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Sample records for reduced basal atp

  1. ATP-dependent calcium transport across basal plasma membranes of human placental trophoblast

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, G.J.; Kelley, L.K.; Smith, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    As a first step in understanding the cellular basis of maternal-fetal calcium transfer, the authors examined the characteristics of calcium uptake by a highly purified preparation of the syncytiotrophoblast basal (fetal facing) plasma membrane. In the presence of nanomolar concentrations of free calcium, basal membranes demonstrated substantial ATP-dependent calcium uptake. This uptake required magnesium, was not significantly affected by Na/sup +/ or K/sup +/ (50 mM), or sodium azide (10 mM). Intravesicular calcium was rapidly and completely released by the calcium ionophore rapidly and completely released by the calcium ionophore A23187. Calcium transport was significantly stimulated by the calcium-dependent regulatory protein calmodulin. Placental membrane fractions enriched in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria also demonstrated ATP-dependent calcium uptake. In contrast to basal membrane, mitochondrial calcium uptake was completely inhibited by azide. The rate of calcium uptake was completely inhibited by azide. The rate of calcium uptake by the ER was only 20% of that of basal membranes. They conclude that the placental basal plasma membrane possesses a high-affinity calcium transport system similar to that found in plasma membranes of a variety of cell types. This transporter is situated to permit it to function in vivo in maternal-fetal calcium transfer.

  2. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Study of 4-ATP on Gold Nanoparticles for Basal Cell Carcinoma Fingerprint Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quynh, Luu Manh; Nam, Nguyen Hoang; Kong, K.; Nhung, Nguyen Thi; Notingher, I.; Henini, M.; Luong, Nguyen Hoang

    2016-05-01

    The surface-enhanced Raman signals of 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) attached to the surface of colloidal gold nanoparticles with size distribution of 2 to 5 nm were used as a labeling agent to detect basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin. The enhanced Raman band at 1075 cm-1 corresponding to the C-S stretching vibration in 4-ATP was observed during attachment to the surface of the gold nanoparticles. The frequency and intensity of this band did not change when the colloids were conjugated with BerEP4 antibody, which specifically binds to BCC. We show the feasibility of imaging BCC by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, scanning the 1075 cm-1 band to detect the distribution of 4-ATP-coated gold nanoparticles attached to skin tissue ex vivo.

  3. Preserved high energy phosphate metabolic reserve in globally "stunned" hearts despite reduction of basal ATP content and contractility.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, G; Jacobus, W E; Bergman, C A; Weisman, H F; Becker, L C

    1987-10-01

    Impaired energy production has been proposed as one mechanism to explain the contractile abnormality in post-ischemic "stunned" myocardium. If energy production were impaired, administration of inotropic agents should result in a deterioration of cellular energy stores because of an inability of ATP synthesis to match the rate of increased utilization. In this study we correlated changes in myocardial high energy phosphates, measured by 31P-NMR spectroscopy, with changes in left ventricular function and energy requirement in buffer perfused rabbit hearts following ischemia and reperfusion, and during stimulation with isoproterenol. Hearts were stunned by 20 min of zero flow global ischemia at room temperature. After reperfusion, isovolumic developed pressure returned to 77.8 +/- 2.2% of baseline and ATP content was reduced to 80.9 +/- 4.1% of baseline. Isoproterenol (5 x 10(-8) M for 10 min) caused increases in developed pressure and rate-pressure product (to 134.1 +/- 12.6% and 195.0 +/- 21.4% of baseline, respectively) without a decrease in ATP or phosphocreatine (PCr) content (80.0 +/- 7.1% and 103.0 +/- 3.8% of preischemia, respectively), and without functional or metabolic deterioration of the hearts after discontinuation of the drug. Control hearts not subjected to ischemia showed similar functional and metabolic responses to isoproterenol. The phosphocreatine/inorganic phosphate (PCr/Pi) ratio, an index of the balance between energy production and utilization, was higher (not lower) than baseline in stunned hearts, thus confirming that energy production was not intrinsically impaired. Together these data indicate that despite reduced myocardial ATP content, mitochondrial function in stunned hearts is capable of sustaining a large increase in function and energetic requirements.

  4. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) reduces amyloid-β protein misfolding in vitro.

    PubMed

    Coskuner, Orkid; Murray, Ian V J

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating disease of aging that initiates decades prior to clinical manifestation and represents an impending epidemic. Two early features of AD are metabolic dysfunction and changes in amyloid-β protein (Aβ) levels. Since levels of ATP decrease over the course of the disease and Aβ is an early biomarker of AD, we sought to uncover novel linkages between the two. First and remarkably, a GxxxG motif is common between both Aβ (oligomerization motif) and nucleotide binding proteins (Rossmann fold). Second, ATP was demonstrated to protect against Aβ mediated cytotoxicity. Last, there is structural similarity between ATP and amyloid binding/inhibitory compounds such as ThioT, melatonin, and indoles. Thus, we investigated whether ATP alters misfolding of the pathologically relevant Aβ42. To test this hypothesis, we performed computational and biochemical studies. Our computational studies demonstrate that ATP interacts strongly with Tyr10 and Ser26 of Aβ fibrils in solution. Experimentally, both ATP and ADP reduced Aβ misfolding at physiological intracellular concentrations, with thresholds at ~500 μM and 1 mM respectively. This inhibition of Aβ misfolding is specific; requiring Tyr10 of Aβ and is enhanced by magnesium. Last, cerebrospinal fluid ATP levels are in the nanomolar range and decreased with AD pathology. This initial and novel finding regarding the ATP interaction with Aβ and reduction of Aβ misfolding has potential significance to the AD field. It provides an underlying mechanism for published links between metabolic dysfunction and AD. It also suggests a potential role of ATP in AD pathology, as the occurrence of misfolded extracellular Aβ mirrors lowered extracellular ATP levels. Last, the findings suggest that Aβ conformation change may be a sensor of metabolic dysfunction.

  5. Rabbit Erythrocytes Release ATP and Dilate Skeletal Muscle Arterioles in the Presence of Reduced Oxygen Tension

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, Randy S.; Hanson, Madelyn S.; Achilleus, David; Bowles, Elizabeth A.; Stephenson, Alan H.; Sridharan, Meera; Adderley, Shaquria; Ellsworth, Mary L.

    2010-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, oxygen (O2) delivery to appropriately meet metabolic need requires mechanisms for detection of the magnitude of O2 demand and the regulation of O2 delivery. Erythrocytes, when exposed to decreases in O2 tension, release both O2 and the vasodilator, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The aims of this study were to establish that erythrocytes release ATP in response to reduced O2 tension and determine if erythrocytes are necessary for dilation of isolated skeletal muscle arterioles exposed to reduced extra-luminal O2 tension. Rabbit erythrocytes exposed to reduced O2 tension in a tonometer (n = 5, PO2 = 27 ± 3, p<0.01) released ATP in response to reduced O2 tension. ATP release increased proportional to the decrease in O2 tension. The contribution of erythrocytes to the response of skeletal muscle arterioles to reduced extra-luminal O2 tension was determined using isolated hamster cheek pouch retractor muscle arterioles perfused with buffer (n = 11, mean diameter 52 ± 3 μm) in the absence and presence of rabbit erythrocytes. Without erythrocytes, arterioles did not dilate when exposed to reduced extra-luminal O2 tension (PO2 = 32 ± 4 mm Hg). In contrast, when rabbit erythrocytes were present in the perfusate (hematocrit 15%) the same decrease in O2 tension resulted in a 20 ± 4% dilation (p<0.01). These results provide support for the hypothesis that erythrocytes, via their ability to release O2 along with ATP in response to exposure to reduced O2 tension, can participate in the matching of O2 delivery with metabolic need in skeletal muscle. PMID:19307706

  6. ATP-dependent transport of reduced glutathione in yeast secretory vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Rebbeor, J F; Connolly, G C; Dumont, M E; Ballatori, N

    1998-01-01

    Turnover of cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) is accomplished predominantly by export into the extracellular space; however, the plasma membrane transport mechanisms that mediate GSH efflux are not well characterized. The present study examined GSH transport using secretory vesicles isolated from the sec6-4 mutant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast with studies in mammalian membrane vesicles, GSH transport in yeast secretory vesicles was mediated largely by an ATP-dependent, low-affinity pathway (Km 19+/-5 mM). ATP-dependent [3H]GSH transport was cis-inhibited by substrates of the yeast YCF1 transporter, including sulphobromophthalein, glutathione S-conjugates and the alkaloid verapamil, and was competitively inhibited by S-(2, 4-dinitrophenyl)glutathione (DNP-SG). Similarly, GSH competitively inhibited ATP-dependent [3H]DNP-SG transport, with a Ki of 18+/-2 mM, but had no effect on ATP-dependent [3H]taurocholate transport. ATP-dependent GSH transport was not affected by either membrane potential or pH-gradient uncouplers, but was inhibited by 4, 4'-di-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonate, probenecid and sulphinpyrazone, which are inhibitors of mrp1 and mrp2, mammalian homologues of the yeast YCF1 transporter. Western blot analysis of the secretory vesicle membrane fraction confirmed the presence of Ycf1p. These results provide the first direct evidence for low-affinity, ATP-dependent transport of GSH, and demonstrate that this ATP-dependent pathway displays kinetic characteristics similar to those of the yeast YCF1 transporter. PMID:9729482

  7. ATP-Dependent Binding Cassette Transporter G Family Member 16 Increases Plant Tolerance to Abscisic Acid and Assists in Basal Resistance against Pseudomonas syringae DC30001[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hao; Peng, Yanhui; Meckes, Nicole; Allen, Sara; Stewart, C. Neal; Traw, M. Brian

    2014-01-01

    Plants have been shown previously to perceive bacteria on the leaf surface and respond by closing their stomata. The virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (PstDC3000) responds by secreting a virulence factor, coronatine, which blocks the functioning of guard cells and forces stomata to reopen. After it is inside the leaf, PstDC3000 has been shown to up-regulate abscisic acid (ABA) signaling and thereby suppress salicylic acid-dependent resistance. Some wild plants exhibit resistance to PstDC3000, but the mechanisms by which they achieve this resistance remain unknown. Here, we used genome-wide association mapping to identify an ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter gene (ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter G family member16) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that contributes to wild plant resistance to PstDC3000. Through microarray analysis and β-glucuronidase reporter lines, we showed that the gene is up-regulated by ABA, bacterial infection, and coronatine. We also used a green fluorescent protein fusion protein and found that transporter is more likely to localize on plasma membranes than in cell walls. Transferred DNA insertion lines exhibited consistent defective tolerance of exogenous ABA and reduced resistance to infection by PstDC3000. Our conclusion is that ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter G family member16 is involved in ABA tolerance and contributes to plant resistance against PstDC3000. This is one of the first examples, to our knowledge, of ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter involvement in plant resistance to infection by a bacterial pathogen. It also suggests a possible mechanism by which plants reduce the deleterious effects of ABA hijacking during pathogen attack. Collectively, these results improve our understanding of basal resistance in Arabidopsis and offer unique ABA-related targets for improving the innate resistance of plants to bacterial infection. PMID:25146567

  8. Anesthetic Propofol Overdose Causes Vascular Hyperpermeability by Reducing Endothelial Glycocalyx and ATP Production

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-Chung; Lin, Chiou-Feng; Li, Chien-Feng; Sun, Ding-Ping; Wang, Li-Yun; Hsing, Chung-Hsi

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged treatment with a large dose of propofol may cause diffuse cellular cytotoxicity; however, the detailed underlying mechanism remains unclear, particularly in vascular endothelial cells. Previous studies showed that a propofol overdose induces endothelial injury and vascular barrier dysfunction. Regarding the important role of endothelial glycocalyx on the maintenance of vascular barrier integrity, we therefore hypothesized that a propofol overdose-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction is caused by impaired endothelial glycocalyx. In vivo, we intraperitoneally injected ICR mice with overdosed propofol, and the results showed that a propofol overdose significantly induced systemic vascular hyperpermeability and reduced the expression of endothelial glycocalyx, syndecan-1, syndecan-4, perlecan mRNA and heparan sulfate (HS) in the vessels of multiple organs. In vitro, a propofol overdose reduced the expression of syndecan-1, syndecan-4, perlecan, glypican-1 mRNA and HS and induced significant decreases in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)/NADH ratio and ATP concentrations in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). Oligomycin treatment also induced significant decreases in the NAD+/NADH ratio, in ATP concentrations and in syndecan-4, perlecan and glypican-1 mRNA expression in HMEC-1 cells. These results demonstrate that a propofol overdose induces a partially ATP-dependent reduction of endothelial glycocalyx expression and consequently leads to vascular hyperpermeability due to the loss of endothelial barrier functions. PMID:26023717

  9. Inactivation of the mitochondrial carrier SLC25A25 (ATP-Mg2+/Pi transporter) reduces physical endurance and metabolic efficiency in mice.

    PubMed

    Anunciado-Koza, Rea P; Zhang, Jingying; Ukropec, Jozef; Bajpeyi, Sudip; Koza, Robert A; Rogers, Richard C; Cefalu, William T; Mynatt, Randall L; Kozak, Leslie P

    2011-04-01

    An ATP-Mg(2+/)P(i) inner mitochondrial membrane solute transporter (SLC25A25), which is induced during adaptation to cold stress in the skeletal muscle of mice with defective UCP1/brown adipose tissue thermogenesis, has been evaluated for its role in metabolic efficiency. SLC25A25 is thought to control ATP homeostasis by functioning as a Ca(2+)-regulated shuttle of ATP-Mg(2+) and P(i) across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mice with an inactivated Slc25a25 gene have reduced metabolic efficiency as evidenced by enhanced resistance to diet-induced obesity and impaired exercise performance on a treadmill. Mouse embryo fibroblasts from Slc25a25(-/-) mice have reduced Ca(2+) flux across the endoplasmic reticulum, basal mitochondrial respiration, and ATP content. Although Slc25a25(-/-) mice are metabolically inefficient, the source of the inefficiency is not from a primary function in thermogenesis, because Slc25a25(-/-) mice maintain body temperature upon acute exposure to the cold (4 °C). Rather, the role of SLC25A25 in metabolic efficiency is most likely linked to muscle function as evidenced from the physical endurance test of mutant mice on a treadmill. Consequently, in the absence of SLC25A25 the efficiency of ATP production required for skeletal muscle function is diminished with secondary effects on adiposity. However, in the absence of UCP1-based thermogenesis, induction of Slc25a25 in mice with an intact gene may contribute to an alternative thermogenic pathway for the maintenance of body temperature during cold stress.

  10. Inactivation of the Mitochondrial Carrier SLC25A25 (ATP-Mg2+/Pi Transporter) Reduces Physical Endurance and Metabolic Efficiency in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Anunciado-Koza, Rea P.; Zhang, Jingying; Ukropec, Jozef; Bajpeyi, Sudip; Koza, Robert A.; Rogers, Richard C.; Cefalu, William T.; Mynatt, Randall L.; Kozak, Leslie P.

    2011-01-01

    An ATP-Mg2+/Pi inner mitochondrial membrane solute transporter (SLC25A25), which is induced during adaptation to cold stress in the skeletal muscle of mice with defective UCP1/brown adipose tissue thermogenesis, has been evaluated for its role in metabolic efficiency. SLC25A25 is thought to control ATP homeostasis by functioning as a Ca2+-regulated shuttle of ATP-Mg2+ and Pi across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mice with an inactivated Slc25a25 gene have reduced metabolic efficiency as evidenced by enhanced resistance to diet-induced obesity and impaired exercise performance on a treadmill. Mouse embryo fibroblasts from Slc25a25−/− mice have reduced Ca2+ flux across the endoplasmic reticulum, basal mitochondrial respiration, and ATP content. Although Slc25a25−/− mice are metabolically inefficient, the source of the inefficiency is not from a primary function in thermogenesis, because Slc25a25−/− mice maintain body temperature upon acute exposure to the cold (4 °C). Rather, the role of SLC25A25 in metabolic efficiency is most likely linked to muscle function as evidenced from the physical endurance test of mutant mice on a treadmill. Consequently, in the absence of SLC25A25 the efficiency of ATP production required for skeletal muscle function is diminished with secondary effects on adiposity. However, in the absence of UCP1-based thermogenesis, induction of Slc25a25 in mice with an intact gene may contribute to an alternative thermogenic pathway for the maintenance of body temperature during cold stress. PMID:21296886

  11. Elevated Basal Insulin Secretion in Type 2 Diabetes Caused by Reduced Plasma Membrane Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Vini; Kazim, Abdulla S.; Helgeson, Johan; Lewold, Clemens; Barik, Satadal; Buda, Pawel; Reinbothe, Thomas M.; Wennmalm, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Elevated basal insulin secretion under fasting conditions together with insufficient stimulated insulin release is an important hallmark of type 2 diabetes, but the mechanisms controlling basal insulin secretion remain unclear. Membrane rafts exist in pancreatic islet cells and spatially organize membrane ion channels and proteins controlling exocytosis, which may contribute to the regulation of insulin secretion. Membrane rafts (cholesterol and sphingolipid containing microdomains) were dramatically reduced in human type 2 diabetic and diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat islets when compared with healthy islets. Oxidation of membrane cholesterol markedly reduced microdomain staining intensity in healthy human islets, but was without effect in type 2 diabetic islets. Intriguingly, oxidation of cholesterol affected glucose-stimulated insulin secretion only modestly, whereas basal insulin release was elevated. This was accompanied by increased intracellular Ca2+ spike frequency and Ca2+ influx and explained by enhanced single Ca2+ channel activity. These results suggest that the reduced presence of membrane rafts could contribute to the elevated basal insulin secretion seen in type 2 diabetes. PMID:27533789

  12. Elevated Basal Insulin Secretion in Type 2 Diabetes Caused by Reduced Plasma Membrane Cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Vini; Kazim, Abdulla S; Helgeson, Johan; Lewold, Clemens; Barik, Satadal; Buda, Pawel; Reinbothe, Thomas M; Wennmalm, Stefan; Zhang, Enming; Renström, Erik

    2016-10-01

    Elevated basal insulin secretion under fasting conditions together with insufficient stimulated insulin release is an important hallmark of type 2 diabetes, but the mechanisms controlling basal insulin secretion remain unclear. Membrane rafts exist in pancreatic islet cells and spatially organize membrane ion channels and proteins controlling exocytosis, which may contribute to the regulation of insulin secretion. Membrane rafts (cholesterol and sphingolipid containing microdomains) were dramatically reduced in human type 2 diabetic and diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat islets when compared with healthy islets. Oxidation of membrane cholesterol markedly reduced microdomain staining intensity in healthy human islets, but was without effect in type 2 diabetic islets. Intriguingly, oxidation of cholesterol affected glucose-stimulated insulin secretion only modestly, whereas basal insulin release was elevated. This was accompanied by increased intracellular Ca(2+) spike frequency and Ca(2+) influx and explained by enhanced single Ca(2+) channel activity. These results suggest that the reduced presence of membrane rafts could contribute to the elevated basal insulin secretion seen in type 2 diabetes.

  13. UV-B exposure reduces locomotor performance by impairing muscle function but not mitochondrial ATP production.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh Kazerouni, Ensiyeh; Franklin, Craig E; Seebacher, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet B radiation (UV-B) can reduce swimming performance by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. High concentrations of ROS can damage mitochondria, resulting in reduced ATP production. ROS can also damage muscle proteins, thereby leading to impaired muscle contractile function. We have shown previously that UV-B exposure reduces locomotor performance in mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) without affecting metabolic scope. Our aim was therefore to test whether UV-B influences swimming performance of mosquitofish by ROS-induced damage to muscle proteins without affecting mitochondrial function. In a fully factorial design, we exposed mosquitofish to UV-B and no-UV-B controls in combination with exposure to N-acetylcysteine (NAC) plus no-NAC controls. We used NAC, a precursor of glutathione, as an antioxidant to test whether any effects of UV-B on swimming performance were at least partly due to UV-B-induced ROS. UV-B significantly reduced critical sustained swimming performance and tail beat frequencies, and it increased ROS-induced damage (protein carbonyl concentrations and lipid peroxidation) in muscle. However, UV-B did not affect the activity of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum ATPase (SERCA), an enzyme associated with muscle calcium cycling and muscle relaxation. UV-B did not affect ADP phosphorylation (state 3) rates of mitochondrial respiration, and it did not alter the amount of ATP produced per atom of oxygen consumed (P:O ratio). However, UV-B reduced the mitochondrial respiratory control ratio. Under UV-B exposure, fish treated with NAC showed greater swimming performance and tail beat frequencies, higher glutathione concentrations, and lower protein carbonyl concentrations and lipid peroxidation than untreated fish. Tail beat amplitude was not affected by any treatment. Our results showed, firstly, that the effects of UV-B on locomotor performance were mediated by ROS and, secondly, that reduced swimming performance was not caused by

  14. Aerobic Growth of Escherichia coli Is Reduced, and ATP Synthesis Is Selectively Inhibited when Five C-terminal Residues Are Deleted from the ϵ Subunit of ATP Synthase.

    PubMed

    Shah, Naman B; Duncan, Thomas M

    2015-08-21

    F-type ATP synthases are rotary nanomotor enzymes involved in cellular energy metabolism in eukaryotes and eubacteria. The ATP synthase from Gram-positive and -negative model bacteria can be autoinhibited by the C-terminal domain of its ϵ subunit (ϵCTD), but the importance of ϵ inhibition in vivo is unclear. Functional rotation is thought to be blocked by insertion of the latter half of the ϵCTD into the central cavity of the catalytic complex (F1). In the inhibited state of the Escherichia coli enzyme, the final segment of ϵCTD is deeply buried but has few specific interactions with other subunits. This region of the ϵCTD is variable or absent in other bacteria that exhibit strong ϵ-inhibition in vitro. Here, genetically deleting the last five residues of the ϵCTD (ϵΔ5) caused a greater defect in respiratory growth than did the complete absence of the ϵCTD. Isolated membranes with ϵΔ5 generated proton-motive force by respiration as effectively as with wild-type ϵ but showed a nearly 3-fold decrease in ATP synthesis rate. In contrast, the ϵΔ5 truncation did not change the intrinsic rate of ATP hydrolysis with membranes. Further, the ϵΔ5 subunit retained high affinity for isolated F1 but reduced the maximal inhibition of F1-ATPase by ϵ from >90% to ∼20%. The results suggest that the ϵCTD has distinct regulatory interactions with F1 when rotary catalysis operates in opposite directions for the hydrolysis or synthesis of ATP.

  15. Type I collagen reduces the degradation of basal lamina proteoglycan by mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    When mouse mammary epithelial cells are cultured on a plastic substratum, no basal lamina forms. When cultured on a type I collagen gel, the rate of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis is unchanged, but the rate of GAG degradation is markedly reduced and a GAG-rich, basal lamina-like structure accumulates. This effect of collagen was investigated by comparing the culture distribution, nature, and metabolic stability of the 35S-GAG-containing molecules produced by cells on plastic and collagen. During 48 h of labeling with 35SO4, cultures on collagen accumulate 1.4-fold more 35S-GAG per microgram of DNA. In these cultures, most of the extracellular 35S-GAG is immobilized with the lamina and collagen gel, whereas in cultures on plastic all extracellular 35S-GAG is soluble. On both substrata, the cells produce several heparan sulfate-rich 35S-proteoglycan fractions that are distinct by Sepharose CL-4B chromatography. The culture types contain similar amounts of each fraction, except that collagen cultures contain nearly four times more of a fraction that is found largely bound to the lamina and collagen gel. During a chase this proteoglycan fraction is stable in cultures on collagen, but is extensively degraded in cultures on plastic. Thus, collagen-induced formation of a basal lamina correlates with reduced degradation and enhanced accumulation of a specific heparan sulfate-rich proteoglycan fraction. Immobilization and stabilization of basal laminar proteoglycan(s) by interstitial collagen may be a physiological mechanism of basal lamina maintenance and assembly. PMID:7298723

  16. Evaluation of an ATP Assay to Quantify Bacterial Attachment to Surfaces in Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmele, Michele N.; Roberson, Luke B.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To develop an assay to quantify the biomass of attached cells and biofilm formed on wetted surfaces in variable-gravity environments. Methods and Results: Liquid cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were exposed to 30-35 brief cycles of hypergravity (< 2-g) followed by free fall (i.e., reduced gravity) equivalent to either lunar-g (i.e., 0.17 normal Earth gravity) or micro-g (i.e., < 0.001 normal Earth gravity) in an aircraft flying a series of parabolas. Over the course of two days of parabolic flight testing, 504 polymer or metal coupons were exposed to a stationary-phase population of P. aeruginosa strain ERC1 at a concentration of 1.0 x 10(exp 5) cells per milliliter. After the final parabola on each flight test day, half of the material coupon samples were treated with either 400 micro-g/L ionic silver fluoride (microgravity-exposed cultures) or 1% formalin (lunar-gravity-exposed cultures). The remaining sample coupons from each flight test day were not treated with a fixative. All samples were returned to the laboratory for analysis within 2 hours of landing, and all biochemical assays were completed within 8 hours of exposure to variable gravity. The intracellular ATP luminescent assay accurately reflected cell physiology compared to both cultivation-based and direct-count microscopy analyses. Cells exposed to variable gravity had more than twice as much intracellular ATP as control cells exposed only to normal Earth gravity.

  17. Costs of reducing sapling basal area in thinned cherry-maple stands in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Miller

    1984-01-01

    Unmanaged 60-year-old cherry-maple stands in West Virginia were thinned to three levels of stocking according to the Allegheny hardwoods stocking guide. After the merchantable timber was removed, the basal area in saplings was reduced to less than 10 ft² per acre (2.3 m²/ha), as the guide recommends for stands with dense understories. A detailed time...

  18. Listening to Rhythmic Music Reduces Connectivity within the Basal Ganglia and the Reward System.

    PubMed

    Brodal, Hans P; Osnes, Berge; Specht, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Music can trigger emotional responses in a more direct way than any other stimulus. In particular, music-evoked pleasure involves brain networks that are part of the reward system. Furthermore, rhythmic music stimulates the basal ganglia and may trigger involuntary movements to the beat. In the present study, we created a continuously playing rhythmic, dance floor-like composition where the ambient noise from the MR scanner was incorporated as an additional instrument of rhythm. By treating this continuous stimulation paradigm as a variant of resting-state, the data was analyzed with stochastic dynamic causal modeling (sDCM), which was used for exploring functional dependencies and interactions between core areas of auditory perception, rhythm processing, and reward processing. The sDCM model was a fully connected model with the following areas: auditory cortex, putamen/pallidum, and ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens of both hemispheres. The resulting estimated parameters were compared to ordinary resting-state data, without an additional continuous stimulation. Besides reduced connectivity within the basal ganglia, the results indicated a reduced functional connectivity of the reward system, namely the right ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens from and to the basal ganglia and auditory network while listening to rhythmic music. In addition, the right ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens demonstrated also a change in its hemodynamic parameter, reflecting an increased level of activation. These converging results may indicate that the dopaminergic reward system reduces its functional connectivity and relinquishing its constraints on other areas when we listen to rhythmic music.

  19. Increased basal coronary blood flow as a cause of reduced coronary flow reserve in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Picchi, Andrea; Limbruno, Ugo; Focardi, Marta; Cortese, Bernardo; Micheli, Andrea; Boschi, Letizia; Severi, Silva; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2011-12-01

    A reduced coronary flow reserve (CFR) has been demonstrated in diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We assessed thermodilution-derived CFR after 5-min intravenous adenosine infusion through a pressure-temperature sensor-tipped wire in 30 coronary arteries without significant lumen reduction in 30 patients: 13 with and 17 without a history of diabetes. We determined CFR as the ratio of basal and hyperemic mean transit times (T(mn)); fractional flow reserve (FFR) as the ratio of distal and proximal pressures at maximal hyperemia to exclude local macrovascular disease; and an index of microvascular resistance (IMR) as the distal coronary pressure at maximal hyperemia divided by the inverse of the hyperemic T(mn). We also assessed insulin resistance by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index. FFR was normal in all investigated arteries. CFR was significantly lower in diabetic vs. nondiabetic patients [median (interquartile range): 2.2 (1.4-3.2) vs. 4.1 (2.7-4.4); P = 0.02]. Basal T(mn) was lower in diabetic vs. nondiabetic subjects [median (interquartile range): 0.53 (0.25-0.71) vs. 0.64 (0.50-1.17); P = 0.04], while hyperemic T(mn) and IMR were similar. We found significant correlations at linear regression analysis between logCFR and the HOMA index (r(2) = 0.35; P = 0.0005) and between basal T(mn) and the HOMA index (r(2) = 0.44; P < 0.0001). In conclusion, compared with nondiabetic subjects, CFR is lower in patients with diabetes and epicardial coronary arteries free of severe stenosis, because of increased basal coronary flow, while hyperemic coronary flow is similar. Basal coronary flow relates to insulin resistance, suggesting a key role of cellular metabolism in the regulation of coronary blood flow.

  20. Basal nitric oxide production is not reduced in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Catalano, M; Carzaniga, G; Perilli, E; Jun, T; Scandale, G; Andreoni, S; Carotta, M

    1997-11-01

    Vascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity, disability and death in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Abnormalities in endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) have been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of vascular disease. By measuring hemodynamic responses to a NO synthase agonist or antagonist, previous studies have shown the presence of NO deficiency in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, a method of assessing bioactive NO formation. However, direct biochemical evidence that this is the case, has not been produced. In vivo NO is metabolized into nitrate, an end breakdown product of NO, which can be used as an index of endogenous NO formation. To investigate further whether decreased basal synthesis of NO may be a major cause of endothelium-mediated vascular dysfunction in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, the plasma nitrite/nitrate levels of 15 patients were examined and compared with 13 normal controls. The results showed that in basal conditions plasma nitrite/nitrate levels were not reduced in diabetic patients compared with normal controls (37.3 +/- 14.7 versus 29.4 +/- 8.6 mumol/l). It was concluded that in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients, endothelium-derived basal NO formation is not impaired. This study, taken with previous observations, suggests that factors other than diminished basal NO production, such as reduced bioavailability of NO probably due to the augmented production of superoxide anion with subsequently increased inactivation of NO, contribute to the high incidence of vascular disease in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

  1. Normal prism adaptation but reduced after-effect in basal ganglia disorders using a throwing task.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Ruiz, J; Diaz, R; Hall-Haro, C; Vergara, P; Mischner, J; Nuñez, L; Drucker-Colin, R; Ochoa, A; Alonso, M E

    2003-08-01

    Prism adaptation is a form of visuomotor learning in which the visual and motor systems need to be adjusted because a visual perturbation is produced by horizontally displacing prisms. Despite being known for over two centuries, the neuronal substrates of this phenomenon are not yet completely understood. In this article the possible role of the basal ganglia in this kind of learning was analysed through a study of Huntington's and Parkinson's disease patients. A throwing technique requiring the use of open loop feedback was used. The variables analysed were visuomotor performance, adaptation rate and magnitude, and the after-effect. The results clearly showed that both Huntington's and Parkinson's disease groups learned at the same rate as control subjects. In addition, despite having a disturbed visuomotor performance, both experimental groups showed the same adaptation magnitude as the control group. Finally, the after-effect, which is measured after removing the prisms, is reduced in both patients groups. This reduction leads to a disruption in the normal adaptation-after-effect correlation found in normal volunteers. These results suggest that basal ganglia are not involved in this type of open-looped visuomotor learning. The large number of patients studied as well as the similarity of the findings between both populations support this hypothesis. By contrast, there is an impairment in the after-effect on both basal ganglia patient populations. This impairment may be the result of the deterioration of the perceptual recalibration process involved in visuomotor learning.

  2. Listening to Rhythmic Music Reduces Connectivity within the Basal Ganglia and the Reward System

    PubMed Central

    Brodal, Hans P.; Osnes, Berge; Specht, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Music can trigger emotional responses in a more direct way than any other stimulus. In particular, music-evoked pleasure involves brain networks that are part of the reward system. Furthermore, rhythmic music stimulates the basal ganglia and may trigger involuntary movements to the beat. In the present study, we created a continuously playing rhythmic, dance floor-like composition where the ambient noise from the MR scanner was incorporated as an additional instrument of rhythm. By treating this continuous stimulation paradigm as a variant of resting-state, the data was analyzed with stochastic dynamic causal modeling (sDCM), which was used for exploring functional dependencies and interactions between core areas of auditory perception, rhythm processing, and reward processing. The sDCM model was a fully connected model with the following areas: auditory cortex, putamen/pallidum, and ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens of both hemispheres. The resulting estimated parameters were compared to ordinary resting-state data, without an additional continuous stimulation. Besides reduced connectivity within the basal ganglia, the results indicated a reduced functional connectivity of the reward system, namely the right ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens from and to the basal ganglia and auditory network while listening to rhythmic music. In addition, the right ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens demonstrated also a change in its hemodynamic parameter, reflecting an increased level of activation. These converging results may indicate that the dopaminergic reward system reduces its functional connectivity and relinquishing its constraints on other areas when we listen to rhythmic music. PMID:28400717

  3. Diabetes reduces basal retinal insulin receptor signaling: reversal with systemic and local insulin.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Chad E N; Wu, Xiaohua; Sandirasegarane, Lakshman; Nakamura, Makoto; Gilbert, Kirk A; Singh, Ravi S J; Fort, Patrice E; Antonetti, David A; Gardner, Thomas W

    2006-04-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by early onset of neuronal cell death. We previously showed that insulin mediates a prosurvival pathway in retinal neurons and that normal retina expresses a highly active basal insulin receptor/Akt signaling pathway that is stable throughout feeding and fasting. Using the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model, we tested the hypothesis that diabetes diminishes basal retinal insulin receptor signaling concomitantly with increased diabetes-induced retinal apoptosis. The expression, phosphorylation status, and/or kinase activity of the insulin receptor and downstream signaling proteins were investigated in retinas of age-matched control, diabetic, and insulin-treated diabetic rats. Four weeks of diabetes reduced basal insulin receptor kinase, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1/2-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and Akt kinase activity without altering insulin receptor or IRS-1/2 expression or tyrosine phosphorylation. After 12 weeks of diabetes, constitutive insulin receptor autophosphorylation and IRS-2 expression were reduced, without changes in p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase or IRS-1. Sustained systemic insulin treatment of diabetic rats prevented loss of insulin receptor and Akt kinase activity, and acute intravitreal insulin administration restored insulin receptor kinase activity. Insulin treatment restored insulin receptor-beta autophosphorylation in rat retinas maintained ex vivo, demonstrating functional receptors and suggesting loss of ligand as a cause for reduced retinal insulin receptor/Akt pathway activity. These results demonstrate that diabetes progressively impairs the constitutive retinal insulin receptor signaling pathway through Akt and suggests that loss of this survival pathway may contribute to the initial stages of diabetic retinopathy.

  4. Adenine nucleotide translocase greatly increases the partition of trinitrophenyl-ATP into reduced Triton X-100 micelles.

    PubMed Central

    Tummino, P J; Gafni, A

    1992-01-01

    The presence of adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) was found to greatly enhance the partitioning of the ATP analog 2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (TNP-ATP) into reduced Triton X-100 micelles. The protein's effect was studied through the quenching of fluorescence of purified ANT, irreversibly inhibited by carboxyatractyloside (CAT), solubilized in reduced Triton X-100 micelles. The dependence of quenching of the protein's time-resolved tryptophan fluorescence on TNP-ATP concentration was measured and found to follow a Stern-Volmer mechanism. However, the calculated quenching constant was too large to be accounted for by the aqueous TNP-ATP concentration. Experiments were therefore conducted to determine the partitioning of the quencher between the three phases present: aqueous, protein-free micelle, and protein micelle; a system also described by the equation of Omann, G. M., and M. Glaser (1985. Biophys. J. 47:623-627.). By measuring the dependence of the apparent quenching rate constant on the protein concentration and protein/micelle ratios, this equation was used to calculate both the quencher partition coefficient into protein-free micelles (Pm) and into protein-micelles (Ppm), as well as the bimolecular quenching rate constant (kpm) in protein micelles. From the quenching experiments, kpm = 5.0 x 10(8)M-1s-1,Pm = 290 and pyrene quenching experiment to be 325, and by a rapid filtration experiment to be 450. Clearly, the presence of the integral membrane protein ANT-CAT in reduced Triton X-100 micelles greatly increases the partition of TNP-ATP into the micelle. ANT alters the properties and thus, the structure of the detergent micelle, which has direct implications for the use of detergent micelles as a model system for membrane proteins and may indicate that analogous effects occur in the mitochondrial membrane. PMID:1420926

  5. Reduced Basal Transcriptional Activity of Central Nervous System-Derived HIV Type 1 Long Terminal Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Lachlan R.; Cowley, Daniel; Crespan, Emma; Welsh, Casey; Mackenzie, Charlene; Wesselingh, Steve L.; Gorry, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract New evidence indicates that astrocytes of the central nervous system (CNS) are extensively infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in vivo. Although no new virus is produced, this nonproductive or restricted infection contributes to the pathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia (HAD) and compromises virus eradication strategies. The HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) plays a critical role in regulating virus production from infected cells. Here, we determined whether LTRs derived from CNS and non-CNS compartments are genetically and functionally distinct and contribute to the restricted nature of astrocyte infection. CNS- and/or non-CNS-derived LTRs (n=82) were cloned from primary HIV-1 viruses isolated from autopsy tissues of seven patients who died with HAD. Phylogenetic analysis showed interpatient and intrapatient clustering of LTR nucleotide sequences. Functional analysis showed reduced basal transcriptional activity of CNS-derived LTRs in both astrocytes and T cells compared to that of non-CNS-derived LTRs. However, LTRs were heterogeneous in their responsiveness to activation by Tat. Therefore, using a relatively large, independent panel of primary HIV-1 LTRs derived from clinically well-characterized subjects, we show that LTRs segregate CNS- from non-CNS-derived tissues both genetically and functionally. The reduced basal transcriptional activity of LTRs derived from the CNS may contribute to the restricted HIV-1 infection of astrocytes and latent infection within the CNS. These findings have significance for understanding the molecular basis of HIV-1 persistence within cellular reservoirs of the CNS that need to be considered for strategies aimed at eradicating HIV-1. PMID:22924643

  6. Topiramate reduces basal anxiety and relieves ethanol withdrawal-induced anxious behaviors in male rats.

    PubMed

    Junqueira-Ayres, Décio D; Asth, Laila; Ayres, Adriana S F S J; Lobão-Soares, Bruno; Soares-Rachetti, Vanessa de Paula; Gavioli, Elaine C

    2017-04-01

    Anxiety disorders are associated with increased impairments in psychosocial functioning, work productivity and health-related quality of life. In addition, anxiety is a common symptom of ethanol withdrawal and it strongly contributes to relapse. Benzodiazepines are frequently prescribed for relief of anxiety and ethanol withdrawal symptoms but considerable side effects, such sedation, tolerance and dependence, are observed during treatment. Therefore, better drugs are needed for the treatment of anxiety states. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether topiramate would reduce basal levels of anxiety and ethanol-withdrawn induced anxiety in male rats; the elevated plus maze (EPM) was used as an animal model of anxiety. In Experiment 1, topiramate (0, 10, and 40 mg/kg, i.g.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) was acutely and repeatedly administered to naive rats. In Experiments 2 and 3, topiramate (0 or 40 mg/kg, i.g.) was acutely and chronically administered in early (72 hr after ethanol removal) and protracted (21 days after ethanol removal) ethanol-withdrawn rats, respectively. Acute and repeated topiramate treatment induced anxiolytic-like effects in naive rats. Early ethanol withdrawal increased anxiety, and acute topiramate administration counteracted the anxiogenic-like effects of ethanol removal. Protracted withdrawal did not produce lasting changes in anxiety but topiramate was equally effective at reducing anxiety in ethanol-withdrawn and control animals. Importantly, no signs of tolerance to the anxiolytic effects of topiramate were observed. In conclusion, these data support a role for topiramate in the treatment of basal levels of anxiety and ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Topical photodynamic therapy significantly reduces epidermal Langerhans cells during clinical treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Evangelou, G; Farrar, M D; Cotterell, L; Andrew, S; Tosca, A D; Watson, R E B; Rhodes, L E

    2012-05-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a widely applied treatment for basal cell carcinoma (BCC). PDT-induced immunosuppression leading to reduced antitumour immune responses may be a factor in treatment failure. To examine the impact of topical PDT on leucocyte trafficking following clinical treatment of BCC. Superficial BCCs in eight white caucasian patients were treated with methyl aminolaevulinate (MAL)-PDT. Biopsies for immunohistochemical assessment were taken from BCCs pre-PDT, 1 h and 24 h post-PDT and from untreated healthy skin. Treatment of BCC with MAL-PDT produced a rapid neutrophil infiltration, commencing by 1 h and significantly increased at 24 h post-PDT (P < 0·05 compared with baseline). An associated increase in the number of blood vessels expressing E-selectin was observed at 1 h and 24 h post-PDT (both P < 0·05 compared with baseline). In contrast, the number of epidermal Langerhans cells fell sharply by 1 h post-PDT, and remained significantly reduced at 24 h post-PDT (both P < 0·05 compared with baseline). Reduction of Langerhans cells during clinical treatment of BCC might potentially impact negatively on antitumour responses through reduced activation of tumour-specific effector cells. Investigation of modified PDT protocols with the aim to minimize immunosuppressive effects while maintaining antitumour efficacy is warranted. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. Mutation in the SH1 helix reduces the activation energy of the ATP-induced conformational transition of myosin.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Sosuke; Chaen, Shigeru

    2007-05-25

    The SH1 helix is a joint that links the converter subdomain to the rest of the myosin motor domain. Recently, we showed that a mutation within the SH1 helix in Dictyostelium myosin II (R689H) reduced the elasticity and thermal stability of the protein. To reveal the involvement of the SH1 helix in ATP-dependent conformational changes of the motor domain, we have investigated the effects of the R689H mutation on the conformational changes of the converter, using a GFP-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer method. Although the mutation does not seem to strongly affect conformations, we found that it significantly reduced the activation energy required for the ATP-induced conformational transition corresponding to the recovery stroke. Given the effects of the mutation on the mechanical properties of myosin, we propose that the SH1 helix plays an important role in the mechanochemical energy conversion underlying the conformational change of the myosin motor domain.

  9. Reduced basal ganglia function when elderly switch between coordinated movement patterns.

    PubMed

    Coxon, James P; Goble, Daniel J; Van Impe, Annouchka; De Vos, Jeroen; Wenderoth, Nicole; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2010-10-01

    Structural and neurochemical changes in frontostriatal circuits are thought to underlie age-related behavioral deficits on cognitive tasks. Here, we test the hypothesis that age-related motor switching deficits are associated with reduced basal ganglia (BG) function. Right-handed volunteers (15 Old, and 15 Young) made spatially and temporally coupled bimanual circular motions during event-related FMRI. A visual cue signaled the right hand to Switch or Continue its circling direction. Switching from mirror symmetric to asymmetric (SW»ASYMM) took longer and resulted in more contralateral (left-) hand disruptions than vice versa. These effects were more pronounced in the elderly, showing that the ability to suppress and flexibly adapt motor behavior (agility) declines with age. For both groups, switching activated the BG and a typical network for task-set implementation, including dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/supplementary motor area (pre-SMA, SMA-proper) and anterior insula/inferior frontal gyrus. A region of interest analysis revealed significantly reduced SW»ASYMM activation in bilateral subthalamic nucleus and right globus pallidus, only in the elderly. Age-related behavioral deficits may be related to inefficient recruitment of cortico-BG loops to suppress undesired movements. The elderly may use an alternative strategy to select the required movement pattern as indicated by increased activation of prefrontal cortex.

  10. A window of opportunity for climate-change adaptation: easing tree mortality by reducing forest basal area

    Treesearch

    John B Bradford; David M Bell

    2016-01-01

    Increasing aridity as a result of climate change is expected to exacerbate tree mortality. Reducing forest basal area – the cross-sectional area of tree stems within a given ground area – can decrease tree competition, which may reduce drought-induced tree mortality. However, neither the magnitude of expected mortality increases, nor the potential effectiveness of...

  11. Dietary protein deficiency reduces lysosomal and nonlysosomal ATP-dependent proteolysis in muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawa, N. E. Jr; Kettelhut, I. C.; Goldberg, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    When rats are fed a protein deficient (PD) diet for 7 days, rates of proteolysis in skeletal muscle decrease by 40-50% (N. E. Tawa, Jr., and A. L. Goldberg. Am. J. Physiol. 263 (Endocrinol. Metab. 26): E317-325, 1992). To identify the underlying biochemical adaptations, we measured different proteolytic processes in incubated muscles. The capacity for intralysosomal proteolysis, as shown by sensitivity to methylamine or lysosomal protease inhibitors, fell 55-75% in muscles from PD rats. Furthermore, extracts of muscles of PD rats showed 30-70% lower activity of many lysosomal proteases, including cathepsins B, H, and C, and carboxypeptidases A and C, as well as other lysosomal hydrolases. The fall in cathepsin B and proteolysis was evident by 3 days on the PD diet, and both returned to control levels 3 days after refeeding of the normal diet. In muscles maintained under optimal conditions, 80-90% of protein breakdown occurs by nonlysosomal pathways. In muscles of PD rats, this ATP-dependent process was also 40-60% slower. Even though overall proteolysis decreased in muscles of PD rats, their capacity for Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis increased (by 66%), as did the activity of the calpains (+150-250%). Thus the lysosomal and the ATP-dependent processes decrease coordinately and contribute to the fall in muscle proteolysis in PD animals.

