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Sample records for reduced basal atp

  1. ATP-dependent calcium transport across basal plasma membranes of human placental trophoblast

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, G.J.; Kelley, L.K.; Smith, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    As a first step in understanding the cellular basis of maternal-fetal calcium transfer, the authors examined the characteristics of calcium uptake by a highly purified preparation of the syncytiotrophoblast basal (fetal facing) plasma membrane. In the presence of nanomolar concentrations of free calcium, basal membranes demonstrated substantial ATP-dependent calcium uptake. This uptake required magnesium, was not significantly affected by Na/sup +/ or K/sup +/ (50 mM), or sodium azide (10 mM). Intravesicular calcium was rapidly and completely released by the calcium ionophore rapidly and completely released by the calcium ionophore A23187. Calcium transport was significantly stimulated by the calcium-dependent regulatory protein calmodulin. Placental membrane fractions enriched in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria also demonstrated ATP-dependent calcium uptake. In contrast to basal membrane, mitochondrial calcium uptake was completely inhibited by azide. The rate of calcium uptake was completely inhibited by azide. The rate of calcium uptake by the ER was only 20% of that of basal membranes. They conclude that the placental basal plasma membrane possesses a high-affinity calcium transport system similar to that found in plasma membranes of a variety of cell types. This transporter is situated to permit it to function in vivo in maternal-fetal calcium transfer.

  2. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Study of 4-ATP on Gold Nanoparticles for Basal Cell Carcinoma Fingerprint Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quynh, Luu Manh; Nam, Nguyen Hoang; Kong, K.; Nhung, Nguyen Thi; Notingher, I.; Henini, M.; Luong, Nguyen Hoang

    2016-05-01

    The surface-enhanced Raman signals of 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) attached to the surface of colloidal gold nanoparticles with size distribution of 2 to 5 nm were used as a labeling agent to detect basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin. The enhanced Raman band at 1075 cm-1 corresponding to the C-S stretching vibration in 4-ATP was observed during attachment to the surface of the gold nanoparticles. The frequency and intensity of this band did not change when the colloids were conjugated with BerEP4 antibody, which specifically binds to BCC. We show the feasibility of imaging BCC by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, scanning the 1075 cm-1 band to detect the distribution of 4-ATP-coated gold nanoparticles attached to skin tissue ex vivo.

  3. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) reduces amyloid-β protein misfolding in vitro.

    PubMed

    Coskuner, Orkid; Murray, Ian V J

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating disease of aging that initiates decades prior to clinical manifestation and represents an impending epidemic. Two early features of AD are metabolic dysfunction and changes in amyloid-β protein (Aβ) levels. Since levels of ATP decrease over the course of the disease and Aβ is an early biomarker of AD, we sought to uncover novel linkages between the two. First and remarkably, a GxxxG motif is common between both Aβ (oligomerization motif) and nucleotide binding proteins (Rossmann fold). Second, ATP was demonstrated to protect against Aβ mediated cytotoxicity. Last, there is structural similarity between ATP and amyloid binding/inhibitory compounds such as ThioT, melatonin, and indoles. Thus, we investigated whether ATP alters misfolding of the pathologically relevant Aβ42. To test this hypothesis, we performed computational and biochemical studies. Our computational studies demonstrate that ATP interacts strongly with Tyr10 and Ser26 of Aβ fibrils in solution. Experimentally, both ATP and ADP reduced Aβ misfolding at physiological intracellular concentrations, with thresholds at ~500 μM and 1 mM respectively. This inhibition of Aβ misfolding is specific; requiring Tyr10 of Aβ and is enhanced by magnesium. Last, cerebrospinal fluid ATP levels are in the nanomolar range and decreased with AD pathology. This initial and novel finding regarding the ATP interaction with Aβ and reduction of Aβ misfolding has potential significance to the AD field. It provides an underlying mechanism for published links between metabolic dysfunction and AD. It also suggests a potential role of ATP in AD pathology, as the occurrence of misfolded extracellular Aβ mirrors lowered extracellular ATP levels. Last, the findings suggest that Aβ conformation change may be a sensor of metabolic dysfunction.

  4. ATP-Dependent Binding Cassette Transporter G Family Member 16 Increases Plant Tolerance to Abscisic Acid and Assists in Basal Resistance against Pseudomonas syringae DC30001[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hao; Peng, Yanhui; Meckes, Nicole; Allen, Sara; Stewart, C. Neal; Traw, M. Brian

    2014-01-01

    Plants have been shown previously to perceive bacteria on the leaf surface and respond by closing their stomata. The virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (PstDC3000) responds by secreting a virulence factor, coronatine, which blocks the functioning of guard cells and forces stomata to reopen. After it is inside the leaf, PstDC3000 has been shown to up-regulate abscisic acid (ABA) signaling and thereby suppress salicylic acid-dependent resistance. Some wild plants exhibit resistance to PstDC3000, but the mechanisms by which they achieve this resistance remain unknown. Here, we used genome-wide association mapping to identify an ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter gene (ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter G family member16) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that contributes to wild plant resistance to PstDC3000. Through microarray analysis and β-glucuronidase reporter lines, we showed that the gene is up-regulated by ABA, bacterial infection, and coronatine. We also used a green fluorescent protein fusion protein and found that transporter is more likely to localize on plasma membranes than in cell walls. Transferred DNA insertion lines exhibited consistent defective tolerance of exogenous ABA and reduced resistance to infection by PstDC3000. Our conclusion is that ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter G family member16 is involved in ABA tolerance and contributes to plant resistance against PstDC3000. This is one of the first examples, to our knowledge, of ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter involvement in plant resistance to infection by a bacterial pathogen. It also suggests a possible mechanism by which plants reduce the deleterious effects of ABA hijacking during pathogen attack. Collectively, these results improve our understanding of basal resistance in Arabidopsis and offer unique ABA-related targets for improving the innate resistance of plants to bacterial infection. PMID:25146567

  5. Anesthetic Propofol Overdose Causes Vascular Hyperpermeability by Reducing Endothelial Glycocalyx and ATP Production

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-Chung; Lin, Chiou-Feng; Li, Chien-Feng; Sun, Ding-Ping; Wang, Li-Yun; Hsing, Chung-Hsi

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged treatment with a large dose of propofol may cause diffuse cellular cytotoxicity; however, the detailed underlying mechanism remains unclear, particularly in vascular endothelial cells. Previous studies showed that a propofol overdose induces endothelial injury and vascular barrier dysfunction. Regarding the important role of endothelial glycocalyx on the maintenance of vascular barrier integrity, we therefore hypothesized that a propofol overdose-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction is caused by impaired endothelial glycocalyx. In vivo, we intraperitoneally injected ICR mice with overdosed propofol, and the results showed that a propofol overdose significantly induced systemic vascular hyperpermeability and reduced the expression of endothelial glycocalyx, syndecan-1, syndecan-4, perlecan mRNA and heparan sulfate (HS) in the vessels of multiple organs. In vitro, a propofol overdose reduced the expression of syndecan-1, syndecan-4, perlecan, glypican-1 mRNA and HS and induced significant decreases in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)/NADH ratio and ATP concentrations in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). Oligomycin treatment also induced significant decreases in the NAD+/NADH ratio, in ATP concentrations and in syndecan-4, perlecan and glypican-1 mRNA expression in HMEC-1 cells. These results demonstrate that a propofol overdose induces a partially ATP-dependent reduction of endothelial glycocalyx expression and consequently leads to vascular hyperpermeability due to the loss of endothelial barrier functions. PMID:26023717

  6. Inactivation of the mitochondrial carrier SLC25A25 (ATP-Mg2+/Pi transporter) reduces physical endurance and metabolic efficiency in mice.

    PubMed

    Anunciado-Koza, Rea P; Zhang, Jingying; Ukropec, Jozef; Bajpeyi, Sudip; Koza, Robert A; Rogers, Richard C; Cefalu, William T; Mynatt, Randall L; Kozak, Leslie P

    2011-04-01

    An ATP-Mg(2+/)P(i) inner mitochondrial membrane solute transporter (SLC25A25), which is induced during adaptation to cold stress in the skeletal muscle of mice with defective UCP1/brown adipose tissue thermogenesis, has been evaluated for its role in metabolic efficiency. SLC25A25 is thought to control ATP homeostasis by functioning as a Ca(2+)-regulated shuttle of ATP-Mg(2+) and P(i) across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mice with an inactivated Slc25a25 gene have reduced metabolic efficiency as evidenced by enhanced resistance to diet-induced obesity and impaired exercise performance on a treadmill. Mouse embryo fibroblasts from Slc25a25(-/-) mice have reduced Ca(2+) flux across the endoplasmic reticulum, basal mitochondrial respiration, and ATP content. Although Slc25a25(-/-) mice are metabolically inefficient, the source of the inefficiency is not from a primary function in thermogenesis, because Slc25a25(-/-) mice maintain body temperature upon acute exposure to the cold (4 °C). Rather, the role of SLC25A25 in metabolic efficiency is most likely linked to muscle function as evidenced from the physical endurance test of mutant mice on a treadmill. Consequently, in the absence of SLC25A25 the efficiency of ATP production required for skeletal muscle function is diminished with secondary effects on adiposity. However, in the absence of UCP1-based thermogenesis, induction of Slc25a25 in mice with an intact gene may contribute to an alternative thermogenic pathway for the maintenance of body temperature during cold stress.

  7. Inactivation of the Mitochondrial Carrier SLC25A25 (ATP-Mg2+/Pi Transporter) Reduces Physical Endurance and Metabolic Efficiency in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Anunciado-Koza, Rea P.; Zhang, Jingying; Ukropec, Jozef; Bajpeyi, Sudip; Koza, Robert A.; Rogers, Richard C.; Cefalu, William T.; Mynatt, Randall L.; Kozak, Leslie P.

    2011-01-01

    An ATP-Mg2+/Pi inner mitochondrial membrane solute transporter (SLC25A25), which is induced during adaptation to cold stress in the skeletal muscle of mice with defective UCP1/brown adipose tissue thermogenesis, has been evaluated for its role in metabolic efficiency. SLC25A25 is thought to control ATP homeostasis by functioning as a Ca2+-regulated shuttle of ATP-Mg2+ and Pi across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mice with an inactivated Slc25a25 gene have reduced metabolic efficiency as evidenced by enhanced resistance to diet-induced obesity and impaired exercise performance on a treadmill. Mouse embryo fibroblasts from Slc25a25−/− mice have reduced Ca2+ flux across the endoplasmic reticulum, basal mitochondrial respiration, and ATP content. Although Slc25a25−/− mice are metabolically inefficient, the source of the inefficiency is not from a primary function in thermogenesis, because Slc25a25−/− mice maintain body temperature upon acute exposure to the cold (4 °C). Rather, the role of SLC25A25 in metabolic efficiency is most likely linked to muscle function as evidenced from the physical endurance test of mutant mice on a treadmill. Consequently, in the absence of SLC25A25 the efficiency of ATP production required for skeletal muscle function is diminished with secondary effects on adiposity. However, in the absence of UCP1-based thermogenesis, induction of Slc25a25 in mice with an intact gene may contribute to an alternative thermogenic pathway for the maintenance of body temperature during cold stress. PMID:21296886

  8. Elevated Basal Insulin Secretion in Type 2 Diabetes Caused by Reduced Plasma Membrane Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Vini; Kazim, Abdulla S.; Helgeson, Johan; Lewold, Clemens; Barik, Satadal; Buda, Pawel; Reinbothe, Thomas M.; Wennmalm, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Elevated basal insulin secretion under fasting conditions together with insufficient stimulated insulin release is an important hallmark of type 2 diabetes, but the mechanisms controlling basal insulin secretion remain unclear. Membrane rafts exist in pancreatic islet cells and spatially organize membrane ion channels and proteins controlling exocytosis, which may contribute to the regulation of insulin secretion. Membrane rafts (cholesterol and sphingolipid containing microdomains) were dramatically reduced in human type 2 diabetic and diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat islets when compared with healthy islets. Oxidation of membrane cholesterol markedly reduced microdomain staining intensity in healthy human islets, but was without effect in type 2 diabetic islets. Intriguingly, oxidation of cholesterol affected glucose-stimulated insulin secretion only modestly, whereas basal insulin release was elevated. This was accompanied by increased intracellular Ca2+ spike frequency and Ca2+ influx and explained by enhanced single Ca2+ channel activity. These results suggest that the reduced presence of membrane rafts could contribute to the elevated basal insulin secretion seen in type 2 diabetes. PMID:27533789

  9. Elevated Basal Insulin Secretion in Type 2 Diabetes Caused by Reduced Plasma Membrane Cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Vini; Kazim, Abdulla S; Helgeson, Johan; Lewold, Clemens; Barik, Satadal; Buda, Pawel; Reinbothe, Thomas M; Wennmalm, Stefan; Zhang, Enming; Renström, Erik

    2016-10-01

    Elevated basal insulin secretion under fasting conditions together with insufficient stimulated insulin release is an important hallmark of type 2 diabetes, but the mechanisms controlling basal insulin secretion remain unclear. Membrane rafts exist in pancreatic islet cells and spatially organize membrane ion channels and proteins controlling exocytosis, which may contribute to the regulation of insulin secretion. Membrane rafts (cholesterol and sphingolipid containing microdomains) were dramatically reduced in human type 2 diabetic and diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat islets when compared with healthy islets. Oxidation of membrane cholesterol markedly reduced microdomain staining intensity in healthy human islets, but was without effect in type 2 diabetic islets. Intriguingly, oxidation of cholesterol affected glucose-stimulated insulin secretion only modestly, whereas basal insulin release was elevated. This was accompanied by increased intracellular Ca(2+) spike frequency and Ca(2+) influx and explained by enhanced single Ca(2+) channel activity. These results suggest that the reduced presence of membrane rafts could contribute to the elevated basal insulin secretion seen in type 2 diabetes.

  10. Type I collagen reduces the degradation of basal lamina proteoglycan by mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    When mouse mammary epithelial cells are cultured on a plastic substratum, no basal lamina forms. When cultured on a type I collagen gel, the rate of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis is unchanged, but the rate of GAG degradation is markedly reduced and a GAG-rich, basal lamina-like structure accumulates. This effect of collagen was investigated by comparing the culture distribution, nature, and metabolic stability of the 35S-GAG-containing molecules produced by cells on plastic and collagen. During 48 h of labeling with 35SO4, cultures on collagen accumulate 1.4-fold more 35S-GAG per microgram of DNA. In these cultures, most of the extracellular 35S-GAG is immobilized with the lamina and collagen gel, whereas in cultures on plastic all extracellular 35S-GAG is soluble. On both substrata, the cells produce several heparan sulfate-rich 35S-proteoglycan fractions that are distinct by Sepharose CL-4B chromatography. The culture types contain similar amounts of each fraction, except that collagen cultures contain nearly four times more of a fraction that is found largely bound to the lamina and collagen gel. During a chase this proteoglycan fraction is stable in cultures on collagen, but is extensively degraded in cultures on plastic. Thus, collagen-induced formation of a basal lamina correlates with reduced degradation and enhanced accumulation of a specific heparan sulfate-rich proteoglycan fraction. Immobilization and stabilization of basal laminar proteoglycan(s) by interstitial collagen may be a physiological mechanism of basal lamina maintenance and assembly. PMID:7298723

  11. Aerobic Growth of Escherichia coli Is Reduced, and ATP Synthesis Is Selectively Inhibited when Five C-terminal Residues Are Deleted from the ϵ Subunit of ATP Synthase.

    PubMed

    Shah, Naman B; Duncan, Thomas M

    2015-08-21

    F-type ATP synthases are rotary nanomotor enzymes involved in cellular energy metabolism in eukaryotes and eubacteria. The ATP synthase from Gram-positive and -negative model bacteria can be autoinhibited by the C-terminal domain of its ϵ subunit (ϵCTD), but the importance of ϵ inhibition in vivo is unclear. Functional rotation is thought to be blocked by insertion of the latter half of the ϵCTD into the central cavity of the catalytic complex (F1). In the inhibited state of the Escherichia coli enzyme, the final segment of ϵCTD is deeply buried but has few specific interactions with other subunits. This region of the ϵCTD is variable or absent in other bacteria that exhibit strong ϵ-inhibition in vitro. Here, genetically deleting the last five residues of the ϵCTD (ϵΔ5) caused a greater defect in respiratory growth than did the complete absence of the ϵCTD. Isolated membranes with ϵΔ5 generated proton-motive force by respiration as effectively as with wild-type ϵ but showed a nearly 3-fold decrease in ATP synthesis rate. In contrast, the ϵΔ5 truncation did not change the intrinsic rate of ATP hydrolysis with membranes. Further, the ϵΔ5 subunit retained high affinity for isolated F1 but reduced the maximal inhibition of F1-ATPase by ϵ from >90% to ∼20%. The results suggest that the ϵCTD has distinct regulatory interactions with F1 when rotary catalysis operates in opposite directions for the hydrolysis or synthesis of ATP.

  12. Listening to Rhythmic Music Reduces Connectivity within the Basal Ganglia and the Reward System

    PubMed Central

    Brodal, Hans P.; Osnes, Berge; Specht, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Music can trigger emotional responses in a more direct way than any other stimulus. In particular, music-evoked pleasure involves brain networks that are part of the reward system. Furthermore, rhythmic music stimulates the basal ganglia and may trigger involuntary movements to the beat. In the present study, we created a continuously playing rhythmic, dance floor-like composition where the ambient noise from the MR scanner was incorporated as an additional instrument of rhythm. By treating this continuous stimulation paradigm as a variant of resting-state, the data was analyzed with stochastic dynamic causal modeling (sDCM), which was used for exploring functional dependencies and interactions between core areas of auditory perception, rhythm processing, and reward processing. The sDCM model was a fully connected model with the following areas: auditory cortex, putamen/pallidum, and ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens of both hemispheres. The resulting estimated parameters were compared to ordinary resting-state data, without an additional continuous stimulation. Besides reduced connectivity within the basal ganglia, the results indicated a reduced functional connectivity of the reward system, namely the right ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens from and to the basal ganglia and auditory network while listening to rhythmic music. In addition, the right ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens demonstrated also a change in its hemodynamic parameter, reflecting an increased level of activation. These converging results may indicate that the dopaminergic reward system reduces its functional connectivity and relinquishing its constraints on other areas when we listen to rhythmic music.

  13. Listening to Rhythmic Music Reduces Connectivity within the Basal Ganglia and the Reward System.

    PubMed

    Brodal, Hans P; Osnes, Berge; Specht, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Music can trigger emotional responses in a more direct way than any other stimulus. In particular, music-evoked pleasure involves brain networks that are part of the reward system. Furthermore, rhythmic music stimulates the basal ganglia and may trigger involuntary movements to the beat. In the present study, we created a continuously playing rhythmic, dance floor-like composition where the ambient noise from the MR scanner was incorporated as an additional instrument of rhythm. By treating this continuous stimulation paradigm as a variant of resting-state, the data was analyzed with stochastic dynamic causal modeling (sDCM), which was used for exploring functional dependencies and interactions between core areas of auditory perception, rhythm processing, and reward processing. The sDCM model was a fully connected model with the following areas: auditory cortex, putamen/pallidum, and ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens of both hemispheres. The resulting estimated parameters were compared to ordinary resting-state data, without an additional continuous stimulation. Besides reduced connectivity within the basal ganglia, the results indicated a reduced functional connectivity of the reward system, namely the right ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens from and to the basal ganglia and auditory network while listening to rhythmic music. In addition, the right ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens demonstrated also a change in its hemodynamic parameter, reflecting an increased level of activation. These converging results may indicate that the dopaminergic reward system reduces its functional connectivity and relinquishing its constraints on other areas when we listen to rhythmic music.

  14. Evaluation of an ATP Assay to Quantify Bacterial Attachment to Surfaces in Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmele, Michele N.; Roberson, Luke B.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To develop an assay to quantify the biomass of attached cells and biofilm formed on wetted surfaces in variable-gravity environments. Methods and Results: Liquid cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were exposed to 30-35 brief cycles of hypergravity (< 2-g) followed by free fall (i.e., reduced gravity) equivalent to either lunar-g (i.e., 0.17 normal Earth gravity) or micro-g (i.e., < 0.001 normal Earth gravity) in an aircraft flying a series of parabolas. Over the course of two days of parabolic flight testing, 504 polymer or metal coupons were exposed to a stationary-phase population of P. aeruginosa strain ERC1 at a concentration of 1.0 x 10(exp 5) cells per milliliter. After the final parabola on each flight test day, half of the material coupon samples were treated with either 400 micro-g/L ionic silver fluoride (microgravity-exposed cultures) or 1% formalin (lunar-gravity-exposed cultures). The remaining sample coupons from each flight test day were not treated with a fixative. All samples were returned to the laboratory for analysis within 2 hours of landing, and all biochemical assays were completed within 8 hours of exposure to variable gravity. The intracellular ATP luminescent assay accurately reflected cell physiology compared to both cultivation-based and direct-count microscopy analyses. Cells exposed to variable gravity had more than twice as much intracellular ATP as control cells exposed only to normal Earth gravity.

  15. Diabetes reduces basal retinal insulin receptor signaling: reversal with systemic and local insulin.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Chad E N; Wu, Xiaohua; Sandirasegarane, Lakshman; Nakamura, Makoto; Gilbert, Kirk A; Singh, Ravi S J; Fort, Patrice E; Antonetti, David A; Gardner, Thomas W

    2006-04-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by early onset of neuronal cell death. We previously showed that insulin mediates a prosurvival pathway in retinal neurons and that normal retina expresses a highly active basal insulin receptor/Akt signaling pathway that is stable throughout feeding and fasting. Using the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model, we tested the hypothesis that diabetes diminishes basal retinal insulin receptor signaling concomitantly with increased diabetes-induced retinal apoptosis. The expression, phosphorylation status, and/or kinase activity of the insulin receptor and downstream signaling proteins were investigated in retinas of age-matched control, diabetic, and insulin-treated diabetic rats. Four weeks of diabetes reduced basal insulin receptor kinase, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1/2-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and Akt kinase activity without altering insulin receptor or IRS-1/2 expression or tyrosine phosphorylation. After 12 weeks of diabetes, constitutive insulin receptor autophosphorylation and IRS-2 expression were reduced, without changes in p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase or IRS-1. Sustained systemic insulin treatment of diabetic rats prevented loss of insulin receptor and Akt kinase activity, and acute intravitreal insulin administration restored insulin receptor kinase activity. Insulin treatment restored insulin receptor-beta autophosphorylation in rat retinas maintained ex vivo, demonstrating functional receptors and suggesting loss of ligand as a cause for reduced retinal insulin receptor/Akt pathway activity. These results demonstrate that diabetes progressively impairs the constitutive retinal insulin receptor signaling pathway through Akt and suggests that loss of this survival pathway may contribute to the initial stages of diabetic retinopathy.

  16. Reduced Basal Transcriptional Activity of Central Nervous System-Derived HIV Type 1 Long Terminal Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Lachlan R.; Cowley, Daniel; Crespan, Emma; Welsh, Casey; Mackenzie, Charlene; Wesselingh, Steve L.; Gorry, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract New evidence indicates that astrocytes of the central nervous system (CNS) are extensively infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in vivo. Although no new virus is produced, this nonproductive or restricted infection contributes to the pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia (HAD) and compromises virus eradication strategies. The HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) plays a critical role in regulating virus production from infected cells. Here, we determined whether LTRs derived from CNS and non-CNS compartments are genetically and functionally distinct and contribute to the restricted nature of astrocyte infection. CNS- and/or non-CNS-derived LTRs (n=82) were cloned from primary HIV-1 viruses isolated from autopsy tissues of seven patients who died with HAD. Phylogenetic analysis showed interpatient and intrapatient clustering of LTR nucleotide sequences. Functional analysis showed reduced basal transcriptional activity of CNS-derived LTRs in both astrocytes and T cells compared to that of non-CNS-derived LTRs. However, LTRs were heterogeneous in their responsiveness to activation by Tat. Therefore, using a relatively large, independent panel of primary HIV-1 LTRs derived from clinically well-characterized subjects, we show that LTRs segregate CNS- from non-CNS-derived tissues both genetically and functionally. The reduced basal transcriptional activity of LTRs derived from the CNS may contribute to the restricted HIV-1 infection of astrocytes and latent infection within the CNS. These findings have significance for understanding the molecular basis of HIV-1 persistence within cellular reservoirs of the CNS that need to be considered for strategies aimed at eradicating HIV-1. PMID:22924643

  17. Reduced basal ganglia function when elderly switch between coordinated movement patterns.

    PubMed

    Coxon, James P; Goble, Daniel J; Van Impe, Annouchka; De Vos, Jeroen; Wenderoth, Nicole; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2010-10-01

    Structural and neurochemical changes in frontostriatal circuits are thought to underlie age-related behavioral deficits on cognitive tasks. Here, we test the hypothesis that age-related motor switching deficits are associated with reduced basal ganglia (BG) function. Right-handed volunteers (15 Old, and 15 Young) made spatially and temporally coupled bimanual circular motions during event-related FMRI. A visual cue signaled the right hand to Switch or Continue its circling direction. Switching from mirror symmetric to asymmetric (SW»ASYMM) took longer and resulted in more contralateral (left-) hand disruptions than vice versa. These effects were more pronounced in the elderly, showing that the ability to suppress and flexibly adapt motor behavior (agility) declines with age. For both groups, switching activated the BG and a typical network for task-set implementation, including dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/supplementary motor area (pre-SMA, SMA-proper) and anterior insula/inferior frontal gyrus. A region of interest analysis revealed significantly reduced SW»ASYMM activation in bilateral subthalamic nucleus and right globus pallidus, only in the elderly. Age-related behavioral deficits may be related to inefficient recruitment of cortico-BG loops to suppress undesired movements. The elderly may use an alternative strategy to select the required movement pattern as indicated by increased activation of prefrontal cortex.

  18. Mutation in the SH1 helix reduces the activation energy of the ATP-induced conformational transition of myosin.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Sosuke; Chaen, Shigeru

    2007-05-25

    The SH1 helix is a joint that links the converter subdomain to the rest of the myosin motor domain. Recently, we showed that a mutation within the SH1 helix in Dictyostelium myosin II (R689H) reduced the elasticity and thermal stability of the protein. To reveal the involvement of the SH1 helix in ATP-dependent conformational changes of the motor domain, we have investigated the effects of the R689H mutation on the conformational changes of the converter, using a GFP-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer method. Although the mutation does not seem to strongly affect conformations, we found that it significantly reduced the activation energy required for the ATP-induced conformational transition corresponding to the recovery stroke. Given the effects of the mutation on the mechanical properties of myosin, we propose that the SH1 helix plays an important role in the mechanochemical energy conversion underlying the conformational change of the myosin motor domain.

  19. Combined use of basal insulin analog and acarbose reduces postprandial glucose in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Ahn, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Lee, Dae-Ho; Kim, Hye-Soon; Shon, Ho-Sang; Jeon, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Tae-Hwa; Cho, Yong-Wook; Kim, Jae-Taek; Han, Sung-Min; Chung, Choon-Hee; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Min; Lee, Soon-Hee; Kwon, Min-Jeong; Kim, Tae-kyun; Namgoong, Il-Seong; Kim, Eun-Sook; Jung, In-Kyung; Moon, Sung-Dae; Han, Je-Ho; Kim, Chong-Hwa; Cho, Eun-Hee; Kim, Ki-Young; Park, Hee-Baek; Lee, Ki-Sang; Lee, Sung-Woo; Lee, Sang-Cheol; Kang, Cheol-Min; Jeon, Byung-Sook; Song, Min-Seop; Yun, Seung-Baik; Chung, Hyung-Keun; Seong, Jong-Ho; Jeong, Jin-Yi; Cha, Bong-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Early initiation of basal insulin therapy is recommended for normalizing fasting blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, basal insulin treatment might not adequately control postprandial glucose levels. The present study evaluated whether the combination of the α-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, and basal insulin improved blood glucose control under daily-life treatment conditions in a large sample of Korean patients. Materials and Methods The present study was a multicenter, prospective, observational study under daily-life treatment conditions. A total of 539 patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated with basal insulin and additional acarbose were enrolled and followed up for 20 weeks. Changes in hemoglobin A1c, fasting and postprandial blood glucose were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the observation period. The physician and patient satisfaction of the combination treatment and safety were assessed. Results Hemoglobin A1c decreased by 0.55 ± 1.05% from baseline (P < 0.0001). Fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels were reduced by 0.89 ± 3.79 and 2.59 ± 4.77 mmol/L (both P < 0.0001). The most frequently reported adverse drug reactions were flatulence (0.37%) and abnormal gastrointestinal sounds (0.37%), and all were mild in intensity and transient. In the satisfaction evaluation, 79.0% of physicians and 77.3% of patients were ‘very satisfied’ or ‘satisfied’ with the combined basal insulin and acarbose therapy. Conclusions Combination therapy of basal insulin and acarbose in patients with type 2 diabetes improved glucose control, and had no drug-specific safety concerns, suggesting that the treatment might benefit individuals who cannot control blood glucose with basal insulin alone. PMID:25802730

  20. Dietary protein deficiency reduces lysosomal and nonlysosomal ATP-dependent proteolysis in muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawa, N. E. Jr; Kettelhut, I. C.; Goldberg, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    When rats are fed a protein deficient (PD) diet for 7 days, rates of proteolysis in skeletal muscle decrease by 40-50% (N. E. Tawa, Jr., and A. L. Goldberg. Am. J. Physiol. 263 (Endocrinol. Metab. 26): E317-325, 1992). To identify the underlying biochemical adaptations, we measured different proteolytic processes in incubated muscles. The capacity for intralysosomal proteolysis, as shown by sensitivity to methylamine or lysosomal protease inhibitors, fell 55-75% in muscles from PD rats. Furthermore, extracts of muscles of PD rats showed 30-70% lower activity of many lysosomal proteases, including cathepsins B, H, and C, and carboxypeptidases A and C, as well as other lysosomal hydrolases. The fall in cathepsin B and proteolysis was evident by 3 days on the PD diet, and both returned to control levels 3 days after refeeding of the normal diet. In muscles maintained under optimal conditions, 80-90% of protein breakdown occurs by nonlysosomal pathways. In muscles of PD rats, this ATP-dependent process was also 40-60% slower. Even though overall proteolysis decreased in muscles of PD rats, their capacity for Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis increased (by 66%), as did the activity of the calpains (+150-250%). Thus the lysosomal and the ATP-dependent processes decrease coordinately and contribute to the fall in muscle proteolysis in PD animals.

  1. Basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated levels of cAMP are reduced in lymphocytes from alcoholic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, I.; Wrubel, B.; Estrin, W.; Gordon, A.

    1987-03-01

    Alcoholism causes serious neurologic disease that may be due, in part, to the ability of ethanol to interact with neural cell membranes and change neuronal function. Adenosine receptors are membrane-bound proteins that appear to mediate some of the effects of ethanol in the brain. Human lymphocytes also have adenosine receptors, and their activation causes increases in cAMP levels. To test the hypothesis that basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated cAMP levels in lymphocytes might be abnormal in alcoholism, the authors studied lymphocytes from 10 alcoholic subjects, 10 age- and sex-matched normal individuals, and 10 patients with nonalcoholic liver disease. Basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated cAMP levels were reduced 75% in lymphocytes from alcoholic subjects. Also, there was a 76% reduction in ethanol stimulation of cAMP accumulation in lymphocytes from alcoholics. Similar results were demonstrable in isolated T cells. Unlike other laboratory tests examined, these measurements appeared to distinguish alcoholics from normal subjects and from patients with nonalcoholic liver disease. Reduced basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated levels of cAMP in lymphocytes from alcoholics may reflect a change in cell membranes due either to chronic alcohol abuse or to a genetic predisposition unique to alcoholic subjects.

  2. Overexpression of connexin26 in the basal keratinocytes reduces sensitivity to tumor promoter TPA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Ramirez, Angel; Budunova, Irina

    2010-07-01

    Connexin 26 is important in keratinocyte proliferation, differentiation and skin pathologies. Cx26 is barely expressed in normal adult epidermis, but its expression is induced during wound healing, psoriasis, and skin hyperplasia stimulated by tumor promoters. In hyperplastic proliferating epidermis, Cx26 is co-expressed with Cx43 typical for basal and suprabasal keratinocytes. As Cx26 and Cx43 can not form permeable gap junctions, their co-expression may alter the gap junctional communication between keratinocytes and induce proliferation. To test the effect of persistent co-expression of Cx26 and Cx43 in epidermis, we generated transgenic mice using keratin5 promoter to target Cx26 to basal Cx43-positive keratinocytes. We evaluated the effect of ectopic Cx26 on keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation in normal and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated skin. The ectopic Cx26 expression in epidermis did not significantly affect skin development, keratinocyte differentiation and proliferation in newborn and adult skin. Unexpectedly, the proliferative effect of tumor promoter TPA was strongly decreased in epidermis of K5.Cx26 transgenics. This correlated with significant down-regulation of TPA-induced activity of protein kinase C (PKC) in K5.Cx26 mice.

  3. Fish oil supplementation reduces cortisol basal levels and perceived stress: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in abstinent alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Barbadoro, Pamela; Annino, Isidoro; Ponzio, Elisa; Romanelli, Roberto M L; D'Errico, Marcello M; Prospero, Emilia; Minelli, Andrea

    2013-06-01

    Behavioral distress and dysfunctions of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis play a central role in alcohol abuse. Omega-3 fatty acids are proposed as having antistress, regulatory effects on HPA responsiveness, but a possible protective role in ethanol addiction is unexplored.A randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial was performed in male alcoholics undergoing residential rehabilitation program, to evaluate the effects of 3-week supplementation with fish-oil providing eicosapentaenoic (60 mg/day) and docosahexaenoic acid (252 mg/day) on perceived stress/anxiety and HPA activity, assessed by measuring saliva basal cortisol levels at various daytimes (0730 h, 1130 h, 1600 h, 2000 h, and 2400 h) and the acute cortisol response to Trier Social Stress Test.Results showed that in supplemented subjects, before versus after decrease of stress/anxiety ratings was accompanied by reduction of cortisol basal levels throughout the day; no changes were observed in placebo group. At the end of intervention, amplitude, and duration of stress-evoked cortisol response did not differ between groups; however, the peak of cortisol response was temporally anticipated in supplemented subjects. In conclusion, an elevated omega-3 intake may reduce distress symptoms and basal cortisol secretion in abstinent alcoholics, thus providing a valid subsidiary measure to increase the efficacy of rehabilitation programs in ethanol addicts.

  4. Changing pattern in the basal ganglia: motor switching under reduced dopaminergic drive

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Vincenzo G.; Rigoli, Francesco; Stenner, Max-Philipp; Zaehle, Tino; Hirth, Frank; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2016-01-01

    Action selection in the basal ganglia is often described within the framework of a standard model, associating low dopaminergic drive with motor suppression. Whilst powerful, this model does not explain several clinical and experimental data, including varying therapeutic efficacy across movement disorders. We tested the predictions of this model in patients with Parkinson’s disease, on and off subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS), focussing on adaptive sensory-motor responses to a changing environment and maintenance of an action until it is no longer suitable. Surprisingly, we observed prolonged perseverance under on-stimulation, and high inter-individual variability in terms of the motor selections performed when comparing the two conditions. To account for these data, we revised the standard model exploring its space of parameters and associated motor functions and found that, depending on effective connectivity between external and internal parts of the globus pallidus and saliency of the sensory input, a low dopaminergic drive can result in increased, dysfunctional, motor switching, besides motor suppression. This new framework provides insight into the biophysical mechanisms underlying DBS, allowing a description in terms of alteration of the signal-to-baseline ratio in the indirect pathway, which better account of known electrophysiological data in comparison with the standard model. PMID:27004463

  5. Mechanisms that match ATP supply to demand in cardiac pacemaker cells during high ATP demand.

    PubMed

    Yaniv, Yael; Spurgeon, Harold A; Ziman, Bruce D; Lyashkov, Alexey E; Lakatta, Edward G

    2013-06-01

    The spontaneous action potential (AP) firing rate of sinoatrial node cells (SANCs) involves high-throughput signaling via Ca(2+)-calmodulin activated adenylyl cyclases (AC), cAMP-mediated protein kinase A (PKA), and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent phosphorylation of SR Ca(2+) cycling and surface membrane ion channel proteins. When the throughput of this signaling increases, e.g., in response to β-adrenergic receptor activation, the resultant increase in spontaneous AP firing rate increases the demand for ATP. We hypothesized that an increase of ATP production to match the increased ATP demand is achieved via a direct effect of increased mitochondrial Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)m) and an indirect effect via enhanced Ca(2+)-cAMP/PKA-CaMKII signaling to mitochondria. To increase ATP demand, single isolated rabbit SANCs were superfused by physiological saline at 35 ± 0.5°C with isoproterenol, or by phosphodiesterase or protein phosphatase inhibition. We measured cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) and flavoprotein fluorescence in single SANC, and we measured cAMP, ATP, and O₂ consumption in SANC suspensions. Although the increase in spontaneous AP firing rate was accompanied by an increase in O₂ consumption, the ATP level and flavoprotein fluorescence remained constant, indicating that ATP production had increased. Both Ca(2+)m and cAMP increased concurrently with the increase in AP firing rate. When Ca(2+)m was reduced by Ru360, the increase in spontaneous AP firing rate in response to isoproterenol was reduced by 25%. Thus, both an increase in Ca(2+)m and an increase in Ca(2+) activated cAMP-PKA-CaMKII signaling regulate the increase in ATP supply to meet ATP demand above the basal level.

  6. Reduced ATP concentration as a basis for synaptic transmission failure during hypoxia in the in vitro guinea-pig hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Lipton, Peter; Whittingham, Tim S.

    1982-01-01

    1. Experiments were performed to determine whether a decrease in tissue ATP contributes to the rapid failure of cerebral synaptic transmission during hypoxia. Transmission between the perforant path and the dentate granule cells in the in vitro hippocampus was studied. 2. Hippocampal slice ATP is decreased by ∼ 15% at the time that the evoked response begins to diminish in standard Krebs bicarbonate buffer. This is about 2 min after the onset of hypoxia. 3. When transmission failure is accelerated by increasing extracellular K+ from 4·4 to 13·4 mM, the evoked response begins to decay about 30 sec after exposure to hypoxia. There is no decrease in hippocampal slice ATP at this time. 4. However, ATP in the molecular layer (the synaptic region of the tissue) is decreased by ∼ 15% at the time the evoked response begins to decay in the slices exposed to elevated K+ concentration. 5. Exposing the hippocampal slice to 25 mM-creatine for 3 hr elevates molecular layer phosphocreatine fourfold. Synaptic transmission during hypoxia survives three times as long as it does in the absence of creatine. 6. In the creatine fortified medium, molecular layer ATP no longer declines within 30 sec of hypoxia. However the molecular layer ATP does decline within 90 sec of hypoxia, the time at which the evoked response begins to decay in this creatine-fortified buffer. 7. The results establish that ATP in the region of the active synapses is lowered when the first signs of electrophysiological failure appear during hypoxia. They also show that maintaining ATP for longer than normal during hypoxia is associated with a prolonged maintenance of the evoked response. They thus suggest that a decline in ATP is one factor causing hypoxic block of synaptic transmission. 8. It is further suggested that the very rapid failure of the electroencephalogram during anoxia may also result from a decline in ATP. PMID:6286944

  7. Heat Shock Protein 90 Inhibitors Reduce Trafficking of ATP-gated P2X1 Receptors and Human Platelet Responsiveness*

    PubMed Central

    Lalo, Ulyana; Jones, Sarah; Roberts, Jonathan A.; Mahaut-Smith, Martyn P.; Evans, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    We have used selective inhibitors to determine whether the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) has an effect on both recombinant and native human P2X1 receptors. P2X1 receptor currents in HEK293 cells were reduced by ∼70–85% by the selective HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin (2 μm, 20 min). This was associated with a speeding in the time course of desensitization as well as a reduction in cell surface expression. Imaging in real time of photoactivatable GFP-tagged P2X receptors showed that they are highly mobile. Geldanamycin almost abolished this movement for P2X1 receptors but had no effect on P2X2 receptor trafficking. P2X1/2 receptor chimeras showed that the intracellular N and C termini were involved in geldanamycin sensitivity. Geldanamycin also inhibited native P2X1 receptor-mediated responses. Platelet P2X1 receptors play an important role in hemostasis, contribute to amplification of signaling to a range of stimuli including collagen, and are novel targets for antithrombotic therapies. Platelet P2X1 receptor-, but not P2Y1 receptor-, mediated increases in intracellular calcium were reduced by 40–45% following HSP90 inhibition with geldanamycin or radicicol. Collagen stimulation leads to ATP release from platelets, and calcium increases to low doses of collagen were also reduced by ∼40% by the HSP90 inhibitors consistent with an effect on P2X1 receptors. These studies suggest that HSP90 inhibitors may be as effective as selective antagonists in regulating platelet P2X1 receptors, and their potential effects on hemostasis should be considered in clinical studies. PMID:22851178

  8. Histone deacetylase inhibitors preserve white matter structure and function during ischemia by conserving ATP and reducing excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Baltan, Selva; Murphy, Sean P; Danilov, Camelia A; Bachleda, Amelia; Morrison, Richard S

    2011-03-16

    The importance of white matter (WM) injury to stroke pathology has been underestimated in experimental animal models and this may have contributed to the failure to translate potential therapeutics into the stroke clinic. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are neuroprotective and also promote neurogenesis. These properties make them ideal candidates for stroke therapy. In a pure WM tract (isolated mouse optic nerve), we show that pan- and class I-specific HDAC inhibitors, administered before or after a period of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), promote functional recovery of axons and preserve WM cellular architecture. This protection correlates with the upregulation of an astrocyte glutamate transporter, delayed and reduced glutamate accumulation during OGD, preservation of axonal mitochondria and oligodendrocytes, and maintenance of ATP levels. Interestingly, the expression of HDACs 1, 2, and 3 is localized to astrocytes, suggesting that changes in glial cell gene transcription and/or protein acetylation may confer protection to axons. Our findings suggest that a therapeutic opportunity exists for the use of HDAC inhibitors, targeting mitochondrial energy regulation and excitotoxicity in ischemic WM injury.

  9. Activation of the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channel reduces apoptosis of spleen mononuclear cells induced by hyperlipidemia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We have previously demonstrated that increased rates of superoxide generation by extra-mitochondrial enzymes induce the activation of the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel (mitoKATP) in the livers of hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) mice. The resulting mild uncoupling mediated by mitoKATP protects mitochondria against oxidative damage. In this study, we investigate whether immune cells from HTG mice also present increased mitoKATP activity and evaluate the influence of this trait on cell redox state and viability. Methods Oxygen consumption (Clark-type electrode), reactive oxygen species production (dihydroethidium and H2-DCF-DA probes) and cell death (annexin V, cytocrome c release and Trypan blue exclusion) were determined in spleen mononuclear cells. Results HTG mice mononuclear cells displayed increased mitoKATP activity, as evidenced by higher resting respiration rates that were sensitive to mitoKATP antagonists. Whole cell superoxide production and apoptosis rates were increased in HTG cells. Inhibition of mitoKATP further increased the production of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis in these cells. Incubation with HTG serum induced apoptosis more strongly in WT cells than in HTG mononuclear cells. Cytochrome c release into the cytosol and caspase 8 activity were both increased in HTG cells, indicating that cell death signaling starts upstream of the mitochondria but does involve this organelle. Accordingly, a reduced number of blood circulating lymphocytes was found in HTG mice. Conclusions These results demonstrate that spleen mononuclear cells from hyperlipidemic mice have more active mitoKATP channels, which downregulate mitochondrial superoxide generation. The increased apoptosis rate observed in these cells is exacerbated by closing the mitoKATP channels. Thus, mitoKATP opening acts as a protective mechanism that reduces cell death induced by hyperlipidemia. PMID:23764148

  10. Downregulation of the δ-Subunit Reduces Mitochondrial ATP Synthase Levels, Alters Respiration, and Restricts Growth and Gametophyte Development in Arabidopsis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Daniela A.; Päpke, Carola; Obata, Toshihiro; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Matthes, Annemarie; Schneitz, Kay; Maximova, Eugenia; Araújo, Wagner L.; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Persson, Staffan

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondrial ATP synthase (F1Fo complex) is an evolutionary conserved multimeric protein complex that synthesizes the main bulk of cytosolic ATP, but the regulatory mechanisms of the subunits are only poorly understood in plants. In yeast, the δ-subunit links the membrane-embedded Fo part to the matrix-facing central stalk of F1. We used genetic interference and an inhibitor to investigate the molecular function and physiological impact of the δ-subunit in Arabidopsis thaliana. Delta mutants displayed both male and female gametophyte defects. RNA interference of delta resulted in growth retardation, reduced ATP synthase amounts, and increased alternative oxidase capacity and led to specific long-term increases in Ala and Gly levels. By contrast, inhibition of the complex using oligomycin triggered broad metabolic changes, affecting glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and led to a successive induction of transcripts for alternative respiratory pathways and for redox and biotic stress-related transcription factors. We conclude that (1) the δ-subunit is essential for male gametophyte development in Arabidopsis, (2) a disturbance of the ATP synthase appears to lead to an early transition phase and a long-term metabolic steady state, and (3) the observed long-term adjustments in mitochondrial metabolism are linked to reduced growth and deficiencies in gametophyte development. PMID:22805435

  11. Neuronal Hyperactivity Disturbs ATP Microgradients, Impairs Microglial Motility, and Reduces Phagocytic Receptor Expression Triggering Apoptosis/Microglial Phagocytosis Uncoupling

    PubMed Central

    Nadjar, Agnes; Layé, Sophie; Leyrolle, Quentin; Gómez-Nicola, Diego; Domercq, María; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Sánchez-Zafra, Víctor; Savage, Julie C.; Hui, Chin-Wai; Deudero, Juan J. P.; Brewster, Amy L.; Anderson, Anne E.; Zaldumbide, Laura; Galbarriatu, Lara; Marinas, Ainhoa; Vivanco, Maria dM.; Matute, Carlos; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Phagocytosis is essential to maintain tissue homeostasis in a large number of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, but its role in the diseased brain is poorly explored. Recent findings suggest that in the adult hippocampal neurogenic niche, where the excess of newborn cells undergo apoptosis in physiological conditions, phagocytosis is efficiently executed by surveillant, ramified microglia. To test whether microglia are efficient phagocytes in the diseased brain as well, we confronted them with a series of apoptotic challenges and discovered a generalized response. When challenged with excitotoxicity in vitro (via the glutamate agonist NMDA) or inflammation in vivo (via systemic administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharides or by omega 3 fatty acid deficient diets), microglia resorted to different strategies to boost their phagocytic efficiency and compensate for the increased number of apoptotic cells, thus maintaining phagocytosis and apoptosis tightly coupled. Unexpectedly, this coupling was chronically lost in a mouse model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) as well as in hippocampal tissue resected from individuals with MTLE, a major neurological disorder characterized by seizures, excitotoxicity, and inflammation. Importantly, the loss of phagocytosis/apoptosis coupling correlated with the expression of microglial proinflammatory, epileptogenic cytokines, suggesting its contribution to the pathophysiology of epilepsy. The phagocytic blockade resulted from reduced microglial surveillance and apoptotic cell recognition receptor expression and was not directly mediated by signaling through microglial glutamate receptors. Instead, it was related to the disruption of local ATP microgradients caused by the hyperactivity of the hippocampal network, at least in the acute phase of epilepsy. Finally, the uncoupling led to an accumulation of apoptotic newborn cells in the neurogenic niche that was due not to decreased survival but to delayed cell clearance

  12. Interaction between PVY HC-Pro and the NtCF1β-subunit reduces the amount of chloroplast ATP synthase in virus-infected tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yayi; Jin, Yongsheng; Ma, Dongyuan; Li, Heng; Zhang, Zhenqian; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The photosynthetic rate of virus-infected plants is always reduced. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unclear. The helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) of Potato virus Y (PVY) was found in the chloroplasts of PVY-infected tobacco, indicating some new function of HC-Pro in the chloroplasts. We generated HC-Pro transgenic plants with a transit peptide to target the protein to chloroplast. The HC-Pro transgenic tobacco showed a decreased photosynthetic rate by 25% at the light intensity of 600 μmol m−2 s−1. Using a yeast two-hybrid screening assay to search for chloroplast proteins interacting with HC-Pro, we identified that PVY HC-Pro can interact with the chloroplast ATP synthase NtCF1β-subunit. This interaction was confirmed by GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays. HC-Pro didn’t interfere with the activity of assembled ATP synthase in vitro. The HC-Pro/NtCF1β-subunit interaction might affect the assembly of ATP synthase complex. Quantitative western blot and immunogold labeling of the ATP synthase indicated that the amount of ATP synthase complex was decreased in both the HC-Pro transgenic and the PVY-infected tobacco. These results demonstrate that HC-Pro plays an important role in reducing the photosynthetic rate of PVY-infected plants, which is a completely new role of HC-Pro besides its multiple known functions. PMID:26499367

  13. Regulation of Extracellular ATP in Human Erythrocytes Infected with Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Cora Lilia; Schachter, Julieta; de Sá Pinheiro, Ana Acacia; Silva, Leandro de Souza; Verstraeten, Sandra Viviana; Persechini, Pedro Muanis; Schwarzbaum, Pablo Julio

    2014-01-01

    In human erythrocytes (h-RBCs) various stimuli induce increases in [cAMP] that trigger ATP release. The resulting pattern of extracellular ATP accumulation (ATPe kinetics) depends on both ATP release and ATPe degradation by ectoATPase activity. In this study we evaluated ATPe kinetics from primary cultures of h-RBCs infected with P. falciparum at various stages of infection (ring, trophozoite and schizont stages). A “3V” mixture containing isoproterenol (β-adrenergic agonist), forskolin (adenylate kinase activator) and papaverine (phosphodiesterase inhibitor) was used to induce cAMP-dependent ATP release. ATPe kinetics of r-RBCs (ring-infected RBCs), t-RBCs (trophozoite-infected RBCs) and s-RBCs (schizont-infected RBCs) showed [ATPe] to peak acutely to a maximum value followed by a slower time dependent decrease. In all intraerythrocytic stages, values of ΔATP1 (difference between [ATPe] measured 1 min post-stimulus and basal [ATPe]) increased nonlinearly with parasitemia (from 2 to 12.5%). Under 3V exposure, t-RBCs at parasitemia 94% (t94-RBCs) showed 3.8-fold higher ΔATP1 values than in h-RBCs, indicative of upregulated ATP release. Pre-exposure to either 100 µM carbenoxolone, 100 nM mefloquine or 100 µM NPPB reduced ΔATP1 to 83–87% for h-RBCs and 63–74% for t94-RBCs. EctoATPase activity, assayed at both low nM concentrations (300–900 nM) and 500 µM exogenous ATPe concentrations increased approx. 400-fold in t94-RBCs, as compared to h-RBCs, while intracellular ATP concentrations of t94-RBCs were 65% that of h-RBCs. In t94-RBCs, production of nitric oxide (NO) was approx. 7-fold higher than in h-RBCs, and was partially inhibited by L-NAME pre-treatment. In media with L-NAME, ΔATP1 values were 2.7-times higher in h-RBCs and 4.2-times higher in t94-RBCs, than without L-NAME. Results suggest that P. falciparum infection of h-RBCs strongly activates ATP release via Pannexin 1 in these cells. Several processes partially counteracted ATPe accumulation

  14. Topical thymidine dinucleotide treatment reduces development of ultraviolet-induced basal cell carcinoma in Ptch-1+/- mice.

    PubMed

    Arad, Simin; Zattra, Edoardo; Hebert, Jennifer; Epstein, Ervin H; Goukassian, David A; Gilchrest, Barbara A

    2008-05-01

    Treatment with thymidine dinucleotide (pTT) has well documented DNA-protective effects and reduces development of squamous cell carcinoma in UV-irradiated mice. The preventive effect of pTT on basal cell carcinoma (BCC) was evaluated in UV-irradiated Ptch-1(+/-) mice, a model of the human disease Gorlin syndrome. Topical pTT treatment significantly reduced the number and size (P < 0.001) of BCCs in murine skin after 7 months of chronic irradiation. Skin biopsies collected 24 hours after the final UV exposure showed that pTT reduced the number of nuclei positive for cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers by 40% (P < 0.0002) and for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine by 61% (P < 0.01 compared with vehicle control). Immunostaining with an antibody specific for mutated p53 revealed 63% fewer positive patches in BCCs of pTT-treated mice compared with controls (P < 0.01), and the number of Ki-67-positive cells was decreased by 56% (P < 0.01) in pTT-treated tumor-free epidermis and by 76% (P < 0.001) in BCC tumor nests (P < 0.001). Terminal dUTP nick-end labeling staining revealed a 213% increase (P < 0.04) in the number of apoptotic cells in BCCs of pTT-treated mice. Cox-2 immunostaining was decreased by 80% in tumor-free epidermis of pTT-treated mice compared with controls (P < 0.01). We conclude that topical pTT treatment during a prolonged period of intermittent UV exposure decreases the number and size of UV-induced BCCs through several anti-cancer mechanisms.

  15. Serum free light chains are reduced in endurance trained older adults: Evidence that exercise training may reduce basal inflammation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Jennifer L J; Phillips, Anna C; Drayson, Mark T; Campbell, John P

    2016-05-01

    Traditionally, free light chains (FLCs) are used as key serum biomarkers in the diagnosis and monitoring of plasma cell malignancies, but polyclonal FLCs can also be used as an accurate real-time indicator of immune-activation and inflammation. The primary aim of the present study was to assess the effects of exercise training status on serum FLCs in older adults, and secondly, to examine if training status moderated serum FLC responses to acute exercise. Kappa and lambda serum FLC levels were measured in 45 healthy older adults (aged ≥ 60 years) who were either sedentary, physically active or endurance trained. FLCs were measured at baseline and in response to an acute bout of submaximal exercise. The endurance trained group had significantly lower levels of kappa and lambda serum FLCs compared with physically active or sedentary elderly adults; these effects were independent of age, BMI and renal function. There was no significant difference in whole immunoglobulins between groups. Exercise training status had no effect on serum FLC responses to acute exercise, which were marginal. In conclusion, endurance training was associated with lower FLC levels compared with less physically active individuals. These findings suggest that long-term endurance training may be beneficial in reducing basal inflammation in older adults as well as elevated FLCs present in inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, often associated with ageing. FLCs may serve as a useful biomarker for monitoring the efficacy of exercise intervention studies in healthy and clinical populations.

  16. Elevated miR-130a/miR130b/miR-152 expression reduces intracellular ATP levels in the pancreatic beta cell

    PubMed Central

    Ofori, Jones K.; Salunkhe, Vishal A.; Bagge, Annika; Vishnu, Neelanjan; Nagao, Mototsugu; Mulder, Hindrik; Wollheim, Claes B.; Eliasson, Lena; Esguerra, Jonathan L. S.

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs have emerged as important players of gene regulation with significant impact in diverse disease processes. In type-2 diabetes, in which impaired insulin secretion is a major factor in disease progression, dysregulated microRNA expression in the insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cell has been widely-implicated. Here, we show that miR-130a-3p, miR-130b-3p, and miR-152-3p levels are elevated in the pancreatic islets of hyperglycaemic donors, corroborating previous findings about their upregulation in the islets of type-2 diabetes model Goto-Kakizaki rats. We demonstrated negative regulatory effects of the three microRNAs on pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha (PDHA1) and on glucokinase (GCK) proteins, which are both involved in ATP production. Consequently, we found both proteins to be downregulated in the Goto-Kakizaki rat islets, while GCK mRNA expression showed reduced trend in the islets of type-2 diabetes donors. Overexpression of any of the three microRNAs in the insulin-secreting INS-1 832/13 cell line resulted in altered dynamics of intracellular ATP/ADP ratio ultimately perturbing fundamental ATP-requiring beta cell processes such as glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, insulin biosynthesis and processing. The data further strengthen the wide-ranging influence of microRNAs in pancreatic beta cell function, and hence their potential as therapeutic targets in type-2 diabetes. PMID:28332581

  17. Potassium Aspartate Attenuates Brain Injury Induced by Controlled Cortical Impact in Rats Through Increasing Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Levels, Na+/K+-ATPase Activity and Reducing Brain Edema

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yi; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yumei; Su, Yujin; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2016-01-01

    Background Potassium aspartate (PA), as an electrolyte supplement, is widely used in clinical practice. In our previous study, we found PA had neuroprotective effects against apoptosis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats. In this study, we examine whether PA has protective effects on traumatic brain injury (TBI). Material/Methods TBI was induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) in rats. Vehicle treatment (control) or PA treatment was administered intraperitoneally at 30 minutes after CCI. The modified neurological severity score (mNSS) and cortical lesion volume were examined. Brain edema and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity were measured, as well as brain ATP contents, lactic acid levels, and Na+/K+-ATPase activities. Results We found that CCI induced cortical injury in rats. Acute PA treatment at the dose of 62.5 mg/kg and 125 mg/kg significantly improved neurological deficits (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively) and decreased the cortical lesion volume (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively) compared with vehicle-only treatment. PA treatment at the dose of 125 mg/kg attenuated brain edema and ameliorated BBB integrity. In addition, PA treatment significantly reduced the loss of ATP (p<0.01), reduced lactic acid levels (p<0.001), and increased the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase (p<0.01). Conclusions Our results indicate PA has neuroprotective effects on TBI through increasing ATP levels, Na+/K+-ATPase activity, and reducing brain edema. It provides experimental evidence for the clinical application of PA. PMID:27959885

  18. Mitochondria-related miR-151a-5p reduces cellular ATP production by targeting CYTB in asthenozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ran; Wang, Rong; Qin, Yufeng; Ji, Juan; Xu, Miaofei; Wu, Wei; Chen, Minjian; Wu, Di; Song, Ling; Shen, Hongbing; Sha, Jiahao; Miao, Dengshun; Hu, Zhibin; Xia, Yankai; Lu, Chuncheng; Wang, Xinru

    2015-12-02

    Mitochondria, acting as the energy metabolism factory, participate in many key biological processes, including the maintenance of sperm viability. Mitochondria-related microRNA (miRNA), encoded by nuclear genome or mitochondrial genome, may play an important regulatory role in the control of mitochondrial function. To investigate the potential role of mitochondria-related miRNAs in asthenozoospermia, we adopted a strategy consisting of initial screening by TaqMan Low Density Array (TLDA) and further validation with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Validation of the profiling results was conducted in two independent phases. Eventually, two seminal plasma miRNAs (sp-miRs) (miR-101-3p, let-7b-5p) were found to be significantly decreased, while sp-miR-151a-5p was significantly increased in severe asthenozoospermia cases compared with healthy controls. To further study their potential roles in asthenozoospermia, we then evaluated mitochondrial function of GC-2 cells transfected with these potentially functional miRNAs. Our results demonstrated that transfection with miR-151a-5p mimics decreased the mitochondrial respiratory activity. Besides, Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) level was decreased when transfected with miR-151a-5p mimics. In addition, Cytochrome b (Cytb) mRNA and protein levels were also decreased when miR-151a-5p was overexpressed. These results indicate that miR-151a-5p may participate in the regulation of cellular respiration and ATP production through targeting Cytb.

  19. Mitochondria-related miR-151a-5p reduces cellular ATP production by targeting CYTB in asthenozoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ran; Wang, Rong; Qin, Yufeng; Ji, Juan; Xu, Miaofei; Wu, Wei; Chen, Minjian; Wu, Di; Song, Ling; Shen, Hongbing; Sha, Jiahao; Miao, Dengshun; Hu, Zhibin; Xia, Yankai; Lu, Chuncheng; Wang, Xinru

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria, acting as the energy metabolism factory, participate in many key biological processes, including the maintenance of sperm viability. Mitochondria-related microRNA (miRNA), encoded by nuclear genome or mitochondrial genome, may play an important regulatory role in the control of mitochondrial function. To investigate the potential role of mitochondria-related miRNAs in asthenozoospermia, we adopted a strategy consisting of initial screening by TaqMan Low Density Array (TLDA) and further validation with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Validation of the profiling results was conducted in two independent phases. Eventually, two seminal plasma miRNAs (sp-miRs) (miR-101-3p, let-7b-5p) were found to be significantly decreased, while sp-miR-151a-5p was significantly increased in severe asthenozoospermia cases compared with healthy controls. To further study their potential roles in asthenozoospermia, we then evaluated mitochondrial function of GC-2 cells transfected with these potentially functional miRNAs. Our results demonstrated that transfection with miR-151a-5p mimics decreased the mitochondrial respiratory activity. Besides, Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) level was decreased when transfected with miR-151a-5p mimics. In addition, Cytochrome b (Cytb) mRNA and protein levels were also decreased when miR-151a-5p was overexpressed. These results indicate that miR-151a-5p may participate in the regulation of cellular respiration and ATP production through targeting Cytb. PMID:26626315

  20. A Novel Differentiation Therapy Approach to Reduce the Metastatic Potential of Basal, Highly Metastatic, Triple-Negative Breast Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    Basal B subtypes ( Neve et al., 2006). Analysis using the Ingenuity software, revealed several network of genes altered upon GATA3 ove rexpression...Figure 2). W e applied a gene centering method with z-score conversion of our microarray data combined with sim ilarly converted data from Neve et...inal phenotype. Interestingly, the e xpression pattern of 231-Empty ce lls showed some differences compared to the MB231 cells used in the Neve

  1. How does environmental enrichment reduce repetitive motor behaviors? Neuronal activation and dendritic morphology in the indirect basal ganglia pathway of a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Bechard, Allison R; Cacodcar, Nadia; King, Michael A; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-02-15

    Repetitive motor behaviors are observed in many neurodevelopmental and neurological disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorders, Tourette syndrome, fronto-temporal dementia). Despite their clinical importance, the neurobiology underlying these highly stereotyped, apparently functionless behaviors is poorly understood. Identification of mechanisms that mediate the development of repetitive behaviors will aid in the discovery of new therapeutic targets and treatment development. Using a deer mouse model, we have shown that decreased indirect basal ganglia pathway activity is associated with high levels of repetitive behavior. Environmental enrichment (EE) markedly attenuates the development of such aberrant behaviors in mice, although mechanisms driving this effect are unknown. We hypothesized that EE would reduce repetitive motor behaviors by increasing indirect basal ganglia pathway function. We assessed neuronal activation and dendritic spine density in basal ganglia of adult deer mice reared in EE and standard housing. Significant increases in neuronal activation and dendritic spine densities were observed only in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus (GP), and only for those mice that exhibited an EE-induced decrease in repetitive motor behavior. As the STN and GP lie within the indirect pathway, these data suggest that EE-induced attenuation of repetitive motor behaviors is associated with increased functional activation of the indirect basal ganglia pathway. These results are consistent with our other findings highlighting the importance of the indirect pathway in mediating repetitive motor behaviors.

  2. How does environmental enrichment reduce repetitive motor behaviors? Neuronal activation and dendritic morphology in the indirect basal ganglia pathway of a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Bechard, Allison R.; Cacodcar, Nadia; King, Michael A.; Lewis, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive motor behaviors are observed in many neurodevelopmental and neurological disorders (e.g. autism spectrum disorders, Tourette syndrome, fronto-temporal dementia). Despite their clinical importance, the neurobiology underlying these highly stereotyped, apparently functionless behaviors is poorly understood. Identification of mechanisms that mediate the development of repetitive behaviors will aid in the discovery of new therapeutic targets and treatment development. Using a deer mouse model, we have shown that decreased indirect basal ganglia pathway activity is associated with high levels of repetitive behavior. Environmental enrichment (EE) markedly attenuates the development of such aberrant behaviors in mice, although mechanisms driving this effect are unknown. We hypothesized that EE would reduce repetitive motor behaviors by increasing indirect basal ganglia pathway function. We assessed neuronal activation and dendritic spine density in basal ganglia of adult deer mice reared in EE and standard housing. Significant increases in neuronal activation and dendritic spine densities were observed only in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus (GP), and only for those mice that exhibited an EE-induced decrease in repetitive motor behavior. As the STN and GP lie within the indirect pathway, these data suggest that EE-induced attenuation of repetitive motor behaviors is associated with increased functional activation of the indirect basal ganglia pathway. These results are consistent with our other findings highlighting the importance of the indirect pathway in mediating repetitive motor behaviors. PMID:26620495

  3. ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Junge, Wolfgang; Nelson, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is the principal converter of sunlight into chemical energy. Cyanobacteria and plants provide aerobic life with oxygen, food, fuel, fibers, and platform chemicals. Four multisubunit membrane proteins are involved: photosystem I (PSI), photosystem II (PSII), cytochrome b6f (cyt b6f), and ATP synthase (FOF1). ATP synthase is likewise a key enzyme of cell respiration. Over three billion years, the basic machinery of oxygenic photosynthesis and respiration has been perfected to minimize wasteful reactions. The proton-driven ATP synthase is embedded in a proton tight-coupling membrane. It is composed of two rotary motors/generators, FO and F1, which do not slip against each other. The proton-driven FO and the ATP-synthesizing F1 are coupled via elastic torque transmission. Elastic transmission decouples the two motors in kinetic detail but keeps them perfectly coupled in thermodynamic equilibrium and (time-averaged) under steady turnover. Elastic transmission enables operation with different gear ratios in different organisms.

  4. ATP release and contraction mediated by different P2-receptor subtypes in guinea-pig ileal smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Katsuichi; Katsuragi, Takeshi; Fujiki, Sono; Sato, Chiemi; Furukawa, Tatsuo

    1997-01-01

    The present study was addressed to clarify the subtypes of P2-purinoceptor involved in ATP release and contraction evoked by α,β-methylene ATP (α,β-mATP) and other P2-agonists in guinea-pig ileum.α,β-mATP 100 μM produced a transient and steep contraction followed by ATP release from tissue segments. These maximum responses appeared with different time-courses and their ED50 values were 5 and 25 μM, respectively. The maximum release of ATP by α,β-mATP was markedly reduced by 250 μM suramin, 30 μM pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2′,5′-disulphonic acid (PPADS) and 30 μM reactive blue 2 (RB-2), P2-receptor antagonists. However, the contractile response was inhibited by suramin, tetrodotoxin and atropine, but not by PPADS and RB-2.Although the contraction caused by α,β-mATP was strongly diminished by Ca2+-removal and nifedipine, and also by tetrodotoxin and atropine at 0.3 μM, the release of ATP was virtually unaffected by these procedures.UTP, β,γ-methylene ATP (β,γ-mATP) and ADP at 100 μM elicited a moderate release of ATP. The release caused by UTP was virtually unaffected by RB-2. However, these P2-agonists failed to elicit a contraction of the segment.The potency order of all the agonists tested for the release of ATP was α,β-mATP>UTP>β,γ-mATP>ADP.In superfusion experiments with cultured smooth muscle cells from the ileum, α,β-mATP (100 μM) enhanced the release of ATP 5 fold above the basal value. This evoked release was inhibited by RB-2.These findings suggest that ATP release and contraction induced by P2-agonists such as α,β-mATP in the guinea-pig ileum result mainly from stimulation of different P2-purinoceptors, P2Y-like purinoceptors on the smooth muscles and, probably, P2X-purinoceptors on cholinergic nerve terminals, respectively. However, the ATP release may also be mediated, in part, by P2U-receptors, because UTP caused RB-2-insensitive ATP release. PMID:9283712

  5. ATP secretion in the male reproductive tract: essential role of CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Ye Chun; Shum, Winnie W C; Belleannée, Clémence; Da Silva, Nicolas; Breton, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular ATP is essential for the function of the epididymis and spermatozoa, but ATP release in the epididymis remains uncharacterized. We investigated here whether epithelial cells release ATP into the lumen of the epididymis, and we examined the role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a Cl− and HCO3− conducting ion channel known to be associated with male fertility, in this process. Immunofluorescence labelling of mouse cauda epididymidis showed expression of CFTR in principal cells but not in other epithelial cells. CFTR mRNA was not detectable in clear cells isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) from B1-EGFP mice, which express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) exclusively in these cells in the epididymis. ATP release was detected from the mouse epididymal principal cell line (DC2) and increased by adrenaline and forskolin. Inhibition of CFTR with CFTRinh172 and transfection with CFTR-specific siRNAs in DC2 cells reduced basal and forskolin-activated ATP release. CFTR-dependent ATP release was also observed in primary cultures of mouse epididymal epithelial cells. In addition, steady-state ATP release was detected in vivo in mice, by measuring ATP concentration in a solution perfused through the lumen of the cauda epididymidis tubule and collected by cannulation of the vas deferens. Luminal CFTRinh172 reduced the ATP concentration detected in the perfusate. This study shows that CFTR is involved in the regulation of ATP release from principal cells in the cauda epididymidis. Given that mutations in CFTR are a leading cause of male infertility, we propose that defective ATP signalling in the epididymis might contribute to dysfunction of the male reproductive tract associated with these mutations. PMID:22711960

  6. 2-MeS-β,γ-CCl2-ATP is a Potent Agent for Reducing Intraocular Pressure†

    PubMed Central

    Eliahu, Shay; Martín-Gil, Alba; de Lara, María Jesús Perez; Pintor, Jesús; Camden, Jean; Weisman, Gary A.; Lecka, Joanna; Sévigny, Jean; Fischer, Bilha

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular nucleotides can modify the production or drainage of the aqueous humor via activation of P2 receptors and therefore affect the intraocular pressure (IOP). We have synthesized slowly hydrolyzable nucleoside di- and triphosphate analogues, 1, and 8–14. Analogues 8–14 were completely resistant to hydrolysis by alkaline phosphatase over 30 min at 37 °C. In human blood serum, analogues 8–14 exhibited high stability, e.g., analogues 9 and 10–14 were only 15% and 0% degraded after 24 h, respectively. Moreover, analogues 8–14 were highly stable at pH 1.4 (t1/21 h–30 days). Analogues 8–14 were agonists of the P2Y1 receptor (EC50 0.57–9.54μM). Ocular administration of most analogues into rabbits reduced IOP, e.g., analogue 9 reduced IOP by 32% (EC50 95.5 nM). Analogue 9 was more effective at reducing IOP than several common glaucoma drugs and represents a promising alternative to timolol maleate, which cannot be used for the treatment of patients suffering from asthma or cardiac problems. PMID:20337495

  7. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase (ATPS) from the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774

    SciTech Connect

    Gavel, Olga Yu.; Kladova, Anna V.; Bursakov, Sergey A.; Dias, João M.; Texeira, Susana; Shnyrov, Valery L.; Moura, José J. G.; Moura, Isabel; Romão, Maria J.; Trincão, José

    2008-07-01

    Native zinc-containing ATP sulfurylase from D. desulfuricans ATCC 27774 was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.5 Å resolution. Native zinc/cobalt-containing ATP sulfurylase (ATPS; EC 2.7.7.4; MgATP:sulfate adenylyltransferase) from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The orthorhombic crystals diffracted to beyond 2.5 Å resolution and the X-ray data collected should allow the determination of the structure of the zinc-bound form of this ATPS. Although previous biochemical studies of this protein indicated the presence of a homotrimer in solution, a dimer was found in the asymmetric unit. Elucidation of this structure will permit a better understanding of the role of the metal in the activity and stability of this family of enzymes.

  8. Reduced insulin-receptor mediated modulation of striatal dopamine release by basal insulin as a possible contributing factor to hyperdopaminergia in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Hahn, Margaret; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Gerretsen, Philip; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe and chronic neuropsychiatric disorder which affects 1% of the world population. Using the brain imaging technique positron emission tomography (PET) it has been demonstrated that persons with schizophrenia have greater dopamine transmission in the striatum compared to healthy controls. However, little progress has been made as to elucidating other biological mechanisms which may account for this hyperdopaminergic state in this disease. Studies in animals have demonstrated that insulin receptors are expressed on midbrain dopamine neurons, and that insulin from the periphery acts on these receptors to modify dopamine transmission in the striatum. This is pertinent given that several lines of evidence suggest that insulin receptor functioning may be abnormal in the brains of persons with schizophrenia. Post-mortem studies have shown that persons with schizophrenia have less than half the number of cortical insulin receptors compared to healthy persons. Moreover, these post-mortem findings are unlikely due to the effects of antipsychotic treatment; studies in cell lines and animals suggest antipsychotics enhance insulin receptor functioning. Further, hyperinsulinemia – even prior to antipsychotic use – seems to be related to less psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Collectively, these data suggest that midbrain insulin receptor functioning may be abnormal in persons with schizophrenia, resulting in reduced insulin-mediated regulation of dopamine transmission in the striatum. Such a deficit may account for the hyperdopaminergic state observed in these patients and would help guide the development of novel treatment strategies. We hypothesize that, (i) insulin receptor expression and/or function is reduced in midbrain dopamine neurons in persons with schizophrenia, (ii) basal insulin should reduce dopaminergic transmission in the striatum via these receptors, and (iii) this modulation of dopaminergic transmission by basal

  9. Central relaxin-3 receptor (RXFP3) activation reduces elevated, but not basal, anxiety-like behaviour in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cary; Chua, Berenice E; Yang, Annie; Shabanpoor, Fazel; Hossain, Mohammad Akhter; Wade, John D; Rosengren, K Johan; Smith, Craig M; Gundlach, Andrew L

    2015-10-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent neuropsychiatric conditions, but their precise aetiology and underlying pathophysiological processes remain poorly understood. In light of putative anatomical and functional interactions of the relaxin-3/RXFP3 system with anxiety-related neural circuits, we assessed the ability of central administration of the RXFP3 agonist, RXFP3-A2, to alter anxiety-like behaviours in adult C57BL/6J mice. We assessed how RXFP3-A2 altered performance in tests measuring rodent anxiety-like behaviour (large open field (LOF), elevated plus maze (EPM), light/dark (L/D) box, social interaction). We examined effects of RXFP3-A2 on low 'basal' anxiety, and on elevated anxiety induced by the anxiogenic benzodiazepine, FG-7142; and explored endogenous relaxin-3/RXFP3 signalling modulation by testing effects of an RXFP3 antagonist, R3(B1-22)R, on these behaviours. Intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of RXFP3-A2 (1 nmol, 15 min pre-test) did not alter anxiety-like behaviour under 'basal' conditions in the LOF, EPM or L/D box, but reduced elevated indices of FG-7142-induced (30 mg/kg, ip) anxiety-like behaviour in the L/D box and a single-chamber social interaction test. Furthermore, R3(B1-22)R (4 nmol, icv, 15 min pre-test) increased anxiety-like behaviour in the EPM (reflected by reduced entries into the open arms), but not consistently in the LOF, L/D box or social interaction tests, suggesting endogenous signaling only weakly participates in regulating 'basal' anxiety-like behaviour, in line with previous studies of relaxin-3 and RXFP3 gene knockout mice. Overall, these data suggest exogenous RXFP3 agonists can reduce elevated (FG-7142-induced) levels of anxiety in mice; data important for gauging how conserved such effects are, with a view to modelling human pathophysiology and the likely therapeutic potential of RXFP3-targeted drugs.

