

    Soler Company, E; Faus Soler, M; Montaner Abasolo, M; Morales Olivas, F; Martínez-Pons Navarro, V

    2001-04-01

    To determine the influence on the intensity of postoperative pain of the following variables: sex, age, type of surgery, surgical approach, anesthetic technique and analgesia administered. Six hundred twenty-three hospitalized patients were enrolled from the units of general and digestive surgery, gynecology and obstetrics, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, traumatology and orthopedics, and urology. Pain intensity was measured on a visual analog scale (VAS) when the patient left the post-anesthesia recovery ward (PARU) and 24 and 48 h after surgery, and on a verbal evaluation scale (VES) during the first and second days after surgery. Gynecology is the department where the most pain is reported, both when the patient leaves the PARU (>= 4 for 56.6% of patients) and during the first day on the ward (71.3% of patients suffer pain of moderate or high intensity). The correlation of pain with duration of procedure was strongest in the urology and surgery units, with common variances of 32.3% and 23.4%, respectively. More pain is felt during open procedures in the traumatology and urology units, which is not the case in gynecology and surgery. Patients receiving general anesthesia leave the PARU with pain at 3.4 +/- 1.8 cm on the VAS scale, versus 1.3 +/- 1.6 cm for patients receiving locoregional anesthesia. Patients who received only ketorolac for pain in the PARU generally experienced less intense pain (2.5 +/- 2.0 cm) than did those who received metamizol (3.3 +/- 1.5 cm), morphine (4.0 +/- 1.8 cm) or tramadol (4.5 +/- 1.8 cm). Surgical department, surgical approach, anesthetic technique and, finally, analgesic administered are the factors that determine the intensity of postoperative pain. These factors should therefore be taken into account when establishing treatment protocols to assure adequate control of postoperative pain. Neither sex nor age were determining factors for the intensity of postoperative pain.

  15. Preinductive use of clonidine and ketamine improves recovery and reduces postoperative pain after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Sollazzi, Liliana; Modesti, Cristina; Vitale, Francesca; Sacco, Teresa; Ciocchetti, Pierpaolo; Idra, Anna Sara; Tacchino, Roberto Maria; Perilli, Valter

    2009-01-01

    In obese patients, concomitant use of clonidine and ketamine might be suitable to reduce the doses and minimize the undesired side effects of anesthetic and analgesic drugs. In this study, we evaluated the perioperative effects of administration of clonidine and ketamine in morbidly obese patients undergoing weight loss surgery at a university hospital in Rome, Italy. A total of 50 morbidly obese patients undergoing open biliopancreatic diversion for weight loss surgery were enrolled. The patients were randomly allocated into a study group (n = 23) receiving a slow infusion of ketamine-clonidine before anesthesia induction and a control group (n = 27) who received standard anesthesia. The hemodynamic profile, intraoperative end-tidal sevoflurane and opioid consumption, tracheal extubation time, Aldrete score, postoperative pain assessment by visual analog scale, and analgesic requirements were recorded. The patients in the study group required less end-tidal sevoflurane, lower total doses of fentanyl (3.8 +/- 0.3 gamma/kg actual body weight versus 5.0 +/- 0.2 gamma/kg actual body weight, respectively; P <.05) and had a shorter time to extubation (15.1 +/- 5 min versus 28.2 +/- 6 min, P <.05). The Aldrete score was significantly better in the postanesthesia care unit in the study group. The study group consumed less tramadol than did the control group (138 +/- 57 mg versus 252 +/- 78 mg, P <.05) and had a lower visual analog scale score postoperatively during the first 6 hours. The preoperative administration of low doses of ketamine and clonidine at induction appears to provide early extubation and diminished postoperative analgesic requirements in morbidly obese patients undergoing open bariatric surgery.

  16. Continuous Right Thoracic Paravertebral Block Following Bolus Initiation Reduced Postoperative Pain After Right-Lobe Hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hexiang; Liao, Zhipin; Fang, Yan; Niu, Ben; Chen, Amber; Cao, Fei; Mei, Wei; Tian, Yuke

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives We hypothesized that continuous right thoracic paravertebral block, following bolus initiation, decreases opioid consumption after right-lobe hepatectomy in patients receiving patient-controlled intravenous analgesia with sufentanil. Methods Patients undergoing right-lobe hepatectomy with a right thoracic paravertebral catheter placed at T7 30 minutes before surgery were randomly assigned to receive through this catheter either a 10-mL bolus of 0.2% ropivacaine before emergence, followed by a continuous infusion of 6 mL/h for 24 hours (PVB group), or saline at the same scheme of administration (control group). All patients were started on patient-controlled intravenous analgesia with sufentanil in the postanesthesia care unit. The primary outcome measure was total sufentanil consumption during the first 24 postoperative hours. P = 0.05 was considered as significant. For the multiple comparisons of data at 5 different time points, the P value for the 0.05 level of significance was adjusted to 0.01. Results Sixty-six patients were assessed for eligibility, and a PVB catheter was successfully placed for 48 patients. Data were analyzed on 22 patients in group PVB and 22 patients in the control group. The cumulative sufentanil consumption in the PVB group (54.3 ± 12.1 μg) at 24 postoperative hours was more than 20% less than that of the control group (68.1 ± 9.9 μg) (P < 0.001). There was also a significant difference in pain scores (numerical rating scale) between groups, where the PVB group had lower scores than did the control group at rest and with coughing for the first 24 hours (P < 0.001). Conclusions Continuous right thoracic paravertebral block, following bolus initiation, has an opioid-sparing effect on sufentanil patient-controlled intravenous analgesia for right-lobe hepatectomy patients and reduces numerical rating scale pain scores at rest and with coughing in the first 24 postoperative hours. PMID:25304475

  17. Lidocaine Reduces Acute Postoperative Pain After Supratentorial Tumor Surgery in the PACU: A Secondary Finding From a Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yuming; Zhang, Wei; Kass, Ira S; Han, Ruquan

    2016-10-01

    Perioperative lidocaine infusion has been reported to reduce postoperative pain in patients after abdominal surgery; however, no study has examined lidocaine's effect on acute postoperative pain after supratentorial tumor surgery. A total of 94 patients scheduled for supratentorial craniotomy were enrolled. Patients received either lidocaine through an intravenous bolus (1.5 mg/kg) after induction followed by infusion at a rate of 2 mg/kg/h until the end of surgery or the same volume of normal saline. Mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and bispectral index were recorded at different intraoperative time points. Patients were assessed for pain in the postoperative anesthesia care unit (PACU) by the numeric rating scale (NRS). Other complications including hypertension, tachycardia, dysphoria, and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) were reported. There was no significant difference between the normal saline and lidocaine group for mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and bispectral index at any time point (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of hypertension, tachycardia, dysphoria, and PONV between groups (P>0.05). The incidence of mild pain (NRS between 1 and 3) after surgery in PACU was lower in lidocaine group than that in the normal saline group (P=0.014); the number of patients with an NRS pain score of 0 before leaving the PACU was significantly greater in the lidocaine group. No patient in either group had moderate or severe pain. Intraoperative infusion of lidocaine significantly decreases the proportion of patients with acute pain after supratentorial tumor surgery in the PACU.

  18. [Acupuncture for postoperative pain, a literature review].

    PubMed

    Fuentealba Cargill, Francisca; Biagini Alarcón, Leandro

    2016-03-01

    There is evidence that acupuncture may relieve pain. To assess the evidence about the effectiveness of acupuncture to relieve postoperative pain. A systematic review of the literature selecting controlled clinical trials and systematic reviews comparing acupuncture with standard pain management. The value and quality of reports were evaluated using Jadad scale and STRICTA protocol. Pain intensity and analgesic consumption were the primary endpoints sought. Five controlled trials and two systematic reviews were selected. A meta-analysis was not feasible due to the heterogeneity of studies. In the postoperative period of tonsillectomy, acupuncture reduced pain by 36 and 22% at 20 minutes and two hours, respectively. In knee replacement, acupuncture reduced pain by 2% and analgesic consumption by 42%. In the postoperative period of dental interventions, acupuncture reduced pain by 24% at two hours. Acupuncture may be useful to manage postoperative pain, but more controlled studies are required.

  19. Does a minimal invasive approach reduce anterior chest wall numbness and postoperative pain in plate fixation of clavicle fractures?

    PubMed

    Beirer, Marc; Postl, Lukas; Crönlein, Moritz; Siebenlist, Sebastian; Huber-Wagner, Stefan; Braun, Karl F; Biberthaler, Peter; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig

    2015-05-28

    Fractures of the clavicle present very common injuries with a peak of incidence in young active patients. Recently published randomized clinical trials demonstrated an improved functional outcome and a lower rate of nonunions in comparison to non-operative treatment. Anterior chest wall numbness due to injury of the supraclavicular nerve and postoperative pain constitute common surgery related complications in plate fixation of displaced clavicle fractures. We recently developed a technique for mini open plating (MOP) of the clavicle to reduce postoperative numbness and pain. The purpose of this study was to analyze the size of anterior chest wall numbness and the intensity of postoperative pain in MOP in comparison to conventional open plating (COP) of clavicle fractures. 24 patients (mean age 38.2 ± 14.2 yrs.) with a displaced fracture of the clavicle (Orthopaedic Trauma Association B1.2-C1.2) surgically treated using a locking compression plate (LCP) were enrolled. 12 patients underwent MOP and another 12 patients COP. Anterior chest wall numbness was measured with a transparency grid on the second postoperative day and at the six months follow-up. Postoperative pain was evaluated using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Mean ratio of skin incision length to plate length was 0.61 ± 0.04 in the MOP group and 0.85 ± 0.06 in the COP group (p < 0.05). Mean ratio of the area of anterior chest wall numbness to plate length was postoperative 7.6 ± 5.9 (six months follow-up 4.7 ± 3.9) in the MOP group and 22.1 ± 19.1 (16.9 ± 14.1) in the COP group (p < 0.05). Mean VAS was 2.6 ± 1.4 points in the MOP group and 3.4 ± 1.6 points in the COP group (p = 0.20). In our study, MOP significantly reduced anterior chest wall numbness in comparison to a conventional open approach postoperative as well as at the six months follow-up. Postoperative pain tended to be lower in the MOP group, however this difference was not statistically significant. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02247778

  20. Intra-articular bupivacaine reduces postoperative pain and meperidine use after total hip arthroplasty: a randomized, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dave W; Hu, Chih-Chien; Chang, Yu-Han; Lee, Mel S; Chang, Chee-Jen; Hsieh, Pang-Hsin

    2014-12-01

    One hundred patients receiving unilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA) were randomized to receive an intra-articular injection of 300mg bupivacaine or normal saline after completion of surgery. Pain scores of the bupivacaine group were significantly lower than those of the control group the first 12hours postoperatively (all, P<0.001). A significantly lower dose of meperidine was used in the study group than in the control group the first 24hours postoperatively (median, 25 vs. 45mg, P<0.001). Nineteen patients in the study group required meperidine the first day after surgery, as compared to 45 patients in the control group. We conclude that intra-articular injection of bupivacaine after THA reduces pain and meperidine use in the first 12hours after surgery.

  1. Systematic review of the effectiveness of nursing interventions in reducing or relieving post-operative pain.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Linda; Chang, Anne; Fraser, Jennifer A; Gaskill, Deanne; Nash, Robyn; Wallace, Karen

    2008-12-01

    Objectives  The primary objective of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of nursing interventions for the relief/reduction of post-operative pain when compared with either standard care or other nursing interventions. Inclusion criteria  Types of studies This review included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and other quasi-randomised experimental research designs. Types of participants Adults treated for post-operative pain in an acute care hospital. Types of interventions Interventions included in the review were only those directly administered by nursing staff such as: (i) administration of analgesia: including oral, intramuscular injection, patient controlled analgesia, epidural; (ii) pre-operative patient education; (iii) assessment and documentation of intensity of pain at regular intervals; (iv) protocols, clinical pathways or flow-sheets used in the management of pain; and (v) non-pharmacological interventions such as massage and relaxation. Types of outcome measures The primary outcome was the relief or reduction of post-operative pain. Other measures included analgesia consumption, patient satisfaction and length of hospital stay. Search strategy  Search terms were chosen after reviewing text words and MeSH terms in relevant articles and databases. A search for published and unpublished research covering the period 1985-2004 (inclusive) was conducted, using 11 major electronic databases. Reference lists of retrieved articles were hand searched. The search was restricted to reports published in English. Assessment of quality  The methodological quality of eligible studies was appraised by two independent reviewers, using a standardised critical appraisal tool. Differences in opinion were decided by consensus after discussion with a third investigator. Data extraction and analysis  Data were extracted from the studies that met the criteria for methodological quality. Two reviewers independently extracted data for each

  2. Deep Neuromuscular Block Improves Surgical Conditions during Bariatric Surgery and Reduces Postoperative Pain: A Randomized Double Blind Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Torensma, Bart; Martini, Chris H.; Boon, Martijn; Olofsen, Erik; in ‘t Veld, Bas; Liem, Ronald S. L.; Knook, Mireille T. T.; Swank, Dingeman J.; Dahan, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Background It remains unknown whether the administration of a deep neuromuscular block (NMB) during bariatric surgery improves surgical conditions and patient outcome. The authors studied the effect of deep versus moderate NMB in laparoscopic bariatric surgery on surgical conditions and postoperative pain. Methods and Results One hundred patients scheduled to undergo elective bariatric surgery were randomized to a deep NMB (post-tetanic-count 2–3) or a moderate NMB (train-of-four 1–2). The quality of the surgical field was scored using the Leiden-Surgical Rating Scale (L-SRS), a 5-point scale ranging from 1 (extremely poor conditions) to 5 (optimal conditions). Three surgeons scored the L-SRS at 10-min intervals during surgery; postoperative pain scores were obtained in the postanesthesia-care-unit (PACU) and on the ward. Mean (95% confidence interval) L-SRS scores in moderate NMB 4.2 (4.0–4.4) versus 4.8 (4.7–4.9) in deep NMB (p < 0.001). Moderate NMB resulted in 17% of scores at L-SRS scores of 1–3, while deep NMB resulted in 100% scores at the high end of the L-SRS (4–5). Deep NMB led to improved pain scores in the PACU (4.6 (4.2–4.9) versus 3.9 (3.6–4.4), p = 0.03) and reduced shoulder pain on the ward (1.8 (1.5–2.1) versus 1.3 (1.1–1.5), p = 0.03). A composite score of pain and opioid use in the PACU favoured deep NMB (p = 0.001). Conclusions In bariatric surgery, deep relaxation has advantages for surgeon and patient. Compared to moderate NMB, deep NMB produced stable and improved surgical conditions with less postoperative pain. PMID:27936214

  3. Role of intercostal nerve block in reducing postoperative pain following video-assisted thoracoscopy: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Zulfiqar; Samad, Khalid; Ullah, Hameed

    2017-01-01

    Background: The main advantages of video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) include less post-operative pain, rapid recovery, less postoperative complications, shorter hospital stay and early discharge. Although pain intensity is less as compared to conventional thoracotomy but still patients experience upto moderate pain postoperatively. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and morphine sparing effect of intercostal nerve block in alleviating immediate post-operative pain in patients undergoing VATS. Materials and Methods: Sixty ASA I-III patients, aged between 16 to 60 years, undergoing mediastinal lymph node biopsy through VATS under general anaesthesia were randomly divided into two groups. The intercostal nerve block (ICNB group) received the block along with patient control intravenous analgesia (PCIA) with morphine, while control group received only PCIA with morphine for post-operative analgesia. Patients were followed for twenty four hours post operatively for intervention of post-operative pain in the recovery room and ward. Results: The pain was assessed using visual analogue scale (VAS) at 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours. There was a significant decrease in pain score and morphine consumption in ICNB group as compared to control group in first 6 hours postoperatively. There was no significant difference in pain scores and morphine consumption between the two groups after 6 hours. Conclusion: Patients receiving intercostal nerve block have better pain control and less morphine consumption as compared to those patients who did not receive intercostal nerve block in early (6 hours) post-operative period. PMID:28217054

  4. Role of intercostal nerve block in reducing postoperative pain following video-assisted thoracoscopy: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zulfiqar; Samad, Khalid; Ullah, Hameed

    2017-01-01

    The main advantages of video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) include less post-operative pain, rapid recovery, less postoperative complications, shorter hospital stay and early discharge. Although pain intensity is less as compared to conventional thoracotomy but still patients experience upto moderate pain postoperatively. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and morphine sparing effect of intercostal nerve block in alleviating immediate post-operative pain in patients undergoing VATS. Sixty ASA I-III patients, aged between 16 to 60 years, undergoing mediastinal lymph node biopsy through VATS under general anaesthesia were randomly divided into two groups. The intercostal nerve block (ICNB group) received the block along with patient control intravenous analgesia (PCIA) with morphine, while control group received only PCIA with morphine for post-operative analgesia. Patients were followed for twenty four hours post operatively for intervention of post-operative pain in the recovery room and ward. The pain was assessed using visual analogue scale (VAS) at 1, 6, 12 and 24 hours. There was a significant decrease in pain score and morphine consumption in ICNB group as compared to control group in first 6 hours postoperatively. There was no significant difference in pain scores and morphine consumption between the two groups after 6 hours. Patients receiving intercostal nerve block have better pain control and less morphine consumption as compared to those patients who did not receive intercostal nerve block in early (6 hours) post-operative period.

  5. Mild analgesics in postoperative pain

    PubMed Central

    Tammisto, T.; Tigerstedt, I.

    1980-01-01

    1 The intensity of postoperative pain is influenced by many factors, for example, individual variation, site of incision and type of operation, anaesthetic technique, and the interval from the end of operation to the appearance of pain. 2 These factors affect the efficacy of analgesics. 3 Mild analgesics provide adequate pain relief in half of our patients in the immediate postoperative phase when the pain is slight to moderate. 4 The maximum effect of mild analgesics corresponds to that produced by morphine 6-10 mg. Adequate analgesia may not therefore be provided for the treatment of severe postoperative pain unless narcotic analgesics have been used peroperatively. 5 When mild analgesics are combined with narcotics synergism is achieved. 6 As postoperative pain decreases with time, mild analgesics usually provide adequate pain relief on the first and following postoperative days. PMID:7437275

  6. Intraoperative ketamine reduces immediate postoperative opioid consumption after spinal fusion surgery in chronic pain patients with opioid dependency: a randomized, blinded trial.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Rikke Vibeke; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Siegel, Hanna; Martusevicius, Robertas; Nikolajsen, Lone; Dahl, Jørgen Berg; Mathiesen, Ole

    2017-03-01

    Perioperative handling of surgical patients with opioid dependency represents an important clinical problem. Animal studies suggest that ketamine attenuates central sensitization and hyperalgesia and thereby reduces postoperative opioid tolerance. We hypothesized that intraoperative ketamine would reduce immediate postoperative opioid consumption compared with placebo in chronic pain patients with opioid dependency undergoing lumbar spinal fusion surgery. Primary outcome was morphine consumption 0 to 24 hours postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were acute pain at rest and during mobilization 2 to 24 hours postoperatively (visual analogue scale), adverse events, and persistent pain 6 months postoperatively. One hundred fifty patients were randomly assigned to intraoperative S-ketamine bolus 0.5 mg/kg and infusion 0.25 mg·kg·h or placebo. Postoperatively, patients received their usual opioids, paracetamol and IV patient-controlled analgesia with morphine. In the final analyses, 147 patients were included. Patient-controlled analgesia IV morphine consumption 0 to 24 hours postoperatively was significantly reduced in the ketamine group compared with the placebo group: 79 (47) vs 121 (53) mg IV, mean difference 42 mg (95% confidence interval -59 to -25), P < 0.001. Sedation was significantly reduced in the ketamine group 6 and 24 hours postoperatively. There were no significant differences regarding acute pain, nausea, vomiting, hallucinations, or nightmares. Back pain at 6 months postoperatively compared with preoperative pain was significantly more improved in the ketamine group compared with the placebo group, P = 0.005. In conclusion, intraoperative ketamine significantly reduced morphine consumption 0 to 24 hours after lumbar fusion surgery in opioid-dependent patients. The trend regarding less persistent pain 6 months postoperatively needs further investigation.

  7. Five minutes of extended assisted ventilation with an open umbilical trocar valve significantly reduces postoperative abdominal and shoulder pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Radosa, Julia C; Radosa, Marc P; Mavrova, Russalina; Rody, Achim; Juhasz-Böss, Ingo; Bardens, David; Brün, Karin; Solomayer, Erich-Franz; Baum, Sascha

    2013-11-01

    Residual carbon dioxide contributes substantially to pain following laparoscopic surgery. We evaluated the effects of extended assisted ventilation (EAV) with an open umbilical trocar valve for five additional minutes following laparoscopic hysterectomy on postoperative abdominal and shoulder pain levels. We also examined whether a combination of EAV and trocar site infiltration (TSI) with lidocaine could further reduce postoperative pain levels. In this prospective randomized trial, the effectiveness of EAV and EAV/TSI in reducing postoperative abdominal and shoulder pain were compared with that of a standard treatment regime in 283 patients undergoing laparoscopic hysterectomy (total or supracervical). Pain levels were evaluated by self-assessment questionnaire using a numeric rating scale (NRS) and by postoperative piritramid requirement, a surrogate parameter for postoperative analgesic drug requirement. The incidence of nausea and vomiting was also assessed. Compared with the standard treatment regime, EAV reduced abdominal pain levels significantly at 3h (NRS score, 3.21 ± 1.56 vs. 4.73 ± 1.71) and 24h (3.82 ± 1.49 vs. 4.95 ± 1.68) postoperatively (both p < 0.01). EAV also significantly reduced shoulder pain at 24h (EAV vs. control, 4.28 ± 1.51 vs. 5.14 ± 1.49) and 48 h (3.64 ± 1.66 vs. 4.22 ± 1.43) postoperatively (both p < 0.01). Patients in the EAV group had significantly lower piritramid requirements compared with standard treatment at 3h post-operatively (4.28 ± 2.09 mg vs. 6.31 ± 2.21 mg; p<0.01). EAV/TSI showed no additional benefit in terms of pain reduction compared with EAV alone. Incidences of postoperative nausea and vomiting were not reduced by EAV or EAV/TSI. EAV was found to be an effective and safe method to reduce postoperative pain levels in patients undergoing laparoscopic hysterectomy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of pre-emptive ibuprofen, paracetamol, and placebo administration in reducing post-operative pain in primary tooth extraction.

    PubMed

    Baygin, Ozgul; Tuzuner, Tamer; Isik, Berrin; Kusgoz, Adem; Tanriver, Mehmet

    2011-07-01

    This study investigates preliminary investigations that a pre-emptive analgesia administration may reduce post-extraction pain. This prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind trial was planned to compare the efficacy of the pre-emptive administration of ibuprofen, paracetamol, and placebo in reducing post-extraction pain in children. Forty-five children, ages 6-12, who needed primary mandibular molar tooth extraction were treated in paediatric dental clinics, with treatment preceded by local anaesthesia and analgesic drugs during the preoperative period. A five-face scale was used to evaluate pain reaction during the injection, extraction, and post-operative period. Self-report scores were recorded when the local anaesthesia had been administered in soft tissues and both before and after the extraction was completed. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (with Bonferroni correction paired t-test as the post hoc test) were used at a confidence level of 95%. The use of pre-emptive analgesics showed lower scores compared to the placebo, irrespective of the age, weight, gender of the child, and the number of teeth extracted during the study period. Additionally, ibuprofen exhibited lower pain scores (P < 0.05) compared to paracetamol at the 15-min (P < 0.001) and 4-h (P < 0.009) periods. Preoperative use of ibuprofen and paracetamol may provide a pre-emptive analgesic effect in paediatric patients who receive adequate analgesia during mandibular primary tooth extraction. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Postoperative pain assessment after septorhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Wittekindt, D; Wittekindt, C; Schneider, G; Meissner, W; Guntinas-Lichius, O

    2012-06-01

    Postoperative pain after septorhinoplasty and its optimal management has not been described in detail. Fifty-two adult septorhinoplasty patients were included in a prospective cohort single center study. Patients' and surgical characteristics were evaluated. Outcome and process parameters were analyzed using the questionnaires of the German-wide project Quality Improvement in Postoperative Pain Management (QUIPS) on the first postoperative day. Pain during the first operative day after septorhinoplasty was moderate. Pain management predominately consisted of remifentanil intraoperatively, metamizole in the recovery room, in combination with piritramide in one-third of the patients, and metamizole on ward. Patients younger than 31 years were less satisfied with pain management (P = 0.018). Open rhinoplasty was associated with less satisfaction with pain management (P = 0.007). Use of rib grafts led to more mobility, breathing, sleeping and mood disturbances (P = 0.003, 0.047; 0.047; 0.022, respectively). Preoperative pain counseling was followed by higher satisfaction, less breathing and mood disturbances after surgery (P = 0.021; 0.004; 0.046, respectively). Opioids in the recovery room in addition to non-opioids and treatment with non-opioids on ward led to less maximal pain (P = 0.027 and 0.040, respectively). We conclude that QUIPS is an easy tool to evaluate the quality of postoperative pain management following rhinoplasty. Preoperative pain counseling, specific care for patients with rib grafts, consequent use of opioids in the recovery room in addition to non-opioids, and use of non-opioids on ward seem to be effective to improve pain management after septorhinoplasty.

  10. Efficacy of low level laser therapy in reducing postoperative pain after endodontic surgery-- a randomized double blind clinical study.

    PubMed

    Kreisler, M B; Haj, H Al; Noroozi, N; Willershausen, B d'Hoedt

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of low level laser application on postoperative pain after endodontic surgery in a double blind, randomized clinical study. Fifty-two healthy adults undergoing endodontic surgery were included into the study. Subsequently to suturing, 26 patients had the operation site treated with an 809 nm-GaAlAs-laser (oralaser voxx, Oralia GmbH, Konstanz, Germany) at a power output of 50 mW and an irradiation time of 150 s. Laser treatment was simulated in further 26 patients. Patients were instructed to evaluate their postoperative pain on 7 days after surgery by means of a visual analogue scale (VAS). The results revealed that the pain level in the laser group was lower than in the placebo group throughout the 7 day follow-up period. The differences, however, were significant only on the first postoperative day (Mann-Whitney U-test, p<0.05). Low level laser therapy can be beneficial for the reduction of postoperative pain. Its clinical efficiency and applicability with regard to endodontic surgery, however require further investigation. This is in particular true for the optimal energy dosage and the number of laser treatments needed after surgery.

  11. Assessment of a short hypnosis in a paediatric operating room in reducing postoperative pain and anxiety: A randomised study.

    PubMed

    Duparc-Alegria, Nathalie; Tiberghien, Karine; Abdoul, Hendy; Dahmani, Souhayl; Alberti, Corinne; Thiollier, Anne-Francoise

    2017-04-12

    To assess the impact of a short hypnotic session on postoperative anxiety and pain in major orthopaedic surgery. Despite specific information given before a scheduled paediatric surgery, perioperative anxiety can become important. Randomised Clinical Study. The study is an open single-centre randomised clinical study comparing a "control" group versus a "hypnosis" group receiving a short hypnosis pre-induction session as additional experimental analgesic procedure. The primary endpoint was the postoperative anxiety, blindly assessed using a visual analogue scale. The study involved 120 children (age 10-18 years). The results showed no difference between control group versus hypnosis group. Twenty-four hours after surgery (Day+1), the patient's anxiety score was not different between control and hypnosis groups (median [Q1-Q3]: 1 [0; 3] vs. 0 [0; 3], respectively, p = .17). Each group experienced a significant decrease in anxiety level between the day before surgery (Day-1) and the day after surgery (Day+1) (median ([Q1-Q3]) difference of the anxiety score: 2 [4; 0] and 2 [4; 0], respectively, p < .0001 in each group). The postoperative pain scores were low and not different between groups (median [Q1-Q3]: 2 [0; 3] in control group vs. 3 [1; 3] in hypnosis group, p = .57). This randomised study on a short hypnosis session performed in the operating room prior to a major surgery showed no difference in postoperative anxiety and pain levels. The decrease in anxiety and pain levels may be due to the addition of nurse pre-operative interviews and optimisation in communication in the operating room. As postoperative anxiety level was low in both control and hypnosis groups, nurse pre-operative interviews and nurse training in hypnosis may contribute to the optimisation of global management and decrease the postoperative anxiety level. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Sprayed intraperitoneal bupivacaine reduces early postoperative pain behavior and biochemical stress response after laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young K; Lee, Scott S; Suh, Euy H; Lee, Lyon; Lee, Hee C; Lee, Hyo J; Yeon, Seong C

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated the use of sprayed intraperitoneal bupivacaine to relieve postoperative pain behavior and biochemical stress response after laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy (LOVH) in dogs. Sixteen sexually intact female dogs were randomly assigned to two groups. The sprayed intraperitoneal bupivacaine (SIB) group received 4.4 mg/kg of sprayed intraperitoneal bupivacaine diluted to 0.25% with an equivalent volume of saline after pneumoperitoneum. The control group received 1.76 mL/kg of saline in a similar fashion. Both groups received preoperative periportal 5% bupivacaine (1 mL) before incision. Postoperative pain was measured using the short form of the Glasgow composite measures pain scale (CMPS-SF, 0-24). Serum cortisol and glucose concentrations were measured preoperatively and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24h postoperatively. The SIB group had significantly lower CMPS-SF compared to the control group 1, 2, 4, 6, and 12h after the operation. Cortisol concentrations were significantly increased from preoperative concentrations in the control group at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4h post operation and at 0.5 and 1h post operation in the SIB group. No significant differences were seen in serum glucose within each group. This report suggests that the use of sprayed intraperitoneal bupivacaine can be used as part of a multimodal approach for pain management after LOVH in dogs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Local injection of liposomal bupivacaine combined with intravenous dexamethasone reduces postoperative pain and hospital stay after shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Routman, Howard D; Israel, Logan R; Moor, Molly A; Boltuch, Andrew D

    2017-04-01

    Alternative techniques have been developed to address pain after shoulder arthroplasty and are well documented. We evaluated the effect of adding intraoperative liposomal bupivacaine and intravenous dexamethasone during shoulder arthroplasty. We retrospectively reviewed 2 consecutive cohorts undergoing elective shoulder arthroplasty. The 24 patients in cohort 1 and the 31 patients in cohort 2 received perioperative multimodal management with preoperative and postoperative intravenous and oral narcotics, gabapentin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, and single-injection interscalene block. Cohort 2 also received 8 to 10 mg of intravenous dexamethasone intraoperatively after the skin incision and liposomal bupivacaine injected at surgery. Patients who did and did not use preoperative narcotics were analyzed together and separately. We evaluated hospitalization length of stay, narcotic use, and visual analog scale pain before and after the change in the perioperative protocol. Cohort 1 was hospitalized longer (2 vs. 1 day; P < .001), required more narcotics on postoperative day 1 (21.0 vs. 10.0 mg; P < .001) and days 0 and 1 cumulatively (30.5 vs. 17.5 mg; P = .001), and had more pain on postoperative days 0 (6.5 vs. 3.5; P < .001) and 1 (7.5 vs. 3.5; P < .001) than cohort 2. In patients using preoperative narcotics, cohort 2 had less pain on postoperative day 1 (3.5 vs. 7.0; P = .006), less cumulative narcotic use (20 vs. 58.5 mg; P = .03), and shorter hospitalization (1 vs. 2 days; P = .052) than cohort 1. These changes to the perioperative shoulder arthroplasty protocol decreased hospitalization length of stay, narcotic requirement, and pain. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Moderate evidence to recommend submucosal injection of dexamethasone in reducing post-operative oedema and pain after third molar extraction.

    PubMed

    Freda, Nicolas M; Keenan, Analia Veitz

    2016-06-01

    of -1.79 (95% CI -3.28 to -0.30) and showed a statistically significant difference favouring dexamethasone.ConclusionsThe review found moderate quality evidence that submucosal injections of dexamethasone reduced post-operative oedema and pain compared to a placebo following impacted third molar surgery. There was no significant difference, in regards to trismus, between placebo and dexamethasone.

  15. The effectiveness of therapeutic play intervention in reducing perioperative anxiety, negative behaviors, and postoperative pain in children undergoing elective surgery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    He, Hong-Gu; Zhu, Lixia; Chan, Sally Wai Chi; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee; Wang, Wenru

    2015-06-01

    Children undergoing surgical procedures commonly experience stress and anxiety, exhibit negative behaviors, and complain of postoperative pain. Parents also experience anxiety when their children undergo surgery. Therapeutic play intervention has been used to prepare hospitalized children for invasive medical procedures for decades. However, there has been no systematic review to examine the effectiveness of therapeutic play intervention for improving children's health-related outcomes such as perioperative anxiety and postoperative pain. The aim of this review was to synthesize current empirical evidence on the effectiveness of therapeutic play intervention in reducing perioperative anxiety, negative behaviors, and postoperative pain in children undergoing elective surgery and in reducing their parents' perioperative anxiety. Systematic searches of electronic databases of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PubMed, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Scopus, and Web of Science and screening of the reference lists of included articles from these databases identified studies on the topic. Relevant studies were methodologically assessed and appraised by two independent reviewers using the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument. Six studies were identified. The outcome measurements were heterogeneous across all six studies. These studies had conflicting outcomes regarding the effectiveness of therapeutic play intervention in children's perioperative anxiety, negative behaviors, and postoperative pain. Two studies showed that the intervention significantly reduced parents' preoperative anxiety. The current empirical evidence on the effectiveness of therapeutic play intervention in children's perioperative anxiety, negative behaviors, and postoperative pain is inconclusive. More studies on the effectiveness of therapeutic play intervention using rigorous designs and involving parents are needed

  16. Post-operative pain behavior in rats is reduced after single high-concentration capsaicin application.

    PubMed

    Pospisilova, Eva; Palecek, Jiri

    2006-12-05

    Surgical procedures associated with tissue injury are often followed by increased sensitivity to innocuous and noxious stimuli in the vicinity of the surgical wound. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor (TRPV1) containing nociceptors in this process, by their functional inactivation using a high-concentration intradermal injection of capsaicin in a rat plantar incision model. Paw withdrawal responses to mechanical stimuli (von Frey filaments 10-367mN) and to radiant heat applied on plantar skin were tested in animals treated with capsaicin or the vehicle 6 days and 24h before or 2h after the incision was made. In the vehicle-treated animals, mechanical and thermal sensitivity increased significantly 1-96h following the incision. Capsaicin applied 24h before the surgery was most effective and significantly diminished the development of post-incisional mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia. Thermal hypoalgesia was present in the incised paw after the capsaicin treatment. Capsaicin application 6 days before the incision induced thermal hypoalgesia before the incision but did not prevent completely the thermal hyperalgesia after the incision, while there was also a reduction of mechanical hypersensitivity. Application of the capsaicin injection after the incision showed its first effect at 2h after the injection and at 24h the effect was comparable with the 6 days pretreatment. Our results show an important role of TRPV1-containing nociceptors in the development of post-surgical hypersensitivity and suggest that local, high-concentration capsaicin treatment could be used to reduce it.

  17. Reduced postoperative pain scores and narcotic use favor per-oral endoscopic myotomy over laparoscopic Heller myotomy.

    PubMed

    Docimo, Salvatore; Mathew, Abraham; Shope, Alexander J; Winder, Joshua S; Haluck, Randy S; Pauli, Eric M

    2017-02-01

    Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a less invasive therapy for achalasia with a shorter hospitalization but with similar short- and long-term outcomes as a laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM). Previous literature comparing POEM to LHM has focused primarily on postoperative outcome parameters such as complications, dysphagia scores and gastro-esophageal reflux severity. This study specifically compares postoperative pain following POEM to pain following LHM, the current gold-standard operation. A retrospective review of all patients undergoing POEM or LHM for achalasia was performed from 2006 to 2015. Data collection included demographics, comorbidities, length of stay (LOS) and pain scores (arrival to the recovery room, 1 h postoperative, average first 24 h and upon discharge). Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t test and Chi-square test. Forty-four POEM patients and 122 LHM patients were identified. The average age (52.2 ± 20.75 vs 50.9 ± 17.89 years, p = 0.306) and BMI (28.1 ± 7.62 vs 27.6 ± 7.07 kg/m(2), p = 0.824) did not differ between the POEM and LHM groups, respectively; however, the American Society of Anesthesiology scores were higher in the POEM patients (2.43 ± 0.62 vs 2.11 ± 0.71, p = 0.011). There were no differences in rates of smoking, diabetes, cardiac disease or pulmonary disease. The average pain scores upon arrival to the recovery room and 1 h postoperatively were lower in the POEM group (2.3 ± 3.014 vs 3.61 ± 3 0.418, p = 0.025 and 2.2 ± 2.579 vs 3.46 ± 3.063, p = 0.034, respectively). There was no difference in the average pain score over the first 24 h (2.7 ± 2.067 vs 3.29 ± 1.980, p = 0.472) or at the time of discharge (1.6 ± 2.420 vs 2.09 ± 2.157, p = 0.0657) between the POEM and LHM groups. After standardizing opioid administration against 10 mg of oral morphine, the POEM group used significantly less narcotics that the LHM group (35.8 vs 101.8 mg, p < 0

  18. [Postoperative pain control in The Netherlands].

    PubMed

    van den Nieuwenhuyzen, M C; Janss, R A; Brand, R; van Kleef, J W

    1994-04-30

    To determine how postoperative analgesia care is managed in the Netherlands. Descriptive study (questionnaire). Departments of anaesthesiology in all 168 Dutch hospitals. Questionnaires were sent inquiring about postoperative pain therapies and their complications, the organisation and management of postoperative analgesic care, the importance of effective pain control, factors of influence on patient's assessment of pain and the management of the quality of postoperative analgesia. The questionnaires of 73% (n = 122) of the hospitals were suitable for analysis. Locoregional analgesic techniques are used, but intermittent intramuscular administration of an opioid is still the analgesic therapy of choice in the postoperative period. 89% of the interviewed anaesthesiologists assess the average intensity of postoperative pain as moderate or severe, and more than half of the interviewed anaesthesiologists answered that effective postoperative pain management is of substantial influence on the postoperative recovery of the patient. It is essential to improve postoperative pain control in the Netherlands. Frequent assessments and precise documentation of the intensity of pain and pain relief, on which further therapy can be based, might be a first step in improving postoperative pain control. Optimal postoperative pain management requires the input of equipment and staff.

  19. Chronic postoperative pain: recent findings in understanding and management

    PubMed Central

    Correll, Darin

    2017-01-01

    Chronic postoperative pain is a poorly recognized potential outcome from surgery. It affects millions of patients every year, with pain lasting for months to years, resulting in patient suffering and ensuing economic consequences. The operations with the highest incidence of chronic postoperative pain are amputations, thoracotomies, cardiac surgery, and breast surgery. Other risk factors include preoperative pain, psychological factors, demographics, and the intensity of acute postoperative pain. Attempts to prevent chronic postoperative pain have often led to debatable results. This article presents data from recently published studies examining the incidence, risk factors, mechanisms, treatment options, and preventive strategies for chronic postoperative pain in adults. In summary, many of the previously identified risk factors for chronic postoperative pain have been confirmed and some novel ones discovered, such as the importance of the trajectory of acute pain and the fact that catastrophizing may not always be predictive. The incidence of chronic postoperative pain hasn’t changed over time, and there is limited new information regarding an effective preventive therapy. For example, pregabalin may actually cause more harm in certain surgeries. Further research is needed to demonstrate whether multimodal analgesic techniques have the best chance of significantly reducing the incidence of chronic postoperative pain and to determine which combination of agents is best for given surgical types and different patient populations. PMID:28713565

  20. [Postoperative Pain after Hybrid Video-assisted Thoracic Surgery].

    PubMed

    Murata, Yutaka; Mizota, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Kazuhiko

    2015-12-01

    Hybrid video-assisted thoracic surgery (hybrid VATS), combining television monitoring and direct visualization through mini-thoracotomy, has been established as a secure and minimally invasive operation for lung cancer. This study aimed to determine postoperative pain levels after hybrid VATS in which intraoperative internal intercostal nerve block is performed. We also examined whether additional use of postoperative continuous infusion of fentanyl improves postoperative pain control. Data from 131 patients undergoing hybrid VATS were retrospectively analyzed. Thoracoscopic, internal intercostal nerve block was performed at the end of the procedure. Postoperative pain levels after hybrid VATS, and the impact of postoperative continuous infusion of fentanyl on postoperative pain levels and the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) were examined. 46.6% of patients experienced severe postoperative pain (numerical rating scale 7-10) after hybrid VATS. Postoperative continuous infusion of fentanyl was not associated with reduction in postoperative pain score, but was independently associated with PONV [odds ratio 3.44 (1.52-8.20); P = 0.0027]. Intraoperative internal intercostal nerve block did not provide sufficient analgesia after hybrid VATS. Additional use of postoperative continuous infusion of fentanyl did not reduce pain score, but increased the incidence of PONV.

  1. Nurses management of post-operative pain.

    PubMed

    Buckley, H

    2000-06-01

    Nurses have the responsibility of adequately managing patients' post-operative pain. This literature review assesses whether nurses' management of post-operative pain is adequate or not, according to the literature findings. The findings reveal that nurses' management of patients' post-operative pain is not adequate and implies the concurrent need for improved nurse education and practice. The findings also indicate a need for ongoing research of this phenomenon.

  2. Pathogenesis of postoperative oral surgical pain.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Cliff K. S.; Seymour, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    Pain is a major postoperative symptom in many oral surgical procedures. It is a complex and variable phenomenon that can be influenced by many factors. Good management of oral surgical pain requires a detailed understanding of the pathogenesis of surgical pain. This article aims at reviewing postoperative pain from a broad perspective by looking into the nociception, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neuropharmacology of pain. Therapeutic recommendations are made after reviewing the evidence from the literature for maximizing the efficacy of pain management techniques for oral surgical pain. PMID:12722900

  3. Combination of general anesthesia and peripheral nerve block with low-dose ropivacaine reduces postoperative pain for several days after outpatient arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Büttner, Benedikt; Mansur, Ashham; Hinz, José; Erlenwein, Joachim; Bauer, Martin; Bergmann, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Effective methods for postoperative pain relief are an important concern in outpatient surgery. For arthroscopies we combine a single-shot peripheral nerve block using low-volume, low-concentration ropivacaine with general anesthesia. We hypothesized that the patients would have less postoperative pain and be more rapidly home ready than after general anesthesia alone. Methods: Patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists I–III, 18–80 years old) scheduled for outpatient arthroscopy on the upper or lower extremity were randomized to have either a combination of peripheral nerve block and general anesthesia (NB + GA, study group) or general anesthesia alone (GA, control group). The relevant nerve was localized by ultrasound and 10 mL ropivacaine 0.2% was injected. General anesthesia was with propofol and remifentanil. Numeric rating scales were used to assess pain and patient satisfaction in the recovery room, on the evening of surgery, and on the following 2 days. Results: A total of 120 patients participated in the study (NB + GA: 61; GA: 59). The percentage of patients reporting relevant pain in the recovery room were 0% versus 44% (P < 0.001), on the evening after surgery 3% versus 80% (P < 0.001), and on days 1 and 2 postsurgery 12% versus 73% and 12% versus 64% (NB + GA vs GA, respectively). Median time to home discharge was NB + GA 34.5 min (range 15–90) versus GA 55 min (20–115) (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The combination of a peripheral nerve block with low-dose ropivacaine and general anesthesia reduced postoperative pain compared with general anesthesia alone for several days after outpatient arthroscopy. It also shortened the time to home discharge. PMID:28178149

  4. NSAIDs in the Treatment of Postoperative Pain.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anita; Bah, Maimouna

    2016-11-01

    Postoperative pain results in multiple undesirable physiologic and psychological outcomes, and it should be managed in a multimodal approach. This article reviews the latest scientific literature of NSAIDs in the treatment of postoperative pain. The goal is to answer the following questions: (1) Are NSAIDs effective in the postoperative period? (2) Are NSAIDs safe in all surgical patients? and (3) Are adverse effects of NSAIDs increased or diminished in the acute postoperative period? NSAIDs are safe and effective in the treatment of postoperative pain, and they should be administered to all postoperative surgical patients unless contraindicated. Based on literature, NSAIDs have been shown to increase patient satisfaction and decrease opioid requirements, minimizing opiate-induced adverse events. They have no increased incidence of adverse effects during the acute postoperative period. NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors, however, should be used with caution in colorectal surgery as they are proven to increase the risk of anastomotic leak.

  5. Postoperative Pain Trajectories in Cardiac Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, C. Richard; Zaslansky, Ruth; Donaldson, Gary W.; Shinfeld, Amihay

    2012-01-01

    Poorly controlled postoperative pain is a longstanding and costly problem in medicine. The purposes of this study were to characterize the acute pain trajectories over the first four postoperative days in 83 cardiac surgery patients with a mixed effects model of linear growth to determine whether statistically significant individual differences exist in these pain trajectories, and to compare the quality of measurement by trajectory with conventional pain measurement practices. The data conformed to a linear model that provided slope (rate of change) as a basis for comparing patients. Slopes varied significantly across patients, indicating that the direction and rate of change in pain during the first four days of recovery from surgery differed systematically across individuals. Of the 83 patients, 24 had decreasing pain after surgery, 24 had increasing pain, and the remaining 35 had approximately constant levels of pain over the four postoperative days. PMID:22448322

  6. Chlorhexidine gel and less difficult surgeries might reduce post-operative pain, controlling for dry socket, infection and analgesic consumption: a split-mouth controlled randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Haraji, A; Rakhshan, V

    2015-03-01

    Reports on post-surgical pain are a few, controversial and flawed (by statistics and analgesic consumption). Besides, it is not known if chlorhexidine can reduce post-extraction pain adjusting for its effect on prevention of infection and dry socket (DS). We assessed these. A total of 90 impacted mandibular third molars of 45 patients were extracted. Intra-alveolar 0·2% chlorhexidine gel was applied in a split-mouth randomised design to one-half of the sockets. None of the included patients took antibiotics or analgesics afterwards. In the first and third post-operative days, DS formation and pain levels were recorded. Predictive roles of the risk factors were analysed using fixed-effects (classic) and multilevel (mixed-model) multiple linear regressions (α = 0·05, β≤0·1). In the first day, pain levels were 5·56 ± 1·53 and 4·78 ± 1·43 (out of 10), respectively. These reduced to 3·22 ± 1·41 and 2·16 ± 1·40. Pain was more intense on the control sides [both P values = 0·000 (paired t-test)]. Chlorhexidine had a significant pain-alleviating effect (P = 0·0001), excluding its effect on DS and infection. More difficult surgeries (P = 0·0201) and dry sockets were more painful (P = 0·0000). Age had a marginally significant negative role (P = 0·0994). Gender and smoking had no significant impact [P ≥ 0·7 (regression)]. The pattern of pain reduction differed between dry sockets and healthy sockets [P = 0·0102 (anova)]. Chlorhexidine can reduce pain, regardless of its infection-/DS-preventive effects. Simpler surgeries and sockets not affected by alveolar osteitis are less painful. Smoking and gender less likely affect pain. The role of age was not conclusive and needs future studies.

  7. Pregabalin reduces postoperative opioid consumption and pain for 1 week after hospital discharge, but does not affect function at 6 weeks or 3 months after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Clarke, H; Pagé, G M; McCartney, C J L; Huang, A; Stratford, P; Andrion, J; Kennedy, D; Awad, I T; Gollish, J; Kay, J; Katz, J

    2015-12-01

    This study examined whether a perioperative regimen of pregabalin added to celecoxib improved pain scores and functional outcomes postdischarge up to 3 months after total hip arthroplasty (primary outcome) and acute postoperative pain and adverse effects (secondary outcomes). One hundred and eighty-four patients were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Two hours before receiving a spinal anaesthetic and undergoing surgery, patients received celecoxib 400 mg p.o. and were randomly assigned to receive either pregabalin 150 mg p.o. or placebo p.o. After surgery, patients received pregabalin 75 mg or placebo twice daily in hospital and for 7 days after discharge. Patients also received celecoxib 200 mg every 12 h for 72 h and morphine i.v. patient-controlled analgesia for 24 h. Pain and function were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 3 months after surgery. There was no difference between groups in physical function or incidence and intensity of chronic pain 3 months after total hip arthroplasty. The pregabalin group used less morphine [mean (sd): 39.85 (28.1) mg] than the placebo group [54.01 (31.2) mg] in the first 24 h after surgery (P<0.01). Pain scores were significantly lower in the pregabalin group vs the placebo group on days 1-7 after hospital discharge, and the pregabalin group required less adjunctive opioid medication (Percocet) 1 week after hospital discharge (P<0.05). Perioperative administration of pregabalin did not improve pain or physical function at 6 weeks or 3 months after total hip arthroplasty. Perioperative administration of pregabalin decreased opioid consumption in hospital and reduced daily pain scores and adjunct opioid consumption for 1 week after discharge. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Foot and hand massage as an intervention for postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan; Keck, Juanita F

    2004-06-01

    Physiological responses to pain create harmful effects that prolong the body's recovery after surgery. Patients routinely report mild to moderate pain even though pain medications have been administered. Complementary strategies based on sound research findings are needed to supplement postoperative pain relief using pharmacologic management. Foot and hand massage has the potential to assist in pain relief. Massaging the feet and hands stimulates the mechanoreceptors that activate the "nonpainful" nerve fibers, preventing pain transmission from reaching consciousness. The purpose of this pretest-posttest design study was to investigate whether a 20-minute foot and hand massage (5 minutes to each extremity), which was provided 1 to 4 hours after a dose of pain medication, would reduce pain perception and sympathetic responses among postoperative patients. A convenience sample of 18 patients rated pain intensity and pain distress using a 0 to 10 numeric rating scale. They reported decreases in pain intensity from 4.65 to 2.35 (t = 8.154, p <.001) and in pain distress from 4.00 to 1.88 (t = 5.683, p <.001). Statistically significant decreases in sympathetic responses to pain (i.e., heart rate and respiratory rate) were observed although blood pressure remained unchanged. The changes in heart rate and respiratory rate were not clinically significant. The patients experienced moderate pain after they received pain medications. This pain was reduced by the intervention, thus supporting the effectiveness of massage in postoperative pain management. Foot and hand massage appears to be an effective, inexpensive, low-risk, flexible, and easily applied strategy for postoperative pain management.

  9. Evaluation of low-level laser at auriculotherapy points to reduce postoperative pain in inferior third molar surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sampaio-Filho, Hélio; Sotto-Ramos, Juliane; Pinto, Erika Horácio; Cabral, Marcia Regina; Longo, Priscila Larcher; Tortamano, Isabel Peixoto; Marcos, Rodrigo Labat; Silva, Daniela Fátima Teixeira; Pavani, Christine; Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini

    2016-09-02

    A comfortable postoperative return to daily activities has increased the need to control inflammation after third molar surgery. Anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics are not exempt from adverse effects such as allergies and chronic gastritis, and they are not without cost. The association between low-level laser and auricular acupuncture can be an alternative when conventional drugs are contraindicated. Among its advantages, we can mention the low risk of side effects, low cost and simplicity of application. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of low-level laser at auriculotherapy points in reducing postoperative pain in lower third molar surgery. Ninety bilateral, symmetrical lower third molar surgeries will be performed in 45 healthy patients. Each patient will be their own control, through a split-mouth crossover study. One side of the mouth will be randomly chosen and, immediately after surgery, will be treated with low-level laser. After 21 days, the contralateral side will be operated on with low-level laser simulation used postoperatively. This regimen (laser application or not) will be repeated at 24 and 48 h after surgery. All patients will be requested to take analgesics (acetaminophen) if they have pain, i.e. in case of pain. Neither the surgeon nor the patients will know the assigned treatment. The primary variable will be postoperative pain assessed using a Visual Analog Scale, and the secondary variables will be trismus, edema, local temperature, dysphagia, presence of infection and painkiller ingestion. These variables will be assessed at baseline, 24 h, 48 h and 7 days after surgery. Blood samples for systemic inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-8) analysis will be assessed at baseline and 24 h after surgery. Some authors believe that using a wavelength of 633 to 670 nm is a good option for laser therapy in the field of acupuncture. This wavelength can penetrate biological tissue to a depth of about 3 mm. However

  10. [Post-operative pain therapy of a chronic pain patient].

    PubMed

    Pawlik, Michael T; Ittner, Karl Peter

    2006-11-01

    Post-operative pain therapy of chronic pain patients poses a challenge. Here we report the perioperative management of a 39-year-old male under chronic therapy with oxycodon, gabapentin and tolperison. Particular the pharmacointeractions regarding premedication and postoperative dose finding of opioids with intravenous PCIA are discussed.

  11. Intracameral phenylephrine and ketorolac during cataract surgery to maintain intraoperative mydriasis and reduce postoperative ocular pain: Integrated results from 2 pivotal phase 3 studies.

    PubMed

    Hovanesian, John A; Sheppard, John D; Trattler, William B; Gayton, Johnny L; Malhotra, Ranjan P; Schaaf, David T; Ng, Edmund; Dunn, Steven H

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of phenylephrine 1.0%-ketorolac 0.3% (Omidria) for maintenance of mydriasis during, and reduction of ocular pain after, cataract surgery. Twenty centers in the United States and the Netherlands. Prospective randomized clinical trials. Patients having cataract surgery or refractive lens exchange were enrolled in 2 clinical trials. Phenylephrine 1.0%-ketorolac 0.3% or placebo was added to irrigation solution and administered intracamerally during the procedure. Integrated analyses of primary and secondary endpoints were conducted. The clinical trials comprised 808 patients (403 treatment and 405 placebo). Phenylephrine 1.0%-ketorolac 0.3% was superior to placebo for the maintenance of mydriasis during, and reduction of ocular pain following, cataract surgery. The mean area under the curve (AUC) change from baseline in pupil diameter was 0.08 mm for treatment compared with -0.50 mm for placebo (P < .0001). The mean AUC of ocular pain visual analog scale scores within 12 hours postoperatively was 4.16 mm for the treatment group and 9.06 mm for the placebo group (P < .001). Results of all secondary efficacy analyses demonstrated a significant treatment effect associated with phenylephrine 1.0%-ketorolac 0.3%. Treatment-emergent adverse events were as expected for a population having cataract surgery; no clinically significant differences in safety measures were observed between treatment groups. In this integrated analysis, phenylephrine 1.0%-ketorolac 0.3% administered intracamerally with irrigation solution during cataract surgery was safe and effective for maintaining mydriasis during the procedure and reducing postoperative ocular pain. Dr. Schaaf is an employee and holds an equity interest in Omeros Corporation. Drs. Hovanesian, Sheppard, Trattler, Gayton, and Ng are consultants to Omeros Corporation. No other author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 The Authors

  12. Postoperative pain management and proinflammatory cytokines: animal and human studies.

    PubMed

    Shavit, Yehuda; Fridel, Keren; Beilin, Benzion

    2006-12-01

    The postoperative period is associated with neuroendocrine, metabolic, and immune alterations, which are the combined result of tissue damage, anesthesia, postoperative pain, and psychological stress. Limited evidence indicates that pain management in the postoperative period can affect the outcome of the surgery, reducing cardiac, pulmonary, and metabolic complications. Recent evidence indicates that pain and immune factors, especially proinflammatory cytokines, mutually interact and influence each other. A series of animal studies demonstrates that effective preemptive analgesia improved postoperative recovery, and this effect was enhanced by coadministration of IL-1ra together with the preemptive analgesics. Furthermore, preemptive analgesia attenuated surgery-induced PGE(2) production in the amygdala and the activation of the HPA axis. IL-1 signaling is required for the production of amygdala PGE(2) in response to surgical stress, and may thus affect the physiological and psychological aspects of surgical stress. These reports suggest that short-term effective analgesia can have long-lasting beneficial effects on surgery recovery. They further suggest that IL-1 blockade should be considered in the clinical management of pain associated with peripheral or nerve injury. Another series of human studies describes an interaction between the effectiveness of postoperative pain relief and surgery-associated immune alterations: In three separate studies, the more effective pain management technique was associated with diminished surgery-induced immune alterations, especially diminished elevation of IL-1. Reduced elevation of postoperative IL-1 and effective pain relief may both contribute to an attenuated illness response and a better surgery outcome.

  13. Nursing documentation of postoperative pain management.

    PubMed

    Idvall, Ewa; Ehrenberg, Anna

    2002-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that nursing documentation is often deficient in its recording of pain assessment and treatment. In Sweden, documentation of the care process, including assessment, is a legal obligation. The aim of this study was to describe nursing documentation of postoperative pain management and nurses' perceptions of the records in relation to current regulations and guidelines. The sample included nursing records of postoperative care on the second postoperative day from 172 patients and 63 Registered Nurses from surgical wards in a central county hospital in Sweden. The records were reviewed for content and comprehensiveness based on regulations and guidelines for postoperative pain management. Three different auditing instruments were used. The nurses were asked if the documentation concurred with current regulations and guidelines. The result showed that pain assessment was based mainly on patients' self-report, but less than 10% of the records contained notes on systematic assessment with a pain assessment instrument. Pain location was documented in 50% of the records and pain character in 12%. About 73% of the nurses reported that the documentation concurred with current regulations and guidelines. The findings indicate that significant flaws existed in nurses' recording of postoperative pain management, of which the nurses were not aware.

  14. [Pediatric postoperative quality analysis : Pain and postoperative nausea and vomiting].

    PubMed

    Balga, I; Konrad, C; Meissner, W

    2013-09-01

    For the evaluation of postoperative pain therapy, nausea and vomiting (PONV), the Children's Hospital in Lucerne acts as a member of the postoperative quality improvement project QUIPSi for children. Initial results and the potential for evaluation of the postoperative pain therapy and PONV are presented here. The central questions are whether the postoperative therapy concept is sufficient and if QUIPSi serves as an ideal tool for postoperative quality improvement? Over a period of 1.5 years a total of 460 children aged between 4 to 17 years evaluated their postoperative pain, requirements for more analgesic medicine and the incidence of PONV according to a standardized questionnaire on the first postoperative day. The administration of analgesic medicine was recorded until finishing the questionnaire. In this study 5 pediatric outpatient operation groups (hernia repair n = 36, bone surgery n = 23, metal removal surgery n = 31, circumcision n = 65 and soft tissue surgery n = 49) and 9 pediatric inpatient operation groups (appendectomy n = 21, bone surgery n = 78, metal removal surgery n = 24, orchidopexy n = 31, combined operation (orchidopexy + hernia repair or circumcision) n = 14, otoplasty n = 9, tonsillectomy n = 41 and pectus excavatum surgery n = 6 and soft tissue surgery n=28) could be classified. All operation groups except the inpatient and outpatient soft tissue surgery groups received regional or infiltration anesthesia. Analgesic medicine was prescribed with the maximum permitted daily dose per kg body weight (paracetamol 100 mg/kgBW, metamizole 80 mg/kgBW, diclofenac 3 mg/kgBW and ibuprofen 40 mg/kgBW; in reserve tramadol 8 mg/kgBW and nalbuphine 2.4 mg/kgBW). The following operation groups complained of persistent pain (scale according to Hicks 0-10) and/or required more pain medicine (%): pediatric outpatients circumcision 5.1/19 %, pediatric inpatients appendectomy 6.5/43 %, tonsillectomy 6.4/32 %, pectus excavatum surgery 7.7/33 %, orchidopexy 4

  15. Recent Advances in Postoperative Pain Management

    PubMed Central

    Vadivelu, Nalini; Mitra, Sukanya; Narayan, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    Good pain control after surgery is important to prevent negative outcomes such as tachycardia, hypertension, myocardial ischemia, decrease in alveolar ventilation, and poor wound healing. Exacerbations of acute pain can lead to neural sensitization and release of mediators both peripherally and centrally. Clinical wind up occurs from the processes of N-Methyl D-Aspartate (NMDA) activation, wind up central sensitization, long-term potentiation of pain (LTP), and transcription-dependent sensitization. Advances in the knowledge of molecular mechanisms have led to the development of multimodal analgesia and new pharmaceutical products to treat postoperative pain. The new pharmacological products to treat postoperative pain include extended-release epidural morphine and analgesic adjuvants such as capsaicin, ketamine, gabapentin, pregabalin dexmetomidine, and tapentadol. Newer postoperative patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) in modes such as intranasal, regional, transdermal, and pulmonary presents another interesting avenue of development. PMID:20351978

  16. Effects of relaxation and music on postoperative pain: a review.

    PubMed

    Good, M

    1996-11-01

    Postoperative patients differ in their response to pain and opioids. It is therefore important that nurses offer other options as adjuvants to medication. Relaxation and music may reduce pain by interrupting the postoperative cycle of pain, muscle tension and sympathetic activity. This review summarizes and critiques studies on the effectiveness of relaxation and music use during postoperative pain. Relaxation and music were effective in reducing affective and observed pain in the majority of studies, but they were less often effective in reducing sensory pain or opioid intake. However, the between-study differences in surgical procedures, experimental techniques, activities during testing, measurement of pain, and amount of practice make comparisons difficult. Furthermore, within studies, the problems of inadequate sample size, lack of random assignment, no assurance of pretest equivalence, delayed post-test administration and no control for opiates at the time of testing reduces the validity of the studies' conclusions. Randomized controlled studies of the types of relaxation and music that are most helpful to postoperative patients should be explored in various contexts.

  17. Single dose dihydrocodeine for acute postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J E; McQuay, H J; Moore, R A

    2000-01-01

    Dihydrocodeine is a synthetic opioid analgesic developed in the early 1900s. Its structure and pharmacokinetics are similar to that of codeine and it is used for the treatment of postoperative pain or as an antitussive. It is becoming increasingly important to assess the relative efficacy and harm caused by different treatments. Relative efficacy can be determined when an analgesic is compared with control under similar clinical circumstances. To quantitatively assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of single-dose dihydrocodeine compared with placebo in randomised trials in moderate to severe postoperative pain. Published reports were identified from a variety of electronic databases including Medline, Biological Abstracts, Embase, the Cochrane Library and the Oxford Pain Relief Database. Additional studies were identified from the reference lists of retrieved reports. The following inclusion criteria were used: full journal publication, clinical trial, random allocation of patients to treatment groups, double blind design, adult patients, pain of moderate to severe intensity at baseline, postoperative administration of study drugs, treatment arms which included dihydrocodeine and placebo and either oral or injected (intramuscular or intravenous) administration of study drugs. Data collection and analysis: Summed pain intensity and pain relief data over 4-6 hours were extracted and converted into dichotomous information to yield the number of patients obtaining at least 50% pain relief. This was used to calculate relative benefit and number-needed-to-treat for one patient to obtain at least 50% pain relief. Single-dose adverse effect data were collected and used to calculate relative risk and number-needed-to-harm. Fifty-two reports were identified as possible randomised trials which assessed dihydrocodeine in postoperative pain. Four reports met the inclusion criteria; all assessed oral dihydrocodeine. Three reports (194 patients) compared

  18. Postoperative pain treatment for ambulatory surgery.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Narinder

    2007-03-01

    One of the most significant changes in surgical practice during the last two decades has been the growth of ambulatory surgery. Adequate postoperative analgesia is a prerequisite for successful ambulatory surgery. Recent studies have shown that large numbers of patients suffer from moderate to severe pain during the first 24-48 hr. The success of fast-tracking depends to a considerable extent on effective postoperative pain management routines and the cost saving of outpatient surgery may be negated by unanticipated hospital admission for poorly treated pain. Depending on the intensity of postoperative pain current management includes the use of analgesics such as paracetamol, NSAIDs including coxibs and tramadol as single drugs or in combination as part of balanced (multimodal) analgesia. However, in the ambulatory setting many patients suffer from pain at home in spite of multimodal analgesic regimens. Sending patients home with perineural, incisional, and intra-articular catheters is a new and evolving area of postoperative pain management. Current evidence suggests that these techniques are effective, feasible and safe in the home environment if appropriate patient selection routines and organization for follow-up are in place.

  19. Preoperative prediction of severe postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Kalkman, C J; Visser, K; Moen, J; Bonsel, G J; Grobbee, D E; Moons, K G M

    2003-10-01

    We developed and validated a prediction rule for the occurrence of early postoperative severe pain in surgical inpatients, using predictors that can be easily documented in a preoperative setting. A cohort of surgical inpatients (n=1416) undergoing various procedures except cardiac surgery and intracranial neurosurgery in a University Hospital were studied. Preoperatively the following predictors were collected: age, gender, type of scheduled surgery, expected incision size, blood pressure, heart rate, Quetelet index, the presence and severity of preoperative pain, health-related quality of life the (SF-36), Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS). The outcome was the presence of severe postoperative pain (defined as Numeric Rating Scale > or =8) within the first hour postoperatively. Multivariate logistic regression in combination with bootstrapping techniques (as a method for internal validation) was used to derive a stable prediction model. Independent predictors of severe postoperative pain were younger age, female gender, level of preoperative pain, incision size and type of surgery. The area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.68-0.74). Adding APAIS scores (measures of preoperative anxiety and need for information), but not STAI, provided a slightly better model (ROC area 0.73). The reliability of this extended model was good (Hosmer and Lemeshow test p-value 0.78). We have demonstrated that severe postoperative pain early after awakening from general anesthesia can be predicted with a scoring rule, using a small set of variables that can be easily obtained from all patients at the preoperative visit. Before this internally validated preoperative prediction rule can be applied in clinical practice to support anticipatory pain management, external validation in other clinical settings is necessary.