  12. mAMSA resistant human topoisomerase IIβ mutation G465D has reduced ATP hydrolysis activity

    PubMed Central

    Gilroy, Kathryn L.; Leontiou, Chrysoula; Padget, Kay; Lakey, Jeremy H.; Austin, Caroline A.

    2006-01-01

    Type II Human DNA Topoisomerases (topos II) play an essential role in DNA replication and transcription and are important targets for cancer chemotherapeutic drugs. Topoisomerase II causes transient double-strand breaks in DNA, forming a gate through which another double helix is passed, and acts as a DNA dependent ATPase. Mutations in topoII have been linked to atypical multi-drug resistance. Both human Topoisomerase II isoforms, α and β, are targeted by amsacrine. We have used a forced molecular evolution approach to identify mutations conferring resistance to acridines. Here we report mutation βG465D, which was selected with mAMSA and DACA and is cross-resistant to etoposide, ellipticine and doxorubicin. Resistance to mAMSA appears to decrease over time indicating a previously unreported resistance mechanism. G465D lies within the B′ domain in the region that contacts the cleaved gate helix. There is a 3-fold decrease in ATP affinity and ATP hydrolysis and an altered requirement for magnesium in decatenation assays. The decatenation rate is decreased for the mutated G465D protein. And we report for the first time the use of fluorescence anisotropy with intact human topoisomerase II. PMID:16549872

  13. Dietary protein deficiency reduces lysosomal and nonlysosomal ATP-dependent proteolysis in muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawa, N. E. Jr; Kettelhut, I. C.; Goldberg, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    When rats are fed a protein deficient (PD) diet for 7 days, rates of proteolysis in skeletal muscle decrease by 40-50% (N. E. Tawa, Jr., and A. L. Goldberg. Am. J. Physiol. 263 (Endocrinol. Metab. 26): E317-325, 1992). To identify the underlying biochemical adaptations, we measured different proteolytic processes in incubated muscles. The capacity for intralysosomal proteolysis, as shown by sensitivity to methylamine or lysosomal protease inhibitors, fell 55-75% in muscles from PD rats. Furthermore, extracts of muscles of PD rats showed 30-70% lower activity of many lysosomal proteases, including cathepsins B, H, and C, and carboxypeptidases A and C, as well as other lysosomal hydrolases. The fall in cathepsin B and proteolysis was evident by 3 days on the PD diet, and both returned to control levels 3 days after refeeding of the normal diet. In muscles maintained under optimal conditions, 80-90% of protein breakdown occurs by nonlysosomal pathways. In muscles of PD rats, this ATP-dependent process was also 40-60% slower. Even though overall proteolysis decreased in muscles of PD rats, their capacity for Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis increased (by 66%), as did the activity of the calpains (+150-250%). Thus the lysosomal and the ATP-dependent processes decrease coordinately and contribute to the fall in muscle proteolysis in PD animals.

  14. Reduced Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Integrity Links Neonatal Complications and Adult Cognitive Deficits After Premature Birth.

    PubMed

    Grothe, Michel J; Scheef, Lukas; Bäuml, Josef; Meng, Chun; Daamen, Marcel; Baumann, Nicole; Zimmer, Claus; Teipel, Stefan; Bartmann, Peter; Boecker, Henning; Wolke, Dieter; Wohlschläger, Afra; Sorg, Christian

    2017-07-15

    Prematurely born individuals have an increased risk for long-term neurocognitive impairments. In animal models, development of the cholinergic basal forebrain (cBF) is selectively vulnerable to adverse effects of perinatal stressors, and impaired cBF integrity results in lasting cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that cBF integrity is impaired in prematurely born individuals and mediates adult cognitive impairments associated with prematurity. We used magnetic resonance imaging-based volumetric assessments of a cytoarchitectonically defined cBF region of interest to determine differences in cBF integrity between 99 adults who were born very preterm and/or with very low birth weight and 106 term-born control subjects from the same birth cohort. Magnetic resonance imaging-derived cBF volumes were studied in relation to neonatal clinical complications after delivery and intelligence measures (IQ) in adulthood. In adults who were born very preterm and/or with very low birth weight, cBF volumes were significantly reduced compared with term-born adults (-4.5% [F1,202 = 11.82, p = .001]). Lower cBF volume in adults who were born very preterm and/or with very low birth weight was specifically associated with both neonatal complications (rpart,92 = -.35, p < .001) and adult IQ (rpart,88 = .33, p = .001) even after controlling for global gray matter and white matter volume. In a path analytic model, cBF volume significantly mediated the association between neonatal complications and adult cognitive deficits. We provide first-time evidence in humans that cBF integrity is impaired after premature birth and links neonatal complications with long-term cognitive outcome. Data suggest that cholinergic system abnormalities may play a relevant role for long-term neurocognitive impairments associated with premature delivery. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Combined use of basal insulin analog and acarbose reduces postprandial glucose in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Ahn, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Lee, Dae-Ho; Kim, Hye-Soon; Shon, Ho-Sang; Jeon, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Tae-Hwa; Cho, Yong-Wook; Kim, Jae-Taek; Han, Sung-Min; Chung, Choon-Hee; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Min; Lee, Soon-Hee; Kwon, Min-Jeong; Kim, Tae-kyun; Namgoong, Il-Seong; Kim, Eun-Sook; Jung, In-Kyung; Moon, Sung-Dae; Han, Je-Ho; Kim, Chong-Hwa; Cho, Eun-Hee; Kim, Ki-Young; Park, Hee-Baek; Lee, Ki-Sang; Lee, Sung-Woo; Lee, Sang-Cheol; Kang, Cheol-Min; Jeon, Byung-Sook; Song, Min-Seop; Yun, Seung-Baik; Chung, Hyung-Keun; Seong, Jong-Ho; Jeong, Jin-Yi; Cha, Bong-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Early initiation of basal insulin therapy is recommended for normalizing fasting blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, basal insulin treatment might not adequately control postprandial glucose levels. The present study evaluated whether the combination of the α-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, and basal insulin improved blood glucose control under daily-life treatment conditions in a large sample of Korean patients. Materials and Methods The present study was a multicenter, prospective, observational study under daily-life treatment conditions. A total of 539 patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated with basal insulin and additional acarbose were enrolled and followed up for 20 weeks. Changes in hemoglobin A1c, fasting and postprandial blood glucose were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the observation period. The physician and patient satisfaction of the combination treatment and safety were assessed. Results Hemoglobin A1c decreased by 0.55 ± 1.05% from baseline (P < 0.0001). Fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels were reduced by 0.89 ± 3.79 and 2.59 ± 4.77 mmol/L (both P < 0.0001). The most frequently reported adverse drug reactions were flatulence (0.37%) and abnormal gastrointestinal sounds (0.37%), and all were mild in intensity and transient. In the satisfaction evaluation, 79.0% of physicians and 77.3% of patients were ‘very satisfied’ or ‘satisfied’ with the combined basal insulin and acarbose therapy. Conclusions Combination therapy of basal insulin and acarbose in patients with type 2 diabetes improved glucose control, and had no drug-specific safety concerns, suggesting that the treatment might benefit individuals who cannot control blood glucose with basal insulin alone. PMID:25802730

  16. A window of opportunity for climate-change adaptation: Easing tree mortality by reducing forest basal area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradford, John B.; Bell, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing aridity as a result of climate change is expected to exacerbate tree mortality. Reducing forest basal area – the cross-sectional area of tree stems within a given ground area – can decrease tree competition, which may reduce drought-induced tree mortality. However, neither the magnitude of expected mortality increases, nor the potential effectiveness of basal area reduction, has been quantified in dryland forests such as those of the drought-prone Southwest US. We used thousands of repeatedly measured forest plots to show that unusually warm and dry conditions are related to high tree mortality rates and that mortality is positively related to basal area. Those relationships suggest that while increasing high temperature extremes forecasted by climate models may lead to elevated tree mortality during the 21st century, future tree mortality might be partly ameliorated by reducing stand basal area. This adaptive forest management strategy may provide a window of opportunity for forest managers and policy makers to guide forest transitions to species and/or genotypes more suited to future climates.

  17. Historical harvests reduce neighboring old-growth basal area across a forest landscape

    Treesearch

    David M. Bell; Thomas A. Spies; Robert Pabst

    2017-01-01

    While advances in remote sensing have made stand, landscape, and regional assessments of the direct impacts of disturbance on forests quite common, the edge influence of timber harvesting on the structure of neighboring unharvested forests has not been examined extensively. In this study, we examine the impact of historical timber harvests on basal area patterns of...

  18. Historical harvests reduce neighboring old-growth basal area across a forest landscape.

    PubMed

    Bell, David M; Spies, Thomas A; Pabst, Robert

    2017-07-01

    While advances in remote sensing have made stand, landscape, and regional assessments of the direct impacts of disturbance on forests quite common, the edge influence of timber harvesting on the structure of neighboring unharvested forests has not been examined extensively. In this study, we examine the impact of historical timber harvests on basal area patterns of neighboring old-growth forests to assess the magnitude and scale of harvest edge influence in a forest landscape of western Oregon, USA. We used lidar data and forest plot measurements to construct 30-m resolution live tree basal area maps in lower and middle elevation mature and old-growth forests. We assessed how edge influence on total, upper canopy, and lower canopy basal area varied across this forest landscape as a function of harvest characteristics (i.e., harvest size and age) and topographic conditions in the unharvested area. Upper canopy, lower canopy, and total basal area increased with distance from harvest edge and elevation. Forests within 75 m of harvest edges (20% of unharvested forests) had 4% to 6% less live tree basal area compared with forest interiors. An interaction between distance from harvest edge and elevation indicated that elevation altered edge influence in this landscape. We observed a positive edge influence at low elevations (<800 m) and a negative edge influence at moderate to high elevations (>800 m). Surprisingly, we found no or weak effects of harvest age (13-60 yr) and harvest area (0.2-110 ha) on surrounding unharvested forest basal area, implying that edge influence was relatively insensitive to the scale of disturbance and multi-decadal recovery processes. Our study indicates that the edge influence of past clearcutting on the structure of neighboring uncut old-growth forests is widespread and persistent. These indirect and diffuse legacies of historical timber harvests complicate forest management decision-making in old-growth forest landscapes by broadening

  19. Basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated levels of cAMP are reduced in lymphocytes from alcoholic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, I.; Wrubel, B.; Estrin, W.; Gordon, A.

    1987-03-01

    Alcoholism causes serious neurologic disease that may be due, in part, to the ability of ethanol to interact with neural cell membranes and change neuronal function. Adenosine receptors are membrane-bound proteins that appear to mediate some of the effects of ethanol in the brain. Human lymphocytes also have adenosine receptors, and their activation causes increases in cAMP levels. To test the hypothesis that basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated cAMP levels in lymphocytes might be abnormal in alcoholism, the authors studied lymphocytes from 10 alcoholic subjects, 10 age- and sex-matched normal individuals, and 10 patients with nonalcoholic liver disease. Basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated cAMP levels were reduced 75% in lymphocytes from alcoholic subjects. Also, there was a 76% reduction in ethanol stimulation of cAMP accumulation in lymphocytes from alcoholics. Similar results were demonstrable in isolated T cells. Unlike other laboratory tests examined, these measurements appeared to distinguish alcoholics from normal subjects and from patients with nonalcoholic liver disease. Reduced basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated levels of cAMP in lymphocytes from alcoholics may reflect a change in cell membranes due either to chronic alcohol abuse or to a genetic predisposition unique to alcoholic subjects.

  20. Overexpression of connexin26 in the basal keratinocytes reduces sensitivity to tumor promoter TPA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Ramirez, Angel; Budunova, Irina

    2010-07-01

    Connexin 26 is important in keratinocyte proliferation, differentiation and skin pathologies. Cx26 is barely expressed in normal adult epidermis, but its expression is induced during wound healing, psoriasis, and skin hyperplasia stimulated by tumor promoters. In hyperplastic proliferating epidermis, Cx26 is co-expressed with Cx43 typical for basal and suprabasal keratinocytes. As Cx26 and Cx43 can not form permeable gap junctions, their co-expression may alter the gap junctional communication between keratinocytes and induce proliferation. To test the effect of persistent co-expression of Cx26 and Cx43 in epidermis, we generated transgenic mice using keratin5 promoter to target Cx26 to basal Cx43-positive keratinocytes. We evaluated the effect of ectopic Cx26 on keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation in normal and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated skin. The ectopic Cx26 expression in epidermis did not significantly affect skin development, keratinocyte differentiation and proliferation in newborn and adult skin. Unexpectedly, the proliferative effect of tumor promoter TPA was strongly decreased in epidermis of K5.Cx26 transgenics. This correlated with significant down-regulation of TPA-induced activity of protein kinase C (PKC) in K5.Cx26 mice.

  1. Stimulation of ATP-driven Ca2+ pump in the basal-lateral plasma membranes of kidney cortex during compensatory renal growth.

    PubMed

    Hadzić, A; Sabolić, I; Banfić, H

    1990-03-01

    During compensatory renal growth 45Ca2+ transport in basal-lateral plasma membrane vesicles isolated from the rat renal cortex have been investigated. Stimulation of Ca2(+)-ATPase activity was observed, without an effect of compensatory renal growth on Na+/Ca2+ exchanger activity and on passive Ca2+ permeability of the vesicles. Twelve hours following unilateral nephrectomy about 40% increase of Ca2(+)-ATPase activity above control value was observed and this effect was present until the end of the experimental period (7 days). When kinetic parameters for Ca2(+)-ATPase were studied in native membranes, an increase of Vmax was observed, whereas the Km for Ca2+ was similar in control vesicles and vesicles isolated from the remnant kidney. Depletion of endogenous calmodulin resulted in a decrease of Vmax and an increase of Km (Ca2+), while its addition reversed these parameters and increased the Hill coefficient from about 1 to about 2. Once again, only a significant increase of Vmax in vesicles isolated from the remnant kidney above the control value was observed. Finally, increase of Ca2(+)-ATPase activity during compensatory renal growth could be abolished by actinomycin D, indicating that its stimulation is due to protein synthesis.

  2. Mechanisms that match ATP supply to demand in cardiac pacemaker cells during high ATP demand

    PubMed Central

    Yaniv, Yael; Spurgeon, Harold A.; Ziman, Bruce D.; Lyashkov, Alexey E.

    2013-01-01

    The spontaneous action potential (AP) firing rate of sinoatrial node cells (SANCs) involves high-throughput signaling via Ca2+-calmodulin activated adenylyl cyclases (AC), cAMP-mediated protein kinase A (PKA), and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent phosphorylation of SR Ca2+ cycling and surface membrane ion channel proteins. When the throughput of this signaling increases, e.g., in response to β-adrenergic receptor activation, the resultant increase in spontaneous AP firing rate increases the demand for ATP. We hypothesized that an increase of ATP production to match the increased ATP demand is achieved via a direct effect of increased mitochondrial Ca2+ (Ca2+m) and an indirect effect via enhanced Ca2+-cAMP/PKA-CaMKII signaling to mitochondria. To increase ATP demand, single isolated rabbit SANCs were superfused by physiological saline at 35 ± 0.5°C with isoproterenol, or by phosphodiesterase or protein phosphatase inhibition. We measured cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca2+ and flavoprotein fluorescence in single SANC, and we measured cAMP, ATP, and O2 consumption in SANC suspensions. Although the increase in spontaneous AP firing rate was accompanied by an increase in O2 consumption, the ATP level and flavoprotein fluorescence remained constant, indicating that ATP production had increased. Both Ca2+m and cAMP increased concurrently with the increase in AP firing rate. When Ca2+m was reduced by Ru360, the increase in spontaneous AP firing rate in response to isoproterenol was reduced by 25%. Thus, both an increase in Ca2+m and an increase in Ca2+ activated cAMP-PKA-CaMKII signaling regulate the increase in ATP supply to meet ATP demand above the basal level. PMID:23604710

  3. Mechanisms that match ATP supply to demand in cardiac pacemaker cells during high ATP demand.

    PubMed

    Yaniv, Yael; Spurgeon, Harold A; Ziman, Bruce D; Lyashkov, Alexey E; Lakatta, Edward G

    2013-06-01

    The spontaneous action potential (AP) firing rate of sinoatrial node cells (SANCs) involves high-throughput signaling via Ca(2+)-calmodulin activated adenylyl cyclases (AC), cAMP-mediated protein kinase A (PKA), and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent phosphorylation of SR Ca(2+) cycling and surface membrane ion channel proteins. When the throughput of this signaling increases, e.g., in response to β-adrenergic receptor activation, the resultant increase in spontaneous AP firing rate increases the demand for ATP. We hypothesized that an increase of ATP production to match the increased ATP demand is achieved via a direct effect of increased mitochondrial Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)m) and an indirect effect via enhanced Ca(2+)-cAMP/PKA-CaMKII signaling to mitochondria. To increase ATP demand, single isolated rabbit SANCs were superfused by physiological saline at 35 ± 0.5°C with isoproterenol, or by phosphodiesterase or protein phosphatase inhibition. We measured cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) and flavoprotein fluorescence in single SANC, and we measured cAMP, ATP, and O₂ consumption in SANC suspensions. Although the increase in spontaneous AP firing rate was accompanied by an increase in O₂ consumption, the ATP level and flavoprotein fluorescence remained constant, indicating that ATP production had increased. Both Ca(2+)m and cAMP increased concurrently with the increase in AP firing rate. When Ca(2+)m was reduced by Ru360, the increase in spontaneous AP firing rate in response to isoproterenol was reduced by 25%. Thus, both an increase in Ca(2+)m and an increase in Ca(2+) activated cAMP-PKA-CaMKII signaling regulate the increase in ATP supply to meet ATP demand above the basal level.

  4. Changing pattern in the basal ganglia: motor switching under reduced dopaminergic drive

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Vincenzo G.; Rigoli, Francesco; Stenner, Max-Philipp; Zaehle, Tino; Hirth, Frank; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2016-01-01

    Action selection in the basal ganglia is often described within the framework of a standard model, associating low dopaminergic drive with motor suppression. Whilst powerful, this model does not explain several clinical and experimental data, including varying therapeutic efficacy across movement disorders. We tested the predictions of this model in patients with Parkinson’s disease, on and off subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS), focussing on adaptive sensory-motor responses to a changing environment and maintenance of an action until it is no longer suitable. Surprisingly, we observed prolonged perseverance under on-stimulation, and high inter-individual variability in terms of the motor selections performed when comparing the two conditions. To account for these data, we revised the standard model exploring its space of parameters and associated motor functions and found that, depending on effective connectivity between external and internal parts of the globus pallidus and saliency of the sensory input, a low dopaminergic drive can result in increased, dysfunctional, motor switching, besides motor suppression. This new framework provides insight into the biophysical mechanisms underlying DBS, allowing a description in terms of alteration of the signal-to-baseline ratio in the indirect pathway, which better account of known electrophysiological data in comparison with the standard model. PMID:27004463

  5. Reduced ATP concentration as a basis for synaptic transmission failure during hypoxia in the in vitro guinea-pig hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Lipton, Peter; Whittingham, Tim S.

    1982-01-01

    1. Experiments were performed to determine whether a decrease in tissue ATP contributes to the rapid failure of cerebral synaptic transmission during hypoxia. Transmission between the perforant path and the dentate granule cells in the in vitro hippocampus was studied. 2. Hippocampal slice ATP is decreased by ∼ 15% at the time that the evoked response begins to diminish in standard Krebs bicarbonate buffer. This is about 2 min after the onset of hypoxia. 3. When transmission failure is accelerated by increasing extracellular K+ from 4·4 to 13·4 mM, the evoked response begins to decay about 30 sec after exposure to hypoxia. There is no decrease in hippocampal slice ATP at this time. 4. However, ATP in the molecular layer (the synaptic region of the tissue) is decreased by ∼ 15% at the time the evoked response begins to decay in the slices exposed to elevated K+ concentration. 5. Exposing the hippocampal slice to 25 mM-creatine for 3 hr elevates molecular layer phosphocreatine fourfold. Synaptic transmission during hypoxia survives three times as long as it does in the absence of creatine. 6. In the creatine fortified medium, molecular layer ATP no longer declines within 30 sec of hypoxia. However the molecular layer ATP does decline within 90 sec of hypoxia, the time at which the evoked response begins to decay in this creatine-fortified buffer. 7. The results establish that ATP in the region of the active synapses is lowered when the first signs of electrophysiological failure appear during hypoxia. They also show that maintaining ATP for longer than normal during hypoxia is associated with a prolonged maintenance of the evoked response. They thus suggest that a decline in ATP is one factor causing hypoxic block of synaptic transmission. 8. It is further suggested that the very rapid failure of the electroencephalogram during anoxia may also result from a decline in ATP. PMID:6286944

  6. Increased caffeine intake is associated with reduced risk of basal cell carcinoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Song, Fengju; Qureshi, Abrar A; Han, Jiali

    2012-07-01

    Studies in animals suggest that caffeine administration helps prevent squamous cell skin cancer development, but there have been limited epidemiologic studies on the association between caffeine consumption and skin cancer risk. Using data from the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we prospectively examined risks of basal cell carcinoma (BCC, 22,786 cases), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, 1,953 cases), and melanoma (741 cases) in relation to caffeine intake. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The amount of caffeine intake from all dietary sources was inversely associated with BCC risk. Compared with the lowest quintile, the highest quintile had the lowest risk (RR, 0.82 in women; 95% CI:,0.77-0.86 and RR, 0.87 in men; 95% CI, 0.81-0.94; Ptrend<0.0001 in both). A significant inverse association was also found between caffeinated coffee consumption and BCC risk. Compared with individuals who consumed caffeinated coffee less than 1 cup per month, women who consumed more than 3 cups/d had the lowest risk (RR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.74-0.85; Ptrend<0.0001) and the RR for men was 0.90 (95% CI, 0.80-1.01; Ptrend=0.003). Caffeine from other dietary sources (tea, cola, and chocolate) was also inversely associated with BCC risk. Decaffeinated coffee consumption was not associated with a similar decrease in BCC risk. In contrast, caffeine intake was not found to be inversely associated with risks of SCC or melanoma. Our findings argue that caffeine intake in men and women is inversely associated with risk of BCC. ©2012 AACR.

  7. Sevoflurane Preconditioning Reduces Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: Role of Protein Kinase C and Mitochondrial ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channel

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhiwen; Miao, Liping; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Fei; Li, Yujuan

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been considered to be a potential therapy to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) since the 1980s. Our previous study indicated that sevoflurane preconditioning (SPC) also reduced intestinal IRI in rats. However, whether the protective effect of SPC is similar to IPC and the mechanisms of SPC are unclear. Thus, we compared the efficacy of SPC and IPC against intestinal IRI and the role of protein kinase C (PKC) and mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel (mKATP) in SPC. A rat model of intestinal IRI was used in this study. The superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was clamped for 60 min followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Rats with IPC underwent three cycles of SMA occlusion for 5 min and reperfusion for 5 min before intestinal ischemia. Rats with SPC inhaled sevoflurane at 0.5 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) for 30 min before the intestinal ischemic insult. Additionally, the PKC inhibitor Chelerythrine (CHE) or mKATP inhibitor 5-Hydroxydecanoic (5-HD) was injected intraperitoneally before sevoflurane inhalation. Both SPC and IPC ameliorated intestinal IRI-induced histopathological changes, decreased Chiu’s scores, reduced terminal deoxyribonucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) positive cells in the epithelium, and inhibited the expression of malondialdehyde (MDA) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). These protective effects of SPC were similar to those of IPC. Pretreatment with PKC or mKATP inhibitor abolished SPC—induced protective effects by increasing Chiu’s scores, down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and activated caspase-3. Our results suggest that pretreatment with 0.5 MAC sevoflurane is as effective as IPC against intestinal IRI. The activation of PKC and mKATP may be involved in the protective mechanisms of SPC. PMID:26505750

  8. Heat Shock Protein 90 Inhibitors Reduce Trafficking of ATP-gated P2X1 Receptors and Human Platelet Responsiveness*

    PubMed Central

    Lalo, Ulyana; Jones, Sarah; Roberts, Jonathan A.; Mahaut-Smith, Martyn P.; Evans, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    We have used selective inhibitors to determine whether the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) has an effect on both recombinant and native human P2X1 receptors. P2X1 receptor currents in HEK293 cells were reduced by ∼70–85% by the selective HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin (2 μm, 20 min). This was associated with a speeding in the time course of desensitization as well as a reduction in cell surface expression. Imaging in real time of photoactivatable GFP-tagged P2X receptors showed that they are highly mobile. Geldanamycin almost abolished this movement for P2X1 receptors but had no effect on P2X2 receptor trafficking. P2X1/2 receptor chimeras showed that the intracellular N and C termini were involved in geldanamycin sensitivity. Geldanamycin also inhibited native P2X1 receptor-mediated responses. Platelet P2X1 receptors play an important role in hemostasis, contribute to amplification of signaling to a range of stimuli including collagen, and are novel targets for antithrombotic therapies. Platelet P2X1 receptor-, but not P2Y1 receptor-, mediated increases in intracellular calcium were reduced by 40–45% following HSP90 inhibition with geldanamycin or radicicol. Collagen stimulation leads to ATP release from platelets, and calcium increases to low doses of collagen were also reduced by ∼40% by the HSP90 inhibitors consistent with an effect on P2X1 receptors. These studies suggest that HSP90 inhibitors may be as effective as selective antagonists in regulating platelet P2X1 receptors, and their potential effects on hemostasis should be considered in clinical studies. PMID:22851178

  9. Histone deacetylase inhibitors preserve white matter structure and function during ischemia by conserving ATP and reducing excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Baltan, Selva; Murphy, Sean P; Danilov, Camelia A; Bachleda, Amelia; Morrison, Richard S

    2011-03-16

    The importance of white matter (WM) injury to stroke pathology has been underestimated in experimental animal models and this may have contributed to the failure to translate potential therapeutics into the stroke clinic. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are neuroprotective and also promote neurogenesis. These properties make them ideal candidates for stroke therapy. In a pure WM tract (isolated mouse optic nerve), we show that pan- and class I-specific HDAC inhibitors, administered before or after a period of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), promote functional recovery of axons and preserve WM cellular architecture. This protection correlates with the upregulation of an astrocyte glutamate transporter, delayed and reduced glutamate accumulation during OGD, preservation of axonal mitochondria and oligodendrocytes, and maintenance of ATP levels. Interestingly, the expression of HDACs 1, 2, and 3 is localized to astrocytes, suggesting that changes in glial cell gene transcription and/or protein acetylation may confer protection to axons. Our findings suggest that a therapeutic opportunity exists for the use of HDAC inhibitors, targeting mitochondrial energy regulation and excitotoxicity in ischemic WM injury.

  10. ATP released from cardiac fibroblasts via connexin hemichannels activates profibrotic P2Y2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Lu, David; Soleymani, Sahar; Madakshire, Rohit; Insel, Paul A

    2012-06-01

    Cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) play an essential role in remodeling of the cardiac extracellular matrix. Extracellular nucleotide signaling may provoke a profibrotic response in CFs. We tested the hypothesis that physical perturbations release ATP from CFs and that ATP participates in profibrotic signaling. ATP release was abolished by the channel inhibitor carbenoxolone and inhibited by knockdown of either connexin (Cx)43 or Cx45 (47 and 35%, respectively), implying that hypotonic stimulation induces ATP release via Cx43 and Cx45 hemichannels, although pannexin 1 may also play a role. ATP released by hypotonic stimulation rapidly (<10 min) increased phosphorylated ERK by 5-8 fold, an effect largely eliminated by P2Y(2) receptor knockdown or ATP hydrolysis with apyrase. ATP stimulation of P2Y(2) receptors increased α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) production, and in an ERK-dependent manner, ATP increased collagen accumulation by 60% and mRNA expression of profibrotic markers: plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 by 4.5- and 4.0-fold, respectively. Apyrase treatment substantially reduced the basal profibrotic phenotype, decreasing collagen and α-SMA content and increasing matrix metalloproteinase expression. Thus, ATP release activates P2Y(2) receptors to mediate profibrotic responses in CFs, implying that nucleotide release under both basal and activated states is likely an important mechanism for fibroblast homeostasis.

  11. Use of ATP Readings to Predict a Successful Hygiene Intervention in the Workplace to Reduce the Spread of Viruses on Fomites.

    PubMed

    Sifuentes, Laura Y; Fankem, Sonia L M; Reynolds, Kelly; Tamimi, Akrum H; Gerba, Charles P; Koenig, David

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the use of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for evaluating hygiene intervention effectiveness in reducing viral dissemination in an office environment. The bacterial virus MS-2 was used to evaluate two scenarios, one where the hand of an individual was contaminated and another where a fomite was contaminated. MS-2 was selected as a model because its shape and size are similar to many human pathogenic viruses. Two separate experiments were conducted, one in which the entrance door push plate was inoculated and the other in which the hand of one selected employee was inoculated. In both scenarios, 54 selected surfaces in the office were tested to assess the dissemination of the virus within the office. Associated surface contamination was also measured employing an ATP meter. More than half of the tested hands and surfaces in the office were contaminated with MS-2 within 4 h. Next, an intervention was conducted, and each scenario was repeated. Half of the participating employees were provided hand sanitizer, facial tissues, and disinfecting wipes, and were instructed in their use. A significant (p < 0.05) reduction was observed in the number of surfaces contaminated with virus. This reduction in viral spread was evident from the results of both viral culture and the surface ATP measurements, although there was no direct correlation between ATP measurements with respect to viral concentration. Although ATP does not measure viruses, these results demonstrate that ATP measurements could be useful for evaluating the effectiveness of hygiene interventions aimed at preventing viral spread in the workplace.

  12. Downregulation of the δ-subunit reduces mitochondrial ATP synthase levels, alters respiration, and restricts growth and gametophyte development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Daniela A; Päpke, Carola; Obata, Toshihiro; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Matthes, Annemarie; Schneitz, Kay; Maximova, Eugenia; Araújo, Wagner L; Fernie, Alisdair R; Persson, Staffan

    2012-07-01

    The mitochondrial ATP synthase (F(1)F(o) complex) is an evolutionary conserved multimeric protein complex that synthesizes the main bulk of cytosolic ATP, but the regulatory mechanisms of the subunits are only poorly understood in plants. In yeast, the δ-subunit links the membrane-embedded F(o) part to the matrix-facing central stalk of F(1). We used genetic interference and an inhibitor to investigate the molecular function and physiological impact of the δ-subunit in Arabidopsis thaliana. Delta mutants displayed both male and female gametophyte defects. RNA interference of delta resulted in growth retardation, reduced ATP synthase amounts, and increased alternative oxidase capacity and led to specific long-term increases in Ala and Gly levels. By contrast, inhibition of the complex using oligomycin triggered broad metabolic changes, affecting glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and led to a successive induction of transcripts for alternative respiratory pathways and for redox and biotic stress-related transcription factors. We conclude that (1) the δ-subunit is essential for male gametophyte development in Arabidopsis, (2) a disturbance of the ATP synthase appears to lead to an early transition phase and a long-term metabolic steady state, and (3) the observed long-term adjustments in mitochondrial metabolism are linked to reduced growth and deficiencies in gametophyte development.

  13. Downregulation of the δ-Subunit Reduces Mitochondrial ATP Synthase Levels, Alters Respiration, and Restricts Growth and Gametophyte Development in Arabidopsis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Daniela A.; Päpke, Carola; Obata, Toshihiro; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Matthes, Annemarie; Schneitz, Kay; Maximova, Eugenia; Araújo, Wagner L.; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Persson, Staffan

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondrial ATP synthase (F1Fo complex) is an evolutionary conserved multimeric protein complex that synthesizes the main bulk of cytosolic ATP, but the regulatory mechanisms of the subunits are only poorly understood in plants. In yeast, the δ-subunit links the membrane-embedded Fo part to the matrix-facing central stalk of F1. We used genetic interference and an inhibitor to investigate the molecular function and physiological impact of the δ-subunit in Arabidopsis thaliana. Delta mutants displayed both male and female gametophyte defects. RNA interference of delta resulted in growth retardation, reduced ATP synthase amounts, and increased alternative oxidase capacity and led to specific long-term increases in Ala and Gly levels. By contrast, inhibition of the complex using oligomycin triggered broad metabolic changes, affecting glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and led to a successive induction of transcripts for alternative respiratory pathways and for redox and biotic stress-related transcription factors. We conclude that (1) the δ-subunit is essential for male gametophyte development in Arabidopsis, (2) a disturbance of the ATP synthase appears to lead to an early transition phase and a long-term metabolic steady state, and (3) the observed long-term adjustments in mitochondrial metabolism are linked to reduced growth and deficiencies in gametophyte development. PMID:22805435

  14. Neuronal Hyperactivity Disturbs ATP Microgradients, Impairs Microglial Motility, and Reduces Phagocytic Receptor Expression Triggering Apoptosis/Microglial Phagocytosis Uncoupling

    PubMed Central

    Nadjar, Agnes; Layé, Sophie; Leyrolle, Quentin; Gómez-Nicola, Diego; Domercq, María; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Sánchez-Zafra, Víctor; Savage, Julie C.; Hui, Chin-Wai; Deudero, Juan J. P.; Brewster, Amy L.; Anderson, Anne E.; Zaldumbide, Laura; Galbarriatu, Lara; Marinas, Ainhoa; Vivanco, Maria dM.; Matute, Carlos; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Phagocytosis is essential to maintain tissue homeostasis in a large number of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, but its role in the diseased brain is poorly explored. Recent findings suggest that in the adult hippocampal neurogenic niche, where the excess of newborn cells undergo apoptosis in physiological conditions, phagocytosis is efficiently executed by surveillant, ramified microglia. To test whether microglia are efficient phagocytes in the diseased brain as well, we confronted them with a series of apoptotic challenges and discovered a generalized response. When challenged with excitotoxicity in vitro (via the glutamate agonist NMDA) or inflammation in vivo (via systemic administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharides or by omega 3 fatty acid deficient diets), microglia resorted to different strategies to boost their phagocytic efficiency and compensate for the increased number of apoptotic cells, thus maintaining phagocytosis and apoptosis tightly coupled. Unexpectedly, this coupling was chronically lost in a mouse model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) as well as in hippocampal tissue resected from individuals with MTLE, a major neurological disorder characterized by seizures, excitotoxicity, and inflammation. Importantly, the loss of phagocytosis/apoptosis coupling correlated with the expression of microglial proinflammatory, epileptogenic cytokines, suggesting its contribution to the pathophysiology of epilepsy. The phagocytic blockade resulted from reduced microglial surveillance and apoptotic cell recognition receptor expression and was not directly mediated by signaling through microglial glutamate receptors. Instead, it was related to the disruption of local ATP microgradients caused by the hyperactivity of the hippocampal network, at least in the acute phase of epilepsy. Finally, the uncoupling led to an accumulation of apoptotic newborn cells in the neurogenic niche that was due not to decreased survival but to delayed cell clearance

  15. Mice deficient in the putative phospholipid flippase ATP11C exhibit altered erythrocyte shape, anemia, and reduced erythrocyte life span.

    PubMed

    Yabas, Mehmet; Coupland, Lucy A; Cromer, Deborah; Winterberg, Markus; Teoh, Narci C; D'Rozario, James; Kirk, Kiaran; Bröer, Stefan; Parish, Christopher R; Enders, Anselm

    2014-07-11

    Transmembrane lipid transporters are believed to establish and maintain phospholipid asymmetry in biological membranes; however, little is known about the in vivo function of the specific transporters involved. Here, we report that developing erythrocytes from mice lacking the putative phosphatidylserine flippase ATP11C showed a lower rate of PS translocation in vitro compared with erythrocytes from wild-type littermates. Furthermore, the mutant mice had an elevated percentage of phosphatidylserine-exposing mature erythrocytes in the periphery. Although erythrocyte development in ATP11C-deficient mice was normal, the mature erythrocytes had an abnormal shape (stomatocytosis), and the life span of mature erythrocytes was shortened relative to that in control littermates, resulting in anemia in the mutant mice. Thus, our findings uncover an essential role for ATP11C in erythrocyte morphology and survival and provide a new candidate for the rare inherited blood disorder stomatocytosis with uncompensated anemia. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Regulation of Extracellular ATP in Human Erythrocytes Infected with Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Cora Lilia; Schachter, Julieta; de Sá Pinheiro, Ana Acacia; Silva, Leandro de Souza; Verstraeten, Sandra Viviana; Persechini, Pedro Muanis; Schwarzbaum, Pablo Julio

    2014-01-01

    In human erythrocytes (h-RBCs) various stimuli induce increases in [cAMP] that trigger ATP release. The resulting pattern of extracellular ATP accumulation (ATPe kinetics) depends on both ATP release and ATPe degradation by ectoATPase activity. In this study we evaluated ATPe kinetics from primary cultures of h-RBCs infected with P. falciparum at various stages of infection (ring, trophozoite and schizont stages). A “3V” mixture containing isoproterenol (β-adrenergic agonist), forskolin (adenylate kinase activator) and papaverine (phosphodiesterase inhibitor) was used to induce cAMP-dependent ATP release. ATPe kinetics of r-RBCs (ring-infected RBCs), t-RBCs (trophozoite-infected RBCs) and s-RBCs (schizont-infected RBCs) showed [ATPe] to peak acutely to a maximum value followed by a slower time dependent decrease. In all intraerythrocytic stages, values of ΔATP1 (difference between [ATPe] measured 1 min post-stimulus and basal [ATPe]) increased nonlinearly with parasitemia (from 2 to 12.5%). Under 3V exposure, t-RBCs at parasitemia 94% (t94-RBCs) showed 3.8-fold higher ΔATP1 values than in h-RBCs, indicative of upregulated ATP release. Pre-exposure to either 100 µM carbenoxolone, 100 nM mefloquine or 100 µM NPPB reduced ΔATP1 to 83–87% for h-RBCs and 63–74% for t94-RBCs. EctoATPase activity, assayed at both low nM concentrations (300–900 nM) and 500 µM exogenous ATPe concentrations increased approx. 400-fold in t94-RBCs, as compared to h-RBCs, while intracellular ATP concentrations of t94-RBCs were 65% that of h-RBCs. In t94-RBCs, production of nitric oxide (NO) was approx. 7-fold higher than in h-RBCs, and was partially inhibited by L-NAME pre-treatment. In media with L-NAME, ΔATP1 values were 2.7-times higher in h-RBCs and 4.2-times higher in t94-RBCs, than without L-NAME. Results suggest that P. falciparum infection of h-RBCs strongly activates ATP release via Pannexin 1 in these cells. Several processes partially counteracted ATPe accumulation

  17. Interaction between PVY HC-Pro and the NtCF1β-subunit reduces the amount of chloroplast ATP synthase in virus-infected tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yayi; Jin, Yongsheng; Ma, Dongyuan; Li, Heng; Zhang, Zhenqian; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The photosynthetic rate of virus-infected plants is always reduced. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unclear. The helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) of Potato virus Y (PVY) was found in the chloroplasts of PVY-infected tobacco, indicating some new function of HC-Pro in the chloroplasts. We generated HC-Pro transgenic plants with a transit peptide to target the protein to chloroplast. The HC-Pro transgenic tobacco showed a decreased photosynthetic rate by 25% at the light intensity of 600 μmol m−2 s−1. Using a yeast two-hybrid screening assay to search for chloroplast proteins interacting with HC-Pro, we identified that PVY HC-Pro can interact with the chloroplast ATP synthase NtCF1β-subunit. This interaction was confirmed by GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays. HC-Pro didn’t interfere with the activity of assembled ATP synthase in vitro. The HC-Pro/NtCF1β-subunit interaction might affect the assembly of ATP synthase complex. Quantitative western blot and immunogold labeling of the ATP synthase indicated that the amount of ATP synthase complex was decreased in both the HC-Pro transgenic and the PVY-infected tobacco. These results demonstrate that HC-Pro plays an important role in reducing the photosynthetic rate of PVY-infected plants, which is a completely new role of HC-Pro besides its multiple known functions. PMID:26499367

  18. Cholinergic-receptor-independent dysfunction of mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes, reduced mitochondrial transmembrane potential and ATP depletion underlie necrotic cell death induced by the organophosphate poison mevinphos.

    PubMed

    Chan, J Y H; Chan, S H H; Dai, K Y; Cheng, H L; Chou, J L J; Chang, A Y W

    2006-12-01

    Our current understanding of the nature of cell death that is associated with fatal organophosphate poisoning and the underlying cellular mechanisms is surprisingly limited. Taking advantage of the absence in an in vitro system of acetylcholinesterase, the pharmacological target of organophosphate compounds, the present study evaluated the hypothesis that the repertoire of cholinergic receptor-independent cellular events that underlie fatal organophosphate poisoning entails induction of mitochondrial dysfunction, followed by bioenergetic failure that leads to necrotic cell death because of ATP depletion. Pheochromocytoma PC12 cells incubated with the organophosphate pesticide mevinphos (0.4 or 4mumol) for 1 or 3h underwent a dose-related and time-dependent loss of cell viability that was not reversed by muscarinic (atropine) or nicotinic (mecamylamine) blockade. This was accompanied by depressed NADH cytochrome c reductase, succinate cytochrome c reductase or cytochrome c oxidase activity in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, reduced mitochondrial transmembrane potential, decreased ATP concentration, elevated ADP/ATP ratio, increased lactate dehydrogenase release and necrotic cell death. We conclude that Mev induces cholinergic receptor-independent necrotic cell death by depressing the activity of Complexes I to IV in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, eliciting reduction in mitochondrial transmembrane potential, depleting intracellular ATP contents and damaging cell membrane integrity.

  19. The relationship between constitutive ATP release and its extracellular metabolism in isolated rat kidney glomeruli.

    PubMed

    Karczewska, J; Martyniec, L; Dzierzko, G; Stepiński, J; Angielski, S

    2007-06-01

    ATP and adenosine are important extracellular regulators of glomerular functions. In this study, ATP release from glomeruli suspension and its extracellular metabolism were investigated. Basal extraglomerular ATP concentration (1nM) increased several fold during inhibition of ecto-ATPase activity, reflecting the basal ATP release rate. Mechanical perturbation increased the amounts of ATP released from glomeruli. ATP added to glomeruli was almost completely degraded within 20 minutes. In that time, AMP was the main product of extracellular ATP metabolism. Significant accumulation of AMP was observed after 5 min (194 +/-16 microM) and 20 min (271 +/-11 microM), whereas at the same time concentration of adenosine was only 10 muM. A competitive inhibitor of ecto-5-nucleotidase alpha-beta-methylene-ADP (AOPCP), decreased extraglomerular ATP and adenosine concentration by 80% and 50%, respectively. Similarly, AMP (100 microM) also markedly reduced extraglomerular ATP accumulation, whereas IMP, its deamination product, was not effective. P1, P5-diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A) - an inhibitor of ecto-adenylate kinase prevented significantly the disappearance of ATP from extraglomerular media caused by AMP. These findings demonstrate that the decrease in extracellular ATP concentration observed after addition of AOPCP or AMP is caused by the presence of ecto-adenylate kinase activity in the glomeruli. The enzyme catalyses reversible reaction 2ADP<->ATP+AMP, and a rise in the AMP concentration can lead to fall in ATP level. The present study provides evidence the extraglomerular accumulation of ATP reflects both release of ATP from glomeruli cells and its metabolism by ecto-enzymes. Our data suggest that AMP, produced from ATP in the Bowman's capsular space, might plays a dual role as a substrate for ecto-adenylate kinase and ecto-nucleotidase reactions being responsible for the regulation of intracapsular ATP and adenosine concentration. We conclude that AMP degrading and

  20. Topical thymidine dinucleotide treatment reduces development of ultraviolet-induced basal cell carcinoma in Ptch-1+/- mice.

    PubMed

    Arad, Simin; Zattra, Edoardo; Hebert, Jennifer; Epstein, Ervin H; Goukassian, David A; Gilchrest, Barbara A

    2008-05-01

    Treatment with thymidine dinucleotide (pTT) has well documented DNA-protective effects and reduces development of squamous cell carcinoma in UV-irradiated mice. The preventive effect of pTT on basal cell carcinoma (BCC) was evaluated in UV-irradiated Ptch-1(+/-) mice, a model of the human disease Gorlin syndrome. Topical pTT treatment significantly reduced the number and size (P < 0.001) of BCCs in murine skin after 7 months of chronic irradiation. Skin biopsies collected 24 hours after the final UV exposure showed that pTT reduced the number of nuclei positive for cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers by 40% (P < 0.0002) and for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine by 61% (P < 0.01 compared with vehicle control). Immunostaining with an antibody specific for mutated p53 revealed 63% fewer positive patches in BCCs of pTT-treated mice compared with controls (P < 0.01), and the number of Ki-67-positive cells was decreased by 56% (P < 0.01) in pTT-treated tumor-free epidermis and by 76% (P < 0.001) in BCC tumor nests (P < 0.001). Terminal dUTP nick-end labeling staining revealed a 213% increase (P < 0.04) in the number of apoptotic cells in BCCs of pTT-treated mice. Cox-2 immunostaining was decreased by 80% in tumor-free epidermis of pTT-treated mice compared with controls (P < 0.01). We conclude that topical pTT treatment during a prolonged period of intermittent UV exposure decreases the number and size of UV-induced BCCs through several anti-cancer mechanisms.