  10. Application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 reduces the development of Ganoderma basal stem rot disease in oil palm seedlings.

    PubMed

    Sundram, Shamala; Meon, Sariah; Seman, Idris Abu; Othman, Radziah

    2015-07-01

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in combination with endophytic bacteria (EB) in reducing development of basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) was investigated. BSR caused by Ganoderma boninense leads to devastating economic loss and the oil palm industry is struggling to control the disease. The application of two AMF with two EB as biocontrol agents was assessed in the nursery and subsequently, repeated in the field using bait seedlings. Seedlings pre-inoculated with a combination of Glomus intraradices UT126, Glomus clarum BR152B and Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly reduced disease development measured as the area under disease progression curve (AUDPC) and the epidemic rate (R L) of disease in the nursery. A 20-month field trial using similar treatments evaluated disease development in bait seedlings based on the rotting area/advancement assessed in cross-sections of the seedling base. Data show that application of Glomus intraradices UT126 singly reduced disease development of BSR, but that combination of the two AMF with P. aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly improved biocontrol efficacy in both nursery and fields reducing BSR disease to 57 and 80%, respectively. The successful use of bait seedlings in the natural environment to study BSR development represents a promising alternative to nursery trial testing in the field with shorter temporal assessment.

  11. Decline of Phosphotransfer and Substrate Supply Metabolic Circuits Hinders ATP Cycling in Aging Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Nemutlu, Emirhan; Gupta, Anu; Zhang, Song; Viqar, Maria; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson; Terzic, Andre; Jahangir, Arshad; Dzeja, Petras

    2015-01-01

    Integration of mitochondria with cytosolic ATP-consuming/ATP-sensing and substrate supply processes is critical for muscle bioenergetics and electrical activity. Whether age-dependent muscle weakness and increased electrical instability depends on perturbations in cellular energetic circuits is unknown. To define energetic remodeling of aged atrial myocardium we tracked dynamics of ATP synthesis-utilization, substrate supply, and phosphotransfer circuits through adenylate kinase (AK), creatine kinase (CK), and glycolytic/glycogenolytic pathways using 18O stable isotope-based phosphometabolomic technology. Samples of intact atrial myocardium from adult and aged rats were subjected to 18O-labeling procedure at resting basal state, and analyzed using the 18O-assisted HPLC-GC/MS technique. Characteristics for aging atria were lower inorganic phosphate Pi[18O], γ-ATP[18O], β-ADP[18O], and creatine phosphate CrP[18O] 18O-labeling rates indicating diminished ATP utilization-synthesis and AK and CK phosphotransfer fluxes. Shift in dynamics of glycolytic phosphotransfer was reflected in the diminished G6P[18O] turnover with relatively constant glycogenolytic flux or G1P[18O] 18O-labeling. Labeling of G3P[18O], an indicator of G3P-shuttle activity and substrate supply to mitochondria, was depressed in aged myocardium. Aged atrial myocardium displayed reduced incorporation of 18O into second (18O2), third (18O3), and fourth (18O4) positions of Pi[18O] and a lower Pi[18O]/γ-ATP[18 O]-labeling ratio, indicating delayed energetic communication and ATP cycling between mitochondria and cellular ATPases. Adrenergic stress alleviated diminished CK flux, AK catalyzed β-ATP turnover and energetic communication in aging atria. Thus, 18O-assisted phosphometabolomics uncovered simultaneous phosphotransfer through AK, CK, and glycolytic pathways and G3P substrate shuttle deficits hindering energetic communication and ATP cycling, which may underlie energetic vulnerability of aging

  12. Decline of Phosphotransfer and Substrate Supply Metabolic Circuits Hinders ATP Cycling in Aging Myocardium.

    PubMed

    Nemutlu, Emirhan; Gupta, Anu; Zhang, Song; Viqar, Maria; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson; Terzic, Andre; Jahangir, Arshad; Dzeja, Petras

    2015-01-01

    Integration of mitochondria with cytosolic ATP-consuming/ATP-sensing and substrate supply processes is critical for muscle bioenergetics and electrical activity. Whether age-dependent muscle weakness and increased electrical instability depends on perturbations in cellular energetic circuits is unknown. To define energetic remodeling of aged atrial myocardium we tracked dynamics of ATP synthesis-utilization, substrate supply, and phosphotransfer circuits through adenylate kinase (AK), creatine kinase (CK), and glycolytic/glycogenolytic pathways using 18O stable isotope-based phosphometabolomic technology. Samples of intact atrial myocardium from adult and aged rats were subjected to 18O-labeling procedure at resting basal state, and analyzed using the 18O-assisted HPLC-GC/MS technique. Characteristics for aging atria were lower inorganic phosphate Pi[18O], γ-ATP[18O], β-ADP[18O], and creatine phosphate CrP[18O] 18O-labeling rates indicating diminished ATP utilization-synthesis and AK and CK phosphotransfer fluxes. Shift in dynamics of glycolytic phosphotransfer was reflected in the diminished G6P[18O] turnover with relatively constant glycogenolytic flux or G1P[18O] 18O-labeling. Labeling of G3P[18O], an indicator of G3P-shuttle activity and substrate supply to mitochondria, was depressed in aged myocardium. Aged atrial myocardium displayed reduced incorporation of 18O into second (18O2), third (18O3), and fourth (18O4) positions of Pi[18O] and a lower Pi[18O]/γ-ATP[18 O]-labeling ratio, indicating delayed energetic communication and ATP cycling between mitochondria and cellular ATPases. Adrenergic stress alleviated diminished CK flux, AK catalyzed β-ATP turnover and energetic communication in aging atria. Thus, 18O-assisted phosphometabolomics uncovered simultaneous phosphotransfer through AK, CK, and glycolytic pathways and G3P substrate shuttle deficits hindering energetic communication and ATP cycling, which may underlie energetic vulnerability of aging

  13. Mutating the Conserved Q-loop Glutamine 1291 Selectively Disrupts Adenylate Kinase-dependent Channel Gating of the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) and Reduces Channel Function in Primary Human Airway Epithelia.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qian; Ernst, Sarah E; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Shah, Viral S; Ver Heul, Amanda R; Welsh, Michael J; Randak, Christoph O

    2015-05-29

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and two other non-membrane-bound ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein, exhibit adenylate kinase activity in the presence of physiologic concentrations of ATP and AMP or ADP (ATP + AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). The crystal structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of an SMC protein in complex with the adenylate kinase bisubstrate inhibitor P(1),P(5)-di(adenosine-5') pentaphosphate (Ap5A) suggests that AMP binds to the conserved Q-loop glutamine during the adenylate kinase reaction. Therefore, we hypothesized that mutating the corresponding residue in CFTR, Gln-1291, selectively disrupts adenylate kinase-dependent channel gating at physiologic nucleotide concentrations. We found that substituting Gln-1291 with bulky side-chain amino acids abolished the effects of Ap5A, AMP, and adenosine 5'-monophosphoramidate on CFTR channel function. 8-Azidoadenosine 5'-monophosphate photolabeling of the AMP-binding site and adenylate kinase activity were disrupted in Q1291F CFTR. The Gln-1291 mutations did not alter the potency of ATP at stimulating current or ATP-dependent gating when ATP was the only nucleotide present. However, when physiologic concentrations of ADP and AMP were added, adenylate kinase-deficient Q1291F channels opened significantly less than wild type. Consistent with this result, we found that Q1291F CFTR displayed significantly reduced Cl(-) channel function in well differentiated primary human airway epithelia. These results indicate that a highly conserved residue of an ABC transporter plays an important role in adenylate kinase-dependent CFTR gating. Furthermore, the results suggest that adenylate kinase activity is important for normal CFTR channel function in airway epithelia.

  14. Mutating the Conserved Q-loop Glutamine 1291 Selectively Disrupts Adenylate Kinase-dependent Channel Gating of the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) and Reduces Channel Function in Primary Human Airway Epithelia*

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Qian; Ernst, Sarah E.; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Shah, Viral S.; Ver Heul, Amanda R.; Welsh, Michael J.; Randak, Christoph O.

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and two other non-membrane-bound ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein, exhibit adenylate kinase activity in the presence of physiologic concentrations of ATP and AMP or ADP (ATP + AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). The crystal structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of an SMC protein in complex with the adenylate kinase bisubstrate inhibitor P1,P5-di(adenosine-5′) pentaphosphate (Ap5A) suggests that AMP binds to the conserved Q-loop glutamine during the adenylate kinase reaction. Therefore, we hypothesized that mutating the corresponding residue in CFTR, Gln-1291, selectively disrupts adenylate kinase-dependent channel gating at physiologic nucleotide concentrations. We found that substituting Gln-1291 with bulky side-chain amino acids abolished the effects of Ap5A, AMP, and adenosine 5′-monophosphoramidate on CFTR channel function. 8-Azidoadenosine 5′-monophosphate photolabeling of the AMP-binding site and adenylate kinase activity were disrupted in Q1291F CFTR. The Gln-1291 mutations did not alter the potency of ATP at stimulating current or ATP-dependent gating when ATP was the only nucleotide present. However, when physiologic concentrations of ADP and AMP were added, adenylate kinase-deficient Q1291F channels opened significantly less than wild type. Consistent with this result, we found that Q1291F CFTR displayed significantly reduced Cl− channel function in well differentiated primary human airway epithelia. These results indicate that a highly conserved residue of an ABC transporter plays an important role in adenylate kinase-dependent CFTR gating. Furthermore, the results suggest that adenylate kinase activity is important for normal CFTR channel function in airway epithelia. PMID:25887396

  15. EP2 receptors mediate airway relaxation to substance P, ATP, and PGE2.

    PubMed

    Fortner, C N; Breyer, R M; Paul, R J

    2001-08-01

    Substance P (SP) and ATP evoke transient, epithelium-dependent relaxation of constricted mouse tracheal smooth muscle. Relaxation to either SP or ATP is blocked by indomethacin, but the specific eicosanoid(s) involved have not been definitively identified. SP and ATP are reported to release PGE2 from airway epithelium in other species, suggesting PGE2 as a likely mediator in epithelium-dependent airway relaxation. Using mice homozygous for a gene-targeted deletion of the EP2 receptor [EP2(-/-)], one of the PGE2 receptors, we tested the hypothesis that PGE2 is the primary mediator of relaxation to SP or ATP. Relaxation in response to SP or ATP was significantly reduced in tracheas from EP2(-/-) mice. There were no differences between EP2(-/-) and wild-type tracheas in their physical dimensions, contraction to ACh, or relaxation to isoproterenol, thus ruling out any general alterations of smooth muscle function. There were also no differences between EP2(-/-) and wild-type tracheas in basal or stimulated PGE2 production. Exogenous PGE2 produced significantly less relaxation in EP2(-/-) tracheas compared with the wild type. Taken together, this experimental evidence supports the following two conclusions: EP2 receptors are of primary importance in airway relaxation to PGE2 and relaxation to SP or ATP is mediated through PGE2 acting on EP2 receptors.

  16. Adolescent binge-like ethanol exposure reduces basal α-MSH expression in the hypothalamus and the amygdala of adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Lerma-Cabrera, Jose Manuel; Carvajal, Francisca; Alcaraz-Iborra, Manuel; de la Fuente, Leticia; Navarro, Montserrat; Thiele, Todd E.; Cubero, Inmaculada

    2013-01-01

    Melanocortins (MC) are central peptides that have been implicated in the modulation of ethanol consumption. There is experimental evidence that chronic ethanol exposure reduces α-MSH expression in limbic and hypothalamic brain regions and alters central pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA activity in adult rats. Adolescence is a critical developmental period of high vulnerability in which ethanol exposure alters corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, substance P and neurokinin neuropeptide activities, all of which have key roles in ethanol consumption. Given the involvement of MC and the endogenous inverse agonist AgRP in ethanol drinking, here we evaluate whether a binge-like pattern of ethanol treatment during adolescence has a relevant impact on basal and/or ethanol-stimulated α-MSH and AgRP activities during adulthood. To this end, adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (beginning at PND25) were pre-treated with either saline (SP group) or binge-like ethanol exposure (BEP group; 3.0 g/kg given in intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections) of one injection per day over two consecutive days, followed by 2 days without injections, repeated for a total of 8 injections. Following 25 ethanol-free days, we evaluated α-MSH and AgRP immunoreactivity (IR) in the limbic and hypothalamic nuclei of adult rats (PND63) in response to ethanol (1.5 or 3.0 g/kg i.p.) and saline. We found that binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence significantly reduced basal α-MSH IR in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), the arcuate nucleus (Arc) and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) during adulthood. Additionally, acute ethanol elicited AgRP IR in the Arc. Rats given the adolescent ethanol treatment required higher doses of ethanol than saline-treated rats to express AgRP. In light of previous evidence that endogenous MC and AgRP regulate ethanol intake through MC-receptor signaling, we speculate that the α-MSH and AgRP disturbances induced by binge-like ethanol

  17. Adolescent binge-like ethanol exposure reduces basal α-MSH expression in the hypothalamus and the amygdala of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Lerma-Cabrera, Jose Manuel; Carvajal, Francisca; Alcaraz-Iborra, Manuel; de la Fuente, Leticia; Navarro, Montserrat; Thiele, Todd E; Cubero, Inmaculada

    2013-09-01

    Melanocortins (MC) are central peptides that have been implicated in the modulation of ethanol consumption. There is experimental evidence that chronic ethanol exposure reduces α-MSH expression in the limbic and hypothalamic brain regions and alters central pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA activity in adult rats. Adolescence is a critical developmental period of high vulnerability in which ethanol exposure alters corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, substance P and neurokinin neuropeptide activities, all of which have key roles in ethanol consumption. Given the involvement of MC and the endogenous inverse agonist AgRP in ethanol drinking, here we evaluate whether a binge-like pattern of ethanol treatment during adolescence has a relevant impact on basal and/or ethanol-stimulated α-MSH and AgRP activities during adulthood. To this end, adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (beginning at PND25) were pre-treated with either saline (SP group) or binge-like ethanol exposure (BEP group; 3.0 g/kg given in intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections) of one injection per day over two consecutive days, followed by 2 days without injections, repeated for a total of 8 injections. Following 25 ethanol-free days, we evaluated α-MSH and AgRP immunoreactivity (IR) in the limbic and hypothalamic nuclei of adult rats (PND63) in response to ethanol (1.5 or 3.0 g/kgi.p.) and saline. We found that binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence significantly reduced basal α-MSH IR in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), the arcuate nucleus (Arc) and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) during adulthood. Additionally, acute ethanol elicited AgRP IR in the Arc. Rats given the adolescent ethanol treatment required higher doses of ethanol than saline-treated rats to express AgRP. In light of previous evidence that endogenous MC and AgRP regulate ethanol intake through MC-receptor signaling, we speculate that the α-MSH and AgRP disturbances induced by binge

  18. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Basal cell carcinoma Overview Basal cell carcinoma: This skin cancer ... that has received years of sun exposure. Basal cell carcinoma: Overview Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the ...

  19. Basal cell cancer (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Basal cell cancer is a malignant skin tumor involving cancerous changes of basal skin cells. Basal cell skin cancers ... biopsy is needed to prove the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. Treatment varies depending on the size, depth, and ...

  20. Role of ATP-dependent potassium channels in pulmonary vascular tone of fetal lambs with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    PubMed

    de Buys Roessingh, Anthony S; de Lagausie, Pascal; Barbet, Jacques-Patrick; Mercier, Jean-Christophe; Aigrain, Yves; Dinh-Xuan, Anh Tuan

    2006-11-01

    High mortality in newborn babies with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is principally due to persistent pulmonary hypertension. ATP-dependent potassium (K(ATP)) channels might modulate pulmonary vascular tone. We have assessed the effects of Pinacidil, a K(ATP) channel opener, and glibenclamide (GLI), a K(ATP) channel blocker, in near full-term lambs with and without CDH. In vivo, pulmonary hemodynamics were assessed by means of pressure and blood flow catheters. In vitro, we used isolated pulmonary vessels and immunohistochemistry to detect the presence of K(ATP) channels in pulmonary tissue. In vivo, pinacidil (2 mg) significantly reduced pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in both controls and CDH animals. GLI (30 mg) significantly increased pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and PVR in control animals only. In vitro, pinacidil (10 microM) relaxed, precontracted arteries from lambs with and without CDH. GLI (10(-5) microM) did not raise the basal tone of vessels. We conclude that activation of K(ATP) channels could be of interest to reduce pulmonary vascular tone in fetal lambs with CDH, a condition often associated with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

  1. Hypophosphatemia promotes lower rates of muscle ATP synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Pesta, Dominik H.; Tsirigotis, Dimitrios N.; Befroy, Douglas E.; Caballero, Daniel; Jurczak, Michael J.; Rahimi, Yasmeen; Cline, Gary W.; Dufour, Sylvie; Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Rothman, Douglas L.; Carpenter, Thomas O.; Insogna, Karl; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Bergwitz, Clemens; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2016-01-01

    Hypophosphatemia can lead to muscle weakness and respiratory and heart failure, but the mechanism is unknown. To address this question, we noninvasively assessed rates of muscle ATP synthesis in hypophosphatemic mice by using in vivo saturation transfer [31P]-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. By using this approach, we found that basal and insulin-stimulated rates of muscle ATP synthetic flux (VATP) and plasma inorganic phosphate (Pi) were reduced by 50% in mice with diet-induced hypophosphatemia as well as in sodium-dependent Pi transporter solute carrier family 34, member 1 (NaPi2a)-knockout (NaPi2a−/−) mice compared with their wild-type littermate controls. Rates of VATP normalized in both hypophosphatemic groups after restoring plasma Pi concentrations. Furthermore, VATP was directly related to cellular and mitochondrial Pi uptake in L6 and RC13 rodent myocytes and isolated muscle mitochondria. Similar findings were observed in a patient with chronic hypophosphatemia as a result of a mutation in SLC34A3 who had a 50% reduction in both serum Pi content and muscle VATP. After oral Pi repletion and normalization of serum Pi levels, muscle VATP completely normalized in the patient. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that decreased muscle ATP synthesis, in part, may be caused by low blood Pi concentrations, which may explain some aspects of muscle weakness observed in patients with hypophosphatemia.—Pesta, D. H., Tsirigotis, D. N., Befroy, D. E., Caballero, D., Jurczak, M. J., Rahimi, Y., Cline, G. W., Dufour, S., Birkenfeld, A. L., Rothman, D. L., Carpenter, T. O., Insogna, K., Petersen, K. F., Bergwitz, C., Shulman, G. I. Hypophosphatemia promotes lower rates of muscle ATP synthesis. PMID:27338702

  2. S-Sulfhydration of ATP synthase by hydrogen sulfide stimulates mitochondrial bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Módis, Katalin; Ju, YoungJun; Ahmad, Akbar; Untereiner, Ashley A; Altaany, Zaid; Wu, Lingyun; Szabo, Csaba; Wang, Rui

    2016-11-01

    Mammalian cells can utilize hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to support mitochondrial respiration. The aim of our study was to explore the potential role of S-sulfhydration (a H2S-induced posttranslational modification, also known as S-persulfidation) of the mitochondrial inner membrane protein ATP synthase (F1F0 ATP synthase/Complex V) in the regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics. Using a biotin switch assay, we have detected S-sulfhydration of the α subunit (ATP5A1) of ATP synthase in response to exposure to H2S in vitro. The H2S generator compound NaHS induced S-sulfhydration of ATP5A1 in HepG2 and HEK293 cell lysates in a concentration-dependent manner (50-300μM). The activity of immunocaptured mitochondrial ATP synthase enzyme isolated from HepG2 and HEK293 cells was stimulated by NaHS at low concentrations (10-100nM). Site-directed mutagenesis of ATP5A1 in HEK293 cells demonstrated that cysteine residues at positions 244 and 294 are subject to S-sulfhydration. The double mutant ATP synthase protein (C244S/C294S) showed a significantly reduced enzyme activity compared to control and the single-cysteine-mutated recombinant proteins (C244S or C294S). To determine whether endogenous H2S plays a role in the basal S-sulfhydration of ATP synthase in vivo, we compared liver tissues harvested from wild-type mice and mice deficient in cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE, one of the three principal mammalian H2S-producing enzymes). Significantly reduced S-sulfhydration of ATP5A1 was observed in liver homogenates of CSE(-/-) mice, compared to wild-type mice, suggesting a physiological role for CSE-derived endogenous H2S production in the S-sulfhydration of ATP synthase. Various forms of critical illness (including burn injury) upregulate H2S-producing enzymes and stimulate H2S biosynthesis. In liver tissues collected from mice subjected to burn injury, we detected an increased S-sulfhydration of ATP5A1 at the early time points post-burn. At later time points (when systemic H2S

  3. Polarized sorting of the copper transporter ATP7B in neurons mediated by recognition of a dileucine signal by AP-1.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shweta; Farías, Ginny G; Bonifacino, Juan S

    2015-01-15

    Neurons are highly polarized cells having distinct somatodendritic and axonal domains. Here we report that polarized sorting of the Cu(2+) transporter ATP7B and the vesicle-SNARE VAMP4 to the somatodendritic domain of rat hippocampal neurons is mediated by recognition of dileucine-based signals in the cytosolic domains of the proteins by the σ1 subunit of the clathrin adaptor AP-1. Under basal Cu(2+) conditions, ATP7B was localized to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the plasma membrane of the soma and dendrites but not the axon. Mutation of a dileucine-based signal in ATP7B or overexpression of a dominant-negative σ1 mutant resulted in nonpolarized distribution of ATP7B between the somatodendritic and axonal domains. Furthermore, addition of high Cu(2+) concentrations, previously shown to reduce ATP7B incorporation into AP-1-containing clathrin-coated vesicles, caused loss of TGN localization and somatodendritic polarity of ATP7B. These findings support the notion of AP-1 as an effector of polarized sorting in neurons and suggest that altered polarity of ATP7B in polarized cell types might contribute to abnormal copper metabolism in the MEDNIK syndrome, a neurocutaneous disorder caused by mutations in the σ1A subunit isoform of AP-1.

  4. Transcription Factors Sp1 and Hif2α Mediate Induction of the Copper-transporting ATPase (Atp7a) Gene in Intestinal Epithelial Cells during Hypoxia*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Liwei; Collins, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Genes with G/C-rich promoters were up-regulated in the duodenal epithelium of iron-deficient rats including those encoding iron (e.g. Dmt1 and Dcytb) and copper (e.g. Atp7a and Mt1) metabolism-related proteins. It was shown previously that an intestinal copper transporter (Atp7a) was co-regulated with iron transport-related genes by a hypoxia-inducible transcription factor, Hif2α. In the current study, we sought to test the role of Sp1 in transcriptional regulation of Atp7a expression during iron deprivation/hypoxia. Initial studies in IEC-6 cells showed that mithramycin, an Sp1 inhibitor, reduced expression of Atp7a and iron transport-related genes (Dmt1, Dcytb, and Fpn1) and blocked their induction by CoCl2, a hypoxia mimetic. Consistent with this, overexpression of Sp1 increased endogenous Atp7a mRNA and protein expression and stimulated Atp7a, Dmt1, and Dcytb promoter activity. Site-directed mutagenesis and functional analysis of a basal Atp7a promoter construct revealed four functional Sp1 binding sites that were necessary for Hif2α-mediated induction of promoter activity. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed that Sp1 specifically interacts with the Atp7a promoter in IEC-6 cells and in rat duodenal enterocytes. This investigation has thus revealed a novel aspect of Atp7a gene regulation in which Sp1 may be necessary for the HIF-mediated induction of gene transcription during iron deficiency/hypoxia. Understanding regulation of Atp7a expression may help further clarify the physiological role of copper in the maintenance of iron homeostasis. Furthermore, this Sp1/Hif2α regulatory mechanism may have broader implications for understanding the genetic response of the intestinal epithelium to maintain whole-body iron homeostasis during states of deficiency. PMID:23814049

  5. Sertraline reduces glutamate uptake in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Débora Olmedo; Bristot, Ivi Juliana; Klamt, Fábio; Frizzo, Marcos Emílio

    2015-12-01

    Mitochondrial damage and declines in ATP levels have been recently attributed to sertraline. The effects of sertraline on different parameters were investigated in washed platelets from 18 healthy male volunteers, after 24h of drug exposure. Sertraline toxicity was observed only at the highest concentrations, 30 and 100 μM, which significantly reduced platelet viability to 76 ± 3% and 20 ± 2%, respectively. The same concentrations significantly decreased total ATP to 73 ± 3% and 13 ± 2%, respectively. Basal values of glycogen were not significantly affected by sertraline treatment. Glutamate uptake was significantly reduced after treatment with 3, 30 and 100 μM, by 28 ± 6%, 32 ± 5% and 54 ± 4%, respectively. Our data showed that sertraline at therapeutic concentrations does not compromise platelet viability and ATP levels, but they suggest that in a situation where extracellular glutamate levels are potentially increased, sertraline might aggravate an excitotoxic condition.

  6. External Dentin Stimulation Induces ATP Release in Human Teeth.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Wang, C; Fujita, T; Malmstrom, H S; Nedergaard, M; Ren, Y F; Dirksen, R T

    2015-09-01

    ATP is involved in neurosensory processing, including nociceptive transduction. Thus, ATP signaling may participate in dentin hypersensitivity and dental pain. In this study, we investigated whether pannexins, which can form mechanosensitive ATP-permeable channels, are present in human dental pulp. We also assessed the existence and functional activity of ecto-ATPase for extracellular ATP degradation. We further tested if ATP is released from dental pulp upon dentin mechanical or thermal stimulation that induces dentin hypersensitivity and dental pain and if pannexin or pannexin/gap junction channel blockers reduce stimulation-dependent ATP release. Using immunofluorescence staining, we demonstrated immunoreactivity of pannexin 1 and 2 in odontoblasts and their processes extending into the dentin tubules. Using enzymatic histochemistry staining, we also demonstrated functional ecto-ATPase activity within the odontoblast layer, subodontoblast layer, dental pulp nerve bundles, and blood vessels. Using an ATP bioluminescence assay, we found that mechanical or cold stimulation to the exposed dentin induced ATP release in an in vitro human tooth perfusion model. We further demonstrated that blocking pannexin/gap junction channels with probenecid or carbenoxolone significantly reduced external dentin stimulation-induced ATP release. Our results provide evidence for the existence of functional machinery required for ATP release and degradation in human dental pulp and that pannexin channels are involved in external dentin stimulation-induced ATP release. These findings support a plausible role for ATP signaling in dentin hypersensitivity and dental pain.

  7. Customized ATP towpreg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandusky, Donald A.; Marchello, Joseph M.; Baucom, Robert M.; Johnston, Norman J.

    Automated tow placement (ATP) utilizes robotic technology to lay down adjacent polymer-matrix-impregnated carbon fiber tows on a tool surface. Consolidation and cure during ATP requires that void elimination and polymer matrix adhesion be accomplished in the short period of heating and pressure rolling that follows towpreg ribbon placement from the robot head to the tool. This study examined the key towpreg ribbon properties and dimensions which play a significant role in ATP. Analysis of the heat transfer process window indicates that adequate heating can be achieved at lay down rates as high as 1 m/sec. While heat transfer did not appear to be the limiting factor, resin flow and fiber movement into tow lap gaps could be. Accordingly, consideration was given to towpreg ribbon having uniform yet non-rectangular cross sections. Dimensional integrity of the towpreg ribbon combined with customized ribbon architecture offer great promise for processing advances in ATP of high performance composites.

  8. A Single Bout of Fasting (24 h) Reduces Basal Cytokine Expression and Minimally Impacts the Sterile Inflammatory Response in the White Adipose Tissue of Normal Weight F344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Paton, Madeline M.; Cox, Stewart S.

    2016-01-01

    Sterile inflammation occurs when inflammatory proteins are increased in blood and tissues by nonpathogenic states and is a double-edged sword depending on its cause (stress, injury, or disease), duration (transient versus chronic), and inflammatory milieu. Short-term fasting can exert a host of health benefits through unknown mechanisms. The following experiment tested if a 24 h fast would modulate basal and stress-evoked sterile inflammation in plasma and adipose. Adult male F344 rats were either randomized to ad libitum access to food or fasted for 24 h prior to 0 (control), 10, or 100, 1.5 mA-5 s intermittent, inescapable tail shocks (IS). Glucose, nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFAs), insulin, leptin, and corticosterone were measured in plasma and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, interleukin- (IL-) 1β, IL-6, and IL-10 in plasma, and subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, and visceral compartments of white adipose tissue (WAT). In control rats, a 24 h fast reduced all measured basal cytokines in plasma and visceral WAT, IL-1β and IL-6 in subcutaneous WAT, and IL-6 in intraperitoneal WAT. In stressed rats (IS), fasting reduced visceral WAT TNF-α, subcutaneous WAT IL-1β, and plasma insulin and leptin. Short-term fasting may thus prove to be a useful dietary strategy for reducing peripheral inflammatory states associated with visceral obesity and chronic stress. PMID:28077915

  9. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    NBCC syndrome; Gorlin-Goltz syndrome; Basal cell nevus syndrome; BCNS; Basal cell cancer - nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome ... Nevoid basal cell carcinoma nevus syndrome is a rare genetic condition. The gene linked to the syndrome is known as PTCH (" ...

  10. Imaging basal ganglia function

    PubMed Central

    BROOKS, DAVID J.

    2000-01-01

    In this review, the value of functional imaging for providing insight into the role of the basal ganglia in motor control is reviewed. Brain activation findings in normal subjects and Parkinson's disease patients are examined and evidence supporting the existence for functionally independent distributed basal ganglia-frontal loops is presented. It is argued that the basal ganglia probably act to focus and filter cortical output, optimising the running of motor programs. PMID:10923986

  11. ATP-sulfurylase, sulfur-compounds, and plant stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Naser A; Gill, Ritu; Kaushik, Manjeri; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal; Tuteja, Narendra; Gill, Sarvajeet S

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur (S) stands fourth in the list of major plant nutrients after N, P, and K. Sulfate (SO4 (2-)), a form of soil-S taken up by plant roots is metabolically inert. As the first committed step of S-assimilation, ATP-sulfurylase (ATP-S) catalyzes SO4 (2-)-activation and yields activated high-energy compound adenosine-5(')-phosphosulfate that is reduced to sulfide (S(2-)) and incorporated into cysteine (Cys). In turn, Cys acts as a precursor or donor of reduced S for a range of S-compounds such as methionine (Met), glutathione (GSH), homo-GSH (h-GSH), and phytochelatins (PCs). Among S-compounds, GSH, h-GSH, and PCs are known for their involvement in plant tolerance to varied abiotic stresses, Cys is a major component of GSH, h-GSH, and PCs; whereas, several key stress-metabolites such as ethylene, are controlled by Met through its first metabolite S-adenosylmethionine. With the major aim of briefly highlighting S-compound-mediated role of ATP-S in plant stress tolerance, this paper: (a) overviews ATP-S structure/chemistry and occurrence, (b) appraises recent literature available on ATP-S roles and regulations, and underlying mechanisms in plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance, (c) summarizes ATP-S-intrinsic regulation by major S-compounds, and (d) highlights major open-questions in the present context. Future research in the current direction can be devised based on the discussion outcomes.

  12. Structural Mechanism of Allosteric Activity Regulation in a Ribonucleotide Reductase with Double ATP Cones.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Renzo; Jonna, Venkateswara Rao; Kumar, Rohit; Nayeri, Niloofar; Lundin, Daniel; Sjöberg, Britt-Marie; Hofer, Anders; Logan, Derek T

    2016-06-07

    Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) reduce ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. Their overall activity is stimulated by ATP and downregulated by dATP via a genetically mobile ATP cone domain mediating the formation of oligomeric complexes with varying quaternary structures. The crystal structure and solution X-ray scattering data of a novel dATP-induced homotetramer of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa class I RNR reveal the structural bases for its unique properties, namely one ATP cone that binds two dATP molecules and a second one that is non-functional, binding no nucleotides. Mutations in the observed tetramer interface ablate oligomerization and dATP-induced inhibition but not the ability to bind dATP. Sequence analysis shows that the novel type of ATP cone may be widespread in RNRs. The present study supports a scenario in which diverse mechanisms for allosteric activity regulation are gained and lost through acquisition and evolutionary erosion of different types of ATP cone.

  13. Astrocytes inhibit nitric oxide-dependent Ca(2+) dynamics in activated microglia: involvement of ATP released via pannexin 1 channels.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Juan A; Montero, Trinidad D; von Bernhardi, Rommy

    2013-12-01

    Under inflammatory conditions, microglia exhibit increased levels of free intracellular Ca(2+) and produce high amounts of nitric oxide (NO). However, whether NO, Ca(2+) dynamics, and gliotransmitter release are reciprocally modulated is not fully understood. More importantly, the effect of astrocytes in the potentiation or suppression of such signaling is unknown. Our aim was to address if astrocytes could regulate NO-dependent Ca(2+) dynamics and ATP release in LPS-stimulated microglia. Griess assays and Fura-2AM time-lapse fluorescence images of microglia revealed that LPS produced an increased basal [Ca(2+) ]i that depended on the sequential activation of iNOS, COXs, and EP1 receptor. TGFβ1 released by astrocytes inhibited the abovementioned responses and also abolished LPS-induced ATP release by microglia. Luciferin/luciferase assays and dye uptake experiments showed that release of ATP from LPS-stimulated microglia occurred via pannexin 1 (Panx1) channels, but not connexin 43 hemichannels. Moreover, in LPS-stimulated microglia, exogenous ATP triggered activation of purinergic P2Y1 receptors resulting in Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores. Interestingly, TGFβ1 released by astrocytes inhibited ATP-induced Ca(2+) response in LPS-stimulated microglia to that observed in control microglia. Finally, COX/EP1 receptor signaling and activation of P2 receptors via ATP released through Panx1 channels were critical for the increased NO production in LPS-stimulated microglia. Thus, Ca(2+) dynamics depended on the inflammatory profile of microglia and could be modulated by astrocytes. The understanding of mechanisms underlying glial cell regulatory crosstalk could contribute to the development of new treatments to reduce inflammatory cytotoxicity in several brain pathologies.

  14. Curtains for ATP?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The administration's efforts to keep various technology-transfer programs afloat in the budget process appear to be stalled. House Science Committee chair Robert Walker (R-Pa.) advised in early April that the Republican agenda for the pending budget process entails zeroing out the Commerce Department's Advanced Technology Program (ATP), which was funded at 431 million in fiscal year 1995. The ATP would lose about 90 million from its FY 95 budget. Although Walker says that the Republican leadership has no intention to dictate to the subcommittees how cuts should be made, they will be held to the "fairly severe caps" established by the House Budget Committee. In other words, Walker says, if ATP stays, something else will have to go in its place. In addition, a bill to rescind about 223 million from the FY 1995 budget of the Technology Reinvestment Project and another 77 million from TRP's FY 1994 budget, which has not been spent, is heading for the president's signature. Yet Walker says while he supports the merits of technology transfer, "the question is do you have to create government programs to get the technology out?"

  15. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lanoue, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly occurring cancer in the world and overall incidence is still on the rise. While typically a slow-growing tumor for which metastases is rare, basal cell carcinoma can be locally destructive and disfiguring. Given the vast prevalence of this disease, there is a significant overall burden on patient well-being and quality of life. The current mainstay of basal cell carcinoma treatment involves surgical modalities, such as electrodessication and curettage, excision, cryosurgery, and Mohs micrographic surgery. Such methods are typically reserved for localized basal cell carcinoma and offer high five-year cure rates, but come with the risk of functional impairment, disfigurement, and scarring. Here, the authors review the evidence and indications for nonsurgical treatment modalities in cases where surgery is impractical, contraindicated, or simply not desired by the patient. PMID:27386043

  16. A metabolic link between mitochondrial ATP synthesis and liver glycogen metabolism: NMR study in rats re-fed with butyrate and/or glucose

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Butyrate, end-product of intestinal fermentation, is known to impair oxidative phosphorylation in rat liver and could disturb glycogen synthesis depending on the ATP supplied by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and cytosolic glycolysis. Methods In 48 hr-fasting rats, hepatic changes of glycogen and total ATP contents and unidirectional flux of mitochondrial ATP synthesis were evaluated by ex vivo 31P NMR immediately after perfusion and isolation of liver, from 0 to 10 hours after force-feeding with (butyrate 1.90 mg + glucose 14.0 mg.g-1 body weight) or isocaloric glucose (18.2 mg.g-1 bw); measurements reflected in vivo situation at each time of liver excision. The contribution of energetic metabolism to glycogen metabolism was estimated. Results A net linear flux of glycogen synthesis (~11.10 ± 0.60 μmol glucosyl units.h-1.g-1 liver wet weight) occurred until the 6th hr post-feeding in both groups, whereas butyrate delayed it until the 8th hr. A linear correlation between total ATP and glycogen contents was obtained (r2 = 0.99) only during net glycogen synthesis. Mitochondrial ATP turnover, calculated after specific inhibition of glycolysis, was stable (~0.70 ± 0.25 μmol.min-1.g-1 liver ww) during the first two hr whatever the force-feeding, and increased transiently about two-fold at the 3rd hr in glucose. Butyrate delayed the transient increase (1.80 ± 0.33 μmol.min-1.g-1 liver ww) to the 6th hr post-feeding. Net glycogenolysis always appeared after the 8th hr, whereas flux of mitochondrial ATP synthesis returned to near basal level (0.91 ± 0.19 μmol.min-1.g-1 liver ww). Conclusion In liver from 48 hr-starved rats, the energy need for net glycogen synthesis from exogenous glucose corresponds to ~50% of basal mitochondrial ATP turnover. The evidence of a late and transient increase in mitochondrial ATP turnover reflects an energetic need, probably linked to a glycogen cycling. Butyrate, known to reduce oxidative phosphorylation yield and

  17. ATP: The crucial component of secretory vesicles.

    PubMed

    Estévez-Herrera, Judith; Domínguez, Natalia; Pardo, Marta R; González-Santana, Ayoze; Westhead, Edward W; Borges, Ricardo; Machado, José David

    2016-07-12

    The colligative properties of ATP and catecholamines demonstrated in vitro are thought to be responsible for the extraordinary accumulation of solutes inside chromaffin cell secretory vesicles, although this has yet to be demonstrated in living cells. Because functional cells cannot be deprived of ATP, we have knocked down the expression of the vesicular nucleotide carrier, the VNUT, to show that a reduction in vesicular ATP is accompanied by a drastic fall in the quantal release of catecholamines. This phenomenon is particularly evident in newly synthesized vesicles, which we show are the first to be released. Surprisingly, we find that inhibiting VNUT expression also reduces the frequency of exocytosis, whereas the overexpression of VNUT drastically increases the quantal size of exocytotic events. To our knowledge, our data provide the first demonstration that ATP, in addition to serving as an energy source and purinergic transmitter, is an essential element in the concentration of catecholamines in secretory vesicles. In this way, cells can use ATP to accumulate neurotransmitters and other secreted substances at high concentrations, supporting quantal transmission.

  18. ATP: The crucial component of secretory vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Estévez-Herrera, Judith; Domínguez, Natalia; Pardo, Marta R.; González-Santana, Ayoze; Westhead, Edward W.; Borges, Ricardo; Machado, José David

    2016-01-01

    The colligative properties of ATP and catecholamines demonstrated in vitro are thought to be responsible for the extraordinary accumulation of solutes inside chromaffin cell secretory vesicles, although this has yet to be demonstrated in living cells. Because functional cells cannot be deprived of ATP, we have knocked down the expression of the vesicular nucleotide carrier, the VNUT, to show that a reduction in vesicular ATP is accompanied by a drastic fall in the quantal release of catecholamines. This phenomenon is particularly evident in newly synthesized vesicles, which we show are the first to be released. Surprisingly, we find that inhibiting VNUT expression also reduces the frequency of exocytosis, whereas the overexpression of VNUT drastically increases the quantal size of exocytotic events. To our knowledge, our data provide the first demonstration that ATP, in addition to serving as an energy source and purinergic transmitter, is an essential element in the concentration of catecholamines in secretory vesicles. In this way, cells can use ATP to accumulate neurotransmitters and other secreted substances at high concentrations, supporting quantal transmission. PMID:27342860

  19. Oligomycin Inhibition of Phosphate Uptake and ATP Labeling in Excised Maize Roots 1

    PubMed Central

    Bledsoe, Carolyn; Cole, C. V.; Ross, Cleon

    1969-01-01

    ATP labeling by newly absorbed 32P in excised maize roots was reduced 34% by the presence of oligomycin during a 4-min uptake period with no reduction in rate of phosphorus absorption. Longer exposure to oligomycin, during pretreatment periods or longer uptake periods, reduced phosphorus absorption and further reduced ATP synthesis. In these tissues it appears that oligomycin inhibits ATP production at the mitochondria, that ATP is the energy source for phosphorus uptake at the plasmalemma, and that a depletion in the ATP supply causes a reduced rate of uptake. Images PMID:16657154

  20. Phytosterols reduce cholesterol absorption by inhibition of 27-hydroxycholesterol generation, liver X receptor α activation, and expression of the basolateral sterol exporter ATP-binding cassette A1 in Caco-2 enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Brauner, Reinhard; Johannes, Christian; Ploessl, Florian; Bracher, Franz; Lorenz, Reinhard L

    2012-06-01

    Phytosterol-enriched foods are increasingly marketed to lower cholesterol levels and atherosclerosis in the general population. Phytosterols reduce cholesterol absorption, but the molecular mechanism is controversial. We therefore investigated the phytosterol effects on cholesterol metabolism in human enterocyte, hepatocyte, and macrophage models relevant for sterol absorption, reverse transport, and excretion. Isomolar sitosterol (50 μmol/L) was less effectively taken up by enterocytes than cholesterol but suppressed apical cholesterol uptake by 50% (P < 0.01) and basolateral secretion by two-thirds (P < 0.01) whether added in micelles or ethanol or complexed to cyclodextrin. In contrast, enterocytes handled nanomolar (3)H-sitosterol similarly to cholesterol. Enterocytes selectively oxidized all sterols to 27-hydroxy- and 27-carboxy-sterols. Conversion rates were much lower for sitosterol (0.05 ± 0.02 nmol/mg protein) and campesterol (0.48 ± 0.10) compared with cholesterol (3.73 ± 0.60) (P < 0.001). 27-Hydroxycholesterol (27OH-C) activated liver-X-receptor alpha (LXRα) (P < 0.01) and stimulated ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) A1 expression (P < 0.001) and basolateral systemic cholesterol secretion from enterocytes (P < 0.05). In co-incubations, phytosterols inhibited 27OH-C generation by sterol 27-hydroxylase (P < 0.001) and reduced LXRα-mediated ABCA1 expression (P < 0.01) and basolateral systemic cholesterol secretion. In contrast, ABCG8 transcription and apical sterol resecretion was unchanged by LXRα activation in human enterocytes. Exogenous LXRα agonists reverted sterol selectivity and phytosterol cholesterol interaction. Due to constitutive apical expression of ABCG5/G8 and LXRα-enhanced basolateral expression of ABCA1 in enterocytes, interference of phytosterols with the generation of the dominating LXRα-agonist 27OH-C blocks the self-priming component of cholesterol absorption. This local LXRα antagonism of dietary phytosterols

  1. Optogenetic control of ATP release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Matthew A.; Joshi, Bipin; Gu, Ling; Feranchak, Andrew; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2013-03-01

    Controlled release of ATP can be used for understanding extracellular purinergic signaling. While coarse mechanical forces and hypotonic stimulation have been utilized in the past to initiate ATP release from cells, these methods are neither spatially accurate nor temporally precise. Further, these methods cannot be utilized in a highly effective cell-specific manner. To mitigate the uncertainties regarding cellular-specificity and spatio-temporal release of ATP, we herein demonstrate use of optogenetics for ATP release. ATP release in response to optogenetic stimulation was monitored by Luciferin-Luciferase assay (North American firefly, photinus pyralis) using luminometer as well as mesoscopic bioluminescence imaging. Our result demonstrates repetitive release of ATP subsequent to optogenetic stimulation. It is thus feasible that purinergic signaling can be directly detected via imaging if the stimulus can be confined to single cell or in a spatially-defined group of cells. This study opens up new avenue to interrogate the mechanisms of purinergic signaling.

  2. ATP release through pannexon channels

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) serves as a signal for diverse physiological functions, including spread of calcium waves between astrocytes, control of vascular oxygen supply and control of ciliary beat in the airways. ATP can be released from cells by various mechanisms. This review focuses on channel-mediated ATP release and its main enabler, Pannexin1 (Panx1). Six subunits of Panx1 form a plasma membrane channel termed ‘pannexon’. Depending on the mode of stimulation, the pannexon has large conductance (500 pS) and unselective permeability to molecules less than 1.5 kD or is a small (50 pS), chloride-selective channel. Most physiological and pathological stimuli induce the large channel conformation, whereas the small conformation so far has only been observed with exclusive voltage activation of the channel. The interaction between pannexons and ATP is intimate. The pannexon is not only the conduit for ATP, permitting ATP efflux from cells down its concentration gradient, but the pannexon is also modulated by ATP. The channel can be activated by ATP through both ionotropic P2X as well as metabotropic P2Y purinergic receptors. In the absence of a control mechanism, this positive feedback loop would lead to cell death owing to the linkage of purinergic receptors with apoptotic processes. A control mechanism preventing excessive activation of the purinergic receptors is provided by ATP binding (with low affinity) to the Panx1 protein and gating the channel shut. PMID:26009770

  3. Life beyond the Basal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Jeanne; Carbone, Carole

    1987-01-01

    Reading is a tool for learning. The goal for the teaching of reading must be to produce lovers of reading. A holistic approach should replace exclusive dependence on basal readers. Effective methods are the following: (1) language experience approach; (2) word banks; (3) pattern books; (4) sustained silent reading; and (5) directed…

  4. ATP-sulfurylase, sulfur-compounds, and plant stress tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Anjum, Naser A.; Gill, Ritu; Kaushik, Manjeri; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal; Tuteja, Narendra; Gill, Sarvajeet S.

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur (S) stands fourth in the list of major plant nutrients after N, P, and K. Sulfate (SO42-), a form of soil-S taken up by plant roots is metabolically inert. As the first committed step of S-assimilation, ATP-sulfurylase (ATP-S) catalyzes SO42--activation and yields activated high-energy compound adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate that is reduced to sulfide (S2-) and incorporated into cysteine (Cys). In turn, Cys acts as a precursor or donor of reduced S for a range of S-compounds such as methionine (Met), glutathione (GSH), homo-GSH (h-GSH), and phytochelatins (PCs). Among S-compounds, GSH, h-GSH, and PCs are known for their involvement in plant tolerance to varied abiotic stresses, Cys is a major component of GSH, h-GSH, and PCs; whereas, several key stress-metabolites such as ethylene, are controlled by Met through its first metabolite S-adenosylmethionine. With the major aim of briefly highlighting S-compound-mediated role of ATP-S in plant stress tolerance, this paper: (a) overviews ATP-S structure/chemistry and occurrence, (b) appraises recent literature available on ATP-S roles and regulations, and underlying mechanisms in plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance, (c) summarizes ATP-S-intrinsic regulation by major S-compounds, and (d) highlights major open-questions in the present context. Future research in the current direction can be devised based on the discussion outcomes. PMID:25904923

  5. The dark side of extracellular ATP in kidney diseases.

    PubMed

    Solini, Anna; Usuelli, Vera; Fiorina, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    Intracellular ATP is the most vital source of cellular energy for biologic systems, whereas extracellular ATP is a multifaceted mediator of several cell functions via its interaction, in an autocrine or paracrine manner, with P2 purinergic receptors expressed on the cell surface. These ionotropic and metabotropic P2 purinergic receptors modulate a variety of physiologic events upon the maintenance of a highly sensitive "set point," the derangement of which may lead to the development of key pathogenic mechanisms during acute and chronic diseases. Growing evidence suggests that extracellular ATP signaling via P2 purinergic receptors may be involved in different renal pathologic conditions. For these reasons, investigators and pharmaceutical companies are actively exploring novel strategies to antagonize or block these receptors with the goal of reducing extracellular ATP production or accelerating extracellular ATP clearance. Targeting extracellular ATP signaling, particularly through the P2X7 receptor, has considerable translational potential, given that novel P2X7-receptor inhibitors are already available for clinical use (e.g., CE224,535, AZD9056, and GSK1482160). This review summarizes the current evidence regarding the involvement of extracellular ATP and its P2 purinergic receptor-mediated signaling in physiologic and pathologic processes in the kidney; potential therapeutic options targeting extracellular ATP purinergic receptors are analyzed as well.

  6. Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Millikan, Robert C; Newman, Beth; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Moorman, Patricia G; Conway, Kathleen; Dressler, Lynn G; Smith, Lisa V; Labbok, Miriam H; Geradts, Joseph; Bensen, Jeannette T; Jackson, Susan; Nyante, Sarah; Livasy, Chad; Carey, Lisa; Earp, H Shelton; Perou, Charles M

    2008-05-01

    Risk factors for the newly identified "intrinsic" breast cancer subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive/estrogen receptor-negative) were determined in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case-control study of African-American and white women. Immunohistochemical markers were used to subtype 1,424 cases of invasive and in situ breast cancer, and case subtypes were compared to 2,022 controls. Luminal A, the most common subtype, exhibited risk factors typically reported for breast cancer in previous studies, including inverse associations for increased parity and younger age at first full-term pregnancy. Basal-like cases exhibited several associations that were opposite to those observed for luminal A, including increased risk for parity and younger age at first term full-term pregnancy. Longer duration breastfeeding, increasing number of children breastfed, and increasing number of months breastfeeding per child were each associated with reduced risk of basal-like breast cancer, but not luminal A. Women with multiple live births who did not breastfeed and women who used medications to suppress lactation were at increased risk of basal-like, but not luminal A, breast cancer. Elevated waist-hip ratio was associated with increased risk of luminal A in postmenopausal women, and increased risk of basal-like breast cancer in pre- and postmenopausal women. The prevalence of basal-like breast cancer was highest among premenopausal African-American women, who also showed the highest prevalence of basal-like risk factors. Among younger African-American women, we estimate that up to 68% of basal-like breast cancer could be prevented by promoting breastfeeding and reducing abdominal adiposity.

  7. Dynamic Regulation of Cell Volume and Extracellular ATP of Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Leal Denis, M. Florencia; Alvarez, H. Ariel; Lauri, Natalia; Alvarez, Cora L.; Chara, Osvaldo; Schwarzbaum, Pablo J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The peptide mastoparan 7 (MST7) triggered in human erythrocytes (rbcs) the release of ATP and swelling. Since swelling is a well-known inducer of ATP release, and extracellular (ATPe), interacting with P (purinergic) receptors, can affect cell volume (Vr), we explored the dynamic regulation between Vr and ATPe. Methods and Treatments We made a quantitative assessment of MST7-dependent kinetics of Vr and of [ATPe], both in the absence and presence of blockers of ATP efflux, swelling and P receptors. Results In rbcs 10 μM MST7 promoted acute, strongly correlated changes in [ATPe] and Vr. Whereas MST7 induced increases of 10% in Vr and 190 nM in [ATPe], blocking swelling in a hyperosmotic medium + MST7 reduced [ATPe] by 40%. Pre-incubation of rbcs with 10 μM of either carbenoxolone or probenecid, two inhibitors of the ATP conduit pannexin 1, reduced [ATPe] by 40–50% and swelling by 40–60%, while in the presence of 80 U/mL apyrase, an ATPe scavenger, cell swelling was prevented. While exposure to 10 μM NF110, a blocker of ATP-P2X receptors mediating sodium influx, reduced [ATPe] by 48%, and swelling by 80%, incubation of cells in sodium free medium reduced swelling by 92%. Analysis and Discussion Results were analyzed by means of a mathematical model where ATPe kinetics and Vr kinetics were mutually regulated. Model dependent fit to experimental data showed that, upon MST7 exposure, ATP efflux required a fast 1960-fold increase of ATP permeability, mediated by two kinetically different conduits, both of which were activated by swelling and inactivated by time. Both experimental and theoretical results suggest that, following MST7 exposure, ATP is released via two conduits, one of which is mediated by pannexin 1. The accumulated ATPe activates P2X receptors, followed by sodium influx, resulting in cell swelling, which in turn further activates ATP release. Thus swelling and P2X receptors constitute essential components of a positive feedback loop

  8. Structure of ATP-Bound Human ATP:Cobalamin Adenosyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert,H.; Hill, C.

    2006-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding human ATP:cobalamin adenosyltransferase (hATR) can result in the metabolic disorder known as methylmalonic aciduria (MMA). This enzyme catalyzes the final step in the conversion of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B{sub 12}) to the essential human cofactor adenosylcobalamin. Here we present the 2.5 {angstrom} crystal structure of ATP bound to hATR refined to an R{sub free} value of 25.2%. The enzyme forms a tightly associated trimer, where the monomer comprises a five-helix bundle and the active sites lie on the subunit interfaces. Only two of the three active sites within the trimer contain the bound ATP substrate, thereby providing examples of apo- and substrate-bound-active sites within the same crystal structure. Comparison of the empty and occupied sites indicates that twenty residues at the enzyme's N-terminus become ordered upon binding of ATP to form a novel ATP-binding site and an extended cleft that likely binds cobalamin. The structure explains the role of 20 invariant residues; six are involved in ATP binding, including Arg190, which hydrogen bonds to ATP atoms on both sides of the scissile bond. Ten of the hydrogen bonds are required for structural stability, and four are in positions to interact with cobalamin. The structure also reveals how the point mutations that cause MMA are deficient in these functions.

  9. Mitochondrial ATP synthase activity is impaired by suppressed O-GlcNAcylation in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Moon-Yong; Cho, Hyun Jin; Kim, Chaeyoung; Jung, Yang Ouk; Kang, Min Jueng; Murray, Melissa E.; Hong, Hyun Seok; Choi, Young-Joo; Choi, Heesun; Kim, Dong Kyu; Choi, Hyunjung; Kim, Jisoo; Dickson, Dennis W.; Song, Hyun Kyu; Cho, Jin Won; Yi, Eugene C.; Kim, Jungsu; Jin, Seok Min; Mook-Jung, Inhee

    2015-01-01

    Glycosylation with O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is one of the protein glycosylations affecting various intracellular events. However, the role of O-GlcNAcylation in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) is poorly understood. Mitochondrial adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) synthase is a multiprotein complex that synthesizes ATP from ADP and Pi. Here, we found that ATP synthase subunit α (ATP5A) was O-GlcNAcylated at Thr432 and ATP5A O-GlcNAcylation was decreased in the brains of AD patients and transgenic mouse model, as well as Aβ-treated cells. Indeed, Aβ bound to ATP synthase directly and reduced the O-GlcNAcylation of ATP5A by inhibition of direct interaction between ATP5A and mitochondrial O-GlcNAc transferase, resulting in decreased ATP production and ATPase activity. Furthermore, treatment of O-GlcNAcase inhibitor rescued the Aβ-induced impairment in ATP production and ATPase activity. These results indicate that Aβ-mediated reduction of ATP synthase activity in AD pathology results from direct binding between Aβ and ATP synthase and inhibition of O-GlcNAcylation of Thr432 residue on ATP5A. PMID:26358770

  10. Extracellular ATP inhibits root gravitropism at concentrations that inhibit polar auxin transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Wenqiang; Brady, Shari R.; Sun, Yu; Muday, Gloria K.; Roux, Stanley J.

    2003-01-01

    Raising the level of extracellular ATP to mM concentrations similar to those found inside cells can block gravitropism of Arabidopsis roots. When plants are grown in Murashige and Skoog medium supplied with 1 mM ATP, their roots grow horizontally instead of growing straight down. Medium with 2 mM ATP induces root curling, and 3 mM ATP stimulates lateral root growth. When plants are transferred to medium containing exogenous ATP, the gravity response is reduced or in some cases completely blocked by ATP. Equivalent concentrations of ADP or inorganic phosphate have slight but usually statistically insignificant effects, suggesting the specificity of ATP in these responses. The ATP effects may be attributable to the disturbance of auxin distribution in roots by exogenously applied ATP, because extracellular ATP can alter the pattern of auxin-induced gene expression in DR5-beta-glucuronidase transgenic plants and increase the response sensitivity of plant roots to exogenously added auxin. The presence of extracellular ATP also decreases basipetal auxin transport in a dose-dependent fashion in both maize (Zea mays) and Arabidopsis roots and increases the retention of [(3)H]indole-3-acetic acid in root tips of maize. Taken together, these results suggest that the inhibitory effects of extracellular ATP on auxin distribution may happen at the level of auxin export. The potential role of the trans-plasma membrane ATP gradient in auxin export and plant root gravitropism is discussed.

  11. Formycin triphosphate as a probe for the ATP binding site involved in the activation of guanylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Chang, C H; Yu, Z N; Song, D L

    1992-10-01

    Formycin A triphosphate (FTP), a fluorescent analog of ATP, slightly increased basal guanylate cyclase activity, but significantly potentiated guanylate cyclase activity stimulated by atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in rat lung membranes. FTP potentiated ANF-stimulated guanylate cyclase activity with an EC50 at about 90 microM and inhibited ATP-stimulated guanylate cyclase activity with an IC50 at about 100 microM. These results indicate that FTP binds more tightly than ATP for the same binding site. Therefore, FTP would be an excellent tool for studying the ATP binding site.

  12. ATP Release from Human Airway Epithelial Cells Exposed to Staphylococcus aureus Alpha-Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Baaske, Romina; Richter, Mandy; Möller, Nils; Ziesemer, Sabine; Eiffler, Ina; Müller, Christian; Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Airway epithelial cells reduce cytosolic ATP content in response to treatment with S. aureus alpha-toxin (hemolysin A, Hla). This study was undertaken to investigate whether this is due to attenuated ATP generation or to release of ATP from the cytosol and extracellular ATP degradation by ecto-enzymes. Exposure of cells to rHla did result in mitochondrial calcium uptake and a moderate decline in mitochondrial membrane potential, indicating that ATP regeneration may have been attenuated. In addition, ATP may have left the cells through transmembrane pores formed by the toxin or through endogenous release channels (e.g., pannexins) activated by cellular stress imposed on the cells by toxin exposure. Exposure of cells to an alpha-toxin mutant (H35L), which attaches to the host cell membrane but does not form transmembrane pores, did not induce ATP release from the cells. The Hla-mediated ATP-release was completely blocked by IB201, a cyclodextrin-inhibitor of the alpha-toxin pore, but was not at all affected by inhibitors of pannexin channels. These results indicate that, while exposure of cells to rHla may somewhat reduce ATP production and cellular ATP content, a portion of the remaining ATP is released to the extracellular space and degraded by ecto-enzymes. The release of ATP from the cells may occur directly through the transmembrane pores formed by alpha-toxin. PMID:27929417

  13. Pharmacological dissociation of UTP- and ATP-elicited contractions and relaxations in isolated rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Velasco, G; Sanchez, M; Hidalgo, A; Garcia de Boto, M J

    1995-12-29

    Effects of UTP have been described in many tissues, but it is not clear whether these are due to purinoceptors. Specific receptors for UTP, 'pyrimidinoceptors', and 'nucleotide receptors' have also been proposed. We pharmacologically characterized the receptors involved in the ATP- and UTP-induced contraction under basal tone and the relaxation of raised tone elicited by noradrenaline in isolated rat aorta. The rank order of potency for the agonists for the contraction was alpha,beta-methylene ATP > > ATP, and the desensitization by alpha,beta-methylene ATP suggests that ATP contractions were mediated via P2X purinoceptors which were located on the vascular smooth muscle. The rank order of potency of the agonists for relaxation was 2-methyl-thio ATP > > ATP, which is suggestive of a P2Y purinoceptor. However, the relaxation seems to be unrelated to the classical P2Y subtype and a heterogeneous population of purinoceptors might therefore exist. The evidence comes from the distinct location and the different pharmacological effect of reactive blue 2 on 2-methyl-thio ATP and ATP receptors. 2-Methyl-thio ATP produced an endothelium-dependent relaxation while ATP-induced relaxation was produced via endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent mechanisms, unrelated to adenosine receptors. It is unlikely that UTP-induced contractions and the endothelium-dependent relaxation were produced via purinoceptors since the pharmacology is not consistent with that of the classical P2 purinoceptors studied. Furthermore, UTP-sensitive receptors showed a pharmacological property that was also distinct from that of the 'nucleotide' or P2U receptor reported. The results suggest the presence of a heterogeneous population of purinoceptors and pyrimidinoceptors pharmacologically different from the receptors for ATP.

  14. Intrarenal localization of the plasma membrane ATP channel pannexin1.

    PubMed

    Hanner, Fiona; Lam, Lisa; Nguyen, Mien T X; Yu, Alan; Peti-Peterdi, János

    2012-11-15

    In the renal tubules, ATP released from epithelial cells stimulates purinergic receptors, regulating salt and water reabsorption. However, the mechanisms by which ATP is released into the tubular lumen are multifaceted. Pannexin1 (Panx1) is a newly identified. ubiquitously expressed protein that forms connexin-like channels in the plasma membrane, which have been demonstrated to function as a mechanosensitive ATP conduit. Here, we report on the localization of Panx1 in the mouse kidney. Using immunofluorescence, strong Panx1 expression was observed in renal tubules, including proximal tubules, thin descending limbs, and collecting ducts, along their apical cell membranes. In the renal vasculature, Panx1 expression was localized to vascular smooth muscle cells in renal arteries, including the afferent and efferent arterioles. Additionally, we tested whether Panx1 channels expressed in renal epithelial cells facilitate luminal ATP release by measuring the ATP content of urine samples freshly collected from wild-type and Panx1(-/-) mice. Urinary ATP levels were reduced by 30% in Panx1(-/-) compared with wild-type mice. These results suggest that Panx1 channels in the kidney may regulate ATP release and via purinergic signaling may participate in the control of renal epithelial fluid and electrolyte transport and vascular functions.

  15. Intrarenal localization of the plasma membrane ATP channel pannexin1

    PubMed Central

    Hanner, Fiona; Lam, Lisa; Nguyen, Mien T. X.; Yu, Alan

    2012-01-01

    In the renal tubules, ATP released from epithelial cells stimulates purinergic receptors, regulating salt and water reabsorption. However, the mechanisms by which ATP is released into the tubular lumen are multifaceted. Pannexin1 (Panx1) is a newly identified. ubiquitously expressed protein that forms connexin-like channels in the plasma membrane, which have been demonstrated to function as a mechanosensitive ATP conduit. Here, we report on the localization of Panx1 in the mouse kidney. Using immunofluorescence, strong Panx1 expression was observed in renal tubules, including proximal tubules, thin descending limbs, and collecting ducts, along their apical cell membranes. In the renal vasculature, Panx1 expression was localized to vascular smooth muscle cells in renal arteries, including the afferent and efferent arterioles. Additionally, we tested whether Panx1 channels expressed in renal epithelial cells facilitate luminal ATP release by measuring the ATP content of urine samples freshly collected from wild-type and Panx1−/− mice. Urinary ATP levels were reduced by 30% in Panx1−/− compared with wild-type mice. These results suggest that Panx1 channels in the kidney may regulate ATP release and via purinergic signaling may participate in the control of renal epithelial fluid and electrolyte transport and vascular functions. PMID:22952282

  16. Possible role of firmly bound ATP in the energy transduction of photosynthetic membranes.

    PubMed

    Lutz, H U; Beyeler, W; Pflugshaupt, C; Bachofen, R

    1975-01-01

    Chromatophores of Rhodospirillum rubrum and spinach chloroplasts contain firmly bound ATP that is rapidly labeled along with ADP in the presence of 32Pi and endogenous nucleotides. The labeling is not entirely dependent on light. In chloroplasts three types of bound ATP can be defined methodologically by their extraction properties: buffer-soluble; acid-soluble; and SDS-soluble or firmly bound ATP. Extensive washing of the chloroplasts does reduce buffer-soluble but not acid-soluble and firmly bound ATP. Buffer-soluble [32P] ATP is almost exclusively gamma labeled while acid-soluble and firmly bound ATP are labeled in the beta and gamma position equally. CCCP, desaspidin, and phlorizin do not inhibit the labeling of firmly bound ATP, whereas the phosphorylation is almost abolished. However, EDTA and NEM pretreatments of the chloroplasts affect both reactions similarly. The postillumination [32P] ATP synthesis with chromatophores can be inhibited by adding ATP to the incubation mixture after illumination if 32Pi is included only during the dark incubation, but is without effect if 32Pi is present only during illumination. On the other hand, ADP added after illumination inhibits post-illumination [32P] ATP formation in both chromatophores and chloroplasts only if 32Pi is present during illumination. The data can be explained by a coupling factor having two sites, as proposed previously on the basis that firmly bound ATP does not transfer its phosphoryl group but seems to drive a synthesis of acid-soluble ATP which incorporates free phosphate.

  17. ATP formation and ATP hydrolysis during fatiguing, intermittent stimulation of different types of single muscle fibres from Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Nagesser, A S; Van der Laarse, W J; Elzinga, G

    1993-12-01

    This report describes changes of the rate of ATP hydrolysis in single, intact muscle fibres during the development of fatigue induced by intermittent tetanic stimulation. High (type 3) and low (type 1) oxidative muscle fibres dissected from the iliofibularis muscle of Xenopus laevis were studied at 20 degrees C. The rate of ATP hydrolysis was calculated during different time intervals from changes in the content of nucleotides, creatine compounds and lactate, as well as lactate efflux and oxygen uptake. During the first phase of intermittent stimulation, phosphocreatine is fully reduced while the rate of oxygen consumption increases to its maximum, the lactate content increases to a maximum level, and a small amount of IMP is formed; the rate of ATP hydrolysis in type 3 fibres is constant while force decreases, whereas the rate decreases approximately in proportion to force in type 1 fibres. After the first phase, the rate of ATP hydrolysis in type 3 fibres decreases slightly and the fibres reach a steady metabolic state in which the rates of ATP formation and hydrolysis are equal; in type 1 fibres a drastic change of the rate of ATP hydrolysis occurs and a steady metabolic state is not reached. On the basis of the time courses of the metabolic changes, it is concluded that the rate of ATP hydrolysis in type 3 fibres is reduced by acidification and/or a reduced calcium efflux from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, whereas in type 1 fibres inorganic phosphate and/or acidification inhibit the rate initially and ADP is a likely candidate to explain the drastic fall of the rate of ATP hydrolysis during late phases of fatiguing stimulation.

  18. Human basal body basics.

    PubMed

    Vertii, Anastassiia; Hung, Hui-Fang; Hehnly, Heidi; Doxsey, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In human cells, the basal body (BB) core comprises a ninefold microtubule-triplet cylindrical structure. Distal and subdistal appendages are located at the distal end of BB, where they play indispensable roles in cilium formation and function. Most cells that arrest in the G0 stage of the cell cycle initiate BB docking at the plasma membrane followed by BB-mediated growth of a solitary primary cilium, a structure required for sensing the extracellular environment and cell signaling. In addition to the primary cilium, motile cilia are present in specialized cells, such as sperm and airway epithelium. Mutations that affect BB function result in cilia dysfunction. This can generate syndromic disorders, collectively called ciliopathies, for which there are no effective treatments. In this review, we focus on the features and functions of BBs and centrosomes in Homo sapiens.

  19. Fluorescent ATP analog mant-ATP reports dynein activity in the isolated Chlamydomonas axoneme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feofilova, Maria; Howard, Jonathon

    Eukaryotic flagella are long rod-like extensions of cells, which play a fundamental role in single cell movement, as well as in fluid transport. Flagella contain a highly evolutionary conserved mechanical structure called the axoneme. The motion of the flagellum is generated by dynein motor proteins located all along the length of the axoneme. How the force production of motors is controlled spatially and temporally is still an open question. Therefore, monitoring dynein activity in the axonemal structure is expected to provide novel insights in regulation of the beat. We use high sensitivity fluorescence microscopy to monitor the binding and hydrolysis kinetics of the fluorescently labeled ATP analogue mant-ATP (2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl) adenosine 5'-triphosphate), which is known to support dynein activity. By studying the kinetics of mant-ATP fluorescence, we identified distinct mant-ATP binding sites in the axoneme. The application of this method to axonemes with reduced amounts of dynein, showed evidence that one of the sites is associated with binding to dynein. In the future, we would like to use this method to find the spatial distribution of dynein activity in the axoneme.

  20. Rho signaling regulates pannexin 1-mediated ATP release from airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Seminario-Vidal, Lucia; Okada, Seiko F; Sesma, Juliana I; Kreda, Silvia M; van Heusden, Catharina A; Zhu, Yunxiang; Jones, Lisa C; O'Neal, Wanda K; Penuela, Silvia; Laird, Dale W; Boucher, Richard C; Lazarowski, Eduardo R

    2011-07-29

    ATP released from airway epithelial cells promotes purinergic receptor-regulated mucociliary clearance activities necessary for innate lung defense. Cell swelling-induced membrane stretch/strain is a common stimulus that promotes airway epithelial ATP release, but the mechanisms transducing cell swelling into ATP release are incompletely understood. Using knockdown and knockout approaches, we tested the hypothesis that pannexin 1 mediates ATP release from hypotonically swollen airway epithelia and investigated mechanisms regulating this activity. Well differentiated primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells subjected to hypotonic challenge exhibited enhanced ATP release, which was paralleled by the uptake of the pannexin probe propidium iodide. Both responses were reduced by pannexin 1 inhibitors and by knocking down pannexin 1. Importantly, hypotonicity-evoked ATP release from freshly excised tracheas and dye uptake in primary tracheal epithelial cells were impaired in pannexin 1 knockout mice. Hypotonicity-promoted ATP release and dye uptake in primary well differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells was accompanied by RhoA activation and myosin light chain phosphorylation and was reduced by the RhoA dominant negative mutant RhoA(T19N) and Rho and myosin light chain kinase inhibitors. ATP release and Rho activation were reduced by highly selective inhibitors of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4). Lastly, knocking down TRPV4 impaired hypotonicity-evoked airway epithelial ATP release. Our data suggest that TRPV4 and Rho transduce cell membrane stretch/strain into pannexin 1-mediated ATP release in airway epithelia.

  1. Rho Signaling Regulates Pannexin 1-mediated ATP Release from Airway Epithelia*

    PubMed Central

    Seminario-Vidal, Lucia; Okada, Seiko F.; Sesma, Juliana I.; Kreda, Silvia M.; van Heusden, Catharina A.; Zhu, Yunxiang; Jones, Lisa C.; O'Neal, Wanda K.; Penuela, Silvia; Laird, Dale W.; Boucher, Richard C.; Lazarowski, Eduardo R.

    2011-01-01

    ATP released from airway epithelial cells promotes purinergic receptor-regulated mucociliary clearance activities necessary for innate lung defense. Cell swelling-induced membrane stretch/strain is a common stimulus that promotes airway epithelial ATP release, but the mechanisms transducing cell swelling into ATP release are incompletely understood. Using knockdown and knockout approaches, we tested the hypothesis that pannexin 1 mediates ATP release from hypotonically swollen airway epithelia and investigated mechanisms regulating this activity. Well differentiated primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells subjected to hypotonic challenge exhibited enhanced ATP release, which was paralleled by the uptake of the pannexin probe propidium iodide. Both responses were reduced by pannexin 1 inhibitors and by knocking down pannexin 1. Importantly, hypotonicity-evoked ATP release from freshly excised tracheas and dye uptake in primary tracheal epithelial cells were impaired in pannexin 1 knockout mice. Hypotonicity-promoted ATP release and dye uptake in primary well differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells was accompanied by RhoA activation and myosin light chain phosphorylation and was reduced by the RhoA dominant negative mutant RhoA(T19N) and Rho and myosin light chain kinase inhibitors. ATP release and Rho activation were reduced by highly selective inhibitors of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4). Lastly, knocking down TRPV4 impaired hypotonicity-evoked airway epithelial ATP release. Our data suggest that TRPV4 and Rho transduce cell membrane stretch/strain into pannexin 1-mediated ATP release in airway epithelia. PMID:21606493

  2. Basal aurora kinase B activity is sufficient for histone H3 phosphorylation in prophase.

    PubMed

    Le, Ly-Thuy-Tram; Vu, Hong-Lien; Nguyen, Chi-Hung; Molla, Annie

    2013-04-15

    Histone H3 phosphorylation is the hallmark of mitosis deposited by aurora kinase B. Benzo[e]pyridoindoles are a family of potent, broad, ATP-competitive aurora kinase inhibitors. However, benzo[e]pyridoindole C4 only inhibits histone H3 phosphorylation in prophase but not in metaphase. Under the C4 treatment, the cells enter into mitosis with dephosphorylated histone H3, assemble chromosomes normally and progress to metaphase, and then to anaphase. C4 also induces lagging chromosome in anaphase but we demonstrated that these chromosome compaction defects are not related to the absence of H3 phosphorylation in prophase. As a result of C4 action, mitosis lasts longer and the cell cycle is slowed down. We reproduced the mitotic defects with reduced concentrations of potent pan aurora kinase as well as with a specific aurora B ATP-competitive inhibitor; we therefore propose that histone H3 phosphorylation and anaphase chromosome compaction involve the basal activity of aurora kinase B. Our data suggest that aurora kinase B is progressively activated at mitosis entry and at anaphase onset. The full activation of aurora kinase B by its partners, in prometaphase, induces a shift in the catalytic domain of aurora B that modifies its affinity for ATP. These waves of activation/deactivation of aurora B correspond to different conformations of the chromosomal complex revealed by FRAP. The presence of lagging chromosomes may have deleterious consequences on the daughter cells and, unfortunately, the situation may be encountered in patients receiving treatment with aurora kinase inhibitors.