  20. Chronic preoperative pain and psychological robustness predict acute postoperative pain outcomes after surgery for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, J; Thornton, A J; Scott, N W; Marfizo, S; Powell, R; Johnston, M; Wells, M; Heys, S D; Thompson, A M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Few epidemiological studies have prospectively investigated preoperative and surgical risk factors for acute postoperative pain after surgery for breast cancer. We investigated demographic, psychological, pain-related and surgical risk factors in women undergoing resectional surgery for breast cancer. Methods: Primary outcomes were pain severity, at rest (PAR) and movement-evoked pain (MEP), in the first postoperative week. Results: In 338 women undergoing surgery, those with chronic preoperative pain were three times more likely to report moderate to severe MEP after breast cancer surgery (OR 3.18, 95% CI 1.45–6.99). Increased psychological ‘robustness', a composite variable representing positive affect and dispositional optimism, was associated with lower intensity acute postoperative PAR (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.48–0.82) and MEP (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.54–0.93). Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and intraoperative nerve division were associated with reduced postoperative pain. No relationship was found between preoperative neuropathic pain and acute pain outcomes; altered sensations and numbness postoperatively were more common after axillary sample or clearance compared with SLNB. Conclusion: Chronic preoperative pain, axillary surgery and psychological robustness significantly predicted acute pain outcomes after surgery for breast cancer. Preoperative identification and targeted intervention of subgroups at risk could enhance the recovery trajectory in cancer survivors. PMID:22850552

  1. Postoperative Pain Following Foot and Ankle Surgery: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Loretta B.; Wagner, Dominic; Witten, Daniela M.; Martinez-Diaz, Gabriel J.; Brook, Nancy S.; Toussaint, Michele; Carroll, Ian R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Orthopaedic procedures have been reported to have the highest incidence of pain compared to other types of operations. There are limited studies in the literature that investigate postoperative pain. Materials and Methods A prospective study of 98 patients undergoing orthopedic foot and ankle operations was undertaken to evaluate their pain experience. A Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) was administered preoperatively and postoperatively. Results The results showed that patients who experienced pain before the operation anticipated feeling higher pain intensity immediately postoperatively. Patients, on average, experienced higher pain intensity 3 days after the operation than anticipated. The postoperative pain intensity at 3 days was the most severe, while postoperative pain intensity at 6 weeks was the least severe. Age, gender and preoperative diagnosis (acute versus chronic) did not have a significant effect on the severity of pain that patients experienced. Six weeks following the operation, the majority of patients felt no pain. In addition, the severity of preoperative pain was highly predictive of their anticipated postoperative pain and 6-week postoperative pain, and both preoperative pain and anticipated pain predict higher immediate postoperative pain. Conclusion The intensity of patients' preoperative pain was predictive of the anticipated postoperative pain. Patients' preoperative pain and anticipated postoperative pain were independently predictive of the 3-day postoperative pain. The higher pain intensity a patient experienced preoperatively suggested that their postoperative pain severity would be greater. Therefore, surgeons should be aware of these findings when treating postoperative pain after orthopaedic foot and ankle operations. PMID:19026197

  2. The Postoperative Pain Assessment Skills pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    McGillion, Michael; Dubrowski, Adam; Stremler, Robyn; Watt-Watson, Judy; Campbell, Fiona; McCartney, Colin; Victor, J Charles; Wiseman, Jeffrey; Snell, Linda; Costello, Judy; Robb, Anja; Nelson, Sioban; Stinson, Jennifer; Hunter, Judith; Dao, Thuan; Promislow, Sara; McNaughton, Nancy; White, Scott; Shobbrook, Cindy; Jeffs, Lianne; Mauch, Kianda; Leegaard, Marit; Beattie, W Scott; Schreiber, Martin; Silver, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Pain-related misbeliefs among health care professionals (HCPs) are common and contribute to ineffective postoperative pain assessment. While standardized patients (SPs) have been effectively used to improve HCPs’ assessment skills, not all centres have SP programs. The present equivalence randomized controlled pilot trial examined the efficacy of an alternative simulation method – deteriorating patient-based simulation (DPS) – versus SPs for improving HCPs’ pain knowledge and assessment skills. METHODS: Seventy-two HCPs were randomly assigned to a 3 h SP or DPS simulation intervention. Measures were recorded at baseline, immediate postintervention and two months postintervention. The primary outcome was HCPs’ pain assessment performance as measured by the postoperative Pain Assessment Skills Tool (PAST). Secondary outcomes included HCPs knowledge of pain-related misbeliefs, and perceived satisfaction and quality of the simulation. These outcomes were measured by the Pain Beliefs Scale (PBS), the Satisfaction with Simulated Learning Scale (SSLS) and the Simulation Design Scale (SDS), respectively. Student’s t tests were used to test for overall group differences in postintervention PAST, SSLS and SDS scores. One-way analysis of covariance tested for overall group differences in PBS scores. RESULTS: DPS and SP groups did not differ on post-test PAST, SSLS or SDS scores. Knowledge of pain-related misbeliefs was also similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS: These pilot data suggest that DPS is an effective simulation alternative for HCPs’ education on postoperative pain assessment, with improvements in performance and knowledge comparable with SP-based simulation. An equivalence trial to examine the effectiveness of deteriorating patient-based simulation versus standardized patients is warranted. PMID:22184553

  3. Multimodal Analgesia for Acute Postoperative and Trauma-Related Pain.

    PubMed

    Polomano, Rosemary C; Fillman, Mechele; Giordano, Nicholas A; Vallerand, April Hazard; Nicely, Kelly L Wiltse; Jungquist, Carla R

    2017-03-01

    : Multimodal analgesia, which combines analgesic drugs from different classes and employs analgesic techniques that target different mechanisms of pain, is recommended in the treatment of acute postoperative and trauma-related pain because its synergistic effect maximizes pain relief at lower analgesic doses, thereby reducing the risk of adverse drug effects. Using a case-based approach, this article reviews various multimodal analgesic therapies used in the treatment of acute pain; discusses their benefits; and summarizes findings from related research, recommendations from evidence-based practice guidelines, and expert consensus reports.

  4. Optimising postoperative pain management in the ambulatory patient.

    PubMed

    Shang, Allan B; Gan, Tong J

    2003-01-01

    Over 60% of surgery is now performed in an ambulatory setting. Despite improved analgesics and sophisticated drug delivery systems, surveys indicate that over 80% of patients experience moderate to severe pain postoperatively. Inadequate postoperative pain relief can prolong recovery, precipitate or increase the duration of hospital stay, increase healthcare costs, and reduce patient satisfaction. Effective postoperative pain management involves a multimodal approach and the use of various drugs with different mechanisms of action. Local anaesthetics are widely administered in the ambulatory setting using techniques such as local injection, field block, regional nerve block or neuraxial block. Continuous wound infusion pumps may have great potential in an ambulatory setting. Regional anaesthesia (involving anaesthetising regional areas of the body, including single extremities, multiple extremities, the torso, and the face or jaw) allows surgery to be performed in a specific location, usually an extremity, without the use of general anaesthesia, and potentially with little or no sedation. Opioids remain an important component of any analgesic regimen in treating moderate to severe acute postoperative pain. However, the incorporation of non-opioids, local anaesthetics and regional techniques will enhance current postoperative analgesic regimens. The development of new modalities of treatment, such as patient controlled analgesia, and newer drugs, such as cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors, provide additional choices for the practitioner. While there are different routes of administration for analgesics (e.g. oral, parenteral, intramuscular, transmucosal, transdermal and sublingual), oral delivery of medications has remained the mainstay for postoperative pain control. The oral route is effective, the simplest to use and typically the least expensive. The intravenous route has the advantages of a rapid onset of action and easier titratibility, and so is recommended for the

  5. Prediction of Postoperative Pain using Path Analysis in Older Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kinjo, Sakura; Sands, Laura P.; Lim, Eunjung; Paul, Sudeshna; Leung, Jacqueline M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Effective postoperative pain management is important for older surgical patients since pain affects perioperative outcomes. A prospective cohort study was conducted to describe the direct and indirect effects of patient risk factors and pain treatment in explaining levels of postoperative pain in older surgical patients. Methods We studied patients who were 65 years of age or older and were scheduled for major non-cardiac surgery with a postoperative hospital stay of at least 2 days. The numeric rating scale (0 = no pain, 10 = worst possible pain) was used to measure pain levels before surgery and once daily for 2 days after surgery. Path analysis was performed to examine the association between predictive variables and postoperative pain levels. Results Three hundred fifty patients were studied. The results reveal that preoperative pain level, use of preoperative opioids, female gender, higher ASA physical status, and postoperative pain control methods were the strongest predictors of postoperative pain as measured the first day after surgery. Younger age, greater preoperative symptoms of depression and lower cognitive function also contributed to higher postoperative pain levels. Pain levels on the second day after surgery were strongly predicted by preoperative pain level, use of preoperative opioids, surgical risk, and pain and opioid dose on postoperative day 1. However, younger age, female gender, higher ASA physical status, greater preoperative symptoms of depression, lower cognitive function and postoperative pain control methods indirectly contributed to pain levels on the second day after surgery. Conclusion Although preoperative pain and use of preoperative opioids have the strongest effects on postoperative pain, clinicians should be aware that other factors such as age, gender, surgical risk, preoperative cognitive impairment and depression also contribute to reported postoperative pain. Based on significant statistical correlations, these

  6. [Value of adjuvant physiotherapy in postoperative pain management].

    PubMed

    Bullmann, V; Weber, T P; Kienle, B; Schulte, T L

    2008-10-01

    In times of limited financial and human resources the application of adjuvant physiotherapy postoperatively in orthopaedic patients requires reevaluation. In the early postoperative course physiotherapy improves the patients' mobility. However, it is not able to reduce the need for pain medication. It is intended to minimize complications and to mobilize and motivate the patients early. In contrast, massages are of minor importance in the immediate postoperative course and are applied only in a few selected cases. Cryotherapy plays a major role especially after shoulder and knee surgery. On the other hand, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and acupuncture are applied only in selected patients after orthopaedic surgery, e.g., after limb amputation.

  7. Topical lidocaine patch 5% for acute postoperative pain control.

    PubMed

    Gilhooly, D; McGarvey, B; O'Mahony, H; O'Connor, T C

    2011-02-08

    A 39-year-old para 3 woman presented for elective caesarean section (lower segment caesarean section (LSCS)) for breech presentation. The patient had a strong history of atopy and anaphylaxis to paracetamol, codeine, penicillin and latex. The patient was asthmatic, triggered by aspirin. Epidural anaesthesia was unsuccessful and LSCS was carried out under spinal anaesthesia. Postoperatively the patient was unwilling to take analgesic medication due to fear of an allergic reaction. Three 5% lidocaine patches were applied to the wound for postoperative analgesia. This reduced the patient's visual analogue scale pain score from 10/10 to 5/10 at rest and 10/10 to 7/10 with movement. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation was added and this improved associated back pain, reducing the pain further to 2/10. This is the first description of lignocaine patch 5% for postoperative LSCS pain. It is suggested that this method of delivery of local anaesthetic, which is easy to apply and has minimal side effects, should be considered not as a sole agent but as part of a multimodal technique to address postoperative LSCS pain.

  8. Single dose dipyrone for acute postoperative pain

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Sheena; Faura, Clara; Edwards, Jayne; McQuay, Henry J; Moore, R Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Dipyrone (metamizole) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in some countries to treat pain (postoperative, colic, cancer, and migraine); it is banned in others because of an association with life-threatening blood agranulocytosis. This review updates a 2001 Cochrane review, and no relevant new studies were identified, but additional outcomes were sought. Objectives To assess the efficacy and adverse events of single dose dipyrone in acute postoperative pain. Search methods The earlier review searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and the Oxford Pain Relief Database to December 1999. For the update we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE,EMBASE and LILACS to February 2010. Selection criteria Single dose, randomised, double-blind, placebo or active controlled trials of dipyrone for relief of established moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. We included oral, rectal, intramuscular or intravenous administration of study drugs. Data collection and analysis Studies were assessed for methodological quality and data extracted by two review authors independently. Summed total pain relief over six hours (TOTPAR) was used to calculate the number of participants achieving at least 50% pain relief. Derived results were used to calculate, with 95% confidence intervals, relative benefit compared to placebo, and the number needed to treat (NNT) for one participant to experience at least 50% pain relief over six hours. Use and time to use of rescue medication were additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was collected. Main results Fifteen studies tested mainly 500 mg oral dipyrone (173 participants), 2.5 g intravenous dipyrone (101), 2.5 g intramuscular dipyrone (99); fewer than 60 participants received any other dose. All studies used active controls (ibuprofen, paracetamol, aspirin, flurbiprofen, ketoprofen, dexketoprofen, ketorolac, pethidine, tramadol, suprofen); eight used placebo controls. Over 70% of participants

  9. Single dose dipyrone for acute postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jayne; Meseguer, Fuensanta; Faura, Clara; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J; Derry, Sheena

    2010-09-08

    Dipyrone (metamizole) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in some countries to treat pain (postoperative, colic, cancer, and migraine); it is banned in others because of an association with life-threatening blood agranulocytosis. This review updates a 2001 Cochrane review, and no relevant new studies were identified, but additional outcomes were sought. To assess the efficacy and adverse events of single dose dipyrone in acute postoperative pain. The earlier review searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and the Oxford Pain Relief Database to December 1999. For the update we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE,EMBASE and LILACS to February 2010. Single dose, randomised, double-blind, placebo or active controlled trials of dipyrone for relief of established moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. We included oral, rectal, intramuscular or intravenous administration of study drugs. Studies were assessed for methodological quality and data extracted by two review authors independently. Summed total pain relief over six hours (TOTPAR) was used to calculate the number of participants achieving at least 50% pain relief. Derived results were used to calculate, with 95% confidence intervals, relative benefit compared to placebo, and the number needed to treat (NNT) for one participant to experience at least 50% pain relief over six hours. Use and time to use of rescue medication were additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was collected. Fifteen studies tested mainly 500 mg oral dipyrone (173 participants), 2.5 g intravenous dipyrone (101), 2.5 g intramuscular dipyrone (99); fewer than 60 participants received any other dose. All studies used active controls (ibuprofen, paracetamol, aspirin, flurbiprofen, ketoprofen, dexketoprofen, ketorolac, pethidine, tramadol, suprofen); eight used placebo controls.Over 70% of participants experienced at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours with oral dipyrone 500 mg compared to 30

  10. The impact of an educational pain management booklet intervention on postoperative pain control after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Bjørnnes, Ann Kristin; Parry, Monica; Lie, Irene; Fagerland, Morten Wang; Watt-Watson, Judy; Rustøen, Tone; Stubhaug, Audun; Leegaard, Marit

    2017-01-01

    Relevant discharge information about the use of analgesic medication and other strategies may help patients to manage their pain more effectively and prevent postoperative persistent pain. To examine patients' pain characteristics, analgesic intake and the impact of an educational pain management booklet intervention on postoperative pain control after cardiac surgery. Concerns about pain and pain medication prior to surgery will also be described. From March 2012 to September 2013, 416 participants (23% women) were consecutively enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. The intervention group received usual care plus an educational booklet at discharge with supportive telephone follow-up on postoperative day 10, and the control group received only usual care. The primary outcome was worst pain intensity (The Brief Pain Inventory - Short Form). Data about pain characteristics and analgesic use were collected at 2 weeks and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months post-surgery. General linear mixed models were used to determine between-group differences over time. Twenty-nine percent of participants reported surgically related pain at rest and 9% reported moderate to severe pain at 12 months post-surgery. Many participants had concerns about pain and pain medication, and analgesic intake was insufficient post-discharge. No statistically significant differences between the groups were observed in terms of the outcome measures following surgery. Postoperative pain and inadequate analgesic use were problems for many participants regardless of group allocation, and the current intervention did not reduce worst pain intensity compared with control. Further examination of supportive follow-up monitoring and/or self-management strategies post-discharge is required.

  11. Improving postoperative pain management in children by providing regular training and an updated pain therapy concept.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, M; Mechea, A; Hoffmann, F

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, children's hospitals have increasingly implemented postoperative pain management protocols to reduce postoperative pain and improve patient satisfaction. The effectiveness and long-term sustainability of such protocols have rarely been studied. Therefore, we conducted a prospective intervention study to assess the impact of regular training and improvement of clinical processes on the quality of postoperative pain management. We conducted an initial assessment of the status quo of postoperative pain management (Audit 1) followed by repeated training and improvement of clinical processes (analgesic pocket card, parents' brochure, modification of the patient chart, bimonthly advanced trainings sessions) and a follow-up review after 3 years (Audit 2). We used a data entry form, a patient survey, and an anonymous questionnaire for the nursing staff as measurement tools. Our analysis included a total of 93 and 85 patients in the initial and final audits. The return rates of the nursing staff questionnaire were 83% (Audit 1) and 77% (Audit 2). The training and process improvements resulted in significant improvement in the administration of analgesics for pain requiring treatment, the control of pain measurement after the administration of analgesics and the use of non-pharmacological pain therapies. The patients reported faster administration of analgesics for acute pain and improved pain relief following the intervention. Repeated training and improvement of clinical processes can significantly improve the long-term quality of postoperative pain management in children with a tolerable amount of effort on the part of health care professionals and institutions. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  12. Postoperative pelvic pain: An imaging approach.

    PubMed

    Farah, H; Laurent, N; Phalippou, J; Bazot, M; Giraudet, G; Serb, T; Poncelet, E

    2015-10-01

    Postoperative pelvic pain after gynecological surgery is a readily detected but unspecific sign of complication. Imaging as a complement to physical examination helps establish the etiological diagnosis. In the context of emergency surgery, vascular, urinary and digestive injuries constitute the most frequent intraoperative complications. During the follow-up of patients who had undergone pelvic surgery, imaging should be performed to detect recurrent disease, postoperative fibrosis, adhesions and more specific complications related to prosthetic material. Current guidelines recommend using pelvic ultrasonography as the first line imaging modality whereas the use of pelvic computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging should be restricted to specific situations, depending on local availability of equipment and suspected disease.

  13. [Optimizing post-operative pain management in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Garcia, João Batista Santos; Bonilla, Patricia; Kraychette, Durval Campos; Flores, Fernando Cantú; Valtolina, Elizabeth Diaz Perez de; Guerrero, Carlos

    Post-operative pain management is a significant problem in clinical practice in Latin America. Insufficient or inappropriate pain management is in large part due to insufficient knowledge, attitudes and education, and poor communications at various levels. In addition, the lack of awareness of the availability and importance of clear policies and guidelines for recording pain intensity, the use of specific analgesics and the proper approach to patient education have led to the consistent under-treatment of pain management in the region. However, these problems are not insurmountable and can be addressed at both the provider and patient level. Robust policies and guidelines can help insure continuity of care and reduce unnecessary variations in practice. The objective of this paper is to call attention to the problems associated with Acute Post-Operative Pain (APOP) and to suggest recommendations for their solutions in Latin America. A group of experts on anesthesiology, surgery and pain developed recommendations that will lead to more efficient and effective pain management. It will be necessary to change the knowledge and behavior of health professionals and patients, and to obtain a commitment of policy makers. Success will depend on a positive attitude and the commitment of each party through the development of policies, programs and the promotion of a more efficient and effective system for the delivery of APOP services as recommended by the authors of this paper. The writing group believes that implementation of these recommendations should significantly enhance efficient and effective post-operative pain management in Latin America. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of Diclofenac Mouthwash on Periodontal Postoperative Pain

    PubMed Central

    Yaghini, Jaber; Abed, Ahmad Moghareh; Mostafavi, Seyed Abolfazl; Roshanzamir, Najmeh

    2011-01-01

    Background: The need to relieve pain and inflammation after periodontal surgery and the side effects of systemic drugs and advantages of topical drugs, made us to evaluate the effect of Diclofenac mouthwash on periodontal postoperative pain. Methods: In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial study 20 quadrants of 10 patients(n = 20) aged between 22-54 who also acted as their own controls, were treated using Modified Widman Flap procedure in two quadrants of the same jaw with one month interval between the operations. After the operation in addition to ibuprofen 400 mg, one quadrant randomly received Diclofenac mouthwash (0/01%) for 30 seconds, 4 times a day (for a week) and for the contrary quadrant, ibuprofen and placebo mouthwash was given to be used in the same manner. The patients scored the number of ibuprofen consumption and their pain intensity based on VAS index in a questionnaire in days 1, 2, 3 and the first week after operation. The findings were analysed using two-way ANOVA, t-test and Wilcoxon. P-value less than 0.05 considered to be significant. Results: There was a significant difference between the mean values of pain intensity of two quadrants in four periods (P = 0.031). But, there was no significant difference between the average ibuprofen consumption in two groups (P = 0.51). Postoperative satisfaction was not significantly different in two quadrants (P = 0.059). 60% of patients preferred Diclofenac mouthwash. Conclusion: Diclofenac mouthwash was effective in reducing postoperative periodontal pain but it seems that it isn’t enough to control postoperative pain on its own. PMID:22013478

  15. [Autologous rib cartilage harvesting: operative procedure and postoperative pain reduction].

    PubMed

    Rasp, G; Staudenmaier, R; Ledderose, H; Kastenbauer, E

    2000-03-01

    In reconstructive surgery there is a growing demand for cartilage grafts. For small amounts of autologous tissue, cartilage from the nasal septum or ear concha is a sufficient and reliable tissue, but in cases of extensive defects or higher mechanical load autologous rib cartilage is a commonly used transplant. Nevertheless, a serious donor-site morbidity, especially postoperative pain, has to be taken into consideration. We present a modified technique for harvesting rib cartilage with a consecutive local pain therapy. In contrast to the commonly used incision through all layers of tissue the described technique follows the anatomical structures of skin tension-lines, the fascial and muscle fibers and tissue sliding-planes. Starting with a transversal skin incisions 1.5 cm above the costal arch, longitudinal splitting of the rectus abdominis fascia and muscle, the rib cartilage of the ribs 6 to 8 can be exposed. Grafts in the size of at least 3 to 8 cm can be harvested under preservation of the perichondrium. This technique causes a high degree of stability and good function of the abdominal wall. POSTOPERATIVE PAIN THERAPY: After harvesting rib cartilage most patients complain about extensive postoperative pain. For adequate treatment the local application of a long-lasting anesthetic substance close to the intercostal nerves is helpful. The introduction of a peridural catheter opens the feasibility of continuously applying a local anesthetic for 3 to 4 days directly into the donor-site. This procedure reduces the need for general anesthetics dramatically and prevents further complications. This modified technique for harvesting rib cartilage diminishes the donor-site morbidity by reducing the risk of pneumothorax, hernias and functional deficits. Moreover, the local pain therapy assures postoperative wellness and mobility.

  16. Efficacy and safety of post-cesarean section incisional infiltration with lidocaine and epinephrine versus lidocaine alone in reducing postoperative pain: A randomized controlled double-blinded clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Tharwat, Ahmed A.; Yehia, Amr H.; Wahba, Karim A.; Ali, Abd-Elrhman G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Aim was to assess the efficacy and safety of incisional infiltration of lidocaine and epinephrine vs. lidocaine only to reduce postcesarean section (C/S) pain. Material and Methods It was a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded clinical trial that was conducted in two tertiary hospitals in Egypt and included 153 women undergoing C/S under general anesthesia. They were randomly divided into the following two groups: Group I (control group, number=78), in which the wound was infiltrated before skin closure with 20 mL of 2% lidocaine, and Group II (study group, number=75), in which the wound was infiltrated before skin closure with 20 mL of 2% lidocaine and epinephrine. The primary outcomes were the time to first analgesic (TFA) request (minutes) and the postoperative pain scores that were measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The secondary outcomes included the duration of C/S, onset of mobilization, onset of breastfeeding, duration of hospital stay, local or systemic side effects of lidocaine and epinephrine, postoperative pyrexia, and postoperative wound infection. Results The pain score determined using VAS after 1 and 2 h was significantly decreased in Group II than in Group I. However, at 4.8 and 16 h, these results were significantly reversed in Group II than in Group I. The cumulative postoperative opioid consumption was significantly less in Group II than in Group I (50 vs. 90 mg). The onset of mobilization, onset of breastfeeding, and duration of hospital stay was significantly shorter in Group II than in Group I, whereas the TFA request was significantly longer in Group II. Conclusion Administering epinephrine with 2% lidocaine prolongs the anesthetic effect and reduces the opioid analgesic dose postoperatively required, thereby enhancing patient recovery. PMID:27026771

  17. Effect of Music Therapy on Postoperative Pain Management in Gynecological Patients: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Sin, Wai Man; Chow, Ka Ming

    2015-12-01

    Unrelieved postoperative pain may have a negative impact on the physiological and psychological well-being of patients. Pharmacological methods are currently used to relieve such pain in gynecological patients; however, inadequate pain control is still reported, and the use of nonpharmacological pain-relieving methods is increasingly being advocated, one of which is music therapy. The purpose of this literature review was to identify, summarize, and critically appraise current evidence on music therapy and postoperative pain management among gynecological patients. A systematic search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, British Nursing Index, and Allied and Complementary Medicine was conducted using the search terms music, gynecological, pain, surgery, operative, and post-operative to identify relevant articles in English from 1995 to the present. All identified articles were assessed independently for inclusion into review. A total of 7 articles were included after removal of duplicates and exclusion of irrelevant studies. All the included studies assessed the effects of music therapy on postoperative pain intensity, and three of them measured pain-related physiological symptoms. The findings indicated that music therapy, in general, was effective in reducing pain intensity, fatigue, anxiety, and analgesic consumption in gynecological patients during the postoperative period. It is recommended as an adjunct to pharmacological pain-relieving methods in reducing postoperative pain. Future researches on music therapy to identify the most effective application and evaluate its effect by qualitative study are recommended. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. (S)-lacosamide inhibition of CRMP2 phosphorylation reduces postoperative and neuropathic pain behaviors through distinct classes of sensory neurons identified by constellation pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Moutal, Aubin; Chew, Lindsey A; Yang, Xiaofang; Wang, Yue; Yeon, Seul Ki; Telemi, Edwin; Meroueh, Seeneen; Park, Ki Duk; Shrinivasan, Raghuraman; Gilbraith, Kerry B; Qu, Chaoling; Xie, Jennifer Y; Patwardhan, Amol; Vanderah, Todd W; Khanna, May; Porreca, Frank; Khanna, Rajesh

    2016-07-01

    Chronic pain affects the life of millions of people. Current treatments have deleterious side effects. We have advanced a strategy for targeting protein interactions which regulate the N-type voltage-gated calcium (CaV2.2) channel as an alternative to direct channel block. Peptides uncoupling CaV2.2 interactions with the axonal collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) were antinociceptive without effects on memory, depression, and reward/addiction. A search for small molecules that could recapitulate uncoupling of the CaV2.2-CRMP2 interaction identified (S)-lacosamide [(S)-LCM], the inactive enantiomer of the Food and Drug Administration-approved antiepileptic drug (R)-lacosamide [(R)-LCM, Vimpat]. We show that (S)-LCM, but not (R)-LCM, inhibits CRMP2 phosphorylation by cyclin dependent kinase 5, a step necessary for driving CaV2.2 activity, in sensory neurons. (S)-lacosamide inhibited depolarization-induced Ca influx with a low micromolar IC50. Voltage-clamp electrophysiology experiments demonstrated a commensurate reduction in Ca currents in sensory neurons after an acute application of (S)-LCM. Using constellation pharmacology, a recently described high content phenotypic screening platform for functional fingerprinting of neurons that uses subtype-selective pharmacological agents to elucidate cell-specific combinations (constellations) of key signaling proteins that define specific cell types, we investigated if (S)-LCM preferentially acts on certain types of neurons. (S)-lacosamide decreased the dorsal root ganglion neurons responding to mustard oil, and increased the number of cells responding to menthol. Finally, (S)-LCM reversed thermal hypersensitivity and mechanical allodynia in a model of postoperative pain, and 2 models of neuropathic pain. Thus, using (S)-LCM to inhibit CRMP2 phosphorylation is a novel and efficient strategy to treat pain, which works by targeting specific sensory neuron populations.

  19. The effects of Western music on postoperative pain in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Good, M; Chin, C C

    1998-02-01

    Music is a method nurses can use to help relieve pain, however little is known about its effectiveness across cultures. In this study, Western music was tested for its effectiveness in reducing postoperative pain in 38 Taiwanese patients, and its acceptability was explored. A pretest and post-test experimental design was used with visual analogue scales to measure sensation and distress of pain. Before surgery, subjects were randomly assigned to receive tape recorded music or the usual care. Those who were assigned to the music group chose among 5 types of sedative music. On postoperative Day 1 and Day 2, the effectiveness of the tape-recorded music was investigated during 15 minutes of rest in bed. Patients were interviewed on Day 3 to determine their liking for the music, its calming effects, and the helpfulness of the music. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant interaction between time and group in the distress of pain on Day 1, but not on Day 2, and in pain sensation on Day 2, but not Day 1. Subjects from Taiwan were similar to subjects in a previous study in the United States in their liking for the music, and in reports of the helpfulness of the music for pain sensation and distress, but fewer Taiwanese found the music calming, and they had different choices: more chose harp music and fewer chose jazz than subjects in the U.S. study, and some would prefer Buddhist hymns or popular songs heard in Taiwan. Findings support the use of culturally acceptable music in addition to analgesic medication for the sensation and distress of postoperative pain.

  20. Perioperative Interventions to Reduce Chronic Postsurgical Pain

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Ian; Hah, Jennifer; Mackey, Sean; Ottestad, Einar; Kong, Jiang Ti; Lahidji, Sam; Tawfik, Vivianne; Younger, Jarred; Curtin, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 10% of patients following a variety of surgeries develop chronic postsurgical pain. Reducing chronic postoperative pain is especially important to reconstructive surgeons because common operations such as breast and limb reconstruction have even higher risk for developing chronic postsurgical pain. Animal studies of posttraumatic nerve injury pain demonstrate that there is a critical time frame before and immediately after nerve injury in which specific interventions can reduce the incidence and intensity of chronic neuropathic pain behaviors–so called “preventative analgesia.” In animal models, perineural local anesthetic, systemic intravenous local anesthetic, perineural clonidine, systemic gabapentin, systemic tricyclic antidepressants, and minocycline have each been shown to reduce pain behaviors days to weeks after treatment. The translation of this work to humans also suggests that brief perioperative interventions may protect patients from developing new chronic postsurgical pain. Recent clinical trial data show that there is an opportunity during the perioperative period to dramatically reduce the incidence and severity of chronic postsurgical pain. The surgeon, working with the anesthesiologist, has the ability to modify both early and chronic postoperative pain by implementing an evidence-based preventative analgesia plan. PMID:23463498

  1. Perspectives of Swedish patients on postoperative pain management.

    PubMed

    Idvall, Ewa; Bergqvist, Anna; Silverhjelm, Jenny; Unosson, Mitra

    2008-06-01

    This study aimed to describe the perspectives of surgical patients towards postoperative pain management during their hospital stay. Thirty strategically chosen postoperative inpatients from different surgical wards in a university hospital in Sweden participated. A qualitative, descriptive approach using individual interviews was chosen. These were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed according to a qualitative content analysis. The patients' descriptions of postoperative pain management indicated that pain was a symptom that was always in focus, either because it was constantly present or because pain could appear abruptly during different activities and movements. Although the focus was on pain and an awareness that it should be relieved or avoided, the solutions were often routine, short-term, and involved the regular intake of drugs, plus additional medication if needed for an acute pain episode. From the patients' descriptions of their experience with postoperative pain management, we distinguished three categories: "patients' pain knowledge", "patients' pain management approaches", and "patients' views of health-care professionals". The findings from this study highlight important aspects of nursing care that should receive greater attention in postoperative pain management. The patients' narratives could be a valuable asset in the quality improvement of postoperative pain management as these narratives highlight episodes difficult to elicit in other ways.

  2. [Postoperative pain management. Aims and organization of a strategy for postoperative acute pain therapy].

    PubMed

    Nolli, M; Nicosia, F

    2000-09-01

    The Health Services, not only the Italian one, is under pressure because of request for improving treatment quality and the financial need for reorganization and cost-saving. It's required a rationalization of intervention, together with a careful choice of the best and cheapest techniques and the demonstration of their efficacy. The anaesthesia service activity, in a period of cost rationalization and funds restriction should be aimed to appropriate outcome measures corrected by both patient's risk factors and surgical-anaesthesiological case-mix. The development of a complete strategy for surgical pain management might run into two phases. The first phase, internal and mono-specialistic, should develop like the creation of an Acute Pain Team. The main processes are: focusing the problem (charge of the care), training, information, teaching methodology (timing, methods, drugs, techniques, etc.) and the audit (before and after changes). The main aims are the evaluation of the level of analgesia and pain relief or patient's satisfaction which are partial endpoints useful to demonstrate the improvement and the efficacy of the new pain management strategies. The second phase, multidisciplinary, is directed toward the creation of a Postoperative Evaluation Team. The main objective is to set up a collaborative clinical group able to identify the criteria for quality, efficacy and safety. The major purpose is the evaluation of major outcome measures: surgical outcome, morbidity, mortality and length of hospitalization. The improvement in the quality of postoperative pain treatment goes through a better organization and a progressive increase of the already available therapy. The achievement of the result and the quality projects depend on the interaction among staff members with different behaviours and settings. Internal teaching and training, continuous education for doctors and nurses, and external information, marketing and improvement of attractive capability of

  3. Does preoperative administration of gabapentin/pregabalin improve postoperative nasal surgery pain?

    PubMed

    Park, In Joon; Kim, Geunjeon; Ko, Gibeom; Lee, Yeon Ji; Hwang, Se Hwan

    2016-10-01

    Gabapentin and pregabalin has been shown to reduce postoperative pain effectively. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to assess the role of preoperative gabapentinoids for attenuating postoperative pain after nasal surgery in patients via a meta-analysis of the literature. PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Database. Literature was screened from inception to December 2015. Nine articles to compare the preoperative administered gabapentinoid (gabapentinoids groups) with a placebo or analgesics (control group) were included for analysis of the outcomes of interest, which included postoperative pain scores, analgesic intakes, or side effects, such as sedation, nausea and vomiting, blurred vision, operative bleeding, dizziness, and headache, during a 24-hour postoperative period. The pain score reported by the physician and need for analgesics during the first 24 hours, postoperatively, in the gabapentinoids group significantly reduced compared with the control. Additionally, the gabapentinoids had no significant effect on the incidences of side effects except blurred vision compared with the control during the 24 hours postoperatively. In the subgroup analyses of these results according to operation type, these subgroups showed similar effects on reducing postoperative pain and adverse effects. Preoperative gabapentinoids could attenuate postoperative pain without significant adverse effects in patients who undergo nasal surgery. However, blurred vision may be a handicap that requires consideration for use and education for patients. Further clinical trials will be of help in supporting the results of this study. NA Laryngoscope, 126:2232-2241, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Postoperative Pain in Children After Dentistry Under General Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Michelle; Copp, Peter E.; Haas, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, severity, and duration of postoperative pain in children undergoing general anesthesia for dentistry. This prospective cross-sectional study included 33 American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) Class I and II children 4–6 years old requiring multiple dental procedures, including at least 1 extraction, and/or pulpectomy, and/or pulpotomy of the primary dentition. Exclusion criteria were children who were developmentally delayed, cognitively impaired, born prematurely, taking psychotropic medications, or recorded baseline pain or analgesic use. The primary outcome of pain was measured by parents using the validated Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R) and Parents' Postoperative Pain Measure (PPPM) during the first 72 hours at home. The results showed that moderate-to-severe postoperative pain, defined as FPS-R ≥ 6, was reported in 48.5% of children. The prevalence of moderate-to-severe pain was 29.0% by FPS-R and 40.0% by PPPM at 2 hours after discharge. Pain subsided over 3 days. Postoperative pain scores increased significantly from baseline (P < .001, Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test). Moderately good correlation between the 2 pain measures existed 2 and 12 hours from discharge (Spearman rhos correlation coefficients of 0.604 and 0.603, P < .005). In conclusion, children do experience moderate-to-severe pain postoperatively. Although parents successfully used pain scales, they infrequently administered analgesics. PMID:26650492

  5. A prospective study on postoperative pain after cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Porela-Tiihonen, Susanna; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kokki, Merja; Purhonen, Sinikka; Kokki, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate postoperative pain and early recovery in cataract patients. Patients and methods A total of 201 patients who underwent elective first eye cataract extraction surgery were enrolled, and 196 were included in the final analysis. The study design was a single-center, prospective, follow-up study in a tertiary hospital in eastern Finland. Postoperative pain was evaluated with the Brief Pain Inventory at four time points: at baseline, and at 24 hours, 1 week, and 6 weeks postsurgery. Results Postoperative pain was relatively common during the first hours after surgery, as it was reported by 67 (34%) patients. After hospital discharge, the prevalence decreased; at 24 hours, 1 week, and 6 weeks, 18 (10%), 15 (9%) and 12 (7%) patients reported having ocular pain, respectively. Most patients with eye pain reported significant pain, with a score of ≥4 on a pain scale of 0–10, but few had taken analgesics for eye pain. Those who had used analgesics rated the analgesic efficacy of paracetamol and ibuprofen as good or excellent. Other ocular irritation symptoms were common after surgery; as a new postoperative symptom, foreign-body sensation was reported by 40 patients (22%), light sensitivity by 29 (16%), burning by 15 (8%), and itching by 15 (8%). Conclusion Moderate or severe postoperative pain was relatively common after cataract surgery. Thus, all patients undergoing cataract surgery should be provided appropriate counseling on pain and pain management after surgery. PMID:23885165

  6. How military nurses rationalize their postoperative pain assessment decisions.

    PubMed

    Harper, Phil; Ersser, Steven; Gobbi, Mary

    2007-09-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore how military nurses rationalize their postoperative pain assessment decisions, particularly when these differ from patients' pain self-reports. Postoperative pain is a complex phenomenon influenced by many factors that make assessment difficult. Nurses are taught to believe what patients say about their pain. However, their attitudes to pain are influenced by their cultural background and they may disagree with patients' self-reports. Military nurses belong to a military culture with different pain attitudes that may also influence their postoperative pain assessment. An ethnomethodological ethnography study was carried out in 2003. A purposive sample of 29 British military surgical/orthopaedic Registered Nurses were interviewed to identify their taken-for-granted assumptions and commonsense cultural knowledge surrounding postoperative pain assessment. The data were analysed using a systematic process of inductive reasoning aided by Non-numerical, Unstructured Data for Indexing, Searching and Theorizing (QSR N6, NUD*IST). Participants told two distinct stories in their postoperative pain narratives. The first, the cultural story, described how military nurses normally assess postoperative pain and revealed taken-for-granted assumptions surrounding this assessment. However, when military nurses believe that patients over- or under-report their pain, the cultural story was challenged through a collective story in which nurses used their commonsense knowledge to account for these differences. Postoperative pain assessment within a military culture is complex, but all nurses need to be aware that their socialization into different nursing cultures may influence their attitudes to postoperative pain assessment.

  7. Continuous intravenous perioperative lidocaine infusion for postoperative pain and recovery.

    PubMed

    Kranke, Peter; Jokinen, Johanna; Pace, Nathan Leon; Schnabel, Alexander; Hollmann, Markus W; Hahnenkamp, Klaus; Eberhart, Leopold H J; Poepping, Daniel M; Weibel, Stephanie

    2015-07-16

    The management of postoperative pain and recovery is still unsatisfactory in clinical practice. Opioids used for postoperative analgesia are frequently associated with adverse effects including nausea and constipation. These adverse effects prevent smooth postoperative recovery. On the other hand not all patients may be suited to, and take benefit from, epidural analgesia used to enhance postoperative recovery. The non-opioid lidocaine was investigated in several studies for its use in multi-modal management strategies to reduce postoperative pain and enhance recovery. The aim of this review was to assess the effects (benefits and risks) of perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion compared to placebo/no treatment or compared to epidural analgesia on postoperative pain and recovery in adults undergoing various surgical procedures. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 5 2014), MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2014), EMBASE (1980 to May 2014), CINAHL (1982 to May 2014), and reference lists of articles. We searched the trial registry database ClinicalTrials.gov, contacted researchers in the field, and handsearched journals and congress proceedings. We did not apply any language restrictions. We included randomized controlled trials comparing the effect of continuous perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion either with placebo, or no treatment, or with epidural analgesia in adults undergoing elective or urgent surgery under general anaesthesia. The intravenous lidocaine infusion must have been started intraoperatively prior to incision and continued at least until the end of surgery. Trial quality was independently assessed by two authors according to the methodological procedures specified by the Cochrane Collaboration. Data were extracted by two independent authors. We collected trial data on postoperative pain, recovery of gastrointestinal function, length of hospital stay, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), opioid

  8. Fewer postoperative fevers: an unexpected benefit of multimodal pain management?

    PubMed

    Karam, Joseph A; Zmistowski, Benjamin; Restrepo, Camilo; Hozack, William J; Parvizi, Javad

    2014-05-01

    patients undergoing 247 individual tests; p < 0.001). In addition to fewer adverse effects and better pain control, the multimodal analgesia protocol has the hidden benefit of dampening the temperature response to the surgical insult of TJA. The decreased rate of postoperative fever avoids unnecessary anxiety for the patient and the treating team and reduces healthcare resource use occasioned by working up postoperative fever. Level III, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  9. Prediction of postoperative pain after mandibular third molar surgery.

    PubMed

    Rudin, Asa; Eriksson, Lars; Liedholm, Rolf; List, Thomas; Werner, Mads U

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the predictive potential of preoperative psychological and psychophysiological variables in estimating severity of postoperative pain following mandibular third molar surgery (MTMS). Following ethical committee approval and informed consent, 40 consecutive patients scheduled for MTMS were included. Preoperative psychometric indicators of anxiety, depression, and vulnerability were evaluated by patient questionnaires. Thermal thresholds and heat pain perception (1 second phasic stimuli: 44 degrees C to 48 degrees C) were evaluated with quantitative sensory testing techniques. Standardized surgery was performed during local anesthesia. Postoperative pain management was with rescue paracetamol and ibuprofen. The patients were instructed to record each day their pain at rest and during dynamic conditions, and their requirement of analgesics for 14 days following surgery. Thirty-eight patients completed the study. Eight patients were readmitted because of pain. During the postoperative period, one or more episodes of moderate to severe pain (> 30 on a visual analog scale) was reported by 60% (23/38) at rest, 63% (24/38) during mouth-opening, and 73% (28/38) during eating. In a multiple regression model, the combination of psychological vulnerability and heat pain perception rendered a predictive model that could account for 15 to 30% of the variance in postoperative pain during resting and dynamic conditions (P = .03 to .001). Implementation of clinically relevant preoperative screening methods may offer more efficacious postoperative pain therapies to pain-susceptible individuals undergoing mandibular third molar surgery. J Orofac Pain 2010;24:189-196.

  10. Nurses' strategies for managing pain in the postoperative setting.

    PubMed

    Manias, Elizabeth; Bucknall, Tracey; Botti, Mari

    2005-03-01

    Acute pain is a significant problem in the postoperative setting. Patients report a lack of information about pain-control measures and ineffective pain control. Nurses continue to rely on pharmacologic measures and tend to under-administer analgesics. The purpose of this study was to determine the strategies nurses used to manage patients' pain in the postoperative setting. It also sought to examine the effect of context, including organization of care, nurses' prioritization of work activities, and pressures during a working shift, on their pain-management strategies. An observational design was used in two surgical units of a metropolitan teaching hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Six fixed observation times were identified as key periods for pain activities, each comprising a 2-hour duration. An observation period was examined at least 12 times, resulting in the completion of 74 observations and the identification of 316 pain cases. Fifty-two nurses were observed during their normal day's work with postoperative patients. Six themes were identified: managing pain effectively; prioritizing pain experiences for pain management; missing pain cues for pain management; regulators and enforcers of pain management; preventing pain; and reactive management of pain. The findings highlighted the critical nature of communication between clinicians and patients and among clinicians. It also demonstrated the influence of time on management strategies and the relative importance that nurses place on nonpharmacologic measures in actual practice. This research, which portrays what happens in actual clinical practice, has facilitated the identification of new data that were not evident from other research studies.

  11. Stress symptoms among adolescents before and after scoliosis surgery: correlations with postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Rullander, Anna-Clara; Lundström, Mats; Lindkvist, Marie; Hägglöf, Bruno; Lindh, Viveca

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe stress symptoms among adolescents before and after scoliosis surgery and to explore correlations with postoperative pain. Scoliosis surgery is a major surgical procedure. Adolescent patients suffer from preoperative stress and severe postoperative pain. Previous studies indicate that there is a risk of traumatisation and psychological complications during the recovery period. A prospective quantitative cohort study with consecutive inclusion of participants. A cohort of 37 adolescent patients aged 13-18. To assess the adolescents' experiences before surgery and at six to eight months after surgery, the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children - Alternative version, Youth Self-Report and Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for children 12-18 were used. The Visual Analogue Scale was used for self-report of postoperative pain on day three. Rates of anxiety/depression and internalising behaviour were significantly higher before surgery than six months after. Preoperative anger, social problems and attention problems correlated significantly with postoperative pain on day three. At follow-up, postoperative pain correlated significantly with anxiety, social problems and attention problems. The results of this study indicate a need for interventions to reduce perioperative stress and postoperative pain to improve the quality of nursing care. Attention to preoperative stress and implementation of interventions to decrease stress symptoms could ameliorate the perioperative process by reducing levels of postoperative pain, anxiety, social and attention problems in the recovery period. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Children's nurses' post-operative pain assessment practices.

    PubMed

    Panjganj, Donya; Bevan, Ann

    2016-06-08

    Pain assessment is crucial to achieving optimal pain management in children. Pain that is insufficiently controlled can have extensive short- and long-term repercussions. Many studies continue to report that children experience unnecessary post-operative pain when they are in hospital. The purpose of this literature review was to explore post-operative pain assessment practices used by children's nurses. A literature search of databases was undertaken and inclusion criteria identified. Four themes emerged: pain assessment tools; behavioural cues; documentation; and communication between child, parent/carer and nurse. The findings showed that pain assessment tools were inadequately used, that children's behavioural cues were misinterpreted, and that there was inconsistency in the documentation of pain scores and in communication about pain scores between children, parent/carer and nurse. Addressing the key issues identified from the articles reviewed can help improve nursing practice and care.

  13. Prevalence of postoperative pain in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and the association with preoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Bastrom, Tracey P; Marks, Michelle C; Yaszay, Burt; Newton, Peter O

    2013-10-01

    Review of a prospective database registry of surgical patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of postoperative pain and its impact on patient-reported postoperative outcomes using the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 outcomes questionnaire. Although reportedly rare, postoperative pain can be a devastating situation for the patient with AIS. Most recent studies examining outcomes in AIS surgical treatment use the SRS Pain domain score to assess pain in this population. A prospectively enrolled multicenter database was queried. Patients with minimum 2-year follow-up and 2-year SRS scores were included. Postoperative pain after the acute phase of recovery when reported by the patient to the treating surgeon/clinical team in follow-up is recorded as a complication in the database. Patients included in this series were grouped as either reporting pain or not to the surgeon/clinical team postoperatively. Pre- and postoperative SRS scores were then compared between these 2 groups using analysis of variance (P < 0.05). Five hundred and eighty-four patients meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. Sixty-one (11%) reported pain at sometime between 2 weeks and 2 years postoperatively. Thirteen were within the 6-month postoperative period. Of the remaining 48 reporting pain between 6 and 24 months postoperatively, 41 (7% of the total cohort) had no obvious cause for their pain. More than half of these patients (26/41) were referred for further treatment (physical therapy, referral to pain specialist, further imaging). These 41 patients had significantly decreased 2-year SRS scores in the domains of Pain, Self-image, Mental health, and Total score (P < 0.05). The patients with postoperative pain were found to have significantly lower preoperative Pain domain scores (P < 0.001), indicative of greater pain preoperatively, yet there were no other domains effected preoperatively. For this group the pre

  14. The effect of music on postoperative pain and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Allred, Kelly D; Byers, Jacqueline F; Sole, Mary Lou

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if listening to music or having a quiet rest period just before and just after the first ambulation on postoperative day 1 can reduce pain and/or anxiety or affect mean arterial pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and/or oxygen saturation in patients who underwent a total knee arthroplasty. Fifty-six patients having a total knee arthroplasty were randomly assigned to either a music intervention group or a quiet rest group. A visual analog scale was used to measure pain and anxiety. Physiologic measures, including blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate, were also obtained. Statistical findings between groups indicated that the music group's decrease in pain and anxiety was not significantly different from the comparison rest group's decrease in pain (F = 1.120; p = .337) or anxiety (F = 1.566; p = .206) at any measurement point. However, statistical findings within groups indicated that the sample had a statistically significant decrease in pain (F = 6.699; p = .001) and anxiety (F = 4.08; p = .013) over time. Results of this research provide evidence to support the use of music and/or a quiet rest period to decrease pain and anxiety. The interventions pose no risks and have the benefits of improved pain reports and decreased anxiety. It potentially could be opioid sparing in some individuals, limiting the negative effects from opioids. Nurses can offer music as an intervention to decrease pain and anxiety in this patient population with confidence, knowing there is evidence to support its efficacy.

  15. [Perioperative enzyme therapy. A significant supplement to postoperative pain therapy?].

    PubMed

    Hoernecke, R; Doenicke, A

    1993-12-01

    Following ethics committee approval and with written informed consent, 80 patients (61 female, 19 male) were randomly allocated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study to two groups of 40 patients each. The treatment group received a compound of proteolytic, glycolytic, and lipolytic enzymes and rutoside (Wobenzym), while the control-group received placebo. Efficacy and tolerance of the study medication was examined before and after day case surgery for the carpal tunnel syndrome. Medication was given 10 tabs t.i.d. for 15 days, starting 7 days before surgery. Pain intensity (visual analogue scale), intake of analgesics, and tolerance of the study medication were recorded daily and treatment differences between the two groups were statistically evaluated. Comparison of demographic data of all enrolled patients showed no significant difference between the two groups. In the enzyme group, pain scores were lower on the day of operation and for the following 5 days but did not differ significantly from the control group; however, patients of the enzyme group took significantly less analgesics and experienced significantly earlier pain relief than those of the control group, thus demonstrating a pain-reducing effect of the enzyme compound. Only few side effects were reported in both groups, none of them serious. Enzyme therapy is an effective and safe adjuvant treatment for the control of postoperative pain.

  16. Post-operative pain control after tonsillectomy: dexametasone vs tramadol.

    PubMed

    Topal, Kubra; Aktan, Bulent; Sakat, Muhammed Sedat; Kilic, Korhan; Gozeler, Mustafa Sitki

    2017-06-01

    Tramadol was found to be more effective than dexamethasone in post-operative pain control, with long-lasting relief of pain. This study aimed to compare the effects of pre-operative local injections of tramadol and dexamethasone on post-operative pain, nausea and vomiting in patients who underwent tonsillectomy. Sixty patients between 3-13 years of age who were planned for tonsillectomy were included in the study. Patients were divided into three groups. Group 1 was the control group. Patients in Group 2 received 0.3 mg/kg Dexamethasone and Group 3 received 0.1 mg/kg Tramadol injection to the peritonsillary space just before the operation. Patients were evaluated for nausea, vomiting, and pain. When the control and the dexamethasone groups were compared; there were statistically significant differences in pain scores at post-operative 15 and 30 min, whereas there was no statistically significant difference in pain scores at other hours. When the control and tramadol groups were compared, there was a statistically significant difference in pain scores at all intervals. When tramadol and dexamethasone groups were compared, there was no statistically significant difference in pain scores at post-operative 15 and 30 min, 1 and 2 h, whereas there was a statistically significant difference in pain scores at post-operative 6 and 24 h.

  17. Comparison of Two Multimodal Pain Regimens Used for Postoperative Pain Control in Total Joint Arthroplasty Patients.

    PubMed

    Jinnah, Alexander H; Smith, Beth P; Perricelli, Brett C

    Postoperative pain control following total joint arthroplasty results in improved patient mobilization, participation in physical therapy, and potentially reduced hospital costs. It was hypothesized that using a multimodal pain protocol focusing on periarticular injections including liposomal bupivacaine would have improved results when compared with a parenteral opioid-based regimen. The results showed a decrease in length of stay and rate of discharge to skilled nursing facilities with the implementation of a novel multimodal pain protocol. Furthermore, there was no change in patient satisfaction before and after the execution of the new protocol. It was concluded that using a multimodal pain protocol based on periarticular injections can lead to decreased length of stay and a decrease in transfer to skilled nursing facilities without a change in patient satisfaction.

  18. Aqueous acupuncture for postoperative pain--a matched controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chen, S C; Lu, S N; Lai, C T; Jean, J Y; Hsiao, C L; Hsu, P T

    1991-09-01

    The analgesic effects of acupuncture are well-documented. Aqueous acupuncture, or point injection, is a conveniently modified modern acupuncture method. This matched controlled trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of aqueous acupuncture in postoperative pain control. A total of 12 patients were selected as age-, sex- and operative-style-matched controls. In treating group, 2 to 5 ml of 20% glucose solution was injected into Ho-Ku (LI 4) and Yang-Ling-Chuan (GB 34) when patients had regained conciousness from operation anesthesia. The pain intensity were recorded as score system included verbal, sleep disturbance and use of narcotics. In comparisons with the control group, the intensity of postoperative pain, and the amounts and frequency of narcotics used were significantly lower in the study group, especially for the first 12 postoperative hours. Aqueous acupuncture is a convenient and effective procedure in postoperative pain control.

  19. Evaluation of aromatherapy in treating postoperative pain: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung T; Wajda, Michael; Cuff, Germaine; Serota, David; Schlame, Michael; Axelrod, Deborah M; Guth, Amber A; Bekker, Alex Y

    2006-12-01

    This study compared the analgesic efficacy of postoperative lavender oil aromatherapy in 50 patients undergoing breast biopsy surgery. Twenty-five patients received supplemental oxygen through a face mask with two drops of 2% lavender oil postoperatively. The remainder of the patients received supplemental oxygen through a face mask with no lavender oil. Outcome variables included pain scores (a numeric rating scale from 0 to 10) at 5, 30, and 60 minutes postoperatively, narcotic requirements in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), patient satisfaction with pain control, as well as time to discharge from the PACU. There were no significant differences in narcotic requirements and recovery room discharge times between the two groups. Postoperative lavender oil aromatherapy did not significantly affect pain scores. However, patients in the lavender group reported a higher satisfaction rate with pain control than patients in the control group (P = 0.0001).

  20. The impact of music on postoperative pain and anxiety following cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Reza, Nikandish; Ali, Sahmedini Mohammad; Saeed, Khademi; Abul-Qasim, Avand; Reza, Tabatabaee Hamid

    2007-10-01

    The relief of post-cesarean delivery pain is important. Good pain relief improves mobility and reduces the risk of thromboembolic disease, which may have been increased during pregnancy. Pain may impair the mother's ability to optimally care for her infant in the immediate postpartum period and may adversely affect early interactions between mother and infant. It is necessary, therefore that pain relief be safe and effective and results in no adverse neonatal effects during breast-feeding. Music may be considered as a potential method of post cesarean pain therapy due to its noninvasiveness and lack of side effects. In this study we evaluated the effect of intraoperative music under general anesthesia for reducing the postoperative morphine requirements after cesarean section. In a double blind placebo-controlled trial, 100 women (ASA I) scheduled for elective cesarean section under general anesthesia, were randomly allocated into two groups of fifty. After standardization of anesthesia, patients in the music group were exposed to a compact disk of Spanish guitar after induction of anesthesia up to the time of wound dressing. In the control group patients were exposed to white music. Post operative pain and anxiety were evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS) up to six hours after discharge from PACU. Morphine was given intravenously for reducing pain to VAS < or = 3 postoperatively. There was not statistically significant difference in VAS for pain between two groups up to six hours postoperatively (P>0.05). In addition, morphine requirements were not different between two groups at different time intervals up to six hours postoperatively (P>0.05). There were not statistically significant difference between two groups regarding postoperative anxiety score and vomiting frequency (P>0.05). As per conditions of this study, intraoperative Spanish music was not effective in reducing postoperative pain after cesarean section. In addition postoperative morphine

  1. Investigation of Central Pain Processing in Post-Operative Shoulder Pain and Disability

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Carolina; Fillingim, Roger B.; Bishop, Mark; Wu, Samuel S.; Wright, Thomas W.; Moser, Michael; Farmer, Kevin; George, Steven Z.

    2014-01-01

    Measures of central pain processing like conditioned pain modulation (CPM), and suprathreshold heat pain response (SHPR) have been described to assess different components of central pain modulatory mechanisms. Central pain processing potentially play a role in the development of postsurgical pain, however, the role of CPM and SHPR in explaining postoperative clinical pain and disability is still unclear. Seventy eight patients with clinical shoulder pain were included in this study. Patients were examined before shoulder surgery, at 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. The primary outcome measures were pain intensity and upper extremity disability. Analyses revealed that the change score (baseline – 3 months) of 5th pain rating of SHPR accounted for a significant amount of variance in 6 month postsurgical clinical pain intensity and disability after age, sex, preoperative pain intensity, and relevant psychological factors were considered. The present study suggests that baseline measures of central pain processing were not predictive of 6 month postoperative pain outcome. Instead, the 3 month change in SHPR might be a relevant factor in the transition to elevated 6-month postoperative pain and disability outcomes. In patients with shoulder pain, the 3 month change in a measure of central pain processing might be a relevant factor in the transition to elevated 6-month postoperative pain and disability scores. PMID:24042347

  2. Role of patient education in postoperative pain management.

    PubMed

    Ingadóttir, Brynja; Zoëga, Sigridur

    2017-09-06

    Postoperative pain continues to be a significant issue in healthcare, with a considerable proportion of patients experiencing severe pain after surgery and finding pain management at home challenging. There are several barriers to effective pain management, involving both patients and healthcare professionals. Patient education may be a useful way to overcome many of these barriers. This article outlines the four stages of the education process, which can be used to provide patient education: assessing the patient's educational needs and potential barriers to learning; setting educational objectives; teaching; and evaluating the patient's learning. This article discusses the issue of postoperative pain and how structured patient education, from admission to discharge, provided by skilled healthcare professionals, may improve postoperative recovery.

  3. [Postoperative pain therapy in urology. A prospective study].

    PubMed

    Gronau, E; Pannek, J; Benninghoff, A; Seibold, W; Senge, T

    2002-05-01

    A sufficient analgesic treatment in the early postoperative period is important for the patients comfort level. Moreover, physical therapy for prophylaxis of pneumonia and thrombosis is better tolerated. In a prospective study, we compared two postoperative pain management regimens to establish a sufficient pain management without the need of additional costs or manpower. Of 215 patients undergoing major urologic surgery, 111 patients received on demand medication exclusively (group 1), whereas 104 patients were treated with basic analgesics combined with on demand medication (group 2). Pain intensity, side effects and subjective well being were evaluated with a visual analogue scale and a standardised interview. Pain intensity and side effects were significantly lower in group 2. Thus, with combined analgesic treatment, postoperative pain relieve can be achieved safely and without additional costs.

  4. Correlation of postoperative pain to quality of recovery in the immediate postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Wu, Christopher L; Rowlingson, Andrew J; Partin, Alan W; Kalish, Murray A; Courpas, Genevieve E; Walsh, Patrick C; Fleisher, Lee A

    2005-01-01

    It is unclear whether the severity of postoperative pain may affect patients' quality of recovery in the immediate postoperative period (within 2 weeks of surgery). This was a prospective, observational study in patients undergoing elective radical retropubic prostatectomy. All patients received a standardized intraoperative general or spinal anesthetic followed by intravenous patient-controlled analgesia. Visual analog scores for pain at rest, pain with activity, and nausea along with the QoR, an instrument validated to assess quality of recovery in the postoperative period, and Brief Fatigue Inventory were assessed on postoperative days 1 to 3, 7, and 30. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale was assessed on postoperative days 7 and 30. We found that the severity of pain both at rest and with activity correlated with a decrease in quality of recovery as assessed by the QoR. Our findings suggest that an increase in postoperative pain is correlated with a decrease in a patient's quality of recovery in the immediate postoperative period.

  5. Best evidence in multimodal pain management in spine surgery and means of assessing postoperative pain and functional outcomes.

    PubMed

    Devin, Clinton J; McGirt, Matthew J

    2015-06-01

    Multimodal approaches to pain management have arisen with the goal of improving postoperative pain and reducing opioid analgesic use. We performed a comprehensive literature review to determine grades of recommendation for commonly used agents in multimodal pain management and provide a best practice guideline. To evaluate common drugs used in multimodal treatment of pain, a search was performed on English language publications on Medline (PubMed; National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA). Manuscripts were rated as Level I-V according to the North American Spine Society's (NASS) standardized levels of evidence tables. Grades of recommendation were assigned for each drug based on the NASS Clinical Guidelines for Multidisciplinary Spine Care. There is good (Grade A) evidence gabapentinoids, acetaminophen, neuraxial blockade and extended-release local anesthetics reduce postoperative pain and narcotic requirements. There is fair (Grade B) evidence that preemptive analgesia and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) result in reduced postoperative pain. There is insufficient and/or conflicting (Grade I) evidence that muscle relaxants and ketamine provide a significant reduction in postoperative pain or narcotic usage. There is fair (Grade B) evidence that short-term use of NSAID result in no long-term reduction in bone healing or fusion rates. Comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of perioperative pain control can be accomplished through the use of validated measures. Multimodal pain management protocols have consistently been demonstrated to allow for improved pain control with less reliance on opioids. There is good quality evidence that supports many of the common agents utilized in multimodal therapy, however, there is a lack of evidence regarding optimal postoperative protocols or pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Single dose oral fenbufen for acute postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Fenbufen is a non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), used to treat acute and chronic painful conditions. There is no known systematic review of its use in acute postoperative pain. Objectives To assess efficacy, duration of action, and associated adverse events of single dose oral fenbufen in acute postoperative pain in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief database for studies to June 2009. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trials of single dose orally administered fenbufen in adults with moderate to severe acute postoperative pain. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Pain relief or pain intensity data were extracted and converted into the dichotomous outcome of number of participants with at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours, from which relative risk and number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) were calculated. Numbers of participants using rescue medication over specified time periods, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals were collected. Main results Searches identified only one study with (90 participants in total, 31 taking fenbufen). The study compared oral fenbufen 800 mg, fenbufen 400 mg, and placebo in participants with established postoperative pain. Fenbufen at both doses had apparent analgesic efficacy, but the numbers of participants was too small to allow sensible analysis. Gastrointestinal adverse events were noted in 4 of 15 participants taking fenbufen 800 mg. Authors’ conclusions In the absence of evidence of efficacy for oral fenbufen in acute postoperative pain, its use in this indication is not justified at present. Because trials clearly demonstrating analgesic efficacy in the most basic of acute pain studies is lacking, use in other indications should be

  7. Postoperative patients' perspectives on rating pain: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Jacqueline F M; Vervoort, Sigrid C J M; van Wijck, Albert J M; Kalkman, Cor J; Schuurmans, Marieke J

    2016-01-01

    In postoperative pain treatment patients are asked to rate their pain experience on a single uni-dimensional pain scale. Such pain scores are also used as indicator to assess the quality of pain treatment. However, patients may differ in how they interpret the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) score. This study examines how patients assign a number to their currently experienced postoperative pain and which considerations influence this process. A qualitative approach according to grounded theory was used. Twenty-seven patients were interviewed one day after surgery. Three main themes emerged that influenced the Numeric Rating Scale scores (0-10) that patients actually reported to professionals: score-related factors, intrapersonal factors, and the anticipated consequences of a given pain score. Anticipated consequences were analgesic administration-which could be desired or undesired-and possible judgements by professionals. We also propose a conceptual model for the relationship between factors that influence the pain rating process. Based on patients' score-related and intrapersonal factors, a preliminary pain score was "internally" set. Before reporting the pain score to the healthcare professional, patients considered the anticipated consequences (i.e., expected judgements by professionals and anticipation of analgesic administration) of current Numeric Rating Scale scores. This study provides insight into the process of how patients translate their current postoperative pain into a numeric rating score. The proposed model may help professionals to understand the factors that influence a given Numeric Rating Scale score and suggest the most appropriate questions for clarification. In this way, patients and professionals may arrive at a shared understanding of the pain score, resulting in a tailored decision regarding the most appropriate treatment of current postoperative pain, particularly the dosing and timing of opioid administration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  8. Use of epidural analgesia in post-operative pain management.

    PubMed

    Weetman, Carole; Allison, Wendy

    This article provides an overview of the use of epidural infusion analgesia in the management of patients with post-operative pain. Epidural analgesia is an effective method for relieving pain and has minimal side effects. However, life-threatening complications can occur and nurses need to be able to identify these and provide safe care for patients.