  1. Dopamine inhibits ATP-induced responses in the cat petrosal ganglion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Alcayaga, Julio; Retamal, Mauricio; Cerpa, Verónica; Arroyo, Jorge; Zapata, Patricio

    2003-03-21

    The petrosal ganglion (PG) provides sensory innervation to the carotid sinus and carotid body through the carotid (sinus) nerve (CN). Application of either acetylcholine (ACh) or adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) to the PG superfused in vitro activates CN fibers. Dopamine (DA) modulates the effects of ACh. We have previously shown that DA when applied to the PG modulates the effects of ACh on carotid sinus nerve fibers. We currently report the effects of DA on the ATP-induced responses in the isolated PG in vitro. While DA had no effect on the basal activity recorded from the CN, it reduced ATP-induced responses in a dose-dependent manner, when preceding ATP applications by 30 s. Our results suggest that DA-a transmitter present in a group of PG neurons and in carotid body cells-may act as an inhibitory modulator of ATP-evoked responses in PG neurons.

  2. Elevated miR-130a/miR130b/miR-152 expression reduces intracellular ATP levels in the pancreatic beta cell

    PubMed Central

    Ofori, Jones K.; Salunkhe, Vishal A.; Bagge, Annika; Vishnu, Neelanjan; Nagao, Mototsugu; Mulder, Hindrik; Wollheim, Claes B.; Eliasson, Lena; Esguerra, Jonathan L. S.

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs have emerged as important players of gene regulation with significant impact in diverse disease processes. In type-2 diabetes, in which impaired insulin secretion is a major factor in disease progression, dysregulated microRNA expression in the insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cell has been widely-implicated. Here, we show that miR-130a-3p, miR-130b-3p, and miR-152-3p levels are elevated in the pancreatic islets of hyperglycaemic donors, corroborating previous findings about their upregulation in the islets of type-2 diabetes model Goto-Kakizaki rats. We demonstrated negative regulatory effects of the three microRNAs on pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha (PDHA1) and on glucokinase (GCK) proteins, which are both involved in ATP production. Consequently, we found both proteins to be downregulated in the Goto-Kakizaki rat islets, while GCK mRNA expression showed reduced trend in the islets of type-2 diabetes donors. Overexpression of any of the three microRNAs in the insulin-secreting INS-1 832/13 cell line resulted in altered dynamics of intracellular ATP/ADP ratio ultimately perturbing fundamental ATP-requiring beta cell processes such as glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, insulin biosynthesis and processing. The data further strengthen the wide-ranging influence of microRNAs in pancreatic beta cell function, and hence their potential as therapeutic targets in type-2 diabetes. PMID:28332581

  3. Parity induces differentiation and reduces Wnt/Notch signaling ratio and proliferation potential of basal stem/progenitor cells isolated from mouse mammary epithelium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Early pregnancy has a strong protective effect against breast cancer in humans and rodents, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Because breast cancers are thought to arise from specific cell subpopulations of mammary epithelia, we studied the effect of parity on the transcriptome and the differentiation/proliferation potential of specific luminal and basal mammary cells in mice. Methods Mammary epithelial cell subpopulations (luminal Sca1-, luminal Sca1+, basal stem/progenitor, and basal myoepithelial cells) were isolated by flow cytometry from parous and age-matched virgin mice and examined by using a combination of unbiased genomics, bioinformatics, in vitro colony formation, and in vivo limiting dilution transplantation assays. Specific findings were further investigated with immunohistochemistry in entire glands of parous and age-matched virgin mice. Results Transcriptome analysis revealed an upregulation of differentiation genes and a marked decrease in the Wnt/Notch signaling ratio in basal stem/progenitor cells of parous mice. Separate bioinformatics analyses showed reduced activity for the canonical Wnt transcription factor LEF1/TCF7 and increased activity for the Wnt repressor TCF3. This finding was specific for basal stem/progenitor cells and was associated with downregulation of potentially carcinogenic pathways and a reduction in the proliferation potential of this cell subpopulation in vitro and in vivo. As a possible mechanism for decreased Wnt signaling in basal stem/progenitor cells, we found a more than threefold reduction in the expression of the secreted Wnt ligand Wnt4 in total mammary cells from parous mice, which corresponded to a similar decrease in the proportion of Wnt4-secreting and estrogen/progesterone receptor-positive cells. Because recombinant Wnt4 rescued the proliferation defect of basal stem/progenitor cells in vitro, reduced Wnt4 secretion appears to be causally related to parity-induced alterations of basal stem

  4. Serum free light chains are reduced in endurance trained older adults: Evidence that exercise training may reduce basal inflammation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Jennifer L J; Phillips, Anna C; Drayson, Mark T; Campbell, John P

    2016-05-01

    Traditionally, free light chains (FLCs) are used as key serum biomarkers in the diagnosis and monitoring of plasma cell malignancies, but polyclonal FLCs can also be used as an accurate real-time indicator of immune-activation and inflammation. The primary aim of the present study was to assess the effects of exercise training status on serum FLCs in older adults, and secondly, to examine if training status moderated serum FLC responses to acute exercise. Kappa and lambda serum FLC levels were measured in 45 healthy older adults (aged ≥ 60 years) who were either sedentary, physically active or endurance trained. FLCs were measured at baseline and in response to an acute bout of submaximal exercise. The endurance trained group had significantly lower levels of kappa and lambda serum FLCs compared with physically active or sedentary elderly adults; these effects were independent of age, BMI and renal function. There was no significant difference in whole immunoglobulins between groups. Exercise training status had no effect on serum FLC responses to acute exercise, which were marginal. In conclusion, endurance training was associated with lower FLC levels compared with less physically active individuals. These findings suggest that long-term endurance training may be beneficial in reducing basal inflammation in older adults as well as elevated FLCs present in inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, often associated with ageing. FLCs may serve as a useful biomarker for monitoring the efficacy of exercise intervention studies in healthy and clinical populations.

  5. Potassium Aspartate Attenuates Brain Injury Induced by Controlled Cortical Impact in Rats Through Increasing Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Levels, Na+/K+-ATPase Activity and Reducing Brain Edema.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yi; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yumei; Su, Yujin; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2016-12-13

    BACKGROUND Potassium aspartate (PA), as an electrolyte supplement, is widely used in clinical practice. In our previous study, we found PA had neuroprotective effects against apoptosis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats. In this study, we examine whether PA has protective effects on traumatic brain injury (TBI). MATERIAL AND METHODS TBI was induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) in rats. Vehicle treatment (control) or PA treatment was administered intraperitoneally at 30 minutes after CCI. The modified neurological severity score (mNSS) and cortical lesion volume were examined. Brain edema and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity were measured, as well as brain ATP contents, lactic acid levels, and Na+/K+-ATPase activities. RESULTS We found that CCI induced cortical injury in rats. Acute PA treatment at the dose of 62.5 mg/kg and 125 mg/kg significantly improved neurological deficits (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively) and decreased the cortical lesion volume (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively) compared with vehicle-only treatment. PA treatment at the dose of 125 mg/kg attenuated brain edema and ameliorated BBB integrity. In addition, PA treatment significantly reduced the loss of ATP (p<0.01), reduced lactic acid levels (p<0.001), and increased the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate PA has neuroprotective effects on TBI through increasing ATP levels, Na+/K+-ATPase activity, and reducing brain edema. It provides experimental evidence for the clinical application of PA.

  6. Potassium Aspartate Attenuates Brain Injury Induced by Controlled Cortical Impact in Rats Through Increasing Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Levels, Na+/K+-ATPase Activity and Reducing Brain Edema

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yi; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yumei; Su, Yujin; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2016-01-01

    Background Potassium aspartate (PA), as an electrolyte supplement, is widely used in clinical practice. In our previous study, we found PA had neuroprotective effects against apoptosis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats. In this study, we examine whether PA has protective effects on traumatic brain injury (TBI). Material/Methods TBI was induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) in rats. Vehicle treatment (control) or PA treatment was administered intraperitoneally at 30 minutes after CCI. The modified neurological severity score (mNSS) and cortical lesion volume were examined. Brain edema and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity were measured, as well as brain ATP contents, lactic acid levels, and Na+/K+-ATPase activities. Results We found that CCI induced cortical injury in rats. Acute PA treatment at the dose of 62.5 mg/kg and 125 mg/kg significantly improved neurological deficits (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively) and decreased the cortical lesion volume (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively) compared with vehicle-only treatment. PA treatment at the dose of 125 mg/kg attenuated brain edema and ameliorated BBB integrity. In addition, PA treatment significantly reduced the loss of ATP (p<0.01), reduced lactic acid levels (p<0.001), and increased the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase (p<0.01). Conclusions Our results indicate PA has neuroprotective effects on TBI through increasing ATP levels, Na+/K+-ATPase activity, and reducing brain edema. It provides experimental evidence for the clinical application of PA. PMID:27959885

  7. Mitochondria-related miR-151a-5p reduces cellular ATP production by targeting CYTB in asthenozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ran; Wang, Rong; Qin, Yufeng; Ji, Juan; Xu, Miaofei; Wu, Wei; Chen, Minjian; Wu, Di; Song, Ling; Shen, Hongbing; Sha, Jiahao; Miao, Dengshun; Hu, Zhibin; Xia, Yankai; Lu, Chuncheng; Wang, Xinru

    2015-12-02

    Mitochondria, acting as the energy metabolism factory, participate in many key biological processes, including the maintenance of sperm viability. Mitochondria-related microRNA (miRNA), encoded by nuclear genome or mitochondrial genome, may play an important regulatory role in the control of mitochondrial function. To investigate the potential role of mitochondria-related miRNAs in asthenozoospermia, we adopted a strategy consisting of initial screening by TaqMan Low Density Array (TLDA) and further validation with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Validation of the profiling results was conducted in two independent phases. Eventually, two seminal plasma miRNAs (sp-miRs) (miR-101-3p, let-7b-5p) were found to be significantly decreased, while sp-miR-151a-5p was significantly increased in severe asthenozoospermia cases compared with healthy controls. To further study their potential roles in asthenozoospermia, we then evaluated mitochondrial function of GC-2 cells transfected with these potentially functional miRNAs. Our results demonstrated that transfection with miR-151a-5p mimics decreased the mitochondrial respiratory activity. Besides, Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) level was decreased when transfected with miR-151a-5p mimics. In addition, Cytochrome b (Cytb) mRNA and protein levels were also decreased when miR-151a-5p was overexpressed. These results indicate that miR-151a-5p may participate in the regulation of cellular respiration and ATP production through targeting Cytb.

  8. Mitochondria-related miR-151a-5p reduces cellular ATP production by targeting CYTB in asthenozoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ran; Wang, Rong; Qin, Yufeng; Ji, Juan; Xu, Miaofei; Wu, Wei; Chen, Minjian; Wu, Di; Song, Ling; Shen, Hongbing; Sha, Jiahao; Miao, Dengshun; Hu, Zhibin; Xia, Yankai; Lu, Chuncheng; Wang, Xinru

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria, acting as the energy metabolism factory, participate in many key biological processes, including the maintenance of sperm viability. Mitochondria-related microRNA (miRNA), encoded by nuclear genome or mitochondrial genome, may play an important regulatory role in the control of mitochondrial function. To investigate the potential role of mitochondria-related miRNAs in asthenozoospermia, we adopted a strategy consisting of initial screening by TaqMan Low Density Array (TLDA) and further validation with quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Validation of the profiling results was conducted in two independent phases. Eventually, two seminal plasma miRNAs (sp-miRs) (miR-101-3p, let-7b-5p) were found to be significantly decreased, while sp-miR-151a-5p was significantly increased in severe asthenozoospermia cases compared with healthy controls. To further study their potential roles in asthenozoospermia, we then evaluated mitochondrial function of GC-2 cells transfected with these potentially functional miRNAs. Our results demonstrated that transfection with miR-151a-5p mimics decreased the mitochondrial respiratory activity. Besides, Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) level was decreased when transfected with miR-151a-5p mimics. In addition, Cytochrome b (Cytb) mRNA and protein levels were also decreased when miR-151a-5p was overexpressed. These results indicate that miR-151a-5p may participate in the regulation of cellular respiration and ATP production through targeting Cytb. PMID:26626315

  9. ATP released from cardiac fibroblasts via connexin hemichannels activates profibrotic P2Y2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lu, David; Soleymani, Sahar; Madakshire, Rohit; Insel, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) play an essential role in remodeling of the cardiac extracellular matrix. Extracellular nucleotide signaling may provoke a profibrotic response in CFs. We tested the hypothesis that physical perturbations release ATP from CFs and that ATP participates in profibrotic signaling. ATP release was abolished by the channel inhibitor carbenoxolone and inhibited by knockdown of either connexin (Cx)43 or Cx45 (47 and 35%, respectively), implying that hypotonic stimulation induces ATP release via Cx43 and Cx45 hemichannels, although pannexin 1 may also play a role. ATP released by hypotonic stimulation rapidly (<10 min) increased phosphorylated ERK by 5-8 fold, an effect largely eliminated by P2Y2 receptor knockdown or ATP hydrolysis with apyrase. ATP stimulation of P2Y2 receptors increased α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) production, and in an ERK-dependent manner, ATP increased collagen accumulation by 60% and mRNA expression of profibrotic markers: plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 by 4.5- and 4.0-fold, respectively. Apyrase treatment substantially reduced the basal profibrotic phenotype, decreasing collagen and α-SMA content and increasing matrix metalloproteinase expression. Thus, ATP release activates P2Y2 receptors to mediate profibrotic responses in CFs, implying that nucleotide release under both basal and activated states is likely an important mechanism for fibroblast homeostasis.—Lu, D., Soleymani, S., Madakshire, R., Insel, P. A. ATP released from cardiac fibroblasts via connexin hemichannels activates profibrotic P2Y2 receptors. PMID:22415310

  10. ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Junge, Wolfgang; Nelson, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is the principal converter of sunlight into chemical energy. Cyanobacteria and plants provide aerobic life with oxygen, food, fuel, fibers, and platform chemicals. Four multisubunit membrane proteins are involved: photosystem I (PSI), photosystem II (PSII), cytochrome b6f (cyt b6f), and ATP synthase (FOF1). ATP synthase is likewise a key enzyme of cell respiration. Over three billion years, the basic machinery of oxygenic photosynthesis and respiration has been perfected to minimize wasteful reactions. The proton-driven ATP synthase is embedded in a proton tight-coupling membrane. It is composed of two rotary motors/generators, FO and F1, which do not slip against each other. The proton-driven FO and the ATP-synthesizing F1 are coupled via elastic torque transmission. Elastic transmission decouples the two motors in kinetic detail but keeps them perfectly coupled in thermodynamic equilibrium and (time-averaged) under steady turnover. Elastic transmission enables operation with different gear ratios in different organisms.

  11. Sleep and brain energy levels: ATP changes during sleep.

    PubMed

    Dworak, Markus; McCarley, Robert W; Kim, Tae; Kalinchuk, Anna V; Basheer, Radhika

    2010-06-30

    Sleep is one of the most pervasive biological phenomena, but one whose function remains elusive. Although many theories of function, indirect evidence, and even common sense suggest sleep is needed for an increase in brain energy, brain energy levels have not been directly measured with modern technology. We here report that ATP levels, the energy currency of brain cells, show a surge in the initial hours of spontaneous sleep in wake-active but not in sleep-active brain regions of rat. The surge is dependent on sleep but not time of day, since preventing sleep by gentle handling of rats for 3 or 6 h also prevents the surge in ATP. A significant positive correlation was observed between the surge in ATP and EEG non-rapid eye movement delta activity (0.5-4.5 Hz) during spontaneous sleep. Inducing sleep and delta activity by adenosine infusion into basal forebrain during the normally active dark period also increases ATP. Together, these observations suggest that the surge in ATP occurs when the neuronal activity is reduced, as occurs during sleep. The levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (P-AMPK), well known for its role in cellular energy sensing and regulation, and ATP show reciprocal changes. P-AMPK levels are lower during the sleep-induced ATP surge than during wake or sleep deprivation. Together, these results suggest that sleep-induced surge in ATP and the decrease in P-AMPK levels set the stage for increased anabolic processes during sleep and provide insight into the molecular events leading to the restorative biosynthetic processes occurring during sleep.

  12. ATP release and contraction mediated by different P2-receptor subtypes in guinea-pig ileal smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Katsuichi; Katsuragi, Takeshi; Fujiki, Sono; Sato, Chiemi; Furukawa, Tatsuo

    1997-01-01

    The present study was addressed to clarify the subtypes of P2-purinoceptor involved in ATP release and contraction evoked by α,β-methylene ATP (α,β-mATP) and other P2-agonists in guinea-pig ileum.α,β-mATP 100 μM produced a transient and steep contraction followed by ATP release from tissue segments. These maximum responses appeared with different time-courses and their ED50 values were 5 and 25 μM, respectively. The maximum release of ATP by α,β-mATP was markedly reduced by 250 μM suramin, 30 μM pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2′,5′-disulphonic acid (PPADS) and 30 μM reactive blue 2 (RB-2), P2-receptor antagonists. However, the contractile response was inhibited by suramin, tetrodotoxin and atropine, but not by PPADS and RB-2.Although the contraction caused by α,β-mATP was strongly diminished by Ca2+-removal and nifedipine, and also by tetrodotoxin and atropine at 0.3 μM, the release of ATP was virtually unaffected by these procedures.UTP, β,γ-methylene ATP (β,γ-mATP) and ADP at 100 μM elicited a moderate release of ATP. The release caused by UTP was virtually unaffected by RB-2. However, these P2-agonists failed to elicit a contraction of the segment.The potency order of all the agonists tested for the release of ATP was α,β-mATP>UTP>β,γ-mATP>ADP.In superfusion experiments with cultured smooth muscle cells from the ileum, α,β-mATP (100 μM) enhanced the release of ATP 5 fold above the basal value. This evoked release was inhibited by RB-2.These findings suggest that ATP release and contraction induced by P2-agonists such as α,β-mATP in the guinea-pig ileum result mainly from stimulation of different P2-purinoceptors, P2Y-like purinoceptors on the smooth muscles and, probably, P2X-purinoceptors on cholinergic nerve terminals, respectively. However, the ATP release may also be mediated, in part, by P2U-receptors, because UTP caused RB-2-insensitive ATP release. PMID:9283712

  13. ATP secretion in the male reproductive tract: essential role of CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Ye Chun; Shum, Winnie W C; Belleannée, Clémence; Da Silva, Nicolas; Breton, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular ATP is essential for the function of the epididymis and spermatozoa, but ATP release in the epididymis remains uncharacterized. We investigated here whether epithelial cells release ATP into the lumen of the epididymis, and we examined the role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a Cl− and HCO3− conducting ion channel known to be associated with male fertility, in this process. Immunofluorescence labelling of mouse cauda epididymidis showed expression of CFTR in principal cells but not in other epithelial cells. CFTR mRNA was not detectable in clear cells isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) from B1-EGFP mice, which express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) exclusively in these cells in the epididymis. ATP release was detected from the mouse epididymal principal cell line (DC2) and increased by adrenaline and forskolin. Inhibition of CFTR with CFTRinh172 and transfection with CFTR-specific siRNAs in DC2 cells reduced basal and forskolin-activated ATP release. CFTR-dependent ATP release was also observed in primary cultures of mouse epididymal epithelial cells. In addition, steady-state ATP release was detected in vivo in mice, by measuring ATP concentration in a solution perfused through the lumen of the cauda epididymidis tubule and collected by cannulation of the vas deferens. Luminal CFTRinh172 reduced the ATP concentration detected in the perfusate. This study shows that CFTR is involved in the regulation of ATP release from principal cells in the cauda epididymidis. Given that mutations in CFTR are a leading cause of male infertility, we propose that defective ATP signalling in the epididymis might contribute to dysfunction of the male reproductive tract associated with these mutations. PMID:22711960

  14. How does environmental enrichment reduce repetitive motor behaviors? Neuronal activation and dendritic morphology in the indirect basal ganglia pathway of a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Bechard, Allison R.; Cacodcar, Nadia; King, Michael A.; Lewis, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive motor behaviors are observed in many neurodevelopmental and neurological disorders (e.g. autism spectrum disorders, Tourette syndrome, fronto-temporal dementia). Despite their clinical importance, the neurobiology underlying these highly stereotyped, apparently functionless behaviors is poorly understood. Identification of mechanisms that mediate the development of repetitive behaviors will aid in the discovery of new therapeutic targets and treatment development. Using a deer mouse model, we have shown that decreased indirect basal ganglia pathway activity is associated with high levels of repetitive behavior. Environmental enrichment (EE) markedly attenuates the development of such aberrant behaviors in mice, although mechanisms driving this effect are unknown. We hypothesized that EE would reduce repetitive motor behaviors by increasing indirect basal ganglia pathway function. We assessed neuronal activation and dendritic spine density in basal ganglia of adult deer mice reared in EE and standard housing. Significant increases in neuronal activation and dendritic spine densities were observed only in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus (GP), and only for those mice that exhibited an EE-induced decrease in repetitive motor behavior. As the STN and GP lie within the indirect pathway, these data suggest that EE-induced attenuation of repetitive motor behaviors is associated with increased functional activation of the indirect basal ganglia pathway. These results are consistent with our other findings highlighting the importance of the indirect pathway in mediating repetitive motor behaviors. PMID:26620495

  15. How does environmental enrichment reduce repetitive motor behaviors? Neuronal activation and dendritic morphology in the indirect basal ganglia pathway of a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Bechard, Allison R; Cacodcar, Nadia; King, Michael A; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-02-15

    Repetitive motor behaviors are observed in many neurodevelopmental and neurological disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorders, Tourette syndrome, fronto-temporal dementia). Despite their clinical importance, the neurobiology underlying these highly stereotyped, apparently functionless behaviors is poorly understood. Identification of mechanisms that mediate the development of repetitive behaviors will aid in the discovery of new therapeutic targets and treatment development. Using a deer mouse model, we have shown that decreased indirect basal ganglia pathway activity is associated with high levels of repetitive behavior. Environmental enrichment (EE) markedly attenuates the development of such aberrant behaviors in mice, although mechanisms driving this effect are unknown. We hypothesized that EE would reduce repetitive motor behaviors by increasing indirect basal ganglia pathway function. We assessed neuronal activation and dendritic spine density in basal ganglia of adult deer mice reared in EE and standard housing. Significant increases in neuronal activation and dendritic spine densities were observed only in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus (GP), and only for those mice that exhibited an EE-induced decrease in repetitive motor behavior. As the STN and GP lie within the indirect pathway, these data suggest that EE-induced attenuation of repetitive motor behaviors is associated with increased functional activation of the indirect basal ganglia pathway. These results are consistent with our other findings highlighting the importance of the indirect pathway in mediating repetitive motor behaviors.

  16. Reduced platelet count, but no major platelet function abnormalities, are associated with loss-of-function ATP-binding cassette-1 gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Minuz, Pietro; Meneguzzi, Alessandra; Femia, Eti Alessandra; Fava, Cristiano; Calabria, Stefano; Scavone, Mariangela; Benati, Donatella; Poli, Giovanni; Zancanaro, Carlo; Calandra, Sebastiano; Lucchi, Tiziano; Cattaneo, Marco

    2017-08-15

    Loss-of-function mutations of the the ATP-binding cassette-1 (ABCA1) gene are the cause of Tangier disease (TD) in homozygous subjects and familial HDL deficiency (FHD) in heterozygous subjects. These disorders are characterized by reduced plasma HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and altered efflux of cholesterol from cells. Previous studies in TD patients and ABCA1(-/-) murine models reported defects in platelet count, morphology, and function, but the issue is still controversial. We analyzed three subjects with low to very low HDL-C levels due to the loss-of-function mutations of the ABCA1 gene. Two related patients with FHD were heterozygous carriers of two mutations on the same ABCA1 allele; one, with TD, was homozygous for a different mutation. Mild to moderate thrombocytopenia was observed in all the patients. No morphological platelet abnormalities were detected under optical or EM. History of moderate bleeding tendency was recorded only in one of the FHD patients. Only limited alterations in platelet aggregation and activation of the integrin αIIbβ3 were observed in one FHD patient. While α-granule secretion (P-selectin), content, and secretion of platelet δ-granules (serotonin, ATP, and ADP) and thromboxane (TX) A2 synthesis were normal in all the patients, the expression of lysosomal CD63, in response to some agonists, was reduced in TD patients. In conclusion, three patients carrying ABCA1 genetic variants had low platelet count, with the lowest values observed in TD, not associated with major alterations in platelet morphology and response to agonists or bleeding. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  17. 2-MeS-β,γ-CCl2-ATP is a Potent Agent for Reducing Intraocular Pressure†

    PubMed Central

    Eliahu, Shay; Martín-Gil, Alba; de Lara, María Jesús Perez; Pintor, Jesús; Camden, Jean; Weisman, Gary A.; Lecka, Joanna; Sévigny, Jean; Fischer, Bilha

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular nucleotides can modify the production or drainage of the aqueous humor via activation of P2 receptors and therefore affect the intraocular pressure (IOP). We have synthesized slowly hydrolyzable nucleoside di- and triphosphate analogues, 1, and 8–14. Analogues 8–14 were completely resistant to hydrolysis by alkaline phosphatase over 30 min at 37 °C. In human blood serum, analogues 8–14 exhibited high stability, e.g., analogues 9 and 10–14 were only 15% and 0% degraded after 24 h, respectively. Moreover, analogues 8–14 were highly stable at pH 1.4 (t1/21 h–30 days). Analogues 8–14 were agonists of the P2Y1 receptor (EC50 0.57–9.54μM). Ocular administration of most analogues into rabbits reduced IOP, e.g., analogue 9 reduced IOP by 32% (EC50 95.5 nM). Analogue 9 was more effective at reducing IOP than several common glaucoma drugs and represents a promising alternative to timolol maleate, which cannot be used for the treatment of patients suffering from asthma or cardiac problems. PMID:20337495

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase (ATPS) from the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774

    SciTech Connect

    Gavel, Olga Yu.; Kladova, Anna V.; Bursakov, Sergey A.; Dias, João M.; Texeira, Susana; Shnyrov, Valery L.; Moura, José J. G.; Moura, Isabel; Romão, Maria J.; Trincão, José

    2008-07-01

    Native zinc-containing ATP sulfurylase from D. desulfuricans ATCC 27774 was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.5 Å resolution. Native zinc/cobalt-containing ATP sulfurylase (ATPS; EC 2.7.7.4; MgATP:sulfate adenylyltransferase) from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The orthorhombic crystals diffracted to beyond 2.5 Å resolution and the X-ray data collected should allow the determination of the structure of the zinc-bound form of this ATPS. Although previous biochemical studies of this protein indicated the presence of a homotrimer in solution, a dimer was found in the asymmetric unit. Elucidation of this structure will permit a better understanding of the role of the metal in the activity and stability of this family of enzymes.

  19. Perfusion preservation maintains myocardial ATP levels and reduces apoptosis in an ex vivo rat heart transplantation model.

    PubMed

    Peltz, Matthias; He, Tian-Teng; Adams, Glenn A; Koshy, Seena; Burgess, Shawn C; Chao, Robert Y; Meyer, Dan M; Jessen, Michael E

    2005-10-01

    Machine perfusion preservation improves reperfusion function of many solid organs, compared with conventional storage, but has received limited clinical attention in preserving hearts for transplantation. We evaluated representative extracellular (Celsior) and intracellular (University of Wisconsion) storage solutions using static and perfusion protective strategies over a clinically relevant preservation period. Rat hearts were preserved for 200 minutes by either static storage or perfusion preservation in Celsior or University of Wisconsin solutions. Three conditions were studied: conventional static storage; static storage using either solution with 5.5 mmol/L glucose added; and perfusion preservation using either solution with 5.5 mmol/L glucose added. Glucose was provided as U-13C-labeled glucose, and glycolysis and oxidative metabolism during preservation were quantified from incorporation of (13)C into glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Adenosine triphosphate levels after preservation, and apoptosis and cardiac function after reperfusion were measured. Both perfusion preservation groups had higher myocardial oxygen consumption during storage and better early graft function, compared with static preservation groups (P < .05). Adenosine triphosphate levels were higher after storage in the perfusion groups (P < .01). Apoptosis was reduced in the perfusion groups (P < .01). Comparing perfusion groups, hearts preserved with Celsior had higher myocardial oxygen consumption and glucose utilization during perfusion storage and exhibited decreased reperfusion coronary vascular resistance and myocardial water content, compared with the UW perfusion group (P < .05). Perfusion preservation results in greater metabolism during storage and superior cardiac function with improved myocyte survival, compared with static storage. Extracellular preservation solutions appear more effective for perfusion preservation, possibly by augmenting cellular

  20. Reduced insulin-receptor mediated modulation of striatal dopamine release by basal insulin as a possible contributing factor to hyperdopaminergia in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Hahn, Margaret; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Gerretsen, Philip; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe and chronic neuropsychiatric disorder which affects 1% of the world population. Using the brain imaging technique positron emission tomography (PET) it has been demonstrated that persons with schizophrenia have greater dopamine transmission in the striatum compared to healthy controls. However, little progress has been made as to elucidating other biological mechanisms which may account for this hyperdopaminergic state in this disease. Studies in animals have demonstrated that insulin receptors are expressed on midbrain dopamine neurons, and that insulin from the periphery acts on these receptors to modify dopamine transmission in the striatum. This is pertinent given that several lines of evidence suggest that insulin receptor functioning may be abnormal in the brains of persons with schizophrenia. Post-mortem studies have shown that persons with schizophrenia have less than half the number of cortical insulin receptors compared to healthy persons. Moreover, these post-mortem findings are unlikely due to the effects of antipsychotic treatment; studies in cell lines and animals suggest antipsychotics enhance insulin receptor functioning. Further, hyperinsulinemia - even prior to antipsychotic use - seems to be related to less psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Collectively, these data suggest that midbrain insulin receptor functioning may be abnormal in persons with schizophrenia, resulting in reduced insulin-mediated regulation of dopamine transmission in the striatum. Such a deficit may account for the hyperdopaminergic state observed in these patients and would help guide the development of novel treatment strategies. We hypothesize that, (i) insulin receptor expression and/or function is reduced in midbrain dopamine neurons in persons with schizophrenia, (ii) basal insulin should reduce dopaminergic transmission in the striatum via these receptors, and (iii) this modulation of dopaminergic transmission by basal insulin

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase (ATPS) from the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774

    PubMed Central

    Gavel, Olga Yu.; Kladova, Anna V.; Bursakov, Sergey A.; Dias, João M.; Texeira, Susana; Shnyrov, Valery L.; Moura, José J. G.; Moura, Isabel; Romão, Maria J.; Trincão, José

    2008-01-01

    Native zinc/cobalt-containing ATP sulfurylase (ATPS; EC 2.7.7.4; MgATP:sulfate adenylyltransferase) from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 was purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The orthorhombic crystals diffracted to beyond 2.5 Å resolution and the X-ray data collected should allow the determination of the structure of the zinc-bound form of this ATPS. Although previous biochemical studies of this protein indicated the presence of a homotrimer in solution, a dimer was found in the asymmetric unit. Elucidation of this structure will permit a better understanding of the role of the metal in the activity and stability of this family of enzymes. PMID:18607083

  2. Central relaxin-3 receptor (RXFP3) activation reduces elevated, but not basal, anxiety-like behaviour in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cary; Chua, Berenice E; Yang, Annie; Shabanpoor, Fazel; Hossain, Mohammad Akhter; Wade, John D; Rosengren, K Johan; Smith, Craig M; Gundlach, Andrew L

    2015-10-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent neuropsychiatric conditions, but their precise aetiology and underlying pathophysiological processes remain poorly understood. In light of putative anatomical and functional interactions of the relaxin-3/RXFP3 system with anxiety-related neural circuits, we assessed the ability of central administration of the RXFP3 agonist, RXFP3-A2, to alter anxiety-like behaviours in adult C57BL/6J mice. We assessed how RXFP3-A2 altered performance in tests measuring rodent anxiety-like behaviour (large open field (LOF), elevated plus maze (EPM), light/dark (L/D) box, social interaction). We examined effects of RXFP3-A2 on low 'basal' anxiety, and on elevated anxiety induced by the anxiogenic benzodiazepine, FG-7142; and explored endogenous relaxin-3/RXFP3 signalling modulation by testing effects of an RXFP3 antagonist, R3(B1-22)R, on these behaviours. Intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of RXFP3-A2 (1 nmol, 15 min pre-test) did not alter anxiety-like behaviour under 'basal' conditions in the LOF, EPM or L/D box, but reduced elevated indices of FG-7142-induced (30 mg/kg, ip) anxiety-like behaviour in the L/D box and a single-chamber social interaction test. Furthermore, R3(B1-22)R (4 nmol, icv, 15 min pre-test) increased anxiety-like behaviour in the EPM (reflected by reduced entries into the open arms), but not consistently in the LOF, L/D box or social interaction tests, suggesting endogenous signaling only weakly participates in regulating 'basal' anxiety-like behaviour, in line with previous studies of relaxin-3 and RXFP3 gene knockout mice. Overall, these data suggest exogenous RXFP3 agonists can reduce elevated (FG-7142-induced) levels of anxiety in mice; data important for gauging how conserved such effects are, with a view to modelling human pathophysiology and the likely therapeutic potential of RXFP3-targeted drugs.

  3. Decline of Phosphotransfer and Substrate Supply Metabolic Circuits Hinders ATP Cycling in Aging Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Nemutlu, Emirhan; Gupta, Anu; Zhang, Song; Viqar, Maria; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson; Terzic, Andre; Jahangir, Arshad; Dzeja, Petras

    2015-01-01

    Integration of mitochondria with cytosolic ATP-consuming/ATP-sensing and substrate supply processes is critical for muscle bioenergetics and electrical activity. Whether age-dependent muscle weakness and increased electrical instability depends on perturbations in cellular energetic circuits is unknown. To define energetic remodeling of aged atrial myocardium we tracked dynamics of ATP synthesis-utilization, substrate supply, and phosphotransfer circuits through adenylate kinase (AK), creatine kinase (CK), and glycolytic/glycogenolytic pathways using 18O stable isotope-based phosphometabolomic technology. Samples of intact atrial myocardium from adult and aged rats were subjected to 18O-labeling procedure at resting basal state, and analyzed using the 18O-assisted HPLC-GC/MS technique. Characteristics for aging atria were lower inorganic phosphate Pi[18O], γ-ATP[18O], β-ADP[18O], and creatine phosphate CrP[18O] 18O-labeling rates indicating diminished ATP utilization-synthesis and AK and CK phosphotransfer fluxes. Shift in dynamics of glycolytic phosphotransfer was reflected in the diminished G6P[18O] turnover with relatively constant glycogenolytic flux or G1P[18O] 18O-labeling. Labeling of G3P[18O], an indicator of G3P-shuttle activity and substrate supply to mitochondria, was depressed in aged myocardium. Aged atrial myocardium displayed reduced incorporation of 18O into second (18O2), third (18O3), and fourth (18O4) positions of Pi[18O] and a lower Pi[18O]/γ-ATP[18 O]-labeling ratio, indicating delayed energetic communication and ATP cycling between mitochondria and cellular ATPases. Adrenergic stress alleviated diminished CK flux, AK catalyzed β-ATP turnover and energetic communication in aging atria. Thus, 18O-assisted phosphometabolomics uncovered simultaneous phosphotransfer through AK, CK, and glycolytic pathways and G3P substrate shuttle deficits hindering energetic communication and ATP cycling, which may underlie energetic vulnerability of aging

  4. Decline of Phosphotransfer and Substrate Supply Metabolic Circuits Hinders ATP Cycling in Aging Myocardium.

    PubMed

    Nemutlu, Emirhan; Gupta, Anu; Zhang, Song; Viqar, Maria; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson; Terzic, Andre; Jahangir, Arshad; Dzeja, Petras

    2015-01-01

    Integration of mitochondria with cytosolic ATP-consuming/ATP-sensing and substrate supply processes is critical for muscle bioenergetics and electrical activity. Whether age-dependent muscle weakness and increased electrical instability depends on perturbations in cellular energetic circuits is unknown. To define energetic remodeling of aged atrial myocardium we tracked dynamics of ATP synthesis-utilization, substrate supply, and phosphotransfer circuits through adenylate kinase (AK), creatine kinase (CK), and glycolytic/glycogenolytic pathways using 18O stable isotope-based phosphometabolomic technology. Samples of intact atrial myocardium from adult and aged rats were subjected to 18O-labeling procedure at resting basal state, and analyzed using the 18O-assisted HPLC-GC/MS technique. Characteristics for aging atria were lower inorganic phosphate Pi[18O], γ-ATP[18O], β-ADP[18O], and creatine phosphate CrP[18O] 18O-labeling rates indicating diminished ATP utilization-synthesis and AK and CK phosphotransfer fluxes. Shift in dynamics of glycolytic phosphotransfer was reflected in the diminished G6P[18O] turnover with relatively constant glycogenolytic flux or G1P[18O] 18O-labeling. Labeling of G3P[18O], an indicator of G3P-shuttle activity and substrate supply to mitochondria, was depressed in aged myocardium. Aged atrial myocardium displayed reduced incorporation of 18O into second (18O2), third (18O3), and fourth (18O4) positions of Pi[18O] and a lower Pi[18O]/γ-ATP[18 O]-labeling ratio, indicating delayed energetic communication and ATP cycling between mitochondria and cellular ATPases. Adrenergic stress alleviated diminished CK flux, AK catalyzed β-ATP turnover and energetic communication in aging atria. Thus, 18O-assisted phosphometabolomics uncovered simultaneous phosphotransfer through AK, CK, and glycolytic pathways and G3P substrate shuttle deficits hindering energetic communication and ATP cycling, which may underlie energetic vulnerability of aging

  5. Application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 reduces the development of Ganoderma basal stem rot disease in oil palm seedlings.

    PubMed

    Sundram, Shamala; Meon, Sariah; Seman, Idris Abu; Othman, Radziah

    2015-07-01

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in combination with endophytic bacteria (EB) in reducing development of basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) was investigated. BSR caused by Ganoderma boninense leads to devastating economic loss and the oil palm industry is struggling to control the disease. The application of two AMF with two EB as biocontrol agents was assessed in the nursery and subsequently, repeated in the field using bait seedlings. Seedlings pre-inoculated with a combination of Glomus intraradices UT126, Glomus clarum BR152B and Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly reduced disease development measured as the area under disease progression curve (AUDPC) and the epidemic rate (R L) of disease in the nursery. A 20-month field trial using similar treatments evaluated disease development in bait seedlings based on the rotting area/advancement assessed in cross-sections of the seedling base. Data show that application of Glomus intraradices UT126 singly reduced disease development of BSR, but that combination of the two AMF with P. aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly improved biocontrol efficacy in both nursery and fields reducing BSR disease to 57 and 80%, respectively. The successful use of bait seedlings in the natural environment to study BSR development represents a promising alternative to nursery trial testing in the field with shorter temporal assessment.

  6. EP2 receptors mediate airway relaxation to substance P, ATP, and PGE2.

    PubMed

    Fortner, C N; Breyer, R M; Paul, R J

    2001-08-01

    Substance P (SP) and ATP evoke transient, epithelium-dependent relaxation of constricted mouse tracheal smooth muscle. Relaxation to either SP or ATP is blocked by indomethacin, but the specific eicosanoid(s) involved have not been definitively identified. SP and ATP are reported to release PGE2 from airway epithelium in other species, suggesting PGE2 as a likely mediator in epithelium-dependent airway relaxation. Using mice homozygous for a gene-targeted deletion of the EP2 receptor [EP2(-/-)], one of the PGE2 receptors, we tested the hypothesis that PGE2 is the primary mediator of relaxation to SP or ATP. Relaxation in response to SP or ATP was significantly reduced in tracheas from EP2(-/-) mice. There were no differences between EP2(-/-) and wild-type tracheas in their physical dimensions, contraction to ACh, or relaxation to isoproterenol, thus ruling out any general alterations of smooth muscle function. There were also no differences between EP2(-/-) and wild-type tracheas in basal or stimulated PGE2 production. Exogenous PGE2 produced significantly less relaxation in EP2(-/-) tracheas compared with the wild type. Taken together, this experimental evidence supports the following two conclusions: EP2 receptors are of primary importance in airway relaxation to PGE2 and relaxation to SP or ATP is mediated through PGE2 acting on EP2 receptors.

  7. Mutating the Conserved Q-loop Glutamine 1291 Selectively Disrupts Adenylate Kinase-dependent Channel Gating of the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) and Reduces Channel Function in Primary Human Airway Epithelia.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qian; Ernst, Sarah E; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Shah, Viral S; Ver Heul, Amanda R; Welsh, Michael J; Randak, Christoph O

    2015-05-29

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and two other non-membrane-bound ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein, exhibit adenylate kinase activity in the presence of physiologic concentrations of ATP and AMP or ADP (ATP + AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). The crystal structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of an SMC protein in complex with the adenylate kinase bisubstrate inhibitor P(1),P(5)-di(adenosine-5') pentaphosphate (Ap5A) suggests that AMP binds to the conserved Q-loop glutamine during the adenylate kinase reaction. Therefore, we hypothesized that mutating the corresponding residue in CFTR, Gln-1291, selectively disrupts adenylate kinase-dependent channel gating at physiologic nucleotide concentrations. We found that substituting Gln-1291 with bulky side-chain amino acids abolished the effects of Ap5A, AMP, and adenosine 5'-monophosphoramidate on CFTR channel function. 8-Azidoadenosine 5'-monophosphate photolabeling of the AMP-binding site and adenylate kinase activity were disrupted in Q1291F CFTR. The Gln-1291 mutations did not alter the potency of ATP at stimulating current or ATP-dependent gating when ATP was the only nucleotide present. However, when physiologic concentrations of ADP and AMP were added, adenylate kinase-deficient Q1291F channels opened significantly less than wild type. Consistent with this result, we found that Q1291F CFTR displayed significantly reduced Cl(-) channel function in well differentiated primary human airway epithelia. These results indicate that a highly conserved residue of an ABC transporter plays an important role in adenylate kinase-dependent CFTR gating. Furthermore, the results suggest that adenylate kinase activity is important for normal CFTR channel function in airway epithelia.

  8. Mutating the Conserved Q-loop Glutamine 1291 Selectively Disrupts Adenylate Kinase-dependent Channel Gating of the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) and Reduces Channel Function in Primary Human Airway Epithelia*

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Qian; Ernst, Sarah E.; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Shah, Viral S.; Ver Heul, Amanda R.; Welsh, Michael J.; Randak, Christoph O.

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and two other non-membrane-bound ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein, exhibit adenylate kinase activity in the presence of physiologic concentrations of ATP and AMP or ADP (ATP + AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). The crystal structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of an SMC protein in complex with the adenylate kinase bisubstrate inhibitor P1,P5-di(adenosine-5′) pentaphosphate (Ap5A) suggests that AMP binds to the conserved Q-loop glutamine during the adenylate kinase reaction. Therefore, we hypothesized that mutating the corresponding residue in CFTR, Gln-1291, selectively disrupts adenylate kinase-dependent channel gating at physiologic nucleotide concentrations. We found that substituting Gln-1291 with bulky side-chain amino acids abolished the effects of Ap5A, AMP, and adenosine 5′-monophosphoramidate on CFTR channel function. 8-Azidoadenosine 5′-monophosphate photolabeling of the AMP-binding site and adenylate kinase activity were disrupted in Q1291F CFTR. The Gln-1291 mutations did not alter the potency of ATP at stimulating current or ATP-dependent gating when ATP was the only nucleotide present. However, when physiologic concentrations of ADP and AMP were added, adenylate kinase-deficient Q1291F channels opened significantly less than wild type. Consistent with this result, we found that Q1291F CFTR displayed significantly reduced Cl− channel function in well differentiated primary human airway epithelia. These results indicate that a highly conserved residue of an ABC transporter plays an important role in adenylate kinase-dependent CFTR gating. Furthermore, the results suggest that adenylate kinase activity is important for normal CFTR channel function in airway epithelia. PMID:25887396

  9. ErbB2 overexpression upregulates antioxidant enzymes, reduces basal levels of reactive oxygen species, and protects against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Belmonte, Frances; Das, Samarjit; Sysa-Shah, Polina; Sivakumaran, Vidhya; Stanley, Brian; Guo, Xin; Paolocci, Nazareno; Aon, Miguel A; Nagane, Masaki; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Steenbergen, Charles; Gabrielson, Kathleen

    2015-10-01

    Levels of the HER2/ErbB2 protein in the heart are upregulated in some women during breast cancer therapy, and these women are at high risk for developing heart dysfunction after sequential treatment with anti-ErbB2/trastuzumab or doxorubicin. Doxorubicin is known to increase oxidative stress in the heart, and thus we considered the possibility that ErbB2 protein influences the status of cardiac antioxidant defenses in cardiomyocytes. In this study, we measured reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiac mitochondria and whole hearts from mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of ErbB2 (ErbB2(tg)) and found that, compared with control mice, high levels of ErbB2 in myocardium result in lower levels of ROS in mitochondria (P = 0.0075) and whole hearts (P = 0.0381). Neonatal cardiomyocytes isolated from ErbB2(tg) hearts have lower ROS levels and less cellular death (P < 0.0001) following doxorubicin treatment. Analyzing antioxidant enzyme levels and activities, we found that ErbB2(tg) hearts have increased levels of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) protein (P < 0.0001) and GPx activity (P = 0.0031) in addition to increased levels of two known GPx activators, c-Abl (P = 0.0284) and Arg (P < 0.0001). Interestingly, although mitochondrial ROS emission is reduced in the ErbB2(tg) hearts, oxygen consumption rates and complex I activity are similar to control littermates. Compared with these in vivo studies, H9c2 cells transfected with ErbB2 showed less cellular toxicity and produced less ROS (P < 0.0001) after doxorubicin treatment but upregulated GR activity (P = 0.0237) instead of GPx. Our study shows that ErbB2-dependent signaling contributes to antioxidant defenses and suggests a novel mechanism by which anticancer therapies involving ErbB2 antagonists can harm myocardial structure and function. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Activation of the P2Y2 receptor regulates bone cell function by enhancing ATP release.

