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Sample records for reduce whole-body vibration

  1. Controlled whole-body vibration training reduces risk of falls among community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng; King, George A; Dillon, Loretta; Su, Xiaogang

    2015-09-18

    The primary purpose of this study was to systematically examine the effects of an 8-week controlled whole-body vibration training on reducing the risk of falls among community-dwelling adults. Eighteen healthy elderlies received vibration training which was delivered on a side alternating vibration platform in an intermittent way: five repetitions of 1 min vibration followed by a 1 min rest. The vibration frequency and amplitude were 20 Hz and 3.0mm respectively. The same training was repeated 3 times a week, and the entire training lasted for 8 weeks for a total of 24 training sessions. Immediately prior to (or pre-training) and following (or post-training) the 8-week training course, all participants' risk of falls were evaluated in terms of body balance, functional mobility, muscle strength and power, bone density, range of motion at lower limb joints, foot cutaneous sensation level, and fear of falling. Our results revealed that the training was able to improve all fall risk factors examined with moderate to large effect sizes ranging between 0.55 and 1.26. The important findings of this study were that an 8-week vibration training could significantly increase the range of motion of ankle joints on the sagittal plane (6.4° at pre-training evaluation vs. 9.6° at post-training evaluation for dorsiflexion and 45.8° vs. 51.9° for plantar-flexion, p<0.05 for both); reduce the sensation threshold of the foot plantar surface (p<0.05); and lower the fear of falling (12.2 vs. 10.8, p<0.05). These findings could provide guidance to design optimal whole-body vibration training paradigm for fall prevention among older adults.

  2. Survey of Technical Preventative Measures to Reduce Whole-Body Vibration Effects when Designing Mobile Machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DONATI, P.

    2002-05-01

    Engineering solutions to minimize the effects on operators of vibrating mobile machinery can be conveniently grouped into three areas: Reduction of vibration at source by improvement of the quality of terrain, careful selection of vehicle or machine, correct loading, proper maintenance, etc.Reduction of vibration transmission by incorporating suspension systems (tyres, vehicle suspensions, suspension cab and seat) between the operator and the source of vibration.Improvement of cab ergonomics and seat profiles to optimize operator posture. These paper reviews the different techniques and problems linked to categories (2) and (3). According to epidemiological studies, the main health risk with whole-body vibration exposure would appear to be lower back pain. When designing new mobile machinery, all factors which may contribute to back injury should be considered in order to reduce risk. For example, optimized seat suspension is useless if the suspension seat cannot be correctly and easily adjusted to the driver's weight or if the driver is forced to drive in a bent position to avoid his head striking the ceiling due to the spatial requirement of the suspension seat.

  3. Whole-body vibration perception thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, K. C.; Griffin, M. J.

    1988-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a series of laboratory experiments concerned with perception thresholds for whole-body vibration. The nature of absolute perception thresholds is discussed and a method of determining vibration thresholds, based upon signal detection theory, is proposed. Thresholds of subjects exposed to x-, y- and z-axis sinusoidal vibration were determined for sitting and standing subjects (from 2 to 100 Hz). Perception thresholds have also been determined for supine subjects exposed to vertical ( x-axis) sinusoidal vibration (10-63 Hz). In additional experiments the effects of complex (e.g., random) vibration and the effects of duration on the perception thresholds were investigated. The relation between perception thresholds and vibration levels, said by subjects to be unacceptable if they occurred in their own homes, was investigated as well as the effects of subjects' personality and the visual and acoustic conditions in the laboratory. For the vertical vibration of seated subjects no significant differences were found between the responses of male and female subjects. Significant differences were found between perception thresholds for sitting and standing postures. The median threshold was approximately 0·01 m/s 2 r.m.s. between 2 and 100 Hz. Perception thresholds for x-axis and y-axis vibration were not significantly different in either sitting or standing subjects but significant differences in thresholds were found between sitting and standing positions for both x-axis and y-axis vibration. Subjects tended to be more sensitive to vibration when lying than when sitting or standing. The results suggested that the perception of random vibrations can be predicted from a knowledge of the perception of its component vibrations. The number of cycles of vibration did not affect perception thresholds for vibration durations of more than about 0·25 s. Some assessments suggested that vibration at more than twice the perception threshold may not

  4. Kappa Delta Award. Low back pain and whole body vibration.

    PubMed

    Pope, M H; Magnusson, M; Wilder, D G

    1998-09-01

    The investigators describe their multifaceted approach to the study of the relationship between whole body vibration and low back pain. The epidemiologic study was a two center study of drivers and sedentary workers in the United States and Sweden. The vibration exposure was measured in the vehicles. It was found that the career vibration exposure was related to low back, neck, and shoulder pain. However, disability was related to job satisfaction. In vivo experiments, using percutaneous pin mounted accelerometers have shown that the natural frequency is at 4.5 Hz. The frequency response is affected by posture, seating, and seat back inclination. The response appears to be determined largely by the rocking of the pelvis. Electromyographic studies have shown that muscle fatigue occurs under whole body vibration. After whole body vibration exposure the muscle response to a sudden load has greater latency. Vehicle driving may be a reason for low back pain or herniated nucleus pulposus. Prolonged seating exposure, coupled with the whole body vibration, should be reduced for those recovering from these problems. Vibration attenuating seats and correct ergonomic layout of the cabs may reduce the risks of recurrence. PMID:9755785

  5. Local metabolic rate during whole body vibration.

    PubMed

    Friesenbichler, Bernd; Nigg, Benno M; Dunn, Jeff F

    2013-05-15

    Whole body vibration (WBV) platforms are currently used for muscle training and rehabilitation. However, the effectiveness of WBV training remains elusive, since scientific studies vary largely in the vibration parameters used. The origin of this issue may be related to a lack in understanding of the training intensity that is imposed on individual muscles by WBV. Therefore, this study evaluates the training intensity in terms of metabolic rate of two lower-extremity muscles during WBV under different vibration parameters. Fourteen healthy male subjects were randomly exposed to 0 (control)-, 10-, 17-, and 28-Hz vibrations while standing upright on a vibration platform. A near-infrared spectrometer was used to determine the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles' metabolic rates during arterial occlusion. The metabolic rates during each vibration condition were significantly higher compared with control for both muscles (P < 0.05). Each increase in vibration frequency translated into a significantly higher metabolic rate than the previous lower frequency (P < 0.05) for both muscles. The current study showed that the local metabolic rate during WBV at 28 Hz was on average 5.4 times (GM) and 3.7 times (VL) of the control metabolic rate. The substantial changes in local metabolic rate indicate that WBV may represent a significant local training stimulus for particular leg muscles.

  6. Whole-body vibration can reduce calciuria induced by high protein intakes and may counteract bone resorption: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, M; Leiper, J; Farajian, P; Heer, M

    2007-01-01

    Excess protein intake can adversely affect the bone via an increase in calcium excretion, while suitable mechanical loading promotes osteogenesis. We therefore investigated whether vibration exposure could alleviate the bone mineral losses associated with a metabolic acidosis. Ten healthy individuals aged 22 - 29 years (median = 25) underwent three 5-day study periods while monitoring their dietary intake. The study consisted of recording the participants' usual dietary intake for 5 consecutive days. Participants were then randomly divided into two groups, one of which received a protein supplement (2 g x kg(-1) body mass x day(-1); n = 5) and the other whole-body low-magnitude (3.5 g), low-frequency (30 Hz) mechanical vibration (WBV) delivered through a specially designed vibrating plate for 10 min each day (n = 5). Finally, for the third treatment period, all participants consumed the protein supplement added to their normal diet and were exposed to WBV exercise for 10 min per day. Daily urine samples were collected throughout the experimental periods to determine the excretion of calcium, phosphate, titratable acid, urea, and C-telopeptide. As expected, when the participants underwent the high protein intake, there was an increase in urinary excretion rates of calcium (P < 0.001), phosphate (P < 0.003), urea (P < 0.001), titratable acid (P < 0.001), and C-telopeptide (P < 0.05) compared with baseline values. However, high protein intake coupled with vibration stimulation resulted in a significant reduction in urinary calcium (P = 0.006), phosphate excretion (P = 0.021), and C-telopeptide (P < 0.05) compared with protein intake alone, but did not affect titratable acid and urea output. The participants showed no effect of WBV exercise alone on urinary excretion of calcium, phosphate, urea, titratable acid, or C-telopeptide. The results indicate that vibration stimulation can moderate the increase in bone resorption and reduction in bone formation caused by a

  7. Neural systemic impairment from whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ji-Geng; Zhang, Lin-ling; Agresti, Michael; LoGiudice, John; Sanger, James R; Matloub, Hani S; Havlik, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Insidious brain microinjury from motor vehicle-induced whole-body vibration (WBV) has not yet been investigated. For a long time we have believed that WBV would cause cumulative brain microinjury and impair cerebral function, which suggests an important risk factor for motor vehicle accidents and secondary cerebral vascular diseases. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups (n = 8): 1) 2-week normal control group, 2) 2-week sham control group (restrained in the tube without vibration), 3) 2-week vibration group (exposed to whole-body vibration at 30 Hz and 0.5g acceleration for 4 hr/day, 5 days/week, for 2 weeks), 4) 4-week sham control group, 5) 4-week vibration group, 6) 8-week sham control group, and 7) 8-week vibration group. At the end point, all rats were evaluated in behavior, physiological, and brain histopathological studies. The cerebral injury from WBV is a cumulative process starting with vasospasm squeezing of the endothelial cells, followed by constriction of the cerebral arteries. After the 4-week vibration, brain neuron apoptosis started. After the 8-week vibration, vacuoles increased further in the brain arteries. Brain capillary walls thickened, mean neuron size was obviously reduced, neuron necrosis became prominent, and wide-ranging chronic cerebral edema was seen. These pathological findings are strongly correlated with neural functional impairments.

  8. Signal Processing Methods for Removing the Effects of Whole Body Vibration upon Speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bitner, Rachel M.; Begault, Durand R.

    2014-01-01

    Humans may be exposed to whole-body vibration in environments where clear speech communications are crucial, particularly during the launch phases of space flight and in high-performance aircraft. Prior research has shown that high levels of vibration cause a decrease in speech intelligibility. However, the effects of whole-body vibration upon speech are not well understood, and no attempt has been made to restore speech distorted by whole-body vibration. In this paper, a model for speech under whole-body vibration is proposed and a method to remove its effect is described. The method described reduces the perceptual effects of vibration, yields higher ASR accuracy scores, and may significantly improve intelligibility. Possible applications include incorporation within communication systems to improve radio-communication systems in environments such a spaceflight, aviation, or off-road vehicle operations.

  9. Mathematical equations and system identification models for a portable pneumatic bladder system designed to reduce human exposure to whole body shock and vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz Ayyad, Ezzat

    A mathematical representation is sought to model the behavior of a portable pneumatic foam bladder designed to mitigate the effects of human exposure to shock and whole body random vibration. Fluid Dynamics principles are used to derive the analytic differential equations used for the physical equations Model. Additionally, combination of Wiener and Hammerstein block oriented representation techniques have been selected to create system identification (SID) block oriented models. A number of algorithms have been iterated to obtain numerical solutions for the system of equations which was found to be coupled and non-linear, with no analytic closed form solution. The purpose is to be able to predict the response of such system due to random vibrations and shock within reasonable margin of error. The constructed models were found to be accurate within accepted confidence level. Beside the analytic set of physical equations model representation, a linear SID model was selected to take advantage of the available vast amount of mathematical tools available to further analyze and redesign the bladder as a dynamic system. Measured field-test and lab test data have been collected from several helicopter and land terrain vehicle experiments. Numerous excitation and response acceleration measurement records were collected and used to prove the agreement with predictions. The estimation of two selected models were later applied to standard metrics in the frequency domain realization and compared with measurement responses. The collected test records are obtained from measured data at the US Army fields and facilities and at UNLV-CMEST environmental lab. The emerged models have been validated for conformity with actual accelerometer measurement responses and found within accepted error tolerance that is in both time and frequency domains. Further, standard metrics have been used to further confirm the confidence in the validation results. When comparing model prediction with

  10. Possible Mechanisms of Low Back Pain due to Whole-Body Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, M. H.; Wilder, D. G.; Magnusson, M.

    1998-08-01

    The investigators describe their multifaceted approach to the study of the relationship between whole-body vibration and low back pain.In vitroexperiments, using percutaneous pin-mounted accelerometers have shown that the natural frequency is at 4·5 Hz. The frequency response was affected by posture, seating, and seat-back inclination. The response appears to be largely determined by the rocking of the pelvis. Electromyographic studies have shown that muscle fatigue occurs under whole body vibration. After whole body vibration exposure the muscle response to a sudden load has greater latency. Vehicle driving may be a reason for low back pain or herniated nucleus pulposus. Prolonged seating exposure, coupled with the whole body vibration should be reduced for those recovering from these problems. Vibration attenuating seats, and correct ergonomic layout of the cabs may reduce the risks of recurrence.

  11. The development of an intervention programme to reduce whole-body vibration exposure at work induced by a change in behaviour: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Tiemessen, Ivo JH; Hulshof, Carel TJ; Frings-Dresen, Monique HW

    2007-01-01

    Background Whole body vibration (WBV) exposure at work is common and studies found evidence that this exposure might cause low back pain (LBP). A recent review concluded there is a lack of evidence of effective strategies to reduce WBV exposure. Most research in this field is focussed on the technical implications, although changing behaviour towards WBV exposure might be promising as well. Therefore, we developed an intervention programme to reduce WBV exposure in a population of drivers with the emphasis on a change in behaviour of driver and employer. The hypothesis is that an effective reduction in WBV exposure, in time, will lead to a reduction in LBP as WBV exposure is a proxy for an increased risk of LBP. Methods/Design The intervention programme was developed specifically for the drivers of vibrating vehicles and their employers. The intervention programme will be based on the most important determinants of WBV exposure as track conditions, driving speed, quality of the seat, etc. By increasing knowledge and skills towards changing these determinants, the attitude, social influence and self-efficacy (ASE) of both drivers and employers will be affected having an effect on the level of exposure. We used the well-known ASE model to develop an intervention programme aiming at a change or the intention to change behaviour towards WBV exposure. The developed programme consists of: individual health surveillance, an information brochure, an informative presentation and a report of the performed field measurements. Discussion The study protocol described is advantageous as the intervention program actively tries to change behaviour towards WBV exposure. The near future will show if this intervention program is effective by showing a decrease in WBV exposure. PMID:18005400

  12. Measurement of Whole-Body Vibration Exposure from Garbage Trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, S.; Morioka, M.

    1998-08-01

    Japanese garbage truck drivers are exposed to mechanical whole-body vibration during their work. Some drivers have suffered from low back pain from this vibration. However, there is no evidence of a relationship between the whole-body vibration from the garbage trucks and low back pain or occupational disease, due to the lack of investigations. A field study was conducted in order to characterize the health risks associated with garbage truck work. Three different types of truck were tested at different loadings and on different road surfaces, with the vibrations measured at the driver/seat interface (x,y, andz-axes). The vibrations were compared with the health risk guidance according to Annex B of ISO 2631-1 [1]. The findings of this study indicated that Japanese garbage truck drivers should not operate trucks for 2.5 h in a day, under current working conditions.

  13. Whole-body vibration exercise in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Weber-Rajek, Magdalena; Mieszkowski, Jan; Niespodziński, Bartłomiej; Ciechanowska, Katarzyna

    2015-03-01

    The report of the World Health Organization (WHO) of 2008 defines osteoporosis as a disease characterized by low bone mass and an increased risk of fracture. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is connected to the decrease in estrogens concentration as a result of malfunction of endocrine ovarian function. Low estrogens concentration causes increase in bone demineralization and results in osteoporosis. Physical activity, as a component of therapy of patients with osteoporosis, has been used for a long time now. One of the forms of safe physical activity is the vibration training. Training is to maintain a static position or execution of specific exercises involving the appropriate muscles on a vibrating platform, the mechanical vibrations are transmitted to the body of the patient. According to the piezoelectric theory, pressure induces bone formation in the electrical potential difference, which acts as a stimulant of the process of bone formation. Whole body vibration increases the level of growth hormone and testosterone in serum, preventing sarcopenia and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to review the literature on vibration exercise in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis based on the PubMed and Medline database. While searching the database, the following key words were used 'postmenopausal osteoporosis' and 'whole-body vibration exercise'.

  14. Whole-body vibration and disorders of the spine.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, H; Zerlett, G

    1987-01-01

    This cross-sectional study is based on interviews and medical examinations of 352 operators of earth-moving machines who had been exposed to whole-body vibrations for at least three years. In addition, available X-rays showing different parts of the spines of 251 machine operators who had been exposed to vibration for at least ten years were used for evaluation. One hundred and forty-nine of the operators were asked about discomfort occurring immediately after an eight-hour work shift. The group of exposed persons was compared with a control group of 215 non-exposed persons. The percentage of subjects reporting spinal discomfort was much higher for the exposed group than for the non-exposed group. 68.7% of the operators complained of spinal discomfort in the lumbar spine, 6.8% in the thoracic column and 18.2% in the cervical column. The discomfort reported immediately after an eight-hour exposure to whole-body vibration was highly age-dependent. The epidemiological study resulted in an objective conformation of the spinal discomfort reported, 2/3 of which were related by the operators to the lumbar syndrome. Lumbar syndrome (81%) accounted for by far the highest number of spinal disorders. Examinations of the operators with at least ten years of exposure to whole-body vibrations showed that morphological changes in the lumbar spine occur earlier and much more frequently than in the case of non-exposed persons. Problems of etiology and pathogenesis are discussed.

  15. Tendon reflex is suppressed during whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Karacan, Ilhan; Cidem, Muharrem; Yilmaz, Gizem; Sebik, Oguz; Cakar, Halil Ibrahim; Türker, Kemal Sıtkı

    2016-10-01

    In this study we have investigated the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) on the tendon reflex (T-reflex) amplitude. Fifteen young adult healthy volunteer males were included in this study. Records of surface EMG of the right soleus muscle and accelerometer taped onto the right Achilles tendon were obtained while participant stood upright with the knees in extension, on the vibration platform. Tendon reflex was elicited before and during WBV. Subjects completed a set of WBV. Each WBV set consisted of six vibration sessions using different frequencies (25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50Hz) applied randomly. In each WBV session the Achilles tendon was tapped five times with a custom-made reflex hammer. The mean peak-to-peak (PP) amplitude of T-reflex was 1139.11±498.99µV before vibration. It decreased significantly during WBV (p<0.0001). The maximum PP amplitude of T-reflex was 1333±515μV before vibration. It decreased significantly during WBV (p<0.0001). No significant differences were obtained in the mean acceleration values of Achilles tendon with tapping between before and during vibration sessions. This study showed that T-reflex is suppressed during WBV. T-reflex suppression indicates that the spindle primary afferents must have been pre-synaptically inhibited during WBV similar to the findings in high frequency tendon vibration studies. PMID:27485766

  16. Tendon reflex is suppressed during whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Karacan, Ilhan; Cidem, Muharrem; Yilmaz, Gizem; Sebik, Oguz; Cakar, Halil Ibrahim; Türker, Kemal Sıtkı

    2016-10-01

    In this study we have investigated the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) on the tendon reflex (T-reflex) amplitude. Fifteen young adult healthy volunteer males were included in this study. Records of surface EMG of the right soleus muscle and accelerometer taped onto the right Achilles tendon were obtained while participant stood upright with the knees in extension, on the vibration platform. Tendon reflex was elicited before and during WBV. Subjects completed a set of WBV. Each WBV set consisted of six vibration sessions using different frequencies (25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50Hz) applied randomly. In each WBV session the Achilles tendon was tapped five times with a custom-made reflex hammer. The mean peak-to-peak (PP) amplitude of T-reflex was 1139.11±498.99µV before vibration. It decreased significantly during WBV (p<0.0001). The maximum PP amplitude of T-reflex was 1333±515μV before vibration. It decreased significantly during WBV (p<0.0001). No significant differences were obtained in the mean acceleration values of Achilles tendon with tapping between before and during vibration sessions. This study showed that T-reflex is suppressed during WBV. T-reflex suppression indicates that the spindle primary afferents must have been pre-synaptically inhibited during WBV similar to the findings in high frequency tendon vibration studies.

  17. Effects of whole-body vibration after eccentric exercise on muscle soreness and muscle strength recovery

    PubMed Central

    Timon, Rafael; Tejero, Javier; Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Crespo, Carmen; Olcina, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not a single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise can reduce muscle soreness and enhance muscle recovery. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty untrained participants were randomly assigned to two groups: a vibration group (n=10) and control group (n=10). Participants performed eccentric quadriceps training of 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 120% 1RM, with 4 min rest between sets. After that, the vibration group received 3 sets of 1 min whole body vibration (12 Hz, 4 mm) with 30 s of passive recovery between sets. Serum creatine kinase, blood urea nitrogen, muscle soreness (visual analog scale) and muscle strength (peak isometric torque) were assessed. [Results] Creatine kinase was lower in the vibration group than in the control group at 24 h (200.2 ± 8.2 vs. 300.5 ± 26.1 U/L) and at 48 h (175.2 ± 12.5 vs. 285.2 ± 19.7 U/L) post-exercise. Muscle soreness decreased in vibration group compared to control group at 48 h post-exercise (34.1 ± 11.4 vs. 65.2 ± 13.2 mm). [Conclusion] Single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise reduced delayed onset muscle soreness but it did not affect muscle strength recovery. PMID:27390415

  18. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Regterschot, G Ruben H; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; Zeinstra, Edzard B; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), Stroop Difference Score (SDS) and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT) was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20) and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16) performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise. PMID:24949870

  19. Guidelines for Whole-Body Vibration Health Surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    POPE, M.; MAGNUSSON, M.; LUNDSTRÖM, R.; HULSHOF, C.; VERBEEK, J.; BOVENZI, M.

    2002-05-01

    examination, which includes recording any change in exposure to WBV. The findings for the individual should be compared with previous examinations. Group data should also be compiled periodically. Medical removal may be considered along with re-placement in working practices without exposure to WBV. This paper presents opinions on health surveillance for whole-body vibration developed within a working group of partners funded on a European Community Network (BIOMED2 concerted action BMH4-CT98-3251: Research network on detection and prevention of injuries due to occupational vibration exposures). The health surveillance protocol and the draft questionnaire with explanation comments are presented for wider consideration by the science community and others before being considered appropriate for implementation.

  20. Effect of Whole-Body Vibration on Speech. Part 2; Effect on Intelligibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.

    2011-01-01

    The effect on speech intelligibility was measured for speech where talkers reading Diagnostic Rhyme Test material were exposed to 0.7 g whole body vibration to simulate space vehicle launch. Across all talkers, the effect of vibration was to degrade the percentage of correctly transcribed words from 83% to 74%. The magnitude of the effect of vibration on speech communication varies between individuals, for both talkers and listeners. A worst case scenario for intelligibility would be the most sensitive listener hearing the most sensitive talker; one participant s intelligibility was reduced by 26% (97% to 71%) for one of the talkers.

  1. Whole Body Vibration Training - Improving Balance Control and Muscle Endurance

    PubMed Central

    Ritzmann, Ramona; Kramer, Andreas; Bernhardt, Sascha; Gollhofer, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Exercise combined with whole body vibration (WBV) is becoming increasingly popular, although additional effects of WBV in comparison to conventional exercises are still discussed controversially in literature. Heterogeneous findings are attributed to large differences in the training designs between WBV and “control” groups in regard to training volume, load and type. In order to separate the additional effects of WBV from the overall adaptations due to the intervention, in this study, a four-week WBV training setup was compared to a matched intervention program with identical training parameters in both training settings except for the exposure to WBV. In a repeated-measures matched-subject design, 38 participants were assigned to either the WBV group (VIB) or the equivalent training group (CON). Training duration, number of sets, rest periods and task-specific instructions were matched between the groups. Balance, jump height and local static muscle endurance were assessed before and after the training period. The statistical analysis revealed significant interaction effects of group×time for balance and local static muscle endurance (p<0.05). Hence, WBV caused an additional effect on balance control (pre vs. post VIB +13%, p<0.05 and CON +6%, p = 0.33) and local static muscle endurance (pre vs. post VIB +36%, p<0.05 and CON +11%, p = 0.49). The effect on jump height remained insignificant (pre vs. post VIB +3%, p = 0.25 and CON ±0%, p = 0.82). This study provides evidence for the additional effects of WBV above conventional exercise alone. As far as balance and muscle endurance of the lower leg are concerned, a training program that includes WBV can provide supplementary benefits in young and well-trained adults compared to an equivalent program that does not include WBV. PMID:24587114

  2. Whole Body Vibration Immediately Decreases Lower Extremity Loading During the Drop Jump.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zong-Rong; Peng, Hsien-Te; Siao, Sheng-Wun; Hou, Yan-Ting; Wang, Li-I

    2016-09-01

    Chen, Z-R, Peng, H-T, Siao, S-W, Hou, Y-T, and Wang, L-I. Whole body vibration immediately decreases lower extremity loading during the drop jump. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2476-2481, 2016-The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute effect of whole body vibration (WBV) on lower extremity loading during the drop jump (DJ). Fifteen male collegiate physical education students randomly completed 3 experimental sessions on 3 separate days with 4 days interval between sessions (performing 3 trials of DJ from 30-, 40-, and 50-cm drop heights before WBV and 4 minutes after WBV). Eight cameras and 2 force platforms were used to record kinematic and kinetic data, respectively. Peak impact force and loading rate significantly decreased after WBV during DJ from 40 and 50 cm. Knee angular displacements significantly increased after WBV during DJ from 30, 40, and 50 cm. Whole body vibration may help immediately reduce lower extremity loading. PMID:26849793

  3. Effect of whole body vibration on stereotypy of young children with autism

    PubMed Central

    Bressel, Eadric; Gibbons, Mandi W; Samaha, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this case was report on the effects of acute whole body vibration exposure on stereotyped behaviour of young children with autism. Four young boys (ages 4–5 years) diagnosed with autism participated. The children were participants in an early intensive behavioural intervention clinic and during downtimes stood on a whole body vibration platform with the machine turned off (control condition) and on (treatment condition) for three to four, 30 s periods (frequency=28 Hz; amplitude 0.97 mm). The outcome measure was frequency of stereotypic behaviour, which was evaluated for 5 min before and after standing on the vibration platform. The results revealed that whole body vibration was not able to uniformly decrease the rates of all types of stereotypy; that is, some stereotypy decreased while others were unchanged. Subjectively, the children enjoyed whole body vibration which was easy to integrate into the behavioural programme. PMID:22696626

  4. Effects of Whole Body Vibration Training on Body Composition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Matute-Llorente, Angel; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Casajus, Jose A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, German

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of 20 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) on the body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescent with DS were divided into two groups: control and WBV. Whole body, upper and lower limbs body fat and lean body mass were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)…

  5. Neurocognitive responses to a single session of static squats with whole body vibration.

    PubMed

    Amonette, William E; Boyle, Mandy; Psarakis, Maria B; Barker, Jennifer; Dupler, Terry L; Ott, Summer D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the head accelerations using a common whole body vibration (WBV) exercise protocol acutely reduced neurocognition in healthy subjects. Second, we investigated differential responses to WBV plates with 2 different delivery mechanisms: vertical and rotational vibrations. Twelve healthy subjects (N = 12) volunteered and completed a baseline (BASE) neurocognitive assessment: the Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT). Subjects then participated in 3 randomized exercise sessions separated by no more than 2 weeks. The exercise sessions consisted of five 2-minute sets of static hip-width stance squats, with the knees positioned at a 45° angle of flexion. The squats were performed with no vibration (control [CON]), with a vertically vibrating plate (vertical vibration [VV]), and with a rotational vibrating plate (rotational vibration [RV]) set to 30 Hz with 4 mm of peak-to-peak displacement. The ImPACT assessments were completed immediately after each exercise session and the composite score for 5 cognitive domains was analyzed: verbal memory, visual memory, visual motor speed, reaction time, and impulse control. Verbal memory scores were unaffected by exercise with or without vibration (p = 0.40). Likewise, visual memory was not different (p = 0.14) after CON, VV, or RV. Significant differences were detected for visual motor speed (p = 0.006); VV was elevated compared with BASE (p = 0.01). There were no significant differences (p = 0.26) in reaction time or impulse control (p = 0.16) after exercise with or without vibration. In healthy individuals, 10 minutes of 30 Hz, 4-mm peak-to-peak displacement vibration exposure with a 45° angle of knee flexion did not negatively affect neurocognition.

  6. Neurocognitive responses to a single session of static squats with whole body vibration.

    PubMed

    Amonette, William E; Boyle, Mandy; Psarakis, Maria B; Barker, Jennifer; Dupler, Terry L; Ott, Summer D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the head accelerations using a common whole body vibration (WBV) exercise protocol acutely reduced neurocognition in healthy subjects. Second, we investigated differential responses to WBV plates with 2 different delivery mechanisms: vertical and rotational vibrations. Twelve healthy subjects (N = 12) volunteered and completed a baseline (BASE) neurocognitive assessment: the Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT). Subjects then participated in 3 randomized exercise sessions separated by no more than 2 weeks. The exercise sessions consisted of five 2-minute sets of static hip-width stance squats, with the knees positioned at a 45° angle of flexion. The squats were performed with no vibration (control [CON]), with a vertically vibrating plate (vertical vibration [VV]), and with a rotational vibrating plate (rotational vibration [RV]) set to 30 Hz with 4 mm of peak-to-peak displacement. The ImPACT assessments were completed immediately after each exercise session and the composite score for 5 cognitive domains was analyzed: verbal memory, visual memory, visual motor speed, reaction time, and impulse control. Verbal memory scores were unaffected by exercise with or without vibration (p = 0.40). Likewise, visual memory was not different (p = 0.14) after CON, VV, or RV. Significant differences were detected for visual motor speed (p = 0.006); VV was elevated compared with BASE (p = 0.01). There were no significant differences (p = 0.26) in reaction time or impulse control (p = 0.16) after exercise with or without vibration. In healthy individuals, 10 minutes of 30 Hz, 4-mm peak-to-peak displacement vibration exposure with a 45° angle of knee flexion did not negatively affect neurocognition. PMID:25536489

  7. Typical whole body vibration exposure magnitudes encountered in the open pit mining industry.

    PubMed

    Howard, Bryan; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Don

    2009-01-01

    According to recent research, a causal link has been established between occupational exposure to whole body vibration and an increased occurrence of low back pain. To aid in the further development of an in-house health and safety program for a large open pit mining facility interested in reducing back pain among its operators, whole body vibration magnitudes were characterized for a range of jobs. Specifically, thirty-five individual jobs from five different areas across the facility were evaluated for tri-axial acceleration levels during normal operating conditions. Tri-axial acceleration magnitudes were categorized into thirteen job groups. Job groups were ranked according to exposure and compared to the ISO 2631-1 standard for health risk assessment. Three of the thirteen job groups produced tri-axial acceleration magnitudes below the ISO 2631-1 low/moderate health caution limit for a twelve hour exposure. Six of the thirteen job groups produced exposures within the moderate health risk range. Four job groups were found to subject operators to WBV acceleration magnitudes above the moderate/high health caution limit. PMID:20037244

  8. Whole body vibration in mountain-rescue operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, E.; Chiappa, D.; Moschioni, G.; Saggin, B.; Tarabini, M.

    2006-12-01

    In mountain-rescue operations injured people are generally exposed to vibrations and shocks that can be potential causes of physical conditions worsening. Such vibrations can derive both from patient's body manipulations (e.g. when it is being loaded and immobilized on a stretcher) and from forces coming from the transport devices and vehicles. Despite the general feeling that during this kind of operations the levels of transmitted vibrations to the injured can be quite large and potentially dangerous, there is practically no study in literature providing reliable parameters (i.e. measurements) to support or dismiss these beliefs. This paper reports the results of a measurement campaign carried-out in order to outline, identify and quantify the excitations a human body is exposed to, during typical transportation phases related to mountain-rescue operations. The work mainly presents and discusses the experimental setup with the aim of focusing on the problems related to this kind of measurements; the results of the experimental campaign carried-out for the measurement of the vibrations undergone by a human body during a simulated rescue operation are presented and discussed as well. Such simulation includes three phases of transportation: on a hand-held stretcher, on an ambulance and on a helicopter. The work is not intended to supply a complete characterization and analysis of vibrations transmission during any rescue operation but just to provide a preliminary overview and to define a measurement method that can be applied for a more comprehensive characterization. With such aims measurements were carried out in on-field situations stated as "typical" by rescue experts and data then analyzed both with standard procedures and algorithms (e.g. ISO 2631s weighting curves) and with the commonly used statistical indexes; in the analysis it is important to be aware that standardized measurement procedures and indexes, created to verify comfort or health-risks of

  9. The impact of self-reported exposure to whole-body-vibrations on the risk of disability pension among men: a 15 year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Whole-body-vibrations are often associated with adverse health effect but the long term effects are less known. This study investigates the association between occupational exposures to whole-body vibrations, and subsequent transition to disability pension. Methods A total of 4215 male employees were followed up for subsequent disability pension retirement. Exposure to whole-body-vibration was self-reported while new cases of disability pension were retrieved from a national register. Results The hazard ratio (HR) for disability pension retirement among men exposed to whole-body-vibrations was 1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-2.40) after adjustment for age, smoking habits, BMI, physical job demands and awkward work postures. In our model, with the available explanatory variables, 5.6% of the male disability pension cases were attributable to whole-body-vibrations. Conclusions Exposure to whole-body-vibrations predicts subsequent disability pension retirement. Continued reduction of whole-body-vibrations may reduce the number of new cases of disability pension. PMID:20525268

  10. Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Therapy in Patients with Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Adsuar, Jose C.; Olivares, Pedro R.; del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Parraca, Jose A.; del Pozo-Cruz, Jesus; Gusi, Narcis

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on the effects of whole-body vibration therapy in patients with fibromyalgia. Design. Systematic literature review. Patients. Patients with fibromyalgia. Methods. An electronic search of the literature in four medical databases was performed to identify studies on whole-body vibration therapy that were published up to the 15th of January 2015. Results. Eight articles satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were analysed. According to the Dutch CBO guidelines, all selected trials had a B level of evidence. The main outcomes that were measured were balance, fatigue, disability index, health-related quality of life, and pain. Whole-body vibration appeared to improve the outcomes, especially balance and disability index. Conclusion. Whole-body vibration could be an adequate treatment for fibromyalgia as a main therapy or added to a physical exercise programme as it could improve balance, disability index, health-related quality of life, fatigue, and pain. However, this conclusion must be treated with caution because the paucity of trials and the marked differences between existing trials in terms of protocol, intervention, and measurement tools hampered the comparison of the trials. PMID:26351517

  11. Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Therapy in Patients with Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Adsuar, Jose C; Olivares, Pedro R; Del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Parraca, Jose A; Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesus; Gusi, Narcis

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on the effects of whole-body vibration therapy in patients with fibromyalgia. Design. Systematic literature review. Patients. Patients with fibromyalgia. Methods. An electronic search of the literature in four medical databases was performed to identify studies on whole-body vibration therapy that were published up to the 15th of January 2015. Results. Eight articles satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were analysed. According to the Dutch CBO guidelines, all selected trials had a B level of evidence. The main outcomes that were measured were balance, fatigue, disability index, health-related quality of life, and pain. Whole-body vibration appeared to improve the outcomes, especially balance and disability index. Conclusion. Whole-body vibration could be an adequate treatment for fibromyalgia as a main therapy or added to a physical exercise programme as it could improve balance, disability index, health-related quality of life, fatigue, and pain. However, this conclusion must be treated with caution because the paucity of trials and the marked differences between existing trials in terms of protocol, intervention, and measurement tools hampered the comparison of the trials. PMID:26351517

  12. Using consumer electronic devices to estimate whole-body vibration exposure.

    PubMed

    Wolfgang, Rebecca; Burgess-Limerick, Robin

    2014-01-01

    The cost and complexity of commercially available devices for measuring whole-body vibration is a barrier to the systematic collection of the information required to manage this hazard at workplaces. The potential for a consumer electronic device to be used to estimate whole-body vibration was assessed by use of an accelerometer calibrator, and by collecting 42 simultaneous pairs of measurements from a fifth-generation iPod Touch and one of two gold standard vibration measurement devices (Svantech SV111 [Svantech, Warsaw, Poland] or Brüel & Kjær 4447 [Brüel & Kjær Sound & Vibration Measurement A/S, Nærum, Denmark]) while driving light vehicles on a variety of different roadway surfaces. While sampling rate limitations make the accelerometer data collected from the iPod Touch unsuitable for frequency analysis, the vibration amplitudes recorded are sufficiently accurate (errors less than 0.1 m/s(2)) to assist workplaces manage whole-body vibration exposures.

  13. Exposure to whole-body vibration in open-cast mines in the Barents region

    PubMed Central

    Burström, Lage; Hyvärinen, Ville; Johnsen, Magnar; Pettersson, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to measure and evaluate whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure among drivers of mining vehicles in the Barents region. Study design In the period from November 2012 to August 2014, this cross-sectional study was carried out at 3 mines in Finland, Norway and Sweden as part of the MineHealth project. Methods Measurements of WBV were conducted on the surface of the driver's seat during normal work in accordance with international standards. Personal data on daily exposure times were collected by a questionnaire. Results Measurements were conducted on 95 different mining vehicles both as root mean square (RMS) value and vibration dose value (VDV) representing different manufacturers, models and capacities. Of the 453 miners who answered the questionnaire, 232 indicated that they were exposed to WBV during their working day. The results show that the mean daily exposure time varies between 1.9 and 6.7 h for different vehicles. The calculated mean A(8) could be found in an interval between 0.2 and 1.0 m/s2 and the corresponding 8-h VDV fell between 7 and 17 m/s1.75. Conclusions Exposure to WBV among operators of mining vehicles may be a serious health and safety problem in the mines studied. The employers ought, therefore, take active steps to reduce exposure in accordance with the European vibration directive. Moreover, since some groups of drivers are exposed to vibration that is close to or exceeds the exposure limit values, the employer should take immediate action to reduce exposure below these values. PMID:26864832

  14. Exploring the effects of seated whole body vibration exposure on repetitive asymmetric lifting tasks.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Jay P; Lavender, Steven A; Jagacinski, Richard J; Sommerich, Carolyn M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated changes in the physiological and behavioral responses to repetitive asymmetric lifting activity after exposure to whole body vibrations. Seventeen healthy volunteers repeatedly lifted a box (15% of lifter's capacity) positioned in front of them at ankle level to a location on their left side at waist level at the rate of 10 lifts/min for a period of 60 minutes. Prior to lifting, participants were seated on a vibrating platform for 60 minutes; in one of the two sessions the platform did not vibrate. Overall, the physiological responses assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy signals for the erector spinae muscles decreased significantly over time during the seating and the lifting tasks (p < 0.001). During repetitive asymmetric lifting, behavioral changes included increases in peak forward bending motion, twisting movement, and three-dimensional movement velocities of the spine. The lateral bending movement of the spine and the duration of each lift decreased significantly over the 60 minutes of repetitive lifting. With exposure to whole body vibration, participants twisted farther (p = 0.046) and twisted faster (p = 0.025). These behavioral changes would suggest an increase in back injury risk when repetitive lifting tasks are preceded by whole body vibration exposure.

  15. Exploring the effects of seated whole body vibration exposure on repetitive asymmetric lifting tasks.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Jay P; Lavender, Steven A; Jagacinski, Richard J; Sommerich, Carolyn M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated changes in the physiological and behavioral responses to repetitive asymmetric lifting activity after exposure to whole body vibrations. Seventeen healthy volunteers repeatedly lifted a box (15% of lifter's capacity) positioned in front of them at ankle level to a location on their left side at waist level at the rate of 10 lifts/min for a period of 60 minutes. Prior to lifting, participants were seated on a vibrating platform for 60 minutes; in one of the two sessions the platform did not vibrate. Overall, the physiological responses assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy signals for the erector spinae muscles decreased significantly over time during the seating and the lifting tasks (p < 0.001). During repetitive asymmetric lifting, behavioral changes included increases in peak forward bending motion, twisting movement, and three-dimensional movement velocities of the spine. The lateral bending movement of the spine and the duration of each lift decreased significantly over the 60 minutes of repetitive lifting. With exposure to whole body vibration, participants twisted farther (p = 0.046) and twisted faster (p = 0.025). These behavioral changes would suggest an increase in back injury risk when repetitive lifting tasks are preceded by whole body vibration exposure. PMID:25264920

  16. Whole-body vibration training effects on the physical performance of basketball players.

    PubMed

    Colson, Serge S; Pensini, Manuela; Espinosa, Julien; Garrandes, Frederic; Legros, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of 4 weeks of whole-body vibration training added to the conventional training of basketball players. Eighteen competitive basketball players (13 male symbol, 5 female symbol, 18-24 years old) were randomly assigned to a whole-body vibration group (WBVG, n = 10; 7 male symbol and 3 female symbol) or a control group (CG, n = 8; 6 male symbol and 2 female symbol). During the 4-week period, all subjects maintained their conventional basketball training program. The members of WBVG were additionally trained 3 times a week for 20 minutes on a vibration platform (10 unloaded static lower limb exercises, 40-Hz, 4-mm, Silverplate). Testing was performed before and after the 4-week period and comprised strength assessment, vertical jump performance, and a 10-m sprint test. The maximal voluntary isometric strength of the knee extensors significantly increased (p < 0.001) after vibration training, as did squat jump (SJ) height (p < 0.05), whereas performance of the countermovement jump, drop jump, 30-second rebound jump, and 10-m sprint remained unchanged. The results of the present study indicated that a 4-week whole-body vibration training program added to the conventional training of basketball players during the preseason is an effective short-term stimulus to enhance knee extensor strength and slightly SJ performance.

  17. Influence of Combined Whole-Body Vibration Plus G-Loading on Visual Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelstein, Bernard D.; Beutter, Brent Robert; Kaiser, Mary K.; McCann, Robert S.; Stone, Leland S.; Anderson, Mark R.; Renema, Fritz; Paloski, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Recent engineering analyses of the integrated Ares-Orion stack show that vibration levels for Orion crews have the potential to be much higher than those experienced in Gemini, Apollo, and Shuttle vehicles. Of particular concern to the Constellation Program (CxP) is the 12 Hz thrust oscillation (TO) that the Ares-I rocket develops during the final 20 seconds preceding first-stage separation, at maximum G-loading. While the structural-dynamic mitigations being considered can assure that vibration due to TO is reduced to below the CxP crew health limit, it remains to be determined how far below this limit vibration must be reduced to enable effective crew performance during launch. Moreover, this "performance" vibration limit will inform the operations concepts (and crew-system interface designs) for this critical phase of flight. While Gemini and Apollo studies provide preliminary guidance, the data supporting the historical limits were obtained using less advanced interface technologies and very different operations concepts. In this study, supported by the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Human Research Program, we investigated display readability-a fundamental prerequisite for any interaction with electronic crew-vehicle interfaces-while observers were subjected to 12 Hz vibration superimposed on the 3.8 G loading expected for the TO period of ascent. Two age-matched groups of participants (16 general population and 13 Crew Office) performed a numerical display reading task while undergoing sustained 3.8 G loading and whole-body vibration at 0, 0.15, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 g in the eyeballs in/out (x-axis) direction. The time-constrained reading task used an Orion-like display with 10- and 14-pt non-proportional sans-serif fonts, and was designed to emulate the visual acquisition and processing essential for crew system monitoring. Compared to the no-vibration baseline, we found no significant effect of vibration at 0.15 and 0.3 g on task error rates (ER

  18. Whole-Body Vibration to Treat Low Back Pain: Fact or Fad?

    PubMed Central

    Perraton, Luke; Machotka, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the current evidence base for whole-body vibration as a treatment for low back pain (LBP). Summary of key points: Whole-body vibration through occupational exposure has previously been recognized as an aetiological factor in LBP. Previous studies have identified whole-body vibration (WBV) as a cause of LBP in various sitting-based occupations that involve machinery and repetitive vibration. In the last decade, however, WBV has been advocated as a safe and effective treatment for LBP. Despite the growing popularity of WBV in clinical practice, this systematic review of the literature identified only two studies that investigated the effectiveness of WBV as a treatment option for LBP, and an assessment of the quality of these studies demonstrated several methodological problems that may have biased their findings. While there is emerging evidence for the effectiveness of WBV in treating some medical conditions, the evidence for WBV as a treatment for LBP remains equivocal. Recommendations: Based on the current body of evidence, routine use of WBV to treat LBP should be undertaken with caution. Further rigorous research designed to investigate the effectiveness of WBV as a safe and high-quality treatment for LBP is required. PMID:22210985

  19. Distinct frequency dependent effects of whole-body vibration on non-fractured bone and fracture healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Wehrle, Esther; Wehner, Tim; Heilmann, Aline; Bindl, Ronny; Claes, Lutz; Jakob, Franz; Amling, Michael; Ignatius, Anita

    2014-08-01

    Low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV) provokes anabolic effects in non-fractured bone; however, in fracture healing, inconsistent results were reported and optimum vibration conditions remain unidentified. Here, we investigated frequency dependent effects of LMHFV on fracture healing. Twelve-week-old, female C57BL/6 mice received a femur osteotomy stabilized using an external fixator. The mice received whole-body vibrations (20 min/day) with 0.3g peak-to-peak acceleration and a frequency of either 35 or 45 Hz. After 10 and 21 days, the osteotomized femurs and intact bones (contra-lateral femurs, lumbar spine) were evaluated using bending-testing, µ-computed tomography, and histomorphometry. In non-fractured trabecular bone, vibration with 35 Hz significantly increased the relative amount of bone (+28%) and the trabecular number (+29%), whereas cortical bone was not influenced. LMHFV with 45 Hz failed to provoke anabolic effects in trabecular or cortical bone. Fracture healing was not significantly influenced by whole-body vibration with 35 Hz, whereas 45 Hz significantly reduced bone formation (-64%) and flexural rigidity (-34%) of the callus. Although the exact mechanisms remain open, our results suggest that small vibration setting changes could considerably influence LMHFV effects on bone formation in remodeling and repair, and even disrupt fracture healing, implicating caution when treating patients with impaired fracture healing.

  20. Acute Whole-Body Vibration does not Facilitate Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Ella W.; Lau, Cheuk C.; Kwong, Ada P.K.; Sze, Yan M.; Zhang, Wei Y.; Yeung, Simon S.

    2014-01-01

    The acute effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) training may enhance muscular performance via neural potentiation of the stretch reflex. The purpose of this study was to investigate if acute WBV exposure affects the stretch induced knee jerk reflex [onset latency and electromechanical delay (EMD)] and the isokinetic knee extensor peak torque performance. Twenty-two subjects were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received WBV in a semi-squat position at 30° knee flexion with an amplitude of 0.69 mm, frequency of 45 Hz, and peak acceleration of 27.6 m/s2 for 3 minutes. The control group underwent the same semii-squatting position statically without exposure of WBV. Two-way mixed repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant group effects differences on reflex latency of rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL; p = 0.934 and 0.935, respectively) EMD of RF and VL (p = 0.474 and 0.551, respectively) and peak torque production (p = 0.483) measured before and after the WBV. The results of this study indicate that a single session of WBV exposure has no potentiation effect on the stretch induced reflex and peak torque performance in healthy young adults. Key Points There is no acute potentiation of stretch reflex right after whole body vibration. Acute whole body vibration does not improve mus-cle peak torque performance in healthy young adults. PMID:24570602

  1. Whole-Body Vibration and Blood Flow and Muscle Oxygenation: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Games, Kenneth E.; Sefton, JoEllen M.; Wilson, Alan E.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The use and popularity of whole-body vibration (WBV) has increased in recent years, but there is a lack of consensus in the literature about the effectiveness of the treatment. Objective: To quantitatively examine the effects of WBV on muscle oxygenation and peripheral blood flow in healthy adults. Data Sources: We searched Web of Science and PubMed databases and reference lists from relevant articles using the key terms whole body vibration, whole-body vibration, WBV, blood flow, peripheral blood flow, oxygenation, muscle oxygenation, circulation, circulatory, near infrared spectroscopy, NIRS, and power Doppler. Key terms were searched using single word and combination searches. No date range was specified. Study Selection: Criteria for inclusion were (1) use of a commercially available WBV device, (2) a human research model, (3) a pre-WBV condition and at least 1 WBV experimental condition, and (4) reporting of unstandardized means and standard deviations of muscle oxygenation or peripheral blood flow. Data Extraction: Means, standard deviations, and sample sizes were extracted from the text, tables, and figures of included studies. A total of 35 and 90 data points were extracted for the muscle-oxygenation and blood-flow meta-analyses, respectively. Data for each meta-analysis were combined and analyzed using meta-analysis software. Weighted, random-effects meta-analyses using the Hedges g metric were completed for muscle oxygenation and blood flow. We then conducted follow-up analyses using the moderator variables of vibration type, vibration time, vibration frequency, measurement location, and sample type. Data Synthesis: We found 18 potential articles. Further examination yielded 10 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Whole-body vibration was shown to positively influence peripheral blood flow. Additionally, the moderators of vibration type and frequency altered the influence of WBV on blood flow. Overall, WBV did not alter muscle oxygenation

  2. Fluid dynamic aspects of cardiovascular behavior during low-frequency whole-body vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerem, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    The behavior of the cardiovascular system during low frequency whole-body vibration, such as encountered by astronauts during launch and reentry, is examined from a fluid mechanical viewpoint. The vibration characteristics of typical manned spacecraft and other vibration environments are discussed, and existing results from in vivo studies of the hemodynamic aspects of this problem are reviewed. Recent theoretical solutions to related fluid mechanical problems are then used in the interpretation of these results and in discussing areas of future work. The results are included of studies of the effects of vibration on the work done by the heart and on pulsatile flow in blood vessels. It is shown that important changes in pulse velocity, the instantaneous velocity profile, mass flow rate, and wall shear stress may occur in a pulsatile flow due to the presence of vibration. The significance of this in terms of changes in peripheral vascular resistance and possible damage to the endothelium of blood vessels is discussed.

  3. Vibration energy absorption in the whole-body system of a tractor operator.

    PubMed

    Szczepaniak, Jan; Tanaś, Wojciech; Kromulski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Many people are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) in their occupational lives, especially drivers of vehicles such as tractor and trucks. The main categories of effects from WBV are perception degraded comfort interference with activities-impaired health and occurrence of motion sickness. Absorbed power is defined as the power dissipated in a mechanical system as a result of an applied force. The vibration-induced injuries or disorders in a substructure of the human system are primarily associated with the vibration power absorption distributed in that substructure. The vibration power absorbed by the exposed body is a measure that combines both the vibration hazard and the biodynamic response of the body. The article presents measurement method for determining vibration power dissipated in the human whole body system called Vibration Energy Absorption (VEA). The vibration power is calculated from the real part of the force-velocity cross-spectrum. The absorbed power in the frequency domain can be obtained from the cross-spectrum of the force and velocity. In the context of the vibration energy transferred to a seated human body, the real component reflects the energy dissipated in the biological structure per unit of time, whereas the imaginary component reflects the energy stored/released by the system. The seated human is modeled as a series/parallel 4-DOF dynamic models. After introduction of the excitation, the response in particular segments of the model can be analyzed. As an example, the vibration power dissipated in an operator has been determined as a function of the agricultural combination operating speed 1.39 - 4.16 ms(-1). PMID:24959797

  4. Countermeasures against lumbar spine deconditioning in prolonged bed rest: resistive exercise with and without whole body vibration.

    PubMed

    Belavý, Daniel L; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Gast, Ulf; Richardson, Carolyn A; Hides, Julie A; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of short-duration, high-load resistive exercise, with and without whole body vibration on lumbar muscle size, intervertebral disk and spinal morphology changes, and low back pain (LBP) incidence during prolonged bed rest, 24 subjects underwent 60 days of head-down tilt bed rest and performed either resistive vibration exercise (n = 7), resistive exercise only (n = 8), or no exercise (n = 9; 2nd Berlin Bed-Rest Study). Discal and spinal shape was measured from sagittal plane magnetic resonance images. Cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the multifidus, erector spinae, quadratus lumborum, and psoas were measured on para-axial magnetic resonance images. LBP incidence was assessed with questionnaires at regular intervals. The countermeasures reduced CSA loss in the multifidus, lumbar erector spinae and quadratus lumborum muscles, with greater increases in psoas muscle CSA seen in the countermeasure groups (P ≤ 0.004). There was little statistical evidence for an additional effect of whole body vibration above resistive exercise alone on these muscle changes. Exercise subjects reported LBP more frequently in the first week of bed rest, but this was only significant in resistive exercise only (P = 0.011 vs. control, resistive vibration exercise vs. control: P = 0.56). No effect of the countermeasures on changes in spinal morphology was seen (P ≥ 0.22). The results suggest that high-load resistive exercise, with or without whole body vibration, performed 3 days/wk can reduce lumbar muscle atrophy, but further countermeasure optimization is required.

  5. Whole body vibration and posture as risk factors for low back pain among forklift truck drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoy, J.; Mubarak, N.; Nelson, S.; Sweerts de Landas, M.; Magnusson, M.; Okunribido, O.; Pope, M.

    2005-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the risks from whole-body vibration and posture demands for low back pain (LBP) among forklift truck (forklift) drivers. Using a validated questionnaire, information about health history was obtained over a period of two weeks in face-to-face interviews. The forklift drivers were observed in respect of their sitting posture, including frequency with which different positions were adopted (bending, leaning and twisting) and postural analyses were conducted using the OWAS and RULA techniques. Forklift vibrations at the seat (exposure) were measured in the three orthogonal axes ( x-fore and aft, y-lateral and z-vertical) under actual working conditions according to the recommendations of ISO 2631-1. The results showed that LBP was more prevalent amongst forklift drivers than among non-drivers and driving postures in which the trunk is considerably twisted or bent forward associated with greatest risk. Furthermore, forklift drivers showed to be exposed to acceptable levels of vibration in the x- and y-directions (i.e., below the EU Physical Agents Directive on Vibration Exposure recommended action level—0.5 m/s 2), but not in the z-direction. There were indications that whole-body vibration acts associatively with other factors (not independently) to precipitate LBP.

  6. Effect of whole body vibration frequency on neuromuscular activity in ACL-deficient and healthy males

    PubMed Central

    Giombini, A; Menotti, F; Piccinini, A; Fagnani, F; Di Cagno, A; Macaluso, A; Pigozzi, F

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been shown to enhance muscle activity via reflex pathways, thus having the potential to contrast muscle weakness in individuals with rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The present study aimed to compare the magnitude of neuromuscular activation during WBV over a frequency spectrum from 20 to 45 Hz between ACL-deficient and healthy individuals. Fifteen males aged 28±4 with ACL rupture and 15 age-matched healthy males were recruited. Root mean square (RMS) of the surface electromyogram from the vastus lateralis in both limbs was computed during WBV in a static half-squat position at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, and normalized to the RMS while maintaining the half-squat position without vibration. The RMS of the vastus lateralis in the ACL-deficient limb was significantly greater than in the contralateral limb at 25, 30, 35 and 40 Hz (P<0.05) and in both limbs of the healthy participants (dominant limb at 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, P<0.05; non dominant limb at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, P<0.05). The greater neuromuscular activity in the injured limb compared to the uninjured limb of the ACL-deficient patients and to both limbs of the healthy participants during WBV might be due to either augmented excitatory or reduced inhibitory neural inflow to motoneurons of the vastus lateralis through the reflex pathways activated by vibratory stimuli. The study provides optimal WBV frequencies which might be used as reference values for ACL-deficient patients. PMID:26424928

  7. Measurement of whole-body vibration exposure from speed control humps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorshid, E.; Alkalby, F.; Kamal, H.

    2007-07-01

    The main objective of speed control humps is to introduce shocks and high vibration levels when a car passes over them if its speed is higher than the allowable limit. Hump geometry is a major factor in altering the level of these shocks and specifying the speed limit. However, there is no study of the relationship between whole body vibration due to passing over a speed control hump and lower back pain or occupational diseases. In this study, an experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate health risks associated with different geometry speed control humps. Vibration levels and shocks are measured by a seat pad accelerometer placed under the driver's seat to evaluate hazard risks on the human body's lower back. The assessment is based on two standard methods of measuring whole body vibration: the British standard BS 6841 and the new ISO/DIS standard 2631-5. These methods are used to assess the effects of vehicle type, passenger location in the vehicle, vehicle speed, and speed control hump geometry. It was found that circular speed control humps currently installed on many public roads should be modified in order to eliminate hazards. Two newly designed speed humps were proved to be less hazardous than circular speed control humps.

  8. An iOS Application for Evaluating Whole-body Vibration Within a Workplace Risk Management Process.

    PubMed

    McGlothlin, James; Burgess-Limerick, R; Lynas, D

    2015-01-01

    Workplace management of whole-body vibration exposure requires systematic collection of whole-body vibration data in conjunction with the numerous variables which influence vibration amplitudes. The cost and complexity of commercially available measurement devices is an impediment to the routine collection of such data by workplaces. An iOS application (WBV) has been developed which allows an iPod Touch to be used to measure whole-body vibration exposures. The utility of the application was demonstrated by simultaneously obtaining 98 pairs of whole-body vibration measurements from both the iPod Touch application and a commercially available whole-body vibration device during the operation of a variety of vehicles and mobile plant in operation at a surface coal mine. The iOS application installed on a fifth-generation iPod Touch was shown to provide a 95% confidence of +/- 0.077 m/s(2) r.m.s. constant error for the vertical direction. Situations in which vibration levels lay within the ISO2631.1 health guidance caution zone were accurately identified, and the qualitative features of the frequency spectra were reproduced. The low cost and relative simplicity of the application has potential to facilitate its use as a screening tool to identify situations in which musculoskeletal disorders may arise as a consequence of exposure to whole-body vibration.

  9. Effects of whole body vibration training on muscle strength and sprint performance in sprint-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Delecluse, C; Roelants, M; Diels, R; Koninckx, E; Verschueren, S

    2005-10-01

    Despite the expanding use of Whole Body Vibration training among athletes, it is not known whether adding Whole Body Vibration training to the conventional training of sprint-trained athletes will improve speed-strength performance. Twenty experienced sprint-trained athletes (13 male symbol, 7 female symbol, 17-30 years old) were randomly assigned to a Whole Body Vibration group (n=10: 6 male symbol and 4 female symbol) or a Control group (n=10: 7 male symbol, 3 female symbol). During a 5-week experimental period all subjects continued their conventional training program, but the subjects of the Whole Body Vibration group additionally performed three times weekly a Whole Body Vibration training prior to their conventional training program. The Whole Body Vibration program consisted of unloaded static and dynamic leg exercises on a vibration platform (35-40 Hz, 1.7-2.5 mm, Power Plate). Pre and post isometric and dynamic (100 degrees/s) knee-extensor and -flexor strength and knee-extension velocity at fixed resistances were measured by means of a motor-driven dynamometer (Rev 9000, Technogym). Vertical jump performance was measured by means of a contact mat. Force-time characteristics of the start action were assessed using a load cell mounted on each starting block. Sprint running velocity was recorded by means of a laser system. Isometric and dynamic knee-extensor and knee-flexor strength were unaffected (p>0.05) in the Whole Body Vibration group and the Control group. As well, knee-extension velocity remained unchanged (p>0.05). The duration of the start action, the resulting start velocity, start acceleration, and sprint running velocity did not change (>0.05) in either group. In conclusion, this specific Whole Body Vibration protocol of 5 weeks had no surplus value upon the conventional training program to improve speed-strength performance in sprint-trained athletes. PMID:16158372

  10. Effect of whole-body vibration warm-up on bat speed in women softball players.

    PubMed

    Dabbs, Nicole C; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Lynn, Scott K; Biagini, Matt S; Tran, Tai T

    2010-09-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) may enhance human performance via augmented muscular strength and motor function if used before performance. Because warm-up is a crucial aspect of preparation for performance, it remains unknown if WBV may enhance bat speed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of WBV warm-up on bat speed. Eleven National Collegiate Athletic Association division I and 11 recreationally trained female softball players volunteered to participate. Subjects randomly performed 3 different warm-up conditions consisting of WBV alone, dry swings alone (DS), and WBV with dry swings (WBVDS). Whole-body vibration was performed on a pivotal vibration platform at a frequency of 25 Hz and an amplitude of 13 mm for one 30-second bout. Thirty seconds after each warm-up condition, 5 maximal bat swings were recorded. There was no significant (p > 0.05) difference between groups by training status, and there was no significant (p > 0.05) difference between WBV (42.39 +/- 9.83 mph), DS (40.45 +/- 11.00 mph), or WBVDS (37.98 +/- 12.40 mph) conditions. These results indicate that WBV warm-up may be used in place of DS to achieve similar bat speeds. Future research should investigate different combinations of WBV warm-up using various frequencies, durations, amplitudes, and rest times.

  11. Three-dimensional modeling of supine human and transport system under whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Rahmatalla, Salam

    2013-06-01

    The development of predictive computer human models in whole-body vibration has shown some success in predicting simple types of motion, mostly for seated positions and in the uniaxial vertical direction. The literature revealed only a handful of papers that tackled supine human modeling in response to vertical vibration. The objective of this work is to develop a predictive, multibody, three-dimensional human model to simulate the supine human and underlying transport system in response to multidirectional whole-body vibration. A three-dimensional dynamic model of a supine human and its underlying transport system is presented in this work to predict supine-human biodynamic response under three-dimensional input random whole-body vibration. The proposed supine-human model consists of three interconnected segments representing the head, torso-arms, and pelvis-legs. The segments are connected via rotational and translational joints that have spring-damper components simulating the three-dimensional muscles and tissuelike connecting elements in the three x, y, and z directions. Two types of transport systems are considered in this work, a rigid support and a long spinal board attached to a standard military litter. The contact surfaces between the supine human and the underlying transport system are modeled using spring-damper components. Eight healthy supine human subjects were tested under combined-axis vibration files with a magnitude of 0.5 m/s2 (rms) and a frequency content of 0.5-16 Hz. The data from seven subjects were used in parameter identification for the dynamic model using optimization schemes in the frequency domain that minimize the differences between the magnitude and phase of the predicted and experimental transmissibility. The predicted accelerations in the time and frequency domains were comparable to those gathered from experiments under different anthropometric, input vibration, and transport conditions under investigation. Based on the

  12. The effect of whole-body resonance vibration in a porcine model of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Streijger, Femke; Lee, Jae H T; Chak, Jason; Dressler, Dan; Manouchehri, Neda; Okon, Elena B; Anderson, Lisa M; Melnyk, Angela D; Cripton, Peter A; Kwon, Brian K

    2015-06-15

    Whole-body vibration has been identified as a potential stressor to spinal cord injury (SCI) patients during pre-hospital transportation. However, the effect that such vibration has on the acutely injured spinal cord is largely unknown, particularly in the frequency domain of 5 Hz in which resonance of the spine occurs. The objective of the study was to investigate the consequences of resonance vibration on the injured spinal cord. Using our previously characterized porcine model of SCI, we subjected animals to resonance vibration (5.7±0.46 Hz) or no vibration for a period of 1.5 or 3.0 h. Locomotor function was assessed weekly and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected to assess different inflammatory and injury severity markers. Spinal cords were evaluated histologically to quantify preserved white and gray matter. No significant differences were found between groups for CSF levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and lL-8. Glial fibrillary acidic protein levels were lower in the resonance vibration group, compared with the non-vibrated control group. Spared white matter tissue was increased within the vibrated group at 7 d post-injury but this difference was not apparent at the 12-week time-point. No significant difference was observed in locomotor recovery following resonance vibration of the spine. Here, we demonstrate that exposure to resonance vibration for 1.5 or 3 h following SCI in our porcine model is not detrimental to the functional or histological outcomes. Our observation that a 3.0-h period of vibration at resonance frequency induces modest histological improvement at one week post-injury warrants further study.

  13. Whole-Body Vibration Partially Reverses Aging-Induced Increases in Visceral Adiposity and Hepatic Lipid Storage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Theo H.; Havinga, Rick; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Groen, Albert K.; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Bakker, Barbara M.; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2016-01-01

    At old age, humans generally have declining muscle mass and increased fat deposition, which can increase the risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases. While regular physical activity postpones these age-related derangements, this is not always possible in the elderly because of disabilities or risk of injury. Whole-body vibration (WBV) training may be considered as an alternative to physical activity particularly in the frail population. To explore this possibility, we characterized whole-body and organ-specific metabolic processes in 6-month and 25-month old mice, over a period of 14 weeks of WBV versus sham training. WBV training tended to increase blood glucose turnover rates and stimulated hepatic glycogen utilization during fasting irrespective of age. WBV was effective in reducing white fat mass and hepatic triglyceride content only in old but not in young mice and these reductions were related to upregulation of hepatic mitochondrial uncoupling of metabolism (assessed by high-resolution respirometry) and increased expression of uncoupling protein 2. Because these changes occurred independent of changes in food intake and whole-body metabolic rate (assessed by indirect calorimetry), the liver-specific effects of WBV may be a primary mechanism to improve metabolic health during aging, rather than that it is a consequence of alterations in energy balance. PMID:26886917

  14. The influence of whole body vibration on the central and peripheral cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Dan; Yoganathan, Priya; Goss-Sampson, Mark

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological changes of the cardiovascular system in response to whole body vibration during quiet standing and identify whether there is a greater influence on the central or peripheral cardiovascular system. Twenty healthy participants (12 male and 8 female) were assessed over two separate testing sessions for changes in peripheral skin temperature, peripheral venous function, blood flow velocity in the dorsalis pedis artery, blood pressure and heart rate during quiet standing with 40 Hz 1·9 mm synchronous vibration. Vibration exposure totalled 5 min in 1 min increments with 5 min recovery during each testing session. There were no significant changes in heart rate, blood pressure or peripheral skin temperature. Significant results were obtained for blood flow velocity with increases from 0·5 + 0·2 cm·s(-1) at baseline to 1 + 0·2 cm·s(-1) during vibration, returning to baseline levels during the recovery period. Due to the absence of changes in heart rate, blood pressure or lower leg and foot temperature, the change in blood flow velocity can be attributed to changes in peripheral vascular function. The results suggest a high level of sensitivity of the peripheral vascular system to vibration exposure; therefore, further studies should be completed to ascertain the physiological mechanisms underlying the effects of vibration on the peripheral vascular system.

  15. Six-degree-of-freedom whole-body vibration exposure levels during routine skidder operations.

    PubMed

    Jack, R J; Oliver, M; Dickey, J P; Cation, S; Hayward, G; Lee-Shee, N

    2010-05-01

    This research focuses on quantifying six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure levels that occur in Northern Ontario skidders during routine field operating tasks. 6-DOF vibration running root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration levels at the operator/seat interface were determined for eight skidders while driving loaded, driving unloaded, picking up a load, dropping off a load and ploughing logs under field operating conditions. The acceleration data were weighted in accordance with ISO 2631-1:1997 and evaluated for both health and comfort outcomes. The mean running RMS weighted translational and rotational accelerations all exceeded 0.36 m/s(2) and 0.14 rad/s(2). The greatest average accelerations occurred while driving unloaded with this condition displaying translational vibration total values (VTV) that exceeded the upper limit of the ISO 2631-1:1997 health caution zone within an average of 2.3 h. Utilizing 6-DOF VTV, virtually all operating conditions would be designated as uncomfortable. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study provides one of the most comprehensive reports on vibration exposures in seated vehicle operators. The results are geared towards ergonomists with discussions on health effects and measurement concerns, while providing the raw vibration exposure data that will be useful to vehicle, component and vibration sensor designers.

  16. Influence of support conditions on vertical whole-body vibration of the seated human body.

    PubMed

    M-Pranesh, Anand; Rakheja, Subhash; Demont, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The vibration transmission to the lumbar and thoracic segments of seated human subjects exposed to whole body vibration of a vehicular nature have been mostly characterised without the back and hand supports, which is not representative of general driving conditions. This non-invasive experimental study investigated the transmission of vertical seat vibration to selected vertebrae and the head along the vertical and fore-aft axes of twelve male human subjects seated on a rigid seat and exposed to random vertical excitation in the 0.5-20 Hz range. The measurements were performed under four different sitting postures involving combinations of back support conditions and hands positions, and three difference magnitudes of vertical vibration (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 m/s(2) rms acceleration). The results showed significant errors induced by sensor misalignment and skin effects, which required appropriate correction methodologies. The averaged corrected responses revealed that the back support attenuates vibration in the vertical axis to all the body locations while increasing the fore-aft transmissibility at the C7 and T5. The hands position generally has a relatively smaller effect, showing some influences on the C7 and L5 vibration. Sitting without a back support resulted in very low magnitude fore-aft vibration at T5, which was substantially higher with a back support, suggestive of a probable change in the body's vibration mode. The effect of back support was observed to be very small on the horizontal vibration of the lower thoracic and lumbar regions. The results suggest that distinctly different target body-segment biodynamic functions need to be defined for different support conditions in order to represent the unique contribution of the specific support condition. These datasets may then be useful for the development of biodynamic models.

  17. Acute Effect of Whole-Body Vibration Warm-up on Footspeed Quickness.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Ryan B; Vingren, Jakob L; Duplanty, Anthony A; Levitt, Danielle E; Luk, Hui-Ying; Kraemer, William J

    2016-08-01

    Donahue, RB, Vingren, JL, Duplanty, AA, Levitt, DE, Luk, H-Y, and Kraemer, WJ. Acute effect of whole-body vibration warm-up on footspeed quickness. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2286-2291, 2016-The warm-up routine preceding a training or athletic event can affect the performance during that event. Whole-body vibration (WBV) can increase muscle performance, and thus the inclusion of WBV to the warm-up routine might provide additional performance improvements. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute effect of a WBV warm-up, using a vertical oscillating platform and a more traditional warm-up protocol on feet quickness in physically active men. Twenty healthy and physically active men (18-25 years, 22 ± 3 years, 176.8 ± 6.4 cm, 84.4 ± 11.5 kg, 10.8 ± 1.4% body fat) volunteered for this study. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to examine the effect of 4 warm-up scenarios (no warm-up, traditional warm-up only, WBV warm-up only, and combined traditional and WBV warm-up) on subsequent 3-second Quick feet count test (QFT) performance. The traditional warm-up consisted of static and dynamic exercises and stretches. The WBV warm-up consisted of 60 seconds of vertical sinusoidal vibration at a frequency of 35 Hz and amplitude of 4 mm on a vibration platform. The WBV protocol significantly (p ≤ 0.0005, η = 0.581) augmented QFT performance (WBV: 37.1 ± 3.4 touches; no-WBV: 35.7 ± 3.4 touches). The results demonstrate that WBV can enhance the performance score on the QFT. The findings of this study suggest that WBV warm-up should be included in warm-up routines preceding training and athletic events which include very fast foot movements.