  3. The ATP requirements of adenovirus type 5 DNA replication and cellular DNA replication.

    PubMed

    De Jong, P J; Kwant, M M; van Driel, W; Jansz, H S; van der Vliet, P C

    1983-01-15

    Several in vitro DNA replication systems were employed to characterize the ATP dependency of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) DNA replication. Ad5 DNA synthesis in isolated nuclei, representing the elongation of nascent DNA chains, was slightly ATP dependent. Reduction of the ATP concentration from the optimum (8 mM) to the endogenous value (0.16 microM) reduced Ad5 DNA replication only to 70%. No change in the pattern of replication was observed as indicated by the analysis of replicative intermediates using agarose gel electrophoresis. ATP could be replaced by dATP, but not by GTP or other nucleoside triphosphates. By contrast, cellular DNA replication in isolated nuclei from HeLa cells was reduced to 12% by the omission of ATP. These differences could not be explained by different ATP pools or by effects of ATP on dNTP pools. Cellular DNA replication in contrast to viral DNA replication was sensitive to low concentrations of adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate). Inhibition by this ATP analog was competitive with ATP (Ki = 0.4 mM). Adenovirus DNA replication by DNA-free nuclear extracts, representing initiation plus elongation (Challberg and Kelly, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 655-659, 1979), exhibited a nearly absolute requirement for ATP. ATP could be substituted not only by dATP, but also by GTP and dGTP and to a lesser extent by pyrimidine triphosphates. Similar results were found when the formation of a covalent complex between dCTP and the precursor terminal protein was studied. This reaction is essential for the initiation of Ad5 DNA replication. The results indicate that different ATP-requiring functions are employed during the initiation and elongation stages of adenovirus DNA replication.

  4. Activation of ATP binding for the autophosphorylation of DosS, a Mycobacterium tuberculosis histidine kinase lacking an ATP lid motif.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ha Yeon; Lee, Young-Hoon; Bae, Young-Seuk; Kim, Eungbin; Kang, Beom Sik

    2013-05-03

    The sensor histidine kinases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, DosS and DosT, are responsible for sensing hypoxic conditions and consist of sensor and kinase cores responsible for accepting signals and phosphorylation activity, respectively. The kinase core contains a dimerization and histidine phosphate-accepting (DHp) domain and an ATP binding domain (ABD). The 13 histidine kinase genes of M. tuberculosis can be grouped based on the presence or absence of the ATP lid motif and F box (elements known to play roles in ATP binding) in their ABDs; DosS and DosT have ABDs lacking both these elements, and the crystal structures of their ABDs indicated that they were unsuitable for ATP binding, as a short loop covers the putative ATP binding site. Although the ABD alone cannot bind ATP, the kinase core is functional in autophosphorylation. Appropriate spatial arrangement of the ABD and DHp domain within the kinase core is required for both autophosphorylation and ATP binding. An ionic interaction between Arg(440) in the DHp domain and Glu(537) in the short loop of the ABD is available and may open the ATP binding site, by repositioning the short loop away from the site. Mutations at Arg(440) and Glu(537) reduce autophosphorylation activity. Unlike other histidine kinases containing an ATP lid, which protects bound ATP, DosS is unable to accept ATP until the ABD is properly positioned relative to the histidine; this may prevent unexpected ATP reactions. ATP binding can, therefore, function as a control mechanism for histidine kinase activity.

  5. ATP transport through a single mitochondrial channel, VDAC, studied by current fluctuation analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Rostovtseva, T K; Bezrukov, S M

    1998-01-01

    The "molecular Coulter counter" concept has been used to study transport of ATP molecules through the nanometer-scale aqueous pore of the voltage-dependent mitochondrial ion channel, VDAC. We examine the ATP-induced current fluctuations and the change in average current through a single fully open channel reconstituted into a planar lipid bilayer. At high salt concentration (1 M NaCl), the addition of ATP reduces both solution conductivity and channel conductance, but the effect on the channel is several times stronger and shows saturation behavior even at 50 mM ATP concentration. These results and simple steric considerations indicate pronounced attraction of ATP molecules to VDAC's aqueous pore and permit us to evaluate the effect of a single ATP molecule on channel conductance. ATP addition also generates an excess noise in the ionic current through the channel. Analysis of this excess noise shows that its spectrum is flat in the accessible frequency interval up to several kilohertz. ATP exchange between the pore and the bulk is fast enough not to display any dispersion at these frequencies. By relating the low-frequency spectral density of the noise to the equilibrium diffusion of ATP molecules in the aqueous pore, we calculate a diffusion coefficient D = (1.6-3.3)10(-11) m2/s. This is one order of magnitude smaller than the ATP diffusion coefficient in the bulk, but it agrees with recent results on ATP flux measurements in multichannel membranes using the luciferin/luciferase method. PMID:9591663

  6. Vismodegib in basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Amaria, R N; Bowles, D W; Lewis, K D; Jimeno, A

    2012-07-01

    Vismodegib is a novel, small-molecule inhibitor of smoothened, a key component of the hedgehog signaling pathway. Increased hedgehog pathway signaling is critical in the development of hereditary and spontaneous basal cell carcinomas of the skin, and has been implicated in the development of a number of other tumors. In preclinical models, vismodegib demonstrated potent antitumor activity in hedgehog-dependent tumors, particularly basal cell carcinomas. Clinically, phase I and II studies showed dramatic anticancer activity in patients with advanced basal cell carcinomas. In January 2012, vismodegib was approved by the FDA for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic basal cell carcinomas of the skin.

  7. Air-stimulated ATP release from keratinocytes occurs through connexin hemichannels.

    PubMed

    Barr, Travis P; Albrecht, Phillip J; Hou, Quanzhi; Mongin, Alexander A; Strichartz, Gary R; Rice, Frank L

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous ATP release plays an important role in both epidermal stratification and chronic pain, but little is known about ATP release mechanisms in keratinocytes that comprise the epidermis. In this study, we analyzed ATP release from cultured human neonatal keratinocytes briefly exposed to air, a process previously demonstrated to trigger ATP release from these cells. We show that exposing keratinocytes to air by removing media for 15 seconds causes a robust, long-lasting ATP release. This air-stimulated ATP release was increased in calcium differentiated cultures which showed a corresponding increase in connexin 43 mRNA, a major component of keratinocyte hemichannels. The known connexin hemichannel inhibitors 1-octanol and carbenoxolone both significantly reduced air-stimulated ATP release, as did two drugs traditionally used as ABC transporter inhibitors (glibenclamide and verapamil). These same 4 inhibitors also prevented an increase in the uptake of a connexin permeable dye induced by air exposure, confirming that connexin hemichannels are open during air-stimulated ATP release. In contrast, activity of the MDR1 ABC transporter was reduced by air exposure and the drugs that inhibited air-stimulated ATP release had differential effects on this transporter. These results indicate that air exposure elicits non-vesicular release of ATP from keratinocytes through connexin hemichannels and that drugs used to target connexin hemichannels and ABC transporters may cross-inhibit. Connexins represent a novel, peripheral target for the treatment of chronic pain and dermatological disease.

  8. The interference of HEPES buffer during amperometric detection of ATP in clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Masson, Jean-Francois; Gauda, Estelle; Mizaikoff, Boris; Kranz, Christine

    2008-04-01

    HEPES-based biological buffer is subject to photooxidation upon exposure to fluorescent illumination. Thereby hydrogen peroxide is generated, which interferes with amperometric oxidoreductase-based biosensors for glucose or adenosine triphosphate (ATP). These biosensors operate at an oxidation potential above 500 mV vs. the standard calomel electrode (SCE) and involve hydrogen peroxide as the electroactive molecule detected at the electrode surface. False-positive detection of ATP was observed in HEPES buffer utilizing an amperometric microbiosensor based on the co-immobilization of glucose oxidase and hexokinase for detection of ATP in biological specimens. Electrochemical, mass spectrometric, (31)P NMR, and (1)H NMR studies indicate that complexation of ATP and HEPES induced by the presence of Ca(2+) in HEPES buffer decreases the photooxidation of HEPES. Consequently, the hydrogen peroxide background concentration is reduced, thereby leading to erroneous ATP detection at the dual-enzyme microbiosensor, which determines an increase in ATP via a reduced hydrogen peroxide signal.

  9. Evaluation of ATP measurements to detect microbial ingress by wastewater and surface water in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Vang, Óluva K; Corfitzen, Charlotte B; Smith, Christian; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-11-01

    Fast and reliable methods are required for monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was investigated as a potential real-time parameter for detecting microbial ingress in drinking water contaminated with wastewater or surface water. To investigate the ability of the ATP assay in detecting different contamination types, the contaminant was diluted with non-chlorinated drinking water. Wastewater, diluted at 10(4) in drinking water, was detected with the ATP assay, as well as 10(2) to 10(3) times diluted surface water. To improve the performance of the ATP assay in detecting microbial ingress in drinking water, different approaches were investigated, i.e. quantifying microbial ATP or applying reagents of different sensitivities to reduce measurement variations; however, none of these approaches contributed significantly in this respect. Compared to traditional microbiological methods, the ATP assay could detect wastewater and surface water in drinking water to a higher degree than total direct counts (TDCs), while both heterotrophic plate counts (HPC 22 °C and HPC 37 °C) and Colilert-18 (Escherichia coli and coliforms) were more sensitive than the ATP measurements, though with much longer response times. Continuous sampling combined with ATP measurements displays definite monitoring potential for microbial drinking water quality, since microbial ingress in drinking water can be detected in real-time with ATP measurements. The ability of the ATP assay to detect microbial ingress is influenced by both the ATP load from the contaminant itself and the ATP concentration in the specific drinking water. Consequently, a low ATP concentration of the specific drinking water facilitates a better detection of a potential contamination of the water supply with the ATP assay.

  10. Cardiac specific ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP) overexpression results in embryonic lethality.

    PubMed

    Toib, Amir; Zhang, Hai Xia; Broekelmann, Thomas J; Hyrc, Krzysztof L; Guo, Qiusha; Chen, Feng; Remedi, Maria S; Nichols, Colin G

    2012-09-01

    Transgenic mice overexpressing SUR1 and gain of function Kir6.2[∆N30, K185Q] K(ATP) channel subunits, under cardiac α-myosin heavy chain (αMHC) promoter control, demonstrate arrhythmia susceptibility and premature death. Pregnant mice, crossed to carry double transgenic progeny, which harbor high levels of both overexpressed subunits, exhibit the most extreme phenotype and do not deliver any double transgenic pups. To explore the fetal lethality and embryonic phenotype that result from K(ATP) overexpression, wild type (WT) and K(ATP) overexpressing embryonic cardiomyocytes were isolated, cultured and voltage-clamped using whole cell and excised patch clamp techniques. Whole mount embryonic imaging, Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) and α smooth muscle actin (αSMA) immunostaining were used to assess anatomy, histology and cardiac development in K(ATP) overexpressing and WT embryos. Double transgenic embryos developed in utero heart failure and 100% embryonic lethality by 11.5 days post conception (dpc). K(ATP) currents were detectable in both WT and K(ATP)-overexpressing embryonic cardiomyocytes, starting at early stages of cardiac development (9.5 dpc). In contrast to adult cardiomyocytes, WT and K(ATP)-overexpressing embryonic cardiomyocytes exhibit basal and spontaneous K(ATP) current, implying that these channels may be open and active under physiological conditions. At 9.5 dpc, live double transgenic embryos demonstrated normal looping pattern, although all cardiac structures were collapsed, probably representing failed, non-contractile chambers. In conclusion, K(ATP) channels are present and active in embryonic myocytes, and overexpression causes in utero heart failure and results in embryonic lethality. These results suggest that the K(ATP) channel may have an important physiological role during early cardiac development.

  11. Cross-reactivity of Antibodies Directed to the Gram-Negative Bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae With Heat Shock Protein 60 and ATP-Binding Protein Correlates to Reduced Mitochondrial Activity in HIBCPP Choroid Plexus Papilloma Cells.

    PubMed

    Reuss, B; Schroten, H; Ishikawa, H; Asif, A R

    2015-09-01

    Antibacterial antibodies can cause neurologic side-effects by cross-reactivity with cellular antigens. Here we investigated interactions of antibodies to Neisseria gonorrhoeae (α-NG) - maternal infections by which increases the offspring's risk for later psychosis-with HIBCPP cells, a cell culture model of choroid plexus epithelium. Immunocytochemistry and Western blotting with α-NG, revealed organelle-like intracellular staining in HIBCPP cells, and labelling of several immunoreactive bands in cellular protein. Two-dimensional Western blotting revealed several immunopositive spots, most prominent of which were identified by mass spectrometry as mitochondrially localized proteins heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60) and ATP-binding protein β-subunit (ATPB). Similarly α-NG interacted with commercial samples of these proteins as revealed by Western blotting. Three alternative methods (JC-1, Janus green and MTT staining) revealed α-NG to cause in HIBCPP cells a significant decrease in mitochondrial activity, which could be reverted by neuroleptic drugs. Immunoreactivity of α-NG with choroid plexus epithelium in human post mortem samples suggests in vivo relevance of these findings. Finally, distinctly different staining patterns of antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis (α-NM), confirmed antibody specificity. To our knowledge this is the first report that α-NG cross-reactivity with Hsp60 and ATPB impairs mitochondrial activity in choroid plexus epithelial cells, pathogenetic relevance of which needs further clarification.

  12. Basal cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. This type of skin ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  13. Copper transport during lactation in transgenic mice expressing the human ATP7A protein

    PubMed Central

    Llanos, Roxana M.; Michalczyk, Agnes A.; Freestone, David J.; Currie, Scott; Linder, Maria C.; Ackland, M. Leigh; Mercer, Julian F.B.

    2008-01-01

    Both copper transporting ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B, are expressed in mammary epithelial cells but their role in copper delivery to milk has not been clarified. We investigated the role of ATP7A in delivery of copper to milk using transgenic mice that over-express human ATP7A. In mammary gland of transgenic mice, human ATP7A protein was 10- to 20-fold higher than in control mice, and was localized to the basolateral membrane of mammary epithelial cells in lactating mice. The copper concentration in the mammary gland of transgenic dams and stomach contents of transgenic pups was significantly reduced compared to non-transgenic mice. The mRNA levels of endogenous Atp7a, Atp7b, and Ctr1 copper transporters in the mammary gland were not altered by the expression of the ATP7A transgene, and the protein levels of Atp7b and ceruloplasmin were similar in transgenic and non-transgenic mice. These data suggest that ATP7A plays a role in removing excess copper from the mammary epithelial cells rather than supplying copper to milk. PMID:18515074

  14. Role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator in K{sub ATP} channel-mediated insulin secretion in INS-1 insulinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji-Seon; Zheng Haifeng; Kim, Sung Joon; Ho, Won-Kyung; Chun, Yang-Sook

    2009-02-20

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) has been known to participate in cellular responses to xenobiotic and hypoxic stresses, as a common partner of aryl hydrocarbon receptor and hypoxia inducible factor-1/2{alpha}. Recently, it was reported that ARNT is essential for adequate insulin secretion in response to glucose input and that its expression is downregulated in the pancreatic islets of diabetic patients. In the present study, the authors addressed the mechanism by which ARNT regulates insulin secretion in the INS-1 insulinoma cell line. In ARNT knock-down cells, basal insulin release was elevated, but insulin secretion was not further stimulated by a high-glucose challenge. Electrophysiological analyses revealed that glucose-dependent membrane depolarization was impaired in these cells. Furthermore, K{sub ATP} channel activity and expression were reduced. Of two K{sub ATP} channel subunits, Kir6.2 was found to be positively regulated by ARNT at the mRNA and protein levels. Based on these results, the authors suggest that ARNT expresses K{sub ATP} channel and by so doing regulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion.

  15. Alternative translational initiation of ATP sulfurylase underlying dual localization of sulfate assimilation pathways in plastids and cytosol in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, Anne-Sophie; Yoshimoto, Naoko; Sekiguchi, Ai; Rykulski, Nicholas; Saito, Kazuki; Takahashi, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Plants assimilate inorganic sulfate into sulfur-containing vital metabolites. ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) is the enzyme catalyzing the key entry step of the sulfate assimilation pathway in both plastids and cytosol in plants. Arabidopsis thaliana has four ATPS genes (ATPS1, -2, -3, and -4) encoding ATPS pre-proteins containing N-terminal transit peptide sequences for plastid targeting, however, the genetic identity of the cytosolic ATPS has remained unverified. Here we show that Arabidopsis ATPS2 dually encodes plastidic and cytosolic ATPS isoforms, differentiating their subcellular localizations by initiating translation at AUG(Met1) to produce plastid-targeted ATPS2 pre-proteins or at AUG(Met52) or AUG(Met58) within the transit peptide to have ATPS2 stay in cytosol. Translational initiation of ATPS2 at AUG(Met52) or AUG(Met58) was verified by expressing a tandem-fused synthetic gene, ATPS2 (5'UTR-His12) :Renilla luciferase:ATPS2 (Ile13-Val77) :firefly luciferase, under a single constitutively active CaMV 35S promoter in Arabidopsis protoplasts and examining the activities of two different luciferases translated in-frame with split N-terminal portions of ATPS2. Introducing missense mutations at AUG(Met52) and AUG(Met58) significantly reduced the firefly luciferase activity, while AUG(Met52) was a relatively preferred site for the alternative translational initiation. The activity of luciferase fusion protein starting at AUG(Met52) or AUG(Met58) was not modulated by changes in sulfate conditions. The dual localizations of ATPS2 in plastids and cytosol were further evidenced by expression of ATPS2-GFP fusion proteins in Arabidopsis protoplasts and transgenic lines, while they were also under control of tissue-specific ATPS2 promoter activity found predominantly in leaf epidermal cells, guard cells, vascular tissues and roots.

  16. Raised tone reveals ATP as a sympathetic neurotransmitter in the porcine mesenteric arterial bed.

    PubMed

    Shatarat, Amjad; Dunn, William R; Ralevic, Vera

    2014-12-01

    The relative importance of ATP as a functional sympathetic neurotransmitter in blood vessels has been shown to be increased when the level of preexisting vascular tone or pressure is increased, in studies carried out in rat mesenteric arteries. The aim of the present study was to determine whether tone influences the involvement of ATP as a sympathetic cotransmitter with noradrenaline in another species. We used the porcine perfused mesenteric arterial bed and porcine mesenteric large, medium and small arteries mounted for isometric tension recording, because purinergic cotransmission can vary depending on the size of the blood vessel. In the perfused mesenteric bed at basal tone, sympathetic neurogenic vasocontractile responses were abolished by prazosin, an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, but there was no significant effect of α,β-methylene ATP, a P2X receptor-desensitizing agent. Submaximal precontraction of the mesenteric arterial bed with U46619, a thromboxane A2 mimetic, augmented the sympathetic neurogenic vasocontractile responses; under these conditions, both α,β-methylene ATP and prazosin attenuated the neurogenic responses. In the mesenteric large, medium and small arteries, prazosin attenuated the sympathetic neurogenic contractile responses under conditions of both basal and U46619-raised tone. α,β-Methylene ATP was effective in all of these arteries only under conditions of U46619-induced tone, causing a similar inhibition in all arteries, but had no significant effect on sympathetic neurogenic contractions at basal tone. These data show that ATP is a cotransmitter with noradrenaline in porcine mesenteric arteries; the purinergic component was revealed under conditions of partial precontraction, which is more relevant to physiological conditions.

  17. Metal: ATP characteristics of insulin- and epidermal growth factor-stimulated phosphorylation in detergent extracts of rat liver plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Uhing, R J; Exton, J H

    1986-09-01

    The metal: ATP characteristics of insulin- and epidermal growth factor-(EGF)-stimulated protein kinase activities were examined in Nonidet P40 extracts of rat liver plasma membranes. The two kinase activities were capable of utilizing either manganese or magnesium, although differences were observed. Insulin-stimulated 32P incorporation into an Mr 95 000 protein exhibited a higher affinity for ATP in the presence of manganese compared to magnesium. At 200 microM ATP, insulin stimulated 32P incorporation into the Mr 95 000 protein 3- to 5-fold after 5 min in the presence of either metal. At 1 mM ATP, insulin-stimulated 32P incorporation was significantly greater in the presence of magnesium. In contrast, EGF-stimulated 32P incorporation into an Mr 170 000 protein exhibited similar ATP dependencies in the presence of magnesium or manganese. Basal phosphorylation of the Mr 170 000 protein was 2- to 3-fold higher in the presence of manganese, however. Since the higher basal phosphorylation persisted after chromatography on wheat germ lectin-Sepharose, it may represent an inherent activity of the receptor kinase. In the presence of magnesium: ATP, low concentrations of manganese enhanced both insulin- and EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of angiotensin II suggesting involvement of a second metal binding site which regulates the kinase activity. The results presented show major differences in the metal: ATP properties of the two major hormonally regulated protein kinase activities observed in detergent-extracted liver membranes.

  18. Characterization of the ATP-G-actin aggregates formed at low potassium chloride concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Grazi, E; Aleotti, A; Ferri, A

    1984-01-01

    The ATP-G-actin aggregates formed by incubation of ATP-G-actin in 7.5 mM-KCl were characterized by electron-microscopical observation, by high-pressure liquid chromatography and by the study of the 1,N6-etheno-ATP-ATP exchange reaction between the free and the actin-bound nucleotide. In 30 mM-KCl the initial rate of the reduced-viscosity increase is found to be directly related to the amount of the aggregates formed in the course of the preincubation in 7.5 mM-KCl. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6721856

  19. Basal Autophagy Is Required for Herpes simplex Virus-2 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yakoub, Abraam M.; Shukla, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process of the cell, which plays an important role in regulating plethora of infections. The role of autophagy in Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection is unknown. Here, we found that HSV-2 does not allow induction of an autophagic response to infection, but maintains basal autophagy levels mostly unchanged during productive infection. Thus, we investigated the importance of basal autophagy for HSV-2 infection, using pharmacological autophagy suppression or cells genetically deficient in an autophagy-essential gene (ATG5). Interference with basal autophagy flux in cells significantly reduced viral replication and diminished the infection. These results indicate that basal autophagy plays an indispensable role required for a productive infection. Importantly, this study draws a sharp distinction between induced and basal autophagy, where the former acts as a viral clearance mechanism abrogating infection, while the latter supports infection. PMID:26248741

  20. ATP induces mild hypothermia in rats but has a strikingly detrimental impact on focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meijuan; Li, Wenjin; Niu, Guangming; Leak, Rehana K; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is a devastating condition lacking effective therapies. A promising approach to attenuate ischemic injury is mild hypothermia. Recent studies show that adenosine nucleotides can induce hypothermia in mice. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) induces mild hypothermia in rats and reduces ischemic brain injury. We found that intraperitoneal injections of ATP decreased core body temperature in a dose-dependent manner; the dose appropriate for mild hypothermia was 2 g/kg. When ATP-induced hypothermia was applied to stroke induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion, however, a neuroprotective effect was not observed. Instead, the infarct volume grew even larger in ATP-treated rats. This was accompanied by an increased rate of seizure events, hemorrhagic transformation, and higher mortality. Continuous monitoring of physiologic parameters revealed that ATP reduced heartbeat rate and blood pressure. ATP also increased blood glucose, accompanied by severe acidosis and hypocalcemia. Western blotting showed that ATP decreased levels of both phospho-Akt and total-Akt in the cortex. Our results reveal that, despite inducing hypothermia, ATP is not appropriate for protecting the brain against stroke. Instead, we show for the first time that ATP treatment is associated with exaggerated ischemic outcomes and dangerous systemic side effects.

  1. Detection of ATP and NADH: A Bioluminescent Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selig, Ted C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Described is a bioluminescent assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reduced nicotineamide-adenine dinucleotide (NADH) that meets the requirements of an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course. The 3-hour experiment provides students with experience in bioluminescence and analytical biochemistry yet requires limited instrumentation,…

  2. Chronic exposure to free fatty acid reduces pancreatic beta cell insulin content by increasing basal insulin secretion that is not compensated for by a corresponding increase in proinsulin biosynthesis translation.

    PubMed Central

    Bollheimer, L C; Skelly, R H; Chester, M W; McGarry, J D; Rhodes, C J

    1998-01-01

    The pancreatic beta cell normally maintains a stable balance among insulin secretion, insulin production, and insulin degradation to keep optimal intracellular stores of the hormone. Elevated levels of FFA markedly enhance insulin secretion; however, the effects of FFA on insulin production and intracellular stores remain unclear. In this study, twofold elevation in total circulating FFA effected by infusion of lard oil and heparin into rats for 6 h under normoglycemic conditions resulted in a marked elevation of circulating insulin levels evident after 4 h, and a 30% decrease in pancreatic insulin content after a 6-h infusion in vivo. Adding 125 muM oleate to isolated rat pancreatic islets cultured with 5.6 mM glucose caused a 50% fall in their insulin content over 24 h, coupled with a marked enhancement of basal insulin secretion. Both effects of fatty acid were blocked by somatostatin. In contrast to the stimulatory effects of oleate on insulin secretion, glucose-induced proinsulin biosynthesis was inhibited by oleate up to 24 h, but was unaffected thereafter. This result was in spite of a two- to threefold oleate-induced increase in preproinsulin mRNA levels, underscoring the importance of translational regulation of proinsulin biosynthesis in maintaining beta cell insulin stores. Collectively, these results suggest that chronically elevated FFA contribute to beta cell dysfunction in the pathogenesis of NIDDM by significantly increasing the basal rate of insulin secretion. This increase in turn results in a decrease in the beta cell's intracellular stores that cannot be offset by commensurate FFA induction of proinsulin biosynthesis. PMID:9486980

  3. Inflammation Promotes Airway Epithelial ATP Release via Calcium-Dependent Vesicular Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Seiko F.; Ribeiro, Carla M. P.; Sesma, Juliana I.; Seminario-Vidal, Lucia; Abdullah, Lubna H.; van Heusden, Catharina; Lazarowski, Eduardo R.

    2013-01-01

    ATP in airway surface liquid (ASL) controls mucociliary clearance functions via the activation of airway epithelial purinergic receptors. However, abnormally elevated ATP levels have been reported in inflamed airways, suggesting that excessive ATP in ASL contributes to airway inflammation. Despite these observations, little is known about the mechanisms of ATP accumulation in the ASL covering inflamed airways. In this study, links between cystic fibrosis (CF)–associated airway inflammation and airway epithelial ATP release were investigated. Primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells isolated from CF lungs exhibited enhanced IL-8 secretion after 6 to 11 days, but not 28 to 35 days, in culture, compared with normal HBE cells. Hypotonic cell swelling–promoted ATP release was increased in 6- to 11-day-old CF HBE cells compared with non-CF HBE cells, but returned to normal values after 28 to 35 days in culture. The exposure of non-CF HBE cells to airway secretions isolated from CF lungs, namely, sterile supernatants of mucopurulent material (SMM), also caused enhanced IL-8 secretion and increased ATP release. The SMM-induced increase in ATP release was sensitive to Ca2+ chelation and vesicle trafficking/exocytosis inhibitors, but not to pannexin inhibition. Transcript levels of the vesicular nucleotide transporter, but not pannexin 1, were up-regulated after SMM exposure. SMM-treated cultures displayed increased basal mucin secretion, but mucin secretion was not enhanced in response to hypotonic challenge after the exposure of cells to either vehicle or SMM. We propose that CF airway inflammation up-regulates the capacity of airway epithelia to release ATP via Ca2+-dependent vesicular mechanisms not associated with mucin granule secretion. PMID:23763446

  4. Inflammation promotes airway epithelial ATP release via calcium-dependent vesicular pathways.

    PubMed

    Okada, Seiko F; Ribeiro, Carla M P; Sesma, Juliana I; Seminario-Vidal, Lucia; Abdullah, Lubna H; van Heusden, Catharina; Lazarowski, Eduardo R; Boucher, Richard C

    2013-11-01

    ATP in airway surface liquid (ASL) controls mucociliary clearance functions via the activation of airway epithelial purinergic receptors. However, abnormally elevated ATP levels have been reported in inflamed airways, suggesting that excessive ATP in ASL contributes to airway inflammation. Despite these observations, little is known about the mechanisms of ATP accumulation in the ASL covering inflamed airways. In this study, links between cystic fibrosis (CF)-associated airway inflammation and airway epithelial ATP release were investigated. Primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells isolated from CF lungs exhibited enhanced IL-8 secretion after 6 to 11 days, but not 28 to 35 days, in culture, compared with normal HBE cells. Hypotonic cell swelling-promoted ATP release was increased in 6- to 11-day-old CF HBE cells compared with non-CF HBE cells, but returned to normal values after 28 to 35 days in culture. The exposure of non-CF HBE cells to airway secretions isolated from CF lungs, namely, sterile supernatants of mucopurulent material (SMM), also caused enhanced IL-8 secretion and increased ATP release. The SMM-induced increase in ATP release was sensitive to Ca(2+) chelation and vesicle trafficking/exocytosis inhibitors, but not to pannexin inhibition. Transcript levels of the vesicular nucleotide transporter, but not pannexin 1, were up-regulated after SMM exposure. SMM-treated cultures displayed increased basal mucin secretion, but mucin secretion was not enhanced in response to hypotonic challenge after the exposure of cells to either vehicle or SMM. We propose that CF airway inflammation up-regulates the capacity of airway epithelia to release ATP via Ca(2+)-dependent vesicular mechanisms not associated with mucin granule secretion.

  5. Regulation of an ATP-conductive large-conductance anion channel and swelling-induced ATP release by arachidonic acid

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Amal K; Okada, Yasunobu; Sabirov, Ravshan Z

    2002-01-01

    Mouse mammary C127 cells responded to hypotonic stimulation with activation of the volume-dependent ATP-conductive large conductance (VDACL) anion channel and massive release of ATP. Arachidonic acid downregulated both VDACL currents and swelling-induced ATP release in the physiological concentration range with Kd of 4– 6 μm. The former effect observed in the whole-cell or excised patch mode was more prominent than the latter effect observed in intact cells. The arachidonate effects were direct and not mediated by downstream metabolic products, as evidenced by their insensitivity to inhibitors of arachidonate-metabolizing oxygenases, and by the observation that they were mimicked by cis-unsaturated fatty acids, which are not substrates for oxygenases. A membrane-impermeable analogue, arachidonyl coenzyme A was effective only from the cytosolic side of membrane patches suggesting that the binding site is localized intracellularly. Non-charged arachidonate analogues as well as trans-unsaturated and saturated fatty acids had no effect on VDACL currents and ATP release, indicating the importance of arachidonate's negative charge and specific hydrocarbon chain conformation in the inhibitory effect. VDACL anion channels were inhibited by arachidonic acid in two different ways: channel shutdown (Kd of 4– 5 μm) and reduced unitary conductance (Kd of 13–14 μm) without affecting voltage dependence of open probability. ATP4--conducting inward currents measured in the presence of 100 mm ATP in the bath were reversibly inhibited by arachidonic acid. Thus, we conclude that swelling-induced ATP release and its putative pathway, the VDACL anion channel, are under a negative control by intracellular arachidonic acid signalling in mammary C127 cells. PMID:12154180

  6. Toward a multiscale description of microvascular flow regulation: o(2)-dependent release of ATP from human erythrocytes and the distribution of ATP in capillary networks.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Daniel; Fraser, Graham M; Ellis, Christopher G; Sprague, Randy S; Ellsworth, Mary L; Stephenson, Alan H

    2012-01-01

    Integration of the numerous mechanisms that have been suggested to contribute to optimization of O(2) supply to meet O(2) need in skeletal muscle requires a systems biology approach which permits quantification of these physiological processes over a wide range of length scales. Here we describe two individual computational models based on in vivo and in vitro studies which, when incorporated into a single robust multiscale model, will provide information on the role of erythrocyte-released ATP in perfusion distribution in skeletal muscle under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Healthy human erythrocytes exposed to low O(2) tension release ATP via a well characterized signaling pathway requiring activation of the G-protein, Gi, and adenylyl cyclase leading to increases in cAMP. This cAMP then activates PKA and subsequently CFTR culminating in ATP release via pannexin 1. A critical control point in this pathway is the level of cAMP which is regulated by pathway-specific phosphodiesterases. Using time constants (~100 ms) that are consistent with measured erythrocyte ATP release, we have constructed a dynamic model of this pathway. The model predicts levels of ATP release consistent with measurements obtained over a wide range of hemoglobin O(2) saturations (sO(2)). The model further predicts how insulin, at concentrations found in pre-diabetes, enhances the activity of PDE3 and reduces intracellular cAMP levels leading to decreased low O(2)-induced ATP release from erythrocytes. The second model, which couples O(2) and ATP transport in capillary networks, shows how intravascular ATP and the resulting conducted vasodilation are affected by local sO(2), convection and ATP degradation. This model also predicts network-level effects of decreased ATP release resulting from elevated insulin levels. Taken together, these models lay the groundwork for investigating the systems biology of the regulation of microvascular perfusion distribution by

  7. Near-infrared light increases ATP, extends lifespan and improves mobility in aged Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Rana; Calaza, Karin; Kam, Jaimie Hoh; Salt, Thomas E.; Hogg, Chris; Jeffery, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Ageing is an irreversible cellular decline partly driven by failing mitochondrial integrity. Mitochondria accumulate DNA mutations and reduce ATP production necessary for cellular metabolism. This is associated with inflammation. Near-infrared exposure increases retinal ATP in old mice via cytochrome c oxidase absorption and reduces inflammation. Here, we expose fruitflies daily to 670 nm radiation, revealing elevated ATP and reduced inflammation with age. Critically, there was a significant increase in average lifespan: 100–175% more flies survived into old age following 670 nm exposure and these had significantly improved mobility. This may be a simple route to extending lifespan and improving function in old age. PMID:25788488

  8. Near-infrared light increases ATP, extends lifespan and improves mobility in aged Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Begum, Rana; Calaza, Karin; Kam, Jaimie Hoh; Salt, Thomas E; Hogg, Chris; Jeffery, Glen

    2015-03-01

    Ageing is an irreversible cellular decline partly driven by failing mitochondrial integrity. Mitochondria accumulate DNA mutations and reduce ATP production necessary for cellular metabolism. This is associated with inflammation. Near-infrared exposure increases retinal ATP in old mice via cytochrome c oxidase absorption and reduces inflammation. Here, we expose fruitflies daily to 670 nm radiation, revealing elevated ATP and reduced inflammation with age. Critically, there was a significant increase in average lifespan: 100-175% more flies survived into old age following 670 nm exposure and these had significantly improved mobility. This may be a simple route to extending lifespan and improving function in old age.

  9. Adenosine uptake is the major effector of extracellular ATP toxicity in human cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Paola de Andrade; Filippi-Chiela, Eduardo Cremonese; Nascimento, Jéssica; Beckenkamp, Aline; Santana, Danielle Bertodo; Kipper, Franciele; Casali, Emerson André; Nejar Bruno, Alessandra; Paccez, Juliano Domiraci; Zerbini, Luiz Fernando; Wink, Marcia Rosângela; Lenz, Guido; Buffon, Andréia

    2014-01-01

    In cervical cancer, HPV infection and disruption of mechanisms involving cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis are strictly linked with tumor progression and invasion. Tumor microenvironment is ATP and adenosine rich, suggesting a role for purinergic signaling in cancer cell growth and death. Here we investigate the effect of extracellular ATP on human cervical cancer cells. We find that extracellular ATP itself has a small cytotoxic effect, whereas adenosine formed from ATP degradation by ectonucleotidases is the main factor responsible for apoptosis induction. The level of P2×7 receptor seemed to define the main cytotoxic mechanism triggered by ATP, since ATP itself eliminated a small subpopulation of cells that express high P2×7 levels, probably through its activation. Corroborating these data, blockage or knockdown of P2×7 only slightly reduced ATP cytotoxicity. On the other hand, cell viability was almost totally recovered with dipyridamole, an adenosine transporter inhibitor. Moreover, ATP-induced apoptosis and signaling—p53 increase, AMPK activation, and PARP cleavage—as well as autophagy induction were also inhibited by dipyridamole. In addition, inhibition of adenosine conversion into AMP also blocked cell death, indicating that metabolization of intracellular adenosine originating from extracellular ATP is responsible for the main effects of the latter in human cervical cancer cells. PMID:25103241

  10. Periodate-oxidized ATP modulates macrophage functions during infection with Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Figliuolo, V R; Chaves, S P; Santoro, G F; Coutinho, C M L M; Meyer-Fernandes, J R; Rossi-Bergmann, B; Coutinho-Silva, R

    2014-07-01

    Previously, we showed that treating macrophages with ATP impairs the intracellular growth of Leishmania amazonensis, and that the P2X7 purinergic receptor is overexpressed during leishmaniasis. In the present study, we directly evaluated the effect of periodate-oxidized ATP (oATP) on parasite control in Leishmania-infected macrophages. We found that oATP impaired the attachment/entrance of L. amazonensis promastigotes to C57BL/6 mouse macrophages in a P2X7 receptor-independent manner, as macrophages from P2X7(-/-) mice were similarly affected. Although oATP directly inhibited the growth of axenic promastigotes in culture, promoted rapid ultrastructural alterations, and impaired Leishmania internalization by macrophages, it did not affect intracellular parasite multiplication. Upon infection, phagosomal acidification was diminished in oATP-treated macrophages, accompanied by reduced endosomal proteolysis. Likewise, MHC class II molecules expression and ectoATPase activity was decreased by oATP added to macrophages at the time of parasite infection. These inhibitory effects were not due to a cytotoxic effect, as no additional release of lactate dehydrogenase was detected in culture supernatants. Moreover, the capacity of macrophages to produce nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species was not affected by the presence of oATP during infection. We conclude that oATP directly affects extracellular parasite integrity and macrophage functioning.

  11. Neuroglial ATP release through innexin channels controls microglial cell movement to a nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Lipitz, Jeffrey B.; Dahl, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Microglia, the immune cells of the central nervous system, are attracted to sites of injury. The injury releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into the extracellular space, activating the microglia, but the full mechanism of release is not known. In glial cells, a family of physiologically regulated unpaired gap junction channels called innexons (invertebrates) or pannexons (vertebrates) located in the cell membrane is permeable to ATP. Innexons, but not pannexons, also pair to make gap junctions. Glial calcium waves, triggered by injury or mechanical stimulation, open pannexon/innexon channels and cause the release of ATP. It has been hypothesized that a glial calcium wave that triggers the release of ATP causes rapid microglial migration to distant lesions. In the present study in the leech, in which a single giant glial cell ensheathes each connective, hydrolysis of ATP with 10 U/ml apyrase or block of innexons with 10 µM carbenoxolone (CBX), which decreased injury-induced ATP release, reduced both movement of microglia and their accumulation at lesions. Directed movement and accumulation were restored in CBX by adding ATP, consistent with separate actions of ATP and nitric oxide, which is required for directed movement but does not activate glia. Injection of glia with innexin2 (Hminx2) RNAi inhibited release of carboxyfluorescein dye and microglial migration, whereas injection of innexin1 (Hminx1) RNAi did not when measured 2 days after injection, indicating that glial cells’ ATP release through innexons was required for microglial migration after nerve injury. Focal stimulation either mechanically or with ATP generated a calcium wave in the glial cell; injury caused a large, persistent intracellular calcium response. Neither the calcium wave nor the persistent response required ATP or its release. Thus, in the leech, innexin membrane channels releasing ATP from glia are required for migration and accumulation of microglia after nerve injury. PMID:20876360

  12. Intracellular ATP can regulate afferent arteriolar tone via ATP-sensitive K+ channels in the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, J N; Schnermann, J; Brosius, F C; Briggs, J P; Furspan, P B

    1992-01-01

    Studies were performed to assess whether ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels on rabbit preglomerular vessels can influence afferent arteriolar (AA) tone. K+ channels with a slope conductance of 258 +/- 13 (n = 7) pS and pronounced voltage dependence were demonstrated in excised patches from vascular smooth muscle cells of microdissected preglomerular segments. Channel activity was markedly reduced by 1 mM ATP and in a dose-dependent fashion by glibenclamide (10(-9) M to 10(-6) M), a specific antagonist of KATP channels. 10(-5) M diazoxide, a K+ channel opener, activated these channels in the presence of ATP, and this effect was also blocked by glibenclamide. To determine the role of these KATP channels in the control of vascular tone, diazoxide was tested on isolated perfused AA. After preconstriction from a control diameter of 13.1 +/- 1.1 to 3.5 +/- 2.1 microns with phenylephrine (PE), addition of 10(-5) M diazoxide dilated vessels to 11.2 +/- 0.7 microns, which was not different from control. Further addition of 10(-5) M glibenclamide reconstricted the vessels to 5.8 +/- 1.5 microns (n = 5; P less than 0.03). In support of its specificity for KATP channels, glibenclamide did not reverse verapamil induced dilation in a separate series of experiments. To determine whether intracellular ATP levels can effect AA tone, studies were conducted to test the effect of the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose. After preconstriction from 13.4 +/- 3.2 to 7.7 +/- 1.3 microns with PE, bath glucose was replaced with 6 mM 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Within 10 min, the arteriole dilated to a mean value of 11.8 +/- 1.4 microns (n = 6; NS compared to control). Subsequent addition of 10(-5) M glibenclamide significantly reconstricted the vessels to a diameter of 8.6 +/- 0.5 micron (P less than 0.04). These data demonstrate that KATP channels are present on the preglomerular vasculature and that changes in intracellular ATP can directly influence afferent arteriolar tone via these channels

  13. Augmentation by intracellular ATP of the delayed rectifier current independently of the glibenclamide-sensitive K-current in rabbit arterial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Evans, A M; Clapp, L H; Gurney, A M

    1994-04-01

    Elevation of intracellular ATP levels by flash photolysis of caged ATP augmented the delayed rectifier K-current (IKDR) in rabbit pulmonary artery myocytes. The percentage augmentation was unaffected when IKDR was inactivated by 50% (holding potential -40 mV), although the magnitude of the ATP-induced current was substantially reduced. Inactivation of 90% IKDR (holding potential -20 mV) virtually abolished the ATP-dependent augmentation. We conclude that modulation of IKDR by ATP does not require conversion of the glibenclamide-sensitive K-current (IK(ATP)).

  14. ATP-gamma-S shifts the operating point of outer hair cell transduction towards scala tympani.

    PubMed

    Bobbin, Richard P; Salt, Alec N

    2005-07-01

    ATP receptor agonists and antagonists alter cochlear mechanics as measured by changes in distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE). Some of the effects on DPOAEs are consistent with the hypothesis that ATP affects mechano-electrical transduction and the operating point of the outer hair cells (OHCs). This hypothesis was tested by monitoring the effect of ATP-gamma-S on the operating point of the OHCs. Guinea pigs anesthetized with urethane and with sectioned middle ear muscles were used. The cochlear microphonic (CM) was recorded differentially (scala vestibuli referenced to scala tympani) across the basal turn before and after perfusion (20 min) of the perilymph compartment with artificial perilymph (AP) and ATP-gamma-S dissolved in AP. The operating point was derived from the cochlear microphonics (CM) recorded in response low frequency (200 Hz) tones at high level (106, 112 and 118 dB SPL). The analysis procedure used a Boltzmann function to simulate the CM waveform and the Boltzmann parameters were adjusted to best-fit the calculated waveform to the CM. Compared to the initial perfusion with AP, ATP-gamma-S (333 microM) enhanced peak clipping of the positive peak of the CM (that occurs during organ of Corti displacements towards scala tympani), which was in keeping with ATP-induced displacement of the transducer towards scala tympani. CM waveform analysis quantified the degree of displacement and showed that the changes were consistent with the stimulus being centered on a different region of the transducer curve. The change of operating point meant that the stimulus was applied to a region of the transducer curve where there was greater saturation of the output on excursions towards scala tympani and less saturation towards scala vestibuli. A significant degree of recovery of the operating point was observed after washing with AP. Dose response curves generated by perfusing ATP-gamma-S (333 microM) in a cumulative manner yielded an EC(50) of 19.8 micro

  15. IV ATP potentiates midazolam sedation as assessed by bispectral index.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Satoru; Fukunaga, Atsuo; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Kaneko, Yuzuru

    2014-01-01

    In this study, by measuring bispectral index (BIS), we tested the hypothesis that intravenous adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) infusion would deepen the level of midazolam-induced sedation. Ten healthy volunteers underwent 2 experiments with at least 2 weeks' interval: immediately after intravenous bolus administration of midazolam (0.04 mg/kg), they received continuous infusion of either ATP infusion (100 μg/kg/min) or placebo (saline) for 40 minutes in a double-blind, randomized, crossover manner. Changes in BIS values and responsiveness to verbal command as well as cardiorespiratory variables were observed throughout the study periods. Administration of midazolam alone reduced BIS value from control: 97 ± 1 to 68 ± 18 at 25 minutes, which was accompanied by significant cardiopulmonary depressant effects, while maintaining responsiveness to verbal command (consciousness) throughout the study period. Coadministration of ATP with midazolam further reduced BIS value to 51 ± 13, associated with complete loss of consciousness without adverse effect on the cardiorespiratory systems. We conclude that the addition of ATP infusion to midazolam significantly enhances midazolam sedation without disturbing cardiorespiratory functions.

  16. Basal area growth, carbon isotope discrimination, and intrinsic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many hectares of intensively managed Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. Franco) stands in western North America are fertilized with nitrogen to increase growth rates. Understanding the mechanisms of response facilitates prioritization of stands for treatment. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the short-term basal area growth response to a single application of 224 kg N ha-1 as urea was associated with reduced stable carbon isotope discrimination (∆13C) and increased intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) in a 20-yr-old plantation of Douglas-fir in the Oregon Coast Range, USA. Increment cores were measured to estimate earlywood, latewood, and total basal area increment over a time series from 1997 to 2015. Stable carbon isotope discrimination and iWUE were estimated using earlywood and latewood stable carbon isotope concentrations in tree-ring holocellulose starting seven years before fertilization in early 2009 and ending seven years after treatment. A highly significant interaction effect between fertilization treatment and year was found for total basal area growth and earlywood basal area increment. Fertilized trees showed significant total basal area growth and earlywood basal area increment in the first (2009) and second (2010) growing seasons after fertilization in 2009. A marginally significant fertilization effect was found for latewood basal area increment only in the first growing season after treatment. A significant i

  17. Decreased mitochondrial bioenergetics and calcium buffering capacity in the basal ganglia correlates with motor deficits in a nonhuman primate model of aging.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Jignesh D; Grondin, Richard; Yonutas, Heather M; Haghnazar, Hamed; Gash, Don M; Zhang, Zhiming; Sullivan, Patrick G

    2015-05-01

    Altered mitochondrial function in the basal ganglia has been hypothesized to underlie cellular senescence and promote age-related motor decline. We tested this hypothesis in a nonhuman primate model of human aging. Six young (6-8 years old) and 6 aged (20-25 years old) female Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were behaviorally characterized from standardized video records. Additionally, we measured mitochondrial bioenergetics along with calcium buffering capacity in the substantia nigra and putamen (PUT) from both age groups. Our results demonstrate that the aged animals had significantly reduced locomotor activity and movement speed compared with younger animals. Moreover, aged monkeys had significantly reduced ATP synthesis capacity (in substantia nigra and PUT), reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase activity (in PUT), and reduced calcium buffering capacity (in PUT) compared with younger animals. Furthermore, this age-related decline in mitochondrial function in the basal ganglia correlated with decline in motor function. Overall, our results suggest that drug therapies designed to enhance altered mitochondrial function may help improve motor deficits in the elderly.

  18. Mitochondrial ATP synthase is dispensable in blood-stage Plasmodium berghei rodent malaria but essential in the mosquito phase

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Angelika; Mollard, Vanessa; Cozijnsen, Anton; Goodman, Christopher D.; McFadden, Geoffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial ATP synthase is driven by chemiosmotic oxidation of pyruvate derived from glycolysis. Blood-stage malaria parasites eschew chemiosmosis, instead relying almost solely on glycolysis for their ATP generation, which begs the question of whether mitochondrial ATP synthase is necessary during the blood stage of the parasite life cycle. We knocked out the mitochondrial ATP synthase β subunit gene in the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, ablating the protein that converts ADP to ATP. Disruption of the β subunit gene of the ATP synthase only marginally reduced asexual blood-stage parasite growth but completely blocked mouse-to-mouse transmission via Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Parasites lacking the β subunit gene of the ATP synthase generated viable gametes that fuse and form ookinetes but cannot progress beyond this stage. Ookinetes lacking the β subunit gene of the ATP synthase had normal motility but were not viable in the mosquito midgut and never made oocysts or sporozoites, thereby abrogating transmission to naive mice via mosquito bite. We crossed the self-infertile ATP synthase β subunit knockout parasites with a male-deficient, self-infertile strain of P. berghei, which restored fertility and production of oocysts and sporozoites, which demonstrates that mitochondrial ATP synthase is essential for ongoing viability through the female, mitochondrion-carrying line of sexual reproduction in P. berghei malaria. Perturbation of ATP synthase completely blocks transmission to the mosquito vector and could potentially be targeted for disease control. PMID:25831536

  19. Children's Literature in the Basals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Maureen A.

    Three basal reading series, levels kindergarten through grade three, were studied to categorize the types of literature each contained. The following series were analyzed: "The Headway Program" (Open Court Publishing Company), "Series r Macmillan Reading," and "Basics in Reading" (Scott, Foresman and Company). It was…

  20. Teachers Reflect Standards in Basals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Dozens of teachers and literacy specialists from across the country hunkered down in Baltimore at round tables, with laptops, pens, and paper, intent on rewriting the collections that wield tremendous influence over the way millions of U.S. children learn literacy skills: the big-name basal readers. Hailing from 18 school districts in 11 states,…

  1. Defining the Role of ATP Hydrolysis in Mitotic Segregation of Bacterial Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Ah-Seng, Yoan; Rech, Jérôme; Lane, David; Bouet, Jean-Yves

    2013-01-01

    Hydrolysis of ATP by partition ATPases, although considered a key step in the segregation mechanism that assures stable inheritance of plasmids, is intrinsically very weak. The cognate centromere-binding protein (CBP), together with DNA, stimulates the ATPase to hydrolyse ATP and to undertake the relocation that incites plasmid movement, apparently confirming the need for hydrolysis in partition. However, ATP-binding alone changes ATPase conformation and properties, making it difficult to rigorously distinguish the substrate and cofactor roles of ATP in vivo. We had shown that mutation of arginines R36 and R42 in the F plasmid CBP, SopB, reduces stimulation of SopA-catalyzed ATP hydrolysis without changing SopA-SopB affinity, suggesting the role of hydrolysis could be analyzed using SopA with normal conformational responses to ATP. Here, we report that strongly reducing SopB-mediated stimulation of ATP hydrolysis results in only slight destabilization of mini-F, although the instability, as well as an increase in mini-F clustering, is proportional to the ATPase deficit. Unexpectedly, the reduced stimulation also increased the frequency of SopA relocation over the nucleoid. The increase was due to drastic shortening of the period spent by SopA at nucleoid ends; average speed of migration per se was unchanged. Reduced ATP hydrolysis was also associated with pronounced deviations in positioning of mini-F, though time-averaged positions changed only modestly. Thus, by specifically targeting SopB-stimulated ATP hydrolysis our study reveals that even at levels of ATPase which reduce the efficiency of splitting clusters and the constancy of plasmid positioning, SopB still activates SopA mobility and plasmid positioning, and sustains near wild type levels of plasmid stability. PMID:24367270

  2. An inhibitor of the δPKC interaction with the d subunit of F1Fo ATP synthase reduces cardiac troponin I release from ischemic rat hearts: utility of a novel ammonium sulfate precipitation technique.

    PubMed

    Ogbi, Mourad; Obi, Ijeoma; Johnson, John A

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported protection against hypoxic injury by a cell-permeable, mitochondrially-targeted δPKC-d subunit of F1Fo ATPase (dF1Fo) interaction inhibitor [NH2-YGRKKRRQRRRMLA TRALSLIGKRAISTSVCAGRKLALKTIDWVSFDYKDDDDK-COOH] in neonatal cardiac myo-cytes. In the present work we demonstrate the partitioning of this peptide to the inner membrane and matrix of mitochondria when it is perfused into isolated rat hearts. We also used ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) and chloroform/methanol precipitation of heart effluents to demonstrate reduced card-iac troponin I (cTnI) release from ischemic rat hearts perfused with this inhibitor. 50% (NH4)2SO4 saturation of perfusates collected from Langendorff rat heart preparations optimally precipitated cTnI, allowing its detection in Western blots. In hearts receiving 20 min of ischemia followed by 30, or 60 min of reperfusion, the Mean±S.E. (n=5) percentage of maximal cTnI release was 30 ± 7 and 60 ± 17, respectively, with additional cTnI release occurring after 150 min of reperfusion. Perfusion of hearts with the δPKC-dF1Fo interaction inhibitor, prior to 20 min of ischemia and 60-150 min of reperfusion, reduced cTnI release by 80%. Additionally, we found that when soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI), was added to rat heart effluents, it could also be precipitated using (NH4)2SO4 and detected in western blots. This provided a convenient method for normalizing protein recoveries between groups. Our results support the further development of the δPKC-dF1Fo inhibitor as a potential therapeutic for combating cardiac ischemic injury. In addition, we have developed an improved method for the detection of cTnI release from perfused rat hearts.

  3. An Inhibitor of the δPKC Interaction with the d Subunit of F1Fo ATP Synthase Reduces Cardiac Troponin I Release from Ischemic Rat Hearts: Utility of a Novel Ammonium Sulfate Precipitation Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ogbi, Mourad; Obi, Ijeoma; Johnson, John A.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported protection against hypoxic injury by a cell-permeable, mitochondrially-targeted δPKC-d subunit of F1Fo ATPase (dF1Fo) interaction inhibitor [NH2-YGRKKRRQRRRMLA TRALSLIGKRAISTSVCAGRKLALKTIDWVSFDYKDDDDK-COOH] in neonatal cardiac myo-cytes. In the present work we demonstrate the partitioning of this peptide to the inner membrane and matrix of mitochondria when it is perfused into isolated rat hearts. We also used ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) and chloroform/methanol precipitation of heart effluents to demonstrate reduced card-iac troponin I (cTnI) release from ischemic rat hearts perfused with this inhibitor. 50% (NH4)2SO4 saturation of perfusates collected from Langendorff rat heart preparations optimally precipitated cTnI, allowing its detection in Western blots. In hearts receiving 20 min of ischemia followed by 30, or 60 min of reperfusion, the Mean±S.E. (n = 5) percentage of maximal cTnI release was 30±7 and 60±17, respectively, with additional cTnI release occurring after 150 min of reperfusion. Perfusion of hearts with the δPKC-dF1Fo interaction inhibitor, prior to 20 min of ischemia and 60–150 min of reperfusion, reduced cTnI release by 80%. Additionally, we found that when soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI), was added to rat heart effluents, it could also be precipitated using (NH4)2SO4 and detected in western blots. This provided a convenient method for normalizing protein recoveries between groups. Our results support the further development of the δPKC-dF1Fo inhibitor as a potential therapeutic for combating cardiac ischemic injury. In addition, we have developed an improved method for the detection of cTnI release from perfused rat hearts. PMID:23936451

  4. Nifedipine treatment reduces resting calcium concentration, oxidative and apoptotic gene expression, and improves muscle function in dystrophic mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Altamirano, Francisco; Valladares, Denisse; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Casas, Mariana; López, Jose R; Allen, Paul D; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a recessive X-linked genetic disease, caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin. DMD is characterized in humans and in mdx mice by a severe and progressive destruction of muscle fibers, inflammation, oxidative/nitrosative stress, and cell death. In mdx muscle fibers, we have shown that basal ATP release is increased and that extracellular ATP stimulation is pro-apoptotic. In normal fibers, depolarization-induced ATP release is blocked by nifedipine, leading us to study the potential therapeutic effect of nifedipine in mdx muscles and its relation with extracellular ATP signaling. Acute exposure to nifedipine (10 µM) decreased [Ca(2+)]r, NF-κB activity and iNOS expression in mdx myotubes. In addition, 6-week-old mdx mice were treated with daily intraperitoneal injections of nifedipine, 1 mg/Kg for 1 week. This treatment lowered the [Ca(2+)]r measured in vivo in the mdx vastus lateralis. We demonstrated that extracellular ATP levels were higher in adult mdx flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) fibers and can be significantly reduced after 1 week of treatment with nifedipine. Interestingly, acute treatment of mdx FDB fibers with apyrase, an enzyme that completely degrades extracellular ATP to AMP, reduced [Ca(2+)]r to a similar extent as was seen in FDB fibers after 1-week of nifedipine treatment. Moreover, we demonstrated that nifedipine treatment reduced mRNA levels of pro-oxidative/nitrosative (iNOS and gp91(phox)/p47(phox) NOX2 subunits) and pro-apoptotic (Bax) genes in mdx diaphragm muscles and lowered serum creatine kinase (CK) levels. In addition, nifedipine treatment increased muscle strength assessed by the inverted grip-hanging test and exercise tolerance measured with forced swimming test in mdx mice. We hypothesize that nifedipine reduces basal ATP release, thereby decreasing purinergic receptor activation, which in turn reduces [Ca(2+)]r in mdx skeletal muscle cells. The results in this work open new perspectives

  5. Nifedipine Treatment Reduces Resting Calcium Concentration, Oxidative and Apoptotic Gene Expression, and Improves Muscle Function in Dystrophic mdx Mice

    PubMed Central

    Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Casas, Mariana; López, Jose R.; Allen, Paul D.; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a recessive X-linked genetic disease, caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin. DMD is characterized in humans and in mdx mice by a severe and progressive destruction of muscle fibers, inflammation, oxidative/nitrosative stress, and cell death. In mdx muscle fibers, we have shown that basal ATP release is increased and that extracellular ATP stimulation is pro-apoptotic. In normal fibers, depolarization-induced ATP release is blocked by nifedipine, leading us to study the potential therapeutic effect of nifedipine in mdx muscles and its relation with extracellular ATP signaling. Acute exposure to nifedipine (10 µM) decreased [Ca2+]r, NF-κB activity and iNOS expression in mdx myotubes. In addition, 6-week-old mdx mice were treated with daily intraperitoneal injections of nifedipine, 1 mg/Kg for 1 week. This treatment lowered the [Ca2+]r measured in vivo in the mdx vastus lateralis. We demonstrated that extracellular ATP levels were higher in adult mdx flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) fibers and can be significantly reduced after 1 week of treatment with nifedipine. Interestingly, acute treatment of mdx FDB fibers with apyrase, an enzyme that completely degrades extracellular ATP to AMP, reduced [Ca2+]r to a similar extent as was seen in FDB fibers after 1-week of nifedipine treatment. Moreover, we demonstrated that nifedipine treatment reduced mRNA levels of pro-oxidative/nitrosative (iNOS and gp91phox/p47phox NOX2 subunits) and pro-apoptotic (Bax) genes in mdx diaphragm muscles and lowered serum creatine kinase (CK) levels. In addition, nifedipine treatment increased muscle strength assessed by the inverted grip-hanging test and exercise tolerance measured with forced swimming test in mdx mice. We hypothesize that nifedipine reduces basal ATP release, thereby decreasing purinergic receptor activation, which in turn reduces [Ca2+]r in mdx skeletal muscle cells. The results in this work open new perspectives towards

  6. Trinitrophenyl-ATP blocks colonic Cl- channels in planar phospholipid bilayers. Evidence for two nucleotide binding sites

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Outwardly rectifying 30-50-pS Cl- channels mediate cell volume regulation and transepithelial transport. Several recent reports indicate that rectifying Cl- channels are blocked after addition of ATP to the extracellular bath (Alton, E. W. F. W., S. D. Manning, P. J. Schlatter, D. M. Geddes, and A. J. Williams. 1991. Journal of Physiology. 443:137-159; Paulmichl, M., Y. Li, K. Wickman, M. Ackerman, E. Peralta, and D. Clapham. 1992. Nature. 356:238-241). Therefore, we decided to conduct a more detailed study of the ATP binding site using a higher affinity probe. We tested the ATP derivative, 2',3',O-(2,4,6- trinitrocyclohexadienylidene) adenosine 5'-triphosphate (TNP-ATP), which has a high affinity for certain nucleotide binding sites. Here we report that TNP-ATP blocked colonic Cl- channels when added to either bath and that blockade was consistent with the closed-open-blocked kinetic model. The TNP-ATP concentration required for a 50% decrease in open probability was 0.27 microM from the extracellular (cis) side and 20 microM from the cytoplasmic (trans) side. Comparison of the off rate constants revealed that TNP-ATP remained bound 28 times longer when added to the extracellular side compared with the cytoplasmic side. We performed competition studies to determine if TNP-ATP binds to the same sites as ATP. Addition of ATP to the same bath containing TNP-ATP reduced channel amplitude and increased the time the channel spent in the open and fast-blocked states (i.e., burst duration). This is the result expected if TNP-ATP and ATP compete for block, presumably by binding to common sites. In contrast, addition of ATP to the bath opposite to the side containing TNP-ATP reduced amplitude but did not alter burst duration. This is the result expected if opposite-sided TNP- ATP and ATP bind to different sites. In summary, we have identified an ATP derivative that has a nearly 10-fold higher affinity for reconstituted rectifying colonic Cl- channels than any previously

  7. Uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) contributes to the basal proton conductance of brown adipose tissue mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Parker, Nadeene; Crichton, Paul G; Vidal-Puig, Antonio J; Brand, Martin D

    2009-08-01

    Proton leak pathways uncouple substrate oxidation from ATP synthesis in mitochondria. These pathways are classified as basal (not regulated) or inducible (activated and inhibited). Previously it was found that over half of the basal proton conductance of muscle mitochondria was catalyzed by the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), an abundant mitochondrial anion carrier protein. To determine whether ANT is the unique protein catalyst, or one of many proteins that catalyze basal proton conductance, we measured proton leak kinetics in mitochondria isolated from brown adipose tissue (BAT). BAT can express another mitochondrial anion carrier, UCP1, at concentrations similar to ANT. Basal proton conductance was measured under conditions where UCP1 and ANT were catalytically inactive and was found to be lower in mitochondria from UCP1 knockout mice compared to wild-type. Ablation of another abundant inner membrane protein, nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase, had no effect on proton leak kinetics in mitochondria from liver, kidney or muscle, showing that basal proton conductance is not catalyzed by all membrane proteins. We identify UCP1 as a second protein propagating basal proton leak, lending support to the hypothesis that basal leak pathways are perpetrated by members of the mitochondrial anion carrier family but not by other mitochondrial inner membrane proteins.

  8. Pyrazinoic acid decreases the proton motive force, respiratory ATP synthesis activity, and cellular ATP levels.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Haagsma, Anna C; Pham, Hoang; Maaskant, Janneke J; Mol, Selena; Lill, Holger; Bald, Dirk

    2011-11-01

    Pyrazinoic acid, the active form of the first-line antituberculosis drug pyrazinamide, decreased the proton motive force and respiratory ATP synthesis rates in subcellular mycobacterial membrane assays. Pyrazinoic acid also significantly lowered cellular ATP levels in Mycobacterium bovis BCG. These results indicate that the predominant mechanism of killing by this drug may operate by depletion of cellular ATP reserves.

  9. ATP Binding Turns Plant Cryptochrome Into an Efficient Natural Photoswitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Pavel; Bouly, Jean-Pierre; Hitomi, Kenichi; Balland, Véronique; Getzoff, Elizabeth D.; Ritz, Thorsten; Brettel, Klaus

    2014-06-01

    Cryptochromes are flavoproteins that drive diverse developmental light-responses in plants and participate in the circadian clock in animals. Plant cryptochromes have found application as photoswitches in optogenetics. We have studied effects of pH and ATP on the functionally relevant photoreduction of the oxidized FAD cofactor to the semi-reduced FADH. radical in isolated Arabidopsis cryptochrome 1 by transient absorption spectroscopy on nanosecond to millisecond timescales. In the absence of ATP, the yield of light-induced radicals strongly decreased with increasing pH from 6.5 to 8.5. With ATP present, these yields were significantly higher and virtually pH-independent up to pH 9. Analysis of our data in light of the crystallographic structure suggests that ATP-binding shifts the pKa of aspartic acid D396, the putative proton donor to FAD.-, from ~7.4 to >9, and favours a reaction pathway yielding long-lived aspartate D396-. Its negative charge could trigger conformational changes necessary for signal transduction.

  10. ATP Binding Turns Plant Cryptochrome Into an Efficient Natural Photoswitch

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Pavel; Bouly, Jean-Pierre; Hitomi, Kenichi; Balland, Véronique; Getzoff, Elizabeth D.; Ritz, Thorsten; Brettel, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Cryptochromes are flavoproteins that drive diverse developmental light-responses in plants and participate in the circadian clock in animals. Plant cryptochromes have found application as photoswitches in optogenetics. We have studied effects of pH and ATP on the functionally relevant photoreduction of the oxidized FAD cofactor to the semi-reduced FADH· radical in isolated Arabidopsis cryptochrome 1 by transient absorption spectroscopy on nanosecond to millisecond timescales. In the absence of ATP, the yield of light-induced radicals strongly decreased with increasing pH from 6.5 to 8.5. With ATP present, these yields were significantly higher and virtually pH-independent up to pH 9. Analysis of our data in light of the crystallographic structure suggests that ATP-binding shifts the pKa of aspartic acid D396, the putative proton donor to FAD·−, from ~7.4 to >9, and favours a reaction pathway yielding long-lived aspartate D396−. Its negative charge could trigger conformational changes necessary for signal transduction. PMID:24898692

  11. MRP transporters as membrane machinery in the bradykinin-inducible export of ATP.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yumei; Migita, Keisuke; Sun, Jing; Katsuragi, Takeshi

    2010-04-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) plays the role of an autocrine/paracrine signal molecule in a variety of cells. So far, however, the membrane machinery in the export of intracellular ATP remains poorly understood. Activation of B2-receptor with bradykinin-induced massive release of ATP from cultured taenia coli smooth muscle cells. The evoked release of ATP was unaffected by gap junction hemichannel blockers, such as 18alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid and Gap 26. Furthermore, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) coupled Cl(-) channel blockers, CFTR(inh)172, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid, Gd3(+) and glibenclamide, failed to suppress the export of ATP by bradykinin. On the other, the evoked release of ATP was greatly reduced by multidrug resistance protein (MRP) transporter inhibitors, MK-571, indomethacin, and benzbromarone. From western blotting analysis, blots of MRP 1 protein only, but not MRP 2 and MRP 3 protein, appeared at 190 kD. However, the MRP 1 protein expression was not enhanced after loading with 1 muM bradykinin for 5 min. Likewise, niflumic acid and fulfenamic acid, Ca2(+)-activated Cl(-) channel blockers, largely abated the evoked release of ATP. The possibility that the MRP transporter system couples with Ca2(+)-activated Cl(-) channel activities is discussed here. These findings suggest that MRP transporters, probably MRP 1, unlike CFTR-Cl(-) channels and gap junction hemichannels, may contribute as membrane machinery to the export of ATP induced by G-protein-coupled receptor stimulation.

  12. A lipid switch unlocks Parkinson’s disease-associated ATP13A2

    PubMed Central

    Holemans, Tine; Sørensen, Danny Mollerup; van Veen, Sarah; Martin, Shaun; Hermans, Diane; Kemmer, Gerdi Christine; Van den Haute, Chris; Baekelandt, Veerle; Günther Pomorski, Thomas; Agostinis, Patrizia; Wuytack, Frank; Palmgren, Michael; Eggermont, Jan; Vangheluwe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    ATP13A2 is a lysosomal P-type transport ATPase that has been implicated in Kufor–Rakeb syndrome and Parkinson’s disease (PD), providing protection against α-synuclein, Mn2+, and Zn2+ toxicity in various model systems. So far, the molecular function and regulation of ATP13A2 remains undetermined. Here, we demonstrate that ATP13A2 contains a unique N-terminal hydrophobic extension that lies on the cytosolic membrane surface of the lysosome, where it interacts with the lysosomal signaling lipids phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylinositol(3,5)bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2]. We further demonstrate that ATP13A2 accumulates in an inactive autophosphorylated state and that PA and PI(3,5)P2 stimulate the autophosphorylation of ATP13A2. In a cellular model of PD, only catalytically active ATP13A2 offers cellular protection against rotenone-induced mitochondrial stress, which relies on the availability of PA and PI(3,5)P2. Thus, the N-terminal binding of PA and PI(3,5)P2 emerges as a key to unlock the activity of ATP13A2, which may offer a therapeutic strategy to activate ATP13A2 and thereby reduce α-synuclein toxicity or mitochondrial stress in PD or related disorders. PMID:26134396

  13. ATP-triggered anticancer drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Ran; Jiang, Tianyue; Disanto, Rocco; Tai, Wanyi; Gu, Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Stimuli-triggered drug delivery systems have been increasingly used to promote physiological specificity and on-demand therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Here we utilize adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) as a trigger for the controlled release of anticancer drugs. We demonstrate that polymeric nanocarriers functionalized with an ATP-binding aptamer-incorporated DNA motif can selectively release the intercalating doxorubicin via a conformational switch when in an ATP-rich environment. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of ATP-responsive nanovehicles is 0.24 μM in MDA-MB-231 cells, a 3.6-fold increase in the cytotoxicity compared with that of non-ATP-responsive nanovehicles. Equipped with an outer shell crosslinked by hyaluronic acid, a specific tumour-targeting ligand, the ATP-responsive nanocarriers present an improvement in the chemotherapeutic inhibition of tumour growth using xenograft MDA-MB-231 tumour-bearing mice. This ATP-triggered drug release system provides a more sophisticated drug delivery system, which can differentiate ATP levels to facilitate the selective release of drugs.

  14. ATP in the pathogenesis of lung emphysema.

    PubMed

    Mortaz, Esmaeil; Braber, Saskia; Nazary, Maiwand; Givi, Masoumh Ezzati; Nijkamp, Frans P; Folkerts, Gert

    2009-10-01

    Extracellular ATP is a signaling molecule that often serves as a danger signal to alert the immune system of tissue damage. This molecule activates P2 nucleotide receptors, that include the ionotropic P2X receptors and metabotropic P2Y receptors. Recently, it has been reported that ATP accumulates in the airways of both asthmatic patients and sensitized mice after allergen challenge. The role and function of ATP in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) are not well understood. In this study we investigated the effect of cigarette smoke on purinergic receptors and ATP release by neutrophils. Neutrophils and their mediators are key players in the pathogenesis of lung emphysema. Here we demonstrated that in an in vivo model of cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema, the amount of ATP was increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Moreover, activation of neutrophils with cigarette smoke extract induced ATP release. Treatment of neutrophils with apyrase (catalyses the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP) and suramin (P2-receptor antagonist) abrogated the release of CXCL8 and elastase induced by cigarette smoke extract and exogenous ATP. These observations indicate that activation of purinergic signaling by cigarette smoke may take part in the pathogenesis of lung emphysema.

  15. ATP synthase: two motors, two fuels.

    PubMed

    Oster, G; Wang, H

    1999-04-15

    FoF1 ATPase is the universal protein responsible for ATP synthesis. The enzyme comprises two reversible rotary motors: Fo is either an ion 'turbine' or an ion pump, and F1 is either a hydrolysis motor or an ATP synthesizer. Recent biophysical and biochemical studies have helped to elucidate the operating principles for both motors.

  16. Mice lacking hypertension candidate gene ATP2B1 in vascular smooth muscle cells show significant blood pressure elevation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yusuke; Hirawa, Nobuhito; Tabara, Yasuharu; Muraoka, Hidenori; Fujita, Megumi; Miyazaki, Nobuko; Fujiwara, Akira; Ichikawa, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Yuichiro; Ichihara, Naoaki; Saka, Sanae; Wakui, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Shin-ichiro; Yatsu, Keisuke; Toya, Yoshiyuki; Yasuda, Gen; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Kita, Yoshikuni; Takei, Kohtaro; Goshima, Yoshio; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Miki, Tetsuro; Umemura, Satoshi

    2012-04-01

    We reported previously that ATP2B1 was one of the genes for hypertension receptivity in a large-scale Japanese population, which has been replicated recently in Europeans and Koreans. ATP2B1 encodes the plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoform 1, which plays a critical role in intracellular calcium homeostasis. In addition, it is suggested that ATP2B1 plays a major role in vascular smooth muscle contraction. Because the ATP2B1 knockout (KO) mouse is embryo-lethal, we generated mice with vascular smooth muscle cell-specific KO of ATP2B1 using the Cre-loxP system to clarify the relationship between ATP2B1 and hypertension. The KO mice expressed significantly lower levels of ATP2B1 mRNA and protein in the aorta compared with control mice. KO mice showed significantly higher systolic blood pressure as measured by tail-cuff method and radiotelemetric method. Similar to ATP2B1, the expression of the Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger isoform 1 mRNA was decreased in vascular smooth muscle cells of KO mice. However, ATP2B4 expression was increased in KO mice. The cultured vascular smooth muscle cells of KO mice showed increased intracellular calcium concentration not only in basal condition but also in phenylephrine-stimulated condition. Furthermore, phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction was significantly increased in vascular rings of the femoral artery of KO mice. These results suggest that ATP2B1 plays important roles in the regulation of blood pressure through alteration of calcium handling and vasoconstriction in vascular smooth muscle cells.