    PubMed

    Orriss, Isabel R; Guneri, Dilek; Hajjawi, Mark O R; Shaw, Kristy; Patel, Jessal J; Arnett, Timothy R

    2017-06-01

    Bone cells constitutively release ATP into the extracellular environment where it acts locally via P2 receptors to regulate bone cell function. Whilst P2Y2 receptor stimulation regulates bone mineralisation, the functional effects of this receptor in osteoclasts remain unknown. This investigation used the P2Y2 receptor knockout (P2Y2R(-)(/)(-) ) mouse model to investigate the role of this receptor in bone. MicroCT analysis of P2Y2R(-/-) mice demonstrated age-related increases in trabecular bone volume (≤48%), number (≤30%) and thickness (≤17%). In vitro P2Y2R(-/-) osteoblasts displayed a 3-fold increase in bone formation and alkaline phosphatase activity, whilst P2Y2R(-/-) osteoclasts exhibited a 65% reduction in resorptive activity. Serum cross-linked C-telopeptide levels (CTX, resorption marker) were also decreased (≤35%). The resorption defect in P2Y2R(-/-) osteoclasts was rescued by the addition of exogenous ATP, suggesting that an ATP deficit could be a key factor in the reduced function of these cells. In agreement, we found that basal ATP release was reduced up to 53% in P2Y2R(-/-) osteoclasts. The P2Y2 receptor agonists, UTP and 2-thioUTP, increased osteoclast activity and ATP release in wild-type but not in P2Y2R(-/-) cells. This indicates that the P2Y2 receptor may regulate osteoclast function indirectly by promoting ATP release. UTP and 2-thioUTP also stimulate ATP release from osteoblasts suggesting that the P2Y2 receptor exerts a similar function in these cells. Taken together, our findings are consistent with the notion that the primary action of P2Y2 receptor signalling in bone is to regulate extracellular ATP levels. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. Mice Deficient in the Putative Phospholipid Flippase ATP11C Exhibit Altered Erythrocyte Shape, Anemia, and Reduced Erythrocyte Life Span*♦

    PubMed Central

    Yabas, Mehmet; Coupland, Lucy A.; Cromer, Deborah; Winterberg, Markus; Teoh, Narci C.; D'Rozario, James; Kirk, Kiaran; Bröer, Stefan; Parish, Christopher R.; Enders, Anselm

    2014-01-01

    Transmembrane lipid transporters are believed to establish and maintain phospholipid asymmetry in biological membranes; however, little is known about the in vivo function of the specific transporters involved. Here, we report that developing erythrocytes from mice lacking the putative phosphatidylserine flippase ATP11C showed a lower rate of PS translocation in vitro compared with erythrocytes from wild-type littermates. Furthermore, the mutant mice had an elevated percentage of phosphatidylserine-exposing mature erythrocytes in the periphery. Although erythrocyte development in ATP11C-deficient mice was normal, the mature erythrocytes had an abnormal shape (stomatocytosis), and the life span of mature erythrocytes was shortened relative to that in control littermates, resulting in anemia in the mutant mice. Thus, our findings uncover an essential role for ATP11C in erythrocyte morphology and survival and provide a new candidate for the rare inherited blood disorder stomatocytosis with uncompensated anemia. PMID:24898253

  12. Obesity-mediated regulation of HGF/c-Met is associated with reduced basal-like breast cancer latency in parous mice.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Sneha; Freemerman, Alex J; Galanko, Joseph A; McNaughton, Kirk K; Bendt, Katharine M; Darr, David B; Troester, Melissa A; Makowski, Liza

    2014-01-01

    It is widely thought that pregnancy reduces breast cancer risk, but this lacks consideration of breast cancer subtypes. While a full term pregnancy reduces risk for estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and luminal breast cancers, parity is associated with increased risk of basal-like breast cancer (BBC) subtype. Basal-like subtypes represent less than 10% of breast cancers and are highly aggressive, affecting primarily young, African American women. Our previous work demonstrated that high fat diet-induced obesity in nulliparous mice significantly blunted latency in C3(1)-TAg mice, a model of BBC, potentially through the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met oncogenic pathway. Experimental studies have examined parity and obesity individually, but to date, the joint effects of parity and obesity have not been studied. We investigated the role of obesity in parous mice on BBC. Parity alone dramatically blunted tumor latency compared to nulliparous controls with no effects on tumor number or growth, while obesity had only a minor role in further reducing latency. Obesity-associated metabolic mediators and hormones such as insulin, estrogen, and progesterone were not significantly regulated by obesity. Plasma IL-6 was also significantly elevated by obesity in parous mice. We have previously reported a potential role for stromal-derived hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) via its cognate receptor c-Met in the etiology of obesity-induced BBC tumor onset and in both human and murine primary coculture models of BBC-aggressiveness. Obesity-associated c-Met concentrations were 2.5-fold greater in normal mammary glands of parous mice. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that, parity in C3(1)-TAg mice dramatically reduced BBC latency compared to nulliparous mice. In parous mice, c-Met is regulated by obesity in unaffected mammary gland and is associated with tumor onset. C3(1)-TAg mice recapitulate epidemiologic findings such that parity drives increased BBC risk and potential

  13. Obesity-Mediated Regulation of HGF/c-Met Is Associated with Reduced Basal-Like Breast Cancer Latency in Parous Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Sneha; Freemerman, Alex J.; Galanko, Joseph A.; McNaughton, Kirk K.; Bendt, Katharine M.; Darr, David B.; Troester, Melissa A.; Makowski, Liza

    2014-01-01

    It is widely thought that pregnancy reduces breast cancer risk, but this lacks consideration of breast cancer subtypes. While a full term pregnancy reduces risk for estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and luminal breast cancers, parity is associated with increased risk of basal-like breast cancer (BBC) subtype. Basal-like subtypes represent less than 10% of breast cancers and are highly aggressive, affecting primarily young, African American women. Our previous work demonstrated that high fat diet-induced obesity in nulliparous mice significantly blunted latency in C3(1)-TAg mice, a model of BBC, potentially through the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met oncogenic pathway. Experimental studies have examined parity and obesity individually, but to date, the joint effects of parity and obesity have not been studied. We investigated the role of obesity in parous mice on BBC. Parity alone dramatically blunted tumor latency compared to nulliparous controls with no effects on tumor number or growth, while obesity had only a minor role in further reducing latency. Obesity-associated metabolic mediators and hormones such as insulin, estrogen, and progesterone were not significantly regulated by obesity. Plasma IL-6 was also significantly elevated by obesity in parous mice. We have previously reported a potential role for stromal-derived hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) via its cognate receptor c-Met in the etiology of obesity-induced BBC tumor onset and in both human and murine primary coculture models of BBC-aggressiveness. Obesity-associated c-Met concentrations were 2.5-fold greater in normal mammary glands of parous mice. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that, parity in C3(1)-TAg mice dramatically reduced BBC latency compared to nulliparous mice. In parous mice, c-Met is regulated by obesity in unaffected mammary gland and is associated with tumor onset. C3(1)-TAg mice recapitulate epidemiologic findings such that parity drives increased BBC risk and potential

  14. New-generation atrial antitachycardia pacing (Reactive ATP) is associated with reduced risk of persistent or permanent atrial fibrillation in patients with bradycardia: Results from the MINERVA randomized multicenter international trial.

    PubMed

    Padeletti, Luigi; Pürerfellner, Helmut; Mont, Lluis; Tukkie, Raymond; Manolis, Antonis S; Ricci, Renato; Inama, Giuseppe; Serra, Paolo; Scheffer, Mike G; Martins, Vitor; Warman, Eduardo N; Vimercati, Marco; Grammatico, Andrea; Boriani, Giuseppe

    2015-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent comorbidity in patients with pacemaker and is a recognized cause of mortality, morbidity, and quality-of-life impairment. The international MINimizE Right Ventricular pacing to prevent Atrial fibrillation and heart failure trial established that atrial preventive pacing and atrial antitachycardia pacing (DDDRP) in combination with managed ventricular pacing (MVP) reduce permanent AF occurrence in comparison with standard dual-chamber pacing (DDDR). We aimed to determine the role of new-generation atrial antitachycardia pacing (Reactive ATP) in preventing AF disease progression. Patients with dual-chamber pacemaker and with previous atrial tachyarrhythmias were randomly assigned to DDDR (n = 385 (33%)), MVP (n = 398 (34%)), or DDDRP+MVP (n = 383 (33%)) group. The incidence of permanent AF, as defined by the study investigator, or persistent AF, defined as ≥7 consecutive days with AF, was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, while its association with patients' characteristics was evaluated via multivariable Cox regression. At 2 years, the incidence of permanent or persistent AF was 26% (95% confidence interval [CI] 22%-31%) in the DDDR group, 25% (95% CI 21%-30%) in the MVP group, and 15% (95% CI 12%-20%) in the DDDRP+MVP group (P < .001 vs. DDDR; P = .002 vs. MVP). Generalized estimating equation-adjusted Reactive ATP efficacy was 44.4% (95% CI 41.3%-47.6%). Multivariate modeling identified high Reactive ATP efficacy (>44.4%) as a significant predictor of reduced permanent or persistent AF risk (hazard ratio 0.32; 95% CI 0.13-0.781; P = .012) and episodes' characteristics, such as long atrial arrhythmia cycle length, regularity, and the number of rhythm transitions, as predictors of high ATP efficacy. In patients with bradycardia, DDDRP+MVP delays AF disease progression, with Reactive ATP efficacy being an independent predictor of permanent or persistent AF reduction. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by

  15. Adolescent binge-like ethanol exposure reduces basal α-MSH expression in the hypothalamus and the amygdala of adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Lerma-Cabrera, Jose Manuel; Carvajal, Francisca; Alcaraz-Iborra, Manuel; de la Fuente, Leticia; Navarro, Montserrat; Thiele, Todd E.; Cubero, Inmaculada

    2013-01-01

    Melanocortins (MC) are central peptides that have been implicated in the modulation of ethanol consumption. There is experimental evidence that chronic ethanol exposure reduces α-MSH expression in limbic and hypothalamic brain regions and alters central pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA activity in adult rats. Adolescence is a critical developmental period of high vulnerability in which ethanol exposure alters corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, substance P and neurokinin neuropeptide activities, all of which have key roles in ethanol consumption. Given the involvement of MC and the endogenous inverse agonist AgRP in ethanol drinking, here we evaluate whether a binge-like pattern of ethanol treatment during adolescence has a relevant impact on basal and/or ethanol-stimulated α-MSH and AgRP activities during adulthood. To this end, adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (beginning at PND25) were pre-treated with either saline (SP group) or binge-like ethanol exposure (BEP group; 3.0 g/kg given in intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections) of one injection per day over two consecutive days, followed by 2 days without injections, repeated for a total of 8 injections. Following 25 ethanol-free days, we evaluated α-MSH and AgRP immunoreactivity (IR) in the limbic and hypothalamic nuclei of adult rats (PND63) in response to ethanol (1.5 or 3.0 g/kg i.p.) and saline. We found that binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence significantly reduced basal α-MSH IR in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), the arcuate nucleus (Arc) and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) during adulthood. Additionally, acute ethanol elicited AgRP IR in the Arc. Rats given the adolescent ethanol treatment required higher doses of ethanol than saline-treated rats to express AgRP. In light of previous evidence that endogenous MC and AgRP regulate ethanol intake through MC-receptor signaling, we speculate that the α-MSH and AgRP disturbances induced by binge-like ethanol

  16. Adolescent binge-like ethanol exposure reduces basal α-MSH expression in the hypothalamus and the amygdala of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Lerma-Cabrera, Jose Manuel; Carvajal, Francisca; Alcaraz-Iborra, Manuel; de la Fuente, Leticia; Navarro, Montserrat; Thiele, Todd E; Cubero, Inmaculada

    2013-09-01

    Melanocortins (MC) are central peptides that have been implicated in the modulation of ethanol consumption. There is experimental evidence that chronic ethanol exposure reduces α-MSH expression in the limbic and hypothalamic brain regions and alters central pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA activity in adult rats. Adolescence is a critical developmental period of high vulnerability in which ethanol exposure alters corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, substance P and neurokinin neuropeptide activities, all of which have key roles in ethanol consumption. Given the involvement of MC and the endogenous inverse agonist AgRP in ethanol drinking, here we evaluate whether a binge-like pattern of ethanol treatment during adolescence has a relevant impact on basal and/or ethanol-stimulated α-MSH and AgRP activities during adulthood. To this end, adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (beginning at PND25) were pre-treated with either saline (SP group) or binge-like ethanol exposure (BEP group; 3.0 g/kg given in intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections) of one injection per day over two consecutive days, followed by 2 days without injections, repeated for a total of 8 injections. Following 25 ethanol-free days, we evaluated α-MSH and AgRP immunoreactivity (IR) in the limbic and hypothalamic nuclei of adult rats (PND63) in response to ethanol (1.5 or 3.0 g/kgi.p.) and saline. We found that binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence significantly reduced basal α-MSH IR in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), the arcuate nucleus (Arc) and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) during adulthood. Additionally, acute ethanol elicited AgRP IR in the Arc. Rats given the adolescent ethanol treatment required higher doses of ethanol than saline-treated rats to express AgRP. In light of previous evidence that endogenous MC and AgRP regulate ethanol intake through MC-receptor signaling, we speculate that the α-MSH and AgRP disturbances induced by binge

  17. A role for ATP-sensitive potassium channels in male sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, Melissa A; Thorsness, Robert J; Levine, Jon E

    2009-02-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium (K(+)(ATP)) channels regulate cell excitability and are expressed in steroid-responsive brain regions involved in sexual behavior, such as the preoptic area (POA) and medial basal hypothalamus (MBH). We hypothesized that K(+)(ATP) channels serve as a mechanism by which testosterone can control the electrical activity of neurons and consequently elicit male sexual responsiveness. RT-PCR analysis indicated that castration induces, while testosterone inhibits, mRNA expression of the K(+)(ATP) channel subunit Kir6.2 in both the POA and MBH of adult male rats. Intracerebral infusion of the pharmacological K(+)(ATP) channel inhibitor tolbutamide increased the proportion of long-term castrates displaying sexual behavior and restored mount frequency, intromission frequency, and copulatory efficacy to values observed in testes-intact animals. Infusions of tolbutamide, but not vehicle, also decreased latencies to mount and intromit in castrated males. Unilateral tolbutamide infusion directly into the POA significantly reduced mount latency of castrates; however, it did not affect other copulatory measures, suggesting that blockade of K(+)(ATP) channels in additional brain regions may be necessary to recover the full range of sexual behavior. These data indicate that blockade of K(+)(ATP) channels is sufficient to elicit the male sexual response in the absence of testosterone. Our observations are consistent with the hypothesis that testosterone modulates male sexual behavior by regulating K(+)(ATP) channels in the brain. Decreased channel expression or channel blockade may increase the excitability of androgen-target neurons, rendering them more sensitive to the hormonal, chemical, and somatosensory inputs they receive, and potentially increase secretion of neurotransmitters that facilitate sexual behavior.

  18. Role of ATP-dependent potassium channels in pulmonary vascular tone of fetal lambs with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    PubMed

    de Buys Roessingh, Anthony S; de Lagausie, Pascal; Barbet, Jacques-Patrick; Mercier, Jean-Christophe; Aigrain, Yves; Dinh-Xuan, Anh Tuan

    2006-11-01

    High mortality in newborn babies with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is principally due to persistent pulmonary hypertension. ATP-dependent potassium (K(ATP)) channels might modulate pulmonary vascular tone. We have assessed the effects of Pinacidil, a K(ATP) channel opener, and glibenclamide (GLI), a K(ATP) channel blocker, in near full-term lambs with and without CDH. In vivo, pulmonary hemodynamics were assessed by means of pressure and blood flow catheters. In vitro, we used isolated pulmonary vessels and immunohistochemistry to detect the presence of K(ATP) channels in pulmonary tissue. In vivo, pinacidil (2 mg) significantly reduced pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in both controls and CDH animals. GLI (30 mg) significantly increased pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and PVR in control animals only. In vitro, pinacidil (10 microM) relaxed, precontracted arteries from lambs with and without CDH. GLI (10(-5) microM) did not raise the basal tone of vessels. We conclude that activation of K(ATP) channels could be of interest to reduce pulmonary vascular tone in fetal lambs with CDH, a condition often associated with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

  19. Brief training of psychoneuroendocrinoimmunology-based meditation (PNEIMED) reduces stress symptom ratings and improves control on salivary cortisol secretion under basal and stimulated conditions.

    PubMed

    Bottaccioli, Francesco; Carosella, Antonia; Cardone, Raffaella; Mambelli, Monica; Cemin, Marisa; D'Errico, Marcello M; Ponzio, Elisa; Bottaccioli, Anna Giulia; Minelli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Meditation is proposed as an anti-stress practice lowering allostatic load and promoting well-being, with brief formats providing some of the benefits of longer interventions. PsychoNeuroEndocrinoImmunology-based meditation (PNEIMED) combines the teaching of philosophy and practice of Buddhist meditation with a grounding in human physiology from a systemic and integrative perspective. We evaluated the effects of four-day PNEIMED training (30 h) on subjective and objective indices of stress in healthy adults. A non-randomized, controlled, before-and-after study was conducted. Participants (n = 125, mostly health practitioners) answered a questionnaire rating stress symptom before (T0) and after (Tf) a PNEIMED course. In an additional sample (n = 40; smokers, overweight persons, women taking contraceptives, and subjects with oral pathologies were excluded), divided into PNEIMED-attending (intervention, n = 21) and non-meditating (control, n = 19) groups, salivary cortisol was measured upon awakening and during a challenging mental task. Self-rated distress scores were highly reduced after the PNEIMED course. In the intervention group, improvement of psychological well-being was accompanied by decrease in cortisol levels at awakening. No T0-vs-Tf changes in distress scores and morning cortisol were found in controls. Based on baseline-to-peak increment of cortisol response at T0, 26 subjects (n = 13 for each group) were classified as task-responders. The amplitude and duration of the cortisol response decreased after PNEIMED, whereas no effects were found in controls. Brief PNEIMED training yields immediate benefits, reducing distress symptoms and adrenocortical activity under basal and stimulated conditions. PNEIMED may represent an effective practice to manage stress and anxiety, particularly among subjects facing a multitude of job-related stressors, such as healthcare workers. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hypophosphatemia promotes lower rates of muscle ATP synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Pesta, Dominik H.; Tsirigotis, Dimitrios N.; Befroy, Douglas E.; Caballero, Daniel; Jurczak, Michael J.; Rahimi, Yasmeen; Cline, Gary W.; Dufour, Sylvie; Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Rothman, Douglas L.; Carpenter, Thomas O.; Insogna, Karl; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Bergwitz, Clemens; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2016-01-01

    Hypophosphatemia can lead to muscle weakness and respiratory and heart failure, but the mechanism is unknown. To address this question, we noninvasively assessed rates of muscle ATP synthesis in hypophosphatemic mice by using in vivo saturation transfer [31P]-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. By using this approach, we found that basal and insulin-stimulated rates of muscle ATP synthetic flux (VATP) and plasma inorganic phosphate (Pi) were reduced by 50% in mice with diet-induced hypophosphatemia as well as in sodium-dependent Pi transporter solute carrier family 34, member 1 (NaPi2a)-knockout (NaPi2a−/−) mice compared with their wild-type littermate controls. Rates of VATP normalized in both hypophosphatemic groups after restoring plasma Pi concentrations. Furthermore, VATP was directly related to cellular and mitochondrial Pi uptake in L6 and RC13 rodent myocytes and isolated muscle mitochondria. Similar findings were observed in a patient with chronic hypophosphatemia as a result of a mutation in SLC34A3 who had a 50% reduction in both serum Pi content and muscle VATP. After oral Pi repletion and normalization of serum Pi levels, muscle VATP completely normalized in the patient. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that decreased muscle ATP synthesis, in part, may be caused by low blood Pi concentrations, which may explain some aspects of muscle weakness observed in patients with hypophosphatemia.—Pesta, D. H., Tsirigotis, D. N., Befroy, D. E., Caballero, D., Jurczak, M. J., Rahimi, Y., Cline, G. W., Dufour, S., Birkenfeld, A. L., Rothman, D. L., Carpenter, T. O., Insogna, K., Petersen, K. F., Bergwitz, C., Shulman, G. I. Hypophosphatemia promotes lower rates of muscle ATP synthesis. PMID:27338702

  1. Imaging Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Megha; Dane, Eric; Conley, Jason; Tantama, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a universal mediator of metabolism and signaling across unicellular and multicellular species. There is a fundamental interdependence between the dynamics of ATP and the physiology that occurs inside and outside the cell. Characterizing and understanding ATP dynamics provides valuable mechanistic insight into processes that range from neurotransmission to the chemotaxis of immune cells. Therefore, we require the methodology to interrogate both temporal and spatial components of ATP dynamics from the subcellular to organismal levels in live specimens. Over the last several decades, a number of molecular probes that are specific for ATP have been developed. These probes have been combined with imaging approaches, particularly optical microscopy, to enable qualitative and quantitative detection of this critical molecule. In this review, we survey current examples of technologies that are available to visualize ATP in living cells and identify areas where new tools and approaches are needed to expand our capabilities. PMID:27638696

  2. S-Sulfhydration of ATP synthase by hydrogen sulfide stimulates mitochondrial bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Módis, Katalin; Ju, YoungJun; Ahmad, Akbar; Untereiner, Ashley A; Altaany, Zaid; Wu, Lingyun; Szabo, Csaba; Wang, Rui

    2016-11-01

    Mammalian cells can utilize hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to support mitochondrial respiration. The aim of our study was to explore the potential role of S-sulfhydration (a H2S-induced posttranslational modification, also known as S-persulfidation) of the mitochondrial inner membrane protein ATP synthase (F1F0 ATP synthase/Complex V) in the regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics. Using a biotin switch assay, we have detected S-sulfhydration of the α subunit (ATP5A1) of ATP synthase in response to exposure to H2S in vitro. The H2S generator compound NaHS induced S-sulfhydration of ATP5A1 in HepG2 and HEK293 cell lysates in a concentration-dependent manner (50-300μM). The activity of immunocaptured mitochondrial ATP synthase enzyme isolated from HepG2 and HEK293 cells was stimulated by NaHS at low concentrations (10-100nM). Site-directed mutagenesis of ATP5A1 in HEK293 cells demonstrated that cysteine residues at positions 244 and 294 are subject to S-sulfhydration. The double mutant ATP synthase protein (C244S/C294S) showed a significantly reduced enzyme activity compared to control and the single-cysteine-mutated recombinant proteins (C244S or C294S). To determine whether endogenous H2S plays a role in the basal S-sulfhydration of ATP synthase in vivo, we compared liver tissues harvested from wild-type mice and mice deficient in cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE, one of the three principal mammalian H2S-producing enzymes). Significantly reduced S-sulfhydration of ATP5A1 was observed in liver homogenates of CSE(-/-) mice, compared to wild-type mice, suggesting a physiological role for CSE-derived endogenous H2S production in the S-sulfhydration of ATP synthase. Various forms of critical illness (including burn injury) upregulate H2S-producing enzymes and stimulate H2S biosynthesis. In liver tissues collected from mice subjected to burn injury, we detected an increased S-sulfhydration of ATP5A1 at the early time points post-burn. At later time points (when systemic H2S

  3. Polarized sorting of the copper transporter ATP7B in neurons mediated by recognition of a dileucine signal by AP-1.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shweta; Farías, Ginny G; Bonifacino, Juan S

    2015-01-15

    Neurons are highly polarized cells having distinct somatodendritic and axonal domains. Here we report that polarized sorting of the Cu(2+) transporter ATP7B and the vesicle-SNARE VAMP4 to the somatodendritic domain of rat hippocampal neurons is mediated by recognition of dileucine-based signals in the cytosolic domains of the proteins by the σ1 subunit of the clathrin adaptor AP-1. Under basal Cu(2+) conditions, ATP7B was localized to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the plasma membrane of the soma and dendrites but not the axon. Mutation of a dileucine-based signal in ATP7B or overexpression of a dominant-negative σ1 mutant resulted in nonpolarized distribution of ATP7B between the somatodendritic and axonal domains. Furthermore, addition of high Cu(2+) concentrations, previously shown to reduce ATP7B incorporation into AP-1-containing clathrin-coated vesicles, caused loss of TGN localization and somatodendritic polarity of ATP7B. These findings support the notion of AP-1 as an effector of polarized sorting in neurons and suggest that altered polarity of ATP7B in polarized cell types might contribute to abnormal copper metabolism in the MEDNIK syndrome, a neurocutaneous disorder caused by mutations in the σ1A subunit isoform of AP-1.

  4. Communication between the N and C Termini Is Required for Copper-stimulated Ser/Thr Phosphorylation of Cu(I)-ATPase (ATP7B)*

    PubMed Central

    Braiterman, Lelita T.; Gupta, Arnab; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Cole, Robert N.; Hubbard, Ann L.

    2015-01-01

    The Wilson disease protein ATP7B exhibits copper-dependent trafficking. In high copper, ATP7B exits the trans-Golgi network and moves to the apical domain of hepatocytes where it facilitates elimination of excess copper through the bile. Copper levels also affect ATP7B phosphorylation. ATP7B is basally phosphorylated in low copper and becomes more phosphorylated (“hyperphosphorylated”) in elevated copper. The functional significance of hyperphosphorylation remains unclear. We showed that hyperphosphorylation occurs even when ATP7B is restricted to the trans-Golgi network. We performed comprehensive phosphoproteomics of ATP7B in low versus high copper, which revealed that 24 Ser/Thr residues in ATP7B could be phosphorylated, and only four of these were copper-responsive. Most of the phosphorylated sites were found in the N- and C-terminal cytoplasmic domains. Using truncation and mutagenesis, we showed that inactivation or elimination of all six N-terminal metal binding domains did not block copper-dependent, reversible, apical trafficking but did block hyperphosphorylation in hepatic cells. We showed that nine of 15 Ser/Thr residues in the C-terminal domain were phosphorylated. Inactivation of 13 C-terminal phosphorylation sites reduced basal phosphorylation and eliminated hyperphosphorylation, suggesting that copper binding at the N terminus propagates to the ATP7B C-terminal region. C-terminal mutants with either inactivating or phosphomimetic substitutions showed little effect upon copper-stimulated trafficking, indicating that trafficking does not depend on phosphorylation at these sites. Thus, our studies revealed that copper-dependent conformational changes in the N-terminal region lead to hyperphosphorylation at C-terminal sites, which seem not to affect trafficking and may instead fine-tune copper sequestration. PMID:25666620

  5. Transcription Factors Sp1 and Hif2α Mediate Induction of the Copper-transporting ATPase (Atp7a) Gene in Intestinal Epithelial Cells during Hypoxia*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Liwei; Collins, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Genes with G/C-rich promoters were up-regulated in the duodenal epithelium of iron-deficient rats including those encoding iron (e.g. Dmt1 and Dcytb) and copper (e.g. Atp7a and Mt1) metabolism-related proteins. It was shown previously that an intestinal copper transporter (Atp7a) was co-regulated with iron transport-related genes by a hypoxia-inducible transcription factor, Hif2α. In the current study, we sought to test the role of Sp1 in transcriptional regulation of Atp7a expression during iron deprivation/hypoxia. Initial studies in IEC-6 cells showed that mithramycin, an Sp1 inhibitor, reduced expression of Atp7a and iron transport-related genes (Dmt1, Dcytb, and Fpn1) and blocked their induction by CoCl2, a hypoxia mimetic. Consistent with this, overexpression of Sp1 increased endogenous Atp7a mRNA and protein expression and stimulated Atp7a, Dmt1, and Dcytb promoter activity. Site-directed mutagenesis and functional analysis of a basal Atp7a promoter construct revealed four functional Sp1 binding sites that were necessary for Hif2α-mediated induction of promoter activity. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed that Sp1 specifically interacts with the Atp7a promoter in IEC-6 cells and in rat duodenal enterocytes. This investigation has thus revealed a novel aspect of Atp7a gene regulation in which Sp1 may be necessary for the HIF-mediated induction of gene transcription during iron deficiency/hypoxia. Understanding regulation of Atp7a expression may help further clarify the physiological role of copper in the maintenance of iron homeostasis. Furthermore, this Sp1/Hif2α regulatory mechanism may have broader implications for understanding the genetic response of the intestinal epithelium to maintain whole-body iron homeostasis during states of deficiency. PMID:23814049

  6. Sertraline reduces glutamate uptake in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Débora Olmedo; Bristot, Ivi Juliana; Klamt, Fábio; Frizzo, Marcos Emílio

    2015-12-01

    Mitochondrial damage and declines in ATP levels have been recently attributed to sertraline. The effects of sertraline on different parameters were investigated in washed platelets from 18 healthy male volunteers, after 24h of drug exposure. Sertraline toxicity was observed only at the highest concentrations, 30 and 100 μM, which significantly reduced platelet viability to 76 ± 3% and 20 ± 2%, respectively. The same concentrations significantly decreased total ATP to 73 ± 3% and 13 ± 2%, respectively. Basal values of glycogen were not significantly affected by sertraline treatment. Glutamate uptake was significantly reduced after treatment with 3, 30 and 100 μM, by 28 ± 6%, 32 ± 5% and 54 ± 4%, respectively. Our data showed that sertraline at therapeutic concentrations does not compromise platelet viability and ATP levels, but they suggest that in a situation where extracellular glutamate levels are potentially increased, sertraline might aggravate an excitotoxic condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. External Dentin Stimulation Induces ATP Release in Human Teeth.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Wang, C; Fujita, T; Malmstrom, H S; Nedergaard, M; Ren, Y F; Dirksen, R T

    2015-09-01

    ATP is involved in neurosensory processing, including nociceptive transduction. Thus, ATP signaling may participate in dentin hypersensitivity and dental pain. In this study, we investigated whether pannexins, which can form mechanosensitive ATP-permeable channels, are present in human dental pulp. We also assessed the existence and functional activity of ecto-ATPase for extracellular ATP degradation. We further tested if ATP is released from dental pulp upon dentin mechanical or thermal stimulation that induces dentin hypersensitivity and dental pain and if pannexin or pannexin/gap junction channel blockers reduce stimulation-dependent ATP release. Using immunofluorescence staining, we demonstrated immunoreactivity of pannexin 1 and 2 in odontoblasts and their processes extending into the dentin tubules. Using enzymatic histochemistry staining, we also demonstrated functional ecto-ATPase activity within the odontoblast layer, subodontoblast layer, dental pulp nerve bundles, and blood vessels. Using an ATP bioluminescence assay, we found that mechanical or cold stimulation to the exposed dentin induced ATP release in an in vitro human tooth perfusion model. We further demonstrated that blocking pannexin/gap junction channels with probenecid or carbenoxolone significantly reduced external dentin stimulation-induced ATP release. Our results provide evidence for the existence of functional machinery required for ATP release and degradation in human dental pulp and that pannexin channels are involved in external dentin stimulation-induced ATP release. These findings support a plausible role for ATP signaling in dentin hypersensitivity and dental pain.

  8. Customized ATP towpreg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandusky, Donald A.; Marchello, Joseph M.; Baucom, Robert M.; Johnston, Norman J.

    Automated tow placement (ATP) utilizes robotic technology to lay down adjacent polymer-matrix-impregnated carbon fiber tows on a tool surface. Consolidation and cure during ATP requires that void elimination and polymer matrix adhesion be accomplished in the short period of heating and pressure rolling that follows towpreg ribbon placement from the robot head to the tool. This study examined the key towpreg ribbon properties and dimensions which play a significant role in ATP. Analysis of the heat transfer process window indicates that adequate heating can be achieved at lay down rates as high as 1 m/sec. While heat transfer did not appear to be the limiting factor, resin flow and fiber movement into tow lap gaps could be. Accordingly, consideration was given to towpreg ribbon having uniform yet non-rectangular cross sections. Dimensional integrity of the towpreg ribbon combined with customized ribbon architecture offer great promise for processing advances in ATP of high performance composites.

  9. Inhibition of Mitochondrial Complex I Leads to Decreased Motility and Membrane Integrity Related to Increased Hydrogen Peroxide and Reduced ATP Production, while the Inhibition of Glycolysis Has Less Impact on Sperm Motility

    PubMed Central

    Plaza Davila, María; Martin Muñoz, Patricia; Tapia, Jose A.; Ortega Ferrusola, Cristina; Balao da Silva C, Carolina; Peña, Fernando J.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria have been proposed as the major source of reactive oxygen species in somatic cells and human spermatozoa. However, no data regarding the role of mitochondrial ROS production in stallion spermatozoa are available. To shed light on the role of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in the origin of oxidative stress in stallion spermatozoa, specific inhibitors of complex I (rotenone) and III (antimycin-A) were used. Ejaculates from seven Andalusian stallions were collected and incubated in BWW media at 37°C in the presence of rotenone, antimycin-A or control vehicle. Incubation in the presence of these inhibitors reduced sperm motility and velocity (CASA analysis) (p<0.01), but the effect was more evident in the presence of rotenone (a complex I inhibitor). These inhibitors also decreased ATP content. The inhibition of complexes I and III decreased the production of reactive oxygen species (p<0.01) as assessed by flow cytometry after staining with CellRox deep red. This observation suggests that the CellRox probe mainly identifies superoxide and that superoxide production may reflect intense mitochondrial activity rather than oxidative stress. The inhibition of complex I resulted in increased hydrogen peroxide production (p<0.01). The inhibition of glycolysis resulted in reduced sperm velocities (p<0.01) without an effect on the percentage of total motile sperm. Weak and moderate (but statistically significant) positive correlations were observed between sperm motility, velocity and membrane integrity and the production of reactive oxygen species. These results indicate that stallion sperm rely heavily on oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) for the production of ATP for motility but also require glycolysis to maintain high velocities. These data also indicate that increased hydrogen peroxide originating in the mitochondria is a mechanism involved in stallion sperm senescence. PMID:26407142

  10. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... other skin problems a person has experienced. Early treatment of basal cell skin cancer reduces the amount of surgery and scarring. Regular ... sun . People with NBCCS should not receive radiation therapy, as this will ... cell skin cancers. Screening recommendations may change over time as new ...

  11. Structural Basis of GLUT1 Inhibition by Cytoplasmic ATP

    PubMed Central

    Blodgett, David M.; De Zutter, Julie K.; Levine, Kara B.; Karim, Pusha; Carruthers, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Cytoplasmic ATP inhibits human erythrocyte glucose transport protein (GLUT1)–mediated glucose transport in human red blood cells by reducing net glucose transport but not exchange glucose transport (Cloherty, E.K., D.L. Diamond, K.S. Heard, and A. Carruthers. 1996. Biochemistry. 35:13231–13239). We investigated the mechanism of ATP regulation of GLUT1 by identifying GLUT1 domains that undergo significant conformational change upon GLUT1–ATP interaction. ATP (but not GTP) protects GLUT1 against tryptic digestion. Immunoblot analysis indicates that ATP protection extends across multiple GLUT1 domains. Peptide-directed antibody binding to full-length GLUT1 is reduced by ATP at two specific locations: exofacial loop 7–8 and the cytoplasmic C terminus. C-terminal antibody binding to wild-type GLUT1 expressed in HEK cells is inhibited by ATP but binding of the same antibody to a GLUT1–GLUT4 chimera in which loop 6–7 of GLUT1 is substituted with loop 6–7 of GLUT4 is unaffected. ATP reduces GLUT1 lysine covalent modification by sulfo-NHS-LC-biotin by 40%. AMP is without effect on lysine accessibility but antagonizes ATP inhibition of lysine modification. Tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis indicates that ATP reduces covalent modification of lysine residues 245, 255, 256, and 477, whereas labeling at lysine residues 225, 229, and 230 is unchanged. Exogenous, intracellular GLUT1 C-terminal peptide mimics ATP modulation of transport whereas C-terminal peptide-directed IgGs inhibit ATP modulation of glucose transport. These findings suggest that transport regulation involves ATP-dependent conformational changes in (or interactions between) the GLUT1 C terminus and the C-terminal half of GLUT1 cytoplasmic loop 6–7. PMID:17635959

  12. A Single Bout of Fasting (24 h) Reduces Basal Cytokine Expression and Minimally Impacts the Sterile Inflammatory Response in the White Adipose Tissue of Normal Weight F344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Paton, Madeline M.; Cox, Stewart S.

    2016-01-01

    Sterile inflammation occurs when inflammatory proteins are increased in blood and tissues by nonpathogenic states and is a double-edged sword depending on its cause (stress, injury, or disease), duration (transient versus chronic), and inflammatory milieu. Short-term fasting can exert a host of health benefits through unknown mechanisms. The following experiment tested if a 24 h fast would modulate basal and stress-evoked sterile inflammation in plasma and adipose. Adult male F344 rats were either randomized to ad libitum access to food or fasted for 24 h prior to 0 (control), 10, or 100, 1.5 mA-5 s intermittent, inescapable tail shocks (IS). Glucose, nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFAs), insulin, leptin, and corticosterone were measured in plasma and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, interleukin- (IL-) 1β, IL-6, and IL-10 in plasma, and subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, and visceral compartments of white adipose tissue (WAT). In control rats, a 24 h fast reduced all measured basal cytokines in plasma and visceral WAT, IL-1β and IL-6 in subcutaneous WAT, and IL-6 in intraperitoneal WAT. In stressed rats (IS), fasting reduced visceral WAT TNF-α, subcutaneous WAT IL-1β, and plasma insulin and leptin. Short-term fasting may thus prove to be a useful dietary strategy for reducing peripheral inflammatory states associated with visceral obesity and chronic stress. PMID:28077915

  13. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    NBCC syndrome; Gorlin-Goltz syndrome; Basal cell nevus syndrome; BCNS; Basal cell cancer - nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome ... Nevoid basal cell carcinoma nevus syndrome is a rare genetic condition. The gene linked to the syndrome is known as PTCH (" ...

  14. ATP-sulfurylase, sulfur-compounds, and plant stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Naser A; Gill, Ritu; Kaushik, Manjeri; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal; Tuteja, Narendra; Gill, Sarvajeet S

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur (S) stands fourth in the list of major plant nutrients after N, P, and K. Sulfate (SO4 (2-)), a form of soil-S taken up by plant roots is metabolically inert. As the first committed step of S-assimilation, ATP-sulfurylase (ATP-S) catalyzes SO4 (2-)-activation and yields activated high-energy compound adenosine-5(')-phosphosulfate that is reduced to sulfide (S(2-)) and incorporated into cysteine (Cys). In turn, Cys acts as a precursor or donor of reduced S for a range of S-compounds such as methionine (Met), glutathione (GSH), homo-GSH (h-GSH), and phytochelatins (PCs). Among S-compounds, GSH, h-GSH, and PCs are known for their involvement in plant tolerance to varied abiotic stresses, Cys is a major component of GSH, h-GSH, and PCs; whereas, several key stress-metabolites such as ethylene, are controlled by Met through its first metabolite S-adenosylmethionine. With the major aim of briefly highlighting S-compound-mediated role of ATP-S in plant stress tolerance, this paper: (a) overviews ATP-S structure/chemistry and occurrence, (b) appraises recent literature available on ATP-S roles and regulations, and underlying mechanisms in plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance, (c) summarizes ATP-S-intrinsic regulation by major S-compounds, and (d) highlights major open-questions in the present context. Future research in the current direction can be devised based on the discussion outcomes.

  15. Imaging basal ganglia function

    PubMed Central

    BROOKS, DAVID J.

    2000-01-01

    In this review, the value of functional imaging for providing insight into the role of the basal ganglia in motor control is reviewed. Brain activation findings in normal subjects and Parkinson's disease patients are examined and evidence supporting the existence for functionally independent distributed basal ganglia-frontal loops is presented. It is argued that the basal ganglia probably act to focus and filter cortical output, optimising the running of motor programs. PMID:10923986

  16. Structural Mechanism of Allosteric Activity Regulation in a Ribonucleotide Reductase with Double ATP Cones.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Renzo; Jonna, Venkateswara Rao; Kumar, Rohit; Nayeri, Niloofar; Lundin, Daniel; Sjöberg, Britt-Marie; Hofer, Anders; Logan, Derek T

    2016-06-07

    Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) reduce ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. Their overall activity is stimulated by ATP and downregulated by dATP via a genetically mobile ATP cone domain mediating the formation of oligomeric complexes with varying quaternary structures. The crystal structure and solution X-ray scattering data of a novel dATP-induced homotetramer of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa class I RNR reveal the structural bases for its unique properties, namely one ATP cone that binds two dATP molecules and a second one that is non-functional, binding no nucleotides. Mutations in the observed tetramer interface ablate oligomerization and dATP-induced inhibition but not the ability to bind dATP. Sequence analysis shows that the novel type of ATP cone may be widespread in RNRs. The present study supports a scenario in which diverse mechanisms for allosteric activity regulation are gained and lost through acquisition and evolutionary erosion of different types of ATP cone.

  17. Basal cell cancer (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... biopsy is needed to prove the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. Treatment varies depending on the size, depth, and location of the cancer. Early treatment by a dermatologist may result in a cure ... is required to watch for new sites of basal cell cancer.

  18. Electron transfer precedes ATP hydrolysis during nitrogenase catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Simon; Danyal, Karamatullah; Shaw, Sudipta; Lytle, Anna K.; Dean, Dennis R.; Hoffman, Brian M.; Antony, Edwin; Seefeldt, Lance C.

    2013-01-01

    The biological reduction of N2 to NH3 catalyzed by Mo-dependent nitrogenase requires at least eight rounds of a complex cycle of events associated with ATP-driven electron transfer (ET) from the Fe protein to the catalytic MoFe protein, with each ET coupled to the hydrolysis of two ATP molecules. Although steps within this cycle have been studied for decades, the nature of the coupling between ATP hydrolysis and ET, in particular the order of ET and ATP hydrolysis, has been elusive. Here, we have measured first-order rate constants for each key step in the reaction sequence, including direct measurement of the ATP hydrolysis rate constant: kATP = 70 s−1, 25 °C. Comparison of the rate constants establishes that the reaction sequence involves four sequential steps: (i) conformationally gated ET (kET = 140 s−1, 25 °C), (ii) ATP hydrolysis (kATP = 70 s−1, 25 °C), (iii) Phosphate release (kPi = 16 s−1, 25 °C), and (iv) Fe protein dissociation from the MoFe protein (kdiss = 6 s−1, 25 °C). These findings allow completion of the thermodynamic cycle undergone by the Fe protein, showing that the energy of ATP binding and protein–protein association drive ET, with subsequent ATP hydrolysis and Pi release causing dissociation of the complex between the Feox(ADP)2 protein and the reduced MoFe protein. PMID:24062462

  19. Astrocytes inhibit nitric oxide-dependent Ca(2+) dynamics in activated microglia: involvement of ATP released via pannexin 1 channels.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Juan A; Montero, Trinidad D; von Bernhardi, Rommy

    2013-12-01

    Under inflammatory conditions, microglia exhibit increased levels of free intracellular Ca(2+) and produce high amounts of nitric oxide (NO). However, whether NO, Ca(2+) dynamics, and gliotransmitter release are reciprocally modulated is not fully understood. More importantly, the effect of astrocytes in the potentiation or suppression of such signaling is unknown. Our aim was to address if astrocytes could regulate NO-dependent Ca(2+) dynamics and ATP release in LPS-stimulated microglia. Griess assays and Fura-2AM time-lapse fluorescence images of microglia revealed that LPS produced an increased basal [Ca(2+) ]i that depended on the sequential activation of iNOS, COXs, and EP1 receptor. TGFβ1 released by astrocytes inhibited the abovementioned responses and also abolished LPS-induced ATP release by microglia. Luciferin/luciferase assays and dye uptake experiments showed that release of ATP from LPS-stimulated microglia occurred via pannexin 1 (Panx1) channels, but not connexin 43 hemichannels. Moreover, in LPS-stimulated microglia, exogenous ATP triggered activation of purinergic P2Y1 receptors resulting in Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores. Interestingly, TGFβ1 released by astrocytes inhibited ATP-induced Ca(2+) response in LPS-stimulated microglia to that observed in control microglia. Finally, COX/EP1 receptor signaling and activation of P2 receptors via ATP released through Panx1 channels were critical for the increased NO production in LPS-stimulated microglia. Thus, Ca(2+) dynamics depended on the inflammatory profile of microglia and could be modulated by astrocytes. The understanding of mechanisms underlying glial cell regulatory crosstalk could contribute to the development of new treatments to reduce inflammatory cytotoxicity in several brain pathologies.