  9. [Evaluation of the postoperative acute pain after heart surgery].

    PubMed

    Navarro García, M A; Irigoyen Aristorena, M I; De Carlos Alegre, V; Martínez Oroz, A; Elizondo Sotro, A; Indurain Fernández, S; Sorbet Amóstegui, M R; Martorell Gurucharri, A; Prieto Guembe, P; Ordoñez Ortigosa, E; García Aizpún, Y

    2011-01-01

    Pain is one of the main symptoms reported by patients who have had heart surgery. To describe the pain and explain the possible association among demographics, psychological and biological variables of the patients subjected to heart surgery with pain intensity during the postoperative in the ICU. A descriptive, longitudinal study conducted between February 2008 and January 2009 on patients subjected to heart surgery with admission to the ICU of the Hospital of Navarra was conducted. A preoperatory interview was made with registration of sociodemographic, biological and psychological variables. Pain intensity was monitored during the first 48 hours of ICU stay with the Verbal Numeric Scale (VNS) of pain. Accepted level of significance was p<0.05. A sample of 69 patients with mean age of 62, 26% women and 74% men was included. A superior statistical association was found between postoperative pain levels for age<65 years, bypass grafting with internal mammary artery and preoperatory anxiety variables. There was a significant increase in analgesic consumption for incomes>1400 €/month, bypass grafting with internal mammary artery and preoperatory anxiety. Postoperative pain after heart surgery show significant individual variability. In our study, age, bypass grafting with internal mammary artery and preoperatory anxiety were shown as predictive variables of postoperative pain in patients undergoing heart surgery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  10. Intranasal ketorolac as part of a multimodal approach to postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Taylor, Robert; Raffa, Robert B

    2015-04-01

    Despite recent advances in the knowledge of pain mechanisms and pain management, postoperative pain continues to be a problem. Inadequately managed postsurgical pain has both clinical and economic consequences such as longer recovery times, delayed ambulation, higher incidence of complications, increased length of hospital stay, and potential to develop into chronic pain. Generally, opioids are the mainstay option for pain management in patients with moderate-to-severe postsurgical pain; however, opioids have significant side effects and have abuse potential. To improve patient and economic outcomes after surgery, postoperative pain guidelines have suggested incorporating a multi-modal/multi-mechanistic approach to pain treatment. A multi-modal approach is the simultaneous use of a combination of two or more (usually opioid and non-opioid) analgesics that provide two different mechanisms of actions. Utilizing a multi-modal approach may result in a greater reduction in pain vs. single therapies in addition to minimizing opioid use, thus reducing opioid related side effects. However, not all approaches may be effective for all types of patients and not all analgesics may be a viable option for outpatient settings, ambulatory surgery, or the fast-track surgical procedures. In this report, we present a review of the literature with a focus on intranasal ketorolac in order to provide a timely update regarding past, present, and future multi-modal treatment options for postoperative pain. © 2014 World Institute of Pain.

  11. A Neurofeedback-Based Intervention to Reduce Post-Operative Pain in Lung Cancer Patients: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Marzorati, Chiara; Casiraghi, Monica; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Background Thoracic surgery appears to be the treatment of choice for many lung cancers. Nevertheless, depending on the type of surgery, the chest area may be painful for several weeks to months after surgery. This painful state has multiple physical and psychological implications, including respiratory failure, inability to clear secretions by coughing, and even anxiety and depression that have negative effects on recovery. Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a neurofeedback-based intervention on controlling acute post-surgery pain and improving long-term recovery in patients who undergo thoracotomy for lung resection for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at an academic oncologic hospital. Methods This study will be based on a 2-parallel group randomized controlled trial design, intervention versus usual care, with multiple in-hospital assessments and 2 clinical, radiological, and quality of life follow-ups. Participants will be randomized to either the intervention group receiving a neurofeedback-based relaxation training and usual care, or to a control group receiving only usual care. Pain intensity is the primary outcome and will be assessed using the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NRS) in the days following the operation. Secondary outcomes will include the effect of the intervention on hospital utilization for pain crisis, daily opioid consumption, anxiety, patient engagement, blood test and chest x-ray results, and long-term clinical, radiological, and quality of life evaluations. Outcome measures will be repeatedly taken during hospitalization, while follow-up assessments will coincide with the follow-up visits. Pain intensity will be assessed by mixed model repeated analysis. Effect sizes will be calculated as mean group differences with standard deviations. Results We expect to have results for this study before the end of 2016. Conclusions The proposed innovative, neurofeedback- and relaxation-based approach to support post

  12. Determining the effect of intraperitoneal pethidine on postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Jahromi, S Abbas Hosseini; Valami, S Massumeh Hosseini; Yaghoubi, Siamak

    2011-02-01

    The main problem in the postoperative period is pain relief. Adequate postoperative analgesia not only leads to patient's comfort but also decreases morbidity, nursing care and time of hospitalization. Determination of the effect of intraperitoneal pethidine on postoperative pain in women scheduled for elective tubal ligation was undertaken. In a double blind clinical trial study of 60 women, ASA I, 25-45 years old, were enrolled for elective tubal ligation in Kosar hospital in Qazvin, IRAN. Patients were randomly divided in two equal groups (30 each).One group received pethidine intraperitoneally and the other group received equal amount of placebo in the same region. The intensity of postoperative pain was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS) for about 8 hours. Incidence of nausea was also evaluated. Data was transformed to SPSS software. Then data analysis was performed by U-test. There was no significant statistical difference with regard to age, weight, and time of operation between the two groups. The mean score of pain was significantly lower in intraperitoneal pethidine group than placebo group but the incidence of nausea in the intraperitoneal pethidine group was more than in placebo group (P < 0.05). Thus, intraperitoneal pethidine decreases postoperative pain but increases postoperative nausea.

  13. Behavioural measurement of postoperative pain after oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, P; Pleuvry, B J; Dobson, M; Price, M

    2000-04-01

    The amount and type of postoperative analgesia prescribed depends on the clinician's judgement of the patient's need. Among other factors, this judgement is likely to be based on the patient's behaviour. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the validity of using behavioural measures to provide information about a patient's experience of pain during the early stages of recovery from oral surgery under general anaesthesia. Behavioural measures were not valid measures of acute postoperative pain, which suggests that while clinicians may build a better picture of a patient's experience of pain by including behavioural observation in their range of assessments, they should not rely on them when judging a patient's need for analgesia. The results also show differences between the sexes in their reaction to pain. Significantly more women than men showed signs of pain, despite little difference in self-rating pain scores. Copyright 2000

  14. [Smoking cigarettes and pain--implications for the postoperative period].

    PubMed

    Billert, Hanna; Gaca, Michał; Adamski, Dariusz

    2007-01-01

    Smoking cigarettes poses a number of relevant medical and social problems. Impact of smoking on pain threshold and tolerance may be of significance for surgical patients, who are prompted to abstain from cigarettes before operation. Association between smoking and pain perception is complex. Experimental data bring evidence for analgesic action of nicotine and tobacco smoke acting via nicotinic acetylochline receptors (nAChR). However, clinical studies are unequivocal. Smoking is connected with some pain syndromes. Smokers take much more analgesics than non-smokers and probability of developing opioid dependence is increased in this group of patients. Smokers also present with altered mechanism of stress-induced analgesia and both gender and pain modalities influence their pain perception. Some studies demonstrate increased requirements for postoperative opioid analgesia in smoking patients. Strategies for postoperative pain treatment in smokers should involve regional techniques and clonidine.

  15. Caudal analgesia and cardiothoracic surgery: a look at postoperative pain scores in a pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Khoa N; Byrd, Heather S; Tan, Jonathan M

    2016-11-01

    Caudal epidural anesthesia has been shown to reduce stress response and shorten the time to extubation in children after cardiac surgery. Combined with general anesthesia, regional anesthesia has been proven to be safe and efficacious in the pediatric population. It is not known, however, whether the use of caudal anesthesia actually reduces postoperative pain scores and decreases postoperative opioid use. We retrospectively analyzed the charts of 199 children who underwent repair for atrial septal defect (ASD), ventricular septal defect (VSD), and Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) at a major academic children's hospital between 2010 and 2013. Eighty-six patients underwent preoperative placement of caudal anesthesia (bupivacaine 0.25% 1 ml·kg(-1) up to 20 ml + clonidine 2mcg·kg(-1) + Duramorph 40 mcg·kg(-1) up to 2.5 mg) and 113 patients did not have a caudal block. Postoperative cardiac intensive care pain scores were analyzed according to standard nurse-recorded patient-appropriate pain scales ranging from 0 to 10 (CRIES for neonates and FLACC for 2 months-7 years). There was no statistical difference between caudal and noncaudal groups with respect to postoperative pain scores or with postoperative opioid requirements. There was a statistical significance with regard to intraoperative opioid use as noncaudal patients invariably received more opioid during the procedure. Although regional anesthesia reduced intraoperative opioid usage, there was no difference in postoperative opioid usage or pain scores. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Early Postoperative Pain After Keyless Abdominal Rope-Lifting Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hüseyınoğlu, Ürfettin; Çıçek, Melek

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery is a novel, gasless, single-incision laparoscopic surgical technique. In this study we aimed to compare the postoperative pain from keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery with carbon dioxide laparoscopy performed for benign ovarian cysts. Methods: During a 20-month period, 77 women underwent surgery for a benign ovarian cyst. Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery and conventional carbon dioxide laparoscopy techniques were used for the operations in 32 women and 45 women, respectively. The 2 operative techniques were compared with regard to demographic characteristics; preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data including early postoperative pain scores; and frequency of shoulder pain and analgesic requirements. Results: Data regarding demographic characteristics, preoperative findings, cyst diameters and rupture rates, intra-abdominal adhesions, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative hospital stay did not differ between groups (P > .05). However, the mean operative and abdominal access times were significantly longer in the keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery group (P < .05). Visual analog scale pain scores at initially and at the second, fourth, and 24th hours of the postoperative period were significantly lower in the keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery group (P < .05). Similarly, keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery caused significantly less shoulder pain and additional analgesic use (P < .05). Conclusion: Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery seems to cause less pain in the management of benign ovarian cysts in comparison with conventional carbon dioxide laparoscopy. PMID:25848177

  17. [Visual analogue scale for measuring post-operative pain].

    PubMed

    Rauh, Katja Halladin; Andersen, Rikke Søby; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2013-06-10

    All patients with pain who are admitted to hospitals in Denmark must be assessed for levels of pain. However, it is not certain how pain should be measured. One way to measure pain is to use a visual analogue scale (VAS). This article focuses on how the VAS should be used in clinical practice in the assessment of post-operative pain. Furthermore, other suitable methods are compared with VAS. VAS is particularly useful for clinical research, but for daily clinical practice it may be easier to use a numeric rating scale.

  18. Improved Evaluation of Postoperative Pain After Photorefractive Keratectomy.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Renato; Horovitz, Roberto Novaes Campello; Torricelli, Andre Augusto Miranda; Mukai, Adriana; Bechara, Samir Jacob

    2016-02-01

    Postoperative pain remains an important limiting factor to the selection of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). There is a consensus in neurology pain research that pain should be evaluated as a multidimensional concept, which differs from current practice in ophthalmology. The purpose of this paper was to validate the use of multidimensional questionnaires, such as the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), to provide an improved analysis of pain after PRK and to better describe its temporal profile. This prospective study included 43 eyes of 43 myopic patients who underwent unilateral PRK. After surgery, usual pain treatment was administered. All of the participants responded to the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), the BPI and the MPQ 1, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after surgery. The internal consistency was evaluated, different postoperative periods were compared, and convergent validity was assessed using correlation testing. The Cronbach alpha test showed high internal consistency for each of the questionnaire subscales. Patients reported higher postoperative pain values at the first measurement of the VAS (4.93 ± 2.38), MPQ-pain rating index (26.95 ± 10.58), BPI-pain severity index (14.53 ± 7.36), and BPI-pain interference index (22.30 ± 15.13). Almost all of the scales and subscales showed a statistically significant direct correlation with the VAS at all of the evaluation periods. This study validated the utility of multidimensional questionnaires to expand the assessment of the PRK postoperative pain profile, including intensity and other qualitative aspects.

  19. Markov Chain evaluation of acute postoperative pain transition states

    PubMed Central

    Tighe, Patrick J.; Bzdega, Matthew; Fillingim, Roger B.; Rashidi, Parisa; Aytug, Haldun

    2016-01-01

    Prior investigations on acute postoperative pain dynamicity have focused on daily pain assessments, and so were unable to examine intra-day variations in acute pain intensity. We analyzed 476,108 postoperative acute pain intensity ratings clinically documented on postoperative days 1 to 7 from 8,346 surgical patients using Markov Chain modeling to describe how patients are likely to transition from one pain state to another in a probabilistic fashion. The Markov Chain was found to be irreducible and positive recurrent, with no absorbing states. Transition probabilities ranged from 0.0031 for the transition from state 10 to state 1, to 0.69 for the transition from state zero to state zero. The greatest density of transitions was noted in the diagonal region of the transition matrix, suggesting that patients were generally most likely to transition to the same pain state as their current state. There were also slightly increased probability densities in transitioning to a state of asleep or zero from the current state. Examination of the number of steps required to traverse from a particular first pain score to a target state suggested that overall, fewer steps were required to reach a state of zero (range 6.1–8.8 steps) or asleep (range 9.1–11) than were required to reach a mild pain intensity state. Our results suggest that Markov Chains are a feasible method for describing probabilistic postoperative pain trajectories, pointing toward the possibility of using Markov decision processes to model sequential interactions between pain intensity ratings and postoperative analgesic interventions. PMID:26588689

  20. Single dose oral sulindac for acute postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Sulindac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) licensed for use in rheumatic disease and other musculoskeletal disorders in the UK, and widely available in other countries worldwide. This review sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral sulindac in acute postoperative pain, using clinical studies of patients with established pain, and with outcomes measured primarily over 6 hours using standard methods. This type of study has been used for many decades to establish that drugs have analgesic properties. Objectives To assess the efficacy of single dose oral sulindac in acute postoperative pain, and any associated adverse events. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies up to June 2009. Selection criteria Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of oral sulindac for relief of acute postoperative pain in adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We planned to use area under the “pain relief versus time” curve to derive the proportion of participants with meloxicam experiencing least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours, using validated equations; to use number needed to treat to benefit (NNT); the proportion of participants using rescue analgesia over a specified time period; time to use of rescue analgesia; information on adverse events and withdrawals. Main results No studies were identified by the searches that examined oral sulindac in patients with established postoperative pain. Authors’ conclusions In the absence of evidence of efficacy, at present, for oral sulindac in acute postoperative pain, its use in this indication is not justified. Because trials clearly demonstrating analgesic efficacy in the most basic of acute pain studies is lacking, use in other indications should be evaluated carefully. Given the large number of available drugs of this and similar classes

  1. [Evaluation of immediate post-operative pain in heart surgery using the Behavioural Pain Scale].

    PubMed

    Pozas Abril, J; Toraño Olivera, M J; Latorre-Marco, I

    2014-01-01

    Patients in the immediate postoperative period of cardiac surgery have abolished communication skills and therefore can not express pain. Pain produces significant adverse effects that alter the patients' course. Therefore, identifying and controlling them will lead to increased quality of care for the critical patient. To measure the degree of pain in patients in the immediate postoperative period of cardiac surgery by scaling Behavioural Pain Scale. An observational, prospective and longitudinal. Patients over 18 years in the first 24 hours of admission with no communication problems who were under sedation and subjected to mechanical ventilation were included. Twenty patients were enrolled in the study. The Behavioural Pain Scale (BPS) was used during two procedures usually considered as a painful practice in the literature, that is, mobilization and/or postural changes and aspiration of secretions. Twenty-seven measurements were made of procedures considered as painful. The results obtained by applying the scale BPS showed that 70.4% of patients had no pain, 22.2% had mild to moderate pain and 7.4% had unacceptable pain. This study has identified that the patients suffer pain during the postoperative period. Within these patients, there is a small, but not insignificant number whose pain is unacceptable during this period. This finding serves as a beginning for a line of research to improve the handling of the postoperative pain during immediate post-operative cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  2. Monitoring of skin conductance to assess postoperative pain intensity.

    PubMed

    Ledowski, T; Bromilow, J; Paech, M J; Storm, H; Hacking, R; Schug, S A

    2006-12-01

    Pain is known to alter the electrogalvanic properties of the skin. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the influence of postoperative pain on skin conductance (SC) readings. After obtaining ethical approval and written informed consent, 25 postoperative patients were asked to quantify their level of pain on a numeric rating scale (NRS, 0-10) at different time points in the recovery room. As a parameter of SC, the number of fluctuations within the mean SC per second (NFSC) was recorded. Simultaneously, the NRS was obtained from patients by a different observer who was blinded to the NFSC values. Data from 110 readings of 25 patients (14 female, 11 male; 21-67 yr) were included. NFSC showed a significant correlation with the NRS (r=0.625; P<0.01), whereas heart rate and blood pressure showed no or very weak correlation with the NRS. NFSC was significantly different between patients with no (NRS=0), mild (NRS=1-3), moderate (NRS=4-5) and severe (NRS=6-10) pain (no: 0.047, mild: 0.089, moderate: 0.242, severe: 0.263; P<0.0001). Post hoc, a cut-off value for NFSC (0.1) was calculated above which a pain score >3 on the NRS was predicted with sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 74%. The severity of postoperative pain significantly influences SC. Using cut-off values, NFSC may prove a useful tool for pain assessment in the postoperative period.

  3. Factors contributing to poor post-operative abdominal pain management in adult patients: a review.

    PubMed

    Al Samaraee, Ahmad; Rhind, Gill; Saleh, Usama; Bhattacharya, Vish

    2010-06-01

    Post-operative abdominal pain management can be a major issue facing medical and nursing staff in daily clinical practice. Effective pain control reduces post-operative morbidity as well as facilitates rehabilitation and accelerates recovery from surgery. In turn, poor pain control has been shown to alter body metabolic response that can lead to delayed recovery, with subsequent prolonged hospital stay and increased morbidity, and can lead to the development of a chronic pain state. Despite the significant developments in anaesthesia, delivery techniques and analgesia, post-operative abdominal pain management in adult patients remains suboptimal. Achieving effective pain management needs the implementation of an active approach in practice. This approach includes the provision of information and appropriate education tailored to the patients' needs and level of understanding, with the aim of reducing patient anxiety and avoiding unrealistic expectations. In addition, medical and nursing staff should continuously use the appropriate pain assessment tools to evaluate of post-operative pain in the surgical wards. Pain assessment needs to be regarded as the fifth vital sign and recorded on the patients observation chart. Analgesia should be used in a multimodal fashion and "by the clock" according to the patients needs. Moreover, governmental and professional guidelines need to be implemented to establish continuity of care, improve the quality of decision making and reduce unnecessary variations in practice Overall, there is a need for improved post-operative abdominal pain management in adults to enhance recovery, patient safety and reduce morbidity. This can be achieved with the appropriate education backed up with robust policies and guidelines, supported by up to date evidence. Copyright (c) 2009 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of preanesthetic administration of midazolam, clonidine, or dexmedetomidine on postoperative pain and anxiety in children.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, André P; Valinetti, Emilia A; Bandeira, Denise; Bertacchi, Maria F; Simões, Cláudia M; Auler, José Otávio C

    2007-07-01

    A growing interest in the possible influences of pre- and postoperative anxiety and pain scores as outcomes of surgical treatment and benefits of anxiety or pain-reducing interventions has emerged. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of three different premedication regimens on postoperative pain and anxiety in children. A prospective, randomized, open-label clinical trial enrolled 60 schoolchildren. They were randomized for premedication with oral midazolam 0.5 mgxkg(-1), oral clonidine 4 microgxkg(-1), or transmucosal dexmedetomidine (DEX) 1 mug.kg(-1), submitted to a pre- and postoperative evaluation of anxiety with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children and asked to report any pain in verbal and visual analog scales. We also evaluated secondary outcomes such as parents' anxiety, sedation, separation from parents, adverse effects and hemodynamic status. Dexmedetomidine and clonidine were related to lower scores of pain than midazolam. alpha(2)-agonists produced lower scores of peroperative mean arterial pressure and heart rate than midazolam. Both groups had similar levels of postoperative state-anxiety in children. There was no difference in preanesthesia levels of sedation and response to separation from parents between groups. These findings indicate that children receiving clonidine or DEX preoperatively have similar levels of anxiety and sedation postoperatively as those receiving midazolam. However, children given alpha(2)-agonists had less perioperative sympathetic stimulation and less postoperative pain than those given midazolam.

  5. Prediction of postoperative pain intensity after lumbar spinal surgery using pain sensitivity and preoperative back pain severity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Joong; Park, Joon-Hee; Kim, Jang-Woo; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki; Yeom, Jin S

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the role of preoperative pain sensitivity and preoperative symptom severity for prediction of postoperative pain intensity after lumbar spine surgery. This study consisted of two groups who underwent decompression surgery alone (62 patients) or decompression with fusion surgery (37 patients) for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ) and visual analog pain scale (VAS) for back pain and leg pain were collected preoperatively with detailed medical history. The assessment was performed immediately after surgery when the patients had completely recovered and regained their complete consciousness from general anesthesia (H0) and subsequently 4, 8, 18, 30, 48, and 72 hours (H4, H8, H18, H30, H48, and H72) thereafter as they recovered. Both groups showed a decrease in back pain and leg pain with the time postoperatively. In fusion group, preoperative VAS for back pain was significantly correlated with postoperative VAS for back pain at H0, H4, H8, and H18, and PSQ minor/total PSQ also showed a significant correlation with postoperative back pain at H48 and H72. In contrast, only total PSQ and PSQ minors were significantly correlated with postoperative back pain at H18 and H30 in decompression group. Hierarchical regression analysis finally showed that each preoperative back pain and PSQ minor was predictive of immediate postoperative back pain (from H0 to H18) in fusion group and delayed postoperative back pain (H18, H30) in decompression group. The study highlights that each preoperative back pain and individual pain sensitivity could predict the different aspects of postoperative pain after lumbar surgery. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Oral Oxycodone for Acute Postoperative Pain: A Review of Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Chi Wai; Ching Wong, Stanley Sau; Qiu, Qiu; Wang, Xianyu

    2017-02-01

    Opioids are the mainstay of pain management for acute postsurgical pain. Oral oxycodone is an opioid that can provide effective acute postoperative pain relief. To evaluate the use of oral oxycodone for acute postoperative pain management. This is a narrative review based on published articles searched in PubMed and Medline from 2003 to 2015 on oral oxycodone for acute postoperative pain management. Clinical trials related to the use of oral oxycodone for acute postoperative pain management were searched via PubMed and Medline from 2003 to 2015. The search terms used were "oral strong opioids," "postsurgical," "postoperative," "post-surgical," and "post-operative." Treatment interventions were compared for analgesic efficacy, rescue medication use, side effects, recovery, length of hospital stay, and patient satisfaction. There were 26 clinical trials included in the review. Oral oxycodone showed superior postoperative analgesic efficacy compared with placebo in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, abdominal or pelvic surgery, bunionectomy, breast surgery, and spine surgery. When compared with intravenous opioids, oral oxycodone provided better or comparable pain relief following knee arthroplasty, spine surgery, caesarean section, laparoscopic colorectal surgery, and cardiac surgery. One study of dental postsurgery pain reported inferior pain control with oral oxycodone versus rofecoxib. (withdrawn from the US market due to cardiac safety concerns). In many studies, the demand for rescue analgesia and total opioid consumption were reduced in the oxycodone treatment arm. Patients receiving oral oxycodone experienced fewer opioid-related side effects than those on other opioids, and had a similar occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting as patients on placebo. Furthermore, oral oxycodone did not prolong hospital stay and was associated with lower drug costs compared with epidural and intravenous analgesics. Oxycodone administered as part of a

  7. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and postoperative pain perception.

    PubMed

    Kasielska-Trojan, Anna; Stabryła, Piotr; Antoszewski, Bogusław

    2017-07-01

    It has not been established whether sex differences in pain perception are influenced by prenatal sex hormones. Digit ratio as an indicator of prenatal hormone exposure can be used as a simple measure of the influence of prenatal hormones on pain sensitivity or perception in adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine a correlation between the 2D:4D ratio and pain perception in the postoperative period after rhinoplasty. A prospective cohort study of 100 patients (50 women of the mean age of 30.74±8.09years and 50 men of the mean age of 30.98±10.86years) who underwent posttraumatic rhinoplasty due to the nose trauma in Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery Clinic. The following measurements were taken the day before a surgery: body height, waist and hip circumference, II and IV digits' lengths and body weight. All subjects filled in a questionnaire including 0-10-point VAS scales to assess postoperative pain 1h after an operation (AO), 6h AO, 12h AO, 24h AO and 48h AO. Women with low 2D:4D reported significantly more pain 1h after an operation than women with high 2D:4D. Similar correlation was observed for low 2D:4D in women 48h AO. In men, low 2D:4D was associated with lower postoperative pain 12h AO (p=0.029). In conclusion, we showed that low 2D:4D in women was associated with high postoperative pain, and low right 2D:4D in men was associated with low postoperative pain. This may suggest that intrauterine estrogen exposure makes women more resistant to pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pain locations in the postoperative period after cardiac surgery: Chronology of pain and response to treatment.

    PubMed

    Roca, J; Valero, R; Gomar, C

    Postoperative pain after cardiac surgery (CS) can be generated at several foci besides the sternotomy. Prospective descriptive longitudinal study on the chronological evolution of pain in 11 sites after CS including consecutive patients submitted to elective CS through sternotomy. The primary endpoints were to establish the main origins of pain, and to describe its chronological evolution during the first postoperative week. Secondary endpoints were to describe pain characteristics in the sternotomy area and to correlate pain intensity with other variables. Numerical Pain Rating Scale from 0 to 10 at rest and at movement on postoperative days 1, 2, 4 and 6. Numerical Pain Rating Scale>3 was considered moderate pain. Statistical analysis consisted in Mann-Whitney U-test, a Chi-squared, a Fisher exact text and Pearson's correlations. Forty-seven patients were enrolled. In 4 of 11 locations pain was reported as Numerical Pain Rating Scale>3 (sternotomy, oropharynx, saphenectomy and musculoskeletal pain in the back and shoulders). Maximum intensity of pain on postoperative days 1 and 2 was reported in the sternotomy area, while on postoperative days 4 and 6 it was reported at the saphenectomy. Pain at rest and at movement differed considerably in the sternotomy, saphenectomy and oropharynx. Pain at back and shoulders and at central venous catheter entry were not influenced by movement. Pain in the sternotomy was mainly described as oppressive. Patients with arthrosis and younger patients presented higher intensity of pain (P=.004; P=.049, respectively). Four locations were identified as the main sources of pain after CS: sternotomy, oropharynx, saphenectomy, and back and shoulders. Pain in different focuses presented differences in chronologic evolution and was differently influenced by movement. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Post-operative pain after knee arthroscopy and related factors.

    PubMed

    Drosos, G I; Stavropoulos, N I; Katsis, A; Kesidis, K; Kazakos, K; Verettas, D-A

    2008-06-13

    The aim of this study was to explore the intensity of post-arthroscopy knee pain during the first 24 hours, and to study the influence of pre-operative pain, tourniquet time and amount of surgical trauma on post-arthroscopy pain. In 78 male patients that underwent elective arthroscopic menisectomy or diagnostic arthroscopy of the knee, preoperative and post-operative pain were registered using the Visual Analogue Scale. Variance for repeated measures and for independent observations was analysed. Supplementary analgesia was required for 23% of the patients, more often in the recovery room and between 2 and 8 hours postoperatively. Of all factors analyzed, only time was statistically significant in determining the level of post-operative pain. Supplementary analgesia was required only in patients that underwent operative arthroscopy, and more often in patients with tourniquet time of more than 40 minutes. In conclusions, post-operative time is the most significant factor related to the post-arthroscopy knee pain.

  10. Acid-sensing ion channels in postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Deval, Emmanuel; Noël, Jacques; Gasull, Xavier; Delaunay, Anne; Alloui, Abdelkrim; Friend, Valérie; Eschalier, Alain; Lazdunski, Michel; Lingueglia, Eric

    2011-04-20

    Iatrogenic pain consecutive to a large number of surgical procedures has become a growing health concern. The etiology and pathophysiology of postoperative pain are still poorly understood, but hydrogen ions appear to be important in this process. We have investigated the role of peripheral acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), which form depolarizing channels activated by extracellular protons, in a rat model of postoperative pain (i.e., hindpaw skin/muscle incision). We report high levels of ASIC-type currents (∼ 77%) in sensory neurons innervating the hindpaw muscles, with a prevalence of ASIC3-like currents. The ASIC3 protein is largely expressed in lumbar DRG neurons innervating the plantar muscle, and its mRNA and protein levels are increased by plantar incision 24 h after surgery. Pharmacological inhibition of ASIC3 channels with the specific toxin APETx2 or in vivo knockdown of ASIC3 subunit by small interfering RNA led to a significant reduction of postoperative spontaneous, thermal, and postural pain behaviors (spontaneous flinching, heat hyperalgesia, and weight bearing). ASIC3 appears to have an important role in deep tissue but also affects prolonged pain evoked by skin incision alone. The specific homomeric ASIC1a blocker PcTx1 has no effect on spontaneous flinching, when applied peripherally. Together, these data demonstrate a significant role for peripheral ASIC3-containing channels in postoperative pain.

  11. Perspectives on Intravenous Oxycodone for Control of Postoperative Pain.

    PubMed

    Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Seow-Choen, Francis; Wexner, Steven D; Zampogna, Gianpietro; Raffa, Robert B; Taylor, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Intravenous (IV) analgesia has particular advantages in the immediate postoperative period. For example, IV administration results in a faster onset of pain relief and results in more predictable pharmacokinetics than does administration by other routes. It also allows for convenient dosing before or during surgery, permitting the initiation of effective analgesia in the early phase of the postoperative period. In addition, when patients are able to tolerate oral intake, they can be switched from IV to oral dosing based on maintaining the predictable analgesia established by the IV route. IV morphine is widely used for the control of postoperative pain, but there is a trend toward the use of oxycodone. Oxycodone (which may be mediated partly through kappa- as well as mu-opioid receptors) offers several potential advantages. Published studies comparing IV oxycodone to other IV opioids for postsurgical pain report that oxycodone is a safe and effective analgesic. Some studies show that IV oxycodone may be associated with greater pain control, fewer or less severe adverse events, and faster onset of action, although the results are not consistent across all studies. Oxycodone has been reported to be safe in the geriatric and other special populations when adequate clinical adjustments are made. Thus, the clinical reports and oxycodone's pharmacologic profile make intravenous oxycodone a potentially important "new" old drug for postoperative pain control. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  12. Pain Management: Part 1: Managing Acute and Postoperative Dental Pain

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Safe and effective management of acute dental pain can be accomplished with nonopioid and opioid analgesics. To formulate regimens properly, it is essential to appreciate basic pharmacological principles and appropriate dosage strategies for each of the available analgesic classes. This article will review the basic pharmacology of analgesic drug classes, including their relative efficacy for dental pain, and will suggest appropriate regimens based on pain intensity. Management of chronic pain will be addressed in the second part of this series. PMID:20553137

  13. Factors Associated with Postoperative Pain in Endodontic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sadaf, Durre; Ahmad, Muhammad Zubair

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess postoperative pain in endodontic therapy and its association with clinical factors such as gender, age, tooth type, pulpal diagnosis, and preoperative pain, length of obturation and sealer extrusion. Study Design: Cross-Sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Dental section of the Aga khan university hospital, Karachi, Pakistan from January to December 2009. Methodology: One hundred and forty patients (140) requiring endodontic therapy for molar and premolar teeth were included in this study. Local Anesthesia (2% Lidocain with 1:80,000 Epinephrine) was administered. The tooth was isolated with rubber dam. Access cavity was prepared with the help of round carbide No. 2 bur. Canal preparation was completed using crown-down technique. Access was sealed with sterile dry cotton pallet and restored temporarily with double layer of Glass ionomer cement and Cavit. After one week patients were recalled and access was re-opened, obturation was done using cold lateral condensation technique. Ca(OH)2 based sealer was used. Postoperative radiographs were taken. Patients were recalled after 24 hours and postobturation pain was recorded using Visual analogue scale (VAS).Data was obtained on a structured Performa. χ2 test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Pain was present in 42.9% of patients. Females more frequently experienced pain (65%) than males (35%). Preoperative pain was found to be significantly associated with postoperative pain (p value < 0.001). Obturation length was not found to be significantly associated with postoperative pain (p value 1.0). Sealer extrusion was not found to be significantly associated with postoperative (P value 0.547). PMID:25598754

  14. A multimodal approach for postoperative pain management after lumbar decompression surgery: a prospective, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ryan Michael; Cassinelli, Ezequiel H; Messerschmitt, Patrick J; Furey, Christopher G; Bohlman, Henry H

    2013-08-01

    A prospective and randomized study. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of a novel multimodal analgesic regimen in reducing postoperative pain and intravenous morphine requirements after primary multilevel lumbar decompression surgery. The use of opioid medications after surgery can lead to incomplete analgesia and may cause undesired side effects such as respiratory depression, somnolence, urinary retention, and nausea. Multimodal (opioid and nonopioid combination) analgesia may be an effective alternative to morphine administration leading to improved postoperative analgesia with diminished side effects. After Institutional Review Board approval, 22 patients who underwent a primary multilevel lumbar decompression procedure were randomly assigned to receive either only intravenous morphine or a multimodal (celecoxib, pregabalin, extended release oxycodone) analgesic regimen. Postoperatively, all patients were allowed to receive intravenous morphine on an as needed basis. Intravenous morphine requirements were then recorded immediately postoperative, at 6, 12, 24 hours, and the total requirement before discharge. Patient postoperative pain levels were determined using the visual analog pain scale and were documented at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, and 36 hours postoperative. There were no significant differences in available patient demographics, intraoperative blood loss, or postoperative hemovac drain output between study groups. Total postoperative intravenous morphine requirements in addition to morphine requirements at all predetermined time points were less in patients randomized to receive the multimodal analgesic regimen. Visual analog pain scores were lower at all postoperative time points in patients randomized to receive the multimodal analgesic regimen. Time to solid food was significantly less in the multimodal group. There were no major identifiable postoperative complications in either treatment group. Opioid and nonopioid analgesic

  15. Effective postoperative pain prevention through administration of bupivacaine and diclofenac.

    PubMed Central

    Hyrkäs, T.; Ylipaavalniemi, P.; Oikarinen, V. J.; Paakkari, I.

    1994-01-01

    The efficacies of bupivacaine and lidocaine together with a preoperatively administered single-dose oral combination of normal- and sustained-release preparations of diclofenac in preventing postoperative pain after third molar removal were compared in a double-blind crossover study. Bilaterally impacted lower third molars were removed in two sessions. Each patient was given one type of local anesthetic on one session and the other in the second. Pain was recorded using a visual analog scale. When the diclofenac combination (150 mg) was given before the operation, postoperative analgesia was better with bupivacaine plus diclofenac than with lidocaine plus diclofenac. Twenty-five out of 40 patients preferred bupivacaine to lidocaine for local anesthesia. It is possible to achieve effective postoperative pain prevention by combining bupivacaine and preoperative normal- and sustained-release preparations of diclofenac. PMID:8629744

  16. The Fifth Vital Sign: Postoperative Pain Predicts 30-day Readmissions and Subsequent Emergency Department Visits.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Graham, Laura A; Desai, Karishma; Wahl, Tyler S; Aucoin, Elise; Richman, Joshua S; Morris, Melanie S; Itani, Kamal M; Telford, Gordon L; Hawn, Mary T

    2017-09-01

    We hypothesized that inpatient postoperative pain trajectories are associated with 30-day inpatient readmission and emergency department (ED) visits. Surgical readmissions have few known modifiable predictors. Pain experienced by patients may reflect surgical complications and/or inadequate or difficult symptom management. National Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement data on inpatient general, vascular, and orthopedic surgery from 2008 to 2014 were merged with laboratory, vital sign, health care utilization, and postoperative complications data. Six distinct postoperative inpatient patient-reported pain trajectories were identified: (1) persistently low, (2) mild, (3) moderate or (4) high trajectories, and (5) mild-to-low or (6) moderate-to-low trajectories based on postoperative pain scores. Regression models estimated the association between pain trajectories and postdischarge utilization while controlling for important patient and clinical variables. Our sample included 211,231 surgeries-45.4% orthopedics, 37.0% general, and 17.6% vascular. Overall, the 30-day unplanned readmission rate was 10.8%, and 30-day ED utilization rate was 14.2%. Patients in the high pain trajectories had the highest rates of postdischarge readmissions and ED visits (14.4% and 16.3%, respectively, P < 0.001). In multivariable models, compared with the persistently low pain trajectory, there was a dose-dependent increase in postdischarge ED visits and readmission for pain-related diagnoses, but not postdischarge complications (χ trend P < 0.001). Postoperative pain trajectories identify populations at risk for 30-day readmissions and ED visits, and do not seem to be mediated by postdischarge complications. Addressing pain control expectations before discharge may help reduce surgical readmissions in high pain categories.

  17. Magnesium Can Decrease Postoperative Physiological Ileus and Postoperative Pain in Major non Laparoscopic Gastrointestinal Surgeries: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Shariat Moharari, Reza; Motalebi, Majid; Najafi, Atabak; Zamani, Mohammad Mahdi; Imani, Farsad; Etezadi, Farhad; Pourfakhr, Pejman; Khajavi, Mohammad Reza

    2014-02-01

    Magnesium is an antagonist of (N-methyl D-Aspartate) NMDA receptor and its related canals, and may affect perceived pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of intravenous magnesium on the hemodynamic parameters, analgesic consumption and ileus. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study was performed. Thirty two patients of ASA I or II, scheduled for major gastrointestinal (GI) surgery, were divided into magnesium and control groups. Magnesium group received a bolus of 40 mg/kg of magnesium sulphate, followed by a continuous perfusion of 10 mg/kg/h for the intraoperative hours. Postoperative analgesia was ensured by Morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). The patients were evaluated by Intraoperative hemodynamic parameters, the postoperative pain by numeral rating scale (NRS), and the total dose of intraoperative and postoperative analgesic consumption. Postoperative hemodynamic, respiratory parameters, physiological gastrointestinal obstruction (ileus), and side effects were also recorded. The study included 14 males and 18 females. Age range of patients was 17 to 55 years old. The average age in the magnesium group was 41.33 ± 10.06 years and45.13 ± 11.74 years in control group. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) of magnesium group decreased during the operation but increased in control group (P < 0.001), and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) of magnesium group decreased during the operation also (P < 0.02) but increased in control group. Postoperative cumulative Morphine consumption in magnesium group, was significantly in lower level (P = 0.026). For NRS, severe pain was significantly lower, in magnesium group, at all intervals of postoperative evaluations, but moderate and mild pain were not lower significantly. Duration of postoperative ileus was 2.3 ± 0.5 days in magnesium group, and 4.2 ± 0.6 days in control group (P = 0.01). Intravenous magnesium reduces postoperative ileus, postoperative severe pain and intra/post operative

  18. Increased postoperative pain and consumption of analgesics following acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Ekblom, A; Hansson, P; Thomsson, M; Thomas, M

    1991-03-01

    Acupuncture was given to patients before (preoperative-acupuncture group, PRE-ACU, n = 25) or after (postoperative-acupuncture group, POST-ACU, n = 25) operative removal of impacted mandibular third molars. Sixty patients did not receive acupuncture and participated as a control group (CG). All patients completed a questionnaire in order to characterize state tension and stress, degrees of neuroticism, extroversion, depression and psychosomatic disorders. We also recorded intraoperative discomfort and pain intensity, postoperative pain intensity and consumption of analgesics for 72 h. The PRE-ACU was significantly more tense following surgery and found the operative procedure more unpleasant than the other two groups. The PRE-ACU further rated intraoperative pain intensity higher than the CG and experienced higher pain intensity immediately postoperatively compared with POST-ACU and CG. Of the PRE-ACU patients 15/24 needed additional local anesthesia intraoperatively while none in the POST-ACU or CG requested extra lidocaine. Postoperatively patients in both PRE- and POST-ACU reported a higher total sum of pain scores (pain intensity) and the PRE-ACU consumed more analgesics compared with the CG. A significantly larger number of patients suffering from "dry socket" (a complication during wound healing) was found in both PRE- and POST-ACU compared with the CG. No correlation was found between assessed personality characteristics and reported postoperative pain/consumption of analgesics in any group and could thus not explain the observed differences between the groups. The reason for our unexpected "negative" findings is unclear but some hypothetical explanations are discussed.

  19. Reducing Cancer Patients' Painful Treatment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    A NASA light technology originally developed to aid plant growth experiments in space has proved to reduce the painful side effects resulting from chemotherapy and radiation treatment in bone marro...

  20. Vocal and verbal expression of postoperative pain in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Amandine; Bringuier, Sophie; Capdevilla, Xavier; Pry, René

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the development and construction of vocal and verbal expression of postoperative pain in young children with limited linguistic abilities. The main objective was to highlight specific pain vocalizations, which may lead to easy and quick detection and assessment of postoperative pain relative to the age of the suffering child. Forty-seven children aged 1 to 6 years were observed during two periods of surgical hospitalization: a preoperative and a postoperative period. The results showed that there was a significant relation between their age and the types of vocalization they expressed during the postoperative period. Regarding the development in relation to certain contexts, a minor modification seems to be concerned not with the type but with the frequency of the items of vocalizations. The study confirms earlier observations and clinical experience that an efficient and reliable assessment of pain in infants and young children necessitates taking several factors into account, such as the developmental age of the children, and especially a consideration of the whole spectrum of pain markers present in the child's behavior and captured by the assessment tools.

  1. Beyond pain: predictors of postoperative maladaptive behavior change in children.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Michelle A; Del Rosario, Antonio M; Rosenbaum, Abraham; Kain, Zeev N

    2010-05-01

    OBJECTIVES & AIM: Using well-validated measures and controlling for potential confounding variables such as pain and surgical and anesthetic technique, the goal of this project was to identify the incidence of and risk factors for the development of behavior change in children after surgery. Although researchers have described maladaptive behavior change following surgery, many previous studies are limited by potential confounding variables, including postoperative pain, type of surgery, and surgical and anesthetic procedure. Participants included 260 children undergoing tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. Baseline and demographic data were collected prior to surgery and pain and behavioral recovery were recorded for 2 weeks following surgery. A standardized approach to anesthesia and surgical procedure was implemented and well-validated assessment measures were used. On the first day at home following surgery, 80.4% of children exhibited negative behavior change. Nearly one-third of children continued to exhibit behavior changes 2 weeks after surgery. Logistic regression analyses that controlled for pain severity identified several predictors of behavior change: preexisting somatic and anxious/depressed problems predicted new onset postoperative general anxiety, chi(2) (8) = 20.10, P = 0.010; younger age predicted separation anxiety, chi(2) (4) = 20.41, P < 0.01; and inhibited temperament predicted postoperative sleep disturbance, chi(2) (2) = 9.19, P = 0.010. Individual child factors above and beyond pain predict maladaptive postoperative behavior change; identification of these predictors may be helpful in both preventing and ameliorating difficulties with behavioral recovery following surgery.

  2. Transdermal Buprenorphine Patches for Postoperative Pain Control in Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Prithvi Kumar; Verma, Reetu; Chandra, Girish; Bhatia, Vinod Kumar; Singh, Dinesh; Bogra, Jaishri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Buprenorphine is a semi-synthetic derivative of thebaine; its low concentration is sufficient to provide effective pain relief. Aim To evaluate the efficacy of transdermal buprenorphine patch in postoperative pain management. Materials and Methods After ethical approval and taking informed consent from the patients, they were randomized into three groups (n=30 in each group) using a computer generated random number table. Group A: placebo patch; Group B: buprenorphine (10mg) patch and Group C: buprenorphine (20mg) patch. Haemodynamic and analgesic effects were compared by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey’s post hoc test. The proportion of side effects was compared using the Chi-square test. Results Haemodynamic changes were not statistically different in all the three groups A, B and C, whereas at the end of surgery VAS score of Group A subjects was significantly higher (4.93±0.98) as compared to Group B (1.73±0.64) and Group C (1.40±0.50). On 2nd postoperative day, no pain was reported by the Group C patients and on 4th day after surgery, no pain was reported by Group B patients. Conclusion The transdermal buprenorphine patch (20mg) was effective in attenuating postoperative pain, maintaining haemodynamic stability requiring no rescue analgesia, with fewer postoperative rescue analgesic requirements in low dose of buprenorphine patch (10mg) group. PMID:27504383

  3. Pain catastrophizing as a predictor for postoperative pain and opiate consumption in total joint arthroplasty patients.

    PubMed

    Wright, David; Hoang, Melinda; Sofine, Anna; Silva, Jack P; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2017-10-03

    Pain catastrophizing has been suggested as a prospective risk factor for poor postoperative pain outcomes in total joint arthroplasty (TJA). However, results from the previous studies have been mixed and have not controlled for postoperative opiate analgesic intake. This study investigates pain catastrophizing and postoperative pain intensity in TJA patients, adjusting for analgesic intake. We hypothesized that "pain catastrophizers" would exhibit higher pain scores and increased analgesic requirements postoperatively. In this prospective cohort study, patients were defined as catastrophizers (PCS > 30), or non-catastrophizers (PCS ≤ 30). The primary outcome was the visual analog scale (VAS) pain score at 3-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes included length of stay (LOS) for the index hospitalization, total daily opiate analgesic intake, and VAS pain scores on postoperative days 0, 1, 2, and 3 through discharge. Multivariable regression was used to control for total daily morphine equivalent dose consumed during the stay in addition to other clinical and demographic factors. There were 87 patients in the "non-catastrophizing" and 36 in the "catastrophizing" groups. There was no clinically significant difference in VAS pain scores between groups at 3-month follow-up. Patients with a length of stay (LOS) ≥ 3 postoperative days differed in VAS pain scores ("non-catastrophizers" = 5.08 vs. "catastrophizers" = 7.13; p = 0.002) and were 2.4 times more likely to be catastrophizers than non-catastrophizers (p = 0.042). There were no differences in the remaining secondary outcomes. The pain catastrophizing scale is a poor predictor of postoperative pain at 3-month follow-up. However, it may be a risk factor for increased LOS.

  4. [Analysis of regional anesthetic efficacy in pediatric postop pain].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Tellería, A; Cano Serrano, M E; Martínez-Tellería, M J; Castejón Casado, J

    1997-01-01

    A randomized, double blind study was carried out in 76 paediatric surgical patients scheduled for herniography or circumcision. Patients were randomly assigned to receive ilioinguinal and iliohipogastric nerve block (group A), penile block (group B), caudal block (group C) or metamizol intravenously (group D). Postoperative pain was evaluated by Objective pain scale at the end of surgical process and at 15, 30, 60 minutes and 6 hours after surgery. Pain free time was also recorded. There was no difference between groups regarding demographic data. We find a significatively less pain scores in the children who received regional anaesthesia. In those groups the administration of any analgesic were not necessary. No side effects were recorded. We conclude that locorregional anaesthesia techniques are safe and effective for minor surgery in children, because they are easy to carry out, comfortable for the patient, and provide a good postoperative analgesia.

  5. Perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion on postoperative pain relief in patients undergoing upper abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Baral, B K; Bhattarai, B K; Rahman, T R; Singh, S N; Regmi, R

    2010-12-01

    Due to unpleasant nature and physiological consequences of postoperative pain, search of safe and effective modalities for its management has remained a subject of interest to clinical researchers. Analgesic action of lidocaine infusion in patients with chronic neuropathic pain is well known but its place in relieving postoperative pain is yet to be established. The study aimed to assess the effectiveness of perioperative intravenous lidocaine infusion on postoperative pain intensity and analgesic requirement. Sixty patients undergoing major upper abdominal surgery were recruited in this randomized double blinded study. Thirty patients received lidocaine 2.0% (intravenous bolus 1.5 mg/kg followed by an infusion of 1.5 mg/kg/h), and 30 patients received normal saline according to randomization. The infusion started 30 min before skin incision and stopped 1 h after the end of surgery. Postoperative pain intensity and analgesic (diclofenac) requirement were assessed at the interval 15 minutes for 1 hour then 4 hourly up to 24 hours. The pain intensity at rest and movement as well as the total postoperative analgesic (diclofenac) requirement were significantly lower (142.50 +/- 37.80 mg vs.185.00 +/- 41.31 mg, P<0.001) in lidocaine group. The extubation time was significantly longer in lidocaine group (14.43 +/- 3.50 minutes vs. 6.73 +/- 1.76 minutes, P<0.001). The time for the first dose of analgesic requirement was longer in lidocaine group (60.97 +/- 18.05 minutes vs.15.73 +/- 7.46 minutes, P<0.001). It can be concluded that perioperative infusion of low dose of lidocaine decreases the intensity of postoperative pain, reduces the postoperative analgesic consumption, without causing significant adverse effects in patients undergoing upper abdominal surgery.

  6. Single dose oral flurbiprofen for acute postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Asquad; McQuay, Henry J; Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena

    2014-01-01

    Background Flurbiprofen is a non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), related to ibuprofen and naproxen, used to treat acute and chronic painful conditions. There is no systematic review of its use in acute postoperative pain. Objectives To assess efficacy, duration of action, and associated adverse events of single dose oral flurbiprofen in acute postoperative pain in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies to January 2009. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trials of single dose orally administered flurbiprofen in adults with moderate to severe acute postoperative pain. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Pain relief or pain intensity data were extracted and converted into the dichotomous outcome of number of participants with at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours, from which relative risk (RR) and number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) were calculated. Numbers of participants using rescue medication over specified time periods, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals were collected. Main results Eleven studies compared flurbiprofen (699 participants) with placebo (362 participants) in studies lasting 6 to 12 hours. Studies were of adequate reporting quality, and most participants had pain following dental extractions. The dose of flurbiprofen used was 25 mg to 100 mg, with most information for 50 mg and 100 mg. The NNT for at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours for flurbiprofen 50 mg compared with placebo (692 participants) was 2.7 (2.3 to 3.3) and for 100 mg (416 participants) it was 2.5 (2.0 to 3.1). With flurbiprofen 50 mg and 100 mg 65% to 70% of participants experienced at least 50% pain relief, compared with 25% to 30% with placebo. Rescue medication was used by 25

  7. [Validation of the Spanish version of Parent's Postoperative Pain Management pain scale].

    PubMed

    Ullan, A M; Perelló, M; Jerez, C; Gómez, E; Planas, M J; Serrallonga, N

    2016-02-01

    Assessment of postoperative pain is a fundamental aspect of post-surgical care. When surgery is performed as an outpatient, the parents are mainly responsible for the assessment of pain, but they may not always correctly evaluate their children's pain. This makes it necessary to have tools that help them to assess postoperative pain reliably. The Parent's Postoperative Pain Measurement (PPPM) is a behavioral measurement tool of post-operative pain developed to help parents to assess their children's post-operative pain. The purpose of this work was to translate this scale into Spanish, and validate the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the scale. Participants were 111 children aged 2 to 12 years, who had undergone surgery, and one of their parents. After the operation, the children's level of pain was assessed, and the parents completed the PPPM scale in Spanish. The PPPM items in Spanish showed good internal consistency (Cronbach alpha between 0.784 and 0.900) and the scale scores were closely related to the global pain assessment (Spearman's rho correlation between 0.626 and 0.431). The score on the scale decreased between the day of the operation and the next day, and discriminated well between children undergoing surgery qualified as low/moderate pain and high pain. We conclude that the Spanish version of the PPPM scale evaluated in this study, has good psychometric properties to assess postoperative pain by parents at home. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of preoperative pain intensity on postoperative pain after root canal treatment: A prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Alí, Akram; Olivieri, Juan Gonzalo; Duran-Sindreu, Fernando; Abella, Francesc; Roig, Miguel; García-Font, Marc

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the correlation between the intensity of preoperative pain and the presence of postoperative pain, taking into account the variables sex, tooth type, arch, and tooth vitality. Two hundred and seventy patients with pulpal pathology who were scheduled for routine endodontic treatment were enrolled in this study. Conventional endodontic treatment was carried out in a single visit. The chemomechanical preparation of root canals was performed with ProTaper instruments, and canals were obturated with a warm gutta-percha obturation technique. A structured questionnaire was used to record data on sex, age, type of tooth, location and pulp diagnosis. Patients were asked to record their preoperative and postoperative pain using a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS). Postoperative pain and the need for analgesic consumption were assessed at 4, 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72h post-treatment. The data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U and chi-square test, and the significance was set at P<.05. The mean level of pain after root canal treatment was 2.58±2.80 on a VAS between 0 and 10. Variables that were associated with a higher preoperative pain intensity (female, mandible and molar) also had a higher value of postoperative pain (P>.05). Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the presence of preoperative pain is the variable that most influences the prevalence of postoperative pain. Pain management should be an integral part of dental treatment. The present study analyses the incidence of postoperative pain that should be expected by patients with different intensity of pain before root canal treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Review article: the role of anticonvulsant drugs in postoperative pain management: a bench-to-bedside perspective.

    PubMed

    Gilron, Ian

    2006-06-01

    Anticonvulsant drugs are effective in the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain but were not, until recently, thought to be useful in more acute conditions such as postoperative pain. However, similar to nerve injury, surgical tissue injury is known to produce neuroplastic changes leading to spinal sensitization and the expression of stimulus-evoked hyperalgesia and allodynia. Pharmacological effects of anticonvulsant drugs which may be important in the modulation of these postoperative neural changes include suppression of sodium channel, calcium channel and glutamate receptor activity at peripheral, spinal and supraspinal sites. The purpose of this article is to review preclinical evidence and clinical trial data describing the efficacy and safety of anticonvulsant drugs in the setting of postoperative pain management. A Medline search was performed to retrieve available literature on the basic and clinical pharmacology of anticonvulsant drugs as they pertain to postoperative pain management. Numerous laboratory studies have described analgesic effects of different anticonvulsant drugs in experimental pain models. Furthermore, several recent clinical trials have shown that anticonvulsants may reduce spontaneous and movement-evoked pain, as well as decrease opioid requirements postoperatively. Some early findings suggest further that anticonvulsant drugs may alleviate postoperative anxiety, accelerate postoperative functional recovery and reduce chronic postsurgical pain. Given the incomplete efficacy of currently available non-opioid analgesics, and the identified benefits of opioid sparing, anticonvulsant medications may be useful adjuncts for postoperative analgesia. Further research in this field is warranted.

  10. Intravenous parecoxib for acute postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Rosalind; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the efficacy and adverse effects of single dose parecoxib in studies of acute postoperative pain using methods that permit comparison with other analgesics evaluated in standardised trials using almost identical methods and outcomes. PMID:25267899

  11. Fentanyl Iontophoretic Transdermal System: A Review in Acute Postoperative Pain.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lesley J

    2016-04-01

    Fentanyl iontophoretic transdermal system (ITS) [Ionsys(®)] is indicated for the management of acute postoperative pain in adults requiring opioid analgesia in the hospital setting. This article reviews the clinical use of fentanyl ITS for postoperative pain management, and summarizes the pharmacology of fentanyl and the characteristics of the two-component fentanyl ITS (Ionsys(®)) device. In well-designed, multicentre clinical trials, fentanyl ITS was an effective and generally well tolerated method for managing acute postoperative pain in inpatients who had undergone major abdominal, thoracic or orthopaedic surgery. Overall, fentanyl ITS provided equivalent analgesic efficacy to that with morphine patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA), but was perceived to be more convenient/easier to use than morphine PCIA by patients, nurses and physical therapists. Patients receiving fentanyl ITS also had a greater ability to mobilize after surgery than patients receiving morphine PCIA. In addition, relative to morphine PCIA, fentanyl ITS offers advantages in terms of the noninvasive administrative route (i.e. transdermal needle-free administration), pre-programmed delivery (no risk of programming errors/incorrect dosing) and improved tolerability with regard to the overall incidence of opioid-related adverse events (ORAEs) and some individual ORAEs. Hence, fentanyl ITS is a useful option for the management of acute postoperative pain in adults requiring opioid analgesia in the hospital setting.

  12. Single dose oral ibuprofen for acute postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Christopher J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background This review updates a 1999 Cochrane review showing that ibuprofen at various doses was effective in postoperative pain in single dose studies designed to demonstrate analgesic efficacy. New studies have since been published. Ibuprofen is one of the most widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) analgesics both by prescription and as an over-the-counter medicine. Ibuprofen is used for acute and chronic painful conditions. Objectives To assess analgesic efficacy of ibuprofen in single oral doses for moderate and severe postoperative pain in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies to May 2009. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trials of single dose orally administered ibuprofen (any formulation) in adults with moderate to severe acute postoperative pain. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Pain relief or pain intensity data were extracted and converted into the dichotomous outcome of number of participants with at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours, from which relative risk and number-needed-to-treat-to-benefit (NNT) were calculated. Numbers of participants using rescue medication over specified time periods, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals were collected. Main results Seventy-two studies compared ibuprofen and placebo (9186 participants). Studies were predominantly of high reporting quality, and the bulk of the information concerned ibuprofen 200 mg and 400 mg. For at least 50% pain relief compared with placebo the NNT for ibuprofen 200 mg (2690 participants) was 2.7 (2.5 to 3.0) and for ibuprofen 400 mg (6475 participants) it was 2.5 (2.4 to 2.6). The proportion with at least 50% pain relief was 46% with 200 mg and 54% with 400 mg. Remedication within 6 hours was less

  13. Postoperative pain relief following hysterectomy: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Raghvendra, K. P.; Thapa, Deepak; Mitra, Sukanya; Ahuja, Vanita; Gombar, Satinder; Huria, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women experience moderate to severe postoperative pain following total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH). The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a new modality for providing postoperative pain relief in these patients. Materials and Methods: The present study was a single center, prospective randomized trial. After the Institutional Ethics Committee approval and informed consent, patients were randomized to either epidural group: Epidural block placement + general anesthesia (GA) or TAP group: Single shot TAP block + GA. Patients in both the groups received standard general anesthetic technique and intravenous tramadol patient-controlled analgesia in the postoperative period. Patients were monitored for tramadol consumption, visual analog scale (VAS) both at rest and on coughing, hemodynamics, and side effects at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 h postoperatively. Results: The total consumption of tramadol in 24 h was greater in TAP group as compared to epidural group (68.8 [25.5] vs. 5.3 [11.6] mg, P < 0.001). The VAS scores at rest and on coughing were higher in TAP group as compared to the epidural group at 6, 8, 12, and 24 h postoperatively (P < 0.05). None of the patients in either group had any adverse effects. Conclusion: Epidural analgesia provided greater tramadol-sparing effect with superior analgesia postoperatively as compared to TAP block in patients up to 24 h following TAH. PMID:27499592

  14. Single dose oral tenoxicam for acute postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Owen A; McIntyre, Mairead; Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Tenoxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) licensed for use in rheumatic disease and other musculoskeletal disorders in the UK, and is widely available in other countries worldwide. This review sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral tenoxicam in acute postoperative pain, using clinical studies of patients with established pain, and with outcomes measured primarily over 6 hours using standard methods. This type of study has been used for many decades to establish that drugs have analgesic properties. Objectives To assess the efficacy of single dose oral tenoxicam in acute postoperative pain, and any associated adverse events. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 2009), MEDLINE (March 2009); EMBASE via Ovid (March 2009); the Oxford Pain Relief Database. Selection criteria Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of oral tenoxicam for relief of acute postoperative pain in adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. The area under the “pain relief versus time” curve was used to derive the proportion of participants with tenoxicam experiencing least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours, using validated equations. The number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) was calculated using 95% confidence intervals (CI). The proportion of participants using rescue analgesia over a specified time period, and time to use of rescue analgesia, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was also collected. Main results Not one of sixteen studies identified by the searches and examined in detail studied oral tenoxicam in patients with established postoperative pain and therefore no results are available. Authors’ conclusions In the absence of evidence of efficacy for oral tenoxicam in acute postoperative pain, its use in this indication is not justified at present. Because trials clearly

  15. Single dose oral piroxicam for acute postoperative pain

    PubMed Central

    Moore, R Andrew; Edwards, Jayne; Loke, Yoon; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 2, 2000. Piroxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic properties, and is used mainly for treating rheumatic disorders. Some drugs have been directly compared against each other within a trial setting to determine their relative efficacies, whereas other have not. It is possible, however, to compare analgesics indirectly by examining the effectiveness of each drug against placebo when used in similar clinical situations. Objectives To determine the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of single-dose piroxicam compared with placebo in moderate to severe postoperative pain. To compare the effects of piroxicam with other analgesics. Search methods Published studies were identified from systematic searching of MEDLINE, Biological Abstracts, EMBASE, CENTRAL and the Oxford Pain Relief Database in December 2007. Additional studies were identified from the reference lists of retrieved reports. Selection criteria The following inclusion criteria were used: full journal publication, randomised placebo controlled trial, double-blind design, adult participants, postoperative pain of moderate to severe intensity at the baseline assessment, postoperative administration of oral or intramuscular piroxicam. Data collection and analysis Summed pain intensity and pain relief data were extracted and converted into dichotomous information to yield the number of participants obtaining at least 50% pain relief. This was used to calculate estimates of relative benefit and number-needed-to-treat-to-benefit (NNT) for one participant to obtain at least 50% pain relief. Information was collected on adverse effects and estimates of relative risk and number-needed-to-treat-to-harm (NNH) were calculated. Main results In this update no further studies were found. The original search identified three studies (141 participants) which compared oral piroxicam 20 mg with placebo and

  16. [Nursing approaches toward postoperative pain in patients: patients' opinions].

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Meryem; Gürler, Hesna

    2011-04-01

    We aimed in this defining study to determine patients' opinions about nursing practices with respect to their postoperative pain and their satisfaction with these practices. Data were collected by two questionnaires that were prepared by the researchers. The collected data were evaluated with chi-square and number, frequency tests. Of the 360 patients participating in this study, 61.4% were women, 83% were over 40 years old and 88% had low educational level. 60.4% had no previous surgery experience. It was determined that 30.6% of patients had undergone heart-lung (cardiovascular system, CVS) and 25.5% gastrointestinal system (GIS) surgery. It was found that 96.4% of patients experienced pain while coughing and 81.9% while getting out of bed. 96.4% of patients reported difficulty in coughing, 78.3% difficulty in mobilization and 46.7% difficulty in breathing because of postoperative pain. It was determined that patients who underwent CVS, TAH+BSO and GIS operations experienced more pain while coughing and trying to get out of bed, while patients who underwent discectomy experienced more pain while walking. There was a significant difference between types of operation and pain (p<0.05) and between activities in which patients experienced difficulty and types of operation (p<0.05). The patients stated that nurses did not use a pain scale, provide information about how pain could be relieved, demonstrate what they needed to do during the activities that caused pain, assist the patients to reposition to relieve the pain, or use any non-pharmacological interventions. Nevertheless, all of the patients were satisfied with the analgesics that were administered by nurses for pain relief.