  18. Assessment of disc injury in subjects exposed to long-term whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Drerup, B; Granitzka, M; Assheuer, J; Zerlett, G

    1999-01-01

    Long-term exposure to whole-body vibration is known to increase the risk of low back problems. The chain of events leading from repeated loading of the lumbar spine to back complaints and the exact nature of the vibration-induced damage are, however, obscure. Fluid in- and outflow as well as viscoelastic deformation are important aspects of the physiological function of the lumbar disc. Precision measurement of stature, termed 'stadiometry', has previously been applied in healthy subjects to document changes in disc height in relation to the load on the lumbar spine. The purpose of this study was to explore the relation between spinal loading and stature in a cohort of 20 subjects with long-term exposure to whole-body vibration. If the change of stature (and thus the change of disc height) caused by changes in spinal loading differed between exposed and normal subjects, this would point to vibration-induced changes in structure and material properties of the discs. For this purpose, four hypotheses were tested: (1) the viscoelastic deformation and fluid exchange of intervertebral discs during phases of spinal loading and unloading differs from normal; (2) the water content of lumbar discs of subjects exposed to long-term whole-body vibration deviates from normal; (3) the mean disc height of the lumbar spine depends on the total time of vibration exposure; (4) repeated loading influences trabecular bone density of vertebrae in the lumbar spine. A cohort of 20 operators of heavy earth-moving machinery was enrolled. Back complaints suspected to be due to long-term exposure (mean 17.6 +/- 2.1 years) to whole-body vibration and application for early retirement were the selection criteria used. Change of stature during a regular 8-h shift and change of stature in standing, carrying and sitting activities were measured. The stadiometric investigations were supplemented by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbar spine to assess whether the water content of the discs

  19. Modeling of Spinal Column of Seated Human Body under Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaoki, Gen; Yoshimura, Takuya; Kuriyama, Kaoru; Nakai, Kazuma

    In vehicle systems occupational drivers might expose themselves to vibration for a long time. This may cause illness of the spinal column such as low back pain. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the influence of vibration to the spinal column. Thus the modeling of seated human body is conducted in order to evaluate the effect of whole-body vibration to the spinal column. This model has the spinal column and the support structures such as the muscles of the back and the abdomen. The spinal column is made by the vertebrae and the intervertebral disks that are considered the rigid body and the rotational spring and damper respectively. The parameter of this model is decided by the literature and the body type of the subject with respect to the mass and the model structure. And stiffness and damping parameters are searched by fitting the model simulation results to the experimental measured data with respect to the vibration transmissibilities from the seat surface to the spinal column and the head and with respect to the driving-point apparent mass. In addition, the natural modes of the model compare with the result of experimental modal analysis. The influence of the abdomen and the muscles of the back are investigated by comparing three models with respect to above vibration characteristics. Three model are the proposed model, the model that has the spinal column and the model that has the muscles of the back in addition to the spinal column.

  20. Whole-body vibration training induces hypertrophy of the human patellar tendon.

    PubMed

    Rieder, F; Wiesinger, H-P; Kösters, A; Müller, E; Seynnes, O R

    2016-08-01

    Animal studies suggest that regular exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) induces an anabolic response in bone and tendon. However, the effects of this type of intervention on human tendon properties and its influence on the muscle-tendon unit function have never been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of WBV training on the patellar tendon mechanical, material and morphological properties, the quadriceps muscle architecture and the knee extension torque-angle relationship. Fifty-five subjects were randomized into either a vibration, an active control, or an inactive control group. The active control subjects performed isometric squats on a vibration platform without vibration. Muscle and tendon properties were measured using ultrasonography and dynamometry. Vibration training induced an increase in proximal (6.3%) and mean (3.8%) tendon cross-sectional area, without any appreciable change in tendon stiffness and modulus or in muscle architectural parameters. Isometric torque at a knee angle of 90° increased in active controls (6.7%) only and the torque-angle relation remained globally unchanged in all groups. The present protocol did not appreciably alter knee extension torque production or the musculo-tendinous parameters underpinning this function. Nonetheless, this study shows for the first time that WBV elicits tendon hypertrophy in humans. PMID:26173589

  1. Whole body vibration: unsupervised training or combined with a supervised multi-purpose exercise for fitness?

    PubMed

    Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Meucci, Marco; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of an unsupervised whole body vibration (WBV) training and two different supervised multi-purpose exercise programmes, with and without WBV, on body composition, functional fitness and self-reported well-being in middle-aged adults. Fifty-four healthy participants (age 48.6 ± 6.7 years) were randomly assigned to a vibration group (VG), a multi-purpose exercise group (MG) and a multi-purpose exercise with vibration group (VMG) and trained 3 days a week for 4 months. VG performed a standardised unsupervised WBV protocol, MG a supervised multi-purpose exercise and VMG a multi-purpose exercise including vibration. After training, drop out was significantly higher in VG group (P = 0.016) when compared to VMG group. In both MG and VMG, body composition, sit-up, push-up, sit and reach, agility test, hopping test and self-reported general health significantly improved (P < 0.05). No additive effects were generated by the vibration stimulus. Percentage of body fat and agility test in VG had a significant opposite trend compared to VMG group (P < 0.05). In summary, an unsupervised WBV training should not be chosen for training protocol. However, positive effects on physical fitness and the best results in adherence could be achieved integrating WBV practice into a multi-purpose exercise training.

  2. Comparison of sEMG processing methods during whole-body vibration exercise.

    PubMed

    Lienhard, Karin; Cabasson, Aline; Meste, Olivier; Colson, Serge S

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to investigate the influence of surface electromyography (sEMG) processing methods on the quantification of muscle activity during whole-body vibration (WBV) exercises. sEMG activity was recorded while the participants performed squats on the platform with and without WBV. The spikes observed in the sEMG spectrum at the vibration frequency and its harmonics were deleted using state-of-the-art methods, i.e. (1) a band-stop filter, (2) a band-pass filter, and (3) spectral linear interpolation. The same filtering methods were applied on the sEMG during the no-vibration trial. The linear interpolation method showed the highest intraclass correlation coefficients (no vibration: 0.999, WBV: 0.757-0.979) with the comparison measure (unfiltered sEMG during the no-vibration trial), followed by the band-stop filter (no vibration: 0.929-0.975, WBV: 0.661-0.938). While both methods introduced a systematic bias (P < 0.001), the error increased with increasing mean values to a higher degree for the band-stop filter. After adjusting the sEMG(RMS) during WBV for the bias, the performance of the interpolation method and the band-stop filter was comparable. The band-pass filter was in poor agreement with the other methods (ICC: 0.207-0.697), unless the sEMG(RMS) was corrected for the bias (ICC ⩾ 0.931, %LOA ⩽ 32.3). In conclusion, spectral linear interpolation or a band-stop filter centered at the vibration frequency and its multiple harmonics should be applied to delete the artifacts in the sEMG signals during WBV. With the use of a band-stop filter it is recommended to correct the sEMG(RMS) for the bias as this procedure improved its performance.

  3. The Short-Term Effect of Whole Body Vibration Training on Sprint Start Performance in Collegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    ROBERTS, BRAD; HUNTER, IAIN; HOPKINS, TY; FELAND, BRENT

    2009-01-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) is characterized by a vibratory stimulus emitted throughout the body through the use of a vibrating platform on which the subject stands. Studies have shown over 30% increases in maximal explosive strength such as maximal speed biceps curl as well as increases in maximum dynamic force such as maximal sitting bench pull as the result of vibration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short term whole-body vibration on sprint starts among collegiate track athletes. On the first day eleven subjects were randomly assigned to either a non-vibration or vibration group for initial testing. The vibration group used whole body vibration along with their normal warm-up routine while the non-vibration group did not. Force measurements were taken where the starting blocks were placed using a force plate embedded under the track surface following the warm up. One week later the groups alternated. The results were then compared between vibration and non-vibration groups for individual athletes. The vibration protocol occurred for 60 s at 26 Hz with an amplitude of 4mm on a Galileo 2000 platform. Repeated measures analysis of the variance showed peak resultant force was 6% greater when the vibration platform was utilized prior to the start (p=0.013). Further research is needed to determine whether any meaningful differences exist in sprint start velocity as a result of WBV. There were no observed differences in the 30m sprint times. PMID:27182320

  4. Acute Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Inhibition in Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    den Heijer, Anne E.; Groen, Yvonne; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Whole Body Vibration (WBV) is a passive exercise method known to have beneficial effects on various physical measures. Studies on adults furthermore demonstrated beneficial effects of WBV treatment on cognition (e.g. inhibition). The present study replicated these findings in healthy children and examined acute effects of WBV treatment on inhibition. Methods Fifty-five healthy children (aged 8–13) participated in this within-subject design study. WBV treatment was applied by having the children sit on a chair mounted to a vibrating platform. After each condition (vibration vs. non-vibration), inhibition was measured by using the Stroop Color-Word Interference Test. Repeated measures analyses were applied in order to explore the effects of WBV treatment on inhibition, and correlations were computed between the treatment effect and participant characteristics in order to explore individual differences in treatment sensitivity. Results Three-minute WBV treatments had significant beneficial effects on inhibition in this sample of healthy children. Especially the repeated application (three times) of WBV treatment appeared beneficial for cognition. Stronger WBV treatment effects were correlated with higher intelligence and younger age, but not with symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Conclusions This study demonstrates that especially repeated WBV treatment improves inhibition in healthy children. As this cognitive function is often impaired in children with developmental disorders (e.g. ADHD), future studies should further explore the effects, working mechanism and potential applicability of WBV treatment for this target group. PMID:26524188

  5. Whole body vibration exposures in forklift operators: comparison of a mechanical and air suspension seat.

    PubMed

    Blood, Ryan P; Ploger, James D; Johnson, Peter W

    2010-11-01

    Using a repeated measures design, this study compared differences in whole body vibration (WBV) exposures when 12 forklift operators drove the same forklift with a mechanical suspension and an air suspension seat. A portable PDA-based WBV data acquisition system collected and analysed time-weighted and raw WBV data per ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5 WBV measurement standards. Tri-axial measurements of weighted vibration (A(w)), crest factor, vibration dose values, time-weighted average-peak, raw (+) peak, raw (-) peak and static compression dose (S(ed)) were compared between seats. There were significant differences in z-axis WBV exposures with the air suspension seat, yielding lower WBV exposures. In addition, there were differences between seats in how they attenuated WBV exposures based on the driver's weight. In the mechanical suspension seat, WBV exposures were weight-dependent, with lighter drivers having higher WBV exposures, whereas with the air suspension seat, the same trends were not as prevalent. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study contributes to the understanding of how different seat suspensions can influence WBV transmission and how some components of vibration transmission are dependent on the weight of the driver. Additional systematic studies are needed to quantify how various factors can influence WBV exposures.

  6. The Influence of Whole-Body Vibration on Creatine Kinase Activity and Jumping Performance in Young Basketball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fachina, Rafael; da Silva, Antônio; Falcão, William; Montagner, Paulo; Borin, João; Minozzo, Fábio; Falcão, Diego; Vancini, Rodrigo; Poston, Brach; de Lira, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify creatine kinase (CK) activity changes across time following an acute bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) and determine the association between changes in CK activity and jumping performance. Method: Twenty-six elite young basketball players were assigned to 3 groups: 36-Hz and 46-Hz vibration groups (G36 and G46, respectively)…

  7. Effects of whole body vibration training on body composition, skeletal muscle strength, and cardiovascular health

    PubMed Central

    Park, Song-Young; Son, Won-Mok; Kwon, Oh-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Whole body vibration training (WBVT) has been used as a supplement to conventional exercise training such as resistance exercise training to improve skeletal muscle strength, specifically, in rehabilitation field. Recently, this exercise modality has been utilized by cardiovascular studies to examine whether WBVT can be a useful exercise modality to improve cardiovascular health. These studies reported that WBVT has not only beneficial effects on muscular strength but also cardiovascular health in elderly and disease population. However, its mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of WBVT in cardiovascular health has not been well documented. Therefore, this review highlighted the impacts of WBVT on cardiovascular health, and its mechanisms in conjunction with the improved muscular strength and body composition in various populations. PMID:26730378

  8. Whole-body vibration and ergonomic study of US railroad locomotives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johanning, Eckardt; Landsbergis, Paul; Fischer, Siegfried; Christ, Eberhard; Göres, Benno; Luhrman, Raymond

    2006-12-01

    US locomotive operators have exposure to multi-axis whole-body vibration (WBV) and shocks while seated. This study assessed operator-related and ergonomic seating design factors that may have confounding or mitigating influence on WBV exposure and its effects. Vibration exposure was measured according to international guidelines (ISO 2631-1; 1997); ergonomic work place factors and vibration effects were studied with a cross-sectional survey instrument distributed to a randomly selected group of railroad engineers ( n=2546) and a control group; and during vehicle inspections. The survey response rate was 47% for the RR engineers ( n=1195) and 41% for the controls ( n=323). Results of the mean basic vibration measurements were for the x, y, z-direction and vector sum 0.14, 0.22, 0.28 and 0.49 m/s 2 respectively; almost all crest factors (CF), MTVV and VDV values were above the critical ratios given in ISO 2631-1. The prevalence of serious neck and lower back disorders among locomotive engineers was found to be nearly double that of the sedentary control group without such exposure. Railroad engineers rated their seats mostly unacceptable regarding different adjustment and comfort aspects (3.02-3.51; scale 1=excellent to 4=unacceptable), while the control group rated their chairs more favorably (1.96-3.44). Existing cab and seat design in locomotives can result in prolonged forced awkward spinal posture of the operator combined with WBV exposure. In a logistic regression analysis, time at work being bothered by vibration (h/day) was significantly associated with an increased risk of low back pain, shoulder and neck pain, and sciatic pain among railroad engineers. Customized vibration attenuation seats and improved cab design of the locomotive controls should be further investigated.

  9. Effects of quadriceps strength after static and dynamic whole-body vibration exercise.

    PubMed

    Bush, Jill A; Blog, Gabriel L; Kang, Jie; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Ratamess, Nicholas A

    2015-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown performance benefits including whole-body vibration (WBV) as a training modality or an acute exercise protocol when used as a component of the resistance training program. Some studies have indicated that performing dynamic exercises as compared with static position exercises while exposed to WBV might be beneficial; however, evidence is lacking. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if an acute bout of dynamic versus static squats performed during WBV results in increase in quadriceps force production by means of dynamic isokinetic knee extension and flexion exercise. Nonresistance-trained healthy young men and women (N = 21) of 18-25 years participated in 4 protocols with 2-week rest in-between. Protocol 1 consisted of 5 sets of 10 dynamic squats without vibration; Protocol 2: 5 sets of 30-second static squats without vibration; Protocol 3: 5 sets of 10 dynamic squats with 30-Hz WBV for a total of 2.5 minutes; and Protocol 4: 5 sets of 30-second static squats with 30-Hz WBV for a total of 2.5 minutes. Prestrength tests (1 set of 4 repetitions at 100° · s(-1) for the knee extension exercise) was performed within 5 minutes of starting each protocol, and poststrength testing was performed within 1 minute of completing each protocol. Strength outcomes were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance with a significance level set at p ≤ 0.05. A significant decrease in strength was observed after dynamic and static squats without WBV (p = 0.002); an increase in strength after dynamic squats with WBV (p = 0.003); and a decrease in strength after static squats with WBV (p = 0.003). The inclusion of WBV to dynamic resistance exercise can be an added modality to increase strength. Whole-body vibration can have varied effects in altering muscle strength in untrained individuals according to the type of resistance training performed. As a dynamic squat with WBV seems to immediately potentiate neuromuscular functioning, the

  10. Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration improves postural control in health care professionals: a worksite randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Elfering, Achim; Schade, Volker; Stoecklin, Lukas; Baur, Simone; Burger, Christian; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2014-05-01

    Slip, trip, and fall injuries are frequent among health care workers. Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training was tested to improve postural control. Participants included 124 employees of a Swiss university hospital. The randomized controlled trial included an experimental group given 8 weeks of training and a control group with no intervention. In both groups, postural control was assessed as mediolateral sway on a force plate before and after the 8-week trial. Mediolateral sway was significantly decreased by stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training in the experimental group but not in the control group that received no training (p < .05). Stochastic resonance whole-body vibration training is an option in the primary prevention of balance-related injury at work.

  11. The effect of a short-term and long-term whole-body vibration in healthy men upon the postural stability.

    PubMed

    Piecha, Magdalena; Juras, Grzegorz; Król, Piotr; Sobota, Grzegorz; Polak, Anna; Bacik, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to establish the short-term and long-term effects of whole-body vibration on postural stability. The sample consisted of 28 male subjects randomly allocated to four comparative groups, three of which exercised on a vibration platform with parameters set individually for the groups. The stabilographic signal was recorded before the test commenced, after a single session of whole-body vibration, immediately after the last set of exercises of the 4-week whole-body vibration training, and one week after the training ended. The subjects were exposed to vibrations 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Long-term vibration training significantly shortened the rambling and trembling paths in the frontal plane. The path lengths were significantly reduced in the frontal plane one week after the training end date. Most changes in the values of the center of pressure (COP) path lengths in the sagittal and frontal plane were statistically insignificant. We concluded that long-term vibration training improves the postural stability of young healthy individuals in the frontal plane.

  12. Relationship Between Lower Limb Muscle Activity and Platform Acceleration During Whole-Body Vibration Exercise.

    PubMed

    Lienhard, Karin; Vienneau, Jordyn; Nigg, Sandro; Meste, Olivier; Colson, Serge S; Nigg, Benno M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of different magnitudes and directions of the vibration platform acceleration on surface electromyography (sEMG) during whole-body vibration (WBV) exercises. Therefore, a WBV platform was used that delivers vertical vibrations by a side-alternating mode, horizontal vibrations by a circular mode, and vibrations in all 3 planes by a dual mode. Surface electromyography signals of selected lower limb muscles were measured in 30 individuals while they performed a static squat on a vibration platform. The WBV trials included 2 side-alternating trials (Side-L: 6 Hz, 2.5 mm; Side-H: 16 Hz, 4 mm), 2 circular trials (Circ-L: 14 Hz, 0.8 mm; Circ-H: 43 Hz, 0.8 mm), and 4 dual-mode trials that were the combinations of the single-mode trials (Side-L/Circ-L, Side-L/Circ-H, Side-H/Circ-L, Side-H/Circ-H). Furthermore, control trials without vibration were assessed, and 3-dimensional platform acceleration was quantified during the vibration. Significant increases in the root mean square of the sEMG (sEMGRMS) compared with the control trial were found in most muscles for Side-L/Circ-H (+17 to +63%, p ≤ 0.05), Side-H/Circ-L (+7 to +227%, p ≤ 0.05), and Side-H/Circ-H (+21 to +207%, p < 0.01) and in the lower leg muscles for Side-H (+35 to +138%, p ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, only the vertical platform acceleration showed a linear relationship (r = 0.970, p < 0.001) with the averaged sEMGRMS of the lower limb muscles. Significant increases in sEMGRMS were found with a vertical acceleration threshold of 18 m·s(-2) and higher. The present results emphasize that WBV exercises should be performed on a platform that induces vertical accelerations of 18 m·s(-2) and higher.

  13. Whole body vibration for older persons: an open randomized, multicentre, parallel, clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Institutionalized older persons have a poor functional capacity. Including physical exercise in their routine activities decreases their frailty and improves their quality of life. Whole-body vibration (WBV) training is a type of exercise that seems beneficial in frail older persons to improve their functional mobility, but the evidence is inconclusive. This trial will compare the results of exercise with WBV and exercise without WBV in improving body balance, muscle performance and fall prevention in institutionalized older persons. Methods/Design An open, multicentre and parallel randomized clinical trial with blinded assessment. 160 nursing home residents aged over 65 years and of both sexes will be identified to participate in the study. Participants will be centrally randomised and allocated to interventions (vibration or exercise group) by telephone. The vibration group will perform static/dynamic exercises (balance and resistance training) on a vibratory platform (Frequency: 30-35 Hz; Amplitude: 2-4 mm) over a six-week training period (3 sessions/week). The exercise group will perform the same exercise protocol but without a vibration stimuli platform. The primary outcome measure is the static/dynamic body balance. Secondary outcomes are muscle strength and, number of new falls. Follow-up measurements will be collected at 6 weeks and at 6 months after randomization. Efficacy will be analysed on an intention-to-treat (ITT) basis and 'per protocol'. The effects of the intervention will be evaluated using the "t" test, Mann-Witney test, or Chi-square test, depending on the type of outcome. The final analysis will be performed 6 weeks and 6 months after randomization. Discussion This study will help to clarify whether WBV training improves body balance, gait mobility and muscle strength in frail older persons living in nursing homes. As far as we know, this will be the first study to evaluate the efficacy of WBV for the prevention of falls. Trial

  14. Whole Body Vibration Training is Osteogenic at the Spine in College-Age Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Ligouri, Gianna C.; Shoepe, Todd C.; Almstedt, Hawley C.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass which is currently challenging the American health care system. Maximizing peak bone mass early in life is a cost-effective method for preventing osteoporosis. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a novel exercise method with the potential to increase bone mass, therefore optimizing peak bone and decreasing the risk for osteoporotic fracture. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate changes in bone mineral density at the hip, spine, and whole body in college-age men and women who underwent a WBV training protocol. Active men (n=6) and women (n=4), ages 18–22 participated in the WBV training; while an additional 14 volunteers (1 male, 13 female) served as controls. All participants completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires to assess health history, physical activity, dietary intake, and menstrual history. The WBV training program, using a Vibraflex 550, incorporated squats, stiff-leg dead lifts, stationary lunges, push-up holds, bent-over rows, and jumps performed on the platform, and occurred 3 times a week, for 12 weeks. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic Explorer, Waltham, MA, USA) was used to assess bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2). A two-tailed, t-test identified significantly different changes in BMD between the WBV and control groups at the lateral spine (average change of 0.022 vs. −0.015 g/cm2). The WBV group experienced a 2.7% and 1.0% increase in BMD in the lateral spine and posterior-anterior spine while the control group decreased 1.9% and 0.9%, respectively. Results indicate that 12 weeks of WBV training was osteogenic at the spine in college-age men and women. PMID:23487489

  15. Whole body vibration exercises and the improvement of the flexibility in patient with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sá-Caputo, Danúbia da Cunha; Ronikeili-Costa, Pedro; Carvalho-Lima, Rafaelle Pacheco; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Bravo-Monteiro, Milena Oliveira; Costa, Rebeca; de Moraes-Silva, Janaina; Paiva, Dulciane Nunes; Machado, Christiano Bittencourt; Mantilla-Giehl, Paula; Arnobio, Adriano; Marin, Pedro Jesus; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Vibrations produced in oscillating/vibratory platform generate whole body vibration (WBV) exercises, which are important in sports, as well as in treating diseases, promoting rehabilitation, and improving the quality of life. WBV exercises relevantly increase the muscle strength, muscle power, and the bone mineral density, as well as improving the postural control, the balance, and the gait. An important number of publications are found in the PubMed database with the keyword "flexibility" and eight of the analyzed papers involving WBV and flexibility reached a level of evidence II. The biggest distance between the third finger of the hand to the floor (DBTFF) of a patient with metabolic syndrome (MS) was found before the first session and was considered to be 100%. The percentages to the other measurements in the different sessions were determined to be related to the 100%. It is possible to see an immediate improvement after each session with a decrease of the %DBTFF. As the presence of MS is associated with poorer physical performance, a simple and safe protocol using WBV exercises promoted an improvement of the flexibility in a patient with MS. PMID:25276434

  16. Whole Body Vibration Exercises and the Improvement of the Flexibility in Patient with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sá-Caputo, Danúbia da Cunha; Ronikeili-Costa, Pedro; Carvalho-Lima, Rafaelle Pacheco; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Bravo-Monteiro, Milena Oliveira; Costa, Rebeca; de Moraes-Silva, Janaina; Paiva, Dulciane Nunes; Machado, Christiano Bittencourt; Mantilla-Giehl, Paula; Arnobio, Adriano; Marin, Pedro Jesus; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Vibrations produced in oscillating/vibratory platform generate whole body vibration (WBV) exercises, which are important in sports, as well as in treating diseases, promoting rehabilitation, and improving the quality of life. WBV exercises relevantly increase the muscle strength, muscle power, and the bone mineral density, as well as improving the postural control, the balance, and the gait. An important number of publications are found in the PubMed database with the keyword “flexibility” and eight of the analyzed papers involving WBV and flexibility reached a level of evidence II. The biggest distance between the third finger of the hand to the floor (DBTFF) of a patient with metabolic syndrome (MS) was found before the first session and was considered to be 100%. The percentages to the other measurements in the different sessions were determined to be related to the 100%. It is possible to see an immediate improvement after each session with a decrease of the %DBTFF. As the presence of MS is associated with poorer physical performance, a simple and safe protocol using WBV exercises promoted an improvement of the flexibility in a patient with MS. PMID:25276434

  17. The Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Mobility and Balance in Parkinson Disease: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sharififar, Sharareh; Coronado, Rogelio A.; Romero, Sergio; Azari, Hassan; Thigpen, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) is a contemporary treatment modality that holds promise as an exercise training method in health–compromised individuals. A growing number of studies on individuals with Parkinson Disease are examining whether WBV improves balance and functional mobility. However, interpreting WBV studies is challenging since there is variability in the manner in which WBV intervention is conducted. The primary goal of this systematic review was to investigate the effect of WBV on improving mobility and balance as measured by a battery of clinical tests, in patients with Parkinson disease. Studies based on WBV parameters were characterized and a systematic search of peer-reviewed literature in five major databases was conducted. Randomized-controlled trials investigating the effects of WBV in patients with a Parkinson diagnosis and no cognitive impairment were included. A total of six publications met the inclusion criteria. Overall, studies demonstrated mixed results in favor of WBV for improving balance or mobility. The majority of studies seem to suggest a favorable benefit following WBV for mobility and balance, but not when compared to other active intervention or placebo. There was variability in the manner in which WBV intervention was applied. Variations among the six studies included: duration of intervention and rest, follow-up period, type of control groups, frequency of vibration, number of treatment sessions and sex distribution of subjects. Future research is needed to investigate the effects of different types of equipment and treatment dosage in individuals with Parkinson disease. PMID:25031483

  18. Whole Body Vibration at Different Exposure Frequencies: Infrared Thermography and Physiological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Sonza, Anelise; Robinson, Caroline C.; Achaval, Matilde; Zaro, Milton A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) on physiological parameters, cutaneous temperature, tactile sensitivity, and balance. Twenty-four healthy adults (25.3 ± 2.6 years) participated in four WBV sessions. They spent 15 minutes on a vibration platform in the vertical mode at four different frequencies (31, 35, 40, and 44 Hz) with 1 mm of amplitude. All variables were measured before and after WBV exposure. Pressure sensation in five anatomical regions and both feet was determined using Von Frey monofilaments. Postural sway was measured using a force plate. Cutaneous temperature was obtained with an infrared camera. WBV influences the discharge of the skin touch-pressure receptors, decreasing sensitivity at all measured frequencies and foot regions (P ≤ 0.05). Regarding balance, no differences were found after 20 minutes of WBV at frequencies of 31 and 35 Hz. At 40 and 44 Hz, participants showed higher anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP) velocity and length. The cutaneous temperature of the lower limbs decreased during and 10 minutes after WBV. WBV decreases touch-pressure sensitivity at all measured frequencies 10 min after exposure. This may be related to the impaired balance at higher frequencies since these variables have a role in maintaining postural stability. Vasoconstriction might explain the decreased lower limb temperature. PMID:25664338

  19. Quantification of mouse in vivo whole-body vibration amplitude from motion-blur using x-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhengyi; Welch, Ian; Yuan, Xunhua; Pollmann, Steven I; Nikolov, Hristo N; Holdsworth, David W

    2015-08-21

    Musculoskeletal effects of whole-body vibration on animals and humans have become an intensely studied topic recently, due to the potential of applying this method as a non-pharmacological therapy for strengthening bones. It is relatively easy to quantify the transmission of whole-body mechanical vibration through the human skeletal system using accelerometers. However, this is not the case for small-animal pre-clinical studies because currently available accelerometers have a large mass, relative to the mass of the animals, which causes the accelerometers themselves to affect the way vibration is transmitted. Additionally, live animals do not typically remain motionless for long periods, unless they are anesthetized, and they are required to maintain a static standing posture during these studies. These challenges provide the motivation for the development of a method to quantify vibrational transmission in small animals. We present a novel imaging technique to quantify whole-body vibration transmission in small animals using 280 μm diameter tungsten carbide beads implanted into the hind limbs of mice. Employing time-exposure digital x-ray imaging, vibrational amplitude is quantified based on the blurring of the implanted beads caused by the vibrational motion. Our in vivo results have shown this technique is capable of measuring vibration amplitudes as small as 0.1 mm, with precision as small as  ±10 μm, allowing us to distinguish differences in the transmitted vibration at different locations on the hindlimbs of mice.

  20. Quantification of mouse in vivo whole-body vibration amplitude from motion-blur using x-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhengyi; Welch, Ian; Yuan, Xunhua; Pollmann, Steven I; Nikolov, Hristo N; Holdsworth, David W

    2015-08-21

    Musculoskeletal effects of whole-body vibration on animals and humans have become an intensely studied topic recently, due to the potential of applying this method as a non-pharmacological therapy for strengthening bones. It is relatively easy to quantify the transmission of whole-body mechanical vibration through the human skeletal system using accelerometers. However, this is not the case for small-animal pre-clinical studies because currently available accelerometers have a large mass, relative to the mass of the animals, which causes the accelerometers themselves to affect the way vibration is transmitted. Additionally, live animals do not typically remain motionless for long periods, unless they are anesthetized, and they are required to maintain a static standing posture during these studies. These challenges provide the motivation for the development of a method to quantify vibrational transmission in small animals. We present a novel imaging technique to quantify whole-body vibration transmission in small animals using 280 μm diameter tungsten carbide beads implanted into the hind limbs of mice. Employing time-exposure digital x-ray imaging, vibrational amplitude is quantified based on the blurring of the implanted beads caused by the vibrational motion. Our in vivo results have shown this technique is capable of measuring vibration amplitudes as small as 0.1 mm, with precision as small as  ±10 μm, allowing us to distinguish differences in the transmitted vibration at different locations on the hindlimbs of mice. PMID:26248045

  1. Quantification of mouse in vivo whole-body vibration amplitude from motion-blur using x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhengyi; Welch, Ian; Yuan, Xunhua; Pollmann, Steven I.; Nikolov, Hristo N.; Holdsworth, David W.

    2015-08-01

    Musculoskeletal effects of whole-body vibration on animals and humans have become an intensely studied topic recently, due to the potential of applying this method as a non-pharmacological therapy for strengthening bones. It is relatively easy to quantify the transmission of whole-body mechanical vibration through the human skeletal system using accelerometers. However, this is not the case for small-animal pre-clinical studies because currently available accelerometers have a large mass, relative to the mass of the animals, which causes the accelerometers themselves to affect the way vibration is transmitted. Additionally, live animals do not typically remain motionless for long periods, unless they are anesthetized, and they are required to maintain a static standing posture during these studies. These challenges provide the motivation for the development of a method to quantify vibrational transmission in small animals. We present a novel imaging technique to quantify whole-body vibration transmission in small animals using 280 μm diameter tungsten carbide beads implanted into the hind limbs of mice. Employing time-exposure digital x-ray imaging, vibrational amplitude is quantified based on the blurring of the implanted beads caused by the vibrational motion. Our in vivo results have shown this technique is capable of measuring vibration amplitudes as small as 0.1 mm, with precision as small as  ±10 μm, allowing us to distinguish differences in the transmitted vibration at different locations on the hindlimbs of mice.

  2. Effect of iTonic whole-body vibration on delayed-onset muscle soreness among untrained individuals.

    PubMed

    Rhea, Matthew R; Bunker, Derek; Marín, Pedro J; Lunt, Kregg

    2009-09-01

    Attempts to reduce or eliminate delayed-onset of muscle soreness are important as this condition is painful and debilitating. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of whole-body vibration (WBV) massage and stretching exercises at reducing perceived pain among untrained men. Sixteen adult men (age, 36.6 +/- 2.1 yr) volunteered to perform a strenuous exercise session consisting of resistance training and repeated sprints. Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 recovery groups: a group performing WBV stretching sessions or a stretching group performing static stretching without vibration. Both groups performed similar stretches, twice per day for 3 days after the workout. The vibration group performed their stretches on the iTonic platform (frequency, 35 Hz; amplitude, 2 mm). Perceived pain was measured at 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours postworkout. Statistical analyses identified a significantly lower level of reported perceived pain at all postworkout measurement times among the WBV group (p < 0.05). No difference existed at the preworkout measurement time. The degree of attenuation of pain ranged from 22-61%. These data suggest that incorporating WBV as a recovery/regeneration tool may be effective for reducing the pain of muscle soreness and tightness after strenuous training.

  3. On the Health Risk of the Lumbar Spine due to Whole-Body VIBRATION—THEORETICAL Approach, Experimental Data and Evaluation of Whole-Body Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, H.; Blüthner, R.; Hinz, B.; Schust, M.

    1998-08-01

    The guidance on the effects of vibration on health in standards for whole-body vibration (WBV) does not provide quantitative relationships between WBV and health risk. The paper aims at the elucidation of exposure-response relationships. An analysis of published data on the static and dynamic strength of vertebrae and bone, loaded with various frequencies under different conditions, provided the basis for a theoretical approach to evaluate repetitive loads on the lumbar spine (“internal loads”). The approach enabled the calculation of “equivalent”—with respect to cumulative fatigue failure—combinations of amplitudes and numbers of internal cyclic stress. In order to discover the relation between external peak accelerations at the seat and internal peak loads, biodynamic data of experiments (36 subjects, three somatotypes, two different postures—relaxed and bent forward; random WBV,aw, r.m.s. 1·4 ms-2, containing high transients) were used as input to a biomechanical model. Internal pressure changes were calculated using individual areas of vertebral endplates. The assessment of WBV was based on the quantitative relations between peak accelerations at the seat and pressures predicted for the disk L5/S1. For identical exposures clearly higher rates of pressure rise in the bent forward compared to the relaxed posture were predicted. The risk assessment for internal forces considered the combined internal static and dynamic loads, in relation to the predicted individual strength, and Miner's hypothesis. For exposure durations between 1 min and 8 h, energy equivalent vibration magnitudes (formula B.1, ISO 2631-1, 1997) and equivalent vibration magnitudes according to formula B.2 (time dependence over-energetic) were compared with equivalent combinations of upward peak accelerations and exposure durations according to predicted cumulative fatigue failures of lumbar vertebrae. Formula B.1 seems to underestimate the health risk caused by high magnitudes

  4. Acute enhancement of lower-extremity dynamic strength and flexibility with whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Patrick L; Burns, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on muscular strength, flexibility, and heart rate (HR). Twenty adults (10 men, 10 women) untrained to WBV participated in the study. All subjects completed assessment of lower-extremity isokinetic torque, flexibility, and HR immediately before and after 6 minutes of WBV and 6 minutes of leg cycling ergometry (CYL), in randomized order. During WBV, subjects stood upright on a vibration platform for a total of 6 minutes. Vibration frequency was gradually increased during the first minute to a frequency of 26 Hz, which was maintained for the remaining 5 minutes. During CYL, power output was gradually increased to 50 W during the first minute and maintained at that power output for the remaining 5 minutes. Lower-extremity flexibility was determined using the sit-and-reach box test. Peak and average isokinetic torque of knee extension and flexion were measured by means of a motor-driven dynamometer with velocity fixed at 120 degrees .s. Change scores for the outcome measures were compared between treatments using Student's paired t-tests. Analysis revealed significantly greater HR acceleration with CYL (24.7 bpm) than after WBV (15.8 bpm). The increase of sit-and-reach scores after WBV (4.7 cm) was statistically greater (p < 0.05) than after CYL (0.8 cm). After WBV, increases in peak and average isokinetic torque of knee extension, 7.7% and 9.6%, were statistically greater than after CYL (p < 0.05). Average torque of knee flexion also increased more with WBV (+7.8%) than with CYL (-1.5%) (p < 0.05). The findings of this study indicate that short-term WBV standing elicits acute enhancements of lower-extremity muscular torque and flexibility, suggesting the application of this technology as a preparatory activity before more intense exercise.

  5. Effects of Whole-body Vibration Training on Sprint Running Kinematics and Explosive Strength Performance.

    PubMed

    Giorgos, Paradisis; Elias, Zacharogiannis

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 wk of whole body vibration (WBV) training on sprint running kinematics and explosive strength performance. Twenty-four volunteers (12 women and 12 men) participated in the study and were randomised (n = 12) into the experimental and control groups. The WBV group performed a 6-wk program (16-30 min·d(-1), 3 times a week) on a vibration platform. The amplitude of the vibration platform was 2.5 mm and the acceleration was 2.28 g. The control group did not participate in any training. Tests were performed Pre and post the training period. Sprint running performance was measured during a 60 m sprint where running time, running speed, step length and step rate were calculated. Explosive strength performance was measured during a counter movement jump (CMJ) test, where jump height and total number of jumps performed in a period of 30 s (30CVJT). Performance in 10 m, 20 m, 40 m, 50 m and 60 m improved significantly after 6 wk of WBV training with an overall improvement of 2.7%. The step length and running speed improved by 5.1% and 3.6%, and the step rate decreased by 3.4%. The countermovement jump height increased by 3.3%, and the explosive strength endurance improved overall by 7.8%. The WBV training period of 6 wk produced significant changes in sprint running kinematics and explosive strength performance. Key pointsWBV training.Sprint running kinematics.Explosive strength performance.

  6. sEMG during Whole-Body Vibration Contains Motion Artifacts and Reflex Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lienhard, Karin; Cabasson, Aline; Meste, Olivier; Colson, Serge S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the excessive spikes observed in the surface electromyography (sEMG) spectrum recorded during whole-body vibration (WBV) exercises contain motion artifacts and/or reflex activity. The occurrence of motion artifacts was tested by electrical recordings of the patella. The involvement of reflex activity was investigated by analyzing the magnitude of the isolated spikes during changes in voluntary background muscle activity. Eighteen physically active volunteers performed static squats while the sEMG was measured of five lower limb muscles during vertical WBV using no load and an additional load of 33 kg. In order to record motion artifacts during WBV, a pair of electrodes was positioned on the patella with several layers of tape between skin and electrodes. Spectral analysis of the patella signal revealed recordings of motion artifacts as high peaks at the vibration frequency (fundamental) and marginal peaks at the multiple harmonics were observed. For the sEMG recordings, the root mean square of the spikes increased with increasing additional loads (p < 0.05), and was significantly correlated to the sEMG signal without the spikes of the respective muscle (r range: 0.54 - 0.92, p < 0.05). This finding indicates that reflex activity might be contained in the isolated spikes, as identical behavior has been found for stretch reflex responses evoked during direct vibration. In conclusion, the spikes visible in the sEMG spectrum during WBV exercises contain motion artifacts and possibly reflex activity. Key points The spikes observed in the sEMG spectrum during WBV exercises contain motion artifacts and possibly reflex activity The motion artifacts are more pronounced in the first spike than the following spikes in the sEMG spectrum Reflex activity during WBV exercises is enhanced with an additional load of approximately 50% of the body mass PMID:25729290

  7. Whole body vibration induces forepaw and hind paw behavioral sensitivity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Baig, Hassam A; Guarino, Benjamin B; Lipschutz, Daniel; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2013-11-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) has been linked to neck and back pain, but the biomechanical and physiological mechanisms responsible for its development and maintenance are unknown. A rodent model of WBV was developed in which rats were exposed to different WBV paradigms, either daily for 7 consecutive days (repeated WBV) or two single exposures at Day 0 and 7 (intermittent WBV). Each WBV session lasted for 30 min and was imposed at a frequency of 15 Hz and RMS platform acceleration of 0.56 ± 0.07 g. Changes in the withdrawal response of the forepaw and hind paw were measured, and were used to characterize the onset and maintenance of behavioral sensitivity. Accelerations and displacements of the rat and deformations in the cervical and lumbar spines were measured during WBV to provide mechanical context for the exposures. A decrease in withdrawal threshold was induced at 1 day after the first exposure in both the hind paw and forepaw. Repeated WBV exhibited a sustained reduction in withdrawal threshold in both paws and intermittent WBV induced a sustained response only in the forepaw. Cervical deformations were significantly elevated which may explain the more robust forepaw response. Findings suggest that a WBV exposure leads to behavioral sensitivity.

  8. Whole-Body Vibration Training Effect on Physical Performance and Obesity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Tseng, Tzu-Ling; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chung, Yi-Hsiu; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Wu, Jyh-Horng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the beneficial effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on exercise performance, physical fatigue and obesity in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: normal group (n=6), fed standard diet (control), and experimental group (n=18), fed a HFD. After 4-week induction, followed by 6-week WBV of 5 days per week, the 18 obese mice were divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group): HFD with sedentary control (HFD), HFD with WBV at relatively low-intensity (5.6 Hz, 0.13 g) (HFD+VL) or high-intensity (13 Hz, 0.68 g) (HFD+VH). A trend analysis revealed that WBV increased the grip strength in mice. WBV also dose-dependently decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels and increased glucose level after the swimming test. WBV slightly decreased final body weight and dose-dependently decreased weights of epididymal, retroperitoneal and perirenal fat pads and fasting serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, CK, glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol. Therefore, WBV could improve exercise performance and fatigue and prevent fat accumulation and obesity-associated biochemical alterations in obese mice. It may be an effective intervention for health promotion and prevention of HFD-induced obesity. PMID:25317067

  9. Effects of whole body vibration on hormonal & functional indices in patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Eftekhari, Elham; Etemadifar, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease, which affects the patients’ mobility, and exercise training is considered to be beneficial for these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 10 wk of low intensity exercise and whole body vibration (WBV) training on fatigue, quality of life, functional and physical indices, and serum levels of ghrelin, leptin, and testosterone in MS patients. Methods: Thirty four MS patients with mild to moderate disability were recruited and randomly divided into two groups, the training group (n=17) and control group (n=17). Patients in the training group did low intensity exercise and WBV training programme three times a week for 10 wk. The control group continued their routine life. Intended variables like expanded disability status scale (EDSS), fatigue, quality of life, functional and physical indices consisted of balance, walking speed, functional mobility, functional muscle endurance, and walking endurance, and serum levels of ghrelin, leptin, and testosterone were measured before and after the protocol. Results: Thirty subjects completed the study (23 females, 7 males; mean age =38.80 ± 9.50 yr). Statistical analysis demonstrated that EDSS in the WBV training group was significantly decreased (P=0.01), balance (P=0.01), and walking endurance significantly increased (P=0.01) in MS patients (P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: The results suggest that low intensity exercise and WBV training have some beneficial impact on functional and physical indices of MS patients. PMID:26609037

  10. Two way assessment of other physical work demands while measuring the whole body vibration magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemessen, Ivo J. H.; Hulshof, Carel T. J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2008-03-01

    Direct observation, instead of using self-administered questionnaires might give more reliable and specific information about physical work demands at the workplace. This information is of use in a population already at risk of developing low back pain (LBP) due to whole body vibration (WBV) exposure. The aims of this study are to assess the WBV exposure in an exposed population and to assess other physical work demands in two ways, by direct observation and with the use of a self-administered questionnaire. We therefore assessed the WBV magnitude and 5 WBV-related physical work demands by using the PalmTrac system and a self-administered questionnaire in a group of drivers ( N=10). The main findings are 7 out of 10 drivers are exceeding the EU action value. About 50% of the drivers under-estimated the time 'bending', 60% the time 'walking+standing' and 60% over-estimated the time when 'lifting.' We concluded that 7 drivers from this group are at risk of developing LBP and substantial differences exists for the 5 physical work demands comparing the PalmTrac method with the questionnaire. Direct observational assessment in WBV measurements yields extra information. This is useful for preventive activities necessary as drivers are exceeding the EU action value.

  11. Computation of trunk muscle forces, spinal loads and stability in whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazrgari, B.; Shirazi-Adl, A.; Kasra, M.

    2008-12-01

    Whole-body vibration has been indicated as a risk factor in back disorders. Proper prevention and treatment management, however, requires a sound knowledge of associated muscle forces and loads on the spine. Previous trunk model studies have either neglected or over-simplified the trunk redundancy with time-varying unknown muscle forces. Trunk stability has neither been addressed. A novel iterative dynamic kinematics-driven approach was employed to evaluate muscle forces, spinal loads and system stability in a seated subject under a random vertical base excitation with ˜±1 g peak acceleration contents. This iterative approach satisfied equations of motion in all directions/levels while accounting for the nonlinear passive resistance of the ligamentous spine. The effect of posture, co-activity in abdominal muscles and changes in buttocks stiffness were also investigated. The computed vertical accelerations were in good agreement with measurements. The input base excitation, via inertial and muscle forces, substantially influenced spinal loads and system stability. The flexed posture in sitting increased the net moment, muscle forces and passive spinal loads while improving the trunk stability. Similarly, the introduction of low to moderate antagonistic coactivity in abdominal muscles increased the passive spinal loads and improved the spinal stability. A trade-off, hence, exists between lower muscle forces and spinal loads on one hand and more stable spine on the other. Base excitations with larger peak acceleration contents substantially increase muscle forces/spinal loads and, hence, the risk of injury.

  12. The effects of long-term whole-body vibration and aerobic exercise on body composition and bone mineral density in obese middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sang-seok; Park, Hun-young; Moon, Hwang-woon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of whole-body passive vibration exercise and its differences from aerobic exercise on body composition, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). [Methods] Obese middle-aged women (n=33 out of 45) with 34±3% body fat completed the training protocol. They were randomly assigned into diet (n=9; control group), diet plus whole-body vibration exercise (n=13; vibration group), and diet plus aerobic exercise (n=11; aerobic group) groups and we compared their body composition, BMD, and BMC before and after 9 months of training. There were no significant differences in nutrient intake among groups during the training period. [Results] Relative body fat (%) decreased significantly (p < .05) in all three groups and the exercise groups showed a greater reduction in fat mass than the diet only group. BMD in the whole body, lumbar spine, hip and forearm were not significantly different among the three groups. Total body BMC increased significantly in the vibration group throughout the first 6 months of training. [Conclusion] Results suggest that long- term vibration training when used in conjunction with a diet program is as effective as aerobic exercise with a diet program in improving body composition of obese middle-aged women without compromising BMC or BMD. Thus, it can be considered a novel and effective method for reducing body fat. PMID:27508150

  13. Whole-body vibration-induced muscular reflex: Is it a stretch-induced reflex?

    PubMed Central

    Cakar, Halil Ibrahim; Cidem, Muharrem; Sebik, Oguz; Yilmaz, Gizem; Karamehmetoglu, Safak Sahir; Kara, Sadik; Karacan, Ilhan; Türker, Kemal Sıtkı

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Whole-body vibration (WBV) can induce reflex responses in muscles. A number of studies have reported that the physiological mechanisms underlying this type of reflex activity can be explained by reference to a stretch-induced reflex. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to test whether the WBV-induced muscular reflex (WBV-IMR) can be explained as a stretch-induced reflex. [Subjects and Methods] The present study assessed 20 healthy males using surface electrodes placed on their right soleus muscle. The latency of the tendon reflex (T-reflex) as a stretch-induced reflex was compared with the reflex latency of the WBV-IMR. In addition, simulations were performed at 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 Hz to determine the stretch frequency of the muscle during WBV. [Results] WBV-IMR latency (40.5 ± 0.8 ms; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 39.0–41.9 ms) was significantly longer than T-reflex latency (34.6 ± 0.5 ms; 95% CI: 33.6–35.5 ms) and the mean difference was 6.2 ms (95% CI of the difference: 4.7–7.7 ms). The simulations performed in the present study demonstrated that the frequency of the stretch signal would be twice the frequency of the vibration. [Conclusion] These findings do not support the notion that WBV-IMR can be explained by reference to a stretch-induced reflex. PMID:26310784

  14. The discomfort produced by noise and whole-body vertical vibration presented separately and in combination.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Griffin, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the prediction of the discomfort caused by simultaneous noise and vibration from the discomfort caused by noise and the discomfort caused by vibration when they are presented separately. A total of 24 subjects used absolute magnitude estimation to report their discomfort caused by seven levels of noise (70-88 dBA SEL), 7 magnitudes of vibration (0.146-2.318 ms(- 1.75)) and all 49 possible combinations of these noise and vibration stimuli. Vibration did not significantly influence judgements of noise discomfort, but noise reduced vibration discomfort by an amount that increased with increasing noise level, consistent with a 'masking effect' of noise on judgements of vibration discomfort. A multiple linear regression model or a root-sums-of-squares model predicted the discomfort caused by combined noise and vibration, but the root-sums-of-squares model is more convenient and provided a more accurate prediction of the discomfort produced by combined noise and vibration.

  15. Validity of self reported occupational exposures to hand transmitted and whole body vibration

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, K.; Haward, B.; Griffin, M.; Bendall, H.; Coggon, D.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess the accuracy with which workers report their exposure to occupational sources of hand transmitted (HTV) and whole body vibration (WBV).
METHODS—179 Workers from various jobs involving exposure to HTV or WBV completed a self administered questionnaire about sources of occupational exposure to vibration in the past week. They were then observed at work over 1 hour, after which they completed a second questionnaire concerning their exposures during this observation period. The feasibility of reported sources of exposure during the past week was examined by questioning managers and by inspection of tools and machines in the workplace. The accuracy of reported sources and durations of exposure in the 1 hour period were assessed relative to what had been observed.
RESULTS—The feasibility of exposure in the previous week was confirmed for 97% of subjects who reported exposure to HTV, and for 93% of subjects who reported exposure to WBV. The individual sources of exposure reported were generally plausible, but occupational use of cars was substantially overreported, possibly because of confusion with their use in travel to and from work. The accuracy of exposures reported during the observation period was generally high, but some sources of HTV were confused—for example, nailing and stapling guns reported as riveting hammers, and hammer drills not distinguished from other sorts of drill. Workers overestimated their duration of exposure to HTV by a median factor of 2.5 (interquartile range (IQR) 1.6-5.9), but estimated durations of exposure were more accurate when the exposure was relatively continuous rather than for intermittent short periods. Reported durations of exposure to WBV were generally accurate (median ratio of reported to observed time 1.1, IQR 1.0-1.2).
CONCLUSIONS—Sources of recent occupational exposure to vibration seem to be reported with reasonable accuracy, but durations of exposure to HTV are systematically

  16. The Effects of Whole-Body Vibration on the Cross-Transfer of Strength

    PubMed Central

    Goodwill, Alicia M.; Kidgell, Dawson J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether the use of superimposed whole-body vibration (WBV) during cross-education strength training would optimise strength transfer compared to conventional cross-education strength training. Twenty-one healthy, dominant right leg volunteers (21 ± 3 years) were allocated to a strength training (ST, m = 3, f = 4), a strength training with WBV (ST + V, m = 3, f = 4), or a control group (no training, m = 3, f = 4). Training groups performed 9 sessions over 3 weeks, involving unilateral squats for the right leg, with or without WBV (35 Hz; 2.5 mm amplitude). All groups underwent dynamic single leg maximum strength testing (1RM) and single and paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) prior to and following training. Strength increased in the trained limb for the ST (41%; ES = 1.14) and ST + V (55%; ES = 1.03) groups, which resulted in a 35% (ES = 0.99) strength transfer to the untrained left leg for the ST group and a 52% (ES = 0.97) strength transfer to the untrained leg for the ST + V group, when compared to the control group. No differences in strength transfer between training groups were observed (P = 0.15). For the untrained leg, no differences in the peak height of recruitment curves or SICI were observed between ST and ST + V groups (P = 1.00). Strength training with WBV does not appear to modulate the cross-transfer of strength to a greater magnitude when compared to conventional cross-education strength training. PMID:23365521

  17. Whole-body vibration improves functional recovery in spinal cord injured rats.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Felicitas; Schempf, Greta; Stein, Gregor; Wellmann, Katharina; Manthou, Marilena; Scholl, Carolin; Sidorenko, Malina; Semler, Oliver; Eisel, Leonie; Harrach, Rachida; Angelova, Srebrina; Jaminet, Patrick; Ankerne, Janina; Ashrafi, Mahak; Ozsoy, Ozlem; Ozsoy, Umut; Schubert, Harald; Abdulla, Diana; Dunlop, Sarah A; Angelov, Doychin N; Irintchev, Andrey; Schönau, Eckhard

    2013-03-15

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a relatively novel form of exercise used to improve neuromuscular performance in healthy individuals. Its usefulness as a therapy for patients with neurological disorders, in particular spinal cord injury (SCI), has received little attention in clinical settings and, surprisingly, even less in animal SCI models. We performed severe compression SCI at a low-thoracic level in Wistar rats followed by daily WBV starting 7 (10 rats) or 14 (10 rats) days after injury (WBV7 and WBV14, respectively) and continued over a 12-week post-injury period. Rats with SCI but no WBV training (sham, 10 rats) and intact animals (10 rats) served as controls. Compared to sham-treated rats, WBV did not improve BBB score, plantar stepping, or ladder stepping during the 12-week period. Accordingly, WBV did not significantly alter plantar H-reflex, lesion volume, serotonergic input to the lumbar spinal cord, nor cholinergic or glutamatergic inputs to lumbar motoneurons at 12 weeks after SCI. However, compared to sham, WBV14, but not WBV7, significantly improved body weight support (rump-height index) during overground locomotion and overall recovery between 6-12 weeks and also restored the density of synaptic terminals in the lumbar spinal cord at 12 weeks. Most remarkably, WBV14 led to a significant improvement of bladder function at 6-12 weeks after injury. These findings provide the first evidence for functional benefits of WBV in an animal SCI model and warrant further preclinical investigations to determine mechanisms underpinning this noninvasive, inexpensive, and easily delivered potential rehabilitation therapy for SCI.

  18. Whole Body Vibration Exposures and Health Status among Professional Truck Drivers: A Cross-sectional Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Ho; Zigman, Monica; Aulck, Lovenoor S; Ibbotson, Jennifer A; Dennerlein, Jack T; Johnson, Peter W

    2016-10-01

    Many professional truck drivers suffer from low back pain (LBP) which is thought to be associated with exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV). The objectives of this study were to: (i) characterize general health, regional body pain and WBV exposures, (ii) evaluate the associations between different WBV parameters and health outcomes, and (iii) determine whether there were factors which affect a truck driver's WBV exposures. This study analyzed WBV exposures from 96 long-haul truck drivers over their regular work shift (6-15h) per International Standards Organization (ISO) 2631-1 and 2631-5 WBV standards. This study also evaluated regional body pain (10-point scale), low back disability (the Oswestry Disability Index), and physical and mental health (the Short Form 12-item Health Survey). The results demonstrated that the daily vector sum WBV exposures [A(8), VDV(8) and Sed(8)] were above action limits while the predominant z-axis exposures were below action limits. Among all the musculoskeletal outcomes, LBP was the most prevalent (72.5%) with average LBP score of 2.9 (SD: 2.0). The SF-12 health scores demonstrated that truck drivers in general had lower physical health status than the general US population (P's < 0.04) and that physical health status decreased as WBV exposures increased (P = 0.03). In addition, the correlations between the WBV measures and health outcomes indicated that A(8) exposure measures had a stronger link to musculoskeletal (LBP) and other health outcomes than the VDV(8) and Sed(8) measures. Finally, seat manufacturer and seat age were two factors which had a strong influence on WBV exposures.

  19. EFFECTS OF WHOLE BODY VIBRATION ON STRENGTH AND JUMPING PERFORMANCE IN VOLLEYBALL AND BEACH VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Zmijewski, P.; Jimenez-Olmedo, J.M.; Jové-Tossi, M.A.; Martínez-Carbonell, A.; Suárez-Llorca, C.; Andreu-Cabrera, E.

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of 6-week strength training with whole body vibration (WBV) on leg strength and jumping performance in volleyball and beach volleyball players. Twenty-three sub-elite male volleyball (VB; n=12) and beach volleyball players (BVB; n=11) aged 21.2±3.0 years were divided into two groups and subjected to 6 weeks of strength training (three one-hour sessions per week): (I) 12 players (6 VB and 6 BVB players) underwent training with WBV (30-40 Hz, 1.7-2.5 mm, 3.0-5.7 g), and (II) 11 players (6 VB and 5 BVB players) underwent traditional strength training. Squat jump (SJ) and countermovement squat jump (CMJ) measurements by the Ergo Tester contact platform and maximum leg press test (1RM) were conducted. Three-factor (2 time x 2 WBV use x 2 discipline) analysis of variance for SJ, CMJ and 1RM revealed a significant time main effect (p<0.001), a WBV use effect (p<0.001) and a discipline effect (p<0.001). Significantly greater improvements in the SJ (p<0.001) and CMJ (p<0.001) and in 1RM (p<0.001) were found in the WBV training groups than in traditional training groups. Significant 3-way interaction effects (training, WBV use, discipline kind) were also found for SJ, CMJ and 1RM (p=0.001, p<0.001, p=0.001, respectively). It can be concluded that implementation of 6-week WBV training in routine practice in volleyball and beach volleyball players increases leg strength more and leads to greater improvement in jump performance than traditional strength training, but greater improvements can be expected in beach volleyball players than in volleyball players. PMID:25187676

  20. Effects of whole body vibration training on balance in adolescents with and without Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Villarroya, M Adoración; González-Agüero, Alejandro; Moros, Teresa; Gómez-Trullén, Eva; Casajús, José A

    2013-10-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether a whole body vibration training program (WBV) is able to improve static standing balance in adolescents with and without Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescents with DS aged 11-20 years (DSG) and 27 adolescent, age/sex matched, without DS (CG) joined the study. Participants of each group were divided into two comparable groups, those who performed WVB (in DSG: VDSG; in CG: VCG) and those who did not perform WVB (in DSG: nVDSG; in CG: nVCG). Static-standing-balance under four conditions (C1: open-eyes/fixed-foot-support; C2: closed-eyes/fixed-foot-support; C3: open-eyes/compliant-foot-support; C4: closed-eyes/compliant-foot-support) was examine, before and after a 20-week WBV training program. For balance study, Postural-Parameters (PPs), based on center of pressure (COP) oscillations (anterior/posterior and medial/lateral COP excursion and COP mean velocity), and PPs ratios among the four conditions were calculated. After WBV training, no significant differences were found in any parameter in the VCG and nVCG and neither in the nVDSG, but there was a decrease of mean values in the analyzed PPs under C4, with significant differences in medial/lateral COP excursion and COP mean velocity, and a significant decrease in the ratio C4/C1 of the mean velocity in VDSG. Therefore, WBV training had positive effects in the balance of DS adolescents although only under specific conditions, with vision and somatosensory input altered. The positive results of this study are encouraging and open a wide field of research, looking for the most efficient program for this population.

  1. Long-term whole-body vibration training in two late-onset Pompe disease patients.

    PubMed

    Montagnese, Federica; Thiele, Simone; Wenninger, Stephan; Schoser, Benedikt

    2016-08-01

    The treatment of late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) relies on enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and physiotherapy but the most appropriate exercise program is not yet established. Whole-body vibration training (WBVT) has showed promising results, improving motor performances in various populations. Our aim is to assess the effects of WBVT performed by two LOPD patients in addition to ERT and physiotherapy. A side-alternating WBVT lasting 2 years; clinical assessments included: manual muscle testing (MRC sumscore), knee extension and arm flection isometric strength (multi-muscle tester M3diagnos), timed function tests (10 m walking, standing-up from chair, ascending 4-steps), 6 min walking (6 MWT), motor disability (Walton Gardner-Medwin scale), pulmonary function. Follow-up evaluations performed for 9 years since ERT start (pre-WBVT and post-WBVT) are reported for comparison. MRC sumscore improved in both patients (Pt.1:41 → 48, Pt.2:42 → 47) as isometric strength of knee extension (Pt.1: + 62 %, Pt.2: + 26 %) and arm flection (Pt.1: + 88 %, Pt.2: + 66 %), 6 MWT improved in Pt.1 (+75 m). Timed function tests did not greatly change. Patients reported no significant CK elevation or WBVT-related complaints. WBVT may be safely used in LOPD and seems to moderately boost muscle strength in patients receiving ERT and physiotherapy for more than 3 years. Larger cohorts should be studied to better assess WBVT potential as adjunctive exercise tool in LOPD. PMID:27193587

  2. Acute Cardiovascular Response during Resistance Exercise with Whole-body Vibration in Sedentary Subjects: A Randomized Cross-over Trial.

    PubMed

    Dias, Thaisa; Polito, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the acute cardiovascular responses during and after resistance exercise with and without whole-body vibration. Nineteen sedentary adults randomly performed one session of isometric squats without vibration and the same exercise with vibration. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) were measured. SBP, DBP and HR were also measured for 20 min after the sessions. The exercise with vibration demonstrated significant values ​​(P < 0.05) for SBP (second to sixth sets), DBP (third to sixth sets) and SVR (second to sixth sets) compared with the exercise without vibration. After the sessions, the values ​​of SBP for both exercises were significantly lower than the respective resting values; with no difference between the sessions. In conclusion, exercise with vibration caused increases in SBP, DBP and SVR compared with exercise with no vibration in sedentary adults.

  3. Human cutaneous sensors on the sole of the foot: altered sensitivity and recovery time after whole body vibration.

    PubMed

    Sonza, Anelise; Maurer, Christian; Achaval, Matilde; Zaro, Milton A; Nigg, Benno M

    2013-01-15

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) on human tactile sensitivity, both the immediate effects and the recovery time in the case of altered sensitivity. Twenty adults (25.3±2.6 years, 10 males) participated in a 10-min WBV session, at a frequency of 42 Hz with 2 mm amplitude in a spiral mode. Sensitivity was measured before and four times after WBV exposure. Pressure sensation was determined using Von Frey monofilaments. Vibration perception thresholds for 30 and 200 Hz were measured using a custom built neurothesiometer. The sensation was measured in 5 anatomical regions of the right foot. Sensitivity of measured cutaneous perception was significantly reduced. Fast-adapting mechanoreceptors for 200 Hz and 30 Hz showed 5.2 and 3.8 times lower sensation values immediately after WBV, respectively. Pressure sensation was 2 times lower in comparison to the baseline condition. In general, tactile sensitivity recovery time was between 2 and 3 h. WBV influences the discharge of fast-adapting skin mechanoreceptors. By determining the recovery time, it might be possible to estimate how long the effects of WBV on tactile sensitivity last. PMID:23201635

  4. Additive effect of repeated bouts of individualized frequency whole body vibration on postural stability in young adults.

    PubMed

    Dickin, D Clark; Heath, Jacqueline E

    2014-08-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) has been shown to improve force and power output as well as flexibility and speed, with improvements suggested to result from reduced electromechanical delays, improved rate of force development, and sensitivity of muscle spindles. Fixed frequency studies on postural control have been somewhat equivocal; however, individualized frequency protocols have shown promising results in other motor tasks. To assess this, 18 healthy young adults experienced three 4-minute WBV sessions with postural control assessed before vibration, after multiple exposures, and during recovery, with altered levels of sensory information available to the participants. Sway velocity, sway path length, and sway area were assessed in each environment. Study findings revealed that stability was impacted following WBV, with more challenging environments eliciting improvements persisting for 20 minutes. When the environment was less challenging, postural stability was impaired; however, the effects dissipated quickly (10-20 min). It was determined that exposure to individualized frequency WBV served to impair postural control when the challenge was low, but resulted in heightened stability when the overall challenge was high and vestibular information was needed for stability.

  5. Professional Soccer Player Neuromuscular Responses and Perceptions to Acute Whole Body Vibration Differ from Amateur Counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Cloak, Ross; Lane, Andrew; Wyon, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Acute whole body vibration (WBV) is an increasingly popular training technique amongst athletes immediately prior to performance and during scheduled breaks in play. Despite its growing popularity, evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness on acute neuromuscular responses is unclear, and suggestions that athlete ability impacts effectiveness warrant further investigation. The purpose of this study was to compare the neuromuscular effects of acute WBV and perceptions of whether WBV is an effective intervention between amateur and professional soccer players. Participants were 44 male soccer players (22 professional and 22 amateur; age: 23.1 ± 3.7 years, body mass: 75.6 ± 8.8 kg and height: 1.77 ± 0.05 m). Participants in each group were randomly assigned to either an intervention of 3 x 60 s of WBV at 40 Hz (8mm peak-to-peak displacement) or control group. Peak knee isometric force, muscle activation and post activation potentiation (PAP) of the knee extensors along with self-report questionnaire of the perceived benefits of using the intervention were collected. A three-way ANOVA with repeated measures revealed professional players demonstrated a significant 10.6% increase (p < 0.01, Partial Eta2 = 0.22) in peak knee isometric force following acute WBV with no significant differences among amateur players. A significant difference (p < 0.01, Partial Eta2 = 0.16) in PAP amongst professional players following acute WBVT was also reported. No significant differences amongst amateur players were reported across measurements. Results also indicated professional players reported significantly stronger positive beliefs in the effectiveness of the WBV intervention (p < 0.01, Partial Eta2 = 0.27) compared to amateur players. Acute WBV elicited a positive neuromuscular response amongst professional players identified by PAP and improvements in knee isometric peak force as well as perceived benefits of the intervention, benefits not found among amateur players. Key points

  6. Whole-Body Vibration and Rehabilitation of Chronic Diseases: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chanou, Konstantina; Gerodimos, Vassilis; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Jamurtas, Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to review the current literature and findings on the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) as a training method on performance and its ability to aid in the rehabilitation of chronic diseases (neurological, musculoskeletal or metabolic conditions). Six electronic databases were searched. The combination of the search terminology used included WBV and several neurological, musculoskeletal and metabolic conditions. Twenty six papers were found to be relevant for this review and were included for critical evaluation with regards to sample characteristics, research intervention and methodology. Most studies were conducted on patients diagnosed with neurological conditions (n = 15) while less were performed on patients suffering from musculoskeletal (n = 7) or metabolic (n = 4) disorders. Comparisons were difficult to draw on because of the different pathologies and the differences in the methodology of each study. Some of the observed methodological flaws included limitations in relation to insufficient randomisation, lack of sample homogeneity (size, age variability) and poor blinding in most studies. No consensus could be reached as to whether WBV is more effective than other interventions or no intervention at all, while the additional effects that WBV may have in relation to other interventions could not be assumed. Nevertheless, chronic WBV training seems to only improve strength in neurological patients while balance and mobility improves only in patients suffering from musculoskeletal or metabolic but not from neurological conditions. Although WBV did not prove to be more effective compared to other training methods, it can be used, in some cases, as a less fatiguing and less time-consuming method to enhance physical capabilities. Future research should focus on the effectiveness of WBV in relation to no treatment at all, and to age. Key pointsChronic WBV training seems to only improve strength in neurological patients while

  7. Contribution of individual components of a job cycle on overall severity of whole-body vibration exposure: a study in Indian mines.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Bibhuti B; Mansfield, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    Drivers of earth-moving machines are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV). In mining operations there can be a combination of relatively high magnitudes of vibration and long exposure times. Effective risk mitigation requires understanding of the main aspects of a task that pose a hazard to health. There are very few published studies of WBV exposure from India. This paper reports on a study that considered the contribution of the component phases of dumper operations, on the overall vibration exposure of the drivers. It shows that vibration magnitudes are relatively high, and that haulage tasks are the main contributor to the exposure. It is recommended that driver speed, haul road surfaces and vehicle maintenance/selection are optimized to ensure minimization of vibration. If this is not sufficient, operation times might need to be reduced in order to ensure that the health guidance caution zone from Standard No. ISO 2631-1:1997 is not exceeded.

  8. Acute effects of unilateral whole body vibration training on single leg vertical jump height and symmetry in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seungho; Lee, Kyeongjin; Song, Changho

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of unilateral whole body vibration training on height and symmetry of the single leg vertical jump in healthy men. [Subjects] Thirty males with no history of lower limb dysfunction participated in this study. [Methods] The participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups: the unilateral vibratory stimulation group (n=10), bilateral vibratory stimulation group (n=10), and, no vibratory stimulation group (n=10). The subjects in the unilateral and bilateral stimulation groups participated in one session of whole body vibration training at 26 Hz for 3 min. The no vibratory stimulation group subjects underwent the same training for 3 min without whole body vibration. All participants performed the single leg vertical jump for each lower limb, to account for the strong and weak sides. The single leg vertical jump height and symmetry were measured before and after the intervention. [Results] The single leg vertical jump height of the weak lower limb significantly improved in the unilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. The single leg vertical jump height of the strong lower limb significantly improved in the bilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. The single leg vertical jump symmetry significantly improved in the unilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. [Conclusion] Therefore, the present study found that the effects of whole body vibration training were different depending on the type of application. To improve the single leg vertical jump height in the weak lower limbs as well as limb symmetry, unilateral vibratory stimulation might be more desirable.

  9. [Incontinence after radical prostatectomy and cystectomy: are combined training with mechanical devices and whole body vibration effective?].

    PubMed

    Zellner, M

    2011-04-01

    In spite of improvements in nerve-sparing operation techniques in radical prostatectomies, a disturbance of (early) continence is subjectively perceived by a number of patients as burdensome, which can last for several months. Skilled physiotherapy is appreciated as causal therapy in the hands of the qualified therapist. In an open randomised controlled trial the efficacy of a standardised rehabilitation therapy with pelvic floor re-education instructed by a physiotherapist (n=25) as the control group in comparison to a group with additional combined electrostimulation and biofeedback device (Myo 420™; n=25) or whole body vibration therapy (FitVibe medical™; n=25). Pre- and post-therapeutic evaluation of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the enclosed question about quality of life (IPSS-QL), pad test, pelvic floor strength, maximum uroflow, micturition volume, serum testosterone and blood glucose was done. Within the treatment duration of 3-4 weeks in all treatment groups a statistically significant improvement of IPSS and IPSS-QL was seen. Due to whole body vibration the reduction of urine loss (pad test), increase of voided volume and maximum uroflow were statistically significant. Whereas for isolated physiotherapy during the short therapy duration merely a trend for the improvement of pelvic floor muscle strength was seen, the difference was significant in the Myo 420 and the whole body vibration groups, respectively. It was shown that a continuous improvement in continence depends on the consistent continuation of the training also under domestic conditions. The controlled trial conditions also confirm the efficacy, acceptance and tolerance of a standardised pelvic floor re-education under the conditions of urological inpatient rehabilitation treatment. By additional use of a combined electro- and multichannel biofeedback device or a whole body vibration device, the treatment results could be further improved. Due to the different causal

  10. [Incontinence after radical prostatectomy and cystectomy: are combined training with mechanical devices and whole body vibration effective?].