  17. Pannexin 1 channels mediate the release of ATP into the lumen of the rat urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Beckel, Jonathan M; Daugherty, Stephanie L; Tyagi, Pradeep; Wolf-Johnston, Amanda S; Birder, Lori A; Mitchell, Claire H; de Groat, William C

    2015-01-01

    ATP is released from the bladder epithelium, also termed the urothelium, in response to mechanical or chemical stimuli. Although numerous studies have described the contribution of this release to the development of various bladder disorders, little information exists regarding the mechanisms of release. In the present study, we examined the role of pannexin channels in mechanically-induced ATP release from the urothelium. PCR confirmed the presence of pannexin 1 and 2 mRNA in rat urothelial tissue, whereas immunofluorescence experiments localized pannexin 1 to all three layers of the urothelium. During continuous bladder cystometry in anaesthetized rats, inhibition of pannexin 1 channels using carbenoxolone (CBX) or Brilliant Blue FCF (BB-FCF) (1–100 μm, intravesically), or by using intravesical small interfering RNA, increased the interval between voiding contractions. Intravenous administration of BB-FCF (1–100 μg kg−1) did not alter bladder activity. CBX or BB-FCF (100 μm intravesically) also decreased basal ATP concentrations in the perfusate from non-distended bladders and inhibited increases in ATP concentrations in response to bladder distension (15 and 30 cmH2O pressure). Intravesical perfusion of the ATP diphosphohydrolase apyrase (2 U ml−1), or the ATPase inhibitor ARL67156 (10 μm) increased or decreased reflex bladder activity, respectively. Intravesical instillation of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) (Escherichia coli 055:B5, 100 μg ml−1) increased ATP concentrations in the bladder perfusate, and also increased voiding frequency; these effects were suppressed by BB-FCF. These data indicate that pannexin channels contribute to distension- or LPS-evoked ATP release into the lumen of the bladder and that luminal release can modulate voiding function. PMID:25630792

  18. Marine ice sheet model performance depends on basal sliding physics and sub-shelf melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, Rupert Michael; Warner, Roland Charles; Galton-Fenzi, Benjamin Keith; Gagliardini, Olivier; Zwinger, Thomas; Greve, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Computer models are necessary for understanding and predicting marine ice sheet behaviour. However, there is uncertainty over implementation of physical processes at the ice base, both for grounded and floating glacial ice. Here we implement several sliding relations in a marine ice sheet flow-line model accounting for all stress components and demonstrate that model resolution requirements are strongly dependent on both the choice of basal sliding relation and the spatial distribution of ice shelf basal melting.Sliding relations that reduce the magnitude of the step change in basal drag from grounded ice to floating ice (where basal drag is set to zero) show reduced dependence on resolution compared to a commonly used relation, in which basal drag is purely a power law function of basal ice velocity. Sliding relations in which basal drag goes smoothly to zero as the grounding line is approached from inland (due to a physically motivated incorporation of effective pressure at the bed) provide further reduction in resolution dependence.A similar issue is found with the imposition of basal melt under the floating part of the ice shelf: melt parameterisations that reduce the abruptness of change in basal melting from grounded ice (where basal melt is set to zero) to floating ice provide improved convergence with resolution compared to parameterisations in which high melt occurs adjacent to the grounding line.Thus physical processes, such as sub-glacial outflow (which could cause high melt near the grounding line), impact on capability to simulate marine ice sheets. If there exists an abrupt change across the grounding line in either basal drag or basal melting, then high resolution will be required to solve the problem. However, the plausible combination of a physical dependency of basal drag on effective pressure, and the possibility of low ice shelf basal melt rates next to the grounding line, may mean that some marine ice sheet systems can be reliably simulated at

  19. Activated sludge optimization using ATP in pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Bäckman, Göran; Gytel, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    The activated sludge process is an old technology, but still the most commonly used one for treatment of wastewater. Despite the wide spread usage the technology still suffers from instability (Tandoi et al. 2006) and high operating cost. Activated sludge processes often carry a large solids inventory. Managing the total inventory without interference is the key component of the optimization process described in this paper. Use of nutrients is common in pulp and paper effluent treatment. Feeding enough nutrients to support the biomass growth is a delicate balance. Overfeeding or underfeeding of nutrients can result in higher costs. Detrimental substances and toxic components in effluents entering a biological treatment system can cause severe, long lasting disturbances (Hynninen & Ingman 1998; Bergeron & Pelletier 2004). A LumiKem test kit is used to measure biological activity with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in a pulp and paper mill. ATP data are integrated with other standardized mill parameters. Measurements of active volatile suspended solids based on ATP can be used to quantify the living biomass in the activated sludge process and to ensure that sufficient biomass is present in order to degrade the wastewater constituents entering the process. Information about active biomass will assist in optimizing sludge inventories and feeding of nutrients allowing the living biomass to re-populate to create optimal efficiency. ATP measurements can also be used to alert operators if any components toxic to bacteria are present in wastewater. The bio stress index represents the stress level experienced by the microbiological population. This parameter is very useful in monitoring toxicity in and around bioreactors. Results from the wastewater process optimization and ATP measurements showed that treatment cost could be reduced by approximately 20-30% with fewer disturbances and sustained biological activity compared to the reference period. This was mainly achieved by

  20. Homocysteine induces cardiac hypertrophy by up-regulating ATP7a expression

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhanwei; Zhang, Yanzhou; Sun, Tongwen; Zhang, Shuguang; Yu, Weiya; Zhu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the study is to investigate the molecular mechanism by which homocysteine (Hcy) induces cardiac hypertrophy. Methods: Primary cardiomyocytes were obtained from baby Sprague-Dawley rats within 3 days after birth. Flow cytometry was used to measure cell sizes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure the expression of β-myosin heavy chain and atrial natriuretic peptide genes. Western blotting assay was employed to determine ATP7a protein expression. Cytochrome C oxidase (COX) activity test was used to evaluate the activity of COX. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was performed to determine copper content. siRNAs were used to target-silence the expression of ATP7a. Results: Hcy induced cardiac hypertrophy and increased the expression of cardiac hypertrophy-related genes. ATP7a was a key factor in cardiac hypertrophy induced by Hcy. Reduced ATP7a expression inhibited cardiac hypertrophy induced by Hcy. Elevated ATP7a expression induced by Hcy inhibited COX activity. Enhanced ATP7a expression inhibited COX activity by lowering intracellular copper content. Conclusions: Hcy elevates ATP7a protein expression, reduces copper content, and lowers COX activity, finally leading to cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:26722473

  1. Effect of dibutyltin on ATP levels in human natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Dudimah, Fred D; Gibson, Constance; Whalen, Margaret M

    2007-04-01

    This study investigates the role that decreased ATP levels may play in dibutyltin (DBT)-induced decreases in the tumor-cell-lysing (lytic) function of natural killer (NK) cells. NK cells are a subset of lymphocytes capable of killing tumor cells, virally infected cells, and antibody coated cells. DBT is used as stabilizer in PVC plastics and has also been used as a deworming product in poultry. NK cells were exposed to various concentrations of DBT for 1 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 6 days before determining ATP levels and lytic function. ATP levels and lytic function were also determined in NK cells that were exposed to DBT for 1 h followed by 24 h, 48 h, and 6 days in DBT-free media. The results indicated that exposure of NK cells to 10 muM DBT for 1 h did not cause any significant decrease in NK cell ATP levels but did cause a very significant loss in lytic function. NK cells exposed to 500 nM DBT for 24 h showed significant loss of lytic function but showed no decrease in ATP levels. However, 48 h and 6 days exposures to those concentrations of DBT that caused decreases in tumor lysing function also caused significant decreases in ATP levels. Exposures of NK cells to varying DBT concentrations for 1 h followed by 24 h, 48 h, and 6 days in DBT free media produced effects on lytic function and ATP levels that were similar to those seen with continuous DBT exposures. The results indicate that DBT exposures decrease ATP levels in NK cells but that tumor lysing function can be reduced independent of any decreases in ATP levels. Additionally the results show that the effects of a range of DBT concentrations on ATP levels and tumor lysing function are irreversible.

  2. ATP counteracts the rundown of gap junctional channels of rat ventricular myocytes by promoting protein phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Verrecchia, F; Duthe, F; Duval, S; Duchatelle, I; Sarrouilhe, D; Herve, J C

    1999-04-15

    1. The degree of cell-to-cell coupling between ventricular myocytes of neonatal rats appeared well preserved when studied in the perforated version of the patch clamp technique or, in double whole-cell conditions, when ATP was present in the patch pipette solution. In contrast, when ATP was omitted, the amplitude of junctional current rapidly declined (rundown). 2. To examine the mechanism(s) of ATP action, an 'internal perfusion technique' was adapted to dual patch clamp conditions, and reintroduction of ATP partially reversed the rundown of junctional channels. 3. Cell-to-cell communication was not preserved by a non-hydrolysable ATP analogue (5'-adenylimidodiphosphate, AMP-PNP), indicating that the effect most probably did not involve direct interaction of ATP with the channel-forming proteins. 4. An ATP analogue supporting protein phosphorylation but not active transport processes (adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate), ATPgammaS) maintained normal intercellular communication, suggesting that the effect was due to kinase activity rather than to altered intracellular Ca2+. 5. A broad spectrum inhibitor of endogenous serine/threonine protein kinases (H7) reversibly reduced the intercellular coupling. A non-specific exogenous protein phosphatase (alkaline phosphatase) mimicked the effects of ATP deprivation. The non-specific inhibition of endogenous protein phosphatases resulted in the preservation of substantial cell-to-cell communication in ATP-free conditions. 6. The activity of gap junctional channels appears to require both the presence of ATP and protein kinase activity to counteract the tonic activity of endogenous phosphatase(s).

  3. Mechanisms of ATP Dependent Chromatin Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Gangaraju, Vamsi K.; Bartholomew, Blaine

    2007-01-01

    The inter-relationship between DNA repair and ATP dependent chromatin remodeling has begun to become very apparent with recent discoveries. ATP dependent remodeling complexes mobilize nucleosomes along DNA, promote the exchange of histones, or completely displace nucleosomes from DNA. These remodeling complexes are often categorized based on the domain organization of their catalytic subunit. The biochemical properties and structural information of several of these remodeling complexes are reviewed. The different models for how these complexes are able to mobilize nucleosomes and alter nucleosome structure are presented incorporating several recent findings. Finally the role of histone tails and their respective modifications in ATP-dependent remodeling are discussed. PMID:17306844

  4. Aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibition combined with phenformin treatment reversed NSCLC through ATP depletion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Seon; Nam, Boas; Seong, Tae Wha; Son, Jaekyoung; Jang, Hyonchol; Hong, Kyeong Man; Lee, Cheolju; Kim, Soo-Youl

    2016-01-01

    Among ALDH isoforms, ALDH1L1 in the folate pathway showed highly increased expression in non-small-cell lung cancer cells (NSCLC). Based on the basic mechanism of ALDH converting aldehyde to carboxylic acid with by-product NADH, we suggested that ALDH1L1 may contribute to ATP production using NADH through oxidative phosphorylation. ALDH1L1 knockdown reduced ATP production by up to 60% concomitantly with decrease of NADH in NSCLC. ALDH inhibitor, gossypol, also reduced ATP production in a dose dependent manner together with decrease of NADH level in NSCLC. A combination treatment of gossypol with phenformin, mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, synergized ATP depletion, which efficiently induced cell death. Pre-clinical xenograft model using human NSCLC demonstrated a remarkable therapeutic response to the combined treatment of gossypol and phenformin. PMID:27384481

  5. Examining Dictionary Instruction in Basal Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Peter J. L.; And Others

    This study explored the nature of dictionary instruction in several basal reading series. Three basal reading series from major academic publishers (Scott Foresman, Ginn, and Holt) with 1989 copyrights, were selected for detailed analysis. Results indicated that even where the professed aim of the basal reading series was to incorporate dictionary…

  6. Basal cell nevus syndrome or Gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thalakoti, Srikanth; Geller, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) or Gorlin syndrome is a rare neurocutaneous syndrome sometimes known as the fifth phacomatosis, inherited in autosomal dominant fashion with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Gorlin syndrome is characterized by development of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, calcification of falx cerebri, various developmental skeletal abnormalities such as bifid rib, hemi- or bifid vertebra and predisposition to the development of various tumors. BCNS is caused by a mutation in the PTCH1 gene localized to 9q22.3. Its estimated prevalence varies between 1/55600 and 1/256000 with an equal male to female ratio. The medulloblastoma variant seen in Gorlin syndrome patients is of the desmoplastic type, characteristically presenting during the first 3 years of life. Therefore, children with desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be carefully screened for other features of BCNS. Radiation therapy for desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be avoided in BCNS patients as it may induce development of invasive BCCs and other tumors in the skin area exposed to radiation. This syndrome is a multisystem disorder so involvement of multiple specialists with a multimodal approach to detect and treat various manifestations at early stages will reduce the long-term sequelae and severity of the condition. Life expectancy is not significantly altered but morbidity from complications and cosmetic scarring can be substantial.

  7. The basal ganglia and apraxia.

    PubMed

    Pramstaller, P P; Marsden, C D

    1996-02-01

    Ever since Liepmann's original descriptions at the beginning of the century apraxia has usually been attributed to damage confined to the cerebral cortex and/or cortico-cortical connecting pathways. However, there have been suggestions that apraxia can be due to deep subcortical lesions, which raises the question as to whether damage to the basal ganglia or thalamus can cause apraxia. We therefore analysed 82 cases of such 'deep' apraxias reported in the literature. These reports consisted of a small number (n=9) of cases studied neuropathologically, and a much larger group (n=73) in which CT or MRI was used to identify the size and extent of the lesion. The reports were subdivided into (i) those with small isolated lesions which involved nuclei of the basal ganglia or thalamus only, and not extending to involve periventricular or peristriatal white matter; (ii) those with large lesions which involved two or more of the nuclei, or one or more of these deep structures plus damage to closely adjacent areas including the internal capsule, periventricular or peristriatal white matter; and (iii) lesions sparing basal ganglia and thalamus but involving adjacent white matter. The main conclusions to be drawn from this meta-analysis are that lesions confined to the basal ganglia (putamen, caudate nucleus and globus pallidus) rarely, if ever, cause apraxia. Lesions affecting the lenticular nucleus or putamen nearly always intruded into the adjacent lateral white matter to involve association fibres, in particular those of the superior longitudinal fasciculus and frontostriatal connections. Apraxia occurred with deep lesions of the basal ganglia apparently sparing white matter in only eight out of the 82 cases. Apraxia was most commonly seen when there were lesions in the lenticular nucleus or putamen (58 out of 72 cases) with additional involvement of capsular, and particularly of periventricular or peristriatal, white matter. Lesions of the globus pallidus (no cases) or

  8. Metal-Dependent Regulation of ATP7A and ATP7B in Fibroblast Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Lenartowicz, Malgorzata; Moos, Torben; Ogórek, Mateusz; Jensen, Thomas G.; Møller, Lisbeth B.

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of one of the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B leads to the rare X-linked disorder Menkes Disease (MD) or the rare autosomal disorder Wilson disease (WD), respectively. In order to investigate whether the ATP7A and the ATP7B genes may be transcriptionally regulated, we measured the expression level of the two genes at various concentrations of iron, copper, and insulin. Treating fibroblasts from controls or from individuals with MD or WD for 3 and 10 days with iron chelators revealed that iron deficiency led to increased transcript levels of both ATP7A and ATP7B. Copper deficiency obtained by treatment with the copper chelator led to a downregulation of ATP7A in the control fibroblasts, but surprisingly not in the WD fibroblasts. In contrast, the addition of copper led to an increased expression of ATP7A, but a decreased expression of ATP7B. Thus, whereas similar regulation patterns for the two genes were observed in response to iron deficiency, different responses were observed after changes in the access to copper. Mosaic fibroblast cultures from female carriers of MD treated with copper or copper chelator for 6–8 weeks led to clonal selection. Cells that express the normal ATP7A allele had a selective growth advantage at high copper concentrations, whereas more surprisingly, cells that express the mutant ATP7A allele had a selective growth advantage at low copper concentrations. Thus, although the transcription of ATP7A is regulated by copper, clonal growth selection in mosaic cell cultures is affected by the level of copper. Female carriers of MD are rarely affected probably due to a skewed inactivation of the X-chromosome bearing the ATP7A mutation. PMID:27587995

  9. Bioluminescence microscopy: application to ATP measurements in single living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brau, Frederic; Helle, Pierre; Bernengo, Jean C.

    1997-12-01

    Bioluminescence microscopy can be used to measure intracellular cofactors and ionic concentrations (Ca2+, K+, ATP, NADH), as an alternative to micro- spectrophotometry and micro-fluorimetry, due to the development of sensitive detectors (cooled photomultipliers tubes and CCD). The main limitation comes from the very small and brief intensity of the emitted light. Our instrumentation based on an inverted microscope, equipped with high aperture immersion lenses is presented. Light intensity measurements are carried out through a photomultiplier sorted for low dark current and cooled at -5 degree(s)C to reduce thermal noise. Our first aim is to quantify ATP on single living cells using the firefly luciferin-luciferase couple. Experimental and kinetic aspects are presented to emphasize the potentialities of the technique.

  10. An RNA motif that binds ATP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassanfar, M.; Szostak, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    RNAs that contain specific high-affinity binding sites for small molecule ligands immobilized on a solid support are present at a frequency of roughly one in 10(10)-10(11) in pools of random sequence RNA molecules. Here we describe a new in vitro selection procedure designed to ensure the isolation of RNAs that bind the ligand of interest in solution as well as on a solid support. We have used this method to isolate a remarkably small RNA motif that binds ATP, a substrate in numerous biological reactions and the universal biological high-energy intermediate. The selected ATP-binding RNAs contain a consensus sequence, embedded in a common secondary structure. The binding properties of ATP analogues and modified RNAs show that the binding interaction is characterized by a large number of close contacts between the ATP and RNA, and by a change in the conformation of the RNA.

  11. Cleanup MAC and MBA code ATP

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-10-17

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) and Material Balance (MBA) database system had some minor code cleanup performed to its code. This ATP describes how the code was to be tested to verify its correctness.

  12. The Rotary Mechanism of the ATP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Robert K.; Scanlon, Joanne A. Baylis; Al-Shawi, Marwan K.

    2008-01-01

    The FOF1 ATP synthase is a large complex of at least 22 subunits, more than half of which are in the membranous FO sector. This nearly ubiquitous transporter is responsible for the majority of ATP synthesis in oxidative and photo-phosphorylation, and its overall structure and mechanism have remained conserved throughout evolution. Most examples utilize the proton motive force to drive ATP synthesis except for a few bacteria, which use a sodium motive force. A remarkable feature of the complex is the rotary movement of an assembly of subunits that plays essential roles in both transport and catalytic mechanisms. This review addresses the role of rotation in catalysis of ATP synthesis/hydrolysis and the transport of protons or sodium. PMID:18515057

  13. Customized ATP towpreg. [Automated Tow Placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandusky, Donald A.; Marchello, Joseph M.; Baucom, Robert M.; Johnston, Norman J.

    1992-01-01

    Automated tow placement (ATP) utilizes robotic technology to lay down adjacent polymer-matrix-impregnated carbon fiber tows on a tool surface. Consolidation and cure during ATP requires that void elimination and polymer matrix adhesion be accomplished in the short period of heating and pressure rolling that follows towpreg ribbon placement from the robot head to the tool. This study examined the key towpreg ribbon properties and dimensions which play a significant role in ATP. Analysis of the heat transfer process window indicates that adequate heating can be achieved at lay down rates as high as 1 m/sec. While heat transfer did not appear to be the limiting factor, resin flow and fiber movement into tow lap gaps could be. Accordingly, consideration was given to towpreg ribbon having uniform yet non-rectangular cross sections. Dimensional integrity of the towpreg ribbon combined with customized ribbon architecture offer great promise for processing advances in ATP of high performance composites.

  14. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month). The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human) brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF) to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication) group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF). Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine. PMID:21936901

  15. Cultured senescent myoblasts derived from human vastus lateralis exhibit normal mitochondrial ATP synthesis capacities with correlating concomitant ROS production while whole cell ATP production is decreased.

    PubMed

    Minet, Ariane D; Gaster, Michael

    2012-06-01

    The free radical theory of aging says that increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are associated with old age. In the present study we have investigated the effects of cellular senescence on muscle energetic by comparing mitochondrial content and function in cultured muscle satellite cells at early and late passage numbers. We show that cultured muscle satellite cells undergoing senescence express a reduced mitochondrial mass, decreased whole cell ATP level, normal to increased mitochondrial ATP production under ATP utilization, increased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased superoxide/mitochondrial mass and hydrogen peroxide/mitochondrial mass ratios. Moreover, the increased ROS production correlates with the corresponding mitochondrial ATP production. Thus, myotubes differentiated from human myoblasts undergoing senescence have a reduced mitochondrial content, but the existent mitochondria express normal to increased functional capabilities. The present data suggest that the origin of aging lies outside the mitochondria and that a malfunction in the cell might be preceding and initiating the increase of mitochondrial ATP synthesis and concomitant ROS production in the single mitochondrion in response to decreased mitochondrial mass and reduced extra-mitochondrial energy supply. This then can lead to the increased damage of DNA, lipids and proteins of the mitochondria as postulated by the free radical theory of aging.

  16. Electrophysiology of autonomic neuromuscular transmission involving ATP.

    PubMed

    Sneddon, P

    2000-07-03

    Electrophysiological investigations of autonomic neuromuscular transmission have provided great insights into the role of ATP as a neurotransmitter. Burnstock and Holman made the first recordings of excitatory junction potentials (e.j.p.s) produced by sympathetic nerves innervating the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig vas deferens. This led to the identification of ATP as the mediator of e.j.p.s in this tissue, where ATP acts as a cotransmitter with noradrenaline. The e.j.p.s are mediated solely by ATP acting on P2X(1) receptors leading to action potentials and a rapid phasic contraction, whilst noradrenaline mediates a slower, tonic contraction which is not dependent on membrane depolarisation. Subsequent electrophysiological studies of the autonomic innervation of smooth muscles of the urogenital, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems have revealed a similar pattern of response, where ATP mediates a fast electrical and mechanical response, whilst another transmitter such as noradrenaline, acetylcholine, nitric oxide or a peptide mediates a slower response. The modulation of junction potentials by a variety of pre-junctional receptors and the mechanism of inactivation of ATP as a neurotransmitter will also be described.

  17. Moesin expression is a marker of basal breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Monville, Florence; Bertucci, François; Esterni, Benjamin; Ginestier, Christophe; Finetti, Pascal; Cervera, Nathalie; Geneix, Jeannine; Hassanein, Mohamed; Rabayrol, Laetitia; Sobol, Hagay; Taranger-Charpin, Colette; Xerri, Luc; Viens, Patrice; Birnbaum, Daniel; Jacquemier, Jocelyne

    2007-10-15

    Basal breast cancers (BBCs) have a high risk of metastasis, recurrence and death. Formal subtype definition relies on gene expression but can be approximated by protein expression. New markers are needed to help in the management of the basal subtype of breast cancer. In a previous transcriptional analysis of breast cell lines we found that Moesin expression was a potential basal marker. We show here that Moesin protein expression is a basal marker in breast tumors. In a tissue microarray (TMA) containing 547 sporadic breast cancers, of which 108 were profiled for gene expression, Moesin was expressed in 31% of all tumors and in 82% of the basal tumors. To confirm that Moesin expression remained associated with the basal phenotype in specific types of BBCs, we analyzed Moesin expression in 2 other TMAs containing 40 medullary breast cancers (MBCs) and 27 BRCA1-associated breast cancers (BRCA1-BCs), respectively. Moesin was strongly expressed in MBCs (87%; p = 2.4 x 10(-5)) and in BRCA1-BCs (58%; p = 1.3 x 10(-5)) as compared with non-MBCs and sporadic cases. Moesin-expressing tumors display features of BBCs, such as high proliferation rate, hormone receptors negativity, expression of putative basal/myoepithelial markers (CAV1, CD10, CK5/6, CK14, EGFR, P53, P-cadherin and SMA). Survival analysis showed a reduced specific survival and metastasis-free survival in Moesin-expressing tumors by log-rank test (p(SS) = 0.014 and p(MFS) = 0.014). In multivariate analysis, Moesin expression was nearly an independent prognostic marker of poor outcome as shown by Cox proportional hazard model in patients without lymph node metastasis (p = 0.052, HR = 2.38, CI 95[0.99-5.69]).

  18. Functional roles of ATP-binding residues in the catalytic site of human mitochondrial NAD(P)+-dependent malic enzyme.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hui-Chih; Chien, Yu-Ching; Hsieh, Ju-Yi; Chang, Gu-Gang; Liu, Guang-Yaw

    2005-09-27

    Human mitochondrial NAD(P)+-dependent malic enzyme is inhibited by ATP. The X-ray crystal structures have revealed that two ATP molecules occupy both the active and exo site of the enzyme, suggesting that ATP might act as an allosteric inhibitor of the enzyme. However, mutagenesis studies and kinetic evidences indicated that the catalytic activity of the enzyme is inhibited by ATP through a competitive inhibition mechanism in the active site and not in the exo site. Three amino acid residues, Arg165, Asn259, and Glu314, which are hydrogen-bonded with NAD+ or ATP, are chosen to characterize their possible roles on the inhibitory effect of ATP for the enzyme. Our kinetic data clearly demonstrate that Arg165 is essential for catalysis. The R165A enzyme had very low enzyme activity, and it was only slightly inhibited by ATP and not activated by fumarate. The values of K(m,NAD) and K(i,ATP) to both NAD+ and malate were elevated. Elimination of the guanidino side chain of R165 made the enzyme defective on the binding of NAD+ and ATP, and it caused the charge imbalance in the active site. These effects possibly caused the enzyme to malfunction on its catalytic power. The N259A enzyme was less inhibited by ATP but could be fully activated by fumarate at a similar extent compared with the wild-type enzyme. For the N259A enzyme, the value of K(i,ATP) to NAD+ but not to malate was elevated, indicating that the hydrogen bonding between ATP and the amide side chain of this residue is important for the binding stability of ATP. Removal of this side chain did not cause any harmful effect on the fumarate-induced activation of the enzyme. The E314A enzyme, however, was severely inhibited by ATP and only slightly activated by fumarate. The values of K(m,malate), K(m,NAD), and K(i,ATP) to both NAD+ and malate for E314A were reduced to about 2-7-folds compared with those of the wild-type enzyme. It can be concluded that mutation of Glu314 to Ala eliminated the repulsive effects

  19. ATP regulation of calcium transport in back-inhibited sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles.

    PubMed

    de Meis, L; Sorenson, M M

    1989-09-18

    At high concentrations of ATP, ATP hydrolysis and Ca2+ transport by the (Ca2+ + MG2+)-ATPase of intact sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles exhibit a secondary activation that varies with the extent of back-inhibition by Ca2+ accumulated within the vesicles. When the internal ionized Ca2+ is clamped at low and intermediate levels by the use of Ca-precipitating anions, the apparent Km values for activation by ATP are lower than in fully back-inhibited vesicles (high internal Ca2+). In leaky vesicles unable to accumulate Ca2+, raising Ca2+ in the assay medium from 20-30 microM to 5 mM abolishes the activation of hydrolysis by high concentrations of ATP. The level of [32P]phosphoenzyme formed during ATP hydrolysis from [32P]phosphate added to the medium also varies with the extent of back-inhibition; it is highest when Ca2+ is raised to a level that saturates the internal, low-affinity Ca2+ binding sites. In intact vesicles, increasing the ATP concentration from 10 to 400 microM competitively inhibits the reaction of inorganic phosphate with the enzyme but does not change the rate of hydrolysis. In a previous report (De Meis, L., Gomez-Puyou, M.T. and Gomez-Puyou, A. (1988) Eur. J. Biochem. 171, 343-349), it has been shown that the hydrophobic molecules trifluoperazine and iron bathophenanthroline compete for the catalytic site of the Pi-reactive form of the enzyme. Here it is shown that inhibition of ATP hydrolysis by these compounds is reduced or abolished when Ca2+ binds to the low-affinity Ca2+ binding sites of the enzyme. Since inhibition by these agents is indifferent to activation of hydrolysis by high concentrations of ATP, it is suggested that the second Km for ATP and the inhibition by hydrophobic molecules involve two different Ca-free forms of the enzyme.

  20. ATP activates P2x receptors and requires extracellular Ca(++) participation to modify outer hair cell nonlinear capacitance.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ning; Zhao, Hong-Bo

    2008-11-01

    Intracochlear ATP is an important mediator in regulating hearing function. ATP can activate ionotropic purinergic (P2x) and metabotropic purinergic (P2y) receptors to influence cell functions. In this paper, we report that ATP can activate P2x receptors directly to modify outer hair cell (OHC) electromotility, which is an active cochlear amplifier determining hearing sensitivity and frequency selectivity in mammals. We found that ATP, but not UTP, a P2y receptor agonist, reduced the OHC electromotility-associated nonlinear capacitance (NLC) and shifted its voltage dependence to the right (depolarizing) direction. Blockage of the activation of P2x receptors by pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid (PPADS), suramin, and 4,4'-diisothiocyanato-stilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) could block the ATP effect. This modification also required extracellular Ca(++) participation. Removal of extracellular Ca(++) abolished the ATP effect. However, chelation of intracellular Ca(++) concentration by a fast calcium-chelating reagent 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA, 10 mM) did not affect the effect of ATP on NLC. The effect is also independent of K(+) ions. Substitution of Cs(+) for intracellular or extracellular K(+) did not affect the ATP effect. Our findings indicate that ATP activates P2x receptors instead of P2y receptors to modify OHC electromotility. Extracellular Ca(++) is required for this modification.

  1. Reversible transport by the ATP-binding cassette multidrug export pump LmrA: ATP synthesis at the expense of downhill ethidium uptake.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Lekshmy; Venter, Henrietta; Shilling, Richard A; van Veen, Hendrik W

    2004-03-19

    The ATP dependence of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters has led to the widespread acceptance that these systems are unidirectional. Interestingly, in the presence of an inwardly directed ethidium concentration gradient in ATP-depleted cells of Lactococcus lactis, the ABC multidrug transporter LmrA mediated the reverse transport (or uptake) of ethidium with an apparent K(t) of 2.0 microm. This uptake reaction was competitively inhibited by the LmrA substrate vinblastine and was significantly reduced by an E314A substitution in the membrane domain of the transporter. Similar to efflux, LmrA-mediated ethidium uptake was inhibited by the E512Q replacement in the Walker B region of the nucleotide-binding domain of the protein, which strongly reduced its drug-stimulated ATPase activity, consistent with published observations for other ABC transporters. The notion that ethidium uptake is coupled to the catalytic cycle in LmrA was further corroborated by studies in LmrA-containing cells and proteoliposomes in which reverse transport of ethidium was associated with the net synthesis of ATP. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the conformational changes required for drug transport by LmrA are (i) not too far from equilibrium under ATP-depleted conditions to be reversed by appropriate changes in ligand concentrations and (ii) not necessarily coupled to ATP hydrolysis, but associated with a reversible catalytic cycle. These findings and their thermodynamic implications shed new light on the mechanism of energy coupling in ABC transporters and have implications for the development of new modulators that could enable reverse transport-associated drug delivery in cells through their ability to uncouple ATP binding/hydrolysis from multidrug efflux.

  2. Extracellular ATP and P2Y Receptor Activation Induce a Proinflammatory Host Response in the Human Urinary Tract▿

    PubMed Central

    Säve, Susanne; Persson, Katarina

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular ATP can be released by many cell types under conditions of cellular stress and signals through activation of purinergic receptors. Bladder uroepithelial cells grown in vitro have previously been shown to release ATP in response to stretch. In the present study, we investigated ATP release from uroepithelial cells infected with bacteria and the effect of ATP on the host cell proinflammatory interleukin 8 (IL-8) response. The human kidney epithelial cell line A498 and the human uroepithelial cell line UROtsa were grown in culture and stimulated by the uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) IA2 strain or the stable ATP analogue ATP-γ-S. ATP and IL-8 levels were measured in cell culture medium with a luciferin-luciferase assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The results showed that UPEC infection of uroepithelial cells for 1 h significantly increased (P < 0.01) the extracellular ATP levels. ATP-γ-S (10 and 100 μM) stimulated release of IL-8 from UROtsa and A498 cells after 6 and 24 h. Experiments with different purinoceptor agonists suggested that P2Y receptors, and not P2X receptors, were responsible for the ATP-γ-S-induced IL-8 release. The potency profile further suggested involvement of P2Y1, P2Y2, and/or P2Y11 receptors, and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) studies confirmed that the cells expressed these receptors. The amount of IL-8 released increased 12-fold in UPEC-infected cells, and apyrase, an enzyme that degrades ATP, reduced this increase by approximately 50%. The present study suggests that enhanced ATP release and P2Y receptor activation during urinary tract infection may represent a novel, non-TLR4-mediated mechanism for production of proinflammatory IL-8 in human urinary tract epithelial cells. PMID:20515921

  3. ATP Synthesis in the Extremely Halophilic Bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The proton-translocating ATPases are multimeric enzymes that carry out a multitude of essential functions. Their origin and evolution represent a seminal event in the early evolution of life. Amino acid sequences of the two largest subunits from archaeal ATPases (A-ATPases), vacuolar ATPases (V-ATPases), and FOF1-ATP syntheses (FATPases) suggest these ATPases evolved from an ancestral vacuolar-like ATP syntheses. A necessary consequence of this notion is that the A-ATPases are ATP syntheses. With the possible exception of the A-ATPase from Halobacterium salinarium. no A-ATPase has been demonstrated to synthesize ATP. The evidence for this case is dubious since ATP synthesis occurs only when conditions are distinctively unphysiological. We demonstrated that ATP synthesis in H.saccharovorum is inconsistent with the operation of an A-type ATPase. In order to determine if this phenomenon was unique to H. saccharovorum, ATP synthesis was examined in various extremely halophilic bacteria with the goal of ascertaining if it resembled what occurred in a. saccharovorum, or was consistent with the operation of an A-type ATPase. A-, V-, and F-type ATPases respond singularly to certain inhibitors. Therefore, the effect of these inhibitors on ATP synthesis in several extreme halophiles was determined. Inhibitors that either blocked or collapsed proton-gradients inhibited the steady state synthesis of ATP thus verifying that synthesis took place at the expense of a proton gradient. Azide, an inhibitor of F-ATPases inhibited ATP synthesis. Since the arginine-dependent synthesis of ATP, which occurs by way of substrate-level phosphorylation, was unaffected by azide, it was unlikely that azide acted as an "uncoupler." N -ethylmaleimide and nitrate, which inhibit V- and A-ATPases, either did not inhibit ATP synthesis or resulted in higher steady-state levels of ATP. These results suggest there are two types of proton-motive ATPases in the extreme halophiles (and presumably in other

  4. Parkinson's disease-linked human PARK9/ATP13A2 maintains zinc homeostasis and promotes α-Synuclein externalization via exosomes.

    PubMed

    Kong, Stephanie M Y; Chan, Brian K K; Park, Jin-Sung; Hill, Kathryn J; Aitken, Jade B; Cottle, Louise; Farghaian, Hovik; Cole, Adam R; Lay, Peter A; Sue, Carolyn M; Cooper, Antony A

    2014-06-01

    α-Synuclein plays a central causative role in Parkinson's disease (PD). Increased expression of the P-type ATPase ion pump PARK9/ATP13A2 suppresses α-Synuclein toxicity in primary neurons. Our data indicate that ATP13A2 encodes a zinc pump; neurospheres from a compound heterozygous ATP13A2(-/-) patient and ATP13A2 knockdown cells are sensitive to zinc, whereas ATP13A2 over-expression in primary neurons confers zinc resistance. Reduced ATP13A2 expression significantly decreased vesicular zinc levels, indicating ATP13A2 facilitates transport of zinc into membrane-bound compartments or vesicles. Endogenous ATP13A2 localized to multi-vesicular bodies (MVBs), a late endosomal compartment located at the convergence point of the endosomal and autophagic pathways. Dysfunction in MVBs can cause a range of detrimental effects including lysosomal dysfunction and impaired delivery of endocytosed proteins/autophagy cargo to the lysosome, both of which have been observed in cells with reduced ATP13A2 function. MVBs also serve as the source of intra-luminal nanovesicles released extracellularly as exosomes that can contain a range of cargoes including α-Synuclein. Elevated ATP13A2 expression reduced intracellular α-Synuclein levels and increased α-Synuclein externalization in exosomes >3-fold whereas ATP13A2 knockdown decreased α-Synuclein externalization. An increased export of exosome-associated α-Synuclein may explain why surviving neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta in sporadic PD patients were observed to over-express ATP13A2. We propose ATP13A2's modulation of zinc levels in MVBs can regulate the biogenesis of exosomes capable of containing α-Synuclein. Our data indicate that ATP13A2 is the first PD-associated gene involved in exosome biogenesis and indicates a potential neuroprotective role of exosomes in PD.

  5. Sperm morphology, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration and swimming velocity: unexpected relationships in a passerine bird

    PubMed Central

    Bennison, Clair; Brookes, Lola; Slate, Jon; Birkhead, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between sperm energetics and sperm function is poorly known, but is central to our understanding of the evolution of sperm traits. The aim of this study was to examine how sperm morphology and ATP content affect sperm swimming velocity in the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata. We exploited the high inter-male variation in this species and created extra experimental power by increasing the number of individuals with very long or short sperm through artificial selection. We found a pronounced quadratic relationship between total sperm length and swimming velocity, with velocity increasing with length up to a point, but declining in the very longest sperm. We also found an unexpected negative association between midpiece length and ATP content: sperm with a short midpiece generally contained the highest concentration of ATP. Low intracellular ATP is therefore unlikely to explain reduced swimming velocity among the very longest sperm (which tend to have a shorter midpiece). PMID:27559067

  6. Thiamine pyrophosphate stimulates acetone activation by Desulfococcus biacutus as monitored by a fluorogenic ATP analogue.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Acosta, Olga B; Hardt, Norman; Hacker, Stephan M; Strittmatter, Tobias; Schink, Bernhard; Marx, Andreas

    2014-06-20

    Acetone can be degraded by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Studies with the strictly anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfococcus biacutus indicate that acetone degradation by these bacteria starts with an ATP-dependent carbonylation reaction leading to acetoacetaldehyde as the first reaction product. The reaction represents the second example of a carbonylation reaction in the biochemistry of strictly anaerobic bacteria, but the exact mechanism and dependence on cofactors are still unclear. Here, we use a novel fluorogenic ATP analogue to investigate its mechanism. We find that thiamine pyrophosphate is a cofactor of this ATP-dependent reaction. The products of ATP cleavage are AMP and pyrophosphate, providing first insights into the reaction mechanism by indicating that the reaction proceeds without intermediate formation of acetone enol phosphate.

  7. Niflumic acid inhibits ATP-stimulated exocytosis in a mucin-secreting epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, C A; Danahay, H; Poll, C T; Laboisse, C; Hopfer, U; Bridges, R J

    2004-02-01

    ATP is an efficacious secretagogue for mucin and chloride in the epithelial cell line HT29-Cl.16E. Mucin release has been measured as [3H]glucosamine-labeled product in extracellular medium and as single-cell membrane capacitance increases indicative of exocytosis-related increases in membrane area. The calcium-activated chloride channel blocker niflumic acid, also reported to modulate secretion, was used to probe for divergence in the purinergic signaling of mucin exocytosis and channel activation. With the use of whole cell patch clamping, ATP stimulated a transient capacitance increase of 15 +/- 4%. Inclusion of niflumic acid significantly reduced the ATP-stimulated capacitance change to 3 +/- 1%, although normalized peak currents were not significantly different. Ratiometric imaging was used to assess intracellular calcium (Cai2+) dynamics during stimulation. In the presence of niflumic acid, the ATP-stimulated peak change in Cai2+ was unaffected, but the initial response and overall time to Cai2+ peak were significantly affected. Excluding external calcium before ATP stimulation or including the capacitative calcium entry blocker LaCl3 during stimulation muted the initial calcium transient similar to that observed with niflumic acid and significantly reduced peak capacitance change, suggesting that a substantial portion of the ATP-stimulated mucin exocytosis in HT29-Cl.16E depends on a rapid, brief calcium influx through the plasma membrane. Niflumic acid interferes with this influx independent of a chloride channel blockade effect.

  8. Monomeric Alpha-Synuclein Exerts a Physiological Role on Brain ATP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Ludtmann, Marthe H.R.; Angelova, Plamena R.; Ninkina, Natalia N.; Gandhi, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Misfolded α-synuclein is a key factor in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, knowledge about a physiological role for the native, unfolded α-synuclein is limited. Using brains of mice lacking α-, β-, and γ-synuclein, we report that extracellular monomeric α-synuclein enters neurons and localizes to mitochondria, interacts with ATP synthase subunit α, and modulates ATP synthase function. Using a combination of biochemical, live-cell imaging and mitochondrial respiration analysis, we found that brain mitochondria of α-, β-, and γ-synuclein knock-out mice are uncoupled, as characterized by increased mitochondrial respiration and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, synuclein deficiency results in reduced ATP synthase efficiency and lower ATP levels. Exogenous application of low unfolded α-synuclein concentrations is able to increase the ATP synthase activity that rescues the mitochondrial phenotypes observed in synuclein deficiency. Overall, the data suggest that α-synuclein is a previously unrecognized physiological regulator of mitochondrial bioenergetics through its ability to interact with ATP synthase and increase its efficiency. This may be of particular importance in times of stress or PD mutations leading to energy depletion and neuronal cell toxicity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Misfolded α-synuclein aggregations in the form of Lewy bodies have been shown to be a pathological hallmark in histological staining of Parkinson's disease (PD) patient brains. It is known that misfolded α-synuclein is a key driver in PD pathogenesis, but the physiological role of unfolded monomeric α-synuclein remains unclear. Using neuronal cocultures and isolated brain mitochondria of α-, β-, and γ-synuclein knock-out mice and monomeric α-synuclein, this current study shows that α-synuclein in its unfolded monomeric form improves ATP synthase efficiency and mitochondrial function. The ability of monomeric α-synuclein to enhance

  9. Synthetic peptides target ATP translocase of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ to block ATP uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As an obligate intracellular pathogen, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) may act as an “energy parasite” by importing ATP from its host’s cells. We previously demonstrated that the Las translocase NttA (gb|ACX71867.1) is functional in Escherichia coli and enables the direct import of ATP/ADP...

  10. Magnetic field affects enzymatic ATP synthesis.

    PubMed

    Buchachenko, Anatoly L; Kuznetsov, Dmitry A

    2008-10-01

    The rate of ATP synthesis by creatine kinase extracted from V. xanthia venom was shown to depend on the magnetic field. The yield of ATP produced by enzymes with 24Mg2+ and 26Mg2+ ions in catalytic sites increases by 7-8% at 55 mT and then decreases at 80 mT. For enzyme with 25Mg2+ ion in a catalytic site, the ATP yield increases by 50% and 70% in the fields 55 and 80 mT, respectively. In the Earth field the rate of ATP synthesis by enzyme, in which Mg2+ ion has magnetic nucleus 25Mg, is 2.5 times higher than that by enzymes, in which Mg2+ ion has nonmagnetic, spinless nuclei 24Mg or 26Mg. Both magnetic field effect and magnetic isotope effect demonstrate that the ATP synthesis is an ion-radical process, affected by Zeeman interaction and hyperfine coupling in the intermediate ion-radical pair.

  11. BASAL BODIES, BUT NOT CENTRIOLES, IN NAEGLERIA

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Chandler; Dingle, Allan D.

    1971-01-01

    Amebae of Naegleria gruberi transform into flagellates whose basal bodies have the typical centriole-like structure. The amebae appear to lack any homologous structure, even during mitosis. Basal bodies are constructed during transformation and, in cells transforming synchronously at 25°C, they are first seen about 10 min before flagella are seen. No structural precursor for these basal bodies has been found. These observations are discussed in the light of hypotheses about the continuity of centrioles. PMID:4942778

  12. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2015-11-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe noninvasive treatment for low-risk basal cell carcinoma, with the advantage of an excellent cosmetic outcome. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in basal cell carcinoma is supported by substantial research and clinical trials. In this article, we review the procedure, indications and clinical evidences for the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  13. Functional Neuroanatomy of the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Lanciego, José L.; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The “basal ganglia” refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amplified with the emergence of new data. Furthermore, parallel circuits subserve the other functions of the basal ganglia engaging associative and limbic territories. Disruption of the basal ganglia network forms the basis for several movement disorders. This article provides a comprehensive account of basal ganglia functional anatomy and chemistry and the major pathophysiological changes underlying disorders of movement. We try to answer three key questions related to the basal ganglia, as follows: What are the basal ganglia? What are they made of? How do they work? Some insight on the canonical basal ganglia model is provided, together with a selection of paradoxes and some views over the horizon in the field. PMID:23071379

  14. Voltage dependence of ATP secretion in mammalian taste cells.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Roman A; Rogachevskaja, Olga A; Khokhlov, Alexander A; Kolesnikov, Stanislav S

    2008-12-01

    Mammalian type II taste cells release the afferent neurotransmitter adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through ATP-permeable ion channels, most likely to be connexin (Cx) and/or pannexin hemichannels. Here, we show that ion channels responsible for voltage-gated (VG) outward currents in type II cells are ATP permeable and demonstrate a strong correlation between the magnitude of the VG current and the intensity of ATP release. These findings suggest that slowly deactivating ion channels transporting the VG outward currents can also mediate ATP secretion in type II cells. In line with this inference, we studied a dependence of ATP secretion on membrane voltage with a cellular ATP sensor using different pulse protocols. These were designed on the basis of predictions of a model of voltage-dependent transient ATP efflux. Consistently with curves that were simulated for ATP release mediated by ATP-permeable channels deactivating slowly, the bell-like and Langmuir isotherm-like potential dependencies were characteristic of ATP secretion obtained for prolonged and short electrical stimulations of taste cells, respectively. These observations strongly support the idea that ATP is primarily released via slowly deactivating channels. Depolarizing voltage pulses produced negligible Ca(2+) transients in the cytoplasm of cells releasing ATP, suggesting that ATP secretion is mainly governed by membrane voltage under our recording conditions. With the proviso that natural connexons and pannexons are kinetically similar to exogenously expressed hemichannels, our findings suggest that VG ATP release in type II cells is primarily mediated by Cx hemichannels.

  15. Dynamic regulation of extracellular ATP in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Cora Lilia; Corradi, Gerardo; Lauri, Natalia; Marginedas-Freixa, Irene; Leal Denis, María Florencia; Enrique, Nicolás; Mate, Sabina María; Milesi, Verónica; Ostuni, Mariano Anibal; Herlax, Vanesa; Schwarzbaum, Pablo Julio

    2017-04-04

    We studied the kinetics of extracellular ATP (ATPe) in Escherichia coli and their outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) stimulated with amphipatic peptides melittin (MEL) and mastoparan 7 (MST7). Real-time luminometry was used to measure ATPe kinetics, ATP release, and ATPase activity. The latter was also determined by following [(32)P]Pi released from [γ-(32)P]ATP. E. coli was studied alone, co-incubated with Caco-2 cells, or in rat jejunum segments. In E. coli, the addition of [γ-(32)P]ATP led to the uptake and subsequent hydrolysis of ATPe. Exposure to peptides caused an acute 3-fold (MST7) and 7-fold (MEL) increase in [ATPe]. In OMVs, ATPase activity increased linearly with [ATPe] (0.1-1 µM). Exposure to MST7 and MEL enhanced ATP release by 3-7 fold, with similar kinetics to that of bacteria. In Caco-2 cells, the addition of ATP to the apical domain led to a steep [ATPe] increase to a maximum, with subsequent ATPase activity. The addition of bacterial suspensions led to a 6-7 fold increase in [ATPe], followed by an acute decrease. In perfused jejunum segments, exposure to E. coli increased luminal ATP 2 fold. ATPe regulation of E. coli depends on the balance between ATPase activity and ATP release. This balance can be altered by OMVs, which display their own capacity to regulate ATPe. E. coli can activate ATP release from Caco-2 cells and intestinal segments, a response which in vivo might lead to intestinal release of ATP from the gut lumen.

  16. Pseudohypoparathyroidism with basal ganglia calcification

    PubMed Central

    Song, Cheng-Yuan; Zhao, Zhen-Xiang; Li, Wei; Sun, Cong-Cong; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Parkinsonism can be secondary to many internal diseases, in some certain conditions, it seems that the clinical manifestations of parkinsonism presenting reversible. We report a case of patient with parkinsonism secondary to pseudohypoparathyroidism, who improved markedly after the supplement of serum calcium. Patient concerns and diagnoses: A 52-year-old woman with acute parkinsonism was diagnosed as pseudohypoparathyroidism after the conducting of brain computed tomography, laboratory examinations, and gene detection. The son of the patient was also examined and was diagnosed as pseudohypoparathyroidism, who had ever complained of the history of epilepsy. The clinical manifestations of parkinsonism of the patient was reevaluated after the supplement of serum calcium according to the diagnosis. Interventions and outcomes: The brain computed tomography revealed the basal ganglia calcification of the patient, accompanying by serum hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. Loss of function mutation also confirmed the diagnosis. Five days after the therapy targeting at correction of serum hypocalcemia, the patient improved greatly in dyskinesia. Lessons: This study reported a patient presenting as acute reversible parkinsonism, who was finally diagnosed as pseudohypoparathyroidism. It indicated us that secondary parkinsonism should be carefully differentiated for its dramatic treatment effect. And the family history of seizures might be an indicator for the consideration of pseudohypoparathyroidism. PMID:28296742

  17. An ATP2B4 polymorphism protects against malaria in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bedu-Addo, George; Meese, Stefanie; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2013-05-15

    Polymorphisms of ATP2B4 encoding an ubiquitous Ca(2+) pump protect against severe childhood malaria. We assessed the influence of a main polymorphism (rs10900585) on malaria among 834 delivering Ghanaian women. In homozygous primiparae, the odds of placental Plasmodium falciparum infection were reduced by 64%. No influence of the polymorphism on parasite density, low birth weight, or preterm delivery was discernible. However, malarial anemia was greatly reduced in primiparous carriers of the variant allele, paralleling the reduced impact of malaria on hemoglobin levels in this group. A common ATP2B4 polymorphism protects against malaria in pregnancy and related maternal anemia, suggesting ATP2B4 variant associated protection not to be limited to severe childhood malaria.

  18. Stable nuclear expression of ATP8 and ATP6 genes rescues a mtDNA Complex V null mutant

    PubMed Central

    Boominathan, Amutha; Vanhoozer, Shon; Basisty, Nathan; Powers, Kathleen; Crampton, Alexandra L.; Wang, Xiaobin; Friedricks, Natalie; Schilling, Birgit; Brand, Martin D.; O'Connor, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the possibility of re-engineering mitochondrial genes and expressing them from the nucleus as an approach to rescue defects arising from mitochondrial DNA mutations. We have used a patient cybrid cell line with a single point mutation in the overlap region of the ATP8 and ATP6 genes of the human mitochondrial genome. These cells are null for the ATP8 protein, have significantly lowered ATP6 protein levels and no Complex V function. Nuclear expression of only the ATP8 gene with the ATP5G1 mitochondrial targeting sequence appended restored viability on Krebs cycle substrates and ATP synthesis capabilities but, failed to restore ATP hydrolysis and was insensitive to various inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation. Co-expressing both ATP8 and ATP6 genes under similar conditions resulted in stable protein expression leading to successful integration into Complex V of the oxidative phosphorylation machinery. Tests for ATP hydrolysis / synthesis, oxygen consumption, glycolytic metabolism and viability all indicate a significant functional rescue of the mutant phenotype (including re-assembly of Complex V) following stable co-expression of ATP8 and ATP6. Thus, we report the stable allotopic expression, import and function of two mitochondria encoded genes, ATP8 and ATP6, resulting in simultaneous rescue of the loss of both mitochondrial proteins. PMID:27596602

  19. Continuous intravenous infusion of ATP in humans yields large expansions of erythrocyte ATP pools but extracellular ATP pools are elevated only at the start followed by rapid declines.

    PubMed

    Rapaport, Eliezer; Salikhova, Anna; Abraham, Edward H

    2015-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) was investigated in a clinical trial that included 15 patients with advanced malignancies (solid tumors). ATP was administered by continuous intravenous infusions of 8 h once weekly for 8 weeks. Three values of blood ATP levels were determined. These were total blood (erythrocyte) and blood plasma (extracellular) ATP pools along with the initial rate of release of ATP into the blood plasma. We found that values related to erythrocyte ATP pools showed great variability (diversity) among individuals (standard deviation of about 30-40% of mean at baseline). It was discovered that erythrocyte baseline ATP pool sizes are unique to each individual and that they fall within a narrow range in each individual. At the end of an 8 h continuous intravenous infusion of ATP, intracellular erythrocyte ATP pools were increased in the range of 40-60% and extracellular ATP declined from elevated levels achieved at the beginning and middle of the infusion, to baseline levels. The ability of erythrocytes to sequester exogenously administered ATP to this degree, after its initial conversion to adenosine in the blood plasma is unexpected, considering that some of the adenosine is likely to have been degraded by in vivo catabolic activities or taken up by organs. The data suggest that administration of ATP by short-term intravenous infusions, of up to 4 h, may be a favorable way for elevating extracellular ATP pools. A large fraction of the total exogenously administered ATP is sequestered into the intracellular compartments of the erythrocytes after an 8 h intravenous infusion. Erythrocytes loaded with ATP are known to release their ATP pools by the application of previously established agents or conditions applied locally or globally to circulating erythrocytes. Rapid degradation of intravenously administered ATP to adenosine and subsequent accumulation of ATP inside erythrocytes indicate the existence of very effective mechanisms

  20. Local regulation of vasopressin and oxytocin secretion by extracellular ATP in the isolated posterior lobe of the rat hypophysis.

    PubMed

    Sperlágh, B; Mergl, Z; Jurányi, Z; Vizi, E S; Makara, G B

    1999-03-01

    It is now widely accepted that ATP functions as a signalling substance in the nervous system. The presence of P2 receptors mediating the action of extracellular ATP in brain regions involved in hormonal regulation raises the possibility that a similar role for ATP might also exist in the neuroendocrine system. In this study, the release from the rat isolated neurohypophysis preparation of endogenous ATP, oxytocin and vasopressin (AVP) were measured simultaneously using luciferin-luciferase and RIA techniques. After 70 min preperfusion, electrical field stimulation caused a rapid increase in the amount of ATP in the effluent and the release of AVP and oxytocin also increased stimulation-dependently. Inhibition of voltage-dependent Na+ channels by tetrodotoxin (1 microM) reduced the stimulation-evoked release of AVP and oxytocin; however, the evoked release of ATP remained unaffected. The effect of endogenous ATP on the hormone secretion was tested by suramin (300 microM), the P2 receptor antagonist. Suramin significantly increased the release of AVP, and the release of oxytocin was also enhanced. ATP, when applied to the superfusing medium, decreased the release of AVP, but not that of oxytocin, and its effect was prevented by suramin. ATP (60 nmol), added to the tissues, was readily decomposed to ADP, AMP and adenosine measured by HPLC combined with ultraviolet light detection, and the kinetic parameters of the enzymes responsible for inactivation of ATP (ectoATPase and ecto5'-nucleotidase) were also determined (Km=264+/-2.7 and 334+/-165 microM and vmax=6.7+/-1.1 and 2.54+/-0.24 nmol/min per preparation (n=3) for ectoATPase and ecto5'-nucleotidase respectively). Taken together, our data demonstrate the stimulation-dependent release, P2 receptor-mediated action and extracellular metabolism of endogenous ATP in the posterior lobe of the hypophysis and indicate its role, as a paracrine regulator, in the local control of hormone secretion.

  1. Real-time imaging of ATP release induced by mechanical stretch in human airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Norihiro; Ito, Satoru; Furuya, Kishio; Naruse, Keiji; Aso, Hiromichi; Kondo, Masashi; Sokabe, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2014-12-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells within the airway walls are continually exposed to mechanical stimuli, and exhibit various functions in response to these mechanical stresses. ATP acts as an extracellular mediator in the airway. Moreover, extracellular ATP is considered to play an important role in the pathophysiology of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, it is not known whether ASM cells are cellular sources of ATP secretion in the airway. We therefore investigated whether mechanical stretch induces ATP release from ASM cells. Mechanical stretch was applied to primary human ASM cells cultured on a silicone chamber coated with type I collagen using a stretching apparatus. Concentrations of ATP in cell culture supernatants measured by luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence were significantly elevated by cyclic stretch (12 and 20% strain). We further visualized the stretch-induced ATP release from the cells in real time using a luminescence imaging system, while acquiring differential interference contrast cell images with infrared optics. Immediately after a single uniaxial stretch for 1 second, strong ATP signals were produced by a certain population of cells and spread to surrounding spaces. The cyclic stretch-induced ATP release was significantly reduced by inhibitors of Ca(2+)-dependent vesicular exocytosis, 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetraacetoxymethyl ester, monensin, N-ethylmaleimide, and bafilomycin. In contrast, the stretch-induced ATP release was not inhibited by a hemichannel blocker, carbenoxolone, or blockade of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 by short interfering RNA transfection or ruthenium red. These findings reveal a novel property of ASM cells: mechanically induced ATP release may be a cellular source of ATP in the airway.

  2. Basal body reorientation mediated by a Ca2+-modulated contractile protein

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    A rapid, Ca2+-dependent change in the angle between basal bodies (up to 180 degrees) is associated with light-induced reversal of swimming direction (the "photophobic" response) in a number of flagellated green algae. In isolated, detergent-extracted, reactivated flagellar apparatus complexes of Spermatozopsis similis, axonemal beat form conversion to the symmetrical/undulating flagellar pattern and basal body reorientation (from the antiparallel to the parallel configuration) are simultaneously induced at greater than or equal to 10(-7) M Ca2+. Basal body reorientation, however, is independent of flagellar beating since it is induced at greater than or equal to 10(- 7) M Ca2+ when flagellar beating is inhibited (i.e., in the presence of 1 microM orthovanadate in reactivation solutions; in the absence of ATP or dithiothreitol in isolation and reactivation solutions), or when axonemes are mechanically removed from flagellar apparatuses. Although frequent axonemal beat form reversals were induced by varying the Ca2+ concentration, antiparallel basal body configuration could not be restored in isolated flagellar apparatuses. Observations of the photophobic response in vivo indicate that even though the flagella resume the asymmetric, breaststroke beat form 1-2 s after photostimulation, antiparallel basal body configuration is not restored until a few minutes later. Using an antibody generated against the 20- kD Ca2+-modulated contractile protein of striated flagellar roots of Tetraselmis striata (Salisbury, J. L., A. Baron, B. Surek, and M. Melkonian, 1984, J. Cell Biol., 99:962-970), we have found the distal connecting fiber of Spermatozopsis similis to be immunoreactive by indirect immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy. Electrophoretic and immunoblot analysis indicates that the antigen of S. similis flagellar apparatuses consists, like the Tetraselmis protein, of two acidic isoforms of 20 kD. We conclude that the distal basal body connecting fiber is

  3. Effects and mechanism of acid rain on plant chloroplast ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingwen; Hu, Huiqing; Li, Yueli; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-09-01

    Acid rain can directly or indirectly affect plant physiological functions, especially photosynthesis. The enzyme ATP synthase is the key in photosynthetic energy conversion, and thus, it affects plant photosynthesis. To clarify the mechanism by which acid rain affects photosynthesis, we studied the effects of acid rain on plant growth, photosynthesis, chloroplast ATP synthase activity and gene expression, chloroplast ultrastructure, intracellular H(+) level, and water content of rice seedlings. Acid rain at pH 4.5 remained the chloroplast structure unchanged but increased the expression of six chloroplast ATP synthase subunits, promoted chloroplast ATP synthase activity, and increased photosynthesis and plant growth. Acid rain at pH 4.0 or less decreased leaf water content, destroyed chloroplast structure, inhibited the expression of six chloroplast ATP synthase subunits, decreased chloroplast ATP synthase activity, and reduced photosynthesis and plant growth. In conclusion, acid rain affected the chloroplast ultrastructure, chloroplast ATPase transcription and activity, and P n by changing the acidity in the cells, and thus influencing the plant growth and development. Finally, the effects of simulated acid rain on the test indices were found to be dose-dependent.

  4. Energy metabolic state in hypothermically stored boar spermatozoa using a revised protocol for efficient ATP extraction.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quynh Thu; Wallner, Ulrike; Schmicke, Marion; Waberski, Dagmar; Henning, Heiko

    2016-11-15

    Mammalian spermatozoa utilize ATP as the energy source for key functions on the route to fertilization. ATP and its precursor nucleotides ADP and AMP are regularly investigated in sperm physiology studies, mostly by bioluminescence assays. Assay results vary widely, mainly due to different efficiencies in nucleotide extraction and prevention of their enzymatic degradation. Here, we describe a revised, validated protocol for efficient phosphatase inhibition and adenine nucleotide extraction resulting in consistently high ATP concentrations exceeding previously reported values for boar spermatozoa up to 20-fold. The revised assay is applicable for determining ATP concentrations and adenylate energy charge in extracts from fresh and frozen samples, thereby allowing simultaneous assessment of semen samples from long-term storage experiments. After validation, the assay was applied to liquid-preserved boar spermatozoa stored at 17°C and 5°C for 24 and 72 h. Cooling to 5°C, but not storage duration, reduced ATP concentration in spermatozoa (P<0.05), which was accompanied by the appearance of AMP and ADP in the preservation medium. ATP and energy charge were highly correlated to the proportion of membrane-intact spermatozoa, supporting the idea of nucleotides leaking through disrupted membranes in cold-shocked cells. The present assay allows highly standardized studies of energy metabolism in spermatozoa.

  5. Energy metabolic state in hypothermically stored boar spermatozoa using a revised protocol for efficient ATP extraction

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quynh Thu; Wallner, Ulrike; Schmicke, Marion; Waberski, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mammalian spermatozoa utilize ATP as the energy source for key functions on the route to fertilization. ATP and its precursor nucleotides ADP and AMP are regularly investigated in sperm physiology studies, mostly by bioluminescence assays. Assay results vary widely, mainly due to different efficiencies in nucleotide extraction and prevention of their enzymatic degradation. Here, we describe a revised, validated protocol for efficient phosphatase inhibition and adenine nucleotide extraction resulting in consistently high ATP concentrations exceeding previously reported values for boar spermatozoa up to 20-fold. The revised assay is applicable for determining ATP concentrations and adenylate energy charge in extracts from fresh and frozen samples, thereby allowing simultaneous assessment of semen samples from long-term storage experiments. After validation, the assay was applied to liquid-preserved boar spermatozoa stored at 17°C and 5°C for 24 and 72 h. Cooling to 5°C, but not storage duration, reduced ATP concentration in spermatozoa (P<0.05), which was accompanied by the appearance of AMP and ADP in the preservation medium. ATP and energy charge were highly correlated to the proportion of membrane-intact spermatozoa, supporting the idea of nucleotides leaking through disrupted membranes in cold-shocked cells. The present assay allows highly standardized studies of energy metabolism in spermatozoa. PMID:27612509

  6. ATP11C mutation is responsible for the defect in phosphatidylserine uptake in UPS-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Takada, Naoto; Takatsu, Hiroyuki; Miyano, Rie; Nakayama, Kazuhisa; Shin, Hye-Won

    2015-01-01

    Type IV P-type ATPases (P4-ATPases) translocate phospholipids from the exoplasmic to the cytoplasmic leaflets of cellular membranes. We and others previously showed that ATP11C, a member of the P4-ATPases, translocates phosphatidylserine (PS) at the plasma membrane. Twenty years ago, the UPS-1 (uptake of fluorescent PS analogs) cell line was isolated from mutagenized Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells with a defect in nonendocytic uptake of nitrobenzoxadiazole PS. Due to its defect in PS uptake, the UPS-1 cell line has been used in an assay for PS-flipping activity; however, the gene(s) responsible for the defect have not been identified to date. Here, we found that the mRNA level of ATP11C was dramatically reduced in UPS-1 cells relative to parental CHO-K1 cells. By contrast, the level of ATP11A, another PS-flipping P4-ATPase at the plasma membrane, or CDC50A, which is essential for delivery of most P4-ATPases to the plasma membrane, was not affected in UPS-1 cells. Importantly, we identified a nonsense mutation in the ATP11C gene in UPS-1 cells, indicating that the intact ATP11C protein is not expressed. Moreover, exogenous expression of ATP11C can restore PS uptake in UPS-1 cells. These results indicate that lack of the functional ATP11C protein is responsible for the defect in PS uptake in UPS-1 cells and ATP11C is crucial for PS flipping in CHO-K1 cells. PMID:26420878

  7. Dynamics of ATP-induced Calcium Signaling in Single Mouse Thymocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Paul E.; Ehring, George R.; Cahalan, Michael D.

    1997-01-01

    Extracellular ATP (ATPo) elicits a robust change in the concentration of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in fura-2–loaded mouse thymocytes. Most thymocytes (60%) exposed to ATPo exhibited a biphasic rise in [Ca2+]i; [Ca2+]i rose slowly at first to a mean value of 260 nM after 163 s and then increased rapidly to a peak level of 735 nM. In many cells, a declining plateau, which lasted for more than 10 min, followed the crest in [Ca2+]i. Experiments performed in the absence of extracellular [Ca2+]o abolished the rise in thymocyte [Ca2+]i, indicating that Ca2+ influx, rather than the release of stored Ca2+, is stimulated by ATPo. ATPo- mediated Ca2+ influx was potentiated as the [Mg2+]o was reduced, confirming that ATP4− is the active agonist form. In the absence of Mg2+o, 3′-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl-ATP (BzATP) proved to be the most effective agonist of those tested. The rank order of potency for adenine nucleotides was BzATP4−>ATP4−>MgATP2−>ADP3−, suggesting purinoreceptors of the P2X7/P2Z class mediate the ATPo response. Phenotyping experiments illustrate that both immature (CD4−CD8−, CD4+CD8+) and mature (CD4+CD8−, CD4−CD8+) thymocyte populations respond to ATP. Further separation of the double-positive population by size revealed that the ATPo-mediated [Ca2+]i response was much more pronounced in large (actively dividing) than in small (terminally differentiated) CD4+CD8+ thymocytes. We conclude that thymocytes vary in sensitivity to ATPo depending upon the degree of maturation and suggest that ATPo may be involved in processes that control cellular differentiation within the thymus. PMID:9281578

  8. ATP11C mutation is responsible for the defect in phosphatidylserine uptake in UPS-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Takada, Naoto; Takatsu, Hiroyuki; Miyano, Rie; Nakayama, Kazuhisa; Shin, Hye-Won

    2015-11-01

    Type IV P-type ATPases (P4-ATPases) translocate phospholipids from the exoplasmic to the cytoplasmic leaflets of cellular membranes. We and others previously showed that ATP11C, a member of the P4-ATPases, translocates phosphatidylserine (PS) at the plasma membrane. Twenty years ago, the UPS-1 (uptake of fluorescent PS analogs) cell line was isolated from mutagenized Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells with a defect in nonendocytic uptake of nitrobenzoxadiazole PS. Due to its defect in PS uptake, the UPS-1 cell line has been used in an assay for PS-flipping activity; however, the gene(s) responsible for the defect have not been identified to date. Here, we found that the mRNA level of ATP11C was dramatically reduced in UPS-1 cells relative to parental CHO-K1 cells. By contrast, the level of ATP11A, another PS-flipping P4-ATPase at the plasma membrane, or CDC50A, which is essential for delivery of most P4-ATPases to the plasma membrane, was not affected in UPS-1 cells. Importantly, we identified a nonsense mutation in the ATP11C gene in UPS-1 cells, indicating that the intact ATP11C protein is not expressed. Moreover, exogenous expression of ATP11C can restore PS uptake in UPS-1 cells. These results indicate that lack of the functional ATP11C protein is responsible for the defect in PS uptake in UPS-1 cells and ATP11C is crucial for PS flipping in CHO-K1 cells.

  9. The ADP/ATP Carrier and Its Relationship to Oxidative Phosphorylation in Ancestral Protist Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Gnipová, Anna; Šubrtová, Karolína; Panicucci, Brian; Horváth, Anton; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-01-01

    The highly conserved ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) is a key energetic link between the mitochondrial (mt) and cytosolic compartments of all aerobic eukaryotic cells, as it exchanges the ATP generated inside the organelle for the cytosolic ADP. Trypanosoma brucei, a parasitic protist of medical and veterinary importance, possesses a single functional AAC protein (TbAAC) that is related to the human and yeast ADP/ATP carriers. However, unlike previous studies performed with these model organisms, this study showed that TbAAC is most likely not a stable component of either the respiratory supercomplex III+IV or the ATP synthasome but rather functions as a physically separate entity in this highly diverged eukaryote. Therefore, TbAAC RNA interference (RNAi) ablation in the insect stage of T. brucei does not impair the activity or arrangement of the respiratory chain complexes. Nevertheless, RNAi silencing of TbAAC caused a severe growth defect that coincides with a significant reduction of mt ATP synthesis by both substrate and oxidative phosphorylation. Furthermore, TbAAC downregulation resulted in a decreased level of cytosolic ATP, a higher mt membrane potential, an elevated amount of reactive oxygen species, and a reduced consumption of oxygen in the mitochondria. Interestingly, while TbAAC has previously been demonstrated to serve as the sole ADP/ATP carrier for ADP influx into the mitochondria, our data suggest that a second carrier for ATP influx may be present and active in the T. brucei mitochondrion. Overall, this study provides more insight into the delicate balance of the functional relationship between TbAAC and the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) pathway in an early diverged eukaryote. PMID:25616281

  10. NS5ATP13 Promotes Liver Fibrogenesis via Activation of Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaru; Liu, Shunai; Han, Ming; Lu, Hongping; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Yu; Tursun, Kelbinur; Li, Zhongshu; Feng, Shenghu; Cheng, Jun

    2017-01-29

    Liver fibrosis is a reversible wound-healing response to any etiology of chronic hepatic injuries. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the key event in liver fibrogenesis. Generally, persistent activation and proliferation of HSCs results in liver fibrosis progression, while primary mechanisms of liver fibrosis resolution are apoptosis and reversion to a quiescent phenotype of activated HSCs. NS5ATP13 (HCV NS5A-transactivated protein 13) is involved in nucleologenesis and tumorigenesis, but its role in liver fibrosis and HSC activation remains unclear. This study found that NS5ATP13 was upregulated in both fibrotic liver tissues and activated human HSCs induced by TGF-β1. Moreover, NS5ATP13 enhanced extracellular matrix (ECM) production and HSC activation, with or without TGF-β1 treatment, likely involving the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway. Additionally, NS5ATP13 boosted HSC proliferation by inhibiting cell apoptosis. Furthermore, HCV NS5A promoted the profibrogenic effect of NS5ATP13 partly through TGF-β1 and NF-κB p65 (RelA) upregulation. Meanwhile, NS5ATP13 was required for the pro-fibrogenic effect of NF-κB. Moreover, NS5ATP13 and NF-κB phosphorylation as well as HSC activation were reduced by CX-4945, a CK2 specific inhibitor. These findings indicated that NS5ATP13 acts as a profibrogenic factor, providing a potential target for antifibrotic therapies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. The Parkinson-associated human P5B-ATPase ATP13A2 protects against the iron-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Débora E; Corradi, Gerardo R; Cuesta, Lucía Martínez; Adamo, Hugo P; de Tezanos Pinto, Felicitas

    2015-08-01

    P-type ion pumps are membrane transporters that have been classified into five subfamilies termed P1-P5. The ion transported by the P5-ATPases is not known. Five genes named ATP13A1-ATP13A5 that belong to the P5-ATPase group are present in humans. Loss-of-function mutations in the ATP13A2 gene (PARK9, OMIM 610513) underlay a form of Parkinson's disease (PD) known as the Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS), which belongs to the group of syndromes of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). Here we report that the cytotoxicity induced by iron exposure was two-fold reduced in CHO cells stably expressing the ATP13A2 recombinant protein (ATP13A2). Moreover, the iron content in ATP13A2 cells was lower than control cells stably expressing an inactive mutant of ATP13A2. ATP13A2 expression caused an enlargement of lysosomes and late endosomes. ATP13A2 cells exhibited a reduced iron-induced lysosome membrane permeabilization (LMP). These results suggest that ATP13A2 overexpression improves the lysosome membrane integrity and protects against the iron-induced cell damage.

  12. Modulation by extracellular ATP of L-type calcium channels in guinea-pig single sinoatrial nodal cell.

    PubMed Central

    Qi, A. D.; Kwan, Y. W.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate ([ATP]zero) on the L-type Ca2+ channel currents in guinea-pig single sinoatrial nodal (SAN) cells, isolated by enzymatic dissociation, were investigated by use of whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. 2. The application of [ATP]zero (2 microM-1 mM) produced an inhibitory effect on the L-type Ca2+ channel current peak amplitude (10 mM Ba2+ as charge carrier) in a concentration-dependent and reversible manner with an IC50 of 100 microM and a Hill coefficient of 1.83. 3. The presence of the adenosine receptor antagonists, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX, 0.1 microM) and 8-phenyltheophylline (10 microM) did not affect the [ATP]zero-induced inhibition of the Ca2+ channel currents. Adenosine (100 microM) had little effect on the basal Ca2+ channel currents. Adenosine 500 microM, caused 23% inhibition of the Ca2+ channel current, which was abolished by 0.1 microM DPCPX. 4. The presence of the P2-purinoceptor antagonists, suramin (1, 10 and 100 microM), reactive blue 2 (1 and 10 microM) and pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS, 50 and 100 microM) failed to affect the inhibitory action of [ATP]zero on Ca2+ channel currents. 5. The relative rank order of potency of different nucleotides and nucleosides, at a concentration of 100 microM, on the inhibition of the Ca2+ channel currents is as follows: adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) = alpha,beta-methylene-ATP (alpha,beta MeATP) > > 2-methylthioATP (2-MeSATP) > or = adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATP gamma S) > > uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) = adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) > adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) > or = adenosine. 6. These results suggest that [ATP]zero may play an important role in the heart beat by inhibiting the L-type Ca2+ channel currents in single SAN cells. This inhibitory effect is not due to the formation of adenosine resulting from the enzymatic degradation of [ATP]zero. Based on the relative order of inhibitory

  13. Firefly bioluminescent assay of ATP in the presence of ATP extractant by using liposomes.

    PubMed

    Kamidate, Tamio; Yanashita, Kenji; Tani, Hirofumi; Ishida, Akihiko; Notani, Mizuyo

    2006-01-01

    Liposomes containing phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cholesterol (Chol) were applied to the enhancer for firefly bioluminescence (BL) assay for ATP in the presence of cationic surfactants using as an extractant for the release of ATP from living cells. Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) was used as an ATP extractant. However, BAC seriously inhibited the activity of luciferase, thus resulting in the remarkable decrease in the sensitivity of the BL assay for ATP. On the other hand, we found that BAC was associated with liposomes to form cationic liposomes containing BAC. The association rate of BAC with liposomes was faster than that of BAC with luciferase. As a result, the inhibitory effect of BAC on luciferase was eliminated in the presence of liposomes. In addition, cationic liposomes thus formed enhanced BL emission. BL measurement conditions were optimized in terms of liposome charge type, liposome size, and total concentration of PC and Chol. ATP can be sensitively determined without dilution of analytical samples by using liposomes. The detection limit of ATP with and without liposomes was 100 amol and 25 fmol in aqueous ATP standard solutions containing 0.06% BAC, respectively. The method was applied to the determination of ATP in Escherichia coli extracts. The BL intensity was linear from 4 x 10(4) to 1 x 10(7) cells mL(-1) in the absence of liposomes. On the other hand, the BL intensity was linear from 4 x 10(3) to 4 x 10(6) cells mL(-1) in the presence of liposomes. The detection limit of ATP in E. coli extracts was improved by a factor of 10 via use of liposomes.

  14. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy.