  17. Peripheral nerve blocks for postoperative pain after major knee surgery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Chen, Xue-Mei; Ma, Chen-Kai; Wang, Xiang-Rui

    2014-01-01

    to investigate the same outcome. We used the I² statistic to explore the heterogeneity. If there was no significant heterogeneity (I² value 0% to 40%), we used a fixed-effect model for meta-analysis, but otherwise we used a random-effects model. For dichotomous data, we present results as a summary risk ratio (RR) and a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Where possible, we calculated the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) or for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH), together with 95% CIs. For continuous data, we used the mean difference (MD) and 95% CI for similar outcome measures. We describe the findings of individual studies where pooling of data was not possible. According to the eligibility criteria, we include 23 studies with 1571 participants, with high methodological quality overall. The studies compared peripheral nerve blocks adjunctive to systemic analgesia with systemic analgesia alone (19 studies), peripheral nerve blocks with local infiltration (three studies), and peripheral nerve blocks with epidural analgesia (one study). No study compared peripheral nerve blocks with spinal analgesia.Compared with systemic analgesia alone, peripheral nerve blocks adjunctive to systemic analgesia resulted in a significantly lower pain intensity score at rest, using a 100 mm visual analogue scale, at all time periods within 72 hours postoperatively, including the zero to 23 hours interval (MD -11.85, 95% CI -20.45 to -3.25, seven studies, 390 participants), the 24 to 47 hours interval (MD -12.92, 95% CI -19.82 to -6.02, six studies, 320 participants) and the 48 to 72 hours interval (MD -9.72, 95% CI -16.75 to -2.70, four studies, 210 participants). Subgroup analyses suggested that the high levels of statistical variation in our analyses could be explained by larger effects in people undergoing total knee arthroplasty compared with other types of surgery. Pain intensity was also significantly reduced on movement in the 48 to 72 hours

  18. Preoperative sleep quality predicts postoperative pain after planned caesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Orbach-Zinger, S; Fireman, S; Ben-Haroush, A; Karoush, T; Klein, Z; Mazarib, N; Artyukh, A; Chen, R; Ioscovich, A; Eidelman, L A; Landau, R

    2017-05-01

    Severe post-caesarean pain remains an important issue associated with persistent pain and postpartum depression. Women's sleep quality prior to caesarean delivery and its influence on postoperative pain and analgesic intake have not been evaluated yet. Women undergoing caesarean delivery with spinal anaesthesia (bupivacaine 12 mg, fentanyl 20 μg, morphine 100 μg) were evaluated preoperatively for sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire (PSQI 0-5 indicating good sleep quality, PSQI 6-21 poor sleep quality). Peak and average postoperative pain scores at rest, movement and uterine cramping were evaluated during 24 h using a verbal numerical pain score (VNPS; 0 indicating no pain and 100 indicating worst pain imaginable), and analgesic intake was recorded. Primary outcome was peak pain upon movement during the first 24 h. Seventy-eight of 245 women reported good sleep quality (31.2%; average PSQI 3.5 ± 1.2) and 167 poor sleep quality (68.2%; average PSQI 16.0 ± 3.4; p < 0.001). Women with poor sleep quality had significantly higher peak pain scores upon movement (46.7 ± 28.8 vs. 36.2 ± 25.6, respectively; p = 0.006). With multivariable logistic regression analysis, poor sleep quality significantly increased the risk for severe peak pain upon movement (VNPS ≥70; OR 2.64; 95% CI 1.2-6.0; p = 0.02). A significant proportion of women scheduled for caesarean delivery were identified preoperatively as having poor sleep quality, which was associated with more severe pain and increased analgesic intake after delivery. The PSQI score may therefore be a useful tool to predict increased risk for acute post-caesarean pain and higher analgesic requirements, and help tailor anaesthetic management. Multiple studies have evaluated predictors for severe acute pain after caesarean delivery that may be performed in a clinical setting, however, sleep quality prior to delivery has not been included in predictive models for post

  19. Effectiveness of Submucosal Dexamethasone to Control Postoperative Pain & Swelling in Apicectomy of Maxillary Anterior Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shahzad Ali; Khan, Irfanullah; Shah, Humera Shahzad

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of submucosal dexamethasone injection to control postoperative pain and swelling in apicectomy of maxillary anterior teeth. Methods A randomized, controlled trial comprising 60 adult patients (68.3% male, 31.7% female) with no local or systemic problems was conducted. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Group A was given 4mg dexamethasone injection perioperatively. Group B (control group) was treated conventionally without any steroid injection. Postoperative pain and swelling was evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS). Objective measurements of facial pain and swelling were performed daily up to six days postoperatively. Results Dexamethasone group showed significant reduction in pain and swelling postoperatively compared with the control. Conclusion Submucosal dexamethasone 4mg injection is an effective therapeutic strategy for swift and comfortable improvement after surgical procedure and has a significant effect on reducing postoperative pain and swelling. The treatment offers a simple, safe, painless, noninvasive and cost effective therapeutic option for moderate and severe cases. PMID:23267293

  20. Effectiveness of submucosal dexamethasone to control postoperative pain & swelling in apicectomy of maxillary anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shahzad Ali; Khan, Irfanullah; Shah, Humera Shahzad

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of submucosal dexamethasone injection to control postoperative pain and swelling in apicectomy of maxillary anterior teeth. A randomized, controlled trial comprising 60 adult patients (68.3% male, 31.7% female) with no local or systemic problems was conducted. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Group A was given 4mg dexamethasone injection perioperatively. Group B (control group) was treated conventionally without any steroid injection. Postoperative pain and swelling was evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS). Objective measurements of facial pain and swelling were performed daily up to six days postoperatively. Dexamethasone group showed significant reduction in pain and swelling postoperatively compared with the control. Submucosal dexamethasone 4mg injection is an effective therapeutic strategy for swift and comfortable improvement after surgical procedure and has a significant effect on reducing postoperative pain and swelling. The treatment offers a simple, safe, painless, noninvasive and cost effective therapeutic option for moderate and severe cases.

  1. Post-operative pain management: transition from epidural to oral analgesia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Donna; O'Neill, Olga; Beck, Alexandra

    Although managing pain in the acute surgical setting is a priority, there is a dearth of evidence to guide clinicians on how best to approach the discontinuation and transition of patients from epidural analgesia to oral analgesia post-operatively. This article describes an audit at a regional trust which examined data on patients' observations charts, as well as patients' self-reports of pain. The authors found that reducing epidural opioid concentrations post-operatively is useful in analgesic transition, using bupivacaine only for weaning has limited value, and that the timing of oral analgesia administration is important. They conclude that comprehensive pain assessment and better documentation are necessary to improve pain management practices. While the results demonstrate the advantage of reducing epidural opioid concentrations, decisions should be based on the needs of individual patients and not form part of a routine task.

  2. Single dose oral diflunisal for acute postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Wasey, Jack O; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background Diflunisal is a long-acting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) most commonly used to treat acute postoperative pain or chronic joint pain from osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. This review analyses the effectiveness and harm of different doses of diflunisal in the context of moderate to severe postoperative pain. Objectives To assess efficacy, duration of action, and associated adverse events of single dose oral diflunisal in acute postoperative pain in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies to January 2010. Selection criteria Randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trials of single dose orally administered diflunisal in adults with moderate to severe acute postoperative pain. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Pain relief or pain intensity data were extracted and converted into the dichotomous outcome of number of participants with at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours, from which relative risk and number-needed-to-treat-to-benefit (NNT) were calculated. Numbers of participants using rescue medication over specified time periods, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals were collected. Main results Nine studies in dental, orthopedic and gynaecological surgery met the inclusion criteria, testing doses of diflunisal from 125 mg to 1000 mg. For diflunisal 1000 mg, the NNT for at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours was 2.1 (1.8 to 2.6) (6 studies, 391 participants); the NNT to prevent remedication within 6 hours was 1.9 (1.7 to 2.3), and within 12 hours was 2.2 (1.9 to 2.7) (6 studies, 409 participants). More participants experienced adverse events with diflunisal 100 mg than with placebo, but none were serious or led to withdrawal. For diflunisal 500 mg, the NNT for at least 50% pain relief

  3. [Effect of two methods on postoperative shoulder pain following laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Qing; Wu, Weiqing; Shi, Haihua

    2015-09-08

    To investigate the effect of two methods on postoperative shoulder pain following laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). A total of 99 patients undergoing LC were prospectively divided into three groups (33 patients in each group): Patients in group A underwent LC were control group, those in group B were inserted negative pressure drainage tube under the right inferior phrenic after LC, and patients in group C accepted warm and normal saline flush during operation under the right inferior phrenic. Shoulder pain occurrence and shoulder pain levels (visual analogue pain scale-VAS) were recorded on 1, 3, 6, 24, 48, 72 h after operation. Postoperative shoulder pain occurrence was significantly higher in group A (14/33) than those in group B (6/33) and group C (1/33), and group C had the best effect (χ(2)=2.733, P=0.004) among the 3 groups. For shoulder pain levels, same result was achieved with group C had the best effect (P<0.05). Warm and normal saline flush during operation under the right inferior phrenic could help to obviously reduce the occurrence of post LC shoulder pain probably by blocking some mechanisms causing postoperative shoulder pain after LC.

  4. The direct perfusion of surgical wounds with local anaesthetic solution: an approach to postoperative pain?

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, D. F.; Lambert, W. G.; Williams, K. L.

    1983-01-01

    A simple technique of wound perfusion with bupivacaine (Marcain) which provides sustained postoperative analgesia is described. No complications nor side effects related to toxicity, hypersensitivity, infection, or impaired wound healing were encountered. Postoperative pain was reduced and analgesic requirements were significantly lower in patients undergoing both intermittent (P less than 0.01) and continuous (P = 0.1) wound perfusion (Student t test). Perfusion with isotonic saline was also found to be effective. This may represent a true therapeutic effect attributable to the removal or dilution of pain mediating substances in the wound. PMID:6347012

  5. A new therapeutic option for postoperative pain management with oxycodone HCI injection

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Fentanyl is the most commonly used opioid analgesic in intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) in Korea. IV oxycodone was approved for postoperative IV PCA by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety of Korea in 2013. The approved dosage regimen for postoperative pain relief with IV oxycodone is IV bolus loading of 2 mg followed by PCA composed of demand boluses of 1 mg and no background infusion with an oxycodone concentration of 1 mg/ml. However, a simulation study indicated that the minimum effective analgesic concentration (MEAC, as indicated by relief of pain by administering rescue analgesics) of oxycodone was reached most quickly with a higher loading dose of 0.1 mg/kg and IV PCA with background infusion. Oxycodone is a therapeutic option as an analgesic for postoperative pain management. It is necessary to reduce the analgesic dose of oxycodone in elderly patients because metabolic clearance decreases with age. PMID:27274364

  6. Comparing Postoperative Pain Experiences of the Adolescent and Adult Athlete After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Stanish, William D.; Reardon, Gerald; Coady, Catherine; Sullivan, Michael J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine age-related differences in pain, catastrophizing, and affective distress (depression and anxiety) after athletic injury and knee surgery. Design and Setting: Participants were assessed with measures of pain intensity, pain-related catastrophizing, depression, and anxiety symptoms at 24 hours after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery. Subjects: Twenty patients (10 adolescents, 10 adults) with an acute complete tear of the ACL. Measurements: Pain was assessed by Visual Analog Scale (VAS), catastrophizing with the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), depressive symptoms with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and anxiety with the state form of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S). Results: At 24 hours postsurgery, adolescents reported greater pain, catastrophizing, and anxiety than adults. Ancillary analyses showed that helplessness and rumination were significant contributors to the differences in catastrophizing. Further, an analysis of covariance showed that controlling for the effects of catastrophizing, the adolescent and adult differences in pain scores were reduced to a null effect. Conclusions: After ACL surgery, athletic adolescents and adults differed significantly in pain, catastrophizing, and anxiety. Catastrophizing seemed to be a particularly strong factor in postoperative pain differences between adolescents and adults, with clinical-management implications. These data indicate the need for continued research into specific pain- and age-related factors during the acute postoperative period for athletes undergoing ACL surgery. PMID:12937527

  7. Foot massage: effectiveness on postoperative pain in breast surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Ucuzal, Meral; Kanan, Nevin

    2014-06-01

    effective in postoperative pain management.

  8. Predictors of Postoperative Movement and Resting Pain following Total Knee Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Rakel, Barbara A.; Blodgett, Nicole Petsas; Zimmerman, M. Bridget; Logsden-Sackett, Nyla; Clark, Charles; Noiseux, Nicolas; Callaghan, John; Herr, Keela; Geasland, Katharine; Yang, Xiaoyan; Sluka, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    This study determined preoperative predictors of movement and resting pain following total knee replacement (TKR). We hypothesized that younger patients with higher preoperative pain intensity, pain sensitivity, trait anxiety, pain catastrophizing, and depression would be more likely to experience higher postoperative movement pain than older patients with lower scores on these variables prior to surgery and that predictors would be similar for resting pain. Demographics, analgesic intake, anxiety, depression, pain catastrophizing, resting pain, movement pain (i.e., during active knee range of motion), and quantitative sensory tests, were performed pre-operatively on 215 participants scheduled for a unilateral TKR. On postoperative day 2 (POD2), analgesic intake, resting pain, and movement pain were again assessed. Significant predictors of moderate or severe movement pain were higher preoperative movement pain, von Frey pain intensity (VFPI) and heat pain threshold (HPT). People with severe movement pain preoperatively were 20 times more likely to have severe movement pain postoperatively. When the influence of preoperative movement pain was removed, depression became a predictor. Significant predictors of moderate to severe resting pain were higher preoperative resting pain, depression, and younger age. These results suggest that patients with higher preoperative pain and depression are more likely to have higher pain following TKR and younger patients may have higher resting pain. Cutaneous pain sensitivity predicted movement pain but not resting pain, suggesting that mechanisms underlying movement pain are different from resting pain. Aggressive management of preoperative pain, pain sensitivity, and depression prior to surgery may facilitate postoperative recovery. PMID:22840570

  9. The importance of communication in the management of postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Sugai, Daniel Y; Deptula, Peter L; Parsa, Alan A; Don Parsa, Fereydoun

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates the importance of communication in surgery and how delivering preoperative patient education can lead to better health outcomes postoperatively, via promoting tolerable pain scores and minimizing the use of narcotics after surgery. Patients who underwent outpatient surgery were randomly divided into groups to compare the pain scores of those who received preoperative patient education, the experimental group, and those who did not receive any form of patient education, the control group. Two weeks before surgery, the experimental group subjects received oral and written forms of patient education consisting of how the body responds to pain, and how endorphins cause natural analgesia. Moreover, patients were educated on the negative effects narcotics have on endorphin production and activity, as well as mechanisms of non-opioid analgesics. Of the 69 patients in the experimental group, 90% declined a prescription for hydrocodone after receiving preoperative education two weeks prior to surgery. The control group consisted of 66 patients who did not receive preoperative patient education and 100% filled their hydrocodone prescriptions. Patients in both groups were offered and received gabapentin and celecoxib preoperatively for prophylaxis of postoperative pain unless they declined. The control groups were found to have average pain scores significantly greater (P <.05) than the experimental groups and also a significantly longer (P <.005) duration of pain. This study illustrates the power of patient education via oral, written and visual communication, which can serve as an effective means to minimize narcotic analgesia after surgery.

  10. The Importance of Communication in the Management of Postoperative Pain

    PubMed Central

    Sugai, Daniel Y; Deptula, Peter L; Parsa, Alan A

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the importance of communication in surgery and how delivering preoperative patient education can lead to better health outcomes postoperatively, via promoting tolerable pain scores and minimizing the use of narcotics after surgery. Patients who underwent outpatient surgery were randomly divided into groups to compare the pain scores of those who received preoperative patient education, the experimental group, and those who did not receive any form of patient education, the control group. Two weeks before surgery, the experimental group subjects received oral and written forms of patient education consisting of how the body responds to pain, and how endorphins cause natural analgesia. Moreover, patients were educated on the negative effects narcotics have on endorphin production and activity, as well as mechanisms of non-opioid analgesics. Of the 69 patients in the experimental group, 90% declined a prescription for hydrocodone after receiving preoperative education two weeks prior to surgery. The control group consisted of 66 patients who did not receive preoperative patient education and 100% filled their hydrocodone prescriptions. Patients in both groups were offered and received gabapentin and celecoxib preoperatively for prophylaxis of postoperative pain unless they declined. The control groups were found to have average pain scores significantly greater (P <.05) than the experimental groups and also a significantly longer (P <.005) duration of pain. This study illustrates the power of patient education via oral, written and visual communication, which can serve as an effective means to minimize narcotic analgesia after surgery. PMID:23795326

  11. Multilevel lumbar fusion and postoperative physiotherapy rehabilitation in a patient with persistent pain.

    PubMed

    Pons, Tracey; Shipton, Edward A

    2011-04-01

    There are no comparative randomised controlled trials of physiotherapy modalities for chronic low back and radicular pain associated with multilevel fusion. Physiotherapy-based rehabilitation to control pain and improve activation levels for persistent pain following multilevel fusion can be challenging. This is a case report of a 68-year-old man who was referred for physiotherapy intervention 10 months after a multilevel spinal fusion for spinal stenosis. He reported high levels of persistent postoperative pain with minimal activity as a consequence of his pain following the surgery. The physiotherapy interventions consisted of three phases of rehabilitation starting with pool exercise that progressed to land-based walking. These were all combined with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) that was used consistently for up to 8 hours per day. As outcome measures, daily pain levels and walking distances were charted once the pool programme was completed (in the third phase). Phase progression was determined by shuttle test results. The pain level was correlated with the distance walked using linear regression over a 5-day average. Over a 5-day moving average, the pain level reduced and walking distance increased. The chart of recorded pain level and walking distance showed a trend toward decreased pain with the increased distance walked. In a patient undergoing multilevel lumbar fusion, the combined use of TENS and a progressive walking programme (from pool to land) reduced pain and increased walking distance. This improvement was despite poor medication compliance and a reported high level of postsurgical pain.

  12. Chronic postoperative breast pain: danger zones for nerve injuries.

    PubMed

    Ducic, Ivica; Seiboth, Laura A; Iorio, Matthew L

    2011-01-01

    Postoperative breast pain is a frequent complaint, reported by 50 percent of women following a breast procedure. Breast pain interferes with sexual activity, as reported by 48 percent of patients, exercise (36 percent), social activity (13 percent), and employment (6 percent). To define neurogenic causes of chronic postoperative breast pain, the authors performed a retrospective review of consecutive patients from a single surgeon and performed 10 anatomical bilateral dissections. The authors evaluated the most commonly injured nerves, based on zone of injury, injury type, and precedent breast procedure. Dissections referenced the zone of injury with the specific procedure and designated the individual nerves at risk. The authors identified 57 patients with chronic breast pain from breast reconstruction (n = 38), reduction (n = 2), mastopexy (n = 2), augmentation (n = 4) and irradiation (n = 11). On the basis of anatomic innervation, the authors designated five zones of nerve injury: superior, medial, inferior, lateral, and central/nipple-areola complex. The lateral zone was most commonly injured (79 percent), followed by inferior (10.5 percent), medial (5 percent), central (3.5 percent), and superior (2 percent) zones. Forty-two patients suffered intercostal nerve neuromas from mechanical nerve trauma/entrapment, with pain at the surgical scar or nearby tissue dissection. Four patients with traction-stretch neuropathy had pain from blunt augmentation pocket dissection. Eleven patients with irradiation-induced neuropathy had diffuse, nonlocalized nerve pain. By shifting the approach to chronic breast pain from "global chronic breast pain" to defined danger zones of nerve injury, the practitioner can identify the type of nerve injury and associate the most common nerve injury to a given breast procedure. This approach should assist in diagnosis and treatment, and ultimately improve patient morbidity.

  13. Predictive Factors of Postoperative Pain and Postoperative Anxiety in Children Undergoing Elective Circumcision: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsamoudaki, Stella; Ntomi, Vasileia; Yiannopoulos, Ioannis; Christianakis, Efstratios; Pikoulis, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Background Although circumcision for phimosis in children is a minor surgical procedure, it is followed by pain and carries the risk of increased postoperative anxiety. This study examined predictive factors of postoperative pain and anxiety in children undergoing circumcision. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of children scheduled for elective circumcision. Circumcision was performed applying one of the following surgical techniques: sutureless prepuceplasty (SP), preputial plasty technique (PP), and conventional circumcision (CC). Demographics and base-line clinical characteristics were collected, and assessment of the level of preoperative anxiety was performed. Subsequently, a statistical model was designed in order to examine predictive factors of postoperative pain and postoperative anxiety. Assessment of postoperative pain was performed using the Faces Pain Scale (FPS). The Post Hospitalization Behavior Questionnaire study was used to assess negative behavioral manifestations. Results A total of 301 children with a mean age of 7.56 ± 2.61 years were included in the study. Predictive factors of postoperative pain measured with the FPS included a) the type of surgical technique, b) the absence of siblings, and c) the presence of postoperative complications. Predictive factors of postoperative anxiety included a) the type of surgical technique, b) the level of education of mothers, c) the presence of preoperative anxiety, and d) a history of previous surgery. Conclusions Although our study was not without its limitations, it expands current knowledge by adding new predictive factors of postoperative pain and postoperative anxiety. Clearly, further randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm its results. PMID:26495079

  14. The influence of continuous local wound infusion on postoperative pain in patients undergoing transfemoral amputation.

    PubMed

    Uhl, Christian; Betz, Thomas; Rupp, Andrea; Steinbauer, Markus; Töpel, Ingolf

    2015-09-01

    This pilot study was set up to examine the effects of a continuous postoperative wound infusion system with a local anaesthetic on perioperative pain and the consumption of analgesics. We included 42 patients in this prospective observational pilot study. Patients were divided into two groups. One group was treated in accordance with the WHO standard pain management protocol and in addition to that received a continuous local wound infusion treatment (Group 1). Group 2 was treated with analgesics in accordance with the WHO standard pain management protocol, exclusively. The study demonstrated a significantly reduced postoperative VAS score for stump pain in Group 1 for the first 5 days. Furthermore, the intake of opiates was significantly reduced in Group 1 (day 1, Group 1: 42.1 vs. Group 2: 73.5, p = 0.010; day 2, Group 1: 27.7 vs. Group 2: 52.5, p = 0.012; day 3, Group 1: 23.9 vs. Group 2: 53.5, p = 0.002; day 4, Group 1: 15.7 vs. Group 2: 48.3, p = 0.003; day 5, Group 1 13.3 vs. Group 2: 49.9, p = 0.001). There were no significant differences between the two groups, neither in phantom pain intensity at discharge nor postoperative complications and death. Continuous postoperative wound infusion with a local anaesthetic in combination with a standard pain management protocol can reduce both stump pain and opiate intake in patients who have undergone transfemoral amputation. Phantom pain was not significantly affected.

  15. Single dose oral dihydrocodeine for acute postoperative pain

    PubMed Central

    Moore, R Andrew; Edwards, Jayne; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    Background This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 2, 2000. Dihydrocodeine is a synthetic opioid analgesic developed in the early 1900s. Its structure and pharmacokinetics are similar to that of codeine and it is used for the treatment of postoperative pain or as an antitussive. It is becoming increasingly important to assess the relative efficacy and harm caused by different treatments. Relative efficacy can be determined when an analgesic is compared with control under similar clinical circumstances. Objectives To quantitatively assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of single-dose dihydrocodeine compared with placebo in randomised trials in moderate to severe postoperative pain. Search methods Published reports were identified from electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, the Oxford Pain Relief Database in December 2007, the original search was conducted in October 1999). Additional studies were identified from the reference lists of retrieved reports. Selection criteria Inclusion criteria: full journal publication, clinical trial, random allocation of participants to treatment groups, double blind design, adult participants, baseline pain of moderate to severe intensity, postoperative administration of study drugs, treatment arms which included dihydrocodeine and placebo and either oral or injected (intramuscular or intravenous) administration of study drugs. Data collection and analysis Data collection and analysis: summed pain intensity and pain relief data over four to six hours were extracted and converted into dichotomous information to yield the number of participants obtaining at least 50% pain relief. This was used to calculate relative benefit and number-needed-to-treat-to-benefit (NNT) for one participant to obtain at least 50% pain relief. Single-dose adverse effect data were collected and used to calculate relative risk and number-needed-to-treat-to-harm (NNH). Main results Fifty-two reports

  16. Sufentanil sublingual tablet system for the management of postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Babazade, Rovnat; Turan, Alparslan

    2016-12-01

    Intravenous patient-controlled opioid analgesia has been an important improvement in addressing insufficient management of acute postoperative pain for over 40 years. However, there are number of weaknesses for intravenous patient-controlled analgesia, including operator and device error, intravenous line patency issues, and risk of catheter-related infection, all of which contribute to the complications and increase in cost of care. The sublingual sufentanil tablet system is a major evolution in both drug and technological management of postoperative pain. Areas covered: We reviewed the use of the sublingual sufentanil tablet system in management of moderate to severe postoperative pain in hospitalized patients, with a particular focus on the pharmacological properties of sufentanil and clinical use in different surgical patients. Expert opinion: The sublingual sufentanil tablet system can decrease intravenous opioid based patient-controlled analgesia related complications and safety issues. Current clinical studies have demonstrated this noninvasive-novel system to be safe and effective in management of acute pain in the postsurgical setting. Researchers should focus on comparing it with other available patient controlled analgesia modalities and evaluating the efficiency and cost effectiveness of the sublingual sufentanil tablet system.

  17. Transdermal nicotine patch failed to improve postoperative pain management.

    PubMed

    Turan, Alparslan; White, Paul F; Koyuncu, Onur; Karamanliodlu, Beyhan; Kaya, Gaye; Apfel, Christian C

    2008-09-01

    A single 3 mg intranasal dose of nicotine has been reported to have analgesic properties. We designed placebo-controlled study to test the hypothesis that transdermal nicotine (TDN) administered over a 3-day period would decrease postoperative pain and opioid analgesic usage and improve the recovery process after lower abdominal surgery. Ninety-seven patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy procedures were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: (1) control group received inert (sham) patches 1 h before and for 2 days after surgery, or the (2) nicotine group received TDN 30 (21 mg nicotine) patches 1 h before induction of anesthesia and for two additional days after surgery. The anesthetic technique was identical in both groups, and the postoperative assessments included verbal rating scales for pain and sedation, IV patient-controlled analgesia morphine usage, quality of recovery assessment, recovery of bowel function, resumption of normal activities, and patient satisfaction with their pain management. Follow-up evaluations were performed at 1 and 3 mo after the operation to assess late recovery events. Postoperative patient-controlled analgesia morphine usage and pain scores while supine or sitting up, intraoperative fentanyl use, oral analgesic consumption, return of bowel sounds, and passage of flatus did not differ between the two groups. Although ambulation and hospitalization times, as well as quality of recovery scores, did not differ, resumption of oral intake was delayed in the nicotine group. Discharge eligibility scores were higher in the nicotine group at 48 and 72 h compared with the control group, but the time to return to work was 19 days in both treatment groups. Perioperative administration of a high-dose TDN patch did not improve postoperative pain control or decrease the analgesic requirement after pelvic gynecological surgery. Despite delayed resumption of oral intake, more patients in the nicotine group were ready for discharge at

  18. Single dose oral fenoprofen for acute postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Traa, Maria X; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Fenoprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), available in several different countries, but not widely used. Objectives To assess the efficacy of single dose oral fenoprofen in acute postoperative pain, and associated adverse events. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for studies to December 2010. Selection criteria Single oral dose, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of fenoprofen for relief of established moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. Data collection and analysis Studies were assessed for methodological quality and data extracted by two review authors independently. Summed total pain relief (TOTPAR) or pain intensity difference (SPID) over 4 to 6 hours was used to calculate the number of participants achieving at least 50% pain relief. These derived results were used to calculate, with 95% confidence intervals, the relative benefit compared to placebo, and the number needed to treat (NNT) for one participant to experience at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours. Numbers of participants using rescue medication over specified time periods, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was collected. Main results Five studies (696 participants) met the inclusion criteria; 24 participants were treated with fenoprofen 12.5 mg, 23 with fenoprofen 25 mg, 79 with fenoprofen 50 mg, 78 with fenoprofen 100 mg, 146 with fenoprofen 200 mg, 55 with fenoprofen 300 mg, 43 with zomepirac 100 mg, 30 with morphine 8 mg, 77 with codeine 60 mg, and 141 with placebo. Participants had pain following third molar extraction, laparoscopy, minor day surgery and episiotomy. The NNT for at least 50% pain relief over 4 to 6 hours with a single dose of fenoprofen 200 mg compared to placebo was 2.3 (1.9 to 3.0). There were insufficient data to analyse other doses or active comparators

  19. Present-day challenges and future solutions in postoperative pain management: results from PainForum 2014

    PubMed Central

    Kuusniemi, Kristiina; Pöyhiä, Reino

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a summary of presentations on postoperative pain control by the authors at the 2014 PainForum meeting in People’s Republic of China. Postoperative pain is often untreated or undertreated and may lead to subsequent chronic pain syndromes. As more procedures migrate to the outpatient setting, postoperative pain control will become increasingly more challenging. Evidence-based guidelines for postoperative pain control recommend pain assessment using validated tools on a consistent basis. In this regard, consistency may be more important than the specific tool selected. Many hospitals have introduced a multidisciplinary acute pain service (APS), which has been associated with improved patient satisfaction and fewer adverse events. Patient education is an important component of postoperative pain control, which may be most effective when clinicians chose a multimodal approach, such as paracetamol (acetaminophen) and opioids. Opioids are a mainstay of postoperative pain control but require careful monitoring and management of side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and somnolence. Opioids may be administered using patient-controlled analgesia systems. Protocols for postoperative pain control can be very helpful to establish benchmarks for pain management and assure that clinicians adhere to evidence-based standards. The future of postoperative pain control around the world will likely involve more and better established APSs and greater communication between patients and clinicians about postoperative pain. The changes necessary to implement and move forward with APSs is not a single step but rather one of continuous improvement and ongoing change. PMID:26893579

  20. Effects of preoperative local ropivacaine infiltration on postoperative pain scores in infants and small children undergoing elective cleft palate repair.

    PubMed

    Coban, Yusuf Kenan; Senoglu, Nimet; Oksuz, Hafize

    2008-09-01

    Previous data have shown that preoperative analgesia may reduce postoperative analgesic demands. The aim of the current study was to determine if preincisional ropivacaine infiltration may reduce postoperative oral pain in infants and small children undergoing elective cleft palate patients.Twenty nonsyndromic cleft palate patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. Injection with ropivacaine hydrochloride, at dose of 0.2 mg/kg, was performed by submucous infiltration of the proposed incisional site groups of patients. In control group, no medication was given before cleft palate repair under general anesthesia. Postoperative pain scores were measured according to Children and Infants Postoperative Pain Scale. Heart rate recordings and noninvasive blood pressure measurements were also done in all the patients.Measurements of Children and Infants Postoperative Pain Scale scores at all the observational postoperative periods showed significantly favorable values in ropivacaine group than in control group (P < 0.05). Six patients in the control group required rescue analgesia, whereas 2 patients required analgesic therapy in the treatment group.Preemptive analgesia using ropivacaine may enhance early postoperative comfort by reducing early postoperative pain in primary cleft repair.

  1. POSTOPERATIVE PAIN: MANAGEMENT AND DOCUMENTATION BY IRANIAN NURSES

    PubMed Central

    Rafati, Foozieh; Soltaninejad, Maryam; Aflatoonian, Mohamad Reza; Mashayekhi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pain is one of the most common symptoms experienced by patients after surgeries. Inadequate postoperative pain management is an international problem and the need to improve its management is well documented. The aim of the study was to assess nursing reports related to the patients’ pain intensity and quality, concomitant symptoms, use of scales in pain assessment, and compliance with the national guideline after surgery. Methods: This study was a retrospective cohort; samples were nurse records of patients who had elective surgery. Result: Only 6% of the patients’ pain records included pain intensity which was not measured with standard scales. More than half of all injections were opioid analgesic which is in contrast to the guidelines of the Iranian Ministry of Health. Pain assessment was higher in women and by nurses with more than 15 years of working experience. Conclusion: to conclude, the patients’ pain was not assessed properly in terms of intensity, quality, and associated symptoms. Therefore, training and motivating nurses is very important in this context and should be incorporated in nurses’ academic and continuous educational courses. PMID:27047265

  2. Enduring prevention and transient reduction of postoperative pain by intrathecal resolvin D1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liang; Wang, Chi-Fei; Serhan, Charles N.; Strichartz, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Postoperative pain slows surgical recovery, impacting the return of normal function for weeks, months, or longer. Here we report the antihyperalgesic actions of a new compound, resolvin D1 (RvD1), known to reduce inflammation and to suppress pain after peripheral nerve injury, on the acute pain occurring after paw incision and the prolonged pain after skin-muscle retraction. Injection of RvD1 (20–40 ng) into the L5–L6 intrathecal space 30 minutes before surgery reduces the postincisional primary mechanical hypersensitivity, lowering the peak change by approximately 70% (with 40 ng) and reducing the area under the curve (AUC) for the entire 10-day postincisional course by approximately 60%. Intrathecal injection of RvD1 on postoperative day (POD) 1 reduces the hyperalgesia to the same level as that from preoperative injection within a few hours, an effect that persists for the remaining PODs. Tactile allodynia and hyperalgesia following the skin/muscle incision retraction procedure, measured at the maximum values 12 to 14 days, is totally prevented by intrathecal RvD1 (40 ng) given at POD 2. However, delaying the injection until POD 9 or POD 17 results in RvD1 causing only transient and incomplete reversal of hyperalgesia, lasting for <1 day. These findings demonstrate the potent, effective reduction of postoperative pain by intrathecal RvD1 given before or shortly after surgery. The much more limited effect of this compound on retraction-induced pain, when given 1 to 2 weeks later, suggests that the receptors or pathways for resolvins are more important in the early than the later stages of postoperative pain. PMID:21255928

  3. Comparison of intravenous acetylsalicylic acid and dipyrone in postoperative pain

    PubMed Central

    Blendinger, I.; Eberlein, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    1 In 17 gynaecological patients with postoperative pain the analgesic efficacy of intravenous lysine salicylate 1.8 g (corresponding to acetylsalicyclic acid (ASA) 1.0 g) and dipyrone 1.0 g were compared in a double-blind randomized study. 2 In the ASA group, mean pain relief and pain intensity difference scores reached a maximum 30 min after drug administration and remained at this level for the next 90 minutes. 3 In the dipyrone group, these scores reached their peak 60 min after drug administration and seemed to fall off during the next hour. 4 The mean pain relief and intensity difference scores were greater following aspirin than dipyrone. However, firm conclusions cannot be drawn from the results of this small study. PMID:7437274

  4. [New trends in the treatment of post-operative pain in general and gastrointestinal surgery].

    PubMed

    Santeularia Vergés, María Teresa; Català Puigbò, Elena; Genové Cortada, Mercè; Revuelta Rizo, Miren; Moral García, María Victoria

    2009-08-01

    The correct application of multimodal analgesia appropriate to the pain intensity, the characteristics of the surgery and the hospitalisation scheme provide the key to improving the management of postoperative pain, which is currently still under treated. In highly complex surgeries the best benefit is obtained by combining systemic analgesic drugs with regional analgesia techniques. Epidural analgesia, not only provides an excellent quality of analgesia, but can prevent complications and reduce postoperative morbidity. Recently, peripheral blocks and parietal infiltration techniques, with or without catheter, have gained prominence in the postoperative analgesia of haemorrhoids and hernia repair. All these analgesic techniques are integrated into the concept of early postoperative rehabilitation and pursue the objective of minimising the side effects associated with the treatment and facilitate the functional recovery of the patient. In addition, proper postoperative pain management, not only increases the quality of in-patient care but is also a factor to consider in the development of chronic post-surgical pain, where the impact is significant and impairs the quality of life of the patients.

  5. Predicting chronic post-operative pain following laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, K J; Thomas, M; Fawole, A S; Lyndon, P J; White, C M

    2008-12-01

    Chronic post-operative pain (CPP) following laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair (LIHR) may cause significant morbidity and be more problematic than recurrence. Determining pre-operative risk may reduce morbidity. Our aim was to determine prevalence of CPP following LIHR and identify risk factors for its development. Data from patients undergoing LIHR (1996-2004) at one District General Hospital were collected, including demographics, body mass index, pre-operative pain, LIHR type (TEP or TAPP, primary/recurrent, unilateral/bilateral) and post-operative complications including CPP (pain lasting > or = 1 year). A total of 881 patients underwent LIHR (1,029 hernias). Of these, 523 (60%) patients completed the questionnaire, and 72/523 (13.8%) patients experienced CPP. Presence of pre-operative pain (P < 0.001), recurrent LIHR (P = 0.021) and age < 50 years (P < 0.001) were significantly correlated with CPP. Chronic post-operative pain following LIHR is more prevalent than recurrence. Pre-operative pain, surgery for recurrent inguinal hernias (following anterior repair) and younger age at surgery predict development of CPP. Identification of 'high-risk' patients may improve management, reducing morbidity and cost.

  6. [Transfer managment of postoperative acute pain therapy to outpatient aftercare].

    PubMed

    Tank, C; Lefering, R; Althaus, A; Simanski, C; Neugebauer, E

    2014-10-01

    The significance of postoperative pain management for patients in the hospital is well known and has been a focus of research for several years. The ambulatory care after hospital discharge, however, is not well investigated. A prospective observational study was therefore conducted to study the transfer management from in-hospital patients to ambulatory care. A patient questionnaire was developed and patients were asked to fill it out at different time points after the operation: during the time in the hospital, then at 2 weeks and 6 months after hospital discharge. In addition, the responsible family doctor was approached and interviewed. The main focus of the questionnaire was the measurement of post-surgical pain (numeric rating scale NRS), patient satisfaction (Cologne patient questionnaire), and quality of life (SF 12). Of a total of 128 patients 72.9% described moderate to severe pain after the orthopaedic operations in the hospital. 90.8% of the patients had pain directly after discharge from the hospital; in 67.4% of the cases pain was ≥3 and in 23.4% of the cases pain was ≥6. Six months after discharge pain was significant in 29.4% of the patients, 60.8% of the patients were satisfied with the transfer to the home setting. 16% were not satisfied at all and 23.2% were neutral. Important factors for dissatisfaction with the transfer management were, according to stepwise logistic regeression analysis, sex (female patients), young age, a poor bodily constitution at the hospital and thereafter, and the pain management in the hospital and after discharge. The study shows the significance of the acute pain therapy not only during the hospital stay but also after discharge. There are very few data on pain therapy after discharge from the hospital. Based on the significance of the chronification of acute pain it is of the utmost importance to close this gap. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Patterns of postoperative pain medication prescribing after invasive dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Barasch, Andrei; Safford, Monika M; McNeal, Sandre F; Robinson, Michelle; Grant, Vivian S; Gilbert, Gregg H

    2011-01-01

    We investigated disparities in the prescription of analgesics following dental procedures that were expected to cause acute postoperative pain. Patients over the age of 19 years who had been treated by surgical and/or endodontic dental procedures were included in this study. We reviewed 900 consecutive charts and abstracted data on procedures, patients, and providers. We used chi-square and logistic regression models for analyses. There were 485 White subjects, 357 African American subjects included in this review; 81% of the African American and 78% of White patients received a postoperative narcotic prescription (p = .56). In multivariate regression models, patients over age 45 (p = .003), those with insurance that covered medication and those with preexisting pain (p = .004) were more likely to receive narcotic analgesics. Students prescribed more narcotics than residents (p = .001). No differences were found by race in prescribing analgesics. ©2011 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Active gas aspiration to reduce pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Atak, Ibrahim; Ozbagriacik, Mustafa; Akinci, Omer Faruk; Bildik, Nejdet; Subasi, Ismail Ege; Ozdemir, Mehtap; Ayta, Nejla Inan

    2011-04-01

    To investigate to what effect active subdiaphragmatic gas aspiration reduces pain after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A total of 104 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly placed into 2 groups. Group I included active subdiaphragmatic gas aspiration (n=52) while group II included simple evacuation (n=52) without any additional procedures. Postoperative analgesic requirements were recorded and the level of postoperative abdominal and shoulder pain was assessed using a numeric scale after 24 postoperative hours. Data were analyzed using the χ test for nonparametric data and Student t test for parametric data. Age, volume of CO2 used during surgery, and operation duration were similar in the 2 groups. The simple evacuation group (group II) experienced more shoulder and abdominal pain postoperatively when compared with the active subdiaphragmatic aspiration group (group I) and had a higher use of analgesics during the postoperative period. Active subdiaphragmatic gas aspiration after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a simple procedure that can effectively reduce postoperative abdominal and shoulder pain and as a result the need for analgesics.

  9. Relative analgesic potencies of morphine and hydromorphone in postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Mahler, D L; Forrest, W H

    1975-05-01

    Because of discrepancies in the estimates of the relative analgesic potencies of hydromorphone and morphine, the drugs were compared in two four-point, double-blind bioassays. In the first study, hydromorphone, 1 and 2 mg, was compared with morphine, 5 and 10 mg, in 31 postoperative patients; in the second, hydromorphone, 0.5 and 1 mg, was compared with morphine, 5 and 10 mg, in 112 postoperative patients. Subjective responses to nurse-observer questions were used to quantitate analgesia for postoperative pain. Hydromorphone is more potent than commonly believed: approximately 0.9 to 1.2 mg is equianalgesic with 10 mg of morphine, with a similar incidence of side effects.

  10. Post Tonsillectomy Pain: Can Honey Reduce the Analgesic Requirements?

    PubMed Central

    Boroumand, Peyman; Zamani, Mohammad Mahdi; Saeedi, Masoumeh; Rouhbakhshfar, Omid; Hosseini Motlagh, Seyed Reza; Aarabi Moghaddam, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Background Tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures performed worldwide, especially for children. Oral honey administration following tonsillectomy in pediatric cases may reduce the need for analgesics via relieving postoperative pain. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of honey on the incidence and severity of postoperative pain in patients undergoing tonsillectomy. Patients and Methods A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study was performed. One hundred and four patients, who were older than eight, and were scheduled for tonsillectomy, were divided into two equal groups, honey and placebo. Standardized general anesthesia, and postoperative usual analgesic, and antibiotic regimen were administrated for all patients. Acetaminophen plus honey for the honey group, and acetaminophen plus placebo for the placebo group were given daily. They began to receive honey or placebo when the patients established oral intake. Results The difference between acetaminophen and acetaminophen plus honey groups was statistically significant both for visual analogue scale (VAS), and number of painkillers taken within the first three postoperative days. The consumption of painkillers differed significantly in every five postoperative days. No significant difference was found between groups regarding the number of awaking at night. Conclusions Postoperative honey administration reduces postoperative pain and analgesic requirements in patients after tonsillectomy. As the side effects of honey appear to be negligible, consideration of its routine usage seems to be beneficial along with routine analgesics. PMID:24223362

  11. Effects of Perioperative Low Dose Ketamine Infusion on Postoperative Pain Perception in Males and Females Undergoing Laparoscopic Surgery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    Fifty to 75% of patients report that postoperative pain management is grossly inadequate. A contributing factor to this analgesic deficit may be...produces hyperalgesia. Ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, administered preemptively may inhibit central sensitization and thereby reduce postoperative ...2 factorial, double blind, placebo- controlled study, 37 female and 18 male (N =55) ASA 1-3 participants who underwent elective laparoscopic surgery

  12. Single dose intravenous propacetamol or intravenous paracetamol for postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Tzortzopoulou, Aikaterini; McNicol, Ewan D; Cepeda, M Soledad; Francia, Marie Belle D; Farhat, Tamman; Schumann, Roman

    2011-10-05

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the most commonly prescribed analgesic for the treatment of acute pain. It may be administered orally or intravenously. The efficacy and safety of intravenous (IV) formulations of paracetamol, IV paracetamol and IV propacetamol, compared with placebo and other analgesics, is unclear. To assess the efficacy and safety of IV formulations of paracetamol for treatment of postoperative pain in both adults and children. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1950 to May 2010), EMBASE (1980 to 2010, Week 18), LILACS (1992 to May 2010) and reference lists of retrieved articles. Randomized, double-blind, placebo- or active-controlled single dose clinical trials of IV propacetamol or IV paracetamol for acute postoperative pain in adults or children. Two review authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. We collected adverse event information from the studies. Thirty-six studies (3896 participants) were included. Thirty-seven percent of participants receiving IV propacetamol/paracetamol experienced at least 50% pain relief over four hours compared with 16% of those receiving placebo (number needed to treat to benefit (NNT = 4.0; 95% confidence interval 3.5 to 4.8). The proportion of participants in IV propacetamol/paracetamol groups experiencing at least 50% pain relief diminished over six hours, as reflected in a higher NNT of 5.3 (4.2 to 6.7). Participants receiving IV propacetamol/paracetamol required 30% less opioid over four hours than those receiving placebo. However, this did not translate to a reduction in opioid-induced adverse events.Meta-analysis of efficacy comparisons between IV propacetamol/paracetamol and active comparators (opioids or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs)) were either not statistically significant, not clinically significant, or both.Adverse events

  13. Single dose oral paracetamol (acetaminophen) for postoperative pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Toms, Laurence; McQuay, Henry J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew

    2008-10-08

    This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 1, 2004 - this original review had been split from a previous title on 'Single dose paracetamol (acetaminophen) with and without codeine for postoperative pain'. The last version of this review concluded that paracetamol is an effective analgesic for postoperative pain, but additional trials have since been published. This review sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of paracetamol using current data, and to compare the findings with other analgesics evaluated in the same way. To assess the efficacy of single dose oral paracetamol for the treatment of acute postoperative pain. We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Oxford Pain Relief Database and reference lists of articles to update an existing version of the review in July 2008. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of paracetamol for acute postoperative pain in adults. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Area under the "pain relief versus time" curve was used to derive the proportion of participants with paracetamol or placebo experiencing at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours, using validated equations. Number-needed-to-treat-to-benefit (NNT) was calculated, with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The proportion of participants using rescue analgesia over a specified time period, and time to use, were sought as measures of duration of analgesia. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was also collected. Fifty-one studies, with 5762 participants, were included: 3277 participants were treated with a single oral dose of paracetamol and 2425 with placebo. About half of participants treated with paracetamol at standard doses achieved at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours, compared with about 20% treated with placebo. NNTs for at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours following a single dose of paracetamol were as follows: 500 mg

  14. Gabapentin as an adjuvant for postoperative pain management in dogs undergoing mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    CROCIOLLI, Giulianne Carla; CASSU, Renata Navarro; BARBERO, Rafael Cabral; ROCHA, Thalita Leone A; GOMES, Denis Robson; NICÁCIO, Gabriel Montoro

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of gabapentin as an adjuvant for postoperative pain management in dogs. Twenty dogs undergoing mastectomy were randomized to receive perioperative oral placebo or gabapentin (10 mg/kg). All dogs were premedicated with intramuscular acepromazine (0.03 mg/kg) and morphine (0.3 mg/ kg). Anesthesia was induced with propofol (4 mg/kg) intravenously and maintained with isoflurane. Intravenous meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg) was administered preoperatively. Postoperative analgesia was evaluated for 72 hr. Rescue analgesia was provided with intramuscular morphine (0.5 mg/kg). Dogs in the Placebo group received significantly more morphine doses than the Gabapentin group (P=0.021), despite no significant differences in pain scores. Perioperative gabapentin reduced the postoperative morphine requirements in dogs after mastectomy. PMID:25816802

  15. Can a periarticular levobupivacaine injection reduce postoperative opiate consumption during primary hip arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Murphy, Terence P; Byrne, Damien P; Curtin, Paul; Baker, Joseph F; Mulhall, Kevin J

    2012-04-01

    Several reports have confirmed the ability of intraoperative periarticular injections to control pain after THA. However, these studies used differing combinations of analgesic agents and the contribution of each, including the local anesthetic agent, is uncertain. Understanding the independent effects of the various agents could assist in improved pain management after surgery. We therefore determined the ability of intraoperative periarticular infiltration of levobupivacaine to (1) reduce postoperative pain, (2) reduce postoperative morphine requirements, and (3) reduce the incidence of nausea and urinary retention. A double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of patients undergoing primary THAs was performed. Patients were randomized to receive a periarticular infiltration of 150 mg levobupivacaine in 60 mL 0.9% saline (n = 45) or a placebo consisting of 60 mL 0.9% saline (n = 46). We obtained a short-form McGill pain score, visual analog scale (VAS), and morphine requirements via patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) as primary measures. Postoperative antiemetic requirements and need for catheterization for urinary retention were determined as secondary measures. Subjectively reported pain scores and the overall intensity scores were similar for both groups in the postoperative period. At the same time the mean morphine consumption was less in the levobupivacaine group, most notable in the first 12 hours after surgery: treatment group 11.5 mg vs control group 21.2 mg. We observed no differences in the frequency of postoperative nausea and vomiting or urinary retention. Our observations suggest periarticular injection of levobupivacaine can supplement available postoperative analgesic techniques and reduce postoperative morphine requirements after THA. Level I, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  16. Therapeutic play intervention on children's perioperative anxiety, negative emotional manifestation and postoperative pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    He, Hong-Gu; Zhu, Lixia; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Liam, Joanne Li Wee; Li, Ho Cheung William; Ko, Saw Sandar; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee; Wang, Wenru

    2015-05-01

    To examine if therapeutic play intervention could reduce perioperative anxiety, negative emotional manifestation and postoperative pain in children undergoing inpatient elective surgery. Children undergoing surgery commonly experience anxiety and postoperative pain and exhibit negative emotional manifestations. Previous studies have shown inconsistent conclusions about the influence of therapeutic play on children's perioperative anxiety, negative emotional manifestation and postoperative pain. A randomized controlled trial was used. Suitable children were recruited from November 2011-August 2013. They were randomized to receive either routine care (control group, n = 47) or a 1-hour therapeutic play intervention (experimental group, n = 48). Children's state anxiety, negative emotional manifestations and postoperative pain were measured at baseline, on the day of surgery and around 24 hours after surgery. Repeated measures analysis of covariance (ancova) and univariate ancova adjusting for all possible confounding factors were used in the data analysis. The time effect of state anxiety was significant, but no group and interaction (group x time) effects between the control and experimental groups were found. Compared with the control group, children in the experimental group demonstrated significantly lower scores of negative emotional manifestations prior to anaesthesia induction and postoperative pain. Therapeutic play intervention is effective in reducing negative emotional manifestations before anaesthesia induction and in reducing postoperative pain in children undergoing inpatient elective surgery. These results suggest that it is useful to give children with therapeutic play intervention prior to inpatient elective surgery. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effects of Flurbiprofen on CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, and Postoperative Pain of Thoracotomy

    PubMed Central

    Esme, Hidir; Kesli, Recep; Apiliogullari, Burhan; Duran, Ferdane Melike; Yoldas, Banu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study were to evaluate serum levels of acute phase reactants, such as CRP and cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) in patients who have undergone thoracotomy and to investigate the effects of flurbiprofen on postoperative inflammatory response. Methods: Forty patients undergoing posterolateral thoracotomy were randomly divided into 2 groups of 20 each. Control group received tramadol (4 x 100 mg) intravenously for four days, and flurbiprofen group received both tramadol (4 x 100 mg) and flurbiprofen (2 x 100 mg). Blood samples were collected before surgery and at the 3th and 168th hours after surgical procedure to measure serum CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α. Pain visual analog scales were recorded daily during the first four postoperative days. Spirometric measurement of forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV 1) was done before and four days after the operation. Results: The serum CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in both groups increased significantly at 3th hour after thoracotomy. Serum TNF-α levels did not differ significantly between the groups at postoperative 4th day. However, IL-6 and CRP were significantly lower in flurbiprofen group than in control group at the same day (p<0.05). Visual analog scale was significantly lower in flurbiprofen group at 6th, 12th, 48th, 72th, and 96th hours postoperatively (p<0.05). The patients receiving flurbiprofen had higher FEV 1 values when compared with control group at postoperative 4th day. Conclusions: Patients undergoing thoracotomy showed reduced postoperative pain, mean additional analgesic consumption, and serum IL-6 and CRP levels, when flurbiprofen was added to systemic analgesic therapy. Analgesia with anti-inflammatory drug may contribute to the attenuation of the postoperative inflammatory response and prevent postoperative pain in patients undergoing thoracotomy. PMID:21448308

  18. Does preoperative risk for delirium moderate the effects of postoperative pain and opiate use on postoperative delirium?

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Jacqueline M.; Sands, Laura P.; Lim, Eunjung; Tsai, Tiffany L.; Kinjo, Sakura

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether preoperative risk for delirium moderates the effect of postoperative pain and opioids on the development of postoperative delirium. Design Prospective cohort study Setting University medical center Participants Patients ≥ 65 years of age scheduled for major noncardiac surgery Measurements A structured interview was conducted pre- and post-operatively to determine the presence of delirium, defined using the Confusion Assessment Method. We first developed a prediction model to determine which patients were at high vs. low risk for the development of delirium based on preoperative patient data. We then computed a logistic regression model to determine whether preoperative risk for delirium moderates the effect of postoperative pain and opioids on incident delirium. Results Of 581 patients, 40% developed delirium on days 1 or 2 after surgery. Independent preoperative predictors of postoperative delirium included lower cognitive status, a history of central nervous system disease, high surgical risk, and major spine and joint arthroplasty surgery. Compared to the patients at low preoperative risk for developing delirium, the relative risk for postoperative delirium for those in the high preoperative risk group was 2.38 (95% CI = 1.67–3.40). A significant three-way interaction indicates that preoperative risk for delirium significantly moderated the effect of postoperative pain and opioid use on the development of delirium. Among patients at high preoperative risk for development of delirium who also had high postoperative pain and received high opioid doses, the incidence of delirium was 72%, compared to 20% among patients with low preoperative risk, low postoperative pain and received low opioid doses. Conclusions High levels of postoperative pain and using high opioid doses increased risk for postoperative delirium for all patients. However, the highest incidence of delirium was among patients who had high preoperative risk for

  19. Intermittent wound perfusion for postoperative pain relief following upper abdominal surgery: a surgeon's perspective.

    PubMed

    Sistla, Sarath Chandra; Sibal, Amul Kumar; Ravishankar, M

    2009-01-01

    Although there are many methods for postoperative pain management, implementation may be limited in some settings due to practical or financial constraints. Simple, inexpensive and easily implemented analgesic methods may improve access to effective pain relief. Fifty patients undergoing truncal vagotomy and gastrojejunostomy for pyloric stenosis secondary to chronic duodenal ulceration were studied in this prospective randomized trial. Subjects were assigned to receive either wound perfusion with 8 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine every 5 hours through a catheter placed subcutaneously or intravenous pethidine 0.2 mg/kg on demand for postoperative pain relief. Postoperative pain scores at rest were measured by visual analog scale and the opioid requirement at 0-12 hours, at 12-24 hours and at 24-36 hours were compared. Changes in respiratory parameters were also compared between the two groups. Pain scores at 0-12 hours were significantly lower in the wound perfusion group compared with the intravenous pethidine group (5.7 +/- 1.3 vs. 4.3 +/- 1.2, mean +/- SD; P < 0.001). The number of doses of analgesic required in the wound perfusion group was significantly lower compared with the controls during the 36 hours of study (3.5 +/- 1.3 vs. 1.4 +/- 1.0, P < 0.001). There were no differences in respiratory parameters, vital capacity, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow rate between the two groups. The FEV1:FVC ratio, however, was significantly higher in the intravenous pethidine group. There were no wound complications due to catheter placement or systemic toxicity due to the anesthetic. Intermittent wound perfusion with 0.25% bupivacaine is a safe and efficient method to reduce pain scores and opioid requirement in the early postoperative period. Wound perfusion, however, had no beneficial effect on the postoperative respiratory function.

  20. Thai Nurses' experiences of post-operative pain assessment and its' influence on pain management decisions.

    PubMed

    Chatchumni, Manaporn; Namvongprom, Ampaporn; Eriksson, Henrik; Mazaheri, Monir

    2016-01-01

    While many studies have addressed various issues with regards to pain management, there is limited knowledge about how nurses assess pain in surgical wards. This study aimed to describe Thai nurses' experiences of pain assessment in a surgical ward. A cross-sectional explorative study was conducted. Participants were selected through theoretical sampling. Data was collected through interviews with twelve registered nurses working in surgical wards. Qualitative content analysis guided the analysis of the data. Nurses use a double/triple check system, communicated to the healthcare team via records and protocols, and they used their skills and experiences in pain assessment. The results showed that nurses missed the opportunity to include the patients' self-reported pain in their accounts. Though much evidence of pain was collected, this did not seem to benefit the patients. Furthermore, the nurses were not using instruments to measure pain, which illustrates the potential unreliability of professionals who have differing opinions concerning the patients' pain. Thai nurses worked based on a 'patient-evidence' paradigm when assessing patients in pain; this should be shifted to an evidence-based paradigm. Furthermore, by including the patients' self-reported pain in their assessment, nurses would both improve the quality of the pain assessment and empower patients in their pain management. Pain management practices in Thailand should be improved through education, training, supportive innovation, and collegial competence development in order to improve the quality of care in the post-operative field.

  1. Which intraperitoneal insufflation pressure should be used for less postoperative pain in transperitoneal laparoscopic urologic surgeries?

    PubMed Central

    Akkoc, Ali; Topaktas, Ramazan; Aydin, Cemil; Altin, Selcuk; Girgin, Reha; Yagli, Omer Faruk; Sentürk, Aykut Bugra; Metin, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To determine whether using different intraperitoneal insufflation pressures for transperitoneal laparoscopic urologic surgeries decreases postoperative pain. Materials and Methods 76 patients who underwent transperitoneal laparoscopic upper urinary tract surgery at different insufflation pressures were allocated into the following groups: 10mmHg (group I, n=24), 12mmHg (group II, n=25) and 14mmHg (group III, n=27). These patients were compared according to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), type and duration of surgery, intraoperative bleeding volume, postoperative pain score and length of hospital stay. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used for postoperative pain. Results Demographic characteristics, mean age, gender, BMI and type of surgeries were statistically similar among the groups. The mean operation time was higher in group I than group II and group III but this was not statistically significant (P=0.810). The mean intraoperative bleeding volume was significantly higher in group I compared with group II and group III (P=0.030 and P=0.006). The mean length of postoperative hospital stays was statistically similar among the groups (P=0.849). The mean VAS score at 6h was significantly reduced in group I compared with group III (P=0.011). At 12h, the mean VAS score was significantly reduced in group I compared with group II and group III (P=0.009 and P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the mean VAS scores at 24h among three groups (P=0.920). Conclusion Lower insufflation pressures are associated with lower postoperative pain scores in the early postoperative period. PMID:28266816

  2. Single dose oral paracetamol (acetaminophen) for postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Toms, Laurence; McQuay, Henry J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 1, 2004 - this original review had been split from a previous title on ‘Single dose paracetamol (acetaminophen) with and without codeine for postoperative pain’. The last version of this review concluded that paracetamol is an effective analgesic for postoperative pain, but additional trials have since been published. This review sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of paracetamol using current data, and to compare the findings with other analgesics evaluated in the same way. Objectives To assess the efficacy of single dose oral paracetamol for the treatment of acute postoperative pain. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Oxford Pain Relief Database and reference lists of articles to update an existing version of the review in July 2008. Selection criteria Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of paracetamol for acute postoperative pain in adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Area under the “pain relief versus time” curve was used to derive the proportion of participants with paracetamol or placebo experiencing at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours, using validated equations. Number-needed-to-treat-to-benefit (NNT) was calculated, with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The proportion of participants using rescue analgesia over a specified time period, and time to use, were sought as measures of duration of analgesia. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was also collected. Main results Fifty-one studies, with 5762 participants, were included: 3277 participants were treated with a single oral dose of paracetamol and 2425 with placebo. About half of participants treated with paracetamol at standard doses achieved at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours, compared with about 20% treated with placebo. NNTs for at

  3. Single dose oral lumiracoxib for postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Yvonne M; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Lumiracoxib is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor. COX-2 inhibitors were developed to avoid COX-1-related gastrointestinal (GI) problems while maintaining the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of traditional non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Objectives To review the analgesic efficacy, duration of analgesia, and adverse effects of a single oral dose of lumiracoxib for moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. Search methods We searched Cochrane CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE to February 2010. Selection criteria Single oral dose, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of lumiracoxib for relief of established moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. Data collection and analysis Studies were assessed for methodological quality and the data extracted by two review authors independently. Summed total pain relief over six hours (TOTPAR 6) was used to calculate the number of participants achieving at least 50% pain relief. These derived results were used to calculate, with 95% confidence intervals, the relative benefit compared to placebo, and the number needed to treat (NNT) for one participant to experience at least 50% pain relief over six hours. Numbers of participants using rescue medication, and time to use of rescue medication, were sought as additional measures of efficacy. Information on adverse events and withdrawals was collected. Main results In this updated review four studies met the inclusion criteria. In total 366 participants were treated with lumiracoxib 400 mg, 51 with lumiracoxib 100 mg, and 212 with placebo. Active comparators were naproxen 500 mg, rofecoxib 50 mg, celecoxib 200 mg, celecoxib 400 mg, and ibuprofen 400 mg. With lumiracoxib 400 mg 50% of participants had at least 50% pain relief over six hours, compared with 8% given placebo; RB 6.9 (95% CI 4.1 to 12), NNT 2.4 (2.1 to 2.8). Median time to onset of analgesia was shorter for lumiracoxib 400 mg (0.6 to 1.5 hours) than

  4. Patients' perception of postoperative pain management: validation of the International Pain Outcomes (IPO) questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Rothaug, Judith; Zaslansky, Ruth; Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Komann, Marcus; Allvin, Renée; Backström, Ragnar; Brill, Silviu; Buchholz, Ingo; Engel, Christoph; Fletcher, Dominique; Fodor, Lucian; Funk, Peter; Gerbershagen, Hans J; Gordon, Debra B; Konrad, Christoph; Kopf, Andreas; Leykin, Yigal; Pogatzki-Zahn, Esther; Puig, Margarita; Rawal, Narinder; Taylor, Rod S; Ullrich, Kristin; Volk, Thomas; Yahiaoui-Doktor, Maryam; Meissner, Winfried

    2013-11-01

    PAIN OUT is a European Commission-funded project aiming at improving postoperative pain management. It combines a registry that can be useful for quality improvement and research using treatment and patient-reported outcome measures. The core of the project is a patient questionnaire-the International Pain Outcomes questionnaire-that comprises key patient-level outcomes of postoperative pain management, including pain intensity, physical and emotional functional interference, side effects, and perceptions of care. Its psychometric quality after translation and adaptation to European patients is the subject of this validation study. The questionnaire was administered to 9,727 patients in 10 languages in 8 European countries and Israel. Construct validity was assessed using factor analysis. Discriminant validity assessment used Mann-Whitney U tests to detect mean group differences between 2 surgical disciplines. Internal consistency reliability was calculated as Cronbach's alpha. Factor analysis resulted in a 3-factor structure explaining 53.6% of variance. Cronbach's alpha at overall scale level was high (.86), and for the 3 subscales was low, moderate, or high (range, .53-.89). Significant mean group differences between general and orthopedic surgery patients confirmed discriminant validity. The psychometric quality of the International Pain Outcomes questionnaire can be regarded as satisfactory. The International Pain Outcomes questionnaire provides an instrument for postoperative pain assessment and improvement of quality of care, which demonstrated good psychometric quality when translated into a variety of languages in a large European and Israeli patient population. This measure provides the basis for the first comprehensive postoperative pain registry in Europe and other countries. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Efficacy of Bilateral Mental Nerve Block with Bupivacaine for Postoperative Pain Control in Mandibular Parasymphysis Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Mesgarzadeh, Ali Hossein; Afsari, Hosein; Pourkhamne, Sohrab; Shahamfar, Mohamadreza

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Postoperative pain control is extremely important for both patients and surgeons; in this context, long-acting local anesthesia can play an important role after open reduction of maxillofacial fractures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of bilateral mental nerve block with bupivacaine on postoperative pain control in mandibular symphyseal fractures. Materials and methods. Fifty patients with pure mandibular symphyseal fractures were studied in two control and study groups. In contrast to the control group, the study group received bilateral mental nerve block with bupivacaine postoperatively. Patients were examined in relation to pain severity and opioid analgesic drug need sequences. Results. The study group needed significantly less opioid than the control group (P<0.01, U=141). The control and study groups were different in first opioid administration time. The control and study groups received first opioid dose in 0-2 and 2-4 hours, respectively. Conclusion. Bilateral mental nerve blocks with bupivacaine can reduce opioid analgesic need and it has a positive effect on postoperative pain control in mandibular symphyseal fractures. PMID:25346837

  6. Institutionalizing pain management: the Post-Operative Pain Management Quality Improvement Project.

    PubMed

    Dahl, June L; Gordon, Deb; Ward, Sandra; Skemp, Marty; Wochos, Sarah; Schurr, Michael

    2003-09-01

    Clinical practice and quality improvement (QI) guidelines for acute postoperative pain management have been developed to address the well-documented problem of undertreatment of postoperative pain. The Post-Operative Pain Management Quality Improvement Project (the POP Project) was initiated to determine whether an intervention designed to support hospitals in the development of QI efforts would lead to improvements in structures, processes, and outcomes consistent with recommended guidelines. A nationwide sample of 233 hospitals joined the project. The intervention consisted of written resource materials accompanied by support services that included an e-mail list server, a resource Web page, and assistance from POP Project staff via telephone. Data regarding critical structures, processes (practice patterns), and patient outcomes were collected at baseline before the intervention began and at follow-up 12 to 18 months later. Results showed a statistically significant increase from baseline (45%) to follow-up (72%) in the presence of structural elements that are critical to improving pain management. There were statistically significant improvements in practices including documented use of pain rating scales, decreased use of intramuscular opioids, and increased use of nonpharmacologic strategies. Patient survey data showed no change in pain outcomes. Evaluation data showed that 70% of hospitals were very or extremely satisfied with their participation in the POP Project and 90% of them planned to continue efforts to improve pain management after the POP Project ended. Further research is needed to determine how to translate the excellent results obtained for structure and process into meaningful outcomes for patients.

  7. What's new in... the management of post-operative pain in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Pankaj; Pattni, Amit; Pearson, David

    2015-01-01

    Post-operative pain is a common occurrence within dentistry. The causative factors are not solely dependent on the procedure but a part is also played by the patient's ability to self-cope as well as their level of anxiety. This article discusses the effectiveness of analgesia available for prescription by general dental practitioners based on systematic reviews in the literature, with particular reference to third molar removal. In addition, other methods that can help reduce pain in the post-operative period are addressed, including the types of local anaesthetic used for the procedure and psychological aspects of patient care. The main aim is to update and aid dentists' decision making processes in choosing ways to lessen the pain experienced by patients following dental procedures.