    PubMed

    Zellner, M

    2011-04-01

    In spite of improvements in nerve-sparing operation techniques in radical prostatectomies, a disturbance of (early) continence is subjectively perceived by a number of patients as burdensome, which can last for several months. Skilled physiotherapy is appreciated as causal therapy in the hands of the qualified therapist. In an open randomised controlled trial the efficacy of a standardised rehabilitation therapy with pelvic floor re-education instructed by a physiotherapist (n=25) as the control group in comparison to a group with additional combined electrostimulation and biofeedback device (Myo 420™; n=25) or whole body vibration therapy (FitVibe medical™; n=25). Pre- and post-therapeutic evaluation of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the enclosed question about quality of life (IPSS-QL), pad test, pelvic floor strength, maximum uroflow, micturition volume, serum testosterone and blood glucose was done. Within the treatment duration of 3-4 weeks in all treatment groups a statistically significant improvement of IPSS and IPSS-QL was seen. Due to whole body vibration the reduction of urine loss (pad test), increase of voided volume and maximum uroflow were statistically significant. Whereas for isolated physiotherapy during the short therapy duration merely a trend for the improvement of pelvic floor muscle strength was seen, the difference was significant in the Myo 420 and the whole body vibration groups, respectively. It was shown that a continuous improvement in continence depends on the consistent continuation of the training also under domestic conditions. The controlled trial conditions also confirm the efficacy, acceptance and tolerance of a standardised pelvic floor re-education under the conditions of urological inpatient rehabilitation treatment. By additional use of a combined electro- and multichannel biofeedback device or a whole body vibration device, the treatment results could be further improved. Due to the different causal

  11. Acute effects of unilateral whole body vibration training on single leg vertical jump height and symmetry in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seungho; Lee, Kyeongjin; Song, Changho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of unilateral whole body vibration training on height and symmetry of the single leg vertical jump in healthy men. [Subjects] Thirty males with no history of lower limb dysfunction participated in this study. [Methods] The participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups: the unilateral vibratory stimulation group (n=10), bilateral vibratory stimulation group (n=10), and, no vibratory stimulation group (n=10). The subjects in the unilateral and bilateral stimulation groups participated in one session of whole body vibration training at 26 Hz for 3 min. The no vibratory stimulation group subjects underwent the same training for 3 min without whole body vibration. All participants performed the single leg vertical jump for each lower limb, to account for the strong and weak sides. The single leg vertical jump height and symmetry were measured before and after the intervention. [Results] The single leg vertical jump height of the weak lower limb significantly improved in the unilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. The single leg vertical jump height of the strong lower limb significantly improved in the bilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. The single leg vertical jump symmetry significantly improved in the unilateral vibratory stimulation group, but not in the other groups. [Conclusion] Therefore, the present study found that the effects of whole body vibration training were different depending on the type of application. To improve the single leg vertical jump height in the weak lower limbs as well as limb symmetry, unilateral vibratory stimulation might be more desirable. PMID:26834381

  12. Wearable Ballistocardiography: Preliminary Methods for Mapping Surface Vibration Measurements to Whole Body Forces

    PubMed Central

    Wiens, Andrew; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Klein, Liviu; Roy, Shuvo; Inan, Omer T.

    2015-01-01

    The recent resurgence of ballistocardiogram (BCG) measurement and interpretation technologies has led to a wide range of powerful tools available for unobtrusively assessing mechanical aspects of cardiovascular health at home. Researchers have demonstrated a multitude of modern BCG measurement modalities, including beds, chairs, weighing scales, and wearable approaches. However, many modalities produce significant variations in the morphology of the measured BCG, creating confusion in the analysis and interpretation of the signals. This paper creates a framework for comparing wearable BCG measurements to whole body measurements—such as taken with a weighing scale system—to eventually allow the same analysis and interpretation tools that have been developed for whole body systems to be applied in the future to wearable systems. To the best of our knowledge, it represents the first attempt to morphologically compare vertical acceleration recordings measured on different locations on the torso to whole body displacements measured by BCG instrumentation. PMID:25571158

  13. Wearable ballistocardiography: preliminary methods for mapping surface vibration measurements to whole body forces.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Andrew; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Klein, Liviu; Roy, Shuvo; Inan, Omer T

    2014-01-01

    The recent resurgence of ballistocardiogram (BCG) measurement and interpretation technologies has led to a wide range of powerful tools available for unobtrusively assessing mechanical aspects of cardiovascular health at home. Researchers have demonstrated a multitude of modern BCG measurement modalities, including beds, chairs, weighing scales, and wearable approaches. However, many modalities produce significant variations in the morphology of the measured BCG, creating confusion in the analysis and interpretation of the signals. This paper creates a framework for comparing wearable BCG measurements to whole body measurements--such as taken with a weighing scale system--to eventually allow the same analysis and interpretation tools that have been developed for whole body systems to be applied in the future to wearable systems. To the best of our knowledge, it represents the first attempt to morphologically compare vertical acceleration recordings measured on different locations on the torso to whole body displacements measured by BCG instrumentation. PMID:25571158

  14. Combined whole-body vibration training and l-citrulline supplementation improves pressure wave reflection in obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alexei; Alvarez-Alvarado, Stacey; Jaime, Salvador J; Kinsey, Amber W; Spicer, Maria T; Madzima, Takudzwa A; Figueroa, Arturo

    2016-03-01

    Postmenopausal women have increased wave reflection (augmentation pressure (AP) and index (AIx)) and reduced muscle function that predispose them to cardiac diseases and disability. Our aim was to examine the combined and independent effects of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) and l-citrulline supplementation on aortic hemodynamics and plasma nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) in postmenopausal women. Forty-one obese postmenopausal women were randomized to 3 groups: l-citrulline, WBVT+l-citrulline and WBVT+Placebo for 8 weeks. Brachial and aortic systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, AP, AIx, AIx adjusted to 75 beats/min (AIx@75), and NOx were measured before and after 8 weeks. All groups similarly decreased (P < 0.05) brachial and aortic pressures as well as AP, and similarly increased (P < 0.05) NOx levels. AIx and AIx@75 decreased (P < 0.01) in the WBVT+l-citrulline and WBVT+Placebo groups, but not in the l-citrulline group. The improvement in AIx@75 (-10.5% ± 8.8%, P < 0.05) in the WBVT+l-citrulline group was significant compared with the l-citrulline group. l-Citrulline supplementation and WBVT alone and combined decreased blood pressures. The combined intervention reduced AIx@75. This study supports the effectiveness of WBVT+l-citrulline as a potential intervention for prevention of hypertension-related cardiac diseases in obese postmenopausal women. PMID:26863234

  15. Whole body massage for reducing anxiety and stabilizing vital signs of patients in cardiac care unit

    PubMed Central

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Abasi, Ali; Rajabi-Beheshtabad, Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients admitted in coronary care units face various stressors. Ambiguity of future life conditions and unawareness of caring methods intensifies the patients’ anxiety and stress. This study was conducted to assess the effects of whole body massage on anxiety and vital signs of patients with acute coronary disorders. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 120 patients. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups. The intervention group received a session of whole body massage and the control group received routine care. The levels of State, Trait and overall anxiety and vital signs were assessed in both groups before and after intervention. Independent sample t-test, paired t-test, Chi-square and Fischer exact tests were used for data analysis. Results: The baseline overall mean score of anxiety was 79.43±29.34 in the intervention group and was decreased to 50.38±20.35 after massage therapy (p=0.001). However, no significant changes were occurred in the overall mean anxiety in the control group during the study. The baseline diastolic blood pressure was 77.05±8.12 mmHg and was decreased to 72.18±9.19 mmHg after the intervention (p=0.004). Also, significant decreases were occurred in heart rate and respiration rate of intervention group after massage therapy (p=0.001). However, no significant changes were occurred in vital signs of the control group during the study. Conclusion: The results suggest that whole body massage was effective in reducing anxiety and stabilizing vital signs of patients with acute coronary disorders. PMID:25405113

  16. Acute Effects of Whole-Body Vibration on Trunk and Neck Muscle Activity in Consideration of Different Vibration Loads

    PubMed Central

    Perchthaler, Dennis; Hauser, Simon; Heitkamp, Hans-Christian; Hein, Tobias; Grau, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this study was to systematically analyze the impact of biomechanical parameters in terms of different peak-to-peak displacements and knee angles on trunk and neck muscle activity during whole-body vibration (WBV). 28 healthy men and women (age 23 ± 3 years) performed four static squat positions (2 peak-to-peak displacements x 2 knee angles) on a side alternating vibration platform with and without vibration stimulus. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to record the neuromuscular activity of the erector spinae muscle, the rectus abdominis muscle, and of the splenius muscle. EMG levels normalized to maximal voluntary contractions ranged between 3.2 – 27.2 % MVC during WBV. The increase in muscle activity caused by WBV was significant, particularly for the back muscles, which was up to 19.0 % MVC. The impact of the factor ‘condition’ (F-values ranged from 13.4 to 132.0, p ≤ 0.001) and of the factor ‘peak-to-peak displacement’ (F-values ranged from 6.4 to 69.0 and p-values from < 0.001 to 0.01) were statistically significant for each muscle tested. However, the factor ‘knee angle’ only affected the back muscles (F-value 10.3 and 7.3, p ≤ 0.01). The results of this study should give more information for developing effective and safe training protocols for WBV treatment of the upper body. Key points The maximum levels of muscle activity were significantly reached at high amplitudes at a vibration frequency of 30 Hz. WBV leads to a higher muscle activation of the lower back muscles than of the abdominal muscles. Both knee angles of 30° and 45° have similar effects on the vibration load and represent safe positions to prevent any actual harm. Certain combinations of the biomechanical variables have similar effects on the level of muscle activity. PMID:25729303

  17. Does short-term whole-body vibration training affect arterial stiffness in chronic stroke? A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Yule, Christie E; Stoner, Lee; Hodges, Lynette D; Cochrane, Darryl J

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] Previous studies have shown that stroke is associated with increased arterial stiffness that can be diminished by a program of physical activity. A novel exercise intervention, whole-body vibration (WBV), is reported to significantly improve arterial stiffness in healthy men and older sedentary adults. However, little is known about its efficacy in reducing arterial stiffness in chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Six participants with chronic stroke were randomly assigned to 4 weeks of WBV training or control followed by cross-over after a 2-week washout period. WBV intervention consisted of 3 sessions of 5 min intermittent WBV per week for 4 weeks. Arterial stiffness (carotid arterial stiffness, pulse wave velocity [PWV], pulse and wave analysis [PWA]) were measured before/after each intervention. [Results] No significant improvements were reported with respect to carotid arterial stiffness, PWV, and PWA between WBV and control. However, carotid arterial stiffness showed a decrease over time following WBV compared to control, but this was not significant. [Conclusion] Three days/week for 4 weeks of WBV seems too short to elicit appropriate changes in arterial stiffness in chronic stroke. However, no adverse effects were reported, indicating that WBV is a safe and acceptable exercise modality for people with chronic stroke.

  18. Does short-term whole-body vibration training affect arterial stiffness in chronic stroke? A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Yule, Christie E.; Stoner, Lee; Hodges, Lynette D.; Cochrane, Darryl J.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Previous studies have shown that stroke is associated with increased arterial stiffness that can be diminished by a program of physical activity. A novel exercise intervention, whole-body vibration (WBV), is reported to significantly improve arterial stiffness in healthy men and older sedentary adults. However, little is known about its efficacy in reducing arterial stiffness in chronic stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Six participants with chronic stroke were randomly assigned to 4 weeks of WBV training or control followed by cross-over after a 2-week washout period. WBV intervention consisted of 3 sessions of 5 min intermittent WBV per week for 4 weeks. Arterial stiffness (carotid arterial stiffness, pulse wave velocity [PWV], pulse and wave analysis [PWA]) were measured before/after each intervention. [Results] No significant improvements were reported with respect to carotid arterial stiffness, PWV, and PWA between WBV and control. However, carotid arterial stiffness showed a decrease over time following WBV compared to control, but this was not significant. [Conclusion] Three days/week for 4 weeks of WBV seems too short to elicit appropriate changes in arterial stiffness in chronic stroke. However, no adverse effects were reported, indicating that WBV is a safe and acceptable exercise modality for people with chronic stroke. PMID:27134400

  19. Whole-body vibration increases upper and lower body muscle activity in older adults: potential use of vibration accessories.

    PubMed

    Marín, Pedro J; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Santin-Medeiros, Fernanda; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Casajús, Jose A; Hazell, Tom J; Garatachea, Nuria

    2012-06-01

    The current study examined the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on upper and lower body muscle activity during static muscle contractions (squat and bicep curls). The use of WBV accessories such as hand straps attached to the platform and a soft surface mat were also evaluated. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was measured for the medial gastrocnemius (MG), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps brachii (BB) muscles in fourteen healthy older adults (74.8±4.5 years; mean±SD) with a WBV stimulus at an acceleration of 40 m s(-2) (30 Hz High, 2.5 mm or 46 Hz Low, 1.1 mm). WBV increased lower body (VL and MG) sEMG vs baseline (no WBV) though this was decreased with the use of the soft mat. The addition of the bicep curl with hand straps had no effect on lower body sEMG. WBV also increased BB sEMG vs baseline which was further increased when using the hand straps. There was no upper body effect of the soft mat. This study demonstrates WBV increases both lower and upper body muscle activity in healthy older adults. Moreover, WBV accessories such as hand straps attached to the platform or a soft surface mat may be used to alter exercise intensity.

  20. Whole-body vibration induces pain and lumbar spinal inflammation responses in the rat that vary with the vibration profile.

    PubMed

    Zeeman, Martha E; Kartha, Sonia; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2016-08-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is linked epidemiologically to neck and back pain in humans, and to forepaw mechanical allodynia and cervical neuroinflammation in a rodent model of WBV, but the response of the low back and lumbar spine to WBV is unknown. A rat model of WBV was used to determine the effect of different WBV exposures on hind paw behavioral sensitivity and neuroinflammation in the lumbar spinal cord. Rats were exposed to 30 min of WBV at either 8 or 15 Hz on days 0 and 7, with the lumbar spinal cord assayed using immunohistochemistry at day 14. Behavioral sensitivity was measured using mechanical stimulation of the hind paws to determine the onset, persistence, and/or recovery of allodynia. Both WBV exposures induce mechanical allodynia 1 day following WBV, but only the 8 Hz WBV induces a sustained decrease in the withdrawal threshold through day 14. Similarly, increased activation of microglia, macrophages, and astrocytes in the superficial dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord is only evident after the painful 8 Hz WBV. Moreover, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-phosphorylation is most robust in neurons and astrocytes of the dorsal horn, with the most ERK phosphorylation occurring in the 8 Hz group. These findings indicate that a WBV exposure that induces persistent pain also induces a host of neuroimmune cellular activation responses that are also sustained. This work indicates there is an injury-dependent response that is based on the vibration parameters, providing a potentially useful platform for studying mechanisms of painful spinal injuries. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1439-1446, 2016.

  1. Whole-body vibration induces pain and lumbar spinal inflammation responses in the rat that vary with the vibration profile.

    PubMed

    Zeeman, Martha E; Kartha, Sonia; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2016-08-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is linked epidemiologically to neck and back pain in humans, and to forepaw mechanical allodynia and cervical neuroinflammation in a rodent model of WBV, but the response of the low back and lumbar spine to WBV is unknown. A rat model of WBV was used to determine the effect of different WBV exposures on hind paw behavioral sensitivity and neuroinflammation in the lumbar spinal cord. Rats were exposed to 30 min of WBV at either 8 or 15 Hz on days 0 and 7, with the lumbar spinal cord assayed using immunohistochemistry at day 14. Behavioral sensitivity was measured using mechanical stimulation of the hind paws to determine the onset, persistence, and/or recovery of allodynia. Both WBV exposures induce mechanical allodynia 1 day following WBV, but only the 8 Hz WBV induces a sustained decrease in the withdrawal threshold through day 14. Similarly, increased activation of microglia, macrophages, and astrocytes in the superficial dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord is only evident after the painful 8 Hz WBV. Moreover, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-phosphorylation is most robust in neurons and astrocytes of the dorsal horn, with the most ERK phosphorylation occurring in the 8 Hz group. These findings indicate that a WBV exposure that induces persistent pain also induces a host of neuroimmune cellular activation responses that are also sustained. This work indicates there is an injury-dependent response that is based on the vibration parameters, providing a potentially useful platform for studying mechanisms of painful spinal injuries. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1439-1446, 2016. PMID:27571442

  2. Response of the seated human body to whole-body vertical vibration: biodynamic responses to sinusoidal and random vibration.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen; Griffin, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The dependence of biodynamic responses of the seated human body on the frequency, magnitude and waveform of vertical vibration has been studied in 20 males and 20 females. With sinusoidal vibration (13 frequencies from 1 to 16 Hz) at five magnitudes (0.1-1.6 ms(-2) r.m.s.) and with random vibration (1-16 Hz) at the same magnitudes, the apparent mass of the body was similar with random and sinusoidal vibration of the same overall magnitude. With increasing magnitude of vibration, the stiffness and damping of a model fitted to the apparent mass reduced and the resonance frequency decreased (from 6.5 to 4.5 Hz). Male and female subjects had similar apparent mass (after adjusting for subject weight) and a similar principal resonance frequency with both random and sinusoidal vibration. The change in biodynamic response with increasing vibration magnitude depends on the frequency of the vibration excitation, but is similar with sinusoidal and random excitation.

  3. a Decade of Improvement in Whole-Body Vibration and Low Back Pain for Freight Container Tractor Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, K.; Taoda, K.; Kitahara, T.

    1998-08-01

    The authors' study in 1983 revealed that the whole-body vibration of the tractor units of freight containers was most hazardous in the back-to-chest directions (x-axis). The allowable exposure time was considerably shorter than that for heavy duty trucks. The low back pain (LBP) among the drivers seemed to be due to the long working hours and the ergonomically unsound tractor design, as well as the vibration. A preventative measure was the introduction of a tractor cab suspended by an air spring instead of a steel spring. In 1992, a follow-up field study was conducted. A personal vibration exposure meter developed by us measured the whole-body vibration on eight tractors. Eighty-nine triplets matched with the age and the years of driving tractors answered a questionnaire evaluation of the ergonomics of their tractor units.The comparison of the newest steel suspension vehicles to the old ones produced by the same motor company revealed that in thex-axis the vibration level had decreased by as much as 4 to 9 dB. Some tractors showed an increase in vibration in the buttocks-to-head direction (z-axis). However, such adverse changes seemed not to affect evaluations according to the fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary (FDP) and the exposure limit (EL) recommended in ISO 2631-1978. The present models, regardless of the type of suspension, changed the direction of the most hazardous vibration from thex-axis to thez-axis. However, the effect of the air-suspension was not so remarkable as expected. Among 40% of drivers seemed to exceed the FDP boundary during a day.The questionnaire study showed an improvement in the ergonomic evaluation of the tractors. The air suspension models seemed to induce less LBP than the steel suspension models.

  4. Effects of Short-Period Whole-Body Vibration of 20 Hz on Selected Blood Biomarkers in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Milena de Oliveira Bravo; de Sá-Caputo, Danúbia da Cunha; Carmo, Fernanda Santos do; Bernardo, Raquel Mattos; Pacheco, Raphaelle; Arnóbio, Adriano; Guimarães, Carlos Alberto Sampaio; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Santos-Filho, Sebastião David; Asad, Nasser Ribeiro; Unger, Marianne; Marin, Pedro Jesus; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2015-08-31

    There is a growing interest in the use of vibration generated by oscillating/vibratory platforms - also known as whole-body vibration (WBV) - for achieving therapeutic, preventative and/or physical performance goals. This study investigated the effects of vibration generated by an oscillating platform on the concentration of blood biomarkers in rats. Wistar rats (n = 8) were divided in 2 groups, sedated and individually positioned on an oscillating platform. The experimental group (EG) was subjected to vibrations of 20 Hz for one min per day for one week while the control group (CG) experienced no vibration. Samples of heparinized whole blood were drawn by cardiac puncture for biochemical analysis. Concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, VLDL, glucose, CK, albumin, alkaline phosphates, TGP, TGO, γGT, lipase, amylase, urea and creatinine were determined. White blood cell count and a platelet hemogram were also performed. Following seven sessions of exposure to the vibration, a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in γGT, VLDL and leukocytes was found. A weekly 1-min/day exposure of 20 Hz vibration can was shown to alter the concentrations of selected blood biomarkers in rats. The action mechanism associated with these effects seems highly complex, but the findings might contribute to the understanding of these mechanisms related to the exposure to 20 Hz vibration. PMID:26211644

  5. Effects of Short-Period Whole-Body Vibration of 20 Hz on Selected Blood Biomarkers in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Milena de Oliveira Bravo; de Sá-Caputo, Danúbia da Cunha; Carmo, Fernanda Santos do; Bernardo, Raquel Mattos; Pacheco, Raphaelle; Arnóbio, Adriano; Guimarães, Carlos Alberto Sampaio; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Santos-Filho, Sebastião David; Asad, Nasser Ribeiro; Unger, Marianne; Marin, Pedro Jesus; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2015-08-31

    There is a growing interest in the use of vibration generated by oscillating/vibratory platforms - also known as whole-body vibration (WBV) - for achieving therapeutic, preventative and/or physical performance goals. This study investigated the effects of vibration generated by an oscillating platform on the concentration of blood biomarkers in rats. Wistar rats (n = 8) were divided in 2 groups, sedated and individually positioned on an oscillating platform. The experimental group (EG) was subjected to vibrations of 20 Hz for one min per day for one week while the control group (CG) experienced no vibration. Samples of heparinized whole blood were drawn by cardiac puncture for biochemical analysis. Concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, VLDL, glucose, CK, albumin, alkaline phosphates, TGP, TGO, γGT, lipase, amylase, urea and creatinine were determined. White blood cell count and a platelet hemogram were also performed. Following seven sessions of exposure to the vibration, a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in γGT, VLDL and leukocytes was found. A weekly 1-min/day exposure of 20 Hz vibration can was shown to alter the concentrations of selected blood biomarkers in rats. The action mechanism associated with these effects seems highly complex, but the findings might contribute to the understanding of these mechanisms related to the exposure to 20 Hz vibration.

  6. Individual and combined effects of noise-like whole-body vibration and parathyroid hormone treatment on bone defect repair in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Sato, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and exposure to whole-body vibration on osteoporotic fracture healing has been previously investigated, but data on their concurrent use are lacking. Thus, we evaluated the effects of intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone, whole-body vibration, and their combination on bone repair in osteoporotic mice. Noise-like whole-body vibration with a broad frequency range was used instead of conventional sine-wave whole-body vibration at a specific frequency. Mice were ovariectomized at 9 weeks of age and subjected to drill-hole surgery in the right tibial diaphysis at 11 weeks. The animals were divided into four groups (n = 12 each): a control group, and groups treated with intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone, noise-like whole-body vibration, and both. From postoperative day 2, the groups treated with intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and groups treated with both intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and noise-like whole-body vibration were subcutaneously administered parathyroid hormone at a dose of 30 µg/kg/day. The groups treated with noise-like whole-body vibration and groups treated with both intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and noise-like whole-body vibration were exposed to noise-like whole-body vibration at a root mean squared acceleration of 0.3g and frequency components of 45-100 Hz for 20 min/day. Following 18 days of interventions, the right tibiae were harvested, and the regenerated bone was analyzed by micro-computed tomography and nanoindentation testing. Compared with the control group, callus volume fraction was 40% higher in groups treated with intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and 73% higher in groups treated with both intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and noise-like whole-body vibration, and callus thickness was 35% wider in groups treated with both

  7. Individual and combined effects of noise-like whole-body vibration and parathyroid hormone treatment on bone defect repair in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Sato, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and exposure to whole-body vibration on osteoporotic fracture healing has been previously investigated, but data on their concurrent use are lacking. Thus, we evaluated the effects of intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone, whole-body vibration, and their combination on bone repair in osteoporotic mice. Noise-like whole-body vibration with a broad frequency range was used instead of conventional sine-wave whole-body vibration at a specific frequency. Mice were ovariectomized at 9 weeks of age and subjected to drill-hole surgery in the right tibial diaphysis at 11 weeks. The animals were divided into four groups (n = 12 each): a control group, and groups treated with intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone, noise-like whole-body vibration, and both. From postoperative day 2, the groups treated with intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and groups treated with both intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and noise-like whole-body vibration were subcutaneously administered parathyroid hormone at a dose of 30 µg/kg/day. The groups treated with noise-like whole-body vibration and groups treated with both intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and noise-like whole-body vibration were exposed to noise-like whole-body vibration at a root mean squared acceleration of 0.3g and frequency components of 45-100 Hz for 20 min/day. Following 18 days of interventions, the right tibiae were harvested, and the regenerated bone was analyzed by micro-computed tomography and nanoindentation testing. Compared with the control group, callus volume fraction was 40% higher in groups treated with intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and 73% higher in groups treated with both intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone and noise-like whole-body vibration, and callus thickness was 35% wider in groups treated with both

  8. Effectiveness of different postactivation potentiation protocols with and without whole body vibration on jumping performance in college athletes.

    PubMed

    Naclerio, Fernando; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Kang, Jie; Friedman, Paul; Ross, Ryan E

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the acute effects of different parallel squat postactivation potentiation protocols with and without whole body vibration on jumping performance in college athletes. Fifteen men (20.3 ± 1.3 years, 179.50 ± 5.3 cm, 81.0 ± 10.8 kg) performed 3 repetitions of a countermovement jump (CMJ) and best drop jump after 3 conditions: (a) parallel squat with 80% 1 repetition maximum without vibration (NV-PS), (b) parallel squat with 80% 1 repetition maximum on a whole body vibration platform (WBV-PS) (1.963-mm amplitude and 40 Hz), and (c) control (C). Each condition was performed under both low-volume (LV) (1 set of 3 repetitions) and high-volume (HV) (3 sets of 3 repetitions) protocols that were followed by both 1- and 4-minute rest periods. Significant improvements were observed for the CMJ height (p = 0.005) after 4 minutes of recovery and the LV protocol (p = 0.015) regardless of the condition. Additionally, for the WBV-PS condition, a significantly lower drop jump height was observed after 1 minute (p = 0.0022) after both low (p = 0.022) and HV (0.010) protocols. In conclusion, 4 minutes of recovery was adequate for improving CMJ height after an LV protocol regardless of the condition and restoring drop jump height performance after WBV-PS regardless of the protocol in male college athletes. PMID:23591951

  9. Acute effects of whole body vibration on directionality and reaction time latency of trunk muscles: the importance of rest and implications for spine stability.

    PubMed

    Arora, Neha; Grenier, Sylvain G

    2013-04-01

    Workplace exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) has been identified as one of the major physical risk factors encountered by the population. There are indications that, subsequent to a perturbation, impaired reflex response could allow for destabilization of the spine, possibly leading to injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate if WBV alters reflex response of trunk muscles and if the direction of perturbation (flexion or extension or lateral) and delay between exposure and perturbation influences the response. The results indicate that EMG latency was increased more in the vibration condition than in sitting without vibration. Significant effects with respect to directionality were observed in Erector Spinae muscles. The EMG latency reduced from the effect of perturbation after a 20s rest period. Even though the EMG latency did not fully return to its Pre-test state, the present results still show that recovery from the acute effects of WBV is possible with a rest period.

  10. Skeletal site-specific effects of whole body vibration in mature rats: from deleterious to beneficial frequency-dependent effects.

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, Marion; Lavet, Cédric; Elbadaoui, Mohamed; Vanden-Bossche, Arnaud; Laroche, Norbert; Gnyubkin, Vasily; Vico, Laurence

    2013-07-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) is receiving increasing interest as an anti-osteoporotic prevention strategy. In this context, selective effects of different frequency and acceleration magnitude modalities on musculoskeletal responses need to be better defined. Our aim was to investigate the bone effects of different vibration frequencies at constant g level. Vertical WBV was delivered at 0.7 g (peak acceleration) and 8, 52 or 90 Hz sinusoidal vibration to mature male rats 10 min daily for 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Peak accelerations measured by skin or bone-mounted accelerometers at L2 vertebral and tibia crest levels revealed similar values between adjacent skin and bone sites. Local accelerations were greater at 8 Hz compared with 52 and 90 Hz and were greater in vertebra than tibia for all the frequencies tested. At 52 Hz, bone responses were mainly seen in L2 vertebral body and were characterized by trabecular reorganization and stimulated mineral apposition rate (MAR) without any bone volume alteration. At 90 Hz, axial and appendicular skeletons were affected as were the cortical and trabecular compartments. Cortical thickness increased in femur diaphysis (17%) along with decreased porosity; trabecular bone volume increased at distal femur metaphysis (23%) and even more at L2 vertebral body (32%), along with decreased SMI and increased trabecular connectivity. Trabecular thickness increased at the tibia proximal metaphysis. Bone cellular activities indicated a greater bone formation rate, which was more pronounced at vertebra (300%) than at long bone (33%). Active bone resorption surfaces were unaffected. At 8 Hz, however, hyperosteoidosis with reduced MAR along with increased resorption surfaces occurred in the tibia; hyperosteoidosis and trend towards decreased MAR was also seen in L2 vertebra. Trabecular bone mineral density was decreased at femur and tibia. Thus the most favorable regimen is 90 Hz, while deleterious effects were seen at 8 Hz. We concluded that

  11. Skeletal site-specific effects of whole body vibration in mature rats: from deleterious to beneficial frequency-dependent effects.

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, Marion; Lavet, Cédric; Elbadaoui, Mohamed; Vanden-Bossche, Arnaud; Laroche, Norbert; Gnyubkin, Vasily; Vico, Laurence

    2013-07-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) is receiving increasing interest as an anti-osteoporotic prevention strategy. In this context, selective effects of different frequency and acceleration magnitude modalities on musculoskeletal responses need to be better defined. Our aim was to investigate the bone effects of different vibration frequencies at constant g level. Vertical WBV was delivered at 0.7 g (peak acceleration) and 8, 52 or 90 Hz sinusoidal vibration to mature male rats 10 min daily for 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Peak accelerations measured by skin or bone-mounted accelerometers at L2 vertebral and tibia crest levels revealed similar values between adjacent skin and bone sites. Local accelerations were greater at 8 Hz compared with 52 and 90 Hz and were greater in vertebra than tibia for all the frequencies tested. At 52 Hz, bone responses were mainly seen in L2 vertebral body and were characterized by trabecular reorganization and stimulated mineral apposition rate (MAR) without any bone volume alteration. At 90 Hz, axial and appendicular skeletons were affected as were the cortical and trabecular compartments. Cortical thickness increased in femur diaphysis (17%) along with decreased porosity; trabecular bone volume increased at distal femur metaphysis (23%) and even more at L2 vertebral body (32%), along with decreased SMI and increased trabecular connectivity. Trabecular thickness increased at the tibia proximal metaphysis. Bone cellular activities indicated a greater bone formation rate, which was more pronounced at vertebra (300%) than at long bone (33%). Active bone resorption surfaces were unaffected. At 8 Hz, however, hyperosteoidosis with reduced MAR along with increased resorption surfaces occurred in the tibia; hyperosteoidosis and trend towards decreased MAR was also seen in L2 vertebra. Trabecular bone mineral density was decreased at femur and tibia. Thus the most favorable regimen is 90 Hz, while deleterious effects were seen at 8 Hz. We concluded that

  12. Effect of whole-body vibration for 3 months on arterial stiffness in the middle-aged and elderly

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chung-Liang; Chen, Han-Yu; Tseng, Shiuan-Yu; Liao, Wan-Chun; Liu, Bing-Tang; Lee, Meng-Chih; Chen, Hsin-Shui

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a common problem of middle-aged and older adults. Increased arterial stiffness is a CVD risk factor. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a simple and convenient exercise for middle-aged and older adults; however, there have been few studies investigating the effect of WBV on arterial stiffness. This study mainly investigated the effect of WBV on arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults. Methods A total of 38 (21 women and 17 men) middle-aged and elderly subjects (average age, 61.9 years) were randomly divided into the WBV group and the control group for a 3-month trial. The WBV group received an intervention of 30 Hz and 3.2 g WBV in a natural full standing posture at a sports center. The brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a marker of systemic arterial stiffness, and blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after the intervention. Results After 3 months, there were no significant changes in blood pressure or heart rate in both groups. However, the bilateral baPWV was significantly reduced in the WBV group (decreased by 0.65 m/second [P=0.014]; 0.63 m/second [P=0.041] in either side), but not in the control group. The comparison between the two groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion This study found that 3 months of WBV had a positive effect on arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults and could therefore be regarded as a supplementary exercise. Larger-scale studies are needed to confirm the effects of WBV in the future. PMID:24872684

  13. Contributions of ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and the electrooculogram to periocular potentials produced by whole-body vibration

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Steven L.; Paillard, Aurore C.; Griffin, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of an experiment to investigate the emergence of ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (OVEMPs) during the linear vestibular ocular reflex (LVOR) evoked by whole-body vibration (WBV). OVEMP and electrooculogram (EOG) montages were employed to record periocular potentials (POPs) from six subjects during WBV in the nasooccipital (NO) axis over a range of frequencies from 0.5 to 64 Hz with approximately constant peak head acceleration of 1.0 ms−2 (i.e., 0.1 g). Measurements were made in two context conditions: a fixation context to examine the effect of gaze eccentricity (0 vs. 20°), and a visual context, where a target was either head-fixed or earth-fixed. The principal results are that from 0.5 to 2 Hz POP magnitude in the earth-fixed condition is related to head displacement, so with constant acceleration at all frequencies it reduces with increasing frequency, but at frequencies greater than 2 Hz both POP magnitude and POP gain, defined as the ratio of POP magnitude at 20 and 0°, increase with increasing frequency. By exhibiting this high-pass characteristic, a property shared with the LVOR, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that the OVEMP, as commonly employed in the clinical setting, is a high-frequency manifestation of the LVOR. However, we also observed low-frequency acceleration following POPs in head-fixed conditions, consistent with a low-frequency OVEMP, and found evidence of a high-frequency visual context effect, which is also consistent with the OVEMP being a manifestation of the LVOR. PMID:22984251

  14. Microcirculation of skeletal muscle adapts differently to a resistive exercise intervention with and without superimposed whole-body vibrations.

    PubMed

    Beijer, Åsa; Degens, Hans; Weber, Tobias; Rosenberger, André; Gehlert, Sebastian; Herrera, Frankyn; Kohl-Bareis, Matthias; Zange, Jochen; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Jörn

    2015-11-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) training is commonly practiced and may enhance peripheral blood flow. Here, we investigated muscle morphology and acute microcirculatory responses before and after a 6-week resistive exercise training intervention without (RE) or with (RVE) simultaneous whole-body vibrations (20 Hz, 6 mm peak-to-peak amplitude) in 26 healthy men in a randomized, controlled parallel-design study. Total haemoglobin (tHb) and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) were measured in gastrocnemius muscle (GM) with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Whole-body oxygen consumption (VO2 ) was measured via spirometry, and skeletal muscle morphology was determined in soleus (SOL) muscle biopsies. Our data reveal that exercise-induced muscle deoxygenation both before and after 6 weeks training was similar in RE and RVE (P = 0.76), although VO2 was 20% higher in the RVE group (P < 0.001). The RVE group showed a 14%-point increase in reactive hyperaemia (P = 0.007) and a 27% increase in blood volume (P < 0.01) in GM after 6 weeks of training. The number of capillaries around fibres was increased by 15% after 6 weeks training in both groups (P < 0.001) with no specific effect of superimposed WBV (P = 0.61). Neither of the training regimens induced fibre hypertrophy in SOL. The present findings suggest an increased blood volume and vasodilator response in GM as an adaptation to long-term RVE, which was not observed after RE alone. We conclude that RVE training enhances vasodilation of small arterioles and possibly capillaries. This effect might be advantageous for muscle thermoregulation and the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to exercising muscle and removal of carbon dioxide and metabolites. PMID:25041226

  15. Microcirculation of skeletal muscle adapts differently to a resistive exercise intervention with and without superimposed whole-body vibrations.

    PubMed

    Beijer, Åsa; Degens, Hans; Weber, Tobias; Rosenberger, André; Gehlert, Sebastian; Herrera, Frankyn; Kohl-Bareis, Matthias; Zange, Jochen; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Jörn

    2015-11-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) training is commonly practiced and may enhance peripheral blood flow. Here, we investigated muscle morphology and acute microcirculatory responses before and after a 6-week resistive exercise training intervention without (RE) or with (RVE) simultaneous whole-body vibrations (20 Hz, 6 mm peak-to-peak amplitude) in 26 healthy men in a randomized, controlled parallel-design study. Total haemoglobin (tHb) and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) were measured in gastrocnemius muscle (GM) with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Whole-body oxygen consumption (VO2 ) was measured via spirometry, and skeletal muscle morphology was determined in soleus (SOL) muscle biopsies. Our data reveal that exercise-induced muscle deoxygenation both before and after 6 weeks training was similar in RE and RVE (P = 0.76), although VO2 was 20% higher in the RVE group (P < 0.001). The RVE group showed a 14%-point increase in reactive hyperaemia (P = 0.007) and a 27% increase in blood volume (P < 0.01) in GM after 6 weeks of training. The number of capillaries around fibres was increased by 15% after 6 weeks training in both groups (P < 0.001) with no specific effect of superimposed WBV (P = 0.61). Neither of the training regimens induced fibre hypertrophy in SOL. The present findings suggest an increased blood volume and vasodilator response in GM as an adaptation to long-term RVE, which was not observed after RE alone. We conclude that RVE training enhances vasodilation of small arterioles and possibly capillaries. This effect might be advantageous for muscle thermoregulation and the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to exercising muscle and removal of carbon dioxide and metabolites.

  16. [EFFECTS OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION TRAINING ON BODY COMPOSITION AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE YOUNG ADULTS].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pardo, Esmeraldo; Martínez-Ruiz, Enrique; Alcaraz, Pedro E; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A

    2015-11-01

    In the last decade, it has been suggested that whole- body vibration training (WBV) may increase neuromuscular performance and consequently affect the muscular improvement as either acute response to vibration or chronic adaptation training. Vibrating platforms generate frequencies from 5-45 Hz and vertical oscillations of 1-11 mm peak to peak, affecting more or less intensity acceleration changing by combining frequency and amplitude. Vibration training, in a session as various offers different results in regard to changes in body composition and in increasing the vertical jump, sprint, and the different manifestations of force development. These promising results await further research to establish parameters (duration, frequency and amplitude) with vibration stimulation in young active subjects. This literature review provides an update on the scientific evidence on the body vibrations in order to answer the question whether WBV, meaning the exercise by increasing the gravitational load collection, is a treatment option if the aim is to improve neuromuscular function, flexibility, balance, agility, coordination and body composition.

  17. [EFFECTS OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION TRAINING ON BODY COMPOSITION AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE YOUNG ADULTS].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pardo, Esmeraldo; Martínez-Ruiz, Enrique; Alcaraz, Pedro E; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, it has been suggested that whole- body vibration training (WBV) may increase neuromuscular performance and consequently affect the muscular improvement as either acute response to vibration or chronic adaptation training. Vibrating platforms generate frequencies from 5-45 Hz and vertical oscillations of 1-11 mm peak to peak, affecting more or less intensity acceleration changing by combining frequency and amplitude. Vibration training, in a session as various offers different results in regard to changes in body composition and in increasing the vertical jump, sprint, and the different manifestations of force development. These promising results await further research to establish parameters (duration, frequency and amplitude) with vibration stimulation in young active subjects. This literature review provides an update on the scientific evidence on the body vibrations in order to answer the question whether WBV, meaning the exercise by increasing the gravitational load collection, is a treatment option if the aim is to improve neuromuscular function, flexibility, balance, agility, coordination and body composition. PMID:26545648

  18. Benefits of Whole-Body Vibration with an Oscillating Platform for People with Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Filho, Sebastião David; Cameron, Michelle H.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of whole-body vibration on people with multiple sclerosis (MS). PubMed, CINAHL and Scopus databases were systematically searched for studies on the use of whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise in people with MS. These searches were supplemented with material identified in the references and in the authors' personal files. A qualitative analysis was performed to summarize the findings. Five studies with a total of seventy-one subjects were identified. All of these studies had small numbers of subjects (3–25), and two of the studies had no control groups. Some investigations have shown significant improvements of the muscle strength, of the functional mobility, and of the timed get up and go test in patients with MS. The number of publications found in the databanks searched is small, and in general, they have limitations in the design of protocols with a weakness to the interpretation of the findings. However, the analysis of the findings in these studies permits to conclude that some papers indicate that WBV exercises could benefit patients with MS. In addition, we suggest further larger scale investigations with controlled parameters and well-designed protocols into the effects of WBV exercises in people with MS. PMID:22685660

  19. Effects of Whole Body Vibration and Resistance Training on Bone Mineral Density and Anthropometry in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Moushira Erfan

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two exercise programs, whole body vibration and resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and anthropometry in obese postmenopausal women. Material and Methods. Eighty Egyptian obese postmenopausal women were enrolled in this study; their age ranged from 50 to 68 years. Their body mass index ranged (30–36 kg/m2). The exercise prescription consisted of whole body vibration (WBV) and resistance training. Bone mineral density (BMD) and anthropometrical parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of the study. Changes from baseline to eight months in BMD and anthropometric parameters were investigated. Results. BMD at the greater trochanter, at ward's triangle, and at lumbar spine were significantly higher after physical training, using both WBV and resistive training. Moreover, both exercise programs were effective in BMI and waist to the hip ratio. Simple and multiple regression analyses showed significant associations between physical activity duration and BMD at all sites. The highest values of R2 were found for the models incorporating WBV plus BMI. Conclusion. The study suggests that both types of exercise modalities had a similar positive effect on BMD at all sites in obese postmenopausal women. Significant association was noted between physical activity and anthropometric variables and BMD measures at all sites. PMID:25136473

  20. Increased Gs Signaling in Osteoblasts Reduces Bone Marrow and Whole-Body Adiposity in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Cain, Corey J; Valencia, Joel T; Ho, Samantha; Jordan, Kate; Mattingly, Aaron; Morales, Blanca M; Hsiao, Edward C

    2016-04-01

    Bone is increasingly recognized as an endocrine organ that can regulate systemic hormones and metabolism through secreted factors. Although bone loss and increased adiposity appear to be linked clinically, whether conditions of increased bone formation can also change systemic metabolism remains unclear. In this study, we examined how increased osteogenesis affects metabolism by using an engineered G protein-coupled receptor, Rs1, to activate Gs signaling in osteoblastic cells in ColI(2.3)(+)/Rs1(+) transgenic mice. We previously showed that these mice have dramatically increased bone formation resembling fibrous dysplasia of the bone. We found that total body fat was significantly reduced starting at 3 weeks of age. Furthermore, ColI(2.3)(+)/Rs1(+) mice showed reduced O2 consumption and respiratory quotient measures without effects on food intake and energy expenditure. The mice had significantly decreased serum triacylglycerides, leptin, and adiponectin. Resting glucose and insulin levels were unchanged; however, glucose and insulin tolerance tests revealed increased sensitivity to insulin. The mice showed resistance to fat accumulation from a high-fat diet. Furthermore, ColI(2.3)(+)/Rs1(+) mouse bones had dramatically reduced mature adipocyte differentiation, increased Wingless/Int-1 (Wnt) signaling, and higher osteoblastic glucose utilization than controls. These findings suggest that osteoblasts can influence both local and peripheral adiposity in conditions of increased bone formation and suggest a role for osteoblasts in the regulation of whole-body adiposity and metabolic homeostasis. PMID:26901092

  1. Low-magnitude high-frequency loading, by whole-body vibration, accelerates early implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, YONG-QIANG; QI, MENG-CHUN; XU, JIANG; XU, JUAN; LIU, HUA-WEI; DONG, WEI; LI, JIN-YUAN; HU, MIN

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis deteriorates jaw bone quality and may compromise early implant osseointegration and early implant loading. The influence of low-magnitude, high-frequency (LMHF) vibration on peri-implant bone healing and implant integration in osteoporotic bones remains poorly understood. LMHF loading via whole-body vibration (WBV) for 8 weeks has previously been demonstrated to significantly enhance bone-to-implant contact, peri-implant bone fraction and implant mechanical properties in osteoporotic rats. In the present study, LMHF loading by WBV was performed in osteoporotic rats, with a loading duration of 4 weeks during the early stages of bone healing. The results indicated that 4-week LMHF loading by WBV partly reversed the negative effects of osteoporosis and accelerated early peri-implant osseointegration in ovariectomized rats. PMID:25270245

  2. Quantitative evaluation of distortion in sketching under mono and dual axes whole body vibration.

    PubMed

    Bhiwapurkar, M K; Saran, V H; Harsha, S P

    2011-01-01

    Performance of sedentary activities such as reading and writing, in trains is known to be affected by the vibrations. An experimental study was therefore initiated to investigate the interference perceived in sketching task under low frequency random vibration in both mono and dual axes. Thirty healthy male subjects participated in the study. Random vibration stimuli were excited in various axes in frequency range of 1-20 Hz at magnitudes of 0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 m/s(2). The task required the subjects to sketch the given geometric figures such as circle, rectangle and triangle under vibration environment in two subject postures (sketch pad on lap and on table). Three performance methods were used to measure the effect of vibration stimuli and posture. They consisted of two specifically designed objective methods for percentage distortion measurement and one subjective method using Borg CR10 scale. The results revealed that the percentage distortion and difficulty in sketching increased with an increase in vibration magnitude and was found to be higher for vibration in Y- and Z-axis. Similar trend was observed for percentage distortion and difficulty in sketching for dual axes also. The perceived difficulty and impairment in sketching performance was greater while sketching on lap for X-axis, while the effect was just the reverse for other axes.

  3. Multi-body dynamics modelling of seated human body under exposure to whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Takuya; Nakai, Kazuma; Tamaoki, Gen

    2005-07-01

    In vehicle systems occupational drivers might expose themselves to vibration for a long time. This may cause illness of the spine such as chronic lumbago or low back pain. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the influence of vibration to the spinal column and to make up appropriate guidelines or counter plans. In ISO2631-1 or ISO2631-5 assessment of vibration effects to human in the view of adverse-health effect was already presented. However, it is necessary to carry out further research to understand the effect of vibration to human body to examine their validity and to prepare for the future revision. This paper shows the detail measurement of human response to vibration, and the modelling of the seated human body for the assessment of the vibration risk. The vibration transmissibilities from the seat surface to the spinal column and to the head are measured during the exposure to vertical excitation. The modal paramters of seated subject are extracted in order to understand the dominant natural modes. For the evaluation of adverse-health effect the multi-body modelling of the spinal column is introduced. A simplified model having 10 DOFs is counstructed so that the transmissibilities of the model fit to those of experiment. The transient response analysis is illustrated when a half-sine input is applied. The relative displacements of vertebrae are evaluated, which can be a basis for the assessment of vibration risk. It is suggested that the multi-body dynamic model is used to evaluate the vibration effect to the spinal column for seated subjects.

  4. The acute effects of different whole body vibration amplitudes on the endocrine system of young healthy men: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Marco; Leiper, John; Erskine, Julie; Milroy, Mark; Bell, Steve

    2006-11-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) has been suggested as an alternative form of exercise producing adaptive responses similar to that of resistance training. Very limited information is available on the effects of different vibration parameters on anabolic hormones. In this study, we compared the acute effects of different WBV amplitudes on serum testosterone (T) and insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Nine healthy young recreationally active adult males (age 22 +/- 2 years, height 181 +/- 6.3 cm, weight 77.4 +/- 9.5 kg) voluntarily participated in this randomized controlled (cross-over design) study. The subjects performed 20 sets of 1 min each of WBV exercise in the following conditions: Non-vibration condition (control), low amplitude vibration [low (30 Hz, 1.5 mm peak-to-peak amplitude)] and high amplitude vibration [high (30 Hz, 3 mm peak-to-peak amplitude)]. Blood samples were collected before, after 10 sets, at the end (20th set) and after 24 h of the exercise bout. WBV exercise did not produce significant changes in serum T and IGF-1 either with low or high amplitude when compared with the control condition. The results of this study demonstrate that a single session of WBV exposure with a frequency of 30 Hz and amplitudes of 1.5 and 3 mm does not noticeably alter serum T and IGF-1 levels.

  5. Prevalence and pattern of occupational exposure to whole body vibration in Great Britain: findings from a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, K.; Griffin, M.; Bendall, H.; Pannett, B.; Coggon, D.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To estimate the number of workers in Great Britain with significant occupational exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and to identify the common sources of exposure and the occupations and industries where such exposures arise.
METHODS—A postal questionnaire was posted to a random community sample of 22 194 men and women of working age. Among other things, the questionnaire asked about exposure to WBV in the past week, including occupational and common non-occupational sources. Responses were assessed by occupation and industry, and national prevalence estimates were derived from census information. Estimates were also made of the average estimated daily personal dose of vibration (eVDV).
RESULTS—From the 12 907 responses it was estimated that 7.2 million men and 1.8 million women in Great Britain are exposed to WBV at work in a 1 week period if the occupational use of cars, vans, buses, trains, and motor cycles is included within the definition of exposure. The eVDV of >374 000 men and 9000 women was estimated to exceed a proposed British Standard action level of 15 ms-1.75. Occupations in which the estimated exposures most often exceeded 15 ms-1.75 included forklift truck and mechanical truck drivers, farm owners and managers, farm workers, and drivers of road goods vehicles. These occupations also contributed the largest estimated numbers of workers in Great Britain with such levels of exposure. The highest estimated median occupational eVDVs were found in forklift truck drivers, drivers of road goods vehicles, bus and coach drivers, and technical and wholesale sales representatives, among whom a greater contribution to total dose was received from occupational exposures than from non-occupational ones; but in many other occupations the reverse applied. The most common sources of occupational exposure to WBV are cars, vans, forklift trucks, lorries, tractors, buses, and loaders.
CONCLUSIONS—Exposure to whole body vibration is

  6. Effects of whole-body vibration training on explosive strength and postural control in young female athletes.

    PubMed

    Fort, Azahara; Romero, Daniel; Bagur, Caritat; Guerra, Myriam

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a whole-body vibration training program to improve neuromuscular performance in young elite female athletes. Twenty-three women basketball players (14-18 years old) were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, n = 11) or to a whole-body vibration group (WBVG, n = 12). During the study period, both groups continued their usual training program, but the WBVG also underwent a 15-week vibration training program. We analyzed the countermovement jump test (CMJ), the 1-leg hop test for the right leg and for the left leg, and the single-limb standing balance for both legs and with eyes open and closed at 3 time points: before training (T1), after an 8-week training period (T2), and after a further 7-week training period (T3). Compared with the CG, CMJ increased significantly in the WBVG from T1 to T2 (6.47%, p < 0.001), T1 to T3 (10.07%, p = 0.005), and T2 to T3 (3.38%, p < 0.001). One-leg hop test for the right and left legs also showed significantly higher values in WBVG from T1 to T2 (10.12%, p < 0.001 and 9.63%, p = 0.002, respectively) and T1 to T3 (14.17%, p = 0.001 and 15.17%, p = 0.004, respectively). Lateral deviation of the center of pressure in the closed eyes test decreased significantly in WBVG for both right and left leg, from T1 to T2 (-22.20%, p = 0.043 and -34.77%, p < 0.001, respectively) and from T1 to T3 (-33.14%, p = 0.027 and -33.58%, p = 0.043, respectively) compared with the CG. In conclusion, our results show that a 15-week whole-body vibration training program improves explosive strength and postural stability in adolescent female basketball players.

  7. The ISO standard: Guide for the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vongierke, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    The international guideline is discussed in terms of safety and human tolerance. Charts for equal subjective vibration intensity, subjective judgement of equal fatigue, and severe discomfort boundaries are included.

  8. Acute bone response to whole body vibration in healthy pre-pubertal boys.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R; Ward, K; Lee, E; Razaghi, H; Horne, C; Bishop, N J

    2015-06-01

    The skeleton responds to mechanical stimulation. We wished to ascertain the magnitude and speed of the growing skeleton's response to a standardised form of mechanical stimulation, vibration. 36 prepubertal boys stood for 10 minutes in total on one of two vibrating platforms (high (>2 g) or low (<1 g) magnitude vibration) on either 1, 3 or 5 successive days (n=12 for each duration); 15 control subjects stood on an inactive platform. Blood samples were taken at intervals before and after vibration to measure bone formation (P1NP, osteocalcin) and resorption (CTx) markers as well as osteoprotegerin and sclerostin. There were no significant differences between platform and control groups in bone turnover markers immediately after vibration on days 1, 3 and 5. Combining platform groups, at day 8 P1NP increased by 25.1% (CI 12.3 to 38.0; paired t-test p=0.005) and bone resorption increased by 10.9% (CI 3.6 to 18.2; paired t-test p=0.009) compared to baseline. Osteocalcin, osteoprotogerin and sclerostin did not change significantly. The growing skeleton can respond quickly to vibration of either high or low magnitude. Further work is needed to determine the utility of such "stimulation-testing" in clinical practice.

  9. Nonlinear dual-axis biodynamic response of the semi-supine human body during vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ya; Griffin, Michael J.

    2008-04-01

    Nonlinear biodynamic responses are evident in many studies of the apparent masses of sitting and standing subjects in static postures that require muscle activity for postural control. In the present study, 12 male subjects adopted a relaxed semi-supine posture assumed to involve less muscle activity than during static sitting and standing. The supine subjects were exposed to two types of vertical vibration (in the x-axis of the semi-supine body): (i) continuous random vibration (0.25-20 Hz) at five magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 m s -2 rms); (ii) intermittent random vibration (0.25-20 Hz) alternately at 0.25 and 1.0 m s -2 rms. With continuous random vibration, the dominant primary resonance frequency in the median normalised apparent mass decreased from 10.35 to 7.32 Hz as the vibration magnitude increased from 0.125 to 1.0 m s -2 rms. This nonlinear response was apparent in both the vertical ( x-axis) apparent mass and in the horizontal ( z-axis) cross-axis apparent mass. As the vibration magnitude increased from 0.25 to 1.0 m s -2 rms, the median resonance frequency of the apparent mass with intermittent random vibration decreased from 9.28 to 8.06 Hz whereas, over the same range of magnitudes with continuous random vibration, the resonance frequency decreased from 9.62 to 7.81 Hz. The median change in the resonance frequency (between 0.25 and 1.0 m s -2 rms) was 1.37 Hz with the intermittent random vibration and 1.71 with the continuous random vibration. With the intermittent vibration, the resonance frequency was higher at the high magnitude and lower at the low magnitude than with continuous vibration of the same magnitudes. The response was typical of thixotropy that may be a primary cause of the nonlinear biodynamic responses to whole-body vibration.

  10. Effects Related to Random Whole-Body Vibration and Posture on a Suspended Seatwith and Without Backrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HINZ, B.; SEIDEL, H.; MENZEL, G.; BLÜTHNER, R.

    2002-05-01

    WBV-exposures are often linked with forced postures as prolonged sitting, bent forward sitting, or sitting without a backrest. No quantitative data are available to describe the exposure-effect relationships for different conditions of seating, posture, and the biological variability of workers. Experiments and subsequent predictions of forces acting within the spine during WBV can help to improve the assessment of the health risk. An experimental study was performed with 39 male subjects sitting on a suspension seat with or with no backrest contact. They were exposed to random whole-body vibration with a weighted r.m.s. value of 0·6 m/s2 at a relaxed or a forward bending posture. A two-dimensional finite element model was used for the calculation of the internal spinal load. The model simulates the human response on a suspension driver seat. Individual exposure conditions were considered by including the transfer functions between the seat cushion and the seat base as well as between the backrest and the seat base for the calculation of the vibration input to the buttocks and to the back respectively. The average peak seat transmissibility was higher for the seat with the backrest, but the peak seat-to-head transmissibility was higher for the seat without the backrest for both postures. The peak transmissibilities between the accelerations at the seat base and the compressive forces at L5/S1 were highest for the seat without the backrest during the bending posture. Various biological effects can result from identical exposures combined with different backrest contact and postures. The backrest contact and posture conditions should not be neglected in the assessment of health risk caused by whole-body vibration.

  11. Effect of Phase on Human Responses to Vertical Whole-Body Vibration and SHOCK—ANALYTICAL Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MATSUMOTO, Y.; GRIFFIN, M. J.

    2002-03-01

    The effect of the “phase” on human responses to vertical whole-body vibration and shock has been investigated analytically using alternative methods of predicting subjective responses (using r.m.s., VDV and various frequency weightings). Two types of phase have been investigated: the effect of the relative phase between two frequency components in the input stimulus, and the phase response of the human body. Continuous vibrations and shocks, based on half-sine and one-and-a-half-sine accelerations, each of which had two frequency components, were used as input stimuli. For the continuous vibrations, an effect of relative phase was found for the vibration dose value (VDV) when the ratio between two frequency components was three: about 12% variation in the VDV of the unweighted acceleration was possible by changing the relative phase. The effect of the phase response of the body represented by frequency weightings was most significant when the frequencies of two sinusoidal components were about 3 and 9 Hz. With shocks, the effect of relative phase was observed for all stimuli used. The variation in the r.m.s. acceleration and in the VDV caused by variations in the relative phase varied between 3 and 100%, depending on the nature of stimulus and the frequency weighting. The phase of the frequency weightings had a different effect on the r.m.s. and the VDV.

  12. Low back pain in drivers: The relative role of whole-body vibration, posture and manual materials handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okunribido, O. O.; Magnusson, M.; Pope, M. H.

    2006-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the relative role of whole-body vibration (WBV), posture and manual materials handling (MMH) as risk factors for low back pain (LBP). Using a validated questionnaire, information about health history, posture and MMH performed was obtained from 394 workers who drove vehicles as part of their job (according to seven predefined occupational groups) and 59 who did not. The intention was to reflect a wide range of exposures with the lower end of the exposure spectrum defined as that of non-manual workers who do not drive as part of their job. Based on the questionnaire responses and direct measurements of vibration exposure, personal aggregate measures of exposure were computed for each of the respondents, i.e., total vibration dose (TVD), posture score (PS) and manual handling score (MHS). Odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) for back pain were obtained from logistics regression models and log-linear backward elimination analysis was performed. The findings showed that 'combined exposure' due to posture and one or both of vibration and MMH, rather than the individual exposure to one of the three factors (WBV, posture, MMH) is the main contributor of the increased prevalence of LBP.

  13. Nonlinear dual-axis biodynamic response of the semi-supine human body during longitudinal horizontal whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ya; Griffin, Michael J.

    2008-04-01

    The resonance frequencies in frequency response functions of the human body (e.g. apparent mass and transmissibility) decrease with increasing vibration magnitude. This nonlinear biodynamic response is found with various sitting and standing postures requiring postural control. The present study measured the apparent mass of the body in a relaxed semi-supine posture with two types of longitudinal horizontal vibration (in the z-axis of the semi-supine body): (i) continuous random excitation (0.25-20 Hz) at five magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 ms -2 rms); (ii) intermittent random excitation (0.25-20 Hz) alternately at 0.25 and 1.0 ms -2 rms. With continuous random vibration, the dominant primary resonance frequency in the median normalised apparent mass decreased from 3.7 to 2.4 Hz as the vibration magnitude increased from 0.125 to 1.0 ms -2 rms. A nonlinear response was apparent in both the horizontal ( z-axis) apparent mass and the vertical ( x-axis) cross-axis apparent mass. With intermittent random vibration, as the vibration magnitude increased from 0.25 to 1.0 ms -2 rms, the median resonance frequency of the apparent mass decreased from 3.2 to 2.5 Hz whereas, with continuous random vibration over the same range of magnitudes, the resonance frequency decreased from 3.4 to 2.4 Hz. The median change in the resonance frequency (between 0.25 and 1.0 ms -2 rms) was 0.6 Hz with the intermittent random vibration and 0.9 Hz with the continuous random vibration. With intermittent vibration, the resonance frequency was higher at the high magnitude and lower at the low magnitude than with continuous vibration at the same magnitudes. The responses were consistent with passive thixotropy being a primary cause of nonlinear biodynamic responses to whole-body vibration, although reflex activity of the muscles may also have an influence.

  14. Does whole-body vibration training have acute residual effects on postural control ability of elderly women?

    PubMed

    Carlucci, Flaminia; Mazzà, Claudia; Cappozzo, Aurelio

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate acute residual effects of a single vibration session on balance control in a group of elderly women. Several studies, in fact, have shown that whole-body vibration (WBV) training may improve balance in the elderly, but possible side effects of acute exposure to WBV, such as temporary reduction of balance control ability because of perturbations of the vestibular system, have not been investigated. Twenty-two healthy elderly women (71.8 ± 4.7 years of age) were trained with a 9.5-minute bout of static and dynamic knee-extensor exercises executed on a vibrating platform (Well-net Vibe Revolution). The vibration frequency was set at 35 Hz. A subgroup of 14 subjects performed the same exercise protocol also without the vibrations to discriminate between vibration and exercise effects. Balance control ability was assessed through computerized posturography: a force plate (Bertec Co, Columbus, OH, USA) was used to measure the center of pressure trajectories during 4 different experimental trials: before, immediately after, 15 minutes after, and 60 minutes after the training. A set of postural parameters, typically adopted to assess elderly subjects, was then computed and 2-way analysis of variance was used to determine differences between values found in the 4 postural tests (level of significance p = 0.05) in the 2 groups. The results showed no significant variations in the postural parameters recorded during the 4 sessions. A significant group effect was found for 2 postural parameters, with no interaction between the 2 factors. In conclusion, the proposed single bout of WBV does not induce dangerous acute effects on elderly women balance control ability and could be safely administered as part of a long-term intervention program. PMID:21088549

  15. Psychophysical relationships characterizing human response to whole-body sinusoidal vertical vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Dempsey, T. K.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental investigation determined that the psychophysical relationships between subjective discomfort evaluations to vibratory stimuli and subjective evaluations of the intensity of vibratory stimuli can be expressed in a linear fashion. Furthermore, significant differences were found to exist between discomfort and intensity subjective response for several but not all discrete frequencies investigated. The implication of these results is that ride quality criteria based upon subjective evaluation of vibration intensity should be applied cautiously in the development of criteria for human comfort.

  16. Myoelectric Response of Back Muscles to Vertical Random Whole-Body Vibration with Different Magnitudes at Different Postures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BLÜTHNER, R.; SEIDEL, H.; HINZ, B.

    2002-05-01

    Back muscle forces contribute essentially to the whole-body vibration-induced spinal load. The electromyogram (EMG) can help to estimate these forces during whole-body vibration (WBV). Thirty-eight subjects were exposed to identical random low-frequency WBV (0·7, 1·0 and 1·4 m/s-2 r.m.s. weighted acceleration) at a relaxed, erect and bent forward postures. The acceleration of the seat and the force between the seat and the buttocks were measured. Six EMGs were derived from the right side of the m. trapezius pars descendens, m. ileocostalis lumborum pars thoracis, m. ileocostalis lumborum pars lumborum; m. longissimus thoracis pars thoracis, m. longissimus thoracis pars lumborum, and lumbar multifidus muscle. All data were filtered for anti-aliasing and sampled with 1000 Hz. Artefacts caused by the ECG in the EMG were identified and eliminated in the time domain using wavelets. The individually rectified and normalized EMGs were averaged across subjects. The EMGs without WBV exhibited characteristic patterns for the three postures examined. The coherence and transfer functions indicated characteristic myoelectric responses to random WBV with several effects of posture and WBV magnitude. A comprehensive set of transfer functions from the seat acceleration or the mean normalized input force to the mean processed EMG was presented.The results can be used for the development of more sophisticated models with a separate control of various back muscle groups. However, the EMG-force relationship under dynamic conditions needs to be examined in more detail before the results can be implemented. Since different reflex mechanisms depending on the frequency of WBV are linked with different types of active muscle fibres, various time delays between the EMG and muscle force may be necessary.

  17. The whole body cryostimulation modifies irisin concentration and reduces inflammation in middle aged, obese men.

    PubMed

    Dulian, Katarzyna; Laskowski, Radosław; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Kujach, Sylwester; Flis, Damian J; Smaruj, Mirosław; Ziemann, Ewa

    2015-12-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect induced by exposure to low temperature might trigger the endocrine function of muscle and fat tissue. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the whole body cryostimulation (CRY) on irisin, a myokine which activates oxygen consumption in fat cells as well as thermogenesis. In addition, the relationship between hepcidin (Hpc) - hormone regulating iron metabolism, and inflammation was studied. A group of middle aged men (n = 12, 38 ± 9 years old, BMI > 30 kg m(-2)) participated in the study. Subjects were exposed to a series of 10 sessions in a cryogenic chamber (once a day at 9:30 am, for 3 min, at temperature -110 °C). Blood samples were collected before the first cryostimulation and after completing the last one. Prior to treatment body composition and fitness level were determined. The applied protocol of cryostimulation lead to rise the blood irisin in obese non-active men (338.8 ± 42.2 vs 407.6 ± 118.5 ng mL(-1)), whereas has no effect in obese active men (371.5 ± 30.0 vs 343.3 ± 47.6 ng mL(-1)). Values recorded 24 h after the last cryo-session correlated significantly with the fat tissue, yet inversely with the skeletal muscle mass. Therefore, we concluded the subcutaneous fat tissue to be the main source of irisin in response to cold exposures. The applied cold treatment reduced the high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and Hpc concentration confirming its anti-inflammatory effect.

  18. Whole-Body Vibration Training and Its Application to Age-Related Performance Decrements: An Exploratory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, Adam; Griffiths, Katie; Babraj, John; Cobley, James N

    2016-02-01

    Middle age is associated with a pronounced decline in power and flexibility. Whilst whole-body vibration training (WBVT) improves performance in a range of populations, whether WBVT can improve muscle power and flexibility in a middle-aged population is not known. The present study aimed to determine the influence of 5 weeks progressive WBVT in middle-aged (45-55 years) and younger (20-30 years) recreationally active females. Participants in each age group were randomly allocated to an intervention (WBVT) or control group. The WBVT groups trained for 5 weeks on a vibration platform, while the control groups performed identical exercises, with no vibration. Prior to, and after, the 5-week study vertical countermovement jump (VCMJ) and range of motion (ROM) performance were measured. WBVT significantly (p = 0.001) improved VCMJ performance when compared to the control groups. This improvement was significantly (p = 0.001) greater in the middle-aged compared with the younger WBVT group. WBVT significantly (p = 0.001) improved ROM irrespective of age. Taken together, these results suggest that WBVT can off-set age related performance decrements, which has therapeutic implications for musculoskeletal aging. Therefore, WBVT could be undertaken to minimise age-related performance deterioration in middle-aged female populations.

  19. Influence of tyre inflation pressure on whole-body vibrations transmitted to the operator in a cut-to-length timber harvester.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, L M; Owende, P M O; Kanali, C L; Lyons, J; Ward, S M

    2004-05-01

    The influence of tyre inflation pressure on whole-body vibrations transmitted to the operator during the movement of a cut-to-length timber harvester was evaluated. Vibration measurements were taken in three orthogonal (x, y, z) axes at tyre pressure settings of 138, 345 and 414 kPa. Vibration was predominant in the vertical (z) direction with the peak rms acceleration value for the operator seat (0.281 ms(-2)) occurring at approximately 3.2 Hz. The corresponding peak value for the operator cabin chassis was 0.425 m s(-2) at 4 Hz. At 414 kPa, there was potential health risk on the operator for exposures above 8h duration. The vibration total values recorded for the operator seat at the maximum tyre inflation pressure setting were classed as "fairly uncomfortable" (ISO standard 2631-1), and vertical seat vibration transmissibility was highest between 4 and 8 Hz at the 345 kPa tyre pressure setting. The recorded values of WBV were significantly reduced by a reduction in tyre inflation pressure which may therefore be used to moderate the magnitude of WBV on wheeled timber harvesters. PMID:15145288

  20. The effect of whole body vibration therapy on the physical function of people with type II diabetes mellitus: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, BSc, Jiaqi; Zhang, Hongyue; Kan, Laidi; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Pu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To review and assess the effectiveness of whole body vibration therapy on the physical function of patients with type II diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] A computerized database search was performed through PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database, and the reference lists of all relevant articles. The methodological quality was evaluated using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. [Results] Five articles (four studies) with a combined study population of 154 patients with type II diabetes qualified for the inclusion criteria. Our review shows that whole body vibration therapy may have a positive impact on the muscle strength and balance of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas the effect on their mobility is still under discussion. [Conclusion] There was no sufficient evidence to support the premise that whole body vibration therapy is beneficial for the physical function of people with type II diabetes. Larger and higher-quality trials are needed. PMID:27799718

  1. Whole Body Vibration Exercise Protocol versus a Standard Exercise Protocol after ACL Reconstruction: A Clinical Randomized Controlled Trial with Short Term Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Berschin, Gereon; Sommer, Björn; Behrens, Antje; Sommer, Hans-Martin

    2014-01-01

    The suitability and effectiveness of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise in rehabilitation after injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) was studied using a specially designed WBV protocol. We wanted to test the hypothesis if WBV leads to superior short term results regarding neuromuscular performance (strength and coordination) and would be less time consuming than a current standard muscle strengthening protocol. In this prospective randomized controlled clinical trial, forty patients who tore their ACL and underwent subsequent ligament reconstruction were enrolled. Patients were randomized to the whole body vibration (n=20) or standard rehabilitation exercise protocol (n=20). Both protocols started in the 2nd week after surgery. Isometric and isokinetic strength measurements, clinical assessment, Lysholm score, neuromuscular performance were conducted weeks 2, 5, 8 and 11 after surgery. Time spent for rehabilitation exercise was reduced to less than a half in the WBV group. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of clinical assessment, Lysholm score, isokinetic and isometric strength. The WBV group displayed significant better results in the stability test. In conclusion, preliminary data indicate that our whole body vibration muscle exercise protocol seems to be a good alternative to a standard exercise program in ACL-rehabilitation. Despite of its significant reduced time requirement it is at least equally effective compared to a standard rehabilitation protocol. Key points In this prospective randomized controlled clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis if WBV leads to superior short term results regarding neuromuscular performance (strength and coordination) and would be less time consuming than a current standard muscle strengthening protocol in forty patients who underwent ACL reconstruction. Time spent for rehabilitation exercise was reduced to less than a half in the WBV group as compared to the standard exercise group. Both

  2. Distinct Skeletal Muscle Gene Regulation from Active Contraction, Passive Vibration, and Whole Body Heat Stress in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Petrie, Michael A.; Kimball, Amy L.; McHenry, Colleen L.; Suneja, Manish; Yen, Chu-Ling; Sharma, Arpit; Shields, Richard K.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle exercise regulates several important metabolic genes in humans. We know little about the effects of environmental stress (heat) and mechanical stress (vibration) on skeletal muscle. Passive mechanical stress or systemic heat stress are often used in combination with many active exercise programs. We designed a method to deliver a vibration stress and systemic heat stress to compare the effects with active skeletal muscle contraction. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine whether active mechanical stress (muscle contraction), passive mechanical stress (vibration), or systemic whole body heat stress regulates key gene signatures associated with muscle metabolism, hypertrophy/atrophy, and inflammation/repair. Methods: Eleven subjects, six able-bodied and five with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) participated in the study. The six able-bodied subjects sat in a heat stress chamber for 30 minutes. Five subjects with SCI received a single dose of limb-segment vibration or a dose of repetitive electrically induced muscle contractions. Three hours after the completion of each stress, we performed a muscle biopsy (vastus lateralis or soleus) to analyze mRNA gene expression. Results: We discovered repetitive active muscle contractions up regulated metabolic transcription factors NR4A3 (12.45 fold), PGC-1α (5.46 fold), and ABRA (5.98 fold); and repressed MSTN (0.56 fold). Heat stress repressed PGC-1α (0.74 fold change; p < 0.05); while vibration induced FOXK2 (2.36 fold change; p < 0.05). Vibration similarly caused a down regulation of MSTN (0.74 fold change; p < 0.05), but to a lesser extent than active muscle contraction. Vibration induced FOXK2 (p < 0.05) while heat stress repressed PGC-1α (0.74 fold) and ANKRD1 genes (0.51 fold; p < 0.05). Conclusion: These findings support a distinct gene regulation in response to heat stress, vibration, and muscle contractions. Understanding these responses may assist in developing regenerative

  3. The acute effects of different whole-body vibration amplitudes and frequencies on flexibility and vertical jumping performance.