  15. In vivo imaging demonstrates ATP release from murine keratinocytes and its involvement in cutaneous inflammation after tape stripping.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshiya; Kimura, Yutaka; Niwa, Kazuki; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro; Fujimura, Taku; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Aiba, Setsuya

    2013-10-01

    Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) release from keratinocytes has been observed in various stress models in vitro, but studies demonstrating epidermal ATP release in vivo are limited. To visualize extracellular ATP (eATP) in vivo, we developed enhanced green-emitting luciferase immobilized on agarose beads (Eluc-agarose). Subcutaneous injection of Eluc-agarose together with ATP into the dorsal skin of BALB/c mice following intraperitoneal luciferin injection produced detectable and measurable bioluminescence using an in vivo imaging system. Using Eluc-agarose, we demonstrated in vivo that bright bioluminescence was observed from 1 to 20 minutes after repeated tape stripping of murine skin. This bioluminescence was suppressed by the local administration of apyrase. Eluc-agarose bioluminescence was observed only in tape-stripped skin with transepidermal water loss (TEWL) between 100 and 140 g m(2) h(-1), indicating a loss of bioluminescence with excessive tape stripping (TEWL>140 g m(-2) h(-1)). Histologically, tape-stripped skin with detectable eATP had a viable epidermis and a subepidermal neutrophil infiltrate, and administration of apyrase reduced the inflammatory infiltrate. Neither a viable epidermis nor an upper dermal neutrophil infiltrate was observed after excessive tape stripping. These results suggest that tape stripping prompts ATP release from viable keratinocytes, which facilitates inflammatory cell migration. Eluc-agarose may be useful in the in vivo detection of eATP in murine models of skin diseases.

  16. Can measuring environmental cleanliness using ATP aid in the monitoring of wards with periods of increased incidence of Clostridium difficile?

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Katherine; Abbott, Gill; Bashford, Sarah; Bucior, Helen; Codd, Jane; Holland, Madelaine; Reynolds, Mandy; Simms, Avril

    2013-01-01

    Management of periods of increased incidence of Clostridium difficile (PIIs) on a ward have become multi-factorial and involve isolation of patients, typing of the isolates, antibiotic audit and a weekly environmental audit completed until three consecutive weekly passes are obtained. The aim of this study was to establish if monitoring the environment using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) could aid in reducing the length of time the wards remained on the weekly environmental audit. Secondly, it was to establish if certain pieces of equipment had continually high ATP scores requiring wider interventions. The study took place across three hospital sites covered by one infection control team over a 22 month period. There were three study periods, with the only difference being that ATP monitoring was conducted during period B. There was a difference in the length of time the wards remained on the audit between the first period and the ATP period; however this decrease was sustained in the third period when ATP monitoring ceased. There was an increase in the percentage of sites achieving a pass with ATP week on week. ATP monitoring provided the staff with non-subjective results and immediate feedback that facilitated discussions about cleaning regimes. ATP monitoring was a useful adjunct to environmental audits.

  17. Monitoring enzymatic ATP hydrolysis by EPR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Stephan M; Hintze, Christian; Marx, Andreas; Drescher, Malte

    2014-07-14

    An adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analogue modified with two nitroxide radicals is developed and employed to study its enzymatic hydrolysis by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. For this application, we demonstrate that EPR holds the potential to complement fluorogenic substrate analogues in monitoring enzymatic activity.

  18. Calcium and ATP control multiple vital functions.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Ole H; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2016-08-05

    Life on Planet Earth, as we know it, revolves around adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a universal energy storing molecule. The metabolism of ATP requires a low cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, and hence tethers these two molecules together. The exceedingly low cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration (which in all life forms is kept around 50-100 nM) forms the basis for a universal intracellular signalling system in which Ca(2+) acts as a second messenger. Maintenance of transmembrane Ca(2+) gradients, in turn, requires ATP-dependent Ca(2+) transport, thus further emphasizing the inseparable links between these two substances. Ca(2+) signalling controls the most fundamental processes in the living organism, from heartbeat and neurotransmission to cell energetics and secretion. The versatility and plasticity of Ca(2+) signalling relies on cell specific Ca(2+) signalling toolkits, remodelling of which underlies adaptive cellular responses. Alterations of these Ca(2+) signalling toolkits lead to aberrant Ca(2+) signalling which is fundamental for the pathophysiology of numerous diseases from acute pancreatitis to neurodegeneration. This paper introduces a theme issue on this topic, which arose from a Royal Society Theo Murphy scientific meeting held in March 2016.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'.

  19. Electric Field Driven Torque in ATP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Miller, John H.; Rajapakshe, Kimal I.; Infante, Hans L.; Claycomb, James R.

    2013-01-01

    FO-ATP synthase (FO) is a rotary motor that converts potential energy from ions, usually protons, moving from high- to low-potential sides of a membrane into torque and rotary motion. Here we propose a mechanism whereby electric fields emanating from the proton entry and exit channels act on asymmetric charge distributions in the c-ring, due to protonated and deprotonated sites, and drive it to rotate. The model predicts a scaling between time-averaged torque and proton motive force, which can be hindered by mutations that adversely affect the channels. The torque created by the c-ring of FO drives the γ-subunit to rotate within the ATP-producing complex (F1) overcoming, with the aid of thermal fluctuations, an opposing torque that rises and falls with angular position. Using the analogy with thermal Brownian motion of a particle in a tilted washboard potential, we compute ATP production rates vs. proton motive force. The latter shows a minimum, needed to drive ATP production, which scales inversely with the number of proton binding sites on the c-ring. PMID:24040370

  20. A reusable prepositioned ATP reaction chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, D. G.

    1972-01-01

    Luminescence biometer detects presence of life by means of light-emitting chemical reaction of luciferin and luciferase with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that occurs in all living cells. Amount of light in reaction chamber is measured to determine presence and extent of life.

  1. Electrophysiological effects of ATP on brain neurones.

    PubMed

    Illes, P; Nieber, K; Nörenberg, W

    1996-12-01

    1. The electrophysiological effects of ATP on brain neurones are either due to the direct activation of P2 purinoceptors by the unmetabolized nucleotide or to the indirect activation of P1. purinoceptors by the degradation product adenosine. 2. Two subtypes of P2 purinoceptors are involved, a ligand-activated ion channel (P2X) and a G protein-coupled receptor (P2Y). Hence, the stimulation of P2X purinoceptors leads to a cationic conductance increase, while the stimulation of P2Y purinoceptors leads to a G protein-mediated opening or closure of potassium channels. 3. ATP may induce a calcium-dependent potassium current by increasing the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. This is due either to the entry of Ca2+ via P2X purinoceptors or to the activation of metabotropic P2Y purinoceptors followed by signaling via the G protein/phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) cascade. Eventually, IP3 releases Ca2+ from its intracellular pools. 4. There is no convincing evidence for the presence of P2U purinoceptors sensitive to both ATP and UTP, or pyrimidinoceptors sensitive to UTP only, in the central nervous system (CNS). 5. ATP-sensitive P2X and P2Y purinoceptors show a wide distribution in the CNS and appear to regulate important neuronal functions.

  2. On the excitatory effects of ATP and its role as a neurotransmitter in coeliac neurons of the guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Silinsky, E M; Gerzanich, V

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of ATP on neurons from guinea-pig coeliac ganglia were studied to evaluate the possibility that this nucleotide acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter substance. 2. In experiments with intracellular microelectrodes, ATP (> or = 10 nM) depolarized coeliac neurons from the resting potential and produced an increase in the membrane conductance. These excitatory effects of ATP were observed in isolated coeliac ganglia, in acutely dissociated neurons or in cultured neurons. ATP also produced membrane conductance increases in neurons clamped at the resting potential using a single electrode voltage clamp. 3. When studied in the whole-cell configuration of the patch clamp (intracellular Cs+ to block K+ currents; -50 mV holding potential), ATP evoked inward currents in a manner more potent and efficacious than acetylcholine (ACh). 4. Whole-cell currents induced by ATP were inwardly rectifying and reversed at -13 mV in normal Na+ solutions. Changes in extracellular Na+ concentration altered the reversal potential in a manner predicted by the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz bi-ionic equation with a ratio of Na+ to Cs+ permeability (PNa/PCs) = 0.6. 5. Single channel currents were evoked by ATP in excised (outside-out) patches. Current-voltage relationships for single channel currents exhibited inward rectification. The mean single channel conductance was 22 pS at -50 mV. 6. Antagonists of ATP-gated channels (suramin, Reactive Blue 2) reduced the effects of ATP but not ACh. 7. Antagonists at nicotinic receptors/ion channels (hexamethonium or tubocurarine) reduced the effects of ACh but not ATP. 8. Excitatory synaptic currents were observed in cultures of coeliac neurons. Synaptic currents possessed similar current-voltage relationships to currents produced by ATP, were increased in frequency by K+ depolarization in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, and were selectively antagonized by ATP antagonists. 9. Local K+ depolarization of the ends of neurites evoked single channel

  3. Study of the Effects of ATP Suppliers and Thiol Reductants on Toxicity of Pioglitazone in Isolated Rat Liver Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Rezaiean Mehrabadi, Abbas; Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Rashedinia, Marzieh; Niknahad, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Pioglitazone (PG) is one of thiazolidinediones used for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. Some reports of its hepatotoxicity exist, but the mechanism of its hepatotoxicity is not well known. In the present study, the protective effect of some ATP suppliers are investigated against mitochondrial toxicity of PG in isolated rat mitochondria. Mitochondrial viability was investigated by MTT assay. The effects of PG on superoxide dismutase activity, ATP production, mitochondrial swelling and oxidative stress were also investigated. PG reduced mitochondrial viability with an LC50 of 880±32 µM. It reduced ATP production and superoxide dismutase activity in mitochondria and increased mitochondrial swelling, but no oxidant effect was present as measured by TBARS formation. Fructose, dihydroxyacetone, dithioteritol, and N-acetylcysteine reduced mitochondrial toxicity of PG. Therefore, PG toxicity may be due to its mitochondrial toxicity and energy depletion, and ATP suppliers could be effective in preventing its toxicity. PMID:26330870

  4. Sequential Action of MalE and Maltose Allows Coupling ATP Hydrolysis to Translocation in the MalFGK2 Transporter.

    PubMed

    Bao, Huan; Dalal, Kush; Cytrynbaum, Eric; Duong, Franck

    2015-10-16

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have evolved an ATP-dependent alternating-access mechanism to transport substrates across membranes. Despite important progress, especially in their structural analysis, it is still unknown how the substrate stimulates ATP hydrolysis, the hallmark of ABC transporters. In this study, we measure the ATP turnover cycle of MalFGK2 in steady and pre-steady state conditions. We show that (i) the basal ATPase activity of MalFGK2 is very low because the cleavage of ATP is rate-limiting, (ii) the binding of open-state MalE to the transporter induces ATP cleavage but leaves release of Pi limiting, and (iii) the additional presence of maltose stimulates release of Pi, and therefore increases the overall ATP turnover cycle. We conclude that open-state MalE stabilizes MalFGK2 in the outward-facing conformation until maltose triggers return to the inward-facing state for substrate and Pi release. This concerted action explains why ATPase activity of MalFGK2 depends on maltose, and why MalE is essential for transport.

  5. The role of ATP and adenosine in the brain under normoxic and ischemic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Melani, A.; Pugliese, A. M.; Coppi, E.; Cipriani, S.; Traini, C.

    2007-01-01

    By taking advantage of some recently synthesized compounds that are able to block ecto-ATPase activity, we demonstrated that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the hippocampus exerts an inhibitory action independent of its degradation to adenosine. In addition, tonic activation of P2 receptors contributes to the normally recorded excitatory neurotransmission. The role of P2 receptors becomes critical during ischemia when extracellular ATP concentrations increase. Under such conditions, P2 antagonism is protective. Although ATP exerts a detrimental role under ischemia, it also exerts a trophic role in terms of cell division and differentiation. We recently reported that ATP is spontaneously released from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in culture. Moreover, it decreases hMSC proliferation rate at early stages of culture. Increased hMSC differentiation could account for an ATP-induced decrease in cell proliferation. ATP as a homeostatic regulator might exert a different effect on cell trophism according to the rate of its efflux and receptor expression during the cell life cycle. During ischemia, adenosine formed by intracellular ATP escapes from cells through the equilibrative transporter. The protective role of adenosine A1 receptors during ischemia is well accepted. However, the use of selective A1 agonists is hampered by unwanted peripheral effects, thus attention has been focused on A2A and A3 receptors. The protective effects of A2A antagonists in brain ischemia may be largely due to reduced glutamate outflow from neurones and glial cells. Reduced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases that are involved in neuronal death through transcriptional mechanisms may also contribute to protection by A2A antagonism. Evidence that A3 receptor antagonism may be protective after ischemia is also reported. PMID:18404443

  6. The basal proton conductance of mitochondria depends on adenine nucleotide translocase content

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The basal proton conductance of mitochondria causes mild uncoupling and may be an important contributor to metabolic rate. The molecular nature of the proton-conductance pathway is unknown. We show that the proton conductance of muscle mitochondria from mice in which isoform 1 of the adenine nucleotide translocase has been ablated is half that of wild-type controls. Overexpression of the adenine nucleotide translocase encoded by the stress-sensitive B gene in Drosophila mitochondria increases proton conductance, and underexpression decreases it, even when the carrier is fully inhibited using carboxyatractylate. We conclude that half to two-thirds of the basal proton conductance of mitochondria is catalysed by the adenine nucleotide carrier, independently of its ATP/ADP exchange or fatty-acid-dependent proton-leak functions. PMID:16076285

  7. ATP-Independent Hydrocarbon Formation Catalyzed by Isolated Nitrogenase Cofactors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi Chung; Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogenase is a highly complex and uniquely versatile metalloenzyme that is capable of reducing a broad spectrum of substrates, such as dinitrogen (N2), carbon monoxide (CO) and cyanide (CN-), under ambient conditions.[1-4] The molybdenum (Mo)- and vanadium (V)-nitrogenases are two homologous members of this enzyme family, both utilizing a specific reductase (Fe protein) to donate electrons to the cofactor site (FeMoco or FeVco) of a catalytic component (MoFe or VFe protein) during catalysis. The buried location of cofactor poses a challenge to electron transfer in this process, rendering it strictly dependent on ATP-assisted formation of an electron transport chain—within a complex between the reductase and the catalytic component—that extends all the way from the [Fe4S4] cluster of the former, via the P-cluster, to the cofactor site of the latter.[5] On the other hand, both FeMoco and FeVco can be extracted as intact entities into organic solvents,[6-8] spurring interest in seeking an ATP-independent reaction system, in which electrons can be directly delivered to the isolated cofactors for substrate reduction. In particular, the recent discovery that nitrogenases can reduce CO to hydrocarbons[3,4] makes it an attractive task to explore the capacity of cofactors to directly catalyze the formation of hydrocarbons from CO, as well as CN-—another carbonaceous molecule that is isoelectronic to CO. PMID:22253035

  8. Metastatic Basal cell carcinoma accompanying gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  9. The Basal Ganglia-Circa 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehler, William R.

    1981-01-01

    Our review has shown that recent studies with the new anterograde and retrograde axon transport methods have confirmed and extended our knowledge of the projection of the basal ganglia and clarified their sites of origin. They have thrown new light on certain topographic connectional relationships and revealed several new reciprocal connections between constituent nuclei of the basal ganglia. Similarly, attention has been drawn to the fact that there have also been many new histochemical techniques introduced in recent years that are now providing regional biochemical overlays for connectional maps of the central nervous system, especially regions in, or interconnecting with, the basal ganglia. However, although these new morphological biochemical maps are very complex and technically highly advanced, our understanding of the function controlled by the basal ganglia still remains primitive. The reader who is interested in some new ideas of the functional aspects of the basal ganglia is directed to Nauta's proposed conceptual reorganization of the basal ganglia telencephalon and to Marsden's more clinically orientated appraisal of the unsolved mysteries of the basal ganglia participation in the control of movement.

  10. Mechanisms of ATP Release by Human Trabecular Meshwork Cells, the Enabling Step in Purinergic Regulation of Aqueous Humor Outflow

    PubMed Central

    LI, ANG; LEUNG, CHI TING; PETERSON-YANTORNO, KIM; STAMER, W. DANIEL; MITCHELL, CLAIRE H.; CIVAN, MORTIMER M.

    2011-01-01

    Our guiding hypothesis is that ecto-enzymatic conversion of extracellular ATP to adenosine activates A1 adenosine receptors, reducing resistance to aqueous humor outflow and intraocular pressure. The initial step in this purinergic regulation is ATP release from outflow-pathway cells by mechanisms unknown. We measured similar ATP release from human explant-derived primary trabecular meshwork (TM) cells (HTM) and a human TM cell line (TM5). Responses to 21 inhibitors indicated that pannexin-1 (PX1) and connexin (Cx) hemichannels and P2X7 receptors (P2RX7) were comparably important in modulating ATP release induced by hypotonic swelling, whereas vesicular release was insignificant. Consistent with prior studies of PX1 activity in certain other cells, ATP release was lowered by the reducing agent dithiothreitol. Overexpressing PX1 in HEK293T cells promoted, while partial knockdown (KD) in both HEK293T and TM5 cells inhibited hypotonicity-activated ATP release. Additionally, KD reduced the pharmacologically-defined contribution of PX1 and enhanced those of Cx and P2RX7. ATP release was also triggered by raising intracellular Ca2+ activity with ionomycin after a prolonged lag time and was unaffected by the PX1 blocker probenecid, but nearly abolished by P2RX7 antagonists. We conclude that swelling-stimulated ATP release from human TM cells is physiologically mediated by PX1 and Cx hemichannels and P2X7 receptors, but not by vesicular release. PX1 appears not to be stimulated by intracellular Ca2+ in TM cells, but can be modulated by oxidation-reduction state. The P2RX7-dependent component of swelling-activated release may be mediated by PX1 hemichannels or reflect apoptotic magnification of ATP release, either through itself and/or hemichannels. PMID:21381023

  11. [Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation].

    PubMed

    Goldman-Lévy, Gabrielle; Frouin, Eric; Soubeyran, Isabelle; Maury, Géraldine; Guillot, Bernard; Costes, Valérie

    2015-04-01

    Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation is a very rare variant of basal cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, less than 30 cases have been reported. This tumor is composed of basaloid lobules showing a differentiation toward the pilar matrix cells. Recently, it has been demonstrated that beta-catenin would interfer with physiopathogenesis of matrical tumors, in particular pilomatricomas, but also basal cell carcinomas with matrical differentiation. This is a new case, with immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of beta-catenin, in order to explain its histogenesis.

  12. Altered potassium ATP channel signaling in mesenteric arteries of old high salt-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Whidden, Melissa A.; Basgut, Bilgen; Kirichenko, Nataliya; Erdos, Benedek; Tümer, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Both aging and the consumption of a high salt diet are associated with clear changes in the vascular system that can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease; however the mechanisms are not clearly understood. Therefore, we examined whether aging and the consumption of excess salt alters the function of potassium ATP-dependent channel signaling in mesenteric arteries [Methods] Young (7 months) and old (29 months) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats were fed a control or a high salt diet (8% NaCl) for 12 days and mesenteric arteries were utilized for vascular reactivity measurements. [Results] Acetylcholine-induced endothelium relaxation was significantly reduced in old arteries (81 ± 4%) when compared with young arteries (92 ± 2%). Pretreatment with the potassium-ATP channel blocker glibenclamide reduced relaxation to acetylcholine in young arteries but did not alter dilation in old arteries. On a high salt diet, endothelium dilation to acetylcholine was significantly reduced in old salt arteries (60 ± 3%) when compared with old control arteries (81 ± 4%). Glibenclamide reduced acetylcholine-induced dilation in young salt arteries but had no effect on old salt arteries. Dilation to cromakalim, a potassium-ATP channel opener, was reduced in old salt arteries when compared with old control arteries. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that aging impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation in mesenteric arteries. Furthermore, a high salt diet alters the function of potassium-ATP-dependent channel signaling in old isolated mesenteric arteries and affects the mediation of relaxation stimuli. PMID:27508155

  13. Involvement of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in the acidosis-induced efflux of ATP from rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jie; Le, Gengyun; Ballard, Heather J

    2010-11-15

    The present study was performed to investigate the effect of acidosis on the efflux of ATP from skeletal muscle. Infusion of lactic acid to the perfused hindlimb muscles of anaesthetised rats produced dose-dependent decreases in pH and increases in the interstitial ATP of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle: 10 mM lactic acid reduced the venous pH from 7.22 ± 0.04 to 6.97 ± 0.02 and increased interstitial ATP from 38 ± 8 to 67 ± 11 nM. The increase in interstitial ATP was well-correlated with the decrease in pH (r(2) = 0.93; P < 0.05). Blockade of cellular uptake of lactic acid using α-cyano-hydroxycinnamic acid abolished the lactic acid-induced ATP release, whilst infusion of sodium lactate failed to depress pH or increase interstitial ATP, suggesting that intracellular pH depression, rather than lactate, stimulated the ATP efflux. Incubation of cultured skeletal myoblasts with 10 mM lactic acid significantly increased the accumulation of ATP in the bathing medium from 0.46 ± 0.06 to 0.76 ± 0.08 μM, confirming the skeletal muscle cells as the source of the released ATP. Acidosis-induced ATP efflux from the perfused muscle was abolished by CFTR(inh)-172, a specific inhibitor of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), or glibenclamide, an inhibitor of both K(ATP) channels and CFTR, but it was not affected by atractyloside, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial ATP transporter. Silencing of the CFTR gene using an siRNA abolished the acidosis-induced increase in ATP release from cultured myoblasts. CFTR expression on skeletal muscle cells was confirmed using immunostaining in the intact muscle and Western blotting in the cultured cells. These data suggest that depression of the intracellular pH of skeletal muscle cells stimulates ATP efflux, and that CFTR plays an important role in the release mechanism.

  14. Natural Variation in the ATPS1 Isoform of ATP Sulfurylase Contributes to the Control of Sulfate Levels in Arabidopsis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Koprivova, Anna; Giovannetti, Marco; Baraniecka, Patrycja; Lee, Bok-Rye; Grondin, Cécile; Loudet, Olivier; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur is an essential macronutrient for all living organisms. Plants take up inorganic sulfate from the soil, reduce it, and assimilate it into bioorganic compounds, but part of this sulfate is stored in the vacuoles. In our first attempt to identify genes involved in the control of sulfate content in the leaves, we reported that a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for sulfate content in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was underlain by the APR2 isoform of the key enzyme of sulfate assimilation, adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate reductase. To increase the knowledge of the control of this trait, we cloned a second QTL from the same analysis. Surprisingly, the gene underlying this QTL encodes the ATPS1 isoform of the enzyme ATP sulfurylase, which precedes adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate reductase in the sulfate assimilation pathway. Plants with the Bay allele of ATPS1 accumulate lower steady-state levels of ATPS1 transcript than those with the Sha allele, which leads to lower enzyme activity and, ultimately, the accumulation of sulfate. Our results show that the transcript variation is controlled in cis. Examination of ATPS1 sequences of Bay-0 and Shahdara identified two deletions in the first intron and immediately downstream the gene in Bay-0 shared with multiple other Arabidopsis accessions. The average ATPS1 transcript levels are lower in these accessions than in those without the deletions, while sulfate levels are significantly higher. Thus, sulfate content in Arabidopsis is controlled by two genes encoding subsequent enzymes in the sulfate assimilation pathway but using different mechanisms, variation in amino acid sequence and variation in expression levels. PMID:24027241

  15. Validation of the AccuPoint Advanced ATP Hygiene Monitoring System for Sanitation Monitoring Through Detection of ATP from Stainless Steel Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Viator, Ryan; Gray, R Lucas; Sarver, Ron; Steiner, Brent; Mozola, Mark; Rice, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    The AccuPoint Advanced ATP Hygeine Monitoring System was validated by an AOAC International Performance Tested MethodSM on the detection of ATP from stainless steel surfaces. Neogen Corp.'s system is a lightweight, hand-held diagnostic tool used to validate and verify a hygiene program's effectiveness by detecting organic residues remaining on surfaces and in liquids after cleaning. The system is composed of three primary components: an electronic luminometer, fully self-contained single-use samplers, and software. The system is designed to detect adenosine triphosphate (ATP) at set thresholds and to report the measurement in relative light units (RLU). These thresholds are established by a facility to reflect effective cleaning practices. The instrument compares the measured level of ATP with the established threshold and reports the results as pass, marginal, or fail. A linear dose-response in RLU was observed with pure analyte. In the matrix and microbial studies, detection levels varied depending on the matrix and microorganism tested. Independent laboratory trials confirmed pure analyte and matrix observations. Specificity testing of similar, yet different, compounds resulted in 0 RLU for all except 2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate sodium salt, which showed markedly reduced reactivity when compared with ATP. Also, interference by these compounds was negligible. When disinfectant residues were evaluated for their effect on the test, cleaners increased RLU output to varying degrees. Stability testing showed consistent results between three independently manufactured lots and stable results through the 9 month shelf-life. Additionally, when three readers were compared using electronic light-emitting diodes as the light source, instrument variability was low (<3%). Robustness testing results provided evidence that temperature affects test performance more than shaking time, and sampler performance improves as the temperature increases to room temperature. These

  16. Transcription Start Site Scanning and the Requirement for ATP during Transcription Initiation by RNA Polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Fishburn, James; Galburt, Eric; Hahn, Steven

    2016-06-17

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase (Pol) II locates transcription start sites (TSS) at TATA-containing promoters by scanning sequences downstream from the site of preinitiation complex formation, a process that involves the translocation of downstream promoter DNA toward Pol II. To investigate a potential role of yeast Pol II transcription in TSS scanning, HIS4 promoter derivatives were generated that limited transcripts in the 30-bp scanned region to two nucleotides in length. Although we found that TSS scanning does not require RNA synthesis, our results revealed that transcription in the purified yeast basal system is largely ATP-independent despite a requirement for the TFIIH DNA translocase subunit Ssl2. This result is rationalized by our finding that, although they are poorer substrates, UTP and GTP can also be utilized by Ssl2. ATPγS is a strong inhibitor of rNTP-fueled translocation, and high concentrations of ATPγS make transcription completely dependent on added dATP. Limiting Pol II function with low ATP concentrations shifted the TSS position downstream. Combined with prior work, our results show that Pol II transcription plays an important role in TSS selection but is not required for the scanning reaction.

  17. Microglial cell migration stimulated by ATP and C5a involve distinct molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Aaron M.; Stella, Nephi

    2009-01-01

    Microglial cells, the macrophages of the brain, play an essential role in the propagation of neuroinflammation. Increased microglial cell migration in response to specific chemoattractants has been documented, but less is known about the differences between these stimuli and the signal transduction pathways that mediate their effects. Current methods to measure cell migration are often labor-intensive and rely on the manual counting of cell number, so more efficient and objective methods are needed. Here we present an improved and higher-throughput Boyden Chamber technique that measures microglial cell migration by using DRAQ5, a nuclear dye that emits in the near-infrared. Out of a panel of chemoattractants tested, we found that ATP and C5a potently stimulate the migration of mouse primary microglial cells. The stimulatory effects of ATP and C5a displayed significant additivity, suggesting that each chemoattractant stimulated migration through independent molecular mechanisms. Accordingly, we found key differences in these responses: ATP stimulated a combination of both chemokinesis and chemotaxis, and this response was mediated by the ROCK signaling pathway; whereas C5a stimulated only chemotaxis and this response was mediated by the Rac1 signaling pathway. Finally, we found that functional PI3-kinase is only required for random basal microglial cell migration. Thus, our results show that distinct non-overlapping signal transduction pathways control different modes of microglial cell migration and suggest that the targeting of these distinct molecular mechanisms should modulate different aspects of neuroinflammation propagation. PMID:19053059

  18. Synaptic organisation of the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    BOLAM, J. P.; HANLEY, J. J.; BOOTH, P. A. C.; BEVAN, M. D.

    2000-01-01

    The basal ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei involved in a variety of processes including motor, cognitive and mnemonic functions. One of their major roles is to integrate sensorimotor, associative and limbic information in the production of context-dependent behaviours. These roles are exemplified by the clinical manifestations of neurological disorders of the basal ganglia. Recent advances in many fields, including pharmacology, anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology have provided converging data that have led to unifying hypotheses concerning the functional organisation of the basal ganglia in health and disease. The major input to the basal ganglia is derived from the cerebral cortex. Virtually the whole of the cortical mantle projects in a topographic manner onto the striatum, this cortical information is ‘processed’ within the striatum and passed via the so-called direct and indirect pathways to the output nuclei of the basal ganglia, the internal segment of the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata. The basal ganglia influence behaviour by the projections of these output nuclei to the thalamus and thence back to the cortex, or to subcortical ‘premotor’ regions. Recent studies have demonstrated that the organisation of these pathways is more complex than previously suggested. Thus the cortical input to the basal ganglia, in addition to innervating the spiny projection neurons, also innervates GABA interneurons, which in turn provide a feed-forward inhibition of the spiny output neurons. Individual neurons of the globus pallidus innervate basal ganglia output nuclei as well as the subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars compacta. About one quarter of them also innervate the striatum and are in a position to control the output of the striatum powerfully as they preferentially contact GABA interneurons. Neurons of the pallidal complex also provide an anatomical substrate, within the basal ganglia, for the synaptic

  19. Space shuttle (ATP configuration) abort staging investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampy, J. M.; Blackwell, K. L.; Allen, E. C., Jr.; Fossler, I.

    1973-01-01

    A wind tunnel test conducted in a 14-inch trisonic wind tunnel to determine the force and moment characteristics of the ATP Orbiter and modified ATP External Tank/SRB combination during abort staging conditions is discussed. Six component aerodynamic force and moment data were recorded for the orbiter and ET/SRB combination. Pitch polars were obtained for an angle of attack range from minus 10 to plus 10 degrees and orbiter incidence angles (orbiter relative to the ET/SRB combination) of 0 and 2 degrees. A limited amount of yaw data were obtained at 0 degree angle of attack and beta range from minus 10 to plus 10 degrees. In addition, orbiter pitch control effectiveness was determined at several grid points. These force and moment data were obtained for Mach numbers of 0.9, 1.2 and 2.0.

  20. AMP kinase regulates ligand-gated K-ATP channels in substantia nigra dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ke-Zhong; Wu, Yan-Na; Munhall, Adam C; Johnson, Steven W

    2016-08-25

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master enzyme that regulates ATP-sensitive K(+) (K-ATP) channels in pancreatic beta-cells and cardiac myocytes. We used patch pipettes to record currents and potentials to investigate effects of AMPK on K-ATP currents in substantia nigra compacta (SNC) dopamine neurons in slices of rat midbrain. When slices were superfused repeatedly with the K-ATP channel opener diazoxide, we were surprised to find that diazoxide currents gradually increased in magnitude, reaching 300% of the control value 60min after starting whole-cell recording. However, diazoxide current increased significantly more, to 472% of control, when recorded in the presence of the AMPK activator A769662. Moreover, superfusing the slice with the AMPK blocking agent dorsomorphin significantly reduced diazoxide current to 38% of control. Control experiments showed that outward currents evoked by the K-ATP channel opener NN-414 also increased over time, but not currents evoked by the GABAB agonist baclofen. Delaying the application of diazoxide after starting whole-cell recording correlated with augmentation of current. Loose-patch recording showed that diazoxide produced a 34% slowing of spontaneous firing rate that did not intensify with repeated applications of diazoxide. However, superfusion with A769662 significantly augmented the inhibitory effect of diazoxide on firing rate. We conclude that K-ATP channel function is augmented by AMPK, which is activated during the process of making whole-cell recordings. Our results suggest that AMPK and K-ATP interactions may play an important role in regulating dopamine neuronal excitability.

  1. Functional expression of a heterologous nickel-dependent, ATP-independent urease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Milne, N; Luttik, M A H; Cueto Rojas, H F; Wahl, A; van Maris, A J A; Pronk, J T; Daran, J M

    2015-07-01

    In microbial processes for production of proteins, biomass and nitrogen-containing commodity chemicals, ATP requirements for nitrogen assimilation affect product yields on the energy producing substrate. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a current host for heterologous protein production and potential platform for production of nitrogen-containing chemicals, uptake and assimilation of ammonium requires 1 ATP per incorporated NH3. Urea assimilation by this yeast is more energy efficient but still requires 0.5 ATP per NH3 produced. To decrease ATP costs for nitrogen assimilation, the S. cerevisiae gene encoding ATP-dependent urease (DUR1,2) was replaced by a Schizosaccharomyces pombe gene encoding ATP-independent urease (ure2), along with its accessory genes ureD, ureF and ureG. Since S. pombe ure2 is a Ni(2+)-dependent enzyme and Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not express native Ni(2+)-dependent enzymes, the S. pombe high-affinity nickel-transporter gene (nic1) was also expressed. Expression of the S. pombe genes into dur1,2Δ S. cerevisiae yielded an in vitro ATP-independent urease activity of 0.44±0.01 µmol min(-1) mg protein(-1) and restored growth on urea as sole nitrogen source. Functional expression of the Nic1 transporter was essential for growth on urea at low Ni(2+) concentrations. The maximum specific growth rates of the engineered strain on urea and ammonium were lower than those of a DUR1,2 reference strain. In glucose-limited chemostat cultures with urea as nitrogen source, the engineered strain exhibited an increased release of ammonia and reduced nitrogen content of the biomass. Our results indicate a new strategy for improving yeast-based production of nitrogen-containing chemicals and demonstrate that Ni(2+)-dependent enzymes can be functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae.

  2. Altered ATP7A expression and other compensatory responses in a murine model of Menkes disease.

    PubMed

    Niciu, Mark J; Ma, Xin-Ming; El Meskini, Rajaâ; Pachter, Joel S; Mains, Richard E; Eipper, Betty A

    2007-09-01

    Mutations in the copper-transporter ATP7A lead to severe neurodegeneration in the mottled brindled hemizygous male (MoBr/y) mouse and human patients with Menkes disease. Our earlier studies demonstrated cell-type- and -stage-specific changes in ATP7A protein expression during postnatal neurodevelopment. Here we examined copper and cuproenzyme levels in MoBr/y mice to search for compensatory responses. While all MoBr/y neocortical subcellular fractions had decreased copper levels, the greatest decrease (8-fold) was observed in cytosol. Immunostaining for ATP7A revealed decreased levels in MoBr/y hippocampal pyramidal and cerebellar Purkinje neurons. In contrast, an upregulation of ATP7A protein occurred in MoBr/y endothelial cells, perhaps to compensate for a lack of copper in the neuropil. MoBr/y astrocytes and microglia increased their physical association with the blood-brain barrier. No alterations in ATP7A levels were observed in ependymal cells, arguing for specificity in the alteration observed at the blood-brain barrier. The decreased expression of ATP7A protein in MoBr/y Purkinje cells was associated with impaired synaptogenesis and dramatic cytoskeletal dysfunction. Immunoblotting failed to reveal any compensatory increase in levels of ATP7B. While total levels of several cuproenzymes (peptide-amidating monooxygenase, SOD1, and SOD3) were unaltered in the MoBr/y brain, levels of amidated cholecystokinin (CCK8) and amidated pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP38) were reduced in a tissue-specific fashion. The compensatory changes observed in the neurovascular unit provide insight into the success of copper injections within a defined neurodevelopmental period.

  3. Regulation of mitochondrial translation of the ATP8/ATP6 mRNA by Smt1p.

    PubMed

    Rak, Malgorzata; Su, Chen Hsien; Xu, Jonathan Tong; Azpiroz, Ricardo; Singh, Angela Mohan; Tzagoloff, Alexander

    2016-03-15

    Expression of the mitochondrially encoded ATP6 and ATP8 genes is translationally regulated by F1 ATPase. We report a translational repressor (Smt1p) of the ATP6/8 mRNA that, when mutated, restores translation of the encoded Atp6p and Atp8p subunits of the ATP synthase. Heterozygous smt1 mutants fail to rescue the translation defect, indicating that the mutations are recessive. Smt1p is an intrinsic inner membrane protein, which, based on its sedimentation, has a native size twice that of the monomer. Affinity purification of tagged Smt1p followed by reverse transcription of the associated RNA and PCR amplification of the resultant cDNA with gene-specific primers demonstrated the presence in mitochondria of Smt1p-ATP8/ATP6 and Smt1p-COB mRNA complexes. These results indicate that Smt1p is likely to be involved in translational regulation of both mRNAs. Applying Occam's principle, we favor a mechanistic model in which translation of the ATP8/ATP6 bicistronic mRNA is coupled to the availability of F1 for subsequent assembly of the Atp6p and Atp8p products into the ATP synthase. The mechanism of this regulatory pathway is proposed to entail a displacement of the repressor from the translationally mute Smt1-ATP8/ATP6 complex by F1, thereby permitting the Atp22p activator to interact with and promote translation of the mRNA.

  4. H+/ATP ratio during ATP hydrolysis by mitochondria: modification of the chemiosmotic theory.

    PubMed

    Brand, M D; Lehninger, A L

    1977-05-01

    The stoichiometry of H+ ejection by mitochondria during hydrolysis of a small pulse of ATP (the H+/ATP ratio) has been reexamined in the light of our recent observation that the stoichiometry of H+ ejection during mitochondrial electron transport (the H+/site ratio) was previously underestimated. We show that earlier estimates of the H+/ATP ratio in intact mitochondria were based upon an invalid correction for scaler H+ production and describe a modified method for determination of this ratio which utilizes mersalyl or N-ethylmaleimide to prevent complicating transmembrane movements of phosphate and H+. This method gives a value for the H+/ATP ratio of 2.0 without the need for questionable corrections, compared with a value of 3.0 for the H+/site ratio also obtained by pulse methods. A modified version of the chemiosmotic theory is presented, in which 3 H+ are ejected per pair of electrons traversing each energy-conserving site of the respiratory chain. Of these, 2 H+ return to the matrix through the ATPase to form ATP from ADP and phosphate, and 1 H+ returns through the combined action of the phosphate and adenine nucleotide exchange carriers of the inner membrane to allow the energy-requiring influx of Pi and ADP3- and efflux of ATP4-. Thus, up to one-third of the energy input into synthesis of extramitochondrial ATP may be required for transport work. Since other methods suggest that the H+/site significantly exceeds 3.0, an alternative possibility is that 4 h+ are ejected per site, followed by return of 3 H+ through the ATPase and 1 H+ through the operation of the proton-coupled membrane transport systems.

  5. ON POSSIBLE VARIATIONS OF BASAL Ca II K CHROMOSPHERIC LINE PROFILES WITH THE SOLAR CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Uitenbroek, Han; Bertello, Luca E-mail: huitenbroek@nso.edu

    2013-04-10

    We use daily observations of the Ca II K line profiles of the Sun-as-a-star taken with the Integrated Sunlight Spectrometer from 2006 December through 2011 July to deconvolve the contributions from the quiet (basal) chromosphere and with magnetic network/plage areas. The 0.5 A emission index computed from basal profiles shows a significantly reduced modulation (as compared with one derived from the observed profiles) corresponding to the Sun's rotation. For basal contribution of the Ca II K line, the peak in power spectrum corresponding to solar rotation is broad and not well defined. Power spectra for the plage contribution show two narrow well-defined peaks corresponding to solar rotation at two distinct latitudes, in agreement with the latitudinal distribution of activity on the Sun at the end of Cycle 23 and beginning of Cycle 24. We use the lack of a signature of solar rotation in the basal (quiet Sun) component as an indication of a successful removal of the active Sun (plage) component. Even though the contribution from solar activity is removed from the basal line profiles, we find a weak dependency of intensity in the line core (K3) of basal profiles with the phase of the solar cycle. Such dependency could be the result of changes in thermal properties of basal chromosphere with the solar cycle. As an alternative explanation, we also discuss a possibility that the basal component does not change with the phase of the solar cycle.

  6. Taurine blocks ATP-sensitive potassium channels of rat skeletal muscle fibres interfering with the sulphonylurea receptor.

    PubMed

    Tricarico, D; Barbieri, M; Camerino, D C

    2000-06-01

    Taurine is a sulphonic aminoacid present in high amounts in various tissues including cardiac and skeletal muscles showing different properties such as antioxidative, antimyotonic and anti-schaemic effects. The cellular mechanism of action of taurine is under investigation and appears to involve the interaction of the sulphonic aminoacid with several ion channels. Using the patch-clamp technique we studied the effects of taurine in rat skeletal muscle fibres on ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (K(ATP)) immediately after excision and on channels that underwent rundown. The cytoplasmic application of 20 mM of taurine reduced the K(ATP) current; this effect was reverted by washout of the drug solution. In this experimental condition the IC(50) was 20.1 mM. After rundown, taurine inhibited the K(ATP) current with similar efficacy. Competition experiments showed that taurine shifted the dose-response inhibition curve of glybenclamide to the left on the log-dose axis without significantly affecting those of ATP or Ca(2+) ion. Single channel recording revealed that taurine affects the close state of the channel prolonging it and reducing the bursts duration. Our data indicate that taurine inhibits the muscular K(ATP) channel interfering with the glybenclamide site on the sulphonylurea receptor of the channel or on the site allosterically coupled to it. During ischaemia and hypoxia, the skeletal and heart muscles undergo several changes; for example, the activation of K(ATP) channels and loss of the intracellular taurine content. The depletion of taurine during ischaemia would contribute to the early activation of K(ATP) channels and salvage the intracellular ATP content.

  7. Gap junctions and other mechanisms of cell-cell communication regulate basal insulin secretion in the pancreatic islet.

    PubMed

    Benninger, R K P; Head, W Steven; Zhang, Min; Satin, Leslie S; Piston, David W

    2011-11-15

    Cell-cell communication in the islet of Langerhans is important for the regulation of insulin secretion. Gap-junctions coordinate oscillations in intracellular free-calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) and insulin secretion in the islet following elevated glucose. Gap-junctions can also ensure that oscillatory [Ca(2+)](i) ceases when glucose is at a basal levels. We determine the roles of gap-junctions and other cell-cell communication pathways in the suppression of insulin secretion under basal conditions. Metabolic, electrical and insulin secretion levels were measured from islets lacking gap-junction coupling following deletion of connexion36 (Cx36(-/-)), and these results were compared to those obtained using fully isolated β-cells. K(ATP) loss-of-function islets provide a further experimental model to specifically study gap-junction mediated suppression of electrical activity. In isolated β-cells or Cx36(-/-) islets, elevations in [Ca(2+)](i) persisted in a subset of cells even at basal glucose. Isolated β-cells showed elevated insulin secretion at basal glucose; however, insulin secretion from Cx36(-/-) islets was minimally altered. [Ca(2+)](i) was further elevated under basal conditions, but insulin release still suppressed in K(ATP) loss-of-function islets. Forced elevation of cAMP led to PKA-mediated increases in insulin secretion from islets lacking gap-junctions, but not from islets expressing Cx36 gap junctions. We conclude there is a redundancy in how cell-cell communication in the islet suppresses insulin release. Gap junctions suppress cellular heterogeneity and spontaneous [Ca(2+)](i) signals, while other juxtacrine mechanisms, regulated by PKA and glucose, suppress more distal steps in exocytosis. Each mechanism is sufficiently robust to compensate for a loss of the other and still suppress basal insulin secretion.

  8. Electrical Stimuli Are Anti-Apoptotic in Skeletal Muscle via Extracellular ATP. Alteration of This Signal in Mdx Mice Is a Likely Cause of Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Valladares, Denisse; Almarza, Gonzalo; Contreras, Ariel; Pavez, Mario; Buvinic, Sonja; Jaimovich, Enrique; Casas, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    ATP signaling has been shown to regulate gene expression in skeletal muscle and to be altered in models of muscular dystrophy. We have previously shown that in normal muscle fibers, ATP released through Pannexin1 (Panx1) channels after electrical stimulation plays a role in activating some signaling pathways related to gene expression. We searched for a possible role of ATP signaling in the dystrophy phenotype. We used muscle fibers from flexor digitorum brevis isolated from normal and mdx mice. We demonstrated that low frequency electrical stimulation has an anti-apoptotic effect in normal muscle fibers repressing the expression of Bax, Bim and PUMA. Addition of exogenous ATP to the medium has a similar effect. In dystrophic fibers, the basal levels of extracellular ATP were higher compared to normal fibers, but unlike control fibers, they do not present any ATP release after low frequency electrical stimulation, suggesting an uncoupling between electrical stimulation and ATP release in this condition. Elevated levels of Panx1 and decreased levels of Cav1.1 (dihydropyridine receptors) were found in triads fractions prepared from mdx muscles. Moreover, decreased immunoprecipitation of Cav1.1 and Panx1, suggest uncoupling of the signaling machinery. Importantly, in dystrophic fibers, exogenous ATP was pro-apoptotic, inducing the transcription of Bax, Bim and PUMA and increasing the levels of activated Bax and cytosolic cytochrome c. These evidence points to an involvement of the ATP pathway in the activation of mechanisms related with cell death in muscular dystrophy, opening new perspectives towards possible targets for pharmacological therapies. PMID:24282497

  9. Electrical stimuli are anti-apoptotic in skeletal muscle via extracellular ATP. Alteration of this signal in Mdx mice is a likely cause of dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Valladares, Denisse; Almarza, Gonzalo; Contreras, Ariel; Pavez, Mario; Buvinic, Sonja; Jaimovich, Enrique; Casas, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    ATP signaling has been shown to regulate gene expression in skeletal muscle and to be altered in models of muscular dystrophy. We have previously shown that in normal muscle fibers, ATP released through Pannexin1 (Panx1) channels after electrical stimulation plays a role in activating some signaling pathways related to gene expression. We searched for a possible role of ATP signaling in the dystrophy phenotype. We used muscle fibers from flexor digitorum brevis isolated from normal and mdx mice. We demonstrated that low frequency electrical stimulation has an anti-apoptotic effect in normal muscle fibers repressing the expression of Bax, Bim and PUMA. Addition of exogenous ATP to the medium has a similar effect. In dystrophic fibers, the basal levels of extracellular ATP were higher compared to normal fibers, but unlike control fibers, they do not present any ATP release after low frequency electrical stimulation, suggesting an uncoupling between electrical stimulation and ATP release in this condition. Elevated levels of Panx1 and decreased levels of Cav1.1 (dihydropyridine receptors) were found in triads fractions prepared from mdx muscles. Moreover, decreased immunoprecipitation of Cav1.1 and Panx1, suggest uncoupling of the signaling machinery. Importantly, in dystrophic fibers, exogenous ATP was pro-apoptotic, inducing the transcription of Bax, Bim and PUMA and increasing the levels of activated Bax and cytosolic cytochrome c. These evidence points to an involvement of the ATP pathway in the activation of mechanisms related with cell death in muscular dystrophy, opening new perspectives towards possible targets for pharmacological therapies.

  10. Mechanosensitive ATP Release Maintains Proper Mucus Hydration of Airways

    PubMed Central

    Button, Brian; Okada, Seiko F.; Frederick, Charles Brandon; Thelin, William R.; Boucher, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    The clearance of mucus from the airways protects the lungs from inhaled noxious and infectious materials. Proper hydration of the mucus layer enables efficient mucus clearance through beating of cilia on airway epithelial cells, and reduced clearance of excessively concentrated mucus occurs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. Key steps in the mucus transport process are airway epithelia sensing and responding to changes in mucus hydration. We reported that extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine were important luminal auto-crine and paracrine signals that regulated the hydration of the surface of human airway epithelial cultures through their action on apical membrane purinoceptors. Mucus hydration in human airway epithelial cultures was sensed by an interaction between cilia and the overlying mucus layer: Changes in mechanical strain, proportional to mucus hydration, regulated ATP release rates, adjusting fluid secretion to optimize mucus layer hydration. This system provided a feedback mechanism by which airways maintained mucus hydration in an optimum range for cilia propulsion. Understanding how airway epithelia can sense and respond to changes in mucus properties helps us to understand how the mucus clearance system protects the airways in health and how it fails in lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis. PMID:23757023

  11. Mechanosensitive ATP release maintains proper mucus hydration of airways.

    PubMed

    Button, Brian; Okada, Seiko F; Frederick, Charles Brandon; Thelin, William R; Boucher, Richard C

    2013-06-11

    The clearance of mucus from the airways protects the lungs from inhaled noxious and infectious materials. Proper hydration of the mucus layer enables efficient mucus clearance through beating of cilia on airway epithelial cells, and reduced clearance of excessively concentrated mucus occurs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. Key steps in the mucus transport process are airway epithelia sensing and responding to changes in mucus hydration. We reported that extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine were important luminal autocrine and paracrine signals that regulated the hydration of the surface of human airway epithelial cultures through their action on apical membrane purinoceptors. Mucus hydration in human airway epithelial cultures was sensed by an interaction between cilia and the overlying mucus layer: Changes in mechanical strain, proportional to mucus hydration, regulated ATP release rates, adjusting fluid secretion to optimize mucus layer hydration. This system provided a feedback mechanism by which airways maintained mucus hydration in an optimum range for cilia propulsion. Understanding how airway epithelia can sense and respond to changes in mucus properties helps us to understand how the mucus clearance system protects the airways in health and how it fails in lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis.

  12. ATP-induced helicase slippage reveals highly coordinated subunits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Michelle D.

    2012-02-01

    Helicases are vital enzymes that carry out strand separation of duplex nucleic acids during replication, repair and recombination. T7 helicase, a model hexameric motor, has been observed to use dTTP, but not ATP, to unwind dsDNA as it translocates along ssDNA. Whether and how different subunits of the helicase coordinate their chemo-mechanical activities and DNA binding during translocation is still under debate. Here we address this question using a single-molecule approach to monitor helicase unwinding. We found that T7 helicase does in fact unwind dsDNA in the presence of ATP and that the unwinding rate is even faster than that with dTTP. However, unwinding was repeatedly interrupted by sudden slippage events, ultimately preventing unwinding over a substantial distance. This behaviour was greatly reduced with the supplement of a small amount of dTTP. These findings presented an opportunity to use nucleotide mixtures to investigate helicase subunit coordination. Our results support a model where nearly all subunits coordinate their chemo-mechanical activities and DNA binding. Such subunit coordination may be general to many ring-shaped helicases and reveals a potential mechanism for regulation of DNA unwinding during replication.

  13. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a possible indicator of extraterrestrial biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The ubiquity of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in terrestrial organisms provides the basis for proposing the assay of this vital metabolic intermediate for detecting extraterrestrial biological activity. If an organic carbon chemistry is present on the planets, the occurrence of ATP is possible either from biosynthetic or purely chemical reactions. However, ATP's relative complexity minimizes the probability of abiogenic synthesis. A sensitive technique for the quantitative detection of ATP was developed using the firefly bioluminescent reaction. The procedure was used successfully for the determination of the ATP content of soil and bacteria. This technique is also being investigated from the standpoint of its application in clinical medicine.

  14. Evidence for an ATP-driven proton pump in rat thyroid phagolysosomes. Effects of protonophores and ionophores.

    PubMed

    Fouchier, F; Dang, J

    1983-11-15

    During incubations at 37 degrees C in appropriate media (buffered 0.25 M sucrose) isolated thyroid phagolysosomes degrade the thyroglobulin they contain (labelled with 131I in vivo) giving rise to trichloroacetic-acid-soluble radio-iodine. Thyroglobulin-degradation is unaffected by external pH (7 or 8) or by 20-40 mM external NaCl or KCl, while it is strongly inhibited by ionophores and protonophores. As a consequence, thyroglobulin degradation can be used as an index of the intralysosomal pH which appears to be powerfully maintained in basal conditions (no ionophore and no protonophore) by the strong impermeability of the lysosomal membranes to various compounds including ionic species MgATP which does not modify basal proteolysis prevents or minimizes the alkalinizing effects of both ionophores and protonophores. ATP can thus be concluded to promote a protonic flux inward thyroid lysosomes via the activity of a lysosomal ATP-driven proton pump regulated by the magnitude of the intralysosomal pH.

  15. Microglial migration mediated by ATP-induced ATP release from lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Dou, Ying; Wu, Hang-jun; Li, Hui-quan; Qin, Song; Wang, Yin-er; Li, Jing; Lou, Hui-fang; Chen, Zhong; Li, Xiao-ming; Luo, Qing-ming; Duan, Shumin

    2012-06-01

    Microglia are highly motile cells that act as the main form of active immune defense in the central nervous system. Attracted by factors released from damaged cells, microglia are recruited towards the damaged or infected site, where they are involved in degenerative and regenerative responses and phagocytotic clearance of cell debris. ATP release from damaged neural tissues has been suggested to mediate the rapid extension of microglial process towards the site of injury. However, the mechanisms of the long-range migration of microglia remain to be clarified. Here, we found that lysosomes in microglia contain abundant ATP and exhibit Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis in response to various stimuli. By establishing an efficient in vitro chemotaxis assay, we demonstrated that endogenously-released ATP from microglia triggered by local microinjection of ATPγS is critical for the long-range chemotaxis of microglia, a response that was significantly inhibited in microglia treated with an agent inducing lysosome osmodialysis or in cells derived from mice deficient in Rab 27a (ashen mice), a small GTPase required for the trafficking and exocytosis of secretory lysosomes. These results suggest that microglia respond to extracellular ATP by releasing ATP themselves through lysosomal exocytosis, thereby providing a positive feedback mechanism to generate a long-range extracellular signal for attracting distant microglia to migrate towards and accumulate at the site of injury.

  16. ATP P2X receptors downregulate AMPA receptor trafficking and postsynaptic efficacy in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Pougnet, Johan-Till; Toulme, Estelle; Martinez, Audrey; Choquet, Daniel; Hosy, Eric; Boué-Grabot, Eric

    2014-07-16

    P2X receptors (P2XRs) are ATP-gated cation channels widely expressed in the brain where they mediate action of extracellular ATP released by neurons or glia. Although purinergic signaling has multiple effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity, P2XR function at brain synapses remains to be established. Here, we show that activation of postsynaptic P2XRs by exogenous ATP or noradrenaline-dependent glial release of endogenous ATP decreases the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents and AMPA-evoked currents in cultured hippocampal neurons. We also observed a P2X-mediated depression of field potentials recorded in CA1 region from brain slices. P2X2Rs trigger dynamin-dependent internalization of AMPA receptors (AMPARs), leading to reduced surface AMPARs in dendrites and at synapses. AMPAR alteration required calcium influx through opened ATP-gated channels and phosphatase or CamKII activities. These findings indicate that postsynaptic P2XRs play a critical role in regulating the surface expression of AMPARs and thereby regulate the synaptic strength.

  17. Neuronal NTPDase3 Mediates Extracellular ATP Degradation in Trigeminal Nociceptive Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lihua; Trinh, Thu; Ren, Yanfang; Dirksen, Robert T.; Liu, Xiuxin

    2016-01-01

    ATP induces pain via activation of purinergic receptors in nociceptive sensory nerves. ATP signaling is terminated by ATP hydrolysis mediated by cell surface-localized ecto-nucleotidases. Using enzymatic histochemical staining, we show that ecto-ATPase activity is present in mouse trigeminal nerves. Using immunofluorescence staining, we found that ecto-NTPDase3 is expressed in trigeminal nociceptive neurons and their projections to the brainstem. In addition, ecto-ATPase activity and ecto-NTPDase3 are also detected in the nociceptive outermost layer of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that incubation with anti-NTPDase3 serum reduces extracellular ATP degradation in the nociceptive lamina of both the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis and the spinal cord dorsal horn. These results are consistent with neuronal NTPDase3 activity modulating pain signal transduction and transmission by affecting extracellular ATP hydrolysis within the trigeminal nociceptive pathway. Thus, disruption of trigeminal neuronal NTPDase3 expression and localization to presynaptic terminals during chronic inflammation, local constriction and injury may contribute to the pathogenesis of orofacial neuropathic pain. PMID:27706204

  18. Urothelial ATP exocytosis: regulation of bladder compliance in the urine storage phase

    PubMed Central

    Nakagomi, Hiroshi; Yoshiyama, Mitsuharu; Mochizuki, Tsutomu; Miyamoto, Tatsuya; Komatsu, Ryohei; Imura, Yoshio; Morizawa, Yosuke; Hiasa, Miki; Miyaji, Takaaki; Kira, Satoru; Araki, Isao; Fujishita, Kayoko; Shibata, Keisuke; Shigetomi, Eiji; Shinozaki, Youichi; Ichikawa, Reiko; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Iwatsuki, Ken; Nomura, Masatoshi; de Groat, William C.; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Takeda, Masayuki; Koizumi, Schuichi

    2016-01-01

    The bladder urothelium is more than just a barrier. When the bladder is distended, the urothelium functions as a sensor to initiate the voiding reflex, during which it releases ATP via multiple mechanisms. However, the mechanisms underlying this ATP release in response to the various stretch stimuli caused by bladder filling remain largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate these mechanisms. By comparing vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT)-deficient and wild-type male mice, we showed that ATP has a crucial role in urine storage through exocytosis via a VNUT-dependent mechanism. VNUT was abundantly expressed in the bladder urothelium, and when the urothelium was weakly stimulated (i.e. in the early filling stages), it released ATP by exocytosis. VNUT-deficient mice showed reduced bladder compliance from the early storage phase and displayed frequent urination in inappropriate places without a change in voiding function. We conclude that urothelial, VNUT-dependent ATP exocytosis is involved in urine storage mechanisms that promote the relaxation of the bladder during the early stages of filling. PMID:27412485

  19. Fluoride decreased the sperm ATP of mice through inhabiting mitochondrial respiration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zilong; Zhang, Wen; Xue, Xingchen; Zhang, Yuliang; Niu, Ruiyan; Li, Xuying; Li, Baojun; Wang, Xiaowen; Wang, Jundong

    2016-02-01

    Fluoride-induced low sperm motility was observed in accumulated investigations. However, the effect of fluoride exposure on ATP generation which is essential to sperm motility remains to be elucidated. In this study, 120 healthy male mice were orally administrated with 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg L(-1) NaF for 90 d. Results showed that compared with controls, fluoride ingestion significantly reduced sperm count, survival, as well as mobility and total ATP level in sperm untreated with carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) or pyruvate, which was used to establish glycolysis or mitochondrial respiration model, respectively. Data further revealed that sperm mobility and ATP level under mitochondrial respiration condition were significantly suppressed, while no statistical difference occurred in the model of glycolysis, indicating ATP derived from mitochondria was affected. Moreover, mRNA expressions of mitochondrial cytochrome b (mt-Cytb) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (mt-COX2), two important molecules in mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), were down-regulated in all fluoride treatment groups. Mitochondria in sperm of mice exposed to 100 mg L(-1) NaF appeared to be irregular and vacuolated. These findings suggested that decreased sperm motility induced by fluoride may result from low ATP generation due to the disturbed ETC in sperm mitochondrial.

  20. Recombinant expression and purification of an ATP-dependent DNA ligase from Aliivibrio salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Adele; Pedersen, Hege

    2014-05-01

    The genome of the psychrophilic fish-pathogen Aliivibrio salmonicida encodes a putative ATP-dependent DNA ligase in addition to a housekeeping NAD-dependent enzyme. In order to study the structure and activity of the ATP dependent ligase in vitro we have undertaken its recombinant production and purification from an Escherichia coli based expression system. Expression and purification of this protein presented two significant challenges. First, the gene product was moderately toxic to E. coli cells, second it was necessary to remove the large amounts of E. coli DNA present in bacterial lysates without contamination of the protein preparation by nucleases which might interfere with future assaying. The toxicity problem was overcome by fusion of the putative ligase to large solubility tags such as maltose-binding protein (MBP) or Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and DNA was removed by treatment with a nuclease which could be inhibited by reducing agents. As the A. salmonicida ATP-dependent DNA ligase gene encodes a predicted leader peptide, both the full-length and mature forms of the protein were produced. Both possessed ATP-dependent DNA ligase activity, but the truncated form was significantly more active. Here we detail the first reported production, purification and preliminary characterization of active A. salmonicida ATP-dependent DNA ligase.

  1. [Use of the bioluminescent method for the determination of bacterial adenosinetriphosphate (ATP-metry) in microbiology].

    PubMed

    Kuzikov, A N; Bondarenko, V M; Latkin, A T

    2003-01-01

    The attention of a wide circle of specialists has recently been attracted by different methods for rapid determination of pathogenic microorganisms in biological specimens, environmental objects and foodstuffs, as well as in cases of possible acts of bioterrorism. In this respect the bioluminescent method for determination of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) contained in microbial cells is of interest. The method is based on the interaction ATP, luciferase and luciferin, accompanied by giving off energy in the form of light emission. When compared with routine methods, the use of this method considerably reduces the duration of the analysis, and its high sensitivity is comparable with that of the polymerase chain reaction. In this review the data on the prospects of the practical use of the bioluminescent method of ATP-metry are presented.

  2. Real-time luminescence imaging of cellular ATP release.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Kishio; Sokabe, Masahiro; Grygorczyk, Ryszard

    2014-03-15

    Extracellular ATP and other purines are ubiquitous mediators of local intercellular signaling within the body. While the last two decades have witnessed enormous progress in uncovering and characterizing purinergic receptors and extracellular enzymes controlling purinergic signals, our understanding of the initiating step in this cascade, i.e., ATP release, is still obscure. Imaging of extracellular ATP by luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence offers the advantage of studying ATP release and distribution dynamics in real time. However, low-light signal generated by bioluminescence reactions remains the major obstacle to imaging such rapid processes, imposing substantial constraints on its spatial and temporal resolution. We have developed an improved microscopy system for real-time ATP imaging, which detects ATP-dependent luciferin-luciferase luminescence at ∼10 frames/s, sufficient to follow rapid ATP release with sensitivity of ∼10 nM and dynamic range up to 100 μM. In addition, simultaneous differential interference contrast cell images are acquired with infra-red optics. Our imaging method: (1) identifies ATP-releasing cells or sites, (2) determines absolute ATP concentration and its spreading manner at release sites, and (3) permits analysis of ATP release kinetics from single cells. We provide instrumental details of our approach and give several examples of ATP-release imaging at cellular and tissue levels, to illustrate its potential utility.

  3. Disruption of copper homeostasis due to a mutation of Atp7a delays the onset of prion disease

    PubMed Central

    Siggs, Owen M.; Cruite, Justin T.; Du, Xin; Rutschmann, Sophie; Masliah, Eliezer; Beutler, Bruce; Oldstone, Michael B. A.

    2012-01-01

    Copper influences the pathogenesis of prion disease, but whether it is beneficial or detrimental remains controversial. Copper homeostasis is also essential for normal physiology, as highlighted by the spectrum of diseases caused by disruption of the copper transporting enzymes ATP7A and ATP7B. Here, by using a forward genetics approach in mice, we describe the isolation of three alleles of Atp7a, each with different phenotypic consequences. The mildest of the three, Atp7abrown, was insufficient to cause lethality in hemizygotes or mottling of the coat in heterozygotes, but did lead to coat hypopigmentation and reduced copper content in the brains of hemizygous males. When challenged with Rocky Mountain Laboratory scrapie, the onset of prion disease was delayed in Atp7abrown mice, and significantly less proteinase-resistant prion protein was found in the brains of moribund Atp7abrown mice compared with WT littermates. Our results establish that ATP7A-mediated copper homeostasis is important for the formation of pathogenic proteinase-resistant prion protein. PMID:22869751

  4. Persistence of biomarker ATP and ATP-generating capability in bacterial cells and spores contaminating spacecraft materials under earth conditions and in a simulated martian environment.

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Schuerger, Andrew C; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2008-08-01

    Most planetary protection research has concentrated on characterizing viable bioloads on spacecraft surfaces, developing techniques for bioload reduction prior to launch, and studying the effects of simulated martian environments on microbial survival. Little research has examined the persistence of biogenic signature molecules on spacecraft materials under simulated martian surface conditions. This study examined how endogenous adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) would persist on aluminum coupons under simulated martian conditions of 7.1 mbar, full-spectrum simulated martian radiation calibrated to 4 W m(-2) of UV-C (200 to 280 nm), -10 degrees C, and a Mars gas mix of CO(2) (95.54%), N(2) (2.7%), Ar (1.6%), O(2) (0.13%), and H(2)O (0.03%). Cell or spore viabilities of Acinetobacter radioresistens, Bacillus pumilus, and B. subtilis were measured in minutes to hours, while high levels of endogenous ATP were recovered after exposures of up to 21 days. The dominant factor responsible for temporal reductions in viability and loss of ATP was the simulated Mars surface radiation; low pressure, low temperature, and the Mars gas composition exhibited only slight effects. The normal burst of endogenous ATP detected during spore germination in B. pumilus and B. subtilis was reduced by 1 or 2 orders of magnitude following, respectively, 8- or 30-min exposures to simulated martian conditions. The results support the conclusion that endogenous ATP will persist for time periods that are likely to extend beyond the nominal lengths of most surface missions on Mars, and planetary protection protocols prior to launch may require additional rigor to further reduce the presence and abundance of biosignature molecules on spacecraft surfaces.

  5. Persistence of Biomarker ATP and ATP-Generating Capability in Bacterial Cells and Spores Contaminating Spacecraft Materials under Earth Conditions and in a Simulated Martian Environment▿

    PubMed Central

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Nicholson, Wayne L.

    2008-01-01

    Most planetary protection research has concentrated on characterizing viable bioloads on spacecraft surfaces, developing techniques for bioload reduction prior to launch, and studying the effects of simulated martian environments on microbial survival. Little research has examined the persistence of biogenic signature molecules on spacecraft materials under simulated martian surface conditions. This study examined how endogenous adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) would persist on aluminum coupons under simulated martian conditions of 7.1 mbar, full-spectrum simulated martian radiation calibrated to 4 W m−2 of UV-C (200 to 280 nm), −10°C, and a Mars gas mix of CO2 (95.54%), N2 (2.7%), Ar (1.6%), O2 (0.13%), and H2O (0.03%). Cell or spore viabilities of Acinetobacter radioresistens, Bacillus pumilus, and B. subtilis were measured in minutes to hours, while high levels of endogenous ATP were recovered after exposures of up to 21 days. The dominant factor responsible for temporal reductions in viability and loss of ATP was the simulated Mars surface radiation; low pressure, low temperature, and the Mars gas composition exhibited only slight effects. The normal burst of endogenous ATP detected during spore germination in B. pumilus and B. subtilis was reduced by 1 or 2 orders of magnitude following, respectively, 8- or 30-min exposures to simulated martian conditions. The results support the conclusion that endogenous ATP will persist for time periods that are likely to extend beyond the nominal lengths of most surface missions on Mars, and planetary protection protocols prior to launch may require additional rigor to further reduce the presence and abundance of biosignature molecules on spacecraft surfaces. PMID:18567687

  6. Release of ATP induced by hypertonic solutions in Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Aleu, Jordi; Martín-Satué, Mireia; Navarro, Piedad; de Lara, Ivanna Pérez; Bahima, Laia; Marsal, Jordi; Solsona, Carles

    2003-01-01

    ATP mediates intercellular communication. Mechanical stress and changes in cell volume induce ATP release from various cell types, both secretory and non-secretory. In the present study, we stressed Xenopus oocytes with a hypertonic solution enriched in mannitol (300 mm). We measured simultaneously ATP release and ionic currents from a single oocyte. A decrease in cell volume, the activation of an inward current and ATP release were coincident. We found two components of ATP release: the first was associated with granule or vesicle exocytosis, because it was inhibited by tetanus neurotoxin, and the second was related to the inward current. A single exponential described the correlation between ATP release and the hypertonic-activated current. Gadolinium ions, which block mechanically activated ionic channels, inhibited the ATP release and the inward current but did not affect the decrease in volume. Oocytes expressing CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator) released ATP under hypertonic shock, but ATP release was significantly inhibited in the first component: that related to granule exocytosis. Since the ATP measured is the balance between ATP release and ATP degradation by ecto-enzymes, we measured the nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) activity of the oocyte surface during osmotic stress, as the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of ATP, which was inhibited by more than 50 % in hypertonic conditions. The best-characterized membrane protein showing NTPDase activity is CD39. Oocytes injected with an antisense oligonucleotide complementary to CD39 mRNA released less ATP and showed a lower amplitude in the inward current than those oocytes injected with water. PMID:12562935

  7. Mitochondrial Hyperpolarization and ATP Depletion in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Gergely, Peter; Grossman, Craig; Niland, Brian; Puskas, Ferenc; Neupane, Hom; Allam, Fatme; Banki, Katalin; Phillips, Paul E.; Perl, Andras

    2014-01-01

    Objective Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients exhibit increased spontaneous and diminished activation-induced apoptosis. We tested the hypothesis that key biochemical checkpoints, the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) and production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs), mediate the imbalance of apoptosis in SLE. Methods We assessed the ΔΨm with potentiometric dyes, measured ROI production with oxidation-sensitive fluorochromes, and monitored cell death by annexin V and propidium iodide staining of lymphocytes, using flow cytometry. Intracellular glutathione levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, while ATP and ADP levels were assessed by the luciferin–luciferase assay. Results Both ΔΨm and ROI production were elevated in the 25 SLE patients compared with the 25 healthy subjects and the 10 rheumatoid arthritis patients. Intracellular glutathione contents were diminished, suggesting increased utilization of reducing equivalents in SLE. H2O2, a precursor of ROIs, increased ΔΨm and caused apoptosis in normal PBLs. In contrast, H2O2-induced apoptosis and ΔΨm elevation were diminished, particularly in T cells, and the rate of necrotic cell death was increased in patients with SLE. The intracellular ATP content and the ATP:ADP ratio were reduced and correlated with the ΔΨm elevation in lupus. CD3:CD28 costimulation led to transient elevation of the ΔΨm, followed by ATP depletion, and sensitization of normal PBLs to H2O2-induced necrosis. Depletion of ATP by oligomycin, an inhibitor of F0F1–ATPase, had similar effects. Conclusion T cell activation and apoptosis are mediated by ΔΨm elevation and increased ROI production. Mitochondrial hyperpolarization and the resultant ATP depletion sensitize T cells for necrosis, which may significantly contribute to inflammation in patients with SLE. PMID:11817589

  8. Dimethylthiourea inhibition of B16 melanoma growth and induction of phenotypic alterations; relationship to ATP levels.

    PubMed Central

    Fux, A.; Sidi, Y.; Kessler-Icekson, G.; Wasserman, L.; Novogrodsky, A.; Nordenberg, J.

    1991-01-01

    1,3 Dimethylthiourea (DMTU) has previously been shown by us to inhibit the growth of melanoma cells and to induce phenotypic alterations in these cells, including ultrastructural alterations of mitochondria. These findings raised the possibility that impaired mitochondrial function might be involved in mediating the effect of DMTU on cell growth and phenotypic expression. The present study indicates that DMTU as well as another growth inhibitory methylurea derivative, tetramethylurea (TMU) significantly decrease ATP content in the B16 melanoma cell line. 1,3 Dimethylurea (1,3DMU) and 1,1 dimethylurea (1,1DMU) which are poor growth inhibitors, do not reduce ATP content significantly. Altered energy metabolism in the DMTU-treated cells is reflected by inhibition of the activity of cytochrome c oxidase and by increased lactate levels. A cell line selected for resistance to growth inhibition by DMTU was shown to be completely resistant to induction of phenotypic alterations by DMTU. These cells possess high lactate levels, high ATP content and a somewhat decreased Na/K ATPase activity as compared to wild type B16 F10 cells. 1,3 DMTU treatment of the resistant cells leads to a decrease in the activity of the mitochondrial enzyme cytochrome c oxidase, similar to its effect on the wild type B16 F10 cells. DMTU also reduces ATP content moderately in the resistant cells. However, the levels of ATP do not decrease beyond those found in untreated B16 F10 wild type cells. Taken together the results suggest that decreased ATP content might be involved, at least partially, in mediating the effects of DMTU on B16 melanoma cell growth and phenotypic expression. PMID:1850608

  9. Endogenous adenosine mediates coronary vasodilation during exercise after K(ATP)+ channel blockade.

    PubMed Central

    Duncker, D J; van Zon, N S; Pavek, T J; Herrlinger, S K; Bache, R J

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism of coronary vasodilation produced by exercise is not understood completely. Recently, we reported that blockade of vascular smooth muscle K(ATP)+ channels decreased coronary blood flow at rest, but did not attenuate the increments in coronary flow produced by exercise. Adenosine is not mandatory for maintaining basal coronary flow, or the increase in flow produced by exercise during normal arterial inflow, but does contribute to coronary vasodilation in hypoperfused myocardium. Therefore, we investigated whether adenosine opposed the hypoperfusion produced by K(ATP)+ channel blockade, thereby contributing to coronary vasodilation during exercise. 11 dogs were studied at rest and during exercise under control conditions, during intracoronary infusion of the K(ATP)+ channel blocker glibenclamide (50 micrograms/kg per min), and during intracoronary glibenclamide in the presence of adenosine receptor blockade. Glibenclamide decreased resting coronary blood flow from 45 +/- 5 to 35 +/- 4 ml/min (P < 0.05), but did not prevent exercise-induced increases of coronary flow. Glibenclamide caused an increase in myocardial oxygen extraction at the highest level of exercise with a decrease in coronary venous oxygen tension from 15.5 +/- 0.7 to 13.6 +/- 0.8 mmHg (P < 0.05). The addition of the adenosine receptor antagonist 8-phenyltheophylline (5 mg/kg intravenous) to K(ATP)+ channel blockade did not further decrease resting coronary blood flow but did attenuate the increase in coronary flow produced by exercise. This was accompanied by a further decrease of coronary venous oxygen tension to 10.1 +/- 0.7 mmHg (P < 0.05), indicating aggravation of the mismatch between oxygen demand and supply. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that K+ATP channels modulate coronary vasomotor tone both under resting conditions and during exercise. However, when K(ATP)+ channels are blocked, adenosine released from the hypoperfused myocardium provides an alternate

  10. From ATP to PTP and Back: A Dual Function for the Mitochondrial ATP Synthase.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Paolo; Di Lisa, Fabio; Fogolari, Federico; Lippe, Giovanna

    2015-05-22

    Mitochondria not only play a fundamental role in heart physiology but are also key effectors of dysfunction and death. This dual role assumes a new meaning after recent advances on the nature and regulation of the permeability transition pore, an inner membrane channel whose opening requires matrix Ca(2+) and is modulated by many effectors including reactive oxygen species, matrix cyclophilin D, Pi (inorganic phosphate), and matrix pH. The recent demonstration that the F-ATP synthase can reversibly undergo a Ca(2+)-dependent transition to form a channel that mediates the permeability transition opens new perspectives to the field. These findings demand a reassessment of the modifications of F-ATP synthase that take place in the heart under pathological conditions and of their potential role in determining the transition of F-ATP synthase from and energy-conserving into an energy-dissipating device.