  8. Effects on postoperative salivary cortisol of relaxation/music and patient teaching about pain management.

    PubMed

    Good, Marion; Albert, Jeffrey M; Arafah, Baha; Anderson, Gene Cranston; Wotman, Stephen; Cong, Xiaomei; Lane, Deforia; Ahn, Sukhee

    2013-07-01

    The physiological and psychological stress of surgery and postoperative pain can leave patients more susceptible to infection and complications. The present study was designed to determine whether two interventions, patient teaching (PT) for pain management and relaxation/music (RM), reduced cortisol levels, an indicator of stress, following abdominal surgery. Patients (18-75 years) were randomly assigned to receive PT, RM, a combination of the two, or usual care; the 205 patients with both pre- and posttest cortisol values were analyzed. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to compare groups for PT effects and RM effects. Stress was measured by salivary cortisol before and after 20-min tests of the interventions in the morning and afternoon of postoperative Day 2. Saliva was stimulated with lemon juice and analyzed with high-sensitivity salivary cortisol enzyme immunoassay. Comparisons using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for baseline levels, showed no PT effect or RM effect on cortisol in the morning or afternoon. Post hoc ANCOVA showed no significant effects when intervention groups were compared to the control group. Although in previous studies, RM reduced pain and music reduced cortisol on Day 1, in the present study the cortisol response to surgery was not attenuated by PT or RM on Day 2. The RM intervention can be used for pain but needs to be further tested for effects on plasma cortisol in abdominal surgery patients on their first postoperative day.

  9. Acute pain Factors predictive of post-operative pain and opioid requirement in multimodal analgesia following knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Thomazeau, J; Rouquette, A; Martinez, V; Rabuel, C; Prince, N; Laplanche, J L; Nizard, R; Bergmann, J F; Perrot, S; Lloret-Linares, C

    2016-05-01

    Despite the development of multimodal analgesia for postoperative pain management, opioids are still required for effective pain relief after knee arthroplasty. We aimed to identify the determinants of post-operative pain intensity and post-operative opioid requirement in this context. In this observational prospective study, we recorded patient characteristics, pre-operative pain intensity, anxiety and depression levels, sensitivity and pain thresholds in response to an electrical stimulus, and mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Multivariate linear regression models were used to identify predictors of post-operative pain at rest and opioid requirement. We included 109 patients. Pre-operative pain at rest (p = 0.047), anxiety level (p = 0.001) and neuropathic pain symptoms (p = 0.030) were independently and positively associated with mean post-operative pain intensity adjusted for mean post-operative morphine equivalent dose (MED). Mean post-operative pain intensity at rest was lower (p = 0.006) in patients receiving celecoxib and pregabalin in the post-operative period, with all other variables constant. Mean post-operative MED over 5 days was low, but highly variable (78.2 ± 32.1 mg, from 9.9 to 170 mg). Following adjustment for mean post-operative pain intensity, it was independently negatively correlated with age (p = 0.004), and positively correlated with associated paracetamol treatment (p = 0.031). No genetic effect was detected in our sample. Our findings suggest that clinicians could use the pre-operative pain profile, in terms of anxiety levels, neuropathic pain symptoms, and chronic pre-operative pain intensity, to improve the efficacy of pain management after knee surgery. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  10. [Hydrodissection for tonsillectomy. Results of a pilot study--intraoperative blood loss, postoperative pain symptoms and risk of secondary hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Lorenz, K J; Kresz, A; Maier, H

    2005-05-01

    : Tonsillectomy is one of the most common procedures in head and neck surgery. Various techniques have been developed to reduce the risk of postoperative bleeding and postoperative pain. Water-jet technology has been designed for a gentle dissection of parenchymal organs. We report the results of a first pilot study using the water-jet technique for tonsillectomy.METHODS.: Water-jet-cutting tonsillectomy was compared with conventional blunt dissection tonsillectomy. 60 Patients were stratified in two groups within a preliminary prospective randomised study. Postoperative pain scores, frequency of postoperative bleeding and intraoperative blood loss were documented.RESULTS.: There was no difference in the average duration of the surgical procedure. The intraoperative bloodloss was markedly decreased in water-jet-cutting tonsillectomy. Postoperative bleeding and postoperative pain were decreased in the water-jet-cutting group.CONCLUSION.: The results of this pilot study demonstrate that water-cutting tonsillectomy is associated with less intraoperative bleeding, reduced frequency of postoperative bleeding events and with less postoperative pain.

  11. Association between intraabdominal pressure during gynaecologic laparoscopy and postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Sudip; Weiss, Clara; Hertel, Hermann; Hillemanns, Peter; Klapdor, Rüdiger; Soergel, Philipp

    2017-05-01

    Laparoscopy is nowadays a well-established surgical method and plays a main role in an ever-increasing range of indications in gynaecology. High-quality studies of surgical techniques are necessary to improve the quality of patient care. The present study aims at evaluating postoperative pain after gynaecological laparoscopy depending on the intraoperative CO2 pressure. In a prospective, monocentric, randomized single-blind study at the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics at the Hannover Medical School, we include patients scheduled for different laparoscopic procedures. Randomization of the intraoperative CO2 pressure was carried out in six groups. Pain was assessed the day after surgery by the blinded nurse using a visual analogue scale. 550 patients were included in the period from May 2013 to January 2016. The analysis of the per protocol population PPP (n = 360) showed no statistically significant difference between the six intervention groups with regard to mean postoperative pain perception. In direct comparison between two groups, an intraoperative CO2 pressure of 15 mmHg was associated with a significant higher pain score than a pressure of 12 mmHg. The difference was 7.46 mm on a 10 cm VAS. The results of our study indicate that a CO2 pressure of 12 versus 15 mmHg can be advantageous. However, the clinical relevance remains unclear due to the low difference in pain. The additional benefit of an even lower pressure of 10 or 8 mmHg cannot be reliably assessed; we found signs of poor visibility conditions in these low pressure groups.

  12. Intraperitoneal local anaesthetics after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: effects on postoperative pain, metabolic responses and lung function.

    PubMed

    Rademaker, B M; Kalkman, C J; Odoom, J A; de Wit, L; Ringers, J

    1994-03-01

    We have compared the efficacy of 0.9% NaCl 20 ml (n = 15), 0.25% bupivacaine 20 ml (n = 15) and 0.5% lignocaine 20 ml (n = 15), administered i.p., in reducing postoperative pain and opioid requirements, and modifying the metabolic response to surgery and postoperative lung function after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There were no differences in postoperative pain scores (visual analogue scale and verbal rating scale) between the three groups in the first 4 h after operation and in analgesic requirements during the first 24 h. In all groups, forced vital capacity, peak expiratory flow and forced expiratory volume in 1 s decreased 2 h after surgery (P < 0.001). Ventilatory values recovered only partially in the first 2 days after operation (P < 0.05), with no significant differences between groups. Plasma concentrations of glucose and cortisol increased after surgery (P < 0.05). Cortisol concentrations returned to baseline 48 h after operation. There were no significant differences between the groups in any measured variable. These data suggest that the administration of 20 ml of local anaesthetics i.p. is not effective in reducing postoperative pain, improving lung function, or attenuating the metabolic endocrine response after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  13. Effect of Premedication with Indomethacin and Ibuprofen on Postoperative Endodontic Pain: A Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Fatemeh; Yazdi, Kamal; Mahabadi, Amir Mohammad; Modaresi, Seyed Jalil; Hamzeheil, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Post-endodontic pain is one of the main problems for both patients and dentists. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of premedication with indomethacin and ibuprofen for management of postoperative endodontic pain. Methods and Materials: In this clinical trial, mandibular molars with irreversible pulpitis were endodontically treated in 66 patients. The medicines were prepared similarly in the form of capsules containing 400 mg ibuprofen (group A), 25 mg indomethacin (group B) and placebo (group C). The patients were given one capsule 1 h before the start of treatment. Patients recorded their pain measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS) at medication time, during treatment and 8, 12 and 24 h after treatment. The data were analyzed using the chi-square, repeated measures ANOVA, paired t-test, Tamhane and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: Ibuprofen and indomethacin significantly reduced the postoperative pain in comparison with placebo during treatment and 8 h after treatment; however, there were no significant differences between them 12 and 24 h after treatment. Conclusion: Premedication with ibuprofen and indomethacin can effectively control short term post-operative pain; the lower incidence of side effects and greater analgesic power of ibuprofen make it a superior choice. PMID:26843879

  14. Effect of Music on Postoperative Pain in Patients Under Open Heart Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mirbagher Ajorpaz, Neda; Mohammadi, Abouzar; Najaran, Hamed; Khazaei, Shala

    2014-01-01

    Background: Music, as a non-pharmacological and inexpensive nursing intervention, can be used easily as a complementary technique in reducing pain along with other methods. While some studies have demonstrated pain to decrease after music, others found music to be ineffective on pain. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of music on postoperative pain in patients under open heart surgery. Patients and Methods: A quasi-experimental study was performed on 60 patients under open heart surgery referred to ICU of Shahid Beheshti hospital in Kashan city. Patients were randomly divided into two groups including experimental and control groups. Patients in music group listened to nonverbal music for 30 minutes after surgery by headphones. The control group did not receive any intervention other than routine care. Before and after intervention, pain intensity was measured and recorded by visual analog scale in two groups. Data was analyzed using Chi-Square and t-tests. Results: Before intervention, the mean of pain intensity was 6.32 ± 0.21 and 6.10 ± 0.21 for experimental and control groups, respectively; and the difference was not significant (P = 0.21). After intervention, the mean of pain intensity was 3.11 ± 0.12 and 5.81 ± 0.38 for experimental and control groups, respectively; and the difference was significant (P = 0.04). Conclusions: Listening to the relaxant music can reduce postoperative pain. It is suggested that relaxant music be used as a complementary method in patients in order to reduce prospective pain. PMID:25699280

  15. Effect of music on postoperative pain in patients under open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Mirbagher Ajorpaz, Neda; Mohammadi, Abouzar; Najaran, Hamed; Khazaei, Shala

    2014-09-01

    Music, as a non-pharmacological and inexpensive nursing intervention, can be used easily as a complementary technique in reducing pain along with other methods. While some studies have demonstrated pain to decrease after music, others found music to be ineffective on pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of music on postoperative pain in patients under open heart surgery. A quasi-experimental study was performed on 60 patients under open heart surgery referred to ICU of Shahid Beheshti hospital in Kashan city. Patients were randomly divided into two groups including experimental and control groups. Patients in music group listened to nonverbal music for 30 minutes after surgery by headphones. The control group did not receive any intervention other than routine care. Before and after intervention, pain intensity was measured and recorded by visual analog scale in two groups. Data was analyzed using Chi-Square and t-tests. Before intervention, the mean of pain intensity was 6.32 ± 0.21 and 6.10 ± 0.21 for experimental and control groups, respectively; and the difference was not significant (P = 0.21). After intervention, the mean of pain intensity was 3.11 ± 0.12 and 5.81 ± 0.38 for experimental and control groups, respectively; and the difference was significant (P = 0.04). Listening to the relaxant music can reduce postoperative pain. It is suggested that relaxant music be used as a complementary method in patients in order to reduce prospective pain.

  16. Single dose intravenous paracetamol or intravenous propacetamol for postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    McNicol, Ewan D; Ferguson, McKenzie C; Haroutounian, Simon; Carr, Daniel B; Schumann, Roman

    2016-05-23

    This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 10, 2011. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the most commonly prescribed analgesic for the treatment of acute pain. It may be administered orally, rectally, or intravenously. The efficacy and safety of intravenous (IV) formulations of paracetamol, IV paracetamol, and IV propacetamol (a prodrug that is metabolized to paracetamol), compared with placebo and other analgesics, is unclear. To assess the efficacy and safety of IV formulations of paracetamol for the treatment of postoperative pain in both adults and children. We ran the search for the previous review in May 2010. For this update, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 1), MEDLINE (May 2010 to 16 February 2016), EMBASE (May 2010 to 16 February 2016), LILACS (2010 to 2016), a clinical trials registry, and reference lists of reviews for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in any language and we retrieved articles. Randomized, double-blind, placebo- or active-controlled single dose clinical trials of IV paracetamol or IV propacetamol for acute postoperative pain in adults or children. Two review authors independently extracted data, which included demographic variables, type of surgery, interventions, efficacy, and adverse events. We contacted study authors for additional information. We graded each included study for methodological quality by assessing risk of bias and employed the GRADE approach to assess the overall quality of the evidence. We included 75 studies (36 from the original review and 39 from our updated review) enrolling a total of 7200 participants.Among primary outcomes, 36% of participants receiving IV paracetamol/propacetamol experienced at least 50% pain relief over four hours compared with 16% of those receiving placebo (number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) = 5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.7 to 5.6, high quality evidence). The proportion of participants in IV

  17. Single dose dipyrone (metamizole) for acute postoperative pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Hearn, Leslie; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew

    2016-04-20

    Dipyrone (metamizole) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in some countries to treat pain (postoperative, colic, cancer, and migraine); it is banned in other countries because of an association with life-threatening blood disorders. This review replaces a 2010 Cochrane review that has been withdrawn. To assess the analgesic efficacy and associated adverse events of single dose dipyrone for moderate to severe acute postoperative pain using methods that permit comparison with other analgesics evaluated in standardised trials using almost identical methods and outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS to 11 August 2015; the Oxford Pain Relief Database; two clinical trial registries; and the reference lists of articles. We included randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of single dose dipyrone for relief of established moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults. We accepted oral, rectal, intramuscular, and intravenous routes of administration. Two review authors independently considered studies for inclusion in the review, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data. We used summed total pain relief or pain intensity difference (TOTPAR or SPID) over four to six hours to calculate the number of participants achieving at least 50% pain relief. From derived results, we calculated the risk ratio and number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNT), with 95% confidence intervals (CI), for one participant to experience at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours compared to placebo. We looked at use of rescue medication and time to use of rescue medication as additional measures of efficacy. We also looked for information on adverse events and withdrawals. We included eight studies, involving 809 participants, comparing oral dipyrone 500 mg (143 participants), oral dipyrone 1000 mg (57 participants), and intramuscular dipyrone 2000 mg (35 participants) with

  18. Single dose oral celecoxib for acute postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background This is an update of a review published in The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 4. Celecoxib is a selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor usually prescribed for the relief of chronic pain in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Celecoxib is believed to be associated with fewer upper gastrointestinal adverse effects than conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Its effectiveness in acute pain was demonstrated in the earlier reviews. Objectives To assess analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of a single oral dose of celecoxib for moderate to severe postoperative pain. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Oxford Pain Database, and ClinicalTrials.gov. The most recent search was to 3 January 2012. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) of adults prescribed any dose of oral celecoxib or placebo for acute postoperative pain. Data collection and analysis Two review authors assessed studies for quality and extracted data. We converted summed pain relief (TOTPAR) or pain intensity difference (SPID) into dichotomous information, yielding the number of participants with at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours, and used this to calculate the relative benefit (RB) and number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) for one patient to achieve at least 50% of maximum pain relief with celecoxib who would not have done so with placebo. We used information on use of rescue medication to calculate the proportion of participants requiring rescue medication and the weighted mean of the median time to use. Main results Eight studies (1380 participants) met the inclusion criteria. We identified five potentially relevant unpublished studies in the most recent searches, but data were not available at this time. The number of included studies therefore remains unchanged. The NNT for celecoxib 200 mg and 400 mg compared with placebo

  19. Postoperative pain assessment in the neonatal intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    McNair, C; Ballantyne, M; Dionne, K; Stephens, D; Stevens, B

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the convergent validity of two measures of pain (premature infant pain profile (PIPP) and crying, requires oxygen, increased vital signs, expression, and sleepless (CRIES)) in real life postoperative pain assessment in infants. Methods: This study was a prospective, repeated measures, correlational design. Two staff nurses were randomly assigned either the PIPP or CRIES measure. An expert rater assessed each infant after surgery, and once a day using the visual analogue scale (VAS). Setting: A level III neonatal intensive care unit in a metropolitan university affiliated paediatric hospital. Results: Pain was assessed in 51 neonates (28–42 weeks of gestational age) after surgery. There was no significant difference in the rates of change between the pain assessment measures across time using repeated measures analysis of variance (F50,2  =  0.62, p  =  0.540), indicating correlation between the measures. Convergent validity analysis using intraclass correlation showed correlation, most evident in the first 24 hours (immediately, 4, 8, 20, and 24 hours after the operation). Correlations were more divergent at 40 and 72 hours after surgery. No significant interactions were found between gestational age and measure (F304,4  =  0.75, p  =  0.563) and surgical group and measure (F304,2  =  0.39, p  =  0.680). Conclusions: PIPP and CRIES are valid measures that correlate with pain for the first 72 hours after surgery in term and preterm infants. Both measures would provide healthcare professionals with an objective measure of a neonatal patient's pain. PMID:15499150

  20. Does Psychological Profile Influence Third Molar Extraction and Postoperative Pain?

    PubMed

    González-Martínez, Raquel; Jovani-Sancho, María Del Mar; Cortell-Ballester, Isidoro

    2017-03-01

    Our purposes were to determine the influence of psychological profile on hemodynamic changes in patients who undergo surgical removal of the third molars under intravenous sedation and to evaluate the effect on patients' anxiety and postoperative recovery. We performed a prospective study of 100 patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists classes I and II; aged ≥18 years) seen in the CIMIVClinic (Department of Oral Surgery, Casa de Salud University Hospital, Valencia, Spain) who underwent extractions of all third molars under intravenous sedation. All patients were administered the Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90-R). The following parameters were monitored at different times during the surgical interventions: systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and heart rate. Position and depth of impaction of the tooth (Pell and Gregory classification and Winter classification), surgery duration, and surgical technique also were recorded. Finally, the degree of pain experienced the week after the surgical intervention was measured using a visual analog scale. Patients' anxiety levels preoperatively were significantly higher in patients with psychological distress (P = .023). Postoperative pain significantly decreased from the first day to the seventh day in healthy patients but not in patients with altered psychological conditions (P < .05). Nevertheless, the hemodynamic changes were not correlated with the psychological impairment. Intravenous sedation enables the control of hemodynamic changes in all patients independently of their psychological profile. Patients with psychological distress present with higher levels of dental anxiety and postoperative pain. Future studies are needed to further clarify this interaction. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of preemptive ketamine administration on postoperative visceral pain after gynecological laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong-Qi; Jia, Dong-Lin

    2016-08-01

    The pain following gynecological laparoscopic surgery is less intense than that following open surgery; however, patients often experience visceral pain after the former surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of preemptive ketamine on visceral pain in patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery. Ninety patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Group 1 received placebo. Group 2 was intravenously injected with preincisional saline and local infiltration with 20 mL ropivacaine (4 mg/mL) at the end of surgery. Group 3 was intravenously injected with preincisional ketamine (0.3 mg/kg) and local infiltration with 20 mL ropivacaine (4 mg/mL) at the end of surgery. A standard anesthetic was used for all patients, and meperidine was used for postoperative analgesia. The visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for incisional and visceral pain at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h, cumulative analgesic consumption and time until first analgesic medication request, and adverse effects were recorded postoperatively. The VAS scores of visceral pain in group 3 were significantly lower than those in group 2 and group 1 at 2 h and 6 h postoperatively (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). At 2 h and 6 h, the VAS scores of incisional pain did not differ significantly between groups 2 and 3, but they were significantly lower than those in group 1 (P<0.01). Groups 1 and 2 did not show any differences in visceral pain scores at 2 h and 6 h postoperatively. Moreover, the three groups showed no statistically significant differences in visceral and incisional pain scores at 12 h and 24 h postoperatively. The consumption of analgesics was significantly greater in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3, and the time to first request for analgesics was significantly longer in groups 2 and 3 than in group 1, with no statistically significant difference between groups 2 and 3. However, the three groups showed no significant difference

  2. Benefits of intravenous lidocaine on post-operative pain and acute rehabilitation after laparoscopic nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Tauzin-Fin, Patrick; Bernard, Olivier; Sesay, Musa; Biais, Matthieu; Richebe, Philippe; Quinart, Alice; Revel, Philippe; Sztark, Francois

    2014-07-01

    Intravenous (I.V.) lidocaine has analgesic, antihyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory properties and is known to accelerate the return of bowel function after surgery. We evaluated the effects of I.V. lidocaine on pain management and acute rehabilitation protocol after laparoscopic nephrectomy. A total of 47 patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic nephrectomy were included in a two-phase observational study where I.V. lidocaine (1.5 mg/kg/h) was introduced, in the second phase, during surgery and for 24 h post-operatively. All patients underwent the same post-operative rehabilitation program. Post-operative pain scores, opioid consumption and extent of hyperalgesia were measured. Time to first flatus and 6 min walking test (6MWT) were recorded. Patient demographics were similar in the two phases (n = 22 in each group). Lidocaine significantly reduced morphine consumption (median [25-75% interquartile range]; 8.5 mg[4567891011121314151617] vs. 25 mg[1920212223242526272829303132]; P < 0.0001), post-operative pain scores (P < 0.05) and hyperalgesia extent on post-operative day 1-day 2-day 4 (mean ± standard deviation (SD); 1.5 ± 0.9 vs. 4.3 ± 1.2 cm (P < 0.001), 0.6 ± 0.5 vs. 2.8 ± 1.2 cm (P < 0.001) and 0.13 ± 0.3 vs. 1.2 ± 1 cm (P < 0.001), respectively). Time to first flatus (mean ± SD; 29 ± 7 h vs. 48 ± 15 h; P < 0.001) and 6MWT at day 4 (189 ± 50 m vs. 151 ± 53 m; P < 0.001) were significantly enhanced in patients with i.v. lidocaine. Intravenous (I.V.) lidocaine could reduce post-operative morphine consumption and improve post-operative pain management and post-operative recovery after laparoscopic nephrectomy. I.V. lidocaine could contribute to better post-operative rehabilitation.

  3. Benefits of intravenous lidocaine on post-operative pain and acute rehabilitation after laparoscopic nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tauzin-Fin, Patrick; Bernard, Olivier; Sesay, Musa; Biais, Matthieu; Richebe, Philippe; Quinart, Alice; Revel, Philippe; Sztark, Francois

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Intravenous (I.V.) lidocaine has analgesic, antihyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory properties and is known to accelerate the return of bowel function after surgery. We evaluated the effects of I.V. lidocaine on pain management and acute rehabilitation protocol after laparoscopic nephrectomy. Materials and Methods: A total of 47 patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic nephrectomy were included in a two-phase observational study where I.V. lidocaine (1.5 mg/kg/h) was introduced, in the second phase, during surgery and for 24 h post-operatively. All patients underwent the same post-operative rehabilitation program. Post-operative pain scores, opioid consumption and extent of hyperalgesia were measured. Time to first flatus and 6 min walking test (6MWT) were recorded. Results: Patient demographics were similar in the two phases (n = 22 in each group). Lidocaine significantly reduced morphine consumption (median [25-75% interquartile range]; 8.5 mg[4567891011121314151617] vs. 25 mg[1920212223242526272829303132]; P < 0.0001), post-operative pain scores (P < 0.05) and hyperalgesia extent on post-operative day 1-day 2-day 4 (mean ± standard deviation (SD); 1.5 ± 0.9 vs. 4.3 ± 1.2 cm (P < 0.001), 0.6 ± 0.5 vs. 2.8 ± 1.2 cm (P < 0.001) and 0.13 ± 0.3 vs. 1.2 ± 1 cm (P < 0.001), respectively). Time to first flatus (mean ± SD; 29 ± 7 h vs. 48 ± 15 h; P < 0.001) and 6MWT at day 4 (189 ± 50 m vs. 151 ± 53 m; P < 0.001) were significantly enhanced in patients with i.v. lidocaine. Conclusion: Intravenous (I.V.) lidocaine could reduce post-operative morphine consumption and improve post-operative pain management and post-operative recovery after laparoscopic nephrectomy. I.V. lidocaine could contribute to better post-operative rehabilitation. PMID:25190945

  4. Use of preoperative gabapentin significantly reduces postoperative opioid consumption: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Sudha; Lau, Christine SM; Chamberlain, Ronald S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Effective postoperative pain management is crucial in the care of surgical patients. Opioids, which are commonly used in managing postoperative pain, have a potential for tolerance and addiction, along with sedating side effects. Gabapentin’s use as a multimodal analgesic regimen to treat neuropathic pain has been documented as having favorable side effects. This meta-analysis examined the use of preoperative gabapentin and its impact on postoperative opioid consumption. Materials and methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify randomized control trials that evaluated preoperative gabapentin on postoperative opioid consumption. The outcomes of interest were cumulative opioid consumption following the surgery and the incidence of vomiting, somnolence, and nausea. Results A total of 1,793 patients involved in 17 randomized control trials formed the final analysis for this study. Postoperative opioid consumption was reduced when using gabapentin within the initial 24 hours following surgery (standard mean difference −1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −1.96 to −0.73; P<0.001). There was a significant reduction in morphine, fentanyl, and tramadol consumption (P<0.05). While a significant increase in postoperative somnolence incidence was observed (relative risk 1.30, 95% CI: 1.10–1.54, P<0.05), there were no significant effects on postoperative vomiting and nausea. Conclusion The administration of preoperative gabapentin reduced the consumption of opioids during the initial 24 hours following surgery. The reduction in postoperative opioids with preoperative gabapentin increased postoperative somnolence, but no significant differences were observed in nausea and vomiting incidences. The results from this study demonstrate that gabapentin is more beneficial in mastectomy and spinal, abdominal, and thyroid surgeries. Gabapentin is an effective analgesic adjunct, and clinicians should consider its use in multimodal treatment

  5. Post-operative pain management in head and neck cancer patients: predictive factors and efficacy of therapy.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, C; Malagò, M; Crema, L; Aimoni, C; Matarazzo, T; Bortolazzi, S; Ciorba, A; Pelucchi, S; Pastore, A

    2016-04-01

    There is increasing interest about all aspects of pain sensation for patients undergoing head and neck surgery, and efforts have been made to better assess, monitor and reduce the occurrence of pain. The aetiology of pain is considered to be "multifactorial", as it is defined by several features such as personal experience, quality perception, location, intensity and emotional impact. The aim of this paper is: (i) to evaluate the efficacy of analgesic treatment in patients with head and neck cancer treated by surgery, and (ii) to study the variables and predictive factors that can influence the occurrence of pain. A total of 164 patients, affected by head and neck cancer and surgically treated, between December 2009 and December 2013, were included in this study. Data collected include age, gender, assessment of anaesthetic risk, tumour localisation, pathological cancer stage, TNM stage, type of surgery performed, complexity and duration of surgery, post-operative complications, postoperative days of hospital stay and pain evaluation on days 0, 1, 3 and 5 post-surgery. We studied the appropriateness of analgesic therapy in terms of incidence and prevalence of post-operative pain; we also related pain to patient characteristics, disease and surgical treatment to determine possible predictive factors. The population studied received adequate pain control through analgesic therapy immediately post-surgery and in the following days. No associations between gender, age and post-operative pain were found, whereas pathological cancer stage, complexity of surgery and tumour site were significantly associated with the risk of post-operative pain. Adequate pain control is essential in oncological patients, and particularly in head and neck cancer patients as the prevalence of pain in this localisation is reported to be higher than in other anatomical sites. Improved comprehension of the biological and psychological factors that characterise pain perception will help to

  6. The Effect of Nefopam Infusion during Laparascopic Cholecystectomy on Postoperative Pain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Mi; Jeon, Joo Hyun; Chung, Mi Hwa; Choi, Eun Mi; Baek, Seung Hwa; Jeon, Pil Hyun; Lee, Mi Hyeon

    2017-01-01

    Background: While recovery from remifentanil is fast due to its rapid metabolism, it can induce hyperalgesia by activation of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors. Therefore, administration of NMDA receptor antagonists such as ketamine is effective in relieving hyperalgesia caused by remifentanil. A previous study showed that nefopam administration before anesthesia combined with low-dose remifentanil reduced pain and analgesic consumption during the immediate postoperative period. We hypothesized that intraoperative infusion of nefopam during laparoscopic cholecystectomy would be as effective as ketamine in controlling pain during the acute postoperative period after sevoflurane and remifentanil based anesthesia. Methods: Sixty patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly divided into three groups. General anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and effect-site target concentration of remifentanil (4 ng/ml) in all patients. An intravenous bolus of nefopam (0.3 mg/kg) was given, followed by continuous infusion (65 µg/kg/h) in Group N (n=20). An intravenous bolus of ketamine (0.3 mg/kg) was administered, followed by continuous infusion (180 µg/kg/h) in Group K (n=20), and Group C received a bolus and subsequent infusion of normal saline equal to the infusion received by Group K (n=20). We compared postoperative Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores and analgesic requirements over the first 8 postoperative hours between groups. Results: The pain scores (VAS) and fentanyl requirements for 1 h after surgery were significantly lower in the nefopam and ketamine groups compared with the control group (p<0.05). There were no differences between the nefopam and ketamine groups. The three groups showed no differences in VAS scores and number of analgesic injections from 1 to 8 h after surgery. Conclusion: Intraoperative nefopam infusion during laparoscopic cholecystectomy reduced opioid requirements and pain scores (VAS) during the early

  7. [Use of flurbiprofen before emergence from anesthesia relieves pain during immediate postoperative period after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair].

    PubMed

    Shirasaka, Wataru; Toriyama, Sumiko; Tsujikawa, Syogo; Yamashita, Tomoyuki; Tani, Yoshiyuki; Ikeshita, Kazutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Reduced postoperative pain is considered one of the benefits of laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair (LHR). We investigated the need for intravenous flurbiprofen axetil (FA) before emergence from anesthesia in patients who had undergone LHR. Forty adult patients who were prepared for LHR were randomly divided into the FA group (FA 1 mg x kg(-1) administered at the end of surgery, n = 20) and the control group (no FA administration, n = 20). Postoperative pain was evaluated by the Prince Henry Pain Score (PHPS) as well as by the frequency of on-demand use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The PHPS on arrival at the ward was significantly lower in the FA group than the control group. Additionally, none of the patients of the FA group required NSAIDs in the first two hours of postoperative period, compared with 6 patients (30%) of the control group. However, at 4 hours postoperatively, none of the patients of both groups suffered pain at rest and the PHPS was similar in the two groups. Although postoperative pain after LHR is mild and disappears rapidly, FA administration before emergence from anesthesia is necessary for management of pain during the immediate postoperative period.

  8. Comparison of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and Parasternal Block for Postoperative Pain Management after Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Nilgun Kavrut; Baki, Elif Dogan; Kavakli, Ali Sait; Sahin, Ayca Sultan; Ayoglu, Raif Umut; Karaveli, Arzu; Emmiler, Mustafa; Inanoglu, Kerem; Karsli, Bilge

    2016-01-01

    Background. Parasternal block and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) have been demonstrated to produce effective analgesia and reduce postoperative opioid requirements in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of TENS and parasternal block on early postoperative pain after cardiac surgery. Methods. One hundred twenty patients undergoing cardiac surgery were enrolled in the present randomized, controlled prospective study. Patients were assigned to three treatment groups: parasternal block, intermittent TENS application, or a control group. Results. Pain scores recorded 4 h, 5 h, 6 h, 7 h, and 8 h postoperatively were lower in the parasternal block group than in the TENS and control groups. Total morphine consumption was also lower in the parasternal block group than in the TENS and control groups. It was also significantly lower in the TENS group than in the control group. There were no statistical differences among the groups regarding the extubation time, rescue analgesic medication, length of intensive care unit stay, or length of hospital stay. Conclusions. Parasternal block was more effective than TENS in the management of early postoperative pain and the reduction of opioid requirements in patients who underwent cardiac surgery through median sternotomy. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov number NCT02725229.

  9. Epidural technique for postoperative pain: gold standard no more?

    PubMed

    Rawal, Narinder

    2012-01-01

    Epidural analgesia is a well-established technique that has commonly been regarded as the gold standard in postoperative pain management. However, newer, evidence-based outcome data show that the benefits of epidural analgesia are not as significant as previously believed. There are some benefits in a decrease in the incidence of cardiovascular and pulmonary complications, but these benefits are probably limited to high-risk patients undergoing major abdominal or thoracic surgery who receive thoracic epidural analgesia with local anaesthetic drugs only. There is increasing evidence that less invasive regional analgesic techniques are as effective as epidural analgesia. These include paravertebral block for thoracotomy, femoral block for total hip and knee arthroplasty, wound catheter infusions for cesarean delivery, and local infiltration analgesia techniques for lower limb joint arthroplasty. Wound infiltration techniques and their modifications are simple and safe alternatives for a variety of other surgical procedures. Although pain relief associated with epidural analgesia can be outstanding, clinicians expect more from this invasive, high-cost, labour-intensive technique. The number of indications for the use of epidural analgesia seems to be decreasing for a variety of reasons. The decision about whether to continue using epidural techniques should be guided by regular institutional audits and careful risk-benefit assessment rather than by tradition. For routine postoperative analgesia, epidural analgesia may no longer be considered the gold standard.

  10. The Efficacy of Acupuncture in Post-Operative Pain Management: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming-Shun; Chen, Kee-Hsin; Chen, I-Fan; Huang, Shihping Kevin; Tzeng, Pei-Chuan; Yeh, Mei-Ling; Lee, Fei-Peng; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chen, Chiehfeng

    2016-01-01

    Background Postoperative pain resulting from surgical trauma is a significant challenge for healthcare providers. Opioid analgesics are commonly used to treat postoperative pain; however, these drugs are associated with a number of undesirable side effects. Objective This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the effectiveness of acupuncture and acupuncture-related techniques in treating postoperative pain. Data Source MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE databases were searched until Sep 30, 2014. Study Eligibility Criteria Randomized controlled trials of adult subjects (≥ 18 years) who had undergone surgery and who had received acupuncture, electroacupuncture, or acupoint electrical stimulation for managing acute post-operative pain were included. Results We found that patients treated with acupuncture or related techniques had less pain and used less opioid analgesics on Day 1 after surgery compared with those treated with control (P < 0.001). Sensitivity analysis using the leave-one-out approach indicated the findings are reliable and are not dependent on any one study. In addition, no publication bias was detected. Subgroup analysis indicated that conventional acupuncture and transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation (TEAS) were associated with less postoperative pain one day following surgery than control treatment, while electroacupuncture was similar to control (P = 0.116). TEAS was associated with significantly greater reduction in opioid analgesic use on Day 1 post surgery than control (P < 0.001); however conventional acupuncture and electroacupuncture showed no benefit in reducing opioid analgesic use compared with control (P ≥ 0.142). Conclusion Our findings indicate that certain modes of acupuncture improved postoperative pain on the first day after surgery and reduced opioid use. Our findings support the use of acupuncture as adjuvant therapy in treating postoperative pain. PMID:26959661

  11. The Efficacy of Acupuncture in Post-Operative Pain Management: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Shun; Chen, Kee-Hsin; Chen, I-Fan; Huang, Shihping Kevin; Tzeng, Pei-Chuan; Yeh, Mei-Ling; Lee, Fei-Peng; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chen, Chiehfeng

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative pain resulting from surgical trauma is a significant challenge for healthcare providers. Opioid analgesics are commonly used to treat postoperative pain; however, these drugs are associated with a number of undesirable side effects. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the effectiveness of acupuncture and acupuncture-related techniques in treating postoperative pain. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE databases were searched until Sep 30, 2014. Randomized controlled trials of adult subjects (≥ 18 years) who had undergone surgery and who had received acupuncture, electroacupuncture, or acupoint electrical stimulation for managing acute post-operative pain were included. We found that patients treated with acupuncture or related techniques had less pain and used less opioid analgesics on Day 1 after surgery compared with those treated with control (P < 0.001). Sensitivity analysis using the leave-one-out approach indicated the findings are reliable and are not dependent on any one study. In addition, no publication bias was detected. Subgroup analysis indicated that conventional acupuncture and transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation (TEAS) were associated with less postoperative pain one day following surgery than control treatment, while electroacupuncture was similar to control (P = 0.116). TEAS was associated with significantly greater reduction in opioid analgesic use on Day 1 post surgery than control (P < 0.001); however conventional acupuncture and electroacupuncture showed no benefit in reducing opioid analgesic use compared with control (P ≥ 0.142). Our findings indicate that certain modes of acupuncture improved postoperative pain on the first day after surgery and reduced opioid use. Our findings support the use of acupuncture as adjuvant therapy in treating postoperative pain.

  12. The Effect of Inhalation of Aromatherapy Blend containing Lavender Essential Oil on Cesarean Postoperative Pain

    PubMed Central

    Olapour, Alireza; Behaeen, Kaveh; Akhondzadeh, Reza; Soltani, Farhad; al Sadat Razavi, Forough; Bekhradi, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background Pain is a major problem in patients after cesarean and medication such as aromatherapy which is a complementary therapy, in which the essences of the plants oils are used to reduce such undesirable conditions. Objectives In this study, the effect of aromatherapy using Lavender (Lavandula) essential oil on cesarean postoperative pain was assessed. Materials and Methods In a triple blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial study, 60 pregnant women who were admitted to a general hospital for cesarean section, were divided randomly into two groups. After cesarean, the Lavender group inhaled about 3 drops of 10% Lavender oil essence and the placebo group inhaled 3 drops of placebo after the start of postoperative pain, four, eight and 12 hours later, for 5 minutes from the 10 cm distance. Patient's pain was measured by the VAS (Visual Analog Scale) score before and after each intervention, and vital sign, complications and level of satisfaction of every patient were recorded before and after aromatherapy. Results There was no statistically significant difference between groups in age, height, weight, and time to the first analgesic requirement. Patients in the Lavender group had less postoperative pain in four (P = 0.008), eight (P = 0.024) and 12 (P = 0.011) hours after first medication than the placebo group. The decreased heart rate and patients' level of satisfaction with analgesia were significantly higher in the Lavender group (P = 0.001). In the placebo group, the use of diclofenac suppositories for complete analgesia was also significantly higher than the Lavender group (P = 0.008). Conclusions The inhaled Lavender essence may be used as a part of the multidisciplinary treatment of pain after cesarean section, but it is not recommended as the sole pain management. PMID:24223363

  13. The Effect of Inhalation of Aromatherapy Blend containing Lavender Essential Oil on Cesarean Postoperative Pain.

    PubMed

    Olapour, Alireza; Behaeen, Kaveh; Akhondzadeh, Reza; Soltani, Farhad; Al Sadat Razavi, Forough; Bekhradi, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Pain is a major problem in patients after cesarean and medication such as aromatherapy which is a complementary therapy, in which the essences of the plants oils are used to reduce such undesirable conditions. In this study, the effect of aromatherapy using Lavender (Lavandula) essential oil on cesarean postoperative pain was assessed. In a triple blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial study, 60 pregnant women who were admitted to a general hospital for cesarean section, were divided randomly into two groups. After cesarean, the Lavender group inhaled about 3 drops of 10% Lavender oil essence and the placebo group inhaled 3 drops of placebo after the start of postoperative pain, four, eight and 12 hours later, for 5 minutes from the 10 cm distance. Patient's pain was measured by the VAS (Visual Analog Scale) score before and after each intervention, and vital sign, complications and level of satisfaction of every patient were recorded before and after aromatherapy. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in age, height, weight, and time to the first analgesic requirement. Patients in the Lavender group had less postoperative pain in four (P = 0.008), eight (P = 0.024) and 12 (P = 0.011) hours after first medication than the placebo group. The decreased heart rate and patients' level of satisfaction with analgesia were significantly higher in the Lavender group (P = 0.001). In the placebo group, the use of diclofenac suppositories for complete analgesia was also significantly higher than the Lavender group (P = 0.008). The inhaled Lavender essence may be used as a part of the multidisciplinary treatment of pain after cesarean section, but it is not recommended as the sole pain management.

  14. Predictors for Moderate to Severe Acute Postoperative Pain after Cesarean Section

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Thuany Cavalcante; Pedroso, Charlise Fortunato

    2016-01-01

    Background. Moderate to severe postoperative pain affects performance of daily activities and it contributes to persistent postoperative pain. In patients submitted to cesarean section, this pain can also interfere with women's ability to care for their babies, to effectively breastfeed, and to satisfactorily interact with their children. Factors influencing the pain perception during the immediate postoperative period have not been widely pursued. Objective. To investigate the incidence and predicting factors of postoperative pain after cesarean section. Methods. A prospective longitudinal study with 1,062 women submitted to cesarean section. We collected sociodemographic, clinical, surgical, and health behavior data. We used the 11-point Numerical Pain and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales. We performed logistic analysis to identify predictors of moderate to severe postoperative pain. Results. The incidence of moderate-severe postoperative pain was 78.4% (CI: 95%: 75.9%–80.8%). The preoperative anxiety (OR = 1.60; CI 95%: 1.22–2.30) and intrathecal morphine with fentanyl (OR = 0,23; CI 95%: 0.08–0.66) were significantly associated with moderate-severe postoperative pain report. Conclusion. The preoperative anxiety increases the risk of moderate-severe postoperative pain in women submitted to cesarean section. The intrathecal morphine with fentanyl added to bupivacaine was a protective factor against this pain. PMID:27956847

  15. Predictors for Moderate to Severe Acute Postoperative Pain after Cesarean Section.

    PubMed

    Borges, Natalia de Carvalho; Pereira, Lilian Varanda; de Moura, Louise Amália; Silva, Thuany Cavalcante; Pedroso, Charlise Fortunato

    2016-01-01

    Background. Moderate to severe postoperative pain affects performance of daily activities and it contributes to persistent postoperative pain. In patients submitted to cesarean section, this pain can also interfere with women's ability to care for their babies, to effectively breastfeed, and to satisfactorily interact with their children. Factors influencing the pain perception during the immediate postoperative period have not been widely pursued. Objective. To investigate the incidence and predicting factors of postoperative pain after cesarean section. Methods. A prospective longitudinal study with 1,062 women submitted to cesarean section. We collected sociodemographic, clinical, surgical, and health behavior data. We used the 11-point Numerical Pain and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales. We performed logistic analysis to identify predictors of moderate to severe postoperative pain. Results. The incidence of moderate-severe postoperative pain was 78.4% (CI: 95%: 75.9%-80.8%). The preoperative anxiety (OR = 1.60; CI 95%: 1.22-2.30) and intrathecal morphine with fentanyl (OR = 0,23; CI 95%: 0.08-0.66) were significantly associated with moderate-severe postoperative pain report. Conclusion. The preoperative anxiety increases the risk of moderate-severe postoperative pain in women submitted to cesarean section. The intrathecal morphine with fentanyl added to bupivacaine was a protective factor against this pain.

  16. Movement, Function, Pain, and Postoperative Edema in Axillary Web Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Blaes, Anne H.; Haddad, Tuffia C.; Hunter, David W.; Hirsch, Alan T.; Ludewig, Paula M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Axillary web syndrome (AWS) is a condition that may develop following breast cancer surgery and that presents as a palpable axillary cord of tissue. Objective The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine the clinical characteristics of AWS related to movement, function, pain, and postoperative edema and (2) to define the incidence of and risk factors for AWS within the first 3 months following breast cancer surgery. Design This was a prospective cohort study with a repeated-measures design. Methods Women who underwent breast cancer surgery with sentinel node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection (N=36) were assessed for AWS, shoulder range of motion, function, pain, and postoperative edema (using girth measurements, bioimpedance, and tissue dielectric constant) at 2, 4, and 12 weeks. Demographic characteristics were used for risk analysis. Results Seventeen women (47.2%) developed AWS, and AWS persisted in 10 participants (27.8%) at 12 weeks. Abduction range of motion was significantly lower in the AWS group compared with the non-AWS group at 2 and 4 weeks. There were no differences between groups in measurements of function, pain, or edema at any time point. Trunk edema measured by dielectric constant was present in both groups, with an incidence of 55%. Multivariate analysis determined lower body mass index as being significantly associated with AWS (odds ratio=0.86; 95% confidence interval=0.74, 1.00). Limitations Limitations included a short follow-up time and a small sample size. Conclusion Axillary web syndrome is prevalent following breast/axilla surgery for early-stage breast cancer and may persist beyond 12 weeks. The early consequences include movement restriction, but the long-term effects of persistent AWS cords are yet unknown. Low body mass index is considered a risk factor for AWS. PMID:25977305

  17. Strategies for reducing the complication of orthopedic pain perioperatively.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Laurie R

    2008-12-01

    Equine orthopedic pain management has become a growing area of interest. Its importance has been emphasized in many studies showing that better pain management results in decreased postoperative complications such as chronic pain, support-limb laminitis, gastric ulceration, and gastrointestinal disease. This review is meant for the surgeon managing orthopedic pain pre-, peri-, and postoperatively.

  18. Intravenous Paracetamol Reduces Postoperative Opioid Consumption after Orthopedic Surgery: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Puneet

    2013-01-01

    Postoperative pain management is one of the most challenging jobs in orthopedic surgical population as it comprises of patients from extremes of ages and with multiple comorbidities. Though effective, opioids may contribute to serious adverse effects particularly in old age patients. Intravenous paracetamol is widely used in the postoperative period with the hope that it may reduce opioid consumption and produce better pain relief. A brief review of human clinical trials where intravenous paracetamol was compared with placebo or no treatment in postoperative period in orthopedic surgical population has been done here. We found that four clinical trials reported that there is a significant reduction in postoperative opioid consumption. When patients received an IV injection of 2 g propacetamol, reduction of morphine consumption up to 46% has been reported. However, one study did not find any reduction of opioid requirement after spinal surgery in children and adolescent. Four clinical trials reported better pain scores when paracetamol has been used, but other three trials denied. We conclude that postoperative intravenous paracetamol is a safe and effective adjunct to opioid after orthopedic surgery, but at present there is no data to decide whether paracetamol reduces opioid related adverse effects or not. PMID:24307945

  19. Gender differences in post-operative pain and patient controlled analgesia use among adolescent surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Logan, Deirdre E; Rose, John B

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore gender differences in anticipatory emotional distress, coping strategies, post-operative pain perception, and patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) use among adolescent surgical patients. One hundred and two 12-18-year-old adolescents undergoing surgeries with overnight hospital stay were recruited. Participants completed pre-operative measures of anxiety and anticipated pain. Post-operatively, they reported on coping skills, post-operative anxiety, and pain. Data on PCA use were recorded from medical records. Girls reported higher levels of pre-operative state anxiety and anticipated more pain. After surgery, girls and boys differed on their lowest daily pain ratings and average daily pain ratings, with girls reporting more pain in both cases. Reports of highest daily pain were similar across genders. Gender was found to moderate the relationship between anticipatory distress and post-operative pain, such that higher anticipatory distress before surgery predicted more post-operative pain for girls, but not for boys. Patterns of PCA use did not vary by gender on post-operative days 0 or 1. Findings suggest that adolescent boys' and girls' pain experiences are different in several important respects, although somewhat less divergent than has been reported in samples of adult males and females. Results have implications for the development of targeted intervention strategies to help adolescents cope effectively with acute post-operative pain.

  20. Relative frequency of chronic postoperative pain in patients operated for chronic otitis media.

    PubMed

    Nemati, Shadman; Okhovvat, S Ahmadreza; Naghavi, S Ebrahim; Shakiba, Maryam; Mikaeeli, Saman

    2014-08-01

    Chronic postoperative pain may lead to physical disability and psychosocial distress. In this longitudinal observational study, for the first time we evaluated the relative frequency of chronic postoperative pain in patients operated for chronic otitis media (COM) at two university hospitals. Patients were questioned about pain at the site of the surgical incision 3-6 months after the operation, and again 3 months after the first visit. Pain intensity was quantified by visual analogue scale (VAS). T test, Chi-square test, and logistic regression were used for analyzing data and multivariate analysis. In 155 patients (42 male, 113 female, mean age: 38.57 ± 10.66 years), chronic postoperative pain was observed in 50 cases (32.3 %). A significant decrease in the average score of VAS was observed from 5.18 to 2.64 within 3 months (P = 0.0001). Statistically significant correlation was observed between chronic postoperative pain and age, sex, acute postoperative pain and history of Irritable Bowel Syndrome or migraine, but after multivariate analysis, only the age group and severe acute post-operation pain were effective on incidence of chronic post-operative pain. In conclusion, surgery for COM is followed by chronic pain in about 32 % of patients, and some risk factors for the development of chronic postoperative pain after this surgery exist, including age and severe acute post-operation pain.

  1. Effects of three oral analgesics on postoperative pain following root canal preparation: a controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mehrvarzfar, P; Abbott, P V; Saghiri, M A; Delvarani, A; Asgar, K; Lotfi, M; Karamifar, K; Kharazifard, M J; Khabazi, H

    2012-01-01

      To compare the effects of single doses of three oral medications on postoperative pain following instrumentation of root canals in teeth with irreversible pulpitis.   In this double-blind clinical trial, 100 patients who had anterior or premolar teeth with irreversible pulpitis without any signs and symptoms of acute or chronic apical periodontitis and moderate to severe pain were divided by balanced block random allocation into four groups of 25 each, a control group receiving a placebo medication, and three experimental groups receiving a single dose of either Tramadol (100 mg), Novafen (325 mg of paracetamol, 200 mg ibuprofen and 40 mg caffeine anhydrous) or Naproxen (500 mg) immediately after the first appointment where the pulp was removed, and the canals were fully prepared. The intensity of pain was scored based on 10-point VAS before and after treatment for up to 24 h postoperatively. Data were submitted to repeated analysis of variance.   At the 6, 12 and 24 h postoperative intervals after drug administration, the intensity of pain was significantly lower in the experimental groups than in the placebo group (P < 0.01). Tramadol was significantly less effective (P < 0.05) than Naproxen, and Novafen that were similar to each other (P > 0.05).   A single oral dose of Naproxen, Novafen and Tramadol taken immediately after treatment reduced postoperative pain following pulpectomy and root canal preparation of teeth with irreversible pulpitis. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  2. The efficacy of a lidocaine-infused pain pump for postoperative analgesia following elective augmentation mammaplasty or abdominoplasty.

    PubMed

    Chavez-Abraham, Victor; Barr, Jason S; Zwiebel, Paul C

    2011-08-01

    Postoperative pain management following aesthetic plastic surgery traditionally has been achieved by systemic administration of several narcotic pain medications. Because this method can lead to undesirable side effects such as sedation, nausea, vomiting, and respiratory depression, a more efficacious method of postoperative analgesia with fewer side effects needs to be implemented in outpatient cosmetic surgery. From March of 2003 until December of 2008, 690 patients underwent augmentation mammaplasty and 215 patients underwent abdominoplasty. All of these patients were equipped with an elastomeric continuous infusion pump postoperatively and were prescribed oral narcotics. Prior to 2003, patients were prescribed only oral narcotics postoperatively. A retrospective chart review of patients before and after implementation of the pain pump was undertaken to review the perceived pain patients experienced postoperatively with and without the pump. The self-administration of oral narcotics was also assessed. Patients equipped with the pain pump experienced a statistically significant decrease in perceived pain compared to those without the pump (augmentation mammaplasty: 2.27 vs. 3.68, p < 0.05; abdominoplasty: 2.81 vs. 4.32, p < 0.05). Similarly, patients with the pump saw a statistically significant decrease in the use of the oral narcotic Vicodin™ at 72 h postoperatively (5 mg hydrocodone/500 mg acetaminophen, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL) (augmentation mammaplasty: 26.5 mg/2650 mg vs. 49 mg/4900 mg, p < 0.01; abdominoplasty: 29.5 mg/2950 mg vs. 56.5 mg/5650 mg, p < 0.01). The utilization of a continuous-infusion pain pump following augmentation mammaplasty or abdominoplasty is an efficacious method to significantly reduce both the amount of pain patients experience and the quantity of narcotics used postoperatively.

  3. [Peri- and postoperative pain therapy with mechanical patient-controlled disposable analgesia pumps in general surgery. Report of initial trial].

    PubMed

    Fieseler, H G; Vogt, B; Menges, H W

    1996-01-01

    The patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) or "ondemand analgesia" is a pain-relieving therapy, which is regulated and monitored by the patient himself. Postoperative pain therapy is the main approach for PCA, which facilitates a long-term, individually controlled pain relief. In certain situations we use mechanical PCA-pumps filled with piritramid (Dipidolor) as an opioid-analgetic for reducing postoperative pain. This kind of therapy needs the acceptance and understanding of the patient as a main condition for the success. Beside an increase of patients' comfort and patients' independence of analgetic demand from the medical staff a reduction in postoperative complications can be expected, the time of hospitalisation might be decreased.

  4. Pre-Emptive Tramadol Could Reduce Pain after Ureteroscopic Lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Denčić, Nataša; Jovičić, Jelena; Mirković, Jelena; Durutović, Otaš; Milenković-Petronić, Dragica; Lađević, Nebojša

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Optimal analgesia in ambulatory urology patients still remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to examine if the pre-emptive use of intravenous tramadol can reduce pain after ureteroscopic lithotripsy in patients diagnosed with unilateral ureteral stones. Materials and Methods This prospective pilot cohort study included 74 patients diagnosed with unilateral ureteral stones who underwent ureteroscopic lithotripsy under general anesthesia in the Urology Clinic at the Clinical Center of Serbia from March to June 2012. All patients were randomly allocated to two groups: one group (38 patients) received intravenous infusion of tramadol 100 mg in 500 mL 0.9%NaCl one hour before the procedure, while the other group (36 patients) received 500 mL 0.9%NaCl at the same time. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores were recorded once prior to surgery and two times after the surgery (1 h and 6 h, respectively). The patients were prescribed additional postoperative analgesia (diclofenac 75 mg i.m.) when required. Pre-emptive effects of tramadol were assessed measuring pain scores, VAS1 and VAS2, intraoperative fentanyl consumption, and postoperative analgesic requirement. Results The average VAS1 score in the tramadol group was significantly lower than that in the non-tramadol group. The difference in average VAS2 score values between the two groups was not statistically significant; however, there were more patients who experienced severe pain in the non-tramadol group (p<0.01). The number of patients that required postoperative analgesia was not statistically different between the groups. Conclusion Pre-emptive tramadol did reduce early postoperative pain. The patients who received pre-emptive tramadol were less likely to experience severe post-operative pain. PMID:25048508

  5. Teaching a Machine to Feel Postoperative Pain: Combining High-Dimensional Clinical Data with Machine Learning Algorithms to Forecast Acute Postoperative Pain.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Patrick J; Harle, Christopher A; Hurley, Robert W; Aytug, Haldun; Boezaart, Andre P; Fillingim, Roger B

    2015-07-01

    Given their ability to process highly dimensional datasets with hundreds of variables, machine learning algorithms may offer one solution to the vexing challenge of predicting postoperative pain. Here, we report on the application of machine learning algorithms to predict postoperative pain outcomes in a retrospective cohort of 8,071 surgical patients using 796 clinical variables. Five algorithms were compared in terms of their ability to forecast moderate to severe postoperative pain: Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO), gradient-boosted decision tree, support vector machine, neural network, and k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), with logistic regression included for baseline comparison. In forecasting moderate to severe postoperative pain for postoperative day (POD) 1, the LASSO algorithm, using all 796 variables, had the highest accuracy with an area under the receiver-operating curve (ROC) of 0.704. Next, the gradient-boosted decision tree had an ROC of 0.665 and the k-NN algorithm had an ROC of 0.643. For POD 3, the LASSO algorithm, using all variables, again had the highest accuracy, with an ROC of 0.727. Logistic regression had a lower ROC of 0.5 for predicting pain outcomes on POD 1 and 3. Machine learning algorithms, when combined with complex and heterogeneous data from electronic medical record systems, can forecast acute postoperative pain outcomes with accuracies similar to methods that rely only on variables specifically collected for pain outcome prediction. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Teaching a Machine to Feel Postoperative Pain: Combining High-Dimensional Clinical Data with Machine Learning Algorithms to Forecast Acute Postoperative Pain

    PubMed Central

    Tighe, Patrick J.; Harle, Christopher A.; Hurley, Robert W.; Aytug, Haldun; Boezaart, Andre P.; Fillingim, Roger B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Given their ability to process highly dimensional datasets with hundreds of variables, machine learning algorithms may offer one solution to the vexing challenge of predicting postoperative pain. Methods Here, we report on the application of machine learning algorithms to predict postoperative pain outcomes in a retrospective cohort of 8071 surgical patients using 796 clinical variables. Five algorithms were compared in terms of their ability to forecast moderate to severe postoperative pain: Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO), gradient-boosted decision tree, support vector machine, neural network, and k-nearest neighbor, with logistic regression included for baseline comparison. Results In forecasting moderate to severe postoperative pain for postoperative day (POD) 1, the LASSO algorithm, using all 796 variables, had the highest accuracy with an area under the receiver-operating curve (ROC) of 0.704. Next, the gradient-boosted decision tree had an ROC of 0.665 and the k-nearest neighbor algorithm had an ROC of 0.643. For POD 3, the LASSO algorithm, using all variables, again had the highest accuracy, with an ROC of 0.727. Logistic regression had a lower ROC of 0.5 for predicting pain outcomes on POD 1 and 3. Conclusions Machine learning algorithms, when combined with complex and heterogeneous data from electronic medical record systems, can forecast acute postoperative pain outcomes with accuracies similar to methods that rely only on variables specifically collected for pain outcome prediction. PMID:26031220

  7. Perioperative Dextromethorphan as an Adjunct for Postoperative Pain: a Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    King, Michael R.; Ladha, Karim S.; Gelineau, Amanda M.; Anderson, T. Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Background N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists have been shown to reduce perioperative pain and opioid use. We performed a meta-analysis to determine whether the use of perioperative dextromethorphan lowers opioid consumption or pain scores. Methods PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, pubget, and Embase were searched. Studies were included if they were randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled trials written in English, performed on patients ≥12 years. For comparison of opioid use, included studies tracked total consumption of intravenous or intramuscular opioids over 24 to 48 hours. Pain score comparisons were performed at 1 hour, 4 to 6 hours, and 24 hours postoperatively. Difference in means (MD) was used for effect size. Results Forty studies were identified and 21 were eligible for one or more comparisons. In 848 patients from 14 trials, opioid consumption favored dextromethorphan (MD -10.51 mg intravenous morphine equivalents; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -16.48 mg to -4.53 mg; p = 0.0006). In 884 patients from 13 trials, pain at 1 hour favored dextromethorphan (MD -1.60; 95% CI: -1.89 to -1.31; p < 0.00001). In 950 patients from 13 trials, pain at 4-6 hours favored dextromethorphan (MD -0.89; 95% CI: -1.11 to -0.66; p < 0.00001). In 797 patients from 12 trials, pain at 24 hours favored dextromethorphan (MD -0.92; 95% CI: -1.24 to -0.60; p < 0.00001). Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests dextromethorphan use perioperatively reduces postoperative opioid consumption at 24-48 hours and pain scores at 1, 4-6, and 24 hours. PMID:26587683

  8. Perioperative Dextromethorphan as an Adjunct for Postoperative Pain: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    King, Michael R; Ladha, Karim S; Gelineau, Amanda M; Anderson, T Anthony

    2016-03-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists have been shown to reduce perioperative pain and opioid use. The authors performed a meta-analysis to determine whether the use of perioperative dextromethorphan lowers opioid consumption or pain scores. PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Pubget, and EMBASE were searched. Studies were included if they were randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials written in English, and performed on patients 12 yr or older. For comparison of opioid use, included studies tracked total consumption of IV or intramuscular opioids over 24 to 48 h. Pain score comparisons were performed at 1, 4 to 6, and 24 h postoperatively. Difference in means (MD) was used for effect size. Forty studies were identified and 21 were eligible for one or more comparisons. In 848 patients from 14 trials, opioid consumption favored dextromethorphan (MD, -10.51 mg IV morphine equivalents; 95% CI, -16.48 to -4.53 mg; P = 0.0006). In 884 patients from 13 trials, pain at 1 h favored dextromethorphan (MD, -1.60; 95% CI, -1.89 to -1.31; P < 0.00001). In 950 patients from 13 trials, pain at 4 to 6 h favored dextromethorphan (MD, -0.89; 95% CI, -1.11 to -0.66; P < 0.00001). In 797 patients from 12 trials, pain at 24 h favored dextromethorphan (MD, -0.92; 95% CI, -1.24 to -0.60; P < 0.00001). This meta-analysis suggests that dextromethorphan use perioperatively reduces the postoperative opioid consumption at 24 to 48 h and pain scores at 1, 4 to 6, and 24 h.

  9. Assessment of pain during rest and during activities in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    de Mello, Larissa Coelho; Rosatti, Silvio Fernando Castro; Hortense, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective to assess the intensity and site of pain after Cardiac Surgery through sternotomy during rest and while performing five activities. Method descriptive study with a prospective cohort design. A total of 48 individuals participated in the study. A Multidimensional Scale for Pain Assessment was used. Results postoperative pain from cardiac surgery was moderate during rest and decreased over time. Pain was also moderate during activities performed on the 1st and 2nd postoperative days and decreased from the 3rd postoperative day, with the exception of coughing, which diminished only on the 6th postoperative day. Coughing, turning over, deep breathing and rest are presented in decreased order of intensity. The region of the sternum was the most frequently reported site of pain. Conclusion the assessment of pain in the individuals who underwent cardiac surgery during rest and during activities is extremely important to adapt management and avoid postoperative complications and delayed surgical recovery. PMID:24553714

  10. Assessment of pain during rest and during activities in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Mello, Larissa Coelho de; Rosatti, Silvio Fernando Castro; Hortense, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    to assess the intensity and site of pain after Cardiac Surgery through sternotomy during rest and while performing five activities. descriptive study with a prospective cohort design. A total of 48 individuals participated in the study. A Multidimensional Scale for Pain Assessment was used. postoperative pain from cardiac surgery was moderate during rest and decreased over time. Pain was also moderate during activities performed on the 1st and 2nd postoperative days and decreased from the 3rd postoperative day, with the exception of coughing, which diminished only on the 6th postoperative day. Coughing, turning over, deep breathing and rest are presented in decreased order of intensity. The region of the sternum was the most frequently reported site of pain. the assessment of pain in the individuals who underwent cardiac surgery during rest and during activities is extremely important to adapt management and avoid postoperative complications and delayed surgical recovery.

  11. Scleral buckling surgery and eye pain: assessment of chronic eye pain during the postoperative period of scleral buckling surgery.

    PubMed

    Damasceno, Nadyr A P; Damasceno, Eduardo F; Ventura, Marcelo P; Vianna, Raul N G

    2014-06-01

    To assess the progression of eye pain after scleral buckling surgery to treat rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and to investigate the occurrence and characteristics of chronic eye pain. This was a longitudinal, prospective, and observational study. Eye pain was measured according to a numerical analog scale (range, 0-10) for 6 months after scleral buckling surgery. The sample was divided into two groups, with or without chronic eye pain, to perform statistical analyses. For this study, chronic eye pain was defined as postoperative pain beyond 30 days. The following variables were assessed to investigate the etiology of chronic eye pain: age, gender, ethnicity, degree of myopia, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and degree of scleral indentation. A total of 100 patients were assessed in this study. One particular sequence of levels on the pain analog scale, specifically 3-2-1-0-0 (intensity of eye pain on postoperative Days 1, 14, 30, 60, and 180, respectively), was identified more frequently during the progression of eye pain in the 180-day follow-up period. The pain resolved for 72% of patients within 30 days. Chronic eye pain occurred in 18% of the patients. Scleral indentation was the only statistically significant variable investigated relative to the etiology of chronic eye pain (P < 0.05). Chronic eye pain correlated significantly with large scleral indentation. Patients with more intense pain at the onset of the postoperative period tended to develop chronic eye pain.

  12. The role of the nurse anesthetist in the planning of postoperative pain management.

    PubMed

    Stomberg, Margareta Warrén; Sjöström, Björn; Haljamäe, Hengo

    2003-06-01

    Adequate pain relief after surgery is essential for avoiding pain-associated stress and patient comfort in the postoperative period. The Swedish nurse anesthetist has an important role in the intraoperative management of the surgical patient by assessing and moderating individual physiological response evoked by surgical stimuli during general anesthesia. The extent to which knowledge of specific individual response patterns are used to plan postoperative pain management is unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess the role of the nurse anesthetist in planning early postoperative pain management for surgical patients. Nurse anesthetists (N = 101) at 4 academic hospitals in Sweden responded to a questionnaire focusing, in addition to demographic data, on intraoperative routines for postoperative pain management, perceived clinical relevance of used routines, personal involvement (in addition to existing routines) in postoperative pain management, factors influencing pain alleviation requirements, and the potential role of the nurse anesthetist for improved postoperative pain management. We found that type of anesthesia and type of surgical procedure were both factors considered important for postoperative pain management. A majority of the participants believed that pain management approaches were not appropriately individualized to the patient.

  13. Postoperative infusional continuous regional analgesia. A technique for relief of postoperative pain following major extremity surgery.