    PubMed

    Gerodimos, Vassilis; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Vasilopoulou, Theodora; Chanou, Konstantina; Pispirikou, Eleni

    2010-07-01

    Frequency and amplitude determine the training load of whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise and thereby possible neuromuscular adaptations. We investigated the effects of amplitude and frequency of a single bout of WBV on flexibility and squat jump performance (SJ) and the time-course of these effects. In the amplitude study, twenty-five females performed three vibration protocols (VPs) for 6 min at frequency of 25Hz and amplitudes of 4 mm, 6 mm, and 8 mm and one control protocol (CP). In the frequency study, eighteen females performed three VPs at 6mm amplitude and frequencies of 15 Hz, 20 Hz, and 30 Hz and one CP. Flexibility and SJ were measured before, immediately-post and 15 min recovery. All protocols were performed on a side-to-side alternating vibration plate. In the amplitude study, flexibility was improved (p<0.01) immediately-post in VP4, VP6, VP8 (31.8+/-8.2, 31.9+/-7.6, 31.5+/-7.9, respectively) and at 15 min recovery (31.6+/-8.1, 31.5+/-7.9, 31.0+/-8.2, respectively) vs. pre-vibration (30.2+/-8.6, 30.3+/-8.1, 30.2+/-8.3, respectively), but remained unchanged in CP (30.6+/-8.3 immediately-post, 30.7+/-8.2 at 15 min vs. 30.4+/-8.2 pre-vibration). In the frequency study, flexibility was improved (p<0.01) immediately-post in VP15, VP20, VP30 (31.5+/-5.2, 31.3+/-5, 31.7+/-5.3, respectively) and at 15 min recovery (31.3+/-5.4, 31.3+/-5.0, 31.3+/-5.3, respectively) vs. pre-vibration (30.6+/-5.4, 30.2+/-5.7, 30.3+/-5.9, respectively), but not in CP (30.7+/-5.1 immediately-post, 30.6+/-5 at 15 min vs. pre-vibration 30.5+/-5.7). There were no significant effects of amplitude or frequency on SJ. In conclusion, a single WBV bout using a side-to-side alternating vibration plate may increase flexibility which persists for at least 15 min, without altering jumping performance. These effects were observed irrespective of frequency and amplitude.

  4. A whole body vibration perception map and associated acceleration loads at the lower leg, hip and head.

    PubMed

    Sonza, Anelise; Völkel, Nina; Zaro, Milton A; Achaval, Matilde; Hennig, Ewald M

    2015-07-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) training has become popular in recent years. However, WBV may be harmful to the human body. The goal of this study was to determine the acceleration magnitudes at different body segments for different frequencies of WBV. Additionally, vibration sensation ratings by subjects served to create perception vibration magnitude and discomfort maps of the human body. In the first of two experiments, 65 young adults mean (± SD) age range of 23 (± 3.0) years, participated in WBV severity perception ratings, based on a Borg scale. Measurements were performed at 12 different frequencies, two intensities (3 and 5 mm amplitudes) of rotational mode WBV. On a separate day, a second experiment (n = 40) included vertical accelerometry of the head, hip and lower leg with the same WBV settings. The highest lower limb vibration magnitude perception based on the Borg scale was extremely intense for the frequencies between 21 and 25 Hz; somewhat hard for the trunk region (11-25 Hz) and fairly light for the head (13-25 Hz). The highest vertical accelerations were found at a frequency of 23 Hz at the tibia, 9 Hz at the hip and 13 Hz at the head. At 5 mm amplitude, 61.5% of the subjects reported discomfort in the foot region (21-25 Hz), 46.2% for the lower back (17, 19 and 21 Hz) and 23% for the abdominal region (9-13 Hz). The range of 3-7 Hz represents the safest frequency range with magnitudes less than 1 g(*)sec for all studied regions. PMID:25962379

  5. Effects of Eight Months of Whole-Body Vibration Training on the Muscle Mass and Functional Capacity of Elderly Women.

    PubMed

    Santin-Medeiros, Fernanda; Rey-López, Juan P; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Cristi-Montero, Carlos S; Garatachea Vallejo, Nuria

    2015-07-01

    Few intervention studies have used whole-body vibration (WBV) training in the elderly, and there is inconclusive evidence about its health benefits. We examined the effect of 8 months of WBV training on muscle mass and functional capacity in elderly women. A total of 37 women (aged 82.4 ± 5.7 years) voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to a vibration group (n = 19) or a control group (n = 18). The vibration group trained on a vertical vibration platform twice a week. The control group was requested not to change their habitual lifestyle. The quadriceps femoris muscle cross-sectional area was determined by magnetic resonance imaging. All participants were evaluated by a battery of tests (Senior Fitness Test) to determine their functional capacity, as well as handgrip strength and balance/gait. General linear repeated-measure analysis of variance (group by time) was performed to examine the effect of the intervention on the outcomes variables. After 8 months, nonstatistically significant differences in the quadriceps CSA (pre-training: 8,516.16 ± 1,271.78 mm² and post-training: 8,671.63 ± 1,389.03 mm²) (p > 0.05) were found in the WBV group (Cohen's d: -0.12), whereas the CON group significantly decreased muscle mass (pre-training: 9,756.18 ± 1,420.07 mm² and post-training: 9,326.82 ± 1,577.53 mm²), with moderate effect size evident (Cohen's d: 0.29). In both groups, no changes were observed in the functional capacity, handgrip strength and balance/gait. The WBV training could prevent the loss of quadriceps CSA in elderly women.

  6. A whole body vibration perception map and associated acceleration loads at the lower leg, hip and head.

    PubMed

    Sonza, Anelise; Völkel, Nina; Zaro, Milton A; Achaval, Matilde; Hennig, Ewald M

    2015-07-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) training has become popular in recent years. However, WBV may be harmful to the human body. The goal of this study was to determine the acceleration magnitudes at different body segments for different frequencies of WBV. Additionally, vibration sensation ratings by subjects served to create perception vibration magnitude and discomfort maps of the human body. In the first of two experiments, 65 young adults mean (± SD) age range of 23 (± 3.0) years, participated in WBV severity perception ratings, based on a Borg scale. Measurements were performed at 12 different frequencies, two intensities (3 and 5 mm amplitudes) of rotational mode WBV. On a separate day, a second experiment (n = 40) included vertical accelerometry of the head, hip and lower leg with the same WBV settings. The highest lower limb vibration magnitude perception based on the Borg scale was extremely intense for the frequencies between 21 and 25 Hz; somewhat hard for the trunk region (11-25 Hz) and fairly light for the head (13-25 Hz). The highest vertical accelerations were found at a frequency of 23 Hz at the tibia, 9 Hz at the hip and 13 Hz at the head. At 5 mm amplitude, 61.5% of the subjects reported discomfort in the foot region (21-25 Hz), 46.2% for the lower back (17, 19 and 21 Hz) and 23% for the abdominal region (9-13 Hz). The range of 3-7 Hz represents the safest frequency range with magnitudes less than 1 g(*)sec for all studied regions.

  7. Low-magnitude whole-body vibration does not enhance the anabolic skeletal effects of intermittent PTH in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Michelle A; Brodt, Michael D; Stephens, Abby L; Civitelli, Roberto; Silva, Matthew J

    2011-04-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a low-magnitude mechanical stimulus that may be anabolic for bone, yet we recently found that WBV did not improve bone properties in adult mice. Because intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) enhances the anabolic effects of high-magnitude skeletal loading, we sought to determine the skeletal effects of WBV in combination with PTH. Seven-month-old male BALB/c mice were assigned to six groups (n = 13-14/group) based on magnitude of applied acceleration (0 or 0.3 G) and PTH dose (0, 10, or 40 µg/kg/day). Mice were exposed to WBV (0.3 G, 90 Hz, sine wave) or sham loading (0 G) for 15 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks. Vehicle or hPTH (1-34) was administered prior to each WBV session. Whole-body bone mineral content increased by ~ 5% from 0 to 8 weeks in the 40 µg/kg PTH group only, independent of WBV loading. Similarly, PTH treatment increased tibial cortical bone volume by ~5% from 0 to 8 weeks, independent of WBV loading. Neither PTH nor WBV stimulated trabecular bone formation. Consistent with the cortical bone effect, tibias from the 40 µg/kg PTH group had significantly greater ultimate force and energy to failure than tibias in the 0 and 10 µg/kg PTH groups, independent of WBV treatment. In summary, 8 weeks of intermittent PTH treatment increased cortical bone volume and strength in adult male BALB/c mice. Daily exposure to low-magnitude WBV by itself did not improve skeletal properties and did not enhance the PTH effect. No WBV-PTH synergy was found in this preclinical study.

  8. Vehicle design influences whole body vibration exposures: effect of the location of the front axle relative to the cab.

    PubMed

    Blood, Ryan P; Rynell, Patrik W; Johnson, Peter W

    2011-06-01

    Using a repeated measure design, this study compared differences in whole body vibration (WBV) exposures among 13 drivers who drove a truck with the cab over the front axle (cab-over design) and a truck with the cab situated behind the front axle (non-cab-over design). The drivers drove both trucks over a standardized route that comprised three distinct segments: a freeway segment, a city street segment with stop-and-go driving (traffic lights), and a city street segment without traffic lights. A portable WBV data acquisition system collected tri-axial time-weighted and raw WBV data per ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5 standards. Simultaneous global positioning system (GPS) data were also collected to compare vehicle speeds. The GPS data indicated that there were no speed differences between the two vehicles. However, average and impulsive z-axis vibration levels were significantly higher for the cab-over design than for the non-cab-over design. In addition, significant WBV exposure differences between road types were found, with the freeway segments having the lowest exposures and the city street segments without traffic lights having the highest exposures. Vehicle type and the associated WBV exposures should be considered when purchasing vehicles to be used by full-time professional vehicle operators.

  9. Development of a Protocol for Epidemiologal Studies of Whole-Body Vibration and Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Lower Back

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, M. L.; Pope, M. H.; Hulshof, C. T. J.; Bovenzi, M.

    1998-08-01

    It seems evident from a large number of studies that there is a positive relationship between exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and the occurrence of low back pain. There are existing standards for evaluating the human exposure to WBV, which are based on other factors than the effect of musculoskeletal disorders. Several national and international standards also exist for evaluating human exposure to WBV. The exposure limit values or health guidance caution zones included in some of these standards are not or only to a limited extent based on systematic epidemiological investigations. It has not yet been possible to establish a clear exposure-response relationship. There are many confounding or contributing factors which influence the hazards to workers caused by exposure to WBV. Reliable methods for the detection and prevention of injury due to vibration exposure at work, alone or in combination with other risk factors, need to be implemented. The aim of this paper was to design a protocol and a questionnaire for conducting collaborative studies of WBV and musculoskeletal back disorders. The protocol will be tested in a pilot study before it will be used in multi-center studies.

  10. Whole-body Vibration Exposure Intervention among Professional Bus and Truck Drivers: A Laboratory Evaluation of Seat-suspension Designs.

    PubMed

    Blood, Ryan P; Yost, Michael G; Camp, Janice E; Ching, Randal P

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to seated whole-body vibration (WBV) is one of the leading risk factors for the development of low back disorders. Professional bus and truck drivers are regularly exposed to continuous WBV, since they spend the majority of their working hours driving heavy vehicles. This study measured WBV exposures among professional bus and truck drivers and evaluated the effects of seat-suspension designs using simulated field-collected data on a vibration table. WBV exposures were measured and compared across three different seat designs: an air-ride bus seat, an air-ride truck seat, and an electromagnetically active (EM-active) seat. Air-ride seats use a compressed-air bladder to attenuate vibrations, and they have been in operation throughout the transportation industry for many years. The EM-active seat is a relatively new design that incorporates a microprocessor-controlled actuator to dampen vibration. The vibration table simulated seven WBV exposure scenarios: four segments of vertical vibration and three scenarios that used field-collected driving data on different road surfaces-a city street, a freeway, and a section of rough roadway. The field scenarios used tri-axial WBV data that had been collected at the seat pan and at the driver's sternum, in accordance with ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5. This study found that WBV was significantly greater in the vertical direction (z-axis) than in the lateral directions (x-and y-axes) for each of the three road types and each of the three types of seats. Quantitative comparisons of the results showed that the floor-to-seat-pan transmissibility was significantly lower for the EM-active seat than for either the air-ride bus seat or the air-ride truck seat, across all three road types. This study also demonstrated that seat-suspension designs have a significant effect on the vibrations transmitted to vehicle operators, and the study's results may prove useful in designing future seat suspensions.

  11. Whole-body vibration combined with extra-load training for enhancing the strength and speed of track and field athletes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiang-Hsin; Chen, Wei-Han; Liu, Chiang; Yang, Wen-Wen; Huang, Mao-Ying; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether whole-body vibration (WBV) combined with extra-load training can enhance the strength and speed of trained athletes compared with isolated WBV training or loaded training (LT) only. Twenty-one elite male track and field athletes were randomly assigned to a loaded vibration (LV) training group (n = 7), an unloaded vibration (ULV) training group (n = 7), and a LT group (n = 7). During 4 weeks of training, the LV group received the vibration stimulus (30 Hz and 4 mm) accompanied by a load comprising 75% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), the ULV group received the same vibration stimulus without any load, and the LT group received only a load of 75% MVC without any vibration stimulus. The knee extensor isometric strength, and the concentric and eccentric strength were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer at 300°·s at a 30-m sprint speed before and after the training period. A 2-way mixed analysis of variance (time × group) was used to analyze the differences. Significant time × group interactions were observed for all the dependent variables (p ≤ 0.05). Regarding the post hoc analysis results, the LV group exhibited significant improvements for all the dependent variables after training (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the ULV group exhibited significantly reduced sprint speeds (p ≤ 0.05). The LV group demonstrated significantly superior eccentric strength compared with the ULV and LT groups after training (p ≤ 0.05), and the LV group also produced significantly superior sprint speeds compared with the ULV group after training (p ≤ 0.05). Vibration combined with extra-load training for 4 weeks significantly increased the muscle strength and speed of the elite male track and field athletes.

  12. Effects of muscular strength, exercise order, and acute whole-body vibration exposure on bat swing speed.

    PubMed

    Reyes, G F Cisco; Dickin, D Clark; Dolny, Dennis G; Crusat, Nolan J K

    2010-12-01

    The purposes for this study were to investigate effects of acute whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure and exercise order on bat speed and to examine relationship between muscular strength and bat speed. All participants were recreationally trained men (n = 16; 22 ± 2 years; 181.4 ± 7.4 cm; 84.7 ± 9 kg), with previous baseball experience and were tested for 1 repetitive maximum (1RM) strength in squat and bench press. Subjects then participated in 4 randomized sessions on separate days, each consisting of 3 sets of 5 bat swings. Exercises (upper and lower body dynamic and static movements related to bat swing) with or without WBV exposure were performed after sets 1 and 2. Trials were as follows: no-exercise Control (CTRL), upper body followed by lower body exercises without WBV (Arm-Leg NOVIB), upper body followed by lower body exercises with WBV (Arm-Leg VIB), and lower body followed by upper body exercises with WBV (Leg-Arm VIB). Bat speed was recorded during each swing and averaged across sets. Statistical analyses were performed to assess differences across sets and trials. Linear regressions analyzed relationship between strength and bat speed. A significant relationship existed between bat speed and lower body strength (r = 0.406, p = 0.008) but not for upper body strength. The exercise order of Arm-Leg VIB significantly increased bat speed by 2.6% (p = 0.02). Performing identical order of exercises without vibration (Arm-Leg NOVIB) significantly decreased bat speed by 2% (p = 0.039). It was concluded that adding vibration exposure to total-body exercises can provide acute enhancements in bat speed. Additionally, leg strength was shown to influence bat speed suggesting that increasing leg strength may enhance bat speed. PMID:21088545

  13. Effects of muscular strength, exercise order, and acute whole-body vibration exposure on bat swing speed.

    PubMed

    Reyes, G F Cisco; Dickin, D Clark; Dolny, Dennis G; Crusat, Nolan J K

    2010-12-01

    The purposes for this study were to investigate effects of acute whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure and exercise order on bat speed and to examine relationship between muscular strength and bat speed. All participants were recreationally trained men (n = 16; 22 ± 2 years; 181.4 ± 7.4 cm; 84.7 ± 9 kg), with previous baseball experience and were tested for 1 repetitive maximum (1RM) strength in squat and bench press. Subjects then participated in 4 randomized sessions on separate days, each consisting of 3 sets of 5 bat swings. Exercises (upper and lower body dynamic and static movements related to bat swing) with or without WBV exposure were performed after sets 1 and 2. Trials were as follows: no-exercise Control (CTRL), upper body followed by lower body exercises without WBV (Arm-Leg NOVIB), upper body followed by lower body exercises with WBV (Arm-Leg VIB), and lower body followed by upper body exercises with WBV (Leg-Arm VIB). Bat speed was recorded during each swing and averaged across sets. Statistical analyses were performed to assess differences across sets and trials. Linear regressions analyzed relationship between strength and bat speed. A significant relationship existed between bat speed and lower body strength (r = 0.406, p = 0.008) but not for upper body strength. The exercise order of Arm-Leg VIB significantly increased bat speed by 2.6% (p = 0.02). Performing identical order of exercises without vibration (Arm-Leg NOVIB) significantly decreased bat speed by 2% (p = 0.039). It was concluded that adding vibration exposure to total-body exercises can provide acute enhancements in bat speed. Additionally, leg strength was shown to influence bat speed suggesting that increasing leg strength may enhance bat speed.

  14. Whole body vibration compared to conventional physiotherapy in patients with gonarthrosis: a protocol for a randomized, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative arthropathy. Load-bearing joints such as knee and hip are more often affected than spine or hands. The prevalence of gonarthrosis is generally higher than that of coxarthrosis. Because no cure for OA exists, the main emphasis of therapy is analgesic treatment through either mobility or medication. Non-pharmacologic treatment is the first step, followed by the addition of analgesic medication, and ultimately by surgery. The goal of non-pharmacologic and non-invasive therapy is to improve neuromuscular function, which in turn both prevents formation of and delays progression of OA. A modification of conventional physiotherapy, whole body vibration has been successfully employed for several years. Since its introduction, this therapy is in wide use at our facility not only for gonarthrosis, but also coxarthrosis and other diseases leading to muscular imbalance. Methods/Design This study is a randomized, therapy-controlled trial in a primary care setting at a university hospital. Patients presenting to our outpatient clinic with initial symptoms of gonarthrosis will be assessed against inclusion and exclusion criteria. After patient consent, 6 weeks of treatment will ensue. During the six weeks of treatment, patients will receive one of two treatments, conventional physiotherapy or whole-body-vibration exercises of one hour three times a week. Follow-up examinations will be performed immediately after treatment and after another 6 and 20 weeks, for a total study duration of 6 months. 20 patients will be included in each therapy group. Outcome measurements will include objective analysis of motion and ambulation as well as examinations of balance and isokinetic force. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index and SF-12 scores, the patients' overall status, and clinical examinations of the affected joint will be carried out. Discussion As new physiotherapy techniques develop for the

  15. Exaggerated haemodynamic and neural responses to involuntary contractions induced by whole-body vibration in normotensive obese versus lean women.

    PubMed

    Dipla, Konstantina; Kousoula, Dimitra; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Kyparos, Antonios; Gerodimos, Vassilis; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2016-06-01

    What is the central question of this study? In obesity, the exaggerated blood pressure response to voluntary exercise is linked to hypertension, yet the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. We examined whether involuntary contractions elicit greater haemodynamic responses and altered neural control of blood pressure in normotensive obese versus lean women. What is the main finding and its importance? During involuntary contractions induced by whole-body vibration, there were augmented blood pressure and spontaneous baroreflex responses in obese compared with lean women. This finding is suggestive of an overactive mechanoreflex in the exercise-induced hypertensive response in obesity. Passive contractions did not elicit differential heart rate responses in obese compared with lean women, implying other mechanisms for the blunted heart rate response reported during voluntary exercise in obesity. In obesity, the exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise is linked to hypertension, yet the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. In this study, we examined whether involuntary mechanical oscillations, induced by whole-body vibration (WBV), elicit greater haemodynamic responses and altered neural control of BP in obese versus lean women. Twenty-two normotensive, premenopausal women (12 lean and 10 obese) randomly underwent a passive WBV (25 Hz) and a control protocol (similar posture without WVB). Beat-by-beat BP, heart rate, stroke volume, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, parasympathetic output (evaluated by heart rate variability) and spontaneous baroreceptor sensitivity (sBRS) were assessed. We found that during WBV, obese women exhibited an augmented systolic BP response compared with lean women that was correlated with body fat percentage (r = 0.77; P < 0.05). The exaggerated BP rise was driven mainly by the greater increase in cardiac output index in obese versus lean women, associated with a greater stroke volume index in obese women

  16. Response of the seated human body to whole-body vertical vibration: discomfort caused by sinusoidal vibration.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen; Griffin, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Frequency weightings for predicting vibration discomfort assume the same frequency-dependence at all magnitudes of vibration, whereas biodynamic studies show that the frequency-dependence of the human body depends on the magnitude of vibration. This study investigated how the frequency-dependence of vibration discomfort depends on the acceleration and the force at the subject-seat interface. Using magnitude estimation, 20 males and 20 females judged their discomfort caused by sinusoidal vertical acceleration at 13 frequencies (1-16 Hz) at magnitudes from 0.1 to 4.0 ms(-2) r.m.s. The frequency-dependence of their equivalent comfort contours depended on the magnitude of vibration, but was less dependent on the magnitude of dynamic force than the magnitude of acceleration, consistent with the biodynamic non-linearity of the body causing some of the magnitude-dependence of equivalent comfort contours. There were significant associations between the biodynamic responses and subjective responses at all frequencies in the range 1-16 Hz. Practitioner Summary: Vertical seat vibration causes discomfort in many forms of transport. This study provides the frequency-dependence of vibration discomfort over a range of vibration magnitudes and shows how the frequency weightings in the current standards can be improved.

  17. Effects of whole-body vibration training on physical function, bone and muscle mass in adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Gusso, Silmara; Munns, Craig F; Colle, Patrícia; Derraik, José G B; Biggs, Janene B; Cutfield, Wayne S; Hofman, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    We performed a clinical trial on the effects of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) on muscle function and bone health of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy. Forty participants (11.3–20.8 years) with mild to moderate cerebral palsy (GMFCS II–III) underwent 20-week WBVT on a vibration plate for 9 minutes/day 4 times/week at 20 Hz (without controls). Assessments included 6-minute walk test, whole-body DXA, lower leg pQCT scans, and muscle function (force plate). Twenty weeks of WBVT were associated with increased lean mass in the total body (+770 g; p = 0.0003), trunk (+410 g; p = 0.004), and lower limbs (+240 g; p = 0.012). Bone mineral content increased in total body (+48 g; p = 0.0001), lumbar spine (+2.7 g; p = 0.0003), and lower limbs (+13 g; p < 0.0001). Similarly, bone mineral density increased in total body (+0.008 g/cm2; p = 0.013), lumbar spine (+0.014 g/cm2; p = 0.003), and lower limbs (+0.023 g/cm2; p < 0.0001). Participants reduced the time taken to perform the chair test, and improved the distance walked in the 6-minute walk test by 11% and 35% for those with GMFCS II and III, respectively. WBVT was associated with increases in muscle mass and bone mass and density, and improved mobility of adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy. PMID:26936535

  18. Effects of real and sham whole-body mechanical vibration on spinal excitability at rest and during muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Hortobágyi, T; Rider, P; DeVita, P

    2014-12-01

    We examined the effects of whole-body mechanical vibration (WBV) on indices of motoneuronal excitability at rest and during muscle contraction in healthy humans. Real and sham WBV at 30 Hz had no effect on reflexes measured during muscle contraction. Real WBV at 30 and 50 Hz depressed the H-reflex ∼45%. These depressions diminished across the five inter-bout rest intervals. The depression converted to 27% and 7% facilitation over the 15-min long recovery period following real WBV at 30 and 50 Hz, respectively. The depression, measured during the inter-bout rest, correlated r = 0.48 (P = 0.007) with the subsequent facilitation, measured during the follow-up. The depression produced by sham vs real WBV was significant but less (23%), recovered faster, and the facilitation was absent in the 15-min long follow-up period. WBV produced time-varying depression followed by facilitation of the H-reflex at rest. A lack of change in volitional wave suggests that WBV did not affect the efferent neural drive. PMID:24646403

  19. Reactions of the rat musculoskeletal system to compressive spinal cord injury (SCI) and whole body vibration (WBV) therapy.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, A; Pick, C; Harrach, R; Stein, G; Bendella, H; Ozsoy, O; Ozsoy, U; Schoenau, E; Jaminet, P; Sarikcioglu, L; Dunlop, S; Angelov, D N

    2015-06-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a loss of locomotor function with associated compromise of the musculo-skeletal system. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a potential therapy following SCI, but little is known about its effects on the musculo-skeletal system. Here, we examined locomotor recovery and the musculo-skeletal system after thoracic (T7-9) compression SCI in adult rats. Daily WBV was started at 1, 7, 14 and 28 days after injury (WBV1-WBV28 respectively) and continued over a 12-week post-injury period. Intact rats, rats with SCI but no WBV (sham-treated) and a group that received passive flexion and extension (PFE) of their hind limbs served as controls. Compared to sham-treated rats, neither WBV nor PFE improved motor function. Only WBV14 and PFE improved body support. In line with earlier studies we failed to detect signs of soleus muscle atrophy (weight, cross sectional diameter, total amount of fibers, mean fiber diameter) or bone loss in the femur (length, weight, bone mineral density). One possible explanation is that, despite of injury extent, the preservation of some axons in the white matter, in combination with quadripedal locomotion, may provide sufficient trophic and neuronal support for the musculoskeletal system. PMID:26032204

  20. The short-term effect of whole-body vibration training on vertical jump, sprint, and agility performance.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Darryl J; Legg, Stephen J; Hooker, Michael J

    2004-11-01

    Previous studies have suggested that short-term whole-body vibration (WBV) training produces neuromuscular improvement similar to that of power and strength training. However, it is yet to be determined whether short-term WBV exposure produces neurogenic enhancement for power, speed, and agility. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect short-term WBV training had on vertical jump, sprint, and agility performance in nonelite athletes. Twenty-four sport science students (16 men and 8 women) were randomly assigned to 2 groups: WBV training or control. Each group included 8 men and 4 women. Countermovement jump (CMJ) height, squat jump (SJ) height, sprint speed over 5, 10, and 20 m, and agility (505, up and back) were performed by each participant before and after 9 days of either no training (control) or WBV training. Perceived discomfort of every participant was recorded after daily WBV exposure and nonexposure. There were no significant differences between WBV and control groups for CMJ, SJ, sprints, and agility. Perceived discomfort differed between the first and subsequent days of WBV training (p < 0.05); however, there was no difference between the WBV and control groups. It is concluded that short-term WBV training did not enhance performance in nonelite athletes.

  1. Effects of Strength Training Associated With Whole-Body Vibration Training on Running Economy and Vertical Stiffness.

    PubMed

    Roschel, Hamilton; Barroso, Renato; Tricoli, Valmor; Batista, Mauro A B; Acquesta, Fernanda M; Serrão, Júlio C; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Running economy (RE) is defined as the energy cost to maintain a submaximal running velocity and seems to be affected by individual's neuromuscular characteristics, such as stiffness level. Both resistance training (RT) and whole-body vibration training added to RT (WBV + RT) have been shown to influence those characteristics. Thus, it is conceivable that RT and WBV + RT could also affect RE. The objective of this study was to investigate if a 6-week training period of RT and WBV + RT influences RE and vertical stiffness (VS). Fifteen recreational runners were divided into RT or WBV + RT groups. Running economy, VS, and lower-limb maximum dynamic strength (1 repetition maximum [1RM] half-squat) were assessed before and after the 6-week training period. There was a main time effect for 1RM, but no other statistically significant difference was observed. Neither conventional RT nor RT performed on a WBV platform improved VS and RE in recreational long distance runners. It is possible that movement velocity was rather low, and utilization of stretch-shortening cycle might have been compromised, impairing any expected improvement in RE. PMID:25627640

  2. What is the most effective posture to conduct vibration from the lower to the upper extremities during whole-body vibration exercise?

    PubMed Central

    Tsukahara, Yuka; Iwamoto, Jun; Iwashita, Kosui; Shinjo, Takuma; Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Background Whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise is widely used for training and rehabilitation. However, the optimal posture for training both the upper and lower extremities simultaneously remains to be established. Objectives The objective of this study was to search for an effective posture to conduct vibration from the lower to the upper extremities while performing WBV exercises without any adverse effects. Methods Twelve healthy volunteers (age: 22–34 years) were enrolled in the study. To measure the magnitude of vibration, four accelerometers were attached to the upper arm, back, thigh, and calf of each subject. Vibrations were produced using a WBV platform (Galileo 900) with an amplitude of 4 mm at two frequencies, 15 and 30 Hz. The following three postures were examined: posture A, standing posture with the knees flexed at 30°; posture B, crouching position with no direct contact between the knees and elbows; and posture C, crouching position with direct contact between the knees and elbows. The ratio of the magnitude of vibration at the thigh, back, and upper arm relative to that at the calf was used as an index of vibration conduction. Results Posture B was associated with a greater magnitude of vibration to the calf than posture A at 15 Hz, and postures B and C were associated with greater magnitudes of vibration than posture A at 30 Hz. Posture C was associated with a vibration conduction to the upper arm that was 4.62 times and 8.26 times greater than that for posture A at 15 and 30 Hz, respectively. Conclusion This study revealed that a crouching position on a WBV platform with direct contact between the knees and elbows was effective for conducting vibration from the lower to the upper extremities. PMID:26793008

  3. An Updated Review of Epidemiologic Studies on the Relationship Between Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration and Low Back Pain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovenzi, M.; Hulshof, C. T. J.

    1998-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to update the information on the epidemiologic evidence of the adverse health effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the spinal system by means of a review of the epidemiologic studies published between 1986 and 1996. In a systematic search of epidemiologic studies of low back pain (LBP) disorders and occupations with exposure to WBV, 37 articles were retrieved. The quality of each study was evaluated according to criteria concerning the assessment of vibration exposure, assessment of health effects, and methodology. The epidemiologic studies reaching an adequate score on each of the above mentioned criteria, were included in the final review. A meta-analysis was also conducted in order to combine the results of independent epidemiologic studies. After applying the selection criteria, 16 articles reporting the occurrence of LBP disorders in 19 WBV-exposed occupational groups, reached a sufficient score. The study design was cross-sectional for 13 occupational groups, longitudinal for 5 groups and of case-control type for one group. The main reasons for the exclusion of studies were insufficient quantitative information on WBV exposure and the lack of control groups. The findings of the selected studies and the results of the meta-analysis of both cross-sectional and cohort studies showed that occupational exposure to WBV is associated with an increased risk of LBP, sciatic pain, and degenerative changes in the spinal system, including lumbar intervertebral disc disorders. Owing to the cross-sectional design of the majority of the reviewed studies, this epidemiologic evidence is not sufficient to outline a clear exposure-response relationship between WBV exposure and LBP disorders. Upon comparing the epidemiological studies included in this review with those conducted before 1986, it is concluded that research design and the quality of exposure and health effect data in the field of WBV have improved in the last decade.

  4. a Modal Analysis of Whole-Body Vertical Vibration, Using a Finite Element Model of the Human Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazaki, S.; Griffin, M. J.

    1997-02-01

    A two-dimensional model of human biomechanical responses to whole-body vibration has been developed, by using the finite element method. Beam, spring and mass elements were used to model the spine, viscera, head, pelvis and buttocks tissue in the mid-sagittal plane. The model was developed by comparison of the vibration mode shapes with those previously measured in the laboratory. At frequencies below 10 Hz, the model produced seven modes which coincided well with the measurements. The principal resonance of the driving point response at about 5 Hz consisted of an entire body mode, in which the head, spinal column and the pelvis move almost rigidly, with axial and shear deformation of tissue beneath the pelvis occurring in phase with a vertical visceral mode. The second principal resonance at about 8 Hz corresponded to a rotational mode of the pelvis, with a possible contribution from a second visceral mode. A shift of the principal resonance of the driving point response, when changing posture, was achieved only by changing the axial stiffness of the buttocks tissue. It is suggested that an increase in contact area between the buttocks and the thighs and the seat surface, when changing posture from erect to slouched, may decrease the axial stiffness beneath the pelvis, with a non-linear force-deflection relationship of tissue resulting in decreases in the natural frequencies. A change in posture from erect to slouched also increased shear deformation of tissue beneath the pelvis in the entire body mode, and the natural frequency was decreased as a result of the much lower shear stiffness of tissue compared to the axial stiffness.

  5. Acute effect of whole body vibration on isometric strength, squat jump, and flexibility in well-trained combat athletes

    PubMed Central

    Pekünlü, E

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on maximal strength, squat jump, and flexibility of well-trained combat athletes. Twelve female and 8 male combat athletes (age: 22.8 ± 3.1 years, mass: 65.4 ± 10.7 kg, height: 168.8 ± 8.8 cm, training experience: 11.6 ± 4.7 years, training volume: 9.3 ± 2.8 hours/week) participated in this study. The study consisted of three sessions separated by 48 hours. The first session was conducted for familiarization. In the subsequent two sessions, participants performed WBV or sham intervention in a randomized, balanced order. During WBV intervention, four isometric exercises were performed (26 Hz, 4 mm). During the sham intervention, participants performed the same WBV intervention without vibration treatment (0 Hz, 0 mm). Hand grip, squat jump, trunk flexion, and isometric leg strength tests were performed after each intervention. The results of a two-factor (pre-post[2] × intervention[2]) repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant interaction (p = 0.018) of pre-post × intervention only for the hand grip test, indicating a significant performance increase of moderate effect (net increase of 2.48%, d = 0.61) after WBV intervention. Squat jump, trunk flexion, and isometric leg strength performances were not affected by WBV. In conclusion, the WBV protocol used in this study potentiated hand grip performance, but did not enhance squat jump, trunk flexion, or isometric leg strength in well-trained combat athletes. PMID:26060334

  6. Effective seat-to-head transmissibility in whole-body vibration: Effects of posture and arm position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmatalla, Salam; DeShaw, Jonathan

    2011-12-01

    Seat-to-head transmissibility is a biomechanical measure that has been widely used for many decades to evaluate seat dynamics and human response to vibration. Traditionally, transmissibility has been used to correlate single-input or multiple-input with single-output motion; it has not been effectively used for multiple-input and multiple-output scenarios due to the complexity of dealing with the coupled motions caused by the cross-axis effect. This work presents a novel approach to use transmissibility effectively for single- and multiple-input and multiple-output whole-body vibrations. In this regard, the full transmissibility matrix is transformed into a single graph, such as those for single-input and single-output motions. Singular value decomposition and maximum distortion energy theory were used to achieve the latter goal. Seat-to-head transmissibility matrices for single-input/multiple-output in the fore-aft direction, single-input/multiple-output in the vertical direction, and multiple-input/multiple-output directions are investigated in this work. A total of ten subjects participated in this study. Discrete frequencies of 0.5-16 Hz were used for the fore-aft direction using supported and unsupported back postures. Random ride files from a dozer machine were used for the vertical and multiple-axis scenarios considering two arm postures: using the armrests or grasping the steering wheel. For single-input/multiple-output, the results showed that the proposed method was very effective in showing the frequencies where the transmissibility is mostly sensitive for the two sitting postures and two arm positions. For multiple-input/multiple-output, the results showed that the proposed effective transmissibility indicated higher values for the armrest-supported posture than for the steering-wheel-supported posture.

  7. Effect of vibration on muscle strength imbalance in lower extremity using multi-control whole body vibration platform.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chang Ho; Seo, Shin Bae; Kang, Seung Rok; Kim, Kyung; Kwon, Tae Kyu

    2015-01-01

    This study shows the improvement of muscle activity and muscle strength imbalance in the lower extremities through independent exercise loads in vibration platform. Twenty females of age 20 participated in this study. The subjects were divided into WBV group, with more than 10% of muscle strength imbalance between left and right the lower extremities, and control group, with less than 10% of muscle strength imbalance between left and right the lower extremities. As the prior experiment showed, different exercise postures provide different muscular activities. As a result, the highest muscular activity was found to be in the low squat posture. Therefore, the LS posture was selected for the exercise in this experiment. Vibration intensities were applied to dominant muscle and non-dominant muscle, and the vibration frequency was fixed at 25Hz for the WBV group. The control group was asked to perform the same exercise as the WBV group, without stimulated vibration. This exercise was conducted for a total of 4 weeks. As a result, the WBV group which showed an average deviation of 16% before the experiment, tended to decrease approximately to 5%. In this study, vibration exercise using load deviation is shown to be effective in improving the muscle strength imbalance.

  8. Triaxial modulation of the acceleration induced in the lower extremity during whole-body vibration training: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cook, David P; Mileva, Katya N; James, Darren C; Zaidell, Lisa N; Goss, Victor G; Bowtell, Joanna L

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to quantify vibration transmissibility through the lower extremity during exercise on a whole-body vibration (WBV) platform. Six healthy adults completed 20 trials of 30-second static squat exercise at 30 or 40 degrees of knee flexion angle on a WBV platform working at combinations of 5 frequencies (VF: 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 Hz) and 2 amplitudes (VA: low, 1.5 mm or high, 3 mm). Accelerations induced by the platform were recorded simultaneously at the shank and the thigh using triaxial accelerometers positioned at the segmental center of mass. Root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration amplitude and transmission ratios between the platform and the leg segments were calculated and compared between the experimental conditions. An alpha level of 0.05 was set to establish significance. Shank vertical acceleration was greatest at the lower VF (p = 0.028), higher VA (p = 0.028), and deeper squat (p = 0.048). Thigh vertical acceleration was not affected by depth of squat (p = 0.25), but it was greatest at higher VA (p = 0.046) and lower VF (p = 0.028). Medial-lateral shank acceleration was greatest at higher VF and deeper squat (both p = 0.046) and at higher VA (p = 0.028). Medial-lateral thigh acceleration was positively related to both VF (p = 0.046) and VA (p = 0.028) but was not affected by knee angle (p = 0.46). Anterior-posterior shank acceleration was higher at deeper squat (p = 0.046) and at lower VF and higher VA (both p = 0.028). Anterior-posterior thigh acceleration was related positively to the VA (p = 0.028), inversely to the VF (p = 0.028), and not dependent on knee angle (p = 0.75). Identification of specific vibration parameters and posture, which underpin WBV training efficacy, will enable coaches and athletes to design WBV training programs to specifically target shank or thigh muscles for enhanced performance.

  9. Muscle activity, cross-sectional area, and density following passive standing and whole body vibration: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Masani, Kei; Alizadeh-Meghrazi, Milad; Sayenko, Dimitry G.; Zariffa, Jose; Moore, Cameron; Giangregorio, Lora; Popovic, Milos R.; Catharine Craven, B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of intermittent passive standing (PS) and whole body vibration (WBV) on the electromyography (EMG) activity, cross-sectional area, and density of lower extremity muscles in individuals with chronic motor complete spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Case series. Methods Seven adult men with chronic (≥2 years), thoracic motor complete (AIS A–B) SCI completed a 40-week course of thrice-weekly intermittent PS-WBV therapy, in a flexed knee posture (160°), for 45 minutes per session at a frequency of 45 Hz and 0.6–0.7 mm displacement using the WAVE® Pro Plate, with an integrated EasyStand™ standing frame. EMG was measured in major lower extremity muscles to represent muscle activity during PS-WBV. The cross-sectional area and density of the calf muscles were measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography at the widest calf cross-section (66% of the tibia length) at pre- and post-intervention. All measured variables were compared between the pre- and post-intervention measurements to assess change after the PS-WBV intervention. Results PS-WBV acutely induced EMG activity in lower extremity muscles of SCI subjects. No significant changes in lower extremity EMG activity, muscle cross-sectional area, or density were observed following the 40-week intervention. Conclusions Although acute exposure to PS-WBV can induce electrophysiological activity of lower extremity muscles during PS in men with motor complete SCI, the PS-WBV intervention for 40 weeks was not sufficient to result in enhanced muscle activity, or to increase calf muscle cross-sectional area or density. PMID:25059652

  10. The Fate of Mrs Robinson: Criteria for Recognition of Whole-Body Vibration Injury as AN Occupational Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HULSHOF, C. T. J.; VAN DER LAAN, G.; BRAAM, I. T. J.; VERBEEK, J. H. A. M.

    2002-05-01

    Several recently published critical reviews conclude that there is strong epidemiological evidence for a relationship between occupational exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV), low back pain (LBP) and back disorders. Whether this exposure is only a modest or a substantial risk factor for the onset and recurrence of LBP is still a matter of debate. In spite of this controversy, four European Union countries have decided to recognize and compensate LBP and certain spinal disorders as an occupational disease. In this paper, we review the criteria currently in use for the recognition of this occupational disease. A search of the literature was performed; additional information was obtained in work visits to national occupational disease institutes in Germany, France and Belgium, in annual reports and national statistics on occupational diseases. Belgium was the first country to add WBV injury to the official list of occupational diseases (1978), followed by Germany (1993), the Netherlands (1997), and France (1999). The incidence of newly recognized cases in 1999 varied considerably: 763 in Belgium, 269 in France, 16 in Germany, and 10 reported cases in the Netherlands. The findings of this review indicate that significant differences exist in the established and applied diagnostic and exposure criteria in the four EU countries. This is illustrated by the case of Mrs Robinson, a 41-year-old forklift driver with LBP, who would probably get recognition and compensation in the Netherlands and Belgium but would be rejected in France and Germany. The development of uniform internationally accepted criteria is recommended, also from an epidemiological point of view, as many data are collected in the process of recognition of this occupational disease.

  11. Effect of a combination of whole-body vibration and low resistance jump training on neural adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsing-Kuo; Un, Chi-Pang; Lin, Kwan-Hwa; Chang, En-Chung; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang; Su, Sheng-Chu

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated and compared the effects of an eight-week program of whole body vibration combined with counter-movement jumping (WBV + CMJ) or counter-movement jumping (CMJ) alone on players. Twenty-four men's volleyball players of league A or B were randomized to the WBV + CMJ or CMJ groups (n = 12 and 12; mean [SD] age of 21.4 [2.2] and 21.7 [2.2] y; height of 175.6 [4.6] and 177.6 [3.9] cm; and weight, 69.9 [12.8] and 70.5 [10.7] kg, respectively). The pre- and post-training values of the following measurements were compared: H-reflex, first volitional (V)-wave, rate of electromyography rise (RER) in the triceps surae and absolute rate of force development (RFD) in plantarflexion and vertical jump height. After training, the WBV + CMJ group exhibited increases in H reflexes (p = 0.029 and <0.001); V-wave (p < 0.001); RER (p = 0.003 and <0.001); jump height (p < 0.001); and RFD (p = 0.006 and <0.001). The post-training values of V wave (p = 0.006) and RFD at 0-50 (p = 0.009) and 0-200 ms (p = 0.008) in the WBV + CMJ group were greater than those in the CMJ group. This study shows that a combination of WBV and power exercise could impact neural adaptation and leads to greater fast force capacity than power exercise alone in male players.

  12. Whole-body vibration decreases the proliferative response of TCD4+ cells in elderly individuals with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Tossige-Gomes, R.; Avelar, N.C.P.; Simão, A.P.; Neves, C.D.C.; Brito-Melo, G.E.A.; Coimbra, C.C.; Rocha-Vieira, E.; Lacerda, A.C.R.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding whole-body vibration (WBV; frequency = 35 to 40 Hz; amplitude = 4 mm) to squat training on the T-cell proliferative response of elderly patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. This study was a randomized controlled trial in which the selected variables were assessed before and after 12 weeks of training. Twenty-six subjects (72 ± 5 years of age) were divided into three groups: 1) squat training with WBV (WBV, N = 8); 2) squat training without WBV (N = 10), and 3) a control group (N = 8). Women who were ≥60 years of age and had been diagnosed with OA in at least one knee were eligible. The intervention consisted of 12 uninterrupted weeks of squatting exercise training performed 3 times/week. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from peripheral blood collected before and after training. The proliferation of TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells was evaluated by flow cytometry measuring the carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester fluorescence decay before and after the intervention (Δ). The proliferative response of TCD4+ cells (P = 0.02, effect size = 1.0) showed a significant decrease (23%) in the WBV group compared to the control group, while there was no difference between groups regarding the proliferative response of TCD8+ cells (P = 0.12, effect size = 2.23). The data suggest that the addition of WBV to squat exercise training might modulate T-cell-mediated immunity, minimizing or slowing disease progression in elderly patients with OA of the knee. PMID:22948377

  13. Adding whole body vibration to preconditioning exercise increases subsequent on-ice sprint performance in ice-hockey players.

    PubMed

    Rønnestad, Bent R; Slettaløkken, Gunnar; Ellefsen, Stian

    2016-04-01

    The phenomenon postactivation potentiation can possibly be used to acutely improve sprint performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of body-loaded half-squats with added whole body vibration (WBV) on subsequent 20 m on-ice sprint performance. Fifteen male ice-hockey players performed 4 test sessions on separate days and in a randomized order. Two of this test sessions were with WBV and 2 were with noWBV and the best sprint time was used to determine effectiveness. Each test session included preconditioning 30 seconds half-squat exercise, 2 of which were supplemented with 50 Hz WBV at a amplitude of 3 mm. One minute after the cessation of the preconditioning exercise, the 20 m sprint test was performed. Intermediate time was sampled after 10 m. Preconditioning exercise performed with 50 Hz WBV resulted in superior 10 m and 20 m sprint performance compared to preconditioning exercise performed without WBV (1.84 6 0.10 seconds vs. 1.89 6 0.10 seconds and 3.14 6 0.13 vs. 3.17 6 0.13 seconds, respectively, p # 0.01). There was no difference between the protocols in perceived well-being of the legs before the warm-up or after the warm up (p = 0.3). However, there was an improved well-being in the legs immediately after the preconditioning exercise with WBV (p , 0.05). In conclusion, preconditioning exercise performed with WBV at 50 Hz seems to enhance on-ice sprint performance in ice-hockey players. This suggests that coaches can incorporate such exercise into the preparation to specific sprint training to improve the quality of the training.

  14. The effect of whole-body vibration training and conventional strength training on performance measures in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Margaret T; Parker, Barry M; Cortes, Nelson

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of regular whole-body vibration (WBV) training on lower body strength and power. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III softball athletes (n = 9) completed the 9-week protocol as part of their off-season strength and conditioning program. The athletes were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. Week 1, pretesting included 3 repetition maximum (3RM) back squat, standing long jump (SLJ), and vertical countermovement jump (VCMJ). Phase I training (weeks 2-4) consisted of either WBV training (group 1) or conventional strength training (CST, group 2). The primary programmatic difference between WBV and CST was the inclusion of WBV sets after squat sets. Posttesting (3RM squat, SLJ, VCMJ) occurred at week 5. Phase II training (weeks 6-8) consisted of either WBV training (group 2) or CST (group 1). Posttesting was repeated at week 9 after the completion of phase II. Three 2 × 2 mixed factorial analyses of variance were computed. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between groups or between groups and testing period for the SLJ, VCMJ, and estimated 1RM back squat. Increases (p < 0.05) were observed in SLJ, VCMJ, and back squat from pretest to posttest 1. Back squat increased (p < 0.05) from posttest 1 to posttest 2. All the athletes experienced significantly greater (p < 0.05) percent changes from pretest to posttest 1 for SLJ and VCMJ. These results indicate that the inclusion of WBV as part of an off-season strength and conditioning program has no apparent benefit over CST methods for collegiate softball players.

  15. The effect of warm-up with whole-body vibration vs. cycle ergometry on isokinetic dynamometry.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Stephen B; Alvar, Brent A; Black, Laurie E; Dodd, Daniel J; Carothers, Kyle F; Brown, Lee E

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of warm-up protocols using either whole-body vibration (WBV) or cycle ergometry (CE) on peak torque at 3 different isokinetic speeds and on fatigue in the knee extension exercise. Twenty-seven recreationally trained (age = 23.59 ± 3.87 years) men (n = 14) and women (n = 13) were tested at 3 different isokinetic speeds (60, 180, 300°·s-1) after either WBV or CE warm-up. The WBV consisted of intermittent bouts of 30 seconds of isometric squats at various degrees of hip and knee flexion for a total of 5 minutes. The CE consisted of 5 minutes of pedaling a cycle ergometer at 65-85% of age-predicted max heart rate. Comparisons between the warm-up conditions were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance. For the fatigue comparison, subjects completed 50 continuous concentric knee extensions at 240°·s-1. Means from the first 3 repetitions were compared to means from the final 3 repetitions to establish a fatigue index. Conditions were compared through an independent T-test. No significant (p > 0.05) differences were discovered between warm-up conditions at any speed or on the fatigue index. Means were virtually identical at 60°·s-1 (WBV = 142.14 ± 43.61 ft lb-1; CE = 140.64 ± 42.72 ft lb-1), 180° s-1 (WBV = 93.88 ± 35.18 ft lb-1; CE = 96.36 ± 31.53 ft lb-1), and 300°·s-1 (WBV = 78.36 ± 26.04 ft lb-1; CE = 80.13 ± 26.08), and on fatigue percentage (WBV = 51.14 ± 10.06%; CE = 52.96 ± 9.19%). These data suggest that the more traditional 5-minute cycle ergometer warm-up elicits results comparable to a less common vibration warm-up. The findings of this study are that these modalities are comparable under the tested conditions.

  16. Dehydroepiandrosterone Supplementation Combined with Whole-Body Vibration Training Affects Testosterone Level and Body Composition in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang; Tzeng, Yen-Dun

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant sex steroid, is primarily secreted by the adrenal gland and a precursor hormone used by athletes for performance enhancement. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on to body composition, exercise performance, and hormone regulation are currently unclear. The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on body composition, exercise performance, and physical fatigue-related biochemical responses and testosterone content in young-adult C57BL/6 mice. In this study, male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) for 6-weeks treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), DHEA supplementation (DHEA, 10.2 mg/kg), WBV training (WBV; 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g), and WBV training with DHEA supplementation (WBV+DHEA; WBV: 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g and DHEA: 10.2 mg/kg). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time, as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, creatine kinase (CK), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) after a 15-min swimming exercise. In addition, the biochemical parameters and the testosterone content were measured at the end of the experiment. Six-week DHEA supplementation alone significantly increased mice body weight (BW), muscle weight, testosterone level, and glycogen contents (liver and muscle) when compared with SC group. DHEA supplementation alone had no negative impact on all tissue and biochemical profiles, but could not improve exercise performance. However, WBV+DHEA supplementation also significantly decreased BW, testosterone level and glycogen content of liver, as well as serum

  17. Characterization of the frequency and muscle responses of the lumbar and thoracic spines of seated volunteers during sinusoidal whole body vibration.

    PubMed

    Baig, Hassam A; Dorman, Daniel B; Bulka, Ben A; Shivers, Bethany L; Chancey, Valeta C; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2014-10-01

    Whole body vibration has been postulated to contribute to the onset of back pain. However, little is known about the relationship between vibration exposure, the biomechanical response, and the physiological responses of the seated human. The aim of this study was to measure the frequency and corresponding muscle responses of seated male volunteers during whole body vibration exposures along the vertical and anteroposterior directions to define the transmissibility and associated muscle activation responses for relevant whole body vibration exposures. Seated human male volunteers underwent separate whole body vibration exposures in the vertical (Z-direction) and anteroposterior (X-direction) directions using sinusoidal sweeps ranging from 2 to 18 Hz, with a constant amplitude of 0.4 g. For each vibration exposure, the accelerations and displacements of the seat and lumbar and thoracic spines were recorded. In addition, muscle activity in the lumbar and thoracic spines was recorded using electromyography (EMG) and surface electrodes in the lumbar and thoracic region. Transmissibility was determined, and peak transmissibility, displacement, and muscle activity were compared in each of the lumbar and thoracic regions. The peak transmissibility for vertical vibrations occurred at 4 Hz for both the lumbar (1.55 ± 0.34) and thoracic (1.49 ± 0.21) regions. For X-directed seat vibrations, the transmissibility ratio in both spinal regions was highest at 2 Hz but never exceeded a value of 1. The peak muscle response in both spinal regions occurred at frequencies corresponding to the peak transmissibility, regardless of the direction of imposed seat vibration: 4 Hz for the Z-direction and 2-3 Hz for the X-direction. In both vibration directions, spinal displacements occurred primarily in the direction of seat vibration, with little off-axis motion. The occurrence of peak muscle responses at frequencies of peak transmissibility suggests that such

  18. Apparent mass and cross-axis apparent mass of standing subjects during exposure to vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subashi, G. H. M. J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

    2006-05-01

    The effects of posture and vibration magnitude on the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the standing human body during exposure to vertical vibration have been investigated. Twelve male subjects were exposed to random vertical vibration over the frequency range 2.0-20 Hz at three vibration magnitudes: 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 m s -2 rms. Subjects stood in five different postures: upright, lordotic, anterior lean, knees bent and knees more bent. The vertical acceleration at the floor and the forces in the vertical and fore-and-aft directions at the floor were used to obtain the apparent mass and the cross-axis apparent mass. The resonance frequency of the apparent mass was significantly reduced with knees bent and knees more bent postures, but there were only minor effects on the resonance frequency by changing the position of the upper body. Considerable cross-axis apparent mass, up to about 30% of the static mass of subjects, was found. The cross-axis apparent mass was influenced by all postural changes used in the study. In all postures the resonance frequencies of the apparent mass and the cross-axis apparent mass tended to decrease with increasing vibration magnitude. This nonlinear characteristic tended to be less clear in some postures in which subjects increased muscle tension.

  19. Does whole-body vibration training in the horizontal direction have effects on motor function and balance of chronic stroke survivors? A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, GyuChang

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) in the horizontal direction on the motor function and balance of chronic stroke survivors. [Subjects and Methods] This study was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-one individuals with chronic stroke from an inpatient rehabilitation center participated in the study. The participants were allocated to either the WBV training group or the control group. The WBV training group (n = 12) received whole-body vibration delivered in the horizontal direction (15 min/day, 3 times/week, 6 wks) followed by conventional rehabilitation (30 min/day, 5 times/week, 6 wks); the control group (n = 9) received conventional rehabilitation only (30 min/day, 5 times/week, 6 wks). Motor function was measured by using the Fugl-Meyer assessment, and balance was measured by using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test before and after the interventions. [Results] After the interventions, all variables improved significantly compared with the baseline values in the WBV training group. In the control group, no significant improvements in any variables were noted. In addition, the BBS score in the WBV training group increased significantly compared with that in the control group. [Conclusion] WBV training with whole-body vibration delivered in the horizontal direction may be a potential intervention for improvement of motor function and balance in patients who previously experienced a stroke. PMID:25995573

  20. Hearing threshold and heart rate in men after repeated exposure to dynamic muscle work, sinusoidal vs stochastic whole body vibration and stable broadband noise.

    PubMed

    Manninen, O

    1984-01-01

    Changes in the temporary hearing threshold ( TTS2 ) and heart rate (HR) were examined in subjects exposed to stable noise, whole body vibration and dynamic muscular work at a dry-bulb temperature of 30 degrees C. The exposure combinations consisted of three categories of dynamic muscular work with varying loads ( 2W , 4W , 8W ), of two categories of noise and of three categories of vibration. The noise categories were: (1) no noise, and (2) stable, broadband (bandwidth 0.2-16.0 kHz) A-weighted noise with an intensity of 90 dB. The vibration categories were: (1) no vibration, (2) sinusoidal whole body vibration (Z-axis) with a frequency of 5 Hz, and (3) stochastic broadband (bandwidth 2.8-11.2 Hz) whole body vibration. A single test consisted of a control period of 30 min, three consecutive exposure periods of 16 min, each followed by a 4-min post-exposure interval and a recovery period of 15 min. The results of the variance analyses indicated that noise had the most notable effect on the TTS2 values at the hearing frequencies of both 4 and 6 kHz. Of the paired combinations, noise plus vibration and noise plus dynamic muscular work caused the most obvious combined effects. The combined effect of all three factors (noise, vibration and work) on the TTS2 values after three consecutive exposure periods was significant at the 2.5% level at the 4 kHz hearing frequency and at the 5% level at the 6 kHz hearing frequency. The added effect of vibration on enhanced TTS2 values was particularly clear when the vibration was stochastic and when the subjects had a low ( 2W ) working efficiency. Increasing the working efficiency, on the other hand, seemed to retard increases in the hearing threshold. Thus TTS2 values seemed to reflect the changes in HR values. It is as if the low rate of cardiovascular activity during light dynamic muscular work had enabled the manifestation of the cardiovascular effects of noise and vibration; during strenuous dynamic muscular work, however, the

  1. Energy Expenditure and Substrate Oxidation in Response to Side-Alternating Whole Body Vibration across Three Commonly-Used Vibration Frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Fares, Elie-Jacques; Charrière, Nathalie; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Schutz, Yves; Dulloo, Abdul G.; Miles-Chan, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim There is increasing recognition about the importance of enhancing energy expenditure (EE) for weight control through increases in low-intensity physical activities comparable with daily life (1.5–4 METS). Whole-body vibration (WBV) increases EE modestly and could present both a useful adjuvant for obesity management and tool for metabolic phenotyping. However, it is unclear whether a “dose-response” exists between commonly-used vibration frequencies (VF) and EE, nor if WBV influences respiratory quotient (RQ), and hence substrate oxidation. We aimed to investigate the EE-VF and RQ-VF relationships across three different frequencies (30, 40, and 50Hz). Methods EE and RQ were measured in 8 healthy young adults by indirect calorimetry at rest, and subsequently during side-alternating WBV at one of 3 VFs (30, 40, and 50 Hz). Each frequency was assessed over 5 cycles of intermittent WBV (30s vibration/30s rest), separated by 5 min seated rest. During the WBV participants stood on the platform with knees flexed sufficiently to maintain comfort, prevent transmission of vibration to the upper body, and minimise voluntary physical exertion. Repeatability was assessed across 3 separate days in a subset of 4 individuals. In order to assess any sequence/habituation effect, an additional group of 6 men underwent 5 cycles of intermittent WBV (30s vibration/30s rest) at 40 Hz, separated by 5 min seated rest. Results Side-alternating WBV increased EE relative to standing, non-vibration levels (+36%, p<0.001). However, no differences in EE were observed across VFs. Similarly, no effect of VF on RQ was found, nor did WBV alter RQ relative to standing without vibration. Conclusion No relationship could be demonstrated between EE and VF in the range of 30-50Hz, and substrate oxidation did not change in response to WBV. Furthermore, the thermogenic effect of intermittent WBV, whilst robust, was quantitatively small (<2 METS). PMID:26974147

  2. Effect of combining passive muscle stretching and whole body vibration on spasticity and physical performance of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Tupimai, Teeraporn; Peungsuwan, Punnee; Prasertnoo, Jitlada; Yamauchi, Juinichiro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the immediate and short-term effects of a combination of prolonged passive muscle stretching (PMS) and whole body vibration (WBV) on the spasticity, strength and balance of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] A randomized two-period crossover trial was designed. Twelve subjects with cerebral palsy aged 10.6 ± 2.4 years received both PMS alone as a control group (CG) and a combination of PMS and WBV as an experimental group (EG). After random allocation to the trial schedules of either EG-CG or CG-EG, CG received prolonged PMS while standing on a tilt-table for 40 minutes/day, and EG received prolonged PMS for 30 minutes, followed by 10 minutes WBV. Both CG and EG received the treatment 5 days/week for 6 weeks. [Results] Immediately after one treatment, EG resulted in better improvement in scores on the Modified Ashworth Scale than CG. After the 6-week intervention, EG also showed significantly decreased scores on the Modified Ashworth Scale compared to CG. Both CG and EG showed significantly reduced the performance times in the five times sit to stand test, and EG also showed significantly increased scores on the pediatric balance scale. [Conclusion] This study showed that 6 weeks of combined prolonged PMS and WBV had beneficial effects on the spasticity, muscle strength and balance of children and adolescents with CP. PMID:26957720

  3. Whole-body cryostimulation as an effective way of reducing exercise-induced inflammation and blood cholesterol in young men.

    PubMed

    Ziemann, Ewa; Olek, Robert A; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Kaczor, Jan J; Antosiewicz, Jędrzej; Skrobot, Wojciech; Kujach, Sylwester; Laskowski, Radosław

    2014-03-01

    Inflammation may accompany obesity and a variety of diseases, or result from excessive exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of whole-body cryostimulation on the inflammatory response induced by eccentric exercise under laboratory conditions. The study also sought to establish if cold treatment changes the lipid profile and modifies energy expenditure in young people. Eighteen healthy and physically active, college-aged men volunteered to participate in the experiment. They were divided into two subgroups: CRY- submitted to whole-body cryostimulation, and CONT- a control group. Both groups performed eccentric work to induce muscle damage. Blood samples were collected before and 24 h after the exercise. Over the five days that followed, the CRY group was exposed to a series of 10 sessions in a cryogenic chamber (twice a day, for 3 min, at a temperature of -110̊C). After this period of rest, both groups repeated a similar eccentric work session, following the same schedule of blood collection. The perceived pain was noted 24h after each session of eccentric workout. A 30-minute step up/down work-out induced delayed-onset muscle soreness in both groups. The five-day recovery period accompanied by exposure to cold significantly enhanced the concentration of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. It also led to a pronounced reduction in levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, and reduced muscle damage. The values for IL-10 before the second bout of eccentric exercise in the CRY group were 2.0-fold higher in comparison to baseline, whereas in the CONT group, the concentration remained unchanged. Furthermore, blood concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β fell significantly in the CRY group. The main finding of this study was that a series of 10 sessions of whole body cryostimulation significantly reduced the inflammatory response induced by eccentric exercise. The lipid profile was also improved, but there

  4. Alternative to traditional stretching methods for flexibility enhancement in well-trained combat athletes: local vibration versus whole-body vibration

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of local vibration (LV) and whole body vibration (WBV) on lower body flexibility and to assess whether vibration treatments were more effective than traditionally used static and dynamic stretching methods. Twenty-four well-trained male combat athletes (age: 22.7 ± 3.3 years) performed four exercise protocols – LV (30 Hz, 4 mm), WBV (30 Hz, 4 mm), static stretching (SS), and dynamic stretching (DS) – in four sessions of equal duration 48 hours apart in a randomized, balanced order. During a 15-minute recovery after each protocol, subjects performed the stand and reach test (S&R) at the 15th second and the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th and 15th minute. There was a similar change pattern in S&R scores across the 15-minute recovery after each protocol (p = 0.572), remaining significantly elevated throughout the recovery. A significant main protocol effect was found for absolute change in S&R scores relative to baseline (p = 0.015). These changes were statistically greater in LV than WBV and DS. Changes in SS were not significantly different from LV, but were consistently lower than LV with almost moderate effect sizes. After LV, a greater percentage of subjects increased flexibility above the minimum detectable change compared to other protocols. Subjects with high flexibility (n = 12) benefited more from LV compared with other methods (effect size ≥ 0.862). In conclusion, LV was an effective alternative exercise modality to acutely increase lower extremity flexibility for well-trained athletes compared with WBV and traditional stretching exercises. PMID:26424926

  5. Effect of Muscle Tension on Non-Linearities in the Apparent Masses of Seated Subjects Exposed to Vertical Whole-Body Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MATSUMOTO, Y.; GRIFFIN, M. J.

    2002-05-01

    In subjects exposed to whole-body vibration, the cause of non-linear dynamic characteristics with changes in vibration magnitude is not understood. The effect of muscle tension on the non-linearity in apparent mass has been investigated in this study. Eight seated male subjects were exposed to random and sinusoidal vertical vibration at five magnitudes (0·35-1·4 m/s2 r.m.s.). The random vibration was presented for 60 s over the frequency range 2·0-20 Hz; the sinusoidal vibration was presented for 10 s at five frequencies (3·15, 4·0, 5·0, 6·3 and 8·0 Hz). Three sitting conditions were adopted such that, in two conditions, muscle tension in the buttocks and the abdomen was controlled. It was assumed that, in these two conditions, involuntary changes in muscle tension would be minimized. The force and acceleration at the seat surface were used to obtain apparent masses of subjects. With both sinusoidal and random vibration, there was statistical support for the hypothesis that non-linear characteristics were less clear when muscle tension in the buttocks and the abdomen was controlled. With increases in the magnitude of random vibration from 0·35 to 1·4 m/s2 r.m.s., the apparent mass resonance frequency decreased from 5·25 to 4·25 Hz with normal muscle tension, from 5·0 to 4·38 Hz with the buttocks muscles tensed, and from 5·13 to 4·5 Hz with the abdominal muscles tensed. Involuntary changes in muscle tension during whole-body vibration may be partly responsible for non-linear biodynamic responses.

  6. Anti-LPS antibodies reduce endotoxemia in whole body Co-60 irradiated primates - A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, M.T.; Gaffin, S.L.; Wessels, B.C.; Brock-Utne, J.G.; Jordaan, J.P. )

    1990-09-01

    A previously established primate model was used to evaluate the role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) in radiation sickness. Vervet monkeys were Co-60 irradiated with an LD100 exposure and had periodic blood samples taken for the determination of LPS and anti-LPS lgG antibodies and for bacteriological studies. On day 2 postirradiation, primates were treated with either sterile 0.9 percent saline, or equine anti-LPS hyperimmune plasma, or tripotassium-dicitrato-bismuthate (Denol). Results indicate that anti-LPS-treated animals survived significantly longer than both the other groups and, since LPS may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, and headaches, it is suggested that Anti-LPS administration may be of value in reducing plasma LPS concentration in humans and improving their performance and survivability. 24 refs.

  7. [Simultaneous whole-body PET-MRI in pediatric oncology : More than just reducing radiation?].

    PubMed

    Gatidis, S; Gückel, B; la Fougère, C; Schmitt, J; Schäfer, J F

    2016-07-01

    Diagnostic imaging plays an essential role in pediatric oncology with regard to diagnosis, therapy-planning, and the follow-up of solid tumors. The current imaging standard in pediatric oncology includes a variety of radiological and nuclear medicine imaging modalities depending on the specific tumor entity. The introduction of combined simultaneous positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has opened up new diagnostic options in pediatric oncology. This novel modality combines the excellent anatomical accuracy of MRI with the metabolic information of PET. In initial clinical studies, the technical feasibility and possible diagnostic advantages of combined PET-MRI have been in comparison with alternative imaging techniques. It was shown that a reduction in radiation exposure of up to 70 % is achievable compared with PET-CT. Furthermore, it has been shown that the number of imaging studies necessary can be markedly reduced using combined PET-MRI. Owing to its limited availability, combined PET-MRI is currently not used as a routine procedure. However, this new modality has the potential to become the imaging reference standard in pediatric oncology in the future. This review article summarizes the central aspects of pediatric oncological PET-MRI based on existing literature. Typical pediatric oncological PET-MRI cases are also presented.

  8. Nighttime snacking reduces whole body fat oxidation and increases LDL cholesterol in healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Hibi, Masanobu; Masumoto, Ayumi; Naito, Yuri; Kiuchi, Kahori; Yoshimoto, Yayoi; Matsumoto, Mai; Katashima, Mitsuhiro; Oka, Jun; Ikemoto, Shinji

    2013-01-15

    The increase in obesity and lipid disorders in industrialized countries may be due to irregular eating patterns. Few studies have investigated the effects of nighttime snacking on energy metabolism. We examined the effects of nighttime snacking for 13 days on energy metabolism. Eleven healthy women (means ± SD; age: 23 ± 1 yr; body mass index: 20.6 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)) participated in this randomized crossover trial for a 13-day intervention period. Subjects consumed a specified snack (192.4 ± 18.3 kcal) either during the daytime (10:00) or the night time (23:00) for 13 days. On day 14, energy metabolism was measured in a respiratory chamber without snack consumption. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed on day 15. Relative to daytime snacking, nighttime snacking significantly decreased fat oxidation (daytime snacking: 52.0 ± 13.6 g/day; nighttime snacking: 45.8 ± 14.0 g/day; P = 0.02) and tended to increase the respiratory quotient (daytime snacking: 0.878 ± 0.022; nighttime snacking: 0.888 ± 0.021; P = 0.09). The frequency of snack intake and energy intake, body weight, and energy expenditure were not affected. Total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol significantly increased after nighttime snacking (152 ± 26 mg/dl and 161 ± 29 mg/dl; P = 0.03 and 76 ± 20 mg/dl and 83 ± 24 mg/dl; P = 0.01, respectively), but glucose and insulin levels after the glucose load were not affected. Nighttime snacking increased total and LDL cholesterol and reduced fat oxidation, suggesting that eating at night changes fat metabolism and increases the risk of obesity.

  9. Influence of forest machine function on operator exposure to whole-body vibration in a cut-to-length timber harvester.

    PubMed

    Sherwin, L M; Owende, P M O; Kanali, C L; Lyons, J; Ward, S M

    2004-09-15

    The influence of machine function (tree felling and processing, and machine movement over the terrain) on operator exposure to whole-body vibration in a cut-to-length (CTL) timber harvester was evaluated. Vibrations were measured on the seat and the cabin chassis in three orthogonal (x, y, z) axes for the tree felling and processing, and during motion on a test track. It was found that the level of vibration transmitted to the operator during felling and processing was mainly affected by the tree size (diameter). For tree diameter at breast height (dbh) range of 0.25-0.35 m that was investigated, the vertical (z-axis) vibration component during processing increased by up to 300%, and increased by 50% during felling. However, the associated vibration levels were not sufficient to pose any serious health risks to the operator for an exposure limit of 8 h. Vibration at the operator seat and cabin chassis was predominant in the lateral (y-axis) and vertical (z-axis) respectively, during vehicle motion over the standard test track. Vibration peaks of approximately 0.20 and 0.17 ms(-2) occurred at 5 and 3.2 Hz respectively. PMID:15370853

  10. The acute effects of different training loads of whole body vibration on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in divers.

    PubMed

    Dallas, G; Paradisis, G; Kirialanis, P; Mellos, V; Argitaki, P; Smirniotou, A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of different vibration loads (frequency and amplitude) of whole-body vibration (WBV) on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in springboard divers. Eighteen male and female divers, aged 19 ± 2 years, volunteered to perform 3 different WBV protocols in the present study. To assess the vibration effect, flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs were measured before (Pre), immediately after (Post 1) and 15 min after the end of vibration exposure (Post 15). Three protocols with different frequencies and amplitudes were used in the present study: a) low vibration frequency and amplitude (30 Hz/2 mm); b) high vibration frequency and amplitude (50 Hz/4 mm); c) a control protocol (no vibration). WBV protocols were performed on a Power Plate platform, whereas the no vibration divers performed the same protocol but with the vibration platform turned off. A two-way ANOVA 3 x 3 (protocol × time) with repeated measures on both factors was used. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Univariate analyses with simple contrasts across time were selected as post hoc tests. Intraclass coefficients (ICC) were used to assess the reliability across time. The results indicated that flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs were significantly higher in both WBV protocols compared to the no vibration group (NVG). The greatest improvement in flexibility and explosive strength, which occurred immediately after vibration treatment, was maintained 15 min later in both WBV protocols, whereas NVG revealed a significant decrease 15 min later, in all examined strength parameters. In conclusion, a bout of WBV significantly increased flexibility and explosive strength in competitive divers compared with the NVG. Therefore, it is recommended to incorporate WBV as a method to increase flexibility and vertical jump height in sports where these parameters play an important role in the success outcome of

  11. The acute effects of different training loads of whole body vibration on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in divers

    PubMed Central

    Paradisis, G; Kirialanis, P; Mellos, V; Argitaki, P; Smirniotou, A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of different vibration loads (frequency and amplitude) of whole-body vibration (WBV) on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in springboard divers. Eighteen male and female divers, aged 19 ± 2 years, volunteered to perform 3 different WBV protocols in the present study. To assess the vibration effect, flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs were measured before (Pre), immediately after (Post 1) and 15 min after the end of vibration exposure (Post 15). Three protocols with different frequencies and amplitudes were used in the present study: a) low vibration frequency and amplitude (30 Hz/2 mm); b) high vibration frequency and amplitude (50 Hz/4 mm); c) a control protocol (no vibration). WBV protocols were performed on a Power Plate platform, whereas the no vibration divers performed the same protocol but with the vibration platform turned off. A two-way ANOVA 3 x 3 (protocol × time) with repeated measures on both factors was used. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Univariate analyses with simple contrasts across time were selected as post hoc tests. Intraclass coefficients (ICC) were used to assess the reliability across time. The results indicated that flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs were significantly higher in both WBV protocols compared to the no vibration group (NVG). The greatest improvement in flexibility and explosive strength, which occurred immediately after vibration treatment, was maintained 15 min later in both WBV protocols, whereas NVG revealed a significant decrease 15 min later, in all examined strength parameters. In conclusion, a bout of WBV significantly increased flexibility and explosive strength in competitive divers compared with the NVG. Therefore, it is recommended to incorporate WBV as a method to increase flexibility and vertical jump height in sports where these parameters play an important role in the success outcome of

  12. Assessing combined exposures of whole-body vibration and awkward posture--further results from application of a simultaneous field measurement methodology.