  20. The role of ATP signaling in the migration of intermediate neuronal progenitors to the neocortical subventricular zone

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiuxin; Hashimoto-Torii, Kazue; Torii, Masaaki; Haydar, Tarik F.; Rakic, Pasko

    2008-01-01

    Most neurons of the cerebral cortex are generated in the germinal zones near the embryonic cerebral ventricle and migrate radially to the overlying cortical plate. Initially, all dividing cells are attached to the surface of the embryonic ventricle (ventricular zone) until a subset of dividing cells (basal or intermediate neuronal progenitors, INPs), recognized by their immunoreactivity to Tbr2, detach from the ventricular surface and migrate a short distance to establish a secondary proliferative compartment (the subventricular zone). The mechanism that regulates migration of the Tbr2+ INPs from the ventricular to the subventricular zones is unknown. Here, we show that INPs, unlike the postmitotic neurons that tend to lose the ATP response, continue to express the purinergic P2Y1 receptor. Furthermore, blocking ATP signaling by the P2Y1 blockers, MRS2176, suramin, and apyrase, reduces Ca2+ transients and retards INP migration to the subventricular zone. In addition, genetic knockdown of the P2Y1 receptor by in vivo application of short hairpin RNA selectively impairs the migration of INPs to the subventricular zone. Together, these results suggest that intercellular ATP signaling is essential for the migration of INPs and the proper formation of the subventricular zone. Interference of ATP signaling or abnormal Ca2+ fluctuations in INPs may play a significant role in variety of genetic or acquired cortical malformations. PMID:18689674

  1. Curtains for ATP?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The administration's efforts to keep various technology-transfer programs afloat in the budget process appear to be stalled. House Science Committee chair Robert Walker (R-Pa.) advised in early April that the Republican agenda for the pending budget process entails zeroing out the Commerce Department's Advanced Technology Program (ATP), which was funded at 431 million in fiscal year 1995. The ATP would lose about 90 million from its FY 95 budget. Although Walker says that the Republican leadership has no intention to dictate to the subcommittees how cuts should be made, they will be held to the "fairly severe caps" established by the House Budget Committee. In other words, Walker says, if ATP stays, something else will have to go in its place. In addition, a bill to rescind about 223 million from the FY 1995 budget of the Technology Reinvestment Project and another 77 million from TRP's FY 1994 budget, which has not been spent, is heading for the president's signature. Yet Walker says while he supports the merits of technology transfer, "the question is do you have to create government programs to get the technology out?"

  2. Thioredoxin-insensitive plastid ATP synthase that performs moonlighting functions

    PubMed Central

    Kohzuma, Kaori; Dal Bosco, Cristina; Kanazawa, Atsuko; Dhingra, Amit; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Meurer, Jörg; Kramer, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The chloroplast ATP synthase catalyzes the light-driven synthesis of ATP and acts as a key feedback regulatory component of photosynthesis. Arabidopsis possesses two homologues of the regulatory γ subunit of the ATP synthase, encoded by the ATPC1 and ATPC2 genes. Using a series of mutants, we show that both these subunits can support photosynthetic ATP synthesis in vivo with similar specific activities, but that in wild-type plants, only γ1 is involved in ATP synthesis in photosynthesis. The γ1-containing ATP synthase shows classical light-induced redox regulation, whereas the mutant expressing only γ2-ATP synthase (gamma exchange-revised ATP synthase, gamera) shows equally high ATP synthase activity in the light and dark. In situ redox titrations demonstrate that the regulatory thiol groups on γ2-ATP synthase remain reduced under physiological conditions but can be oxidized by the strong oxidant diamide, implying that the redox potential for the thiol/disulphide transition in γ2 is substantially higher than that for γ1. This regulatory difference may be attributed to alterations in the residues near the redox-active thiols. We propose that γ2-ATP synthase functions to catalyze ATP hydrolysis-driven proton translocation in nonphotosynthetic plastids, maintaining a sufficient transthylakoid proton gradient to drive protein translocation or other processes. Consistent with this interpretation, ATPC2 is predominantly expressed in the root, whereas modifying its expression results in alteration of root hair development. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that γ2 originated from ancient gene duplication, resulting in divergent evolution of functionally distinct ATP synthase complexes in dicots and mosses. PMID:22328157

  3. ATP: The crucial component of secretory vesicles.

    PubMed

    Estévez-Herrera, Judith; Domínguez, Natalia; Pardo, Marta R; González-Santana, Ayoze; Westhead, Edward W; Borges, Ricardo; Machado, José David

    2016-07-12

    The colligative properties of ATP and catecholamines demonstrated in vitro are thought to be responsible for the extraordinary accumulation of solutes inside chromaffin cell secretory vesicles, although this has yet to be demonstrated in living cells. Because functional cells cannot be deprived of ATP, we have knocked down the expression of the vesicular nucleotide carrier, the VNUT, to show that a reduction in vesicular ATP is accompanied by a drastic fall in the quantal release of catecholamines. This phenomenon is particularly evident in newly synthesized vesicles, which we show are the first to be released. Surprisingly, we find that inhibiting VNUT expression also reduces the frequency of exocytosis, whereas the overexpression of VNUT drastically increases the quantal size of exocytotic events. To our knowledge, our data provide the first demonstration that ATP, in addition to serving as an energy source and purinergic transmitter, is an essential element in the concentration of catecholamines in secretory vesicles. In this way, cells can use ATP to accumulate neurotransmitters and other secreted substances at high concentrations, supporting quantal transmission.

  4. ATP: The crucial component of secretory vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Estévez-Herrera, Judith; Domínguez, Natalia; Pardo, Marta R.; González-Santana, Ayoze; Westhead, Edward W.; Borges, Ricardo; Machado, José David

    2016-01-01

    The colligative properties of ATP and catecholamines demonstrated in vitro are thought to be responsible for the extraordinary accumulation of solutes inside chromaffin cell secretory vesicles, although this has yet to be demonstrated in living cells. Because functional cells cannot be deprived of ATP, we have knocked down the expression of the vesicular nucleotide carrier, the VNUT, to show that a reduction in vesicular ATP is accompanied by a drastic fall in the quantal release of catecholamines. This phenomenon is particularly evident in newly synthesized vesicles, which we show are the first to be released. Surprisingly, we find that inhibiting VNUT expression also reduces the frequency of exocytosis, whereas the overexpression of VNUT drastically increases the quantal size of exocytotic events. To our knowledge, our data provide the first demonstration that ATP, in addition to serving as an energy source and purinergic transmitter, is an essential element in the concentration of catecholamines in secretory vesicles. In this way, cells can use ATP to accumulate neurotransmitters and other secreted substances at high concentrations, supporting quantal transmission. PMID:27342860

  5. A metabolic link between mitochondrial ATP synthesis and liver glycogen metabolism: NMR study in rats re-fed with butyrate and/or glucose

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Butyrate, end-product of intestinal fermentation, is known to impair oxidative phosphorylation in rat liver and could disturb glycogen synthesis depending on the ATP supplied by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and cytosolic glycolysis. Methods In 48 hr-fasting rats, hepatic changes of glycogen and total ATP contents and unidirectional flux of mitochondrial ATP synthesis were evaluated by ex vivo 31P NMR immediately after perfusion and isolation of liver, from 0 to 10 hours after force-feeding with (butyrate 1.90 mg + glucose 14.0 mg.g-1 body weight) or isocaloric glucose (18.2 mg.g-1 bw); measurements reflected in vivo situation at each time of liver excision. The contribution of energetic metabolism to glycogen metabolism was estimated. Results A net linear flux of glycogen synthesis (~11.10 ± 0.60 μmol glucosyl units.h-1.g-1 liver wet weight) occurred until the 6th hr post-feeding in both groups, whereas butyrate delayed it until the 8th hr. A linear correlation between total ATP and glycogen contents was obtained (r2 = 0.99) only during net glycogen synthesis. Mitochondrial ATP turnover, calculated after specific inhibition of glycolysis, was stable (~0.70 ± 0.25 μmol.min-1.g-1 liver ww) during the first two hr whatever the force-feeding, and increased transiently about two-fold at the 3rd hr in glucose. Butyrate delayed the transient increase (1.80 ± 0.33 μmol.min-1.g-1 liver ww) to the 6th hr post-feeding. Net glycogenolysis always appeared after the 8th hr, whereas flux of mitochondrial ATP synthesis returned to near basal level (0.91 ± 0.19 μmol.min-1.g-1 liver ww). Conclusion In liver from 48 hr-starved rats, the energy need for net glycogen synthesis from exogenous glucose corresponds to ~50% of basal mitochondrial ATP turnover. The evidence of a late and transient increase in mitochondrial ATP turnover reflects an energetic need, probably linked to a glycogen cycling. Butyrate, known to reduce oxidative phosphorylation yield and

  6. Oligomycin Inhibition of Phosphate Uptake and ATP Labeling in Excised Maize Roots 1

    PubMed Central

    Bledsoe, Carolyn; Cole, C. V.; Ross, Cleon

    1969-01-01

    ATP labeling by newly absorbed 32P in excised maize roots was reduced 34% by the presence of oligomycin during a 4-min uptake period with no reduction in rate of phosphorus absorption. Longer exposure to oligomycin, during pretreatment periods or longer uptake periods, reduced phosphorus absorption and further reduced ATP synthesis. In these tissues it appears that oligomycin inhibits ATP production at the mitochondria, that ATP is the energy source for phosphorus uptake at the plasmalemma, and that a depletion in the ATP supply causes a reduced rate of uptake. Images PMID:16657154

  7. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lanoue, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly occurring cancer in the world and overall incidence is still on the rise. While typically a slow-growing tumor for which metastases is rare, basal cell carcinoma can be locally destructive and disfiguring. Given the vast prevalence of this disease, there is a significant overall burden on patient well-being and quality of life. The current mainstay of basal cell carcinoma treatment involves surgical modalities, such as electrodessication and curettage, excision, cryosurgery, and Mohs micrographic surgery. Such methods are typically reserved for localized basal cell carcinoma and offer high five-year cure rates, but come with the risk of functional impairment, disfigurement, and scarring. Here, the authors review the evidence and indications for nonsurgical treatment modalities in cases where surgery is impractical, contraindicated, or simply not desired by the patient. PMID:27386043

  8. Effect of chemical sanitizing agents on ATP bioluminescence measurements.

    PubMed

    Green, T A; Russell, S M; Fletcher, D L

    1998-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of sodium hypochlorite (SH), quaternary ammonium (QA), trisodium phosphate (TSP), lactic acid (LA), hydrogen peroxide (HP), and trichlosan (TR) on ATP bioluminescence measurements. Each sanitizer was tested at three different levels and compared to a control group containing no sanitizer. ATP from three sources was analyzed, Escherichia coli, chicken blood, and a pure ATP standard. The effect of each sanitizer was reported as a percent decrease in log10 relative light units (LRLU) for the treatment groups when compared to LRLU from the control groups. SH concentrations of 30, 50, and 70 ppm and quaternary ammonium at concentrations of 10, 20, and 30 ppm had no effect on LRLU measurements, regardless of the ATP source. LA concentrations of 0.5% and higher reduced LRLU by 75%. LRLU measurements were significantly (P < or = 0.05) reduced by approximately 60% when levels of TSP exceeded 1%. HP had no effect on LRLU measurements from any of the ATP sources at 0.1%; however, at 1% HP significantly (P < or = 0.05) decreased LRLU measurements by approximately 60% for all ATP sources. TR at 0.25% had no significant effect on LRLU measurements from any of the ATP sources. TR at 0.5 and 1% reduced LRLU measurements by 30 and 50%, respectively. These results indicate that commercial sanitizers containing LA, TSP, HP, or TR may negatively affect LRLU measurements if the sanitizer is allowed to come into direct contact with the ATP bioluminescence reagents.

  9. Optogenetic control of ATP release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Matthew A.; Joshi, Bipin; Gu, Ling; Feranchak, Andrew; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2013-03-01

    Controlled release of ATP can be used for understanding extracellular purinergic signaling. While coarse mechanical forces and hypotonic stimulation have been utilized in the past to initiate ATP release from cells, these methods are neither spatially accurate nor temporally precise. Further, these methods cannot be utilized in a highly effective cell-specific manner. To mitigate the uncertainties regarding cellular-specificity and spatio-temporal release of ATP, we herein demonstrate use of optogenetics for ATP release. ATP release in response to optogenetic stimulation was monitored by Luciferin-Luciferase assay (North American firefly, photinus pyralis) using luminometer as well as mesoscopic bioluminescence imaging. Our result demonstrates repetitive release of ATP subsequent to optogenetic stimulation. It is thus feasible that purinergic signaling can be directly detected via imaging if the stimulus can be confined to single cell or in a spatially-defined group of cells. This study opens up new avenue to interrogate the mechanisms of purinergic signaling.

  10. ATP protects, by way of receptor-mediated mechanisms, against hypoxia-induced injury in renal proximal tubules.

    PubMed

    Kribben, Andreas; Feldkamp, Thorsten; Horbelt, Markus; Lange, Bettina; Pietruck, Frank; Herget-Rosenthal, Stefan; Heemann, Uwe; Philipp, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    We examined the effect of ATP on hypoxia-induced injury in freshly isolated rat renal proximal tubules and compared it with the effects of stable ATP analogues and ATP degradation products. Extracellular ATP significantly reduced hypoxia-induced structural cell damage (lactate dehydrogenase release). P(2)-receptor agonistic ATP analogues, including 2'-methylthio-ATP (2-Me-S-ATP), were also protective. In contrast, the P(1)-agonistic degradation products AMP and adenosine were not protective. Hypoxia-induced functional cell damage (loss of cellular potassium) was not changed by ATP or 2-Me-S-ATP. We therefore conclude that the protective property of ATP is not based on an effect of the degradation products or on a direct effect on cellular energy metabolism. The data indicate that the protective effect of ATP is mediated by P(2) receptors.

  11. Phytosterols reduce cholesterol absorption by inhibition of 27-hydroxycholesterol generation, liver X receptor α activation, and expression of the basolateral sterol exporter ATP-binding cassette A1 in Caco-2 enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Brauner, Reinhard; Johannes, Christian; Ploessl, Florian; Bracher, Franz; Lorenz, Reinhard L

    2012-06-01

    Phytosterol-enriched foods are increasingly marketed to lower cholesterol levels and atherosclerosis in the general population. Phytosterols reduce cholesterol absorption, but the molecular mechanism is controversial. We therefore investigated the phytosterol effects on cholesterol metabolism in human enterocyte, hepatocyte, and macrophage models relevant for sterol absorption, reverse transport, and excretion. Isomolar sitosterol (50 μmol/L) was less effectively taken up by enterocytes than cholesterol but suppressed apical cholesterol uptake by 50% (P < 0.01) and basolateral secretion by two-thirds (P < 0.01) whether added in micelles or ethanol or complexed to cyclodextrin. In contrast, enterocytes handled nanomolar (3)H-sitosterol similarly to cholesterol. Enterocytes selectively oxidized all sterols to 27-hydroxy- and 27-carboxy-sterols. Conversion rates were much lower for sitosterol (0.05 ± 0.02 nmol/mg protein) and campesterol (0.48 ± 0.10) compared with cholesterol (3.73 ± 0.60) (P < 0.001). 27-Hydroxycholesterol (27OH-C) activated liver-X-receptor alpha (LXRα) (P < 0.01) and stimulated ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) A1 expression (P < 0.001) and basolateral systemic cholesterol secretion from enterocytes (P < 0.05). In co-incubations, phytosterols inhibited 27OH-C generation by sterol 27-hydroxylase (P < 0.001) and reduced LXRα-mediated ABCA1 expression (P < 0.01) and basolateral systemic cholesterol secretion. In contrast, ABCG8 transcription and apical sterol resecretion was unchanged by LXRα activation in human enterocytes. Exogenous LXRα agonists reverted sterol selectivity and phytosterol cholesterol interaction. Due to constitutive apical expression of ABCG5/G8 and LXRα-enhanced basolateral expression of ABCA1 in enterocytes, interference of phytosterols with the generation of the dominating LXRα-agonist 27OH-C blocks the self-priming component of cholesterol absorption. This local LXRα antagonism of dietary phytosterols

  12. ATP release through pannexon channels

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) serves as a signal for diverse physiological functions, including spread of calcium waves between astrocytes, control of vascular oxygen supply and control of ciliary beat in the airways. ATP can be released from cells by various mechanisms. This review focuses on channel-mediated ATP release and its main enabler, Pannexin1 (Panx1). Six subunits of Panx1 form a plasma membrane channel termed ‘pannexon’. Depending on the mode of stimulation, the pannexon has large conductance (500 pS) and unselective permeability to molecules less than 1.5 kD or is a small (50 pS), chloride-selective channel. Most physiological and pathological stimuli induce the large channel conformation, whereas the small conformation so far has only been observed with exclusive voltage activation of the channel. The interaction between pannexons and ATP is intimate. The pannexon is not only the conduit for ATP, permitting ATP efflux from cells down its concentration gradient, but the pannexon is also modulated by ATP. The channel can be activated by ATP through both ionotropic P2X as well as metabotropic P2Y purinergic receptors. In the absence of a control mechanism, this positive feedback loop would lead to cell death owing to the linkage of purinergic receptors with apoptotic processes. A control mechanism preventing excessive activation of the purinergic receptors is provided by ATP binding (with low affinity) to the Panx1 protein and gating the channel shut. PMID:26009770

  13. [Glucose metabolism in the basal ganglia].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Katsuya

    2009-04-01

    GABAergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) -a major output nucleus of the basal ganglia- are involved in sensing severe hypoglycemic and hypoxic conditions in the brain via the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels that are abundantly expressed in these neurons. However, these neurons are also sensitive to mild changes in extracellular glucose concentrations through KATP channel-independent, yet unknown mechanisms. Lenard et al. reported that globus pallidus (GP) -another output nucleus of the basal ganglia- also senses glucose concentrations in the brain. It is unclear why these two major output nuclei sense glucose concentrations. It has been reported that some SNr and GP neurons respond to feeding-related, jaw or hand movement. Interestingly, Nishino demonstrated that SNr neurons responded oppositely, i.e., increased or decreased in their firings, to the same sweet food depending on blood glucose levels. Thus, glucose levels might influence feeding-related information processing in the basal ganglia through SNr and GP. Other issues reviewed are regarding associations between glucose metabolism and motor diseases in the basal ganglia. These include mutation in glucose transporter (GLUT) 1 causing paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoarthetosis, abnormal glycolysis in Huntington's disease, and a study showing increased glucose metabolism in SNr and GP in Parkinson's disease using high-resolution research positron emission tomography (HRRT). Although glucose is the sole energy source for the brain, its utilization at the single-cell level remains elusive. Modern methods for investigating intercellular metabolic communication might help understanding the selective vulnerability seen in the basal ganglia of patients suffering from such neurodegenerative disorders in near future.

  14. Substantia nigra osmoregulation: taurine and ATP involvement.

    PubMed

    Morales, Ingrid; Dopico, Jose G; Sabate, Magdalena; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Tomas; Rodriguez, Manuel

    2007-05-01

    An extracellular nonsynaptic taurine pool of glial origin was recently reported in the substantia nigra (SN). There is previous evidence showing taurine as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the SN, but the physiological role of this nonsynaptic pool of taurine has not been explored. By using microdialysis methods, we studied the action of local osmolarity on the nonsynaptic taurine pool in the SN of the rat. Hypoosmolar pulses (285-80 mosM) administered in the SN by the microdialysis probe increased extrasynaptic taurine in a dose-dependent way, a response that was counteracted by compensating osmolarity with choline. The opposite effect (taurine decrease) was observed when osmolarity was increased. Under basal conditions, the blockade of either the AMPA-kainate glutamate receptors with 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dionine disodium or the purinergic receptors with pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid modified the taurine concentration, suggesting that both receptors modulate the extrasynaptic pool of taurine. In addition, these drugs decreased the taurine response to hypoosmolar pulses, suggesting roles for glutamatergic and purinergic receptors in the taurine response to osmolarity. The participation of purinergic receptors was also supported by the fact that ATP (which, under basal conditions, increased the extrasynaptic taurine in a dose-dependent way) administered in doses saturating purinergic receptors also decreased the taurine response to hypoosmolarity. Taken together, present data suggest osmoregulation as a role of the nonsynaptic taurine pool of the SN, a function that also involves glutamate and ATP and that could influence the nigral cell vulnerability in Parkinson's disease.

  15. Uncoupling by (--)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate of ATP-sensitive potassium channels from phosphatidylinositol polyphosphates and ATP.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jun-Yup; Park, Sung-Hee; Bae, Jae-Hoon; Cho, Ho-Chan; Lim, Jeong-Geun; Park, Won Sun; Han, Jin; Lee, Jin Ho; Song, Dae-Kyu

    2007-09-01

    Of green tea catechins, (--)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and (--)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), but not (--)-epicatechin and (--)-epigallocatechin, inhibit the activity of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels at tens of micromolar concentrations, ECG being three times more effective than EGCG. Further, we found that by using cloned beta cell-type K(ATP) channels, only EGCG at 1 microM, a readily achievable plasma concentration by oral intake in humans, but not other epicatechins, significantly blocked channel reactivation after ATP wash-out, suggesting that interaction of phosphatidylinositol polyphosphates (PIP) with the channel was impaired by EGCG. In addition, a 10-fold higher concentration of EGCG reduced the channel sensitivity to ATP, but not AMP and ADP. This effect of EGCG was greater in the channel with the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) than with the inwardly rectifying K(+) channel (Kir6.2) alone. Neomycin, a polycation, profoundly suppressed the effect of EGCG. Expectedly, glucose-stimulated cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation in rat pancreatic beta cells, and insulin secretory responses to high glucose loading in vivo were impaired by EGCG. In rabbit cardiac myocytes, dinitrophenol-induced opening of the channel was delayed by 1 microM EGCG. These results suggest that EGCG may interact with PIP-binding sites on the Kir6.2 subunit. SUR further endows EGCG with an ability to interfere with an interaction of the gamma-phosphate tail of ATP with Kir6.2. The specificity of EGCG possibly implies that 5'-OH of the B-ring on the pyrogallol moiety in the EGCG molecule may be critical for these actions of EGCG on the K(ATP) channel.

  16. ATP-sulfurylase, sulfur-compounds, and plant stress tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Anjum, Naser A.; Gill, Ritu; Kaushik, Manjeri; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal; Tuteja, Narendra; Gill, Sarvajeet S.

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur (S) stands fourth in the list of major plant nutrients after N, P, and K. Sulfate (SO42-), a form of soil-S taken up by plant roots is metabolically inert. As the first committed step of S-assimilation, ATP-sulfurylase (ATP-S) catalyzes SO42--activation and yields activated high-energy compound adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate that is reduced to sulfide (S2-) and incorporated into cysteine (Cys). In turn, Cys acts as a precursor or donor of reduced S for a range of S-compounds such as methionine (Met), glutathione (GSH), homo-GSH (h-GSH), and phytochelatins (PCs). Among S-compounds, GSH, h-GSH, and PCs are known for their involvement in plant tolerance to varied abiotic stresses, Cys is a major component of GSH, h-GSH, and PCs; whereas, several key stress-metabolites such as ethylene, are controlled by Met through its first metabolite S-adenosylmethionine. With the major aim of briefly highlighting S-compound-mediated role of ATP-S in plant stress tolerance, this paper: (a) overviews ATP-S structure/chemistry and occurrence, (b) appraises recent literature available on ATP-S roles and regulations, and underlying mechanisms in plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance, (c) summarizes ATP-S-intrinsic regulation by major S-compounds, and (d) highlights major open-questions in the present context. Future research in the current direction can be devised based on the discussion outcomes. PMID:25904923

  17. The dark side of extracellular ATP in kidney diseases.

    PubMed

    Solini, Anna; Usuelli, Vera; Fiorina, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    Intracellular ATP is the most vital source of cellular energy for biologic systems, whereas extracellular ATP is a multifaceted mediator of several cell functions via its interaction, in an autocrine or paracrine manner, with P2 purinergic receptors expressed on the cell surface. These ionotropic and metabotropic P2 purinergic receptors modulate a variety of physiologic events upon the maintenance of a highly sensitive "set point," the derangement of which may lead to the development of key pathogenic mechanisms during acute and chronic diseases. Growing evidence suggests that extracellular ATP signaling via P2 purinergic receptors may be involved in different renal pathologic conditions. For these reasons, investigators and pharmaceutical companies are actively exploring novel strategies to antagonize or block these receptors with the goal of reducing extracellular ATP production or accelerating extracellular ATP clearance. Targeting extracellular ATP signaling, particularly through the P2X7 receptor, has considerable translational potential, given that novel P2X7-receptor inhibitors are already available for clinical use (e.g., CE224,535, AZD9056, and GSK1482160). This review summarizes the current evidence regarding the involvement of extracellular ATP and its P2 purinergic receptor-mediated signaling in physiologic and pathologic processes in the kidney; potential therapeutic options targeting extracellular ATP purinergic receptors are analyzed as well.

  18. Life beyond the Basal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Jeanne; Carbone, Carole

    1987-01-01

    Reading is a tool for learning. The goal for the teaching of reading must be to produce lovers of reading. A holistic approach should replace exclusive dependence on basal readers. Effective methods are the following: (1) language experience approach; (2) word banks; (3) pattern books; (4) sustained silent reading; and (5) directed…

  19. Dynamic Regulation of Cell Volume and Extracellular ATP of Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Leal Denis, M. Florencia; Alvarez, H. Ariel; Lauri, Natalia; Alvarez, Cora L.; Chara, Osvaldo; Schwarzbaum, Pablo J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The peptide mastoparan 7 (MST7) triggered in human erythrocytes (rbcs) the release of ATP and swelling. Since swelling is a well-known inducer of ATP release, and extracellular (ATPe), interacting with P (purinergic) receptors, can affect cell volume (Vr), we explored the dynamic regulation between Vr and ATPe. Methods and Treatments We made a quantitative assessment of MST7-dependent kinetics of Vr and of [ATPe], both in the absence and presence of blockers of ATP efflux, swelling and P receptors. Results In rbcs 10 μM MST7 promoted acute, strongly correlated changes in [ATPe] and Vr. Whereas MST7 induced increases of 10% in Vr and 190 nM in [ATPe], blocking swelling in a hyperosmotic medium + MST7 reduced [ATPe] by 40%. Pre-incubation of rbcs with 10 μM of either carbenoxolone or probenecid, two inhibitors of the ATP conduit pannexin 1, reduced [ATPe] by 40–50% and swelling by 40–60%, while in the presence of 80 U/mL apyrase, an ATPe scavenger, cell swelling was prevented. While exposure to 10 μM NF110, a blocker of ATP-P2X receptors mediating sodium influx, reduced [ATPe] by 48%, and swelling by 80%, incubation of cells in sodium free medium reduced swelling by 92%. Analysis and Discussion Results were analyzed by means of a mathematical model where ATPe kinetics and Vr kinetics were mutually regulated. Model dependent fit to experimental data showed that, upon MST7 exposure, ATP efflux required a fast 1960-fold increase of ATP permeability, mediated by two kinetically different conduits, both of which were activated by swelling and inactivated by time. Both experimental and theoretical results suggest that, following MST7 exposure, ATP is released via two conduits, one of which is mediated by pannexin 1. The accumulated ATPe activates P2X receptors, followed by sodium influx, resulting in cell swelling, which in turn further activates ATP release. Thus swelling and P2X receptors constitute essential components of a positive feedback loop

  20. Structure of ATP-Bound Human ATP:Cobalamin Adenosyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert,H.; Hill, C.

    2006-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding human ATP:cobalamin adenosyltransferase (hATR) can result in the metabolic disorder known as methylmalonic aciduria (MMA). This enzyme catalyzes the final step in the conversion of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B{sub 12}) to the essential human cofactor adenosylcobalamin. Here we present the 2.5 {angstrom} crystal structure of ATP bound to hATR refined to an R{sub free} value of 25.2%. The enzyme forms a tightly associated trimer, where the monomer comprises a five-helix bundle and the active sites lie on the subunit interfaces. Only two of the three active sites within the trimer contain the bound ATP substrate, thereby providing examples of apo- and substrate-bound-active sites within the same crystal structure. Comparison of the empty and occupied sites indicates that twenty residues at the enzyme's N-terminus become ordered upon binding of ATP to form a novel ATP-binding site and an extended cleft that likely binds cobalamin. The structure explains the role of 20 invariant residues; six are involved in ATP binding, including Arg190, which hydrogen bonds to ATP atoms on both sides of the scissile bond. Ten of the hydrogen bonds are required for structural stability, and four are in positions to interact with cobalamin. The structure also reveals how the point mutations that cause MMA are deficient in these functions.

  1. Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Millikan, Robert C; Newman, Beth; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Moorman, Patricia G; Conway, Kathleen; Dressler, Lynn G; Smith, Lisa V; Labbok, Miriam H; Geradts, Joseph; Bensen, Jeannette T; Jackson, Susan; Nyante, Sarah; Livasy, Chad; Carey, Lisa; Earp, H Shelton; Perou, Charles M

    2008-05-01

    Risk factors for the newly identified "intrinsic" breast cancer subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive/estrogen receptor-negative) were determined in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case-control study of African-American and white women. Immunohistochemical markers were used to subtype 1,424 cases of invasive and in situ breast cancer, and case subtypes were compared to 2,022 controls. Luminal A, the most common subtype, exhibited risk factors typically reported for breast cancer in previous studies, including inverse associations for increased parity and younger age at first full-term pregnancy. Basal-like cases exhibited several associations that were opposite to those observed for luminal A, including increased risk for parity and younger age at first term full-term pregnancy. Longer duration breastfeeding, increasing number of children breastfed, and increasing number of months breastfeeding per child were each associated with reduced risk of basal-like breast cancer, but not luminal A. Women with multiple live births who did not breastfeed and women who used medications to suppress lactation were at increased risk of basal-like, but not luminal A, breast cancer. Elevated waist-hip ratio was associated with increased risk of luminal A in postmenopausal women, and increased risk of basal-like breast cancer in pre- and postmenopausal women. The prevalence of basal-like breast cancer was highest among premenopausal African-American women, who also showed the highest prevalence of basal-like risk factors. Among younger African-American women, we estimate that up to 68% of basal-like breast cancer could be prevented by promoting breastfeeding and reducing abdominal adiposity.

  2. Time course of the initial [Ca2+]i response to extracellular ATP in smooth muscle depends on [Ca2+]e and ATP concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, M G; Slakey, L L; Benham, C D; Gross, D J

    1998-01-01

    In response to extracellular application of 50 microM ATP, all individual porcine aortic smooth muscle cells respond with rapid rises from basal [Ca2+]i to peak [Ca2+]i within 5 s. The time from stimulus to the peak of the [Ca2+]i response increases with decreasing concentration of ATP. At ATP concentrations of 0.5 microM and below, the time to the [Ca2+]i peak varies more significantly from cell to cell than at higher concentrations, and each cell shows complicated initiation and decay kinetics. For any individual cell, the lag phase before a response decreases with increasing concentration of ATP. An increase in lag time with decreasing ATP concentration is also observed in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, but the lag phase is more pronounced, especially at concentrations of ATP below 0.5 microM. Whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology shows that in porcine aortic smooth muscle cells, ATP stimulates an inward current carried mainly by Cl- ion efflux with a time course similar to the [Ca2+]i changes and no detectable current from an ATP-gated cation channel. A simple signal cascade initiation kinetics model, starting with nucleotide receptor activation leading to IP3-mediated Ca2+ release from IP3-sensitive internal stores, fits the data and suggests that the kinetics of the Ca2+ response are dominated by upstream signal cascade components. PMID:9746547

  3. Mitochondrial ATP synthase activity is impaired by suppressed O-GlcNAcylation in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Moon-Yong; Cho, Hyun Jin; Kim, Chaeyoung; Jung, Yang Ouk; Kang, Min Jueng; Murray, Melissa E.; Hong, Hyun Seok; Choi, Young-Joo; Choi, Heesun; Kim, Dong Kyu; Choi, Hyunjung; Kim, Jisoo; Dickson, Dennis W.; Song, Hyun Kyu; Cho, Jin Won; Yi, Eugene C.; Kim, Jungsu; Jin, Seok Min; Mook-Jung, Inhee

    2015-01-01

    Glycosylation with O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is one of the protein glycosylations affecting various intracellular events. However, the role of O-GlcNAcylation in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) is poorly understood. Mitochondrial adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) synthase is a multiprotein complex that synthesizes ATP from ADP and Pi. Here, we found that ATP synthase subunit α (ATP5A) was O-GlcNAcylated at Thr432 and ATP5A O-GlcNAcylation was decreased in the brains of AD patients and transgenic mouse model, as well as Aβ-treated cells. Indeed, Aβ bound to ATP synthase directly and reduced the O-GlcNAcylation of ATP5A by inhibition of direct interaction between ATP5A and mitochondrial O-GlcNAc transferase, resulting in decreased ATP production and ATPase activity. Furthermore, treatment of O-GlcNAcase inhibitor rescued the Aβ-induced impairment in ATP production and ATPase activity. These results indicate that Aβ-mediated reduction of ATP synthase activity in AD pathology results from direct binding between Aβ and ATP synthase and inhibition of O-GlcNAcylation of Thr432 residue on ATP5A. PMID:26358770

  4. Extracellular ATP inhibits root gravitropism at concentrations that inhibit polar auxin transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Wenqiang; Brady, Shari R.; Sun, Yu; Muday, Gloria K.; Roux, Stanley J.

    2003-01-01

    Raising the level of extracellular ATP to mM concentrations similar to those found inside cells can block gravitropism of Arabidopsis roots. When plants are grown in Murashige and Skoog medium supplied with 1 mM ATP, their roots grow horizontally instead of growing straight down. Medium with 2 mM ATP induces root curling, and 3 mM ATP stimulates lateral root growth. When plants are transferred to medium containing exogenous ATP, the gravity response is reduced or in some cases completely blocked by ATP. Equivalent concentrations of ADP or inorganic phosphate have slight but usually statistically insignificant effects, suggesting the specificity of ATP in these responses. The ATP effects may be attributable to the disturbance of auxin distribution in roots by exogenously applied ATP, because extracellular ATP can alter the pattern of auxin-induced gene expression in DR5-beta-glucuronidase transgenic plants and increase the response sensitivity of plant roots to exogenously added auxin. The presence of extracellular ATP also decreases basipetal auxin transport in a dose-dependent fashion in both maize (Zea mays) and Arabidopsis roots and increases the retention of [(3)H]indole-3-acetic acid in root tips of maize. Taken together, these results suggest that the inhibitory effects of extracellular ATP on auxin distribution may happen at the level of auxin export. The potential role of the trans-plasma membrane ATP gradient in auxin export and plant root gravitropism is discussed.

  5. Extracellular ATP inhibits root gravitropism at concentrations that inhibit polar auxin transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Wenqiang; Brady, Shari R.; Sun, Yu; Muday, Gloria K.; Roux, Stanley J.

    2003-01-01

    Raising the level of extracellular ATP to mM concentrations similar to those found inside cells can block gravitropism of Arabidopsis roots. When plants are grown in Murashige and Skoog medium supplied with 1 mM ATP, their roots grow horizontally instead of growing straight down. Medium with 2 mM ATP induces root curling, and 3 mM ATP stimulates lateral root growth. When plants are transferred to medium containing exogenous ATP, the gravity response is reduced or in some cases completely blocked by ATP. Equivalent concentrations of ADP or inorganic phosphate have slight but usually statistically insignificant effects, suggesting the specificity of ATP in these responses. The ATP effects may be attributable to the disturbance of auxin distribution in roots by exogenously applied ATP, because extracellular ATP can alter the pattern of auxin-induced gene expression in DR5-beta-glucuronidase transgenic plants and increase the response sensitivity of plant roots to exogenously added auxin. The presence of extracellular ATP also decreases basipetal auxin transport in a dose-dependent fashion in both maize (Zea mays) and Arabidopsis roots and increases the retention of [(3)H]indole-3-acetic acid in root tips of maize. Taken together, these results suggest that the inhibitory effects of extracellular ATP on auxin distribution may happen at the level of auxin export. The potential role of the trans-plasma membrane ATP gradient in auxin export and plant root gravitropism is discussed.

  6. Formycin triphosphate as a probe for the ATP binding site involved in the activation of guanylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Chang, C H; Yu, Z N; Song, D L

    1992-10-01

    Formycin A triphosphate (FTP), a fluorescent analog of ATP, slightly increased basal guanylate cyclase activity, but significantly potentiated guanylate cyclase activity stimulated by atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in rat lung membranes. FTP potentiated ANF-stimulated guanylate cyclase activity with an EC50 at about 90 microM and inhibited ATP-stimulated guanylate cyclase activity with an IC50 at about 100 microM. These results indicate that FTP binds more tightly than ATP for the same binding site. Therefore, FTP would be an excellent tool for studying the ATP binding site.

  7. ATP Release from Human Airway Epithelial Cells Exposed to Staphylococcus aureus Alpha-Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Baaske, Romina; Richter, Mandy; Möller, Nils; Ziesemer, Sabine; Eiffler, Ina; Müller, Christian; Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Airway epithelial cells reduce cytosolic ATP content in response to treatment with S. aureus alpha-toxin (hemolysin A, Hla). This study was undertaken to investigate whether this is due to attenuated ATP generation or to release of ATP from the cytosol and extracellular ATP degradation by ecto-enzymes. Exposure of cells to rHla did result in mitochondrial calcium uptake and a moderate decline in mitochondrial membrane potential, indicating that ATP regeneration may have been attenuated. In addition, ATP may have left the cells through transmembrane pores formed by the toxin or through endogenous release channels (e.g., pannexins) activated by cellular stress imposed on the cells by toxin exposure. Exposure of cells to an alpha-toxin mutant (H35L), which attaches to the host cell membrane but does not form transmembrane pores, did not induce ATP release from the cells. The Hla-mediated ATP-release was completely blocked by IB201, a cyclodextrin-inhibitor of the alpha-toxin pore, but was not at all affected by inhibitors of pannexin channels. These results indicate that, while exposure of cells to rHla may somewhat reduce ATP production and cellular ATP content, a portion of the remaining ATP is released to the extracellular space and degraded by ecto-enzymes. The release of ATP from the cells may occur directly through the transmembrane pores formed by alpha-toxin. PMID:27929417

  8. Energy transduction in ATP synthase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elston, Timothy; Wang, Hongyun; Oster, George

    1998-01-01

    Mitochondria, bacteria and chloroplasts use the free energy stored in transmembrane ion gradients to manufacture ATP by the action of ATP synthase. This enzyme consists of two principal domains. The asymmetric membrane-spanning Fo portion contains the proton channel, and the soluble F1 portion contains three catalytic sites which cooperate in the synthetic reactions. The flow of protons through Fo is thought to generate a torque which is transmitted to F1 by an asymmetric shaft, the coiled-coil γ-subunit. This acts as a rotating `cam' within F1, sequentially releasing ATPs from the three active sites. The free-energy difference across the inner membrane of mitochondria and bacteria is sufficient to produce three ATPs per twelve protons passing through the motor. It has been suggested that this protonmotive force biases the rotor's diffusion so that Fo constitutes a rotary motor turning the γ shaft. Here we show that biased diffusion, augmented by electrostatic forces, does indeed generate sufficient torque to account for ATP production. Moreover, the motor's reversibility - supplying torque from ATP hydrolysis in F1 converts the motor into an efficient proton pump - can also be explained by our model.

  9. Intrarenal localization of the plasma membrane ATP channel pannexin1.

    PubMed

    Hanner, Fiona; Lam, Lisa; Nguyen, Mien T X; Yu, Alan; Peti-Peterdi, János

    2012-11-15

    In the renal tubules, ATP released from epithelial cells stimulates purinergic receptors, regulating salt and water reabsorption. However, the mechanisms by which ATP is released into the tubular lumen are multifaceted. Pannexin1 (Panx1) is a newly identified. ubiquitously expressed protein that forms connexin-like channels in the plasma membrane, which have been demonstrated to function as a mechanosensitive ATP conduit. Here, we report on the localization of Panx1 in the mouse kidney. Using immunofluorescence, strong Panx1 expression was observed in renal tubules, including proximal tubules, thin descending limbs, and collecting ducts, along their apical cell membranes. In the renal vasculature, Panx1 expression was localized to vascular smooth muscle cells in renal arteries, including the afferent and efferent arterioles. Additionally, we tested whether Panx1 channels expressed in renal epithelial cells facilitate luminal ATP release by measuring the ATP content of urine samples freshly collected from wild-type and Panx1(-/-) mice. Urinary ATP levels were reduced by 30% in Panx1(-/-) compared with wild-type mice. These results suggest that Panx1 channels in the kidney may regulate ATP release and via purinergic signaling may participate in the control of renal epithelial fluid and electrolyte transport and vascular functions.

  10. Intrarenal localization of the plasma membrane ATP channel pannexin1

    PubMed Central

    Hanner, Fiona; Lam, Lisa; Nguyen, Mien T. X.; Yu, Alan

    2012-01-01

    In the renal tubules, ATP released from epithelial cells stimulates purinergic receptors, regulating salt and water reabsorption. However, the mechanisms by which ATP is released into the tubular lumen are multifaceted. Pannexin1 (Panx1) is a newly identified. ubiquitously expressed protein that forms connexin-like channels in the plasma membrane, which have been demonstrated to function as a mechanosensitive ATP conduit. Here, we report on the localization of Panx1 in the mouse kidney. Using immunofluorescence, strong Panx1 expression was observed in renal tubules, including proximal tubules, thin descending limbs, and collecting ducts, along their apical cell membranes. In the renal vasculature, Panx1 expression was localized to vascular smooth muscle cells in renal arteries, including the afferent and efferent arterioles. Additionally, we tested whether Panx1 channels expressed in renal epithelial cells facilitate luminal ATP release by measuring the ATP content of urine samples freshly collected from wild-type and Panx1−/− mice. Urinary ATP levels were reduced by 30% in Panx1−/− compared with wild-type mice. These results suggest that Panx1 channels in the kidney may regulate ATP release and via purinergic signaling may participate in the control of renal epithelial fluid and electrolyte transport and vascular functions. PMID:22952282

  11. Highly Selective Cerebral ATP Assay Based on Micrometer Scale Ion Current Rectification at Polyimidazolium-Modified Micropipettes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kailin; He, Xiulan; Liu, Yang; Yu, Ping; Fei, Junjie; Mao, Lanqun

    2017-06-20

    Development of new principles and methods for cerebral ATP assay is highly imperative not only for determining ATP dynamics in brain but also for understanding physiological and pathological processes related to ATP. Herein, we for the first time demonstrate that micrometer scale ion current rectification (MICR) at a polyimidazolium brush-modified micropipette can be used as the signal transduction output for the cerebral ATP assay with a high selectivity. The rationale for ATP assay is essentially based on the competitive binding ability between positively charged polyimidazolium and ATP toward negatively charged ATP aptamer. The method is well responsive to ATP with a good linearity within a concentration range from 5 nM to 100 nM, and high selectivity toward ATP. These properties essentially enable the method to determine the cerebral ATP by combining in vivo microdialysis. The basal dialysate level of ATP in rat brain cortex is determined to be 11.32 ± 2.36 nM (n = 3). This study demonstrates that the MICR-based sensors could be potentially used for monitoring neurochemicals in cerebral systems.