  11. Heat stress prevents mitochondrial injury in ATP-depleted renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, F; Mao, H P; Ruchalski, K L; Wang, Y H; Choy, W; Schwartz, J H; Borkan, S C

    2002-09-01

    The events that precipitate cell death and the stress proteins responsible for cytoprotection during ATP depletion remain elusive. We hypothesize that exposure to metabolic inhibitors damages mitochondria, allowing proapoptotic proteins to leak into the cytosol, and suggest that heat stress-induced hsp72 accumulation prevents mitochondrial membrane injury. To test these hypotheses, renal epithelial cells were transiently ATP depleted with sodium cyanide and 2-deoxy-D-glucose in the absence of medium dextrose. Recovery from ATP depletion was associated with the release into the cytosol of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), proapoptotic proteins that localize to the intermitochondrial membrane space. Concomitant with mitochondrial cytochrome c leak, a seven- to eightfold increase in caspase 3 activity was observed. In controls, state III mitochondrial respiration was reduced by 30% after transient exposure to metabolic inhibitors. Prior heat stress preserved mitochondrial ATP production and significantly reduced both cytochrome c release and caspase 3 activation. Despite less cytochrome c release, prior heat stress increased binding between cytochrome c and hsp72. The present study demonstrates that mitochondrial injury accompanies exposure to metabolic inhibitors. By reducing outer mitochondrial membrane injury and by complexing with cytochrome c, hsp72 could inhibit caspase activation and subsequent apoptosis.

  12. Recharging mitochondrial batteries in old eyes. Near infra-red increases ATP.

    PubMed

    Gkotsi, Despoina; Begum, Rana; Salt, Thomas; Lascaratos, Gerassimos; Hogg, Chris; Chau, Kai-Yin; Schapira, Anthony H V; Jeffery, Glen

    2014-05-01

    Progressive accumulation of age related mitochondrial DNA mutations reduce ATP production and increase reactive oxygen species output, leading to oxidative stress, inflammation and degradation. The pace of this is linked to metabolic demand. The retina has the greatest metabolic demand and mitochondrial density in the body and displays progressive age related inflammation and marked cell loss. Near infra-red (670 nm) is thought to be absorbed by cytochrome c oxidase (COX), a key element in mitochondrial respiration and it has been demonstrated that it improves mitochondrial membrane potentials in aged eyes. It also significantly reduces the impact of experimental pathology and ameliorates age related retinal inflammation. We show ATP decline with ageing in mouse retina and brain. Also, in these tissues that ATP is significantly increased by 670 nm exposure in old mice. In the retina this was associated with increased COX and reduced acrolein expression. Acrolein, being a free radical marker of retinal oxidative stress, is up regulated in Alzheimer's and retinal degeneration. This is the first demonstration of ATP manipulation in vivo and may provide a simple non-invasive route to combating age related tissue decline.

  13. Extrastriatal Dopaminergic Circuits of the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Rommelfanger, Karen S.; Wichmann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia are comprised of the striatum, the external and internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPe and GPi, respectively), the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and the substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata (SNc and SNr, respectively). Dopamine has long been identified as an important modulator of basal ganglia function in the striatum, and disturbances of striatal dopaminergic transmission have been implicated in diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), addiction and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, recent evidence suggests that dopamine may also modulate basal ganglia function at sites outside of the striatum, and that changes in dopaminergic transmission at these sites may contribute to the symptoms of PD and other neuropsychiatric disorders. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the anatomy, functional effects and behavioral consequences of the dopaminergic innervation to the GPe, GPi, STN, and SNr. Further insights into the dopaminergic modulation of basal ganglia function at extrastriatal sites may provide us with opportunities to develop new and more specific strategies for treating disorders of basal ganglia dysfunction. PMID:21103009

  14. Sperm-surface ATP in boar spermatozoa is required for fertilization: relevance to sperm proteasomal function.

    PubMed

    Yi, Young-Joo; Park, Chang-Sik; Kim, Eui-Sook; Song, Eun-Sook; Jeong, Ji-Hyeon; Sutovsky, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular ATP has been implicated in a number of cellular events, including mammalian sperm function. The complement of ATP-dependent sperm proteins includes six subunits of the 26S proteasome, a multi-subunit protease specific to ubiquitinated substrate-proteins. Proteolysis of ubiquitinated proteins by the 26S proteasome is necessary for the success of mammalian fertilization, including but not limited to acrosomal exocytosis (AE) and sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) penetration. The 26S proteasome is uniquely present on the sperm acrosomal surface during mammalian, ascidian, and invertebrate fertilization. The proteasome is a multi-subunit protease complex of approximately 2 MDa composed of the 19S regulatory complex and a 20S proteolytic core. Integrity of the 19S complex is maintained by six 19S ATPase subunits (PSMC1 through PSMC6). Consequently, we hypothesized that fertilization will be blocked by the depletion of sperm-surface associated ATP (ssATP). Depletion of ssATP by the Solanum tuberosum apyrase, a 49 kDa, non-cell permeant enzyme, significantly reduced the ATP content measured by an adapted luminescence-ATP assay from which all permeabilizing agents were excluded. Addition of active apyrase to porcine in vitro fertilization (IVF) medium caused a concentration dependent reduction in the overall fertilization rate. No such outcomes were observed in control groups using heat-inactivated apyrase. Apyrase treatment altered the band pattern of 19S ATPase subunits PSMC1 (Rpt2) and PSMC4 (Rpt3) in Western blotting, suggesting that it had an effect on the integrity of the sperm proteasomal 19S complex. Apyrase only altered the proteasomal core activities slightly, since these activities are not directly dependent on external ATP. In contrast, sperm treatment with MG132, a specific inhibitor of the proteasomal core chymotrypsin-like activity, inhibited the target proteolytic activity, but also induced a compensatory elevation in proteasomal peptidyl

  15. The involvement of P2Y12 receptors, NADPH oxidase, and lipid rafts in the action of extracellular ATP on synaptic transmission at the frog neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Giniatullin, A; Petrov, A; Giniatullin, R

    2015-01-29

    Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is the main co-transmitter accompanying the release of acetylcholine from motor nerve terminals. Previously, we revealed the direct inhibitory action of extracellular ATP on transmitter release via redox-dependent mechanism. However, the receptor mechanism of ATP action and ATP-induced sources of reactive oxygen sources (ROS) remained not fully understood. In the current study, using microelectrode recordings of synaptic currents from the frog neuromuscular junction, we analyzed the receptor subtype involved in synaptic action of ATP, receptor coupling to NADPH oxidase and potential location of ATP receptors within the lipid rafts. Using subtype-specific antagonists, we found that the P2Y13 blocker 2-[(2-chloro-5-nitrophenyl)azo]-5-hydroxy-6-methyl-3-[(phosphonooxy)methyl]-4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde did not prevent the depressant action of ATP. In contrast, the P2Y12 antagonist 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-monophosphate abolished the inhibitory action of ATP, suggesting the key role of P2Y12 receptors in ATP action. As the action of ATP is redox-dependent, we also tested potential involvement of the NADPH oxidase, known as a common inducer of ROS. The depressant action of extracellular ATP was significantly reduced by diphenyleneiodonium chloride and 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride, two structurally different inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, indicating that this enzyme indeed mediates the action of ATP. Since the location and activity of various receptors are often associated with lipid rafts, we next tested whether ATP-driven inhibition depends on lipid rafts. We found that the disruption of lipid rafts with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin reduced and largely delayed the action of ATP. Taken together, these data revealed key steps in the purinergic control of synaptic transmission via P2Y12 receptors associated with lipid rafts, and identified NADPH oxidase as the main source of ATP-induced inhibitory ROS at the neuromuscular

  16. Combining a GLP-1 receptor agonist and basal insulin: study evidence and practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Carris, Nicholas W; Taylor, James R; Gums, John G

    2014-12-01

    Most patients with diabetes mellitus require multiple medications to achieve glycemic goals. Considering this and the increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes worldwide, the need for effective combination therapy is pressing. Basal insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are frequently used to treat type 2 diabetes. Though both classes of medication are exclusively injectable, which may cause initial hesitation from providers, evidence for their combined use is substantial. This review summarizes the theoretical benefit, supporting evidence, and implementation of a combined basal insulin-GLP-1 receptor agonist regimen. Basal insulin added to a GLP-1 receptor agonist reduces hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) without weight gain or significantly increased hypoglycemia. A GLP-1 receptor agonist added to basal insulin reduces HbA1c and body weight. Compared with the addition of meal-time insulin to basal insulin, a GLP-1 receptor agonist produces similar or greater reduction in HbA1c, weight loss instead of weight gain, and less hypoglycemia. Gastrointestinal adverse events are common with GLP-1 receptor agonists, especially during initiation and titration. However, combination with basal insulin is not expected to augment expected adverse events that come with using a GLP-1 receptor agonist. Basal insulin can be added to a GLP-1 receptor agonist with a slow titration to target goal fasting plasma glucose. In patients starting a GLP-1 receptor agonist, the dose of basal insulin should be decreased by 20 % in patients with an HbA1c ≤8 %. The evidence from 15 randomized prospective studies supports the combined use of a GLP-1 receptor agonist with basal insulin in a broad range of patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes.

  17. Human macrophage ATP7A is localized in the trans-Golgi apparatus, controls intracellular copper levels, and mediates macrophage responses to dermal wounds.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha Won; Chan, Qilin; Afton, Scott E; Caruso, Joseph A; Lai, Barry; Weintraub, Neal L; Qin, Zhenyu

    2012-02-01

    The copper transporter ATP7A has attracted significant attention since the discovery of its gene mutation leading to human Menkes disease. We previously reported that ATP7A is highly expressed in the human vasculature and identified a novel vascular function of ATP7A in modulation of the expression and activity of extracellular superoxide dismutase. We recently identified that ATP7A expression in THP-1 cells (a monocyte/macrophage model cell line) plays a role in the oxidation of low density lipoproteins, indicating that it is necessary to further investigate its expression and function in monocytes/macrophages. In the current study, we demonstrated the protein and mRNA expression of ATP7A in human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived macrophages and alveolar macrophages. ATP7A was strongly co-localized with the trans-Golgi apparatus in PBMC-derived macrophages. Intracellular copper, detected by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy, was found to be distributed to the nucleus and cytoplasm in human THP-1 cells. To confirm the role of endogenous ATP7A in macrophage copper homeostasis, we performed inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in murine peritoneal macrophages, which showed markedly increased intracellular copper levels in macrophages isolated from ATP7A-deficient mice versus control mice. Moreover, the role of ATP7A in regulating macrophage responses to dermal wounds was studied by introduction of control and ATP7A-downregulated THP-1 cells into dermal wounds of nude mice. Infiltration of THP-1 cells into the wounded area (detected by expression of human macrophage markers MAC2 and CD68) was reduced in response to downregulation of ATP7A, hinting decreased macrophage accumulation subsequent to dermal wounds. In summary, alongside our previous studies, these findings indicate that human macrophage ATP7A is localized in the trans-Golgi apparatus, regulates intracellular copper levels, and mediates macrophage responses to a dermal wound.

  18. Human Macrophage ATP7A is Localized in the trans-Golgi Apparatus, Controls Intracellular Copper Levels, and Mediates Macrophage Responses to Dermal Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ha Won; Chan, Qilin; Afton, Scott E.; Caruso, Joseph A.; Lai, Barry; Weintraub, Neal L.; Qin, Zhenyu

    2013-01-01

    The copper transporter ATP7A has attracted significant attention since the discovery of its gene mutation leading to human Menkes disease. We previously reported that ATP7A is highly expressed in the human vasculature and identified a novel vascular function of ATP7A in modulation of the expression and activity of extracellular superoxide dismutase. We recently identified that ATP7A expression in THP-1 cells (a monocyte/macrophage model cell line) plays a role in the oxidation of low density lipoproteins, indicating that it is necessary to further investigate its expression and function in monocytes/macrophages. In the current study, we demonstrated the protein and mRNA expression of ATP7A in human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived macrophages and alveolar macrophages. ATP7A was strongly co-localized with the trans-Golgi apparatus in PBMC-derived macrophages. Intracellular copper, detected by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy, was found to be distributed to the nucleus and cytoplasm in human THP-1 cells. To confirm the role of endogenous ATP7A in macrophage copper homeostasis, we performed inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in murine peritoneal macrophages, which showed markedly increased intracellular copper levels in macrophages isolated from ATP7A-deficient mice versus control mice. Moreover, the role of ATP7A in regulating macrophage responses to dermal wounds was studied by introduction of control and ATP7A-downregulated THP-1 cells into dermal wounds of nude mice. Infiltration of THP-1 cells into the wounded area (detected by expression of human macrophage markers MAC2 and CD68) was reduced in response to downregulation of ATP7A, hinting decreased macrophage accumulation subsequent to dermal wounds. In summary, alongside our previous studies, these findings indicate that human macrophage ATP7A is localized in the trans-Golgi apparatus, regulates intracellular copper levels, and mediates macrophage responses to a dermal wound

  19. Bioanalytical Applications of Real-Time ATP Imaging Via Bioluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Gruenhagen, Jason Alan

    2003-01-01

    The research discussed within involves the development of novel applications of real-time imaging of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). ATP was detected via bioluminescence and the firefly luciferase-catalyzed reaction of ATP and luciferin. The use of a microscope and an imaging detector allowed for spatially resolved quantitation of ATP release. Employing this method, applications in both biological and chemical systems were developed. First, the mechanism by which the compound 48/80 induces release of ATP from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated. Numerous enzyme activators and inhibitors were utilized to probe the second messenger systems involved in release. Compound 48/80 activated a G{sub q}-type protein to initiate ATP release from HUVECs. Ca2+ imaging along with ATP imaging revealed that activation of phospholipase C and induction of intracellular Ca2+ signaling were necessary for release of ATP. Furthermore, activation of protein kinase C inhibited the activity of phospholipase C and thus decreased the magnitude of ATP release. This novel release mechanism was compared to the existing theories of extracellular release of ATP. Bioluminescence imaging was also employed to examine the role of ATP in the field of neuroscience. The central nervous system (CNS) was dissected from the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that the neurons of the Lymnaea were not damaged by any of the components of the imaging solution. ATP was continuously released by the ganglia of the CNS for over eight hours and varied from ganglion to ganglion and within individual ganglia. Addition of the neurotransmitters K+ and serotonin increased release of ATP in certain regions of the Lymnaea CNS. Finally, the ATP imaging technique was investigated for the study of drug release systems. MCM-41-type mesoporous nanospheres were loaded with ATP and end-capped with mercaptoethanol

  20. Bacterial diversity of oil palm Elaeis guineensis basal stems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amran, Afzufira; Jangi, Mohd Sanusi; Aqma, Wan Syaidatul; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd; Bakar, Mohd Faizal Abu; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat

    2016-11-01

    Oil palm, Elaeis guineensis is one of the major industrial production crops in Malaysia. Basal stem rot, caused by the white fungus, Ganoderma boninense, is a disease that reduces oil palm yields in most production areas of the world. Understanding of bacterial community that is associated with Ganoderma infection will shed light on how this bacterial community contributes toward the severity of the infection. In this preliminary study, we assessed the bacterial community that inhabit the basal stems of E. guineensis based on 16S rRNA gene as a marker using next generation sequencing platform. This result showed that a total of 84,372 operational taxonomic-units (OTUs) were identified within six samples analyzed. A total 55,049 OTUs were assigned to known taxonomy whereas 29,323 were unassigned. Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla found in all six samples and the unique taxonomy assigned for each infected and healthy samples were also identified. The findings from this study will further enhance our knowledge in the interaction of bacterial communities against Ganoderma infection within the oil palm host plant and for a better management of the basal stems rot disease.

  1. Lixisenatide as add-on therapy to basal insulin

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Dominique Xavier; Butler, Emma Louise; Evans, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus do not achieve target glycosylated hemoglobin A1c levels despite optimally titrated basal insulin and satisfactory fasting plasma glucose levels. Current evidence suggests that HbA1c levels are dictated by both basal glucose and postprandial glucose levels. This has led to a consensus that postprandial glucose excursions contribute to poor glycemic control in these patients. Lixisenatide is a once-daily, prandial glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist with a four-fold affinity for the GLP-1 receptor compared with native GLP-1. Importantly, lixisenatide causes a significant delay in gastric emptying time, an important determinant of the once-daily dosing regimen. An exendin-4 mimetic with six lysine residues removed at the C-terminal, lixisenatide has pronounced postprandial glucose-lowering effects, making it a novel incretin agent for use in combination with optimally titrated basal insulin. Lixisenatide exerts profound effects on postprandial glucose through established mechanisms of glucose-dependent insulin secretion and glucagon suppression in combination with delayed gastric emptying. This review discusses the likely place that lixisenatide will occupy in clinical practice, given its profound effects on postprandial glucose and potential to reduce glycemic variability. PMID:24363554

  2. Identification of triple-negative and basal-like canine mammary carcinomas using four basal markers.

    PubMed

    Kim, N H; Lim, H Y; Im, K S; Kim, J H; Sur, J-H

    2013-05-01

    Molecular-based classification of canine mammary carcinomas (CMCs) has been a recent research focus. In human breast cancer, triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes are distinct molecular subgroups that are known for their poor prognosis, but these tumours are not yet well defined in the dog. The aim of this study was to determine whether CMCs include triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes by immunohistochemical assessment of expression of the oestrogen receptor (OR), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and four basal markers, cytokeratin (CK) 14, CK5/6, p63 and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this study of 241 CMCs, 45 triple-negative tumours (OR(-), PR(-) and HER2(-)) were identified and this phenotype was associated with an unfavourable prognosis. In these tumours, the expression of CK14, CK5/6 and EGFR was related to clinicopathological parameters, while the expression of p63 was not relevant. The majority of the triple-negative tumours were of the basal-like phenotype, given that 75.6% of them expressed more than two basal markers. However, three of the basal markers were not uniformly expressed; therefore, the proportion of the basal-like phenotype was altered on the basis of the selection of the markers. Although both triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes are distinct entities in CMC, further study is needed to differentiate one from the other.

  3. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic System and Memory.

    PubMed

    Blake, M G; Boccia, M M

    2017-02-18

    Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons constitute a way station for many ascending and descending pathways. These cholinergic neurons have a role in eliciting cortical activation and arousal. It is well established that they are mainly involved in cognitive processes requiring increased levels of arousal, attentive states and/or cortical activation with desynchronized activity in the EEG. These cholinergic neurons are modulated by several afferents of different neurotransmitter systems. Of particular importance within the cortical targets of basal forebrain neurons is the hippocampal cortex. The septohippocampal pathway is a bidirectional pathway constituting the main septal efferent system, which is widely known to be implicated in every memory process investigated. The present work aims to review the main neurotransmitter systems involved in modulating cognitive processes related to learning and memory through modulation of basal forebrain neurons.

  4. Tachykinin regulation of basal synovial blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Ferrell, W R; Lockhart, J C; Karimian, S M

    1997-01-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the role of endogenously released tachykinins in the regulation of blood flow to the rat knee joint. Synovial perfusion was assessed by laser Doppler perfusion imaging, which permitted spatial measurement of relative changes in perfusion from control (pre drug administration), expressed as the percentage change. Most experiments were performed on the exposed medial aspect of the knee joint capsule.Neither the selective tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist, FK888, nor the selective tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist, SR48968, significantly influenced synovial blood flow at doses of 10−12, 10−10 and 10−8 mol. However, topical co-administration of these agents produced significant dose-dependent reductions in basal synovial perfusion of 6.3±4.6, 12.0±3.4 and 19.9±2.6%, respectively; n=29. The non-selective tachykinin NK1/NK2 receptor antagonist, FK224, also produced significant (at 10−10 and 10−8 mol), but less potent, reductions in perfusion of 5.3±4.0, 8.4±2.2 and 5.9±2.8%, respectively; n=25.Topical administration of the α1-, α2-adrenoceptor antagonist phenoxybenzamine elicited a 31.3±6.2% increase in blood flow which was substantially reduced to 10.4±3.8% by co-administration of the FK888 and SR48968 (both at 10−8 mol; n=8–13), suggesting that normally there is sympathetic vasoconstrictor ‘tone' which is opposed by the vasodilator action of endogenous tachykinins.One week after surgical interruption of the nerve supply to the knee joint, co-administration of FK888 and SR48968 (both at 10−8 mol) now produced slight vasodilatation (6.7±4.6%; n=9) which did not differ significantly from vehicle treatment. Depletion of tachykinins from sensory nerve fibres by systemic capsaicin administration also resulted in abolition of the vasoconstrictor effect of FK888 and SR48968 (both at 10−8 mol), with these agents only producing a slight vasodilatation (2.5±5.3%; n=6).By use of a near infra

  5. A taste for ATP: neurotransmission in taste buds

    PubMed Central

    Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Not only is ATP a ubiquitous source of energy but it is also used widely as an intercellular signal. For example, keratinocytes release ATP in response to numerous external stimuli including pressure, heat, and chemical insult. The released ATP activates purinergic receptors on nerve fibers to generate nociceptive signals. The importance of an ATP signal in epithelial-to-neuronal signaling is nowhere more evident than in the taste system. The receptor cells of taste buds release ATP in response to appropriate stimulation by tastants and the released ATP then activates P2X2 and P2X3 receptors on the taste nerves. Genetic ablation of the relevant P2X receptors leaves an animal without the ability to taste any primary taste quality. Of interest is that release of ATP by taste receptor cells occurs in a non-vesicular fashion, apparently via gated membrane channels. Further, in keeping with the crucial role of ATP as a neurotransmitter in this system, a subset of taste cells expresses a specific ectoATPase, NTPDase2, necessary to clear extracellular ATP which otherwise will desensitize the P2X receptors on the taste nerves. The unique utilization of ATP as a key neurotransmitter in the taste system may reflect the epithelial rather than neuronal origins of the receptor cells. PMID:24385952

  6. Release of extracellular ATP by bacteria during growth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is used as an intracellular energy source by all living organisms. It plays a central role in the respiration and metabolism, and is the most important energy supplier in many enzymatic reactions. Its critical role as the energy storage molecule makes it extremely valuable to all cells. Results We report here the detection of extracellular ATP in the cultures of a variety of bacterial species. The levels of the extracellular ATP in bacterial cultures peaked around the end of the log phase and decreased in the stationary phase of growth. Extracellular ATP levels were dependent on the cellular respiration as bacterial mutants lacking cytochrome bo oxidase displayed lower extracellular ATP levels. We have also shown that Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella actively depleted extracellular ATP and an ATP supplement in culture media enhanced the stationary survival of E. coli and Salmonella. In addition to E. coli and Salmonella the presence of the extracellular ATP was observed in a variety of bacterial species that contain human pathogens such as Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella and Staphylococcus. Conclusion Our results indicate that extracellular ATP is produced by many bacterial species during growth and extracellular ATP may serve a role in the bacterial physiology. PMID:24364860

  7. Role of ATP-bound divalent metal ion in the conformation and function of actin. Comparison of Mg-ATP, Ca-ATP, and metal ion-free ATP-actin.

    PubMed

    Valentin-Ranc, C; Carlier, M F

    1991-04-25

    The fluorescence of N-acetyl-N'-(sulfo-1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine (AEDANS) covalently bound to Cys-374 of actin is used as a probe for different conformational states of G-actin according to whether Ca-ATP, Mg-ATP, or unchelated ATP is bound to the nucleotide site. Upon addition of large amounts (greater than 10(2)-fold molar excess) of EDTA to G-actin, metal ion-free ATP-G-actin is obtained with EDTA bound. Metal ion free ATP-G-actin is characterized by a higher AEDANS fluorescence than Mg-ATP-G-actin, which itself has a higher fluorescence than Ca-ATP-G-actin. Evidence for EDTA binding to G-actin is shown using difference spectrophotometry. Upon binding of EDTA, the rate of dissociation of the divalent metal ion from G-actin is increased (2-fold for Ca2+, 10-fold for Mg2+) in a range of pH from 7.0 to 8.0. A model is proposed that quantitatively accounts for the kinetic data. The affinity of ATP is weakened 10(6)-fold upon removal of the metal ion. Metal ion-free ATP-G-actin is in a partially open conformation, as indicated by the greater accessibility of -SH residues, yet it retains functional properties of polymerization and ATP hydrolysis that appear almost identical to those of Ca-ATP-actin, therefore different from those of Mg-ATP-actin. These results are discussed in terms of the role of the ATP-bound metal ion in actin structure and function.

  8. A cell wall-bound adenosine nucleosidase is involved in the salvage of extracellular ATP in Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed

    Riewe, David; Grosman, Lukasz; Fernie, Alisdair R; Zauber, Henrik; Wucke, Cornelia; Geigenberger, Peter

    2008-10-01

    Extracellular ATP (eATP) has recently been demonstrated to play a crucial role in plant development and growth. To investigate the fate of eATP within the apoplast, we used intact potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber slices as an experimental system enabling access to the apoplast without interference of cytosolic contamination. (i) Incubation of intact tuber slices with ATP led to the formation of ADP, AMP, adenosine, adenine and ribose, indicating operation of apyrase, 5'-nucleotidase and nucleosidase. (ii) Measurement of apyrase, 5'-nucleotidase and nucleosidase activities in fractionated tuber tissue confirmed the apoplastic localization for apyrase and phosphatase in potato and led to the identification of a novel cell wall-bound adenosine nucleosidase activity. (iii) When intact tuber slices were incubated with saturating concentrations of adenosine, the conversion of adenosine into adenine was much higher than adenosine import into the cell, suggesting a potential bypass of adenosine import. Consistent with this, import of radiolabeled adenine into tuber slices was inhibited when ATP, ADP or AMP were added to the slices. (iv) In wild-type plants, apyrase and adenosine nucleosidase activities were found to be co-regulated, indicating functional linkage of these enzymes in a shared pathway. (v) Moreover, adenosine nucleosidase activity was reduced in transgenic lines with strongly reduced apoplastic apyrase activity. When taken together, these results suggest that a complete ATP salvage pathway is present in the apoplast of plant cells.

  9. Effects of aging on basal fat oxidation in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Thomas P J; Marchetti, Christine M; Krishnan, Raj K; Gonzalez, Frank; Kirwan, John P

    2008-08-01

    Basal fat oxidation decreases with age. In obesity, it is not known whether this age-related process occurs independently of changes in body composition and insulin sensitivity. Therefore, body composition, resting energy expenditure, basal substrate oxidation, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2)max) were measured in 10 older (age, 60 +/- 4 years; mean +/- SEM) and 10 younger (age, 35 +/- 4 years) body mass index-matched, obese, normal glucose-tolerant individuals. Fasting blood samples were also collected. Older subjects had slightly elevated fat mass (32.2 +/- 7.1 vs 36.5 +/- 6.7 kg, P = .16); however, waist circumference was not different between groups (104.3 +/- 10.3 vs 102.1 +/- 12.6 cm, P = .65). Basal fat oxidation was 22% lower (1.42 +/- 0.14 vs 1.17 +/- 0.22 mg/kg fat-free mass per minute, P = .03) in older subjects. The VO(2)max was also decreased in older individuals (44.6 +/- 7.1 vs 38.3 +/- 6.0 mL/kg fat-free mass per minute, P = .03); but insulin sensitivity, lipemia, and leptinemia were not different between groups (P > .05). Fat oxidation was most related to age (r = -0.61, P = .003) and VO(2)max (r = 0.52, P = .01). These data suggest that aging per se is responsible for reduced basal fat oxidation and maximal oxidative capacity in older obese individuals, independent of changes in insulin resistance, body mass, and abdominal fat. This indicates that age, in addition to obesity, is an independent risk factor for weight gain and for the metabolic complications of elevated body fat.

  10. Basal cell carcinoma of the nail unit.

    PubMed

    Forman, Seth B; Ferringer, Tammie C; Garrett, Algin B

    2007-05-01

    We report a case of a 70-year-old white male with a basal cell carcinoma of the left thumb nail unit. Excision of the tumor via Mohs micrographic surgery was completed in 2 stages. The defect was repaired with a full thickness skin graft. Five months later the nail unit healed without complications. Prior to this report, 21 cases of basal cell carcinoma have been reported in the world literature. This case, as well as the prior reports, are reviewed with a focus on time to diagnosis, location, excisional technique, and method of repair.

  11. Activation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels by epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in rat cardiac ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Tong; Hoshi, Toshinori; Weintraub, Neal L; Spector, Arthur A; Lee, Hon-Chi

    2001-01-01

    We examined the effects of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which are cytochrome P450 metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA), on the activities of the ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels of rat cardiac myocytes, using the inside-out patch-clamp technique. In the presence of 100 μm cytoplasmic ATP, the KATP channel open probability (Po) was increased by 240 ± 60% with 0.1 μm 11,12-EET and by 400 ± 54% with 5 μm 11,12-EET (n = 5 –10, P < 0.05 vs. control), whereas neither 5 μm AA nor 5 μm 11,12-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (DHET), which is the epoxide hydrolysis product of 11,12-EET, had any effect on Po. The half-maximal activating concentration (EC50) was 18.9 ± 2.6 nm for 11,12-EET (n = 5) and 19.1 ± 4.8 nm for 8,9-EET (n = 5), P = n.s. vs. 11,12-EET). Furthermore, 11,12-EET failed to alter the inhibition of KATP channels by glyburide. Application of 11,12-EET markedly decreased the channel sensitivity to cytoplasmic ATP. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of ATP (IC50) was increased from 21.2 ± 2.0 μm at baseline to 240 ± 60 μm with 0.1 μm 11,12-EET (n = 5, P < 0.05 vs. control) and to 780 ± 30 μm with 5 μm 11,12-EET (n = 11, P < 0.05vs. control). Increasing the ATP concentration increased the number of kinetically distinguishable closed states, promoting prolonged closure durations. 11,12-EET antagonized the effects of ATP on the kinetics of the KATP channels in a dose and voltage-dependent manner. 11,12-EET (1 μm) reduced the apparent association rate constant of ATP to the channel by 135-fold. Application of 5 μm 11,12-EET resulted in hyperpolarization of the resting membrane potential in isolated cardiac myocytes, which could be blocked by glyburide. These results suggest that EETs are potent activators of the cardiac KATP channels, modulating channel behaviour by reducing the channel sensitivity to ATP. Thus, EETs could be important endogenous regulators of cardiac electrical excitability. PMID:11744757

  12. Paradox applications integration ATP`s for MAC and mass balance programs

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.; Mullaney, J.E.

    1994-10-17

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) and Material Balance (MBA) database system were set up to run under one common applications program. This Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) describes how the code was to be tested to verify its correctness. The scope of the tests is minimal, since both MAC and MBA have already been tested in detail as stand-alone programs.

  13. ATP alone triggers the outward facing conformation of the maltose ATP-binding cassette transporter.

    PubMed

    Bao, Huan; Duong, Franck

    2013-02-01

    The maltose transporter MalFGK(2) is a study prototype for ABC importers. During catalysis, the MalFG membrane domain alternates between inward and outward facing conformations when the MalK dimer closes and hydrolyzes ATP. Because a rapid ATP hydrolysis depends on MalE and maltose, it has been proposed that closed liganded MalE facilitates the transition to the outward facing conformation. Here we find that, in contrast to the expected, ATP is sufficient for the closure of MalK and for the conversion of MalFG to the outward facing state. The outward facing transporter binds MalE with nanomolar affinity, yet neither MalE nor maltose is necessary or facilitates the transition. Thus, the rapid hydrolysis of ATP observed in the presence of MalE and maltose is not because closed liganded MalE accelerates the formation of the outward facing conformation. These findings have fundamental implications for the description of the transport reaction.

  14. ATP-sensitive K+ channels in rat pancreatic beta-cells: modulation by ATP and Mg2+ ions.

    PubMed Central

    Ashcroft, F M; Kakei, M

    1989-01-01

    1. The inside-out configuration of the patch-clamp method was used to study the effects of MgATP, free ATP and Mg2+ on single ATP-sensitive K+ channel currents in rat pancreatic beta-cells. 2. Magnesium ions caused a marked reduction of channel activity: 5 mM-free Mg2+ produced a 50% reduction in the activity of inward currents recorded at -60 mV in symmetrical K+ concentrations. 3. Inhibition of channel activity by MgATP does not involve phosphorylation as both free ATP (i.e. ATP in the absence of divalent cations) and non-hydrolysable ATP analogues were effective inhibitors. 4. Magnesium ions produced a striking reduction in the ability of ATP (total) to inhibit channel activity. When channel activity was plotted as a function of the total ATP concentration, the Ki for channel inhibition was 4 microM in Mg2(+)-free solution, compared to a Ki of 26 microM in the presence of 2 mM-Mg2+. The shape of the relationship between channel activity and the total ATP concentration was not changed by Mg2+. When channel activity was plotted as a function of the free ATP concentration, however, Mg2+ had little effect on Ki. This suggests that free ATP is the more potent inhibitor of channel activity and that MgATP has little inhibitory effect. 5. ATP analogues that dissociate only as far as the tribasic form were also able to inhibit channel activity. This suggests that both ATP4- and ATPH3- can block the channel. 6. Like ATP, ADP was more effective at inhibiting channel activity in the absence of Mg2+, that is as the free base. The non-hydrolysable ATP analogues AMP-PNP and AMP-PCP, however, were more effective in the presence of Mg2+. 7. It is suggested that (1) the potency of inhibition is related to the amount of negative charge carried by the ion and (2) the intracellular concentration of free ATP will be an important modulator of channel activity in the intact beta-cell. PMID:2691645

  15. BMP-driven NRF2 activation in esophageal basal cell differentiation and eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ming; Ku, Wei-Yao; Zhou, Zhongren; Dellon, Evan S.; Falk, Gary W.; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Wang, Mei-Lun; Liu, Kuancan; Wang, Jun; Katzka, David A.; Peters, Jeffrey H.; Lan, Xiaopeng; Que, Jianwen

    2015-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires balanced self-renewal and differentiation of stem/progenitor cells, especially in tissues that are constantly replenished like the esophagus. Disruption of this balance is associated with pathological conditions, including eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), in which basal progenitor cells become hyperplastic upon proinflammatory stimulation. However, how basal cells respond to the inflammatory environment at the molecular level remains undetermined. We previously reported that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway is critical for epithelial morphogenesis in the embryonic esophagus. Here, we address how this pathway regulates tissue homeostasis and EoE development in the adult esophagus. BMP signaling was specifically activated in differentiated squamous epithelium, but not in basal progenitor cells, which express the BMP antagonist follistatin. Previous reports indicate that increased BMP activity promotes Barrett’s intestinal differentiation; however, in mice, basal progenitor cell–specific expression of constitutively active BMP promoted squamous differentiation. Moreover, BMP activation increased intracellular ROS levels, initiating an NRF2-mediated oxidative response during basal progenitor cell differentiation. In both a mouse EoE model and human biopsies, reduced squamous differentiation was associated with high levels of follistatin and disrupted BMP/NRF2 pathways. We therefore propose a model in which normal squamous differentiation of basal progenitor cells is mediated by BMP-driven NRF2 activation and basal cell hyperplasia is promoted by disruption of BMP signaling in EoE. PMID:25774506

  16. ATP Released by Electrical Stimuli Elicits Calcium Transients and Gene Expression in Skeletal Muscle*

    PubMed Central

    Buvinic, Sonja; Almarza, Gonzalo; Bustamante, Mario; Casas, Mariana; López, Javiera; Riquelme, Manuel; Sáez, Juan Carlos; Huidobro-Toro, Juan Pablo; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    ATP released from cells is known to activate plasma membrane P2X (ionotropic) or P2Y (metabotropic) receptors. In skeletal muscle cells, depolarizing stimuli induce both a fast calcium signal associated with contraction and a slow signal that regulates gene expression. Here we show that nucleotides released to the extracellular medium by electrical stimulation are partly involved in the fast component and are largely responsible for the slow signals. In rat skeletal myotubes, a tetanic stimulus (45 Hz, 400 1-ms pulses) rapidly increased extracellular levels of ATP, ADP, and AMP after 15 s to 3 min. Exogenous ATP induced an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration, with an EC50 value of 7.8 ± 3.1 μm. Exogenous ADP, UTP, and UDP also promoted calcium transients. Both fast and slow calcium signals evoked by tetanic stimulation were inhibited by either 100 μm suramin or 2 units/ml apyrase. Apyrase also reduced fast and slow calcium signals evoked by tetanus (45 Hz, 400 0.3-ms pulses) in isolated mouse adult skeletal fibers. A likely candidate for the ATP release pathway is the pannexin-1 hemichannel; its blockers inhibited both calcium transients and ATP release. The dihydropyridine receptor co-precipitated with both the P2Y2 receptor and pannexin-1. As reported previously for electrical stimulation, 500 μm ATP significantly increased mRNA expression for both c-fos and interleukin 6. Our results suggest that nucleotides released during skeletal muscle activity through pannexin-1 hemichannels act through P2X and P2Y receptors to modulate both Ca2+ homeostasis and muscle physiology. PMID:19822518

  17. The metabolite alpha-ketoglutarate extends lifespan by inhibiting the ATP synthase and TOR

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Randall M.; Fu, Xudong; Pai, Melody Y.; Vergnes, Laurent; Hwang, Heejun; Deng, Gang; Diep, Simon; Lomenick, Brett; Meli, Vijaykumar S.; Monsalve, Gabriela C.; Hu, Eileen; Whelan, Stephen A.; Wang, Jennifer X.; Jung, Gwanghyun; Solis, Gregory M.; Fazlollahi, Farbod; Kaweeteerawat, Chitrada; Quach, Austin; Nili, Mahta; Krall, Abby S.; Godwin, Hilary A.; Chang, Helena R.; Faull, Kym F.; Guo, Feng; Jiang, Meisheng; Trauger, Sunia A.; Saghatelian, Alan; Braas, Daniel; Christofk, Heather R.; Clarke, Catherine F.; Teitell, Michael A.; Petrascheck, Michael; Reue, Karen; Jung, Michael E.; Frand, Alison R.; Huang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Metabolism and ageing are intimately linked. Compared to ad libitum feeding, dietary restriction (DR) or calorie restriction (CR) consistently extends lifespan and delays age-related diseases in evolutionarily diverse organisms1,2. Similar conditions of nutrient limitation and genetic or pharmacological perturbations of nutrient or energy metabolism also have longevity benefits3,4. Recently, several metabolites have been identified that modulate ageing5,6 with largely undefined molecular mechanisms. Here we show that the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) extends the lifespan of adult C. elegans. ATP synthase subunit beta is identified as a novel binding protein of α-KG using a small-molecule target identification strategy called DARTS (drug affinity responsive target stability)7. The ATP synthase, also known as Complex V of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), is the main cellular energy-generating machinery and is highly conserved throughout evolution8,9. Although complete loss of mitochondrial function is detrimental, partial suppression of the ETC has been shown to extend C. elegans lifespan10–13. We show that α-KG inhibits ATP synthase and, similar to ATP synthase knockdown, inhibition by α-KG leads to reduced ATP content, decreased oxygen consumption, and increased autophagy in both C. elegans and mammalian cells. We provide evidence that the lifespan increase by α-KG requires ATP synthase subunit beta and is dependent on the target of rapamycin (TOR) downstream. Endogenous α-KG levels are increased upon starvation and α-KG does not extend the lifespan of DR animals, indicating that α-KG is a key metabolite that mediates longevity by DR. Our analyses uncover new molecular links between a common metabolite, a universal cellular energy generator, and DR in the regulation of organismal lifespan, thus suggesting new strategies for the prevention and treatment of ageing and age-related diseases. PMID:24828042

  18. The metabolite α-ketoglutarate extends lifespan by inhibiting ATP synthase and TOR.

    PubMed

    Chin, Randall M; Fu, Xudong; Pai, Melody Y; Vergnes, Laurent; Hwang, Heejun; Deng, Gang; Diep, Simon; Lomenick, Brett; Meli, Vijaykumar S; Monsalve, Gabriela C; Hu, Eileen; Whelan, Stephen A; Wang, Jennifer X; Jung, Gwanghyun; Solis, Gregory M; Fazlollahi, Farbod; Kaweeteerawat, Chitrada; Quach, Austin; Nili, Mahta; Krall, Abby S; Godwin, Hilary A; Chang, Helena R; Faull, Kym F; Guo, Feng; Jiang, Meisheng; Trauger, Sunia A; Saghatelian, Alan; Braas, Daniel; Christofk, Heather R; Clarke, Catherine F; Teitell, Michael A; Petrascheck, Michael; Reue, Karen; Jung, Michael E; Frand, Alison R; Huang, Jing

    2014-06-19

    Metabolism and ageing are intimately linked. Compared with ad libitum feeding, dietary restriction consistently extends lifespan and delays age-related diseases in evolutionarily diverse organisms. Similar conditions of nutrient limitation and genetic or pharmacological perturbations of nutrient or energy metabolism also have longevity benefits. Recently, several metabolites have been identified that modulate ageing; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this are largely undefined. Here we show that α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), a tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate, extends the lifespan of adult Caenorhabditis elegans. ATP synthase subunit β is identified as a novel binding protein of α-KG using a small-molecule target identification strategy termed drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS). The ATP synthase, also known as complex V of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, is the main cellular energy-generating machinery and is highly conserved throughout evolution. Although complete loss of mitochondrial function is detrimental, partial suppression of the electron transport chain has been shown to extend C. elegans lifespan. We show that α-KG inhibits ATP synthase and, similar to ATP synthase knockdown, inhibition by α-KG leads to reduced ATP content, decreased oxygen consumption, and increased autophagy in both C. elegans and mammalian cells. We provide evidence that the lifespan increase by α-KG requires ATP synthase subunit β and is dependent on target of rapamycin (TOR) downstream. Endogenous α-KG levels are increased on starvation and α-KG does not extend the lifespan of dietary-restricted animals, indicating that α-KG is a key metabolite that mediates longevity by dietary restriction. Our analyses uncover new molecular links between a common metabolite, a universal cellular energy generator and dietary restriction in the regulation of organismal lifespan, thus suggesting new strategies for the prevention and treatment of ageing

  19. Regulation of the rabbit ileal brush-border Na+/H+ exchanger by an ATP-requiring Ca++/calmodulin-mediated process.

    PubMed Central

    Rood, R P; Emmer, E; Wesolek, J; McCullen, J; Husain, Z; Cohen, M E; Braithwaite, R S; Murer, H; Sharp, G W; Donowitz, M

    1988-01-01

    Brush-border vesicles purified from rabbit ileal villus cells were used to evaluate how Ca++/calmodulin (CaM) regulates the neutral linked NaCl absorptive process, part of which is a Na+/H+ exchanger. After freezing and thawing to allow incorporation of macromolecules into the vesicles, the effect of Ca++/CaM on brush-border Na+ uptake with an acid inside pH gradient, and on Na+/H+ exchange was determined. Freezing and thawing vesicles with 0.85 microM free Ca++ plus 5 microM exogenous CaM failed to alter Na+/H+ exchange as did the addition of exogenous ATP plus an ATP regenerating system, which was sufficient to elevate intravesicular ATP to 47 microM from a basal level of 0.4 microM. However, the combination of Ca++/CaM plus ATP inhibited Na+ uptake in the presence of an acid inside pH gradient and inhibited Na+/H+ exchange, while Na+ uptake in the absence of a pH gradient was not altered. This effect required a hydrolyzable form of ATP, and did not occur when the nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue, AMP-PNP, replaced ATP. Under the identical intravesicular conditions used for the transport studies, Ca++ (0.85 microM) plus exogenous CaM (5 microM), in the presence of magnesium plus ATP, increased phosphorylation of five brush-border peptides. These data are consistent with Ca++/CaM acting via phosphorylation to regulate the ileal brush-border Na+/H+ exchanger. PMID:2843567

  20. Deficiency of ATP6V1H Causes Bone Loss by Inhibiting Bone Resorption and Bone Formation through the TGF-β1 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiaohong; Liu, Jin; Zheng, Xueni; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Yanli; Hao, Ying; Yang, Tielin; Deng, Hongwen

    2016-01-01

    Vacuolar-type H +-ATPase (V-ATPase) is a highly conserved, ancient enzyme that couples the energy of ATP hydrolysis to proton transport across vesicular and plasma membranes of eukaryotic cells. Previously reported mutations of various V-ATPase subunits are associated with increased bone density. We now show that haploinsufficiency for the H subunit of the V1 domain (ATP6V1H) is associated with osteoporosis in humans and mice. A genome-wide SNP array analysis of 1625 Han Chinese found that 4 of 15 tag SNPs (26.7%) within ATP6V1H were significantly associated with low spine bone mineral density. Atp6v1h+/- knockout mice generated by the CRISPR/Cas9 technique had decreased bone remodeling and a net bone matrix loss. Atp6v1h+/- osteoclasts showed impaired bone formation and increased bone resorption. The increased intracellular pH of Atp6v1h+/- osteoclasts downregulated TGF-β1 activation, thereby reducing induction of osteoblast formation but the bone mineralization was not altered. However, bone formation was reduced more than bone resorption. Our data provide evidence that partial loss of ATP6V1H function results in osteoporosis/osteopenia. We propose that defective osteoclast formation triggers impaired bone formation by altering bone remodeling. In the future, ATP6V1H might, therefore, serve as a target for the therapy of osteoporosis. PMID:27924156

  1. Single molecule thermodynamics of ATP synthesis by F1-ATPase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyabe, Shoichi; Muneyuki, Eiro

    2015-01-01

    FoF1-ATP synthase is a factory for synthesizing ATP in virtually all cells. Its core machinery is the subcomplex F1-motor (F1-ATPase) and performs the reversible mechanochemical coupling. The isolated F1-motor hydrolyzes ATP, which is accompanied by unidirectional rotation of its central γ -shaft. When a strong opposing torque is imposed, the γ -shaft rotates in the opposite direction and drives the F1-motor to synthesize ATP. This mechanical-to-chemical free-energy transduction is the final and central step of the multistep cellular ATP-synthetic pathway. Here, we determined the amount of mechanical work exploited by the F1-motor to synthesize an ATP molecule during forced rotations using a methodology combining a nonequilibrium theory and single molecule measurements of responses to external torque. We found that the internal dissipation of the motor is negligible even during rotations far from a quasistatic process.

  2. Snapshots of the maltose transporter during ATP hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Oldham, Michael L.; Chen, Jue

    2011-12-05

    ATP-binding cassette transporters are powered by ATP, but the mechanism by which these transporters hydrolyze ATP is unclear. In this study, four crystal structures of the full-length wild-type maltose transporter, stabilized by adenosine 5{prime}-({beta},{gamma}-imido)triphosphate or ADP in conjunction with phosphate analogs BeF{sub 3}{sup -}, VO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, or AlF{sub 4}{sup -}, were determined to 2.2- to 2.4-{angstrom} resolution. These structures led to the assignment of two enzymatic states during ATP hydrolysis and demonstrate specific functional roles of highly conserved residues in the nucleotide-binding domain, suggesting that ATP-binding cassette transporters catalyze ATP hydrolysis via a general base mechanism.

  3. Tumor suppression in basal keratinocytes via dual non-cell-autonomous functions of a Na,K-ATPase beta subunit

    PubMed Central

    Hatzold, Julia; Beleggia, Filippo; Herzig, Hannah; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Bloch, Wilhelm; Wollnik, Bernd; Hammerschmidt, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The molecular pathways underlying tumor suppression are incompletely understood. Here, we identify cooperative non-cell-autonomous functions of a single gene that together provide a novel mechanism of tumor suppression in basal keratinocytes of zebrafish embryos. A loss-of-function mutation in atp1b1a, encoding the beta subunit of a Na,K-ATPase pump, causes edema and epidermal malignancy. Strikingly, basal cell carcinogenesis only occurs when Atp1b1a function is compromised in both the overlying periderm (resulting in compromised epithelial polarity and adhesiveness) and in kidney and heart (resulting in hypotonic stress). Blockade of the ensuing PI3K-AKT-mTORC1-NFκB-MMP9 pathway activation in basal cells, as well as systemic isotonicity, prevents malignant transformation. Our results identify hypotonic stress as a (previously unrecognized) contributor to tumor development and establish a novel paradigm of tumor suppression. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14277.001 PMID:27240166

  4. Basal ganglia hemorrhage related to lightning strike.

    PubMed

    Ozgun, B; Castillo, M

    1995-01-01

    We describe a case of bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage after a lightning strike to the head documented by a CT scan. Review of the literature shows this to be the most common brain imaging finding that can be attributed to a lightning strike. Several mechanistic theories are discussed, with the most plausible one being related to preferential conduction pathways through the brain.

  5. Teaching Social Studies Using Basal Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Jesus; Logan, John W.

    1983-01-01

    A lesson, "Harriet Tubman: A Most Successful Conductor," illustrates how to employ a basal reader in social studies instruction in the elementary grades. This approach offers students a relevant curriculum, greater opportunities for concept development, practice in skills areas, and activities that offer greater opportunity to master…

  6. Parallel basal ganglia circuits for decision making.

    PubMed

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Ghazizadeh, Ali; Griggs, Whitney; Amita, Hidetoshi

    2017-02-02

    The basal ganglia control body movements, mainly, based on their values. Critical for this mechanism is dopamine neurons, which sends unpredicted value signals, mainly, to the striatum. This mechanism enables animals to change their behaviors flexibly, eventually choosing a valuable behavior. However, this may not be the best behavior, because the flexible choice is focused on recent, and, therefore, limited, experiences (i.e., short-term memories). Our old and recent studies suggest that the basal ganglia contain separate circuits that process value signals in a completely different manner. They are insensitive to recent changes in value, yet gradually accumulate the value of each behavior (i.e., movement or object choice). These stable circuits eventually encode values of many behaviors and then retain the value signals for a long time (i.e., long-term memories). They are innervated by a separate group of dopamine neurons that retain value signals, even when no reward is predicted. Importantly, the stable circuits can control motor behaviors (e.g., hand or eye) quickly and precisely, which allows animals to automatically acquire valuable outcomes based on historical life experiences. These behaviors would be called 'skills', which are crucial for survival. The stable circuits are localized in the posterior part of the basal ganglia, separately from the flexible circuits located in the anterior part. To summarize, the flexible and stable circuits in the basal ganglia, working together but independently, enable animals (and humans) to reach valuable goals in various contexts.

  7. TEMPORAL VARIABILITY IN BASAL ISOPRENE EMISSION FACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal variability in basal isoprene emission factor (micrograms C /g hr or nmol/ m2 sec, leaf temperature at 30 degrees C and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 1000 micromol/ m2 sec) was studied during the 1998 growing season at Duke Forest in the North Carolina Pie...

  8. Basal Ganglia Germinoma in an Adult.

    PubMed

    Vialatte de Pémille, Clément; Bielle, Franck; Mokhtari, Karima; Kerboua, Esma; Alapetite, Claire; Idbaih, Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    Intracranial germinoma is a rare primary brain cancer, usually located within the midline and mainly affecting Asian pediatric patients. Interestingly, we report here the peculiar case of a young North-African adult patient suffering from a basal ganglia germinoma without the classical ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy associated with this location.

  9. Basal Textbooks and the Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2010-01-01

    Basal textbooks are rather popular for social studies teachers to use in the classroom setting. There are selected reasons for this occurring. They do provide beginning and new teachers a framework for ongoing lessons and units of study. The accompanying Manual provides suggestions for learning activities for learners to pursue. Evaluation…

  10. ATP7B detoxifies silver in ciliated airway epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ibricevic, Aida; Brody, Steven L.; Youngs, Wiley J.; Cannon, Carolyn L.

    2010-03-15

    Silver is a centuries-old antibiotic agent currently used to treat infected burns. The sensitivity of a wide range of drug-resistant microorganisms to silver killing suggests that it may be useful for treating refractory lung infections. Toward this goal, we previously developed a methylated caffeine silver acetate compound, SCC1, that exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against clinical strains of bacteria in vitro and when nebulized to lungs in mouse infection models. Preclinical testing of high concentrations of SCC1 in primary culture mouse tracheal epithelial cells (mTEC) showed selective ciliated cell death. Ciliated cell death was induced by both silver- and copper-containing compounds but not by the methylated caffeine portion of SCC1. We hypothesized that copper transporting P-type ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B, play a role in silver detoxification in the airway. In mTEC, ATP7A was expressed in non-ciliated cells, whereas ATP7B was expressed only in ciliated cells. The exposure of mTEC to SCC1 induced the trafficking of ATP7B, but not ATP7A, suggesting the presence of a cell-specific silver uptake and detoxification mechanisms. Indeed, the expression of the copper uptake protein CTR1 was also restricted to ciliated cells. A role of ATP7B in silver detoxification was further substantiated when treatment of SCC1 significantly increased cell death in ATP7B shRNA-treated HepG2 cells. In addition, mTEC from ATP7B{sup -/-} mice showed enhanced loss of ciliated cells compared to wild type. These studies are the first to demonstrate a cell type-specific expression of the Ag{sup +}/Cu{sup +} transporters ATP7A, ATP7B, and CTR1 in airway epithelial cells and a role for ATP7B in detoxification of these metals in the lung.

  11. ATP6AP1 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    ATP6AP1 is an integral membrane protein composed of at least 10 subunits. It is responsible for acidifying various eukaryotic intracellular organelles. ATP6AP1, also known as vacuolar ATPase or V-ATPase, has a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The acidification performed by ATP6AP1 is necessary for intracellular processes such as protein sorting, zymogen activation, and receptor-mediated endocytosis.

  12. Proximity Interactions among Basal Body Components in Trypanosoma brucei Identify Novel Regulators of Basal Body Biogenesis and Inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Hung Quang; Zhou, Qing; Rowlett, Veronica W.; Hu, Huiqing; Lee, Kyu Joon; Margolin, William

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The basal body shares similar architecture with centrioles in animals and is involved in nucleating flagellar axonemal microtubules in flagellated eukaryotes. The early-branching Trypanosoma brucei possesses a motile flagellum nucleated from the basal body that consists of a mature basal body and an adjacent pro-basal body. Little is known about the basal body proteome and its roles in basal body biogenesis and flagellar axoneme assembly in T. brucei. Here, we report the identification of 14 conserved centriole/basal body protein homologs and 25 trypanosome-specific basal body proteins. These proteins localize to distinct subdomains of the basal body, and several of them form a ring-like structure surrounding the basal body barrel. Functional characterization of representative basal body proteins revealed distinct roles in basal body duplication/separation and flagellar axoneme assembly. Overall, this work identified novel proteins required for basal body duplication and separation and uncovered new functions of conserved basal body proteins in basal body duplication and separation, highlighting an unusual mechanism of basal body biogenesis and inheritance in this early divergent eukaryote. PMID:28049148

  13. Binding of ATP by pertussis toxin and isolated toxin subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Hausman, S.Z.; Manclark, C.R.; Burns, D.L. )

    1990-07-03

    The binding of ATP to pertussis toxin and its components, the A subunit and B oligomer, was investigated. Whereas, radiolabeled ATP bound to the B oligomer and pertussis toxin, no binding to the A subunit was observed. The binding of ({sup 3}H)ATP to pertussis toxin and the B oligomer was inhibited by nucleotides. The relative effectiveness of the nucleotides was shown to be ATP > GTP > CTP > TTP for pertussis toxin and ATP > GTP > TTP > CTP for the B oligomer. Phosphate ions inhibited the binding of ({sup 3}H)ATP to pertussis toxin in a competitive manner; however, the presence of phosphate ions was essential for binding of ATP to the B oligomer. The toxin substrate, NAD, did not affect the binding of ({sup 3}H)ATP to pertussis toxin, although the glycoprotein fetuin significantly decreased binding. These results suggest that the binding site for ATP is located on the B oligomer and is distinct from the enzymatically active site but may be located near the eukaryotic receptor binding site.

  14. Intracellular Assessment of ATP Levels in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Palikaras, Konstantinos; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells heavily depend on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generated by oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) within mitochondria. ATP is the major energy currency molecule, which fuels cell to carry out numerous processes, including growth, differentiation, transportation and cell death among others (Khakh and Burnstock, 2009). Therefore, ATP levels can serve as a metabolic gauge for cellular homeostasis and survival (Artal-Sanz and Tavernarakis, 2009; Gomes et al., 2011; Palikaras et al., 2015). In this protocol, we describe a method for the determination of intracellular ATP levels using a bioluminescence approach in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:28194429

  15. ATP11B Mediates Platinum Resistance in Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    A2780-CP20 cells (Supplemental Figure 7). To exam- ine the subcellular localization of ATP11B by immunofluorescence staining, we used specific cell...presence of 2 μM cisplatin, ATP11B was found in the nuclei of a limited number of cells. To further analyze the subcellular local - ization of ATP11B in the...TGN (27, 28). Our pharmacological studies demonstrated that both of these Figure 5 Subcellular localization of ATP11B in cisplatin-sensitive and

  16. Application of luciferase assay for ATP to antimicrobial drug susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.; Vellend, H.; Tuttle, S. A.; Barza, M. J.; Weinstein, L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The susceptibility of bacteria, particularly those derived from body fluids, to antimicrobial agents is determined in terms of an ATP index measured by culturing a bacterium in a growth medium. The amount of ATP is assayed in a sample of the cultured bacterium by measuring the amount of luminescent light emitted when the bacterial ATP is reacted with a luciferase-luciferin mixture. The sample of the cultured bacterium is subjected to an antibiotic agent. The amount of bacterial adenosine triphosphate is assayed after treatment with the antibiotic by measuring the luminescent light resulting from the reaction. The ATP index is determined from the values obtained from the assay procedures.

  17. A hierarchy of ATP-consuming processes in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Buttgereit, F; Brand, M D

    1995-01-01

    The rates of different ATP-consuming reactions were measured in concanavalin A-stimulated thymocytes, a model system in which more than 80% of the ATP consumption can be accounted for. There was a clear hierarchy of the responses of different energy-consuming reactions to changes in energy supply: pathways of macromolecule biosynthesis (protein synthesis and RNA/DNA synthesis) were most sensitive to energy supply, followed by sodium cycling and then calcium cycling across the plasma membrane. Mitochondrial proton leak was the least sensitive to energy supply. Control analysis was used to quantify the relative control over ATP production exerted by the individual groups of ATP-consuming reactions. Control was widely shared; no block of reactions had more than one-third of the control. A fuller control analysis showed that there appeared to be a hierarchy of control over the flux through ATP: protein synthesis > RNA/DNA synthesis and substrate oxidation > Na+ cycling and Ca2+ cycling > other ATP consumers and mitochondrial proton leak. Control analysis also indicated that there was significant control over the rates of individual ATP consumers by energy supply. Each ATP consumer had strong control over its own rate but very little control over the rates of the other ATP consumers. Images Figure 3 PMID:7492307

  18. Imaging changes in the cytosolic ATP-to-ADP ratio

    PubMed Central

    Tantama, Mathew; Yellen, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a central metabolite that plays fundamental roles as an energy transfer molecule, a phosphate donor, and a signaling molecule inside cells. The phosphoryl group transfer potential of ATP provides a thermodynamic driving force for many metabolic reactions, and phosphorylation of both small metabolites and large proteins can serve as a regulatory modification. In the process of phosphoryl transfer from ATP, the diphosphate ADP is produced, and as a result, the ATP-to-ADP ratio is an important physiological control parameter. The ATP-to-ADP ratio is directly proportional to cellular energy charge and phosphorylation potential. Furthermore, several ATP-dependent enzymes and signaling proteins are regulated by ADP, and their activation profiles are a function of the ATP-to-ADP ratio. Finally, regeneration of ATP from ADP can serve as an important readout of energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. We therefore developed a genetically-encoded fluorescent biosensor tuned to sense ATP-to-ADP ratios in the physiological range of healthy mammalian cells. Here we present a protocol for using this biosensor to visualize energy status using live-cell fluorescence microscopy. PMID:25416365

  19. The transpalatal approach to repair of congenital Basal skull base cephaloceles.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Stephen R; Edwards, Michael S B; Bailey, C Martin; Koltai, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    Basal skull base herniations, including meningoceles and encephaloceles, are rare and may present with characteristic facial and neurologic features. The traditional craniotomy approach has known morbidity, and nasal endoscopy may not allow for control of large posterior basal defects, especially in newborns. We present two cases of successful repair of basal transsphenoidal meningoceles using an oral-transpalatal approach. The first patient with an intact palate presented with respiratory distress, and a palatectomy was performed for access to the skull base. The second patient had a large basal herniation that was reduced through a congenital midline cleft palate, and a calvarial bone graft was used to repair the defect. A literature search revealed 10 previous successful cases using the transpalatal repair, which allows for excellent access, low morbidity, and a team-oriented method to skull base surgery.

  20. ATP25, a New Nuclear Gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Required for Expression and Assembly of the Atp9p Subunit of Mitochondrial ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiaomei; Barros, Mario H.; Shulman, Theodore

    2008-01-01

    We report a new nuclear gene, designated ATP25 (reading frame YMR098C on chromosome XIII), required for expression of Atp9p (subunit 9) of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial proton translocating ATPase. Mutations in ATP25 elicit a deficit of ATP9 mRNA and of its translation product, thereby preventing assembly of functional F0. Unlike Atp9p, the other mitochondrial gene products, including ATPase subunits Atp6p and Atp8p, are synthesized normally in atp25 mutants. Northern analysis of mitochondrial RNAs in an atp25 temperature-sensitive mutant confirmed that Atp25p is required for stability of the ATP9 mRNA. Atp25p is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein with a predicted mass of 70 kDa. The primary translation product of ATP25 is cleaved in vivo after residue 292 to yield a 35-kDa C-terminal polypeptide. The C-terminal half of Atp25p is sufficient to stabilize the ATP9 mRNA and restore synthesis of Atp9p. Growth on respiratory substrates, however, depends on both halves of Atp25p, indicating that the N-terminal half has another function, which we propose to be oligomerization of Atp9p into a proper size ring structure. PMID:18216280

  1. Evidence for the Synthesis of ATP by an F0F1 ATP Synthase in Membrane Vesicles from Halorubrum Saccharovorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faguy, David; Lawson, Darion; Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Vesicles prepared in a buffer containing ADP, Mg(2+) and Pi synthesized ATP at an initial rate of 2 nmols/min/mg protein after acidification of the bulk medium (pH 8 (right arrow) 4). The intravesicular ATP concentration reached a steady state after about 30 seconds and slowly declined thereafter. ATP synthesis was inhibited by low concentrations of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and m-chlorophenylhydrazone indicating that synthesis took place in response to the proton gradient. NEM and PCMS, which inhibit vacuolar ATPases and the vacuolar-like ATPases of extreme halophiles, did not affect ATP synthesis, and, in fact, produced higher steady state levels of ATP. This suggested that two ATPase activities were present, one which catalyzed ATP synthesis and one that caused its hydrolysis. Azide, a specific inhibitor of F0F1 ATP Synthases, inhibited halobacterial ATP synthesis. The distribution of acridine orange as imposed by a delta pH demonstrated that azide inhibition was not due to the collapse of the proton gradient due to azide acting as a protonophore. Such an effect was observed, but only at azide concentrations higher than those that inhibited ATP synthesis. These results confirm the earler observations with cells of H. saccharovorum and other extreme halophiles that ATP synthesis is inconsistent with the operation of a vacuolar-like ATPase. Therefore, the observation that a vacuolar-like enzyme is responsible for ATP synthesis (and which serves as the basis for imputing ATP synthesis to the vacuolar-like ATPases of the extreme halophiles, and the Archaea in general) should be taken with some degree of caution.

  2. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos. The effect of silver nanoparticles and ATP on expression of chosen genes involved in myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane; Hotowy, Anna; Jaworski, Sławomir; Prasek, Marta; Sawosz, Ewa; Chwalibog, André

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity and quality of nutrients stored in the egg might not be optimal for the fast rate of chicken embryo development in modern broilers, and embryos could be supplemented with nutrients by in ovo injection. Recent experiments showed that in ovo feeding reduces post-hatch mortality and skeletal disorders and increases muscle growth and breast meat yield. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a "ready for use" energetic molecule, while nanoparticles of silver (Nano-Ag) may penetrate tissues as well as cells and localise inside cells. In this investigation, we hypothesised that silver nanoparticles could be used as a protective carrier for ATP as well as an active agent. ATP and/or an ATP complex with Nano-Ag would be delivered to the muscle cells as a gene expression regulator and promoter of growth and development of embryo breast muscle. A collection of 160 broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases expression of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Na(+)/K(+) transporting ATPase (ATP1A1), which may indicate that an extra energy source can enhance molecular mechanisms of muscle cell proliferation. Nano-Ag also up-regulated expression of FGF2, VEGF, ATP1A1 and, also up-regulated expression of myogenic differentiation 1(MyoD1), affecting cell differentiation. The results indicate that ATP and Nano-Ag may accelerate growth and maturation of muscle cells.

  3. ATP6V1H Deficiency Impairs Bone Development through Activation of MMP9 and MMP13.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yihan; Huang, Haigen; Zhao, Gexin; Yokoyama, Tadafumi; Vega, Hugo; Huang, Yan; Sood, Raman; Bishop, Kevin; Maduro, Valerie; Accardi, John; Toro, Camilo; Boerkoel, Cornelius F; Lyons, Karen; Gahl, William A; Duan, Xiaohong; Malicdan, May Christine V; Lin, Shuo

    2017-02-01

    ATP6V1H is a component of a large protein complex with vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) activity. We identified two generations of individuals in which short stature and osteoporosis co-segregated with a mutation in ATP6V1H. Since V-ATPases are highly conserved between human and zebrafish, we generated loss-of-function mutants in atp6v1h in zebrafish through CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockout. Homozygous mutant atp6v1h zebrafish exhibited a severe reduction in the number of mature calcified bone cells and a dramatic increase in the expression of mmp9 and mmp13. Heterozygous adults showed curved vertebra that lack calcified centrum structure and reduced bone mass and density. Treatment of mutant embryos with small molecule inhibitors of MMP9 and MMP13 significantly restored bone mass in the atp6v1h mutants. These studies have uncovered a new, ATP6V1H-mediated pathway that regulates bone formation, and defines a new mechanism of disease that leads to bone loss. We propose that MMP9/MMP13 could be therapeutic targets for patients with this rare genetic disease.

  4. CO2-Induced ATP-Dependent Release of Acetylcholine on the Ventral Surface of the Medulla Oblongata

    PubMed Central

    Llaudet, Enrique; Gourine, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    Complex mechanisms that detect changes in brainstem parenchymal PCO2/[H+] and trigger adaptive changes in lung ventilation are responsible for central respiratory CO2 chemosensitivity. Previous studies of chemosensory signalling pathways suggest that at the level of the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata (VMS), CO2-induced changes in ventilation are (at least in part) mediated by the release and actions of ATP and/or acetylcholine (ACh). Here we performed simultaneous real-time biosensor recordings of CO2-induced ATP and ACh release from the VMS in vivo and in vitro, to test the hypothesis that central respiratory CO2 chemosensory transduction involves simultaneous recruitment of purinergic and cholinergic signalling pathways. In anaesthetised and artificially ventilated rats, an increase in inspired CO2 triggered ACh release on the VMS with a peak amplitude of ~5 μM. Release of ACh was only detected after the onset of CO2-induced activation of the respiratory activity and was markedly reduced (by ~70%) by ATP receptor blockade. In horizontal slices of the VMS, CO2-induced release of ATP was reliably detected, whereas CO2 or bath application of ATP (100 μM) failed to trigger release of ACh. These results suggest that during hypercapnia locally produced ATP induces or potentiates the release of ACh (likely from the medullary projections of distal groups of cholinergic neurones), which may also contribute to the development and/or maintenance of the ventilatory response to CO2. PMID:27936179

  5. ATP6V1H Deficiency Impairs Bone Development through Activation of MMP9 and MMP13

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Gexin; Yokoyama, Tadafumi; Huang, Yan; Bishop, Kevin; Maduro, Valerie; Accardi, John; Toro, Camilo; Boerkoel, Cornelius F.; Gahl, William A.; Duan, Xiaohong; Malicdan, May Christine V.; Lin, Shuo

    2017-01-01

    ATP6V1H is a component of a large protein complex with vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) activity. We identified two generations of individuals in which short stature and osteoporosis co-segregated with a mutation in ATP6V1H. Since V-ATPases are highly conserved between human and zebrafish, we generated loss-of-function mutants in atp6v1h in zebrafish through CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockout. Homozygous mutant atp6v1h zebrafish exhibited a severe reduction in the number of mature calcified bone cells and a dramatic increase in the expression of mmp9 and mmp13. Heterozygous adults showed curved vertebra that lack calcified centrum structure and reduced bone mass and density. Treatment of mutant embryos with small molecule inhibitors of MMP9 and MMP13 significantly restored bone mass in the atp6v1h mutants. These studies have uncovered a new, ATP6V1H-mediated pathway that regulates bone formation, and defines a new mechanism of disease that leads to bone loss. We propose that MMP9/MMP13 could be therapeutic targets for patients with this rare genetic disease. PMID:28158191

  6. Effect of insulin on human skeletal muscle mitochondrial ATP production, protein synthesis, and mRNA transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Stump, Craig S.; Short, Kevin R.; Bigelow, Maureen L.; Schimke, Jill M.; Nair, K. Sreekumaran

    2003-01-01

    Mitochondria are the primary site of skeletal muscle fuel metabolism and ATP production. Although insulin is a major regulator of fuel metabolism, its effect on mitochondrial ATP production is not known. Here we report increases in vastus lateralis muscle mitochondrial ATP production capacity (32–42%) in healthy humans (P < 0.01) i.v. infused with insulin (1.5 milliunits/kg of fat-free mass per min) while clamping glucose, amino acids, glucagon, and growth hormone. Increased ATP production occurred in association with increased mRNA levels from both mitochondrial (NADH dehydrogenase subunit IV) and nuclear [cytochrome c oxidase (COX) subunit IV] genes (164–180%) encoding mitochondrial proteins (P < 0.05). In addition, muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis, and COX and citrate synthase enzyme activities were increased by insulin (P < 0.05). Further studies demonstrated no effect of low to high insulin levels on muscle mitochondrial ATP production for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas matched nondiabetic controls increased 16–26% (P < 0.02) when four different substrate combinations were used. In conclusion, insulin stimulates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle along with synthesis of gene transcripts and mitochondrial protein in human subjects. Skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic patients has a reduced capacity to increase ATP production with high insulin levels. PMID:12808136

  7. Effect of insulin on human skeletal muscle mitochondrial ATP production, protein synthesis, and mRNA transcripts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stump, Craig S.; Short, Kevin R.; Bigelow, Maureen L.; Schimke, Jill M.; Sreekumaran Nair, K.

    2003-06-01

    Mitochondria are the primary site of skeletal muscle fuel metabolism and ATP production. Although insulin is a major regulator of fuel metabolism, its effect on mitochondrial ATP production is not known. Here we report increases in vastus lateralis muscle mitochondrial ATP production capacity (32-42%) in healthy humans (P < 0.01) i.v. infused with insulin (1.5 milliunits/kg of fat-free mass per min) while clamping glucose, amino acids, glucagon, and growth hormone. Increased ATP production occurred in association with increased mRNA levels from both mitochondrial (NADH dehydrogenase subunit IV) and nuclear [cytochrome c oxidase (COX) subunit IV] genes (164-180%) encoding mitochondrial proteins (P < 0.05). In addition, muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis, and COX and citrate synthase enzyme activities were increased by insulin (P < 0.05). Further studies demonstrated no effect of low to high insulin levels on muscle mitochondrial ATP production for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas matched nondiabetic controls increased 16-26% (P < 0.02) when four different substrate combinations were used. In conclusion, insulin stimulates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle along with synthesis of gene transcripts and mitochondrial protein in human subjects. Skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic patients has a reduced capacity to increase ATP production with high insulin levels. cytochrome c oxidase | NADH dehydrogenase subunit IV | amino acids | citrate synthase

  8. ATP dependent charge movement in ATP7B Cu+-ATPase is demonstrated by pre-steady state electrical measurements.

    PubMed

    Tadini-Buoninsegni, Francesco; Bartolommei, Gianluca; Moncelli, Maria Rosa; Pilankatta, Rajendra; Lewis, David; Inesi, Giuseppe

    2010-11-19

    ATP7B is a copper dependent P-type ATPase, required for copper homeostasis. Taking advantage of high yield heterologous expression of recombinant protein, we investigated charge transfer in ATP7B. We detected charge displacement within a single catalytic cycle upon ATP addition and formation of phosphoenzyme intermediate. We attribute this charge displacement to movement of bound copper within ATP7B. Based on specific mutations, we demonstrate that enzyme activation by copper requires occupancy of a site in the N-terminus extension which is not present in other transport ATPases, as well as of a transmembrane site corresponding to the cation binding site of other ATPases.

  9. ATP7A trafficking and mechanisms underlying the distal motor neuropathy induced by mutations in ATP7A

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Ling; Kaler, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Diverse mutations in the gene encoding the copper transporter ATP7A lead to X-linked recessive Menkes disease or occipital horn syndrome. Recently, two unique ATP7A mutations, T994I and P1386S, were shown to cause isolated adult-onset distal motor neuropathy. These mutations induce subtle defects in ATP7A intracellular trafficking resulting in preferential accumulation at the plasma membrane compared to wild-type ATP7A. Immunoprecipitation assays revealed abnormal interaction between ATP7AT994I and p97/VCP, a protein mutated in two autosomal dominant forms of motor neuron disease. Small-interfering RNA knockdown of p97/VCP corrected ATP7AT994I mislocalization. For ATP7AP1386S, flow cytometry documented that non-permeabilized fibroblasts bound a C-terminal ATP7A antibody, suggesting unstable insertion of the 8th transmembrane segment due to a helix-breaker effect of the amino acid substitution. This could sabotage interaction of ATP7AP1386S with adaptor protein complexes. These molecular events appear to selectively disturb normal motor neuron function and lead to neurologic illness that takes years and sometimes decades to develop. PMID:24754450

  10. ATP synthesis in Halobacterium saccharovorum: evidence that synthesis may be catalysed by an F0F1-ATP synthase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.

    1992-01-01

    Halobacterium saccharovorum synthesized ATP in response to a pH shift from 8 to 6.2. Synthesis was inhibited by carbonyl cyanide m-chloro-phenylhydrazone, dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and azide. Nitrate, an inhibitor of the membrane-bound ATPase previously isolated from this organism, did not inhibit ATP synthesis. N-Ethymaleimide, which also inhibited this ATPase, stimulated the production of ATP. These observations suggested that H. saccharovorum synthesized and hydrolysed ATP using different enzymes and that the vacuolar-like ATPase activity previously described in H. saccharovorum was an ATPase whose function is yet to be identified.