    PubMed

    Raffler, Nastaran; Hermanns, Ingo; Sayn, Detlef; Göres, Benno; Ellegast, Rolf; Rissler, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    The drivers of ten vehicles (tram, helicopter, saloon car, van, forklift, two mobile excavators, wheel loader, tractor, elevating platform truck) were studied with regard to the combined exposures of whole-body vibration and awkward posture during occupational tasks. Seven degrees of freedom (DOFs), or body angles, were recorded as a function of time by means of the CUELA measuring system (Computer-assisted registration and long-term analysis of musculoskeletal workloads) for the purpose of posture assessment. The vibrational exposure is expressed as the vector sum of the frequency-weighted accelerations in the three Cartesian coordinates; these were recorded simultaneously with the posture measurement. Based upon the percentage of working time spent under different workloads, a scheme is proposed for classification of the two exposures into three categories. In addition, a risk of adverse health effects classified as low, possible or high can be assigned to the combination of the two exposures. With regard to posture, the most severe exposure was measured for the drivers of the wheel loader and for the tractor driver, whereas the lowest exposure was measured for the helicopter pilots and van drivers. With regard to the combination of whole-body and posture exposures, the tractor driver and the elevating platform truck driver exhibited the highest workloads.

  13. Assessing combined exposures of whole-body vibration and awkward posture--further results from application of a simultaneous field measurement methodology.

    PubMed

    Raffler, Nastaran; Hermanns, Ingo; Sayn, Detlef; Göres, Benno; Ellegast, Rolf; Rissler, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    The drivers of ten vehicles (tram, helicopter, saloon car, van, forklift, two mobile excavators, wheel loader, tractor, elevating platform truck) were studied with regard to the combined exposures of whole-body vibration and awkward posture during occupational tasks. Seven degrees of freedom (DOFs), or body angles, were recorded as a function of time by means of the CUELA measuring system (Computer-assisted registration and long-term analysis of musculoskeletal workloads) for the purpose of posture assessment. The vibrational exposure is expressed as the vector sum of the frequency-weighted accelerations in the three Cartesian coordinates; these were recorded simultaneously with the posture measurement. Based upon the percentage of working time spent under different workloads, a scheme is proposed for classification of the two exposures into three categories. In addition, a risk of adverse health effects classified as low, possible or high can be assigned to the combination of the two exposures. With regard to posture, the most severe exposure was measured for the drivers of the wheel loader and for the tractor driver, whereas the lowest exposure was measured for the helicopter pilots and van drivers. With regard to the combination of whole-body and posture exposures, the tractor driver and the elevating platform truck driver exhibited the highest workloads. PMID:20953080

  14. Cardiovascular changes and hearing threshold shifts in men under complex exposures to noise, whole body vibrations, temperatures and competition-type psychic load.

    PubMed

    Manninen, O

    1985-01-01

    This study deals with changes in the temporary hearing threshold (TTS2), heart rate (HR), R-wave amplitude (RWA), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), pulse pressure (PP) and reaction time (RT) in subjects (n = 108) who, while working on a choice reaction apparatus, were exposed in an exposure chamber to combinations of noise and vibration at dry bulb temperatures of 20 degrees and 30 degrees C. The study was carried out as a type 2-3-3 factorial experiment, the number of the exposure combinations thus being 18. To find out the effects of competition-type psychic stress, some of the subjects were placed in a competitive group and some in a non-competitive group. The members of the competitive group were given financial encouragement and information on their progress during the test, whereas those in the non-competitive group worked at the rate they considered best without any monetary rewards or interim information. The noise classes were: no noise, a stable broadband (bandwidth 0.2-16.0 kHz) A-weighted noise of 90 dB not related to competition, and a stable broadband A-weighted noise of 90 dB related to competition about the fastest reaction time. The vibration classes were: no vibration, sinusoidal whole body vibration (Z-axis) at a frequency of 5 Hz, and stochastic broadband (bandwidth 2.8-11.2 Hz) whole body vibration (Z-axis). The acceleration (rms) of both vibrations was 2.12 m/s2. One experiment consisted of a control period of 30 min, three consecutive exposure periods of 16 min with an interval of 4 min, and a 15-min recovery period. The variance analysis model best explained the variation in TTS2 values at 4 kHz and second best the variation in TTS2 values at 6 kHz; it explained the variation in HR values third best, the variation in SBP values fourth best and the variation in PP values fifth best. On the other hand, the model explained least well the variation in DBP and RWA values. In general, the explanatory power of the model

  15. Short-term effect of whole-body vibration training on balance, flexibility and lower limb explosive strength in elite rhythmic gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Despina, Tsopani; George, Dallas; George, Tsiganos; Sotiris, Papouliakos; Alessandra, Di Cagno; George, Korres; Maria, Riga; Stavros, Korres

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether whole-body vibration (WBV) training results in short-term performance improvements in flexibility, strength and balance tests in comparison to an equivalent exercise program performed without vibration. Eleven elite rhythmic gymnasts completed a WBV trial, and a control, resistance training trial without vibration (NWBV). The vibration trial consisted of eccentric and concentric squatting exercises on a vibration platform that was turned on, whereas the NWBV involved the same training protocol with the platform turned off. Balance was assessed using the Rhythmic Weight Shift (RWS) based on the EquiTest Dynamic Posturography system; flexibility was measured using the sit & reach test, and lower limb explosive strength was evaluated using standard exercises (squat jump, counter movement jump, single leg squat). All measurements were performed before (pre) immediately after the training program (post 1), and 15 minutes after the end of the program (post 15). Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA was used with condition (WBV-NWBV) as the primary factor and time (pre, post 1, post 15) as the nested within subjects factor, followed by post-hoc pairwise comparison with Bonferroni corrections. Results confirmed the hypothesis of the superiority of WBV training, especially in the post 15 measurement, in all flexibility and strength measures, as well as in a number of balance tests. PMID:24055361

  16. The effect of low-magnitude whole body vibration on bone density and microstructure in men and women with chronic motor complete paraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Wuermser, Lisa-Ann; Beck, Lisa A.; Lamb, Jeffry L.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Amin, Shreyasee

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of low-magnitude whole body vibration on bone density and microstructure in women and men with chronic motor complete paraplegia. Methods We studied nine subjects (four women and five men) with motor complete paraplegia of 2 years duration or more, age 20–50 years. Subjects were instructed to stand on a low-magnitude vibration plate within a standing frame for 20 minutes per day, 5 days a week, and for 6 months. Bone density at the proximal femur by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and bone microstructure at the distal tibia by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography were assessed at four timepoints over 12 months (baseline, at 3 months and 6 months while on intervention, and after 6 months off intervention). Results Standing on the low-magnitude vibration plate with a standing frame was well tolerated by participants. However, most subjects did not show an improvement in bone density or microstructure after 6 months of intervention, or any relevant changes 6 months following the discontinuation of the low-magnitude vibration. Conclusion We were unable to identify an improvement in either bone density or microstructure following 6 months use of a low-magnitude vibration plate in women or men with chronic motor complete paraplegia. Longer duration of use may be necessary, or it is possible that this intervention is of limited benefit following chronic spinal cord injury. PMID:24621040

  17. Effect of whole-body vibration on neuromuscular performance and body composition for females 65 years and older: a randomized-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    von Stengel, S; Kemmler, W; Engelke, K; Kalender, W A

    2012-02-01

    We examined whether the effect of multipurpose exercise can be enhanced by whole-body vibration (WBV). One hundred and fifty-one post-menopausal women (68.5 ± 3.1 years) were randomly assigned to three groups: (1) a training group (TG); (2) training including vibration (VTG); and (3) a wellness control group (CG). TG and VTG performed the same training program twice weekly (60 min), consisting of aerobic and strength exercises, with the only difference that leg strength exercises (15 min) were performed with (VTG) or without (TG) vibration. CG performed a low-intensity "wellness" program. At baseline and after 18 months, body composition was determined using dual-X-ray-absorptiometry. Maximum isometric strength was determined for the legs and the trunk region. Leg power was measured by countermovement jumps using a force-measuring plate. In the TG lean body mass, total body fat, and abdominal fat were favorably affected, but no additive effects were generated by the vibration stimulus. However, concerning muscle strength and power, there was a tendency in favor of the VTG. Only vibration training resulted in a significant increase of leg and trunk flexion strength compared with CG. In summary, WBV embedded in a multipurpose exercise program showed minor additive effects on body composition and neuromuscular performance.

  18. Short-term effect of whole-body vibration training on balance, flexibility and lower limb explosive strength in elite rhythmic gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Despina, Tsopani; George, Dallas; George, Tsiganos; Sotiris, Papouliakos; Alessandra, Di Cagno; George, Korres; Maria, Riga; Stavros, Korres

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether whole-body vibration (WBV) training results in short-term performance improvements in flexibility, strength and balance tests in comparison to an equivalent exercise program performed without vibration. Eleven elite rhythmic gymnasts completed a WBV trial, and a control, resistance training trial without vibration (NWBV). The vibration trial consisted of eccentric and concentric squatting exercises on a vibration platform that was turned on, whereas the NWBV involved the same training protocol with the platform turned off. Balance was assessed using the Rhythmic Weight Shift (RWS) based on the EquiTest Dynamic Posturography system; flexibility was measured using the sit & reach test, and lower limb explosive strength was evaluated using standard exercises (squat jump, counter movement jump, single leg squat). All measurements were performed before (pre) immediately after the training program (post 1), and 15 minutes after the end of the program (post 15). Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA was used with condition (WBV-NWBV) as the primary factor and time (pre, post 1, post 15) as the nested within subjects factor, followed by post-hoc pairwise comparison with Bonferroni corrections. Results confirmed the hypothesis of the superiority of WBV training, especially in the post 15 measurement, in all flexibility and strength measures, as well as in a number of balance tests.

  19. Changes in circulating angiogenic factors after an acute training bout before and after resistance training with or without whole-body-vibration training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beijer, Åsa; Degens, Hans; May, Francisca; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Joern; Rosenberger, Andre

    2012-07-01

    Both Resistance Exercise and Whole-Body-Vibration training are currently considered as countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Here we investigated the effects of whole-body vibration superimposed upon resistance exercise. Within this context, the present study focuses on changes in circulating angiogenic factors as indicators of skeletal muscle adaption. Methods: Twenty-six healthy male subjects (25.2 ± 4.2 yr) were included in this two-group parallel-designed study and randomly assigned to one of the training interventions: either resistance exercise (RE) or resistance vibration exercise (RVE). Participants trained 2-3 times per week for 6 weeks (completing 16 training sessions), where one session took 9 ± 1 min. Participants trained with weights on a guided barbell. The individual training load was set at 80% of their 1-Repetition-Maximum. Each training session consisted of three sets with 8 squats and 12 heel raises, following an incremental training design with regards to weight (RE and RVE) and vibration frequency (RVE only). The vibration frequency was increased from 20 Hz in the first week till 40 Hz during the last two weeks with 5-Hz weekly increments. At the first and 16 ^{th} training session, six blood samples (pre training and 2 min, 5 min, 15 min, 35 min and 75 min post training) were taken. Circulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Endostatin and Matrix Metalloproteinases -2 and -9 (MMPs) were determined in serum using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays. Results: MMP-2 levels increased by 7.0% (SE = 2.7%, P < 0.001) within two minutes after the exercise bout and then decreased to 5.7% below baseline (SE = 2.4%, P < 0.001) between 15 and 75 minutes post exercise. This response was comparable before and after the training programs (P = 0.70) and also between the two intervention groups (P = 0.42). Preliminary analyses indicate that a similar pattern applies to circulating MMP-9, VEGF and

  20. Whole body motion-detection tasks can yield much lower thresholds than direction-recognition tasks: implications for the role of vibration.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Shomesh E; Karmali, Faisal; Merfeld, Daniel M

    2013-12-01

    Earlier spatial orientation studies used both motion-detection (e.g., did I move?) and direction-recognition (e.g., did I move left/right?) paradigms. The purpose of our study was to compare thresholds measured with motion-detection and direction-recognition tasks on a standard Moog motion platform to see whether a substantial fraction of the reported threshold variation might be explained by the use of different discrimination tasks in the presence of vibrations that vary with motion. Thresholds for the perception of yaw rotation about an earth-vertical axis and for interaural translation in an earth-horizontal plane were determined for four healthy subjects with standard detection and recognition paradigms. For yaw rotation two-interval detection thresholds were, on average, 56 times smaller than two-interval recognition thresholds, and for interaural translation two-interval detection thresholds were, on average, 31 times smaller than two-interval recognition thresholds. This substantive difference between recognition thresholds and detection thresholds is one of our primary findings. For motions near our measured detection threshold, we measured vibrations that matched previously established vibration thresholds. This suggests that vibrations contribute to whole body motion detection. We also recorded yaw rotation thresholds on a second motion device with lower vibration and found direction-recognition and motion-detection thresholds that were not significantly different from one another or from the direction-recognition thresholds recorded on our Moog platform. Taken together, these various findings show that yaw rotation recognition thresholds are relatively unaffected by vibration when moderate (up to ≈ 0.08 m/s(2)) vibration cues are present.

  1. Earth moving machine whole-body vibration and the contribution of Sub-1Hz components to ISO 2631-1 metrics.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Neil J; Newell, Geraldine S; Notini, Luca

    2009-08-01

    Exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) is an occupational hazard for operators of industrial vehicles, such as earth-moving machines. Quantification of WBV exposure in terms of impact on health forms one aspect of the Standard ISO 2631-1 (1997). Regarding assessment of risk to health, ISO 2631-1 (1997) states that if WBV components below 1 Hz are not ;relevant nor important' then they can be excluded from the assessment. In this paper the influence of sub-1 Hz components in WBV acquired from a sample of 46 earth moving machines is evaluated in terms of their contribution to ISO 2631-1 WBV exposure dose metrics: frequency weighted r.m.s. and the vibration dose value (VDV). For the majority of machines, a high proportion of the horizontal (x- and y-axis) WBV r.m.s. and VDV values was generated by sub-1 Hz vibration components; there was a much lower proportion of the vertical (z-axis) vibration generated by such components.

  2. Assessment of whole-body vibration exposures and influencing factors for quarry haul truck drivers and loader operators

    PubMed Central

    Mayton, Alan G.; Jobes, Christopher C.; Gallagher, Sean

    2015-01-01

    To further assess vibration exposure on haul trucks (HTs) and front-end wheel loaders (FELs), follow-up investigations were conducted at two US crushed stone operations. The purpose was to: 1) evaluate factors such as load/no-load conditions, speed, load capacity, vehicle age, and seat transmissibility relative to vibration exposure; 2) compare exposure levels with existing ISO/ANSI and EUGPG guidelines. Increasing HT speed increased recorded vibration at the chassis and seat as expected. Neither vehicle load nor vehicle speed increased transmissibility. Increasing HT size and age did show transmissibility decreasing. HT dominant-axis wRMS levels (most often the y-axis, lateral or side-to-side direction) were predominantly within the health guidance caution zone (HGCZ). However, several instances showed vibration dose value (VDV) above the exposure limit value (ELV) for the ISO/ANSI guidelines. VDV levels (all dominant x-axis or fore-aft) were within and above the HGCZ for the EUGPG and above the HGCZ for ISO/ANSI guidelines. PMID:26361493

  3. Non-linear characteristics in the dynamic responses of seated subjects exposed to vertical whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yasunao; Griffin, Michael J

    2002-10-01

    The effect of the magnitude of vertical vibration on the dynamic response of the seated human body has been investigated. Eight male subjects were exposed to random vibration in the 0.5 to 20 Hz frequency range at five magnitudes: 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 ms(-2) r.m.s. The dynamic responses of the body were measured at eight locations: at the first, fifth, and tenth thoracic vertebrae (T1, T5, T10), at the first, third, and fifth lumbar vertebrae (L1, L3, L5) and at the pelvis (the posterior-superior iliac spine). At each location, the motions on the body surface were measured in the three orthogonal axes within the sagittal plane (i.e., the vertical, fore-and-aft, and pitch axes). The force at the seat surface was also measured. Frequency response functions (i.e., transmissibilities and apparent mass) were used to represent the responses of the body. Non-linear characteristics were observed in the apparent mass and in the transmissibilities to most measurement locations. Resonance frequencies in the frequency response functions decreased with increases in the vibration magnitude (e.g. for the vertical transmissibility to L3, a reduction from 6.25 to 4.75 Hz when the vibration magnitude increased from 0.125 to 2.0 ms(-2) r.m.s.). The transmission of vibration within the spine also showed some evidence of a non-linear characteristic. It can be concluded from this study that the dynamic responses of seated subjects are clearly non-linear with respect to vibration magnitude, whereas previous studies have reported inconsistent conclusions. More understanding of the dependence on vibration magnitude of both the dynamic responses of the soft tissues of the body and the muscle activity (voluntary and involuntary) is required to identify the causes of the non-linear characteristics observed in this study.

  4. The effects of whole-body vibration exercise on isokinetic muscular function of the knee and jump performance depending on squatting position

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaeyuong; Park, Yunjin; Seo, Yonggon; Kang, Gyumin; Park, Sangseo; Cho, Hyeyoung; Moon, Hyunghoon; Kim, Myungki; Yu, Jaeho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of whole-body vibration exercise (WBVE) on isokinetic muscular function of the knee and jump performance depending on different squatting positions. [Subjects] The subjects were 12 healthy adult men who did not exercise regularly between the ages of 27 and 34. [Methods] WBVE was performed with high squat position (SP), middle SP, and low SP. Before and after the intervention, isokinetic muscular function of the knees and jump performance were measured. [Results] Knee flexion peak torque at 60°/s and total work at 180°/s were significantly increased after implementing WBVE. Jump height also significantly increased after completing the exercise at all positions in comparison with the pre-exercise programs. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that SP during WBVE is an important factor stimulating positive effects on muscular function. PMID:26957749

  5. DOSE-RESPONSE Relationships Between Whole-Body Vibration and Lumbar Disk DISEASE—A Field Study on 388 Drivers of Different Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarze, S.; Notbohm, G.; Dupuis, H.; Hartung, E.

    1998-08-01

    In a longitudinal study, the dose-response relationships between long term occupational exposure to whole-body vibration and degenerative processes in the lumbar spine caused by the lumbar disks were examined. From 1990 to 1992, 388 vibration-exposed workers from different driving jobs were examined medically and by lumbar X-ray. For each individual, a history of all exposure conditions was recorded, and a cumulative vibration dose was calculated allowing comparisons between groups of low, middle, and high intensity of exposure. 310 subjects were selected for a follow-up four years later, of whom 90·6% (n=281) agreed to participate. In comparing the exposure groups, the results indicate that the limit value ofazw(8h)=0·8 m/s2should be reviewed. The best fit between the lifelong vibration dose and the occurrence of a lumbar syndrome was obtained by applying a daily reference ofazw(8h)=0·6 ms2as a limit value. The results became more distinct still when only those subjects were included in the statistical analysis who had had no lumbar symptoms up to the end of the first year of exposure. The prevalence of lumbar syndrome is 1·55 times higher in the highly exposed group when compared to the reference group with low exposure (CI95%=1·24/1·95). Calculating the cumulative incidence of new cases of lumbar syndrome in the follow-up period yields a relative risk ofRRMH=1·37 (CI95%=0·86/2·17) for the highly exposed group. It is concluded that the limit value for the calculation of an individual lifelong vibration dose should be based on a daily reference exposure ofazw(8h)=0·6 m/s2. With increasing dose it is more and more probable that cases of lumbar syndrome are caused by exposure to vibration.

  6. Whole-body vibration attenuates the increase in leg arterial stiffness and aortic systolic blood pressure during post-exercise muscle ischemia.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Arturo; Gil, Ryan; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A

    2011-07-01

    Exercise with whole-body vibration (WBV) decreases brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a marker of systemic arterial stiffness. To examine the effect of WBV on arterial responses, 12 young men underwent three experimental trials: (1) no-exercise control (CON), (2) static squat with WBV, and (3) static squat without WBV (no-WBV). Bilateral baPWV and femoral-ankle PWV (faPWV), carotid-femoral PWV (cfPWV), augmentation index (AIx), first (P1) and second (P2) systolic peaks, aortic systolic blood pressure (aSBP), and heart rate (HR) were assessed at rest, during 4-min post-exercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) on the left thigh, and 4-min recovery. During PEMI, right faPWV increased (P < 0.05) after no-WBV and did not change after CON and WBV. Right baPWV, P2, and aSBP increased (P < 0.05) after both exercise trials, but the increase was lower (P < 0.05) after WBV than no-WBV. The increases in cfPWV (P < 0.05), AIx (P < 0.05), P1 (P < 0.01), and HR (P < 0.05) were similar in both trials during PEMI. During recovery, right faPWV and baPWV remained similar than rest after WBV and CON, but remained elevated (P < 0.05) after no-WBV. Aortic SBP, P1, and P2 remained elevated (P < 0.05) in both exercise trials during recovery, but the levels were lower (P < 0.05) than PEMI. Left faPWV and baPWV were reduced (P < 0.05) from rest in the three trials. CfPWV, AIx, and HR returned to resting levels in both exercises. WBV prevents the increases in faPWV and attenuates the increase in baPWV and aSBP induced by post-static squat muscle ischemia due to an attenuated P2 response.

  7. Ride quality and international standard ISO 2631 (Guide for the evaluation of human exposure to whole-body vibration)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, G. R.

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of the standard, which is aimed at promoting research and production of more data, and providing some design guidance, is outlined and its contents summarized. Some of the assumptions and information on which it is based are analyzed. Its application to vehicle ride quality is considered in the context of the safety, efficiency and comfort of crew and passengers. The importance of establishing the precise criteria against which vibration limits are required is underlined, particularly the difficulties of first defining comfort and then postulating appropriate levels. Some current and future work related to improving the standard is outlined and additional suggestions offered.

  8. Whole body vibration improves osseointegration by up-regulating osteoblastic activity but down-regulating osteoblast-mediated osteoclastogenesis via ERK1/2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi; Guan, Xiaoxu; Liu, Tie; Wang, Xinhua; Yu, Mengfei; Yang, Guoli; Wang, Huiming

    2015-02-01

    Due to the reduction in bone mass and deterioration in bone microarchitecture, osteoporosis is an important risk factor for impairing implant osseointegration. Recently, low-magnitude, high-frequency (LMHF) vibration (LM: <1×g; HF: 20-90Hz) has been shown to exhibit anabolic, but anti-resorptive effects on skeletal homeostasis. Therefore, we hypothesized that LMHF loading, in terms of whole body vibration (WBV), may improve implant fixation under osteoporotic status. In the in vivo study, WBV treatment (magnitude: 0.3g, frequency: 40Hz, time: 30min/12h, 5days/week) was applied after hydroxyapatite-coated titanium implants were inserted in the bilateral tibiae of ovariectomized rats. The bone mass and the osteospecific gene expressions were measured at 12weeks post implantation. In the in vitro study, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities were fully investigated using various experimental assays. Micro-CT examination showed that WBV could enhance osseointegration by improving microstructure parameters surrounding implants. WBV-regulated gene levels in favor of bone formation over resorption may be the reason for the favorable adaptive bone remolding on bone-implant surface. The in vitro study showed that vibration (magnitude: 0.3g, frequency: 40Hz, time: 30min/12h) up-regulated osteoblast differentiation, matrix synthesis and mineralization. However, mechanically regulated osteoclastic activity was mainly through the effect on osteoblastic cells producing osteoclastogenesis-associated key soluble factors, including RANKL and M-CSF. Osteoblasts were therefore the direct target cells during the mechanotransduction process. The ERK1/2 pathway was demonstrated to play an essential role in vibration-induced enhancement of bone formation and decreased bone resorption. Our data suggests that WBV was a helpful non-pharmacological intervention for improving osseointegration under osteoporosis.

  9. Comparison between whole-body vibration, light-emitting diode, and cycling warm-up on high-intensity physical performance during sprint bicycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Teles, Maria C; Fonseca, Ivana A T; Martins, Jeanne B; de Carvalho, Marielle M; Xavier, Murilo; Costa, Sidney J; de Avelar, Núbia C P; Ribeiro, Vanessa G C; Salvador, Fabiano S; Augusto, Leonardo; Mendonça, Vanessa A; Lacerda, Ana C R

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation and whole-body vibration (WBV) delivered either in isolation or combination (LED + WBV), warm-up (WU), and a control (C) treatment on performance during a sprint bicycle exercise. Ten cyclists performed a 30-second sprint cycle test under these conditions. The LED light was applied at 4 points bilaterally. Whole-body vibration consisted of 5 minutes of squats associated with WBV. LED + WBV consisted of WBV followed by LED therapy. Warm-up consisted of 17 minutes of moderate-intensity bicycle exercise. Control consisted of 10 minutes at rest. Blood lactate (BL) and ammonia (BA) levels and skin temperature (ST) were determined. Peak power (842 ± 117 vs. 800 ± 106 vs. 809 ± 128 W [p = 0.02 and p = 0.01]), relative power (12.1 ± 1.0 vs. 11.5 ± 0.9 vs. 11.6 ± 1.0 W·kg [p = 0.02 and p = 0.02]), and relative work (277 ± 23 vs. 263 ± 24 vs. 260 ± 23 J·kg [p = 0.02 and p = 0.003]) were higher in the WU group compared with the control and LED groups. In the LED + WBV group, peak (833 ± 115 vs. 800 ± 106 W [p = 0.02]) and relative (11.9 ± 0.9 vs. 11.5 ± 0.9 W·kg [p = 0.02]) power were higher than those in the control group, and relative work (272 ± 22 vs. 260 ± 23 J·kg [p = 0.02]) were improved compared with the LED group. There were no differences for BL, BA, and ST. The findings of this study confirmed the effectiveness of a warm-up as a preparatory activity and demonstrated that LED + WBV and WBV were as effective as WU in improving cyclist performance during a sprint bicycle exercise. PMID:25764492

  10. Comparison between whole-body vibration, light-emitting diode, and cycling warm-up on high-intensity physical performance during sprint bicycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Teles, Maria C; Fonseca, Ivana A T; Martins, Jeanne B; de Carvalho, Marielle M; Xavier, Murilo; Costa, Sidney J; de Avelar, Núbia C P; Ribeiro, Vanessa G C; Salvador, Fabiano S; Augusto, Leonardo; Mendonça, Vanessa A; Lacerda, Ana C R

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation and whole-body vibration (WBV) delivered either in isolation or combination (LED + WBV), warm-up (WU), and a control (C) treatment on performance during a sprint bicycle exercise. Ten cyclists performed a 30-second sprint cycle test under these conditions. The LED light was applied at 4 points bilaterally. Whole-body vibration consisted of 5 minutes of squats associated with WBV. LED + WBV consisted of WBV followed by LED therapy. Warm-up consisted of 17 minutes of moderate-intensity bicycle exercise. Control consisted of 10 minutes at rest. Blood lactate (BL) and ammonia (BA) levels and skin temperature (ST) were determined. Peak power (842 ± 117 vs. 800 ± 106 vs. 809 ± 128 W [p = 0.02 and p = 0.01]), relative power (12.1 ± 1.0 vs. 11.5 ± 0.9 vs. 11.6 ± 1.0 W·kg [p = 0.02 and p = 0.02]), and relative work (277 ± 23 vs. 263 ± 24 vs. 260 ± 23 J·kg [p = 0.02 and p = 0.003]) were higher in the WU group compared with the control and LED groups. In the LED + WBV group, peak (833 ± 115 vs. 800 ± 106 W [p = 0.02]) and relative (11.9 ± 0.9 vs. 11.5 ± 0.9 W·kg [p = 0.02]) power were higher than those in the control group, and relative work (272 ± 22 vs. 260 ± 23 J·kg [p = 0.02]) were improved compared with the LED group. There were no differences for BL, BA, and ST. The findings of this study confirmed the effectiveness of a warm-up as a preparatory activity and demonstrated that LED + WBV and WBV were as effective as WU in improving cyclist performance during a sprint bicycle exercise.

  11. Effects of an eight-week whole body vibration on lower extremity muscle tone and function in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Yu, Yu-Chun; Wong, Alice May-Kuen; Tsai, Yung-Shen; Ju, Yan-Ying

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an eight-week whole body vibration (WBV) on lower extremity spasticity and ambulatory function in children with cerebral palsy with a complete crossover design. Sixteen participants aged 9.2 (2.1) years participated in this study. Half of the participants received a 10-min WBV, 3 times a week for 8 weeks. Then a 4-week washout period followed, after which they received a sham WBV 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The other half received the intervention in a reversed order. The participants were evaluated via variables measuring range-of-motion, muscle tone, and ambulatory function before, immediately after, 1 day after, and 3 days after each intervention. Repeated-measures analyses revealed significant beneficial effects on most variables expect the passive range-of-motion measurement. Significant correlations were found between timed up-and-go and relaxation index, and between timed up-and-go and six-minute walk test. The results suggested that an 8-week WBV intervention normalized muscle tone, improved active joint range and enhanced ambulatory performance in children with cerebral palsy for at least 3 days. These indicated that regular WBV can serve as an alternative, safe, and efficient treatment for these children in both clinical and home settings.

  12. Whole-body vibration effects on the muscle activity of upper and lower body muscles during the baseball swing in recreational baseball hitters.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Gabriel F; Dickin, D Clark; Crusat, Nolan J K; Dolny, Dennis G

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the muscle recruitment of selected upper and lower body muscles during the baseball swing. Participants were recreationally trained males (n = 16, 22 +/- 2 years, 181.4 +/- 7.4 cm, 84.7 +/- 9.0 kg), with previous baseball experience. Subjects participated in three randomized sessions on separate days, consisting of three sets of five swings offa hitting tee. Exercises (upper and lower body dynamic and static movements) with or without WBVexposure were performed between swing sets. During each swing, the gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, and triceps brachii were evaluated for electromyographic (EMG) activity. EMG values were normalized to EMG measured during maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences in EMG activity across the three treatments. In addition, the results displayed a specific muscle recruitment order during the swing, starting with the lower body followed by the upper body muscles. This study was the first to report the recruitment order during the baseball swing. Although acute exposure to WBV did not significantly alter the muscle recruitment, these results may prove useful for practitioners looking to enhance baseball swing performance. PMID:22303781

  13. Benefits of Whole-Body Vibration, as a Component of the Pulmonary Rehabilitation, in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Narrative Review with a Suitable Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sá-Caputo, Danubia; Gonçalves, Cintia Renata; Morel, Danielle Soares; Marconi, Eloá Moreira; Fróes, Patrícia; Rufino, Rogério; Costa, Cláudia Henrique; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Arnóbio, Adriano; Asad, Nasser Ribeiro; Marin, Pedro Jesus; Furness, Trentham; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Background. Appropriate management, including pulmonary rehabilitation, associated with correct diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in patients can contribute to improving clinical conditions of these patients. Physical activity is recommended for COPD patients. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a modality of physical activity. Putting together the biological effects and safe use of WBV, it may be a potentially feasible intervention to add to pulmonary rehabilitation. The purpose of this investigation was to systematically review studies regarding the effects of WBV, as a component of the pulmonary rehabilitation, in patients with COPD. Results. A total of six publications met inclusion for review. There was evidence to support the beneficial use of WBV to improve functional performance of the lower limbs and quality of life. However, the appropriateness of and descriptors of WBV methods were poorly described. Conclusions. The results of this review support the use of WBV as a component of pulmonary rehabilitation to assist management of patients with COPD. However, future research should examine the dose-response curve and optimal dosing regimen of WBV according to standard reporting recommendations for people with COPD. Such an approach will allow comparison among studies and the potential of meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PMID:27190529

  14. Factors affecting the perception of whole-body vibration of occupational drivers: an analysis of posture and manual materials handling and musculoskeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Raffler, Nastaran; Ellegast, Rolf; Kraus, Thomas; Ochsmann, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Due to the high cost of conducting field measurements, questionnaires are usually preferred for the assessment of physical workloads and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). This study compares the physical workloads of whole-body vibration (WBV) and awkward postures by direct field measurements and self-reported data of 45 occupational drivers. Manual materials handling (MMH) and MSDs were also investigated to analyse their effect on drivers' perception. Although the measured values for WBV exposure were very similarly distributed among the drivers, the subjects' perception differed significantly. Concerning posture, subjects seemed to estimate much better when the difference in exposure was significantly large. The percentage of measured awkward trunk and head inclination were significantly higher for WBV-overestimating subjects than non-overestimators; 77 and 80% vs. 36 and 33%. Health complaints in terms of thoracic spine, cervical spine and shoulder–arm were also significantly more reported by WBV-overestimating subjects (42, 67, 50% vs. 0, 25, 13%, respectively). Although more MMH was reported by WBV-overestimating subjects, there was no statistical significance in this study. PMID:26114619

  15. Whole body vibration exercise improves body balance and walking velocity in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate: Galileo and Alendronate Intervention Trail (GAIT).

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, J; Sato, Y; Takeda, T; Matsumoto, H

    2012-09-01

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the effect of 6 months of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise on physical function in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate. Fifty-two ambulatory postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (mean age: 74.2 years, range: 51-91 years) were randomly divided into two groups: an exercise group and a control group. A four-minute WBV exercise was performed two days per week only in the exercise group. No exercise was performed in the control group. All the women were treated with alendronate. After 6 months of the WBV exercise, the indices for flexibility, body balance, and walking velocity were significantly improved in the exercise group compared with the control group. The exercise was safe and well tolerated. The reductions in serum alkaline phosphatase and urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen during the 6-month period were comparable between the two groups. The present study showed the benefit and safety of WBV exercise for improving physical function in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate.

  16. Whole-body vibration effects on the muscle activity of upper and lower body muscles during the baseball swing in recreational baseball hitters.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Gabriel F; Dickin, D Clark; Crusat, Nolan J K; Dolny, Dennis G

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on the muscle recruitment of selected upper and lower body muscles during the baseball swing. Participants were recreationally trained males (n = 16, 22 +/- 2 years, 181.4 +/- 7.4 cm, 84.7 +/- 9.0 kg), with previous baseball experience. Subjects participated in three randomized sessions on separate days, consisting of three sets of five swings offa hitting tee. Exercises (upper and lower body dynamic and static movements) with or without WBVexposure were performed between swing sets. During each swing, the gastrocnemius, biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, and triceps brachii were evaluated for electromyographic (EMG) activity. EMG values were normalized to EMG measured during maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences in EMG activity across the three treatments. In addition, the results displayed a specific muscle recruitment order during the swing, starting with the lower body followed by the upper body muscles. This study was the first to report the recruitment order during the baseball swing. Although acute exposure to WBV did not significantly alter the muscle recruitment, these results may prove useful for practitioners looking to enhance baseball swing performance.

  17. The effects of whole body vibration in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Caroline C.; Barreto, Rodrigo P. G.; Sbruzzi, Graciele; Plentz, Rodrigo D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Whole body vibration (WBV) has been used to increase physical activity levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Objective: To carry out a systematic review of the effects of WBV on the glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors, and physical and functional capacity of patients with T2DM. Method: MEDLINE, LILACS, PEDro, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched up to June 1st, 2015. Randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of WBV, compared to control or other intervention, on blood glucose levels, blood and physical cardiovascular risk factors, and physical and functional capacity in adult individuals with T2DM. Two independent reviewers extracted the data regarding authors, year of publication, number of participants, gender, age, WBV parameters and description of intervention, type of comparison, and mean and standard deviation of pre and post assessments. Results: Out of 585 potentially eligible articles, two studies (reported in four manuscripts) were considered eligible. WBV interventions provided a significant reduction of 25.7 ml/dl (95% CI:-45.3 to -6.1; I2: 19%) in 12 hours fasting blood glucose compared with no intervention. Improvements in glycated hemoglobin, cardiovascular risk factors, and physical and functional capacity were found only at 12 weeks after WBV intervention in comparison with no intervention. Conclusion: WBV combined with exercise seems to improve glycemic control slightly in patients with T2DM in an exposure-dependent way. Large and well-designed trials are still needed to establish the efficacy and understand whether the effects were attributed to vibration, exercise, or a combination of both. PMID:26578253

  18. A model of the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the human body during vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawayseh, Naser; Griffin, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The apparent mass of the human body reflects gross movements caused by whole-body vibration and can be used to predict the influence of body dynamics on seat transmissibility. With vertical excitation, various models fit the measured vertical apparent mass of the human body, but experiments also show high fore-and-aft forces on the seat (the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass) that have not influenced current models. This paper defines a model that predicts the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the seated human body during vertical excitation. A three degree-of-freedom model with vertical, fore-and-aft and rotational (i.e. pitch) degrees of freedom has been developed with twelve model parameters (representing inertia, stiffness, damping, and geometry) optimised to the measured vertical apparent mass and the measured fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the body. The model provides close fits to the moduli and phases for both median data and the responses of 12 individual subjects. The optimum model parameters found by fitting to the median apparent mass of 12 subjects were similar to the medians of the same parameters found by fitting to the individual apparent masses of the same 12 subjects. The model suggests the seated human body undergoes fore-and-aft motion on a seat when exposed to vertical excitation, with the primary resonance frequency of the apparent mass arising from vertical motion of the body. According to the model, changes in the vertical, fore-and-aft, or rotational degree of freedom have an effect on the resonance in the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass.

  19. Changes in Bone Biomarkers, BMC, and Insulin Resistance Following a 10-Week Whole Body Vibration Exercise Program in Overweight Latino Boys

    PubMed Central

    Erceg, David N.; Anderson, Lindsey J.; Nickles, Chun M.; Lane, Christianne J.; Weigensberg, Marc J.; Schroeder, E. Todd

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: With the childhood obesity epidemic, efficient methods of exercise are sought to improve health. We tested whether whole body vibration (WBV) exercise can positively affect bone metabolism and improve insulin/glucose dynamics in sedentary overweight Latino boys. Methods: Twenty Latino boys 8-10 years of age were randomly assigned to either a control (CON) or 3 days/wk WBV exercise (VIB) for 10-wk. Results: Significant increases in BMC (4.5±3.2%; p=0.01) and BMD (1.3±1.3%; p<0.01) were observed for the VIB group when compared to baseline values. For the CON group BMC significantly increased (2.0±2.2%; p=0.02), with no change in BMD (0.8±1.3%; p=0.11). There were no significant between group changes in BMC or BMD. No significant change was observed for osteocalcin and (collagen type I C-telopeptide) CTx for the VIB group. However, osteocalcin showed a decreasing trend (p=0.09) and CTx significantly increased (p<0.03) for the CON group. This increase in CTx was significantly different between groups (p<0.02) and the effect size of between-group difference in change was large (-1.09). There were no significant correlations between osteocalcin and measures of fat mass or insulin resistance for collapsed data. Conclusion: Although bone metabolism was altered by WBV training, no associations were apparent between osteocalcin and insulin resistance. These findings suggest WBV exercise may positively increase BMC and BMD by decreasing bone resorption in overweight Latino boys. PMID:26078710

  20. The effects of passive warm-up vs. whole-body vibration on high-intensity performance during sprint cycle exercise.

    PubMed

    Avelar, Núbia C P; Costa, Sidney J; da Fonseca, Sueli F; Tossige-Gomes, Rosalina; Gripp, Fernando J; Coimbra, Cândido C; Lacerda, Ana C R

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of passive warm-up (PW), whole-body vibration (WBV), and control (C) on high-intensity performance during sprint cycle exercise. Six recreationally trained men performed a 30-second sprint cycle test after the 3 aforementioned conditions; each test was carried out on a different day after balanced-order experimental tests. The WBV consisted of 5 minutes of squats associated with WBV (45 Hz, 2 mm). The PW consisted of 30 minutes of PW using a thermal blanket on the thighs and legs (35 W). The C consisted of 30 minutes of no warm-up with the subject lying down. Motor neuron excitability from the vastus lateralis muscle, evaluated by electromyography (EMG), was determined before exercise at rest and during sprint cycle exercise. Blood lactate levels (BLs), evaluated by spectroscopy, and muscle temperature (MT) of the thigh, estimated indirectly by measuring skin temperature, were determined at following time points: before exercise at rest (before and after experimental conditions), immediately, and 3 minutes after the 30-second sprint cycle test. Peak power, relative power, relative work, time of peak power, and pedaling cadence were significantly higher in the WBV compared with that for C (p < 0.05). Although MT was significantly greater in PW compared with that in WBV and C before exercise (p < 0.01), no significant differences were observed between the experimental conditions for BL immediately after sprint cycle exercise (p = 0.35) and in EMG during sprint cycle exercise (p = 0.16). Thus, it is plausible to suggest WBV as a method for an acute increase in high-intensity performance during sprint cycle exercise for athletes immediately before competition or training.

  1. Dietary supplementation of β-guanidinopropionic acid (βGPA) reduces whole-body and skeletal muscle growth in young CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Baumgarner, Bradley L; Nagle, Alison M; Quinn, Meagan R; Farmer, A Elaine; Kinsey, Stephen T

    2015-05-01

    Increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity leads to enhanced fatty acid utilization, while also promoting increased ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis (UDP) in mammalian skeletal muscle. β-guanidinopropionic acid (βGPA) is a commercially available dietary supplement that has been shown to promote an AMPK-dependent increase in fatty acid utilization and aerobic capacity in mammals by compromising creatine kinase function. However, it remains unknown if continuous βGPA supplementation can negatively impact skeletal muscle growth in a rapidly growing juvenile. The current study was conducted to examine the effect of βGPA supplementation on whole-body and skeletal muscle growth in juvenile and young adult mice. Three-week old, post weanling CD-1 mice were fed a standard rodent chow that was supplemented with either 2% (w/w) α-cellulose (control) or βGPA. Control and βGPA-fed mice (n = 6) were sampled after 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Whole-body and hindlimb muscle masses were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in βGPA-fed mice by 2 weeks. The level of AMPK (T172) phosphorylation increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the gastrocnemius of βGPA-fed versus control mice at 2 weeks, but was not significantly different at the 4- and 8-week time points. Further analysis revealed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the skeletal muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase MAFbx/Atrogin-1 protein and total protein ubiquitination in the gastrocnemius of βGPA versus control mice at the 8-week time point. Our data indicate that feeding juvenile mice a βGPA-supplemented diet significantly reduced whole-body and skeletal muscle growth that was due, at least in part, to an AMPK-independent increase in UDP.

  2. Influence of Whole-Body Vibration Training Without Visual Feedback on Balance and Lower-Extremity Muscle Strength of the Elderly: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Shiuan-Yu; Lai, Chung-Liang; Chang, Kai-Ling; Hsu, Pi-Shan; Lee, Meng-Chih; Wang, Chun-Hou

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of whole-body vibration (WBV) training without visual feedback on balance and lower-extremity muscle strength in the elderly.Elderly subjects who did not exercise regularly participated in this study. Subjects were randomly divided into a WBV with eyes open group, a visual feedback-deprived plus WBV (VFDWBV) group, and a control group (0 Hz, eyes open). WBV training was provided over a 3-month period, 3 times per week for 5 min each session. Balance performance was measured with the limits of stability test, and muscle strength was measured with an isokinetic dynamometer.A total of 45 elderly subjects with an average age of 69.22  ±  3.97 years, divided into a WBV group (n = 14), a VFDWBV group (n = 17), and a control group (n = 14), completed the trial. Statistically significant differences were found in the balance performance of the 3 groups at different time points (time × group interaction: F = 13.213, P < 0.001), and the VFDWBV group had more improvement in balance than the WBV and control groups. The strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles had time × group interactions: F = 29.604, P < 0.001 and F = 4.684, P = 0.015, respectively; the VFDWBV group had more improvement on lower-extremity muscle strength than the WBV and control groups. The 6-month follow-up showed that the rates of hospital visits for medical services due to falls were 0% in the WBV group (0/14), 0% in the VFDWBV group (0/17), and 28.57% in the control group (4/14).Results showed that WBV training at 20  Hz without visual feedback can significantly improve the balance performance and lower-extremity muscle strength of the elderly. PMID:26844514

  3. Modelling the effects of exposure to whole-body vibration on low-back pain and its long-term consequences for sickness absence and associated work disability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdorf, A.; Hulshof, C. T. J.

    2006-12-01

    BackgroundExposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known risk factor for the occurrence of low-back pain (LBP). Little is known about the long-term course of back pain in workers exposed to WBV and the consequences for (temporary) disability, due to lack of cohort studies with sufficiently long follow-up periods. MethodsA systematic review of the literature was performed to assess associations between exposure to WBV and LBP, sickness absence due to low-back disorders and permanent disability. A meta-analysis was used to estimate the prevalences of LBP and sickness absence due to low-back disorders in occupational populations, depending on relevant exposure characteristics. These prevalences were converted into probabilities for transitions between no complaints, LBP, sickness due to LBP, and disability. A Markov model was applied to evaluate a hypothetical cohort of workers without LBP at the start of the cohort and a follow-up of 40 years (40 cycles of 1 year) to reflect a long-life career with continuous exposure to WBV. ResultsIn this hypothetical cohort it was estimated that among workers with the highest exposure to WBV on average about 47 weeks of their working life were lost due to sick leave because of LBP, which is approximately 2.5% of their working life. When all workers on prolonged sick leave for 52 weeks would remain disabled for the rest of their working life, a maximum of 23.4% of their working life could be lost due to high WBV exposure. Among workers without or low exposure to WBV the corresponding losses were 0.8% and 7.8%, respectively. ConclusionThe approach to assess years of work lost due to an occupational exposure may provide a more adequate description for stakeholders than the traditional measures of relative risk or attributable risk fraction. The concept of work years lost may also facilitate a better appreciation of the potential benefits of preventive measures.

  4. Whole-body Vibration Exposure of Drill Operators in Iron Ore Mines and Role of Machine-Related, Individual, and Rock-Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Dhanjee Kumar; Bhattacherjee, Ashis; Patra, Aditya Kumar; Chau, Nearkasen

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess the whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure among large blast hole drill machine operators with regard to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) recommended threshold values and its association with machine- and rock-related factors and workers' individual characteristics. Methods The study population included 28 drill machine operators who had worked in four opencast iron ore mines in eastern India. The study protocol comprised the following: measurements of WBV exposure [frequency weighted root mean square (RMS) acceleration (m/s2)], machine-related data (manufacturer of machine, age of machine, seat height, thickness, and rest height) collected from mine management offices, measurements of rock hardness, uniaxial compressive strength and density, and workers' characteristics via face-to-face interviews. Results More than 90% of the operators were exposed to a higher level WBV than the ISO upper limit and only 3.6% between the lower and upper limits, mainly in the vertical axis. Bivariate correlations revealed that potential predictors of total WBV exposure were: machine manufacturer (r = 0.453, p = 0.015), age of drill (r = 0.533, p = 0.003), and hardness of rock (r = 0.561, p = 0.002). The stepwise multiple regression model revealed that the potential predictors are age of operator (regression coefficient β = −0.052, standard error SE = 0.023), manufacturer (β = 1.093, SE = 0.227), rock hardness (β = 0.045, SE = 0.018), uniaxial compressive strength (β = 0.027, SE = 0.009), and density (β = –1.135, SE = 0.235). Conclusion Prevention should include using appropriate machines to handle rock hardness, rock uniaxial compressive strength and density, and seat improvement using ergonomic approaches such as including a suspension system. PMID:26929838

  5. Early Adolescence: Whole Body Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Roger K., Jr.; Padilla, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    "Whole body" denotes using the entire body to sense and experience a concept or idea. Typical whole body learning activities involve use of several senses: muscle sense, temperature, pain, pressure, and sense of equilibrium. Four whole body science activities are described, including identifying trees by touch. (Author/JN)

  6. Human whole body cold adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold. PMID:27227100

  7. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    PubMed

    Daanen, Hein A M; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold.

  8. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    PubMed

    Daanen, Hein A M; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold. PMID:27227100

  9. The relative contribution of intramyocellular lipid to whole body fat oxidation is reduced with age, but subsarcolemmal lipid accumulation and insulin resistance are only associated with overweight individuals

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Carolyn; Shannon, Chris E.; Burns, Aisling; Selby, Anna L.; Wilkinson, Daniel; Smith, Kenneth; Greenhaff, Paul L.; Stephens, Francis B.

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is closely related to intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation, and both are associated with increasing age. It remains to be determined to what extent perturbations in IMCL metabolism are related to the ageing process per se. On two separate occasions whole-body and muscle insulin sensitivity (euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp with 2-deoxyglucose) and fat utilisation during 1 h of exercise at 50% VO2max ([U-13C]palmitate infusion combined with electron microscopy of IMCL) were determined in young lean (YL), old lean (OL), and old overweight (OO) males. OL displayed comparable IMCL content and insulin sensitivity to YL, whereas OO were markedly insulin resistant and had over 2-fold greater IMCL in the subsarcolemmal (SSL) region. Indeed, whereas the plasma free fatty acid rate of appearance and disappearance was twice that of YL in both OL and OO, SSL only increased during exercise in OO. Thus, skeletal muscle insulin resistance and lipid accumulation often observed in older individuals are likely due to lifestyle factors, rather than inherent ageing of skeletal muscle as usually reported. However, age per se appears to cause exacerbated adipose tissue lipolysis, suggesting that strategies to reduce muscle lipid delivery and improve adipose tissue function may be warranted in older overweight individuals. The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes is most apparent in older people (1), and it is estimated that the number of people over 65 years of age with diabetes will have increased 4.5 fold by 2050 (2). Gaining mechanistic insight of age related insulin resistance and strategies to improve insulin sensitivity with age are clearly warranted. Although ageing is associated with insulin resistance, age per se does not appear to cause insulin resistance (3, 4, 5). Several factors that likely contribute to age related insulin resistance include increased abdominal adiposity and reduced physical activity (3, 4), along with declines in muscle mass (6

  10. The relative contribution of intramyocellular lipid to whole body fat oxidation is reduced with age, but subsarcolemmal lipid accumulation and insulin resistance are only associated with overweight individuals

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Carolyn; Shannon, Chris E.; Burns, Aisling; Selby, Anna L.; Wilkinson, Daniel; Smith, Kenneth; Greenhaff, Paul L.; Stephens, Francis B.

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is closely related to intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation, and both are associated with increasing age. It remains to be determined to what extent perturbations in IMCL metabolism are related to the ageing process per se. On two separate occasions whole-body and muscle insulin sensitivity (euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp with 2-deoxyglucose) and fat utilisation during 1 h of exercise at 50% VO2max ([U-13C]palmitate infusion combined with electron microscopy of IMCL) were determined in young lean (YL), old lean (OL), and old overweight (OO) males. OL displayed comparable IMCL content and insulin sensitivity to YL, whereas OO were markedly insulin resistant and had over 2-fold greater IMCL in the subsarcolemmal (SSL) region. Indeed, whereas the plasma free fatty acid rate of appearance and disappearance was twice that of YL in both OL and OO, SSL only increased during exercise in OO. Thus, skeletal muscle insulin resistance and lipid accumulation often observed in older individuals are likely due to lifestyle factors, rather than inherent ageing of skeletal muscle as usually reported. However, age per se appears to cause exacerbated adipose tissue lipolysis, suggesting that strategies to reduce muscle lipid delivery and improve adipose tissue function may be warranted in older overweight individuals. The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes is most apparent in older people (1), and it is estimated that the number of people over 65 years of age with diabetes will have increased 4.5 fold by 2050 (2). Gaining mechanistic insight of age related insulin resistance and strategies to improve insulin sensitivity with age are clearly warranted. Although ageing is associated with insulin resistance, age per se does not appear to cause insulin resistance (3, 4, 5). Several factors that likely contribute to age related insulin resistance include increased abdominal adiposity and reduced physical activity (3, 4), along with declines in muscle mass (6

  11. The Concentration of β-Carotene in Human Adipocytes, but Not the Whole-Body Adipocyte Stores, Is Reduced in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Östh, Martin; Öst, Anita; Kjolhede, Preben; Strålfors, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We have examined the concentration of β-carotene in the fat of isolated abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes obtained from lean (BMI<23 kg/m2), non-obese with higher BMI (23≤BMI<28 kg/m2), obese (BMI≥28 kg/m2), and from a group of obese subjects with type 2 diabetes. The concentration of β-carotene was 50% lower in the adipocytes from the obese and obese/diabetic groups compared with the lean and non-obese groups. Interestingly, the total amount of β-carotene in the adipocyte stores of each subject was constant among all groups. Triacylglycerol constituted 92±1% (by weight) of the adipocyte lipids in the lean group and this was increased to 99±2% in the obese group with diabetes (p<0.05). The concentration of cholesteryl esters was in all cases <0.1 g per 100 g of total lipids, demonstrating that mature human adipocytes have negligible stores of cholesteryl ester. Our findings demonstrate that adipocyte concentrations of β-carotene are reduced in obese subjects. The lower concentrations in adipocytes from subjects with type 2 diabetes apparently reflect subjectś obesity. Our finding that whole-body stores of β-carotene in adipocytes are constant raises new questions regarding what function it serves, as well as the mechanisms for maintaining constant levels in the face of varied adipose tissue mass among individuals over a period of time. PMID:24416432

  12. Immediate postnatal rise in whole body androgen content in male rats: correlation with increased testicular content and reduced body clearance of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Baum, M J; Brand, T; Ooms, M; Vreeburg, J T; Slob, A K

    1988-06-01

    Whole body content of androgen (testosterone + 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone) was invariably higher in male than in female rat pups killed 1 or 3 h after natural delivery, whereas androgen content was equivalent in males and females killed immediately or 6, 12, and 24 h after birth. Testicular content of androgen was significantly elevated in males killed 1 and 24 h after birth, compared with levels in males killed immediately, or 3, 6, and 12 h after birth. Thus, heightened testicular androgen content was only initially associated with increased systemic levels of androgen in males during the immediate postpartum period. A second study assessed the possibility that the body's clearance (i.e., metabolism plus excretion) of testosterone is lower in newborn rats upon separation from the placental circulation than in slightly older pups. Rats of both sexes killed 1 and 3 h after s.c. injection of [3H] testosterone had significantly higher plasma concentrations of [3H] testosterone as well as several 5 alpha-reduced androgens (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, 3 alpha-androstanediol, and androsterone) when injections were given within minutes as opposed to 24 h after birth. This suggests that in both sexes the clearance of testosterone is slower immediately after birth than at later ages. This phenomenon together with a brief postnatal elevation in the testicular synthesis and secretion of testosterone may explain the temporary rise in circulating androgen concentrations that occurs in the newborn male rat.

  13. A comparison of whole body vibration and moist heat on lower extremity skin temperature and skin blood flow in healthy older individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lohman, Everett B.; Sackiriyas, Kanikkai Steni Balan; Bains, Gurinder S.; Calandra, Giovanni; Lobo, Crystal; Nakhro, Daniel; Malthankar, Gauri; Paul, Sherwine

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Tissue healing is an intricate process that is regulated by circulation. Heat modalities have been shown to improve skin circulation. Recent research supports that passive vibration increases circulation without risk of burns. Study purpose is to compare and determine effects of short duration vibration, moist heat, and a combination of the two on skin blood flow (SBF) and skin temperature (ST) in elderly, non-diabetic individuals following short-term exposure. Material/Methods Ten subjects, 3 female and 7 male (55–73 years of age), received two interventions over three days: 1 – Active vibration, 2 – passive vibration, 3 – moist heat, 4 – moist heat combined with passive vibration (MHPV), 5 – a commercial massaging heating pad, and 6 – no intervention. SBF and ST were measured using a MOOR Laser Doppler before and after the intervention and the third measurement were taken 10 minutes following. Results Mean SBF following a ten-minute intervention were significantly different in the combination of moist heat and passive vibration from the control, active vibration, and the commercial massaging heating pad. Compared to baseline measurements, this resulted in mean SBF elevation to 450% (at conclusion of 10 minutes of intervention) and 379% (10 minutes post). MHPV (p=0.02) showed significant changes in ST from the commercial massaging heating pad, passive vibration, and active vibration interventions. Conclusions SBF in the lower legs showed greatest increase with MHPV. Interventions should be selected that are low risk while increasing lower extremity skin blood flow. PMID:22739731

  14. The ORNL whole body counter

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This report is a non-technical document intended to provide an individual about to undergo a whole-body radiation count with a general understanding of the counting procedure and with the results obtained. 9 figs. (TEM)

  15. Hanford whole body counting manual

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, H.E.; Brim, C.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Rhoads, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs.

  16. Health risk evaluation of whole-body vibration by ISO 2631-5 and ISO 2631-1 for operators of agricultural tractors and recreational vehicles.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Soo; Fukuda, Takabumi; Kim, Tae-Gu; Maeda, Setsuo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental research evaluation of the vibration exposure for the health risk prediction during vehicle operation. The vibration measurements were carried out on a recreational vehicle and two types of agricultural tractors. The vibration levels were measured for different surfaces and vehicle speed conditions. Based on the analysis of the results in the small agricultural tractor operated in the workplace (frameworks), Sed exceeded 0.80 MPa by ISO2631-5:2004, and Av exceeded 0.89 m/s(2) by ISO2631-1:1997. That means that operators driving small agricultural tractors more than 8 h a day have a high probability of adverse health effects. However, the exposure value for the recreational vehicle had Sed < 0.5 MPa by ISO2631-5:2004 and Av < 0.5 m/s(2) by ISO2631-1:1997 on highways and local roads. That means Recreational Vehicle operators driving more than 8 h a day, have a low probability of adverse health effects. Also, for the recreational vehicle, vibration was taken at different speeds (40-60 km/h, 80 km/h, 100-120 km/h). However, the speed change did not appear to affect the vibration dose variation while driving a vehicle on the highway and road. Finally, the health effect index of ISO2631-5:2004 are almost the same as assessment of health effect by ISO2631-1:1997. PMID:23558167

  17. Health risk evaluation of whole-body vibration by ISO 2631-5 and ISO 2631-1 for operators of agricultural tractors and recreational vehicles.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Soo; Fukuda, Takabumi; Kim, Tae-Gu; Maeda, Setsuo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental research evaluation of the vibration exposure for the health risk prediction during vehicle operation. The vibration measurements were carried out on a recreational vehicle and two types of agricultural tractors. The vibration levels were measured for different surfaces and vehicle speed conditions. Based on the analysis of the results in the small agricultural tractor operated in the workplace (frameworks), Sed exceeded 0.80 MPa by ISO2631-5:2004, and Av exceeded 0.89 m/s(2) by ISO2631-1:1997. That means that operators driving small agricultural tractors more than 8 h a day have a high probability of adverse health effects. However, the exposure value for the recreational vehicle had Sed < 0.5 MPa by ISO2631-5:2004 and Av < 0.5 m/s(2) by ISO2631-1:1997 on highways and local roads. That means Recreational Vehicle operators driving more than 8 h a day, have a low probability of adverse health effects. Also, for the recreational vehicle, vibration was taken at different speeds (40-60 km/h, 80 km/h, 100-120 km/h). However, the speed change did not appear to affect the vibration dose variation while driving a vehicle on the highway and road. Finally, the health effect index of ISO2631-5:2004 are almost the same as assessment of health effect by ISO2631-1:1997.

  18. a Comparison of Evaluations and Assessments Obtained Using Alternative Standards for Predicting the Hazards of Whole-Body Vibration and Repeated Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, C. H.; Griffin, M. J.

    1998-08-01

    There are three current standards that might be used to assess the vibration and shock transmitted by a vehicle seat with respect to possible effects on human health: ISO 2631/1 (1985), BS 6841 (1987) and ISO 2631-1 (1997). Evaluations have been performed on the seat accelerations measured in nine different transport environments (bus, car, mobile crane, fork-lift truck, tank, ambulance, power boat, inflatable boat, mountain bike) in conditions that might be considered severe. For each environment, limiting daily exposure durations were estimated by comparing the frequency weighted root mean square (i.e., r.m.s.) accelerations and the vibration dose values (i.e.,VDV), calculated according to each standard with the relevant exposure limits, action level and health guidance caution zones. Very different estimates of the limiting daily exposure duration can be obtained using the methods described in the three standards. Differences were observed due to variations in the shapes of the frequency weightings, the phase responses of the frequency weighting filters, the method of combining multi-axis vibration, the averaging method, and the assessment method. With the evaluated motions, differences in the shapes of the weighting filters results in up to about 31% difference in r.m.s. acceleration between the “old” and the “new” ISO standard and up to about 14% difference between BS 6841 and the “new” ISO 2631. There were correspondingly greater differences in the estimates of safe daily exposure durations. With three of the more severe motions there was a difference of more than 250% between estimated safe daily exposure durations based on r.m.s. acceleration and those based on fourth power vibration dose values. The vibration dose values provided the more cautious assessments of the limiting daily exposure duration.

  19. PAHA study: Psychological Active and Healthy Aging: psychological wellbeing, proactive attitude and happiness effects of whole-body vibration versus Multicomponent Training in aged women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence demonstrates that physical exercise and psychological wellbeing are closely interlinked, particularly in older-aged women. However, research investigating how different forms of exercise influence mental health in older-aged women is underdeveloped. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial (N = 300) will assess the relative effectiveness of two different exercise programs (whole-body vibration and Multicomponent Training) for improving psychological wellbeing in older-aged women. The following outcomes will be assessed at three time points (that is, pre, post, and follow-up): psychological wellbeing, proactive attitude, quality of life, and happiness. Discussion Results will have important implications for preventing psychological and physiological disease in older-aged women and for managing health-related costs for this population group. Trial registration Number NCT01966562 on Clinical Gov database the 8 October 2013 PMID:24886107

  20. Hanford whole body counting manual

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  1. Reduced-vibration tube array

    DOEpatents

    Bruck, Gerald J.; Bartolomeo, Daniel R.

    2004-07-20

    A reduced-vibration tube array is disclosed. The array includes a plurality of tubes in a fixed arrangement and a plurality of damping members positioned within the tubes. The damping members include contoured interface regions characterized by bracing points that selectively contact the inner surface of an associated tube. Each interface region is sized and shaped in accordance with the associated tube, so that the damping member bracing points are spaced apart a vibration-reducing distance from the associated tube inner surfaces at equilibrium. During operation, mechanical interaction between the bracing points and the tube inner surfaces reduces vibration by a damage-reducing degree. In one embodiment, the interface regions are serpentine shaped. In another embodiment, the interface regions are helical in shape. The interface regions may be simultaneously helical and serpentine in shape. The damping members may be fixed within the associated tubes, and damping member may be customized several interference regions having attributes chosen in accordance with desired flow characteristics and associated tube properties.

  2. Skin Injuries Reduce Survival and Modulate Corticosterone, C-Reactive Protein, Complement Component 3, IgM, and Prostaglandin E2 after Whole-Body Reactor-Produced Mixed Field (n + γ-Photons) Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Juliann G.; Ledney, G. David

    2013-01-01

    Skin injuries such as wounds or burns following whole-body γ-irradiation (radiation combined injury (RCI)) increase mortality more than whole-body γ-irradiation alone. Wound-induced decreases in survival after irradiation are triggered by sustained activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase pathways, persistent alteration of cytokine homeostasis, and increased susceptibility to systemic bacterial infection. Among these factors, radiation-induced increases in interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations in serum were amplified by skin wound trauma. Herein, the IL-6-induced stress proteins including C-reactive protein (CRP), complement 3 (C3), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were evaluated after skin injuries given following a mixed radiation environment that might be found after a nuclear incident. In this report, mice received 3 Gy of reactor-produced mixed field (n + γ-photons) radiations at 0.38 Gy/min followed by nonlethal skin wounding or burning. Both wounds and burns reduced survival and increased CRP, C3, and PGE2 in serum after radiation. Decreased IgM production along with an early rise in corticosterone followed by a subsequent decrease was noted for each RCI situation. These results suggest that RCI-induced alterations of corticosterone, CRP, C3, IgM, and PGE2 cause homeostatic imbalance and may contribute to reduced survival. Agents inhibiting these responses may prove to be therapeutic for RCI and improve related survival. PMID:24175013

  3. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Slavik, C.J.; Rhudy, R.G.; Bushman, R.E.

    1997-11-11

    An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of {radical}3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency. 4 figs.

  4. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Slavik, Charles J.; Rhudy, Ralph G.; Bushman, Ralph E.

    1997-01-01

    An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of .sqroot.3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency.

  5. Compensation to whole body active rotation perturbation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, S; Gazzellini, S; Petrarca, M; Patanè, F; Salfa, I; Castelli, E; Cappa, P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is the exploration of the compensation mechanisms in healthy adults elicited by superimposing a horizontal perturbation, through a rotation of the support base, during a whole body active rotation around the participant's own vertical body axis. Eight healthy participants stood on a rotating platform while executing 90° whole body rotations under three conditions: no concurrent platform rotation (NP), support surface rotation of ± 45° in the same (45-S) and opposite (45-O) directions. Participants' kinematics and CoP displacements were analyzed with an optoelectronic system and a force platform. In both 45-S and 45-O conditions, there was a tendency for the head to be affected by the external perturbation and to be the last and least perturbed segment while the pelvis was the most perturbed. The observed reduced head perturbation in 45-S and 45-O trials is consistent with a goal-oriented strategy mediated by vision and vestibular information, whereas the tuning of lumbar rotation is consistent with control mechanisms mediated by somato-sensory information.

  6. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Slavik, C.J.; Rhudy, R.G.; Bushman, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    The present invention relates generally to an electric motor winding and, more particularly, to a three phase motor armature winding arrangement designed to reduce motor vibration and improve efficiency. An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of {radical}3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor.

  7. Whole-body imaging modalities in oncology.

    PubMed

    Carty, Fiona; Shortt, Conor P; Shelly, Martin J; Eustace, Stephen J; O'Connell, Martin J

    2010-03-01

    This article outlines the expanding approaches to whole-body imaging in oncology focusing on whole-body MRI and comparing it to emerging applications of whole-body CT, scintigraphy, and above all PET CT imaging. Whole-body MRI is widely available, non-ionizing and rapidly acquired, and inexpensive relative to PET CT. While it has many advantages, WBMRI is non-specific and, when compared to PET CT, is less sensitive. This article expands each of these issues comparing individual modalities as they refer to specific cancers.

  8. ApoA5 knockdown improves whole-body insulin sensitivity in high-fat-fed mice by reducing ectopic lipid content

    PubMed Central

    Camporez, João Paulo G.; Kanda, Shoichi; Petersen, Max C.; Jornayvaz, François R.; Samuel, Varman T.; Bhanot, Sanjay; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Jurczak, Michael J.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2015-01-01

    ApoA5 has a critical role in the regulation of plasma TG concentrations. In order to determine whether ApoA5 also impacts ectopic lipid deposition in liver and skeletal muscle, as well as tissue insulin sensitivity, we treated mice with an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) to decrease hepatic expression of ApoA5. ASO treatment reduced ApoA5 protein expression in liver by 60–70%. ApoA5 ASO-treated mice displayed approximately 3-fold higher plasma TG concentrations, which were associated with decreased plasma TG clearance. Furthermore, ApoA5 ASO-treated mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) exhibited reduced liver and skeletal muscle TG uptake and reduced liver and muscle TG and diacylglycerol (DAG) content. HFD-fed ApoA5 ASO-treated mice were protected from HFD-induced insulin resistance, as assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. This protection could be attributed to increases in both hepatic and peripheral insulin responsiveness associated with decreased DAG activation of protein kinase C (PKC)-ε and PKCθ in liver and muscle, respectively, and increased insulin-stimulated AKT2 pho­sphory­lation in these tissues. In summary, these studies demonstrate a novel role for ApoA5 as a modulator of susceptibility to diet-induced liver and muscle insulin resistance through regulation of ectopic lipid accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle. PMID:25548259

  9. European whole body counter measurement intercomparison.

    PubMed

    Thieme, M; Hunt, E L; König, K; Schmitt-Hannig, A; Gödde, R

    1998-04-01

    In order to test the common quality standards for the performance of measurements of internal radioactivity, the European Commission funded a European intercomparison of whole body counters, which was organized and carried out by the Institut fuer Strahlenhygiene (part of the German Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz). Forty-four whole body counting facilities from forty-two institutions in nineteen countries (the fifteen member states of the European Union plus Hungary, the Czech Republic, Switzerland and Norway) took part in this intercomparison, which made it the most comprehensive ever carried out in Europe. For the study, the 70 kg tissue equivalent St Petersburg phantom was used with rods containing 40K, 57Co, 60Co, and 137Cs. The overall results of the whole body counter study were rather good.