    PubMed

    Malawer, M M; Buch, R; Khurana, J S; Garvey, T; Rice, L

    1991-05-01

    A new technique using postoperative infusional continuous regional analgesia (PICRA) for postoperative pain relief was investigated in 23 surgical patients treated by amputation (12 patients) or by limb-salvage resection operations (11 patients). Bupivacaine was delivered into peripheral nerve sheaths via catheters placed therein at the time of surgery. Only patients in whom the nerves were easily accessible were treated. Catheters were placed in the axillary sheath, the lumbosacral trunk, and the femoral nerve sheaths of patients treated with shoulder girdle and pelvic procedures (resections and amputations), and within the sciatic nerve sheath of those treated with lower extremity procedures. The anesthetic agent was delivered at controllable rates. Regional analgesia was obtained in the operative site with minimal motor or sensory decrease. To assess the efficacy of this technique, the results of this study group were compared with those of a matched group of 11 patients treated with similar surgical procedures but who received epidural morphine. Eleven of the 23 patients on PICRA required no supplemental narcotic agents. The mean level of the narcotic agents required by the remaining 13 PICRA patients was approximately one third of that required by the matched group of 11 patients receiving epidural morphine. Overall, the patients on PICRA had an 80% reduction of narcotic requirements when compared to the historical controls. The technique is reliable and can be performed by the surgeon, requiring about a ten-minute increase in operating time. It has potentially wide application in orthopedics in procedures in which the major nerves are easily accessible (e.g., pelvic fractures and revision hip surgery) and for patients with intractable pain of the extremities.

  14. A qualitative analysis of the nursing documentation of post-operative pain management.

    PubMed

    Briggs, M; Dean, K L

    1998-03-01

    As part of trust-wide practice development project to improve post-operative pain management, a descriptive study was conducted in the orthopaedic directorate of a large teaching hospital in the north of England. Sixty-five patients were included in this prospective study. Patients were interviewed post-operatively about their pain experience, and present and worst pain scores were recorded. The nursing documentation relating to pain management was also transcribed and a content analysis of this nursing documentation is reported. Findings indicate that individual assessment of pain was poorly documented and that the nurses' record of the patient's post-operative pain experience differed from the patient report. Reliance on pharmacological methods of pain relief was evident and interventions to help patients cope with night time pain were rarely documented. The results are discussed in light of a theoretical framework for acute pain management and current research. Implications for practice are discussed and areas for further research are suggested.

  15. Single dose oral analgesics for acute postoperative pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J; Wiffen, Philip J

    2011-09-07

    Thirty-five Cochrane Reviews of randomised trials testing the analgesic efficacy of individual drug interventions in acute postoperative pain have been published. This overview brings together the results of all those reviews and assesses the reliability of available data. To summarise data from all Cochrane Reviews that have assessed the effects of pharmaceutical interventions for acute pain in adults with at least moderate pain following surgery, who have been given a single dose of oral analgesic taken alone. We identified systematic reviews in The Cochrane Library through a simple search strategy. All reviews were overseen by a single Review Group, had a standard title, and had as their primary outcome numbers of participants with at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours compared with placebo. For individual reviews we extracted the number needed to treat (NNT) for this outcome for each drug/dose combination, and also the percentage of participants achieving at least 50% maximum pain relief, the mean of mean or median time to remedication, the percentage of participants remedicating by 6, 8, 12, or 24 hours, and results for participants experiencing at least one adverse event. The overview included 35 separate Cochrane Reviews with 38 analyses of single dose oral analgesics tested in acute postoperative pain models, with results from about 45,000 participants studied in approximately 350 individual studies. The individual reviews included only high-quality trials of standardised design and outcome reporting. The reviews used standardised methods and reporting for both efficacy and harm. Event rates with placebo were consistent in larger data sets. No statistical comparison was undertaken.There were reviews but no trial data were available for acemetacin, meloxicam, nabumetone, nefopam, sulindac, tenoxicam, and tiaprofenic acid. Inadequate amounts of data were available for dexibuprofen, dextropropoxyphene 130 mg, diflunisal 125 mg, etoricoxib 60 mg

  16. Single dose oral analgesics for acute postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J; Wiffen, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Background Thirty-five Cochrane Reviews of randomised trials testing the analgesic efficacy of individual drug interventions in acute postoperative pain have been published. This overview brings together the results of all those reviews and assesses the reliability of available data. Objectives To summarise data from all Cochrane Reviews that have assessed the effects of pharmaceutical interventions for acute pain in adults with at least moderate pain following surgery, who have been given a single dose of oral analgesic taken alone. Methods We identified systematic reviews in The Cochrane Library through a simple search strategy. All reviews were overseen by a single Review Group, had a standard title, and had as their primary outcome numbers of participants with at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours compared with placebo. For individual reviews we extracted the number needed to treat (NNT) for this outcome for each drug/dose combination, and also the percentage of participants achieving at least 50% maximum pain relief, the mean of mean or median time to remedication, the percentage of participants remedicating by 6, 8, 12, or 24 hours, and results for participants experiencing at least one adverse event. Main results The overview included 35 separate Cochrane Reviews with 38 analyses of single dose oral analgesics tested in acute postoperative pain models, with results from about 45,000 participants studied in approximately 350 individual studies. The individual reviews included only high-quality trials of standardised design and outcome reporting. The reviews used standardised methods and reporting for both efficacy and harm. Event rates with placebo were consistent in larger data sets. No statistical comparison was undertaken. There were reviews but no trial data were available for acemetacin, meloxicam, nabumetone, nefopam, sulindac, tenoxicam, and tiaprofenic acid. Inadequate amounts of data were available for dexibuprofen, dextropropoxyphene 130

  17. Impact of postoperative complications on the risk for chronic groin pain after open inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Anders; Sandblom, Gabriel; Fränneby, Ulf; Sondén, Anders; Gunnarsson, Ulf; Dahlstrand, Ursula

    2017-02-01

    Chronic pain is common after inguinal hernia repair and has become one of the most important outcome measures for this procedure. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not there is a relationship between specific postoperative complications and risk for chronic pain after open inguinal hernia repair. A prospective cohort study was designed in which participants responded to the Inguinal Pain Questionnaire regarding postoperative groin pain 8 years after inguinal hernia repair. Responses to the questionnaire were matched with data from a previous study regarding reported postoperative complications after open inguinal hernia repair. Participants were recruited originally from the Swedish Hernia Register. Response rate was 82.4% (952/1,155). The primary outcome was chronic pain in the operated groin at follow-up. Grading of pain was performed using the Inguinal Pain Questionnaire. A total of 170 patients (17.9%) reported groin pain and 29 patients (3.0%) reported severe groin pain. The risk for developing chronic groin pain was greater in patients with severe pain in the preoperative or immediate postoperative period (odds ratio 2.09; 95% confidence interval 1.28-3.41). Risk for chronic pain decreased for every 1-year increase in age at the time of operation (odds ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.98-1.00). Both preoperative pain and pain in the immediate postoperative period are strong risk factors for chronic groin pain. Risk factor patterns should be considered before operative repair of presumed symptomatic inguinal hernias. The problem of postoperative pain must be addressed regarding both pre-emptive and postoperative analgesia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Sublingual buprenorphine in the therapy of postoperative pain].

    PubMed

    Tolksdorf, W; Bangert, J; Glocke, M; Müller, W

    1984-06-01

    40 Patients undergoing elective orthopaedic surgery of the lower limb randomly received either Buprenorphin sublingual (0,4 mg.) (Bsl) or Pentazocin i.m. (30 mg.) (Pim) for postoperative pain therapy. They were neither premedicated nor sedated. Analgesia was measured with a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and assessments by the anaesthetist and patient. Physiological measures were: Blood pressure, heart rate, arterial blood gases and serum cortisol. Side effects were registered. After Pim well known data were obtained: onset (10-30 min.) and duration (2 hours) of action and a significant pain reduction 20, 30 and 60 minutes after injection, whereas with Bsl onset was 60-120 min. and duration 6-7 hours of action and significant pain reduction was seen 120 and 180 min. after administration. 8 dropouts after Bsl up to 120 min. post applications are interpreted as a result of late onset or lack of analgesic action whereas the 13 drop outs 3 hours after Pim can be explained with the short lasting analgesic action of Pentazocin. Serum cortisol levels were better after Bsl, but did not correlate with the VAS. In Blood gas analyses, there were no group differences, especially no hypoxic or hypercapnic periods. There were no severe cardiocirculatory side effects, but significantly more hypertonic reactions and tachycardia after Pim. Other side effects were rare in both groups. The methods are discussed. Bsl has late onset but long duration of action with a higher efficacy than Pim. Bsl is strong and long acting. After an initial intravenous injection Bsl (0,4 mg.) should be administered at 6-hourly intervals.

  19. Randomized Trial of Immediate Postoperative Pain Following Single-incision Versus Traditional Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei; Liu, Yang; Han, Wei; Liu, Jun; Jin, Lan; Li, Jian-She; Zhang, Zhong-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Background: We undertook a randomized controlled trial to ascertain if single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) was more beneficial for reducing postoperative pain than traditional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (TLC). Moreover, the influencing factors of SILC were analyzed. Methods: A total of 552 patients with symptomatic gallstones or polyps were allocated randomly to undergo SILC (n = 138) or TLC (n = 414). Data on postoperative pain score, operative time, complications, procedure conversion, and hospital costs were collected. After a 6-month follow-up, all data were analyzed using the intention-to-treat principle. Results: Among SILC group, 4 (2.9%) cases required conversion to TLC. Mean operative time of SILC was significantly longer than that of TLC (58.97 ± 21.56 vs. 43.38 ± 19.02 min, P < 0.001). The two groups showed no significant differences in analgesic dose, duration of hospital stay, or cost. Median pain scores were similar between the two groups 7 days after surgery, but SILC-treated patients had a significantly lower median pain score 6 h after surgery (10-point scale: 3 [2, 4] vs. 4 [3, 5], P = 0.009). Importantly, subgroup analyses of operative time for SILC showed that a longer operative time was associated with greater prevalence of pain score >5 (≥100 min: 5/7 patients vs. <40 min, 3/16 patients, P = 0.015). Conclusions: The primary benefit of SILC appears to be slightly less pain immediately after surgery. Surgeon training seems to be important because the shorter operative time for SILC may elicit less pain immediately after surgery. PMID:26668145

  20. The effect of oral tizanidine on postoperative pain relief after elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Talakoub, Reihanak; Abbasi, Saeed; Maghami, Elham; Zavareh, Sayyed Morteza Heidari Tabaei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cholecystectomy is considered as the most important and relatively common postoperative pain control often begins in recovery room by using systemic narcotics that may have some side effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of premedication with oral tizanidine on pain relief after elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: In this double-blinded clinical trial, 70 adults of American Society of Anesthesiologist physiologic state 1 and 2 scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia were studied and randomly divided in two study and control groups. Ninety minutes before the induction of anesthesia, patients received either 4 mg tizanidine (study group) orally in 50cc or the same volume of plain water as a placebo (control group). Then, the vital signs, pain intensity, duration of stay in recovery, and the analgesic consumption were measured and then compared in both groups during 24 h postoperatively. Results: There was no significant difference in patient characteristics, with respect to age, weight, gender, and duration of anesthesia and surgery between the groups (P > 0.05). The pain intensity, need for analgesic drugs (34.57 ± 8.88 mg vs. 101.86 ± 5.08 mg), and the duration of stay in recovery room (67.43 ± 1.59 min vs. 79.57 ± 5.48 min) were significantly lower in tizanidine group than that of the control group. Conclusion: Oral administration of 4 mg tizanidine before laparoscopic cholecystectomy reduces postoperative pain, opioid consumption, and consequence of the duration of stay in recovery room without any complication. PMID:26962521

  1. A Meta-Synthesis of Children's Experiences of Postoperative Pain Management.

    PubMed

    Sng, Qian Wen; He, Hong-Gu; Wang, Wenru; Taylor, Beverley; Chow, Aloysius; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee; Zhu, Lixia

    2017-02-01

    Ineffective management of postoperative pain in children has been reported widely. To improve the effectiveness of postoperative pain management for children, it was necessary to conduct a systematic review to better understand the current knowledge of children's experiences of their postoperative pain management. The aim of this review was to update and synthesize current qualitative research of postoperative pain management based on children's experiences. Qualitative studies published between January 1990 and July 2014 were searched from the electronic databases of CINAHL, MEDLINE, MedNar, ProQuest, PsycINFO, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Sociological Abstracts, and Web of Science. A broad range of search keywords and a three-step search strategy were used. Meta-syntheses were used to summarize the findings from the included studies. Nine qualitative studies were included. Three meta-syntheses from 22 categories based on 72 findings were generated: (a) Children experienced various negative emotions related to postoperative pain, and could assess and express their pain but need their parents as advocates; (b) apart from pain medication, various nonpharmacological strategies to relieve children's postoperative pain were employed by children, parents, and nurses; and (c) suggestions from children for their parents and nurses to better relieve postoperative pain. This review provided preliminary support for increasing the provision of information and education for children and their parents about postoperative conditions, pain, and pain relief strategies. Nurses should also be encouraged to employ more nonpharmacological pain-relieving strategies and build rapport with children and their parents. Future intervention studies are needed to improve children's postoperative experiences. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  2. Hepatic resection is associated with reduced postoperative opioid requirement

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Caitlyn Rose; Caldwell, Julia Christine; Afilaka, Babatunde; Iskandarani, Khaled; Chinchilli, Vernon Michael; McQuillan, Patrick; Cooper, Amanda Beth; Gusani, Niraj; Bezinover, Dmitri

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Postoperative pain can significantly affect surgical outcomes. As opioid metabolism is liver-dependent, any reduction in hepatic volume can lead to increased opioid concentrations in the blood. The hypothesis of this retrospective study was that patients undergoing open hepatic resection would require less opioid for pain management than those undergoing open pancreaticoduodenectomy. Material and Methods: Data from 79 adult patients who underwent open liver resection and eighty patients who underwent open pancreaticoduodenectomy at our medical center between January 01, 2010 and June 30, 2013 were analyzed. All patients received both general and neuraxial anesthesia. Postoperatively, patients were managed with a combination of epidural and patient-controlled analgesia. Pain scores and amount of opioids administered (morphine equivalents) were compared. A multivariate lineal regression was performed to determine predictors of opioid requirement. Results: No significant differences in pain scores were found at any time point between groups. Significantly more opioid was administered to patients having pancreaticoduodenectomy than those having a hepatic resection at time points: Intraoperative (P = 0.006), first 48 h postoperatively (P = 0.001), and the entire length of stay (LOS) (P = 0.002). Statistical significance was confirmed after controlling for age, sex, body mass index, and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification (adjusted P = 0.006). Total hospital LOS was significantly longer after pancreaticoduodenectomy (P = 0.03). A multivariate lineal regression demonstrated a lower opioid consumption in the hepatic resection group (P = 0.03), but there was no difference in opioid use based on the type of hepatic resection. Conclusion: Patients undergoing open hepatic resection had a significantly lower opioid requirement in comparison with patients undergoing open pancreaticoduodenectomy. A multicenter prospective

  3. Impact of sacropelvic fixation on the development of postoperative sacroiliac joint pain following multilevel stabilization for degenerative spine disease.

    PubMed

    Finger, T; Bayerl, S; Bertog, M; Czabanka, M; Woitzik, J; Vajkoczy, P

    2016-11-01

    We hypothesised, that the inclusion of the ilium for multilevel lumbosacral fusions reduces the incidence of postoperative sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain. The primary objective of this study was to compare the frequency of postoperative SIJ pain in patients undergoing multilevel stabilization with and without sacropelvic fixation for multilevel degenerative spine disease. In addition, we aimed at identifying factors that may predict the worsening or new onset of postoperative SIJ pain. A total of 63 patients with multisegmental fusion surgery with a minimum follow up of 12 months were evaluated. 34 patients received sacral fixation (SF group) and 29 patients received an additional sacropelvic fixation device (SPF group). Primary outcome parameters were changes in SIJ pain between the groups and the influence of pelvic parameters, the patient́s age, the patient́s body mass index (BMI) and the length of the stabilization on the SIJ pain. Between the two surgical groups there were no differences concerning age (p=0.3), BMI (p=0.56), length of follow up (p=0.96), length of the construct (p=0.56). In total 31.7% of the patients had a worsening/new onset of SIJ pain after surgery. An additional fixation of the SIJ with iliac screws or iliosacral plate did not have an influence on the SIJ pain (p=0.67). Likewise, pelvic parameters were not predictive for the outcome of the SIJ pain. Only an increased preoperative BMI correlated with a higher chance of a new onset of SIJ pain (p=0.037). In our retrospective study there was no influence of a sacropelvic fixation techniques on the SIJ pain in patients with multilevel degenerative spine disease after multilevel stabilization surgeries. The patients' BMI is the only preoperative factor that correlated with a higher incidence to develop postoperative SIJ pain, independently of the implantation of a sacropelvic fixation device. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk factors associated with postoperative pain after ophthalmic surgery: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Lesin, Mladen; Dzaja Lozo, Mirna; Duplancic-Sundov, Zeljka; Dzaja, Ivana; Davidovic, Nikolina; Banozic, Adriana; Puljak, Livia

    2016-01-01

    Background Risk factors associated with postoperative pain intensity and duration, as well as consumption of analgesics after ophthalmic surgery are poorly understood. Methods A prospective study was conducted among adults (N=226) who underwent eye surgery at the University Hospital Split, Croatia. A day before the surgery, the patients filled out questionnaires assessing personality, anxiety, pain catastrophizing, sociodemographics and were given details about the procedure, anesthesia, and analgesia for each postoperative day. All scales were previously used for the Croatian population. The intensity of pain was measured using a numerical rating scale from 0 to 10, where 0 was no pain and 10 was the worst imaginable pain. The intensity of pain was measured before the surgery and then 1 hour, 3 hours, 6 hours, and 24 hours after surgery, and then once a day until discharge from the hospital. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results A multivariate analysis indicated that independent predictors of average pain intensity after the surgery were: absence of premedication before surgery, surgery in general anesthesia, higher pain intensity before surgery and pain catastrophizing level. Independent predictors of postoperative pain duration were intensity of pain before surgery, type of anesthesia, and self-assessment of health. Independent predictors of pain intensity ≥5 during the first 6 hours after the procedure were the type of procedure, self-assessment of health, premedication, and the level of pain catastrophizing. Conclusion Awareness about independent predictors associated with average postoperative pain intensity, postoperative pain duration, and occurrence of intensive pain after surgery may help health workers to improve postoperative pain management in ophthalmic surgery. PMID:26858525

  5. Patient participation in postoperative pain assessment after spine surgery in a recovery unit.

    PubMed

    Kaptain, Kirsten; Bregnballe, Vibeke; Dreyer, Pia

    2017-10-01

    To explore how patients undergoing spine surgery participated in postoperative pain assessment in a recovery unit. Despite advances in medicine, pharmaceutical and technical knowledge, patients report considerable postoperative pain after spine surgery. Research shows that patients require efficient individual pain treatment and that their participation has a positive effect on pain treatment. This study was based on a phenomenological hermeneutic design. Fifteen qualitative interviews were conducted in 2014. Meaning condensation was used to analyse data. Three themes emerged: (1) communication and knowledge; anaesthesia, analgesics and severe pain affected patients' ability to assess and communicate their pain. (2) Pain assessment using a numerical rating scale; this theme was characterised by individual differences in rating perception. Also, new postoperative pain sensations were described as different kinds of pain and variation in the pain intensity during activity. (3) Patient-nurse relationship; this theme was characterised by reports of frequent and direct contact on the part of the nurses about pain assessment. Patients' lack of knowledge about pain treatment resulted in inactivity and uncertainty of when to ask for analgesics. This study indicates that nurses and patients would benefit from building a mutual understanding of pain perceptions and numerical rating scale as this would pave the way for a more accurate pain assessment. Patients' ability to participate in pain assessment was affected by anaesthesia, analgesics and severe pain. Patients needed knowledge about complications and needed to understand when they should ask for analgesics. Results indicate that patient perceptions of numerical rating scale and variation in patients' ability to communicate in the initial postoperative period should be given more attention to underpin patients' pain assessment. This may be a key factor in ensuring patient participation in pain assessment and thereby

  6. [Predicting of postoperative pain level and morphine consumption by preoperative pressure pain assessment in patients before elective surgery].

    PubMed

    Genov, P G; Smirnova, O V; Glushchenko, N S; Timerbaev, V H; Rebrova, O J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to predict a postoperative pain severity and morphine consumption by preoperative pressure pain assessment. 321 patients scheduled for elective surgery (lumbar discectomy, lumbar spinal fusion, hysterectomy, thoracotomy and total hip replacement) in 2009-2013 were enrolled in retrospective study. Pre-operatively, the pain threshold (PTH) and tolerance (PT) in Newton (N) were measured using the pressure algometry. Post-operatively, the pain scores at rest and during movement at 1st postoperative day (POD) using 10 cm VAS were also recorded Patients could get morphine by PCA device in addition to nonopioid analgesia post-operatively. PTH and PT were respectively 34 (24; 45.6) and 74 (54; 95) N, VAS at 1 POD 2 (1; 3.75) at rest and 4 (2,5; 6.25) cm during movement. Pre-operative PT correlated significantly with pain score during movement in patients at 1 POD (R = -0.124, p = 0.026, n = 320). Logit regression analysis found that pain control adequacy during movement at 1 POD could be predicted with PT (β = 0.011, Std. Err = 0.004, χ2 = 8.536, p = 0.004, OR = 1.011, 95% CI = 1.004-1.018). Morphine consumption by PCA device in patients was 21.25 (7.5; 38) mg. We found a significant correlation between pre-operative PT and post-operative morphine consumption (R = -0.306, p = 0.0006, n = 122). Post-operative pain severity during movement at 1st postoperative day can be predicted with the pre-operative pain tolerance using the pressure algometry. There is significant moderate negative correlation between pre- operative pain tolerance and post-operative morphine consumption by PCA device in patients at 1st postoperative day.

  7. Preoperative pain mechanisms assessed by cuff algometry are associated with chronic postoperative pain relief after total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Kristian Kjær; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Simonsen, Ole; Laursen, Mogens Berg; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2016-07-01

    Chronic postoperative pain after total knee replacement (TKR) in knee osteoarthritis (KOA) implies clinical challenges. Widespread hyperalgesia, facilitated temporal summation of pain (TSP), and impaired conditioned pain modulation (CPM) have been found in painful KOA. This exploratory study investigated postoperative pain relief 12 months after TKR in 4 subgroups of patients preoperatively profiled by mechanistic quantitative sensory testing. In 103 patients with KOA, pressure pain detection threshold (PDT) and tolerance thresholds (PTT) were assessed at the lower leg using cuff algometry. Temporal summation of pain was measured as an increase in pain intensity scores during 10 repeated (2 seconds intervals) painful cuff stimuli. Conditioned pain modulation was calculated as the relative increase in PDT during painful conditioning stimulation. The grand averages of TSP and CPM were calculated and values below or above were used for subgrouping: facilitated TSP/impaired CPM (group A, N = 16), facilitated TSP/normal CPM (group B, N = 15), normal TSP/impaired CPM (group C, N = 44), and normal TSP/normal CPM (group D, N = 28). Clinical VAS pain intensity scores were collected before and 12 months after TKR surgery and the pain relief calculated. Less pain relief was found in group A (52.0% ± 14.0% pain relief) than in group B (81.1% ± 3.5%, P = 0.023) and group C (79.6% ± 4.4%, P = 0.007), but not group D (69.4% ± 7.9%, P = 0.087). Low preoperative PDT was associated with a less postoperative pain relief (R = -0.222, P = 0.034), whereas TSP or CPM alone showed no associations with postoperative pain relief. This explorative study indicated that patients with osteoarthritis with facilitated TSP together with impaired CPM are more vulnerable to experience less pain relief after TKR.

  8. Pulsed electromagnetic fields dosing impacts postoperative pain in breast reduction patients.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Erin M; Hardy, Krista L; Alonso, Amanda; Pilla, Arthur A; Rohde, Christine H

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) reduce postoperative pain and narcotic requirements in breast augmentation, reduction, and reconstruction patients. PEMF enhances both calmodulin-dependent nitric oxide and/or cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling and phosphodiesterase activity, which blocks cyclic guanosine monophosphate. The clinical effect of these competing responses on PEMF dosing is not known. Two prospective, nonrandomized, active cohorts of breast reduction patients, with 15 min PEMF per 2 h; "Q2 (active)", and 5 min PEMF per 20 min; "5/20 (active)", dosing regimens were added to a previously reported double-blind clinical study wherein 20 min PEMF per 4 h, "Q4 (active)", dosing significantly accelerated postoperative pain reduction compared with Q4 shams. Postoperative visual analog scale pain scores and narcotic use were compared with results from the previous study. Visual analog scale scores at 24 h were 43% and 35% of pain at 1 h in the Q4 (active) and Q2 (active) cohorts, respectively (P < 0.01). Pain at 24 h in the 5/20 (active) cohort was 87% of pain at 1 h, compared with 74% in the Q4 (sham) cohort (P = 0.451). Concomitantly, narcotic usage in the 5/20 (active) and Q4 (sham) cohorts was not different (P = 0.478), and 2-fold higher than the Q4 (active) and Q2 (active) cohorts (P < 0.02). This prospective study shows Q4/Q2, but not 5/20 PEMF dosing, accelerated postoperative pain reduction compared with historical shams. The 5/20 (active) regimen increases NO 4-fold faster than the Q4 (active) regimen, possibly accelerating phosphodiesterase inhibition of cyclic guanosine monophosphate sufficiently to block the PEMF effect. This study helps define the dosing limits of clinically useful PEMF signals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Validation of the UNESP-Botucatu unidimensional composite pain scale for assessing postoperative pain in cattle.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Flávia Augusta; Luna, Stelio Pacca Loureiro; do Amaral, Jackson Barros; Rodrigues, Karoline Alves; Sant'Anna, Aline Cristina; Daolio, Milena; Brondani, Juliana Tabarelli

    2014-09-06

    The recognition and measurement of pain in cattle are important in determining the necessity for and efficacy of analgesic intervention. The aim of this study was to record behaviour and determine the validity and reliability of an instrument to assess acute pain in 40 cattle subjected to orchiectomy after sedation with xylazine and local anaesthesia. The animals were filmed before and after orchiectomy to record behaviour. The pain scale was based on previous studies, on a pilot study and on analysis of the camera footage. Three blinded observers and a local observer assessed the edited films obtained during the preoperative and postoperative periods, before and after rescue analgesia and 24 hours after surgery. Re-evaluation was performed one month after the first analysis. Criterion validity (agreement) and item-total correlation using Spearman's coefficient were employed to refine the scale. Based on factor analysis, a unidimensional scale was adopted. The internal consistency of the data was excellent after refinement (Cronbach's α coefficient = 0.866). There was a high correlation (p < 0.001) between the proposed scale and the visual analogue, simple descriptive and numerical rating scales. The construct validity and responsiveness were confirmed by the increase and decrease in pain scores after surgery and rescue analgesia, respectively (p < 0.001). Inter- and intra-observer reliability ranged from moderate to very good. The optimal cut-off point for rescue analgesia was > 4, and analysis of the area under the curve (AUC = 0.963) showed excellent discriminatory ability. The UNESP-Botucatu unidimensional pain scale for assessing acute postoperative pain in cattle is a valid, reliable and responsive instrument with excellent internal consistency and discriminatory ability. The cut-off point for rescue analgesia provides an additional tool for guiding analgesic therapy.

  10. Comparison of Bupivacaine and Lidocaine Use for Postoperative Pain Control in Endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Saeed; Naghavi, Neda

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Many patients suffer from mild, moderate or severe pain during or after root canal therapy. Theoretically, post-operative pain control can be achieved by using long-acting local anesthetics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a long acting anesthesia, bupivacaine, on preventing post-operative pain associated with endodontic treatment, and to compare it with lidocaine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a double blind and randomized clinical trial on 30 patients' anterior maxillary teeth. The patients were divided into two groups of fifteen. One group was administered lidocanine (2% with 1:100000 epinephrine) local anesthesia and the other group was given bupivacaine (0.5% without epinephrine). The pain in patients were compared using the visual analogue scale (VAS) at definite times i.e. before treatment, during treatment and 2,4,6,8,10,12,24,36 and 48 hours after operation. Data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA tests. RESULTS: Bupivacaine significantly decreased postoperative pain compared to lidocaine. Postoperative pain was directly related to preoperative pain. Women reported more pain, though significant difference in postoperative pain report was not found between different ages. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, a single dose of bupivacaine 0.5% used in infiltration anesthesia could be more effective in reduction or prevention of post-operative endodontic pain compared with lidocaine. PMID:24778680

  11. Management of acute postoperative pain with continuous intercostal nerve block after single port video-assisted thoracoscopic anatomic resection

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Wang, Kuo-Cheng; Liu, Hung-Pin; Gonzalez-Rivas, Diego; Wu, Ching-Yang; Liu, Yun-Hen; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Chao, Yin-Kai

    2016-01-01

    Background Effective postoperative pain control for thoracic surgery is very important, not only because it reduces pulmonary complications but also because it accelerates the pace of recovery. Moreover, it increases patients’ satisfaction with the surgery. In this study, we present a simple approach involving the safe placement of intercostal catheter (ICC) after single port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) anatomic resection and we evaluate postoperative analgesic function with and without it. Methods We identified patients who underwent single port anatomic resection with ICC placed intraoperatively as a route for continuous postoperative levobupivacaine (0.5%) administration and retrospectively compared them with a group of single port anatomic resection patients without ICC. The operation time, postoperative day 0, 1, 2, 3 and discharge day pain score, triflow numbers, narcotic requirements, drainage duration and post-operative hospital stay were compared. Results In total, 78 patients were enrolled in the final analysis (39 patients with ICC and 39 without). We found patients with ICC had less pain sensation numerical rating scale (NRS) on postoperative day 0, 1 (P=0.023, <0.001) and better triflow performance on postoperative day 1 and 2 (P=0.015, 0.032). In addition, lower IV form morphine usage frequency and dosage (P=0.009, 0.017), shorter chest tube drainage duration (P=0.001) and postoperative stay (P=0.005) were observed in the ICC group. Conclusions Continuous intercostal nerve blockade by placing an ICC intraoperatively provides effective analgesia for patients undergoing single port VATS anatomic resection. This may be considered a viable alternative for postoperative pain management. PMID:28149550

  12. Challenges in the optimisation of post-operative pain management with opioids in obese patients: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Lloret-Linares, C; Lopes, A; Declèves, X; Serrie, A; Mouly, S; Bergmann, J-F; Perrot, S

    2013-09-01

    An increasing number of obese patients are undergoing surgery, particularly bariatric and orthopaedic surgery. The physiological differences between obese and normal-weight subjects may modify not only anaesthetic requirements during surgery but also post-operative analgesic management, raising a number of challenges in a critical period. In this review, we analyse studies of post-operative pain management with opioids in obese subjects. We discuss the genetic factors common to pain and obesity and the factors potentially modifying opioid pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in obese patients, and we analyse the overall efficacy and safety of opioids for pain management during the post-operative period in obese patients. Both modifications to surgical methods and additional analgesic treatments to decrease the requirement for opioids may improve early rehabilitation and quality of care and reduce adverse effects in obese patients.

  13. Effect of music on postoperative pain and physiologic parameters of patients after open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Özer, Nadiye; Karaman Özlü, Zeynep; Arslan, Sevban; Günes, Nezihat

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of listening to personal choice of music on self-report of pain intensity and the physiologic parameters in patients who have undergone open heart surgery. The study design was quasiexperimental. Patients were selected through convenience sampling in the Cardiovascular Surgery Intensive Care Unit at a university hospital. The study was conducted with a total of 87 patients who underwent open heart surgery: 44 in the music group, 43 in the control group, ages between 18 and 78 years. Through pretest-posttest design, postoperative first-day data were collected. First, physiologic parameters (blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate) were recorded and a unidimensional verbal pain intensity scale applied to all participants. Later, the control group had a rest in their beds while the music group listened to their choice of music for 30 minutes. Physiologic data were then collected and the pain intensity scale applied once more. In the music group, there was a statistically significant increase in oxygen saturation (p = .001) and a lower pain score (p = .001) than in the control group. There was no difference between the groups in the other physiologic parameters. Results of this research provide evidence to support the use of music. Music might be a simple, safe, and effective method of reducing potentially harmful physiologic responses arising from pain in patients after open heart surgery. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Postoperative pain assessment in hospitalised patients: National survey and secondary data analysis.

    PubMed

    Hoogervorst-Schilp, J; van Boekel, R L M; de Blok, C; Steegers, M A H; Spreeuwenberg, P; Wagner, C

    2016-11-01

    Measuring pain is important for the adequate pain management of postoperative patients. The actual compliance with pain assessment in postoperative patients after implementation of a national safety program is unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the compliance with pain assessment in postoperative patients after implementation of a national safety program, according to the national quality indicators for pain assessment in postoperative patients. Furthermore, organisational factors associated with this compliance were determined. In this study, two data sources were used: 1) data from an evaluation study of the Dutch Hospital Patient Safety Program; and 2) data from a questionnaire survey. The compliance with two different pain process indicators was determined: 1) 3 pain measurements a day, all three full days after surgery; and 2) ≥1 pain measurement a day, all three full days after surgery. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between organisational factors in hospitals and compliance with pain process indicators. Data of 3895 patient records from 16 hospitals was included in this study. In 12% of the postoperative patients, pain was measured 3 times a day, all three full days after surgery. In 53% of the postoperative patients, pain was measured ≥1 time a day, all three full days after surgery. Compliance was highest in general hospitals compared to tertiary teaching and academic hospitals, and was statistically significantly higher at the surgery and surgical oncology department compared to the other departments. Low compliance was shown with pain assessment in postoperative patients, according to the process indicator pain after surgery in Dutch hospitals. This suggests that the implementation of measuring pain in hospitals is still insufficient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Laparoscopic Surgery Can Reduce Postoperative Edema Compared with Open Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dong; Gong, Jianfeng; Cao, Lei; Wei, Yao; Guo, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The study aimed to investigate the impact of laparoscopic surgery and open surgery on postoperative edema in Crohn's disease. Methods. Patients who required enterectomy were divided into open group (Group O) and laparoscopic group (Group L). Edema was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis preoperatively (PRE) and on postoperative day 3 (POD3) and postoperative day 5 (POD5). The postoperative edema was divided into slight edema and edema by an edema index, defined as the ratio of total extracellular water to total body water. Results. Patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery had better clinical outcomes and lower levels of inflammatory and stress markers. A total of 31 patients (26.05%) developed slight edema and 53 patients (44.54%) developed edema on POD3. More patients developed postoperative edema in Group O than in Group L on POD3 (p = 0.006). The value of the edema index of Group O was higher than that of Group L on POD3 and POD5 (0.402 ± 0.010 versus 0.397 ± 0.008, p = 0.001; 0.401 ± 0.009 versus 0.395 ± 0.007, p = 0.039, resp.). Conclusions. Compared with open surgery, laparoscopic surgery can reduce postoperative edema, which may contribute to the better outcomes of laparoscopic surgery over open surgery. PMID:27777583

  16. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Acute Postoperative Pain Levels After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.

    PubMed

    Cuff, Derek J; O'Brien, Kathleen C; Pupello, Derek R; Santoni, Brandon G

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate multiple preoperative and operative factors that may be predictive of and correlate with acute postoperative pain levels after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. One hundred eighty-one patients underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff surgery along with subacromial decompression and met the inclusion criteria for this study. Postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) scores were obtained on postoperative days 1, 7, and 90. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to correlate postoperative VAS scores with multiple independent factors, including preoperative subjective pain tolerance, preoperative VAS score, preoperative narcotic use, sex, smoking status, number of suture anchors used, tear size, single- or double-row repair, and patient age. Preoperative subjective pain tolerance, notably those patients rating themselves as having an extremely high pain tolerance, was the most significant predictor of high VAS pain scores on both postoperative day 1 (P = .0001) and postoperative day 7 (P < .0001). Preoperative narcotic use was also significantly predictive (P = .010) of high pain scores on postoperative day 1 and day 7 (P = .019), along with nonsmokers (P = .008) and younger patients (P = .006) being predictive on day 7. There were no patient factors that were predictive of VAS scores 3 months postoperatively (P = .567). Preoperative subjective pain tolerance, notably those patients rating themselves as having an extremely high pain tolerance, was the strongest factor predicting high acute pain levels after arthroscopic rotator cuff surgery. Preoperative narcotic use, smokers, and younger patients were also predictive of higher pain levels during the first postoperative week. Level IV, prognostic case series. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A prospective randomized trial of postoperative pain following different insufflation pressures during gynecologic laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Topçu, H O; Cavkaytar, S; Kokanalı, K; Guzel, A I; Islimye, M; Doganay, M

    2014-11-01

    To determine the effects of different intra-abdominal pressure values on visceral pain following gynecologic laparoscopic surgery in the Trendelenburg position. This randomized, controlled prospective trial was conducted at a tertiary education hospital and included 150 patients who underwent gynecologic laparoscopy with different abdominal insufflation pressures. There were 54 patients in the 8 mmHg low pressure group (LPG), 45 in the 12 mmHg standard pressure group (SPG), and 51 in the 15 mmHg high pressure group (HPG). We assessed mean age, body mass index (BMI), duration of surgery, analgesic consumption, length of hospital stay, amount of CO2 expended and volume of hemorrhage. Visceral pain and referred visceral pain were assessed 6, 12, and 24 h postoperatively using a visual analog scale (VAS). There was no significant difference in age, BMI, analgesic consumption or length of hospital stay among groups. The mean operative time and total CO2 expended during surgery were higher in the LPG compared with the SPG and HPG. The mean intensity of postoperative pain assessed by the VAS score at 6 and 12 h was less in the LPG than in the SPG and HPG and was reduced significantly at 12 h. VAS scores at 24 h in the LPG and SPG were lower than in the HPG. Pain is reduced by low insufflation pressure compared with standard and high insufflation pressure following gynecologic laparoscopic surgery in the Trendelenburg position. However, low insufflation pressure may result in longer operation times and increased hemorrhage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The interaction of tilidine and pethidine in postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Tammisto, T; Tigerstedt, I

    1975-01-01

    The mode of interaction between the new, non-narcotic analgesic tilidine and pethidine was studied in the treatment of postoperative pain. The potency ratio 3:1 (pethidine:tilidine) found previously was used in the comparison. Thus 0.25 mg/kg of pethidine with 0.75 mg/kg of tilidine and 0.5 mg/kg of pethidine with 1.5 mg/kg of tilidine were compared with 0.5 mg/kg and with 1.0 mg/kg of pethidine. These drug combinations proved to be equipotent with the pethidine dosages used. Consequently the mode of interaction seemed to be additive synergism. The onset of action was slightly faster with pethidine, but the duration of action was longer with pethidine-tilidine combinations. Respiratory depression and sedation were less evident after pethidine-tilidine combinations than after equianalgesic doses of pethidine. Circulatory effects were similar in all groups. No statistical difference in other side effects could be demonstrated between the groups.

  19. Influence of kinesiologic tape on postoperative swelling, pain and trismus after zygomatico-orbital fractures.

    PubMed

    Ristow, Oliver; Pautke, Christoph; Victoria Kehl; Koerdt, Steffen; Schwärzler, Katharina; Hahnefeld, Lilian; Hohlweg-Majert, Bettina

    2014-07-01

    Surgical treatment of zygomatico-orbital (ZO) fractures is a common procedure in maxillofacial surgery. Often accompanied by pain, trismus and swelling, postoperative morbidity is a major disadvantage, affecting patients' quality of life. The appliance of kinesiologic tape (KT) improves the blood and lymph flow, removing congestions of lymphatic fluid and haemorrhages. The aim of this study was to find out if the application of kinesiologic tape prevents or improves swelling, pain and trismus after zygomatico-orbital fracture surgery, improving patients' postoperative quality of life. A total of 30 patients were assigned for treatment of zygomatico-orbital fractures and were randomly divided into treatment either with or without kinesiologic tape. Tape was applied directly after surgery and maintained for at least 5 days postoperatively. Facial swelling was quantified using a five-line measurement at six specific time points. Pain and degree of mouth opening was measured. Patient's subjective feeling and satisfaction was queried. The results of this study show that application of kinesiologic tape after zygomatico-orbital surgery significantly reduced the incidence of swelling with an earlier swelling maximum, and decreased the maximum turgidity for more than 60% during the first 2 days after surgery. Although, kinesiologic tape has no significant influence on pain control and trismus, mouth opening increased earlier after operation in the kinesiologic tape group compared to the no-kinesiologic tape group. Furthermore, patients with kinesiologic tape felt significantly lower morbidity than those without kinesiologic tape. Therefore kinesiologic tape is a promising, simple, less traumatic, economical approach, which is free from adverse reaction and improves patients' quality of life.

  20. The effect of epidural versus general anesthesia on postoperative pain and analgesic requirements in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Shir, Y; Raja, S N; Frank, S M

    1994-01-01

    were recorded in the first 5 days after surgery in the three anesthetic groups (range 0-2/10). In patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery, the neuraxial blockade and surgical anesthesia achieved by epidural local anesthetics was associated with decreased postoperative analgesic demands. Lower postoperative analgesic requirements in the EA group, when compared with both the EG and GA groups, indicate that: (1) EA patients had less postoperative pain, and (2) an efficient intraoperative blockade of noxious afferent signals to the central nervous system is fundamental in reducing postoperative pain.

  1. Parents' experiences of managing their child's postoperative pain at home: an exploratory qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Longard, Julie; Twycross, Alison; Williams, Anna M; Hong, Paul; Chorney, Jill

    2016-09-01

    To understand parents' experiences of managing their child's postoperative pain at home. Recent changes in children's health care services often shift the responsibility of managing children's postoperative pain to parents. Although pain management is important for good postoperative outcomes, it can be a challenging task for families, and children's pain is often under-managed. This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews to explore parents' experiences of managing their child's postoperative pain at home. Participants were parents of 10 typically developing 5- and 6-year olds, who underwent (adeno)tonsillectomy, and experienced no complications leading to hospitalisation in the postoperative period. One-on-one interviews were conducted with parents within three months of their child's surgery. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and content analysis was used to identify themes in parents' experiences. All children experienced some postoperative pain. Parents' experiences of managing their child's pain were impacted by balancing the pros and cons of administering analgesic medications, managing the emotional and psychological effects of their child's pain, as well as parents' information needs. Most parents' information needs were met yet they still struggled to manage their child's pain. These findings provide insight into some of the barriers that make this process challenging for many families, and what health care centres can do to help support parents manage their child's postoperative pain at home. The results of this study may aid in the design of interventions that will support parents when managing their child's postoperative pain at home and thus improve children's experiences. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Management of Postoperative Pain: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American Pain Society, the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, and the American Society of Anesthesiologists' Committee on Regional Anesthesia, Executive Committee, and Administrative Council.

    PubMed

    Chou, Roger; Gordon, Debra B; de Leon-Casasola, Oscar A; Rosenberg, Jack M; Bickler, Stephen; Brennan, Tim; Carter, Todd; Cassidy, Carla L; Chittenden, Eva Hall; Degenhardt, Ernest; Griffith, Scott; Manworren, Renee; McCarberg, Bill; Montgomery, Robert; Murphy, Jamie; Perkal, Melissa F; Suresh, Santhanam; Sluka, Kathleen; Strassels, Scott; Thirlby, Richard; Viscusi, Eugene; Walco, Gary A; Warner, Lisa; Weisman, Steven J; Wu, Christopher L

    2016-02-01

    Most patients who undergo surgical procedures experience acute postoperative pain, but evidence suggests that less than half report adequate postoperative pain relief. Many preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative interventions and management strategies are available for reducing and managing postoperative pain. The American Pain Society, with input from the American Society of Anesthesiologists, commissioned an interdisciplinary expert panel to develop a clinical practice guideline to promote evidence-based, effective, and safer postoperative pain management in children and adults. The guideline was subsequently approved by the American Society for Regional Anesthesia. As part of the guideline development process, a systematic review was commissioned on various aspects related to various interventions and management strategies for postoperative pain. After a review of the evidence, the expert panel formulated recommendations that addressed various aspects of postoperative pain management, including preoperative education, perioperative pain management planning, use of different pharmacological and nonpharmacological modalities, organizational policies, and transition to outpatient care. The recommendations are based on the underlying premise that optimal management begins in the preoperative period with an assessment of the patient and development of a plan of care tailored to the individual and the surgical procedure involved. The panel found that evidence supports the use of multimodal regimens in many situations, although the exact components of effective multimodal care will vary depending on the patient, setting, and surgical procedure. Although these guidelines are based on a systematic review of the evidence on management of postoperative pain, the panel identified numerous research gaps. Of 32 recommendations, 4 were assessed as being supported by high-quality evidence, and 11 (in the areas of patient education and perioperative planning, patient

  3. Thalidomide alleviates postoperative pain and spatial memory deficit in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng; Hu, Si-Ping

    2017-09-01

    Pain is a major risk factor of post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in aged population. We investigated the effects of thalidomide, an anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug, on POCD in aged rats, and also explored the underlying mechanisms. Laparotomy was performed under anesthesia in aged rats (24-25 months) to establish POCD models. Thalidomide (5-50mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered immediately after laparotomy. Within 12h after the operation, pain symptoms were assessed by rat grimace scale (RGS). Within postoperative day (POD) 3-14, spatial memory was evaluated using performance errors in a radial arm maze. Protein levels of inflammatory cytokines and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors were measured on POD 14. POCD rats treated with thalidomide showed decreased RGS and performance errors, compared with saline-treated POCD rats. Single administration of thalidomide significantly reduced production of cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β) in serum but not in the brain, and attenuated upregulation of NMDA receptor (NR) 2A/B subunits in the hippocampus at POD 14. MK-801 abolished thalidomide-induced attenuation of spatial memory deficits. Our results support that thalidomide could disrupt the development of post-operative memory deficit in aged rats through its long-term regulation of NMDA receptors (NRs) in the hippocampus. Therefore, thalidomide might provide a new means to prevent the development of POCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. [Treating acute postoperative pain: evaluation of results on the surgical ward].

    PubMed

    Esteve, N; Ribera, H; Mora, C; Romero, O; Garrido, P; Verd, M

    2011-01-01

    To describe management of acute postoperative pain on the surgical ward. To study the relationship between pain and a variety of surgical procedures and approaches. To determine the level of information patients received, their expectations, and their satisfaction with treatment of postoperative pain. Cross-sectional observational study by survey and review of patient records. We studied 234 patients, including all who were hospitalized for more than 24 hours after scheduled or emergency operations. The main variables recorded were pain intensity at rest and during movement, including on the day after surgery, and the surgical procedure and approach. The prevalence of pain (>3 on a numerical scale) on the surgical ward was 33% at rest and 66% during movement. The prevalence of intense pain (>6 on the numerical scale) was 1.7% at rest and 7.3% during movement. Factors related to greater pain intensity were timing, that is, the first day after surgery, when 74.4% of patients experienced their most intense pain; type of surgery and approach (P<.004); and expecting to experience moderate or intense pain (P<.001). Recording the prevalence of postoperative pain on a surgical ward provides information about the real situation of acute postoperative pain control. Pain on movement is a principal indicator for detecting groups of patients for whom analgesic protocols could be improved. Type of surgery and approach is a fundamental factor to consider when comparing the results of analgesic protocols.

  5. Management of Postoperative Pain in Medical Institutions in Shandong Province in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Donghua; Ma, Jianzhong; Zhang, Zongwang; Yu, Ailan; Chen, Xueli; Feng, Cuicui; Lei, Weifu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate current situation of postoperative pain management in medical institutions in Shandong Province.A questionnaire was developed on the basis of guidelines of acute pain and pain quality assessment scale. The questionnaire was used to obtain information regarding the nature and scale of the medical institution, structure of pain management organization, implementation of pain assessment, and analgesic techniques and processes used in clinical practice. A multistage stratified and cluster sampling method was employed to investigate the current situation of postoperative pain management in 168 medical institutions in Shandong Province. For acute pain service (APS), 32% of the hospitals established postoperative pain management organizations similar to APS. For pain evaluation, 57.1% of the hospitals evaluated pain as the fifth vital sign, and 47.0% of the hospitals evaluated pain at rest and during activity. Furthermore, 43.0% of the surveyed hospitals employed patient-controlled analgesia mode, of which hospitals employing brachial plexus block, lumbar plexus block, and femoral nerve block analgesia accounted for 5.0%, 1.0%, and 4.0%, respectively. The survey revealed that 51.0% of the hospitals educated patients about pain and pain management, of which patients were postoperatively educated by ward nurses in 5.0% and patients were educated by APS during ward rounds in 2.0%. There is a lack of standardized postoperative pain management, the involvement of nurses in pain management is scarce, and the pain assessment and education and application of advanced analgesic management techniques were found to be inadequate in medical institutions in Shandong Province. PMID:26871800

  6. Preoperative dextromethorphan reduces intraoperative but not postoperative morphine requirements after laparotomy.

    PubMed

    Grace, R F; Power, I; Umedaly, H; Zammit, A; Mersiades, M; Cousins, M J; Mather, L E

    1998-11-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists combined with opioids are thought to be effective in the control of pain states. We evaluated morphine use and analgesia in 37 patients postlaparotomy. Patients received 60 mg of oral dextromethorphan or placebo the night before and again 1 h before surgery. Morphine was titrated intraoperatively to maintain blood pressure and heart rate within 20% of baseline and postoperatively via patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). The dextromethorphan and placebo groups were compared for morphine use intraoperatively, in recovery, via PCA in the first 4 and 24 h, and total use over the study period. Pain scores at rest and on activity for the first 4 and 24 h were also compared. Intraoperatively, the dextromethorphan group required less morphine: 13.1+/-4.3 vs 17.6+/-6.0 mg (P = 0.012). Postoperatively, there was no significant difference between the dextromethorphan and placebo groups for morphine use: in the recovery room 10.9+/-7.7 vs 12.1+/-7.7 mg; the first 4 h of PCA 15.9+/-9.3 vs 12.7+/-5.1 mg; the first 24 h of PCA 76.4+/-44.7 vs 61.8+/-27.5 mg; or in total morphine use 100.4+/-49.5 vs 91.5+/-3.1 mg. Pain scores for the two groups were not statistically different throughout the study period. We conclude that 60 mg of oral dextromethorphan given the night before and repeated an hour before surgery does not provide a postoperative morphine-sparing effect or improve analgesia after laparotomy. Patients given dextromethorphan before surgery had significantly reduced intraoperative morphine requirements. However, postoperative morphine requirements were unaltered. Dextromethorphan may need to be continued postoperatively to improve postoperative analgesia.

  7. The effect of patient-selected music on early postoperative pain, anxiety, and hemodynamic profile in cesarean section surgery.

    PubMed

    Ebneshahidi, Amin; Mohseni, Masood

    2008-09-01

    After cesarean section surgery, routine pharmacologic methods of analgesia--opioids and benzodiazepines--may impair the immediate close contact of mother and neonate for their sedative and emetic effects. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of patient-selected music on postoperative pain, anxiety, opioid requirement, and hemodynamic profile. A total of 80 patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I-II, scheduled to undergo general anesthesia and elective cesarean section surgery were enrolled. Patients were randomly allocated to receive 30 minutes of music or silence via headphones postoperatively. Pain and anxiety were measured with a visual analogue scale. Total postoperative morphine requirement as well as blood pressure and heart rate were recorded after the intervention period. Pain score and postoperative cumulative opioid consumption were significantly lower among patients in the music group (p < 0.05), while there were no group differences in terms of anxiety score, blood pressure, or heart rate (p > 0.05). Postoperative use of patient-selected music in cesarean section surgery would alleviate the pain and reduce the need for other analgesics, thus improving the recovery and early contact of mothers with their children.

  8. Scalpel versus diathermy of midline skin incisions: comparison of mean pain scores on second post-operative day.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Summaya; Ali, Aun; Zainab, Saima; Junaid Khan, Muhammad Taha

    2017-10-01

    To determine the mean post-operative pain in scalpel versus diathermy opening of midline laparotomies. The randomised controlled study was conducted at Civil Hospital and Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from May to November 2010, and comprised patients undergoing midline laparotomy. Patients were equally divided into two groups; those who received incision with diathermy were placed in group A, and those who received incision with scalpel in group B. Mean post-operative pain scores were recorded using numerical analogue scale on second post-operative day. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 58 patients, there were 29(50%) in each group. The overall mean age of the patients was 31.8±12.8 years. Besides, 40(68.9%) patients were male. The mean post-operative pain scores at 48 hours in diathermy group was 1.48±0.68 while in scalpel group it was 2.17±0.46 (p<0.05). The use of diathermy for midline laparotomy incision had significant advantage over scalpel in reducing pain on second post-operative day.

  9. Nurses' assessment of postoperative pain: can it be an alternative to patients' self-reports?

    PubMed Central

    Chung, I. S.; Sim, W. S.; Kim, G. S.; Park, S. H.; Park, Y. S.; Cha, K. J.; Park, Y. S.; Lim, Y. J.; Lee, S. C.; Kim, Y. C.

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate whether the nurses' assessment of postoperative pain can be an alternative to patients' self-reporting. We examined 187 patients receiving postoperative intravenous patient-controlled analgesia. The nurses assessed the patients' pain with three pain indices (therapeutic efficacy, pain intensity, and facial pain expression) 8 hr after operation. The patients recorded their resting and movement pain using 100-mm visual analog scales immediately following the nurses' assessment. There was an acceptable correlation between overall pain measurement assessed by patients and that assessed by nurses (canonical correlation coefficient=0.72, p=0.0001). The resting pain was more reliably reflected than the movement pain in overall measurement assessed both by nurses and by patients. Among the three pain indices assessed by nurses, the pain intensity most reliably reflected the patients' self-reports. The pain intensity assessed with a simple verbal descriptor scale therefore is believed to be an effective alternative to the patients' self-reports of postoperative pain at rest. However, it mirrored the patients' self-reports during movement less reliably. Therapeutic efficacy and facial pain expression indices were not effective alternatives to patients' self-reporting. PMID:11748363

  10. The surgery and early postoperative radicular pain in cases with multifocal lumbar disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    Ulutaş, Murat; Çınar, Kadir; Seçer, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Persistence of postoperative radicular pain after surgery for multifocal disc herniation (MFDH) is a clinical problem. This study aims to evaluate the effects of a combined treatment approach compared with unilateral stabilization on early postoperative radicular pain in patients with MFDH. Age, sex, level of operation, clinical findings, and radicular pain visual analogue scale (VAS) scores before surgery in the early postoperative period and at 3 months after surgery were retrospectively reviewed for 20 cases of multifocal lumbar disc herniation. The combined approach (translaminar and far lateral) was used for 13 cases. Seven cases underwent transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and unilateral transpedicular stabilization following total facetectomy. The mean age of the sample was 49.4 ± 10.1 years and the female-to-male ratio was 8:12. The mean VAS scores for radicular pain in cases treated with the combined approach were 8.2, 4.07, and 2.3 in the preoperative and early postoperative periods and 3 months after surgery, respectively. The mean score for radicular pain improved by 50.4% in the early postoperative period and by 72% in the late postoperative period. The mean VAS scores for radicular pain in cases who underwent TLIF and unilateral stabilization after facetectomy were 8.4, 2.1, and 1.4 in the preoperative and early postoperative periods and 3 months after surgery, respectively. The mean VAS score for radicular pain improved by 75% in the early postoperative period and by 83.3% in the late postoperative period. The combined approach is an effective alternative in cases with MFDH. TLIF and unilateral segmental stabilization provide substantial decompression and eliminate mechanical compression by conserving the height of the intervertebral foramen in the event that sufficient decompression is unable to obtain. We suggest that elimination of chemical mediators, particularly those causing pain in the dorsal ganglion, contributes to

  11. Use of three evidence-based postoperative pain assessment practices by registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Cathy L

    2009-12-01

    To provide optimal postoperative pain relief, nursing practice should be based on the best evidence available. For over 20 years, results of studies regarding nurses' use of evidence-based practices, including postoperative pain assessment practices, have shown that nurses use the practices inconsistently. The present cross-sectional survey study was conducted to: 1) determine the extent to which registered nurses caring for postoperative patients experiencing pain used three evidence-based postoperative pain assessment practices; and 2) identify relationships among the level of adoption of evidence-based postoperative pain assessment practices and selected characteristics of registered nurses. Data were collected from a convenience sample of all nurses caring for adult postoperative patients in two Midwestern hospitals where 443 surveys (46.9%) were returned. Respondents were aware of, but not using, three evidence-based postoperative pain assessment practices consistently. Registered nurses who used multiple sources to identify solutions to clinical practice problems or read one or two professional journals regularly were more likely to have adopted the three evidence-based postoperative pain assessment practices. Registered nurses need to be encouraged to use multiple sources to identify solutions to clinical practice problems, including professional nursing journals. Innovative approaches to promote the application of research to education and practice settings are needed. It is important to identify opinion leaders, because opinion leaders are an important resource in overcoming the barriers so that adoption of pain of evidence-based postoperative pain assessment practices can proceed. Additional research is needed to identify what variables effect the adoption of evidence-based practices and identify interventions to improve the level of adoption.

  12. The surgery and early postoperative radicular pain in cases with multifocal lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Ulutaş, Murat; Çınar, Kadir; Seçer, Mehmet

    2017-03-01

    Persistence of postoperative radicular pain after surgery for multifocal disc herniation (MFDH) is a clinical problem. This study aims to evaluate the effects of a combined treatment approach compared with unilateral stabilization on early postoperative radicular pain in patients with MFDH.Age, sex, level of operation, clinical findings, and radicular pain visual analogue scale (VAS) scores before surgery in the early postoperative period and at 3 months after surgery were retrospectively reviewed for 20 cases of multifocal lumbar disc herniation. The combined approach (translaminar and far lateral) was used for 13 cases. Seven cases underwent transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and unilateral transpedicular stabilization following total facetectomy.The mean age of the sample was 49.4 ± 10.1 years and the female-to-male ratio was 8:12. The mean VAS scores for radicular pain in cases treated with the combined approach were 8.2, 4.07, and 2.3 in the preoperative and early postoperative periods and 3 months after surgery, respectively. The mean score for radicular pain improved by 50.4% in the early postoperative period and by 72% in the late postoperative period. The mean VAS scores for radicular pain in cases who underwent TLIF and unilateral stabilization after facetectomy were 8.4, 2.1, and 1.4 in the preoperative and early postoperative periods and 3 months after surgery, respectively. The mean VAS score for radicular pain improved by 75% in the early postoperative period and by 83.3% in the late postoperative period.The combined approach is an effective alternative in cases with MFDH. TLIF and unilateral segmental stabilization provide substantial decompression and eliminate mechanical compression by conserving the height of the intervertebral foramen in the event that sufficient decompression is unable to obtain. We suggest that elimination of chemical mediators, particularly those causing pain in the dorsal ganglion, contributes to the absence

  13. Comparing the efficacy of intra-articular application of morphine and tramadol on postoperative pain after arthroscopic knee surgery.

    PubMed

    Jazayeri, Seyed Mohammad; Mosaffa, Faramarz; Abbasian, Mohammadreza; Hosseinzadeh, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    Intra-articular analgesia is a pain reliever that is frequently administered following arthroscopic knee surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of intra-articular application of morphine and tramadol on postoperative pain after arthroscopic knee surgery. For this randomized double blinded clinical trial, 132 patients undergoing minor arthroscopic knee surgery were randomly assigned to receive either; 5 mg morphine or 50 mg tramadol intra-articularly. Pain was evaluated by means of the verbal pain rating score (VRS) preoperatively (at rest and on movement of the knee joint) and postoperatively at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours. Meanwhile, the time of the first analgesic request and need for supplemental analgesic were also recorded. There was no statistically significant difference in VRS scoring between the two groups during the preoperative period either at rest or on knee movement. Meanwhile, VRS scores did not differ significantly between the morphine and tramadol treated groups postoperatively, except for in the one-hour post-operative scores in which the tramadol-treated group experienced less pain (P < 0.007). Post-operative VRS scores at 6, 12, and 24 hours were significantly decreased when compared with previous scores in both morphine and tramadol prescribed subjects (P < 0.001), hence, both local analgesics can significantly reduce pain after minor knee surgery. We have found a postoperative analgesic effect of intra-articularly administered morphine and tramadol following minor arthroscopic knee surgeries with a maximum effect 6 hours post injection.

  14. Comparing the Efficacy of Intra-Articular Application of Morphine and Tramadol on Postoperative Pain After Arthroscopic Knee Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jazayeri, Seyed Mohammad; Mosaffa, Faramarz; Abbasian, Mohammadreza; Hosseinzadeh, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    Background: Intra-articular analgesia is a pain reliever that is frequently administered following arthroscopic knee surgery. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of intra-articular application of morphine and tramadol on postoperative pain after arthroscopic knee surgery. Patients and Methods: For this randomized double blinded clinical trial, 132 patients undergoing minor arthroscopic knee surgery were randomly assigned to receive either; 5 mg morphine or 50 mg tramadol intra-articularly. Pain was evaluated by means of the verbal pain rating score (VRS) preoperatively (at rest and on movement of the knee joint) and postoperatively at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours. Meanwhile, the time of the first analgesic request and need for supplemental analgesic were also recorded. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in VRS scoring between the two groups during the preoperative period either at rest or on knee movement. Meanwhile, VRS scores did not differ significantly between the morphine and tramadol treated groups postoperatively, except for in the one-hour post-operative scores in which the tramadol-treated group experienced less pain (P < 0.007). Post-operative VRS scores at 6, 12, and 24 hours were significantly decreased when compared with previous scores in both morphine and tramadol prescribed subjects (P < 0.001), hence, both local analgesics can significantly reduce pain after minor knee surgery. Conclusions: We have found a postoperative analgesic effect of intra-articularly administered morphine and tramadol following minor arthroscopic knee surgeries with a maximum effect 6 hours post injection. PMID:24223330

  15. Effect of dexmedetomidine on postoperative pain in knee arthroscopic surgery; a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Mohammad; Tabari, Masoomeh; Faz, Reza Farhadi; Makhmalbaf, Hadi; Salehi, Maryam; Moosavitekye, Seyed Mostafa

    2014-03-01

    Various drugs are administered intra-articularly to provide postoperative analgesia after arthroscopic knee surgery. The purpose of this study was to assess the analgesic effects of intra-articular injection of a dexmedetomidine following knee arthroscopy. Forty six patients scheduled for arthroscopic knee surgery under general anaesthesia, were randomly devided into two groups. Intervention group received 1µg/kg dexmedetomidine (D) and isotonic saline. Control group received 25ml isotonic saline (P). Analgesic effects were evaluated by measuring pain intensity (VAS scores) and duration of analgesia. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, sex and weight. The mean of post-operation pain severity in 1, 3, 6,12, and 24 h was significantly lower in the intervention group (D) in comparison with the control group (P). the mean of the total dose of tramadol consumption was significantly lower in the intervention group in comparison with the control group (P<0.001). Intra-articular injection of dexmedetomidine at the end of arthroscopic knee surgery, alleviates the patients' pain, reducing the postoperative need for narcotics as analgesics, and increase the first analgesic request after operation.