  12. Possible role of firmly bound ATP in the energy transduction of photosynthetic membranes.

    PubMed

    Lutz, H U; Beyeler, W; Pflugshaupt, C; Bachofen, R

    1975-01-01

    Chromatophores of Rhodospirillum rubrum and spinach chloroplasts contain firmly bound ATP that is rapidly labeled along with ADP in the presence of 32Pi and endogenous nucleotides. The labeling is not entirely dependent on light. In chloroplasts three types of bound ATP can be defined methodologically by their extraction properties: buffer-soluble; acid-soluble; and SDS-soluble or firmly bound ATP. Extensive washing of the chloroplasts does reduce buffer-soluble but not acid-soluble and firmly bound ATP. Buffer-soluble [32P] ATP is almost exclusively gamma labeled while acid-soluble and firmly bound ATP are labeled in the beta and gamma position equally. CCCP, desaspidin, and phlorizin do not inhibit the labeling of firmly bound ATP, whereas the phosphorylation is almost abolished. However, EDTA and NEM pretreatments of the chloroplasts affect both reactions similarly. The postillumination [32P] ATP synthesis with chromatophores can be inhibited by adding ATP to the incubation mixture after illumination if 32Pi is included only during the dark incubation, but is without effect if 32Pi is present only during illumination. On the other hand, ADP added after illumination inhibits post-illumination [32P] ATP formation in both chromatophores and chloroplasts only if 32Pi is present during illumination. The data can be explained by a coupling factor having two sites, as proposed previously on the basis that firmly bound ATP does not transfer its phosphoryl group but seems to drive a synthesis of acid-soluble ATP which incorporates free phosphate.

  13. Basal cell carcinoma: pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Chatterjee, Kingshuk; Pandhi, Deepika; Khurana, Ananta

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer in humans, which typically appears over the sun-exposed skin as a slow-growing, locally invasive lesion that rarely metastasizes. Although the exact etiology of BCC is unknown, there exists a well-established relationship between BCC and the pilo-sebaceous unit, and it is currently thought to originate from pluri-potential cells in the basal layer of the epidermis or the follicle. The patched/hedgehog intracellular signaling pathway plays a central role in both sporadic BCCs and nevoid BCC syndrome (Gorlin syndrome). This pathway is vital for the regulation of cell growth, and differentiation and loss of inhibition of this pathway is associated with development of BCC. The sonic hedgehog protein is the most relevant to BCC; nevertheless, the Patched (PTCH) protein is the ligand-binding component of the hedgehog receptor complex in the cell membrane. The other protein member of the receptor complex, smoothened (SMO), is responsible for transducing hedgehog signaling to downstream genes, leading to abnormal cell proliferation. The importance of this pathway is highlighted by the successful use in advanced forms of BCC of vismodegib, a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug, that selectively inhibits SMO. The UV-specific nucleotide changes in the tumor suppressor genes, TP53 and PTCH, have also been implicated in the development of BCC.

  14. Fluorescent ATP analog mant-ATP reports dynein activity in the isolated Chlamydomonas axoneme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feofilova, Maria; Howard, Jonathon

    Eukaryotic flagella are long rod-like extensions of cells, which play a fundamental role in single cell movement, as well as in fluid transport. Flagella contain a highly evolutionary conserved mechanical structure called the axoneme. The motion of the flagellum is generated by dynein motor proteins located all along the length of the axoneme. How the force production of motors is controlled spatially and temporally is still an open question. Therefore, monitoring dynein activity in the axonemal structure is expected to provide novel insights in regulation of the beat. We use high sensitivity fluorescence microscopy to monitor the binding and hydrolysis kinetics of the fluorescently labeled ATP analogue mant-ATP (2'(3')-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl) adenosine 5'-triphosphate), which is known to support dynein activity. By studying the kinetics of mant-ATP fluorescence, we identified distinct mant-ATP binding sites in the axoneme. The application of this method to axonemes with reduced amounts of dynein, showed evidence that one of the sites is associated with binding to dynein. In the future, we would like to use this method to find the spatial distribution of dynein activity in the axoneme.

  15. Rho signaling regulates pannexin 1-mediated ATP release from airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Seminario-Vidal, Lucia; Okada, Seiko F; Sesma, Juliana I; Kreda, Silvia M; van Heusden, Catharina A; Zhu, Yunxiang; Jones, Lisa C; O'Neal, Wanda K; Penuela, Silvia; Laird, Dale W; Boucher, Richard C; Lazarowski, Eduardo R

    2011-07-29

    ATP released from airway epithelial cells promotes purinergic receptor-regulated mucociliary clearance activities necessary for innate lung defense. Cell swelling-induced membrane stretch/strain is a common stimulus that promotes airway epithelial ATP release, but the mechanisms transducing cell swelling into ATP release are incompletely understood. Using knockdown and knockout approaches, we tested the hypothesis that pannexin 1 mediates ATP release from hypotonically swollen airway epithelia and investigated mechanisms regulating this activity. Well differentiated primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells subjected to hypotonic challenge exhibited enhanced ATP release, which was paralleled by the uptake of the pannexin probe propidium iodide. Both responses were reduced by pannexin 1 inhibitors and by knocking down pannexin 1. Importantly, hypotonicity-evoked ATP release from freshly excised tracheas and dye uptake in primary tracheal epithelial cells were impaired in pannexin 1 knockout mice. Hypotonicity-promoted ATP release and dye uptake in primary well differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells was accompanied by RhoA activation and myosin light chain phosphorylation and was reduced by the RhoA dominant negative mutant RhoA(T19N) and Rho and myosin light chain kinase inhibitors. ATP release and Rho activation were reduced by highly selective inhibitors of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4). Lastly, knocking down TRPV4 impaired hypotonicity-evoked airway epithelial ATP release. Our data suggest that TRPV4 and Rho transduce cell membrane stretch/strain into pannexin 1-mediated ATP release in airway epithelia.

  16. Rho Signaling Regulates Pannexin 1-mediated ATP Release from Airway Epithelia*

    PubMed Central

    Seminario-Vidal, Lucia; Okada, Seiko F.; Sesma, Juliana I.; Kreda, Silvia M.; van Heusden, Catharina A.; Zhu, Yunxiang; Jones, Lisa C.; O'Neal, Wanda K.; Penuela, Silvia; Laird, Dale W.; Boucher, Richard C.; Lazarowski, Eduardo R.

    2011-01-01

    ATP released from airway epithelial cells promotes purinergic receptor-regulated mucociliary clearance activities necessary for innate lung defense. Cell swelling-induced membrane stretch/strain is a common stimulus that promotes airway epithelial ATP release, but the mechanisms transducing cell swelling into ATP release are incompletely understood. Using knockdown and knockout approaches, we tested the hypothesis that pannexin 1 mediates ATP release from hypotonically swollen airway epithelia and investigated mechanisms regulating this activity. Well differentiated primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells subjected to hypotonic challenge exhibited enhanced ATP release, which was paralleled by the uptake of the pannexin probe propidium iodide. Both responses were reduced by pannexin 1 inhibitors and by knocking down pannexin 1. Importantly, hypotonicity-evoked ATP release from freshly excised tracheas and dye uptake in primary tracheal epithelial cells were impaired in pannexin 1 knockout mice. Hypotonicity-promoted ATP release and dye uptake in primary well differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells was accompanied by RhoA activation and myosin light chain phosphorylation and was reduced by the RhoA dominant negative mutant RhoA(T19N) and Rho and myosin light chain kinase inhibitors. ATP release and Rho activation were reduced by highly selective inhibitors of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4). Lastly, knocking down TRPV4 impaired hypotonicity-evoked airway epithelial ATP release. Our data suggest that TRPV4 and Rho transduce cell membrane stretch/strain into pannexin 1-mediated ATP release in airway epithelia. PMID:21606493

  17. Excessive ATP hydrolysis in ischemic myocardium by mitochondrial F1F0-ATPase: effect of selective pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial ATPase hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    Grover, Gary J; Atwal, Karnail S; Sleph, Paul G; Wang, Feng-Li; Monshizadegan, Hossain; Monticello, Thomas; Green, David W

    2004-10-01

    Mitochondrial F(1)F(0)-ATPase normally synthesizes ATP in the heart, but under ischemic conditions this enzyme paradoxically causes ATP hydrolysis. Nonselective inhibitors of this enzyme (aurovertin, oligomycin) inhibit ATP synthesis in normal tissue but also inhibit ATP hydrolysis in ischemic myocardium. We characterized the profile of aurovertin and oligomycin in ischemic and nonischemic rat myocardium and compared this with the profile of BMS-199264, which only inhibits F(1)F(0)-ATP hydrolase activity. In isolated rat hearts, aurovertin (1-10 microM) and oligomycin (10 microM), at concentrations inhibiting ATPase activity, reduced ATP concentration and contractile function in the nonischemic heart but significantly reduced the rate of ATP depletion during ischemia. They also inhibited recovery of reperfusion ATP and contractile function, consistent with nonselective F(1)F(0)-ATPase inhibitory activity, which suggests that upon reperfusion, the hydrolase activity switches back to ATP synthesis. BMS-199264 inhibits F(1)F(0) hydrolase activity in submitochondrial particles with no effect on ATP synthase activity. BMS-199264 (1-10 microM) conserved ATP in rat hearts during ischemia while having no effect on preischemic contractile function or ATP concentration. Reperfusion ATP levels were replenished faster and necrosis was reduced by BMS-199264. ATP hydrolase activity ex vivo was selectively inhibited by BMS-199264. Therefore, excessive ATP hydrolysis by F(1)F(0)-ATPase contributes to the decline in cardiac energy reserve during ischemia and selective inhibition of ATP hydrolase activity can protect ischemic myocardium.

  18. Human basal body basics.

    PubMed

    Vertii, Anastassiia; Hung, Hui-Fang; Hehnly, Heidi; Doxsey, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In human cells, the basal body (BB) core comprises a ninefold microtubule-triplet cylindrical structure. Distal and subdistal appendages are located at the distal end of BB, where they play indispensable roles in cilium formation and function. Most cells that arrest in the G0 stage of the cell cycle initiate BB docking at the plasma membrane followed by BB-mediated growth of a solitary primary cilium, a structure required for sensing the extracellular environment and cell signaling. In addition to the primary cilium, motile cilia are present in specialized cells, such as sperm and airway epithelium. Mutations that affect BB function result in cilia dysfunction. This can generate syndromic disorders, collectively called ciliopathies, for which there are no effective treatments. In this review, we focus on the features and functions of BBs and centrosomes in Homo sapiens.

  19. The ATP requirements of adenovirus type 5 DNA replication and cellular DNA replication.

    PubMed

    De Jong, P J; Kwant, M M; van Driel, W; Jansz, H S; van der Vliet, P C

    1983-01-15

    Several in vitro DNA replication systems were employed to characterize the ATP dependency of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) DNA replication. Ad5 DNA synthesis in isolated nuclei, representing the elongation of nascent DNA chains, was slightly ATP dependent. Reduction of the ATP concentration from the optimum (8 mM) to the endogenous value (0.16 microM) reduced Ad5 DNA replication only to 70%. No change in the pattern of replication was observed as indicated by the analysis of replicative intermediates using agarose gel electrophoresis. ATP could be replaced by dATP, but not by GTP or other nucleoside triphosphates. By contrast, cellular DNA replication in isolated nuclei from HeLa cells was reduced to 12% by the omission of ATP. These differences could not be explained by different ATP pools or by effects of ATP on dNTP pools. Cellular DNA replication in contrast to viral DNA replication was sensitive to low concentrations of adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate). Inhibition by this ATP analog was competitive with ATP (Ki = 0.4 mM). Adenovirus DNA replication by DNA-free nuclear extracts, representing initiation plus elongation (Challberg and Kelly, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 655-659, 1979), exhibited a nearly absolute requirement for ATP. ATP could be substituted not only by dATP, but also by GTP and dGTP and to a lesser extent by pyrimidine triphosphates. Similar results were found when the formation of a covalent complex between dCTP and the precursor terminal protein was studied. This reaction is essential for the initiation of Ad5 DNA replication. The results indicate that different ATP-requiring functions are employed during the initiation and elongation stages of adenovirus DNA replication.

  20. Activation of ATP binding for the autophosphorylation of DosS, a Mycobacterium tuberculosis histidine kinase lacking an ATP lid motif.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ha Yeon; Lee, Young-Hoon; Bae, Young-Seuk; Kim, Eungbin; Kang, Beom Sik

    2013-05-03

    The sensor histidine kinases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, DosS and DosT, are responsible for sensing hypoxic conditions and consist of sensor and kinase cores responsible for accepting signals and phosphorylation activity, respectively. The kinase core contains a dimerization and histidine phosphate-accepting (DHp) domain and an ATP binding domain (ABD). The 13 histidine kinase genes of M. tuberculosis can be grouped based on the presence or absence of the ATP lid motif and F box (elements known to play roles in ATP binding) in their ABDs; DosS and DosT have ABDs lacking both these elements, and the crystal structures of their ABDs indicated that they were unsuitable for ATP binding, as a short loop covers the putative ATP binding site. Although the ABD alone cannot bind ATP, the kinase core is functional in autophosphorylation. Appropriate spatial arrangement of the ABD and DHp domain within the kinase core is required for both autophosphorylation and ATP binding. An ionic interaction between Arg(440) in the DHp domain and Glu(537) in the short loop of the ABD is available and may open the ATP binding site, by repositioning the short loop away from the site. Mutations at Arg(440) and Glu(537) reduce autophosphorylation activity. Unlike other histidine kinases containing an ATP lid, which protects bound ATP, DosS is unable to accept ATP until the ABD is properly positioned relative to the histidine; this may prevent unexpected ATP reactions. ATP binding can, therefore, function as a control mechanism for histidine kinase activity.

  1. Extracellular ATP signaling in plants

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kiwamu; Gilroy, Simon; Jones, Alan M.; Stacey, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) induces a number of cellular responses in plants and animals. Some of the molecular components for purinergic signaling in animal cells appear to be lacking in plant cells, although some cellular responses are similar in both systems [e.g. increased levels of cytosolic free calcium, nitric oxide (NO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS)]. The purpose of this review is to compare and contrast purinergic signaling mechanisms in animal and plant cells. This comparison will aid our overall understanding of plant physiology and also provide details of the general fundamentals of extracellular ATP signaling in eukaryotes. PMID:20817461

  2. Basal aurora kinase B activity is sufficient for histone H3 phosphorylation in prophase.

    PubMed

    Le, Ly-Thuy-Tram; Vu, Hong-Lien; Nguyen, Chi-Hung; Molla, Annie

    2013-04-15

    Histone H3 phosphorylation is the hallmark of mitosis deposited by aurora kinase B. Benzo[e]pyridoindoles are a family of potent, broad, ATP-competitive aurora kinase inhibitors. However, benzo[e]pyridoindole C4 only inhibits histone H3 phosphorylation in prophase but not in metaphase. Under the C4 treatment, the cells enter into mitosis with dephosphorylated histone H3, assemble chromosomes normally and progress to metaphase, and then to anaphase. C4 also induces lagging chromosome in anaphase but we demonstrated that these chromosome compaction defects are not related to the absence of H3 phosphorylation in prophase. As a result of C4 action, mitosis lasts longer and the cell cycle is slowed down. We reproduced the mitotic defects with reduced concentrations of potent pan aurora kinase as well as with a specific aurora B ATP-competitive inhibitor; we therefore propose that histone H3 phosphorylation and anaphase chromosome compaction involve the basal activity of aurora kinase B. Our data suggest that aurora kinase B is progressively activated at mitosis entry and at anaphase onset. The full activation of aurora kinase B by its partners, in prometaphase, induces a shift in the catalytic domain of aurora B that modifies its affinity for ATP. These waves of activation/deactivation of aurora B correspond to different conformations of the chromosomal complex revealed by FRAP. The presence of lagging chromosomes may have deleterious consequences on the daughter cells and, unfortunately, the situation may be encountered in patients receiving treatment with aurora kinase inhibitors.

  3. ATP transport through a single mitochondrial channel, VDAC, studied by current fluctuation analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Rostovtseva, T K; Bezrukov, S M

    1998-01-01

    The "molecular Coulter counter" concept has been used to study transport of ATP molecules through the nanometer-scale aqueous pore of the voltage-dependent mitochondrial ion channel, VDAC. We examine the ATP-induced current fluctuations and the change in average current through a single fully open channel reconstituted into a planar lipid bilayer. At high salt concentration (1 M NaCl), the addition of ATP reduces both solution conductivity and channel conductance, but the effect on the channel is several times stronger and shows saturation behavior even at 50 mM ATP concentration. These results and simple steric considerations indicate pronounced attraction of ATP molecules to VDAC's aqueous pore and permit us to evaluate the effect of a single ATP molecule on channel conductance. ATP addition also generates an excess noise in the ionic current through the channel. Analysis of this excess noise shows that its spectrum is flat in the accessible frequency interval up to several kilohertz. ATP exchange between the pore and the bulk is fast enough not to display any dispersion at these frequencies. By relating the low-frequency spectral density of the noise to the equilibrium diffusion of ATP molecules in the aqueous pore, we calculate a diffusion coefficient D = (1.6-3.3)10(-11) m2/s. This is one order of magnitude smaller than the ATP diffusion coefficient in the bulk, but it agrees with recent results on ATP flux measurements in multichannel membranes using the luciferin/luciferase method. PMID:9591663

  4. ATP binding/hydrolysis by and phosphorylation of peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette proteins PMP70 (ABCD3) and adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ABCD1).

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Arowu R; Tanabe, Kouichi; Morita, Masashi; Kurisu, Mikinori; Kasiwayama, Yoshinori; Matsuo, Michinori; Kioka, Noriyuki; Amachi, Teruo; Imanaka, Tsuneo; Ueda, Kazumitsu

    2002-10-18

    The 70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP70) and adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP), half-size ATP-binding cassette transporters, are involved in metabolic transport of long and very long chain fatty acids into peroxisomes. We examined the interaction of peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporters with ATP using rat liver peroxisomes. PMP70 was photoaffinity-labeled at similar efficiencies with 8-azido-[alpha-32P]ATP and 8-azido-[gamma-32P]ATP when peroxisomes were incubated with these nucleotides at 37 degrees C in the absence Mg2+ and exposed to UV light without removing unbound nucleotides. The photoaffinity-labeled PMP70 and ALDP were co-immunoprecipitated together with other peroxisomal proteins, which also showed tight ATP binding properties. Addition of Mg2+ reduced the photoaffinity labeling of PMP70 with 8-azido-[gamma-32P]ATP by 70%, whereas it reduced photoaffinity labeling with 8-azido-[alpha-32P]ATP by only 20%. However, two-thirds of nucleotide (probably ADP) was dissociated during removal of unbound nucleotides. These results suggest that ATP binds to PMP70 tightly in the absence of Mg2+, the bound ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP in the presence of Mg2+, and the produced ADP is dissociated from PMP70, which allows ATP hydrolysis turnover. Properties of photoaffinity labeling of ALDP were essentially similar to those of PMP70. Vanadate-induced nucleotide trapping in PMP70 and ALDP was not observed. PMP70 and ALDP were also phosphorylated at a tyrosine residue(s). ATP binding/hydrolysis by and phosphorylation of PMP70 and ALDP are involved in the regulation of fatty acid transport into peroxisomes.

  5. Impaired ATP Kinetics in Failing in vivo Mouse Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ashish; Chacko, Vadappuram P.; Schär, Michael; Akki, Ashwin; Weiss, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    Background The hypothesis that the failing heart may be energy starved is supported, in part, by observations of reduced rates of ATP synthesis through the creatine kinase (CK) reaction, the primary myocardial energy reservoir, in heart failure (HF) patients. Although murine models have been used to probe HF pathophysiology, it has not been possible to non-invasively measure the rate of ATP synthesis through CK in the in vivo mouse heart. The purpose of this work was to exploit non-invasive spatially-localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) techniques to measure ATP flux through CK in in vivo mouse hearts and determine the extent of any reductions in murine HF. Methods and Results The Triple Repetition Time Saturation Transfer (TRiST) MRS method of measuring ATP kinetics was first validated in skeletal muscle, rendering similar results to conventional saturation transfer MRS. In normal mouse hearts the in vivo CK pseudo-first-order-rate constant, kf, was 0.32±0.03 s−1 (mean±SD) and the rate of ATP synthesis through CK was 3.16±0.47 µmol/g/s. Thoracic aortic constriction (TAC) reduced kf by 31% (0.23±0.03 s−1, p<0.0001) and ATP synthesis through CK by 51% (1.54±0.25 µmol/g/s, p<0.0001), analogous values to those in failing human hearts. Conclusions Despite the small size and high murine heart rate, the ATP synthesis rate through CK is similar in vivo in murine and human hearts and comparably reduced in HF. Because murine TAC shares fundamental energetic similarities with human HF, this model and new MRS approach promise a powerful means to non-invasively probe altered energetics in HF. PMID:20926788

  6. The Coupling of Electron Flow to ATP Synthesis in Pea and Maize Mesophyll Chloroplasts 12

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Richard M.; Macpeek, Wendy A.; Cohen, William S.

    1981-01-01

    The rate of nonphosphorylating electron transport (in the absence of ADP and inorganic phosphate) in well-coupled (ATP/2e− = 0.9-1.1) maize mesophyll chloroplasts is not modulated by external pH (6.5-8.5), low levels of ADP or ATP, or energy transfer inhibitors, e.g. triphenyltin and Hg2+ ions. In contrast nonphosphorylating electron flow in pea chloroplasts is sensitive to alterations in medium pH, and to the presence of adenine nucleotides and energy transfer inhibitors in the assay medium. Although ATP is without effect on the rate of basal electron transport in maize chloroplasts, steady-state proton uptake is stimulated 3- to 5-fold by low levels of ATP. These results suggest that differences may exist in the manner in which the coupling factor complex controls proton efflux from the intrathylakoid space in C3 and C4 mesophyll chloroplasts. PMID:16661966

  7. Mechanism of actin polymerization in cellular ATP depletion.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Simon J; Hosford, Melanie A; Molitoris, Bruce A

    2004-02-13

    Cellular ATP depletion in diverse cell types results in the net conversion of monomeric G-actin to polymeric F-actin and is an important aspect of cellular injury in tissue ischemia. We propose that this conversion results from altering the ratio of ATP-G-actin and ADP-G-actin, causing a net decrease in the concentration of thymosinactin complexes as a consequence of the differential affinity of thymosin beta4 for ATP- and ADP-G-actin. To test this hypothesis we examined the effect of ATP depletion induced by antimycin A and substrate depletion on actin polymerization, the nucleotide state of the monomer pool, and the association of actin monomers with thymosin and profilin in the kidney epithelial cell line LLC-PK1. ATP depletion for 30 min increased F-actin content to 145% of the levels under physiological conditions, accompanied by a corresponding decrease in G-actin content. Cytochalasin D treatment did not reduce F-actin formation during ATP depletion, indicating that it was predominantly not because of barbed end monomer addition. ATP-G-actin levels decreased rapidly during depletion, but there was no change in the concentration of ADP-G-actin monomers. The decrease in ATP-G-actin levels could be accounted for by dissociation of the thymosin-G-actin binary complex, resulting in a rise in the concentration of free thymosin beta4 from 4 to 11 microm. Increased detection of profilin-actin complexes during depletion indicated that profilin may participate in catalyzing nucleotide exchange during depletion. This mechanism provides a biochemical basis for the accumulation of F-actin aggregates in ischemic cells.

  8. Vismodegib in basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Amaria, R N; Bowles, D W; Lewis, K D; Jimeno, A

    2012-07-01

    Vismodegib is a novel, small-molecule inhibitor of smoothened, a key component of the hedgehog signaling pathway. Increased hedgehog pathway signaling is critical in the development of hereditary and spontaneous basal cell carcinomas of the skin, and has been implicated in the development of a number of other tumors. In preclinical models, vismodegib demonstrated potent antitumor activity in hedgehog-dependent tumors, particularly basal cell carcinomas. Clinically, phase I and II studies showed dramatic anticancer activity in patients with advanced basal cell carcinomas. In January 2012, vismodegib was approved by the FDA for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic basal cell carcinomas of the skin.

  9. Air-stimulated ATP release from keratinocytes occurs through connexin hemichannels.

    PubMed

    Barr, Travis P; Albrecht, Phillip J; Hou, Quanzhi; Mongin, Alexander A; Strichartz, Gary R; Rice, Frank L

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous ATP release plays an important role in both epidermal stratification and chronic pain, but little is known about ATP release mechanisms in keratinocytes that comprise the epidermis. In this study, we analyzed ATP release from cultured human neonatal keratinocytes briefly exposed to air, a process previously demonstrated to trigger ATP release from these cells. We show that exposing keratinocytes to air by removing media for 15 seconds causes a robust, long-lasting ATP release. This air-stimulated ATP release was increased in calcium differentiated cultures which showed a corresponding increase in connexin 43 mRNA, a major component of keratinocyte hemichannels. The known connexin hemichannel inhibitors 1-octanol and carbenoxolone both significantly reduced air-stimulated ATP release, as did two drugs traditionally used as ABC transporter inhibitors (glibenclamide and verapamil). These same 4 inhibitors also prevented an increase in the uptake of a connexin permeable dye induced by air exposure, confirming that connexin hemichannels are open during air-stimulated ATP release. In contrast, activity of the MDR1 ABC transporter was reduced by air exposure and the drugs that inhibited air-stimulated ATP release had differential effects on this transporter. These results indicate that air exposure elicits non-vesicular release of ATP from keratinocytes through connexin hemichannels and that drugs used to target connexin hemichannels and ABC transporters may cross-inhibit. Connexins represent a novel, peripheral target for the treatment of chronic pain and dermatological disease.

  10. Air-Stimulated ATP Release from Keratinocytes Occurs through Connexin Hemichannels

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Travis P.; Albrecht, Phillip J.; Hou, Quanzhi; Mongin, Alexander A.; Strichartz, Gary R.; Rice, Frank L.

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous ATP release plays an important role in both epidermal stratification and chronic pain, but little is known about ATP release mechanisms in keratinocytes that comprise the epidermis. In this study, we analyzed ATP release from cultured human neonatal keratinocytes briefly exposed to air, a process previously demonstrated to trigger ATP release from these cells. We show that exposing keratinocytes to air by removing media for 15 seconds causes a robust, long-lasting ATP release. This air-stimulated ATP release was increased in calcium differentiated cultures which showed a corresponding increase in connexin 43 mRNA, a major component of keratinocyte hemichannels. The known connexin hemichannel inhibitors 1-octanol and carbenoxolone both significantly reduced air-stimulated ATP release, as did two drugs traditionally used as ABC transporter inhibitors (glibenclamide and verapamil). These same 4 inhibitors also prevented an increase in the uptake of a connexin permeable dye induced by air exposure, confirming that connexin hemichannels are open during air-stimulated ATP release. In contrast, activity of the MDR1 ABC transporter was reduced by air exposure and the drugs that inhibited air-stimulated ATP release had differential effects on this transporter. These results indicate that air exposure elicits non-vesicular release of ATP from keratinocytes through connexin hemichannels and that drugs used to target connexin hemichannels and ABC transporters may cross-inhibit. Connexins represent a novel, peripheral target for the treatment of chronic pain and dermatological disease. PMID:23457608

  11. The interference of HEPES buffer during amperometric detection of ATP in clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Masson, Jean-Francois; Gauda, Estelle; Mizaikoff, Boris; Kranz, Christine

    2008-04-01

    HEPES-based biological buffer is subject to photooxidation upon exposure to fluorescent illumination. Thereby hydrogen peroxide is generated, which interferes with amperometric oxidoreductase-based biosensors for glucose or adenosine triphosphate (ATP). These biosensors operate at an oxidation potential above 500 mV vs. the standard calomel electrode (SCE) and involve hydrogen peroxide as the electroactive molecule detected at the electrode surface. False-positive detection of ATP was observed in HEPES buffer utilizing an amperometric microbiosensor based on the co-immobilization of glucose oxidase and hexokinase for detection of ATP in biological specimens. Electrochemical, mass spectrometric, (31)P NMR, and (1)H NMR studies indicate that complexation of ATP and HEPES induced by the presence of Ca(2+) in HEPES buffer decreases the photooxidation of HEPES. Consequently, the hydrogen peroxide background concentration is reduced, thereby leading to erroneous ATP detection at the dual-enzyme microbiosensor, which determines an increase in ATP via a reduced hydrogen peroxide signal.

  12. Cardiac specific ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP) overexpression results in embryonic lethality.

    PubMed

    Toib, Amir; Zhang, Hai Xia; Broekelmann, Thomas J; Hyrc, Krzysztof L; Guo, Qiusha; Chen, Feng; Remedi, Maria S; Nichols, Colin G

    2012-09-01

    Transgenic mice overexpressing SUR1 and gain of function Kir6.2[∆N30, K185Q] K(ATP) channel subunits, under cardiac α-myosin heavy chain (αMHC) promoter control, demonstrate arrhythmia susceptibility and premature death. Pregnant mice, crossed to carry double transgenic progeny, which harbor high levels of both overexpressed subunits, exhibit the most extreme phenotype and do not deliver any double transgenic pups. To explore the fetal lethality and embryonic phenotype that result from K(ATP) overexpression, wild type (WT) and K(ATP) overexpressing embryonic cardiomyocytes were isolated, cultured and voltage-clamped using whole cell and excised patch clamp techniques. Whole mount embryonic imaging, Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) and α smooth muscle actin (αSMA) immunostaining were used to assess anatomy, histology and cardiac development in K(ATP) overexpressing and WT embryos. Double transgenic embryos developed in utero heart failure and 100% embryonic lethality by 11.5 days post conception (dpc). K(ATP) currents were detectable in both WT and K(ATP)-overexpressing embryonic cardiomyocytes, starting at early stages of cardiac development (9.5 dpc). In contrast to adult cardiomyocytes, WT and K(ATP)-overexpressing embryonic cardiomyocytes exhibit basal and spontaneous K(ATP) current, implying that these channels may be open and active under physiological conditions. At 9.5 dpc, live double transgenic embryos demonstrated normal looping pattern, although all cardiac structures were collapsed, probably representing failed, non-contractile chambers. In conclusion, K(ATP) channels are present and active in embryonic myocytes, and overexpression causes in utero heart failure and results in embryonic lethality. These results suggest that the K(ATP) channel may have an important physiological role during early cardiac development.

  13. Evaluation of ATP measurements to detect microbial ingress by wastewater and surface water in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Vang, Óluva K; Corfitzen, Charlotte B; Smith, Christian; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-11-01

    Fast and reliable methods are required for monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was investigated as a potential real-time parameter for detecting microbial ingress in drinking water contaminated with wastewater or surface water. To investigate the ability of the ATP assay in detecting different contamination types, the contaminant was diluted with non-chlorinated drinking water. Wastewater, diluted at 10(4) in drinking water, was detected with the ATP assay, as well as 10(2) to 10(3) times diluted surface water. To improve the performance of the ATP assay in detecting microbial ingress in drinking water, different approaches were investigated, i.e. quantifying microbial ATP or applying reagents of different sensitivities to reduce measurement variations; however, none of these approaches contributed significantly in this respect. Compared to traditional microbiological methods, the ATP assay could detect wastewater and surface water in drinking water to a higher degree than total direct counts (TDCs), while both heterotrophic plate counts (HPC 22 °C and HPC 37 °C) and Colilert-18 (Escherichia coli and coliforms) were more sensitive than the ATP measurements, though with much longer response times. Continuous sampling combined with ATP measurements displays definite monitoring potential for microbial drinking water quality, since microbial ingress in drinking water can be detected in real-time with ATP measurements. The ability of the ATP assay to detect microbial ingress is influenced by both the ATP load from the contaminant itself and the ATP concentration in the specific drinking water. Consequently, a low ATP concentration of the specific drinking water facilitates a better detection of a potential contamination of the water supply with the ATP assay.

  14. Effects of barbiturates on ATP-sensitive K channels in rat substantia nigra.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, T; Ishiwa, D; Kamiya, Y; Itoh, H; Nagata, I; Saito, Y; Yamada, Y; Sumitomo, M; Andoh, T

    2006-01-01

    ATP-sensitive K channels are widely expressed in cytoplasmic membranes of neurons, and they couple cell metabolism to excitability. They are thought to be involved in neuroprotection against cell damage during hypoxia, ischemia and excitotoxicity by hyperpolarizing neurons and reducing excitability. Although barbiturates are often used in patients with brain ischemia, the effects of these agents on neuronal ATP-sensitive K channels have not been clarified. We studied the effects of thiopental and pentobarbital on surface ATP-sensitive K channels in principal neurons of rat substantia nigra pars compacta. Whole cell voltage- and current-clamp recordings were made using rat midbrain slices. ATP-sensitive K channels were activated by intracellular dialysis with an ATP-free pipette solution during perfusion with a glucose-free solution. When the pipette solution contained 4mM ATP and the perfusing solution contained 25 mM glucose, the membrane current at -60 mV remained stable. When intracellular ATP was depleted, hyperpolarization and an outward current developed slowly. Although thiopental did not affect the membrane current in the presence of ATP and glucose, it reversibly inhibited the hyperpolarization and outward current induced by intracellular ATP depletion at 100 and 300 microM. Thiopental reduced the ATP depletion-induced outward current by 4.7%, 36.7% and 87% at 30, 100 and 300 microM, respectively. The high dose of pentobarbital also exhibited similar effects on ATP-sensitive K channels. These results suggest that barbiturates at high concentrations but not at clinically relevant concentrations inhibit ATP-sensitive K channels activated by intracellular ATP depletion in rat substantia nigra.

  15. Moral Judgments and Basal Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantz, Richard K.

    1976-01-01

    Contains a brief review of the research on moral themes in basal reading series and their influence on children and summarizes an investigation which explored the frequency of moral decisions in stories in basal readers and identified those characters who posed the moral questions and those who solved moral dilemmas. (Author/RB)

  16. Basal cell nevus syndrome.

    PubMed

    High, Alec; Zedan, Walid

    2005-03-01

    Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS), is a hereditary condition transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait exhibiting high penetrance and variable expressivity. Inherited or spontaneous mutations in the human homologue of the Drosophila patched gene underlie the disorder and in addition to tumor predisposition, are associated with a range of 'patterning' defects. Recent advances, with glimpses of possible therapies are emerging, but because of the wide-ranging nature of phenotypic expression and overlap with other syndromes, there is difficulty. Finally, because of the importance of PTCH and paralogous genes in many species other than humans, reports appear in a correspondingly wide range of journals, which makes 'keeping abreast' difficult. Progress has been achieved in understanding the role of Gli-1, 2, & 3 in development of 'sporadic' BCCs and BCNS. Expression of PTCH1 is now known to be regulated by alternative promoters and a single functional Gli-binding site. Expression of FOXE1 as a new transcriptional target of Gli2 has been demonstrated in human epidermis and BCCs. Finally, the discovery of Shh pathway inhibitors such as cyclopamine, a naturally occurring alkaloid and ornithine decarboxylase inhibition suggest possible interventional therapies. In BCNS, phenotype does not correlate with position of mutations within Patched, suggesting genetic makeup and environment modulate effects of premature protein truncation induced by PTCH mutation. These developmental abnormalities occur as a result of haplo-insufficiency in heterozygotes for the mutated gene, whereas neoplastic complications arise from a classical two-hit tumor suppressor gene model. Attention is therefore turning toward TP53 and PTCH associations.

  17. Cross-reactivity of Antibodies Directed to the Gram-Negative Bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae With Heat Shock Protein 60 and ATP-Binding Protein Correlates to Reduced Mitochondrial Activity in HIBCPP Choroid Plexus Papilloma Cells.

    PubMed

    Reuss, B; Schroten, H; Ishikawa, H; Asif, A R

    2015-09-01

    Antibacterial antibodies can cause neurologic side-effects by cross-reactivity with cellular antigens. Here we investigated interactions of antibodies to Neisseria gonorrhoeae (α-NG) - maternal infections by which increases the offspring's risk for later psychosis-with HIBCPP cells, a cell culture model of choroid plexus epithelium. Immunocytochemistry and Western blotting with α-NG, revealed organelle-like intracellular staining in HIBCPP cells, and labelling of several immunoreactive bands in cellular protein. Two-dimensional Western blotting revealed several immunopositive spots, most prominent of which were identified by mass spectrometry as mitochondrially localized proteins heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60) and ATP-binding protein β-subunit (ATPB). Similarly α-NG interacted with commercial samples of these proteins as revealed by Western blotting. Three alternative methods (JC-1, Janus green and MTT staining) revealed α-NG to cause in HIBCPP cells a significant decrease in mitochondrial activity, which could be reverted by neuroleptic drugs. Immunoreactivity of α-NG with choroid plexus epithelium in human post mortem samples suggests in vivo relevance of these findings. Finally, distinctly different staining patterns of antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis (α-NM), confirmed antibody specificity. To our knowledge this is the first report that α-NG cross-reactivity with Hsp60 and ATPB impairs mitochondrial activity in choroid plexus epithelial cells, pathogenetic relevance of which needs further clarification.

  18. New basal temperature and basal melt rate maps of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martos, Yasmina M.; Martin, Carlos; Vaughan, David G.

    2017-04-01

    Ice sheet basal conditions are key to initialize ice flow models and be able to estimate the future of the cryosphere. The thermal conditions are of importance because of the widespread presence of water beneath the Antarctic continent that affects both the ice-dynamics and the mass budget. The melting or freezing at the base of the ice sheet is consequence of several contributions to the heat balance. This includes the geothermal heat flux, the heat conducted or advected through the ice sheet, the latent heat and the friction heat at the interface. Here we present a new basal temperature and a total basal melting rate distributions of Antarctica. For this we use the most recent heat flux map (Martos et al., 2016) and an advanced ice flow model to incorporate the effect of advection and estimate frictional heat. We assume steady state conditions to estimate the basal properties. We found higher basal melting rates in West Antarctica than in East Antarctica as well as in the coastal regions of the continent and ice shelves. The spatial variation of our new basal temperature and basal melting rate distributions are greater than previously proposed which will help to unveil the Antarctic subglacial hydrology.

  19. Copper transport during lactation in transgenic mice expressing the human ATP7A protein

    PubMed Central

    Llanos, Roxana M.; Michalczyk, Agnes A.; Freestone, David J.; Currie, Scott; Linder, Maria C.; Ackland, M. Leigh; Mercer, Julian F.B.

    2008-01-01

    Both copper transporting ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B, are expressed in mammary epithelial cells but their role in copper delivery to milk has not been clarified. We investigated the role of ATP7A in delivery of copper to milk using transgenic mice that over-express human ATP7A. In mammary gland of transgenic mice, human ATP7A protein was 10- to 20-fold higher than in control mice, and was localized to the basolateral membrane of mammary epithelial cells in lactating mice. The copper concentration in the mammary gland of transgenic dams and stomach contents of transgenic pups was significantly reduced compared to non-transgenic mice. The mRNA levels of endogenous Atp7a, Atp7b, and Ctr1 copper transporters in the mammary gland were not altered by the expression of the ATP7A transgene, and the protein levels of Atp7b and ceruloplasmin were similar in transgenic and non-transgenic mice. These data suggest that ATP7A plays a role in removing excess copper from the mammary epithelial cells rather than supplying copper to milk. PMID:18515074

  20. Raised tone reveals ATP as a sympathetic neurotransmitter in the porcine mesenteric arterial bed.

    PubMed

    Shatarat, Amjad; Dunn, William R; Ralevic, Vera

    2014-12-01

    The relative importance of ATP as a functional sympathetic neurotransmitter in blood vessels has been shown to be increased when the level of preexisting vascular tone or pressure is increased, in studies carried out in rat mesenteric arteries. The aim of the present study was to determine whether tone influences the involvement of ATP as a sympathetic cotransmitter with noradrenaline in another species. We used the porcine perfused mesenteric arterial bed and porcine mesenteric large, medium and small arteries mounted for isometric tension recording, because purinergic cotransmission can vary depending on the size of the blood vessel. In the perfused mesenteric bed at basal tone, sympathetic neurogenic vasocontractile responses were abolished by prazosin, an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, but there was no significant effect of α,β-methylene ATP, a P2X receptor-desensitizing agent. Submaximal precontraction of the mesenteric arterial bed with U46619, a thromboxane A2 mimetic, augmented the sympathetic neurogenic vasocontractile responses; under these conditions, both α,β-methylene ATP and prazosin attenuated the neurogenic responses. In the mesenteric large, medium and small arteries, prazosin attenuated the sympathetic neurogenic contractile responses under conditions of both basal and U46619-raised tone. α,β-Methylene ATP was effective in all of these arteries only under conditions of U46619-induced tone, causing a similar inhibition in all arteries, but had no significant effect on sympathetic neurogenic contractions at basal tone. These data show that ATP is a cotransmitter with noradrenaline in porcine mesenteric arteries; the purinergic component was revealed under conditions of partial precontraction, which is more relevant to physiological conditions.

  1. Metal: ATP characteristics of insulin- and epidermal growth factor-stimulated phosphorylation in detergent extracts of rat liver plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Uhing, R J; Exton, J H

    1986-09-01

    The metal: ATP characteristics of insulin- and epidermal growth factor-(EGF)-stimulated protein kinase activities were examined in Nonidet P40 extracts of rat liver plasma membranes. The two kinase activities were capable of utilizing either manganese or magnesium, although differences were observed. Insulin-stimulated 32P incorporation into an Mr 95 000 protein exhibited a higher affinity for ATP in the presence of manganese compared to magnesium. At 200 microM ATP, insulin stimulated 32P incorporation into the Mr 95 000 protein 3- to 5-fold after 5 min in the presence of either metal. At 1 mM ATP, insulin-stimulated 32P incorporation was significantly greater in the presence of magnesium. In contrast, EGF-stimulated 32P incorporation into an Mr 170 000 protein exhibited similar ATP dependencies in the presence of magnesium or manganese. Basal phosphorylation of the Mr 170 000 protein was 2- to 3-fold higher in the presence of manganese, however. Since the higher basal phosphorylation persisted after chromatography on wheat germ lectin-Sepharose, it may represent an inherent activity of the receptor kinase. In the presence of magnesium: ATP, low concentrations of manganese enhanced both insulin- and EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of angiotensin II suggesting involvement of a second metal binding site which regulates the kinase activity. The results presented show major differences in the metal: ATP properties of the two major hormonally regulated protein kinase activities observed in detergent-extracted liver membranes.

  2. Alternative translational initiation of ATP sulfurylase underlying dual localization of sulfate assimilation pathways in plastids and cytosol in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, Anne-Sophie; Yoshimoto, Naoko; Sekiguchi, Ai; Rykulski, Nicholas; Saito, Kazuki; Takahashi, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Plants assimilate inorganic sulfate into sulfur-containing vital metabolites. ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) is the enzyme catalyzing the key entry step of the sulfate assimilation pathway in both plastids and cytosol in plants. Arabidopsis thaliana has four ATPS genes (ATPS1, -2, -3, and -4) encoding ATPS pre-proteins containing N-terminal transit peptide sequences for plastid targeting, however, the genetic identity of the cytosolic ATPS has remained unverified. Here we show that Arabidopsis ATPS2 dually encodes plastidic and cytosolic ATPS isoforms, differentiating their subcellular localizations by initiating translation at AUG(Met1) to produce plastid-targeted ATPS2 pre-proteins or at AUG(Met52) or AUG(Met58) within the transit peptide to have ATPS2 stay in cytosol. Translational initiation of ATPS2 at AUG(Met52) or AUG(Met58) was verified by expressing a tandem-fused synthetic gene, ATPS2 (5'UTR-His12) :Renilla luciferase:ATPS2 (Ile13-Val77) :firefly luciferase, under a single constitutively active CaMV 35S promoter in Arabidopsis protoplasts and examining the activities of two different luciferases translated in-frame with split N-terminal portions of ATPS2. Introducing missense mutations at AUG(Met52) and AUG(Met58) significantly reduced the firefly luciferase activity, while AUG(Met52) was a relatively preferred site for the alternative translational initiation. The activity of luciferase fusion protein starting at AUG(Met52) or AUG(Met58) was not modulated by changes in sulfate conditions. The dual localizations of ATPS2 in plastids and cytosol were further evidenced by expression of ATPS2-GFP fusion proteins in Arabidopsis protoplasts and transgenic lines, while they were also under control of tissue-specific ATPS2 promoter activity found predominantly in leaf epidermal cells, guard cells, vascular tissues and roots.

  3. Role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator in K{sub ATP} channel-mediated insulin secretion in INS-1 insulinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji-Seon; Zheng Haifeng; Kim, Sung Joon; Ho, Won-Kyung; Chun, Yang-Sook

    2009-02-20

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) has been known to participate in cellular responses to xenobiotic and hypoxic stresses, as a common partner of aryl hydrocarbon receptor and hypoxia inducible factor-1/2{alpha}. Recently, it was reported that ARNT is essential for adequate insulin secretion in response to glucose input and that its expression is downregulated in the pancreatic islets of diabetic patients. In the present study, the authors addressed the mechanism by which ARNT regulates insulin secretion in the INS-1 insulinoma cell line. In ARNT knock-down cells, basal insulin release was elevated, but insulin secretion was not further stimulated by a high-glucose challenge. Electrophysiological analyses revealed that glucose-dependent membrane depolarization was impaired in these cells. Furthermore, K{sub ATP} channel activity and expression were reduced. Of two K{sub ATP} channel subunits, Kir6.2 was found to be positively regulated by ARNT at the mRNA and protein levels. Based on these results, the authors suggest that ARNT expresses K{sub ATP} channel and by so doing regulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion.