  10. Whole Body Melanoma Transcriptome Response in Medaka

    PubMed Central

    Schartl, Manfred; Shen, Yingjia; Maurus, Katja; Walter, Ron; Tomlinson, Chad; Wilson, Richard K.; Postlethwait, John; Warren, Wesley C.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of malignant melanoma continues to increase each year with poor prognosis for survival in many relapse cases. To reverse this trend, whole body response measures are needed to discover collaborative paths to primary and secondary malignancy. Several species of fish provide excellent melanoma models because fish and human melanocytes both appear in the epidermis, and fish and human pigment cell tumors share conserved gene expression signatures. For the first time, we have examined the whole body transcriptome response to invasive melanoma as a prelude to using transcriptome profiling to screen for drugs in a medaka (Oryzias latipes) model. We generated RNA-seq data from whole body RNA isolates for controls and melanoma fish. After testing for differential expression, 396 genes had significantly different expression (adjusted p-value <0.02) in the whole body transcriptome between melanoma and control fish; 379 of these genes were matched to human orthologs with 233 having annotated human gene symbols and 14 matched genes that contain putative deleterious variants in human melanoma at varying levels of recurrence. A detailed canonical pathway evaluation for significant enrichment showed the top scoring pathway to be antigen presentation but also included the expected melanocyte development and pigmentation signaling pathway. Results revealed a profound down-regulation of genes involved in the immune response, especially the innate immune system. We hypothesize that the developing melanoma actively suppresses the immune system responses of the body in reacting to the invasive malignancy, and that this mal-adaptive response contributes to disease progression, a result that suggests our whole-body transcriptomic approach merits further use. In these findings, we also observed novel genes not yet identified in human melanoma expression studies and uncovered known and new candidate drug targets for further testing in this malignant melanoma medaka model. PMID

  11. Whole Body Melanoma Transcriptome Response in Medaka.

    PubMed

    Schartl, Manfred; Shen, Yingjia; Maurus, Katja; Walter, Ron; Tomlinson, Chad; Wilson, Richard K; Postlethwait, John; Warren, Wesley C

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of malignant melanoma continues to increase each year with poor prognosis for survival in many relapse cases. To reverse this trend, whole body response measures are needed to discover collaborative paths to primary and secondary malignancy. Several species of fish provide excellent melanoma models because fish and human melanocytes both appear in the epidermis, and fish and human pigment cell tumors share conserved gene expression signatures. For the first time, we have examined the whole body transcriptome response to invasive melanoma as a prelude to using transcriptome profiling to screen for drugs in a medaka (Oryzias latipes) model. We generated RNA-seq data from whole body RNA isolates for controls and melanoma fish. After testing for differential expression, 396 genes had significantly different expression (adjusted p-value <0.02) in the whole body transcriptome between melanoma and control fish; 379 of these genes were matched to human orthologs with 233 having annotated human gene symbols and 14 matched genes that contain putative deleterious variants in human melanoma at varying levels of recurrence. A detailed canonical pathway evaluation for significant enrichment showed the top scoring pathway to be antigen presentation but also included the expected melanocyte development and pigmentation signaling pathway. Results revealed a profound down-regulation of genes involved in the immune response, especially the innate immune system. We hypothesize that the developing melanoma actively suppresses the immune system responses of the body in reacting to the invasive malignancy, and that this mal-adaptive response contributes to disease progression, a result that suggests our whole-body transcriptomic approach merits further use. In these findings, we also observed novel genes not yet identified in human melanoma expression studies and uncovered known and new candidate drug targets for further testing in this malignant melanoma medaka model. PMID

  12. Whole body MR imaging: applications in oncology.

    PubMed

    Johnston, C; Brennan, S; Ford, S; Eustace, S

    2006-04-01

    This article reviews technique and clinical applications of whole body MR imaging as a diagnostic tool in cancer staging. In particular the article reviews its role as an alternative to scintigraphy (bone scan and PET) in staging skeletal spread of disease, its role in assessing total tumour burden, its role in multiple myeloma and finally its evolving non oncologic role predominantly assessing total body composition.

  13. Whole-body hyperthermia induction techniques.

    PubMed

    Milligan, A J

    1984-10-01

    Currently, there are three techniques used for delivery of whole-body hyperthermia. The simplest of these is direct contact between skin and some surrounding fluid. The surrounding fluid can be either water, wax, air, or other fluid medium; heat is transferred from the surrounding fluid to the body surface. Vessels in the skin surface transfer heat to the perfusing blood, which uniformly distributes it throughout the body. The second technique uses irradiation of the body surface with nonionizing radiation to deliver heat to the first few cm from the surface. This heat can be picked up by local blood perfusion and distributed throughout the body. One advantage of this method over direct contact methods is that heat is deposited throughout the first few cm and therefore temperature increases at the surface are lower. The third technique is extracorporeal perfusion which seems the most promising method for delivery of whole-body hyperthermia. This allows for greater control of central temperature via rapid change in temperature of blood passing through the external heat exchanger. The increased ability to control temperature resulting from this advanced instrumentation allows accurate delivery of whole-body hyperthermia. This permits comparison studies of therapeutic effectiveness.

  14. Hepatobiliary kinetics after whole-body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Durakovic, A.

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study hepatobiliary kinetics after whole-body gamma irradiation. Two groups of nine male beagle dogs were irradiated with a single whole body dose of 4- and 8-Gy cobalt-60 photons. Each animal was injected with 2 mCi Tc-99m DISIDA and scintigraphic studies were obtained with a gamma camera with a parallel hole multipurpose collimator. The parameters studied included: peak activity of the liver and gall bladder and gall bladder and intestinal visualization from the time of Tc-99m DISIDA administration. Total and indirect bilirubin, LDH, SGOT, and SGPT determined as baseline studies before irradiation and at different time intervals after irradiation were not changed in irradiated animals. Whole body Co-60 irradiation with 4 and 8 Gy produced no significant changes in the Tc-99m DISIDA visualization of the gall bladder or in the peak activity in the gall bladder or the liver 1 and 7 days after irradiation. Intestinal visualization occurred significantly earlier in 8 Gy Co-60 irradiated animals on both day 1 and day 7 post irradiation, compared to baseline values where it was never observed before 195.0 minutes. Gall bladder emptying is significantly accelerated after 8 Gy but not after 4-Gy Co-60 gamma irradiation. These observations suggest that gamma irradiation stimulates gall bladder contractility without modifying intrahepatic biliary kinetics.

  15. Muscle and whole body metabolism after norepinephrine.

    PubMed

    Kurpad, A V; Khan, K; Calder, A G; Elia, M

    1994-06-01

    The effect of an infusion of norepinephrine (0.42 nmol.kg-1.min-1) on energy metabolism in the whole body (using indirect calorimetry and the arteriovenous forearm catheterization techniques in eight healthy young male adults. The activity of the triglyceride-fatty acid cycle, which mainly operates in nonmuscular tissues, was also assessed by measuring glycerol turnover using [2H5]glycerol (to indicate lipolysis) and indirect calorimetry (to indicate net fat oxidation). Norepinephrine increased whole body oxygen consumption by almost 10% (P < 0.01), but the estimated oxygen consumption of muscles tended to decrease. Muscle blood flow (measured by 133Xe) and forearm blood flow (measured by strain-gauge plethysmography) were not significantly affected by norepinephrine, but the rate of uptake of nonesterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate increased severalfold (P < 0.05), whereas that of glucose did not. The activity of the triglyceride-fatty acid cycle increased fourfold after norepinephrine administration, having a marginal effect on resting energy expenditure (approximately 1.5%) but accounting for approximately 15% of the increase in whole body energy expenditure. This study provides no evidence that skeletal muscle is an important site for norepinephrine-induced thermogenesis and suggests that an increase in the activity of the triglyceride-fatty acid cycle contributes to the norepinephrine-induced increase in energy expenditure of nonmuscular tissues.

  16. Complex effects of stable noise, sinusoidal vs stochastic low frequency whole-body vibration and dynamic muscular work in temporary hearing threshold shifts (TTS) at a dry-bulb temperature of 30/sup 0/C

    SciTech Connect

    Manninen, O.

    1982-01-01

    In the metal industry occupational loss of hearing occurred twice as often among those working with vibrating equipment than among those not exposed to vibration. Occupational loss of hearing also occurred frequently in miners. In the same pits, hearing loss occurred less often among those engaged in pit-propping and among other specialist workers. The generation and development of occupational hearing loss in miners is, in fact, said to depend critically upon vibration, to the effects of which coal-face workers are particularly exosed when drilling. No absolute conclusions can, however, be drawn from these observations, since in many cases the number of different environmental factors prevailing in production life is very large and varies in each stage of production. The aim of this study was, therefore, to examine under controlled laboratory conditions the temporary hearing thresholds (TTS) of subjects who, during dynamic muscular work, are exposed at slightly elevated ambient temperature to either noise or vibration separately or to combinations of these factors.

  17. Whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Anne K; Neptune, Richard R; Sinitski, Emily H; Wilken, Jason M

    2014-04-01

    The generation of whole-body angular momentum is essential in many locomotor tasks and must be regulated in order to maintain dynamic balance. However, angular momentum has not been investigated during stair walking, which is an activity that presents a biomechanical challenge for balance-impaired populations. We investigated three-dimensional whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent and compared it to level walking. Three-dimensional body-segment kinematic and ground reaction force (GRF) data were collected from 30 healthy subjects. Angular momentum was calculated using a 13-segment whole-body model. GRFs, external moment arms and net joint moments were used to interpret the angular momentum results. The range of frontal plane angular momentum was greater for stair ascent relative to level walking. In the transverse and sagittal planes, the range of angular momentum was smaller in stair ascent and descent relative to level walking. Significant differences were also found in the ground reaction forces, external moment arms and net joint moments. The sagittal plane angular momentum results suggest that individuals alter angular momentum to effectively counteract potential trips during stair ascent, and reduce the range of angular momentum to avoid falling forward during stair descent. Further, significant differences in joint moments suggest potential neuromuscular mechanisms that account for the differences in angular momentum between walking conditions. These results provide a baseline for comparison to impaired populations that have difficulty maintaining dynamic balance, particularly during stair ascent and descent.

  18. Whole-body cryotherapy in athletes.

    PubMed

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Lombardi, Giovanni; Colombini, Alessandra; Melegati, Gianluca

    2010-06-01

    Cold therapy is commonly used as a procedure to relieve pain symptoms, particularly in inflammatory diseases, injuries and overuse symptoms. A peculiar form of cold therapy (or stimulation) was proposed 30 years ago for the treatment of rheumatic diseases. The therapy, called whole-body cryotherapy (WBC), consists of exposure to very cold air that is maintained at -110 degrees C to -140 degrees C in special temperature-controlled cryochambers, generally for 2 minutes. WBC is used to relieve pain and inflammatory symptoms caused by numerous disorders, particularly those associated with rheumatic conditions, and is recommended for the treatment of arthritis, fibromyalgia and ankylosing spondylitis. In sports medicine, WBC has gained wider acceptance as a method to improve recovery from muscle injury. Unfortunately, there are few papers concerning the application of the treatment on athletes. The study of possible enhancement of recovery from injuries and possible modification of physiological parameters, taking into consideration the limits imposed by antidoping rules, is crucial for athletes and sports physicians for judging the real benefits and/or limits of WBC. According to the available literature, WBC is not harmful or detrimental in healthy subjects. The treatment does not enhance bone marrow production and could reduce the sport-induced haemolysis. WBC induces oxidative stress, but at a low level. Repeated treatments are apparently not able to induce cumulative effects; on the contrary, adaptive changes on antioxidant status are elicited--the adaptation is evident where WBC precedes or accompanies intense training. WBC is not characterized by modifications of immunological markers and leukocytes, and it seems to not be harmful to the immunological system. The WBC effect is probably linked to the modifications of immunological molecules having paracrine effects, and not to systemic immunological functions. In fact, there is an increase in anti

  19. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section...

  20. 21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body counter is a device intended to measure the amount of radionuclides in...

  1. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution...

  2. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution...

  3. 21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body counter is a device intended to measure the amount of radionuclides in...

  4. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution...

  5. 21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body counter is a device intended to measure the amount of radionuclides in...

  6. 21 CFR 892.1330 - Nuclear whole body scanner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nuclear whole body scanner. 892.1330 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1330 Nuclear whole body scanner. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body scanner is a device intended to measure and image the distribution...

  7. 21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body counter is a device intended to measure the amount of radionuclides in...

  8. 21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter. (a) Identification. A nuclear whole body counter is a device intended to measure the amount of radionuclides in...

  9. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging: assessment of skeletal metastases.

    PubMed

    Moynagh, Michael R; Colleran, Gabrielle C; Tavernaraki, Katarina; Eustace, Stephen J; Kavanagh, Eoin C

    2010-03-01

    The concept of a rapid whole-body imaging technique with high resolution and the absence of ionizing radiation for the assessment of osseous metastatic disease is a desirable tool. This review article outlines the current perspective of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of skeletal metastatic disease, with comparisons made to alternative whole-body imaging modalities.

  10. Physiological responses during whole body suspension of adult rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Fell, R. D.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize responses of adult rats to one and two weeks of whole body suspension. Body weights and food and water intakes were initially reduced during suspension, but, while intake of food and water returned to presuspension levels, body weight remained depressed. Diuresis was evident, but only during week two. Hindlimb muscle responses were differential, with the soleus exhibiting the greatest atrophy and the EDL a relative hypertrophy. These findings suggest that adult rats respond qualitatively in a manner similar to juveniles during suspension.

  11. Pediatric whole-body MRI: A review of current imaging techniques and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Davis, Joseph T; Kwatra, Neha; Schooler, Gary R

    2016-10-01

    There are many congenital, neoplastic, inflammatory, and infectious processes in the pediatric patient for which whole-body imaging may be of benefit diagnostically and prognostically. With recent improvements in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) hardware and software and resultant dramatically reduced scan times, imaging of the whole body with MRI has become a much more practicable technique in children. Whole-body MRI can provide a high level of soft tissue and skeletal detail while avoiding the exposure to ionizing radiation inherent to computed tomography and nuclear medicine imaging techniques. This article reviews the more common current whole-body MRI techniques in children and the primary pathologies for which this imaging modality may be most useful to the radiologists and referring clinicians. J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2016;44:783-793.

  12. Whole-body MRI in paediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Littooij, Annemieke S

    2016-05-01

    Imaging plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and follow-up of paediatric malignancies. Until recently, computed tomography (CT) has been the imaging technique of choice in children with cancer, but nowadays there is an increasing interest in the use of functional imaging techniques like positron emission tomography and single-photon emission tomography. These later techniques are often combined with CT allowing for simultaneous acquisition of image data on the biological behaviour of tumour, as well as the anatomical localisation and extent of tumour spread. Because of the small but not negligible risk of radiation induced secondary cancers and the significantly improved overall survival rates of children with cancer, there is an increasing interest in the use of alternative imaging techniques that do not use ionising radiation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a radiation-free imaging tool that allows for acquiring images with a high spatial resolution and excellent soft tissue contrast throughout the body. Moreover, recent technological advances have resulted in fast diagnostic sequences for whole-body MR imaging (WB-MRI), including functional techniques such as diffusion weighted imaging. In this review, the current status of the technique and major clinical applications of WB-MRI in children with cancer will be discussed.

  13. Central nervous system effects of whole-body proton irradiation.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Tara Beth; Panda, Nirlipta; Hein, Amy M; Das, Shoshana L; Hurley, Sean D; Olschowka, John A; Williams, Jacqueline P; O'Banion, M Kerry

    2014-07-01

    Space missions beyond the protection of Earth's magnetosphere expose astronauts to an environment that contains ionizing proton radiation. The hazards that proton radiation pose to normal tissues, such as the central nervous system (CNS), are not fully understood, although it has been shown that proton radiation affects the neurogenic environment, killing neural precursors and altering behavior. To determine the time and dose-response characteristics of the CNS to whole-body proton irradiation, C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 1 GeV/n proton radiation at doses of 0-200 cGy and behavioral, physiological and immunohistochemical end points were analyzed over a range of time points (48 h-12 months) postirradiation. These experiments revealed that proton radiation exposure leads to: 1. an acute decrease in cell division within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, with significant differences detected at doses as low as 10 cGy; 2. a persistent effect on proliferation in the subgranular zone, at 1 month postirradiation; 3. a decrease in neurogenesis at doses as low as 50 cGy, at 3 months postirradiation; and 4. a decrease in hippocampal ICAM-1 immunoreactivity at doses as low as 10 cGy, at 1 month postirradiation. The data presented contribute to our understanding of biological responses to whole-body proton radiation and may help reduce uncertainty in the assessment of health risks to astronauts. These findings may also be relevant to clinical proton beam therapy. PMID:24937778

  14. Whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposures.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jinghai; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Frazer, Dave; Castranova, Vince; McBride, Carroll; Knuckles, Travis L; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Minarchick, Valerie C; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation is the most likely exposure route for individuals working with aerosolizable engineered nano-materials (ENM). To properly perform nanoparticle inhalation toxicology studies, the aerosols in a chamber housing the experimental animals must have: 1) a steady concentration maintained at a desired level for the entire exposure period; 2) a homogenous composition free of contaminants; and 3) a stable size distribution with a geometric mean diameter < 200 nm and a geometric standard deviation σg < 2.5 (5). The generation of aerosols containing nanoparticles is quite challenging because nanoparticles easily agglomerate. This is largely due to very strong inter-particle forces and the formation of large fractal structures in tens or hundreds of microns in size (6), which are difficult to be broken up. Several common aerosol generators, including nebulizers, fluidized beds, Venturi aspirators and the Wright dust feed, were tested; however, none were able to produce nanoparticle aerosols which satisfy all criteria (5). A whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposure system was fabricated, validated and utilized for nano-TiO2 inhalation toxicology studies. Critical components: 1) novel nano-TiO2 aerosol generator; 2) 0.5 m(3) whole-body inhalation exposure chamber; and 3) monitor and control system. Nano-TiO2 aerosols generated from bulk dry nano-TiO2 powders (primary diameter of 21 nm, bulk density of 3.8 g/cm(3)) were delivered into the exposure chamber at a flow rate of 90 LPM (10.8 air changes/hr). Particle size distribution and mass concentration profiles were measured continuously with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and an electric low pressure impactor (ELPI). The aerosol mass concentration (C) was verified gravimetrically (mg/m(3)). The mass (M) of the collected particles was determined as M = (Mpost-Mpre), where Mpre and Mpost are masses of the filter before and after sampling (mg). The mass concentration was calculated as C = M

  15. Preoperative whole body disinfection--a controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Hayek, L J; Emerson, J M

    1988-04-01

    Preoperative whole body washing with chlorhexidine scrub was compared with soap for its effect on prevention of wound infection in clean surgery. Two thousand and fifteen patients were studied using chlorhexidine scrub, placebo or plain soap. The overall infection rate in the control and placebo groups was 12.8% (p less than 0.05) and 11.7% as opposed to 9% (p less than 0.05) in the treated group. Three per cent fewer infections were found in treated 'clean surgery' patients, and the incidence of Staphylococcus aureus infections was reduced from 6% (bar soap) to 3% (chlorhexidine). The saving in bed occupancy from prevention of infection is a significant cost-saving.

  16. Computational Fluid Dynamics of Whole-Body Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Ramesh

    1999-01-01

    The current state of the art in computational aerodynamics for whole-body aircraft flowfield simulations is described. Recent advances in geometry modeling, surface and volume grid generation, and flow simulation algorithms have led to accurate flowfield predictions for increasingly complex and realistic configurations. As a result, computational aerodynamics has emerged as a crucial enabling technology for the design and development of flight vehicles. Examples illustrating the current capability for the prediction of transport and fighter aircraft flowfields are presented. Unfortunately, accurate modeling of turbulence remains a major difficulty in the analysis of viscosity-dominated flows. In the future, inverse design methods, multidisciplinary design optimization methods, artificial intelligence technology, and massively parallel computer technology will be incorporated into computational aerodynamics, opening up greater opportunities for improved product design at substantially reduced costs.

  17. Estimating whole-body fish PCB concentrations from fillet data

    SciTech Connect

    Rigg, D.; Hohreiter, D.; Strause, K.; Brown, M.; Barnes, C.

    1995-12-31

    A study was designed to assess a potentially cost-effective method for generating both types of data from single fish specimens. The method is based on the testable hypothesis that whole-body PCE concentrations are predictable from fillet PCB concentrations and fillet and whole-body lipid concentrations. The study involved the collection of small-mouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) from several locations in the Kalamazoo River (Michigan) watershed to represent a range in PCB exposure. PCB and lipid concentrations were determined in aliquots of homogenized fillets and remaining carcasses. Wet-weight total PCB concentrations in carp ranged from 0.06 to 17 mg/kg in fillets, and from 0.11 to 14 mg/kg for remaining carcass; small-mouth bass ranged from 0.08 to 5.8 mg/kg in fillets, and from 0.21 to 13.2 mg/kg for remaining carcass. Whole-body PCB concentrations predicted using fillet PCB concentrations and fillet and carcass lipid concentrations accounted for 94% and 88% of the variability in measured whole-body small-mouth and whole-body carp concentrations, respectively. Predicted and measured whole-body PCB concentrations had a correlation of 91% for small-mouth bass, and 84% for carp. These results demonstrate that value of the lipid-based model in predicting whole-body PCB concentrations from measured fillet PCB concentrations and lipid concentrations in fillet and remaining carcass.

  18. Effect of whole-body and local heating on cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thad E.; Cui, Jian; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that alpha-adrenergic-mediated vasoconstriction is compromised during whole-body heating. The purpose of this study was to identify whether whole-body heating and/or local surface heating reduce cutaneous alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness in human skin. Protocol I: Six subjects were exposed to neutral skin temperature (i.e., 34 degrees C), whole-body heating, and local heating of forearm skin to increase skin blood flow to the same relative magnitude as that observed during whole-body heating. Protocol II: In eight subjects forearm skin was locally heated to 34, 37, 40, and 42 degrees C. During both protocols, alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness was assessed by local delivery of norepinephrine (NE) via intradermal microdialysis. Skin blood flow was continuously monitored over each microdialysis membrane via laser-Doppler flowmetry. In protocol I, whole-body and local heating caused similar increases in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). The EC50 (log NE dose) of the dose-response curves for both whole body (-4.2 +/- 0.1 M) and local heating (-4.7 +/- 0.4 M) were significantly greater (i.e., high dose required to cause 50% reduction in CVC) relative to neutral skin temperature (- 5.6 +/- 0.0 M; P<0.05 for both). In both local and whole-body heated conditions CVC did not return to pre-heating values even at the highest dose of NE. In protocol II, calculated EC50 for 34, 37, 40, and 42 degrees C local heating was - 5.5 +/- 0.4, -4.6 +/- 0.3, -4.5 +/- 0.3, - 4.2 +/- 0.4 M, respectively. Statistical analyses revealed that the EC50 for 37,40 and 42 degrees C were significantly greater than the EC50 for 34 degrees C. These results indicate that even during administration of high concentrations of NE, alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction does not fully compensate for local heating and whole-body heating induced vasodilatation in young, healthy subjects. Moreover, these data suggest that elevated local temperatures, above 37

  19. Kinematic features of whole-body reaching movements underwater: Neutral buoyancy effects.

    PubMed

    Macaluso, T; Bourdin, C; Buloup, F; Mille, M-L; Sainton, P; Sarlegna, F R; Taillebot, V; Vercher, J-L; Weiss, P; Bringoux, L

    2016-07-01

    Astronauts' training is conventionally performed in a pool to reproduce weightlessness by exploiting buoyancy which is supposed to reduce the impact of gravity on the body. However, this training method has not been scientifically validated yet, and requires first to study the effects of underwater exposure on motor behavior. We examined the influence of neutral buoyancy on kinematic features of whole-body reaching underwater and compared them with those produced on land. Eight professional divers were asked to perform arm reaching movements toward visual targets while standing. Targets were presented either close or far from the subjects (requiring in the latter case an additional whole-body displacement). Reaching movements were performed on land or underwater in two different contexts of buoyancy. The divers either wore a diving suit only with neutral buoyancy applied to their center of mass or were additionally equipped with a submersible simulated space suit with neutral buoyancy applied to their body limbs. Results showed that underwater exposure impacted basic movement features, especially movement speed which was reduced. However, movement kinematics also differed according to the way buoyancy was exerted on the whole-body. When neutral buoyancy was applied to the center of mass only, some focal and postural components of whole-body reaching remained close to land observations, notably when considering the relative deceleration duration of arm elevation and concomitant forward trunk bending when reaching the far target. On the contrary, when neutral buoyancy was exerted on body segments, movement kinematics were close to those reported in weightlessness, as reflected by the arm deceleration phase and the whole-body forward displacement when reaching the far target. These results suggest that astronauts could benefit from the application of neutral buoyancy across the whole-body segments to optimize underwater training and acquire specific motor skills which

  20. Whole body heat stress attenuates baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity during postexercise muscle ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jian; Shibasaki, Manabu; Davis, Scott L.; Low, David A.; Keller, David M.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2009-01-01

    Both whole body heat stress and stimulation of muscle metabolic receptors activate muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) through nonbaroreflex pathways. In addition to stimulating muscle metaboreceptors, exercise has the potential to increase internal temperature. Although we and others report that passive whole body heating does not alter the gain of the arterial baroreflex, it is unknown whether increased body temperature, often accompanying exercise, affects baroreflex function when muscle metaboreceptors are stimulated. This project tested the hypothesis that whole body heating alters the gain of baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and heart rate during muscle metaboreceptor stimulation engaged via postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI). MSNA, blood pressure (BP, Finometer), and heart rate were recorded from 11 healthy volunteers. The volunteers performed isometric handgrip exercise until fatigue, followed by 2.5 min of PEMI. During PEMI, BP was acutely reduced and then raised pharmacologically using the modified Oxford technique. This protocol was repeated two to three times when volunteers were normothermic, and again during heat stress (increase core temperature ∼ 0.7°C) conditions. The slope of the relationship between MSNA and BP during PEMI was less negative (i.e., decreased baroreflex gain) during whole body heating when compared with the normothermic condition (−4.34 ± 0.40 to −3.57 ± 0.31 units·beat−1·mmHg−1, respectively; P = 0.015). The gain of baroreflex control of heart rate during PEMI was also decreased during whole body heating (P < 0.001). These findings indicate that whole body heat stress reduces baroreflex control of MSNA and heart rate during muscle metaboreceptor stimulation. PMID:19213933

  1. Kinematic features of whole-body reaching movements underwater: Neutral buoyancy effects.

    PubMed

    Macaluso, T; Bourdin, C; Buloup, F; Mille, M-L; Sainton, P; Sarlegna, F R; Taillebot, V; Vercher, J-L; Weiss, P; Bringoux, L

    2016-07-01

    Astronauts' training is conventionally performed in a pool to reproduce weightlessness by exploiting buoyancy which is supposed to reduce the impact of gravity on the body. However, this training method has not been scientifically validated yet, and requires first to study the effects of underwater exposure on motor behavior. We examined the influence of neutral buoyancy on kinematic features of whole-body reaching underwater and compared them with those produced on land. Eight professional divers were asked to perform arm reaching movements toward visual targets while standing. Targets were presented either close or far from the subjects (requiring in the latter case an additional whole-body displacement). Reaching movements were performed on land or underwater in two different contexts of buoyancy. The divers either wore a diving suit only with neutral buoyancy applied to their center of mass or were additionally equipped with a submersible simulated space suit with neutral buoyancy applied to their body limbs. Results showed that underwater exposure impacted basic movement features, especially movement speed which was reduced. However, movement kinematics also differed according to the way buoyancy was exerted on the whole-body. When neutral buoyancy was applied to the center of mass only, some focal and postural components of whole-body reaching remained close to land observations, notably when considering the relative deceleration duration of arm elevation and concomitant forward trunk bending when reaching the far target. On the contrary, when neutral buoyancy was exerted on body segments, movement kinematics were close to those reported in weightlessness, as reflected by the arm deceleration phase and the whole-body forward displacement when reaching the far target. These results suggest that astronauts could benefit from the application of neutral buoyancy across the whole-body segments to optimize underwater training and acquire specific motor skills which

  2. Whole-body angular momentum in incline and decline walking.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Anne K; Wilken, Jason M; Sinitski, Emily H; Neptune, Richard R

    2012-04-01

    Angular momentum is highly regulated over the gait cycle and is important for maintaining dynamic stability and control of movement. However, little is known regarding how angular momentum is regulated on irregular surfaces, such as slopes, when the risk of falling is higher. This study examined the three-dimensional whole-body angular momentum patterns of 30 healthy subjects walking over a range of incline and decline angles. The range of angular momentum was either similar or reduced on decline surfaces and increased on incline surfaces relative to level ground, with the greatest differences occurring in the frontal and sagittal planes. These results suggest that angular momentum is more tightly controlled during decline walking when the risk of falling is greater. In the frontal plane, the range of angular momentum was strongly correlated with the peak hip and knee abduction moments in early stance. In the transverse plane, the strongest correlation occurred with the knee external rotation peak in late stance. In the sagittal plane, all external moment peaks were correlated with the range of angular momentum. The peak ankle plantarflexion, knee flexion and hip extension moments were also strongly correlated with the sagittal-plane angular momentum. These results highlight how able-bodied subjects control angular momentum differently on sloped surfaces relative to level walking and provide a baseline for comparison with pathological populations that are more susceptible to falling. PMID:22325978

  3. Whole-body counting in the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L.C.; Clinton, J.; Kaplan, E.; Meinhold, C.B.

    1991-01-01

    In 1978 the Marshall Islands Radiological Safety Program was organized to perform radiation measurements and assess radiation doses for the people of the Bikini, Enewetak, Rongelap and Utirik Atolls. One of the major field components of this program is whole- body counting (WBC). WBC is used to monitor the quantity of gamma- emitting radionuclides present in individuals. A primary objective of the program was to establish {sup 137}Cesium body contents among the Enewetak, Rongelap and Utirik populations. {sup 137}Cs was the only gamma-emitting fission radionuclide detected in the 1,967 persons monitored. {sup 137}Cs body burdens tended to increase with age for both sexes, and were higher in males. The average {sup 137}Cs dose Annual Effective Dose for the three populations was as follows: For Enewetak, the dose was 22{+-}4 {mu}Sv. For Utirik, the dose was 33{+-} 3 {mu}Sv. Since 1985 the Rongelap people have been self-exiled to Mejatto. Biological elimination should have reduced their dose to virtually zero, and the measured dose was 2{+-}2 {mu}Sv. If they had remained on Rongelap Island, the calculated dose would have been 99 {mu}Sv, which is about one-third of the background dose. 7 refs., 1 tab. (MHB)

  4. Whole-body angular momentum in incline and decline walking.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Anne K; Wilken, Jason M; Sinitski, Emily H; Neptune, Richard R

    2012-04-01

    Angular momentum is highly regulated over the gait cycle and is important for maintaining dynamic stability and control of movement. However, little is known regarding how angular momentum is regulated on irregular surfaces, such as slopes, when the risk of falling is higher. This study examined the three-dimensional whole-body angular momentum patterns of 30 healthy subjects walking over a range of incline and decline angles. The range of angular momentum was either similar or reduced on decline surfaces and increased on incline surfaces relative to level ground, with the greatest differences occurring in the frontal and sagittal planes. These results suggest that angular momentum is more tightly controlled during decline walking when the risk of falling is greater. In the frontal plane, the range of angular momentum was strongly correlated with the peak hip and knee abduction moments in early stance. In the transverse plane, the strongest correlation occurred with the knee external rotation peak in late stance. In the sagittal plane, all external moment peaks were correlated with the range of angular momentum. The peak ankle plantarflexion, knee flexion and hip extension moments were also strongly correlated with the sagittal-plane angular momentum. These results highlight how able-bodied subjects control angular momentum differently on sloped surfaces relative to level walking and provide a baseline for comparison with pathological populations that are more susceptible to falling.

  5. Input Shaping to Reduce Solar Array Structural Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael J.; Tolson, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Structural vibrations induced by actuators can be minimized using input shaping. Input shaping is a feedforward method in which actuator commands are convolved with shaping functions to yield a shaped set of commands. These commands are designed to perform the maneuver while minimizing the residual structural vibration. In this report, input shaping is extended to stepper motor actuators. As a demonstration, an input-shaping technique based on pole-zero cancellation was used to modify the Solar Array Drive Assembly (SADA) actuator commands for the Lewis satellite. A series of impulses were calculated as the ideal SADA output for vibration control. These impulses were then discretized for use by the SADA stepper motor actuator and simulated actuator outputs were used to calculate the structural response. The effectiveness of input shaping is limited by the accuracy of the knowledge of the modal frequencies. Assuming perfect knowledge resulted in significant vibration reduction. Errors of 10% in the modal frequencies caused notably higher levels of vibration. Controller robustness was improved by incorporating additional zeros in the shaping function. The additional zeros did not require increased performance from the actuator. Despite the identification errors, the resulting feedforward controller reduced residual vibrations to the level of the exactly modeled input shaper and well below the baseline cases. These results could be easily applied to many other vibration-sensitive applications involving stepper motor actuators.

  6. Alternate electrode placement for whole body and segmental bioimpedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Grisbrook, T L; Kenworthy, P; Phillips, M; Gittings, P M; Wood, F M; Edgar, D W

    2015-10-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) is frequently used to monitor body fluid and body composition in healthy and clinical populations. BIS guidelines state that there should be no skin lesions at the site of electrodes, and if lesions are present, electrode positions should be changed. However, alternate electrode positions are yet to be reported. This study aimed to determine if ventral electrode placements were suitable alternatives for whole body and segmental BIS measurements. Three alternate electrode placements were assessed for whole body BIS using a combination of ventral hand and foot electrode placements. An alternate position was assessed for upper and lower body segmental BIS. The results demonstrated that for whole body BIS, if drive and sense electrodes on the hand are moved to ventral positions, but foot electrodes remain in standard positions, then whole body BIS variables were comparable to standard electrode positioning (percentage difference range  =  0.01 to 1.65%, p  =  0.211-0.937). The alternate electrode placement for upper limb segmental BIS, results in BIS variables that are comparable to that of the standard positioning (percentage difference range  =  0.24-3.51%, p  =  0.393-0.604). The alternate lower limb electrode position significantly altered all resistance and predicted BIS variables for whole body and lower limb segmental BIS (percentage difference range  =  1.06-12.09%, p  <  0.001). If wounds are present on the hands and/or wrist, then the alternate electrode position described in this study is valid, for whole body and upper limb segmental BIS.

  7. String vibration dampers do not reduce racket frame vibration transfer to the forearm.

    PubMed

    Li, F X; Fewtrell, D; Jenkins, M

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of string vibration damping devices on reducing racket frame vibration transfer to the forearm. Twenty participants volunteered to hold a tennis racket stationary in a forehand and backhand stroking position while tennis balls were fired at 20 m x s(-1) towards two impact locations, the node of vibration and the dead spot. A three-way analysis of variance with repeated measures on damping condition, impact location and stroke condition was performed on the data. The resonant frequency of the hand-held racket was found to be approximately 120 Hz. No significant differences in amplitude of vibration at the resonant frequency were found for the wrist or the elbow when damped and non-damped impacts were compared. Impacts at the dead spot produced greater amplitudes of vibration (P < 0.01) but no interaction between impact location and string dampers was evident. The string dampers had no effect on the grip force used or the muscle electrical activity in the forearm after impact. In conclusion, we found that string dampers do not reduce the amount of racket frame vibration received at the forearm. We suggest that string dampers remain a popular accessory among tennis players because of their acoustic effects and psychological support rather than any mechanical advantage. PMID:15801498

  8. String vibration dampers do not reduce racket frame vibration transfer to the forearm.

    PubMed

    Li, F X; Fewtrell, D; Jenkins, M

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of string vibration damping devices on reducing racket frame vibration transfer to the forearm. Twenty participants volunteered to hold a tennis racket stationary in a forehand and backhand stroking position while tennis balls were fired at 20 m x s(-1) towards two impact locations, the node of vibration and the dead spot. A three-way analysis of variance with repeated measures on damping condition, impact location and stroke condition was performed on the data. The resonant frequency of the hand-held racket was found to be approximately 120 Hz. No significant differences in amplitude of vibration at the resonant frequency were found for the wrist or the elbow when damped and non-damped impacts were compared. Impacts at the dead spot produced greater amplitudes of vibration (P < 0.01) but no interaction between impact location and string dampers was evident. The string dampers had no effect on the grip force used or the muscle electrical activity in the forearm after impact. In conclusion, we found that string dampers do not reduce the amount of racket frame vibration received at the forearm. We suggest that string dampers remain a popular accessory among tennis players because of their acoustic effects and psychological support rather than any mechanical advantage.

  9. Measurement of whole body cellular and collagen nitrogen, potassium, and other elements by neutron activation and whole body counting

    SciTech Connect

    James, H.M.; Fabricius, P.J.; Dykes, P.W.

    1987-09-01

    Whole body nitrogen can be measured by neutron activation analysis with an acceptable radiation dose; it is an index of body protein which, in normal subjects, is 65% cellular protein and 35% extracellular connective collagen. Whole body potassium can be measured by whole body counting without irradiating the subject; it is an index of body cell mass. We measured whole body nitrogen, potassium, extracellular water, intracellular water, and fat-folds. The differences between 37 malnourished patients and five normal subjects suggested that the patients had 9 kg less cell mass than normal, but no difference in extracellular mass. Measurements were made on eight patients before and after 14 days of total parenteral nutrition; balance of nitrogen intake and excretion also was measured. The changes were consistent with mean increases of 3 kg of cellular mass and 3 kg of fat with no change of extracellular mass. The accuracy and sensitivity of the whole body measurements need further confirmation for use in patients with changing body composition. Where tissue wasting is largely from the cellular compartment, potassium could be a more sensitive index of wasting than nitrogen. Multielement analysis of nitrogen, potassium, chlorine, and carbon will probably be valuable in elucidating body composition in malnutrition.

  10. Design specification for the whole-body algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzjerrell, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    The necessary requirements and guidelines for the construction of a computer program of the whole-body algorithm are presented. The minimum subsystem models required to effectively simulate the total body response to stresses of interest are (1) cardiovascular (exercise/LBNP/tilt); (2) respiratory (Grodin's model); (3) thermoregulatory (Stolwijk's model); and (4) long-term circulatory fluid and electrolyte (Guyton's model). The whole-body algorithm must be capable of simulating response to stresses from CO2 inhalation, hypoxia, thermal environmental exercise (sitting and supine), LBNP, and tilt (changing body angles in gravity).

  11. Whole-Body Clinical Applications of Digital Tomosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Machida, Haruhiko; Yuhara, Toshiyuki; Tamura, Mieko; Ishikawa, Takuya; Tate, Etsuko; Ueno, Eiko; Nye, Katelyn; Sabol, John M

    2016-01-01

    With flat-panel detector mammography, radiography, and fluoroscopy systems, digital tomosynthesis (DT) has been recently introduced as an advanced clinical application that removes overlying structures, enhances local tissue separation, and provides depth information about structures of interest by providing high-quality tomographic images. DT images are generated from projection image data, typically using filtered back-projection or iterative reconstruction. These low-dose x-ray projection images are easily and swiftly acquired over a range of angles during a single linear or arc sweep of the x-ray tube assembly. DT is advantageous in a variety of clinical contexts, including breast, chest, head and neck, orthopedic, emergency, and abdominal imaging. Specifically, compared with conventional mammography, radiography, and fluoroscopy, as a result of reduced tissue overlap DT can improve detection of breast cancer, pulmonary nodules, sinonasal mucosal thickening, and bone fractures and delineation of complex anatomic structures such as the ostiomeatal unit, atlantoaxial joint, carpal and tarsal bones, and pancreatobiliary and gastrointestinal tracts. Compared with computed tomography, DT offers reduced radiation exposure, better in-plane resolution to improve assessment of fine bony changes, and less metallic artifact, improving postoperative evaluation of patients with metallic prostheses and osteosynthesis materials. With more flexible patient positioning, DT is also useful for functional, weight-bearing, and stress tests. To optimize patient management, a comprehensive understanding of the clinical applications and limitations of whole-body DT applications is important for improvement of diagnostic quality, workflow, and cost-effectiveness. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  12. Whole-Body Clinical Applications of Digital Tomosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Machida, Haruhiko; Yuhara, Toshiyuki; Tamura, Mieko; Ishikawa, Takuya; Tate, Etsuko; Ueno, Eiko; Nye, Katelyn; Sabol, John M

    2016-01-01

    With flat-panel detector mammography, radiography, and fluoroscopy systems, digital tomosynthesis (DT) has been recently introduced as an advanced clinical application that removes overlying structures, enhances local tissue separation, and provides depth information about structures of interest by providing high-quality tomographic images. DT images are generated from projection image data, typically using filtered back-projection or iterative reconstruction. These low-dose x-ray projection images are easily and swiftly acquired over a range of angles during a single linear or arc sweep of the x-ray tube assembly. DT is advantageous in a variety of clinical contexts, including breast, chest, head and neck, orthopedic, emergency, and abdominal imaging. Specifically, compared with conventional mammography, radiography, and fluoroscopy, as a result of reduced tissue overlap DT can improve detection of breast cancer, pulmonary nodules, sinonasal mucosal thickening, and bone fractures and delineation of complex anatomic structures such as the ostiomeatal unit, atlantoaxial joint, carpal and tarsal bones, and pancreatobiliary and gastrointestinal tracts. Compared with computed tomography, DT offers reduced radiation exposure, better in-plane resolution to improve assessment of fine bony changes, and less metallic artifact, improving postoperative evaluation of patients with metallic prostheses and osteosynthesis materials. With more flexible patient positioning, DT is also useful for functional, weight-bearing, and stress tests. To optimize patient management, a comprehensive understanding of the clinical applications and limitations of whole-body DT applications is important for improvement of diagnostic quality, workflow, and cost-effectiveness. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27163590

  13. Post-stressed concrete foundation may reduce machinery vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fistedis, S. H.

    1967-01-01

    Post-stressing concrete mat foundation reduces excessive vibrations in machinery. The mat is stressed in compression after the machinery is mounted, thus closing any cracks in it, altering the distribution of the soil subgrade reaction on the mat, and changing the mat-subgrade natural frequency.

  14. Whole body bone tissue and cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Claudiu; Bojincă, Violeta; Opriş, Daniela; Ionescu, Ruxandra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Atherosclerosis and osteoporosis share an age-independent bidirectional correlation. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) represents a risk factor for both conditions. Objectives. The study aims to evaluate the connection between the estimated cardiovascular risk (CVR) and the loss of bone tissue in RA patients. Methods. The study has a prospective cross-sectional design and it includes female in-patients with RA or without autoimmune diseases; bone tissue was measured using whole body dual X-ray absorptiometry (wbDXA); CVR was estimated using SCORE charts and PROCAM applications. Results. There were 75 RA women and 66 normal women of similar age. The wbDXA bone indices correlate significantly, negatively, and age-independently with the estimated CVR. The whole body bone percent (wbBP) was a significant predictor of estimated CVR, explaining 26% of SCORE variation along with low density lipoprotein (P < 0.001) and 49.7% of PROCAM variation along with glycemia and menopause duration (P < 0.001). Although obese patients had less bone relative to body composition (wbBP), in terms of quantity their bone content was significantly higher than that of nonobese patients. Conclusions. Female patients with RA and female patients with cardiovascular morbidity have a lower whole body bone percent. Obese female individuals have higher whole body bone mass than nonobese patients.

  15. Age Modulates Attitudes to Whole Body Donation among Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Gary F.; Ettarh, Raj R.

    2009-01-01

    Managing a whole body donor program is necessary for facilitating a traditional dissection-based anatomy curriculum in medicine and health sciences. Factors which influence body donations to medical science can therefore affect dissection-based anatomy teaching. In order to determine whether age influences the attitudes of medical students to…

  16. Student Attitudes to Whole Body Donation Are Influenced by Dissection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Kevin C.; Ettarh, Raj R.

    2008-01-01

    Given the important role that anatomical dissection plays in the shaping of medical student attitudes to life and death, these attitudes have not been evaluated in the context of whole body donation for medical science. First year students of anatomy in an Irish university medical school were surveyed by questionnaire before and after the initial…

  17. Automatic aortic root segmentation in CTA whole-body dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xinpei; Kitslaar, Pieter H.; Scholte, Arthur J. H. A.; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Dijkstra, Jouke; Reiber, Johan H. C.

    2016-03-01

    Trans-catheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an evolving technique for patients with serious aortic stenosis disease. Typically, in this application a CTA data set is obtained of the patient's arterial system from the subclavian artery to the femoral arteries, to evaluate the quality of the vascular access route and analyze the aortic root to determine if and which prosthesis should be used. In this paper, we concentrate on the automated segmentation of the aortic root. The purpose of this study was to automatically segment the aortic root in computed tomography angiography (CTA) datasets to support TAVR procedures. The method in this study includes 4 major steps. First, the patient's cardiac CTA image was resampled to reduce the computation time. Next, the cardiac CTA image was segmented using an atlas-based approach. The most similar atlas was selected from a total of 8 atlases based on its image similarity to the input CTA image. Third, the aortic root segmentation from the previous step was transferred to the patient's whole-body CTA image by affine registration and refined in the fourth step using a deformable subdivision surface model fitting procedure based on image intensity. The pipeline was applied to 20 patients. The ground truth was created by an analyst who semi-automatically corrected the contours of the automatic method, where necessary. The average Dice similarity index between the segmentations of the automatic method and the ground truth was found to be 0.965±0.024. In conclusion, the current results are very promising.

  18. Ultra-high field magnets for whole-body MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Rory

    2016-09-01

    For whole-body MRI, an ultra-high field (UHF) magnet is currently defined as a system operating at 7 T or above. Over 70 UHF magnets have been built, all with the same technical approach originally developed by Magnex Scientific Ltd. The preferred coil configuration is a compensated solenoid. In this case, the majority of the field is generated by a simple long solenoid that stretches the entire length of the magnet. Additional coils are wound on a separate former outside the main windings with the purpose of balancing the homogeneity. Most of the magnets currently in operation are passively shielded systems where the magnet is surrounded by a steel box of 200–870 tonnes of carbon steel. More recently actively shielded magnets have been built for operation at 7 T; in this case the stray field is controlled by with reverse turns wound on a separate former outside the primary coils. Protection against quench damage is much more complex with an actively shielded magnet design due to the requirement to prevent the stray field from increasing during a quench. In the case of the 7 T 900 magnet this controlled by combining some of the screening coils into each section of the protection circuit. Correction of the field variations caused by manufacturing tolerances and environmental effects are made with a combination of superconducting shims and passive shims. Modern UHF magnets operate in zero boil-off mode with the use of cryocoolers with cooling capacity at 4.2 K. Although there are no cryogen costs associated with normal operation UHF magnets require a significant volume (10 000–20 000 l) of liquid helium for the cool-down. Liquid helium is expensive therefore new methods of cool-down using high-power cryocoolers are being implemented to reduce the requirement.

  19. Ultra-high field magnets for whole-body MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Rory

    2016-09-01

    For whole-body MRI, an ultra-high field (UHF) magnet is currently defined as a system operating at 7 T or above. Over 70 UHF magnets have been built, all with the same technical approach originally developed by Magnex Scientific Ltd. The preferred coil configuration is a compensated solenoid. In this case, the majority of the field is generated by a simple long solenoid that stretches the entire length of the magnet. Additional coils are wound on a separate former outside the main windings with the purpose of balancing the homogeneity. Most of the magnets currently in operation are passively shielded systems where the magnet is surrounded by a steel box of 200-870 tonnes of carbon steel. More recently actively shielded magnets have been built for operation at 7 T; in this case the stray field is controlled by with reverse turns wound on a separate former outside the primary coils. Protection against quench damage is much more complex with an actively shielded magnet design due to the requirement to prevent the stray field from increasing during a quench. In the case of the 7 T 900 magnet this controlled by combining some of the screening coils into each section of the protection circuit. Correction of the field variations caused by manufacturing tolerances and environmental effects are made with a combination of superconducting shims and passive shims. Modern UHF magnets operate in zero boil-off mode with the use of cryocoolers with cooling capacity at 4.2 K. Although there are no cryogen costs associated with normal operation UHF magnets require a significant volume (10 000-20 000 l) of liquid helium for the cool-down. Liquid helium is expensive therefore new methods of cool-down using high-power cryocoolers are being implemented to reduce the requirement.

  20. Effects of whole body heating on dynamic baroreflex regulation of heart rate in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.; Zhang, R.; Levine, B. D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to identify whether dynamic baroreflex regulation of heart rate (HR) is altered during whole body heating. In 14 subjects, dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR was assessed using transfer function analysis. In normothermic and heat-stressed conditions, each subject breathed at a fixed rate (0. 25 Hz) while beat-by-beat HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were obtained. Whole body heating significantly increased sublingual temperature, HR, and forearm skin blood flow. Spectral analysis of HR and SBP revealed that the heat stress significantly reduced HR and SBP variability within the high-frequency range (0.2-0.3 Hz), reduced SBP variability within the low-frequency range (0.03-0.15 Hz), and increased the ratio of low- to high-frequency HR variability (all P < 0.01). Transfer function gain analysis showed that the heat stress reduced dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR within the high-frequency range (from 1.04 +/- 0.06 to 0.54 +/- 0.6 beats. min(-1). mmHg(-1); P < 0.001) without significantly affecting the gain in the low-frequency range (P = 0.63). These data suggest that whole body heating reduced high-frequency dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR associated with spontaneous changes in blood pressure. Reduced vagal baroreflex regulation of HR may contribute to reduced orthostatic tolerance known to occur in humans during heat stress.

  1. Whole-Body and Hepatic Insulin Resistance in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra-Reynoso, Lorena del Rocío; Pisarchyk, Liudmila; Pérez-Luque, Elva Leticia; Garay-Sevilla, Ma. Eugenia; Malacara, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance may be assessed as whole body or hepatic. Objective To study factors associated with both types of insulin resistance. Methods Cross-sectional study of 182 obese children. Somatometric measurements were registered, and the following three adiposity indexes were compared: BMI, waist-to-height ratio and visceral adiposity. Whole-body insulin resistance was evaluated using HOMA-IR, with 2.5 as the cut-off point. Hepatic insulin resistance was considered for IGFBP-1 level quartiles 1 to 3 (<6.67 ng/ml). We determined metabolite and hormone levels and performed a liver ultrasound. Results The majority, 73.1%, of obese children had whole-body insulin resistance and hepatic insulin resistance, while 7% did not have either type. HOMA-IR was negatively associated with IGFBP-1 and positively associated with BMI, triglycerides, leptin and mother's BMI. Girls had increased HOMA-IR. IGFBP-1 was negatively associated with waist-to-height ratio, age, leptin, HOMA-IR and IGF-I. We did not find HOMA-IR or IGFBP-1 associated with fatty liver. Conclusion In school-aged children, BMI is the best metric to predict whole-body insulin resistance, and waist-to-height ratio is the best predictor of hepatic insulin resistance, indicating that central obesity is important for hepatic insulin resistance. The reciprocal negative association of IGFBP-1 and HOMA-IR may represent a strong interaction of the physiological processes of both whole-body and hepatic insulin resistance. PMID:25411786

  2. Proprioceptive deficits of the lower limb following anterior cruciate ligament deficiency affect whole body steering control.

    PubMed

    Reed-Jones, Rebecca J; Vallis, Lori Ann

    2007-09-01

    The role of lower limb proprioception in the steering control of locomotion is still unclear. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether steering control is altered in individuals with reduced lower limb proprioception. Anterior cruciate ligament deficiency (ACLD) results in a decrease in proprioceptive information from the injured knee joint (Barrack et al. 1989). Therefore the whole body kinematics were recorded for eight unilateral ACLD individuals and eight CONTROL individuals during the descent of a 20 degrees incline ramp followed by either a redirection using a side or cross cutting maneuver or a continuation straight ahead. Onset of head and trunk yaw, mediolateral displacement of a weighted center of mass (COM(HT)) and mediolateral displacement of the swing foot were analyzed to evaluate differences in the steering control. Timing analyses revealed that ACLD individuals delayed the reorientation of body segments compared to CONTROL individuals. In addition, ACLD did not use a typical steering synergy where the head leads whole body reorientation; rather ACLD individuals reoriented the head, trunk and COM(HT) in the new direction at the same time. These results suggest that when lower limb proprioceptive information is reduced, the central nervous system (CNS) may delay whole body reorientation to the new travel direction, perhaps in order to integrate existing sensory information (vision, vestibular and proprioception) with the reduced information from the injured knee joint. This control strategy is maintained when visual information is present or reduced in a low light environment. Additionally, the CNS may move the head and trunk segments as, effectively, one segment to decrease the number of degrees of freedom that must be controlled and increase whole body stability during the turning task.

  3. The development of a whole-body algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    The whole-body algorithm is envisioned as a mathematical model that utilizes human physiology to simulate the behavior of vital body systems. The objective of this model is to determine the response of selected body parameters within these systems to various input perturbations, or stresses. Perturbations of interest are exercise, chemical unbalances, gravitational changes and other abnormal environmental conditions. This model provides for a study of man's physiological response in various space applications, underwater applications, normal and abnormal workloads and environments, and the functioning of the system with physical impairments or decay of functioning components. Many methods or approaches to the development of a whole-body algorithm are considered. Of foremost concern is the determination of the subsystems to be included, the detail of the subsystems and the interaction between the subsystems.

  4. Whole-body MRI evaluation of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Doris G.; Carrino, John A.; Wagner, Kathryn R.; Jacobs, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a hereditary disorder that causes progressive muscle wasting. Increasing knowledge of the pathophysiology of FSHD has stimulated interest in developing biomarkers of disease severity. Methods Two groups of MRI scans were analyzed: whole-body scans from 13 subjects with FSHD, and upper and lower extremity scans from 34 subjects with FSHD who participated in the MYO-029 clinical trial. Muscles were scored for fat infiltration and edema-like changes. Fat infiltration scores were compared to muscle strength and function. Results Our analysis reveals a distinctive pattern of both frequent muscle involvement and frequent sparing in FSHD. Averaged fat infiltration scores for muscle groups in the legs correlated with quantitative muscle strength and 10-meter walk times. Discussion Advances in MRI technology allow for the acquisition of rapid, high-quality whole-body imaging in diffuse muscle disease. This technique offers a promising disease biomarker in FSHD and other muscle diseases. PMID:25641525

  5. Reduction of a Whole-Body Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model to Stabilise the Bayesian Analysis of Clinical Data.

    PubMed

    Wendling, Thierry; Tsamandouras, Nikolaos; Dumitras, Swati; Pigeolet, Etienne; Ogungbenro, Kayode; Aarons, Leon

    2016-01-01

    Whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are increasingly used in drug development for their ability to predict drug concentrations in clinically relevant tissues and to extrapolate across species, experimental conditions and sub-populations. A whole-body PBPK model can be fitted to clinical data using a Bayesian population approach. However, the analysis might be time consuming and numerically unstable if prior information on the model parameters is too vague given the complexity of the system. We suggest an approach where (i) a whole-body PBPK model is formally reduced using a Bayesian proper lumping method to retain the mechanistic interpretation of the system and account for parameter uncertainty, (ii) the simplified model is fitted to clinical data using Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques and (iii) the optimised reduced PBPK model is used for extrapolation. A previously developed 16-compartment whole-body PBPK model for mavoglurant was reduced to 7 compartments while preserving plasma concentration-time profiles (median and variance) and giving emphasis to the brain (target site) and the liver (elimination site). The reduced model was numerically more stable than the whole-body model for the Bayesian analysis of mavoglurant pharmacokinetic data in healthy adult volunteers. Finally, the reduced yet mechanistic model could easily be scaled from adults to children and predict mavoglurant pharmacokinetics in children aged from 3 to 11 years with similar performance compared with the whole-body model. This study is a first example of the practicality of formal reduction of complex mechanistic models for Bayesian inference in drug development. PMID:26538125

  6. Reduction of a Whole-Body Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model to Stabilise the Bayesian Analysis of Clinical Data.

    PubMed

    Wendling, Thierry; Tsamandouras, Nikolaos; Dumitras, Swati; Pigeolet, Etienne; Ogungbenro, Kayode; Aarons, Leon

    2016-01-01

    Whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are increasingly used in drug development for their ability to predict drug concentrations in clinically relevant tissues and to extrapolate across species, experimental conditions and sub-populations. A whole-body PBPK model can be fitted to clinical data using a Bayesian population approach. However, the analysis might be time consuming and numerically unstable if prior information on the model parameters is too vague given the complexity of the system. We suggest an approach where (i) a whole-body PBPK model is formally reduced using a Bayesian proper lumping method to retain the mechanistic interpretation of the system and account for parameter uncertainty, (ii) the simplified model is fitted to clinical data using Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques and (iii) the optimised reduced PBPK model is used for extrapolation. A previously developed 16-compartment whole-body PBPK model for mavoglurant was reduced to 7 compartments while preserving plasma concentration-time profiles (median and variance) and giving emphasis to the brain (target site) and the liver (elimination site). The reduced model was numerically more stable than the whole-body model for the Bayesian analysis of mavoglurant pharmacokinetic data in healthy adult volunteers. Finally, the reduced yet mechanistic model could easily be scaled from adults to children and predict mavoglurant pharmacokinetics in children aged from 3 to 11 years with similar performance compared with the whole-body model. This study is a first example of the practicality of formal reduction of complex mechanistic models for Bayesian inference in drug development.

  7. Development of adaptive helicopter seat systems for aircrew vibration mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong; Wickramasinghe, Viresh; Zimcik, David G.

    2008-03-01

    Helicopter aircrews are exposed to high levels of whole body vibration during flight. This paper presents the results of an investigation of adaptive seat mount approaches to reduce helicopter aircrew whole body vibration levels. A flight test was conducted on a four-blade helicopter and showed that the currently used passive seat systems were not able to provide satisfactory protection to the helicopter aircrew in both front-back and vertical directions. Long-term exposure to the measured whole body vibration environment may cause occupational health issues such as spine and neck strain injuries for aircrew. In order to address this issue, a novel adaptive seat mount concept was developed to mitigate the vibration levels transmitted to the aircrew body. For proof-of-concept demonstration, a miniature modal shaker was properly aligned between the cabin floor and the seat frame to provide adaptive actuation authority. Adaptive control laws were developed to reduce the vibration transmitted to the aircrew body, especially the helmet location in order to minimize neck and spine injuries. Closed-loop control test have been conducted on a full-scale helicopter seat with a mannequin configuration and a large mechanical shaker was used to provide representative helicopter vibration profiles to the seat frame. Significant vibration reductions to the vertical and front-back vibration modes have been achieved simultaneously, which verified the technical readiness of the adaptive mount approach for full-scale flight test on the vehicle.

  8. Directional acuity of whole-body perturbations during standing balance.

    PubMed

    Puntkattalee, M Jane; Whitmire, Clarissa J; Macklin, Alix S; Stanley, Garrett B; Ting, Lena H

    2016-07-01

    The ability to perceive the direction of whole-body motion during standing may be critical to maintaining balance and preventing a fall. Our first goal was to quantify kinesthetic perception of whole-body motion by estimating directional acuity thresholds of support-surface perturbations during standing. The directional acuity threshold to lateral deviations in backward support-surface motion in healthy, young adults was quantified as 9.5±2.4° using the psychometric method (n=25 subjects). However, inherent limitations in the psychometric method, such as a large number of required trials and the predetermined stimulus set, may preclude wider use of this method in clinical populations. Our second goal was to validate an adaptive algorithm known as parameter estimation by sequential testing (PEST) as an alternative threshold estimation technique to minimize the required trial count without predetermined knowledge of the relevant stimulus space. The directional acuity threshold was estimated at 11.7±3.8° from the PEST method (n=11 of 25 subjects, psychometric threshold=10.1±3.1°) using only one-third the number of trials compared to the psychometric method. Furthermore, PEST estimates of the direction acuity threshold were highly correlated with the psychometric estimates across subjects (r=0.93) suggesting that both methods provide comparable estimates of the perceptual threshold. Computational modeling of both techniques revealed similar variance in the estimated thresholds across simulations of about 1°. Our results suggest that the PEST algorithm can be used to more quickly quantify whole-body directional acuity during standing in individuals with balance impairments. PMID:27477713

  9. Tool-specific performance of vibration-reducing gloves for attenuating palm-transmitted vibrations in three orthogonal directions

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ren G.; Welcome, Daniel E.; Peterson, Donald R.; Xu, Xueyan S.; McDowell, Thomas W.; Warren, Christopher; Asaki, Takafumi; Kudernatsch, Simon; Brammer, Antony

    2015-01-01

    Vibration-reducing (VR) gloves have been increasingly used to help reduce vibration exposure, but it remains unclear how effective these gloves are. The purpose of this study was to estimate tool-specific performances of VR gloves for reducing the vibrations transmitted to the palm of the hand in three orthogonal directions (3-D) in an attempt to assess glove effectiveness and aid in the appropriate selection of these gloves. Four typical VR gloves were considered in this study, two of which can be classified as anti-vibration (AV) gloves according to the current AV glove test standard. The average transmissibility spectrum of each glove in each direction was synthesized based on spectra measured in this study and other spectra collected from reported studies. More than seventy vibration spectra of various tools or machines were considered in the estimations, which were also measured in this study or collected from reported studies. The glove performance assessments were based on the percent reduction of frequency-weighted acceleration as is required in the current standard for assessing the risk of vibration exposures. The estimated tool-specific vibration reductions of the gloves indicate that the VR gloves could slightly reduce (<5%) or marginally amplify (<10%) the vibrations generated from low-frequency (<25 Hz) tools or those vibrating primarily along the axis of the tool handle. With other tools, the VR gloves could reduce palm-transmitted vibrations in the range of 5%–58%, primarily depending on the specific tool and its vibration spectra in the three directions. The two AV gloves were not more effective than the other gloves with some of the tools considered in this study. The implications of the results are discussed. Relevance to industry Hand-transmitted vibration exposure may cause hand-arm vibration syndrome. Vibration-reducing gloves are considered as an alternative approach to reduce the vibration exposure. This study provides useful information

  10. Damping element for reducing the vibration of an airfoil

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Christian X; Marra, John J

    2013-11-12

    An airfoil (10) is provided with a tip (12) having an opening (14) to a center channel (24). A damping element (16) is inserted within the opening of the center channel, to reduce an induced vibration of the airfoil. The mass of the damping element, a spring constant of the damping element within the center channel, and/or a mounting location (58) of the damping element within the center channel may be adjustably varied, to shift a resonance frequency of the airfoil outside a natural operating frequency of the airfoil.

  11. Accurate body composition measures from whole-body silhouettes

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bowen; Avila, Jesus I.; Ng, Bennett K.; Fan, Bo; Loo, Victoria; Gilsanz, Vicente; Hangartner, Thomas; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Lappe, Joan; Oberfield, Sharon; Winer, Karen; Zemel, Babette; Shepherd, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Obesity and its consequences, such as diabetes, are global health issues that burden about 171 × 106 adult individuals worldwide. Fat mass index (FMI, kg/m2), fat-free mass index (FFMI, kg/m2), and percent fat mass may be useful to evaluate under- and overnutrition and muscle development in a clinical or research environment. This proof-of-concept study tested whether frontal whole-body silhouettes could be used to accurately measure body composition parameters using active shape modeling (ASM) techniques. Methods: Binary shape images (silhouettes) were generated from the skin outline of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) whole-body scans of 200 healthy children of ages from 6 to 16 yr. The silhouette shape variation from the average was described using an ASM, which computed principal components for unique modes of shape. Predictive models were derived from the modes for FMI, FFMI, and percent fat using stepwise linear regression. The models were compared to simple models using demographics alone [age, sex, height, weight, and body mass index z-scores (BMIZ)]. Results: The authors found that 95% of the shape variation of the sampled population could be explained using 26 modes. In most cases, the body composition variables could be predicted similarly between demographics-only and shape-only models. However, the combination of shape with demographics improved all estimates of boys and girls compared to the demographics-only model. The best prediction models for FMI, FFMI, and percent fat agreed with the actual measures with R2 adj. (the coefficient of determination adjusted for the number of parameters used in the model equation) values of 0.86, 0.95, and 0.75 for boys and 0.90, 0.89, and 0.69 for girls, respectively. Conclusions: Whole-body silhouettes in children may be useful to derive estimates of body composition including FMI, FFMI, and percent fat. These results support the feasibility of measuring body composition variables from simple

  12. Multimodal Correlative Preclinical Whole Body Imaging and Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Akselrod-Ballin, Ayelet; Dafni, Hagit; Addadi, Yoseph; Biton, Inbal; Avni, Reut; Brenner, Yafit; Neeman, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Segmentation of anatomical structures and particularly abdominal organs is a fundamental problem for quantitative image analysis in preclinical research. This paper presents a novel approach for whole body segmentation of small animals in a multimodal setting of MR, CT and optical imaging. The algorithm integrates multiple imaging sequences into a machine learning framework, which generates supervoxels by an efficient hierarchical agglomerative strategy and utilizes multiple SVM-kNN classifiers each constrained by a heatmap prior region to compose the segmentation. We demonstrate results showing segmentation of mice images into several structures including the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, stomach, vena cava, bladder, tumor, and skeleton structures. Experimental validation on a large set of mice and organs, indicated that our system outperforms alternative state of the art approaches. The system proposed can be generalized to various tissues and imaging modalities to produce automatic atlas-free segmentation, thereby enabling a wide range of applications in preclinical studies of small animal imaging. PMID:27325178

  13. Conceptual design of a whole body pet machine

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.G.; Harrop, R.; Kinahan, P.E.; Wilkinson, N.A.; Coombes, G.H.; Doherty, P.W.; Saylor, D.P.

    1988-02-01

    The authors are designing a whole body Positron Emission Tomography (PET) machine based on a new type of large area sodium iodide (NaI) detector. As pointed out in earlier publications, a tomograph based on these new detectors can have several advantages over conventional PET machines, which are based on small Bismuth Germanate (BGO) detectors. Monte Carlo computer simulations have been used to compare some of the performance parameters of a tomograph based on the new detectors to similar parameters of conventional small crystal machines. Three different variants of prototype detectors have been constructed and many tests performed, including measurements of transverse spatial resolution, depth-of-interaction resolution, energy resolution, time resolution, and high counting-rate capabilities.

  14. Applications of quantitative whole body autoradiographic technique in radiopharmaceutical research

    SciTech Connect

    Som, P.; Oster, Z.H.; Yonekura, Y.; Meyer, M.A.; Fand, I.; Brill, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    The routine evaluation of radiopharmaceuticals involves dissecting tissue distribution studies (DTDS) and gamma or positron imaging. DTDS have the following disadvantages: since not all tissues can always be sampled, sites of radiopharmaceutical uptake may be missed and because the procedure involves weighing of dissected tissue samples, the spatial resolution of this method is low and determined by the smallest amount that can be weighed accurately. Gamma camera imaging and positron emission tomography though more comprehensive in evaluating the global distribution of a compound, have relative low spatial resolution. Whole body autoradiography of small animals has a much higher spatial resolution as compared to the above and depicts the global distribution of radiopharmaceuticals. A computer-assisted quantification method of WBARG applied to positron, beta, and gamma emitters will complement the method by producing quantitative values comparable to those obtained by dissection and direct tissue counting, with the advantages of depicting the global distribution at high spatial resolution.

  15. Whole-body mathematical model for simulating intracranial pressure dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakin, William D. (Inventor); Penar, Paul L. (Inventor); Stevens, Scott A. (Inventor); Tranmer, Bruce I. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A whole-body mathematical model (10) for simulating intracranial pressure dynamics. In one embodiment, model (10) includes 17 interacting compartments, of which nine lie entirely outside of intracranial vault (14). Compartments (F) and (T) are defined to distinguish ventricular from extraventricular CSF. The vasculature of the intracranial system within cranial vault (14) is also subdivided into five compartments (A, C, P, V, and S, respectively) representing the intracranial arteries, capillaries, choroid plexus, veins, and venous sinus. The body's extracranial systemic vasculature is divided into six compartments (I, J, O, Z, D, and X, respectively) representing the arteries, capillaries, and veins of the central body and the lower body. Compartments (G) and (B) include tissue and the associated interstitial fluid in the intracranial and lower regions. Compartment (Y) is a composite involving the tissues, organs, and pulmonary circulation of the central body and compartment (M) represents the external environment.

  16. Multimodal Correlative Preclinical Whole Body Imaging and Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Akselrod-Ballin, Ayelet; Dafni, Hagit; Addadi, Yoseph; Biton, Inbal; Avni, Reut; Brenner, Yafit; Neeman, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Segmentation of anatomical structures and particularly abdominal organs is a fundamental problem for quantitative image analysis in preclinical research. This paper presents a novel approach for whole body segmentation of small animals in a multimodal setting of MR, CT and optical imaging. The algorithm integrates multiple imaging sequences into a machine learning framework, which generates supervoxels by an efficient hierarchical agglomerative strategy and utilizes multiple SVM-kNN classifiers each constrained by a heatmap prior region to compose the segmentation. We demonstrate results showing segmentation of mice images into several structures including the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, stomach, vena cava, bladder, tumor, and skeleton structures. Experimental validation on a large set of mice and organs, indicated that our system outperforms alternative state of the art approaches. The system proposed can be generalized to various tissues and imaging modalities to produce automatic atlas-free segmentation, thereby enabling a wide range of applications in preclinical studies of small animal imaging. PMID:27325178

  17. Whole-body 3D scanner and scan data report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addleman, Stephen R.

    1997-03-01

    With the first whole-body 3D scanner now available the next adventure confronting the user is what to do with all of the data. While the system was built for anthropologists, it has created interest among users from a wide variety of fields. Users with applications in the fields of anthropology, costume design, garment design, entertainment, VR and gaming have a need for the data in formats unique to their fields. Data from the scanner is being converted to solid models for art and design and NURBS for computer graphics applications. Motion capture has made scan data move and dance. The scanner has created a need for advanced application software just as other scanners have in the past.

  18. Shaping inputs to reduce vibration for suspended payloads

    SciTech Connect

    Noakes, M.W.; Jansen, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how to reduce the vibrational motion of an object transported by an overhead crane. Recent work at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has shown that oscillation-damped transport and swing-free stops are possible by properly programming the acceleration of the transporting crane. The main objective of this paper is to generalize the theory associated with oscillation-damped trajectories for simply suspended objects based on the work at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Further, the results are applied to a full-scale implementation of the damped oscillation methods for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Advanced Integrated Maintenance System (AIMS). Hardware and software requirements and constraints for proper operation are discussed. Finally, test results and lessons learned'' are presented. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Whole-Body MRI in Children: Current Imaging Techniques and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used in children to evaluate the extent and distribution of various neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. Not using ionizing radiation is a major advantage of pediatric whole-body MRI. Coronal and sagittal short tau inversion recovery imaging is most commonly used as the fundamental whole-body MRI protocol. Diffusion-weighted imaging and Dixon-based imaging, which has been recently incorporated into whole-body MRI, are promising pulse sequences, particularly for pediatric oncology. Other pulse sequences may be added to increase diagnostic capability of whole-body MRI. Of importance, the overall whole-body MRI examination time should be less than 30-60 minutes in children, regardless of the imaging protocol. Established and potentially useful clinical applications of pediatric whole-body MRI are described. PMID:26355493

  20. Abatacept Improves Whole-Body Insulin Sensitivity in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ursini, Francesco; Russo, Emilio; Letizia Hribal, Marta; Mauro, Daniele; Savarino, Francesca; Bruno, Caterina; Tripolino, Cesare; Rubino, Mariangela; Naty, Saverio; Grembiale, Rosa Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by increased insulin resistance, a well-known risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of abatacept on insulin sensitivity in RA patients with moderate to severe disease despite treatment with methotrexate. Fifteen RA patients were recruited for the present study. Patients were evaluated at time 0 and after 6 months of the treatment with i.v. abatacept at the dosage recommended for weight range. Evaluation included oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at both time points. Insulin sensitivity was estimated with insulin sensitivity index (ISI) by Matsuda, a measure of whole-body insulin sensitivity. ISI significantly increased after the treatment with abatacept from 3.7 ± 2.6 to 5.0 ± 3.2 (P = 0.003) with a mean difference of 1.23. Analysis of glucose and insulin values during OGTT revealed a reduction of both glucose (303.9 ± 73.4 mg/dL min versus 269.2 ± 69.5 mg/dL min, P = 0.009) and insulin (208.4 ± 119.7 mg/dL min versus 158.0 ± 95.3 mg/dL min, P = 0.01) area under the curves (AUCs). Accordingly also glycated hemoglobin significantly improved (5.5 ± 0.4% versus 5.3 ± 0.3%, P = 0.04). No significant differences were found for measures of β-cell function insulinogenic index (1.11 ± 1.19 versus 1.32 ± 0.82, P = 0.77) and oral disposition index (2.0 ± 5.4 versus 6.0 ± 6.0, P = 0.25). Treatment with abatacept seems to be able to improve whole-body insulin sensitivity in RA patients without affecting β-cell function. PMID:26020396

  1. Flexible Muscle Modes and Synergies in Challenging Whole-Body Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Danna-dos-Santos, Alessander; Degani, Adriana M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2008-01-01

    We used the idea of hierarchical control to study multi-muscle synergies during a whole-body sway task performed by a standing person. Within this view, at the lower level of the hierarchy, muscles are united into groups (M-modes). At the higher level, gains at the M-modes are co-varied by the controller in a task specific way to ensure low variability of important physical variables. In particular, we hypothesized that (1) the composition of M-modes could adjust and (2) an index of M-mode co-variation would become weaker in more challenging conditions. Subjects were required to perform a whole-body sway at 0.5 Hz paced by a metronome. They performed the task with eyes open and closed, while standing on both feet or on one foot only, with and without vibration applied to the Achilles tendons. Integrated indices of muscle activation were subjected to principal component analysis to identify M-modes. An increase in the task complexity led to an increase in the number of principal components that contained significantly loaded indices of muscle activation from 3 to 5. Hence, in more challenging tasks, the controller manipulated a larger number of variables. Multiple regression analysis was used to define the Jacobian of the system mapping small changes in M-mode gains onto shifts of the center of pressure (COP) in the anterior-posterior direction. Further, the variance in the M-mode space across sway cycles was partitioned into two components, one that did not affect an average across cycles COP coordinate and the other that did (good and bad variance, respectively). Under all conditions, the subjects showed substantially more good variance than bad variance interpreted as a multi-M-mode synergy stabilizing the COP trajectory. An index of the strength of the synergy was comparable across all conditions, and there was no modulation of this index over the sway cycle. Hence, our first hypothesis that the composition of M-modes could adjust under challenging conditions

  2. Harbor Seal Vibrissa Morphology Reduces Vortex-Induced Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beem, Heather; Dahl, Jason; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Studies show that harbor seals are adept at tracking small movements in the water, such as those left in the wake of fish, by using their highly sensitive whiskers to detect fluid structures, even without auditory or visual cues. The present work investigates the intriguing claim that the unique morphology of the harbor seal whisker suppresses Vortex Induced Vibrations (VIV). This implies that the geometry is specialized to reduce the background noise caused by the whisker's own wake in the detection of the upstream target. Forces on a rigid whisker model (scale: 50x) being towed steadily down a water tank while experiencing imposed oscillations are measured. A range of frequencies and amplitudes are tested, the hydrodynamic lift coefficient in phase with velocity (CL,v) is calculated for each, and values are combined in a contour plot. The region of positive CL,v peaks at an amplitude ratio of 0.1, indicating that the whisker's undulatory, asymmetric structure considerably reduces (but does not entirely suppress) regions where the structure experiences VIV in comparison with a standard cylinder, whose peak reaches an amplitude ratio of 0.8.