  16. Effect of Dexmedetomidine on Postoperative Pain in Knee Arthroscopic Surgery; a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Mohammad; Tabari, Masoomeh; faz, Reza Farhadi; Makhmalbaf, Hadi; Salehi, Maryam; Moosavitekye, Seyed Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Various drugs are administered intra-articularly to provide postoperative analgesia after arthroscopic knee surgery. The purpose of this study was to assess the analgesic effects of intra-articular injection of a dexmedetomidine following knee arthroscopy. Methods: Forty six patients scheduled for arthroscopic knee surgery under general anaesthesia, were randomly devided into two groups. Intervention group received 1µg/kg dexmedetomidine (D) and isotonic saline. Control group received 25ml isotonic saline (P). Analgesic effects were evaluated by measuring pain intensity (VAS scores) and duration of analgesia. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, sex and weight. The mean of post-operation pain severity in 1, 3, 6,12, and 24 h was significantly lower in the intervention group (D) in comparison with the control group (P). the mean of the total dose of tramadol consumption was significantly lower in the intervention group in comparison with the control group (P<0.001). Conclusions: Intra-articular injection of dexmedetomidine at the end of arthroscopic knee surgery, alleviates the patients’ pain, reducing the postoperative need for narcotics as analgesics, and increase the first analgesic request after operation. PMID:25207314

  17. Ketamine in outpatient arthroscopic shoulder surgery: Effects on postoperative pain, hemodynamic stability and process times

    PubMed Central

    Schotola, Hanna; Kirsch, Karl-Christian; Höcker, Jan; Egan, Michael; Büttner, Benedikt; Wiese, Christoph; Mansur, Ashham; Hinz, José Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Pain after arthroscopic shoulder surgery is often severe, and establishing a pain treatment regimen that does not delay discharge can be challenging. The reported ability of ketamine to prevent opioid-induced hyperalgesia has not been investigated in this particular setting. Methods 300 adult patients scheduled for shoulder arthroscopy under general anesthesia were recruited for this observational clinical trial and were allotted to either receive 1mg/kg IV bolus of ketamine before surgery (ketamine group, KG) or to a control group (CG) without ketamine. NRS pain scores were obtained on the operative day and on postoperative days 1 and 2 and compared between groups. Secondary variables were blood pressure, heart rate, process times, satisfaction with the anesthetic and unwanted effects. Results Pain severity did not differ significantly between the groups at any time. Propofol injection rate and cumulative dose were higher in the KG. Heart rates and blood pressures were similar. Time to emergence and time in PACU were longer and vomiting was more frequent in patients given ketamine. Conclusion Preoperative low-dose ketamine added to a general anesthetic does not reduce perioperative pain after outpatient shoulder arthroscopy. It increases procedural times and the incidence of PONV. PMID:28352709

  18. Postoperative Pain and Intravenous Patient-Controlled Analgesia-Related Adverse Effects in Young and Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Jae Chul; Lee, Jinae; Kim, So Yeon; Choi, Sumin; Han, Dong Woo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this retrospective analysis of 10,575 patients who used fentanyl-based intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) after surgery, we evaluated difference between young and elderly patients on their characteristic of adverse effects. We reviewed the data collected from the patients who were provided IV-PCA for pain control following elective surgery under either general or spinal anesthesia between September 2010 and March 2014. Postoperative pain, incidence of PCA-related adverse effects, and risk factors for the need of rescue analgesics and antiemetics for postoperative 48 hours were analyzed. Pain intensity (numerical rating scale [NRS]) at postoperative 6 to 12 hours (4.68 vs 4.58, P < 0.01) and incidence of nausea or vomiting (23.8% vs 20.6%, P < 0.001) were higher in young patients, while incidence of PCA discontinuation (9.9% vs 11.5%, P < 0.01) and sedation (0.1% vs 0.7%, P < 0.001) was higher in elderly patients. Despite larger fentanyl dose used, a greater proportion of young patients required rescue analgesics (53.8% vs 47.9%, P < 0.001) while addition of ketorolac was effective in reducing postoperative pain. Despite lower incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), a larger proportion of elderly patients required rescue antiemetics (10.1% vs 12.2%, P < 0.001) while addition of ramosetron was effective in reducing PONV. In conclusion, when fentanyl-based IV-PCA is used for postoperative pain control, a larger proportion of young patients may require rescue analgesics while elderly patients may require more rescue antiemetics. The addition of ketorolac or ramosetron to the PCA of young and elderly patients can be effective to prevent rescue analgesics or antiemetics use. PMID:26559296

  19. Higher postoperative pain and increased morphine consumption follow pre- rather than post-incisional single dose epidural morphine.

    PubMed

    Bronstein, I; White, I; Ekstein, M P; Brill, S; Chazan, S; Ogorek, D; Ben-Abraham, R; Amar, E; Weinbroum, A A

    2011-04-01

    Neuraxial administration of morphine is an effective way of controlling postoperative pain and reducing analgesic consumption. Some animal models have demonstrated that preemptive administration of neuraxial narcotics reduces pain, while others have revealed the contrary. In addition, there have been no consistent results in clinical settings. This double-blind, randomized study compared the effects of pre- vs. post-incisional administration of neuraxial morphine on postoperative pain perception and analgesic requirements over 48 hours following laparotomy for open colectomy under standardized general anesthesia. Twenty patients received epidural morphine (3 mg) before the incision and saline after wound closure (MO1 group), and twenty patients received epidural saline before the incision and morphine after wound closure (MO2 group). Postoperatively, all patients received morphine boluses (1.5 mg) via intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) and rescue doses of intramuscular diclofenac (75 mg) every 6 hours, as needed. MO1 patients used significantly (P<0.05) more morphine than the MO2 group during the first 24 postoperative hours and activated the PCA device more frequently throughout the 48-hour study period. The MO1 group was characterized by significantly (P<0.05) higher self-rated pain scores than the MO2 group throughout the study. The self-rated levels of sedation and satisfaction of the MO2 patients were also consistently better (P<0.05) than those of the MO1 patients, especially during the second postoperative day. Pre-incisional epidural morphine in patients undergoing open colonic surgery under general anesthesia was associated with more postoperative pain, a greater need for analgesics, and poorer patient satisfaction compared to post-incisional morphine administration.

  20. Postoperative Pain Management in Latino Families: Parent Beliefs about Analgesics Predict Analgesic Doses Provided to Children

    PubMed Central

    Rosales, Alvina; Fortier, Michelle A.; Campos, Belinda; Kain, Zeev N.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives The present study examined whether parental perceptions of children’s pain impacted home-based pain management following outpatient surgery in a sample of Latino families from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Methods Latino parents of children (n = 161) who underwent outpatient surgery were recruited for this study and completed measures assessing attitudes on pain and analgesic use (Parental Pain Expression Perceptions and Medication Attitudes Questionnaire) before their child’s surgery. Parents also rated their child’s pain after their child’s surgery using the Parent Postoperative Pain Measure and collected data on the amount of analgesics they gave to their child on the first postoperative day. Hierarchical regression analyses examined whether parental attitudes predicted pain assessment and management at home. Results A majority of parents reported multiple misconceptions regarding children’s pain and fears of side effects as well as avoidance of analgesic use. For example, over 80% reported believing that a child always tells their parents when they are in pain. Hierarchical regression analyses found that more fear and avoidance regarding analgesic use for children’s pain predicted parents’ providing fewer doses of analgesic to their children on the first postoperative day (β = −0.21, p = 0.028). Conclusions Preoperative parents’ beliefs regarding analgesics for treatment of children’s pain may adversely impact parent postoperative analgesic administration at home in Latino families. PMID:26792407

  1. Single dose oral ibuprofen plus caffeine for acute postoperative pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Derry, Sheena; Wiffen, Philip J; Moore, R Andrew

    2015-07-14

    There is good evidence that combining two different analgesics in fixed doses in a single tablet can provide better pain relief in acute pain and headache than either drug alone, and that the drug-specific benefits are essentially additive. This appears to be broadly true in postoperative pain and migraine headache across a range of different drug combinations, and when tested in the same and different trials. Adding caffeine to analgesics also increases the number of people obtaining good pain relief. Combinations of ibuprofen and caffeine are available without prescription in some parts of the world. To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of a single oral dose of ibuprofen plus caffeine for moderate to severe postoperative pain, using methods that permit comparison with other analgesics evaluated in standardised trials using almost identical methods and outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Oxford Pain Relief Database, two clinical trial registries, and the reference lists of articles. The date of the most recent search was 1 February 2015. Randomised, double-blind, placebo- or active-controlled clinical trials of single dose oral ibuprofen plus caffeine for acute postoperative pain in adults. Two review authors independently considered trials for inclusion in the review, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data. We used the area under the pain relief versus time curve to derive the proportion of participants with at least 50% pain relief over six hours prescribed either ibuprofen plus caffeine or placebo. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) and number needed to treat to benefit (NNT). We used information on the use of rescue medication to calculate the proportion of participants requiring rescue medication and the weighted mean of the median time to use. We also collected information on adverse effects. We identified five randomised, double-blind studies with 1501 participants, but

  2. Initial evaluation of a canine stifle arthrotomy post-operative pain model.

    PubMed

    Tomas, A; Bledsoe, D; Wall, S; Davidson, G; Lascelles, B D X

    2015-06-01

    Most models of acute post-operative orthopedic pain involve the injection of a clinically irrelevant pro-inflammatory agent. The ideal model should, however, be clinically relevant and allow full functional recovery of enrolled animals after research is completed. This study explored the validity of a model employing arthrotomy and objectively measured limb use. Six purpose-bred Beagles underwent arthrotomies on each stifle with a washout period in between. Using a randomized crossover design, each dog received placebo and an extended-release buprenorphine (ER-Bup) preparation. Static and dynamic ground reaction forces (GRFs) were measured prior to and for 72 h following surgery using a pressure sensitive walkway (PSW). GRFs for each hind limb were compared using difference (delta), and symmetry indices (SI). The effects of surgery and of treatment were analyzed using repeated measures ANCOVA. The results indicated significantly decreased limb use compared to baseline for placebo, and significantly increased limb use in the ER-Bup group over placebo at all times for % bodyweight distribution (%BWdistrib), peak vertical force (PVF) and vertical impulse (VI). There was a significant treatment by time interaction for velocity (P = 0.03) and %BWdistrib (P = 0.01, 0.003). Overall, the data show that reduced limb use was present for at least 72 h following arthrotomy. In addition, the use of the ER-Bup analgesic decreased lameness, confirming the validity of this approach as a model of post-operative pain. Subjective assessments did not detect the pain-inducing effects of arthrotomy or pain-alleviating effects of treatment, and subjective measures of procedural pain in research dogs need to be developed.

  3. Efficacy of popliteal block in postoperative pain control after ankle fracture fixation: a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Rachel Y; Montero, Nicole; Jain, Sudheer K; Egol, Kenneth A; Tejwani, Nirmal C

    2012-10-01

    To compare postoperative pain control in patients treated surgically for ankle fractures who receive popliteal blocks with those who received general anesthesia alone. Institutional Review Board approved prospective randomized study. Metropolitan tertiary-care referral center. All patients being treated with open reduction internal fixation for ankle fractures who met inclusion criteria and consented to participate were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either general anesthesia (GETA) or intravenous sedation and popliteal block. Patients were assessed for duration of procedure, total time in the operating room, and postoperative pain at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours after surgery using a visual analog scale. Fifty-one patients agreed to participate in the study. Twenty-five patients received popliteal block, while 26 patients received GETA. There were no anesthesia-related complications. At 2, 4, and 8 hours postoperatively, patients who underwent GETA demonstrated significantly higher pain. At 12 hours, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups with regard to pain control. However, by 24 hours, those who had received popliteal blocks had significantly higher pain with no difference by 48 hours. Popliteal block provides equivalent postoperative pain control to general anesthesia alone in patients undergoing operative fixation of ankle fractures. However, patients who receive popliteal blocks do experience a significant increase in pain between 12 and 24 hours. Recognition of this "rebound pain" with early narcotic administration may allow patients to have more effective postoperative pain control.

  4. Role of Ketamine in Acute Postoperative Pain Management: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Radvansky, Brian M.; Shah, Khushbu; Parikh, Anant; Sifonios, Anthony N.; Eloy, Jean D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of this narrative review was to examine the usage of ketamine as a postoperative analgesic agent across a wide variety of surgeries. Design. A literature search was performed using the phrases “ketamine” and “postoperative pain.” The authors analyzed the studies that involved testing ketamine's effectiveness at controlling postoperative pain. Effectiveness was assessed through various outcomes such as the amount of opiate consumption, visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores, and persistent postoperative pain at long-term follow-up. Results. While many different administration protocols were evaluated, delivering ketamine both as a pre- or perioperative bolus and postoperative infusion for up to 48 hours appeared to be the most effective. These effects are dose-dependent. However, a number of studies analyzed showed no benefit in using ketamine versus placebo for controlling postoperative pain. While ketamine is a safe and well-tolerated drug, it does have adverse effects, and there are concerns for possible neurotoxicity and effects on memory. Conclusions. In a number of limited situations, ketamine has shown some efficacy in controlling postoperative pain and decreasing opioid consumption. More randomized controlled trials are necessary to determine the surgical procedures and administrations (i.e., intravenous, epidural) that ketamine is best suited for. PMID:26495312

  5. The effect of pain on health-related quality of life in the immediate postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Wu, Christopher L; Naqibuddin, Mohammad; Rowlingson, Andrew J; Lietman, Steven A; Jermyn, Roland M; Fleisher, Lee A

    2003-10-01

    The hypothesis of this study was to determine if the severity of postoperative pain would affect patients' health-related quality of life (HRQL) in the immediate postoperative period (within 2 wk of surgery). We designed this study as a prospective, nonrandomized observational trial in a tertiary academic care center. Patients undergoing elective total hip or knee replacement surgery were eligible. Patients received a standardized intraoperative general or epidural anesthetic followed by IV patient-controlled analgesia or patient-controlled epidural analgesia. Short Form (SF)-12, visual analog scores for pain at rest and pain with activity, nausea, and itching were assessed on postoperative days 1-5, 7, and 14. The severity of pain correlated with a decrease in both the physical and mental component of the SF-12. The severity of nausea correlated with a decrease in the mental but not physical component of the SF-12. The severity of itching did not correlate with a change in the SF-12. Our findings suggest that an increase in postoperative pain will decrease a patient's quality of life in the immediate postoperative period; however, several methodologic issues exist when assessing HRQL in the immediate postoperative period. Severity of postoperative pain may affect quality of life.

  6. Correlates of satisfaction with pain treatment in the acute postoperative period: results from the international PAIN OUT registry.

    PubMed

    Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Gerbershagen, Hans J; Taylor, Rod S; Pogatzki-Zahn, Esther; Komann, Marcus; Rothaug, Judith; Volk, Thomas; Yahiaoui-Doktor, Maryam; Zaslansky, Ruth; Brill, Silviu; Ullrich, Kristin; Gordon, Debra B; Meissner, Winfried

    2014-07-01

    Patient ratings of satisfaction with their postoperative pain treatment tend to be high even in those with substantial pain. Determinants are poorly understood and have not previously been studied in large-scale, international datasets. PAIN OUT, a European Union-funded acute pain registry and research project, collects patient-reported outcome data on postoperative day 1 using the self-reported International Pain Outcome Questionnaire (IPO), and patient, clinical, and treatment characteristics. We investigated correlates of satisfaction and consistency of effects across centres and countries using multilevel regression modelling. Our sample comprised 16,868 patients (median age 55 years; 55% female) from 42 centres in 11 European countries plus Israel, USA, and Malaysia, who underwent a wide range of surgical procedures, for example, joint, limb, and digestive tract surgeries. Median satisfaction was 9 (interquartile range 7-10) on a 0-10 scale. Three IPO items showed strong associations and explained 35% of the variability present in the satisfaction variable: more pain relief received, higher allowed participation in pain treatment decisions, and no desire to have received more pain treatment. Patient factors and additional IPO items reflecting pain experience (eg, worst pain intensity), pain-related impairment, and information on pain treatment added little explanatory value, partially due to covariate correlations. Effects were highly consistent across centres and countries. We conclude that satisfaction with postoperative pain treatment is associated with the patients' actual pain experience, but more strongly with impressions of improvement and appropriateness of care. To the degree they desire, patients should be provided with information and involved in pain treatment decisions. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prior conditions influencing nurses' decisions to adopt evidence-based postoperative pain assessment practices.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Cathy L

    2010-12-01

    Over the past 30 years, postoperative pain relief has been shown to be inadequate. To provide optimal postoperative pain relief, it is imperative for nurses to use evidence-based postoperative pain assessment practices. This correlational descriptive study was conducted to identify factors, termed prior conditions, that influenced nurses' decisions to adopt three evidence-based postoperative pain assessment practices. A convenience sample of nurses who cared for adult postoperative patients in two Midwestern hospitals were surveyed, and 443 (46.9%) nurses responded. The previous practice and innovativeness of nurses were supportive of adoption of the three practices. Nurses felt that patients received adequate pain relief, which is unsupportive of adoption of the three practices because there is no impetus to change. Nurses who perceived the prior conditions as being supportive of adoption of pain management practices used multiple sources to identify solutions to clinical practice problems, and those who read professional nursing journals were more likely to have adopted the three practices and were more innovative. The number of sources used to identify solutions to clinical practice problems, previous practices, and innovativeness were predictive of nurses' adoption of the three evidence-based postoperative pain assessment practices. Nurses need to be encouraged to use multiple sources, including professional nursing journals, to identify solutions to clinical practice problems. Innovative nurses may be considered to be opinion leaders and need to be identified to promote the adoption of evidence-based postoperative pain assessment practices. Further exploration of the large unexplained variance in adoption of evidence-based postoperative pain assessment practices is needed.

  8. Pregabalin can decrease acute pain and postoperative nausea and vomiting in hysterectomy: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Ming; Xia, Min; Shan, Nan; Yuan, Ping; Wang, Dong-Lin; Shao, Jiang-He; Ma, Hui-Wen; Wang, Lu-Lu; Zhang, Yuan

    2017-08-01

    Whether the preoperative administration of pregabalin plays a beneficial role in controlling acute pain after hysterectomy is unknown. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the efficacy and safety of the preoperative use of pregabalin to treat acute postoperative pain following hysterectomy. In April 2017, a systematic computer-based search was conducted in the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Google databases. RCTs comparing pregabalin with placebo in patients undergoing hysterectomy were retrieved. The primary endpoint was the visual analog scale (VAS) score with rest or mobilization at 2 h, 4 and 24 hours and cumulative morphine consumption at 2, 4, 24, and 48 hours. The secondary outcomes were complications of nausea, vomiting, sedation, and dizziness. After tests for publication bias and heterogeneity among studies were performed, the data were aggregated for random-effects models when necessary. Ten clinical studies with 1207 patients (pregabalin = 760, control = 447) were finally included in this meta-analysis. Preoperative administration of pregabalin was associated with a significant reduction of VAS with rest or mobilization at 2, 4, and 24 hours after hysterectomy. Further, the preoperative administration of pregabalin was associated with a reduction in total morphine consumption at 2, 4, 24, and 48 hours after hysterectomy. The occurrence of morphine-related complications (nausea and vomiting) was also reduced in the pregabalin group. However, the preoperative administration of pregabalin was associated with an increase in the occurrence of dizziness. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of sedation. The preoperative use of pregabalin reduced postoperative pain, total morphine consumption, and morphine-related complications following hysterectomy. The doses of pregabalin were different, and large heterogeneity was the limitation of

  9. Single dose oral paracetamol (acetaminophen) with codeine for postoperative pain in adults

    PubMed Central

    Toms, Laurence; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2014-01-01

    relief over four-to-six hours, with NNTs of 2.2 (95% CI 1.8 to 2.9) for 800 to 1000 mg paracetamol plus 60 mg codeine, 3.9 (2.9 to 4.5) for 600 to 650 mg paracetamol plus 60 mg codeine, and 6.9 (4.8 to 12) for 300 mg paracetamol plus 30 mg codeine. Time to use of rescue medication was over four hours with paracetamol plus codeine and two hours with placebo. The NNT to prevent remedication was 5.6 (4.0 to 9.0) for 600 mg paracetamol plus 60 mg codeine over four to six hours. Adverse events increased of mainly mild to moderate severity with paracetamol plus codeine than placebo. Fourteen studies, with 926 participants, were included in the comparison of paracetamol plus codeine with the same dose of paracetamol alone. Addition of codeine increased proportion of participants achieving at least 50% pain relief over four-to-six hours by 10 to 15%, increased time to use of rescue medication by about one hour, and reduced proportion of participants needing rescue medication by about 15% (NNT to prevent remedication 6.9 (4.2 to 19). Adverse events were mainly mild to moderate in severity and incidence did not differ between groups. Authors’ conclusions This update confirms previous findings that combining paracetamol with codeine provided clinically useful levels of pain relief in about 50% of patients with moderate to severe postoperative pain, compared with under 20% with placebo. New information for remedication shows that the combination extended the duration of analgesia by about one hour compared to treatment with the same dose of paracetamol alone. At higher doses, more participants experienced adequate pain relief, but the amount of information available for the 1000 mg paracetamol plus 60 mg codeine dose was small, and based on limited information. PMID:19160199

  10. Single dose oral paracetamol (acetaminophen) with codeine for postoperative pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Toms, Laurence; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

    2009-01-21

    60 mg codeine, 3.9 (2.9 to 4.5) for 600 to 650 mg paracetamol plus 60 mg codeine, and 6.9 (4.8 to 12) for 300 mg paracetamol plus 30 mg codeine. Time to use of rescue medication was over four hours with paracetamol plus codeine and two hours with placebo. The NNT to prevent remedication was 5.6 (4.0 to 9.0) for 600 mg paracetamol plus 60 mg codeine over four to six hours. Adverse events increased of mainly mild to moderate severity with paracetamol plus codeine than placebo.Fourteen studies, with 926 participants, were included in the comparison of paracetamol plus codeine with the same dose of paracetamol alone. Addition of codeine increased proportion of participants achieving at least 50% pain relief over four-to-six hours by 10 to 15%, increased time to use of rescue medication by about one hour, and reduced proportion of participants needing rescue medication by about 15% (NNT to prevent remedication 6.9 (4.2 to 19). Adverse events were mainly mild to moderate in severity and incidence did not differ between groups. This update confirms previous findings that combining paracetamol with codeine provided clinically useful levels of pain relief in about 50% of patients with moderate to severe postoperative pain, compared with under 20% with placebo. New information for remedication shows that the combination extended the duration of analgesia by about one hour compared to treatment with the same dose of paracetamol alone. At higher doses, more participants experienced adequate pain relief, but the amount of information available for the 1000 mg paracetamol plus 60 mg codeine dose was small, and based on limited information.

  11. Assessment of post-operative pain and its management among patients undergoing craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Saramma, P P; Mathew, Rikku

    2013-01-01

    Pain assessment and its management in patients undergoing craniotomy, especially those with communication barriers, continue to present challenges to nurses. The present study was undertaken to assess the level of post-operative pain suffered by patients after craniotomy, to identify the activities that increase/relieve pain and to find out association between pain score of patients and selected variables. A self-prepared validated questionnaire and Wong Bakers Faces pain scale were used as the tools. The post-operative pain was mild to moderate and decreased from first to third postoperative day. Pain relief was adequate with the combination therapy of non-narcotic analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The study revealed that there was no significant difference between the pain perception and age or gender of the patient. The activities that increased pain were surgical dressing removal and position changing. Nursing staff should focus on assessing and managing post-operative pain to improve quality of nursing care in order to improve the comfort of craniotomy patients.

  12. Preoperative concentration of beta-lipotropin immunoreactive material in cerebrospinal fluid: a predictor of postoperative pain?

    PubMed

    Matejec, Reginald; Schulz, Axel; Mühling, Jörg; Uhlich, Holger; Bödeker, Rolf-Hasso; Hempelmann, Gunter; Teschemacher, Hansjörg

    2006-02-01

    Levels of beta-endorphin immunoreactive material (IRM) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been reported to correlate inversely with postoperative morphine requirement. Considering proopiomelanocortin (POMC) derivatives as predictors for sensitivity to postoperative pain, we determined authentic beta-endorphin (beta-endorphin(1-31)), beta-lipotropin IRM, N-acetyl-beta-endorphin IRM and ACTH in CSF of 17 patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty, before surgery (t(A)), immediately after termination of propofol infusion and still under spinal anesthesia (t(B)), under postoperative pain (t(C)) and one day after surgery (t(D)); patients rated their severity of pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS) at those four times. In all patients CSF concentrations of N-acetyl-beta-endorphin IRM and beta-lipotropin IRM were found to be increased after terminating the propofol infusion with spinal anesthesia still effective at t(B). Patients did not feel pain at times t(A), t(B) or t(D); however, they reported moderate to considerable pain at t(C). There were no correlations of postoperative pain severity at t(C) with ACTH, beta-endorphin(1-31) or N-acetyl-beta-endorphin IRM concentrations in CSF. In contrast, we observed significant inverse correlations (Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between -0.83 and -0.85, p<0.01) for postoperative pain severity with beta-lipotropin IRM concentrations in CSF at t(C), and, in addition, at t(A), t(B) and t(D); thus, postoperative pain severity appeared to be dependent on a central system controlling sensitivity to pain, linked to a POMC system releasing beta-lipotropin IRM into CSF and already active at times t(A) and t(B). We conclude that beta-lipotropin IRM in CSF might be considered to serve as a predictor of sensitivity to postoperative pain.

  13. The effectiveness of low-level laser on postoperative pain and edema in secondary palatal operation.

    PubMed

    Ezzat, Abdelrahman E M; El-Shenawy, Hanna M; El-Begermy, Marwa M; Eid, Mustafa I; Akel, Mabrouk M; Abbas, Ayman Y

    2016-10-01

    The postoperative period after palatal surgery is usually very painful, requiring the use of pain-relieving drugs. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in post-operative pain control and edema after secondary palatal operations. A randomized double blinded clinical study on 20 children undergoing secondary palatal operations between 2013 and 2015 was done. Patients were randomly divided on two groups 10 patients each. In one group patients received local application of therapeutic laser immediately after surgery while patients received nothing in the control group. The mean age was 5.22 years ± 2.53 SD in the laser group and 6.42 years ± 0.76 in the control group. Postoperative pain was assessed by using visual analog scale scores and by recording the need of analgesics. The degree of postoperative edema was also recorded. The pain scale showed significantly less postoperative pain in the laser group than in the control group from the first day (P-value = 0.006) to the 6th day (P-value = 0.014). The number of postoperative analgesic doses needed were significantly less in the laser group in the second and third days (P-value = 0.014). The postoperative edema was significantly higher in the control group from the 2nd (P-value = 0.004) to the 7th (P-value = 0.014) postoperative days. Preliminary results showed that low-level laser therapy is effective in the reduction of postoperative pain and edema, and minimizing the need of analgesic medication after secondary palatal operations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of effects of intraoperative nefopam and ketamine infusion on managing postoperative pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy administered remifentanil

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung Kwan; Choi, Jung Il; Kim, Woong Mo; Heo, Bong Ha; Park, Keun Seok; Song, Ji A

    2016-01-01

    Background Although intraoperative opioids provide more comfortable anesthesia and reduce the use of postoperative analgesics, it may cause opioid induced hyperalgesia (OIH). OIH is an increased pain response to opioids and it may be associated with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. This study aimed to determine whether intraoperative nefopam or ketamine, known being related on NMDA receptor, affects postoperative pain and OIH after continuous infusion of intraoperative remifentanil. Methods Fifty-four patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized into three groups. In the nefopam group (N group), patients received nefopam 0.3 mg/kg at the induction of anesthesia followed by a continuous infusion of 0.065 mg/kg/h. In the ketamine group (K group), patients received ketamine 0.3 mg/kg at the induction of anesthesia followed by a continuous infusion of 3 µg/kg/min. The control group did not received any other agents except for the standard anesthetic regimen. Postoperative pain score, first time and number of demanding rescue analgesia, OIH and degrees of drowsiness/sedation scale were examined. Results Co-administrated nefopam or ketamine significantly reduced the total amount of intraoperative remifentanil and postoperative supplemental morphine. Nefopam group showed superior property over control and ketamine group in the postoperative VAS score and recovery index (alertness and respiratory drive), respectively. Nefopam group showed lower morphine consumption than ketamine group, but not significant. Conclusions Both nefopam and ketamine infusion may be useful in managing in postoperative pain control under concomitant infusion of remifentanil. However, nefopam may be preferred to ketamine in terms of sedation. PMID:27703629

  15. Negative oncologic impact of poor postoperative pain control in left-sided pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Min, Eun-Ki; Chong, Jae Uk; Hwang, Ho Kyoung; Pae, Sang Joon; Kang, Chang Moo; Lee, Woo Jung

    2017-01-28

    To investigate the association between postoperative pain control and oncologic outcomes in resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). From January 2009 to December 2014, 221 patients were diagnosed with PDAC and underwent resection with curative intent. Retrospective review of the patients was performed based on electronic medical records system. One patient without records of numerical rating scale (NRS) pain intensity scores was excluded and eight patients who underwent total pancreatectomy were also excluded. NRS scores during 7 postoperative days following resection of PDAC were reviewed along with clinicopathologic characteristics. Patients were stratified into a good pain control group and a poor pain control group according to the difference in average pain intensity between the early (POD 1, 2, 3) and late (POD 5, 7) postoperative periods. Cox-proportional hazards multivariate analysis was performed to determine association between postoperative pain control and oncologic outcomes. A total of 212 patients were dichotomized into good pain control group (n = 162) and poor pain control group (n = 66). Median follow-up period was 17 mo. A negative impact of poor postoperative pain control on overall survival (OS) was observed in the group of patients receiving distal pancreatectomy (DP group; 42.0 mo vs 5.0 mo, P = 0.001). Poor postoperative pain control was also associated with poor disease-free survival (DFS) in the DP group (18.0 mo vs 8.0 mo, P = 0.001). Patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy or pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD group) did not show associations between postoperative pain control and oncologic outcomes. Poor patients' perceived pain control was revealed as an independent risk factor of both DFS (HR = 4.157; 95%CI: 1.938-8.915; P < 0.001) and OS (HR = 4.741; 95%CI: 2.214-10.153; P < 0.001) in resected left-sided pancreatic cancer. Adequate postoperative pain relief during the early postoperative period has important

  16. Negative oncologic impact of poor postoperative pain control in left-sided pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Min, Eun-Ki; Chong, Jae Uk; Hwang, Ho Kyoung; Pae, Sang Joon; Kang, Chang Moo; Lee, Woo Jung

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the association between postoperative pain control and oncologic outcomes in resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). METHODS From January 2009 to December 2014, 221 patients were diagnosed with PDAC and underwent resection with curative intent. Retrospective review of the patients was performed based on electronic medical records system. One patient without records of numerical rating scale (NRS) pain intensity scores was excluded and eight patients who underwent total pancreatectomy were also excluded. NRS scores during 7 postoperative days following resection of PDAC were reviewed along with clinicopathologic characteristics. Patients were stratified into a good pain control group and a poor pain control group according to the difference in average pain intensity between the early (POD 1, 2, 3) and late (POD 5, 7) postoperative periods. Cox-proportional hazards multivariate analysis was performed to determine association between postoperative pain control and oncologic outcomes. RESULTS A total of 212 patients were dichotomized into good pain control group (n = 162) and poor pain control group (n = 66). Median follow-up period was 17 mo. A negative impact of poor postoperative pain control on overall survival (OS) was observed in the group of patients receiving distal pancreatectomy (DP group; 42.0 mo vs 5.0 mo, P = 0.001). Poor postoperative pain control was also associated with poor disease-free survival (DFS) in the DP group (18.0 mo vs 8.0 mo, P = 0.001). Patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy or pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD group) did not show associations between postoperative pain control and oncologic outcomes. Poor patients’ perceived pain control was revealed as an independent risk factor of both DFS (HR = 4.157; 95%CI: 1.938-8.915; P < 0.001) and OS (HR = 4.741; 95%CI: 2.214-10.153; P < 0.001) in resected left-sided pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSION Adequate postoperative pain relief during the early

  17. The Influence of Genotype Polymorphism on Morphine Analgesic Effect for Postoperative Pain in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Geum; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Keun Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Background Although opioids are the most commonly used medications to control postoperative pain in children, the analgesic effects could have a large inter-individual variability according to genotypes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and the analgesic effect of morphine for postoperative pain in children. Methods A prospective study was conducted in 88 healthy children undergoing tonsillectomy, who received morphine during the operation. The postoperative pain score, frequency of rescue analgesics, and side effects of morphine were assessed in the post-anesthesia care unit. The children were genotyped for OPRM1 A118G, ABCB1 C3435T, and COMT Val158Met. Results Children with at least one G allele for OPRM1 (AG/GG) had higher postoperative pain scores compared with those with the AA genotype at the time of discharge from the post-anesthesia care unit (P = 0.025). Other recovery profiles were not significantly different between the two groups. There was no significant relationship between genotypes and postoperative pain scores in analysis of ABCB1 and COMT polymorphisms. Conclusions Genetic polymorphism at OPRM1 A118G, but not at ABCB1 C3435T and COMT Val158Met, influences the analgesic effect of morphine for immediate acute postoperative pain in children. PMID:26839669

  18. Influence of preoperative emotional state on postoperative pain following orthopedic and trauma surgery

    PubMed Central

    Robleda, Gemma; Sillero-Sillero, Amalia; Puig, Teresa; Gich, Ignasi; Baños, Josep-E

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to analyze the relationship between preoperative emotional state and the prevalence and intensity of postoperative pain and to explore predictors of postoperative pain. METHOD: observational retrospective study undertaken among 127 adult patients of orthopedic and trauma surgery. Postoperative pain was assessed with the verbal numeric scale and with five variables of emotional state: anxiety, sweating, stress, fear, and crying. The Chi-squared test, Student's t test or ANOVA and a multivariate logistic regression analysis were used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS: the prevalence of immediate postoperative pain was 28%. Anxiety was the most common emotional factor (72%) and a predictive risk factor for moderate to severe postoperative pain (OR: 4.60, 95% CI 1.38 to 15.3, p<0.05, AUC: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.62 to 0.83). Age exerted a protective effect (OR 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.99, p<0.01). CONCLUSION: preoperative anxiety and age are predictors of postoperative pain in patients undergoing orthopedic and trauma surgery. PMID:25493674

  19. Preoperative state anxiety, acute postoperative pain, and analgesic use in persons undergoing lower limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Raichle, Katherine A; Osborne, Travis L; Jensen, Mark P; Ehde, Dawn M; Smith, Douglas G; Robinson, Lawrence R

    2015-08-01

    The current study examined the relationship between preoperative anxiety and acute postoperative phantom limb pain (PLP), residual limb pain (RLP), and analgesic medication use in a sample of persons undergoing lower limb amputation. Participants included 69 adults admitted to a large level 1 trauma hospital for lower limb amputation. Participants' average pain and anxiety during the previous week were assessed before amputation surgery. RLP, PLP, and analgesic medication use were measured on each of the 5 days following amputation surgery. Results of partial-order correlations indicated that greater preoperative anxiety was significantly associated with greater ratings of average PLP for each of the 5 days following amputation surgery, after controlling for preoperative pain ratings and daily postoperative analgesic medication use. Partial correlation values ranged from 0.30 to 0.62, indicating medium to large effects. Preoperative anxiety was also significantly associated with ratings of average RLP only on postoperative day 1, after controlling for preoperative pain ratings and daily postoperative analgesic medication use (r=0.34, P<0.05). Correlations between preoperative anxiety and daily postoperative analgesic medication dose became nonsignificant when controlling for preamputation and postamputation pain ratings. These findings suggest that anxiety may be a risk factor for acute postamputation PLP and RLP, and indicate that further research to examine these associations is warranted. If replicated, the findings would support research to examine the extent to which modifying preoperative anxiety yields a reduction in postoperative acute PLP and RLP.

  20. The Effect of Premenstrual Syndrome and Menstrual Phase on Postoperative Pain

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Maliheh; Mirkheshti, Alireza; Noghabaei, Giti; Ashori, Adeleh; Ghasemi, Tahereh; Hosseini-Zijoud, Seyed Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common finding in luteal phase of menstrual cycle resulting in several changes in woman life including pain sensation. Objectives: This study evaluated the alterations of postoperative pain sensation in those with and without a history of PMS. Patients and Methods: A total of 140 women in in postoperative period were assigned to four groups regarding luteal or follicular phase of menstrual cycle and the history of PMS and were evaluated regarding scale of pain sensation and morphine demand in recovery room. To evaluate the difference among the groups, Mann Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, and Bonferroni tests were used. Results: Patients with PMS presented higher pain sensation and analgesia request (P = 0.003). Patients in luteal phase showed less pain and analgesia request in two out of five studied outcomes (P = 0.075). Conclusions: The most comfortable postoperative women were those in luteal phase without history of PMS group. PMID:25893183

  1. Infraorbital nerve block for postoperative pain following cleft lip repair in children.

    PubMed

    Feriani, Gustavo; Hatanaka, Eric; Torloni, Maria R; da Silva, Edina M K

    2016-04-13

    Postoperative pain is a barrier to the quality of paediatric care, the proper management of which is a challenge. Acute postoperative pain often leads to adverse functional and organic consequences that may compromise surgical outcome. Cleft lip is one of the most common craniofacial birth defects and requires surgical correction early in life. As expected after a surgical intervention in such a sensitive and delicate area, the immediate postoperative period of cleft lip repair may be associated with moderate to severe pain. Infraorbital nerve block associated with general anaesthesia has been used to reduce postoperative pain after cleft lip repair. To assess the effects of infraorbital nerve block for postoperative pain following cleft lip repair in children. We searched the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, the Cochrane Library, Issue 6, 2015), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) from inception to 17 June 2015. There were no language restrictions. We searched for ongoing trials in the following platforms: the metaRegister of Controlled Trials; ClinicalTrials.gov (the US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register), and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (on 17 June 2015). We checked reference lists of the included studies to identify any additional studies. We contacted specialists in the field and authors of the included trials for unpublished data. We included randomised controlled clinical trials that tested perioperative infraorbital nerve block for cleft lip repair in children, compared with other types of analgesia procedure, no intervention, or placebo (sham nerve block). We considered the type of drug, dosage, and route of administration used in each study. For the purposes of this review, the term 'perioperative' refers to the three phases of surgery, that is preoperative, intraoperative, and

  2. Effect of endocannabinoid degradation on pain: role of FAAH polymorphisms in experimental and postoperative pain in women treated for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cajanus, Kristiina; Holmström, Emil J; Wessman, Maija; Anttila, Verneri; Kaunisto, Mari A; Kalso, Eija

    2016-02-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) metabolizes the endocannabinoid anandamide, which has an important role in nociception. We investigated the role of common FAAH single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in experimentally induced and postoperative pain. One thousand women undergoing surgery for breast cancer participated in the study. They were tested for cold (n = 900) and heat pain (n = 1000) sensitivity. After surgery, their pain intensities and analgesic consumption were carefully registered. FAAH genotyping was performed using MassARRAY platform and genome-wide chip (n = 926). Association between 8 FAAH SNPs and 9 pain phenotypes was analyzed using linear regression models. The results showed that carrying 2 copies of a missense variant converting proline at position 129 to threonine (rs324420) resulted in significantly lower cold pain sensitivity and less need for postoperative analgesia. More specifically, rs324420 and another highly correlated SNP, rs1571138, associated significantly with cold pain intensity (corrected P value, 0.0014; recessive model). Patients homozygous for the minor allele (AA genotype) were less sensitive to cold pain (β = -1.48; 95% CI, -2.14 to -0.8). Two other SNPs (rs3766246 and rs4660928) showed nominal association with cold pain, and SNPs rs4141964, rs3766246, rs324420, and rs1571138 nominal association with oxycodone consumption. In conclusion, FAAH gene variation was shown to associate with cold pain sensitivity with P129T/rs324420 being the most likely causal variant as it is known to reduce the FAAH enzyme activity. The same variant showed nominal association with postoperative oxycodone consumption. Our conclusions are, however, limited by the lack of replication and the results should be replicated in an independent cohort.

  3. The Relationship Between Intraoperative Tear Dimensions and Postoperative Pain in 1624 Consecutive Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repairs.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Daniel Y T; Walton, Judie R; Lam, Patrick; Murrell, George A C

    2017-03-01

    Rotator cuff repair often results in significant pain postoperatively, the cause of which is undetermined. Purpose/Hypothesis: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between rotator cuff tear area and postoperative pain in patients who had undergone arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. We hypothesized that larger tears would be more painful because of elevated repair tension at 1 week postoperatively but that smaller tears would be more painful because of a greater healing response, especially from 6 weeks postoperatively. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 1624 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were included in this study. Exclusion criteria were moderate to severe osteoarthritis, isolated subscapularis repair, calcific tendinitis, synthetic patch repair, revision surgery, and retears on ultrasound at 6 months after surgery. Rotator cuff tears were subdivided into groups based on the tear size and retear rate found for each group. A modified L'Insalata questionnaire was given before surgery and at 1 week, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficient tests were performed between rotator cuff tear areas and pain scores. Intraoperative rotator cuff tear areas did not correlate with pain scores preoperatively or at 1 week after surgery. A smaller tear area was associated with more frequent and severe pain with overhead activities, at rest, and during sleep as well as a poorer perceived overall shoulder condition at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after repair ( r = 0.11-0.23, P < .0001). Patients who were younger, had partial-thickness tears, and had occupational injuries experienced more pain postoperatively ( r = 0.10-0.28, P < .0001). Larger tears did not have more pain at 1 week after surgery. The retear rate was 7% in tears <2 cm(2) but reached 44% in tears >8 cm(2). There were fewer retears with smaller tears, but they were more painful than large tears postoperatively

  4. [Control of postoperative pain in children undergoing hypospadias surgery: quasi-experimental controlled trial].

    PubMed

    Festini, Filippo; Dini, Donata; Neri, Cinzia; Neri, Stella

    2008-01-01

    Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital anomalies occurring in approximately (1/300) male births. If it is not surgically corrected the consequences may negatively impact on quality of life in adolescents. The surgery is very invasive and the post-operative phase very painful. To improve the control of post-operative pain, continuous analgesia via epidural catheter was implemented. To compare the effectiveness in controlling pain of two different regimens: continuous epidural catheter infusion vs oral and rectal non-steroidal pain-killers. Comparative study on children undergoing hypospadias surgery. Group A (catheter) was treated with continuous postoperative analgesia via epidural catheter and Group B (scheduled times) with rectal and oral analgesics at scheduled times and on demand, after caudal block. In both groups nurses measured pain with VAS and FLACC scales (score from 0 to 10) for 72 hours after surgery. 41 children were studied (average age 64.1 months, SD 47.3), with 332 post-operative pain recordings (Group A n = 161, Group B n = 171). Mean pain score of Group A was 0.13 (SD 0.3) and 0.45 (SD 0.8) in group B, p = 0.006. The median duration of the epidural catheter was 65 hours, mean 51.8 hours (SD 24.3). During the 1st post-operative medication, the mean pain score in Group A was 1.2 (SD 1.4), and 3.2 (SD 1.8) in group B, p = 0.003. In group A the number of pain scores indicating pain (> 0) where 3.1% while in group B were 10.5%, p = 0.0007. In children undergoing hypospadias surgery, post-operative analgesia with continuous epidural catheter infusion seems to offer a better analgesic coverage than the traditional oral/rectal analgesic treatment at scheduled times and on demand.

  5. Evidence-based approach of treatment options for postoperative knee pain.

    PubMed

    Farr, Jack; Jaggers, Ryan; Lewis, Hal; Plackis, Andreas; Sim, Seung B; Sherman, Seth L

    2014-05-01

    Optimal pain management is critical after knee surgery to avoid adverse events and to improve surgical outcomes. Pain may affect surgical outcomes by contributing to limitations in range of motion, strength, and functional recovery. The causes of postoperative pain are multifactorial; therefore, an appropriate pain management strategy must take into account preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors to create a comprehensive and individualized plan for the patient. Preoperative assessment includes management of patient expectations, recognition of conditions and early counseling for high-risk patients (ie, opioid dependence, psychiatric comorbidities), and use of preemptive analgesia techniques (ie, preoperative IV medications, peripheral nerve blocks, incisional field blocks). Intraoperative strategies include meticulous surgical technique, limiting the use of tourniquets (ie, duration and pressure), and using preventive analgesia methods (ie, postoperative field block, continuous nerve catheters, intra-articular injection). Postoperative analgesia may be facilitated by cryotherapy, early mobilization, bracing, and rehabilitation. Certain modalities (ie, continuous passive motion devices, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation units, iontophoresis) may be important adjuncts in the perioperative period as well. There may be an evolving role for alternative medicine strategies. Early recognition and treatment of exaggerated postoperative pain responses may mitigate the effects of complex regional pain syndrome or the development of chronic pain.

  6. Thoracoscopic versus open partial pericardectomy in dogs: comparison of postoperative pain and morbidity.

    PubMed

    Walsh, P J; Remedios, A M; Ferguson, J F; Walker, D D; Cantwell, S; Duke, T

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate postoperative pain and morbidity in dogs undergoing open thoracotomy and partial pericardectomy versus thoracoscopic pericardectomy. Research study in normal dogs. Fourteen mixed breed healthy dogs. Seven dogs had a partial pericardectomy through a standard left lateral thoracotomy at the fifth intercostal space. The remaining seven dogs underwent selective lung ventilation and thoracoscopic partial pericardectomy. Surgery sites in both groups were bandaged and each dog received a single postoperative dose of morphine (0.2 mg/kg, intramuscularly [i.m.]). Postoperative pain was evaluated using a standard pain score table at 1, 5, 9, 17, 29, and 53 hours after surgery. Dogs receiving a pain score of six or greater received an additional dose of morphine. At each observation point, blood samples were taken to measure blood glucose and plasma cortisol concentrations. Pain scores, blood glucose, and plasma cortisol concentrations were compared between the two groups using two-way ANOVA. Blood glucose concentrations, plasma cortisol concentrations, and pain scores were significantly different between the two groups, with the thoracotomy dogs having higher values at 1, 5, and 9 hours postoperatively. Three of the open thoracotomy dogs required additional analgesia after the initial dose of morphine. In addition, two dogs that underwent open thoracotomy were lame in the left forelimb and two others developed dehiscence of their wounds. Thoracoscopic partial pericardectomy has several advantages over open partial pericardectomy including decreased postoperative pain, fewer wound complications, and more rapid return to function.

  7. Effects of jazz on postoperative pain and stress in patients undergoing elective hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Rafer, Lorenzo; Austin, Flower; Frey, Jessica; Mulvey, Christie; Vaida, Sonia; Prozesky, Jansie

    2015-01-01

    Anesthesiologists use various medications to provide surgical patients with pain relief in the postoperative period. Other modalities, such as music, could be used in conjunction with opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to decrease pain and lower heart rate and blood pressure. Our hypothesis was that patients listening to jazz in a postanesthesia care unit (PACU) would have lower heart rates and blood pressures and reduced pain and anxiety. The study objective was to determine if listening to jazz music in the PACU, when compared to wearing noise-canceling headphones with no music playing, would decrease heart rate, blood pressure, pain, or anxiety in patients undergoing a hysterectomy. The research design was a prospective, randomized study. The study was conducted in the PACU at the Penn State Hershey Medical Center in Hershey, PA, USA. A total of 56 patients, aged 18-75 y, who were categorized as status 1 or 2 according to the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Status Classification System, and who were undergoing elective laparoscopic or abdominal hysterectomies, were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly assigned either to listen to jazz music where the beats per min (BPM) was <100 (experimental group, n = 28) or to wear noise-canceling headphones (control group, n = 28) for 30 min while in the PACU after their surgery. Heart rate was the primary outcome, and secondary outcomes included systolic and diastolic blood pressure, an anxiety score, and a pain score. All outcome measures were initially recorded at baseline upon the patient's arrival in the PACU. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded postoperatively every 5 min for the initial 30 min that a patient was in the PACU. Pain was checked every 10 min during the 30-min period; anxiety was checked at 30 min. Heart rates of patients in the noise-cancellation group were significantly lower when compared with baseline (P < .05), at all time points. For

  8. Effect of working length measurement by electronic apex locator or digital radiography on postoperative pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kara Tuncer, Aysun; Gerek, Müzeyyen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of working length determination methods, electronic apex locator and digital radiography, on postoperative pain. Two hundred twenty patients with asymptomatic single-rooted vital teeth were randomly assigned to 2 groups according to the method used for working length determination, the radiographic group and the electronic apex locator group. After working length determination, chemomechanical preparation was performed in a crown-down technique with ProTaper instruments. A master cone radiograph was taken. Canals were obturated with gutta-percha and sealer by using a lateral compaction technique. Postoperative pain was assessed after 4, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours by using a 4-point pain intensity scale. In addition, patients were asked to record the number of days necessary to achieve complete pain resolution. Postoperative pain during the 4-hour to 48-hour interval studied was not significantly different (P > .05) between groups. The mean times for pain dissipation in the radiographic and electronic apex locator groups were 3.37 ± 2.79 and 3.88 ± 3.34 days, respectively. The difference between groups was not statistically significant (P > .05). There is no difference in postoperative pain between working length measurement methods by using an electronic apex locator or digital radiography. The reduced exposure to radiation by using apex locator may be a factor that influences a dentist's decision to choose the electronic apex locator over radiography. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of complementary therapies on post-operative pain control in ambulatory knee surgery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Timothy; Downham, Christopher; Barlow, David

    2013-10-01

    Ambulatory knee surgery is a common procedure with over 100,000 knee arthroscopies performed in the U.K. in 2010-2011. Pain after surgery can decrease patient satisfaction, delay discharge, and decrease cost effectiveness. Multi-modal therapies, including complementary therapies, to improve pain control after surgery have been recommended. However, a comprehensive review of the literature regarding the use of complementary therapies to enhance pain control after ambulatory knee surgery is lacking, and this article aims to address this deficit. CINHAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, AMED and CENTRAL databases were searched. Only Randomised Controlled Trials were included. All eligible papers were quality assessed using the Jadad system, and data was extracted using piloted forms. Two independent reviewers performed each stage of the review. Full details of the study methodology can be found on Prospero, a systematic review register. Five studies satisfied our eligibility criteria: three reporting on acupuncture, one on homeopathy, and one on acupoints. Acupoint pressure was the only study that demonstrated reduced pain compared with placebo. This study was the least methodologically robust. Arnica, although demonstrating a significant reduction in swelling, did not affect post-operative pain. Acupuncture did not affect post-operative pain; however, a reduction in ibuprofen use was demonstrated in two studies. Before recommending complementary therapy for routine use in ambulatory knee surgery, further work is required. Two areas of future research likely to bear fruit are demonstrating robust evidence for the effect of acupoint pressure on post-operative pain, and quantifying the positive effect of homeopathic arnica on post-operative swelling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Acupuncture and related techniques for postoperative pain: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Gan, T J; Dubose, J W; Habib, A S

    2008-08-01

    Postoperative pain management remains a significant challenge for all healthcare providers. The objective of this systematic review was to quantitatively evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture and related techniques as adjunct analgesics for acute postoperative pain management. We searched the databases of Medline (1966-2007), CINAHL, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2006), and Scopus for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using acupuncture for postoperative pain management. We extracted data about postoperative opioid consumption, postoperative pain intensity, and opioid-related side-effects. Combined data were analysed using a random effects model. Fifteen RCTs comparing acupuncture with sham control in the management of acute postoperative pain were included. Weighted mean difference for cumulative opioid analgesic consumption was -3.14 mg (95% confidence interval, CI: -5.15, -1.14), -8.33 mg (95% CI: -11.06, -5.61), and -9.14 mg (95% CI: -16.07, -2.22) at 8, 24, and 72 h, respectively. Postoperative pain intensity (visual analogue scale, 0-100 mm) was also significantly decreased in the acupuncture group at 8 and 72 h compared with the control group. The acupuncture treatment group was associated with a lower incidence of opioid-related side-effects such as nausea (relative risk, RR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.86), dizziness (RR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.81), sedation (RR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.99), pruritus (RR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.96), and urinary retention (RR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.74). Perioperative acupuncture may be a useful adjunct for acute postoperative pain management.

  11. A Model-Based Approach for Joint Analysis of Pain Intensity and Opioid Consumption in Postoperative Pain.

    PubMed

    Juul, Rasmus V; Knøsgaard, Katrine R; Olesen, Anne E; Pedersen, Katja V; Kreilgaard, Mads; Christrup, Lona L; Osther, Palle J; Drewes, Asbjørn M; Lund, Trine M

    2016-07-01

    Joint analysis of pain intensity and opioid consumption is encouraged in trials of postoperative pain. However, previous approaches have not appropriately addressed the complexity of their interrelation in time. In this study, we applied a non-linear mixed effects model to simultaneously study pain intensity and opioid consumption in a 4-h postoperative period for 44 patients undergoing percutaneous kidney stone surgery. Analysis was based on 748 Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) scores of pain intensity and 51 observed morphine and oxycodone dosing events. A joint model was developed to describe the recurrent pattern of four key phases determining the development of pain intensity and opioid consumption in time; (A) Distribution of pain intensity scores which followed a truncated Poisson distribution with time-dependent mean score ranging from 0.93 to 2.45; (B) Probability of transition to threshold pain levels (NRS ≥ 3) which was strongly dependent on previous pain levels ranging from 2.8-15.2% after NRS of 0-2; (C) Probability of requesting opioid when allowed (NRS ≥ 3) which was strongly correlated with the number of previous doses, ranging from 89.8% for requesting the first dose to 26.1% after three previous doses; (D) Reduction in pain scores after opioid dosing which was significantly related to the pain intensity at time of opioid request (P < 0.001). This study highlights the importance of analyzing pain intensity and opioid consumption in an integrated manner. Non-linear mixed effects modeling proved a valuable tool for analysis of interventions that affect pain intensity, probability of rescue dosing or the effect of opioids in the postoperative pain period.

  12. Barriers to postoperative pain management in hip fracture patients with dementia as evaluated by nursing staff.

    PubMed

    Rantala, Maija; Kankkunen, Päivi; Kvist, Tarja; Hartikainen, Sirpa

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports a study of the perceptions of nursing staff regarding barriers to postoperative pain management in hip fracture patients with dementia, their expectations, and facilitators offered by their employers to overcome these barriers. Patients with dementia are at high risk for insufficient postoperative pain treatment, mainly owing to inability to articulate or convey their pain experience. Nursing staff have an essential role in the treatment and care of patients who are vulnerable, and therefore unable to advocate for their own pain treatment. Questionnaires with both structured and open-ended questions were used to collect data from nursing staff members in seven university hospitals and ten city-center hospitals from March to May 2011. The response rate was 52% (n = 331). According to nursing staff, the biggest barrier in pain management was the difficulty in assessing pain owing to a patient's cognitive impairment (86%). Resisting care and restlessness among patients with dementia can lead to use of restraints, although these kinds of behavioral changes can point to the occurrence of pain. There were statistically significant differences between the sufficiency of pain management and barriers. Those who expected pain management to be insufficient identified more barriers than those who expected pain management to be sufficient (p < .001). Further updating education for nursing staff in pain detection and management is needed so that nursing staff are also able to recognize behavioral symptoms as potential signs of pain and provide appropriate pain management.

  13. Management of postoperative pain: experience of the Niamey National Hospital, Niger

    PubMed Central

    Chaibou, Maman Sani; Sanoussi, Samuila; Sani, Rachid; Toudou, Nouhou A; Daddy, Hadjara; Madougou, Moussa; Abdou, Idrissa; Abarchi, Habibou; Chobli, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the management of postoperative pain at the Niamey National Hospital. Methods A prospective study was conducted in the Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care at the Niamey National Hospital from March to June, 2009. Data collected included age, sex, literacy, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification, type of anesthesia, type of surgery, postoperative analgesics used, and the cost of analgesics. Three types of pain assessment scale were used depending on the patient’s ability to describe his or her pain: the verbal rating scale (VRS), the numerical rating scale (NRS), or the visual analog scale (VAS). Patients were evaluated during the first 48 hours following surgery. Results The sample included 553 patients. The VRS was used for the evaluation of 72% of patients, the NRS for 14.4%, and the VAS for 13.6%. Of the VRS group, 33.9%, 8.3%, and 2.1% rated their pain as 3 or 4 out of 4 at 12, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively, respectively. For the NRS group, 33.8%, 8.8%, and 2.5% rated their pain as greater than 7 out of 10 at 12, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively, respectively. For the VAS group, 29.3%, 5.4%, and 0% rated their pain as greater than 7 out of 10 at 12, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively, respectively. Conclusion Postoperative pain assessment and management in developing countries has not been well described. Poverty, illiteracy, and inadequate training of physicians and other health personnel contribute to the underutilization of postoperative analgesia. Analysis of the results gathered at the Niamey National Hospital gives baseline data that can be the impetus to increase training in pain management and to establish standardized protocols. PMID:23271923

  14. Postoperative pain after arthroscopic versus open rotator cuff repair. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Pham, T T; Bayle Iniguez, X; Mansat, P; Maubisson, L; Bonnevialle, N

    2016-02-01

    Although the arthroscopic technique is becoming the gold standard for rotator cuff tendon repair, there is no proof that this technique results in less postoperative pain compared to open repair. The aim of this study was to prospectively compare the postoperative pain level after arthroscopic or open rotator cuff repair and to define factors that could influence its course. Between January 2012 and January 2013, 95 patients were operated for a rotator cuff tear: 45 using an arthroscopic technique and 50 an open technique. Daily analgesic use and self-evaluation of pain level using a visual analogic scale were recorded preoperatively and twice a day postoperatively during the first 6 weeks. These data were compared between the two groups and analyzed according to patients' demographic data and preoperative evaluation of the tear. The preoperative pain level was equivalent in the two groups (P=0.22). Postoperatively, level-2 analgesic medication use was greater in the arthroscopic group after the 4th week (P=0.01). A pain-free shoulder was obtained before the 6th week in 75% and 66% of the patients after arthroscopic or open repair, respectively (P=0.34). There was a positive correlation between the preoperative and postoperative pain level (r=0.25; P=0.02). Work compensation patients experienced more pain postoperatively (P=0.08). Level-III analgesic medication use was greater for patients with massive rotator cuff tear (P=0.001). No evidence was found on the superiority of arthroscopy versus open repair of rotator cuff tear concerning the postoperative pain level. The choice of the surgical technique should not be based on this argument. II. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. [Quality of postoperative pain therapy in Austria: national survey of all departments of anesthesiology].

    PubMed

    Kinstner, C; Likar, R; Sandner-Kiesling, A; Hutschala, D; Pipam, W; Gustorff, B

    2011-09-01

    Despite increasingly sophisticated concepts of perioperative pain therapy, such as increased use of combined regional anesthesia techniques, the renaissance of ketamine and dipyrone or the use of oral opioids, no significant improvement has been achieved in postoperative pain therapy since 1995. About 300,000 of the approximately 700,000 patients undergoing major surgery each year in Austria experience moderate to severe postoperative pain. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the nationwide status of perioperative acute pain management in postoperative recovery rooms and surgical wards in order to identify potential areas for improvement. In 2006 the directors of all Austrian anesthesiology departments (n=125, 100%) were contacted and asked to give detailed information on the status of acute pain management of each individual hospital in Austria using a standardized questionnaire. Data of each individual department were derived from quality control and self-assessment of each department. No patients were questioned. The return rate was 96% (n=120) due to intensive personal contact in cases of missing data. In this nationwide survey 120 anesthesiology departments participated together accounting for a total of 757,895 operations per year. Of the patients 63.6% were informed preoperatively on the available regimens of acute pain management. In 81% of patients perioperative pain therapy consisted of a multimodal therapeutic approach, 58.6% of the departments used international guidelines and 39.7% worked with international guidelines adapted to local requirements. In 88% of patients a detailed prescription for postoperative pain therapy was available when transferred to the surgical ward. Surgical wards were equipped with routine pain therapy protocols in 28% another 20% of wards had special pain therapy protocols for individual operations. In 22% of cases pain assessment was repeated 3-4 times per day and in 33.9% postoperative pain was assessed only once

  16. Analgesic Effect of Indian Gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Fruit) Extracts on Postoperative and Neuropathic Pain in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Jae Goo; Kim, Yun Tai

    2016-01-01

    Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis fruit), also known as “Amla” is one of the oldest edible fruits known in India. It has also traditionally been used to treat inflammation, and as an analgesic to treat wounds. However, experimental evidence for the analgesic effects of E. officinalis has been lacking. The present study investigated whether E. officinalis extracts exhibit analgesic effects in the plantar incision (PI) and spared nerve injury (SNI) pain-model rats. We evaluated the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) using von Frey filaments, and pain-related behavior was determined after surgery based on ultrasonic vocalization (USV). The group treated with E. officinalis extracts at 300 mg/kg had significantly increased MWT values at 6 h and 24 h after the PI, and had a significantly reduced number of 22–27-kHz USVs at 6 h and 24 h after PI. Moreover, after 15 days of continuous treatment with E. officinalis extracts, the treated group showed significantly alleviated SNI-induced hypersensitivity and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Thus, E. officinalis extracts have potential analgesic effects in both postoperative and neuropathic pain models in vivo. PMID:27898027

  17. Analgesic Effect of Indian Gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Fruit) Extracts on Postoperative and Neuropathic Pain in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Jae Goo; Kim, Yun Tai

    2016-11-26

    Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis fruit), also known as "Amla" is one of the oldest edible fruits known in India. It has also traditionally been used to treat inflammation, and as an analgesic to treat wounds. However, experimental evidence for the analgesic effects of E. officinalis has been lacking. The present study investigated whether E. officinalis extracts exhibit analgesic effects in the plantar incision (PI) and spared nerve injury (SNI) pain-model rats. We evaluated the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) using von Frey filaments, and pain-related behavior was determined after surgery based on ultrasonic vocalization (USV). The group treated with E. officinalis extracts at 300 mg/kg had significantly increased MWT values at 6 h and 24 h after the PI, and had a significantly reduced number of 22-27-kHz USVs at 6 h and 24 h after PI. Moreover, after 15 days of continuous treatment with E. officinalis extracts, the treated group showed significantly alleviated SNI-induced hypersensitivity and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Thus, E. officinalis extracts have potential analgesic effects in both postoperative and neuropathic pain models in vivo.

  18. Effect of Intravenous High Dose Vitamin C on Postoperative Pain and Morphine Use after Laparoscopic Colectomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Younghoon; Park, Jun Seok; Moon, Suyoung

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. Vitamin C has antioxidant, neuroprotective, and neuromodulating effects. Recently, it showed antinociceptive effect as a result of the antioxidant properties. Therefore, we designed this study to assess the effect of intravenous vitamin C on opiate consumption and pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic colectomy. Methods. A total of 100 patients were enrolled and allocated to receive 50 mg/kg vitamin C or placebo by intravenous infusion immediately after induction of anesthesia. Morphine consumption and scores of pain were assessed at 2, 6, and 24 h after completion of surgery. Results. There were 97 patients included in the analysis. Patients who received vitamin C had higher plasma concentrations of vitamin C at the end of surgery, significantly lower morphine consumption at the 2 h after end of surgery, and significantly lower pain scores at rest during first 24 h postoperatively. There was no significant difference between groups in side effects, fatigue score, or pain score during cough. Conclusion. This study shows high dose vitamin C infusion decreased postoperative pain during the first 24 h and reduced morphine consumption in the early postoperative period. Additional research needed to examine whether higher doses of vitamin C and longer infusion times can amplify these effects. PMID:27872555

  19. Postoperative pain intensity after using different instrumentation techniques: a randomized clinical study

    PubMed Central

    ÇIÇEK, Ersan; KOÇAK, Mustafa Murat; KOÇAK, Sibel; SAĞLAM, Baran Can; TÜRKER, Sevinç Aktemur

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Postoperative pain is a frequent complication associated with root canal treatment, especially during apical instrumentation of tooth with preexisting periradicular inflammation Objectives The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the influence of the instrumentation techniques on the incidence and intensity of postoperative pain in single-visit root canal treatment. Material and Methods Ninety patients with single root/canal and non-vital pulps were included. The patients were assigned into 3 groups according to root canal instrumentation technique used; modified step-back, reciprocal, and rotational techniques. Root canal treatment was carried out in a single visit and the severity of postoperative pain was assessed via 4-point pain intensity scale. All the participants were called through the phone at 12, 24 and 48 h to obtain the pain scores. Data were analyzed through the Kruskal–Wallis test. Results There was significant difference between all groups (p<0.05). The modified step-back technique produced postoperative pain significantly lower than the rotational (p=0.018) and reciprocal (p=0.020) techniques. No difference was found between the reciprocal and rotational techniques (p=0.868). Postoperative pain in the first 12 h period (p=0.763) and in the 24 h period (p=0.147) was not significantly different between the groups. However, the difference in the 48 h period was statistically different between the groups (p=0.040). Conclusion All instrumentation techniques caused postoperative pain. The modified step-back technique produced less pain compared to the rotational and reciprocal techniques. PMID:28198972

  20. Influence of ethnicity on the perception and treatment of early post-operative pain

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Simon; Griffin-Teall, Nicola; Thompson, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicated that patients from Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) groups tend to receive less analgesics compared to Caucasian (White) patients after similar surgical procedures. Most such data originated from North America and suggested that health-care professionals may perceive the expression of excessive pain by BAME patient groups as an exaggerated response to pain, rather than sub-optimal treatment. There are limited data comparing acute pain management between South Asian and White British patients. Objective: We aimed to investigate correlation between patients’ ethnicity and disparities of early post-operative pain perception/management, in an ethnically diverse population. Methods: We conducted a retrospective case note review of acute post-operative pain after total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) in 60 South Asian and 60 age-matched White British females. Data for 140 variables (pre-, intra- and post-operative) for each patient were recorded. We used propensity score matching to produce 30 closely matched patients in each group minimizing effects of recorded co-variates. Data were analysed with and without propensity score matching. Results: There were no significant differences in acute post-operative pain scores, morphine requirements, pain management, adverse effects or duration of post-operative care unit stay between South Asian and White British patients. The median duration of hospital stay of South Asian patients was longer (4.5 days versus 3.0 days, p < 0.001). Conclusion: We conclude that in an institution where both patients and health-care professionals are from an ethnically diverse population, neither post-operative pain nor pain management are influenced significantly by South Asian ethnicity. PMID:26516573

  1. Safety of liposome extended-release bupivacaine for postoperative pain control.

    PubMed

    Portillo, Juan; Kamar, Nawal; Melibary, Somayah; Quevedo, Eduardo; Bergese, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Ideal postoperative pain management requires a multidisciplinary approach in combination with a variety of dosage regimens. Approximately 21-30% of patients experience moderate to severe pain in the postoperative period, which may have a significant impact on recovery rate, standard of living, psychological health, and postoperative complications. Analysis of the incidence and characterization of reported adverse effects with DepoFoam bupivacaine compared to conventional bupivacaine or placebo. A systematic review of prospective studies on the use of DepoFoam versus bupivacaine or placebo was performed in order to answer the clinically relevant question: is DepoFoam a safer formulation in place of bupivacaine single injection or continuous local infusion techniques for postoperative pain management? Inclusion criteria required randomized, controlled, double-blind trials in patients 18 years old or older, single dose used for postoperative pain control, and a primary procedure performed. Six studies fitted the inclusion criteria for analysis, DepoFoam bupivacaine used in therapeutic doses was well-tolerated, had a higher safety margin, and showed a favorable safety profile compared to bupivacaine and control groups. Extended drug delivery system DepoFoam bupivacaine is a promising drug formulation that may significantly improve postoperative care and pain control in surgical patients.