  4. Basal cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. This type of skin ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  5. Characterization of the ATP-G-actin aggregates formed at low potassium chloride concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Grazi, E; Aleotti, A; Ferri, A

    1984-01-01

    The ATP-G-actin aggregates formed by incubation of ATP-G-actin in 7.5 mM-KCl were characterized by electron-microscopical observation, by high-pressure liquid chromatography and by the study of the 1,N6-etheno-ATP-ATP exchange reaction between the free and the actin-bound nucleotide. In 30 mM-KCl the initial rate of the reduced-viscosity increase is found to be directly related to the amount of the aggregates formed in the course of the preincubation in 7.5 mM-KCl. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6721856

  6. Kinetics of a self-amplifying substrate cycle: ADP-ATP cycling assay.

    PubMed Central

    Valero, E; Varón, R; García-Carmona, F

    2000-01-01

    A kinetic study of an ATP-ADP amplification cyclic system involving the enzymes adenylate kinase, pyruvate kinase and L-lactate dehydrogenase has been made. The stoichiometry of the cycle is 2:1, because two molecules of ADP are synthesized from one each of ATP and AMP, and one molecule of ADP is converted back into one of ATP at each turn of the cycle. This results in a continuous exponential increase in the concentrations of ATP and ADP in the reaction medium, according to the equations obtained. This is therefore a substrate cycle that amplifies itself, the cycling rate increasing continuously with time. The background signal of the reagent was reduced by using apyrase to degrade ATP and ADP in the reagent, permitting detection limits as low as 16 pmol of ATP and/or ADP in a continuous spectrophotometric assay. PMID:10926849

  7. Homeostasis of Extracellular ATP in Human Erythrocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Montalbetti, Nicolas; Leal Denis, Maria F.; Pignataro, Omar P.; Kobatake, Eiry; Lazarowski, Eduardo R.; Schwarzbaum, Pablo J.

    2011-01-01

    We explored the intra- and extracellular processes governing the kinetics of extracellular ATP (ATPe) in human erythrocytes stimulated with agents that increase cAMP. Using the luciferin-luciferase reaction in off-line luminometry we found both direct adenylyl cyclase activation by forskolin and indirect activation through β-adrenergic stimulation with isoproterenol-enhanced [ATP]e in a concentration-dependent manner. A mixture (3V) containing a combination of these agents and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor papaverine activated ATP release, leading to a 3-fold increase in [ATP]e, and caused increases in cAMP concentration (3-fold for forskolin + papaverine, and 10-fold for 3V). The pannexin 1 inhibitor carbenoxolone and a pannexin 1 blocking peptide (10Panx1) decreased [ATP]e by 75–84%. The residual efflux of ATP resulted from unavoidable mechanical perturbations stimulating a novel, carbenoxolone-insensitive pathway. In real-time luminometry experiments using soluble luciferase, addition of 3V led to an acute increase in [ATP]e to a constant value of ∼1 pmol × (106 cells)−1. A similar treatment using a surface attached luciferase (proA-luc) triggered a rapid accumulation of surface ATP levels to a peak concentration of 2.4 pmol × (106 cells)−1, followed by a slower exponential decay (t½ = 3.7 min) to a constant value of 1.3 pmol × (106 cells)−1. Both for soluble luciferase and proA-luc, ATP efflux was fully blocked by carbenoxolone, pointing to a 3V-induced mechanism of ATP release mediated by pannexin 1. Ecto-ATPase activity was extremely low (∼28 fmol × (106 cells min)−1), but nevertheless physiologically relevant considering the high density of erythrocytes in human blood. PMID:21921036

  8. Quantitative requirement for ATP for active transport in isolated renal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tessitore, N.; Sakhrani, L.M.; Massry, S.G.

    1986-07-01

    We investigated the quantitative relationship between cellular ATP concentration and Na+-K+-ATPase activity as measured by ouabain-sensitive 86Rb influx in rabbit proximal renal cells. Cellular ATP was reduced in a stepwise manner by rotenone (10(-7) to 10(-5) M) and was increased by 10 mM adenosine. During these maneuvers, ouabain-sensitive 86Rb influx was linearly related to cellular ATP and did not saturate up to 9.9 mM ATP. In contrast, Na+-K+-ATPase activity in membranes prepared from these cells saturated at 2.0 mM ATP at various sodium (10-100 mM) and potassium (4-100 mM) concentrations. Sodium-dependent phosphate uptake and alpha-methylglucoside (alpha-MG) uptake were both inhibited to a similar degree when cellular ATP was reduced. We conclude that 1) the ATP requirement for saturation of Na+-K+-ATPase is higher in intact renal cells than in the membranes, and 2) the uptake of phosphate and alpha-MG are similarly influenced by reduction in ATP. This effect of ATP on phosphate and AMG uptake is most likely an indirect one and is secondary to changes in the sodium gradient across the cell.

  9. ATP induces mild hypothermia in rats but has a strikingly detrimental impact on focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meijuan; Li, Wenjin; Niu, Guangming; Leak, Rehana K; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is a devastating condition lacking effective therapies. A promising approach to attenuate ischemic injury is mild hypothermia. Recent studies show that adenosine nucleotides can induce hypothermia in mice. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) induces mild hypothermia in rats and reduces ischemic brain injury. We found that intraperitoneal injections of ATP decreased core body temperature in a dose-dependent manner; the dose appropriate for mild hypothermia was 2 g/kg. When ATP-induced hypothermia was applied to stroke induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion, however, a neuroprotective effect was not observed. Instead, the infarct volume grew even larger in ATP-treated rats. This was accompanied by an increased rate of seizure events, hemorrhagic transformation, and higher mortality. Continuous monitoring of physiologic parameters revealed that ATP reduced heartbeat rate and blood pressure. ATP also increased blood glucose, accompanied by severe acidosis and hypocalcemia. Western blotting showed that ATP decreased levels of both phospho-Akt and total-Akt in the cortex. Our results reveal that, despite inducing hypothermia, ATP is not appropriate for protecting the brain against stroke. Instead, we show for the first time that ATP treatment is associated with exaggerated ischemic outcomes and dangerous systemic side effects.

  10. Detection of ATP and NADH: A Bioluminescent Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selig, Ted C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Described is a bioluminescent assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reduced nicotineamide-adenine dinucleotide (NADH) that meets the requirements of an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course. The 3-hour experiment provides students with experience in bioluminescence and analytical biochemistry yet requires limited instrumentation,…

  11. Detection of ATP and NADH: A Bioluminescent Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selig, Ted C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Described is a bioluminescent assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reduced nicotineamide-adenine dinucleotide (NADH) that meets the requirements of an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course. The 3-hour experiment provides students with experience in bioluminescence and analytical biochemistry yet requires limited instrumentation,…

  12. Inflammation Promotes Airway Epithelial ATP Release via Calcium-Dependent Vesicular Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Seiko F.; Ribeiro, Carla M. P.; Sesma, Juliana I.; Seminario-Vidal, Lucia; Abdullah, Lubna H.; van Heusden, Catharina; Lazarowski, Eduardo R.

    2013-01-01

    ATP in airway surface liquid (ASL) controls mucociliary clearance functions via the activation of airway epithelial purinergic receptors. However, abnormally elevated ATP levels have been reported in inflamed airways, suggesting that excessive ATP in ASL contributes to airway inflammation. Despite these observations, little is known about the mechanisms of ATP accumulation in the ASL covering inflamed airways. In this study, links between cystic fibrosis (CF)–associated airway inflammation and airway epithelial ATP release were investigated. Primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells isolated from CF lungs exhibited enhanced IL-8 secretion after 6 to 11 days, but not 28 to 35 days, in culture, compared with normal HBE cells. Hypotonic cell swelling–promoted ATP release was increased in 6- to 11-day-old CF HBE cells compared with non-CF HBE cells, but returned to normal values after 28 to 35 days in culture. The exposure of non-CF HBE cells to airway secretions isolated from CF lungs, namely, sterile supernatants of mucopurulent material (SMM), also caused enhanced IL-8 secretion and increased ATP release. The SMM-induced increase in ATP release was sensitive to Ca2+ chelation and vesicle trafficking/exocytosis inhibitors, but not to pannexin inhibition. Transcript levels of the vesicular nucleotide transporter, but not pannexin 1, were up-regulated after SMM exposure. SMM-treated cultures displayed increased basal mucin secretion, but mucin secretion was not enhanced in response to hypotonic challenge after the exposure of cells to either vehicle or SMM. We propose that CF airway inflammation up-regulates the capacity of airway epithelia to release ATP via Ca2+-dependent vesicular mechanisms not associated with mucin granule secretion. PMID:23763446

  13. Inflammation promotes airway epithelial ATP release via calcium-dependent vesicular pathways.

    PubMed

    Okada, Seiko F; Ribeiro, Carla M P; Sesma, Juliana I; Seminario-Vidal, Lucia; Abdullah, Lubna H; van Heusden, Catharina; Lazarowski, Eduardo R; Boucher, Richard C

    2013-11-01

    ATP in airway surface liquid (ASL) controls mucociliary clearance functions via the activation of airway epithelial purinergic receptors. However, abnormally elevated ATP levels have been reported in inflamed airways, suggesting that excessive ATP in ASL contributes to airway inflammation. Despite these observations, little is known about the mechanisms of ATP accumulation in the ASL covering inflamed airways. In this study, links between cystic fibrosis (CF)-associated airway inflammation and airway epithelial ATP release were investigated. Primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells isolated from CF lungs exhibited enhanced IL-8 secretion after 6 to 11 days, but not 28 to 35 days, in culture, compared with normal HBE cells. Hypotonic cell swelling-promoted ATP release was increased in 6- to 11-day-old CF HBE cells compared with non-CF HBE cells, but returned to normal values after 28 to 35 days in culture. The exposure of non-CF HBE cells to airway secretions isolated from CF lungs, namely, sterile supernatants of mucopurulent material (SMM), also caused enhanced IL-8 secretion and increased ATP release. The SMM-induced increase in ATP release was sensitive to Ca(2+) chelation and vesicle trafficking/exocytosis inhibitors, but not to pannexin inhibition. Transcript levels of the vesicular nucleotide transporter, but not pannexin 1, were up-regulated after SMM exposure. SMM-treated cultures displayed increased basal mucin secretion, but mucin secretion was not enhanced in response to hypotonic challenge after the exposure of cells to either vehicle or SMM. We propose that CF airway inflammation up-regulates the capacity of airway epithelia to release ATP via Ca(2+)-dependent vesicular mechanisms not associated with mucin granule secretion.

  14. Autocrine ATP release coupled to extracellular pyrophosphate accumulation in vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Prosdocimo, Domenick A.; Douglas, Dezmond C.; Romani, Andrea M.; O'Neill, W. Charles; Dubyak, George R.

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) is a potent suppressor of physiological calcification in bone and pathological calcification in blood vessels. Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (eNPPs) generate PPi via the hydrolysis of ATP released into extracellular compartments by poorly understood mechanisms. Here we report that cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from rat aorta generate extracellular PPi via an autocrine mechanism that involves ATP release tightly coupled to eNPP activity. The nucleotide analog β,γ-methylene ATP (MeATP or AMPPCP) was used to selectively suppress ATP metabolism by eNPPs but not the CD39-type ecto-ATPases. In the absence of MeATP, VSMC generated extracellular PPi to accumulate ≥600 nM within 2 h while steadily maintaining extracellular ATP at 1 nM. Conversely, the presence of MeATP completely suppressed PPi accumulation while increasing ATP accumulation. Probenecid, which inhibits PPi efflux dependent on ANK, a putative PPi transporter or transport regulator, reduced extracellular PPi accumulation by approximately twofold. This indicates that autocrine ATP release coupled to eNPP activity comprises ≥50% of the extracellular PPi-generating capacity of VSMC. The accumulation of extracellular PPi and ATP was markedly attenuated by reduced temperature but was insensitive to brefeldin A, which suppresses constitutive exocytosis of Golgi-derived secretory vesicles. The magnitude of extracellular PPi accumulation in VSMC cultures increased with time postplating, suggesting that ATP release coupled to PPi generation is upregulated as cultured VSMC undergo contact-inhibition of proliferation or deposit extracellular matrix. PMID:19193865

  15. Basal Autophagy Is Required for Herpes simplex Virus-2 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yakoub, Abraam M.; Shukla, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process of the cell, which plays an important role in regulating plethora of infections. The role of autophagy in Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection is unknown. Here, we found that HSV-2 does not allow induction of an autophagic response to infection, but maintains basal autophagy levels mostly unchanged during productive infection. Thus, we investigated the importance of basal autophagy for HSV-2 infection, using pharmacological autophagy suppression or cells genetically deficient in an autophagy-essential gene (ATG5). Interference with basal autophagy flux in cells significantly reduced viral replication and diminished the infection. These results indicate that basal autophagy plays an indispensable role required for a productive infection. Importantly, this study draws a sharp distinction between induced and basal autophagy, where the former acts as a viral clearance mechanism abrogating infection, while the latter supports infection. PMID:26248741

  16. Regulation of an ATP-conductive large-conductance anion channel and swelling-induced ATP release by arachidonic acid

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Amal K; Okada, Yasunobu; Sabirov, Ravshan Z

    2002-01-01

    Mouse mammary C127 cells responded to hypotonic stimulation with activation of the volume-dependent ATP-conductive large conductance (VDACL) anion channel and massive release of ATP. Arachidonic acid downregulated both VDACL currents and swelling-induced ATP release in the physiological concentration range with Kd of 4– 6 μm. The former effect observed in the whole-cell or excised patch mode was more prominent than the latter effect observed in intact cells. The arachidonate effects were direct and not mediated by downstream metabolic products, as evidenced by their insensitivity to inhibitors of arachidonate-metabolizing oxygenases, and by the observation that they were mimicked by cis-unsaturated fatty acids, which are not substrates for oxygenases. A membrane-impermeable analogue, arachidonyl coenzyme A was effective only from the cytosolic side of membrane patches suggesting that the binding site is localized intracellularly. Non-charged arachidonate analogues as well as trans-unsaturated and saturated fatty acids had no effect on VDACL currents and ATP release, indicating the importance of arachidonate's negative charge and specific hydrocarbon chain conformation in the inhibitory effect. VDACL anion channels were inhibited by arachidonic acid in two different ways: channel shutdown (Kd of 4– 5 μm) and reduced unitary conductance (Kd of 13–14 μm) without affecting voltage dependence of open probability. ATP4--conducting inward currents measured in the presence of 100 mm ATP in the bath were reversibly inhibited by arachidonic acid. Thus, we conclude that swelling-induced ATP release and its putative pathway, the VDACL anion channel, are under a negative control by intracellular arachidonic acid signalling in mammary C127 cells. PMID:12154180

  17. Toward a multiscale description of microvascular flow regulation: o(2)-dependent release of ATP from human erythrocytes and the distribution of ATP in capillary networks.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Daniel; Fraser, Graham M; Ellis, Christopher G; Sprague, Randy S; Ellsworth, Mary L; Stephenson, Alan H

    2012-01-01

    Integration of the numerous mechanisms that have been suggested to contribute to optimization of O(2) supply to meet O(2) need in skeletal muscle requires a systems biology approach which permits quantification of these physiological processes over a wide range of length scales. Here we describe two individual computational models based on in vivo and in vitro studies which, when incorporated into a single robust multiscale model, will provide information on the role of erythrocyte-released ATP in perfusion distribution in skeletal muscle under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Healthy human erythrocytes exposed to low O(2) tension release ATP via a well characterized signaling pathway requiring activation of the G-protein, Gi, and adenylyl cyclase leading to increases in cAMP. This cAMP then activates PKA and subsequently CFTR culminating in ATP release via pannexin 1. A critical control point in this pathway is the level of cAMP which is regulated by pathway-specific phosphodiesterases. Using time constants (~100 ms) that are consistent with measured erythrocyte ATP release, we have constructed a dynamic model of this pathway. The model predicts levels of ATP release consistent with measurements obtained over a wide range of hemoglobin O(2) saturations (sO(2)). The model further predicts how insulin, at concentrations found in pre-diabetes, enhances the activity of PDE3 and reduces intracellular cAMP levels leading to decreased low O(2)-induced ATP release from erythrocytes. The second model, which couples O(2) and ATP transport in capillary networks, shows how intravascular ATP and the resulting conducted vasodilation are affected by local sO(2), convection and ATP degradation. This model also predicts network-level effects of decreased ATP release resulting from elevated insulin levels. Taken together, these models lay the groundwork for investigating the systems biology of the regulation of microvascular perfusion distribution by

  18. The Role of Light-Dark Regulation of the Chloroplast ATP Synthase.

    PubMed

    Kohzuma, Kaori; Froehlich, John E; Davis, Geoffry A; Temple, Joshua A; Minhas, Deepika; Dhingra, Amit; Cruz, Jeffrey A; Kramer, David M

    2017-01-01

    The chloroplast ATP synthase catalyzes the light-driven synthesis of ATP and is activated in the light and inactivated in the dark by redox-modulation through the thioredoxin system. It has been proposed that this down-regulation is important for preventing wasteful hydrolysis of ATP in the dark. To test this proposal, we compared the effects of extended dark exposure in Arabidopsis lines expressing the wild-type and mutant forms of ATP synthase that are redox regulated or constitutively active. In contrast to the predictions of the model, we observed that plants with wild-type redox regulation lost photosynthetic capacity rapidly in darkness, whereas those expressing redox-insensitive form were far more stable. To explain these results, we propose that in wild-type plants, down-regulation of ATP synthase inhibits ATP hydrolysis, leading to dissipation of thylakoid proton motive force (pmf) and subsequent inhibition of protein transport across the thylakoid through the twin arginine transporter (Tat)-dependent and Sec-dependent import pathways, resulting in the selective loss of specific protein complexes. By contrast, in mutants with a redox-insensitive ATP synthase, pmf is maintained by ATP hydrolysis, thus allowing protein transport to maintain photosynthetic activities for extended periods in the dark. Hence, a basal level of Tat-dependent, as well as, Sec-dependent import activity, in the dark helps replenishes certain components of the photosynthetic complexes and thereby aids in maintaining overall complex activity. However, the influence of a dark pmf on thylakoid protein import, by itself, could not explain all the effects we observed in this study. For example, we also observed in wild type plants a large transient buildup of thylakoid pmf and nonphotochemical exciton quenching upon sudden illumination of dark adapted plants. Therefore, we conclude that down-regulation of the ATP synthase is probably not related to preventing loss of ATP per se. Instead

  19. The Role of Light–Dark Regulation of the Chloroplast ATP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Kohzuma, Kaori; Froehlich, John E.; Davis, Geoffry A.; Temple, Joshua A.; Minhas, Deepika; Dhingra, Amit; Cruz, Jeffrey A.; Kramer, David M.

    2017-01-01

    The chloroplast ATP synthase catalyzes the light-driven synthesis of ATP and is activated in the light and inactivated in the dark by redox-modulation through the thioredoxin system. It has been proposed that this down-regulation is important for preventing wasteful hydrolysis of ATP in the dark. To test this proposal, we compared the effects of extended dark exposure in Arabidopsis lines expressing the wild-type and mutant forms of ATP synthase that are redox regulated or constitutively active. In contrast to the predictions of the model, we observed that plants with wild-type redox regulation lost photosynthetic capacity rapidly in darkness, whereas those expressing redox-insensitive form were far more stable. To explain these results, we propose that in wild-type plants, down-regulation of ATP synthase inhibits ATP hydrolysis, leading to dissipation of thylakoid proton motive force (pmf) and subsequent inhibition of protein transport across the thylakoid through the twin arginine transporter (Tat)-dependent and Sec-dependent import pathways, resulting in the selective loss of specific protein complexes. By contrast, in mutants with a redox-insensitive ATP synthase, pmf is maintained by ATP hydrolysis, thus allowing protein transport to maintain photosynthetic activities for extended periods in the dark. Hence, a basal level of Tat-dependent, as well as, Sec-dependent import activity, in the dark helps replenishes certain components of the photosynthetic complexes and thereby aids in maintaining overall complex activity. However, the influence of a dark pmf on thylakoid protein import, by itself, could not explain all the effects we observed in this study. For example, we also observed in wild type plants a large transient buildup of thylakoid pmf and nonphotochemical exciton quenching upon sudden illumination of dark adapted plants. Therefore, we conclude that down-regulation of the ATP synthase is probably not related to preventing loss of ATP per se. Instead

  20. Comparative embryology of basal angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Friedman, W E

    2001-02-01

    Recent phylogenetic analyses of basal angiosperms have identified those lineages central to the study of the origin and early diversification of flowering plants. As we begin to understand the early evolution of endosperm developmental patterns in flowering plants, it is apparent that we know little about the other basic embryological features of basal angiosperms, such as the nature of the female gametophyte and even whether a process of double fertilization occurs.

  1. Chronic exposure to free fatty acid reduces pancreatic beta cell insulin content by increasing basal insulin secretion that is not compensated for by a corresponding increase in proinsulin biosynthesis translation.

    PubMed Central

    Bollheimer, L C; Skelly, R H; Chester, M W; McGarry, J D; Rhodes, C J

    1998-01-01

    The pancreatic beta cell normally maintains a stable balance among insulin secretion, insulin production, and insulin degradation to keep optimal intracellular stores of the hormone. Elevated levels of FFA markedly enhance insulin secretion; however, the effects of FFA on insulin production and intracellular stores remain unclear. In this study, twofold elevation in total circulating FFA effected by infusion of lard oil and heparin into rats for 6 h under normoglycemic conditions resulted in a marked elevation of circulating insulin levels evident after 4 h, and a 30% decrease in pancreatic insulin content after a 6-h infusion in vivo. Adding 125 muM oleate to isolated rat pancreatic islets cultured with 5.6 mM glucose caused a 50% fall in their insulin content over 24 h, coupled with a marked enhancement of basal insulin secretion. Both effects of fatty acid were blocked by somatostatin. In contrast to the stimulatory effects of oleate on insulin secretion, glucose-induced proinsulin biosynthesis was inhibited by oleate up to 24 h, but was unaffected thereafter. This result was in spite of a two- to threefold oleate-induced increase in preproinsulin mRNA levels, underscoring the importance of translational regulation of proinsulin biosynthesis in maintaining beta cell insulin stores. Collectively, these results suggest that chronically elevated FFA contribute to beta cell dysfunction in the pathogenesis of NIDDM by significantly increasing the basal rate of insulin secretion. This increase in turn results in a decrease in the beta cell's intracellular stores that cannot be offset by commensurate FFA induction of proinsulin biosynthesis. PMID:9486980

  2. Near-infrared light increases ATP, extends lifespan and improves mobility in aged Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Rana; Calaza, Karin; Kam, Jaimie Hoh; Salt, Thomas E.; Hogg, Chris; Jeffery, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Ageing is an irreversible cellular decline partly driven by failing mitochondrial integrity. Mitochondria accumulate DNA mutations and reduce ATP production necessary for cellular metabolism. This is associated with inflammation. Near-infrared exposure increases retinal ATP in old mice via cytochrome c oxidase absorption and reduces inflammation. Here, we expose fruitflies daily to 670 nm radiation, revealing elevated ATP and reduced inflammation with age. Critically, there was a significant increase in average lifespan: 100–175% more flies survived into old age following 670 nm exposure and these had significantly improved mobility. This may be a simple route to extending lifespan and improving function in old age. PMID:25788488

  3. Near-infrared light increases ATP, extends lifespan and improves mobility in aged Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Begum, Rana; Calaza, Karin; Kam, Jaimie Hoh; Salt, Thomas E; Hogg, Chris; Jeffery, Glen

    2015-03-01

    Ageing is an irreversible cellular decline partly driven by failing mitochondrial integrity. Mitochondria accumulate DNA mutations and reduce ATP production necessary for cellular metabolism. This is associated with inflammation. Near-infrared exposure increases retinal ATP in old mice via cytochrome c oxidase absorption and reduces inflammation. Here, we expose fruitflies daily to 670 nm radiation, revealing elevated ATP and reduced inflammation with age. Critically, there was a significant increase in average lifespan: 100-175% more flies survived into old age following 670 nm exposure and these had significantly improved mobility. This may be a simple route to extending lifespan and improving function in old age.

  4. Intracellular ATP can regulate afferent arteriolar tone via ATP-sensitive K+ channels in the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, J N; Schnermann, J; Brosius, F C; Briggs, J P; Furspan, P B

    1992-01-01

    Studies were performed to assess whether ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels on rabbit preglomerular vessels can influence afferent arteriolar (AA) tone. K+ channels with a slope conductance of 258 +/- 13 (n = 7) pS and pronounced voltage dependence were demonstrated in excised patches from vascular smooth muscle cells of microdissected preglomerular segments. Channel activity was markedly reduced by 1 mM ATP and in a dose-dependent fashion by glibenclamide (10(-9) M to 10(-6) M), a specific antagonist of KATP channels. 10(-5) M diazoxide, a K+ channel opener, activated these channels in the presence of ATP, and this effect was also blocked by glibenclamide. To determine the role of these KATP channels in the control of vascular tone, diazoxide was tested on isolated perfused AA. After preconstriction from a control diameter of 13.1 +/- 1.1 to 3.5 +/- 2.1 microns with phenylephrine (PE), addition of 10(-5) M diazoxide dilated vessels to 11.2 +/- 0.7 microns, which was not different from control. Further addition of 10(-5) M glibenclamide reconstricted the vessels to 5.8 +/- 1.5 microns (n = 5; P less than 0.03). In support of its specificity for KATP channels, glibenclamide did not reverse verapamil induced dilation in a separate series of experiments. To determine whether intracellular ATP levels can effect AA tone, studies were conducted to test the effect of the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose. After preconstriction from 13.4 +/- 3.2 to 7.7 +/- 1.3 microns with PE, bath glucose was replaced with 6 mM 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Within 10 min, the arteriole dilated to a mean value of 11.8 +/- 1.4 microns (n = 6; NS compared to control). Subsequent addition of 10(-5) M glibenclamide significantly reconstricted the vessels to a diameter of 8.6 +/- 0.5 micron (P less than 0.04). These data demonstrate that KATP channels are present on the preglomerular vasculature and that changes in intracellular ATP can directly influence afferent arteriolar tone via these channels

  5. Ethanol induces cytostasis of cortical basal progenitors.

    PubMed

    Riar, Amanjot Kaur; Narasimhan, Madhusudhanan; Rathinam, Mary Latha; Henderson, George I; Mahimainathan, Lenin

    2016-01-19

    Developing brain is a major target for alcohol's actions and neurological/functional abnormalities include microencephaly, reduced frontal cortex, mental retardation and attention-deficits. Previous studies have shown that ethanol altered the lateral ventricular neuroepithelial cell proliferation. However, the effect of ethanol on subventricular basal progenitors which generate majority of the cortical layers is not known. We utilized spontaneously immortalized rat brain neuroblasts obtained from cultures of 18-day-old fetal rat cerebral cortices using in vitro ethanol exposures and an in utero binge model. In the in vitro acute model, cells were exposed to 86 mM ethanol for 8, 12 and 24 h. The second in vitro model comprised of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure which consisted of 14 h of ethanol treatment followed by 10 h of withdrawal with three repetitions. E18 neuroblasts expressing Tbr2 representing immature basal progenitors displayed significant reduction of proliferation in response to ethanol in both the models. The decreased proliferation was accompanied by absence of apoptosis or autophagy as illustrated by FACS analysis and expression of apoptotic and autophagic markers. The BrdU incorporation assay indicated that ethanol enhanced the accumulation of cells at G1 with reduced cell number in S phase. In addition, the ethanol-inhibited basal neuroblasts proliferation was connected to decrease in cyclin D1 and Rb phosphorylation indicating cell cycle arrest. Further, in utero ethanol exposure in pregnant rats during E15-E18 significantly decreased Tbr2 and cyclin D1 positive cell number in cerebral cortex of embryos as assessed by cell sorting analysis by flow cytometry. Altogether, the current findings demonstrate that ethanol impacts the expansion of basal progenitors by inducing cytostasis that might explain the anomalies of cortico-cerebral development associated with fetal alcohol syndrome.

  6. Reduced oxygenation in human obese adipose tissue is associated with impaired insulin suppression of lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Pasarica, Magdalena; Rood, Jennifer; Ravussin, Eric; Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Smith, Steven R; Redman, Leanne M

    2010-08-01

    Adipose tissue in obese individuals is characterized by reduced capillary density and reduced oxygenation. Our objective was to test whether hypoxia is associated with reduced antilipolytic effect of insulin. Twenty-one lean and obese individuals participated in this cross-sectional study at a university-based clinical research center. In all subjects, in situ adipose tissue (AT) oxygenation [AT oxygen partial pressure (ATpO2)] was measured with a Clark electrode, insulin sensitivity as well as basal and insulin-suppressed lipolysis (continuous infusion of (2H5)glycerol) were measured during a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, and abdominal sc AT biopsies were collected to assess fat cell size (Coulter counting of osmium-fixed cells), capillary density (by staining of histological sections), and gene expression (by quantitative RT-PCR). In situ ATpO2 was evaluated. The ability of insulin to suppress lipolysis (percent) was positively correlated with insulin sensitivity (r=0.43; P<0.05), ATpO2 (r=0.44; P<0.05), vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA (r=0.73; P<0.01), and capillary density (r=0.75; P<0.01). These results indicate that low capillary density and ATpO2 in AT are potentially upstream causes of AT dysfunction.

  7. Multiscale approach to link red blood cell dynamics, shear viscosity, and ATP release

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Alison M.; Wan, Jiandi; Owrutsky, Philip D.; Abkarian, Manouk; Stone, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    RBCs are known to release ATP, which acts as a signaling molecule to cause dilation of blood vessels. A reduction in the release of ATP from RBCs has been linked to diseases such as type II diabetes and cystic fibrosis. Furthermore, reduced deformation of RBCs has been correlated with myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease. Because ATP release has been linked to cell deformation, we undertook a multiscale approach to understand the links between single RBC dynamics, ATP release, and macroscopic viscosity all at physiological shear rates. Our experimental approach included microfluidics, ATP measurements using a bioluminescent reaction, and rheology. Using microfluidics technology with high-speed imaging, we visualize the deformation and dynamics of single cells, which are known to undergo motions such as tumbling, swinging, tanktreading, and deformation. We report that shear thinning is not due to cellular deformation as previously believed, but rather it is due to the tumbling-to-tanktreading transition. In addition, our results indicate that ATP release is constant at shear stresses below a threshold (3 Pa), whereas above the threshold ATP release is increased and accompanied by large cellular deformations. Finally, performing experiments with well-known inhibitors, we show that the Pannexin 1 hemichannel is the main avenue for ATP release both above and below the threshold, whereas, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator only contributes to deformation-dependent ATP release above the stress threshold. PMID:21690355

  8. Multiscale approach to link red blood cell dynamics, shear viscosity, and ATP release.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Alison M; Wan, Jiandi; Owrutsky, Philip D; Abkarian, Manouk; Stone, Howard A

    2011-07-05

    RBCs are known to release ATP, which acts as a signaling molecule to cause dilation of blood vessels. A reduction in the release of ATP from RBCs has been linked to diseases such as type II diabetes and cystic fibrosis. Furthermore, reduced deformation of RBCs has been correlated with myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease. Because ATP release has been linked to cell deformation, we undertook a multiscale approach to understand the links between single RBC dynamics, ATP release, and macroscopic viscosity all at physiological shear rates. Our experimental approach included microfluidics, ATP measurements using a bioluminescent reaction, and rheology. Using microfluidics technology with high-speed imaging, we visualize the deformation and dynamics of single cells, which are known to undergo motions such as tumbling, swinging, tanktreading, and deformation. We report that shear thinning is not due to cellular deformation as previously believed, but rather it is due to the tumbling-to-tanktreading transition. In addition, our results indicate that ATP release is constant at shear stresses below a threshold (3 Pa), whereas above the threshold ATP release is increased and accompanied by large cellular deformations. Finally, performing experiments with well-known inhibitors, we show that the Pannexin 1 hemichannel is the main avenue for ATP release both above and below the threshold, whereas, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator only contributes to deformation-dependent ATP release above the stress threshold.

  9. Temporal and mechanistic dissociation of ATP and adenosine release during ischaemia in the mammalian hippocampus1

    PubMed Central

    Frenguelli, Bruno G; Wigmore, Geoffrey; Llaudet, Enrique; Dale, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Adenosine is well known to be released during cerebral metabolic stress and is believed to be neuroprotective. ATP release under similar circumstances has been much less studied. We have now used biosensors to measure and compare in real time the release of ATP and adenosine during in vitro ischaemia in hippocampal slices. ATP release only occurred following the anoxic depolarisation, whereas adenosine release was apparent almost immediately after the onset of ischaemia. ATP release required extracellular Ca2+. By contrast adenosine release was enhanced by removal of extracellular Ca2+, whilst TTX had no effect on either ATP release or adenosine release. Blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors substantially enhanced ATP release, but had only a modest effect on adenosine release. Carbenoxolone, an inhibitor of gap junction hemichannels, also greatly enhanced ischaemic ATP release, but had little effect on adenosine release. The ecto-ATPase inhibitor ARL 67156, whilst modestly enhancing the ATP signal detected during ischaemia, had no effect on adenosine release. Adenosine release during ischaemia was reduced by pre-treament with homosysteine thiolactone suggesting an intracellular origin. Adenosine transport inhibitors did not inhibit adenosine release, but instead they caused a twofold increase of release. Our data suggest that ATP and adenosine release during ischaemia are for the most part independent processes with distinct underlying mechanisms. These two purines will consequently confer temporally distinct influences on neuronal and glial function in the ischaemic brain. PMID:17459147

  10. Adenosine uptake is the major effector of extracellular ATP toxicity in human cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Paola de Andrade; Filippi-Chiela, Eduardo Cremonese; Nascimento, Jéssica; Beckenkamp, Aline; Santana, Danielle Bertodo; Kipper, Franciele; Casali, Emerson André; Nejar Bruno, Alessandra; Paccez, Juliano Domiraci; Zerbini, Luiz Fernando; Wink, Marcia Rosângela; Lenz, Guido; Buffon, Andréia

    2014-01-01

    In cervical cancer, HPV infection and disruption of mechanisms involving cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis are strictly linked with tumor progression and invasion. Tumor microenvironment is ATP and adenosine rich, suggesting a role for purinergic signaling in cancer cell growth and death. Here we investigate the effect of extracellular ATP on human cervical cancer cells. We find that extracellular ATP itself has a small cytotoxic effect, whereas adenosine formed from ATP degradation by ectonucleotidases is the main factor responsible for apoptosis induction. The level of P2×7 receptor seemed to define the main cytotoxic mechanism triggered by ATP, since ATP itself eliminated a small subpopulation of cells that express high P2×7 levels, probably through its activation. Corroborating these data, blockage or knockdown of P2×7 only slightly reduced ATP cytotoxicity. On the other hand, cell viability was almost totally recovered with dipyridamole, an adenosine transporter inhibitor. Moreover, ATP-induced apoptosis and signaling—p53 increase, AMPK activation, and PARP cleavage—as well as autophagy induction were also inhibited by dipyridamole. In addition, inhibition of adenosine conversion into AMP also blocked cell death, indicating that metabolization of intracellular adenosine originating from extracellular ATP is responsible for the main effects of the latter in human cervical cancer cells. PMID:25103241

  11. Periodate-oxidized ATP modulates macrophage functions during infection with Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Figliuolo, V R; Chaves, S P; Santoro, G F; Coutinho, C M L M; Meyer-Fernandes, J R; Rossi-Bergmann, B; Coutinho-Silva, R

    2014-07-01

    Previously, we showed that treating macrophages with ATP impairs the intracellular growth of Leishmania amazonensis, and that the P2X7 purinergic receptor is overexpressed during leishmaniasis. In the present study, we directly evaluated the effect of periodate-oxidized ATP (oATP) on parasite control in Leishmania-infected macrophages. We found that oATP impaired the attachment/entrance of L. amazonensis promastigotes to C57BL/6 mouse macrophages in a P2X7 receptor-independent manner, as macrophages from P2X7(-/-) mice were similarly affected. Although oATP directly inhibited the growth of axenic promastigotes in culture, promoted rapid ultrastructural alterations, and impaired Leishmania internalization by macrophages, it did not affect intracellular parasite multiplication. Upon infection, phagosomal acidification was diminished in oATP-treated macrophages, accompanied by reduced endosomal proteolysis. Likewise, MHC class II molecules expression and ectoATPase activity was decreased by oATP added to macrophages at the time of parasite infection. These inhibitory effects were not due to a cytotoxic effect, as no additional release of lactate dehydrogenase was detected in culture supernatants. Moreover, the capacity of macrophages to produce nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species was not affected by the presence of oATP during infection. We conclude that oATP directly affects extracellular parasite integrity and macrophage functioning.

  12. Neuroglial ATP release through innexin channels controls microglial cell movement to a nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Lipitz, Jeffrey B.; Dahl, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Microglia, the immune cells of the central nervous system, are attracted to sites of injury. The injury releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into the extracellular space, activating the microglia, but the full mechanism of release is not known. In glial cells, a family of physiologically regulated unpaired gap junction channels called innexons (invertebrates) or pannexons (vertebrates) located in the cell membrane is permeable to ATP. Innexons, but not pannexons, also pair to make gap junctions. Glial calcium waves, triggered by injury or mechanical stimulation, open pannexon/innexon channels and cause the release of ATP. It has been hypothesized that a glial calcium wave that triggers the release of ATP causes rapid microglial migration to distant lesions. In the present study in the leech, in which a single giant glial cell ensheathes each connective, hydrolysis of ATP with 10 U/ml apyrase or block of innexons with 10 µM carbenoxolone (CBX), which decreased injury-induced ATP release, reduced both movement of microglia and their accumulation at lesions. Directed movement and accumulation were restored in CBX by adding ATP, consistent with separate actions of ATP and nitric oxide, which is required for directed movement but does not activate glia. Injection of glia with innexin2 (Hminx2) RNAi inhibited release of carboxyfluorescein dye and microglial migration, whereas injection of innexin1 (Hminx1) RNAi did not when measured 2 days after injection, indicating that glial cells’ ATP release through innexons was required for microglial migration after nerve injury. Focal stimulation either mechanically or with ATP generated a calcium wave in the glial cell; injury caused a large, persistent intracellular calcium response. Neither the calcium wave nor the persistent response required ATP or its release. Thus, in the leech, innexin membrane channels releasing ATP from glia are required for migration and accumulation of microglia after nerve injury. PMID:20876360

  13. The Role of Light–Dark Regulation of the Chloroplast ATP Synthase

    DOE PAGES

    Kohzuma, Kaori; Froehlich, John E.; Davis, Geoffry A.; ...

    2017-07-24

    The chloroplast ATP synthase catalyzes the light-driven synthesis of ATP and is activated in the light and inactivated in the dark by redox-modulation through the thioredoxin system. It has been proposed that this down-regulation is important for preventing wasteful hydrolysis of ATP in the dark. To test this proposal, we compared the effects of extended dark exposure in Arabidopsis lines expressing the wild-type and mutant forms of ATP synthase that are redox regulated or constitutively active. In contrast to the predictions of the model, we observed that plants with wild-type redox regulation lost photosynthetic capacity rapidly in darkness, whereas thosemore » expressing redox-insensitive form were far more stable. To explain these results, we propose that in wild-type plants, down-regulation of ATP synthase inhibits ATP hydrolysis, leading to dissipation of thylakoid proton motive force (pmf) and subsequent inhibition of protein transport across the thylakoid through the twin arginine transporter (Tat)-dependent and Secdependent import pathways, resulting in the selective loss of specific protein complexes. By contrast, in mutants with a redox-insensitive ATP synthase, pmf is maintained by ATP hydrolysis, thus allowing protein transport to maintain photosynthetic activities for extended periods in the dark. Hence, a basal level of Tat-dependent, as well as, Sec-dependent import activity, in the dark helps replenishes certain components of the photosynthetic complexes and thereby aids in maintaining overall complex activity. But, the influence of a dark pmf on thylakoid protein import, by itself, could not explain all the effects we observed in this study. For example, we also observed in wild type plants a large transient buildup of thylakoid pmf and nonphotochemical exciton quenching upon sudden illumination of dark adapted plants. Thus, we conclude that down-regulation of the ATP synthase is probably not related to preventing loss of ATP per se. Instead

  14. ATP-gamma-S shifts the operating point of outer hair cell transduction towards scala tympani.

    PubMed

    Bobbin, Richard P; Salt, Alec N

    2005-07-01

    ATP receptor agonists and antagonists alter cochlear mechanics as measured by changes in distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE). Some of the effects on DPOAEs are consistent with the hypothesis that ATP affects mechano-electrical transduction and the operating point of the outer hair cells (OHCs). This hypothesis was tested by monitoring the effect of ATP-gamma-S on the operating point of the OHCs. Guinea pigs anesthetized with urethane and with sectioned middle ear muscles were used. The cochlear microphonic (CM) was recorded differentially (scala vestibuli referenced to scala tympani) across the basal turn before and after perfusion (20 min) of the perilymph compartment with artificial perilymph (AP) and ATP-gamma-S dissolved in AP. The operating point was derived from the cochlear microphonics (CM) recorded in response low frequency (200 Hz) tones at high level (106, 112 and 118 dB SPL). The analysis procedure used a Boltzmann function to simulate the CM waveform and the Boltzmann parameters were adjusted to best-fit the calculated waveform to the CM. Compared to the initial perfusion with AP, ATP-gamma-S (333 microM) enhanced peak clipping of the positive peak of the CM (that occurs during organ of Corti displacements towards scala tympani), which was in keeping with ATP-induced displacement of the transducer towards scala tympani. CM waveform analysis quantified the degree of displacement and showed that the changes were consistent with the stimulus being centered on a different region of the transducer curve. The change of operating point meant that the stimulus was applied to a region of the transducer curve where there was greater saturation of the output on excursions towards scala tympani and less saturation towards scala vestibuli. A significant degree of recovery of the operating point was observed after washing with AP. Dose response curves generated by perfusing ATP-gamma-S (333 microM) in a cumulative manner yielded an EC(50) of 19.8 micro

  15. Augmentation by intracellular ATP of the delayed rectifier current independently of the glibenclamide-sensitive K-current in rabbit arterial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Evans, A M; Clapp, L H; Gurney, A M

    1994-04-01

    Elevation of intracellular ATP levels by flash photolysis of caged ATP augmented the delayed rectifier K-current (IKDR) in rabbit pulmonary artery myocytes. The percentage augmentation was unaffected when IKDR was inactivated by 50% (holding potential -40 mV), although the magnitude of the ATP-induced current was substantially reduced. Inactivation of 90% IKDR (holding potential -20 mV) virtually abolished the ATP-dependent augmentation. We conclude that modulation of IKDR by ATP does not require conversion of the glibenclamide-sensitive K-current (IK(ATP)).

  16. Abiogenic Photophosphorylation of ADP to ATP Sensitized by Flavoproteinoid Microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, Michael P.; Telegina, Taisiya A.; Lyudnikova, Tamara A.; Kritsky, Mikhail S.

    2008-06-01

    A model for abiogenic photophosphorylation of ADP by orthophosphate to yield ATP was studied. The model is based on the photochemical activity of flavoproteinoid microspheres that are formed by aggregation in an aqueous medium of products of thermal condensation of a glutamic acid, glycine and lysine mixture (8:3:1) and contain, along with amino acid polymers (proteinoids), abiogenic isoalloxazine (flavin) pigments. Irradiation of aqueous suspensions of microspheres with blue visible light or ultraviolet in the presence of ADP and orthophosphate resulted in ATP formation. The yield of ATP in aerated suspensions was 10 20% per one mol of starting ADP. Deaeration reduced the photophosphorylating activity of microspheres five to 10 times. Treatment of aerated microsphere suspensions with superoxide dismutase during irradiation partially suppressed ATP formation. Deaerated microspheres restored completely their photophosphorylating activity after addition of hydrogen peroxide to the suspension. The photophosphorylating activity of deaerated suspensions of flavoproteinoid microspheres was also recovered by introduction of Fe3+-cytochrome c, an electron acceptor alternative to oxygen. On the basis of the results obtained, a chemical mechanism of phosphorylation is proposed in which the free radical form of reduced flavin sensitizer left( {{text{FlH}}^ bullet } right) and ADP are involved.

  17. IV ATP potentiates midazolam sedation as assessed by bispectral index.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Satoru; Fukunaga, Atsuo; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Kaneko, Yuzuru

    2014-01-01

    In this study, by measuring bispectral index (BIS), we tested the hypothesis that intravenous adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) infusion would deepen the level of midazolam-induced sedation. Ten healthy volunteers underwent 2 experiments with at least 2 weeks' interval: immediately after intravenous bolus administration of midazolam (0.04 mg/kg), they received continuous infusion of either ATP infusion (100 μg/kg/min) or placebo (saline) for 40 minutes in a double-blind, randomized, crossover manner. Changes in BIS values and responsiveness to verbal command as well as cardiorespiratory variables were observed throughout the study periods. Administration of midazolam alone reduced BIS value from control: 97 ± 1 to 68 ± 18 at 25 minutes, which was accompanied by significant cardiopulmonary depressant effects, while maintaining responsiveness to verbal command (consciousness) throughout the study period. Coadministration of ATP with midazolam further reduced BIS value to 51 ± 13, associated with complete loss of consciousness without adverse effect on the cardiorespiratory systems. We conclude that the addition of ATP infusion to midazolam significantly enhances midazolam sedation without disturbing cardiorespiratory functions.