  3. Acoustical method of whole-body hydration status monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarvazyan, A. P.; Tsyuryupa, S. N.; Calhoun, M.; Utter, A.

    2016-07-01

    An acoustical handheld hydration monitor (HM) for assessing the water balance of the human body was developed. Dehydration is a critical public health problem. Many elderly over age of 65 are particularly vulnerable as are infants and young children. Given that dehydration is both preventable and reversible, the need for an easy-to-perform method for the detection of water imbalance is of the utmost clinical importance. The HM is based on an experimental fact that ultrasound velocity in muscle is a linear function of water content and can be referenced to the hydration status of the body. Studies on the validity of HM for the assessment of whole-body hydration status were conducted in the Appalachian State University, USA, on healthy young adults and on elderly subjects residing at an assisted living facility. The HM was able to track changes in total body water during periods of acute dehydration and rehydration in athletes and day-to-day and diurnal variability of hydration in elderly. Results of human studies indicate that HM has a potential to become an efficient tool for detecting abnormal changes in the body hydration status.

  4. Creatine transporter deficiency leads to increased whole body and cellular metabolism.

    PubMed

    Perna, Marla K; Kokenge, Amanda N; Miles, Keila N; Udobi, Kenea C; Clark, Joseph F; Pyne-Geithman, Gail J; Khuchua, Zaza; Skelton, Matthew R

    2016-08-01

    Creatine (Cr) is a guanidino compound required for rapid replenishment of ATP in cells with a high-energy demand. In humans, mutations in the Cr transporter (CRT;SLC6A8) prevent Cr entry into tissue and result in a significant intellectual impairment, epilepsy, and aphasia. The lack of Cr on both the whole body and cellular metabolism was evaluated in Crt knockout (Crt (-/y) ) mice, a high-fidelity model of human CRT deficiency. Crt (-/y) mice have reduced body mass and, however, show a twofold increase in body fat. There was increased energy expenditure in a home cage environment and during treadmill running in Crt (-/y) mice. Consistent with the increases in the whole-body metabolic function, Crt (-/y) mice show increased cellular metabolism as well. Mitochondrial respiration increased in skeletal muscle fibers and hippocampal lysates from Crt (-/y) mice. In addition, Crt (-/y) mice had increased citrate synthase activity, suggesting a higher number of mitochondria instead of an increase in mitochondrial activity. To determine if the increase in respiration was due to increased mitochondrial numbers, we measured oxygen consumption in an equal number of mitochondria from Crt (+/y) and Crt (-/y) mice. There were no changes in mitochondrial respiration when normalized to mitochondrial number, suggesting that the increase in respiration observed could be to higher mitochondrial content in Crt (-/y) mice.

  5. Creatine transporter deficiency leads to increased whole body and cellular metabolism.

    PubMed

    Perna, Marla K; Kokenge, Amanda N; Miles, Keila N; Udobi, Kenea C; Clark, Joseph F; Pyne-Geithman, Gail J; Khuchua, Zaza; Skelton, Matthew R

    2016-08-01

    Creatine (Cr) is a guanidino compound required for rapid replenishment of ATP in cells with a high-energy demand. In humans, mutations in the Cr transporter (CRT;SLC6A8) prevent Cr entry into tissue and result in a significant intellectual impairment, epilepsy, and aphasia. The lack of Cr on both the whole body and cellular metabolism was evaluated in Crt knockout (Crt (-/y) ) mice, a high-fidelity model of human CRT deficiency. Crt (-/y) mice have reduced body mass and, however, show a twofold increase in body fat. There was increased energy expenditure in a home cage environment and during treadmill running in Crt (-/y) mice. Consistent with the increases in the whole-body metabolic function, Crt (-/y) mice show increased cellular metabolism as well. Mitochondrial respiration increased in skeletal muscle fibers and hippocampal lysates from Crt (-/y) mice. In addition, Crt (-/y) mice had increased citrate synthase activity, suggesting a higher number of mitochondria instead of an increase in mitochondrial activity. To determine if the increase in respiration was due to increased mitochondrial numbers, we measured oxygen consumption in an equal number of mitochondria from Crt (+/y) and Crt (-/y) mice. There were no changes in mitochondrial respiration when normalized to mitochondrial number, suggesting that the increase in respiration observed could be to higher mitochondrial content in Crt (-/y) mice. PMID:27401086

  6. Feasibility of intrafraction whole-body motion tracking for total marrow irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manju; Santos, Troy Dos; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos P.; Hui, Susanta Kumar

    2011-05-01

    With image-guided tomotherapy, highly targeted total marrow irradiation (TMI) has become a feasible alternative to conventional total body irradiation. The uncertainties in patient localization and intrafraction motion of the whole body during hour-long TMI treatment may pose a risk to the safety and accuracy of targeted radiation treatment. The feasibility of near-infrared markers and optical tracking system (OTS) is accessed along with a megavoltage scanning system of tomotherapy. Three near-infrared markers placed on the face of a rando phantom are used to evaluate the capability of OTS in measuring changes in the markers' positions as the rando is moved in the translational direction. The OTS is also employed to determine breathing motion related changes in the position of 16 markers placed on the chest surface of human volunteers. The maximum uncertainty in locating marker position with the OTS is 1.5 mm. In the case of normal and deep breathing motion, the maximum marker position change is observed in anterior-posterior direction with the respective values of 4 and 12 mm. The OTS is able to measure surface changes due to breathing motion. The OTS may be optimized to monitor whole body motion during TMI to increase the accuracy of treatment delivery and reduce the radiation dose to the lungs.

  7. Feasibility of intrafraction whole-body motion tracking for total marrow irradiation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manju; Dos Santos, Troy; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos P; Hui, Susanta Kumar

    2011-05-01

    With image-guided tomotherapy, highly targeted total marrow irradiation (TMI) has become a feasible alternative to conventional total body irradiation. The uncertainties in patient localization and intrafraction motion of the whole body during hour-long TMI treatment may pose a risk to the safety and accuracy of targeted radiation treatment. The feasibility of near-infrared markers and optical tracking system (OTS) is accessed along with a megavoltage scanning system of tomotherapy. Three near-infrared markers placed on the face of a rando phantom are used to evaluate the capability of OTS in measuring changes in the markers' positions as the rando is moved in the translational direction. The OTS is also employed to determine breathing motion related changes in the position of 16 markers placed on the chest surface of human volunteers. The maximum uncertainty in locating marker position with the OTS is 1.5 mm. In the case of normal and deep breathing motion, the maximum marker position change is observed in anterior-posterior direction with the respective values of 4 and 12 mm. The OTS is able to measure surface changes due to breathing motion. The OTS may be optimized to monitor whole body motion during TMI to increase the accuracy of treatment delivery and reduce the radiation dose to the lungs.

  8. Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Christopher B

    2005-01-01

    Heat production serves as the standard measurement for the determination of energy expenditure and efficiency in animals. Estimations of metabolic heat production have traditionally focused on gas exchange (oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production) although direct heat measurements may include an anaerobic component particularly when carbohydrate is oxidized. Stoichiometric interpretations of the ratio of carbon dioxide production to oxygen uptake suggest that both anaerobic and aerobic heat production and, by inference, all energy expenditure – can be accounted for with a measurement of oxygen uptake as 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen. This manuscript incorporates contemporary bioenergetic interpretations of anaerobic and aerobic ATP turnover to promote the independence of these disparate types of metabolic energy transfer: each has different reactants and products, uses dissimilar enzymes, involves different types of biochemical reactions, takes place in separate cellular compartments, exploits different types of gradients and ultimately each operates with distinct efficiency. The 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen for carbohydrate oxidation includes a small anaerobic heat component as part of anaerobic energy transfer. Faster rates of ATP turnover that exceed mitochondrial respiration and that are supported by rapid glycolytic phosphorylation with lactate production result in heat production that is independent of oxygen uptake. Simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry has revealed that this anaerobic heat does not disappear when lactate is later oxidized and so oxygen uptake does not adequately measure anaerobic efficiency or energy expenditure (as was suggested by the "oxygen debt" hypothesis). An estimate of anaerobic energy transfer supplements the measurement of oxygen uptake and may improve the interpretation of whole-body energy expenditure. PMID:15958171

  9. Human perceptual overestimation of whole body roll tilt in hypergravity

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Michael C.; Oman, Charles M.; Merfeld, Daniel M.; Young, Laurence R.

    2014-01-01

    Hypergravity provides a unique environment to study human perception of orientation. We utilized a long-radius centrifuge to study perception of both static and dynamic whole body roll tilt in hypergravity, across a range of angles, frequencies, and net gravito-inertial levels (referred to as G levels). While studies of static tilt perception in hypergravity have been published, this is the first to measure dynamic tilt perception (i.e., with time-varying canal stimulation) in hypergravity using a continuous matching task. In complete darkness, subjects reported their orientation perception using a haptic task, whereby they attempted to align a hand-held bar with their perceived horizontal. Static roll tilt was overestimated in hypergravity, with more overestimation at larger angles and higher G levels, across the conditions tested (overestimated by ∼35% per additional G level, P < 0.001). As our primary contribution, we show that dynamic roll tilt was also consistently overestimated in hypergravity (P < 0.001) at all angles and frequencies tested, again with more overestimation at higher G levels. The overestimation was similar to that for static tilts at low angular velocities but decreased at higher angular velocities (P = 0.006), consistent with semicircular canal sensory integration. To match our findings, we propose a modification to a previous Observer-type canal-otolith interaction model. Specifically, our data were better modeled by including the hypothesis that the central nervous system treats otolith stimulation in the utricular plane differently than stimulation out of the utricular plane. This modified model was able to simulate quantitatively both the static and the dynamic roll tilt overestimation in hypergravity measured experimentally. PMID:25540216

  10. Polyarteritis nodosa: MDCT as a 'One-Stop Shop' Modality for Whole-Body Arterial Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, W.-L.; Tsai, I-C.; Lee Tain; Hsieh, C.-W.

    2008-07-15

    Polyarteritis nodosa is a rare disease, which is characterized by aneurysm formation and occlusion in the arteries of multiple systems. Due to its extensive involvement, whole-body evaluation is necessary for diagnosis and treatment monitoring. We report a case of polyarteritis nodosa using multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) as a 'one-stop shop' modality for whole-body arterial evaluation. With precise protocol design, MDCT can be used as a reliable noninvasive modality providing comprehensive whole-body arterial evaluation.

  11. Whole-body MR imaging. Practical issues, clinical applications, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Eustace, S J; Walker, R; Blake, M; Yucel, E K

    1999-05-01

    Whole-body MR imaging is in evolution, and although accepting and recognizing limitations, it is likely that both technique and incurred acquisition times will shorten over the next decade. Although the development of dedicated whole-body MR scanners appears to offer the greatest promise for the future, the development of moving table tops, optimized pulse sequences, and advances in gradient technology now facilitate practical whole-body MR imaging using existing clinical systems.

  12. Evaluating the effectiveness of gloves in reducing the hazards of hand- transmitted vibration

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A method of evaluating the effectiveness of gloves in reducing the hazards of hand-transmitted vibration is proposed. METHOD: The glove isolation effectiveness was calculated from: (a) the measured transmissibility of a glove, (b) the vibration spectrum on the handle of a specific tool (or class of tools), and (c) the frequency weighting indicating the degree to which different frequencies of vibration cause injury. With previously reported tool vibration spectra and glove transmissibilities (from 10-1000 Hz), the method was used to test 10 gloves with 20 different powered tools. RESULTS: The frequency weighting for hand-transmitted vibration advocated in British standard 6842 (1987) and international standard 5349 (1986) greatly influences the apparent isolation effectiveness of gloves. With the frequency weighting, the gloves had little effect on the transmission of vibration to the hand from most of the tools. Only for two or three tools (those dominated by high frequency vibration) did any glove provide useful attenuation. Without the frequency weighting, some gloves showed useful attenuation of the vibration on most powered tools. CONCLUSIONS: In view of the uncertain effect of the vibration frequency in the causation of disorders from hand-transmitted vibration, it is provisionally suggested that the wearing of a glove by the user of a particular vibratory tool could be encouraged if the glove reduces the transmission of vibration when it is evaluated without the frequency weighting and does not increase the vibration when it is evaluated with the frequency weighting. A current international standard for the measurement and evaluation of the vibration transmitted by gloves can classify a glove as an antivibration glove when it provides no useful attenuation of vibration, whereas a glove providing useful attenuation of vibration on a specific tool can fail the test.   PMID:9764112

  13. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: I. Concept, acquisition protocol optimization and clinical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Lodge, Martin A.; Tahari, Abdel K.; Zhou, Y.; Wahl, Richard L.; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-10-01

    acceptable sampling schedules examined. The framework was also applied to six FDG PET patient studies, demonstrating clinical feasibility. Both simulated and clinical results indicated enhanced contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) for Ki images in tumor regions with notable background FDG concentration, such as the liver, where SUV performed relatively poorly. Overall, the proposed framework enables enhanced quantification of physiological parameters across the whole body. In addition, the total acquisition length can be reduced from 45 to ˜35 min and still achieve improved or equivalent CNR compared to SUV, provided the true Ki contrast is sufficiently high. In the follow-up companion paper, a set of advanced linear regression schemes is presented to particularly address the presence of noise, and attempt to achieve a better trade-off between the mean-squared error and the CNR metrics, resulting in enhanced task-based imaging.

  14. Cytokine production after whole body and localized hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Haveman, J; Geerdink, A G; Rodermond, H M

    1996-01-01

    The levels of TNF, IL-1 and IL-6 in circulating blood female WAG/Ry rats were assessed in relation to treatment with localized hyperthermia of the right hind leg or with whole-body hyperthermia (WBH). After a localized treatment for 30 min at 43 or 44 degrees C no detectable increase in levels of IL-6 or TNF was obtained. Hyperthermia for 30 min at 45 degrees C led to an elevated level of IL-6 of 19.4 +/- 5.2 U/ml above the control level of 24 h after treatment. Levels of IL-1 were never higher than those in control animals that received only anaesthesia. Anaesthesia induced a peak level of approximately 131 U/ml IL-1 6 h after treatment. Serum levels of IL-1 and IL-6 are enhanced after WBH. IL-1 reaches a peak level already during WBH about 15 after reaching 41.5 degrees C. IL-6 levels were not enhanced during WBH but 1 h after WBH a clear peak was observed. Anaesthesia with sham WBH did not lead to enhanced IL-6 levels but enhanced IL-1 levels were clearly detected. We did not detect TNF in any sample after WBH. It is concluded from the present results that IL-6 is not induced by a 'standard' treatment of localized hyperthermia as used in oncotherapy (i.e. 60 min at 43 degrees C) to such a high level locally that this is reflected in increased levels in circulating blood. WBH at clinically relevant temperatures leads to enhanced levels of IL-1 and IL-6. The difference in IL-6 response after WBH or localized hyperthermia probably is related to the fact that in WBH also the bone marrow is treated. This may lead to stimulation of this important stem cell compartment of the peripheral blood. The sequence of appearance of IL-1 and IL-6 after hyperthermia is akin to the sequence in an inflammatory response. However, the experiments with sham treatment show that IL-1 may appear in the circulating blood not followed by IL-6. These results indicate that enhanced IL-1 levels may reflect a stress reaction of the animal related to the (sham) treatment. Enhanced levels of IL

  15. Design Study of a Whole-Body PET Scanner with Improved Spatial and Timing Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Surti, S.; Shore, Adam R.; Karp, Joel S.

    2013-01-01

    Current state-of-art whole-body PET scanners achieve a system spatial resolution of 4–5 mm with limited sensitivity. Since the reconstructed spatial resolution and image quality are limited by the count statistics, there has not been a significant push for developing higher resolution whole-body PET scanners. Our goal in this study is to investigate the impact of improved spatial resolution together with time-of-flight (TOF) capability on lesion uptake estimation and lesion detectability, two important tasks in whole-body oncologic studies. The broader goal of this project is the development of a new state-of-art TOF PET scanner operating within an MRI while pushing the technology in PET system design. We performed Monte Carlo simulations to test the effects of crystal size (4 mm and 2.6 mm wide crystals), TOF timing resolution (300ps and 600ps), and 2-level depth-of-interaction (DOI) capability. Spatial resolution was calculated by simulating point sources in air at multiple positions. Results show that smaller crystals produced improved resolution, while degradation of resolution due to parallax error could be reduced with a 2-level DOI detector. Lesion phantoms were simulated to measure the contrast recovery coefficient (CRC) and area under the LROC curve (ALROC) for 0.5 cm diameter lesions with 6:1 activity uptake relative to the background. Smaller crystals produce higher CRC, leading to increased ALROC values or a reduction in scan time. Improved timing resolution provides faster CRC convergence and once again leads to an increase in ALROC value or reduced scan time. Based on our choice of timing resolution and crystal size, improved timing resolution (300ps) with larger crystals (4 mm wide) has similar ALROC as smaller crystals (2.6 mm wide) with 600ps timing resolution. A 2-level DOI measurement provides some CRC and ALROC improvement for lesions further away from the center, leading to a more uniform performance within the imaging field-of-view (FOV

  16. Back Disorder Intervention Strategies for Mass Transit Operators Exposed to Whole-Body VIBRATION—COMPARISON of Two Transit System Approaches and Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johanning, E.

    1998-08-01

    Occupational long-term whole-body vibration (WBV) has been recognized as a major risk factor for low back disorders, one of the most important reasons for medical impairment and early permanent disability among mass transit operators. Although no firm health and safety vibration exposure threshold limits have been established, the available data suggests that rail vehicle operators would probably fall under the proposed WBV “action levels” of the EU directive provisions for protection from physical hazards. This provision calls for technical, administrative and medical controls. This paper examines and compares the current conditions, provisions and plans of two major mass transit systems, the New Yorker MTA and the Munich MVV. The available data, information and publications (English/German) on working conditions, vibration exposure, epidemiology and intervention strategies (primary and secondary prevention) for rail bound mass transit workers were reviewed. Results strongly suggest that the MTA transit system has currently and in the near future no effective and meaningful controls in place to significantly reduce the WBV exposure of subway operators. It appears that the MVV system has more and better control measures in place to reduce harmful effects of WBV. Results of a scientific evaluation of a participatory, collaborative project in the MVV system suggest that the MVV may have developed a successful method of a “condition prevention” (Verhältnisprävention)—and “behavioral prevention” (Verhaltensprävention) intervention strategy, which appears beneficial for WBV exposed workers with existing low back pain. Long-term outcomes and benefits need to be assessed further.

  17. ALARA considerations for the whole body neutron irradiation facility source removal project at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Patrick T

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes the activities that were involved with the safe removal of fourteen PuBe sources from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Whole Body Neutron Irradiation Facility (WBNIF). As part of a Department of Energy and BNL effort to reduce the radiological inventory, the WBNIF was identified as having no future use. In order to deactivate the facility and eliminate the need for nuclear safety management and long-term surveillance, it was decided to remove the neutron sources and dismantle the facility. In addition, the sources did not have DOT Special Form documentation so they would need to be encapsulated once removed for offsite storage or disposal. The planning and the administrative as well as engineering controls put in place enabled personnel to safely remove and encapsulate the sources while keeping exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). PMID:16404183

  18. A high protein diet upregulated whole-body protein turnover during energy deficit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of higher protein diets and sustained energy deficit (ED) on whole-body protein turnover (WBPTO) are not well described. This study examined whether dietary protein level influences whole-body protein breakdown (Ra), non-oxidative leucine disposal (NOLD), and oxidation (Ox) during ED. ...

  19. Oak Ridge National Laboratory whole-body counter: internal operating procedure manual

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, C.D.; Lane, B.H.

    1982-08-01

    The general purpose of the ORNL Whole Body Counter is to provide a rapid estimation of the type and quantity of radionuclide deposited in the human body. This report contains a review of the equipment in use at the facility and the procedure for its operation, the standard procedure for performing a routine whole body count, and a discussion of interpretation of results.

  20. A DXA Whole Body Composition Cross-Calibration Experience: Evaluation With Humans, Spine, and Whole Body Phantoms.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Diane; Libber, Jessie; Sanfilippo, Jennifer; Yu, Hui Jing; Horvath, Blaine; Miller, Colin G; Binkley, Neil

    2016-01-01

    BMD and BMC agreement, did not detect substantial lean and fat differences observed using BBCP and in vivo assessments. Consequently, spine phantoms are inadequate for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry whole body composition cross-calibration.

  1. Whole body and regional body composition changes following 10-day hypoxic confinement and unloading-inactivity.

    PubMed

    Debevec, Tadej; McDonnell, Adam C; Macdonald, Ian A; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2014-03-01

    Future planetary habitats will expose inhabitants to both reduced gravity and hypoxia. This study investigated the effects of short-term unloading and normobaric hypoxia on whole body and regional body composition (BC). Eleven healthy, recreationally active, male participants with a mean (SD) age of 24 (2) years and body mass index of 22.4 (3.2) kg·m(-2) completed the following 3 10-day campaigns in a randomised, cross-over designed protocol: (i) hypoxic ambulatory confinement (HAMB; FIO2 = 0.147 (0.008); PIO2 = 93.8 (0.9) mm Hg), (ii) hypoxic bed rest (HBR; FIO2 = 0.147 (0.008); PIO2 = 93.8 (0.9) mm Hg), and (iii) normoxic bed rest (NBR; FIO2 = 0.209; PIO2 = 133.5 (0.7) mm Hg). Nutritional requirements were individually precalculated and the actual intake was monitored throughout the study protocol. Body mass, whole body, and regional BC were assessed before and after the campaigns using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The calculated daily targeted energy intake values were 2071 (170) kcal for HBR and NBR and 2417 (200) kcal for HAMB. In both HBR and NBR campaigns the actual energy intake was within the targeted level, whereas in the HAMB the intake was lower than targeted (-8%, p < 0.05). Body mass significantly decreased in all 3 campaigns (-2.1%, -2.8%, and -2.0% for HAMB, HBR, and NBR, respectively; p < 0.05), secondary to a significant decrease in lean mass (-3.8%, -3.8%, -4.3% for HAMB, HBR, and NBR, respectively; p < 0.05) along with a slight, albeit not significant, increase in fat mass. The same trend was observed in the regional BC regardless of the region and the campaign. These results demonstrate that, hypoxia per se, does not seem to alter whole body and regional BC during short-term bed rest. PMID:24552383

  2. Thermoregulatory responses to heat and vibration in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaul, W. A.; Spear, R. C.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of vibration on thermoregulatory responses was studied in heat-acclimated men exposed suddenly to simultaneous heat and whole body vibrations (WBVs) at two intensity levels, each at graded frequencies between 5 and 80 Hz. The mean rectal temperature (Tre) became elevated more quickly in the WBV exposures than in the controls (heat exposure alone). Both intensity- and frequency-dependent WBV relationships were recorded in localized blood flows and in sweat rates. Thus, vibration appears to reduce the efficiency of the cooling mechanisms during a heat exposure.

  3. Reducing aerodynamic vibration with piezoelectric actuators: a genetic algorithm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhenning; Jakiela, Mark; Pitt, Dale M.; Burnham, Jay K.

    2004-07-01

    Modern high performance aircraft fly at high speeds and high angles of attack. This can result in "buffet" aerodynamics, an unsteady turbulent flow that causes vibrations of the wings, tails, and body of the aircraft. This can result in decreased performance and ride quality, and fatigue failures. We are experimenting with controlling these vibrations by using piezoceramic actuators attached to the inner and outer skin of the aircraft. In this project, a tail or wing is investigated. A "generic" tail finite element model is studied in which individual actuators are assumed to exactly cover individual finite elements. Various optimizations of the orientations and power consumed by these actuators are then performed. Real coded genetic algorithms are used to perform the optimizations and a design space approximation technique is used to minimize costly finite element runs. An important result is the identification of a power consumption threshold for the entire system. Below the threshold, vibration control performance of optimized systems decreases with decreasing values of power supplied to the entire system.

  4. Damping Control of Liquid Container by Swing-type Active Vibration Reducer on Mobile Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaguchi, Masafumi; Taniguchi, Takao

    This paper proposes a damping control of sloshing in a cylindrical container with a swing-type active vibration reducer on a wheeled mobile robot (WMR). The WMR runs along a straight path on a horizontal plane. The container is mounted on the active vibration reducer. A laser displacement sensor is used to observe the liquid level in the container. The container can be tilted in the running direction by the active vibration reducer. A sloshing model is obtained from a spherical pendulum-type sloshing model, which approximately expresses (1, 1)-mode sloshing. The sloshing model is used to design a damping control system. The control system of the active vibration reducer is designed with an inverse model of sloshing and an optimal regulator with a Kalman filter. The WMR is driven by an acceleration pattern designed with an input shaping method. The usefulness of the proposed method is demonstrated through simulation and experimental results.

  5. Uncertainties in estimated body burdens of caesium-137 by whole-body counting.

    PubMed

    Kinase, S; Noguchi, H

    2001-01-01

    It is very important to evaluate the uncertainties in individual monitoring for internal exposure of workers. The uncertainties in estimated body burdens of 137Cs with the JAERI whole-body counter were investigated using Monte Carlo simulation and measurements. It was found that the uncertainties of estimated body burdens with the whole-body counter are strongly dependent on various sources of uncertainty, such as radioactivity distribution within the body and counting statistics and that the 137Cs body burden assessed from the result of the whole-body count can be within +/- 60% in error.

  6. Vibration ride comfort criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for an experimental study directed to derive equal vibration discomfort curves, to determine the influence of vibration masking in order to account for the total discomfort of any random vibration, and to develop a scale of total vibration discomfort in the case of human response to whole-body vertical vibration. Discomfort is referred to as a subjective discomfort associated with the acceleration level of a particular frequency band. It is shown that passenger discomfort to whole-body vibration increases linearly with acceleration level for each frequency. Empirical data provide a mechanism for determining the degree of masking (or summation) of the discomfort of multiple frequency vibration. A scale for the prediction of passenger discomfort is developed.

  7. Optimization of Whole-Body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass spectrometry imaging methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the mass spectrometry imaging literature contains minimal information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a model organism ...

  8. Menopause is associated with decreased whole body fat oxidation during exercise.

    PubMed

    Abildgaard, J; Pedersen, A T; Green, C J; Harder-Lauridsen, N M; Solomon, T P; Thomsen, C; Juul, A; Pedersen, M; Pedersen, J T; Mortensen, O H; Pilegaard, H; Pedersen, B K; Lindegaard, B

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if fat oxidation was affected by menopausal status and to investigate if this could be related to the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle. Forty-one healthy women were enrolled in this cross-sectional study [premenopausal (n = 19), perimenopausal (n = 8), and postmenopausal (n = 14)]. Estimated insulin sensitivity was obtained from an oral glucose tolerance test. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging. Fat oxidation and energy expenditure were measured during an acute exercise bout of 45 min of ergometer biking at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 max). Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps muscle were obtained before and immediately after the exercise bout. Postmenopausal women had 33% [confidence interval (CI) 95%: 12-55] lower whole body fat oxidation (P = 0.005) and 19% (CI 95%: 9-22) lower energy expenditure (P = 0.02) during exercise, as well as 4.28 kg lower lean body mass (LBM) than premenopausal women. Correction for LBM reduced differences in fat oxidation to 23% (P = 0.05), whereas differences in energy expenditure disappeared (P = 0.22). No differences between groups were found in mRNA [carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, citrate synthase (CS), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)], protein [phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), vascular endothelial growth factor, pyruvate dehydrogenase-1Eα, cytochrome oxidase I], or enzyme activities (β-HAD, CS) in resting skeletal muscle, except for an increased protein level of cytochrome c in the post- and perimenopausal women relative to premenopausal women. Postmenopausal women demonstrated a trend to a blunted exercise-induced increase in phosphorylation of AMPK compared with premenopausal women (P = 0.06). We conclude

  9. Targeted contrast agents--an adjunct to whole-body imaging: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Foran, Paul; Bolster, Ferdia; Crosbie, Ian; MacMahon, Peter; O'Kennedy, Richard; Eustace, Stephen J

    2010-03-01

    This article reviews the potential use of a combination of whole-body imaging and targeted contrast agents in improving diagnostics, with a particular focus on oncology imaging. It looks at the rationale for nanoparticles and their development as targeted contrast agents. It subsequently describes many of the advances made thus far in developing tissue-specific contrast agents capable of targeting tumors that combined with whole-body imaging may enable superior cancer detection and characterization.

  10. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging: techniques, clinical indications, and future applications.

    PubMed

    Walker, R E; Eustace, S J

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews developments in both pulse sequence design and gradient technology that facilitate rapid imaging of the whole body. It discusses its application in patients with bone marrow neoplasms, including metastases, lymphoma, and myeloma and emphasizes the value of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in patients with known vertebral lesions to detect other bone lesions that are easier to biopsy. It outlines possible applications in well-defined clinical situations, including pregnancy and unknown primary tumor.

  11. Modelling resonances of the standing body exposed to vertical whole-body vibration: Effects of posture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subashi, G. H. M. J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

    2008-10-01

    Lumped parameter mathematical models representing anatomical parts of the human body have been developed to represent body motions associated with resonances of the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the human body standing in five different postures: 'upright', 'lordotic', 'anterior lean', 'knees bent', and 'knees more bent'. The inertial and geometric parameters of the models were determined from published anthropometric data. Stiffness and damping parameters were obtained by comparing model responses with experimental data obtained previously. The principal resonance of the vertical apparent mass, and the first peak in the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass, of the standing body in an upright posture (at 5-6 Hz) corresponded to vertical motion of the viscera in phase with the vertical motion of the entire body due to deformation of the tissues at the soles of the feet, with pitch motion of the pelvis out of phase with pitch motion of the upper body above the pelvis. Upward motion of the body was in phase with the forward pitch motion of the pelvis. Changing the posture of the upper body had minor effects on the mode associated with the principal resonances of the apparent mass and cross-axis apparent mass, but the mode changed significantly with bending of the legs. In legs-bent postures, the principal resonance (at about 3 Hz) was attributed to bending of the legs coupled with pitch motion of the pelvis in phase with pitch motion of the upper body. In this mode, extension of the legs was in phase with the forward pitch motion of the upper body and the upward vertical motion of the viscera.

  12. Whole-body vibration training as complement to programs aimed at weight loss.

    PubMed

    Cristi-Montero, Carlos; Cuevas, María J; Collado, Pilar S

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El entrenamiento de vibraciones de cuerpo completo (EVCC) ha demostrado ser de gran utilidad para aumentar la masa muscular, el tejido óseo, la potencia muscular, la flexibilidad, y la fuerza, entre otros. No obstante, hasta la fecha es escasa la literatura respecto a sus efectos sobre el metabolismo energético y si esta herramienta podría ser capaz de potenciar la pérdida de peso como complemento a un programa nutricional y/o de ejercicio físico. Objetivo: El objetivo de la presente revisión es analizar los últimos estudios sobre el EVCC con la finalidad de determinar si puede ser un método fiable para complementar los programas orientados a la reducción del peso corporal. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en Pubmed, Scielo y SPORTDiscus, así como una búsqueda manual entre las referencias de los estudios seleccionados. Resultados: El EVCC parece estar vinculado a tres vías relacionadas con la reducción del peso corporal: inhibición de la adipogénesis y reducción de la masa grasa, aumento del gasto energético y aumento de la masa muscular. Tras analizar la literatura, ninguna de las vías propuestas es consistente, y en muchas ocasiones los resultados son contradictorios. Conclusión: Se concluye que es necesario profundizar sobre esta línea de investigación. No obstante, el EVCC parece ser un método seguro y posiblemente tendría beneficios, principalmente sobre la masa muscular, lo que podría promover la pérdida de peso si se combina con un plan nutricional y un programa de ejercicio tradicional.

  13. Effects of eight months of whole body vibration training on hip bone mass in older women.

    PubMed

    Santin-Medeiros, Fernanda; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Rey-López, Juan Pablo; Vallejo, Nuria Garatachea

    2015-04-01

    Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio fue examinar el efecto de 8 meses de entrenamiento vibratorio sobre la masa ósea en mujeres octogenarias. Métodos: 37 mujeres (edad 82.4 [SD=5.7] años) participaron voluntariamente de este estudio. El grupo de intervención (n=19) entrenó sobre la plataforma vibratoria 2 veces por semana (20 Hz and 2 mm), mientras que el grupo control (n=18) no participó de ningún programa de entrenamiento. La masa ósea de la cadera fue medida mediante el absorciometría fotónica dual de rayos X. El test de ANOVA de medidas repetidas fue utilizado para determinar el efecto de la intervención sobre los cambios de masa ósea, así como los cambios intra-grupo a lo largo del período de intervención. Resultados: Después de la intervención, no fueron encontrados cambios estadísticamente significativos en la masa ósea en ninguna de las regiones de la cadera (total de cadera, cuello de femur, trocánter, intertrocanterea, area de Ward). Conclusiones: Nuestra intervención basada en la aplicación exclusiva de entrenamiento vibratorio de cuerpo entero (2 veces a la semana) en mujeres octogenarias no produce efectos osteogénicos en la región de la cadera.

  14. Effects of a short-term whole body vibration intervention on lean mass in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Cabello, Alba; González-Agüero, Alejandro; Ara, Ignacio; Casajús, José A; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Comprobar si un programa de entrenamiento vibratorio de corta duración tiene algún efecto sobre la masa magra (MM) en personas mayores. Método: 49 personas mayores no institucionalizadas (20 hombres) participaron en el estudio. Los participantes que reunieron los criterios de inclusión fueron distribuidos al azar en el grupo de entrenamiento o el grupo control. Un total de 24 personas entrenaron sobre una plataforma vibratoria 3 veces por semana durante 11 semanas. Mediante absorciometría fotónica dual de rayos X se evaluó la MM del cuerpo completo, brazos y piernas. Se utilizó ANOVA de medidas repetidas para determinar los efectos de la intervención sobre las variables estudiadas y también para determinar los cambios intra-grupo a lo largo del periodo de intervención, incluyendo la edad y altura como variables de confusión. Resultados: 11 semanas de entrenamiento vibratorio no produjeron ningún cambio sobre la MM en ninguna de las regiones. Conclusión: Un programa de entrenamiento vibratorio de corta duración no es suficiente para producir cambios significativos en la masa magra en personas mayores no institucionalizadas.

  15. Whole-body irradiation transiently diminishes the adrenocorticotropin response to recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Perlstein, R.S.; Mehta, N.R.; Neta, R.; Whitnall, M.H.; Mougey, E.H.

    1995-03-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-1{alpha} (rhIL-1{alpha}) has significant potential as a radioprotector and/or treatment for radiation-induced hematopoietic injury. Both IL-1 and whole-body ionizing irradiation acutely stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We therefore assessed the interaction of whole-body irradiation and rhIL-1{alpha} in altering the functioning of the axis in mice. Specifically, we determined the adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone responses to rhIL-1{alpha} administered just before and hours to days after whole-body or sham irradiation. Our results indicate that whole-body irradiation does not potentiate the rhIL-1{alpha}-induced increase in ACTH levels at the doses used. In fact, the rhIL-1{alpha}-induced increase in plasma ACTH is transiently impaired when the cytokine is administered 5 h after, but not 1 h before, exposure to whole-body irradiation. The ACTH response may be inhibited by elevated corticosterone levels after whole-body irradiation, or by other radiation-induced effects on the pituitary gland and hypothalamus. 36 refs., 3 figs.

  16. An adaptive diffusion-weighted whole-body magnetic resonance imaging scheme using the multistation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yeji

    2016-02-01

    Whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a useful tool in oncology, which enables fast screening of disseminated tumors, lymph nodes or abscesses in the body. Multistation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or continuously moving table (CMT) MRI can be performed to overcome the limited field of view (FOV) of the magnet bore in whole-body DWI. Although CMT-MRI is regarded as a more advanced form of whole-body MRI, it cannot be widely used because most of the available MR systems are not equipped with the required hardware/software to perform CMT. Thus, optimizing the multistation approach for whole-body DWI, which is more widely available and easier to perform with the existing MR systems, is worthwhile. To improve the quality of DW images acquired with the multistation approach, we used different combinations of the built-in body RF coil and the phased-array surface RF coils for reception of the signals in whole-body DWI in this work. If different coils are selectively used in the extended FOV and appropriate reconstruction algorithms are exploited, the screening ability of whole-body DWI can be improved while minimizing the patient's discomfort and the artifacts due to physiological motions.

  17. Insights into the role of heat shock protein 72 to whole-body heat acclimation in humans

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro; Fonseca, Ivana T; Machado-Moreira, Christiano A; Magalhães, Flávio de Castro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Heat acclimation results in systemic and cellular adaptions that reduce the negative effect of heat and, consequently, the risk of heat illness. Although the classical changes observed with heat acclimation lead to increased tolerance to exercise in the heat by reducing heat storage (reflected in reduced core and skin temperatures) and increasing whole-body capacity for heat dissipation (greater plasma volume, sweat output, and skin blood flow), it appears that heat acclimation also induces changes at the cellular level that might increase tolerance of the whole organism to a higher core temperature for the development of fatigue. Thermotolerance is a process that involves increased resilience to an otherwise lethal heat stress that follows a sublethal exposure to heat. Thermotolerance is believed to be the result of increased content of heat shock proteins (Hsp), specially a member of the 70 kDa family, Hsp72 kDa. In humans, we and others have reported that heat acclimation increases intracellular Hsp72 levels. This increase in intracellular Hsp72 could improve whole-body organism thermotolerance by maintaining intestinal epithelial tight junction barriers, by increasing resistance to gut-associated endotoxin translocation, or by reducing the inflammatory response. In this review, we will initially provide an overview of the physiological adaptations induced by heat acclimation and emphasize the main cellular changes that occur with heat acclimation associated with intracellular accumulation of Hsp72. Finally, we will present an argument for a role of whole-body heat acclimation in augmenting cellular thermotolerance, which may protect vital organs from deleterious effects of heat stress in humans. PMID:27227070

  18. Insights into the role of heat shock protein 72 to whole-body heat acclimation in humans.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro; Fonseca, Ivana T; Machado-Moreira, Christiano A; Magalhães, Flávio de Castro

    2015-01-01

    Heat acclimation results in systemic and cellular adaptions that reduce the negative effect of heat and, consequently, the risk of heat illness. Although the classical changes observed with heat acclimation lead to increased tolerance to exercise in the heat by reducing heat storage (reflected in reduced core and skin temperatures) and increasing whole-body capacity for heat dissipation (greater plasma volume, sweat output, and skin blood flow), it appears that heat acclimation also induces changes at the cellular level that might increase tolerance of the whole organism to a higher core temperature for the development of fatigue. Thermotolerance is a process that involves increased resilience to an otherwise lethal heat stress that follows a sublethal exposure to heat. Thermotolerance is believed to be the result of increased content of heat shock proteins (Hsp), specially a member of the 70 kDa family, Hsp72 kDa. In humans, we and others have reported that heat acclimation increases intracellular Hsp72 levels. This increase in intracellular Hsp72 could improve whole-body organism thermotolerance by maintaining intestinal epithelial tight junction barriers, by increasing resistance to gut-associated endotoxin translocation, or by reducing the inflammatory response. In this review, we will initially provide an overview of the physiological adaptations induced by heat acclimation and emphasize the main cellular changes that occur with heat acclimation associated with intracellular accumulation of Hsp72. Finally, we will present an argument for a role of whole-body heat acclimation in augmenting cellular thermotolerance, which may protect vital organs from deleterious effects of heat stress in humans. PMID:27227070

  19. Reducing Operator-Induced Machine Vibration Using a Complex Pole/zero Prefilter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    INGRAM, G. A.; FRANCHEK, M. A.; CHIU, G. T.-C.

    2002-02-01

    A systematic prefilter design process for reducing operator-induced rigid body vibrations of rubber tire mounted machines is presented. The contribution of this work is the development of a systematic prefilter design process and interpretation of the results. The class of heavy equipment considered in this work are those machines having rigid body main frame vibrations dominated by linear dynamics. The reduction in machine vibrations is accomplished through the design of prefilters that reduce the machine resonant frequencies from the operator commands. The machine information required for the design process includes the bandwidth of the electro-hydraulic (E/H) valves and rigid body resonant frequencies of the machine mainframe. The prespecified performance in the design process is the desired attenuation of machine resonant frequencies which is related to the acceptable level of machine vibration. The design methodology has been applied to a telescopic boom lift to illustrate the procedure and the effectiveness of the design.

  20. Risk communication with Fukushima residents affected by the Fukushima Daiichi accident at whole-body counting

    SciTech Connect

    Gunji, I.; Furuno, A.; Yonezawa, R.; Sugiyama, K.

    2013-07-01

    After the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, the Tokai Research and Development Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) have had direct dialogue as risk communication with Fukushima residents who underwent whole-body counting examination (WBC). The purpose of the risk communication was to exchange information and opinions about radiation in order to mitigate Fukushima residents' anxiety and stress. Two kinds of opinion surveys were performed: one survey evaluated residents' views of the nuclear accident itself and the second survey evaluated the management of WBC examination as well as the quality of JAEA's communication skills on risks. It appears that most Fukushima residents seem to have reduced their anxiety level after the direct dialogue. The results of the surveys show that Fukushima residents have the deepest anxiety and concern about their long-term health issues and that they harbor anger toward the government and TEPCO. On the other hand, many WBC patients and patients' relatives have expressed gratitude for help in reducing their feelings of anxiety.

  1. New Experiences of Treatment in Multiple Tumors with HIFU Ablation and Whole Body Hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Akira; Gondo, Hideki; Iijima, Norio; Xia, Yuantian; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2007-05-01

    We have performed some 5000 whole body hyperthermia (WBH) treatments using far-infrared equipment (RHD 7500: Enthermics medical systems, USA) in 1000 cancer patients since 1991 at Luke Hospital & Clinic (Nakano, Japan). Hyperthermia is a natural treatment whereby patients are heated within the fever temperature range of 41-42 C. However, this therapy alone is poorly suited to advanced cancer patients, where regional tumor control is needed. The potential of HIFU therapy for theses cases deserves further investigation. We have treated 20 times in 12 advanced cancer patients, since importing a new HIFU device (Sonic CZ901: Mianyang some electronic Ltd: China) last December and are able to report some interesting results of combination treatment with HIFU and WBH. Our first experience was a 20-year old female pharyngeal cancer patient with lung and multiple liver metastases. Her lung tumor reduced following WBH (given weekly, 4 times in total) and her liver tumor clearly reduced following HIFU treatment. Our second experience of combinative treatment was in a 65-year old male suffering from a neck tumor with bone metastasis. He received WBH after HIFU treatment into 7th lib bone metastasis. After 10 days, his neck tumor grew with evidence of internal necrosis, and finally ruptured. CT images showed necrotic changes in the focus of the neck tumor and also lib bone metastasis. We believe that this new thermal combinative therapy shows great promise.

  2. Effect of whole body heat stress on peripheral vasoconstriction during leg dependency.

    PubMed

    Brothers, R Matthew; Wingo, Jonathan E; Hubing, Kimberly A; Del Coso, Juan; Crandall, Craig G

    2009-12-01

    The venoarteriolar response (VAR) increases vascular resistance upon increases in venous transmural pressure in cutaneous, subcutaneous, and muscle vascular beds. During orthostasis, it has been proposed that up to 45% of the increase in systemic vascular tone is due to VAR-related local mechanism(s). The objective of this project was to test the hypothesis that heat stress attenuates VAR-mediated cutaneous and whole leg vasoconstriction. During normothermic conditions, measurements of cutaneous blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry) and femoral artery blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) were obtained from both legs during supine and leg-dependent conditions. These measurements were repeated following a whole body heat stress (increase in internal temperature of 1.4 +/- 0.2 degrees C). Before leg dependency, cutaneous (CVC) and femoral vascular conductances (FVC) were significantly elevated in both legs during heat stress relative to normothermia (P < 0.001). During leg dependency the absolute decrease in CVC was attenuated during heat stress (P < 0.01) while the absolute decrease in FVC was unaffected (P = 0.90). When CVC and FVC data were analyzed as a relative change from their respective baseline values, heat stress significantly attenuated the magnitude of vasoconstriction due to leg dependency in the cutaneous and femoral circulations (P < 0.001 for both variables). These data suggest that an attenuated local vasoconstriction, evoked via the venoarteriolar response, may contribute to reduced blood pressure control and thus reduced orthostatic tolerance that occurs in heat-stressed individuals.

  3. Effect of whole body heat stress on peripheral vasoconstriction during leg dependency

    PubMed Central

    Brothers, R. Matthew; Wingo, Jonathan E.; Hubing, Kimberly A.; Del Coso, Juan

    2009-01-01

    The venoarteriolar response (VAR) increases vascular resistance upon increases in venous transmural pressure in cutaneous, subcutaneous, and muscle vascular beds. During orthostasis, it has been proposed that up to 45% of the increase in systemic vascular tone is due to VAR-related local mechanism(s). The objective of this project was to test the hypothesis that heat stress attenuates VAR-mediated cutaneous and whole leg vasoconstriction. During normothermic conditions, measurements of cutaneous blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry) and femoral artery blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) were obtained from both legs during supine and leg-dependent conditions. These measurements were repeated following a whole body heat stress (increase in internal temperature of 1.4 ± 0.2°C). Before leg dependency, cutaneous (CVC) and femoral vascular conductances (FVC) were significantly elevated in both legs during heat stress relative to normothermia (P < 0.001). During leg dependency the absolute decrease in CVC was attenuated during heat stress (P < 0.01) while the absolute decrease in FVC was unaffected (P = 0.90). When CVC and FVC data were analyzed as a relative change from their respective baseline values, heat stress significantly attenuated the magnitude of vasoconstriction due to leg dependency in the cutaneous and femoral circulations (P < 0.001 for both variables). These data suggest that an attenuated local vasoconstriction, evoked via the venoarteriolar response, may contribute to reduced blood pressure control and thus reduced orthostatic tolerance that occurs in heat-stressed individuals. PMID:19815719

  4. Efficiency of radiation protection equipment in interventional radiology: a systematic Monte Carlo study of eye lens and whole body doses.

    PubMed

    Koukorava, C; Farah, J; Struelens, L; Clairand, I; Donadille, L; Vanhavere, F; Dimitriou, P

    2014-09-01

    Monte Carlo calculations were used to investigate the efficiency of radiation protection equipment in reducing eye and whole body doses during fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures. Eye lens doses were determined considering different models of eyewear with various shapes, sizes and lead thickness. The origin of scattered radiation reaching the eyes was also assessed to explain the variation in the protection efficiency of the different eyewear models with exposure conditions. The work also investigates the variation of eye and whole body doses with ceiling-suspended shields of various shapes and positioning. For all simulations, a broad spectrum of configurations typical for most interventional procedures was considered. Calculations showed that 'wrap around' glasses are the most efficient eyewear models reducing, on average, the dose by 74% and 21% for the left and right eyes respectively. The air gap between the glasses and the eyes was found to be the primary source of scattered radiation reaching the eyes. The ceiling-suspended screens were more efficient when positioned close to the patient's skin and to the x-ray field. With the use of such shields, the Hp(10) values recorded at the collar, chest and waist level and the Hp(3) values for both eyes were reduced on average by 47%, 37%, 20% and 56% respectively. Finally, simulations proved that beam quality and lead thickness have little influence on eye dose while beam projection, the position and head orientation of the operator as well as the distance between the image detector and the patient are key parameters affecting eye and whole body doses. PMID:24938591

  5. Improving Outcomes in the Patient with Polytrauma: A Review of the Role of Whole-Body Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Martin L; Kool, Digna R; Lehnert, Bruce E

    2015-07-01

    Whole-body computed tomography (WBCT) is used for the workup of the patient with blunt polytrauma. WBCT is associated with improved patient survival and reduces the emergency department length of stay. However, randomized studies are needed to determine whether early WBCT improves survival, to clarify which patients benefit the most, and to model the costs of this technique compared with traditional workup. Advancements in modern multidetector computed tomography technology and an improved understanding of optimal protocols have enabled one to scan the entire body and achieve adequate image quality for a comprehensive trauma assessment in a short period. PMID:26046503

  6. Correction of MRI-induced geometric distortions in whole-body small animal PET-MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Frohwein, Lynn J. Schäfers, Klaus P.; Hoerr, Verena; Faber, Cornelius

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The fusion of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data can be a challenging task in whole-body PET-MRI. The quality of the registration between these two modalities in large field-of-views (FOV) is often degraded by geometric distortions of the MRI data. The distortions at the edges of large FOVs mainly originate from MRI gradient nonlinearities. This work describes a method to measure and correct for these kind of geometric distortions in small animal MRI scanners to improve the registration accuracy of PET and MRI data. Methods: The authors have developed a geometric phantom which allows the measurement of geometric distortions in all spatial axes via control points. These control points are detected semiautomatically in both PET and MRI data with a subpixel accuracy. The spatial transformation between PET and MRI data is determined with these control points via 3D thin-plate splines (3D TPS). The transformation derived from the 3D TPS is finally applied to real MRI mouse data, which were acquired with the same scan parameters used in the phantom data acquisitions. Additionally, the influence of the phantom material on the homogeneity of the magnetic field is determined via field mapping. Results: The spatial shift according to the magnetic field homogeneity caused by the phantom material was determined to a mean of 0.1 mm. The results of the correction show that distortion with a maximum error of 4 mm could be reduced to less than 1 mm with the proposed correction method. Furthermore, the control point-based registration of PET and MRI data showed improved congruence after correction. Conclusions: The developed phantom has been shown to have no considerable negative effect on the homogeneity of the magnetic field. The proposed method yields an appropriate correction of the measured MRI distortion and is able to improve the PET and MRI registration. Furthermore, the method is applicable to whole-body small animal

  7. Relative role of motion and PSF compensation in whole-body oncologic PET-MR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Petibon, Yoann; Syrkina, Aleksandra; Huang, Chuan; Ouyang, Jinsong; Li, Quanzheng; El Fakhri, Georges; Reese, Timothy G.; Chen, Yen-Lin

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Respiratory motion and partial-volume effects are the two main sources of image degradation in whole-body PET imaging. Simultaneous PET-MR allows measurement of respiratory motion using MRI while collecting PET events. Improved PET images may be obtained by modeling respiratory motion and point spread function (PSF) within the PET iterative reconstruction process. In this study, the authors assessed the relative impact of PSF modeling and MR-based respiratory motion correction in phantoms and patient studies using a whole-body PET-MR scanner. Methods: An asymmetric exponential PSF model accounting for radially varying and axial detector blurring effects was obtained from point source acquisitions performed in the PET-MR scanner. A dedicated MRI acquisition protocol using single-slice steady state free-precession MR acquisitions interleaved with pencil-beam navigator echoes was developed to track respiratory motion during PET-MR studies. An iterative ordinary Poisson fully 3D OSEM PET reconstruction algorithm modeling all the physical effects of the acquisition (attenuation, scatters, random events, detectors efficiencies, PSF), as well as MR-based nonrigid respiratory deformations of tissues (in both emission and attenuation maps) was developed. Phantom and{sup 18}F-FDG PET-MR patient studies were performed to evaluate the proposed quantitative PET-MR methods. Results: The phantom experiment results showed that PSF modeling significantly improved contrast recovery while limiting noise propagation in the reconstruction process. In patients with soft-tissue static lesions, PSF modeling improved lesion contrast by 19.7%–109%, enhancing the detectability and assessment of small tumor foci. In a patient study with small moving hepatic lesions, the proposed reconstruction technique improved lesion contrast by 54.4%–98.1% and reduced apparent lesion size by 21.8%–34.2%. Improvements were particularly important for the smallest lesion undergoing large motion

  8. Normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration and whole-body sweating rate in athletes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lindsay B; Barnes, Kelly A; Anderson, Melissa L; Passe, Dennis H; Stofan, John R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration ([Na+]) and whole-body sweating rate in athletes. Data from 506 athletes (367 adults, 139 youth; 404 male, 102 female) were compiled from observational athlete testing for a retrospective analysis. The participants were skill/team-sport (including American football, baseball, basketball, soccer and tennis) and endurance (including cycling, running and triathlon) athletes exercising in cool to hot environmental conditions (15-50 °C) during training or competition in the laboratory or field. A standardised regional absorbent patch technique was used to determine sweat [Na+] on the dorsal mid-forearm. Whole-body sweat [Na+] was predicted using a published regression equation (y = 0.57x+11.05). Whole-body sweating rate was calculated from pre- to post-exercise change in body mass, corrected for fluid/food intake (ad libitum) and urine output. Data are expressed as mean ± SD (range). Forearm sweat [Na+] and predicted whole-body sweat [Na+] were 43.6 ± 18.2 (12.6-104.8) mmol · L(-1) and 35.9 ± 10.4 (18.2-70.8) mmol · L(-1), respectively. Absolute and relative whole-body sweating rates were 1.21 ± 0.68 (0.26-5.73) L · h(-1) and 15.3 ± 6.8 (3.3-69.7) ml · kg(-1) · h(-1), respectively. This retrospective analysis provides normative data for athletes' forearm and predicted whole-body sweat [Na+] as well as absolute and relative whole-body sweating rate across a range of sports and environmental conditions.

  9. Normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration and whole-body sweating rate in athletes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lindsay B; Barnes, Kelly A; Anderson, Melissa L; Passe, Dennis H; Stofan, John R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration ([Na+]) and whole-body sweating rate in athletes. Data from 506 athletes (367 adults, 139 youth; 404 male, 102 female) were compiled from observational athlete testing for a retrospective analysis. The participants were skill/team-sport (including American football, baseball, basketball, soccer and tennis) and endurance (including cycling, running and triathlon) athletes exercising in cool to hot environmental conditions (15-50 °C) during training or competition in the laboratory or field. A standardised regional absorbent patch technique was used to determine sweat [Na+] on the dorsal mid-forearm. Whole-body sweat [Na+] was predicted using a published regression equation (y = 0.57x+11.05). Whole-body sweating rate was calculated from pre- to post-exercise change in body mass, corrected for fluid/food intake (ad libitum) and urine output. Data are expressed as mean ± SD (range). Forearm sweat [Na+] and predicted whole-body sweat [Na+] were 43.6 ± 18.2 (12.6-104.8) mmol · L(-1) and 35.9 ± 10.4 (18.2-70.8) mmol · L(-1), respectively. Absolute and relative whole-body sweating rates were 1.21 ± 0.68 (0.26-5.73) L · h(-1) and 15.3 ± 6.8 (3.3-69.7) ml · kg(-1) · h(-1), respectively. This retrospective analysis provides normative data for athletes' forearm and predicted whole-body sweat [Na+] as well as absolute and relative whole-body sweating rate across a range of sports and environmental conditions. PMID:26070030

  10. Future directions in therapy of whole body radiation injury

    SciTech Connect

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1989-01-01

    Clinicians have long known that marked granulocytopenia predisposed patients to bacterial infections either from pathogens or commensal organisms with which an individual usually lives in harmony. Evidence that infection was of major importance derives from several observations: (a) clinical observations of bacterial infection in human beings exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in reactor accidents, and in large animals dying from radiation exposure, (b) correlative studies on mortality rate, time of death, and incidence of positive culture in animals, (c) challenge of irradiated animals with normally non-virulent organisms, (d) studies of germ free mice and rats, and (e) studies of the effectiveness of antibiotics in reducing mortality rate. General knowledge and sound experimental data on animals and man clearly demonstrated that the sequelae of pancytopenia (bacterial infection, thrombopenic hemorrhage, and anemia) are the lethal factors. A lot of research was required to demonstrate that there were no mysterious radiations toxins, that hyperheparinemia was not a cause of radiation hemorrhage and that radiation hemorrhage could be prevented by fresh platelet transfusions.

  11. Relationship between whole-body tumor burden, clinical phenotype, and quality of life in patients with neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Merker, Vanessa L; Bredella, Miriam A; Cai, Wenli; Kassarjian, Ara; Harris, Gordon J; Muzikansky, Alona; Nguyen, Rosa; Mautner, Victor F; Plotkin, Scott R

    2014-06-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), NF2, and schwannomatosis share a predisposition to develop multiple nerve sheath tumors. Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with NF1 and NF2 have reduced quality of life (QOL), but no studies have examined the relationship between whole-body tumor burden and QOL in these patients. We administered a QOL questionnaire (the SF-36) and a visual analog pain scale (VAS) to a previously described cohort of adult neurofibromatosis patients undergoing whole-body MRI. One-sample t-tests were used to compare norm-based SF-36 scores to weighted population means. Spearman correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression analyses controlling for demographic and disease-specific clinical variable were used to relate whole-body tumor volume to QOL scales. Two hundred forty-five patients (142 NF1, 53 NF2, 50 schwannomatosis) completed the study. Subjects showed deficits in selected subscales of the SF-36 compared to adjusted general population means. In bivariate analysis, increased tumor volume was significantly associated with pain in schwannomatosis patients, as measured by the SF-36 bodily pain subscale (rho = -0.287, P = 0.04) and VAS (rho = 0.34, P = 0.02). Regression models for NF2 patients showed a positive relationship between tumor burden and increased pain, as measured by the SF-36 (P = 0.008). Patients with NF1, NF2, and schwannomatosis suffer from reduced QOL, although only pain shows a clear relationship to patient's overall tumor burden. These findings suggest that internal tumor volume is not a primary contributor to QOL and emphasize the need for comprehensive treatment approaches that go beyond tumor-focused therapies such as surgery by including psychosocial interventions. PMID:24664633

  12. Cerebrolysin attenuates blood-brain barrier and brain pathology following whole body hyperthermia in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Hari Shanker; Zimmermann-Meinzingen, Sibilla; Sharma, Aruna; Johanson, Conrad E

    2010-01-01

    The possibility that Cerebrolysin, a mixture of several neurotrophic factors, has some neuroprotective effects on whole body hyperthermia (WBH) induced breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB), brain edema formation and neuropathology were examined in a rat model. Rats subjected to a 4 h heat stress at 38 degrees C in a biological oxygen demand (BOD) incubator exhibited profound increases in BBB and BCSFB permeability to Evans blue and radioiodine tracers compared to controls. Hippocampus, caudate nucleus, thalamus and hypothalamus exhibited pronounced increase in water content and brain pathology following 4 h heat stress. Pretreatment with Cerebrolysin (1, 2 or 5 mL/kg i.v.) 24 h before WBH significantly attenuated breakdown of the BBB or BCSFB and brain edema formation. This effect was dose dependent. Interestingly, the cell and tissue injury following WBH in cerebrolysin-treated groups were also considerably reduced. These novel observations suggest that cerebrolysin can attenuate WBH induced BBB and BCSFB damage resulting in neuroprotection.

  13. Low-Level Mechanical Vibrations can Reduce Bone Resorption and Enhance Bone Formation in the Growing Skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Xie,L.; Jacobsen, J.; Busa, B.; Donahue, L.; Miller, L.; Rubin, C.; Judex, S.

    2006-01-01

    Short durations of extremely small magnitude, high-frequency, mechanical stimuli can promote anabolic activity in the adult skeleton. Here, it is determined if such signals can influence trabecular and cortical formative and resorptive activity in the growing skeleton, if the newly formed bone is of high quality, and if the insertion of rest periods during the loading phase would enhance the efficacy of the mechanical regimen. Eight-week-old female BALB/cByJ mice were divided into four groups, baseline control (n = 8), age-matched control (n = 10), whole-body vibration (WBV) at 45 Hz (0.3 g) for 15 min day{sup -1} (n = 10), and WBV that were interrupted every second by 10 of rest (WBV-R, n = 10). In vivo strain gaging of two additional mice indicated that the mechanical signal induced strain oscillations of approximately 10 microstrain on the periosteal surface of the proximal tibia. After 3 weeks of WBV, applied for 15 min each day, osteoclastic activity in the trabecular metaphysis and epiphysis of the tibia was 33% and 31% lower (P < 0.05) than in age-matched controls. Bone formation rates (BFR{center_dot}BS{sup -1}) on the endocortical surface of the metaphysis were 30% greater (P < 0.05) in WBV than in age-matched control mice but trabecular and middiaphyseal BFR were not significantly altered. The insertion of rest periods (WBV-R) failed to potentiate the cellular effects. Three weeks of either WBV or WBV-R did not negatively influence body mass, bone length, or chemical bone matrix properties of the tibia. These data indicate that in the growing skeleton, short daily periods of extremely small, high-frequency mechanical signals can inhibit trabecular bone resorption, site specifically attenuate the declining levels of bone formation, and maintain a high level of matrix quality. If WBV prove to be efficacious in the growing human skeleton, they may be able to provide the basis for a non-pharmacological and safe means to increase peak bone mass and, ultimately

  14. Toward black-box-type full- and reduced-dimensional variational (ro)vibrational computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mátyus, Edit; Czakó, Gábor; Császár, Attila G.

    2009-04-01

    A black-box-type algorithm is presented for the variational computation of energy levels and wave functions using a (ro)vibrational Hamiltonian expressed in an arbitrarily chosen body-fixed frame and in any set of internal coordinates of full or reduced vibrational dimensionality. To make the required numerical work feasible, matrix representation of the operators is constructed using a discrete variable representation (DVR). The favorable properties of DVR are exploited in the straightforward and numerically exact inclusion of any representation of the potential and the kinetic energy including the G matrix and the extrapotential term. In this algorithm there is no need for an a priori analytic derivation of the kinetic energy operator, as all of its matrix elements at each grid point are computed numerically either in a full- or a reduced-dimensional model. Due to the simple and straightforward definition of reduced-dimensional models within this approach, a fully anharmonic variational treatment of large, otherwise intractable molecular systems becomes available. In the computer code based on the above algorithm, there is no inherent limitation for the maximally coupled number of vibrational degrees of freedom. However, in practice current personal computers allow the treatment of about nine fully coupled vibrational dimensions. Computation of vibrational band origins of full and reduced dimensions showing the advantages and limitations of the algorithm and the related computer code are presented for the water, ammonia, and methane molecules.

  15. Statistical determination of whole-body average SARs in a 2 GHz whole-body exposure system for unrestrained pregnant and newborn rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianqing; Wake, Kanako; Kawai, Hiroki; Watanabe, Soichi; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    A 2 GHz whole-body exposure to rats over a multigeneration has been conducted as part of bio-effect research in Japan. In this study, the rats moved freely in the cage inside the exposure system. From observation of the activity of rats in the cage, we found that the rats do not stay in each position with uniform possibility. In order to determine the specific absorption rate (SAR) during the entire exposure period with high accuracy, we present a new approach to statistically determine the SAR level in an exposure system. First, we divided the rat cage in the exposure system into several small areas, and derived the fraction of time the rats spent in each small area based on the classification of the documentary photos of rat activity. Then, using the fraction of time spent in each small area as a weighting factor, we calculated the statistical characteristics of the whole-body average SAR for pregnant rats and young rats during the entire exposure period. As a result, this approach gave the statistical distribution as well as the corresponding mean value, median value and mode value for the whole-body SAR so that we can reasonably clarify the relationship between the exposure level and possible biological effect.

  16. Sesamol attenuates genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of whole-body γ-irradiated mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Selvan, Tamizh G; Tripathi, Akanchha M; Choudhary, Sandeep; Khan, Shahanshah; Adhikari, Jawahar S; Chaudhury, Nabo K

    2015-09-01

    Ionising radiation causes free radical-mediated damage in cellular DNA. This damage is manifested as chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei (MN) in proliferating cells. Sesamol, present in sesame seeds, has the potential to scavenge free radicals; therefore, it can reduce radiation-induced cytogenetic damage in cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the radioprotective potential of sesamol in bone marrow cells of mice and related haematopoietic system against radiation-induced genotoxicity. A comparative study with melatonin was designed for assessing the radioprotective potential of sesamol. C57BL/6 mice were administered intraperitoneally with either sesamol or melatonin (10 and 20mg/kg body weight) 30 min prior to 2-Gy whole-body irradiation (WBI) and sacrificed after 24h. Total chromosomal aberrations (TCA), MN and cell cycle analyses were performed using bone marrow cells. The comet assay was performed on bone marrow cells, splenocytes and lymphocytes. Blood was drawn to study haematological parameters. Prophylactic doses of sesamol (10 and 20mg/kg) in irradiated mice reduced TCA and micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte frequency in bone marrow cells by 57% and 50%, respectively, in comparison with radiation-only groups. Sesamol-reduced radiation-induced apoptosis and facilitated cell proliferation. In the comet assay, sesamol (20mg/kg) treatment reduced radiation-induced comets (% DNA in tail) compared with radiation only (P < 0.05). Sesamol also increased granulocyte populations in peripheral blood similar to melatonin. Overall, the radioprotective efficacy of sesamol was found to be similar to that of melatonin. Sesamol treatment also showed recovery of relative spleen weight at 24h of WBI. The results strongly suggest the radioprotective efficacy of sesamol in the haematopoietic system of mice. PMID:25863274

  17. Whole body exposure at 2100 MHz induced by plane wave of random incidences in a population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conil, Emmanuelle; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; El Habachi, Aimad; Wiart, J.

    2010-11-01

    In this article, the whole body exposure induced by plane wave coming from a random direction of arrival is analyzed at 2100 MHz. This work completes previous studies on the influence of different parameters on the whole body exposure (such as morphology, frequency or usage in near field). The Visible Human phantom has been used to build a surrogate model to predict the whole body exposure depending on the highlighted surface of the phantom and on the direction of arrival of the incident plane wave. For the Visible Human, the error on the whole body averaged Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) is on average 4%. The surrogate model is applied to other 3D anthropomorphic phantoms for a frontal incidence with an averaged error of 10%. The great interest of the surrogate model is the possibility to apply a Monte Carlo process to assess probability distribution function of a population. A recent French anthropometric database of more than 3500 adults is used to build the probability distribution function of the whole body SAR for a random direction of arrival.

  18. Reciprocal influence of masticatory apparatus, craniofacial structure and whole body homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Moon, Hyung-Joo

    2012-12-01

    There are evidences that the evolution into Homo erectus was partially induced by masticatory muscular dystrophy caused by a gene mutation, which in turn increased brain capacity and led to bipedalism. It is generally accepted that the morphology and function of mammalian skull are partially controlled by epigenetic mechanisms. Archeologic evidences support that the masticatory apparatus have influenced the mechanical stress distribution in hominin skull, and consequently changed craniofacial morphology and function. Even after evolution into H. erectus, alterations in food properties by civilization and cultural preferences have caused modification of human masticatory pattern and accordingly craniofacial structure. Since there are evidences that prehuman and human masticatory apparatus has been influenced the craniofacial and whole body morphology and function, this apparatus in turn might influence whole body homeostasis. Plausible reciprocal influencing mechanisms of the masticatory apparatus on the whole body homeostasis might be (1) direct mechanical influence on the craniofacial structure, (2) distortion of cerebrospinal fluid circulation, and/or (3) several neural/humoral routes. Based on these backgrounds, the hypothesis of the present study is that the morphology and function of masticatory apparatus influence the whole body homeostasis and these interactions are reciprocal. Therefore, human masticatory apparatus, at the present time, should be kept in its physiological status to maintain the whole body homeostasis. We recommend basic and clinical approaches to confirm this hypothesis.

  19. Patient-specific biomechanical model as whole-body CT image registration tool.

    PubMed

    Li, Mao; Miller, Karol; Joldes, Grand Roman; Doyle, Barry; Garlapati, Revanth Reddy; Kikinis, Ron; Wittek, Adam

    2015-05-01

    Whole-body computed tomography (CT) image registration is important for cancer diagnosis, therapy planning and treatment. Such registration requires accounting for large differences between source and target images caused by deformations of soft organs/tissues and articulated motion of skeletal structures. The registration algorithms relying solely on image processing methods exhibit deficiencies in accounting for such deformations and motion. We propose to predict the deformations and movements of body organs/tissues and skeletal structures for whole-body CT image registration using patient-specific non-linear biomechanical modelling. Unlike the conventional biomechanical modelling, our approach for building the biomechanical models does not require time-consuming segmentation of CT scans to divide the whole body into non-overlapping constituents with different material properties. Instead, a Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithm is used for tissue classification to assign the constitutive properties automatically at integration points of the computation grid. We use only very simple segmentation of the spine when determining vertebrae displacements to define loading for biomechanical models. We demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of our approach on CT images of seven patients suffering from cancer and aortic disease. The results confirm that accurate whole-body CT image registration can be achieved using a patient-specific non-linear biomechanical model constructed without time-consuming segmentation of the whole-body images. PMID:25721296

  20. Whole body mechanics differ among running and cutting maneuvers in skilled athletes.

    PubMed

    Havens, Kathryn L; Sigward, Susan M

    2015-09-01

    Quick changes of direction during running (cutting) represent a whole body mechanical challenge, as they require deceleration and translation of the body during ongoing movement. While much is known with respect to whole body demands during walking turns, whole body mechanics and anticipatory adjustments necessary for cutting are unclear. As the ability to rapidly change direction is critical to athletes' success in many sports, a better understanding of whole body adjustments made during cuts is needed. Whole body center of mass velocity and position during the approach and execution steps of three tasks (straight running, 45° sidestep cut, and 90° sidestep cut) performed as fast as possible were compared in 25 healthy soccer athletes. Repeated measure ANOVA revealed that overall, braking and translation were greater during the cuts compared to the straight run. Interestingly, with systematically increased cut angle, disproportionately greater braking but proportionately greater translation was observed. Anticipatory adjustments made prior to the execution of the cuts suggested that individuals evenly distributed the deceleration and redirection demands across steps of the 45° cut but prioritized deceleration over translation during the approach step of the 90° cut. PMID:25149902

  1. Mechanical vibration inhibits osteoclast formation by reducing DC-STAMP receptor expression in osteoclast precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh N; Voglewede, Philip A; Liu, Dawei

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that physical inactivity leads to loss of muscle mass, but it also causes bone loss. Mechanistically, osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption have recently been shown to be regulated by vibration. However, the underlying mechanism behind the inhibition of osteoclast formation is yet unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells affects osteoclast formation by the involvement of fusion-related molecules such as dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) and P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). RAW264.7 (a murine osteoclastic-like cell line) cells were treated with 20ng/ml receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). For 3 consecutive days, the cells were subjected to 1h of mechanical vibration with 20μm displacement at a frequency of 4Hz and compared to the control cells that were treated under the same condition but without the vibration. After 5days of culture, osteoclast formation was determined. Gene expression of DC-STAMP and P2X7R by RAW264.7 cells was determined after 1h of mechanical vibration, while protein production of the DC-STAMP was determined after 6h of postincubation after vibration. As a result, mechanical vibration of RAW264.7 cells inhibited the formation of osteoclasts. Vibration down-regulated DC-STAMP gene expression by 1.6-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.4-fold in the absence of RANKL. Additionally, DC-STAMP protein production was also down-regulated by 1.4-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.2-fold in the absence of RANKL in RAW264.7 cells in response to mechanical vibration. However, vibration did not affect P2X7R gene expression. Mouse anti-DC-STAMP antibody inhibited osteoclast formation in the absence of vibration. Our results suggest that mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells reduces DC-STAMP expression in osteoclast precursor cells leading to the inhibition of osteoclast formation.