  11. Expression and function of K(ATP) channels in normal and osteoarthritic human chondrocytes: possible role in glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Rufino, Ana T; Rosa, Susana C; Judas, Fernando; Mobasheri, Ali; Lopes, M Celeste; Mendes, Alexandrina F

    2013-08-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium [K(ATP)] channels sense intracellular ATP/ADP levels, being essential components of a glucose-sensing apparatus in various cells that couples glucose metabolism, intracellular ATP/ADP levels and membrane potential. These channels are present in human chondrocytes, but their subunit composition and functions are unknown. This study aimed at elucidating the subunit composition of K(ATP) channels expressed in human chondrocytes and determining whether they play a role in regulating the abundance of major glucose transporters, GLUT-1 and GLUT-3, and glucose transport capacity. The results obtained show that human chondrocytes express the pore forming subunits, Kir6.1 and Kir6.2, at the mRNA and protein levels and the regulatory sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) subunits, SUR2A and SUR2B, but not SUR1. The expression of these subunits was no affected by culture under hyperglycemia-like conditions. Functional impairment of the channel activity, using a SUR blocker (glibenclamide 10 or 20 nM), reduced the protein levels of GLUT-1 and GLUT-3 by approximately 30% in normal chondrocytes, while in cells from cartilage with increasing osteoarthritic (OA) grade no changes were observed. Glucose transport capacity, however, was not affected in normal or OA chondrocytes. These results show that K(ATP) channel activity regulates the abundance of GLUT-1 and GLUT-3, although other mechanisms are involved in regulating the overall glucose transport capacity of human chondrocytes. Therefore, K(ATP) channels are potential components of a broad glucose sensing apparatus that modulates glucose transporters and allows human chondrocytes to adjust to varying extracellular glucose concentrations. This function of K(ATP) channels seems to be impaired in OA chondrocytes.

  12. Bcl-2 delays cell cycle through mitochondrial ATP and ROS.

    PubMed

    Du, Xing; Fu, Xufeng; Yao, Kun; Lan, Zhenwei; Xu, Hui; Cui, Qinghua; Yang, Elizabeth

    2017-02-22

    Bcl-2 inhibits cell proliferation by delaying G0/G1 to S phase entry. We tested the hypothesis that Bcl-2 regulates S phase entry through mitochondrial pathways. Existing evidence indicates mitochondrial adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signals in cell survival and cell death, however, the molecular details of how these 2 processes are linked remain unknown. In this study, 2 cell lines stably expressing Bcl-2, 3T3Bcl-2 and C3HBcl-2, and vector-alone PB controls were arrested in G0/G1 phase by serum starvation and contact inhibition, and ATP and ROS were measured during re-stimulation of cell cycle entry. Both ATP and ROS levels were decreased in G0/G1 arrested cells compared with normal growing cells. In addition, ROS levels were significant lower in synchronized Bcl-2 cells than those in PB controls. After re-stimulation, ATP levels increased with time, reaching peak value 1-3 hours ahead of S phase entry for both Bcl-2 cells and PB controls. Consistent with 2 hours of S phase delay, Bcl-2 cells reached ATP peaks 2 hours later than PB control, which suggests a rise in ATP levels is required for S phase entry. To examine the role of ATP and ROS in cell cycle regulation, ATP and ROS level were changed. We observed that elevation of ATP accelerated cell cycle progression in both PB and Bcl-2 cells, and decrease of ATP and ROS to the level equivalent to Bcl-2 cells delayed S phase entry in PB cells. Our results support the hypothesis that Bcl-2 protein regulates mitochondrial metabolism to produce less ATP and ROS, which contributes to S phase entry delay in Bcl-2 cells. These findings reveal a novel mechanistic basis for understanding the link between mitochondrial metabolism and tumor-suppressive function of Bcl-2.

  13. Behavior and stability of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during chlorine disinfection.

    PubMed

    Nescerecka, Alina; Juhna, Talis; Hammes, Frederik

    2016-09-15

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analysis is a cultivation-independent alternative method for the determination of bacterial viability in both chlorinated and non-chlorinated water. Here we investigated the behavior and stability of ATP during chlorination in detail. Different sodium hypochlorite doses (0-22.4 mg-Cl2 L(-1); 5 min exposure) were applied to an Escherichia coli pure culture suspended in filtered river water. We observed decreasing intracellular ATP with increasing chlorine concentrations, but extracellular ATP concentrations only increased when the chlorine dose exceeded 0.35 mg L(-1). The release of ATP from chlorine-damaged bacteria coincided with severe membrane damage detected with flow cytometry (FCM). The stability of extracellular ATP was subsequently studied in different water matrixes, and we found that extracellular ATP was stable in sterile deionized water and also in chlorinated water until extremely high chlorine doses (≤11.2 mg-Cl2 L(-1); 5 min exposure). In contrast, ATP decreased relatively slowly (k = 0.145 h(-1)) in 0.1 μm filtered river water, presumably due to degradation by either extracellular enzymes or the fraction of bacteria that were able to pass through the filter. Extracellular ATP decreased considerably faster (k = 0.368 h(-1)) during batch growth of a river water bacterial community. A series of growth potential tests showed that extracellular ATP molecules were utilized as a phosphorus source during bacteria proliferation. From the combined data we conclude that ATP released from bacteria at high chlorine doses could promote bacteria regrowth, contributing to biological instability in drinking water distribution systems.

  14. Extracellular ATP Hydrolysis Inhibits Synaptic Transmission by Increasing pH Buffering in the Synaptic Cleft

    PubMed Central

    Vroman, Rozan; Klaassen, Lauw J.; Howlett, Marcus H.C.; Cenedese, Valentina; Klooster, Jan; Sjoerdsma, Trijntje; Kamermans, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal computations strongly depend on inhibitory interactions. One such example occurs at the first retinal synapse, where horizontal cells inhibit photoreceptors. This interaction generates the center/surround organization of bipolar cell receptive fields and is crucial for contrast enhancement. Despite its essential role in vision, the underlying synaptic mechanism has puzzled the neuroscience community for decades. Two competing hypotheses are currently considered: an ephaptic and a proton-mediated mechanism. Here we show that horizontal cells feed back to photoreceptors via an unexpected synthesis of the two. The first one is a very fast ephaptic mechanism that has no synaptic delay, making it one of the fastest inhibitory synapses known. The second one is a relatively slow (τ≈200 ms), highly intriguing mechanism. It depends on ATP release via Pannexin 1 channels located on horizontal cell dendrites invaginating the cone synaptic terminal. The ecto-ATPase NTPDase1 hydrolyses extracellular ATP to AMP, phosphate groups, and protons. The phosphate groups and protons form a pH buffer with a pKa of 7.2, which keeps the pH in the synaptic cleft relatively acidic. This inhibits the cone Ca2+ channels and consequently reduces the glutamate release by the cones. When horizontal cells hyperpolarize, the pannexin 1 channels decrease their conductance, the ATP release decreases, and the formation of the pH buffer reduces. The resulting alkalization in the synaptic cleft consequently increases cone glutamate release. Surprisingly, the hydrolysis of ATP instead of ATP itself mediates the synaptic modulation. Our results not only solve longstanding issues regarding horizontal cell to photoreceptor feedback, they also demonstrate a new form of synaptic modulation. Because pannexin 1 channels and ecto-ATPases are strongly expressed in the nervous system and pannexin 1 function is implicated in synaptic plasticity, we anticipate that this novel form of synaptic modulation

  15. Cyclic AMP regulates bicarbonate secretion in cholangiocytes through release of ATP into bile

    PubMed Central

    Minagawa, Noritaka; Nagata, Jun; Shibao, Kazunori; Masyuk, Anatoliy I.; Gomes, Dawidson A.; Rodrigues, Michele A.; LeSage, Gene; Akiba, Yasutada; Kaunitz, Jonathan D.; Ehrlich, Barbara E.; LaRusso, Nicholas F.; Nathanson, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Background & Aims Bicarbonate secretion is a primary function of cholangiocytes. Either cAMP or cytosolic Ca2+ can mediate bicarbonate secretion, but these are thought to act through separate pathways. We examined the role of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) in mediating bicarbonate secretion, because this is the only intracellular Ca2+ release channel in cholangiocytes. Methods Intrahepatic bile duct units (IBDUs) were microdissected from rat liver, then luminal pH was examined by confocal microscopy during IBDU microperfusion. Cyclic AMP was increased using forskolin or secretin, and Ca2+ was increased using acetylcholine (ACh) or ATP. Apyrase was used to hydrolyze extracellular ATP, and suramin was used to block apical P2Y ATP receptors. In selected experiments IBDU were pre-treated with siRNA to silence expression of specific InsP3R isoforms. Results Both cAMP and Ca2+ agonists increased luminal pH. The effect of ACh on luminal pH was reduced by siRNA for basolateral (types I and II) but not apical (type III) InsP3R isoforms. The effect of forskolin on luminal pH was reduced by a CFTR inhibitor and by siRNA for the type III InsP3R. Luminal apyrase or suramin blocked the effects of forskolin but not ACh on luminal pH. Conclusions Cyclic AMP-induced ductular bicarbonate secretion depends upon an autocrine signaling pathway that involves CFTR, apical release of ATP, stimulation of apical nucleotide receptors, and then activation of apical, type III InsP3Rs. The primary role of CFTR in bile duct secretion may be to regulate secretion of ATP rather than to secrete chloride and/or bicarbonate. PMID:17916355

  16. Electron transport phosphorylation in rumen butyrivibrios: unprecedented ATP yield for glucose fermentation to butyrate

    PubMed Central

    Hackmann, Timothy J.; Firkins, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    From a genomic analysis of rumen butyrivibrios (Butyrivibrio and Pseudobutyrivibrio sp.), we have re-evaluated the contribution of electron transport phosphorylation (ETP) to ATP formation in this group. This group is unique in that most (76%) genomes were predicted to possess genes for both Ech and Rnf transmembrane ion pumps. These pumps act in concert with the NifJ and Bcd-Etf to form a electrochemical potential (ΔμH+ and ΔμNa+), which drives ATP synthesis by ETP. Of the 62 total butyrivibrio genomes currently available from the Hungate 1000 project, all 62 were predicted to possess NifJ, which reduces oxidized ferredoxin (Fdox) during pyruvate conversion to acetyl-CoA. All 62 possessed all subunits of Bcd-Etf, which reduces Fdox and oxidizes reduced NAD during crotonyl-CoA reduction. Additionally, 61 genomes possessed all subunits of the Rnf, which generates ΔμH+ or ΔμNa+ from oxidation of reduced Fd (Fdred) and reduction of oxidized NAD. Further, 47 genomes possessed all six subunits of the Ech, which generates ΔμH+ from oxidation of Fdred. For glucose fermentation to butyrate and H2, the electrochemical potential established should drive synthesis of ∼1.5 ATP by the F0F1-ATP synthase (possessed by all 62 genomes). The total yield is ∼4.5 ATP/glucose after accounting for three ATP formed by classic substrate-level phosphorylation, and it is one the highest yields for any glucose fermentation. The yield was the same when unsaturated fatty acid bonds, not H+, served as the electron acceptor (as during biohydrogenation). Possession of both Ech and Rnf had been previously documented in only a few sulfate-reducers, was rare in other rumen prokaryotic genomes in our analysis, and may confer an energetic advantage to rumen butyrivibrios. This unique energy conservation system might enhance the butyrivibrios’ ability to overcome growth inhibition by unsaturated fatty acids, as postulated herein. PMID:26157432

  17. Metastatic giant basal cell carcinoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bellahammou, Khadija; Lakhdissi, Asmaa; Akkar, Othman; Rais, Fadoua; Naoual, Benhmidou; Elghissassi, Ibrahim; M’rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, characterised by a slow growing behavior, metastasis are extremely rare, and it occurs in less than 0, 1% of all cases. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a rare form of basal cell carcinoma, more aggressive and defined as a tumor measuring more than 5 cm at its largest diameter. Only 1% of all basal cell carcinoma develops to a giant basal cell carcinoma, resulting of patient's negligence. Giant basal cell carcinoma is associated with higher potential of metastasis and even death, compared to ordinary basal cell carcinoma. We report a case of giant basal cell carcinoma metastaticin lung occurring in a 79 years old male patient, with a fatal evolution after one course of systemic chemotherapy. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a very rare entity, early detection of these tumors could prevent metastasis occurrence and improve the prognosis of this malignancy. PMID:27795755

  18. Metastatic giant basal cell carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bellahammou, Khadija; Lakhdissi, Asmaa; Akkar, Othman; Rais, Fadoua; Naoual, Benhmidou; Elghissassi, Ibrahim; M'rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, characterised by a slow growing behavior, metastasis are extremely rare, and it occurs in less than 0, 1% of all cases. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a rare form of basal cell carcinoma, more aggressive and defined as a tumor measuring more than 5 cm at its largest diameter. Only 1% of all basal cell carcinoma develops to a giant basal cell carcinoma, resulting of patient's negligence. Giant basal cell carcinoma is associated with higher potential of metastasis and even death, compared to ordinary basal cell carcinoma. We report a case of giant basal cell carcinoma metastaticin lung occurring in a 79 years old male patient, with a fatal evolution after one course of systemic chemotherapy. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a very rare entity, early detection of these tumors could prevent metastasis occurrence and improve the prognosis of this malignancy.

  19. Differential effects of cyclic and constant stress on ATP release and mucociliary transport by human airway epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Button, Brian; Picher, Maryse; Boucher, Richard C

    2007-01-01

    In the lungs, the first line of defence against bacterial infection is the thin layer of airway surface liquid (ASL) lining the airway surface. The superficial airway epithelium exhibits complex regulatory pathways that blend ion transport to adjust ASL volume to maintain proper mucociliary clearance (MCC). We hypothesized that stresses generated by airflow and transmural pressures during breathing govern ASL volume by regulating the rate of epithelial ATP release. Luminal ATP, via interactions with apical membrane P2-purinoceptors, regulates the balance of active ion secretion versus absorption to maintain ASL volume at optimal levels for MCC. In this study we tested the hypothesis that cyclic compressive stress (CCS), mimicking normal tidal breathing, regulates ASL volume in airway epithelia. Polarized tracheobronchial epithelial cultures from normal and cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects responded to a range of CCS by increasing the rate of ATP release. In normal airway epithelia, the CCS-induced increase in ASL ATP concentration was sufficient to induce purinoceptor-mediated increases in ASL height and MCC, via inhibition of epithelial Na+-channel-mediated Na+ absorption and stimulation of Cl− secretion through CFTR and the Ca2+-activated chloride channels. In contrast, static, non-oscillatory stress did not stimulate ATP release, ion transport or MCC, emphasizing the importance of rhythmic mechanical stress for airway defence. In CF airway cultures, which exhibit basal ASL depletion, CCS was partially effective, producing less ASL volume secretion than in normal cultures, but a level sufficient to restore MCC. The present data suggest that CCS may (1) regulate ASL volume in the normal lung and (2) improve clearance in the lungs of CF patients, potentially explaining the beneficial role of exercise in lung defence. PMID:17317749

  20. Dependence of structure stability and integrity of aerobic granules on ATP and cell communication.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Liu, Yu

    2013-06-01

    Aerobic granules are dense and compact microbial aggregates with various bacterial species. Recently, aerobic granulation technology has been extensively explored for treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters. However, little information is currently available with regard to their structure stability and integrity at levels of energy metabolism and cell communication. In the present study, a typical chemical uncoupler, 3,3',4',5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide with the power to dissipate proton motive force and subsequently inhibit adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation, was used to investigate possible roles of ATP and cell communication in maintaining the structure stability and integrity of aerobic granules. It was found that inhibited ATP synthesis resulted in the reduced production of autoinducer-2 and N-acylhomoserine lactones essential for cell communication, while lowered extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production was also observed. As a consequence, aerobic granules appeared to break up. This study showed that ATP-dependent quorum sensing and EPS were essential for sustaining the structure stability and integrity of aerobic granules.

  1. Role of erythrocyte-released ATP in the regulation of microvascular oxygen supply in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, M L; Ellis, C G; Sprague, R S

    2016-03-01

    In a 1914 book entitled The Respiratory Function of the Blood, Joseph Barcroft stated that 'the cell takes what it needs and leaves the rest'. He postulated that there must be both a 'call for oxygen' and a 'mechanism by which the call elicits a response...' In the past century, intensive investigation has provided significant insights into the haemodynamic and biophysical mechanisms involved in supplying oxygen to skeletal muscle. However, the identification of the mechanism by which tissue oxygen needs are sensed and the affector responsible for altering the upstream vasculature to enable the need to be appropriately met has been a challenge. In 1995, Ellsworth et al. proposed that the oxygen-carrying erythrocyte, by virtue of its capacity to release the vasoactive mediator ATP in response to a decrease in oxygen saturation, could serve both roles. Several in vitro and in situ studies have established that exposure of erythrocytes to reduced oxygen tension induces the release of ATP which does result in a conducted arteriolar vasodilation with a sufficiently rapid time course to make the mechanism physiologically relevant. The components of the signalling pathway for the controlled release of ATP from erythrocytes in response to exposure to low oxygen tension have been determined. In addition, the implications of defective ATP release on human pathological conditions have been explored. This review provides a perspective on oxygen supply and the role that such a mechanism plays in meeting the oxygen needs of skeletal muscle.

  2. Electrical stimulation induces IL-6 in skeletal muscle through extracellular ATP by activating Ca2+ signals and an IL-6 autocrine loop

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Mario; Fernández-Verdejo, Rodrigo; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an important myokine that is highly expressed in skeletal muscle cells upon exercise. We assessed IL-6 expression in response to electrical stimulation (ES) or extracellular ATP as a known mediator of the excitation-transcription mechanism in skeletal muscle. We examined whether the canonical signaling cascade downstream of IL-6 (IL-6/JAK2/STAT3) also responds to muscle cell excitation, concluding that IL-6 influences its own expression through a positive loop. Either ES or exogenous ATP (100 μM) increased both IL-6 expression and p-STAT3 levels in rat myotubes, a process inhibited by 100 μM suramin and 2 U/ml apyrase. ATP also evoked IL-6 expression in both isolated skeletal fibers and extracts derived from whole FDB muscles. ATP increased IL-6 release up to 10-fold. STAT3 activation evoked by ATP was abolished by the JAK2 inhibitor HBC. Blockade of secreted IL-6 with a neutralizing antibody or preincubation with the STAT3 inhibitor VIII reduced STAT3 activation evoked by extracellular ATP by 70%. Inhibitor VIII also reduced by 70% IL-6 expression evoked by ATP, suggesting a positive IL-6 loop. In addition, ATP increased up to 60% the protein levels of SOCS3, a negative regulator of the IL-6 signaling pathway. On the other hand, intracellular calcium chelation or blockade of IP3-dependent calcium signals abolished STAT3 phosphorylation evoked by either extracellular ATP or ES. These results suggest that expression of IL-6 in stimulated skeletal muscle cells is mediated by extracellular ATP and nucleotide receptors, involving IP3-dependent calcium signals as an early step that triggers a positive IL-6 autocrine loop. PMID:24518675

  3. Electrical stimulation induces IL-6 in skeletal muscle through extracellular ATP by activating Ca(2+) signals and an IL-6 autocrine loop.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Mario; Fernández-Verdejo, Rodrigo; Jaimovich, Enrique; Buvinic, Sonja

    2014-04-15

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an important myokine that is highly expressed in skeletal muscle cells upon exercise. We assessed IL-6 expression in response to electrical stimulation (ES) or extracellular ATP as a known mediator of the excitation-transcription mechanism in skeletal muscle. We examined whether the canonical signaling cascade downstream of IL-6 (IL-6/JAK2/STAT3) also responds to muscle cell excitation, concluding that IL-6 influences its own expression through a positive loop. Either ES or exogenous ATP (100 μM) increased both IL-6 expression and p-STAT3 levels in rat myotubes, a process inhibited by 100 μM suramin and 2 U/ml apyrase. ATP also evoked IL-6 expression in both isolated skeletal fibers and extracts derived from whole FDB muscles. ATP increased IL-6 release up to 10-fold. STAT3 activation evoked by ATP was abolished by the JAK2 inhibitor HBC. Blockade of secreted IL-6 with a neutralizing antibody or preincubation with the STAT3 inhibitor VIII reduced STAT3 activation evoked by extracellular ATP by 70%. Inhibitor VIII also reduced by 70% IL-6 expression evoked by ATP, suggesting a positive IL-6 loop. In addition, ATP increased up to 60% the protein levels of SOCS3, a negative regulator of the IL-6 signaling pathway. On the other hand, intracellular calcium chelation or blockade of IP3-dependent calcium signals abolished STAT3 phosphorylation evoked by either extracellular ATP or ES. These results suggest that expression of IL-6 in stimulated skeletal muscle cells is mediated by extracellular ATP and nucleotide receptors, involving IP3-dependent calcium signals as an early step that triggers a positive IL-6 autocrine loop.

  4. ATP6AP2/(Pro)renin Receptor Contributes to Glucose Metabolism via Stabilizing the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase E1 β Subunit*

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Atsuhiro; Noda, Kousuke; Ishida, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic glucose metabolism is indispensable for metabolically active cells; however, the regulatory mechanism of efficient energy generation in the highly evolved mammalian retina remains incompletely understood. Here, we revealed an unsuspected role for (pro)renin receptor, also known as ATP6AP2, in energy metabolism. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analyses identified the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex as Atp6ap2-interacting proteins in the mouse retina. Yeast two-hybrid assays demonstrated direct molecular binding between ATP6AP2 and the PDH E1 β subunit (PDHB). Pdhb immunoreactivity co-localized with Atp6ap2 in multiple retinal layers including the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). ATP6AP2 knockdown in RPE cells reduced PDH activity, showing a predilection to anaerobic glycolysis. ATP6AP2 protected PDHB from phosphorylation, thus controlling its protein stability. Down-regulated PDH activity due to ATP6AP2 knockdown inhibited glucose-stimulated oxidative stress in RPE cells. Our present data unraveled the novel function of ATP6AP2/(P)RR as a PDHB stabilizer, contributing to aerobic glucose metabolism together with oxidative stress. PMID:25720494

  5. Rab25 increases cellular ATP and glycogen stores protecting cancer cells from bioenergetic stress

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kwai Wa; Agarwal, Roshan; Mitra, Shreya; Lee, Ju-Seog; Carey, Mark; Gray, Joe W; Mills, Gordon B

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cells are metabolically stressed during tumour progression due to limited tumour vascularity and resultant nutrient, growth factor and oxygen deficiency that can induce cell death and inhibit tumour growth. We demonstrate that Rab25, a small GTPase involved in endosomal recycling, that is genomically amplified in multiple tumour lineages, is a key regulator of cellular bioenergetics and autophagy. RAB25 enhanced survival during nutrient stress by preventing apoptosis and autophagy via binding and activating AKT leading to increased glucose uptake and improved cellular bioenergetics. Unexpectedly, Rab25 induced the accumulation of glycogen in epithelial cancer cells, a process not previously identified. Strikingly, an increase in basal ATP levels combined with AKT-dependent increases in glucose uptake and glycogen storage allowed maintenance of ATP levels during bioenergetic stress. The clinical relevance of these findings was validated by the ability of a Rab25-dependent expression profile enriched for bioenergetics targets to identify patients with a poor prognosis. Thus, Rab25 is an unexpected regulator of cellular bioenergetics implicated as a useful biomarker and potential therapeutic target. PMID:22253197

  6. Learning Reward Uncertainty in the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Bogacz, Rafal

    2016-01-01

    Learning the reliability of different sources of rewards is critical for making optimal choices. However, despite the existence of detailed theory describing how the expected reward is learned in the basal ganglia, it is not known how reward uncertainty is estimated in these circuits. This paper presents a class of models that encode both the mean reward and the spread of the rewards, the former in the difference between the synaptic weights of D1 and D2 neurons, and the latter in their sum. In the models, the tendency to seek (or avoid) options with variable reward can be controlled by increasing (or decreasing) the tonic level of dopamine. The models are consistent with the physiology of and synaptic plasticity in the basal ganglia, they explain the effects of dopaminergic manipulations on choices involving risks, and they make multiple experimental predictions. PMID:27589489

  7. Mechanically driven ATP synthesis by F1-ATPase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Akira; Adachi, Kengo; Noji, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Ryohei; Yoshida, Masasuke; Kinosita, Kazuhiko

    2004-01-01

    ATP, the main biological energy currency, is synthesized from ADP and inorganic phosphate by ATP synthase in an energy-requiring reaction. The F1 portion of ATP synthase, also known as F1-ATPase, functions as a rotary molecular motor: in vitro its γ-subunit rotates against the surrounding α3β3 subunits, hydrolysing ATP in three separate catalytic sites on the β-subunits. It is widely believed that reverse rotation of the γ-subunit, driven by proton flow through the associated Fo portion of ATP synthase, leads to ATP synthesis in biological systems. Here we present direct evidence for the chemical synthesis of ATP driven by mechanical energy. We attached a magnetic bead to the γ-subunit of isolated F1 on a glass surface, and rotated the bead using electrical magnets. Rotation in the appropriate direction resulted in the appearance of ATP in the medium as detected by the luciferase-luciferin reaction. This shows that a vectorial force (torque) working at one particular point on a protein machine can influence a chemical reaction occurring in physically remote catalytic sites, driving the reaction far from equilibrium.

  8. Insulin pumps: Beyond basal-bolus.

    PubMed

    Millstein, Richard; Becerra, Nancy Mora; Shubrook, Jay H

    2015-12-01

    Insulin pumps are a major advance in diabetes management, making insulin dosing easier and more accurate and providing great flexibility, safety, and efficacy for people who need basal-bolus insulin therapy. They are the preferred treatment for people with type 1 diabetes and many with type 2 diabetes who require insulin. This article reviews the basics of how insulin pumps work, who benefits from a pump, and how to manage inpatients and outpatients on insulin pumps.

  9. Basal hydraulic conditions of Ice Stream B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelhardt, Hermann; Kamb, Barclay

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen boreholes have been drilled to the base of Ice Stream B in the vicinity of UpB Camp. The boreholes are spread over an area of about 500 x 1000 m. Several till cores were retrieved from the bottom of the 1000-m-deep holes. Laboratory tests using a simple shear box revealed a yield strength of basal till of 2 kPa. This agrees well with in-situ measurements using a shear vane. Since the average basal shear stress of Ice Stream B with a surface slope of 0.1 degree is about 20 kPa, the ice stream cannot be supported by till that weak. Additional support for this conclusion comes from the basal water pressure that has been measured in all boreholes as soon as the hot water drill reached bottom. In several boreholes, the water pressure has been continuously monitored; in two of them, over several years. The water pressure varies but stays within 1 bar of flotation where ice overburden pressure and water pressure are equal. The ratio of water and overburden pressure lies between 0.986 and 1.002. This is an extremely high value as compared to other fast-moving ice masses; e.g., Variegated Glacier in surge has a ratio of 0.8, and Columbia Glacier - a fast-moving tidewater glacier - has a ratio of 0.9. It implies that water flow under the glacier occurs in a thin film and not in conduits that would drain away water too rapidly. It also implies that basal sliding must be very effective. Water flow under the glacier was measured in a salt-injection experiment where a salt pulse was released at the bottom of a borehole while 60 m down-glacier, the electrical resistance was measured between two other boreholes. A flow velocity of 7 mm/s was obtained.

  10. RFamide peptides in agnathans and basal chordates.

    PubMed

    Osugi, Tomohiro; Son, You Lee; Ubuka, Takayoshi; Satake, Honoo; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Since a peptide with a C-terminal Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide peptide) was first identified in the ganglia of the venus clam in 1977, RFamide peptides have been found in the nervous system of both invertebrates and vertebrates. In vertebrates, the RFamide peptide family includes gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), neuropeptide FF (NPFF), prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide/26RFamide peptide (QRFP/26RFa), and kisspeptins (kiss1 and kiss2). They are involved in important functions such as the release of hormones, regulation of sexual or social behavior, pain transmission, reproduction, and feeding. In contrast to tetrapods and jawed fish, the information available on RFamide peptides in agnathans and basal chordates is limited, thus preventing further insights into the evolution of RFamide peptides in vertebrates. In this review, we focus on the previous research and recent advances in the studies on RFamide peptides in agnathans and basal chordates. In agnathans, the genes encoding GnIH, NPFF, and PrRP precursors and the mature peptides have been identified in lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and hagfish (Paramyxine atami). Putative kiss1 and kiss2 genes have also been found in the genome database of lamprey. In basal chordates, namely, in amphioxus (Branchiostoma japonicum), a common ancestral form of GnIH and NPFF genes and their mature peptides, as well as the ortholog of the QRFP gene have been identified. The studies revealed that the number of orthologs of vertebrate RFamide peptides present in agnathans and basal chordates is greater than expected, suggesting that the vertebrate RFamide peptides might have emerged and expanded at an early stage of chordate evolution.

  11. Investigation of the association between ATP2B4 and ATP5B genes with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Geyik, Esra; Igci, Yusuf Ziya; Pala, Elif; Suner, Ali; Borazan, Ersin; Bozgeyik, Ibrahim; Bayraktar, Emine; Bayraktar, Recep; Ergun, Sercan; Cakmak, Ecir Ali; Gokalp, Avni; Arslan, Ahmet

    2014-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops as a multi-step process which results from gradual accumulation of mutations in proto-oncogenes, tumor suppressor, and DNA repair genes. Mortality rate of CRC is very high. Therefore, development of alternative diagnostic methods which can be used in the early diagnosis is crucial. ATP2B4 gene encodes one of the four isoforms of p-type ATPase PMCA enzyme and bears critical importance in maintaining the balance of intracellular calcium homeostasis by providing the export of calcium ions out of the cell. ATP5B encodes a subunit of the mitochondrial ATP synthase which is an f-type ATPase. In this study, the relationship between ATP2B4 and ATP5B genes and CRC regarding gene expression was investigated. Study groups were constructed from a number of 50 patients (25 males, 25 females) with the mean age of 55.68 ± 9.4 and the gene expression levels in the healthy and cancerous tissues of the patients were compared by using semi-quantitative PCR and Real-Time PCR methods. As a result, in patients with rectum tumors, there was a significant relationship between ATP2B4 gene expression and the tumor location and in patients younger than 45 years, ATP5B gene expressions were detected significantly higher in tumor tissues by using RT-PCR. However, no significant relationship was detected in terms of expression differences of ATP2B4 and ATP5B genes between cancerous and healthy tissues of the CRC patients. ATP2B4 and ATP5B genes might have indirect associations in CRC pathogenesis and the investigation of their interactions with DNA repair and other related genes may help in understanding of CRC formation.

  12. Oscillators and Oscillations in the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    What is the meaning of an action potential? There must be different answers for neurons that oscillate spontaneously, firing action potentials even in the absence of any synaptic input, and those driven to fire from a resting membrane potential. In spontaneously firing neurons, the occurrence of the next action potential is guaranteed. Only variations in its timing can carry the message. Among cells of this type are all those making up the deeper nuclei of the basal ganglia, including both segments of the globus pallidus, the substantia nigra, and the subthalamic nucleus. These cells receive thousands of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs, but no input is required to maintain the firing of the cells; they fire at approximately the same rate when the synapses are silenced. Instead, synaptic inputs produce brief changes in spike timing and firing rate. The interactions among oscillating cells within and among the basal ganglia nuclei produce a complex resting pattern of activity. Normally, this pattern is highly irregular and decorrelates the network, so that the firing of each cell is statistically independent of the others. This maximizes the potential information that may be transmitted by the basal ganglia to its target structures. In Parkinson’s disease, the resting pattern of activity is dominated by a slow oscillation shared by all the neurons. Treatment with deep brain stimulation may gain its therapeutic value by disrupting this shared pathological oscillation, and restoring independent action by each neuron in the network. PMID:25449134

  13. Superstoichiometric Ca2+ uptake supported by hydrolysis of endogenous ATP in rat liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Brand, M D; Lehninger, A L

    1975-10-10

    The nature of the energy store causing rapid superstoichiometric leads to H+/2e minus ejection and leads to Ca2+/2e minus uptake ratios in rat liver mitochondria pulsed with Ca2+ has been investigated. The extent and the rate of the initial fast superstoichiometric phase of H plus ejection were greatly reduced by oligomycin and other ATPase inhibitors; the subsequent shoichiometric phase was unaffected. No such inhibition was seen with atractyloside. Similarly, the initial fast phase of Ca2+ uptake was reduced in extent by oligomycin, whereas the slower stoichiometric phase was unaffected. Moreover, the ATP content of mitochondria previously incubated with succinate decreased by about 80% within 5 s after pulsing with Ca2+. The energy store for superstoichiometric Ca2+ uptake and H plus injection is thus identified as endogenous ATP.

  14. Radioprotective effects of ATP in human blood ex vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Swennen, Els L.R. Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Van den Beucken, Twan; Bast, Aalt

    2008-03-07

    Damage to healthy tissue is a major limitation of radiotherapy treatment of cancer patients, leading to several side effects and complications. Radiation-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines is thought to be partially responsible for the radiation-associated complications. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of extracellular ATP on markers of oxidative stress, radiation-induced inflammation and DNA damage in irradiated blood ex vivo. ATP inhibited radiation-induced TNF-{alpha} release and increased IL-10 release. The inhibitory effect of ATP on TNF- {alpha} release was completely reversed by adenosine 5'-O-thiomonophosphate, indicating a P2Y{sub 11} mediated effect. Furthermore, ATP attenuated radiation-induced DNA damage immediate, 3 and 6 h after irradiation. Our study indicates that ATP administration alleviates radiation-toxicity to blood cells, mainly by inhibiting radiation-induced inflammation and DNA damage.

  15. Effects of ATP7A overexpression in mice on copper transport and metabolism in lactation and gestation

    PubMed Central

    Wadwa, Jarrod; Chu, Yu‐Hsiang; Nguyen, Nhu; Henson, Thomas; Figueroa, Alyssa; Llanos, Roxana; Ackland, Margaret Leigh; Michalczyk, Agnes; Fullriede, Hendrik; Brennan, Grant; Mercer, Julian F. B.; Linder, Maria C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Placentae and mammary epithelial cells are unusual in robustly expressing two copper “pumps”, ATP7A and B, raising the question of their individual roles in these tissues in pregnancy and lactation. Confocal microscopic evidence locates ATP7A to the fetal side of syncytiotrophoblasts, suggesting a role in pumping Cu towards the fetus; and to the basolateral (blood) side of lactating mammary epithelial cells, suggesting a role in recycling Cu to the blood. We tested these concepts in wild‐type C57BL6 mice and their transgenic counterparts that expressed hATP7A at levels 10–20× those of endogenous mAtp7a. In lactation, overexpression of ATP7A reduced the Cu concentrations of the mammary gland and milk ~50%. Rates of transfer of tracer 64Cu to the suckling pups were similarly reduced over 30–48 h, as was the total Cu in 10‐day ‐old pups. During the early and middle periods of gestation, the transgenic litters had higher Cu concentrations than the wild‐type, placental Cu showing the reverse trend; but this difference was lost by the first postnatal day. The transgenic mice expressed ATP7A in some hepatocytes, so we investigated the possibility that metalation of ceruloplasmin (Cp) might be enhanced. Rates of 64Cu incorporation into Cp, oxidase activity, and ratios of holo to apoceruloplasmin were unchanged. We conclude that in the lactating mammary gland, the role of ATP7A is to return Cu to the blood, while in the placenta it mediates Cu delivery to the fetus and is the rate‐limiting step for fetal Cu nutrition during most of gestation in mice. PMID:24744874

  16. Regulation of ClC-2 gating by intracellular ATP.

    PubMed

    Stölting, Gabriel; Teodorescu, Georgeta; Begemann, Birgit; Schubert, Julian; Nabbout, Rima; Toliat, Mohammad Reza; Sander, Thomas; Nürnberg, Peter; Lerche, Holger; Fahlke, Christoph

    2013-10-01

    ClC-2 is a voltage-dependent chloride channel that activates slowly at voltages negative to the chloride reversal potential. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and other nucleotides have been shown to bind to carboxy-terminal cystathionine-ß-synthase (CBS) domains of ClC-2, but the functional consequences of binding are not sufficiently understood. We here studied the effect of nucleotides on channel gating using single-channel and whole-cell patch clamp recordings on transfected mammalian cells. ATP slowed down macroscopic activation and deactivation time courses in a dose-dependent manner. Removal of the complete carboxy-terminus abolishes the effect of ATP, suggesting that CBS domains are necessary for ATP regulation of ClC-2 gating. Single-channel recordings identified long-lasting closed states of ATP-bound channels as basis of this gating deceleration. ClC-2 channel dimers exhibit two largely independent protopores that are opened and closed individually as well as by a common gating process. A seven-state model of common gating with altered voltage dependencies of opening and closing transitions for ATP-bound states correctly describes the effects of ATP on macroscopic and microscopic ClC-2 currents. To test for a potential pathophysiological impact of ClC-2 regulation by ATP, we studied ClC-2 channels carrying naturally occurring sequence variants found in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy, G715E, R577Q, and R653T. All naturally occurring sequence variants accelerate common gating in the presence but not in the absence of ATP. We propose that ClC-2 uses ATP as a co-factor to slow down common gating for sufficient electrical stability of neurons under physiological conditions.

  17. Possible Involvement of F1F0-ATP synthase and Intracellular ATP in Keratinocyte Differentiation in normal skin and skin lesions

    PubMed Central

    Xiaoyun, Xie; Chaofei, Han; Weiqi, Zeng; Chen, Chen; Lixia, Lu; Queping, Liu; Cong, Peng; Shuang, Zhao; Juan, Su; Xiang, Chen

    2017-01-01

    The F1F0-ATP synthase, an enzyme complex, is mainly located on the mitochondrial inner membrane or sometimes cytomembrane to generate or hydrolyze ATP, play a role in cell proliferation. This study focused on the role of F1F0-ATP synthase in keratinocyte differentiation, and its relationship with intracellular and extracellular ATP (InATP and ExATP). The F1F0-ATP synthase β subunit (ATP5B) expression in various skin tissues and confluence-dependent HaCaT differentiation models was detected. ATP5B expression increased with keratinocyte and HaCaT cell differentiation in normal skin, some epidermis hyper-proliferative diseases, squamous cell carcinoma, and the HaCaT cell differentiation model. The impact of InATP and ExATP content on HaCaT differentiation was reflected by the expression of the differentiation marker involucrin. Inhibition of F1F0-ATP synthase blocked HaCaT cell differentiation, which was associated with a decrease of InATP content, but not with changes of ExATP. Our results revealed that F1F0-ATP synthase expression is associated with the process of keratinocyte differentiation which may possibly be related to InATP synthesis. PMID:28209970

  18. Characterization of [35S]-ATP alpha S and [3H]-alpha, beta-MeATP binding sites in rat brain cortical synaptosomes: regulation of ligand binding by divalent cations.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, R; Reiser, G

    1997-07-01

    1. We made a comparative analysis of the binding characteristics of the radioligands [35S]-ATP alpha S and [3H]-alpha, beta-MeATP in order to test whether these ligands can be used to analyse P2-purinoceptors in synaptosomal membranes from rat brain cortex. 2. Synaptosomes possess sites with high affinity for [35S]-ATP alpha S (Kd = 22.2 +/- 9.1 nM, Bmax = 14.8 pmol mg-1 protein). The rank order of the competition potency of the different compounds (ATP alpha S, ATP, ATP gamma S > ADP beta S, 2-MeSATP > deoxyATP, ADP > > UTP, alpha, beta-MeATP, AMP, Reactive Blue-2, suramin, isoPPADS) is consistent with pharmacological properties of P2Y-purinoceptors. 3. Under identical conditions [35S]-ATP alpha S and [3H]-alpha, beta-MeATP bind to different binding sites at synaptosomal membranes from rat brain cortex. The affinity of the [3H]-alpha, beta-MeATP binding sites (Kd = 13.7 +/- 1.8 nM, Bmax = 6.34 +/- 0.28 pmol mg-1 protein) was 38 fold higher than the potency of alpha, beta-MeATP to displace [35S]-ATP alpha S binding (Ki = 0.52 microM). ATP and ADP beta S competed at both binding sites with different affinities, 60 fold and 175 fold, respectively. The other agonists tested (2-MeSATP, UTP, GTP) did not affect specific [35H]-alpha, beta-MeATP binding at concentrations up to 100 microM. The antagonists (suramin, isoPPADS, Evan's Blue) showed completely different affinities for both binding sites. 4. Binding of [35S]-ATP alpha S on synaptosomes was regulated by GTP, which is indicative for G-protein coupled receptors. The Kd value for the high affinity binding site was reduced in the presence of GTP about 5 fold (from 1.8 nM to 8.6 nM). In the presence of Mg2+ the affinity was increased (Kd 1.8 nM versus 22 nM in the absence of Mg2+). 5. The binding of both radioligands was regulated in an opposite manner by physiological concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Binding of [3H]-alpha, beta-MeATP to synaptosomal membranes was increased 3 fold by raising the Ca2+ concentration

  19. Ammonium tetrathiomolybdate treatment targets the copper transporter ATP7A and enhances sensitivity of breast cancer to cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ada Hang-Heng; Vazquez-Ortiz, Guelaguetza; Chen, Weiping; Xu, Xiaoling; Deng, Chu-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin is an effective breast cancer drug but resistance often develops over prolonged chemotherapy. Therefore, we performed a candidate approach RNAi screen in combination with cisplatin treatment to identify molecular pathways conferring survival advantages. The screen identified ATP7A as a therapeutic target. ATP7A is a copper ATPase transporter responsible for intercellular movement and sequestering of cisplatin. Pharmaceutical replacement for ATP7A by ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TM) enhanced cisplatin treatment in breast cancer cells. Allograft and xenograft models in athymic nude mice treated with cisplatin/TM exhibited retarded tumor growth, reduced accumulation of cancer stem cells and decreased cell proliferation as compared to mono-treatment with cisplatin or TM. Cisplatin/TM treatment of cisplatin-resistant tumors reduced ATP7A protein levels, attenuated cisplatin sequestering by ATP7A, increased nuclear availability of cisplatin, and subsequently enhanced DNA damage and apoptosis. Microarray analysis of gene ontology pathways that responded uniquely to cisplatin/TM double treatment depicted changes in cell cycle regulation, specifically in the G1/S transition. These findings offer the potential to combat platinum-resistant tumors and sensitize patients to conventional breast cancer treatment by identifying and targeting the resistant tumors' unique molecular adaptations. PMID:27806319

  20. A modified ATP benchmark for evaluating the cleaning of some hospital environmental surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lewis, T; Griffith, C; Gallo, M; Weinbren, M

    2008-06-01

    Hospital cleaning continues to attract patient, media and political attention. In the UK it is still primarily assessed via visual inspection, which can be misleading. Calls have therefore been made for a more objective approach to assessing surface cleanliness. To improve the management of hospital cleaning the use of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in combination with microbiological analysis has been proposed, with a general ATP benchmark value of 500 relative light units (RLU) for one combination of test and equipment. In this study, the same test combination was used to assess cleaning effectiveness in a 1300-bed teaching hospital after routine and modified cleaning protocols. Based upon the ATP results a revised stricter pass/fail benchmark of 250 RLU is proposed for the range of surfaces used in this study. This was routinely achieved using modified best practice cleaning procedures which also gave reduced surface counts with, for example, aerobic colony counts reduced from >100 to <2.5 cfu/cm(2), and counts of Staphylococcus aureus reduced from up to 2.5 to <1 cfu/cm(2) (95% of the time). Benchmarking is linked to incremental quality improvements and both the original suggestion of 500 RLU and the revised figure of 250 RLU can be used by hospitals as part of this process. They can also be used in the assessment of novel cleaning methods, such as steam cleaning and microfibre cloths, which have potential use in the National Health Service.

  1. Maintenance of cellular ATP level by caloric restriction correlates chronological survival of budding yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Joon-Seok; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •CR decreases total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide during the chronological aging. •CR does not affect the levels of oxidative damage on protein and DNA. •CR contributes extension of chronological lifespan by maintenance of ATP level -- Abstract: The free radical theory of aging emphasizes cumulative oxidative damage in the genome and intracellular proteins due to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is a major cause for aging. Caloric restriction (CR) has been known as a representative treatment that prevents aging; however, its mechanism of action remains elusive. Here, we show that CR extends the chronological lifespan (CLS) of budding yeast by maintaining cellular energy levels. CR reduced the generation of total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide; however, CR did not reduce the oxidative damage in proteins and DNA. Subsequently, calorie-restricted yeast had higher mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and it sustained consistent ATP levels during the process of chronological aging. Our results suggest that CR extends the survival of the chronologically aged cells by improving the efficiency of energy metabolism for the maintenance of the ATP level rather than reducing the global oxidative damage of proteins and DNA.

  2. Distance of myofilament sliding per ATP molecule in skeletal muscle fibers studied using laser flash photolysis of caged ATP.

    PubMed

    Yamada, T; Abe, O; Kobayashi, T; Sugi, H

    1993-01-01

    We studied the distance of myofilament sliding per hydrolysis of one ATP molecule by recording shortening of single glycerinated muscle fibers induced by laser flash photolysis of caged ATP, diffusion of photochemically released ATP out of the fiber being prevented by surrounding the fiber with silicone oil. With 75 microM ATP released (one half of the total myosin head concentration within the fiber), the fiber showed the minimum shortening (10 +/- 2 nm/half sarcomere, n = 10) taking place uniformly in each sarcomere in the fiber. Comparison of the initial flash-induced shortening velocity with the force-velocity relation of maximally Ca(2+)-activated fibers indicated that the above minimum fiber shortening took place under an internal load nearly equal to Po. These results may be taken to indicate that, under a nearly isometric condition, the distance of myofilament sliding per hydrolysis of one ATP molecule is of the order of 10 nm.

  3. Basal cell nevus syndrome - close-up of palm (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... skeletal abnormalities. Skin manifestations include pits in the palms and soles, and numerous basal cell carcinomas. This ... close-up of the pits found in the palm of an individual with basal cell nevus syndrome.

  4. Inhibition of ATP synthesis by fenbufen and its conjugated metabolites in rat liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Syed, Muzeeb; Skonberg, Christian; Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2016-03-01

    Fenbufen is an arylpropionic acid derivative belonging to the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Even though fenbufen is considered a safe drug, some adverse reactions including hepatic events have been reported. To investigate whether mitochondrial damage could be involved in the drug induced liver injury (DILI) by fenbufen, the inhibitory effect of fenbufen and its conjugated metabolites on oxidative phosphorylation (ATP synthesis) in rat liver mitochondria was investigated. Fenbufen glucuronide (F-GlcA), fenbufen-N-acetyl cysteine-thioester (F-NAC) and fenbufen-S-glutathione thioester (F-SG) were found to be more potent inhibitors compared to parent fenbufen (F), whereas fenbufen-O-carnitine (F-carn), fenbufen-glycine (F-gly) and fenbufen-N-acetyl lysine amide (F-NAL) were less potent compared to fenbufen. Fenbufen-CoA thioester (F-CoA) was equally potent as fenbufen in inhibiting ATP synthesis. Fenbufen showed time and concentration dependent inhibition of ATP synthesis with Kinact of 4.4 min(-1) and KI of 0.88 μM and Kinact/KI ratio of 5.01 min(-1) μM(-1). Data show that fenbufen did not act through opening MPT pore, nor did incubation of mitochondria with reduced GSH and fenbufen show any protective effect on fenbufen mediated inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation. Inclusion of NADPH in mitochondrial preparations with fenbufen did not modulate the inhibitory effects, suggesting no role of CYP mediated oxidative metabolites on the ATP synthesis in isolated mitochondria. The results from the present experiments provide evidence that fenbufen and its metabolites could be involved in mitochondrial toxicity through inhibition of ATP synthesis.

  5. ATP and NO Dually Control Migration of Microglia to Nerve Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yuanli; Sahley, Christie L.; Muller, Kenneth J.

    2009-01-01

    Microglia migrate rapidly to lesions in the central nervous system (CNS), presumably in response to chemoattractants including ATP released directly or indirectly by the injury. Previous work on the leech has shown that nitric oxide (NO), generated at the lesion, is both a stop signal for microglia at the lesion and crucial for their directed migration from hundreds of micrometers away within the nerve cord, perhaps mediated by a soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). In the present study, application of 100 μM ATP caused maximal movement of microglia in leech nerve cords. The nucleotides ADP, UTP, and the non-hydrolyzable ATP analog AMP-PNP (adenyl-5′-yl imidodiphosphate) also caused movement, whereas AMP, cAMP and adenosine were without effect. Both movement in ATP and migration after injury were slowed by 50 μM reactive blue 2 (RB2), an antagonist of purinergic receptors, without influencing the direction of movement. This contrasted with the effect of the NO scavenger cPTIO (2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-teramethylimidazoline-oxyl-3-oxide), which misdirected movement when applied at 1 mM. The cPTIO reduced cGMP immunoreactivity without changing immunoreactivity of eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase), which accompanies increased NOS activity after nerve cord injury, consistent with involvement of sGC. Moreover, the sGC-specific inhibitor LY83583 applied at 50 μM had a similar effect, in agreement with previous results with methylene blue. Taken together, the experiments support the hypothesis that ATP released directly or indirectly by injury activates microglia to move, while NO which activates sGC directs migration of microglia to CNS lesions. PMID:19025930

  6. ATP synthase repression in tobacco restricts photosynthetic electron transport, CO2 assimilation, and plant growth by overacidification of the thylakoid lumen.

    PubMed

    Rott, Markus; Martins, Nádia F; Thiele, Wolfram; Lein, Wolfgang; Bock, Ralph; Kramer, David M; Schöttler, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants strictly adjust the contents of both ATP synthase and cytochrome b(6)f complex to the metabolic demand for ATP and NADPH. While the cytochrome b(6)f complex catalyzes the rate-limiting step of photosynthetic electron flux and thereby controls assimilation, the functional significance of the ATP synthase adjustment is unknown. Here, we reduced ATP synthase accumulation by an antisense approach directed against the essential nuclear-encoded γ-subunit (AtpC) and by the introduction of point mutations into the translation initiation codon of the plastid-encoded atpB gene (encoding the essential β-subunit) via chloroplast transformation. Both strategies yielded transformants with ATP synthase contents ranging from 100 to <10% of wild-type levels. While the accumulation of the components of the linear electron transport chain was largely unaltered, linear electron flux was strongly inhibited due to decreased rates of plastoquinol reoxidation at the cytochrome b(6)f complex (photosynthetic control). Also, nonphotochemical quenching was triggered at very low light intensities, strongly reducing the quantum efficiency of CO(2) fixation. We show evidence that this is due to an increased steady state proton motive force, resulting in strong lumen overacidification, which in turn represses photosynthesis due to photosynthetic control and dissipation of excitation energy in the antenna bed.

  7. Model study of ATP and ADP buffering, transport of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), and regulation of ion pumps in ventricular myocyte

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michailova, A.; McCulloch, A.

    2001-01-01

    We extended the model of the ventricular myocyte by Winslow et al. (Circ. Res 1999, 84:571-586) by incorporating equations for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) buffering and transport by ATP and ADP and equations for MgATP regulation of ion transporters (Na(+)-K(+) pump, sarcolemmal and sarcoplasmic Ca(2+) pumps). The results indicate that, under normal conditions, Ca(2+) binding by low-affinity ATP and diffusion of CaATP may affect the amplitude and time course of intracellular Ca(2+) signals. The model also suggests that a fall in ATP/ADP ratio significantly reduces sarcoplasmic Ca(2+) content, increases diastolic Ca(2+), lowers systolic Ca(2+), increases Ca(2+) influx through L-type channels, and decreases the efficiency of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger in extruding Ca(2+) during periodic voltage-clamp stimulation. The analysis suggests that the most important reason for these changes during metabolic inhibition is the down-regulation of the sarcoplasmic Ca(2+)-ATPase pump by reduced diastolic MgATP levels. High Ca(2+) concentrations developed near the membrane might have a greater influence on Mg(2+), ATP, and ADP concentrations than that of the lower Ca(2+) concentrations in the bulk myoplasm. The model predictions are in general agreement with experimental observations measured under normal and pathological conditions.

  8. Model study of ATP and ADP buffering, transport of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), and regulation of ion pumps in ventricular myocyte.

    PubMed Central

    Michailova, A; McCulloch, A

    2001-01-01

    We extended the model of the ventricular myocyte by Winslow et al. (Circ. Res 1999, 84:571-586) by incorporating equations for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) buffering and transport by ATP and ADP and equations for MgATP regulation of ion transporters (Na(+)-K(+) pump, sarcolemmal and sarcoplasmic Ca(2+) pumps). The results indicate that, under normal conditions, Ca(2+) binding by low-affinity ATP and diffusion of CaATP may affect the amplitude and time course of intracellular Ca(2+) signals. The model also suggests that a fall in ATP/ADP ratio significantly reduces sarcoplasmic Ca(2+) content, increases diastolic Ca(2+), lowers systolic Ca(2+), increases Ca(2+) influx through L-type channels, and decreases the efficiency of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger in extruding Ca(2+) during periodic voltage-clamp stimulation. The analysis suggests that the most important reason for these changes during metabolic inhibition is the down-regulation of the sarcoplasmic Ca(2+)-ATPase pump by reduced diastolic MgATP levels. High Ca(2+) concentrations developed near the membrane might have a greater influence on Mg(2+), ATP, and ADP concentrations than that of the lower Ca(2+) concentrations in the bulk myoplasm. The model predictions are in general agreement with experimental observations measured under normal and pathological conditions. PMID:11463611

  9. Effects of intracellular pH on ATP-sensitive K+ channels in mouse pancreatic beta-cells.

    PubMed Central

    Proks, P; Takano, M; Ashcroft, F M

    1994-01-01

    1. The effects of intracellular pH (pHi) on the ATP-sensitive K+ channel (K+ATP channel) from mouse pancreatic beta-cells were examined in inside-out patches exposed to symmetrical 140 mM K+ solutions. 2. The relationship between channel activity and pHi was described by the Hill equation with half-maximal inhibition (Ki) at pHi 6.25 and a Hill coefficient of 3.7. 3. Following exposure to pHi < 6.8, channel activity did not recover to its original level. Subsequent application of trypsin to the intracellular membrane surface restored channel activity to its initial level or above. 4. At -60 mV the relationship between pHi and the single-channel current amplitude was described by a modified Hill equation with a Hill coefficient of 2.1, half-maximal inhibition at pHi 6.48 and a maximum inhibition of 18.5%. 5. A decrease in pHi reduced the extent of channel inhibition by ATP: Ki was 18 microM at pH 7.2 and 33 microM at pH 6.4. The Hill coefficient was also reduced, being 1.65 at pH 7.2 and 1.17 at pH 6.4. 6. When channel activity was plotted as a function of ATP4- (rather than total ATP) there was no effect of pHi on the relationship. This suggests that ATP4- is the inhibitory ion species and that the effects of reducing pHi are due to the lowered concentration of ATP4-. 7. Changes in external pH had little effect on either single-channel or whole-cell K+ATP currents. 8. The effects of pHi do not support a role for H+ in linking glucose metabolism to K+ATP channel inhibition in pancreatic beta-cells. PMID:8189391

  10. Overexpression of ryanodine receptor type 1 enhances mitochondrial fragmentation and Ca2+-induced ATP production in cardiac H9c2 myoblasts.

    PubMed

    O-Uchi, Jin; Jhun, Bong Sook; Hurst, Stephen; Bisetto, Sara; Gross, Polina; Chen, Ming; Kettlewell, Sarah; Park, Jongsun; Oyamada, Hideto; Smith, Godfrey L; Murayama, Takashi; Sheu, Shey-Shing

    2013-12-01

    Ca(+) influx to mitochondria is an important trigger for both mitochondrial dynamics and ATP generation in various cell types, including cardiac cells. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) influx is mainly mediated by the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU). Growing evidence also indicates that mitochondrial Ca(2+) influx mechanisms are regulated not solely by MCU but also by multiple channels/transporters. We have previously reported that skeletal muscle-type ryanodine receptor (RyR) type 1 (RyR1), which expressed at the mitochondrial inner membrane, serves as an additional Ca(2+) uptake pathway in cardiomyocytes. However, it is still unclear which mitochondrial Ca(2+) influx mechanism is the dominant regulator of mitochondrial morphology/dynamics and energetics in cardiomyocytes. To investigate the role of mitochondrial RyR1 in the regulation of mitochondrial morphology/function in cardiac cells, RyR1 was transiently or stably overexpressed in cardiac H9c2 myoblasts. We found that overexpressed RyR1 was partially localized in mitochondria as observed using both immunoblots of mitochondrial fractionation and confocal microscopy, whereas RyR2, the main RyR isoform in the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum, did not show any expression at mitochondria. Interestingly, overexpression of RyR1 but not MCU or RyR2 resulted in mitochondrial fragmentation. These fragmented mitochondria showed bigger and sustained mitochondrial Ca(2+) transients compared with basal tubular mitochondria. In addition, RyR1-overexpressing cells had a higher mitochondrial ATP concentration under basal conditions and showed more ATP production in response to cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation compared with nontransfected cells as observed by a matrix-targeted ATP biosensor. These results indicate that RyR1 possesses a mitochondrial targeting/retention signal and modulates mitochondrial morphology and Ca(2+)-induced ATP production in cardiac H9c2 myoblasts.

  11. Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hematoma: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Pranshu; Grewal, Sarvpreet Singh; Gupta, Bharat; Jain, Vikas; Sobti, Harman

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic Basal ganglia hemorrhage is relatively uncommon. Bilateral basal ganglia hematoma after trauma is extremely rare and is limited to case reports. We report two cases of traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage, and review the literature in brief. Both cases were managed conservatively. PMID:23293672

  12. Authentic role of ATP signaling in micturition reflex

    PubMed Central

    Takezawa, Kentaro; Kondo, Makoto; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Ueda, Norichika; Soda, Tetsuji; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Takao, Tetsuya; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Tsujimura, Akira; Matsumoto-Miyai, Kazumasa; Ishida, Yusuke; Negoro, Hiromitsu; Ogawa, Osamu; Nonomura, Norio; Shimada, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a signaling molecule that regulates cellular processes. Based on previous studies of bladder function over the past decade, bladder ATP signaling was thought to have an essential role in the normal micturition reflex. In this study, we performed detailed analyses of bladder function in purinergic receptor-deficient mice using the automated voided stain on paper method and video-urodynamics. Unexpectedly, a lack of P2X2 or P2X3 receptors did not affect bladder function under normal physiological conditions, indicating that bladder ATP signaling is not essential for normal micturition reflex. In contrast, we found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced markedly high levels of ATP release from the urothelium. In addition, LPS-induced rapid bladder hyperactivity was attenuated in P2X2−/− and P2X3−/− mice. Contrary to the previous interpretation, our present findings indicate that bladder ATP signaling has a fundamental role in the micturition reflex, especially in bladder dysfunction, under pathological conditions. Therefore, the bladder ATP signaling pathway might be a highly promising therapeutic target for functional bladder disorders. This study newly defines an authentic role for bladder ATP signaling in the micturition reflex. PMID:26795755

  13. ATP and potassium ions: a deadly combination for astrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, David G.; Wang, Junjie; Keane, Robert W.; Scemes, Eliana; Dahl, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    The ATP release channel Pannexin1 (Panx1) is self-regulated, i.e. the permeant ATP inhibits the channel from the extracellular space. The affinity of the ATP binding site is lower than that of the purinergic P2X7 receptor allowing a transient activation of Panx1 by ATP through P2X7R. Here we show that the inhibition of Panx1 by ATP is abrogated by increased extracellular potassium ion concentration ([K+]o) in a dose-dependent manner. Since increased [K+]o is also a stimulus for Panx1 channels, it can be expected that a combination of ATP and increased [K+]o would be deadly for cells. Indeed, astrocytes did not survive exposure to these combined stimuli. The death mechanism, although involving P2X7R, does not appear to strictly follow a pyroptotic pathway. Instead, caspase-3 was activated, a process inhibited by Panx1 inhibitors. These data suggest that Panx1 plays an early role in the cell death signaling pathway involving ATP and K+ ions. Additionally, Panx1 may play a second role once cells are committed to apoptosis, since Panx1 is also a substrate of caspase-3.

  14. Unidirectional Transport Mechanism in an ATP Dependent Exporter

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters use the energy of ATP binding and hydrolysis to move a large variety of compounds across biological membranes. P-glycoprotein, involved in multidrug resistance, is the most investigated eukaryotic family member. Although a large number of biochemical and structural approaches have provided important information, the conformational dynamics underlying the coupling between ATP binding/hydrolysis and allocrite transport remains elusive. To tackle this issue, we performed molecular dynamic simulations for different nucleotide occupancy states of Sav1866, a prokaryotic P-glycoprotein homologue. The simulations reveal an outward-closed conformation of the transmembrane domain that is stabilized by the binding of two ATP molecules. The hydrolysis of a single ATP leads the X-loop, a key motif of the ATP binding cassette, to interfere with the transmembrane domain and favor its outward-open conformation. Our findings provide a structural basis for the unidirectionality of transport in ABC exporters and suggest a ratio of one ATP hydrolyzed per transport cycle. PMID:28386603

  15. Authentic role of ATP signaling in micturition reflex.

    PubMed

    Takezawa, Kentaro; Kondo, Makoto; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Ueda, Norichika; Soda, Tetsuji; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Takao, Tetsuya; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Tsujimura, Akira; Matsumoto-Miyai, Kazumasa; Ishida, Yusuke; Negoro, Hiromitsu; Ogawa, Osamu; Nonomura, Norio; Shimada, Shoichi

    2016-01-22

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a signaling molecule that regulates cellular processes. Based on previous studies of bladder function over the past decade, bladder ATP signaling was thought to have an essential role in the normal micturition reflex. In this study, we performed detailed analyses of bladder function in purinergic receptor-deficient mice using the automated voided stain on paper method and video-urodynamics. Unexpectedly, a lack of P2X2 or P2X3 receptors did not affect bladder function under normal physiological conditions, indicating that bladder ATP signaling is not essential for normal micturition reflex. In contrast, we found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced markedly high levels of ATP release from the urothelium. In addition, LPS-induced rapid bladder hyperactivity was attenuated in P2X2(-/-) and P2X3(-/-) mice. Contrary to the previous interpretation, our present findings indicate that bladder ATP signaling has a fundamental role in the micturition reflex, especially in bladder dysfunction, under pathological conditions. Therefore, the bladder ATP signaling pathway might be a highly promising therapeutic target for functional bladder disorders. This study newly defines an authentic role for bladder ATP signaling in the micturition reflex.

  16. Shell bone histology indicates terrestrial palaeoecology of basal turtles.

    PubMed

    Scheyer, Torsten M; Sander, P Martin

    2007-08-07

    The palaeoecology of basal turtles from the Late Triassic was classically viewed as being semi-aquatic, similar to the lifestyle of modern snapping turtles. Lately, this view was questioned based on limb bone proportions, and a terrestrial palaeoecology was suggested for the turtle stem. Here, we present independent shell bone microstructural evidence for a terrestrial habitat of the oldest and basal most well-known turtles, i.e. the Upper Triassic Proterochersis robusta and Proganochelys quenstedti. Comparison of their shell bone histology with that of extant turtles preferring either aquatic habitats or terrestrial habitats clearly reveals congruence with terrestrial turtle taxa. Similarities in the shell bones of these turtles are a diploe structure with well-developed external and internal cortices, weak vascularization of the compact bone layers and a dense nature of the interior cancellous bone with overall short trabeculae. On the other hand, 'aquatic' turtles tend to reduce cortical bone layers, while increasing overall vascularization of the bone tissue. In contrast to the study of limb bone proportions, the present study is independent from the uncommon preservation of appendicular skeletal elements in fossil turtles, enabling the palaeoecological study of a much broader range of incompletely known turtle taxa in the fossil record.

  17. Modeling K,ATP-Dependent Excitability in Pancreatic Islets

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Jonathan R.; Cooper, Paige; Nichols, Colin G.

    2014-01-01

    In pancreatic β-cells, K,ATP channels respond to changes in glucose to regulate cell excitability and insulin release. Confirming a high sensitivity of electrical activity to K,ATP activity, mutations that cause gain of K,ATP function cause neonatal diabetes. Our aim was to quantitatively assess the contribution of K,ATP current to the regulation of glucose-dependent bursting by reproducing experimentally observed changes in excitability when K,ATP conductance is altered by genetic manipulation. A recent detailed computational model of single cell pancreatic β-cell excitability reproduces the β-cell response to varying glucose concentrations. However, initial simulations showed that the model underrepresents the significance of K,ATP activity and was unable to reproduce K,ATP conductance-dependent changes in excitability. By altering the ATP and glucose dependence of the L-type Ca2+ channel and the Na-K ATPase to better fit experiment, appropriate dependence of excitability on K,ATP conductance was reproduced. Because experiments were conducted in islets, which contain cell-to-cell variability, we extended the model from a single cell to a three-dimensional model (10×10×10 cell) islet with 1000 cells. For each cell, the conductance of the major currents was allowed to vary as was the gap junction conductance between cells. This showed that single cell glucose-dependent behavior was then highly variable, but was uniform in coupled islets. The study highlights the importance of parameterization of detailed models of β-cell excitability and suggests future experiments that will lead to improved characterization of β-cell excitability and the control of insulin secretion. PMID:25418087

  18. Dopamine release in the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Margaret E.; Patel, Jyoti C.; Cragg, Stephanie J.

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is a key transmitter in the basal ganglia, yet DA transmission does not conform to several aspects of the classic synaptic doctrine. Axonal DA release occurs through vesicular exocytosis and is action-potential and Ca2+ dependent. However, in addition to axonal release, DA neurons in midbrain exhibit somatodendritic release, by an incompletely understood, but apparently exocytotic mechanism. Even in striatum, axonal release sites are controversial, with evidence for DA varicosities that lack postsynaptic specialization, and largely extrasynaptic DA receptors and transporters. Moreover, DA release is often assumed to reflect a global response to a population of activities in midbrain DA neurons, whether tonic or phasic, with precise timing and specificity of action governed by other basal ganglia circuits. This view has been reinforced by anatomical evidence showing dense axonal DA arbors throughout striatum, and a lattice network formed by DA axons and glutamatergic input from cortex and thalamus. Nonetheless, localized DA transients are seen in vivo using voltammetric methods with high spatial and temporal resolution. Mechanistic studies using similar methods in vitro have revealed local regulation of DA release by other transmitters and modulators, as well as by proteins known to be disrupted in Parkinson’s disease and other movement disorders. Notably, the actions of most other striatal transmitters on DA release also do not conform to the synaptic doctrine, with the absence of direct synaptic contacts for glutamate, GABA and aceylcholie (ACh) on striatal DA axons. Overall, the findings reviewed here indicate that DA signaling in the basal ganglia is sculpted by cooperation between the timing and pattern of DA input and those of local regulatory factors. PMID:21939738

  19. Fractionation of a Basal Magma Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laneuville, M.; Hernlund, J. W.; Labrosse, S.

    2014-12-01

    Earth's magnetic field is thought to be sustained by dynamo action in a convecting metallic outer core since at least 3.45 Ga (Tarduno et al., 2010). Convection induces an isentropic temperature gradient that drains 13±3 TW of heat from the core by thermal conduction (de Koker et al., 2012; Pozzo et al., 2012; Gomi et al., 2013), and suggests that Earth's core has cooled by ˜1,000 K or more since Earth's formation (Gomi et al., 2013). However, models of Earth's initial thermal evolution following a giant-impact predict rapid cooling to the mantle melting temperature (e.g., Solomatov, 2007). In order to understand how the core could have retained enough heat to explain the age of the geodynamo, we relax a key assumption of the basal magma ocean model of (Labrosse et al., 2007) to allow for the possibility that the magma is stably stratified. Recent giant impact simulations suggest extensive core-mantle mixing (Saitoh and Makino, 2013), which could have produced such a large stratified magma layer at the core-mantle boundary. In the presence of a stable density gradient, heat transfer through the basal magma ocean occurs through conduction and therefore delays heat loss from the core. Partitioning of iron in the liquid phase upon crystallization changes the density profile and triggers convection in the upper part of the basal magma ocean. Our hypothesis suggests that early core cooling is dominated by the diffusion timescale through the basal magma ocean, and predicts a delayed onset of the geodynamo (i.e, during the late Headean/early Archean). This model can therefore be falsified if the existence of a geomagnetic field can be inferred from magnetization of inclusions in Hadean zircons. N. de Koker et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 190, 4070-4073 (2012).H. Gomi et al., Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 224, 88-103 (2013).S. Labrosse et al., Nature 450, 866-869 (2007).M. Pozzo et al., Nature 485, 355-358 (2012).T. Saitoh and J. Makino. Astrophys. J. 768, 44 (2013).V

  20. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miglierini, Marcel; Lančok, Adriana; Kopáni, Martin; Boča, Roman

    2014-10-01

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 μm in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding 57Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior.

  1. The Basal Ganglia and Adaptive Motor Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graybiel, Ann M.; Aosaki, Toshihiko; Flaherty, Alice W.; Kimura, Minoru

    1994-09-01

    The basal ganglia are neural structures within the motor and cognitive control circuits in the mammalian forebrain and are interconnected with the neocortex by multiple loops. Dysfunction in these parallel loops caused by damage to the striatum results in major defects in voluntary movement, exemplified in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. These parallel loops have a distributed modular architecture resembling local expert architectures of computational learning models. During sensorimotor learning, such distributed networks may be coordinated by widely spaced striatal interneurons that acquire response properties on the basis of experienced reward.

  2. Advanced treatment for basal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Atwood, Scott X; Whitson, Ramon J; Oro, Anthony E

    2014-07-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are very common epithelial cancers that depend on the Hedgehog pathway for tumor growth. Traditional therapies such as surgical excision are effective for most patients with sporadic BCC; however, better treatment options are needed for cosmetically sensitive or advanced and metastatic BCC. The first approved Hedgehog antagonist targeting the membrane receptor Smoothened, vismodegib, shows remarkable effectiveness on both syndromic and nonsyndromic BCCs. However, drug-resistant tumors frequently develop, illustrating the need for the development of next-generation Hedgehog antagonists targeting pathway components downstream from Smoothened. In this article, we will summarize available BCC treatment options and discuss the development of next-generation antagonists.

  3. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    SciTech Connect

    Miglierini, Marcel; Lančok, Adriana; Kopáni, Martin; Boča, Roman

    2014-10-27

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 μm in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior.

  4. Advanced Treatment for Basal Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Scott X.; Whitson, Ramon J.; Oro, Anthony E.

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are very common epithelial cancers that depend on the Hedgehog pathway for tumor growth. Traditional therapies such as surgical excision are effective for most patients with sporadic BCC; however, better treatment options are needed for cosmetically sensitive or advanced and metastatic BCC. The first approved Hedgehog antagonist targeting the membrane receptor Smoothened, vismodegib, shows remarkable effectiveness on both syndromic and nonsyndromic BCCs. However, drug-resistant tumors frequently develop, illustrating the need for the development of next-generation Hedgehog antagonists targeting pathway components downstream from Smoothened. In this article, we will summarize available BCC treatment options and discuss the development of next-generation antagonists. PMID:24985127

  5. TRPM7 is a molecular substrate of ATP-evoked P2X7-like currents in tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Nörenberg, Wolfgang; Plötz, Tanja; Sobottka, Helga; Chubanov, Vladimir; Mittermeier, Lorenz; Kalwa, Hermann; Aigner, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Within the ion channel–coupled purine receptor (P2X) family, P2X7 has gained particular interest because of its role in immune responses and in the growth control of several malignancies. Typical hallmarks of P2X7 are nonselective and noninactivating cation currents that are elicited by high concentrations (0.1–10 mM) of extracellular ATP. Here, we observe spurious ATP-induced currents in HEK293 cells that neither express P2X7 nor display ATP-induced Ca2+ influx or Yo-Pro-1 uptake. Although the biophysical properties of these ionic currents resemble those of P2X7 in terms of their reversal potential close to 0 mV, nonrectifying current-voltage relationship, current run-up during repeated ATP application, and augmentation in bath solutions containing low divalent cation (DIC) concentrations, they are poorly inhibited by established P2X7 antagonists. Because high ATP concentrations reduce the availability of DICs, these findings prompted us to ask whether other channel entities may become activated by our experimental regimen. Indeed, a bath solution with no added DICs yields similar currents and also a rapidly inactivating Na+-selective conductance. We provide evidence that TRPM7 and ASIC1a (acid-sensing ion channel type Ia)-like channels account for these noninactivating and phasic current components, respectively. Furthermore, we find ATP-induced currents in rat C6 glioma cells, which lack functional P2X receptors but express TRPM7. Thus, the observation of an atypical P2X7-like conductance may be caused by the activation of TRPM7 by ATP, which scavenges free DICs and thereby releases TRPM7 from permeation block. Because TRPM7 has a critical role in controlling the intracellular Mg2+ homeostasis and regulating tumor growth, these data imply that the proposed role of P2X7 in C6 glioma cell proliferation deserves reevaluation. PMID:27185858

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Universal Stress Protein Rv2623 Regulates Bacillary Growth by ATP Binding: Requirement for Establishing Chronic Persistent Infection

    SciTech Connect

    Drumm, J.; Mi, K; Bilder, P; Sun, M; Lim, J; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, H; Basaraba, R; So, M; Zhu, G; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    Tuberculous latency and reactivation play a significant role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, yet the mechanisms that regulate these processes remain unclear. The Mycobacterium tuberculosisuniversal stress protein (USP) homolog, rv2623, is among the most highly induced genes when the tubercle bacillus is subjected to hypoxia and nitrosative stress, conditions thought to promote latency. Induction of rv2623 also occurs when M. tuberculosis encounters conditions associated with growth arrest, such as the intracellular milieu of macrophages and in the lungs of mice with chronic tuberculosis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that Rv2623 regulates tuberculosis latency. We observed that an Rv2623-deficient mutant fails to establish chronic tuberculous infection in guinea pigs and mice, exhibiting a hypervirulence phenotype associated with increased bacterial burden and mortality. Consistent with this in vivo growth-regulatory role, constitutive overexpression of rv2623 attenuates mycobacterial growth in vitro. Biochemical analysis of purified Rv2623 suggested that this mycobacterial USP binds ATP, and the 2.9-A-resolution crystal structure revealed that Rv2623 engages ATP in a novel nucleotide-binding pocket. Structure-guided mutagenesis yielded Rv2623 mutants with reduced ATP-binding capacity. Analysis of mycobacteria overexpressing these mutants revealed that the in vitro growth-inhibitory property of Rv2623 correlates with its ability to bind ATP. Together, the results indicate that i M. tuberculosis Rv2623 regulates mycobacterial growth in vitro and in vivo, and ii Rv2623 is required for the entry of the tubercle bacillus into the chronic phase of infection in the host; in addition, iii Rv2623 binds ATP; and iv the growth-regulatory attribute of this USP is dependent on its ATP-binding activity. We propose that Rv2623 may function as an ATP-dependent signaling intermediate in a pathway that promotes persistent infection.