  2. The Complement System in Neuropathic and Postoperative Pain

    PubMed Central

    Fritzinger, David C.; Benjamin, Daniel E.

    2017-01-01

    Certain types of pain are major unmet medical needs that affect more than 8 percent of the population. Neuropathic pain can be caused by many pathogenic processes including injury, autoimmune disease, neurological disease, endocrine dysfunction, infection, toxin exposure, and substance abuse and is frequently resistant to available pain therapies. The same can be said of postsurgical pain, which can arise from uncontrolled inflammation around the wound site. The complement system is part of the innate immune system and can both initiate and sustain acute and chronic inflammatory pain. Here we review the complement system and original investigations that identify potential drug targets within this system. Drugs that act to inhibit the complement system could fill major gaps in our current standard of care for neuropathic pain states. PMID:28154610

  3. Micro opioid receptor A118G polymorphism and post-operative pain: opioids' effects on heterozygous patients.

    PubMed

    De Capraris, A; Cinnella, G; Marolla, A; Salatto, P; Da Lima, S; Vetuschi, P; Consoletti, L; Gesualdo, L; Dambrosio, M

    2011-01-01

    The single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP) 118A>G in the micro-1 opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) is associated with a decrease in the analgesic effects of opioids. The aim of this study is to assess whether 118A >G polymorphism could influence the analgesic response to opioid-based postoperative pain (POP) therapy. The study consisted of two parts: section alpha, observational, included 199 subjects undergoing scheduled surgical procedures with pain management standardized on surgery invasiveness and on expected level of postoperative pain; section beta, randomized, included 41 women undergoing scheduled caesarean delivery with continuous intra-operative epidural anesthesia and post-operative analgesia (CEA). In both sections, POP was measured over 48 h (T6h-T24h-T48h) by the visual analogue scale (VAS). In section beta we also tested the responsiveness of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) expressed by cortisol levels. In section alpha, with cluster analysis, subjects were analyzed according to their genotype: a group (no. 1) of 34 patients reporting VAS score >3 at every time lapse was identified and included only A118G carriers, while wild-type (A118A - absence of 118A>G polymorphism) patients were unevenly distributed between those with cluster no. 2 (VAS score <3 at every study steps) and those with cluster no. 3 (VAS score progressively reducing from T6h). In section beta, A118G carriers receiving epidural sufentanil had the lowest VAS scores at T24h; also in these patients, cortisol levels remained more stable, with a mild decrease at T6h. This study shows that the OPRM1 118A>G polymorphism affects postoperative pain response in heterozygous patients: they have a different postoperative pain response than patients with wild-type genes, which may affect the efficacy of the analgesic therapy.

  4. Comparison of Intravenous Morphine with Sublingual Buprenorphine in Management of Postoperative Pain after Closed Reduction Orthopedic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Ghasem; Khorsand, Mahmood; Shamloo, Alireza Sepehri; Jarahi, Lida; Zirak, Nahid

    2015-10-01

    Postoperative pain is a common side effect following surgery that can significantly reduce surgical quality and patient's satisfaction. Treatment options are morphine and buprenorphine. We aimed to compare the efficacy of a single dose of intravenous morphine with sublingual buprenorphine in postoperative pain control following closed reduction surgery. This triple blind clinical trial was conducted on 90 patients referred for closed reduction orthopedic surgery. They were older than 18 years and in classes I and II of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) with an operation time of 30-90 minutes. Patients were divided into two groups of buprenorphine (4.5µg/kg sublingually) and morphine (0.2mg/kg intravenously). Baseline characteristics, vital signs, pain score, level of sedation and pharmacological side effects were recorded in the recovery room (at 0 and 30 minutes), and in the ward (at 3, 6 and 12 hours). SPSS version 19 software was used for data analysis and the significance level was set at P<0.05. Ninety patients were studied, 60 males and 30 females with a mean age of 37.7±16.2 years. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of baseline characteristics. Pain score in the morphine group was significantly higher than the buprenorphine group with an average score of 2.5 (P<0.001). Postoperative mean heart rate in the buprenorphine group was four beats lower than the morphine group (P<0.001). Also, in the buprenorphine 48.6% and in the morphine group 86.7% of cases were conscious in recovery (P=0.001) with a higher rate of pruritus in the latter group (P=0.001). Sublingual buprenorphine administration before anesthesia induction in closed reduction surgery can lead to better postoperative pain control in comparison to intravenous morphine. Due to simple usage and longer postoperative sedation, sublingual buprenorphine is recommended as a suitable drug in closed reduction surgery.

  5. [Postoperative pain management after minimally invasive hysterectomy: thoracic epidural analgesia versus intravenous patient-controlled analgesia].

    PubMed

    Hensel, M; Frenzel, J; Späker, M; Keil, E; Reinhold, N

    2013-10-01

    . 1.9 ± 2.2 EDA. In addition, less PONV (iv-PCA 9/30 vs. EDA 1/30, p<0.01), less shivering (iv-PCA 8/30 vs. EDA 2/30, p<0.05), reduced fatigue (iv-PCA 26/30 vs. EDA 9/30, p<0.05) and a lower consumption of analgesics were found. Average postoperative requirement for piritramide in the iv-PCA group was 7 mg (range 0-24 mg) on the day of surgery and 5 mg (0-39 mg) on the first postoperative day. In the EDA group no opiate medication was given postoperatively (p<0.01). Duration of stay in the recovery room was shorter in the EDA group (71 ± 32 min vs. 50 ± 13 min, p<0.05). Hospital stay was 5 days on average in both groups. There were no surgical complications or epidural catheter-related complications. Because of urinary retention catheterization of the bladder had to be made in 3 patients of the iv-PCA group and 13 patients of the EDA group (p<0.05). Furthermore, the possibility to take a shower postoperatively was restricted in the EDA group because the epidural catheter was in place and thereby hygiene concerns. Regarding the early oral nutritional intake as well as postoperative mobilization, no significant differences between groups were found. In comparison with the preoperative status, the results regarding health-related quality of life were significantly better for both groups after a follow-up of 6 weeks (p<0.01); however, this effect was especially pronounced in the EDA group (p<0.05). To reduce the number of patients suffering from postoperative pain a procedure-specific pain management should be developed. The results of this study have shown that even in minimally invasive surgery, such as vaginal hysterectomy and laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy there are some advantages for epidural analgesia compared to intravenous patient-controlled analgesia. In particular reduced pain intensity, lower need for analgesics and reduced occurrence of PONV can lead to excellent patient comfort, fast recovery as well as positive effects on health

  6. [Evaluation of pain intensity and vital signs in the cardiac surgery postoperative period].

    PubMed

    Miranda, Adriana de Fátima Alencar; da Silva, Lúcia de Fátima; Caetano, Joselany Áfio; de Sousa, Ana Cláudia; Almeida, Paulo César

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the changes in vital signs of postoperative cardiac surgery patients, according to the referred pain intensity. This descriptive-exploratory study was performed using quantitative analysis to investigate 38 patients submitted to a first dressing change. The analysis of the data, measured before and after performing the nursing procedure, indicated that the manifestation of pain occurred at different levels. The main changes in vital signs referred to blood pressure. In conclusion, there is a relationship between pain intensity and vital signs, and the care that is delivered is indispensible to reestablishing the health state of the postoperative patient.

  7. Can chronic neuropathic pain following thoracic surgery be predicted during the postoperative period?

    PubMed

    Searle, Robert D; Simpson, Matthew P; Simpson, Karen H; Milton, Richard; Bennett, Michael I

    2009-12-01

    Chronic pain following thoracic surgery is common and associated with neuropathic symptoms, however, the proportion of patients with neuropathic pain in the immediate postoperative period is unknown. We aimed to determine the proportion of patients who have neuropathic symptoms and signs immediately after, and at three months following thoracic surgery. The study was designed as a prospective observational cohort study. We identified patients with pain of predominantly neuropathic origin using the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) score in the immediate postoperative period and the self-report LANSS (S-LANSS) version three months after surgery. One hundred patients undergoing video assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) or thoracotomy completed LANSS scores preoperatively and in the immediate postoperative period. Eighty-seven percent completed three months S-LANSS follow-up scores. Eight percent of patients had positive LANSS scores in the immediate postoperative period; 22% of patients had positive S-LANSS scores three months following surgery. There was a significant association between positive scores in the acute and chronic periods (relative risk (RR) 3.5, [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-7.2]). Identifying pain of predominantly neuropathic origin in the postoperative period with a simple pain score can help identify those at risk of developing chronic pain with these features following thoracic surgery.

  8. Control of postoperative pain after awake craniotomy with local intradermal analgesia and metamizol.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Rachel; Ram, Zvi; Perel, Azriel; Yusim, Yakov; Zaslansky, Ruth; Berkenstadt, Haim

    2007-05-01

    Pain following brain surgery is a significant problem. Infiltration of the scalp with local intradermal anesthetics was suggested for postoperative pain control but was assessed only in the first hour postoperatively. To evaluate wound infiltration with a single dose of metamizol (dipyrone) for postoperative pain control in patients undergoing awake craniotomy. This open, prospective, non-randomized observational study, conducted in anesthesiology and neurosurgical departments of a teaching hospital, included 40 patients undergoing awake craniotomy for the removal of brain tumor. Intraoperative anesthesia included wound infiltration with lidocaine and bupivacaine, conscious sedation using remifentanil and propofol, and a single dose of metamizol (dipyrone) for postoperative pain control. Outcome was assessed by the Numerical Pain Scale on arrival at the postoperative care unit, and 2, 4 and 12 hours after the end of surgery. On arrival at the postoperative care unit, patients reported NPS scores of 1.2 +/- 1.1 in a scale of 0-10 (mean +/- SD) (median = 1, range 0-4). The scores were 0.8 +/-0.9, 0.9 +/- 0.9 and 1 +/- 0.9 at 2 hours, 4 hours and 12 hours after the end of surgery, respectively. Based on patients' complaints and NPS lower than 3, 27 patients did not require any supplementary analgesia during the first 12 postoperative hours, 11 patients required a single dose of oral metamizol or intramuscular diclofenac, one patient was given 2 mg of intravenous morphine, and one patient required two separate doses of metamizol. Although the clinical setup prevents the use of placebo local analgesia as a control group, the results suggest the possible role of local intradermal infiltration of the scalp combined with a single dose of metamizol to control postoperative pain in patients undergoing craniotomy.

  9. Intrathecal morphine for postoperative pain control following robot-assisted prostatectomy: a prospective randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Bae, Junyeol; Kim, Hyun-Chang; Hong, Deok Man

    2017-08-01

    Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) is minimally invasive surgery, but also causes moderate to severe pain during the immediate postoperative period. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of intrathecal morphine (ITM) for postoperative pain control in patients undergoing RALP. Thirty patients scheduled for RALP were randomly assigned into one of two groups. In the ITM group (n = 15), postoperative pain was managed using 300 µg intrathecal morphine with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA). In the IV-PCA group (n = 15), only intravenous patient-controlled analgesia was used. The numerical pain score (NPS; 0 = no pain, 100 = worst pain imaginable), postoperative IV-PCA requirements and opioid-related complications including nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache and pruritus were compared between the two groups. The NPSs on coughing were 20 (IQR 10-50) in the ITM group and 60 (IQR 40-80) in the IV-PCA group at postoperative 24 h (p = 0.001). The NPSs were significantly lower in the ITM group up to postoperative 24 h. The ITM group showed less morphine consumption at postoperative 24 h in the ITM group than in the IV-PCA group [5 (IQR 3-15) mg vs 17 (IQR 11-24) mg, p = 0.001]. Complications associated with morphine were comparable between the two groups and respiratory depression was not reported in either group. Intrathecal morphine provided more satisfactory analgesia without serious complications during the early postoperative period in patients undergoing RALP.

  10. [Managing postoperative pain in pediatric nursing: searching for subsides to improve nursing care].

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Fernanda Cristina; Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira; Leite, Adriana Moraes; Flória-Santos, Milena; de Lima, Regina Aparecida Garcia; Scochi, Carmen Gracinda Silvan

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on a literature review about child postoperative pain management by nursing professionals, in the period from 1993 to 2005. Three themes were identified: factors influencing nurses' management of child pain, interventions to relieve child pain, and nurses' assessment and response to children's pain experience. Child pain management is a complex act that involves elements of the dimensions related to the children themselves, health professionals and family members. The lack of studies in this area reveals the need for research, with a view to (re)considering pediatric nursing care.

  11. Postoperative pain relief using intermittent intrapleural analgesia following thoracoscopic anterior correction for progressive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    complications with the intermittent intrapleural analgesia method. Conclusions Local anaesthetic administration via an intrapleural catheter is a safe and effective method of analgesia following thoracoscopic anterior scoliosis correction. Post-operative pain following anterior thoracic scoliosis surgery can be reduced to ‘mild’ levels by combined analgesia regimes. PMID:24238280

  12. Efficacy and safety of parecoxib sodium for acute postoperative pain: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    WEI, WEI; ZHAO, TIANYUN; LI, YUANTAO

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of parecoxib sodium for acute postoperative pain. PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EBSCO, Springer, Ovid and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were searched from January 1999 to January 2013 to comprehensively collect randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of parecoxib sodium for acute postoperative pain. The methodological quality of the included RCTs were assessed and the data were extracted by two reviewers independently according to the Cochrane Handbook. Efficacies and safety (respiratory depression, pruritus, fever, headache, and nausea and vomiting) were pooled using meta-analysis performed by Review Manager 5.1 software. Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated in a fixed-effects model. Seven RCTs involving 1,939 patients met the inclusion criteria. The results of the meta-analysis revealed that the rate of ‘effective’ treatment as described by the patients’ global evaluation of study medication (PGESM) was higher in the patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) combined with parecoxib sodium group 24, 48, and 72 h after the initial intravenous dose of 40 mg parecoxib compared with that in the control group [PCA alone; RR=1.41, 95% CI (1.13–1.75); RR=1.25, 95% CI (1.15–1.35); and RR=1.30, 95% CI (1.21–1.40), respectively]. The rate of ‘ineffective’ treatment in the PCA combined with parecoxib sodium group was lower compared with that of the control group [RR=0.43, 95% CI (0.26–0.72); RR= 0.44, 95% CI (0.34–0.57); and RR= 0.33, 95% CI (0.23–0.48), respectively]. Combination of PCA with parecoxib sodium reduced the incidence of postoperative fever [RR=0.34, 95% CI (0.22–0.53)], as well as nausea and vomiting [RR=0.69, 95% CI (0.57–0.83)]; however, it did not significantly reduce respiratory depression [RR= 0.84, 95% CI (0.38–1.83)], pruritus [RR= 0.91, 95% CI (0.54–1.52)] or headache [RR=0.77, 95

  13. A ventilation strategy during general anaesthesia to reduce postoperative atelectasis.

    PubMed

    Edmark, Lennart; Auner, Udo; Hallén, Jan; Lassinantti-Olowsson, Lena; Hedenstierna, Göran; Enlund, Mats

    2014-08-01

    Atelectasis is common during and after general anaesthesia. We hypothesized that a ventilation strategy, without recruitment manoeuvres, using a combination of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and a reduced end-expiratory oxygen fraction (FETO2) before ending mask ventilation with CPAP after extubation would reduce the area of postoperative atelectasis. Thirty patients were randomized into three groups. During induction and emergence, inspiratory oxygen fractions (FIO2) were 1.0 in the control group and 1.0 or 0.8 in the intervention groups. No CPAP/PEEP was used in the control group, whereas CPAP/PEEP of 6 cmH2O was used in the intervention groups. After extubation, FIO2 was set to 0.30 in the intervention groups and CPAP was applied, aiming at FETO2 < 0.30. Atelectasis was studied by computed tomography 25 min postoperatively. The median area of atelectasis was 5.2 cm(2) (range 1.6-12.2 cm(2)) and 8.5 cm(2) (3-23.1 cm(2)) in the groups given FIO2 1.0 with or without CPAP/PEEP, respectively. After correction for body mass index the difference between medians (2.9 cm(2)) was statistically significant (confidence interval 0.2-7.6 cm(2), p = 0.04). In the group given FIO2 0.8, in which seven patients were ex- or current smokers, the median area of atelectasis was 8.2 cm(2) (1.8-14.7 cm(2)). Compared with conventional ventilation, after correction for obesity, this ventilation strategy reduced the area of postoperative atelectasis in one of the intervention groups but not in the other group, which included a higher proportion of smokers.

  14. A ventilation strategy during general anaesthesia to reduce postoperative atelectasis

    PubMed Central

    Auner, Udo; Hallén, Jan; Lassinantti-Olowsson, Lena; Hedenstierna, Göran; Enlund, Mats

    2014-01-01

    Background Atelectasis is common during and after general anaesthesia. We hypothesized that a ventilation strategy, without recruitment manoeuvres, using a combination of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and a reduced end-expiratory oxygen fraction (FETO2) before ending mask ventilation with CPAP after extubation would reduce the area of postoperative atelectasis. Methods Thirty patients were randomized into three groups. During induction and emergence, inspiratory oxygen fractions (FIO2) were 1.0 in the control group and 1.0 or 0.8 in the intervention groups. No CPAP/PEEP was used in the control group, whereas CPAP/PEEP of 6 cmH2O was used in the intervention groups. After extubation, FIO2 was set to 0.30 in the intervention groups and CPAP was applied, aiming at FETO2 < 0.30. Atelectasis was studied by computed tomography 25 min postoperatively. Results The median area of atelectasis was 5.2 cm2 (range 1.6–12.2 cm2) and 8.5 cm2 (3–23.1 cm2) in the groups given FIO2 1.0 with or without CPAP/PEEP, respectively. After correction for body mass index the difference between medians (2.9 cm2) was statistically significant (confidence interval 0.2–7.6 cm2, p = 0.04). In the group given FIO2 0.8, in which seven patients were ex- or current smokers, the median area of atelectasis was 8.2 cm2 (1.8–14.7 cm2). Conclusion Compared with conventional ventilation, after correction for obesity, this ventilation strategy reduced the area of postoperative atelectasis in one of the intervention groups but not in the other group, which included a higher proportion of smokers. PMID:24758245

  15. Post-operative pain management practices in patients with dementia - the current situation in Finland.

    PubMed

    Rantala, Maija; Kankkunen, Päivi; Kvist, Tarja; Hartikainen, Sirpa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe current post-operative pain management practices for patients with dementia and hip fracture in Finland. Older adults with hip fracture are at high risk of under treatment for pain, especially if they also have a cognitive disorder at the stage of dementia. Previous studies have provided limited information about the quality of acute pain treatment for persons with dementia. In this study data concerning current pain management practices was collected by questionnaire from 333 nursing staff. They worked in surgical wards of seven universities and ten city-centre hospitals. The response rate to the questionnaire was 53%. The data was analysed using factor analysis and parametric methods. Half the respondents (53%) considered that post-operative pain management was sufficient for patients with dementia. Less than one third of respondent nurses reported that pain scales were in use on their unit: the most commonly used scale was VAS. The use of pain scales was significantly related to the respondents' opinion of the sufficiency of post-operative pain management in this patient group (p<0.001). The findings can be utilised in nursing practice and research when planning suitable complementary educational interventions for nursing staff of surgical wards. Further research is needed to explain the current situation of pain management practices from the viewpoint of patients with dementia.

  16. Post-Operative Pain Management Practices in Patients with Dementia - The Current Situation in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Rantala, Maija; Kankkunen, Päivi; Kvist, Tarja; Hartikainen, Sirpa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe current post-operative pain management practices for patients with dementia and hip fracture in Finland. Older adults with hip fracture are at high risk of under treatment for pain, especially if they also have a cognitive disorder at the stage of dementia. Previous studies have provided limited information about the quality of acute pain treatment for persons with dementia. In this study data concerning current pain management practices was collected by questionnaire from 333 nursing staff. They worked in surgical wards of seven universities and ten city-centre hospitals. The response rate to the questionnaire was 53%. The data was analysed using factor analysis and parametric methods. Half the respondents (53%) considered that post-operative pain management was sufficient for patients with dementia. Less than one third of respondent nurses reported that pain scales were in use on their unit: the most commonly used scale was VAS. The use of pain scales was significantly related to the respondents’ opinion of the sufficiency of post-operative pain management in this patient group (p<0.001). The findings can be utilised in nursing practice and research when planning suitable complementary educational interventions for nursing staff of surgical wards. Further research is needed to explain the current situation of pain management practices from the viewpoint of patients with dementia. PMID:22723810

  17. Effect of Intravenous Ketorolac on Postoperative Pain in Mandibular Fracture Surgery; A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Eftekharian, Hamid Reza; Ilkhani pak, Homa

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of intravenous ketorolac on early postoperative pain in patients with mandibular fractures, who underwent surgical repair. Methods: This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in Shahid Rajaei Hospital, affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences during a 1-year period from 2015 to 2016. We included a total number of 50 patients with traumatic mandibular fractures who underwent surgical repair. Patients with obvious contraindications to ketorolac such as asthma, renal dysfunction, peptic ulceration, bleeding disorders, cardiovascular disease, mental retardation, or allergy to ketorolac or NSAIDS, were excluded. The patients were randomly assigned to receive intravenous ketorolac (30 mg) at the end of operation in post anesthesia care unit immediately upon the onset of pain (n=25), or intravenous distilled water as placebo (n=25). Postoperative monitoring included non-invasive arterial blood pressure, ECG, and peripheral oxygen saturation. The postoperative pain was evaluated by a nurse using visual analog scale (VAS) (0–100 mm) pain score 4 hours after surgery and was compared between the two study groups. Results: Overall we included 50 patients (25 per group) in the current study. The baseline characteristics including age, gender, weight, operation duration, anesthesia duration and type of surgical procedure were comparable between two study groups. Those who received placebo had significantly higher requirements for analgesic use compared to ketorolac group (72% vs. 28%; p=0.002). Ketorolac significantly reduced the pain intensity 30-min after the operation (p<0.001). There were no significant side effects associated with ketorolac. Conclusion: Intravenous single-dose ketorolac is a safe and effective analgesic agent for the short-term management of mild to moderate acute postoperative pain in mandibular fracture surgery and can be used as an alternative to opioids. PMID:28246618

  18. Assessment of postoperative pain after unilateral mastectomy using two different surgical techniques in dogs.

    PubMed

    Minto, Bruno W; Rodrigues, Lisiane C; Steagall, Paulo V M; Monteiro, Eduardo R; Brandão, Claudia V S

    2013-08-19

    There are few studies reporting pain and postoperative analgesia associated with mastectomy in dogs. The aim of this study was to evaluate postoperative pain after unilateral mastectomy using two different surgical techniques in the dog. Twenty female dogs were assigned (n=10/group) to undergo unilateral mastectomy using either the combination of sharp and blunt dissection (SBD) or the modified SBD (mSBD) technique, in which the mammary chain is separated from the abdominal wall entirely by blunt (hand and finger) dissection except for a small area cranial to the first gland, in a prospective, randomized, clinical trial. All dogs were premedicated with intramuscular acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg) and morphine (0.3 mg/kg). Anesthesia was induced with intravenous ketamine (5 mg/kg) and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg), and maintained with isoflurane. Subcutaneous meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg) was administered before surgery. Postoperative pain was evaluated according to the University of Melbourne pain scale (UMPS) by an observer who was blinded to the surgical technique.. Rescue analgesia was provided by the administration of intramuscular morphine (0.5 mg/kg) if pain scores were >14 according to the UMPS. Data were analyzed using t-tests and ANOVA (P>0.05). There were no significant differences between the groups for age, weight, extubation time, and duration of surgery and anesthesia (P>0.05). There were no significant differences for postoperative pain scores between groups. Rescue analgesia was required in one dog in each group. The two surgical techniques produced similar surgical times, incidence of perioperative complications and postoperative pain. Multimodal analgesia is recommended for treatment of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing unilateral mastectomy.

  19. [Measurement of postoperative pain: analysis of the sensitivity of various self-evaluation instruments].

    PubMed

    Lázaro, C; Caseras, X; Torrubia, R; Baños, J E

    2003-05-01

    This study compared the sensitivity of two one-dimensional scales (a visual analog scale [VAS] and a verbal scale of pain intensity [VSPI]) and one multidimensional scale (McGill Pain Questionnaire-Spanish Version [MPQ-SV]) for detecting changes in pain after a variety of surgical procedures with postoperative analgesia provided by one of two methods. Forty-two patients who underwent abdominal surgery, hysterectomy, cesarean, inguinal herniorrhaphy, subcostal or medial laparoscopic cholecystectomy were studied. Postoperative analgesia consisted of 1 mg/Kg of intravenous pethidine every 4 h in group one (n = 20) and intramuscular diclofenac every 12 h in group two. Assessment was at 24 h and/or at 48 and 72 h using the VAS, the VSPI and the MPQ-SV. All the scales were useful for assessing postoperative pain, giving estimates that were sensitive to variations in pain on days after the operation. The MPQ-SV was able to detect different pain-producing capacities for the surgical procedures more effectively than were the one-dimensional scales. The MPQ-SV was also able to discriminate the qualitative and quantitative differences among the mechanisms of action of opioid and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, whereas the one-dimensional scales were unable to distinguish therapeutic approach. All the scales were sensitive to changes in postoperative pain, but the MPQ-SV gave more precise information of differences between analgesic treatments and among operations.

  20. The effect of various kinematics on postoperative pain after instrumentation: a prospective, randomized clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Hakan; Khalilov, Ruslan; Doğanay, Ezgi; Karatas, Ertugrul

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate various kinematic movements on postoperative pain using a Reciproc system. Material and Methods: Fifty-six molar teeth were divided into four groups according to kinematics as follows: continuous rotation, 360° CCW – 30° CW, 270° CCW – 30° CW, and 150° CCW – 30° CW. Preoperative and postoperative pain levels using visual analogue scale (VAS), percussion pain, and analgesic intake were recorded for each subject. Postoperative pain levels at 1, 3, 5, and 7 d were evaluated. Data were analyzed statistically using the Kruskal-Walis, Mann-Whitney-U, one-way analysis of variance, and chi-square tests (p=0.05). Results: Continuous rotation resulted in more pain at Day 1 when compared with the reciprocating groups (360° CCW – 30° CW and 270° CCW – 30° C) (p<0.05). Conclusions: Continuous rotation resulted in more postoperative pain at Day 1 than in reciprocating groups, and thereafter no significant pain was found among the groups. PMID:27812621

  1. Management strategies to reduce risk of postoperative infections.

    PubMed

    Galor, Anat; Goldhardt, Raquel; Wellik, Sarah R; Gregori, Ninel Z; Flynn, Harry W

    2013-12-01

    Postoperative infections, although rare, are still of great concern to the ophthalmologist. The incidence of post-cataract endophthalmitis is low, with a range of .28 per 1,000 to 2.99 per 1000. In addition to intraoperative considerations such as poor wound construction, vitreous loss, topical anesthesia, and prolonged surgical time, other risk factors include preoperative factors such as a diseased ocular surface and systemic immunosuppression. Potential methods of reducing risk of endophthalmitis after anterior segment surgery are discussed and available literature is summarized.

  2. Management strategies to reduce risk of postoperative infections

    PubMed Central

    Galor, Anat; Goldhardt, Raquel; Wellik, Sarah R.; Gregori, Ninel Z.; Flynn, Harry W.

    2013-01-01

    Postoperative infections, although rare, are still of great concern to the ophthalmologist. The incidence of post-cataract endophthalmitis is low, with a range of .28 per 1,000 to 2.99 per 1000. In addition to intraoperative considerations such as poor wound construction, vitreous loss, topical anesthesia, and prolonged surgical time, other risk factors include preoperative factors such as a diseased ocular surface and systemic immunosuppression. Potential methods of reducing risk of endophthalmitis after anterior segment surgery are discussed and available literature is summarized. PMID:24319649

  3. Effect of a Brief Massage on Pain, Anxiety, and Satisfaction With Pain Management in Postoperative Orthopaedic Patients.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jane; Dunion, Amy; Dunn, Nina; Fitzmaurice, Carolyn; Gamboa, Margaret; Myers, Sarah; Novak, Paula; Poole, Jill; Rice, Kimberly; Riley, Caroline; Sandberg, Ruth; Taylor, Daniel; Gilmore, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The majority of massage therapy studies have evaluated 20- to 45-minute interventions in nonsurgical patients. Studies are needed to evaluate the effects of a brief massage intervention that would be more clinically feasible for bedside clinicians to administer as an adjunct to pharmacologic pain management in acutely ill surgical patients. To evaluate the impact of a brief massage intervention in conjunction with analgesic administration on pain, anxiety, and satisfaction with pain management in postoperative orthopaedic inpatients. A convenience sample of postoperative orthopaedic patients was studied during two therapeutic pain treatments with an oral analgesic medication. A pretest, posttest, randomized, controlled trial study design, with crossover of subjects, was used to evaluate the effect of a 5-minute hand and arm massage at the time of analgesic administration. Each patient received both treatments (analgesic administration alone [control]; analgesic administration with massage) during two sequential episodes of postoperative pain. Prior to administration of the analgesic medication, participants rated their level of pain and anxiety with valid and reliable tools. Immediately after analgesic administration, a study investigator provided the first, randomly assigned treatment. Pain and anxiety were rated by the participant 5 and 45 minutes after medication administration. Satisfaction with pain management was also rated at the 45-minute time point. Study procedures were repeated for the participant's next requirement for analgesic medication, with the participant receiving the other randomly assigned treatment. Analysis of variance was used to determine whether pain, anxiety, and/or satisfaction with pain management differed between the two treatment groups and/or if treatment order was a significant factor. The level of significance for all tests was set at p < .05. Twenty-five postoperative patients were studied during two sequential episodes of pain

  4. Single dose oral indometacin for the treatment of acute postoperative pain

    PubMed Central

    Moore, R Andrew; Derry, Sheena; Mason, Lorna; McQuay, Henry J; Edwards, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Background This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 4, 2004. Indometacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used most commonly for the treatment of inflammation and pain resulting from rheumatic disease (arthritis), and less commonly in postoperative pain management. When taken for chronic pain conditions, indometacin has been associated with a high incidence of adverse events. The benefits and harms of orally-administered indometacin for postoperative pain are not clear. Objectives To determine the efficacy of a single dose of oral indometacin compared with placebo in treating acute postoperative pain in adults, and to analyse information relating to adverse events. Search methods We searched the Cochrane CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database for relevant studies in January 2002 and for the updated search in December 2007. Additional studies were sought from the reference lists of retrieved studies. Selection criteria Studies were included in the review if they were randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials using a single oral dose of indometacin in adults with acute postoperative pain. Data collection and analysis Studies were assessed independently by two review authors. Pain relief or pain intensity data were extracted and converted into dichotomous information to give the number of participants with at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours. The relative benefit for at least 50% pain relief was calculated. Main results In the original review one study of 59 women with post-episiotomy pain met the inclusion criteria. The dose of indometacin assessed against placebo was 50 mg, and the results concluded that indometacin was not significantly better than placebo for relieving postoperative pain at four to six hours. There was insufficient information to conduct further efficacy analyses or assess adverse events

  5. Manual lymph drainage efficiently reduces postoperative facial swelling and discomfort after removal of impacted third molars.

    PubMed

    Szolnoky, G; Szendi-Horváth, K; Seres, L; Boda, K; Kemény, L

    2007-09-01

    The removal of wisdom teeth is often associated with severe postoperative edema and pain, and operation on the third molar can cause local inflammation that impairs lymph transport. The objective of the study was to assess the efficacy of manual lymph drainage (MLD) in reducing swelling following bilateral wisdom tooth removal. Ten consecutive patients with bilateral impacted wisdom teeth that required surgical removal were enrolled in the study. Each patient was postoperatively treated with MLD (after Vodder's method) on one side of the neck region with the untreated contralateral side as a control. Swelling was evaluated using a tape-measure placed in contact with the skin. The six landmarks of measurement included tragus-lip junction, tragus-pogonion, mandibular angle-external corner of eye, mandibular angle-ala nasi, mandibular angle-lip junction, and mandibular angle-median point of chin. Subjective assessment of MLD was conducted with self-evaluation using a visual analogue bar scale (VAS, range 0-100 mm). Of the 6 linear measurements, 4 lines (2, 4, 5, 6) showed a significant reduction of swelling on the side of MLD compared to the untreated side. Mean score of VAS of pretreatment condition was 35.5 +/- 20.60 mm that decreased to 22 +/- 19.32 mm measured after MLD (p=0.0295). This initial study demonstrates that MLD may promote an improvement of lymph circulation and work in an adjunctive role for reduction of postoperative swelling and pain following removal of impacted third molars.

  6. Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs for Managing Postoperative Endodontic Pain in Patients Who Present with Preoperative Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Elizabeth A; Marshall, J Gordon; Selph, Shelley S; Barker, Dale R; Sedgley, Christine M

    2017-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been commonly used to treat endodontic postoperative pain. The purpose of this study was to address the following Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome, Timing, Study design and setting question: in patients with preoperative pain who undergo initial orthograde endodontic treatment, what is the comparative efficacy of NSAIDS compared with non-narcotic analgesics or placebo in reducing postoperative pain and the incidence of adverse events. Ovid MEDLINE (1946-December 15, 2015), the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2005-December 15, 2015), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (to December 15, 2015) were searched using included drugs, indications, and study designs as search terms. Hand searches in texts were also conducted. Two independent reviewers assessed eligibility for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed quality using the risk of bias tool. L'Abbe plots were used for qualitative review. Where applicable, meta-analysis was conducted on the pooled effect size (ES). Two thousand two hundred eighty-four studies were identified through the database searches; 405 full-text articles were assessed. Fifteen articles met the inclusion criteria; qualitative analysis revealed all studies had a moderate to high risk of bias. Ibuprofen was the most studied NSAID. The L'Abbe plots showed that NSAIDS are effective at relieving postoperative endodontic pain overall. Meta-analysis showed that ibuprofen 600 mg is more effective than placebo at 6 hours postoperatively (ES = 10.50, P = .037), and ibuprofen 600 mg + acetaminophen 1000 mg combination is more effective than placebo (ES = 34.89, P = .000) but not significantly different than ibuprofen (ES = 13.94, P = .317). Five studies reported patients experiencing adverse events such as drowsiness, dizziness, nausea, and emesis; 2 studies reported that patients experienced no adverse events. A combination of ibuprofen 600

  7. Pain as a late emotional reaction. Clinical research evaluating the psychosocial expression of pain disorder in preoperative and postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Zavadovschi, Iuliana

    2014-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the influence of psychosocial factors on pain perception in preoperative and postoperative period in patients scheduled for abdominal surgery. A psychological assessment was performed in 50 patients without psychiatric history scheduled for abdominal surgery. The verbal expression of pain, intensity of anxiety, catastrophizing level, and the interpersonal relationships were assessed. Surgery has a powerful effect on the perception of pain intensity. Postoperatively patients perceive significantly lower pain than in the preoperative period (p = 0.001). In the postoperative period the patients mainly use emotional and evaluative verbal expressions (p = 0.000 and p = 0.000, respectively), have a high index of anxiety (p = 0.000), adopt a higher level of coping self-statements (p = 0.002), and have a higher level of perception of others (family, friends) (p = 0.005). In patients undergoing surgery, surgery affects their psyche, triggering a series of events that can have psychological effects on pain intensity, doctor-patient relationship, postoperative complications, and shortening of recovery time.

  8. Preventive Analgesia by Local Anesthetics: The Reduction of Postoperative Pain by Peripheral Nerve Blocks and Intravenous Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Barreveld, Antje; Witte, Jürgen; Chahal, Harkirat; Durieux, Marcel E.; Strichartz, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The use of local anesthetics to reduce acute postoperative pain has a long history, but recent reports have not been systematically reviewed. In addition, the need to include only those clinical studies that meet minimum standards for randomization and blinding must be adhered to. In this review we have applied stringent clinical study design standards to identify publications on the use of perioperative local anesthetics. We first examined several types of peripheral nerve blocks, covering a variety of surgical procedures, and second, for effects of intentionally administered IV local anesthetic (lidocaine) for suppression of postoperative pain. Thirdly, we have examined publications in which vascular concentrations of local anesthetics were measured at different times after peripheral nerve block procedures, noting the incidence when those levels reached ones achieved during intentional IV administration. Importantly, the very large number of studies using neuraxial blockade techniques (epidural, spinal) has not been included in this review but will be dealt with separately in a later review. The overall results showed a strongly positive effect of local anesthetics, by either route, for suppressing postoperative pain scores and analgesic (opiate) consumption. In only a few situations were the effects equivocal. Enhanced effectiveness with the addition of adjuvants was not uniformly apparent. The differential benefits between drug delivery before, during, or immediately after a surgical procedure are not obvious, and a general conclusion is that the significant antihyperalgesic effects occur when the local anesthetic is present during the acute postoperative period, and its presence during surgery is not essential for this action. PMID:23408672

  9. Liposomal bupivacaine infiltration at the surgical site for the management of postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Thomas W; Athanassoglou, Vassilis; Mellon, Stephen; Strickland, Louise H; Trivella, Marialena; Murray, David; Pandit, Hemant G

    2017-02-01

    surgery. One of the two studies comparing liposomal bupivacaine to placebo demonstrated a higher number of participants receiving liposomal bupivacaine did not require postoperative opioids (very low quality evidence). The other two studies, one versus placebo and one versus bupivacaine hydrochloride, found no difference in opioid requirement (very low quality evidence). Due to significant heterogeneity between the studies (I(2) = 92%) we did not pool the results.All the included studies reported adverse events within 30 days of surgery, with nausea, constipation and vomiting being the most common. Of the five parallel-arm studies, none performed or reported health economic assessments or patient-reported outcomes other than pain.Using GRADE, the quality of evidence ranged from moderate to very low. The major limitation was the sparseness of data for outcomes of interest. In addition, a number of studies had a high risk of bias resulting in further downgrading. Liposomal bupivacaine at the surgical site does appear to reduce postoperative pain compared to placebo, however, at present the limited evidence does not demonstrate superiority to bupivacaine hydrochloride. There were no reported drug-related serious adverse events and no study withdrawals due to drug-related adverse events. Overall due to the low quality and volume of evidence our confidence in the effect estimate is limited and the true effect may be substantially different from our estimate.

  10. [Validation of the French version of the non-communicating children's pain checklist - postoperative version].

    PubMed

    Zabalia, Marc; Breau, Lynn M; Wood, Chantal; Lévêque, Christine; Hennequin, Martine; Villeneuve, Edith; Fall, Estelle; Vallet, Laurent; Grégoire, Marie-Claude; Breau, Geneviève

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the study was to test the validity of a French language version of the Non-Communicating Children's Pain Checklist - Postoperative Version (NCCPC-PV): grille d'évaluation de la douleur-déficience intellectuelle (GED-DI). We assessed the intensity of pain in 87 intellectually disabled surgical patients recruited in four Canadian and French hospitals in the pre- and post-operative settings using the GED-DI, a 100-mm visual analogue pain scale (VAS) and the Rosen sedation scale. The validity of the GED-DI was measured by the difference in scores between pre- and postoperative conditions. The checklist was made up of 30 items divided into seven subgroups. Items were rated from 0 to 3 for a total score ranging from 0 to 90 points. The mean (standard deviation) age of the patients was 17 (11) yr and the mean mental age 24.5 (24) months. The total GED-DI score was 6.1 (4.9) pre- and 13.4 (11.2) post-surgery (P < 0.001). All subgroups had a higher score after surgery (P < 0.001). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, comparing the absence of pain to mild pain scores and moderate to severe pain scores, showed a cutoff at 6 (mild pain) and 11 (moderate to severe pain). The French version of the NCCPC-PV can be used to assess pain in non-communicating patients with intellectual disabilities in a postoperative setting. It has good content validity, as the total pre-surgery score for the GED-DI was significantly lower than the postoperative score, and showed a good concurrent validity when compared to the VAS.

  11. To predict sufentanil requirement for postoperative pain control using a real-time method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuhao; Duan, Guangyou; Guo, Shanna; Ying, Ying; Huang, Penghao; Zhang, Mi; Li, Ningbo; Zhang, Xianwei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Preoperative identification of individual sensitivity to opioid analgesics could improve the quality of postoperative analgesia. We explored the feasibility and utility of a real-time assessment of sufentanil sensitivity in predicting postoperative analgesic requirement. Our primary study included 111 patients who underwent measurements of pressure and quantitative pricking pain thresholds before and 5 minutes after sufentanil infusion. Pain intensity was assessed during the first 24-hour postsurgery, and patients who reported inadequate levels of analgesia were excluded from the study. The sufentanil requirement for patient-controlled analgesia was recorded, and a subsequent exploratory study of 20 patients facilitated the interpretation of the primary study results. In the primary study, experimental pain thresholds increased (P < 0.001) 5 minutes after sufentanil infusion, and the percent change in pricking pain threshold was positively associated with sufentanil requirement at 12 and 24 hours after surgery (β = 0.318, P = 0.001; and β = 0.335, P = 0.001). A receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis showed that patients with a change in pricking pain threshold >188% were >50% likely to require more sufentanil for postoperative pain control. In the exploratory study, experimental pain thresholds significantly decreased after the operation (P < 0.001), and we observed a positive correlation (P < 0.001) between the percent change in pricking pain threshold before and after surgery. Preoperative detection of individual sensitivity to sufentanil via the above described real-time method was effective in predicting postoperative sufentanil requirement. Thus, percent change in pricking pain threshold might be a feasible predictive marker of postoperative analgesia requirement. PMID:27336880

  12. Attitudes and perceptions of veterinary paraprofessionals in New Zealand to postoperative pain in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Kongara, K; Squance, H E; Topham, I A; Bridges, J P

    2016-03-01

    To survey the attitudes and perceptions of veterinary paraprofessionals in New Zealand to postoperative pain in dogs and cats. In December 2011, veterinary paraprofessionals (VP) from throughout New Zealand were invited to participate in an online survey. Eleven questions, which were divided into five sections, were used to determine demographic information, the respondents' assessment of pain after commonly performed surgeries in dogs and cats, their opinions on provision of analgesia, who had responsibility for pain monitoring and the use of any formal pain scoring system in the practice. Data from 165 respondents were able to be used, and 162 (98%) respondents to the survey were female. According to the respondents' estimates, fracture repair in dogs and repair of diaphragmatic hernias in cats had the highest pain score following surgery. Neutering procedures involving dogs were scored higher than for cats (p<0.01). All respondents agreed that animals benefit from perioperative analgesia. The veterinary nurse was reported to be predominantly responsible for monitoring pain in animals postoperatively by 116/165 (70.3%) respondents. Of 165 respondents, 154 (93%) considered that their knowledge of pain and assessment of pain could be enhanced. This survey reflects the attitudes and perceptions of a sample of VP in New Zealand to postoperative pain in dogs and cats. The results indicate that all respondents believe that surgery results in sufficient pain to warrant analgesic therapy. Routine neutering surgeries were considered to be more painful in dogs than in cats. The current survey also provides information to educators on potential areas of focus, given that 93% of respondents felt that their knowledge of pain and assessment of pain could be enhanced.

  13. Effects of single-dose preemptive intravenous ibuprofen on postoperative opioid consumption and acute pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Ahiskalioglu, Elif Oral; Ahiskalioglu, Ali; Aydin, Pelin; Yayik, Ahmet Murat; Temiz, Ayetullah

    2017-02-01

    5/30, respectively, P = 0.024). Other side-effects were similar between the groups. A preemptive single dose of IV ibuprofen in laparoscopic cholecystectomy reduced postoperative opioid consumption in the 1st 24 hours by 45%. It generated lower pain scores in the postoperative period compared with placebo.

  14. Effectiveness of local anesthetic on postoperative pain in different levels of laparoscopic gynecological surgery.

    PubMed

    Selcuk, Selcuk; Api, Murat; Polat, Mesut; Arinkan, Arzu; Aksoy, Bilge; Akca, Tijen; Karateke, Ates

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of preemptive and preclosure analgesia on postoperative pain intensity in patients undergoing different levels of laparoscopic surgery. Two hundred and twenty-six patients who underwent laparoscopic gynecological surgery were enrolled in this quasi-randomized, prospective, placebo controlled study. The operations were classified as level 1 or level 2 according to the extent of the surgery. Lidocaine 1 % was administered at the port sites before making the incision in the preincisional study group. In preincisional control group, same amount of saline was infiltrated in same manner. Lidocaine 1 % was infiltrated at the port site immediately after removing the trocars in preclosure study group. In preclosure control group, the same amount of saline was infiltrated in the same manner. Postoperative pain intensity was evaluated by linear visual analogue scale. It was found that preclosure lidocaine infiltration was more effective on postoperative pain intensity than its placebo group in level 1 and level 2 surgery groups at 1 and 2 h postoperatively. The administration of preincisional lidocaine improved postoperative pain scores significantly more than its placebo group in level 1 laparoscopic surgery group at 1 and 2 h postoperatively and in level 2 laparoscopic surgery group at 1 h postoperatively. Lidocaine infiltration at port sites had beneficial effects on pain intensity in the early postoperative period after laparoscopic gynecological surgery. However, the results of present study showed that the analgesic effect mechanism of local anesthetic was unrelated to the preemptive analgesia hypothesis.

  15. Impact of Postoperative Intravenous Acetaminophen on Opioid Requirements and Pain Scores Following Gynecologic Procedures.

    PubMed

    Stoudenmire, Laura G; Norman, Christy M; Latif, Erin Z

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to assess the impact of postoperative intravenous (IV) acetaminophen on opioid requirements and pain scores in patients following gynecologic procedures. A retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing gynecologic procedures was conducted to assess the impact of adding scheduled IV acetaminophen to postoperative analgesic regimens. The control group consisted of patients admitted prior to formulary addition of IV acetaminophen; the study group consisted of patients admitted after formulary addition of IV acetaminophen who received scheduled IV acetaminophen for at least the first 24 hours postoperatively. Opioid requirements 0 to 24 hours postoperatively served as the primary end point. Secondary end points included average pain score, cumulative acetaminophen dose, nonopioid analgesic requirements, and rate of adverse events 0 to 24 hours postoperatively. One hundred and thirty-seven patients who underwent a gynecologic procedure from January 2009 to April 2013 were included in this study. Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. In the first 24 hours postoperatively, there was no difference in opioid requirements between the groups (21 mg [interquartile range, IQR, 15-39.8 mg] vs 32.6 mg [IQR, 16.75-41 mg], P = 0.150). The average pain score and incidence of adverse events did not differ between the 2 groups. Postoperative administration of IV acetaminophen did not provide a significant opioid-sparing effect in patients undergoing gynecologic procedures. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. The effect of topical scar treatment on postoperative scar pain and pruritus after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kong, Chae-Gwan; Kim, Geon-Hyeong; Kim, Dong-Wook; In, Yong

    2014-04-01

    The surgical wound of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) needs continuous flexion and extension movement. Silicone gel treatment is widely used to treat hypertrophic scars and keloids since it is easily applied and prevents scar pain and itching. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of silicone gel applied to surgical scars of TKA on postoperative scar pain and pruritus. One hundred TKAs were randomized into a silicone gel group (silicone gel was applied to the wound after stitch-out for 1 month) or a placebo group. The postoperative scar pain and pruritus were evaluated with the use of a visual analog scale (VAS) at postoperative 3 months, 6 months and 1 year. Scar assessment was done using the Vancouver scar scale by evaluating scar pigmentation, vascularity, pliability, and height. Although silicone gel group showed better pigmentation and height scales than placebo group (P < 0.05), there were no significant differences in the postoperative scar pain and pruritus VAS scores between the groups (P > 0.05). Application of silicone gel had no beneficial effects on scar pain and itching relief during the early postoperative period of TKA. I-Randomized Controlled Trial.

  17. [Influence of intraoperative noise protection on postoperative pain: demonstrated exemplified by total knee arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Keshmiri, A; Wolf, T; Wiech, O; Benditz, A; Grifka, J; Springorum, H

    2014-02-01

    It is known that implied memory of intraoperative noise influences postoperative pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different intraoperative noise protection methods during total knee arthroplasty on postoperative pain scores. A total of 83 patients were included in this prospectively designed, double-blind trial and underwent total knee arthroplasty with psoas compartment and sciatic nerve regional anesthesia and additionally propofol sedation. After randomization patients were assigned either to the noise protection group, the music group or the control group. Postoperative pain scores (VAS) were evaluated in each group. In the three different time intervals evaluated there were no significant differences between the groups. Also the pain maxima for each postoperative day showed no significant difference but there was a slight trend to the advantage of the music group. Even though there were no significant effects of music or noise protection on postoperative pain scores, it can be concluded, as has been done by many other authors that music should be used in the perioperative setting for general patient comfort.

  18. Antinociceptive effects of vitexin in a mouse model of postoperative pain

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qing; Mao, Li-Na; Liu, Cheng-Peng; Sun, Yue-Hua; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jun-Xu

    2016-01-01

    Vitexin, a C-glycosylated flavone present in several medicinal herbs, has showed various pharmacological activities including antinociception. The present study investigated the antinociceptive effects of vitexin in a mouse model of postoperative pain. This model was prepared by making a surgical incision on the right hindpaw and von Frey filament test was used to assess mechanical hyperalgesia. Isobolographical analysis method was used to examine the interaction between vitexin and acetaminophen. A reliable mechanical hyperalgesia was observed at 2 h post-surgery and lasted for 4 days. Acute vitexin administration (3–10 mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently relieved this hyperalgesia, which was also observed from 1 to 3 days post-surgery during repeated daily treatment. However, repeated vitexin administration prior to surgery had no preventive value. The 10 mg/kg vitexin-induced antinociception was blocked by the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone or the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline. The doses of vitexin used did not significantly suppress the locomotor activity. In addition, the combination of vitexin and acetaminophen produced an infra-additive effect in postoperative pain. Together, though vitexin-acetaminophen combination may not be useful for treating postoperative pain, vitexin exerts behaviorally-specific antinociception against postoperative pain mediated through opioid receptors and GABAA receptors, suggesting that vitexin may be useful for the control of postoperative pain. PMID:26763934

  19. Barriers to the use of morphine for the management of severe postoperative pain - a before and after study.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, P; Patel, N; Bailey, E; Armstrong, D

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the number of patients experiencing severe postoperative pain by prescribing 10 mg Morphine either as oral solution or by IM injection as an alternative to Tramadol Hydrochloride in an analgesic protocol. Patients who received in-patient oral and maxillofacial surgery under general anaesthesia were included. Complex intervention analgesic protocols were developed including staff education, patient educations and analgesic protocols. 80 patients were treated under the original protocol (tramadol hydrochloride for pain unmanaged by other drugs in protocol) over 4 months. 75 patients were treated under the second protocol (oral or intravenous morphine for pain unmanaged by other drugs in protocol). Patient perceptions to their pain management were then assessed. Proportion of patients reporting 'no pain' increased from 5% of 80 patients to 28% of 75 patients (p < 0.001). Report of severe pain reduced from 37% to 31% and not significant. Pain duration reduced from 18% to 12% for 75-100% time from surgery to discharge and not significant. Staff used protocols for 96% patients. Nurses provided patient information leaflets for 85%-80% patients. Nearly all patients (96% and 95%) reported overall satisfaction with their pain management. The use of morphine given orally or my IM injection rather than tramadol was associated with a significant increase in the number of patients reporting 'no pain'. However the number of patients experiencing severe pain was not significantly reduced. Despite this, most patients reported high levels of satisfaction which suggested that satisfaction questionnaires should not be used in isolation. Most patients received morphine orally rather than by IM injection but the oral dose may not have been high enough in this study. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Postoperative Pain, an Unmet Problem in Day or Overnight Italian Surgery Patients: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Antonielli D'Oulx, Maria Delfina; Paradiso, Rosetta; Perretta, Laura; Dimonte, Valerio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Because of economic reasons, day surgery rates have steadily increased in many countries and the trend is to perform around 70% of all surgical procedures as day surgery. Literature shows that postoperative pain treatment remains unfulfilled in several fields such as orthopedic and general surgery patients. In Italy, the day surgery program is not yet under governmental authority and is managed regionally by local practices. Aim. To investigate the trends in pain intensity and its relation to type of surgeries and pain therapy protocols, in postoperative patients, discharged from three different Ambulatory Surgeries located in North West Italy (Piedmont region). Method. The present study enrolled 276 patients who undergone different surgical procedures in ambulatory regimen. Patients recorded postoperative pain score twice a day, compliance with prescribed drugs, and pain related reasons for contacting the hospital. Monitoring lasted for 7 days. Results. At discharge, 72% of patients were under weak opioids, 12% interrupted the treatment due to side effects, 17% of patients required extra drugs, and 15% contacted the hospital reporting pain problems. About 50% of patients experienced moderate pain during the first day after surgery. Results from our study show that most of the patients experienced avoidable pain after discharge. PMID:28115878

  1. Postoperative Pain, an Unmet Problem in Day or Overnight Italian Surgery Patients: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Campagna, Sara; Antonielli D'Oulx, Maria Delfina; Paradiso, Rosetta; Perretta, Laura; Re Viglietti, Silvia; Berchialla, Paola; Dimonte, Valerio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Because of economic reasons, day surgery rates have steadily increased in many countries and the trend is to perform around 70% of all surgical procedures as day surgery. Literature shows that postoperative pain treatment remains unfulfilled in several fields such as orthopedic and general surgery patients. In Italy, the day surgery program is not yet under governmental authority and is managed regionally by local practices. Aim. To investigate the trends in pain intensity and its relation to type of surgeries and pain therapy protocols, in postoperative patients, discharged from three different Ambulatory Surgeries located in North West Italy (Piedmont region). Method. The present study enrolled 276 patients who undergone different surgical procedures in ambulatory regimen. Patients recorded postoperative pain score twice a day, compliance with prescribed drugs, and pain related reasons for contacting the hospital. Monitoring lasted for 7 days. Results. At discharge, 72% of patients were under weak opioids, 12% interrupted the treatment due to side effects, 17% of patients required extra drugs, and 15% contacted the hospital reporting pain problems. About 50% of patients experienced moderate pain during the first day after surgery. Results from our study show that most of the patients experienced avoidable pain after discharge.

  2. Glyceryl Trinitrate Ointment Did Not Reduce Pain After Stapled Hemorrhoidectomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Trent; Bartlett, Lynne; Mushaya, Chrispen; Ashour, Mohamed; Ho, Yik-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Medications, including topical 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), can reduce anal spasm and pain after excisional hemorrhoidectomy. GTN after stapled hemorrhoidopexy was compared with routine postoperative management. Patients with symptomatic grade 3/4 hemorrhoids were recruited. After stapled hemorrhoidopexy, residual perianal skin tags were excised as appropriate. Those requiring double purse-string mucosectomy were excluded. Postoperative pain, pain duration, and complications were assessed. One hundred ten patients (74 men; mean age 50.6 years) were enrolled in the control group and 100 patients (57 men; mean age 49.8 years) in the GTN group. Maximum pain was higher in the GTN group (P  =  0.015). There were no differences between the two groups in residual perianal skin tags requiring excision, postoperative complications, recurrence rates, follow-up period, average pain, duration of pain, or satisfaction scores. Sixteen GTN patients were noncompliant due to side effects. None had persistent perianal skin tags. GTN did not reduce postoperative pain after stapled hemorrhoidectomy. PMID:23102076

  3. Parents' knowledge, attitudes, use of pain relief methods and satisfaction related to their children's postoperative pain management: a descriptive correlational study.

    PubMed

    Chng, Hui Yi; He, Hong-Gu; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Liam, Joanne Li Wee; Zhu, Lixia; Cheng, Karis Kin Fong

    2015-06-01

    To examine parents' knowledge about and attitudes towards pain management, use of pain relief strategies and satisfaction with their children's postoperative pain management, as well as the relationships among these variables. Children's postoperative pain is inadequately managed worldwide. Despite increasing emphasis on parental involvement in children's postoperative pain management, few studies have examined parents' management of their child's postoperative pain in Singapore. A descriptive correlational study. A convenience sample of 60 parents having 6- to 14-year-old children undergoing inpatient elective surgery in a public hospital in Singapore was recruited. Data were collected one day after each child's surgery using the Pain Management Knowledge and Attitudes questionnaire and the Parents' Use of Pain Relief Strategies questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U tests, Kruskal-Wallis tests and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used for data analyses. Parents displayed moderate levels of knowledge, attitudes and use of pain relief methods in relation to their children's postoperative pain and pain management. They were generally satisfied with the management of their child's postoperative pain. There was significant difference in Parents' Use of Pain Relief Strategies scores between parents with and without previous experience of caring for their hospitalised child. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between parents' knowledge and attitude, knowledge and satisfaction, attitude and satisfaction, knowledge and pain relief strategies, as well as attitude and pain relief strategies. This study indicates the need to provide parents with more information regarding their children's postoperative pain management. Future studies are needed to develop educational interventions for parents to improve their knowledge and attitudes, which will eventually improve their use of pain relief strategies for their children. Health

  4. High volume local anesthesia as a postoperative factor of pain and swelling in dental implants.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Siles, Mariano; Torres-Diez, Luis Carlos; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Salazar-Sánchez, Noemi; Ballester Ferrandis, Jose Francisco

    2014-06-01

    To determine whether the administration of high-volume local anesthesia can influence postoperative pain and swelling, and the degree of patient satisfaction, following dental implant placement. One hundred patients (45 women and 55 men) between 19 and 80 years old were divided into two groups: group A (n = 50, with placement of an implant using an atraumatic approach in each patient, with sub-periosteal injection of a volume of Ultracain(®) ≤0.9 mL [half a carpule]) and group B (n = 50, involving the same surgical procedure but infiltrating a local anesthetic volume of ≥7.2 mL [four carpules]). Visual analog scales were used in all patients to rate intraoperative pain and postoperative pain and swelling. After the first week, the patients completed a questionnaire evaluating satisfaction with treatment. The intraoperative pain scores were similar in both groups (p = 0.363), while the postoperative pain and swelling scores were significantly lower in group A at all time points. Patient rated satisfaction with the surgical treatment was higher in group A. Excess injected volume of local anesthetic in dental implant surgery has a negative impact upon both postoperative pain and swelling, and on patient rated satisfaction. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The Impact of Educational Status on the Postoperative Perception of Pain.

    PubMed

    Lanitis, Sophocles; Mimigianni, Christina; Raptis, Demetris; Sourtse, Gionous; Sgourakis, George; Karaliotas, Constantine

    2015-10-01

    Postoperative (PO) pain interferes with the recovery and mobilization of the surgical patients. The impact of the educational status has not been studied adequately up to now. This prospective study involved 400 consecutive general surgery patients. Various factors known to be associated with the perception of pain including the educational status were recorded as was the preoperative and postoperative pain and the analgesia requirements for the 1(st) PO week. Based on the educational status, we classified the patients in 3 groups and we compared these groups for the main outcomes: i.e. PO pain and PO analgesia. There were 145 patients of lower education (junior school), 150 patients of high education (high school) and 101 of higher education (university). Patients of lower education were found to experience more pain than patients of higher education in all postoperative days (from the 2(nd) to the 6(th)). No difference was identified in the type and quantity of the analgesia used. The subgroup analysis showed that patients with depression and young patients (< 40 years) had the maximum effect. The educational status may be a significant predictor of postoperative pain due to various reasons, including the poor understanding of the preoperative information, the level of anxiety and depression caused by that and the suboptimal request and use of analgesia. Younger patients (< 40), and patients with subclinical depression are mostly affected while there is no impact on patients over 60 years old.

  6. The Impact of Educational Status on the Postoperative Perception of Pain

    PubMed Central

    Mimigianni, Christina; Raptis, Demetris; Sourtse, Gionous; Sgourakis, George; Karaliotas, Constantine

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative (PO) pain interferes with the recovery and mobilization of the surgical patients. The impact of the educational status has not been studied adequately up to now. Methods This prospective study involved 400 consecutive general surgery patients. Various factors known to be associated with the perception of pain including the educational status were recorded as was the preoperative and postoperative pain and the analgesia requirements for the 1st PO week. Based on the educational status, we classified the patients in 3 groups and we compared these groups for the main outcomes: i.e. PO pain and PO analgesia. Results There were 145 patients of lower education (junior school), 150 patients of high education (high school) and 101 of higher education (university). Patients of lower education were found to experience more pain than patients of higher education in all postoperative days (from the 2nd to the 6th). No difference was identified in the type and quantity of the analgesia used. The subgroup analysis showed that patients with depression and young patients (< 40 years) had the maximum effect. Conclusions The educational status may be a significant predictor of postoperative pain due to various reasons, including the poor understanding of the preoperative information, the level of anxiety and depression caused by that and the suboptimal request and use of analgesia. Younger patients (< 40), and patients with subclinical depression are mostly affected while there is no impact on patients over 60 years old. PMID:26495081

  7. Postoperative Pain Control Following Craniotomy: A Systematic Review of Recent Clinical Literature.

    PubMed

    Tsaousi, Georgia G; Logan, Simon W; Bilotta, Federico

    2016-12-20

    Pain intensity after craniotomy is considered to be moderate to severe during the first 2 postoperative days. The ideal pain treatment to facilitate a rapid postoperative recovery and optimize outcome is unknown. This systematic review aims to report current clinical evidence related to pharmacological and adjuvant analgesic modalities for postcraniotomy pain control. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (January 2011 to April 2016). Original research involving the use of any analgesic drug, analgesic method, or nonpharmacological intervention for postcraniotomy pain relief, as assessed by pain scores up to 48 hours postoperatively, supplemental analgesic requirements, or occurence of adverse events. Nineteen RCTs enrolling a total of 1,805 patients were included. Most of the retrieved studies were of moderate-to-good methodological quality. Systemic pharmacological intervention was assessed in 14 RCTs. Opioids (5 RCTs) provided superior pain relief to other analgesics with no significant side effects, but the quality of studies was low. Diclofenac (3 RCTs) presented adequate craniotomy pain control without any adverse effects, while the use of parecoxib is not supported. Dexmedetomidine (3 RCTs) provided adequate transitional analgesia, but further research is needed. Data on the analgesic efficacy of gabapentin, pregabalin, and intravenous lidocaine are very limited (1 RCT for each). Scalp infiltration/block (3 RCTs) provided adequate analgesia in the early postoperative period, while more studies are needed to verify the analgesic benefit obtained from nonpharmacological interventions, such as multipoint electro-acupuncture, in craniotomy surgery (2 RCTs). No definite recommendations can be made based on this systematic review of pharamacological interventions following craniotomy due to significant divergence in the methodology of available studies. Limited evidence on scalp

  8. Effects of postoperative administration of celecoxib on pain management in patients after total knee arthroplasty: study protocol for an open-label randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mammoto, Takeo; Fujie, Keiko; Mamizuka, Naotaka; Taguchi, Noriko; Hirano, Atsushi; Yamazaki, Masashi; Ueno, Satoshi; Ma, Enbo; Hashimoto, Koichi

    2016-01-23

    Multimodal analgesia is achieved by combining different analgesics and different methods of analgesic administration, synergistically providing superior pain relief when compared with conventional analgesia. Multimodal analgesia can also result in reductions in the side effects and complications of analgesia, thereby improving patient safety. Preventive analgesia, treatment before initiation of the surgical procedure, has a potential to be more effective in reducing pain sensitization than treatment initiated after surgery. Multimodal analgesia that includes prophylactic administration of selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors can improve postoperative pain and reduce opioid analgesic consumption after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However COX-2 inhibitors are not approved for use as preventive analgesia in Japan. Thus, assessing the effectiveness of COX-2 inhibitors during the early postoperative period is important to establish clinical practice guidelines in Japan. This study was designed to examine the effects of celecoxib administration immediately after surgery, in addition to multimodal analgesia, on postoperative pain management after TKA. This randomized, prospective, open-label controlled study will include 120 patients undergoing unilateral TKA. All patients will routinely receive single injections of femoral and sciatic nerve blocks, along with postoperative patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with fentanyl. Patients will be randomly assigned to receive or not receive immediate postoperative administration of celecoxib. The primary outcome is a visual analog scale (VAS) pain score the second day after surgery. Secondary outcomes include opioid consumption, VAS pain score for 7 days after surgery, range of knee motion, evaluation of sleep quality, overall evaluations by patients and physicians, rates of postoperative nausea and vomiting, and consumption of rescue analgesics. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of celecoxib

  9. Inter-Hospital Variability of Postoperative Pain after Tonsillectomy: Prospective Registry-Based Multicentre Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Geißler, Katharina; Komann, Marcus; Schlattmann, Peter; Meissner, Winfried<