  2. Trunk bradykinesia and foveation delays during whole-body turns in spasmodic torticollis.

    PubMed

    Anastasopoulos, Dimitri; Ziavra, Nafsica; Pearce, Ronald; Bronstein, Adolfo M

    2013-08-01

    We have investigated how the abnormal head posture and motility in spasmodic torticollis interferes with ecological movements such as combined eye-to-foot whole-body reorientations to visual targets. Eight mildly affected patients and 10 controls voluntarily rotated eyes and body in response to illuminated targets of eccentricities up to ± 180°. The experimental protocol allowed separate evaluation of the effects of target location, visibility and predictability on movement parameters. Patients' latencies of eye, head, trunk and foot motion were prolonged but showed a normal modification pattern when target location was predictable. Peak head-on-trunk displacement and velocity were reduced both ipsi- and contralaterally with respect to the direction of torticollis. Surprisingly, peak trunk velocity was also reduced, even more than in previously studied patients with Parkinson's disease. As a consequence, patients made short, hypometric gaze saccades and only exceptionally foveated initially nonvisible targets with a single large gaze shift (4 % of predictable trials as opposed to 30 % in controls). Foveation of distant targets was massively delayed by more than half a second on average. Spontaneous dystonic head movements did not interfere with the execution of voluntary gaze shifts. The results show that neck dystonia does not arise from gaze (head-eye) motor centres but the eye-to-foot turning synergy is seriously compromised. For the first time we identify significant 'secondary' complications of torticollis such as trunk bradykinesia and foveation delays, likely to cause additional disability in patients. Eye movements per se are intact and compensate for the reduced head/trunk performance in an adaptive manner.

  3. Brown adipose tissue improves whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in humans.

    PubMed

    Chondronikola, Maria; Volpi, Elena; Børsheim, Elisabet; Porter, Craig; Annamalai, Palam; Enerbäck, Sven; Lidell, Martin E; Saraf, Manish K; Labbe, Sebastien M; Hurren, Nicholas M; Yfanti, Christina; Chao, Tony; Andersen, Clark R; Cesani, Fernando; Hawkins, Hal; Sidossis, Labros S

    2014-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has attracted scientific interest as an antidiabetic tissue owing to its ability to dissipate energy as heat. Despite a plethora of data concerning the role of BAT in glucose metabolism in rodents, the role of BAT (if any) in glucose metabolism in humans remains unclear. To investigate whether BAT activation alters whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in humans, we studied seven BAT-positive (BAT(+)) men and five BAT-negative (BAT(-)) men under thermoneutral conditions and after prolonged (5-8 h) cold exposure (CE). The two groups were similar in age, BMI, and adiposity. CE significantly increased resting energy expenditure, whole-body glucose disposal, plasma glucose oxidation, and insulin sensitivity in the BAT(+) group only. These results demonstrate a physiologically significant role of BAT in whole-body energy expenditure, glucose homeostasis, and insulin sensitivity in humans, and support the notion that BAT may function as an antidiabetic tissue in humans.

  4. A reduced energy supply strategy in active vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichchou, M. N.; Loukil, T.; Bareille, O.; Chamberland, G.; Qiu, J.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a control strategy is presented and numerically tested. This strategy aims to achieve the potential performance of fully active systems with a reduced energy supply. These energy needs are expected to be comparable to the power demands of semi-active systems, while system performance is intended to be comparable to that of a fully active configuration. The underlying strategy is called 'global semi-active control'. This control approach results from an energy investigation based on management of the optimal control process. Energy management encompasses storage and convenient restitution. The proposed strategy monitors a given active law without any external energy supply by considering purely dissipative and energy-demanding phases. Such a control law is offered here along with an analysis of its properties. A suboptimal form, well adapted for practical implementation steps, is also given. Moreover, a number of numerical experiments are proposed in order to validate test findings.

  5. Whole-body FDG-PET imaging for staging of Hodgkin`s disease and lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hoh, C.K.; Glaspy, J.; Rosen, P.

    1997-03-01

    Accurate staging of Hodgkin`s disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma (NHL) is important for treatment management. In this study, the utility of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) wholebody PET was evaluated as an imaging modality for initial staging or restaging of 7 HD and 11 NHL patients. Whole-body PET-based staging results were compared to the patient`s clinical stage based on conventional staging studies, which included combinations of CT of the chest, abdomen and pelvis, MRI scans, gallium scans, lymphangiograms, staging laparatomies and bone scans. Accurate staging was performed in 17 of 18 patients using a whole-body PET-based staging algorithm compared to the conventional staging algorithm in 15 of 18 patients. In 5 of 18 patients, whole-body PET-based staging showed additional lesions not detected by conventional staging modalities, whereas conventional staging demonstrated additional lesions in 4 of 18 patients not detected by whole-body PET. The total cost of conventional staging was $66,292 for 16 CT chest scans, 16 CT abdominal/pelvis scans, three limited MRI scans, four bone scans, give gallium scans, two laparotomies and one lymphangiogram. In contrast, scans cost $36,250 for 18 whole-body PET studies and additional selected correlative studies: one plain film radiograph, one limited CT, one bone marrow san, one upper GI and one endoscopy. A whole-body FDG-PET-based staging algorithm may be an accurate and cost-effective method for staging or restaging HD and NHL. 10 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Application of an active controller for reducing small-amplitude vertical vibration in a vehicle seat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian-Da; Chen, Rong-Jun

    2004-07-01

    This report describes the principle and application of active vibration control (AVC) for reducing undesired small-amplitude vertical vibration in the driver's seat of a vehicle. Three different control algorithms are implemented and compared in the experimental investigation. Apart from adaptive control and robust control, a hybrid control algorithm consisting of a combination of an adaptive controller with a filtered-x least mean squares (FXLMS) algorithm and a feedback structure with a robust synthesis theory for obtaining fast convergence and robust performance are proposed. A frequency domain technique is used for achieving the control plant identification and controller design. All of the proposed AVC controllers are implemented in a digital signal processor (DSP) platform, using a finite impulse response (FIR) filter for real-time control. A characteristic analysis and experimental comparison of three control algorithms for reducing the small amplitude vertical vibration in a vehicle seat are also presented in this paper.

  7. False positive diagnosis on (131)iodine whole-body scintigraphy of differentiated thyroid cancers.

    PubMed

    Triggiani, Vincenzo; Giagulli, Vito Angelo; Iovino, Michele; De Pergola, Giovanni; Licchelli, Brunella; Varraso, Antonio; Dicembrino, Franca; Valle, Guido; Guastamacchia, Edoardo

    2016-09-01

    (131)Iodine is used both to ablate any residual thyroid tissue or metastatic disease and to obtain whole-body diagnostic images after total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Even though whole-body scan is highly accurate in showing thyroid residues as well as metastases of DTC, false positive results can be found, possibly leading to diagnostic errors and unnecessary treatments. This paper reviews the physiological and pathological processes involved as well as the strategy to recognize and rule out false positive radioiodine images.

  8. Whole-body autoradiographic microimaging: Applications in radiopharmaceutical and drug research

    SciTech Connect

    Som, P.; Sacker, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    The whole-body autoradiographic (WBARG) microimaging technique is used for evaluation of the temporo-spatial distribution of radiolabeled molecules in intact animals as well as to determine the sites of accumulation of parent compounds and their metabolites. This technique is also very useful to determine the metabolism of a compound, toxicity, and effects of therapeutic interventions on the distribution of a compound in the whole body, by studying animals at different time intervals after injection of the radiolabeled compound. This report discusses various aspects of WBARG.

  9. Whole-body autoradiographic microimaging: Applications in radiopharmaceutical and drug research

    SciTech Connect

    Som, P.; Sacker, D.F.

    1991-12-31

    The whole-body autoradiographic (WBARG) microimaging technique is used for evaluation of the temporo-spatial distribution of radiolabeled molecules in intact animals as well as to determine the sites of accumulation of parent compounds and their metabolites. This technique is also very useful to determine the metabolism of a compound, toxicity, and effects of therapeutic interventions on the distribution of a compound in the whole body, by studying animals at different time intervals after injection of the radiolabeled compound. This report discusses various aspects of WBARG.

  10. Animal physiology. Whole-body endothermy in a mesopelagic fish, the opah, Lampris guttatus.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Nicholas C; Snodgrass, Owyn E; Dewar, Heidi; Hyde, John R

    2015-05-15

    Endothermy (the metabolic production and retention of heat to warm body temperature above ambient) enhances physiological function, and whole-body endothermy generally sets mammals and birds apart from other animals. Here, we describe a whole-body form of endothermy in a fish, the opah (Lampris guttatus), that produces heat through the constant "flapping" of wing-like pectoral fins and minimizes heat loss through a series of counter-current heat exchangers within its gills. Unlike other fish, opah distribute warmed blood throughout the body, including to the heart, enhancing physiological performance and buffering internal organ function while foraging in the cold, nutrient-rich waters below the ocean thermocline.

  11. Intercomparison of whole-body counters using a multinuclide calibration phantom.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, J D; McKenzie, A L; Boddy, K

    1991-02-01

    Whole-body counters in the UK have been compared using a multinuclide anthropomorphic phantom. A standard Bush phantom was modified by inserting channels into the long axis of each section. Radionuclide sources sealed in a urea-formaldehyde polymer were then inserted into the channels to simulate distributions of radioactivity in a human. The phantom was taken to 10 whole-body counters in the UK and estimates of 134Cs, 137Cs and 40K were obtained both separately and as mixtures. Results showed close agreement between the median estimates and the known activities. The technique also allowed diagnosis of particular problems in calibration for several of the counters.

  12. Computational model for calculating body-core temperature elevation in rabbits due to whole-body exposure at 2.45 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Sugiyama, Hironori; Kojima, Masami; Kawai, Hiroki; Yamashiro, Yoko; Fujiwara, Osamu; Watanabe, Soichi; Sasaki, Kazuyuki

    2008-06-01

    In the current international guidelines and standards with regard to human exposure to electromagnetic waves, the basic restriction is defined in terms of the whole-body average-specific absorption rate. The rationale for the guidelines is that the characteristic pattern of thermoregulatory response is observed for the whole-body average SAR above a certain level. However, the relationship between energy absorption and temperature elevation was not well quantified. In this study, we improved our thermal computation model for rabbits, which was developed for localized exposure on eye, in order to investigate the body-core temperature elevation due to whole-body exposure at 2.45 GHz. The effect of anesthesia on the body-core temperature elevation was also discussed in comparison with measured results. For the whole-body average SAR of 3.0 W kg-1, the body-core temperature in rabbits elevates with time, without becoming saturated. The administration of anesthesia suppressed body-core temperature elevation, which is attributed to the reduced basal metabolic rate.

  13. Whole Body Periodic Acceleration Is an Effective Therapy to Ameliorate Muscular Dystrophy in mdx Mice

    PubMed Central

    Altamirano, Francisco; Perez, Claudio F.; Liu, Min; Widrick, Jeffrey; Barton, Elisabeth R.; Allen, Paul D.; Adams, Jose A.; Lopez, Jose R.

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disorder caused by the absence of dystrophin in both skeletal and cardiac muscles. This leads to severe muscle degeneration, and dilated cardiomyopathy that produces patient death, which in most cases occurs before the end of the second decade. Several lines of evidence have shown that modulators of nitric oxide (NO) pathway can improve skeletal muscle and cardiac function in the mdx mouse, a mouse model for DMD. Whole body periodic acceleration (pGz) is produced by applying sinusoidal motion to supine humans and in standing conscious rodents in a headward-footward direction using a motion platform. It adds small pulses as a function of movement frequency to the circulation thereby increasing pulsatile shear stress to the vascular endothelium, which in turn increases production of NO. In this study, we examined the potential therapeutic properties of pGz for the treatment of skeletal muscle pathology observed in the mdx mouse. We found that pGz (480 cpm, 8 days, 1 hr per day) decreased intracellular Ca2+ and Na+ overload, diminished serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) and reduced intracellular accumulation of Evans Blue. Furthermore, pGz increased muscle force generation and expression of both utrophin and the carboxy-terminal PDZ ligand of nNOS (CAPON). Likewise, pGz (120 cpm, 12 h) applied in vitro to skeletal muscle myotubes reduced Ca2+ and Na+ overload, diminished abnormal sarcolemmal Ca2+ entry and increased phosphorylation of endothelial NOS. Overall, this study provides new insights into the potential therapeutic efficacy of pGz as a non-invasive and non-pharmacological approach for the treatment of DMD patients through activation of the NO pathway. PMID:25181488

  14. Whole body periodic acceleration is an effective therapy to ameliorate muscular dystrophy in mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Altamirano, Francisco; Perez, Claudio F; Liu, Min; Widrick, Jeffrey; Barton, Elisabeth R; Allen, Paul D; Adams, Jose A; Lopez, Jose R

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disorder caused by the absence of dystrophin in both skeletal and cardiac muscles. This leads to severe muscle degeneration, and dilated cardiomyopathy that produces patient death, which in most cases occurs before the end of the second decade. Several lines of evidence have shown that modulators of nitric oxide (NO) pathway can improve skeletal muscle and cardiac function in the mdx mouse, a mouse model for DMD. Whole body periodic acceleration (pGz) is produced by applying sinusoidal motion to supine humans and in standing conscious rodents in a headward-footward direction using a motion platform. It adds small pulses as a function of movement frequency to the circulation thereby increasing pulsatile shear stress to the vascular endothelium, which in turn increases production of NO. In this study, we examined the potential therapeutic properties of pGz for the treatment of skeletal muscle pathology observed in the mdx mouse. We found that pGz (480 cpm, 8 days, 1 hr per day) decreased intracellular Ca(2+) and Na(+) overload, diminished serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) and reduced intracellular accumulation of Evans Blue. Furthermore, pGz increased muscle force generation and expression of both utrophin and the carboxy-terminal PDZ ligand of nNOS (CAPON). Likewise, pGz (120 cpm, 12 h) applied in vitro to skeletal muscle myotubes reduced Ca(2+) and Na(+) overload, diminished abnormal sarcolemmal Ca(2+) entry and increased phosphorylation of endothelial NOS. Overall, this study provides new insights into the potential therapeutic efficacy of pGz as a non-invasive and non-pharmacological approach for the treatment of DMD patients through activation of the NO pathway. PMID:25181488

  15. Assessment of contribution of other users to own total whole-body RF absorption in train environment.

    PubMed

    Plets, David; Joseph, Wout; Aerts, Sam; Vermeeren, Günter; Varsier, Nadège; Wiart, Joe; Martens, Luc

    2015-12-01

    For the first time, the contribution of radio-frequent radiation originating from other people's devices to total own whole-body absorption is assessed in a simulation study. Absorption in a train environment due to base station's downlink is compared with absorption due to uplink (UL) of the user's own mobile device and absorption due to the UL of 0, 1, 5, or 15 other nearby active users. In a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) macro cell connection scenario, UL of 15 other users can cause up to 19% of total absorption when calling yourself and up to 100% when not calling yourself. In a Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) femtocell connection scenario, UL of 15 other users contributes to total absorption of a non-calling user for no more than 1.5%. For five other users in the train besides the considered person, median total whole-body Specific Absorption Rate is reduced by a factor of about 400000 when deploying a UMTS femtocell base station instead of relying on the GSM macrocell.

  16. Cutaneous noradrenaline measured by microdialysis in complex regional pain syndrome during whole-body cooling and heating.

    PubMed

    Terkelsen, Astrid J; Gierthmühlen, Janne; Petersen, Lars J; Knudsen, Lone; Christensen, Niels J; Kehr, Jan; Yoshitake, Takashi; Madsen, Caspar S; Wasner, Gunnar; Baron, Ralf; Jensen, Troels S

    2013-09-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterised by autonomic, sensory, and motor disturbances. The underlying mechanisms of the autonomic changes in CPRS are unknown. However, it has been postulated that sympathetic inhibition in the acute phase with locally reduced levels of noradrenaline is followed by an up-regulation of alpha-adrenoceptors in chronic CRPS leading to denervation supersensitivity to catecholamines. This exploratory study examined the effect of cutaneous sympathetic activation and inhibition on cutaneous noradrenaline release, vascular reactivity, and pain in CRPS patients and in healthy volunteers. Seven patients and nine controls completed whole-body cooling (sympathetic activation) and heating (sympathetic inhibition) induced by a whole-body thermal suit with simultaneous measurement of the skin temperature, skin blood flow, and release of dermal noradrenaline. CRPS pain and the perceived skin temperature were measured every 5 min during thermal exposure, while noradrenaline was determined from cutaneous microdialysate collected every 20 min throughout the study period. Cooling induced peripheral sympathetic activation in patients and controls with significant increases in dermal noradrenaline, vasoconstriction, and reduction in skin temperature. The main findings were that the noradrenaline response did not differ between patients and controls or between the CRPS hand and the contralateral unaffected hand, suggesting that the evoked noradrenaline release from the cutaneous sympathetic postganglionic fibres is preserved in chronic CRPS patients.

  17. Mapping of arterial location for the design of automated identification and analysis algorithms in whole body MRA.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Lynne; Weir-McCall, Jonathan; Gandy, Stephen; White, Richard; McNeil, Andrew; Trucco, Emanuele; Houston, J Graeme

    2015-01-01

    Technological and medical advances have led to the realisation of full body imaging, with systemic diagnostic approaches becoming increasingly more prevalent. In the imaging of atherosclerotic disease, contrast -enhanced whole-body MRA has been demonstrated to enable detection of stenosis with a high sensitivity and specificity. Characterization of the systemic cardiovascular disease burden has significant prognostic value. A whole-body acquisition does however generate a large volume of three-dimensional data and as such there are expected to be significant advantages in developing automated techniques for the analysis of these images. Improved radiological workflow, reduced analysis time and increased analytical standardization are expected to be among the benefits offered by this approach. As part of a process of automated software development this study aimed to collect and validate arterial location ground truth. The data will be used to inform the development of semi-automated vascular identity tools, and allow the potential for the further development of semi-automated anatomically informed cardiovascular disease analysis and reporting. PMID:26738130

  18. Mapping of arterial location for the design of automated identification and analysis algorithms in whole body MRA.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Lynne; Weir-McCall, Jonathan; Gandy, Stephen; White, Richard; McNeil, Andrew; Trucco, Emanuele; Houston, J Graeme

    2015-01-01

    Technological and medical advances have led to the realisation of full body imaging, with systemic diagnostic approaches becoming increasingly more prevalent. In the imaging of atherosclerotic disease, contrast -enhanced whole-body MRA has been demonstrated to enable detection of stenosis with a high sensitivity and specificity. Characterization of the systemic cardiovascular disease burden has significant prognostic value. A whole-body acquisition does however generate a large volume of three-dimensional data and as such there are expected to be significant advantages in developing automated techniques for the analysis of these images. Improved radiological workflow, reduced analysis time and increased analytical standardization are expected to be among the benefits offered by this approach. As part of a process of automated software development this study aimed to collect and validate arterial location ground truth. The data will be used to inform the development of semi-automated vascular identity tools, and allow the potential for the further development of semi-automated anatomically informed cardiovascular disease analysis and reporting.

  19. Ewing sarcoma dissemination and response to T-cell therapy in mice assessed by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liebsch, L; Kailayangiri, S; Beck, L; Altvater, B; Koch, R; Dierkes, C; Hotfilder, M; Nagelmann, N; Faber, C; Kooijman, H; Ring, J; Vieth, V; Rossig, C

    2013-01-01

    Background: Novel treatment strategies in Ewing sarcoma include targeted cellular therapies. Preclinical in vivo models are needed that reflect their activity against systemic (micro)metastatic disease. Methods: Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) was used to monitor the engraftment and dissemination of human Ewing sarcoma xenografts in mice. In this model, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of T cells redirected against the Ewing sarcoma-associated antigen GD2 by chimeric receptor engineering. Results: Of 18 mice receiving intravenous injections of VH-64 Ewing sarcoma cells, all developed disseminated tumour growth detectable by WB-MRI. All mice had lung tumours, and the majority had additional manifestations in the bone, soft tissues, and/or kidney. Sequential scans revealed in vivo growth of tumours. Diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background signal suppression effectively visualised Ewing sarcoma growth in extrapulmonary sites. Animals receiving GD2-targeted T-cell therapy had lower numbers of pulmonary tumours than controls, and the median volume of soft tissue tumours at first detection was lower, with a tumour growth delay over time. Conclusion: Magnetic resonance imaging reliably visualises disseminated Ewing sarcoma growth in mice. GD2-retargeted T cells can noticeably delay tumour growth and reduce pulmonary Ewing sarcoma manifestations in this aggressive disease model. PMID:23839490

  20. A Numerical Study on the Screening of Blast-Induced Waves for Reducing Ground Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Dohyun; Jeon, Byungkyu; Jeon, Seokwon

    2009-06-01

    Blasting is often a necessary part of mining and construction operations, and is the most cost-effective way to break rock, but blasting generates both noise and ground vibration. In urban areas, noise and vibration have an environmental impact, and cause structural damage to nearby structures. Various wave-screening methods have been used for many years to reduce blast-induced ground vibration. However, these methods have not been quantitatively studied for their reduction effect of ground vibration. The present study focused on the quantitative assessment of the effectiveness in vibration reduction of line-drilling as a screening method using a numerical method. Two numerical methods were used to analyze the reduction effect toward ground vibration, namely, the “distinct element method” and the “non-linear hydrocode.” The distinct element method, by particle flow code in two dimensions (PFC 2D), was used for two-dimensional parametric analyses, and some cases of two-dimensional analyses were analyzed three-dimensionally using AUTODYN 3D, the program of the non-linear hydrocode. To analyze the screening effectiveness of line-drilling, parametric analyses were carried out under various conditions, with the spacing, diameter of drill holes, distance between the blasthole and line-drilling, and the number of rows of drill holes, including their arrangement, used as parameters. The screening effectiveness was assessed via a comparison of the vibration amplitude between cases both with and without screening. Also, the frequency distribution of ground motion of the two cases was investigated through fast Fourier transform (FFT), with the differences also examined. From our study, it was concluded that line-drilling as a screening method of blast-induced waves was considerably effective under certain design conditions. The design details for field application have also been proposed.

  1. Solid anthropomorphic infant whole body DXA phantom: Design, evaluation, and multisite testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) requires phantoms for quality control and cross-calibration. No commercially available phantoms are designed specifically for infant whole-body scanning. We fabricated a phantom closely matching a 7-kg human infant in body habitus using PVC, nylon-mix, and poly...

  2. Nasal visualization on radioiodine whole-body scintigraphy due to benign abnormality.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xue; Wang, Qiao; Huang, Rui

    2015-04-01

    Nasal iodine activity can be observed on 123Iodine (123I) or 131I whole-body scintigraphy (WBS) commonly as a normal variant caused by nasal or salivary secretion of the tracer. We encountered 2 patients whose increased accumulation of 131I activity was associated with underlying abnormalities. One patient had a nasal polyp, whereas the other had an abscess.

  3. Moving along the Mental Number Line: Interactions between Whole-Body Motion and Numerical Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Matthias; Grabherr, Luzia; Mast, Fred W.

    2012-01-01

    Active head turns to the left and right have recently been shown to influence numerical cognition by shifting attention along the mental number line. In the present study, we found that passive whole-body motion influences numerical cognition. In a random-number generation task (Experiment 1), leftward and downward displacement of participants…

  4. Human and animal studies: portals into the whole body and whole population response

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human and animal studies: portals into the whole body and whole population response Michael C. Madden1 and Brett Winters21US Environmental Protection Agency and 2University of North Carolina Human Studies Facility, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA Studies involving collection and...

  5. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices regarding Whole Body Donation among Medical Professionals in a Hospital in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballala, Kirthinath; Shetty, Avinash; Malpe, Surekha Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary body donation has become an important source of cadavers for anatomical study and education. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding whole body donation among medical professionals in a medical institute in India. A cross sectional study was conducted at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal,…

  6. Optimization of Whole-body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the MSI literature lacks information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (ZF; Danio rerio), a model organism routinely used in devel...

  7. Insulin and amino acids stimulate whole body protein synthesis in neonates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insulin and amino acids (AA) stimulate muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs. To determine the effects of insulin and AA on whole body protein turnover, hyperinsulinemic (0 and 100 ng/(kg[0.66]/min))-euglycemic-AA clamps were performed during euaminoacidemia or hyperaminoacidemia in fasted 7-d-...

  8. DETECTION OF WHOLE BODY OXIDATIVE STRESS IN URINE USING OXYGEN-18 LABELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    DETECTION OF WHOLE BODY OXIDATIVE STRESS IN URINE USING OXYGEN-18 LABELING. R Slade, J L McKee and G E Hatch. PTB, ETD, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
    Reliable non-invasive markers for detecting oxidative stress in vivo are currently not available. We pr...

  9. Prolonged bed rest decreases skeletal muscle and whole body protein synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Lane, H. W.; Stuart, C. A.; Davis-Street, J.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which the loss of lean body mass and nitrogen during inactivity was due to alterations in skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Six male subjects were studied during 7 days of diet stabilization and after 14 days of stimulated microgravity (-6 degrees bed rest). Nitrogen balance became more negative (P < 0.03) during the 2nd wk of bed rest. Leg and whole body lean mass decreased after bed rest (P < 0.05). Serum cortisol, insulin, insulin-like growth factor I, and testosterone values did not change. Arteriovenous model calculations based on the infusion of L-[ring-13C6]-phenylalanine in five subjects revealed a 50% decrease in muscle protein synthesis (PS; P < 0.03). Fractional PS by tracer incorporation into muscle protein also decreased by 46% (P < 0.05). The decrease in PS was related to a corresponding decrease in the sum of intracellular amino acid appearance from protein breakdown and inward transport. Whole body protein synthesis determined by [15N]alanine ingestion on six subjects also revealed a 14% decrease (P < 0.01). Neither model-derived nor whole body values for protein breakdown change significantly. These results indicate that the loss of body protein with inactivity is predominantly due to a decrease in muscle PS and that this decrease is reflected in both whole body and skeletal muscle measures.

  10. Whole-body turbo STIR MR imaging: controversies and avenues for development.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Eoin; Smith, Clare; Eustace, Stephen

    2003-09-01

    The idea of a non-ionizing high-resolution technique to screen the entire body for occult disease is immensely appealing. This article outlines an evolving technique, controversies and clinical application of whole-body scanning using MRI with turbo short tau inversion recovery tissue excitation.

  11. Whole-body cryostimulation and oxidative stress in rowers: the preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Wozniak, Alina; Szpinda, Michał; Chwalbinska-Moneta, Jolanta; Augustynska, Beata; Jurecka, Alicja

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The effect of whole-body cryostimulation (WBC) on the biomarkers of oxidative stress, lysosomal enzymes, creatine kinase and cortisol was studied. Material and methods The rowers underwent two 6-day training cycles: with pre-training daily WBC (temperature: from –125°C to –150°C) and without cryostimulation (control). Blood samples were taken before and after the third and sixth day of training. Results The activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase was lower (by 44% and 42%, respectively) after the third day of training with WBC than without WBC. The concentration of lipid peroxidation products was also lower after the training preceded by WBC. Moreover, the acid phosphatase activity was 50% lower after the third day of training with WBC than training without WBC. Considering the antioxidant enzymes activity during training without WBC, the increase of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity was observed after the third day of training (by about 74% and 100%, respectively). The level of lipid peroxidation products also increased after the training without WBC. No statistically significant changes were observed in creatine kinase activity after the training preceded with WBC, while after the training without WBC activity of this enzyme was two-fold higher than before the training. Conclusions The use of WBC prior to training may reduce the risk of oxidative stress and the extent of muscle fibre injuries provoked by intense exercise. The WBC seems to be an effective and safe method for limiting exercise-induced damage; thus it may be used in biological regeneration of sportsmen. PMID:23671442

  12. Head Exposure to Cold during Whole-Body Cryostimulation: Influence on Thermal Response and Autonomic Modulation.

    PubMed

    Louis, Julien; Schaal, Karine; Bieuzen, François; Le Meur, Yann; Filliard, Jean-Robert; Volondat, Marielle; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Hausswirth, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Recent research on whole-body cryotherapy has hypothesized a major responsibility of head cooling in the physiological changes classically reported after a cryostimulation session. The aim of this experiment was to verify this hypothesis by studying the influence of exposing the head to cold during whole-body cryostimulation sessions, on the thermal response and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Over five consecutive days, two groups of 10 participants performed one whole-body cryostimulation session daily, in one of two different systems; one exposing the whole-body to cold (whole-body cryostimulation, WBC), and the other exposing the whole-body except the head (partial-body cryostimulation, PBC).10 participants constituted a control group (CON) not receiving any cryostimulation. In order to isolate the head-cooling effect on recorded variables, it was ensured that the WBC and PBC systems induced the same decrease in skin temperature for all body regions (mean decrease over the 5 exposures: -8.6°C ± 1.3°C and -8.3 ± 0.7°C for WBC and PBC, respectively), which persisted up to 20-min after the sessions (P20). The WBC sessions caused an almost certain decrease in tympanic temperature from Pre to P20 (-0.28 ± 0.11°C), while it only decreased at P20 (-0.14 ± 0.05°C) after PBC sessions. Heart rate almost certainly decreased after PBC (-8.6%) and WBC (-12.3%) sessions. Resting vagal-related heart rate variability indices (the root-mean square difference of successive normal R-R intervals, RMSSD, and high frequency band, HF) were very likely to almost certainly increased after PBC (RMSSD:+49.1%, HF: +123.3%) and WBC (RMSSD: +38.8%, HF:+70.3%). Plasma norepinephrine concentration was likely increased in similar proportions after PBC and WBC, but only after the first session. Both cryostimulation techniques stimulated the ANS with a predominance of parasympathetic tone activation from the first to the fifth session and in slightly greater proportion with WBC than

  13. Head Exposure to Cold during Whole-Body Cryostimulation: Influence on Thermal Response and Autonomic Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Julien; Schaal, Karine; Bieuzen, François; Le Meur, Yann; Filliard, Jean-Robert; Volondat, Marielle; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Hausswirth, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Recent research on whole-body cryotherapy has hypothesized a major responsibility of head cooling in the physiological changes classically reported after a cryostimulation session. The aim of this experiment was to verify this hypothesis by studying the influence of exposing the head to cold during whole-body cryostimulation sessions, on the thermal response and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Over five consecutive days, two groups of 10 participants performed one whole-body cryostimulation session daily, in one of two different systems; one exposing the whole-body to cold (whole-body cryostimulation, WBC), and the other exposing the whole-body except the head (partial-body cryostimulation, PBC).10 participants constituted a control group (CON) not receiving any cryostimulation. In order to isolate the head-cooling effect on recorded variables, it was ensured that the WBC and PBC systems induced the same decrease in skin temperature for all body regions (mean decrease over the 5 exposures: -8.6°C±1.3°C and -8.3±0.7°C for WBC and PBC, respectively), which persisted up to 20-min after the sessions (P20). The WBC sessions caused an almost certain decrease in tympanic temperature from Pre to P20 (-0.28 ±0.11°C), while it only decreased at P20 (-0.14±0.05°C) after PBC sessions. Heart rate almost certainly decreased after PBC (-8.6%) and WBC (-12.3%) sessions. Resting vagal-related heart rate variability indices (the root-mean square difference of successive normal R-R intervals, RMSSD, and high frequency band, HF) were very likely to almost certainly increased after PBC (RMSSD:+49.1%, HF: +123.3%) and WBC (RMSSD: +38.8%, HF:+70.3%). Plasma norepinephrine concentration was likely increased in similar proportions after PBC and WBC, but only after the first session. Both cryostimulation techniques stimulated the ANS with a predominance of parasympathetic tone activation from the first to the fifth session and in slightly greater proportion with WBC than PBC

  14. An information theoretic view of the scheduling problem in whole-body CAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Yiqiang; Zhou, Xiang Sean; Krishnan, Arun

    2008-03-01

    Emerging whole-body imaging technologies push computer aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) to scale up to a whole-body level, which involves multiple organs or anatomical structure. To be exploited in this paper is the fact that the various tasks in whole-body CAD are often highly dependent (e.g., the localization of the femur heads strongly predicts the position of the iliac bifurcation of the aorta). One way to effectively employ task dependency is to schedule the tasks such that outputs of some tasks are used to guide the others. In this sense, optimal task scheduling is key to improve overall performance of a whole-body CAD system. In this paper, we propose a method for task scheduling that is optimal in an information-theoretic sense. The central idea is to schedule tasks in such an order that each operation achieves maximum expected information gain over all the tasks. The formulation embeds two intuitive principles: (1) a task with higher confidence tends to be scheduled earlier; (2) a task with higher predictive power for other tasks tends to be scheduled earlier. More specifically, task dependency is modeled by conditional probability; the outcome of each task is assumed to be probabilistic as well; and the objective function is based on the reduction of the summed conditional entropy over all tasks. The validation is carried out on a challenging CAD problem, multi-organ localization in whole-body CT. Compared to unscheduled and ad hoc scheduled organ detection/localization, our scheduled execution achieves higher accuracy with much less computation time.

  15. EURADOS INTERCOMPARISONS IN EXTERNAL RADIATION DOSIMETRY: SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES AMONG EXERCISES FOR WHOLE-BODY PHOTON, WHOLE-BODY NEUTRON, EXTREMITY, EYE-LENS AND PASSIVE AREA DOSEMETERS.

    PubMed

    Romero, Ana M; Grimbergen, Tom; McWhan, Andrew; Stadtmann, Hannes; Fantuzzi, Elena; Clairand, Isabelle; Neumaier, Stefan; Figel, Markus; Dombrowski, Harald

    2016-09-01

    The European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been organising dosimetry intercomparisons for many years in response to an identified requirement from individual monitoring services (IMS) for independent performance tests for dosimetry systems. The participation in intercomparisons gives IMS the opportunity to show compliance with their own quality management system, compare results with other participants and develop plans for improving their dosimetry systems. In response to growing demand, EURADOS has increased the number of intercomparisons for external radiation dosimetry. Most of these fit into the programme of self-financing intercomparisons for dosemeters routinely used by IMS. This programme is being coordinated by EURADOS working group 2 (WG2). Up to now, this programme has included four intercomparisons for whole-body dosemeters in photon fields, one for extremity dosemeters in photon and beta fields, and one for whole-body dosemeters in neutron fields. Other EURADOS working groups have organised additional intercomparisons including events in 2014 for eye-lens dosemeters and passive area dosemeters for environmental monitoring. In this paper, the organisation and achievements of these intercomparisons are compared in detail focusing on the similarities and differences in their execution. PMID:26759475

  16. Differences in whole-body angular momentum between below-knee amputees and non-amputees across walking speeds.

    PubMed

    Silverman, A K; Neptune, R R

    2011-02-01

    Unilateral, below-knee amputees have an increased risk of falling compared to non-amputees. The regulation of whole-body angular momentum is important for preventing falls, but little is known about how amputees regulate angular momentum during walking. This study analyzed three-dimensional, whole-body angular momentum at four walking speeds in 12 amputees and 10 non-amputees. The range of angular momentum in all planes significantly decreased with increasing walking speed for both groups. However, the range of frontal-plane angular momentum was greater in amputees compared to non-amputees at the first three walking speeds. This range was correlated with a reduced second vertical ground reaction force peak in both the intact and residual legs. In the sagittal plane, the amputee range of angular momentum in the first half of the residual leg gait cycle was significantly larger than in the non-amputees at the three highest speeds. In the second half of the gait cycle, the range of sagittal-plane angular momentum was significantly smaller in amputees compared to the non-amputees at all speeds. Correlation analyses suggested that the greater range of angular momentum in the first half of the amputee gait cycle is associated with reduced residual leg braking and that the smaller range of angular momentum in the second half of the gait cycle is associated with reduced residual leg propulsion. Thus, reducing residual leg braking appears to be a compensatory mechanism to help regulate sagittal-plane angular momentum over the gait cycle, but may lead to an increased risk of falling.

  17. Acute whole body UVA irradiation combined with nitrate ingestion enhances time trial performance in trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Muggeridge, David J; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M; Willis, Gareth; Thornhill, Laurence; Weller, Richard B; James, Philip E; Easton, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to increase nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, reduce blood pressure (BP) and enhance exercise performance. Acute exposure to ultraviolet (UV)-A light also increases NO bioavailability and reduces BP. We conducted a randomized, counterbalanced placebo-controlled trial to determine the effects of UV-A light alone and in combination with nitrate on the responses to sub-maximal steady-state exercise and time trial (TT) performance. Nine cyclists (VO2max 53.1 ± 4.4 ml/kg/min) completed five performance trials comprising 10 min submaximal steady-state cycling followed by a 16.1 km TT. Following a familiarization the final four trials were preceded, in random order, by either (1) Nitrate gels (NIT) + UV-A, (2) Placebo (PLA) + UV-A, (3) NIT + Sham light (SHAM) and (4) PLA + SHAM (control). The NIT gels (2 × 60 ml gels, ~8.1 mmol nitrate) or a low-nitrate PLA were ingested 2.5 h prior to the trial. The light exposure consisted of 20 J/cm(2) whole body irradiation with either UV-A or SHAM light. Plasma nitrite was measured pre- and post-irradiation and VO2 was measured continuously during steady-state exercise. Plasma nitrite was higher for NIT + SHAM (geometric mean (95% CI), 332 (292-377) nM; P = 0.029) and NIT + UV-A (456 (312-666) nM; P = 0.014) compared to PLA + SHAM (215 (167-277) nM). Differences between PLA + SHAM and PLA + UV-A (282 (248-356) nM) were small and non-significant. During steady-state exercise VO2 was reduced following NIT + UVA (P = 0.034) and tended to be lower in NIT + SHAM (P = 0.086) but not PLA + UV-A (P = 0.381) compared to PLA + SHAM. Performance in the TT was significantly faster following NIT + UV-A (mean ± SD 1447 ± 41 s P = 0.005; d = 0.47), but not PLA + UV-A (1450 ± 40 s; d = 0.41) or NIT + SHAM (1455 ± 47 s; d = 0.28) compared to PLA + SHAM (1469 ± 52 s). These findings demonstrate that exposure to UV-A light alone does not alter the physiological responses to exercise or improve

  18. Exogenous melatonin administration modifies cutaneous vasoconstrictor response to whole body skin cooling in humans.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Ken; Zhao, Kun; Yamazaki, Fumio; Sone, Ryoko; Alvarez, Guy E; Kosiba, Wojciech A; Johnson, John M

    2008-03-01

    Humans and other diurnal species experience a fall in internal temperature (T(int)) at night, accompanied by increased melatonin and altered thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow (SkBF). Also, exogenous melatonin induces a fall in T(int), an increase in distal skin temperatures and altered control of the cutaneous active vasodilator system, suggesting an effect of melatonin on the control of SkBF. To test whether exogenous melatonin also affects the more tonically active vasoconstrictor system in glabrous and nonglabrous skin during cooling, healthy males (n = 9) underwent afternoon sessions of whole body skin temperature (T(sk)) cooling (water-perfused suits) after oral melatonin (Mel; 3 mg) or placebo (Cont). Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated from SkBF (laser Doppler flowmetry) and non-invasive blood pressure. Baseline T(int) was lower in Mel than in Cont (P < 0.01). During progressive reduction of T(sk) from 35 degrees C to 32 degrees C, forearm CVC was first significantly reduced at T(sk) of 34.33 +/- 0.01 degrees C (P < 0.05) in Cont. In contrast, CVC in Mel was not significantly reduced until T(sk) reached 33.33 +/- 0.01 degrees C (P < 0.01). The decrease in forearm CVC in Mel was significantly less than in Cont at T(sk) of 32.66 +/- 0.01 degrees C and lower (P < 0.05). In Mel, palmar CVC was significantly higher than in Cont above T(sk) of 33.33 +/- 0.01 degrees C, but not below. Thus exogenous melatonin blunts reflex vasoconstriction in nonglabrous skin and shifts vasoconstrictor system control to lower T(int). It provokes vasodilation in glabrous skin but does not suppress the sensitivity to falling T(sk). These findings suggest that by affecting the vasoconstrictor system, melatonin has a causal role in the nocturnal changes in body temperature and its control.

  19. [Usefulness of top-hat transform processing in whole body bone scintigraphy].

    PubMed

    Kita, Akinobu; Sugimoto, Katsuya; Tsuchida, Tatsurou; Kishimoto, Takahiro; Toi, Akiko; Shimada, Masato; Adachi, Toshiki

    2013-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of top-hat transform processing in whole body bone scintigraphy, five radiological technicians interpreted both original and top-hat processed images to determine the improvement of lesion detectability and interpretation time. For the evaluation of detectability, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. The area under the curve (AUC) calculated from the ROC curve was improved in all observers (from 0.786 to 0.864 in average), although no significant difference was observed. However, the interpretation time was improved significantly (from 24.5 to 16.2 s in average). Top-hat transform processing in whole body bone scintigraphy is thought to be useful for the improvement of lesion detectability and interpretation time.

  20. Measurement of whole-body human centers of gravity and moments of inertia.

    PubMed

    Albery, C B; Schultz, R B; Bjorn, V S

    1998-06-01

    With the inclusion of women in combat aircraft, the question of safe ejection seat operation has been raised. The potential expanded population of combat pilots would include both smaller and larger ejection seat occupants, which could significantly affect seat performance. The method developed to measure human whole-body CG and MOI used a scale, a knife edge balance, and an inverted torsional pendulum. Subjects' moments of inertia were measured along six different axes. The inertia tensor was calculated from these values, and principal moments of inertia were then derived. Thirty-eight antropometric measurements were also taken for each subject to provide a means for direct correlation of inertial properties to body dimensions and for modeling purposes. Data collected in this study has been used to validate whole-body mass properties predictions. In addition, data will be used to improve Air Force and Navy ejection seat trajectory models for the expanded population. PMID:11542768

  1. MRI compatible small animal monitoring and trigger system for whole body scanners.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Karl-Heinz; Pfeiffer, Norman; Krumbein, Ines; Herrmann, Lutz; Reichenbach, Jürgen R

    2014-03-01

    Performing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments with small animals requires continuous monitoring of vital parameters, especially the respiration rate. Clinical whole-body MR scanners represent an attractive option for preclinical imaging as dedicated animal scanners are cost-intensive in both investment and maintenance, thus limiting their availability. Even though impressive image quality is achievable with clinical MR systems in combination with special coils, their built-in physiologic monitoring and triggering units are often not suited for small animal imaging. In this work, we present a simple, MRI compatible low cost solution to monitor the respiration and heart rate of small animals in a clinical whole-body MR scanner. The recording and processing of the biosignals as well as the optimisation of the respiratory trigger generation is decribed. Additionally rat and mouse in-vivo MRI experiments are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the monitoring and respiratory trigger system in suppressing motion artifacts.

  2. Brain-machine interfacing control of whole-body humanoid motion

    PubMed Central

    Bouyarmane, Karim; Vaillant, Joris; Sugimoto, Norikazu; Keith, François; Furukawa, Jun-ichiro; Morimoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We propose to tackle in this paper the problem of controlling whole-body humanoid robot behavior through non-invasive brain-machine interfacing (BMI), motivated by the perspective of mapping human motor control strategies to human-like mechanical avatar. Our solution is based on the adequate reduction of the controllable dimensionality of a high-DOF humanoid motion in line with the state-of-the-art possibilities of non-invasive BMI technologies, leaving the complement subspace part of the motion to be planned and executed by an autonomous humanoid whole-body motion planning and control framework. The results are shown in full physics-based simulation of a 36-degree-of-freedom humanoid motion controlled by a user through EEG-extracted brain signals generated with motor imagery task. PMID:25140134

  3. Brain-machine interfacing control of whole-body humanoid motion.

    PubMed

    Bouyarmane, Karim; Vaillant, Joris; Sugimoto, Norikazu; Keith, François; Furukawa, Jun-Ichiro; Morimoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We propose to tackle in this paper the problem of controlling whole-body humanoid robot behavior through non-invasive brain-machine interfacing (BMI), motivated by the perspective of mapping human motor control strategies to human-like mechanical avatar. Our solution is based on the adequate reduction of the controllable dimensionality of a high-DOF humanoid motion in line with the state-of-the-art possibilities of non-invasive BMI technologies, leaving the complement subspace part of the motion to be planned and executed by an autonomous humanoid whole-body motion planning and control framework. The results are shown in full physics-based simulation of a 36-degree-of-freedom humanoid motion controlled by a user through EEG-extracted brain signals generated with motor imagery task.

  4. Brain-machine interfacing control of whole-body humanoid motion.

    PubMed

    Bouyarmane, Karim; Vaillant, Joris; Sugimoto, Norikazu; Keith, François; Furukawa, Jun-Ichiro; Morimoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We propose to tackle in this paper the problem of controlling whole-body humanoid robot behavior through non-invasive brain-machine interfacing (BMI), motivated by the perspective of mapping human motor control strategies to human-like mechanical avatar. Our solution is based on the adequate reduction of the controllable dimensionality of a high-DOF humanoid motion in line with the state-of-the-art possibilities of non-invasive BMI technologies, leaving the complement subspace part of the motion to be planned and executed by an autonomous humanoid whole-body motion planning and control framework. The results are shown in full physics-based simulation of a 36-degree-of-freedom humanoid motion controlled by a user through EEG-extracted brain signals generated with motor imagery task. PMID:25140134

  5. Design, fabrication and acceptance testing of a zero gravity whole body shower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumacher, E. A.; Lenda, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Recent research and development programs have established the ability of the zero gravity whole body shower to maintain a comfortable environment in which the crewman can safely cleanse and dry the body. The purpose of this program was to further advance the technology of whole body bathing and to demonstrate technological readiness including in-flight maintenance by component replacement for flight applications. Three task efforts of this program are discussed. Conceptual designs and system tradeoffs were accomplished in task 1. Task 2 involved the formulation of preliminary and final designs for the shower, while task 3 included the fabrication and test of the shower assembly. Particular attention is paid to the evaluation and correction of test anomalies during the final phase of the program.

  6. Whole body and tissue blood volumes of two strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss )

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, W.H.; Pityer, R.A.; Rach, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    1. Estimates of apparent packed cell, plasma and total blood volumes for the whole body and for 13 selected tissues were compared between Kamloops and Wytheville strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by the simultaneous injection of two vascular tracers, radiolabeled trout erythrocytes (51Cr-RBC) and radioiodated bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA). 2. Whole body total blood volume, plasma volume and packed cell volume were slightly, but not significantly greater in the Wytheville trout, whereas, the apparent plasma volumes and total blood volumes in 4 of 13 tissues were significantly greater in the Kamloops strain. 3. Differences were most pronounced in highly perfused organs, such as the liver and kidney and in organs of digestion such as the stomach and intestines. 4. Differences in blood volumes between the two strains may be related to the greater permeability of the vascular membranes in the Kamloops strain fish.

  7. Postmortem whole-body magnetic resonance imaging as an adjunct to autopsy: preliminary clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Patriquin, L; Kassarjian, A; Barish, M; Casserley, L; O'Brien, M; Andry, C; Eustace, S

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cadavers as an adjunct to autopsy. Eight consecutive patients underwent both whole-body MRI and autopsy [either conventional (six), limited (one), or percutaneous (one)] within 24 hours of death. Comparison was made of major and minor abnormalities and predicted cause of death recorded by independent readers at both MRI and autopsy. Major discrepancies between the recorded primary cause of death at imaging and autopsy occurred in five (5) patients. These included a myocardial infarction found at autopsy alone, bowel infarction and portal venous gas found at MRI alone, and aortic dissection and occipital infarct found at MRI alone in a patient on whom only limited autopsy was performed. Postmortem MRI may represent a useful adjunct to autopsy, particularly in patients in whom autopsy is limited due to patient/family consent, inoculation risks, and ethnic doctrines.

  8. Stability of Phase Relationships While Coordinating Arm Reaches with Whole Body Motion.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Romy S; Selen, Luc P J; Medendorp, W Pieter

    2015-01-01

    The human movement repertoire is characterized by the smooth coordination of several body parts, including arm movements and whole body motion. The neural control of this coordination is quite complex because the various body parts have their own kinematic and dynamic properties. Behavioral inferences about the neural solution to the coordination problem could be obtained by examining the emerging phase relationship and its stability. Here, we studied the phase relationships that characterize the coordination of arm-reaching movements with passively-induced whole-body motion. Participants were laterally translated using a vestibular chair that oscillated at a fixed frequency of 0.83 Hz. They were instructed to reach between two targets that were aligned either parallel or orthogonal to the whole body motion. During the first cycles of body motion, a metronome entrained either an in-phase or an anti-phase relationship between hand and body motion, which was released at later cycles to test phase stability. Results suggest that inertial forces play an important role when coordinating reaches with cyclic whole-body motion. For parallel reaches, we found a stable in-phase and an unstable anti-phase relationship. When the latter was imposed, it readily transitioned or drifted back toward an in-phase relationship at cycles without metronomic entrainment. For orthogonal reaches, we did not find a clear difference in stability between in-phase and anti-phase relationships. Computer simulations further show that cost models that minimize energy expenditure (i.e. net torques) or endpoint variance of the reach cannot fully explain the observed coordination patterns. We discuss how predictive control and impedance control processes could be considered important mechanisms underlying the rhythmic coordination of arm reaches and body motion. PMID:26720413

  9. Whole-Body Reaching Movements Formulated by Minimum Muscle-Tension Change Criterion.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Naoki; Choi, Kyuheong; Kagawa, Takahiro; Uno, Yoji

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that planar reaching movements of the human shoulder and elbow joints have invariant features: roughly straight hand paths and bell-shaped velocity profiles. The optimal control models with the criteria of smoothness or precision, which determine a unique movement pattern, predict such features of hand trajectories. In this letter on expanding the research on simple arm reaching movements, we examine whether the smoothness criteria can be applied to whole-body reaching movements with many degrees of freedom. Determining a suitable joint trajectory in the whole-body reaching movement corresponds to the optimization problem with constraints, since body balance must be maintained during a motion task. First, we measured human joint trajectories and ground reaction forces during whole-body reaching movements, and confirmed that subjects formed similar movements with common characteristics in the trajectories of the hand position and body center of mass. Second, we calculated the optimal trajectories according to the criteria of torque and muscle-tension smoothness. While the minimum torque change trajectories were not consistent with the experimental data, the minimum muscle-tension change model was able to predict the stereotyped features of the measured trajectories. To explore the dominant effects of the extension from the torque change to the muscle-tension change, we introduced a weighted torque change cost function. Considering the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) force of the muscle as the weighting factor of each joint torque, we formulated the weighted torque change cost as a simplified version of the minimum muscle-tension change cost. The trajectories owing to the minimum weighted torque change criterion also showed qualitative agreement with the common features of the measured data. Proper estimation of the MVC forces in the body joints is essential to reproduce human whole-body movements according to the minimum muscle-tension change

  10. Stability of Phase Relationships While Coordinating Arm Reaches with Whole Body Motion

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, Romy S.; Selen, Luc P. J.; Medendorp, W. Pieter

    2015-01-01

    The human movement repertoire is characterized by the smooth coordination of several body parts, including arm movements and whole body motion. The neural control of this coordination is quite complex because the various body parts have their own kinematic and dynamic properties. Behavioral inferences about the neural solution to the coordination problem could be obtained by examining the emerging phase relationship and its stability. Here, we studied the phase relationships that characterize the coordination of arm-reaching movements with passively-induced whole-body motion. Participants were laterally translated using a vestibular chair that oscillated at a fixed frequency of 0.83 Hz. They were instructed to reach between two targets that were aligned either parallel or orthogonal to the whole body motion. During the first cycles of body motion, a metronome entrained either an in-phase or an anti-phase relationship between hand and body motion, which was released at later cycles to test phase stability. Results suggest that inertial forces play an important role when coordinating reaches with cyclic whole-body motion. For parallel reaches, we found a stable in-phase and an unstable anti-phase relationship. When the latter was imposed, it readily transitioned or drifted back toward an in-phase relationship at cycles without metronomic entrainment. For orthogonal reaches, we did not find a clear difference in stability between in-phase and anti-phase relationships. Computer simulations further show that cost models that minimize energy expenditure (i.e. net torques) or endpoint variance of the reach cannot fully explain the observed coordination patterns. We discuss how predictive control and impedance control processes could be considered important mechanisms underlying the rhythmic coordination of arm reaches and body motion. PMID:26720413

  11. Gamma camera imaging for studying intestinal absorption and whole-body distribution of selenomethionine.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jan L; Sjögreen-Gleisner, Katarina; Elema, Dennis R; Søndergaard, Lasse R; Rasmussen, Palle; Fuglsang, Stefan; Ljungberg, Michael; Damgaard, Morten

    2014-02-01

    Se metabolism in humans is not well characterised. Currently, the estimates of Se absorption, whole-body retention and excretion are being obtained from balance and tracer studies. In the present study, we used gamma camera imaging to evaluate the whole-body retention and distribution of radiolabelled selenomethionine (SeMet), the predominant form of Se present in foods. A total of eight healthy young men participated in the study. After consumption of a meal containing 4 MBq [⁷⁵Se]L-SeMet ([⁷⁵Se]SeMet), whole-body gamma camera scanning was performed for 45 min every hour over a 6 h period, every second hour for the next 18 h and once on each of the subsequent 6 d. Blood, urine and faecal samples were collected to determine the plasma content of [⁷⁵Se]SeMet as well as its excretion in urine and faeces. Imaging showed that 87·9 (sd 3·3)% of the administered activity of [⁷⁵Se]SeMet was retained within the body after 7 d. In contrast, the measured excretion in urine and faeces for the 7 d period was 8·2 (sd 1·1)% of the activity. Time-activity curves were generated for the whole body, stomach, liver, abdomen (other than the stomach and the liver), brain and femoral muscles. Gamma camera imaging allows for the assessment of the postprandial absorption of SeMet. This technique may also permit concurrent studies of organ turnover of SeMet.

  12. Stability of Phase Relationships While Coordinating Arm Reaches with Whole Body Motion.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Romy S; Selen, Luc P J; Medendorp, W Pieter

    2015-01-01

    The human movement repertoire is characterized by the smooth coordination of several body parts, including arm movements and whole body motion. The neural control of this coordination is quite complex because the various body parts have their own kinematic and dynamic properties. Behavioral inferences about the neural solution to the coordination problem could be obtained by examining the emerging phase relationship and its stability. Here, we studied the phase relationships that characterize the coordination of arm-reaching movements with passively-induced whole-body motion. Participants were laterally translated using a vestibular chair that oscillated at a fixed frequency of 0.83 Hz. They were instructed to reach between two targets that were aligned either parallel or orthogonal to the whole body motion. During the first cycles of body motion, a metronome entrained either an in-phase or an anti-phase relationship between hand and body motion, which was released at later cycles to test phase stability. Results suggest that inertial forces play an important role when coordinating reaches with cyclic whole-body motion. For parallel reaches, we found a stable in-phase and an unstable anti-phase relationship. When the latter was imposed, it readily transitioned or drifted back toward an in-phase relationship at cycles without metronomic entrainment. For orthogonal reaches, we did not find a clear difference in stability between in-phase and anti-phase relationships. Computer simulations further show that cost models that minimize energy expenditure (i.e. net torques) or endpoint variance of the reach cannot fully explain the observed coordination patterns. We discuss how predictive control and impedance control processes could be considered important mechanisms underlying the rhythmic coordination of arm reaches and body motion.

  13. Mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation does not exacerbate central fatigue during subsequent whole-body endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Pageaux, Benjamin; Marcora, Samuele M; Rozand, Vianney; Lepers, Romuald

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that the mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation increases perception of effort and reduces performance during subsequent endurance exercise. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying these negative effects of mental fatigue are unclear. The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental fatigue exacerbates central fatigue induced by whole-body endurance exercise. Twelve subjects performed 30 min of either an incongruent Stroop task to induce a condition of mental fatigue or a congruent Stroop task (control condition) in a random and counterbalanced order. Both cognitive tasks (CTs) were followed by a whole-body endurance task (ET) consisting of 6 min of cycling exercise at 80% of peak power output measured during a preliminary incremental test. Neuromuscular function of the knee extensors was assessed before and after CT, and after ET. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured during ET. Both CTs did not induce any decrease in maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque (p = 0.194). During ET, mentally fatigued subjects reported higher RPE (mental fatigue 13.9 ± 3.0, control 13.3 ± 3.2, p = 0.044). ET induced a similar decrease in MVC torque (mental fatigue -17 ± 15%, control -15 ± 11%, p = 0.001), maximal voluntary activation level (mental fatigue -6 ± 9%, control -6 ± 7%, p = 0.013) and resting twitch (mental fatigue -30 ± 14%, control -32 ± 10%, p < 0.001) in both conditions. These findings reject our hypothesis and confirm previous findings that mental fatigue does not reduce the capacity of the central nervous system to recruit the working muscles. The negative effect of mental fatigue on perception of effort does not reflect a greater development of either central or peripheral fatigue. Consequently, mentally fatigued subjects are still able to perform maximal exercise, but they are experiencing an altered performance during submaximal exercise due to higher-than-normal perception of effort

  14. The role of baseline in the cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses during combined local and whole body cooling in humans.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Gary J; Kosiba, Wojciech A; Zhao, Kun; Alvarez, Guy E; Johnson, John M

    2007-11-01

    Previous work showed that local cooling (LC) attenuates the vasoconstrictor response to whole body cooling (WBC). We tested the extent to which this attenuation was due to the decreased baseline skin blood flow following LC. In eight subjects, skin blood flow was assessed using laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was expressed as LDF divided by blood pressure. Subjects were dressed in water-perfused suits to control WBC. Four forearm sites were prepared with microdialysis fibers, local heating/cooling probe holders, and laser-Doppler probes. Three sites were locally cooled from 34 to 28 degrees C, reducing CVC to 45.9 +/- 3.9, 42 +/- 3.9, and 44.5 +/- 4.8% of baseline (P < 0.05 vs. baseline; P > 0.05 among sites). At two sites, CVC was restored to precooling baseline levels with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) or isoproterenol (Iso), increasing CVC to 106.4 +/- 12.4 and 98.9 +/- 10.1% of baseline, respectively (P > 0.05 vs. precooling). Whole body skin temperature, apart from the area of blood flow measurement, was reduced from 34 to 31 degrees C. Relative to the original baseline, CVC decreased (P < 0.05) by 44.9 +/- 2.8 (control), 11.3 +/- 2.4 (LC only), 29 +/- 3.7 (SNP), and 45.8 +/- 8.7% (Iso). The reductions at LC only and SNP sites were less than at control or Iso sites (P < 0.05); the responses at those latter sites were not different (P > 0.05), suggesting that the baseline change in CVC with LC is important in the attenuation of reflex vasoconstrictor responses to WBC.

  15. Wireless Cortical Brain-Machine Interface for Whole-Body Navigation in Primates

    PubMed Central

    Rajangam, Sankaranarayani; Tseng, Po-He; Yin, Allen; Lehew, Gary; Schwarz, David; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2016-01-01

    Several groups have developed brain-machine-interfaces (BMIs) that allow primates to use cortical activity to control artificial limbs. Yet, it remains unknown whether cortical ensembles could represent the kinematics of whole-body navigation and be used to operate a BMI that moves a wheelchair continuously in space. Here we show that rhesus monkeys can learn to navigate a robotic wheelchair, using their cortical activity as the main control signal. Two monkeys were chronically implanted with multichannel microelectrode arrays that allowed wireless recordings from ensembles of premotor and sensorimotor cortical neurons. Initially, while monkeys remained seated in the robotic wheelchair, passive navigation was employed to train a linear decoder to extract 2D wheelchair kinematics from cortical activity. Next, monkeys employed the wireless BMI to translate their cortical activity into the robotic wheelchair’s translational and rotational velocities. Over time, monkeys improved their ability to navigate the wheelchair toward the location of a grape reward. The navigation was enacted by populations of cortical neurons tuned to whole-body displacement. During practice with the apparatus, we also noticed the presence of a cortical representation of the distance to reward location. These results demonstrate that intracranial BMIs could restore whole-body mobility to severely paralyzed patients in the future. PMID:26938468

  16. Role of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 in skin integrity and whole body energy balance.

    PubMed

    Sampath, Harini; Ntambi, James M

    2014-01-31

    The skin is the single largest organ in humans, serving as a major barrier to infection, water loss, and abrasion. The functional diversity of skin requires the synthesis of large amounts of lipids, such as triglycerides, wax esters, squalene, ceramides, free cholesterol, free fatty acids, and cholesterol and retinyl esters. Some of these lipids are used as cell membrane components, signaling molecules, and a source of energy. An important class of lipid metabolism enzymes expressed in skin is the Δ(9)-desaturases, which catalyze the synthesis in Δ(9)-monounsaturated lipids, primarily oleoyl-CoA (18:1n-9) and palmitoyl-CoA (16:1n-7), the major monounsaturated fatty acids in cutaneous lipids. Mice with a deletion of the Δ(9)-desaturase-1 isoform (SCD1) either globally (Scd1(-/-)) or specifically in the skin (skin-specific Scd1-knockout; SKO) present with marked changes in cutaneous lipids and skin integrity. Interestingly, these mice also exhibit increased whole body energy expenditure, protection against diet-induced adiposity, hepatic steatosis, and glucose intolerance. The increased energy expenditure in skin-specific Scd1-knockout (SKO) mice is a surprising phenotype, as it links cutaneous lipid homeostasis with whole body energy balance. This minireview summarizes the role of skin SCD1 in regulating skin integrity and whole body energy homeostasis and offers a discussion of potential pathways that may connect these seemingly disparate phenotypes.

  17. Multiplane spectroscopic whole-body photoacoustic imaging of small animals in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeesu; Kim, Chulhong

    2016-03-01

    We have successfully developed a multiscale acoustic-resolution photoacoustic tomography system in a single imaging platform. By switching between ultrasound transducers (center frequencies 5 and 40 MHz) and optical condensers, we have photoacoustically imaged microvasculatures of small animals in vivo at different scales. Further, we have extended the field of view of our imaging system to entire bodies of small animals. At different imaging planes, we have noninvasively imaged the major blood vessels (e.g., descending aorta, intercostal vessels, cephalic vessels, brachial vessels, femoral vessels, popliteal vessels, lateral marginal vessels, cranial mesenteric vessels, mammalian vessels, carotid artery, jugular vein, subclavian vessels, iliac vessels, and caudal vessels) as well as intact internal organs (e.g., spleen, liver, kidney, intestine, cecum, and spinal cord) of the animals in vivo. The spectroscopic whole-body photoacoustic imaging clearly reveals the spectral responses of the internal structures. Similar to other existing preclinical whole-body imaging systems, this whole-body photoacoustic tomography can be a useful tool for small-animal research.

  18. Wireless Cortical Brain-Machine Interface for Whole-Body Navigation in Primates.

    PubMed

    Rajangam, Sankaranarayani; Tseng, Po-He; Yin, Allen; Lehew, Gary; Schwarz, David; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2016-01-01

    Several groups have developed brain-machine-interfaces (BMIs) that allow primates to use cortical activity to control artificial limbs. Yet, it remains unknown whether cortical ensembles could represent the kinematics of whole-body navigation and be used to operate a BMI that moves a wheelchair continuously in space. Here we show that rhesus monkeys can learn to navigate a robotic wheelchair, using their cortical activity as the main control signal. Two monkeys were chronically implanted with multichannel microelectrode arrays that allowed wireless recordings from ensembles of premotor and sensorimotor cortical neurons. Initially, while monkeys remained seated in the robotic wheelchair, passive navigation was employed to train a linear decoder to extract 2D wheelchair kinematics from cortical activity. Next, monkeys employed the wireless BMI to translate their cortical activity into the robotic wheelchair's translational and rotational velocities. Over time, monkeys improved their ability to navigate the wheelchair toward the location of a grape reward. The navigation was enacted by populations of cortical neurons tuned to whole-body displacement. During practice with the apparatus, we also noticed the presence of a cortical representation of the distance to reward location. These results demonstrate that intracranial BMIs could restore whole-body mobility to severely paralyzed patients in the future. PMID:26938468

  19. Analysis of adipose tissue distribution using whole-body magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, Diana; Schwarz, Tobias; Dinkel, Julien; Delorme, Stefan; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Heimann, Tobias

    2011-03-01

    Obesity is an increasing problem in the western world and triggers diseases like cancer, type two diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a clinically viable method to measure the amount and distribution of adipose tissue (AT) in the body. However, analysis of MRI images by manual segmentation is a tedious and time-consuming process. In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic method to quantify the amount of different AT types from whole-body MRI data with less user interaction. Initially, body fat is extracted by automatic thresholding. A statistical shape model of the abdomen is then used to differentiate between subcutaneous and visceral AT. Finally, fat in the bone marrow is removed using morphological operators. The proposed method was evaluated on 15 whole-body MRI images using manual segmentation as ground truth for adipose tissue. The resulting overlap for total AT was 93.7% +/- 5.5 with a volumetric difference of 7.3% +/- 6.4. Furthermore, we tested the robustness of the segmentation results with regard to the initial, interactively defined position of the shape model. In conclusion, the developed method proved suitable for the analysis of AT distribution from whole-body MRI data. For large studies, a fully automatic version of the segmentation procedure is expected in the near future.

  20. Therapeutic effects of whole-body devices applying pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF): a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Hug, Kerstin; Röösli, Martin

    2012-02-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) delivered by whole-body mats are promoted in many countries for a wide range of therapeutic applications and for enhanced well-being. However, neither the therapeutic efficacy nor the potential health hazards caused by these mats have been systematically evaluated. We conducted a systematic review of trials investigating the therapeutic effects of low-frequency PEMF devices. We were interested in all health outcomes addressed so far in randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind trials. In total, 11 trials were identified. They were focused on osteoarthritis of the knee (3 trials) or the cervical spine (1), fibromyalgia (1), pain perception (2), skin ulcer healing (1), multiple sclerosis-related fatigue (2), or heart rate variability and well-being (1). The sample sizes of the trials ranged from 12 to 71 individuals. The observation period lasted 12 weeks at maximum, and the applied magnetic flux densities ranged from 3.4 to 200 µT. In some trials sporadic positive effects on health were observed. However, independent confirmation of such singular findings was lacking. We conclude that the scientific evidence for therapeutic effects of whole-body PEMF devices is insufficient. Acute adverse effects have not been reported. However, adverse effects occurring after long-term application have not been studied so far. In summary, the therapeutic use of low-frequency whole-body PEMF devices cannot be recommended without more scientific evidence from high-quality, double-blind trials.

  1. An MR-compatible bicycle ergometer for in-magnet whole-body human exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Jeneson, Jeroen A L; Schmitz, Joep P J; Hilbers, Peter A J; Nicolay, Klaas

    2010-01-01

    An MR-compatible ergometer was developed for in-magnet whole-body human exercise testing. Designed on the basis of conventional mechanically braked bicycle ergometers and constructed from nonferrous materials, the ergometer was implemented on a 1.5-T whole-body MR scanner. A spectrometer interface was constructed using standard scanner hardware, complemented with custom-built parts and software to enable gated data acquisition during exercise. High-quality 31P NMR spectra were reproducibly obtained from the medial head of the quadriceps muscle of the right leg of eight healthy subjects during two-legged high-frequency pedaling (80 revolutions per minute) at three incremental workloads, including maximal. Muscle phosphocreatine content dropped 82%, from 32.2+/-1.0 mM at rest to 5.7+/-1.1 mM at maximal workload (mean+/-standard error; n=8), indicating that the majority of quadriceps motor units were recruited. The cardiovascular load of the exercise was likewise significant, as evidenced by heart rates of 150 (+/-10%) beats per minute, measured immediately afterward. As such, the newly developed MR bicycling exercise equipment offers a powerful new tool for clinical musculoskeletal and cardiovascular MR investigation. The basic design of the ergometer is highly generic and adaptable for application on a wide selection of whole-body MR scanners.

  2. Whole-body acoel regeneration is controlled by Wnt and Bmp-Admp signaling.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Mansi; Mazza-Curll, Kathleen L; van Wolfswinkel, Josien C; Reddien, Peter W

    2014-05-19

    Whole-body regeneration is widespread in the Metazoa, yet little is known about how underlying molecular mechanisms compare across phyla. Acoels are an enigmatic phylum of invertebrate worms that can be highly informative about many questions in bilaterian evolution, including regeneration. We developed the three-banded panther worm, Hofstenia miamia, as a new acoelomorph model system for molecular studies of regeneration. Hofstenia were readily cultured, with accessible embryos, juveniles, and adults for experimentation. We developed molecular resources and tools for Hofstenia, including a transcriptome and robust systemic RNAi. We report the identification of molecular mechanisms that promote whole-body regeneration in Hofstenia. Wnt signaling controls regeneration of the anterior-posterior axis, and Bmp-Admp signaling controls regeneration of the dorsal-ventral axis. Perturbation of these pathways resulted in regeneration-abnormal phenotypes involving axial feature duplication, such as the regeneration of two heads following Wnt perturbation or the regeneration of ventral cells in place of dorsal ones following bmp or admp RNAi. Hofstenia regenerative mechanisms are strikingly similar to those guiding regeneration in planarians. However, phylogenetic analyses using the Hofstenia transcriptome support an early branching position for acoels among bilaterians, with the last common ancestor of acoels and planarians being the ancestor of the Bilateria. Therefore, these findings identify similar whole-body regeneration mechanisms in animals separated by more than 550 million years of evolution.

  3. Retrospective respiration-gated whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography of mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jun; Chen, Wanyi; Maslov, Konstantin; Anastasio, Mark A.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-01-01

    Photoac