  7. MicroRNA-15b Modulates Cellular ATP Levels and Degenerates Mitochondria via Arl2 in Neonatal Rat Cardiac Myocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Hitoo; Ono, Koh; Iwanaga, Yoshitaka; Horie, Takahiro; Nagao, Kazuya; Takemura, Genzou; Kinoshita, Minako; Kuwabara, Yasuhide; Mori, Rieko Takanabe; Hasegawa, Koji; Kita, Toru; Kimura, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are small, non-coding RNAs that modulate mRNA stability and post-transcriptional translation. A growing body of evidence indicates that specific miRNAs can affect the cellular function of cardiomyocytes. In the present study, miRNAs that are highly expressed in the heart were overexpressed in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, and cellular ATP levels were assessed. As a result, miR-15b, -16, -195, and -424, which have the same seed sequence, the most critical determinant of miRNA targeting, decreased cellular ATP levels. These results suggest that these miRNAs could specifically down-regulate the same target genes and consequently decrease cellular ATP levels. Through a bioinformatics approach, ADP-ribosylation factor-like 2 (Arl2) was identified as a potential target of miR-15b. It has already been shown that Arl2 localizes to adenine nucleotide transporter 1, the exchanger of ADP/ATP in mitochondria. Overexpression of miR-15b, -16, -195, and -424 suppressed the activity of a luciferase reporter construct fused with the 3′-untranslated region of Arl2. In addition, miR-15b overexpression decreased Arl2 mRNA and protein expression levels. The effects of Arl2 siRNA on cellular ATP levels were the same as those of miR-15b, and the expression of Arl2 could restore ATP levels reduced by miR-15b. A loss-of-function study of miR-15b resulted in increased Arl2 protein and cellular ATP levels. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that mitochondria became degenerated in cardiomyocytes that had been transduced with miR-15b and Arl2 siRNA. The present results suggest that miR-15b may decrease mitochondrial integrity by targeting Arl2 in the heart. PMID:20007690

  8. Differences in G-actin containing bound ATP or ADP: the Mg2+-induced conformational change requires ATP.

    PubMed

    Frieden, C; Patane, K

    1985-07-16

    The role of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) in the Mg2+-induced conformational change of rabbit skeletal muscle G-actin has been investigated by comparing actin containing bound ADP with actin containing bound ATP. As previously described [Frieden, C. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 2882-2886], N-acetyl-N'-(5-sulfo-1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine-labeled G-actin containing ATP undergoes a time-dependent Mg2+-induced fluorescence change that reflects a conformational change in the actin. Addition of Mg2+ to labeled G-actin containing ADP gives no fluorescence change, suggesting that the conformational change does not occur. The fluorescence change can be restored on the addition of ATP. Examination of the time courses of these experiments suggests that ATP must replace ADP prior to the Mg2+-induced change. The Mg2+-induced polymerization of actin containing ADP is extraordinarily slow compared to that of actin containing ATP. The lack of the Mg2+-induced conformational change, which is an essential step in the Mg2+-induced polymerization, is probably the cause for the very slow polymerization of actin containing ADP. On the other hand, at 20 degrees C, at pH 8, and in 2 mM Mg2+, the elongation rate from the slow growing end of an actin filament, measured by using the protein brevin to block growth at the fast growing end, is only 4 times slower for actin containing ADP than for actin containing ATP.

  9. Dual recognition unit strategy improves the specificity of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) aptamer biosensor for cerebral ATP assay.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ping; He, Xiulan; Zhang, Li; Mao, Lanqun

    2015-01-20

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) aptamer has been widely used as a recognition unit for biosensor development; however, its relatively poor specificity toward ATP against adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP) essentially limits the application of the biosensors in real systems, especially in the complex cerebral system. In this study, for the first time, we demonstrate a dual recognition unit strategy (DRUS) to construct a highly selective and sensitive ATP biosensor by combining the recognition ability of aptamer toward A nucleobase and of polyimidazolium toward phosphate. The biosensors are constructed by first confining the polyimidazolium onto a gold surface by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP), and then the aptamer onto electrode surface by electrostatic self-assembly to form dual-recognition-unit-functionalized electrodes. The constructed biosensor based on DRUS not only shows an ultrahigh sensitivity toward ATP with a detection limit down to the subattomole level but also an ultrahigh selectivity toward ATP without interference from ADP and AMP. The constructed biosensor is used for selective and sensitive sensing of the extracellular ATP in the cerebral system by combining in vivo microdialysis and can be used as a promising neurotechnology to probing cerebral ATP concentration.

  10. A point mutation in the ATP synthase of Rhodobacter capsulatus results in differential contributions of Delta(pH) and Delta(phi) in driving the ATP synthesis reaction.

    PubMed

    Turina, Paola; Melandri, B Andrea

    2002-04-01

    The interface between the c-subunit oligomer and the a subunit in the F0 sector of the ATP synthase is believed to form the core of the rotating motor powered by the protonic flow. Besides the essential cAsp61 and aArg210 residues (Escherichia coli numbering), a few other residues at this interface, although nonessential, show a high degree of conservation, among these aGlu219. The homologous residue aGlu210 in the ATP synthase of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus has been substituted by a lysine. Inner membranes prepared from the mutant strain showed approximately half of the ATP synthesis activity when driven both by light and by acid-base transitions. As estimated with the ACMA assay, proton pumping rates in the inner membranes were also reduced to a similar extent in the mutant. The most striking impairment of ATP synthesis in the mutant, a decrease as low as 12 times as compared to the wild-type, was observed in the absence of a transmembrane electrical membrane potential (Delta(phi)) at low transmembrane pH difference (Delta(pH)). Therefore, the mutation seems to affect both the mechanism responsible for coupling F1 with proton translocation by F0, and the mechanism determining the relative contribution of Delta(pH) and Delta(phi) in driving ATP synthesis.

  11. Extracellular ATP a New Player in Cancer Metabolism: NSCLC Cells Internalize ATP In Vitro and In Vivo Using Multiple Endocytic Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yanrong; Wang, Xuan; Li, Yunsheng; Cao, Yanyang; Chen, Xiaozhuo

    2016-11-01

    Intratumoral extracellular ATP concentrations are 1000 times higher than those in normal tissues of the same cell origin. However, whether or not cancer cells use the abundant extracellular ATP was unknown until we recently reported that cancer cells internalize ATP. The internalized ATP was found to substantially increase intracellular ATP concentration and promote cell proliferation and drug resistance in cancer cells. Here, using a nonhydrolyzable fluorescent ATP (NHF-ATP), radioactive and regular ATP, coupled with high and low molecular weight dextrans as endocytosis tracers and fluorescence microscopy and ATP assays, cultured human NSCLC A549 and H1299 cells as well as A549 tumor xenografts were found to internalize extracellular ATP at concentrations within the reported intratumoral extracellular ATP concentration range. In addition to macropinocytosis, both clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis significantly contribute to the ATP internalization, which led to an approximately 30% (within 45 minutes) or more than 50% (within 4 hours) increase in intracellular ATP levels after ATP incubation. This increase could not be accounted for by either purinergic receptor signaling or increased intracellular ATP synthesis rates in the ATP-treated cancer cells. These new findings significantly deepen our understanding of the Warburg effect by shedding light on how cancer cells in tumors, which are heterogeneous for oxygen and nutrition supplies, take up extracellular ATP and use the internalized ATP to perform multiple previously unrecognized functions of biological importance. They strongly suggest the existence of ATP sharing among cancer and stromal cells in tumors and simultaneously identify multiple new anticancer targets.

  12. Piperine Suppresses Pyroptosis and Interleukin-1β Release upon ATP Triggering and Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yi-Dan; Bai, Wen-Jing; Li, Chen-Guang; Xu, Li-Hui; Wei, Hong-Xia; Pan, Hao; He, Xian-Hui; Ouyang, Dong-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Piperine is a phytochemical present in black pepper (Piper nigrum Linn) and other related herbs, possessing a wide array of pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory effects. Previously, we demonstrated that piperine has therapeutic effects on bacterial sepsis in mice, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the influences of piperine on pyroptosis in murine macrophages. The results showed that piperine dose-dependently inhibited ATP-induced pyroptosis, thereby suppressing interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) release in LPS-primed bone marrow-derived macrophages and J774A.1 cells. Accompanying this, ATP-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation was greatly suppressed by piperine, whereas AMPK agonist metformin counteracted piperine’s inhibitory effects on pyroptosis. Moreover, piperine administration greatly reduced both peritoneal and serum IL-1β levels in the mouse model intraperitoneally infected with Escherichia coli, suggestive of suppressing systemic inflammation and pyroptosis. Our data indicated that piperine could protect macrophages from pyroptosis and reduced IL-1β and HMGB1 release by suppressing ATP-induced AMPK activation, suggesting that piperine may become a potential therapeutic agent against bacterial sepsis. PMID:27812336

  13. Multiphoton imaging of basal cell carcinoma (BCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicchi, R.; Carli, P.; Massi, D.; Sestini, S.; Stambouli, D.; Pavone, F. S.

    2006-02-01

    We used two-photon microscopy towards the imaging of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Our aim was to evaluate the morphology of BCC using two-photon fluorescence excitation and to establish a correlation with histopathology. We built a custom two-photon microscope and we measured the system capabilities. The system allowed to perform a preliminary measurement on a fresh human skin tissue sample. A human skin tissue sample of BCC excised during dermatological surgery procedures were used. The clinical diagnosis of BCC was confirmed by subsequent histopathological examination. The sample was imaged using endogenous tissue fluorescence within 2-3 hours from the excision with a two photon laser scanning fluorescence microscope. The acquired images allowed an obvious discrimination of the neoplastic areas toward normal tissue, based on morphological differences and aberrations of the intensity of the fluorescence signal. Our results showed that BCC tissue has a more homogeneous structure in comparison to normal tissue as well as a higher fluorescent response. The images obtained by two photon microscopy were further compared to the images acquired by an optical microscope after the conventional histopathological examination on one part of the respective sample. Our suggested method may represent a new diagnostic tool that improves the diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination alone, enabling the accurate discrimination of basal cell carcinoma from normal tissue.

  14. Evolution of basal deuterostome nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Holland, Linda Z

    2015-02-15

    Understanding the evolution of deuterostome nervous systems has been complicated by the by the ambiguous phylogenetic position of the Xenocoelomorpha (Xenoturbellids, acoel flat worms, nemertodermatids), which has been placed either as basal bilaterians, basal deuterostomes or as a sister group to the hemichordate/echinoderm clade (Ambulacraria), which is a sister group of the Chordata. None of these groups has a single longitudinal nerve cord and a brain. A further complication is that echinoderm nerve cords are not likely to be evolutionarily related to the chordate central nervous system. For hemichordates, opinion is divided as to whether either one or none of the two nerve cords is homologous to the chordate nerve cord. In chordates, opposition by two secreted signaling proteins, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, regulates partitioning of the ectoderm into central and peripheral nervous systems. Similarly, in echinoderm larvae, opposition between BMP and Nodal positions the ciliary band and regulates its extent. The apparent loss of this opposition in hemichordates is, therefore, compatible with the scenario, suggested by Dawydoff over 65 years ago, that a true centralized nervous system was lost in hemichordates.

  15. High porosity of basal till at Burroughs glacier, southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Ronnert, L.; Mickelson, D.M. )

    1992-09-01

    Debris-rich basal ice at Burroughs glacier, southeastern Alaska, has 60 vol% to 70 vol% debris. Recently deposited basal till exceeds 60 vol% sediment with 30% to almost 40% porosity. Where basal ice is very rich in debris, basal till is deposited through melt out with only slight compaction of the debris. Porosity this high in till is commonly associated with subglacially deforming and dilated sediment. However, the recently deposited basal melt-out till at Burroughs glacier has not been deformed after deposition, but has porosity values similar to tills elsewhere interpreted to be subglacially deforming and dilated in an unfrozen state. High porosity can occur in basal melt-out till deposited directly by basal melt out.

  16. Thymoquinone Inhibits Escherichia coli ATP Synthase and Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Laughlin, Thomas F; Kady, Ismail O

    2015-01-01

    We examined the thymoquinone induced inhibition of purified F1 or membrane bound F1FO E. coli ATP synthase. Both purified F1 and membrane bound F1FO were completely inhibited by thymoquinone with no residual ATPase activity. The process of inhibition was fully reversible and identical in both membrane bound F1Fo and purified F1 preparations. Moreover, thymoquinone induced inhibition of ATP synthase expressing wild-type E. coli cell growth and non-inhibition of ATPase gene deleted null control cells demonstrates that ATP synthase is a molecular target for thymoquinone. This also links the beneficial dietary based antimicrobial and anticancer effects of thymoquinone to its inhibitory action on ATP synthase.

  17. Thymoquinone Inhibits Escherichia coli ATP Synthase and Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Laughlin, Thomas F.; Kady, Ismail O.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the thymoquinone induced inhibition of purified F1 or membrane bound F1FO E. coli ATP synthase. Both purified F1 and membrane bound F1FO were completely inhibited by thymoquinone with no residual ATPase activity. The process of inhibition was fully reversible and identical in both membrane bound F1Fo and purified F1 preparations. Moreover, thymoquinone induced inhibition of ATP synthase expressing wild-type E. coli cell growth and non-inhibition of ATPase gene deleted null control cells demonstrates that ATP synthase is a molecular target for thymoquinone. This also links the beneficial dietary based antimicrobial and anticancer effects of thymoquinone to its inhibitory action on ATP synthase. PMID:25996607

  18. Distinct neurological disorders with ATP1A3 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Heinzen, Erin L.; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Brashear, Allison; Clapcote, Steven J.; Gurrieri, Fiorella; Goldstein, David B.; Jóhannesson, Sigurður H.; Mikati, Mohamad A.; Neville, Brian; Nicole, Sophie; Ozelius, Laurie J.; Poulsen, Hanne; Schyns, Tsveta; Sweadner, Kathleen J.; van den Maagdenberg, Arn; Vilsen, Bente

    2014-01-01

    Genetic research has shown that mutations that modify the protein-coding sequence of ATP1A3, the gene encoding the α3 subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase, cause both rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism and alternating hemiplegia of childhood. These discoveries link two clinically distinct neurological diseases to the same gene, however, ATP1A3 mutations are, with one exception, disease-specific. Although the exact mechanism of how these mutations lead to disease is still unknown, much knowledge has been gained about functional consequences of ATP1A3 mutations using a range of in vitro and animal model systems, and the role of Na+/K+-ATPases in the brain. Researchers and clinicians are attempting to further characterise neurological manifestations associated with mutations in ATP1A3, and to build on the existing molecular knowledge to understand how specific mutations can lead to different diseases. PMID:24739246

  19. Novel Hedgehog pathway targets against basal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jean Y. So, P.-L.; Epstein, Ervin H.

    2007-11-01

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a key role in directing growth and patterning during embryonic development and is required in vertebrates for the normal development of many structures, including the neural tube, axial skeleton, skin, and hair. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in adult tissue is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), medulloblastoma, and a subset of pancreatic, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. This review will provide an overview of what is known about the mechanisms by which activation of Hedgehog signaling leads to the development of BCCs and will review two recent papers suggesting that agents that modulate sterol levels might influence the Hh pathway. Thus, sterols may be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of BCCs, and readily available agents such as statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) or vitamin D might be helpful in reducing BCC incidence.

  20. Variations of ATP and its metabolites in the hippocampus of rats subjected to pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Doná, Flávia; Conceição, Isaltino Marcelo; Ulrich, Henning; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Freitas, Thalma Ariani; Nencioni, Ana Leonor Abrahao; da Silva Fernandes, Maria José

    2016-06-01

    Although purinergic receptor activity has lately been associated with epilepsy, little is known about the exact role of purines in epileptogenesis. We have used a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy induced by pilocarpine to study the dynamics of purine metabolism in the hippocampus during different times of status epilepticus (SE) and the chronic phase. Concentrations of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and adenosine in normal and epileptic rat hippocampus were determined by microdialysis in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Extracellular ATP concentrations did not vary along 4 h of SE onset. However, AMP concentration was elevated during the second hour, whereas ADP and adenosine concentrations augmented during the third and fourth hour following SE. During chronic phase, extracellular ATP, ADP, AMP, and adenosine concentrations decreased, although these levels again increased significantly during spontaneous seizures. These results suggest that the increased turnover of ATP during the acute period is a compensatory mechanism able to reduce the excitatory role of ATP. Increased adenosine levels following 4 h of SE may contribute to block seizures. On the other hand, the reduction of purine levels in the hippocampus of chronic epileptic rats may result from metabolic changes and be part of the mechanisms involved in the onset of spontaneous seizures. This work provides further insights into purinergic signaling during establishment and chronic phase of epilepsy.

  1. A Comparative Study of Vasorelaxant Effects of ATP, ADP, and Adenosine on the Superior Mesenteric Artery of SHR.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shun; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Ando, Makoto; Kobayashi, Shota; Iguchi, Maika; Taguchi, Kumiko; Kobayashi, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated superior mesenteric arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) to determine the relaxation responses induced by ATP, ADP, and adenosine and the relationship between the relaxant effects of these compounds and nitric oxide (NO) or cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived prostanoids. In rat superior mesenteric artery, relaxation induced by ATP and ADP but not by adenosine was completely eliminated by endothelial denudation. In the superior mesenteric arteries isolated from SHR [vs. age-matched control Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY)], a) ATP- and ADP-induced relaxations were weaker, whereas adenosine-induced relaxation was similar in both groups, b) ATP- and ADP-induced relaxations were substantially and partly reduced by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine [a NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor], respectively, c) indomethacin, an inhibitor of COX, increased ATP- and ADP-induced relaxations, d) ADP-induced relaxation was weaker under combined inhibition by NOS and COX, and e) adenosine-induced relaxation was not altered by treatment with these inhibitors. These data indicate that levels of responsiveness to these nucleotides/adenosine vary in the superior mesenteric arteries from SHR and WKY and are differentially modulated by NO and COX-derived prostanoids.

  2. The Tomato R Gene Products I-2 and Mi-1 Are Functional ATP Binding Proteins with ATPase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tameling, Wladimir I. L.; Elzinga, Sandra D. J.; Darmin, Patricia S.; Vossen, Jack H.; Takken, Frank L. W.; Haring, Michel A.; Cornelissen, Ben J. C.

    2002-01-01

    Most plant disease resistance (R) genes known today encode proteins with a central nucleotide binding site (NBS) and a C-terminal Leu-rich repeat (LRR) domain. The NBS contains three ATP/GTP binding motifs known as the kinase-1a or P-loop, kinase-2, and kinase-3a motifs. In this article, we show that the NBS of R proteins forms a functional nucleotide binding pocket. The N-terminal halves of two tomato R proteins, I-2 conferring resistance to Fusarium oxysporum and Mi-1 conferring resistance to root-knot nematodes and potato aphids, were produced as glutathione S-transferase fusions in Escherichia coli. In a filter binding assay, purified I-2 was found to bind ATP rather than other nucleoside triphosphates. ATP binding appeared to be fully dependent on the presence of a divalent cation. A mutant I-2 protein containing a mutation in the P-loop showed a strongly reduced ATP binding capacity. Thin layer chromatography revealed that both I-2 and Mi-1 exerted ATPase activity. Based on the strong conservation of NBS domains in R proteins of the NBS-LRR class, we propose that they all are capable of binding and hydrolyzing ATP. PMID:12417711

  3. Fusion of mitochondria in tobacco suspension cultured cells is dependent on the cellular ATP level but not on actin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Kairo; Fujimoto, Masaru; Nakazono, Mikio; Arimura, Shin-ichi; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro

    2010-10-01

    Mitochondria in plant cells undergo fusion and fission frequently. Although the mechanisms and proteins of mitochondrial fusion are well known in yeast and mammalian cells, they remain poorly understood in plant cells. To clarify the physiological requirements for plant mitochondrial fusion, we investigated the fusion frequency of mitochondria in tobacco cultured cells using the photoconvertible fluorescent protein Kaede and some physiological inhibitors. The latter included two uncouplers, 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), an inhibitor of mitochondrial ATP synthase, oligomycin, and an actin polymerization inhibitor, latrunculin B (Lat B). The frequency of mitochondrial fusion was clearly reduced by DNP, CCCP and oligomycin, but not by Lat B, although Lat B severely inhibited mitochondrial movement. Moreover, DNP, CCCP and oligomycin evidently lowered the cellular ATP levels. These results indicate that plant mitochondrial fusion depends on the cellular ATP level, but not on actin polymerization.

  4. FGF-1 induces ATP release from spinal astrocytes in culture and opens pannexin and connexin hemichannels

    PubMed Central

    Garré, Juan M.; Retamal, Mauricio A.; Cassina, Patricia; Barbeito, Luis; Bukauskas, Feliksas F.; Sáez, Juan C.; Bennett, Michael V. L.; Abudara, Verónica

    2010-01-01

    Spinal astrocytes are coupled by connexin (Cx) gap junctions and express pannexin 1 (Px1) and purinergic receptors. Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1), which is released in spinal cord injury, activated spinal astrocytes in culture, induced secretion of ATP, and permeabilized them to relatively large fluorescent tracers [ethidium (Etd) and lucifer yellow (LY)] through “hemichannels” (HCs). HCs can be formed by connexins or pannexins; they can open to extracellular space or can form gap junction (GJ) channels, one HC from each cell. (Pannexins may not form gap junctions in mammalian tissues, but they do in invertebrates). HC types were differentiated pharmacologically and by Px1 knockdown with siRNA and by use of astrocytes from Cx43 knockout mice. Permeabilization was reduced by apyrase (APY), an ATPase, and by P2X7 receptor antagonists, implicating secretion of ATP and autocrine and/or paracrine action. Increased permeability of cells exposed to FGF-1 or ATP for 2 h was mediated largely by Px1 HCs activated by P2X7 receptors. After a 7-h treatment, the permeability was mediated by both Cx43 and Px1 HCs. FGF-1 also caused reduction in gap junctional communication. Botulinum neurotoxin A, a blocker of vesicular release, reduced permeabilization when given 30 min before FGF-1 application, but not when given 1 h after FGF-1. We infer that ATP is initially released from vesicles and then it mediates continued release by action on P2X7 receptors and opening of HCs. These changes in HCs and gap junction channels may promote inflammation and deprive neurons of astrocyte-mediated protection in spinal cord trauma and neurodegenerative disease. PMID:21148774

  5. Conformational change opening the CFTR chloride channel pore coupled to ATP-dependent gating.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wuyang; Linsdell, Paul

    2012-03-01

    Opening and closing of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel are controlled by ATP binding and hydrolysis by its nucleotide binding domains (NBDs). This is presumed to control opening of a single "gate" within the permeation pathway, however, the location of such a gate has not been described. We used patch clamp recording to monitor access of cytosolic cysteine reactive reagents to cysteines introduced into different transmembrane (TM) regions in a cysteine-less form of CFTR. The rate of modification of Q98C (TM1) and I344C (TM6) by both [2-sulfonatoethyl] methanethiosulfonate (MTSES) and permeant Au(CN)(2)(-) ions was reduced when ATP concentration was reduced from 1mM to 10μM, and modification by MTSES was accelerated when 2mM pyrophosphate was applied to prevent channel closure. Modification of K95C (TM1) and V345C (TM6) was not affected by these manoeuvres. We also manipulated gating by introducing the mutations K464A (in NBD1) and E1371Q (in NBD2). The rate of modification of Q98C and I344C by both MTSES and Au(CN)(2)(-) was decreased by K464A and increased by E1371Q, whereas modification of K95C and V345C was not affected. These results suggest that access from the cytoplasm to K95 and V345 is similar in open and closed channels. In contrast, modifying ATP-dependent channel gating alters access to Q98 and I344, located further into the pore. We propose that ATP-dependent gating of CFTR is associated with the opening and closing of a gate within the permeation pathway at the level of these pore-lining amino acids.

  6. Follow the ATP: tumor energy production: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Oronsky, Bryan T; Oronsky, Neil; Fanger, Gary R; Parker, Christopher W; Caroen, Scott Z; Lybeck, Michelle; Scicinski, Jan J

    2014-01-01

    As early as the 1920s, the eminent physician and chemist, Otto Warburg, nominated for a second Nobel Prize for his work on fermentation, observed that the core metabolic signature of cancer cells is a high glycolytic flux. Warburg averred that the prime mover of cancer is defective mitochondrial respiration, which drives a switch to an alternative energy source, aerobic glycolysis in lieu of Oxidative Phosphorylation (OXPHOS), in an attempt to maintain cellular viability and support critical macromolecular needs. The cell, deprived of mitochondrial ATP production, must reprogram its metabolism as a secondary survival mechanism to maintain sufficient ATP and NADH levels for macromolecule production, membrane integrity and DNA synthesis as well as maintenance of membrane ionic gradients. A time-tested method to identify and disrupt criminal activity is to "follow the money" since the illicit proceeds from crime are required to underwrite it. By analogy, strategies to target cancer involve following and disrupting the flow of ATP and NADH, the energetic and redox "currencies" of the cell, respectively, since the tumor requires high levels of ATP and NADH, not only for metastasis and proliferation, but also, on a more basic level, for survival. Accordingly, four broad ATP reduction strategies to impact and potentially derail cancer energy production are highlighted herein: 1) small molecule energy-restriction mimetic agents (ERMAs) that target various aspects of energy metabolism, 2) reduction of energy 'subsidization' with autophagy inhibitors, 3) acceleration of ATP turnover to increase energy inefficiency, and 4) dietary energy restriction to limit the energy supply.

  7. ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitin-protein conjugates.

    PubMed Central

    Hershko, A; Leshinsky, E; Ganoth, D; Heller, H

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the ATP-requiring conjugation of ubiquitin with proteins plays a role in the energy-dependent degradation of intracellular proteins. To examine whether such conjugates are indeed intermediates in protein breakdown, conjugates of 125I-labeled lysozyme with ubiquitin were isolated and incubated with a fraction of reticulocyte extract that lacks the enzymes that carry out ubiquitin-protein conjugation. ATP markedly stimulated degradation of the lysozyme moiety of ubiquitin conjugates to products soluble in trichloroacetic acid. By contrast, free 125I-labeled lysozyme was not degraded under these conditions, unless ubiquitin and the three enzymes required for ubiquitin conjugation were supplemented. Mg2+ was absolutely required for conjugate breakdown. Of various nucleotides, only CTP replaced ATP. Nonhydrolyzable analogs of ATP were not effective. In the absence of ATP, free lysozyme is released from ubiquitin-lysozyme conjugates by isopeptidases present in the extract. Thus, ATP is involved in both the formation and the breakdown of ubiquitin-protein conjugates. Images PMID:6324208

  8. [ATP pool and bioluminescence in psychrophilic bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum].

    PubMed

    Alekserova, L É; Alenina, K A; Efremenko, E N; Mazhul', M M; Piskunova, N F; Ismailov, A D

    2014-01-01

    Bioluminescence activity and ATP pool were investigated in the culture of psychrophilic bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum collected-from the exponential and stationary growth phases, as well as immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel. In liquid culture, ATP pool remained at an almost a constant level throughout the luminescence cycle (over 100 h). The ATP pool in the stationary-phase and PVA-immobilizedl cells remained constant throughout their incubation in the medium (over 200 h) and in 3% NaCl solution (over 100 h): Quantitative assessment of integral photon yield and ATP pool indicated that bioluminescence decay in growing or stationary cells was not caused by limitation by the energy substrates of the luciferase reaction. Kinetic and quantitative parameters of emission activity and ATP pool excluded the possibility of formation of the aldehyde substrate for luciferase via reduction of the relevant fatty acids in NADPH and ATP-dependent reductase reaction and its oxidation in the monooxygenase reaction. Our results indicate that the aliphatic aldehyde is not utilized in the process of light emission.

  9. Catalytic Mechanism of the Maltose Transporter Hydrolyzing ATP.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenting; Liao, Jie-Lou

    2016-01-12

    We use quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) simulations to study ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by the maltose transporter. This protein is a prototypical member of a large family that consists of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. The ABC proteins catalyze ATP hydrolysis to perform a variety of biological functions. Despite extensive research efforts, the precise molecular mechanism of ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by the ABC enzymes remains elusive. In this work, the reaction pathway for ATP hydrolysis in the maltose transporter is evaluated using a QM/MM implementation of the nudged elastic band method without presuming reaction coordinates. The potential of mean force along the reaction pathway is obtained with an activation free energy of 19.2 kcal/mol in agreement with experiments. The results demonstrate that the reaction proceeds via a dissociative-like pathway with a trigonal bipyramidal transition state in which the cleavage of the γ-phosphate P-O bond occurs and the O-H bond of the lytic water molecule is not yet broken. Our calculations clearly show that the Walker B glutamate as well as the switch histidine stabilizes the transition state via electrostatic interactions rather than serving as a catalytic base. The results are consistent with biochemical and structural experiments, providing novel insight into the molecular mechanism of ATP hydrolysis in the ABC proteins.

  10. A genetically encoded fluorescent reporter of ATP/ADP ratio

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Jim; Hung, Yin Pun; Yellen, Gary

    2008-01-01

    A fluorescent sensor of adenylate nucleotides was constructed by combining a circularly permuted variant of green fluorescent protein with a bacterial regulatory protein, GlnK1, from Methanococcus jannaschii. The affinity for Mg-ATP is below 100 nM, as seen for the other members of the bacterial PII regulator family – a surprisingly high affinity given normal intracellular [ATP] in the millimolar range. ADP binds to the same site, competing with Mg-ATP but producing a smaller change in fluorescence. With normal physiological concentrations of ATP and ADP, the binding site is saturated, but competition between the two substrates causes the sensor to behave as a nearly ideal reporter of the ATP/ADP concentration ratio. This principle for sensing the ratio of two analytes by competition at a high affinity site probably underlies the normal functioning of PII regulatory proteins. The engineered sensor, Perceval, can be used to monitor the ATP/ADP ratio during live cell imaging. PMID:19122669

  11. Adenoid basal hyperplasia of the uterine cervix: a lesion of reserve cell type, distinct from adenoid basal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kerdraon, Olivier; Cornélius, Aurélie; Farine, Marie-Odile; Boulanger, Loïc; Wacrenier, Agnès

    2012-12-01

    Adenoid basal hyperplasia is an underrecognized cervical lesion, resembling adenoid basal carcinoma, except the absence of deep invasion into the stroma. We report a series of 10 cases, all extending less than 1 mm from the basement membrane. Our results support the hypothesis that adenoid basal hyperplasia arises from reserve cells of the cervix. Lesions were found close to the squamocolumnar junction, in continuity with the nearby subcolumnar reserve cells. They shared the same morphology and immunoprofile using a panel of 4 antibodies (keratin 5/6, keratin 14, keratin 7 and p63) designed to differentiate reserve cells from mature squamous cells and endocervical columnar cells. We detected no human papillomavirus infection by in situ hybridization targeting high-risk human papillomavirus, which was concordant with the absence of immunohistochemical p16 expression. We demonstrated human papillomavirus infection in 4 (80%) of 5 adenoid basal carcinoma, which is in the same range as previous studies (88%). Thus, adenoid basal hyperplasia should be distinguished from adenoid basal carcinoma because they imply different risk of human papillomavirus infection and of subsequent association with high-grade invasive carcinoma. In our series, the most reliable morphological parameters to differentiate adenoid basal hyperplasia from adenoid basal carcinoma were the depth of the lesion and the size of the lesion nests. Furthermore, squamous differentiation was rare in adenoid basal hyperplasia and constant in adenoid basal carcinoma. Finally, any mitotic activity and/or an increase of Ki67 labeling index should raise the hypothesis of adenoid basal carcinoma.

  12. Effect of tributyltin (TBT) on ATP levels in human natural killer (NK) cells: relationship to TBT-induced decreases in NK function.

    PubMed

    Dudimah, Fred D; Odman-Ghazi, Sabah O; Hatcher, Frank; Whalen, Margaret M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role that tributyltin (TBT)-induced decreases in ATP levels may play in TBT-induced decreases in the tumor lysing (lytic) function of natural killer (NK) cells. NK cells are a subset of lymphocytes that act as an initial immune defense against tumor cells and virally infected cells. TBT is an environmental contaminant that has been detected in human blood, which has been shown to interfere with ATP synthesis. Previous studies have shown that TBT is able to decrease very significantly the lytic function of NK cells. In this study NK cells were exposed to various concentrations of TBT and to two other compounds that interfere with ATP synthesis (rotenone a complex I inhibitor and oligomycin an ATP synthase inhibitor) for various lengths of time before determining the levels of ATP and lytic function. Exposures of NK cells to 10, 25, 50 and 100 nm TBT did not significantly reduce ATP levels after 24 h. However, these same exposures caused significant decreases in cytotoxic function. Studies of brief 1 h exposures to a range of TBT, rotenone and oligomycin concentrations followed by 24 h, 48 h and 6 day periods in compound-free media prior to assaying for ATP levels or cytotoxic function showed that each of the compounds caused persistent decreases in ATP levels and lytic function of NK cells. Exposures to 0.05-5 microm rotenone or oligomycin for 1 h reduced ATP levels by 20-25% but did not have any measurable effect on the ability of NK cells to lyse tumor cells. ATP levels were also decreased by about 20-25% after 24 h or 48 h exposures to rotenone or oligomycin (0.5 microm ), and the lytic function was decreased by about 50%. The results suggest that TBT-induced decreases in ATP levels were not responsible for the loss of cytotoxic function seen at 1 h and 24 h. However, TBT-induced decreases of NK-ATP levels may be at least in part responsible for losses of NK-cytotoxic function seen after 48 h and 6 day exposures.

  13. ATP and heat production in human skeletal muscle during dynamic exercise: higher efficiency of anaerobic than aerobic ATP resynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Krustrup, Peter; Ferguson, Richard A; Kjær, Michael; Bangsbo, Jens

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to simultaneously examine skeletal muscle heat production and ATP turnover in humans during dynamic exercise with marked differences in aerobic metabolism. This was done to test the hypothesis that efficiency is higher in anaerobic than aerobic ATP resynthesis. Six healthy male subjects performed 90 s of low intensity knee-extensor exercise with (OCC) and without thigh occlusion (CON-LI) as well as 90 s of high intensity exercise (CON-HI) that continued from the CON-LI bout. Muscle heat production was determined by continuous measurements of muscle heat accumulation and heat release to the blood. Muscle ATP production was quantified by repeated measurements of thigh oxygen uptake as well as blood and muscle metabolite changes. All temperatures of the thigh were equalized to ≈37 °C prior to exercise by a water-perfused heating cuff. Oxygen uptake accounted for 80 ± 2 and 59 ± 4 %, respectively, of the total ATP resynthesis in CON-LI and CON-HI, whereas it was negligible in OCC. The rise in muscle temperature was lower (P < 0.05) in OCC than CON-LI (0.32 ± 0.04 vs. 0.37 ± 0.03 °C). The mean rate of heat production was also lower (P < 0.05) in OCC than CON-LI (36 ± 4 vs. 57 ± 4 J s−1). Mechanical efficiency was 52 ± 4 % after 15 s of OCC and remained constant, whereas it decreased (P < 0.05) from 56 ± 5 to 32 ± 3 % during CON-LI. During CON-HI, mechanical efficiency transiently increased (P < 0.05) to 47 ± 4 %, after which it decreased (P < 0.05) to 36 ± 3 % at the end of CON-HI. Assuming a fully coupled mitochondrial respiration, the ATP turnover per unit of work was calculated to be unaltered during OCC (≈20 mmol ATP kJ−1), whereas it increased (P < 0.05) from 21 ± 4 to 29 ± 3 mmol ATP kJ−1 during CON-LI and further (P < 0.05) to 37 ± 3 mmol ATP kJ−1 during CON-HI. The present data confirm the hypothesis that heat loss is lower in anaerobic ATP resynthesis than in oxidative phosphorylation and can in part

  14. The dermatoscopic universe of basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lallas, Aimilios; Apalla, Zoe; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Longo, Caterina; Moscarella, Elvira; Specchio, Francesca; Raucci, Margaritha; Zalaudek, Iris

    2014-07-01

    Following the first descriptions of the dermatoscopic pattern of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that go back to the very early years of dermatoscopy, the list of dermatoscopic criteria associated with BCC has been several times updated and renewed. Up to date, dermatoscopy has been shown to enhance BCC detection, by facilitating its discrimination from other skin tumors and inflammatory skin diseases. Furthermore, upcoming evidence suggests that the method is also useful for the management of the tumor, since it provides valuable information about the histopathologic subtype, the presence of clinically undetectable pigmentation, the expansion of the tumor beyond clinically visible margins and the response to non-ablative treatments. In the current article, we provide a summary of the traditional and latest knowledge on the value of dermatoscopy for the diagnosis and management of BCC.

  15. cDNA, genomic sequence cloning and overexpression of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) mitochondrial ATP synthase ATP5G1.

    PubMed

    Hou, W-R; Hou, Y-L; Ding, X; Wang, T

    2012-09-03

    The ATP5G1 gene is one of the three genes that encode mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit c of the proton channel. We cloned the cDNA and determined the genomic sequence of the ATP5G1 gene from the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) using RT-PCR technology and touchdown-PCR, respectively. The cloned cDNA fragment contains an open reading frame of 411 bp encoding 136 amino acids; the length of the genomic sequence is of 1838 bp, containing three exons and two introns. Alignment analysis revealed that the nucleotide sequence and the deduced protein sequence are highly conserved compared to Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Bos taurus, and Sus scrofa. The homologies for nucleotide sequences of the giant panda ATP5G1 to those of these species are 93.92, 92.21, 92.46, 93.67, and 92.46%, respectively, and the homologies for amino acid sequences are 90.44, 95.59, 93.38, 94.12, and 91.91%, respectively. Topology prediction showed that there is one protein kinase C phosphorylation site, one casein kinase II phosphorylation site, five N-myristoylation sites, and one ATP synthase c subunit signature in the ATP5G1 protein of the giant panda. The cDNA of ATP5G1 was transfected into Escherichia coli, and the ATP5G1 fused with the N-terminally GST-tagged protein gave rise to accumulation of an expected 40-kDa polypeptide, which had the characteristics of the predicted protein.

  16. ATP Induced Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression and Release from Osteoarthritis Synovial Fibroblasts Is Mediated by Purinergic Receptor P2X4

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Kerstin; Aeschlimann, André; Jordan, Suzana; Gay, Renate; Gay, Steffen; Sprott, Haiko

    2012-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neuromodulator involved in nociceptive hypersensitivity in the central nervous system, is also expressed in synoviocytes of osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. We investigated the role of P2 purinoreceptors in the induction of BDNF expression in synovial fibroblasts (SF) of OA and RA patients. Cultured SF from patients with symptomatic knee OA and RA were stimulated with purinoreceptor agonists ATP, ADP, or UTP. The expression of BDNF mRNA was measured by quantitative TaqMan PCR. BDNF release into cell culture supernatants was monitored by ELISA. P2X4 expression in synovial tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. Endogenous P2X4 expression was decreased by siRNA transfection before ATP stimulation. Kinase pathways were blocked before ATP stimulation. BDNF mRNA expression levels in OASF were increased 2 h and 5 h after ATP stimulation. Mean BDNF levels in cell culture supernatants of unstimulated OASF and RASF were 19 (±9) and 67 (±49) pg/ml, respectively. BDNF levels in SF supernatants were only elevated 5 h after ATP stimulation. BDNF mRNA expression in OASF was induced both by P2X receptor agonists ATP and ADP, but not by UTP, an agonist of P2Y purinergic receptors. The ATP-induced BDNF mRNA expression in OASF was decreased by siRNA-mediated reduction of endogenous P2X4 levels compared to scrambled controls. Inhibition of p38, but not p44/42 signalling reduced the ATP-mediated BDNF mRNA induction. Here we show a functional role of the purinergic receptor P2X4 and p38 kinase in the ATP-induced expression and release of the neurotrophin BDNF in SF. PMID:22715356

  17. Revisiting the thermodynamic theory of optimal ATP stoichiometries by analysis of various ATP-producing metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Werner, Sarah; Diekert, Gabriele; Schuster, Stefan

    2010-12-01

    The stoichiometry of ATP-producing metabolic pathways had been analysed theoretically by several authors by using evolutionary arguments and optimality principles. Waddell et al. (Biochem Educ 27:12-13, 1999) analysed (lactate-producing) glycolysis and used linear irreversible thermodynamics. The result was that half of the free-energy difference should be converted into free-energy of ATP and the remaining half should be used to drive the pathway. The calculated stoichiometry is in agreement with the observed yield of two moles of ATP per mole of glucose. Using the same approach, we here analyse eight other metabolic pathways. Although the deviation is not very large, the calculated values do not fit as nicely as for glycolysis as leading to lactate. For example, for O₂ respiration, the theoretical ATP yield equals 27.9. The real value varies among organisms between 26 and 38. For mixed-acid fermentation in Escherichia coli, the theoretical and experimental values are 2.24 and 2, respectively. For arginine degradation in M. pneumoniae, the calculated value is 2.43 mol of ATP, while in vivo only one mole is produced. During evolution, some pathways may not have reached their optimal ATP net production because energy yield is not their only function. Moreover, it should be acknowledged that the approach by linear irreversible thermodynamics is a rough approximation.

  18. ATP1B3 Protein Modulates the Restriction of HIV-1 Production and Nuclear Factor κ Light Chain Enhancer of Activated B Cells (NF-κB) Activation by BST-2*

    PubMed Central

    Nishitsuji, Hironori; Sugiyama, Ryuichi; Abe, Makoto; Takaku, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Here, we identify ATP1B3 and fibrillin-1 as novel BST-2-binding proteins. ATP1B3 depletion in HeLa cells (BST-2-positive cells), but not 293T cells (BST-2-negative cells), induced the restriction of HIV-1 production in a BST-2-dependent manner. In contrast, fibrillin-1 knockdown reduced HIV-1 production in 293T and HeLa cells in a BST-2-independent manner. Moreover, NF-κB activation was enhanced by siATP1B3 treatment in HIV-1- and HIV-1ΔVpu-infected HeLa cells. In addition, ATP1B3 silencing induced high level BST-2 expression on the surface of HeLa cells. These results indicate that ATP1B3 is a co-factor that accelerates BST-2 degradation and reduces BST-2-mediated restriction of HIV-1 production and NF-κB activation. PMID:26694617

  19. Alteration of structure and function of ATP synthase and cytochrome c oxidase by lack of Fo-a and Cox3 subunits caused by mitochondrial DNA 9205delTA mutation.

    PubMed

    Hejzlarová, Kateřina; Kaplanová, Vilma; Nůsková, Hana; Kovářová, Nikola; Ješina, Pavel; Drahota, Zdeněk; Mráček, Tomáš; Seneca, Sara; Houštěk, Josef

    2015-03-15

    Mutations in the MT-ATP6 gene are frequent causes of severe mitochondrial disorders. Typically, these are missense mutations, but another type is represented by the 9205delTA microdeletion, which removes the stop codon of the MT-ATP6 gene and affects the cleavage site in the MT-ATP8/MT-ATP6/MT-CO3 polycistronic transcript. This interferes with the processing of mRNAs for the Atp6 (Fo-a) subunit of ATP synthase and the Cox3 subunit of cytochrome c oxidase (COX). Two cases described so far presented with strikingly different clinical phenotypes-mild transient lactic acidosis or fatal encephalopathy. To gain more insight into the pathogenic mechanism, we prepared 9205delTA cybrids with mutation load ranging between 52 and 99% and investigated changes in the structure and function of ATP synthase and the COX. We found that 9205delTA mutation strongly reduces the levels of both Fo-a and Cox3 proteins. Lack of Fo-a alters the structure but not the content of ATP synthase, which assembles into a labile, ∼60 kDa smaller, complex retaining ATP hydrolytic activity but which is unable to synthesize ATP. In contrast, lack of Cox3 limits the biosynthesis of COX but does not alter the structure of the enzyme. Consequently, the diminished mitochondrial content of COX and non-functional ATP synthase prevent most mitochondrial ATP production. The biochemical effects caused by the 9205delTA microdeletion displayed a pronounced threshold effect above ∼90% mutation heteroplasmy. We observed a linear relationship between the decrease in subunit Fo-a or Cox3 content and the functional presentation of the defect. Therefore we conclude that the threshold effect originated from a gene-protein level.

  20. Extremely conserved ATP- or ADP-dependent enzymatic system for nicotinamide nucleotide repair.

    PubMed

    Marbaix, Alexandre Y; Noël, Gaëtane; Detroux, Aline M; Vertommen, Didier; Van Schaftingen, Emile; Linster, Carole L

    2011-12-02

    The reduced forms of NAD and NADP, two major nucleotides playing a central role in metabolism, are continuously damaged by enzymatic or heat-dependent hydration. We report the molecular identification of the eukaryotic dehydratase that repairs these nucleotides and show that this enzyme (Carkd in mammals, YKL151C in yeast) catalyzes the dehydration of the S form of NADHX and NADPHX, at the expense of ATP, which is converted to ADP. Surprisingly, the Escherichia coli homolog, YjeF, a bidomain protein, catalyzes a similar reaction, but using ADP instead of ATP. The latter reaction is ascribable to the C-terminal domain of YjeF. This represents an unprecedented example of orthologous enzymes using either ADP or ATP as phosphoryl donor. We also show that eukaryotic proteins homologous to the N-terminal domain of YjeF (apolipoprotein A-1-binding protein (AIBP) in mammals, YNL200C in yeast) catalyze the epimerization of the S and R forms of NAD(P)HX, thereby allowing, in conjunction with the energy-dependent dehydratase, the repair of both epimers of NAD(P)HX. Both enzymes are very widespread in eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and archaea, which together with the ADP dependence of the dehydratase in some species indicates the ancient origin of this repair system.

  1. Distinct Cell Stress Responses Induced by ATP Restriction in Quiescent Human Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Yalamanchili, Nirupama; Kriete, Andres; Alfego, David; Danowski, Kelli M.; Kari, Csaba; Rodeck, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Quiescence is the prevailing state of many cell types under homeostatic conditions. Yet, surprisingly little is known about how quiescent cells respond to energetic and metabolic challenges. To better understand compensatory responses of quiescent cells to metabolic stress, we established, in human primary dermal fibroblasts, an experimental ‘energy restriction’ model. Quiescence was achieved by short-term culture in serum-deprived media and ATP supply restricted using a combination of glucose transport inhibitors and mitochondrial uncouplers. In aggregate, these measures led to markedly reduced intracellular ATP levels while not compromising cell viability over the observation period of 48 h. Analysis of the transcription factor (TF) landscape induced by this treatment revealed alterations in several signal transduction nodes beyond the expected biosynthetic adaptations. These included increased abundance of NF-κB regulated TFs and altered TF subsets regulated by Akt and p53. The observed changes in gene regulation and corresponding alterations in key signaling nodes are likely to contribute to cell survival at intracellular ATP concentrations substantially below those achieved by growth factor deprivation alone. This experimental model provides a benchmark for the investigation of cell survival pathways and related molecular targets that are associated with restricted energy supply associated with biological aging and metabolic diseases. PMID:27757122

  2. Stimulation of acetoin production in metabolically engineered Lactococcus lactis by increasing ATP demand.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianming; Kandasamy, Vijayalakshmi; Würtz, Anders; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Solem, Christian

    2016-11-01

    Having a sufficient supply of energy, usually in the form of ATP, is essential for all living organisms. In this study, however, we demonstrate that it can be beneficial to reduce ATP availability when the objective is microbial production. By introducing the ATP hydrolyzing F1-ATPase into a Lactococcus lactis strain engineered into producing acetoin, we show that production titer and yield both can be increased. At high F1-ATPase expression level, the acetoin production yield could be increased by 10 %; however, because of the negative effect that the F1-ATPase had on biomass yield and growth, this increase was at the cost of volumetric productivity. By lowering the expression level of the F1-ATPase, both the volumetric productivity and the final yield could be increased by 5 % compared to the reference strain not overexpressing the F1-ATPase, and in batch fermentation, it was possible to convert 176 mM (32 g/L) of glucose into 146.5 mM (12.9 g/L) acetoin with a yield of 83 % of the theoretical maximum. To further demonstrate the potential of the cell factory developed, we complemented it with the lactose plasmid pLP712, which allowed for growth and acetoin production from a dairy waste stream, deproteinized whey. Using this cheap and renewable feedstock, efficient acetoin production with a titer of 157 mM (14 g/L) acetoin was accomplished.

  3. Axin is expressed in mitochondria and suppresses mitochondrial ATP synthesis in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jee-Hye; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Rhyu, Im Joo; Kee, Sun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Many recent studies have revealed that axin is involved in numerous cellular functions beyond the negative regulation of β-catenin-dependent Wnt signaling. Previously, an association of ectopic axin with mitochondria was observed. In an effort to investigate the relationship between axin and mitochondria, we found that axin expression suppressed cellular ATP production, which was more apparent as axin expression levels increased. Also, mitochondrial expression of axin was observed using two axin-expressing HeLa cell models: doxycycline-inducible ectopic axin expression (HeLa-axin) and axin expression enhanced by long-term treatment with XAV939 (HeLa-XAV). In biochemical analysis, axin is associated with oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex IV and is involved in defects in the assembly of complex IV-containing supercomplexes. Functionally, axin expression reduced the activity of OXPHOS complex IV and the oxygen consumption rate (OCR), suggesting axin-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Subsequent studies using various inhibitors of Wnt signaling showed that the reduction in cellular ATP levels was weaker in cases of ICAT protein expression and treatment with iCRT3 or NSC668036 compared with XAV939 treatment, suggesting that XAV939 treatment affects ATP synthesis in addition to suppressing Wnt signaling activity. Axin-mediated regulation of mitochondrial function may be an additional mechanism to Wnt signaling for regulation of cell growth.

  4. Glia-derived ATP inversely regulates excitability of pyramidal and CCK-positive neurons

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Zhibing; Liu, Yu; Xi, Wang; Lou, Hui-fang; Zhu, Liya; Guo, Zhifei; Mei, Lin; Duan, Shumin

    2017-01-01

    Astrocyte responds to neuronal activity with calcium waves and modulates synaptic transmission through the release of gliotransmitters. However, little is known about the direct effect of gliotransmitters on the excitability of neuronal networks beyond synapses. Here we show that selective stimulation of astrocytes expressing channelrhodopsin-2 in the CA1 area specifically increases the firing frequency of CCK-positive but not parvalbumin-positive interneurons and decreases the firing rate of pyramidal neurons, phenomena mimicked by exogenously applied ATP. Further evidences indicate that ATP-induced increase and decrease of excitability are caused, respectively, by P2Y1 receptor-mediated inhibition of a two-pore domain potassium channel and A1 receptor-mediated opening of a G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channel. Moreover, the activation of ChR2-expressing astrocytes reduces the power of kainate-induced hippocampal ex vivo gamma oscillation. Thus, through distinct receptor subtypes coupled with different K+ channels, astrocyte-derived ATP differentially modulates the excitability of different types of neurons and efficiently controls the activity of neuronal network. PMID:28128211

  5. AMP-activated protein kinase is dispensable for maintaining ATP levels and for survival following inhibition of glycolysis, but promotes tumour engraftment of Ras-transformed fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Joffrey; Roux, Danièle; Viollet, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid generated by highly glycolytic tumours is exported by the MonoCarboxylate Transporters, MCT1 and MCT4, to maintain pHi and energy homeostasis. We report that MCT1 inhibition combined with Mct4 gene disruption severely reduced glycolysis and tumour growth without affecting ATP levels. Because of the key role of the 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in energy homeostasis, we hypothesized that targeting glycolysis (MCT-blockade) in AMPK-null (Ampk−/−) cells should kill tumour cells from ‘ATP crisis’. We show that Ampk−/−-Ras-transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) maintained ATP levels and viability when glycolysis was inhibited. In MCT-inhibited MEFs treated with OXPHOS inhibitors the ATP level and viability collapsed in both Ampk+/+ and Ampk−/− cells. We therefore propose that the intracellular acidification resulting from lactic acid sequestration mimicks AMPK by blocking mTORC1, a major component of an ATP consuming pathway, thereby preventing ‘ATP crisis’. Finally we showed that genetic disruption of Mct4 and/or Ampk dramatically reduced tumourigenicity in a xenograft mouse model suggesting a crucialrolefor these two actors in establishment of tumours in a nutrient-deprived environment. These findings demonstrated that blockade of lactate transport is an efficient anti-cancer strategy that highlights the potential in targeting Mct4 in a context of impaired AMPK activity. PMID:26059436

  6. Identification of the Inorganic Pyrophosphate Metabolizing, ATP Substituting Pathway in Mammalian Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Young-Joo; Sutovsky, Miriam; Kennedy, Chelsey; Sutovsky, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) is generated by ATP hydrolysis in the cells and also present in extracellular matrix, cartilage and bodily fluids. Fueling an alternative pathway for energy production in cells, PPi is hydrolyzed by inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPA1) in a highly exergonic reaction that can under certain conditions substitute for ATP-derived energy. Recombinant PPA1 is used for energy-regeneration in the cell-free systems used to study the zymology of ATP-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome system, including the role of sperm-borne proteasomes in mammalian fertilization. Inspired by an observation of reduced in vitro fertilization (IVF) rates in the presence of external, recombinant PPA1, this study reveals, for the first time, the presence of PPi, PPA1 and PPi transporter, progressive ankylosis protein ANKH in mammalian spermatozoa. Addition of PPi during porcine IVF increased fertilization rates significantly and in a dose-dependent manner. Fluorometric assay detected high levels of PPi in porcine seminal plasma, oviductal fluid and spermatozoa. Immunofluorescence detected PPA1 in the postacrosomal sheath (PAS) and connecting piece of boar spermatozoa; ANKH was present in the sperm head PAS and equatorial segment. Both ANKH and PPA1 were also detected in human and mouse spermatozoa, and in porcine spermatids. Higher proteasomal-proteolytic activity, indispensable for fertilization, was measured in spermatozoa preserved with PPi. The identification of an alternative, PPi dependent pathway for ATP production in spermatozoa elevates our understanding of sperm physiology and sets the stage for the improvement of semen extenders, storage media and IVF media for animal biotechnology and human assisted reproductive therapies. PMID:22485177

  7. Connexin 40 and ATP-dependent intercellular calcium wave in renal glomerular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Toma, Ildikó; Bansal, Eric; Meer, Elliott J; Kang, Jung Julie; Vargas, Sarah L; Peti-Peterdi, János

    2008-06-01

    Endothelial intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) plays an important role in the function of the juxtaglomerular vasculature. The present studies aimed to identify the existence and molecular elements of an endothelial calcium wave in cultured glomerular endothelial cells (GENC). GENCs on glass coverslips were loaded with Fluo-4/Fura red, and ratiometric [Ca(2+)](i) imaging was performed using fluorescence confocal microscopy. Mechanical stimulation of a single GENC caused a nine-fold increase in [Ca(2+)](i), which propagated from cell to cell throughout the monolayer (7.9 +/- 0.3 microm/s) in a regenerative manner (without decrement of amplitude, kinetics, and speed) over distances >400 microm. Inhibition of voltage-dependent calcium channels with nifedipine had no effect on the above parameters, but the removal of extracellular calcium reduced Delta[Ca(2+)](i) by 50%. Importantly, the gap junction uncoupler alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid or knockdown of connexin 40 (Cx40) by transfecting GENCs with Cx40 short interfering RNA (siRNA) almost completely eliminated Delta[Ca(2+)](i) and the calcium wave. Breakdown of extracellular ATP using a scavenger cocktail (apyrase and hexokinase) or nonselective inhibition of purinergic P2 receptors with suramin, had similar blocking effects. Scraping cells off along a line eliminated physical contact between cells but did not effect calcium wave propagation. Using an ATP biosensor technique, we detected a significant elevation in extracellular ATP (Delta = 76 +/- 2 microM) during calcium wave propagation, which was abolished by Cx40 siRNA treatment (Delta = 6 +/- 1 microM). These studies suggest that connexin 40 hemichannels and extracellular ATP are key molecular elements of the glomerular endothelial calcium wave, which may serve important juxtaglomerular functions.

  8. A1Ao-ATP synthase of Methanobrevibacter ruminantium couples sodium ions for ATP synthesis under physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Duncan G G; Ferguson, Scott A; Dey, Debjit; Schröder, Katja; Aung, Htin Lin; Carbone, Vincenzo; Attwood, Graeme T; Ronimus, Ron S; Meier, Thomas; Janssen, Peter H; Cook, Gregory M

    2011-11-18

    An unresolved question in the bioenergetics of methanogenic archaea is how the generation of proton-motive and sodium-motive forces during methane production is used to synthesize ATP by the membrane-bound A(1)A(o)-ATP synthase, with both proton- and sodium-coupled enzymes being reported in methanogens. To address this question, we investigated the biochemical characteristics of the A(1)A(o)-ATP synthase (MbbrA(1)A(o)) of Methanobrevibacter ruminantium M1, a predominant methanogen in the rumen. Growth of M. ruminantium M1 was inhibited by protonophores and sodium ionophores, demonstrating that both ion gradients were essential for growth. To study the role of these ions in ATP synthesis, the ahaHIKECFABD operon encoding the MbbrA(1)A(o) was expressed in Escherichia coli strain DK8 (Δatp) and purified yielding a 9-subunit protein with an SDS-stable c oligomer. Analysis of the c subunit amino acid sequence revealed that it consisted of four transmembrane helices, and each hairpin displayed a complete Na(+)-binding signature made up of identical amino acid residues. The purified MbbrA(1)A(o) was stimulated by sodium ions, and Na(+) provided pH-dependent protection against inhibition by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide but not tributyltin chloride. ATP synthesis in inverted membrane vesicles lacking sodium ions was driven by a membrane potential that was sensitive to cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone but not to monensin. ATP synthesis could not be driven by a chemical gradient of sodium ions unless a membrane potential was imposed. ATP synthesis under these conditions was sensitive to monensin but not cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. These data suggest that the M. ruminantium M1 A(1)A(o)-ATP synthase exhibits all the properties of a sodium-coupled enzyme, but it is also able to use protons to drive ATP synthesis under conditions that favor proton coupling, such as low pH and low levels of sodium ions.

  9. Basal bodies exhibit polarized positioning in zebrafish cone photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Michelle; Perkins, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric positioning of basal bodies, and therefore cilia, is often critical for proper cilia function. This planar polarity is critical for motile cilia function but has not been extensively investigated for non-motile cilia or for sensory cilia such as vertebrate photoreceptors. Zebrafish photoreceptors form an organized mosaic ideal for investigating cilia positioning. We report that in the adult retina, the basal bodies of red, green-, and blue-sensitive cone photoreceptors localized asymmetrically on the cell edge nearest to the optic nerve. In contrast, no patterning was seen in the basal bodies of ultraviolet-sensitive cones or in rod photoreceptors. The asymmetric localization of basal bodies was consistent in all regions of the adult retina. Basal body patterning was unaffected in the cones of the XOPS-mCFP transgenic line, which lacks rod photoreceptors. Finally, the adult pattern was not seen in 7 day post fertilization (dpf) larvae as basal bodies were randomly distributed in all the photoreceptor subtypes. These results establish the asymmetrical localization of basal bodies in red-, green-, and blue-sensitive cones in adult zebrafish retinas but not in larvae. This pattern suggests an active cellular mechanism regulated the positioning of basal bodies after the transition to the adult mosaic and that rods do not seem to be necessary for the patterning of cone basal bodies. PMID:23171982

  10. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma mimicking a superficial spreading melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hasbún Acuña, Paula; Cullen Aravena, Roberto; Maturana Donaire, César; Ares Mora, Raúl; Porras Kusmanic, Ninoska

    2016-12-20

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer, especially in elderly people. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a rare subtype and has been described in the literature as a nodular and hyperpigmented lesion; rarely, it can appear as an extensive pigmented plate, which may be clinically indistinguishable from superficial spreading melanoma and Bowen disease. Dermatoscopy has a high sensitivity in the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. When Menzies criteria are used; however, the final diagnosis is made by histopathology. The objective of the present report is to analyze the case of a patient with pigmented basal cell carcinoma simulating a superficial spreading melanoma.

  11. Targeting Atp6v1c1 Prevents Inflammation and Bone Erosion Caused by Periodontitis and Reveals Its Critical Function in Osteoimmunology.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng; Hao, Liang; Wang, Lin; Lu, Yun; Li, Qian; Zhu, Zheng; Shao, Jian-Zhong; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal disease (Periodontitis) is a serious disease that affects a majority of adult Americans and is associated with other systemic diseases, including diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and other inflammatory diseases. While great efforts have been devoted toward understanding the pathogenesis of periodontitis, there remains a pressing need for developing potent therapeutic strategies for targeting this pervasive and destructive disease. In this study, we utilized novel adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated Atp6v1c1 knockdown gene therapy to treat bone erosion and inflammatory caused by periodontitis in mouse model. Atp6v1c1 is a subunit of the V-ATPase complex and regulator of the assembly of the V0 and V1 domains of the V-ATPase complex. We demonstrated previously that Atp6v1c1 has an essential function in osteoclast mediated bone resorption. We hypothesized that Atp6v1c1 may be an ideal target to prevent the bone erosion and inflammation caused by periodontitis. To test the hypothesis, we employed AAV RNAi knockdown of Atp6v1c1 gene expression to prevent bone erosion and gingival inflammation simultaneously. We found that lesion-specific injection of AAV-shRNA-Atp6v1c1 into the periodontal disease lesions protected against bone erosion (>85%) and gingival inflammation caused by P. gingivalis W50 infection. AAV-mediated Atp6v1c1 knockdown dramatically reduced osteoclast numbers and inhibited the infiltration of dendritic cells and macrophages in the bacteria-induced inflammatory lesions in periodontitis. Silencing of Atp6v1c1 expression also prevented the expressions of osteoclast-related genes and pro-inflammatory cytokine genes. Our data suggests that AAV-shRNA-Atp6v1c1 treatment can significantly attenuate the bone erosion and inflammation caused by periodontitis, indicating the dual function of AAV-shRNA-Atp6v1c1 as an inhibitor of bone erosion mediated by osteoclasts, and as an inhibitor of inflammation through down-regulation of pro

  12. Basal insulin hypersecretion in insulin-resistant Zucker diabetic and Zucker fatty rats: role of enhanced fuel metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y P; Cockburn, B N; Pugh, W; Polonsky, K S

    1999-07-01

    The biochemical mechanisms responsible for basal hyperinsulinemia in insulin-resistant states have not been fully defined. We therefore studied pancreatic beta-cell function in vitro to characterize the relative importance of fuel metabolism or secretion via a constitutive pathway in the maintenance of high basal insulin secretion in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and Zucker fatty (ZF) rats. Insulin secretion from ZF (10+/-1.8 v 5+/-0.6 pmol/ng DNA/h) and ZDF (30+/-4 v 7+/-0.8 pmol/ng DNA/h) islets at 2.8 mmol/L glucose was two to four times greater than secretion from islets of lean littermate control rats. In response to a decreasing glucose concentration (from 12 to 0 mmol/L), a paradoxical increase in insulin secretion was observed in perfused ZDF rat pancreas. Insulin secretion at 2.8 mmol/L glucose was suppressed approximately 70% to 80% in islets from ZDF and ZF rats following exposure to diazoxide, a K+-adenosine triphosphate (K(ATP)) channel opener that inhibits membrane depolarization, or rotenone and oligomycin, agents that inhibit ATP production, or by incubation at 23 degrees C. Inhibition of glycolysis with mannoheptulose, 2-deoxyglucose, and iodoacetate or fatty acid oxidation with a carnitine palmitoyltransferase I inhibitor also significantly inhibited basal insulin secretion in islets of ZDF and ZF rats but not their lean littermates. Furthermore, the glycolytic flux at 2.8 mmol/L glucose was significantly higher in ZDF islets versus ZDF lean littermate (ZLC) islets (2.2+/-0.1 v 3.7+/-0.3 pmol/ng DNA/2 h, P < .01) and was suppressed by mannoheptulose. In ZDF and ZF islets, high basal insulin secretion was maintained despite a 50% reduction in the rate of proinsulin/insulin biosynthesis at 2.8 mmol/L glucose. The rate of proinsulin to insulin conversion and the ratio of proinsulin to insulin secretion by islets of ZDF rats were similar to the values in the lean littermates. Thus, basal hypersecretion in these two insulin-resistant models appears to be

  13. ATP-dependent Conformational Changes Trigger Substrate Capture and Release by an ECF-type Biotin Transporter.

    PubMed

    Finkenwirth, Friedrich; Sippach, Michael; Landmesser, Heidi; Kirsch, Franziska; Ogienko, Anastasia; Grunzel, Miriam; Kiesler, Cornelia; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen; Schneider, Erwin; Eitinger, Thomas

    2015-07-03

    Energy-coupling factor (ECF) transporters for vitamins and metal ions in prokaryotes consist of two ATP-binding cassette-type ATPases, a substrate-specific transmembrane protein (S component) and a transmembrane protein (T component) that physically interacts with the ATPases and the S component. The mechanism of ECF transporters was analyzed upon reconstitution of a bacterial biotin transporter into phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs. ATPase activity was not stimulated by biotin and was only moderately reduced by vanadate. A non-hydrolyzable ATP analog was a competitive inhibitor. As evidenced by cross-linking of monocysteine variants and by site-specific spin labeling of the Q-helix followed by EPR-based interspin distance analyses, closure and reopening of the ATPase dimer (BioM2) was a consequence of ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively. A previously suggested role of a stretch of small hydrophobic amino acid residues within the first transmembrane segment of the S units for S unit/T unit interactions was structurally and functionally confirmed for the biotin transporter. Cross-linking of this segment in BioY (S) using homobifunctional thiol-reactive reagents to a coupling helix of BioN (T) indicated a reorientation rather than a disruption of the BioY/BioN interface during catalysis. Fluorescence emission of BioY labeled with an environmentally sensitive fluorophore was compatible with an ATP-induced reorientation and consistent with a hypothesized toppling mechanism. As demonstrated by [(3)H]biotin capture assays, ATP binding stimulated substrate capture by the transporter, and subsequent ATP hydrolysis led to substrate release. Our study represents the first experimental insight into the individual steps during the catalytic cycle of an ECF transporter in a lipid environment.

  14. Histamine Induces ATP Release from Human Subcutaneous Fibroblasts, via Pannexin-1 Hemichannels, Leading to Ca2+ Mobilization and Cell Proliferation*

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Ana Rita; Paramos-de-Carvalho, Diogo; Certal, Mariana; Costa, Maria Adelina; Costa, Cristina; Magalhães-Cardoso, Maria Teresa; Ferreirinha, Fátima; Sévigny, Jean; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the regulation of connective tissue ATP-mediated mechano-transduction and remodeling may be an important link to the pathogenesis of chronic pain. It has been demonstrated that mast cell-derived histamine plays an important role in painful fibrotic diseases. Here we analyzed the involvement of ATP in the response of human subcutaneous fibroblasts to histamine. Acute histamine application caused a rise in intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) and ATP release from human subcutaneous fibroblasts via H1 receptor activation. Histamine-induced [Ca2+]i rise was partially attenuated by apyrase, an enzyme that inactivates extracellular ATP, and by blocking P2 purinoceptors with pyridoxal phosphate-6-azo(benzene-2,4-disulfonic acid) tetrasodium salt and reactive blue 2. [Ca2+]i accumulation caused by histamine was also reduced upon blocking pannexin-1 hemichannels with 10Panx, probenecid, or carbenoxolone but not when connexin hemichannels were inhibited with mefloquine or 2-octanol. Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of vesicular exocytosis, also did not block histamine-induced [Ca2+]i mobilization. Prolonged exposure of human subcutaneous fibroblast cultures to histamine favored cell growth and type I collagen synthesis via the activation of H1 receptor. This effect was mimicked by ATP and its metabolite, ADP, whereas the selective P2Y1 receptor antagonist, MRS2179, partially attenuated histamine-induced cell growth and type I collagen production. Expression of pannexin-1 and ADP-sensitive P2Y1 receptor on human subcutaneous fibroblasts was confirmed by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and Western blot analysis. In conclusion, histamine induces ATP release from human subcutaneous fibroblasts, via pannexin-1 hemichannels, leading to [Ca2+]i mobilization and cell growth through the cooperation of H1 and P2 (probably P2Y1) receptors. PMID:23918924

  15. ATP-dependent Conformational Changes Trigger Substrate Capture and Release by an ECF-type Biotin Transporter*

    PubMed Central

    Finkenwirth, Friedrich; Sippach, Michael; Landmesser, Heidi; Kirsch, Franziska; Ogienko, Anastasia; Grunzel, Miriam; Kiesler, Cornelia; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen; Schneider, Erwin; Eitinger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Energy-coupling factor (ECF) transporters for vitamins and metal ions in prokaryotes consist of two ATP-binding cassette-type ATPases, a substrate-specific transmembrane protein (S component) and a transmembrane protein (T component) that physically interacts with the ATPases and the S component. The mechanism of ECF transporters was analyzed upon reconstitution of a bacterial biotin transporter into phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs. ATPase activity was not stimulated by biotin and was only moderately reduced by vanadate. A non-hydrolyzable ATP analog was a competitive inhibitor. As evidenced by cross-linking of monocysteine variants and by site-specific spin labeling of the Q-helix followed by EPR-based interspin distance analyses, closure and reopening of the ATPase dimer (BioM2) was a consequence of ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively. A previously suggested role of a stretch of small hydrophobic amino acid residues within the first transmembrane segment of the S units for S unit/T unit interactions was structurally and functionally confirmed for the biotin transporter. Cross-linking of this segment in BioY (S) using homobifunctional thiol-reactive reagents to a coupling helix of BioN (T) indicated a reorientation rather than a disruption of the BioY/BioN interface during catalysis. Fluorescence emission of BioY labeled with an environmentally sensitive fluorophore was compatible with an ATP-induced reorientation and consistent with a hypothesized toppling mechanism. As demonstrated by [3H]biotin capture assays, ATP binding stimulated substrate capture by the transporter, and subsequent ATP hydrolysis led to substrate release. Our study represents the first experimental insight into the individual steps during the catalytic cycle of an ECF transporter in a lipid environment. PMID:25991724

  16. Mitochondria present in excised patches from pancreatic B-cells may form microcompartments with ATP-dependent potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Rustenbeck, I; Dickel, C; Herrmann, C; Grimmsmann, T

    1999-04-01

    Experiments with inside-out patches excised from pancreatic B-cells have yielded evidence that mitochondria are often contained in the cytoplasmic plug protruding into the tip of patch pipette. When intact B-cells were loaded with the fluorescent mitochondrial stain, rhodamine 123, and membrane patches excised from these cells, a green fluorescence could be observed in the lumen at the tip of the patch pipette. The same result was obtained with the mitochondrial stain, MitoTracker Green FM, which is only fluorescent in a membrane-bound state. Furthermore, the open probability of ATP-dependent potassium (K(ATP)) channels in inside-out patches was influenced by mitochondrial fuels and inhibitors. Respiratory substrates like tetramethyl phenylene diamine (2 mM) plus ascorbate (5 mM) or alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (10 mM) reduced the open probability of K(ATP) channels in inside-out patches significantly (down to 57% or 65% of control, respectively). This effect was antagonized by the inhibitor of cytochrome oxidase, sodium azide (5 mM). Likewise, the inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase, malonate (5 mM), increased the open probability of K(ATP) channels in the presence of succinate (1 mM). However, oligomycin in combination with antimycin and rotenone did not increase open probability. Although it cannot be excluded that these effects result from a direct interaction with the K(ATP) channels, the presence of mitochondria in the close vicinity permits the hypothesis that changes in mitochondrial metabolism are involved, mitochondria and K(ATP) channels thus forming functional microcompartments.

  17. Selective Decrease of Components of the Creatine Kinase System and ATP Synthase Complex in Chronic Chagas Disease Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Priscila Camillo; Santos, Ronaldo Honorato Barros; Fiorelli, Alfredo Inácio; Bilate, Angelina Morand Bianchi; Benvenuti, Luiz Alberto; Stolf, Noedir Antonio; Kalil, Jorge; Cunha-Neto, Edecio

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC) is an inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy with a worse prognosis than other cardiomyopathies. CCC occurs in 30 % of individuals infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, endemic in Latin America. Heart failure is associated with impaired energy metabolism, which may be correlated to contractile dysfunction. We thus analyzed the myocardial gene and protein expression, as well as activity, of key mitochondrial enzymes related to ATP production, in myocardial samples of end-stage CCC, idiopathic dilated (IDC) and ischemic (IC) cardiomyopathies. Methodology/Principal Findings Myocardium homogenates from CCC (N = 5), IC (N = 5) and IDC (N = 5) patients, as well as from heart donors (N = 5) were analyzed for protein and mRNA expression of mitochondrial creatine kinase (CKMit) and muscular creatine kinase (CKM) and ATP synthase subunits aplha and beta by immunoblotting and by real-time RT-PCR. Total myocardial CK activity was also assessed. Protein levels of CKM and CK activity were reduced in all three cardiomyopathy groups. However, total CK activity, as well as ATP synthase alpha chain protein levels, were significantly lower in CCC samples than IC and IDC samples. CCC myocardium displayed selective reduction of protein levels and activity of enzymes crucial for maintaining cytoplasmic ATP levels. Conclusions/Significance The selective impairment of the CK system may be associated to the loss of inotropic reserve observed in CCC. Reduction of ATP synthase alpha levels is consistent with a decrease in myocardial ATP generation through oxidative phosphorylation. Together, these results suggest that the energetic deficit is more intense in the myocardium of CCC patients than in the other tested dilated cardiomyopathies. PMID:21738806

  18. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Lo Muzio, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies). Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm) are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull) are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling). Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome). Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser ablation, photodynamic