  18. Molecular mechanism for H(2)S-induced activation of K(ATP) channels.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Tang, Guanghua; Cao, Kun; Wu, Lingyun; Wang, Rui

    2010-05-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is an endogenous opener of K(ATP) channels in many different types of cells. However, the molecular mechanism for an interaction between H(2)S and K(ATP) channel proteins remains unclear. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique and mutagenesis approach were used to examine the effects of H(2)S on different K(ATP) channel subunits, rvKir6.1 and rvSUR1, heterologously expressed in HEK-293 cells. H(2)S stimulated coexpressed rvKir6.1/rvSUR1 K(ATP) channels, but had no effect on K(ATP) currents generated by rvKir6.1 expression alone. Intracellularly applied sulfhydryl alkylating agent (N-ethylmaleimide, NEM), oxidizing agent (chloramine T, CLT), and a disulfide bond-oxidizing enzyme (protein disulfide isomerase) did not alter H(2)S effects on this recombinant channels. CLT, but not NEM, inhibited basal rvKir6.1/rvSUR1 currents, and both abolished the stimulatory effects of H(2)S on K(ATP) currents, when applied extracellularly. After selective cysteine residues (C6S and C26S but not C1051S and C1057S) in the extracellular loop of rvSUR1 subunits were point-mutated, H(2)S lost its stimulatory effects on rvKir6.1/rvSUR1 currents. Our results demonstrate that H(2)S interacts with Cys6 and Cys26 residues of the extracellular N terminal of rvSUR1 subunit of K(ATP) channel complex. Direct chemical modification of rvSUR1 subunit protein constitutes a molecular mechanism for the activation of K(ATP) channels by H(2)S.

  19. Mechanisms of charge transfer in human copper ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B.

    PubMed

    Tadini-Buoninsegni, Francesco; Smeazzetto, Serena

    2017-04-01

    ATP7A and ATP7B are Cu(+) -transporting ATPases of subclass IB and play a fundamental role in intracellular copper homeostasis. ATP7A/B transfer Cu(+) ions across the membrane from delivery to acceptor proteins without establishing a free Cu(+) gradient. Transfer of copper across the membrane is coupled to ATP hydrolysis. Current measurements on solid supported membranes (SSM) were performed to investigate the mechanism of copper-related charge transfer across ATP7A and ATP7B. SSM measurements demonstrated that electrogenic copper displacement occurs within ATP7A/B following addition of ATP and formation of the phosphorylated intermediate. Comparison of the time constants for cation displacement in ATP7A/B and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) -ATPase is consistent with the slower phosphoenzyme formation in copper ATPases. Moreover, ATP-dependent copper transfer in ATP7A/B is not affected by varying the pH, suggesting that net proton counter-transport may not occur in copper ATPases. Platinum anticancer drugs activate ATP7A/B and are subjected to ATP-dependent vectorial displacement with a mechanism analogous to that of copper. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 69(4):218-225, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  20. Bioenergetic pattern of turtle brain and resistance to profound loss of mitochondrial ATP generation.

    PubMed Central

    Robin, E D; Lewiston, N; Newman, A; Simon, L M; Theodore, J

    1979-01-01

    The adaptations in the freshwater turtle that permit survival despite prolonged loss of mitochondrial ATP generation were investigated by comparing the bioenergetics of turtle brain slices with rat brain slices. Aerobic turtle brain shows no significant difference in basal levels of total ATP generation compared to rat brain; levels in turtle brain and rat brain were 18.4 +/- 2.8 (SD) and 19.4 +/- 2.2 mumol (100 mg of tissue)-1 hr-1, respectively. However, in turtle brain, a significantly greater fraction of ATP is derived from glycolysis both under aerobic and anaerobic conditions [aerobic turtle (24%) and rat (13%), P less than 0.02; anaerobic, turtle (28%) and rat (18%), P less than 0.05]. The increased glycolytic capacity is related to high levels of rate-limiting glycolytic enzymes, such as pyruvate kinase (EC 2.7.1.40). Turtle brain operates close to glycolytic capacity even under aerobic conditions, and no Pasteur effect can be demonstrated. Quantitatively, anaerobic glycolysis accounts for a maximum of 28% of basal aerobic ATP generation, suggesting that prolonged diving is also accompanied by a reduction in brain energy requirements. The adaptation subserving short-term (natural) diving is an increase in brain glycolytic capacity. The adaptation subserving prolonged diving (days to weeks) may be a reduction in the energy requirements of brain (and other cells). PMID:291050

  1. Detecting ATP release by a biosensor method.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Seiji; Hazama, Akihiro; Dutta, Amal K; Sabirov, Ravshan Z; Okada, Yasunobu

    2004-11-09

    Cells release adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) into the extracellular space in response to various stimuli. This released ATP plays an important physiological role in cell-to-cell signal transduction. The bulk ATP concentration can be detected using a conventional luciferin-luciferase assay. However, the ATP concentration in the vicinity of the cell surface is often different from the bulk concentration because of its rapid degradation by ecto-ATPases and because of delayed diffusion due to unstirred layer effects. Here, we describe a simple biosensor method to measure the local ATP concentration on the cell surface in real time. The method is based on the ATP-dependent opening of ligand-gated cation channels of purinergic P2X receptors expressed in undifferentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells or in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells stably transfected with recombinant P2X2 purinergic receptors. Under the whole-cell configuration of patch-clamp, a sensor PC12 cell or HEK293 is positioned within the proximity of a target cell, and the P2X-mediated currents induced by ATP released from a given site on the target cell surface is measured. The ATP release is quantified by a calibration procedure utilizing local puff applications of ATP at preset concentrations.

  2. PARK9-associated ATP13A2 localizes to intracellular acidic vesicles and regulates cation homeostasis and neuronal integrity

    PubMed Central

    Ramonet, David; Podhajska, Agata; Stafa, Klodjan; Sonnay, Sarah; Trancikova, Alzbeta; Tsika, Elpida; Pletnikova, Olga; Troncoso, Juan C.; Glauser, Liliane; Moore, Darren J.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the ATP13A2 gene (PARK9, OMIM 610513) cause autosomal recessive, juvenile-onset Kufor-Rakeb syndrome and early-onset parkinsonism. ATP13A2 is an uncharacterized protein belonging to the P5-type ATPase subfamily that is predicted to regulate the membrane transport of cations. The physiological function of ATP13A2 in the mammalian brain is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that ATP13A2 is localized to intracellular acidic vesicular compartments in cultured neurons. In the human brain, ATP13A2 is localized to pyramidal neurons within the cerebral cortex and dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. ATP13A2 protein levels are increased in nigral dopaminergic and cortical pyramidal neurons of Parkinson's disease brains compared with normal control brains. ATP13A2 levels are increased in cortical neurons bearing Lewy bodies (LBs) compared with neurons without LBs. Using short hairpin RNA-mediated silencing or overexpression to explore the function of ATP13A2, we find that modulating the expression of ATP13A2 reduces the neurite outgrowth of cultured midbrain dopaminergic neurons. We also find that silencing of ATP13A2 expression in cortical neurons alters the kinetics of intracellular pH in response to cadmium exposure. Furthermore, modulation of ATP13A2 expression leads to reduced intracellular calcium levels in cortical neurons. Finally, we demonstrate that silencing of ATP13A2 expression induces mitochondrial fragmentation in neurons. Oppositely, overexpression of ATP13A2 delays cadmium-induced mitochondrial fragmentation in neurons consistent with a neuroprotective effect. Collectively, this study reveals a number of intriguing neuronal phenotypes due to the loss- or gain-of-function of ATP13A2 that support a role for this protein in regulating intracellular cation homeostasis and neuronal integrity. PMID:22186024

  3. HtrA2 deficiency causes mitochondrial uncoupling through the F1F0-ATP synthase and consequent ATP depletion

    PubMed Central

    Plun-Favreau, H; Burchell, V S; Holmström, K M; Yao, Z; Deas, E; Cain, K; Fedele, V; Moisoi, N; Campanella, M; Miguel Martins, L; Wood, N W; Gourine, A V; Abramov, A Y

    2012-01-01

    Loss of the mitochondrial protease HtrA2 (Omi) in mice leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, neurodegeneration and premature death, but the mechanism underlying this pathology remains unclear. Using primary cultures from wild-type and HtrA2-knockout mice, we find that HtrA2 deficiency significantly reduces mitochondrial membrane potential in a range of cell types. This depolarisation was found to result from mitochondrial uncoupling, as mitochondrial respiration was increased in HtrA2-deficient cells and respiratory control ratio was dramatically reduced. HtrA2-knockout cells exhibit increased proton translocation through the ATP synthase, in combination with decreased ATP production and truncation of the F1 α-subunit, suggesting the ATP synthase as the source of the proton leak. Uncoupling in the HtrA2-deficient mice is accompanied by altered breathing pattern and, on a cellular level, ATP depletion and vulnerability to chemical ischaemia. We propose that this vulnerability may ultimately cause the neurodegeneration observed in these mice. PMID:22739987

  4. Basal Organelles of Bacterial Flagella

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Bazire, Germaine; London, Jack

    1967-01-01

    Liberated by enzymatic lysis of the cells, the flagella of Rhodospirillum rubrum, R. molischianum, and R. fulvum all have a similar structure. The hook at the base of the flagellum is connected by a short, narrow collar to a paired disc in the basal organelle. This paired disc is in turn connected to a second paired disc. The disposition of flagella to which fragments of the cell membrane still adhere suggests that the narrow collar at the base of the hook traverses both the wall and the membrane, and that the upper pair of discs in the basal organelle lies just beneath the surface of the membrane. Images PMID:6039362

  5. Mitochondrial ATP synthase is dispensable in blood-stage Plasmodium berghei rodent malaria but essential in the mosquito phase.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Angelika; Mollard, Vanessa; Cozijnsen, Anton; Goodman, Christopher D; McFadden, Geoffrey I

    2015-08-18

    Mitochondrial ATP synthase is driven by chemiosmotic oxidation of pyruvate derived from glycolysis. Blood-stage malaria parasites eschew chemiosmosis, instead relying almost solely on glycolysis for their ATP generation, which begs the question of whether mitochondrial ATP synthase is necessary during the blood stage of the parasite life cycle. We knocked out the mitochondrial ATP synthase β subunit gene in the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, ablating the protein that converts ADP to ATP. Disruption of the β subunit gene of the ATP synthase only marginally reduced asexual blood-stage parasite growth but completely blocked mouse-to-mouse transmission via Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Parasites lacking the β subunit gene of the ATP synthase generated viable gametes that fuse and form ookinetes but cannot progress beyond this stage. Ookinetes lacking the β subunit gene of the ATP synthase had normal motility but were not viable in the mosquito midgut and never made oocysts or sporozoites, thereby abrogating transmission to naive mice via mosquito bite. We crossed the self-infertile ATP synthase β subunit knockout parasites with a male-deficient, self-infertile strain of P. berghei, which restored fertility and production of oocysts and sporozoites, which demonstrates that mitochondrial ATP synthase is essential for ongoing viability through the female, mitochondrion-carrying line of sexual reproduction in P. berghei malaria. Perturbation of ATP synthase completely blocks transmission to the mosquito vector and could potentially be targeted for disease control.

  6. Sucralose, an activator of the glucose-sensing receptor, increases ATP by calcium-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Li, Longfei; Ohtsu, Yoshiaki; Nakagawa, Yuko; Masuda, Katsuyoshi; Kojima, Itaru

    2016-08-31

    Sucralose is an artificial sweetener and activates the glucose-sensing receptor expressed in pancreatic β-cells. Although sucralose does not enter β-cells nor acts as a substrate for glucokinase, it induces a marked elevation of intracellular ATP ([ATP]c). The present study was conducted to identify the signaling pathway responsible for the elevation of [ATP]c induced by sucralose. Previous studies have shown that sucralose elevates cyclic AMP (cAMP), activates phospholipase C (PLC) and stimulates Ca(2+) entry by a Na(+)-dependent mechanism in MIN6 cells. The addition of forskolin induced a marked elevation of cAMP, whereas it did not affect [ATP]c. Carbachol, an activator of PLC, did not increase [ATP]c. In addition, activation of protein kinase C by dioctanoylglycerol did not affect [ATP]c. In contrast, nifedipine, an inhibitor of the voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel, significantly reduced [ATP]c response to sucralose. Removal of extracellular Na(+) nearly completely blocked sucralose-induced elevation of [ATP]c. Stimulation of Na(+) entry by adding a Na(+) ionophore monensin elevated [ATP]c. The monensin-induced elevation of [ATP]c was only partially inhibited by nifedipine and loading of BAPTA, both of which completely abolished elevation of [Ca(2+)]c. These results suggest that Na(+) entry is critical for the sucralose-induced elevation of [ATP]c. Both calcium-dependent and -independent mechanisms are involved in the action of sucralose.

  7. Mitochondrial ATP synthase is dispensable in blood-stage Plasmodium berghei rodent malaria but essential in the mosquito phase

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Angelika; Mollard, Vanessa; Cozijnsen, Anton; Goodman, Christopher D.; McFadden, Geoffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial ATP synthase is driven by chemiosmotic oxidation of pyruvate derived from glycolysis. Blood-stage malaria parasites eschew chemiosmosis, instead relying almost solely on glycolysis for their ATP generation, which begs the question of whether mitochondrial ATP synthase is necessary during the blood stage of the parasite life cycle. We knocked out the mitochondrial ATP synthase β subunit gene in the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, ablating the protein that converts ADP to ATP. Disruption of the β subunit gene of the ATP synthase only marginally reduced asexual blood-stage parasite growth but completely blocked mouse-to-mouse transmission via Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Parasites lacking the β subunit gene of the ATP synthase generated viable gametes that fuse and form ookinetes but cannot progress beyond this stage. Ookinetes lacking the β subunit gene of the ATP synthase had normal motility but were not viable in the mosquito midgut and never made oocysts or sporozoites, thereby abrogating transmission to naive mice via mosquito bite. We crossed the self-infertile ATP synthase β subunit knockout parasites with a male-deficient, self-infertile strain of P. berghei, which restored fertility and production of oocysts and sporozoites, which demonstrates that mitochondrial ATP synthase is essential for ongoing viability through the female, mitochondrion-carrying line of sexual reproduction in P. berghei malaria. Perturbation of ATP synthase completely blocks transmission to the mosquito vector and could potentially be targeted for disease control. PMID:25831536

  8. Basal area growth, carbon isotope discrimination, and intrinsic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many hectares of intensively managed Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. Franco) stands in western North America are fertilized with nitrogen to increase growth rates. Understanding the mechanisms of response facilitates prioritization of stands for treatment. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the short-term basal area growth response to a single application of 224 kg N ha-1 as urea was associated with reduced stable carbon isotope discrimination (∆13C) and increased intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) in a 20-yr-old plantation of Douglas-fir in the Oregon Coast Range, USA. Increment cores were measured to estimate earlywood, latewood, and total basal area increment over a time series from 1997 to 2015. Stable carbon isotope discrimination and iWUE were estimated using earlywood and latewood stable carbon isotope concentrations in tree-ring holocellulose starting seven years before fertilization in early 2009 and ending seven years after treatment. A highly significant interaction effect between fertilization treatment and year was found for total basal area growth and earlywood basal area increment. Fertilized trees showed significant total basal area growth and earlywood basal area increment in the first (2009) and second (2010) growing seasons after fertilization in 2009. A marginally significant fertilization effect was found for latewood basal area increment only in the first growing season after treatment. A significant i

  9. Basal area growth, carbon isotope discrimination, and intrinsic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many hectares of intensively managed Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. Franco) stands in western North America are fertilized with nitrogen to increase growth rates. Understanding the mechanisms of response facilitates prioritization of stands for treatment. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the short-term basal area growth response to a single application of 224 kg N ha-1 as urea was associated with reduced stable carbon isotope discrimination (∆13C) and increased intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) in a 20-yr-old plantation of Douglas-fir in the Oregon Coast Range, USA. Increment cores were measured to estimate earlywood, latewood, and total basal area increment over a time series from 1997 to 2015. Stable carbon isotope discrimination and iWUE were estimated using earlywood and latewood stable carbon isotope concentrations in tree-ring holocellulose starting seven years before fertilization in early 2009 and ending seven years after treatment. A highly significant interaction effect between fertilization treatment and year was found for total basal area growth and earlywood basal area increment. Fertilized trees showed significant total basal area growth and earlywood basal area increment in the first (2009) and second (2010) growing seasons after fertilization in 2009. A marginally significant fertilization effect was found for latewood basal area increment only in the first growing season after treatment. A significant i

  10. [Basal cell carcinoma and rare form variants].

    PubMed

    Liersch, J; Schaller, J

    2014-09-01

    Basal cell carcinomas are the most common primary cutaneous malignant neoplasms. The diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma represents a common and routine task for pathologists and dermatopathologists. The aim of this review is the clinical and histopathological presentation of the most common subtypes of basal cell carcinoma. Furthermore, the rare variants of basal cell carcinoma and their differential diagnoses are also discussed.

  11. Melatonin enhances mitochondrial ATP synthesis, reduces reactive oxygen species formation, and mediates translocation of the nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 resulting in activation of phase-2 antioxidant enzymes (γ-GCS, HO-1, NQO1) in ultraviolet radiation-treated normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK).

    PubMed

    Kleszczyński, Konrad; Zillikens, Detlef; Fischer, Tobias W

    2016-09-01

    Melatonin is an ubiquitous molecule with a variety of functions including potent antioxidative properties. Due to its lipophilic character, it easily crosses cellular and intracellular membranes and reaches all subcellular organelles. Because of its ability to scavenge free radicals, melatonin protects against oxidative stress, for example, induced by ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Here, we investigated, in a dose-dependent (0, 10, 25, and 50 mJ/cm(2) ) and time-dependent (0, 4, 24, 48 hr post-UVR) manner, whether melatonin prevents the UVR-mediated alterations in ATP synthesis and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK). Additionally, we evaluated the molecular mechanism of action of melatonin with regard to activation of phase-2 antioxidative enzymes via nuclear erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2). We found that (i) melatonin counteracted UVR-induced alterations in the ATP synthesis and reduced free radical formation; (ii) melatonin induced the translocation of Nrf2 transcription factor from the cytosol into the nucleus resulting in, (iii) melatonin enhanced gene expression of phase-2 antioxidative enzymes including γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and NADPH: quinone dehydrogenase-1 (NQO1) representing an elevated antioxidative response of keratinocytes. These results suggest that melatonin not only directly scavenges ROS, but also significantly induces the activation of phase-2 antioxidative enzymes via the Nrf2 pathway uncovering a new action mechanism that supports the ability of keratinocytes to protect themselves from UVR-mediated oxidative stress. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Profiling Protein Kinases and Other ATP Binding Proteins in Arabidopsis Using Acyl-ATP Probes*

    PubMed Central

    Villamor, Joji Grace; Kaschani, Farnusch; Colby, Tom; Oeljeklaus, Julian; Zhao, David; Kaiser, Markus; Patricelli, Matthew P.; van der Hoorn, Renier A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Many protein activities are driven by ATP binding and hydrolysis. Here, we explore the ATP binding proteome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana using acyl-ATP (AcATP)1 probes. These probes target ATP binding sites and covalently label lysine residues in the ATP binding pocket. Gel-based profiling using biotinylated AcATP showed that labeling is dependent on pH and divalent ions and can be competed by nucleotides. The vast majority of these AcATP-labeled proteins are known ATP binding proteins. Our search for labeled peptides upon in-gel digest led to the discovery that the biotin moiety of the labeled peptides is oxidized. The in-gel analysis displayed kinase domains of two receptor-like kinases (RLKs) at a lower than expected molecular weight, indicating that these RLKs lost the extracellular domain, possibly as a result of receptor shedding. Analysis of modified peptides using a gel-free platform identified 242 different labeling sites for AcATP in the Arabidopsis proteome. Examination of each individual labeling site revealed a preference of labeling in ATP binding pockets for a broad diversity of ATP binding proteins. Of these, 24 labeled peptides were from a diverse range of protein kinases, including RLKs, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and calcium-dependent kinases. A significant portion of the labeling sites could not be assigned to known nucleotide binding sites. However, the fact that labeling could be competed with ATP indicates that these labeling sites might represent previously uncharacterized nucleotide binding sites. A plot of spectral counts against expression levels illustrates the high specificity of AcATP probes for protein kinases and known ATP binding proteins. This work introduces profiling of ATP binding activities of a large diversity of proteins in plant proteomes. The data have been deposited in ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD000188. PMID:23722185

  13. Defining the Role of ATP Hydrolysis in Mitotic Segregation of Bacterial Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Ah-Seng, Yoan; Rech, Jérôme; Lane, David; Bouet, Jean-Yves

    2013-01-01

    Hydrolysis of ATP by partition ATPases, although considered a key step in the segregation mechanism that assures stable inheritance of plasmids, is intrinsically very weak. The cognate centromere-binding protein (CBP), together with DNA, stimulates the ATPase to hydrolyse ATP and to undertake the relocation that incites plasmid movement, apparently confirming the need for hydrolysis in partition. However, ATP-binding alone changes ATPase conformation and properties, making it difficult to rigorously distinguish the substrate and cofactor roles of ATP in vivo. We had shown that mutation of arginines R36 and R42 in the F plasmid CBP, SopB, reduces stimulation of SopA-catalyzed ATP hydrolysis without changing SopA-SopB affinity, suggesting the role of hydrolysis could be analyzed using SopA with normal conformational responses to ATP. Here, we report that strongly reducing SopB-mediated stimulation of ATP hydrolysis results in only slight destabilization of mini-F, although the instability, as well as an increase in mini-F clustering, is proportional to the ATPase deficit. Unexpectedly, the reduced stimulation also increased the frequency of SopA relocation over the nucleoid. The increase was due to drastic shortening of the period spent by SopA at nucleoid ends; average speed of migration per se was unchanged. Reduced ATP hydrolysis was also associated with pronounced deviations in positioning of mini-F, though time-averaged positions changed only modestly. Thus, by specifically targeting SopB-stimulated ATP hydrolysis our study reveals that even at levels of ATPase which reduce the efficiency of splitting clusters and the constancy of plasmid positioning, SopB still activates SopA mobility and plasmid positioning, and sustains near wild type levels of plasmid stability. PMID:24367270

  14. ATP Binding and Hydrolysis Properties of ABCB10 and Their Regulation by Glutathione

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Wei; Liesa, Marc; Carpenter, Elizabeth P.; Shirihai, Orian S.

    2015-01-01

    ABCB10 (ATP binding cassette sub-family B10) is a mitochondrial inner-membrane ABC transporter. ABCB10 has been shown to protect the heart from the impact of ROS during ischemia-reperfusion and to allow for proper hemoglobin synthesis during erythroid development. ABC transporters are proteins that increase ATP binding and hydrolysis activity in the presence of the transported substrate. However, molecular entities transported by ABCB10 and its regulatory mechanisms are currently unknown. Here we characterized ATP binding and hydrolysis properties of ABCB10 by using the 8-azido-ATP photolabeling technique. This technique can identify potential ABCB10 regulators, transported substrates and amino-acidic residues required for ATP binding and hydrolysis. We confirmed that Gly497 and Lys498 in the Walker A motif, Glu624 in the Walker B motif and Gly602 in the C-Loop motif of ABCB10 are required for proper ATP binding and hydrolysis activity, as their mutation changed ABCB10 8-Azido-ATP photo-labeling. In addition, we show that the potential ABCB10 transported entity and heme precursor delta-aminolevulinic acid (dALA) does not alter 8-azido-ATP photo-labeling. In contrast, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) stimulates ATP hydrolysis without affecting ATP binding, whereas reduced glutathione (GSH) inhibits ATP binding and hydrolysis. Indeed, we detectABCB10 glutathionylation in Cys547 and show that it is one of the exposed cysteine residues within ABCB10 structure. In all, we characterize essential residues for ABCB10 ATPase activity and we provide evidence that supports the exclusion of dALA as a potential substrate directly transported by ABCB10. Last, we show the first molecular mechanism by which mitochondrial oxidative status, through GSH/GSSG, can regulate ABCB10. PMID:26053025

  15. Pyrazinoic acid decreases the proton motive force, respiratory ATP synthesis activity, and cellular ATP levels.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Haagsma, Anna C; Pham, Hoang; Maaskant, Janneke J; Mol, Selena; Lill, Holger; Bald, Dirk

    2011-11-01

    Pyrazinoic acid, the active form of the first-line antituberculosis drug pyrazinamide, decreased the proton motive force and respiratory ATP synthesis rates in subcellular mycobacterial membrane assays. Pyrazinoic acid also significantly lowered cellular ATP levels in Mycobacterium bovis BCG. These results indicate that the predominant mechanism of killing by this drug may operate by depletion of cellular ATP reserves.

  16. Trinitrophenyl-ATP blocks colonic Cl- channels in planar phospholipid bilayers. Evidence for two nucleotide binding sites

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Outwardly rectifying 30-50-pS Cl- channels mediate cell volume regulation and transepithelial transport. Several recent reports indicate that rectifying Cl- channels are blocked after addition of ATP to the extracellular bath (Alton, E. W. F. W., S. D. Manning, P. J. Schlatter, D. M. Geddes, and A. J. Williams. 1991. Journal of Physiology. 443:137-159; Paulmichl, M., Y. Li, K. Wickman, M. Ackerman, E. Peralta, and D. Clapham. 1992. Nature. 356:238-241). Therefore, we decided to conduct a more detailed study of the ATP binding site using a higher affinity probe. We tested the ATP derivative, 2',3',O-(2,4,6- trinitrocyclohexadienylidene) adenosine 5'-triphosphate (TNP-ATP), which has a high affinity for certain nucleotide binding sites. Here we report that TNP-ATP blocked colonic Cl- channels when added to either bath and that blockade was consistent with the closed-open-blocked kinetic model. The TNP-ATP concentration required for a 50% decrease in open probability was 0.27 microM from the extracellular (cis) side and 20 microM from the cytoplasmic (trans) side. Comparison of the off rate constants revealed that TNP-ATP remained bound 28 times longer when added to the extracellular side compared with the cytoplasmic side. We performed competition studies to determine if TNP-ATP binds to the same sites as ATP. Addition of ATP to the same bath containing TNP-ATP reduced channel amplitude and increased the time the channel spent in the open and fast-blocked states (i.e., burst duration). This is the result expected if TNP-ATP and ATP compete for block, presumably by binding to common sites. In contrast, addition of ATP to the bath opposite to the side containing TNP-ATP reduced amplitude but did not alter burst duration. This is the result expected if opposite-sided TNP- ATP and ATP bind to different sites. In summary, we have identified an ATP derivative that has a nearly 10-fold higher affinity for reconstituted rectifying colonic Cl- channels than any previously

  17. Decreased mitochondrial bioenergetics and calcium buffering capacity in the basal ganglia correlates with motor deficits in a nonhuman primate model of aging.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Jignesh D; Grondin, Richard; Yonutas, Heather M; Haghnazar, Hamed; Gash, Don M; Zhang, Zhiming; Sullivan, Patrick G

    2015-05-01

    Altered mitochondrial function in the basal ganglia has been hypothesized to underlie cellular senescence and promote age-related motor decline. We tested this hypothesis in a nonhuman primate model of human aging. Six young (6-8 years old) and 6 aged (20-25 years old) female Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were behaviorally characterized from standardized video records. Additionally, we measured mitochondrial bioenergetics along with calcium buffering capacity in the substantia nigra and putamen (PUT) from both age groups. Our results demonstrate that the aged animals had significantly reduced locomotor activity and movement speed compared with younger animals. Moreover, aged monkeys had significantly reduced ATP synthesis capacity (in substantia nigra and PUT), reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase activity (in PUT), and reduced calcium buffering capacity (in PUT) compared with younger animals. Furthermore, this age-related decline in mitochondrial function in the basal ganglia correlated with decline in motor function. Overall, our results suggest that drug therapies designed to enhance altered mitochondrial function may help improve motor deficits in the elderly.

  18. Children's Literature in the Basals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Maureen A.

    Three basal reading series, levels kindergarten through grade three, were studied to categorize the types of literature each contained. The following series were analyzed: "The Headway Program" (Open Court Publishing Company), "Series r Macmillan Reading," and "Basics in Reading" (Scott, Foresman and Company). It was…

  19. Teachers Reflect Standards in Basals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Dozens of teachers and literacy specialists from across the country hunkered down in Baltimore at round tables, with laptops, pens, and paper, intent on rewriting the collections that wield tremendous influence over the way millions of U.S. children learn literacy skills: the big-name basal readers. Hailing from 18 school districts in 11 states,…

  20. Children's Literature in the Basals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Maureen A.

    Three basal reading series, levels kindergarten through grade three, were studied to categorize the types of literature each contained. The following series were analyzed: "The Headway Program" (Open Court Publishing Company), "Series r Macmillan Reading," and "Basics in Reading" (Scott, Foresman and Company). It was…

  1. Teachers Reflect Standards in Basals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Dozens of teachers and literacy specialists from across the country hunkered down in Baltimore at round tables, with laptops, pens, and paper, intent on rewriting the collections that wield tremendous influence over the way millions of U.S. children learn literacy skills: the big-name basal readers. Hailing from 18 school districts in 11 states,…

  2. An Inhibitor of the δPKC Interaction with the d Subunit of F1Fo ATP Synthase Reduces Cardiac Troponin I Release from Ischemic Rat Hearts: Utility of a Novel Ammonium Sulfate Precipitation Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ogbi, Mourad; Obi, Ijeoma; Johnson, John A.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported protection against hypoxic injury by a cell-permeable, mitochondrially-targeted δPKC-d subunit of F1Fo ATPase (dF1Fo) interaction inhibitor [NH2-YGRKKRRQRRRMLA TRALSLIGKRAISTSVCAGRKLALKTIDWVSFDYKDDDDK-COOH] in neonatal cardiac myo-cytes. In the present work we demonstrate the partitioning of this peptide to the inner membrane and matrix of mitochondria when it is perfused into isolated rat hearts. We also used ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) and chloroform/methanol precipitation of heart effluents to demonstrate reduced card-iac troponin I (cTnI) release from ischemic rat hearts perfused with this inhibitor. 50% (NH4)2SO4 saturation of perfusates collected from Langendorff rat heart preparations optimally precipitated cTnI, allowing its detection in Western blots. In hearts receiving 20 min of ischemia followed by 30, or 60 min of reperfusion, the Mean±S.E. (n = 5) percentage of maximal cTnI release was 30±7 and 60±17, respectively, with additional cTnI release occurring after 150 min of reperfusion. Perfusion of hearts with the δPKC-dF1Fo interaction inhibitor, prior to 20 min of ischemia and 60–150 min of reperfusion, reduced cTnI release by 80%. Additionally, we found that when soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI), was added to rat heart effluents, it could also be precipitated using (NH4)2SO4 and detected in western blots. This provided a convenient method for normalizing protein recoveries between groups. Our results support the further development of the δPKC-dF1Fo inhibitor as a potential therapeutic for combating cardiac ischemic injury. In addition, we have developed an improved method for the detection of cTnI release from perfused rat hearts. PMID:23936451

  3. An inhibitor of the δPKC interaction with the d subunit of F1Fo ATP synthase reduces cardiac troponin I release from ischemic rat hearts: utility of a novel ammonium sulfate precipitation technique.

    PubMed

    Ogbi, Mourad; Obi, Ijeoma; Johnson, John A

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported protection against hypoxic injury by a cell-permeable, mitochondrially-targeted δPKC-d subunit of F1Fo ATPase (dF1Fo) interaction inhibitor [NH2-YGRKKRRQRRRMLA TRALSLIGKRAISTSVCAGRKLALKTIDWVSFDYKDDDDK-COOH] in neonatal cardiac myo-cytes. In the present work we demonstrate the partitioning of this peptide to the inner membrane and matrix of mitochondria when it is perfused into isolated rat hearts. We also used ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) and chloroform/methanol precipitation of heart effluents to demonstrate reduced card-iac troponin I (cTnI) release from ischemic rat hearts perfused with this inhibitor. 50% (NH4)2SO4 saturation of perfusates collected from Langendorff rat heart preparations optimally precipitated cTnI, allowing its detection in Western blots. In hearts receiving 20 min of ischemia followed by 30, or 60 min of reperfusion, the Mean±S.E. (n=5) percentage of maximal cTnI release was 30 ± 7 and 60 ± 17, respectively, with additional cTnI release occurring after 150 min of reperfusion. Perfusion of hearts with the δPKC-dF1Fo interaction inhibitor, prior to 20 min of ischemia and 60-150 min of reperfusion, reduced cTnI release by 80%. Additionally, we found that when soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI), was added to rat heart effluents, it could also be precipitated using (NH4)2SO4 and detected in western blots. This provided a convenient method for normalizing protein recoveries between groups. Our results support the further development of the δPKC-dF1Fo inhibitor as a potential therapeutic for combating cardiac ischemic injury. In addition, we have developed an improved method for the detection of cTnI release from perfused rat hearts.

  4. ATP Binding Turns Plant Cryptochrome Into an Efficient Natural Photoswitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Pavel; Bouly, Jean-Pierre; Hitomi, Kenichi; Balland, Véronique; Getzoff, Elizabeth D.; Ritz, Thorsten; Brettel, Klaus

    2014-06-01

    Cryptochromes are flavoproteins that drive diverse developmental light-responses in plants and participate in the circadian clock in animals. Plant cryptochromes have found application as photoswitches in optogenetics. We have studied effects of pH and ATP on the functionally relevant photoreduction of the oxidized FAD cofactor to the semi-reduced FADH. radical in isolated Arabidopsis cryptochrome 1 by transient absorption spectroscopy on nanosecond to millisecond timescales. In the absence of ATP, the yield of light-induced radicals strongly decreased with increasing pH from 6.5 to 8.5. With ATP present, these yields were significantly higher and virtually pH-independent up to pH 9. Analysis of our data in light of the crystallographic structure suggests that ATP-binding shifts the pKa of aspartic acid D396, the putative proton donor to FAD.-, from ~7.4 to >9, and favours a reaction pathway yielding long-lived aspartate D396-. Its negative charge could trigger conformational changes necessary for signal transduction.

  5. ATP Binding Turns Plant Cryptochrome Into an Efficient Natural Photoswitch

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Pavel; Bouly, Jean-Pierre; Hitomi, Kenichi; Balland, Véronique; Getzoff, Elizabeth D.; Ritz, Thorsten; Brettel, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Cryptochromes are flavoproteins that drive diverse developmental light-responses in plants and participate in the circadian clock in animals. Plant cryptochromes have found application as photoswitches in optogenetics. We have studied effects of pH and ATP on the functionally relevant photoreduction of the oxidized FAD cofactor to the semi-reduced FADH· radical in isolated Arabidopsis cryptochrome 1 by transient absorption spectroscopy on nanosecond to millisecond timescales. In the absence of ATP, the yield of light-induced radicals strongly decreased with increasing pH from 6.5 to 8.5. With ATP present, these yields were significantly higher and virtually pH-independent up to pH 9. Analysis of our data in light of the crystallographic structure suggests that ATP-binding shifts the pKa of aspartic acid D396, the putative proton donor to FAD·−, from ~7.4 to >9, and favours a reaction pathway yielding long-lived aspartate D396−. Its negative charge could trigger conformational changes necessary for signal transduction. PMID:24898692

  6. ATP-triggered anticancer drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Ran; Jiang, Tianyue; Disanto, Rocco; Tai, Wanyi; Gu, Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Stimuli-triggered drug delivery systems have been increasingly used to promote physiological specificity and on-demand therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Here we utilize adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) as a trigger for the controlled release of anticancer drugs. We demonstrate that polymeric nanocarriers functionalized with an ATP-binding aptamer-incorporated DNA motif can selectively release the intercalating doxorubicin via a conformational switch when in an ATP-rich environment. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of ATP-responsive nanovehicles is 0.24 μM in MDA-MB-231 cells, a 3.6-fold increase in the cytotoxicity compared with that of non-ATP-responsive nanovehicles. Equipped with an outer shell crosslinked by hyaluronic acid, a specific tumour-targeting ligand, the ATP-responsive nanocarriers present an improvement in the chemotherapeutic inhibition of tumour growth using xenograft MDA-MB-231 tumour-bearing mice. This ATP-triggered drug release system provides a more sophisticated drug delivery system, which can differentiate ATP levels to facilitate the selective release of drugs.

  7. ATP in the pathogenesis of lung emphysema.

    PubMed

    Mortaz, Esmaeil; Braber, Saskia; Nazary, Maiwand; Givi, Masoumh Ezzati; Nijkamp, Frans P; Folkerts, Gert

    2009-10-01

    Extracellular ATP is a signaling molecule that often serves as a danger signal to alert the immune system of tissue damage. This molecule activates P2 nucleotide receptors, that include the ionotropic P2X receptors and metabotropic P2Y receptors. Recently, it has been reported that ATP accumulates in the airways of both asthmatic patients and sensitized mice after allergen challenge. The role and function of ATP in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) are not well understood. In this study we investigated the effect of cigarette smoke on purinergic receptors and ATP release by neutrophils. Neutrophils and their mediators are key players in the pathogenesis of lung emphysema. Here we demonstrated that in an in vivo model of cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema, the amount of ATP was increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Moreover, activation of neutrophils with cigarette smoke extract induced ATP release. Treatment of neutrophils with apyrase (catalyses the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP) and suramin (P2-receptor antagonist) abrogated the release of CXCL8 and elastase induced by cigarette smoke extract and exogenous ATP. These observations indicate that activation of purinergic signaling by cigarette smoke may take part in the pathogenesis of lung emphysema.

  8. ATP synthase: two motors, two fuels.

    PubMed

    Oster, G; Wang, H

    1999-04-15

    FoF1 ATPase is the universal protein responsible for ATP synthesis. The enzyme comprises two reversible rotary motors: Fo is either an ion 'turbine' or an ion pump, and F1 is either a hydrolysis motor or an ATP synthesizer. Recent biophysical and biochemical studies have helped to elucidate the operating principles for both motors.

  9. A lipid switch unlocks Parkinson’s disease-associated ATP13A2

    PubMed Central

    Holemans, Tine; Sørensen, Danny Mollerup; van Veen, Sarah; Martin, Shaun; Hermans, Diane; Kemmer, Gerdi Christine; Van den Haute, Chris; Baekelandt, Veerle; Günther Pomorski, Thomas; Agostinis, Patrizia; Wuytack, Frank; Palmgren, Michael; Eggermont, Jan; Vangheluwe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    ATP13A2 is a lysosomal P-type transport ATPase that has been implicated in Kufor–Rakeb syndrome and Parkinson’s disease (PD), providing protection against α-synuclein, Mn2+, and Zn2+ toxicity in various model systems. So far, the molecular function and regulation of ATP13A2 remains undetermined. Here, we demonstrate that ATP13A2 contains a unique N-terminal hydrophobic extension that lies on the cytosolic membrane surface of the lysosome, where it interacts with the lysosomal signaling lipids phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylinositol(3,5)bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2]. We further demonstrate that ATP13A2 accumulates in an inactive autophosphorylated state and that PA and PI(3,5)P2 stimulate the autophosphorylation of ATP13A2. In a cellular model of PD, only catalytically active ATP13A2 offers cellular protection against rotenone-induced mitochondrial stress, which relies on the availability of PA and PI(3,5)P2. Thus, the N-terminal binding of PA and PI(3,5)P2 emerges as a key to unlock the activity of ATP13A2, which may offer a therapeutic strategy to activate ATP13A2 and thereby reduce α-synuclein toxicity or mitochondrial stress in PD or related disorders. PMID:26134396

  10. MRP transporters as membrane machinery in the bradykinin-inducible export of ATP.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yumei; Migita, Keisuke; Sun, Jing; Katsuragi, Takeshi

    2010-04-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) plays the role of an autocrine/paracrine signal molecule in a variety of cells. So far, however, the membrane machinery in the export of intracellular ATP remains poorly understood. Activation of B2-receptor with bradykinin-induced massive release of ATP from cultured taenia coli smooth muscle cells. The evoked release of ATP was unaffected by gap junction hemichannel blockers, such as 18alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid and Gap 26. Furthermore, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) coupled Cl(-) channel blockers, CFTR(inh)172, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid, Gd3(+) and glibenclamide, failed to suppress the export of ATP by bradykinin. On the other, the evoked release of ATP was greatly reduced by multidrug resistance protein (MRP) transporter inhibitors, MK-571, indomethacin, and benzbromarone. From western blotting analysis, blots of MRP 1 protein only, but not MRP 2 and MRP 3 protein, appeared at 190 kD. However, the MRP 1 protein expression was not enhanced after loading with 1 muM bradykinin for 5 min. Likewise, niflumic acid and fulfenamic acid, Ca2(+)-activated Cl(-) channel blockers, largely abated the evoked release of ATP. The possibility that the MRP transporter system couples with Ca2(+)-activated Cl(-) channel activities is discussed here. These findings suggest that MRP transporters, probably MRP 1, unlike CFTR-Cl(-) channels and gap junction hemichannels, may contribute as membrane machinery to the export of ATP induced by G-protein-coupled receptor stimulation.

  11. Uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) contributes to the basal proton conductance of brown adipose tissue mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Parker, Nadeene; Crichton, Paul G; Vidal-Puig, Antonio J; Brand, Martin D

    2009-08-01

    Proton leak pathways uncouple substrate oxidation from ATP synthesis in mitochondria. These pathways are classified as basal (not regulated) or inducible (activated and inhibited). Previously it was found that over half of the basal proton conductance of muscle mitochondria was catalyzed by the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), an abundant mitochondrial anion carrier protein. To determine whether ANT is the unique protein catalyst, or one of many proteins that catalyze basal proton conductance, we measured proton leak kinetics in mitochondria isolated from brown adipose tissue (BAT). BAT can express another mitochondrial anion carrier, UCP1, at concentrations similar to ANT. Basal proton conductance was measured under conditions where UCP1 and ANT were catalytically inactive and was found to be lower in mitochondria from UCP1 knockout mice compared to wild-type. Ablation of another abundant inner membrane protein, nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase, had no effect on proton leak kinetics in mitochondria from liver, kidney or muscle, showing that basal proton conductance is not catalyzed by all membrane proteins. We identify UCP1 as a second protein propagating basal proton leak, lending support to the hypothesis that basal leak pathways are perpetrated by members of the mitochondrial anion carrier family but not by other mitochondrial inner membrane proteins.

  12. Nifedipine Treatment Reduces Resting Calcium Concentration, Oxidative and Apoptotic Gene Expression, and Improves Muscle Function in Dystrophic mdx Mice

    PubMed Central

    Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Casas, Mariana; López, Jose R.; Allen, Paul D.; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a recessive X-linked genetic disease, caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin. DMD is characterized in humans and in mdx mice by a severe and progressive destruction of muscle fibers, inflammation, oxidative/nitrosative stress, and cell death. In mdx muscle fibers, we have shown that basal ATP release is increased and that extracellular ATP stimulation is pro-apoptotic. In normal fibers, depolarization-induced ATP release is blocked by nifedipine, leading us to study the potential therapeutic effect of nifedipine in mdx muscles and its relation with extracellular ATP signaling. Acute exposure to nifedipine (10 µM) decreased [Ca2+]r, NF-κB activity and iNOS expression in mdx myotubes. In addition, 6-week-old mdx mice were treated with daily intraperitoneal injections of nifedipine, 1 mg/Kg for 1 week. This treatment lowered the [Ca2+]r measured in vivo in the mdx vastus lateralis. We demonstrated that extracellular ATP levels were higher in adult mdx flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) fibers and can be significantly reduced after 1 week of treatment with nifedipine. Interestingly, acute treatment of mdx FDB fibers with apyrase, an enzyme that completely degrades extracellular ATP to AMP, reduced [Ca2+]r to a similar extent as was seen in FDB fibers after 1-week of nifedipine treatment. Moreover, we demonstrated that nifedipine treatment reduced mRNA levels of pro-oxidative/nitrosative (iNOS and gp91phox/p47phox NOX2 subunits) and pro-apoptotic (Bax) genes in mdx diaphragm muscles and lowered serum creatine kinase (CK) levels. In addition, nifedipine treatment increased muscle strength assessed by the inverted grip-hanging test and exercise tolerance measured with forced swimming test in mdx mice. We hypothesize that nifedipine reduces basal ATP release, thereby decreasing purinergic receptor activation, which in turn reduces [Ca2+]r in mdx skeletal muscle cells. The results in this work open new perspectives towards

  13. Nifedipine treatment reduces resting calcium concentration, oxidative and apoptotic gene expression, and improves muscle function in dystrophic mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Altamirano, Francisco; Valladares, Denisse; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Casas, Mariana; López, Jose R; Allen, Paul D; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a recessive X-linked genetic disease, caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin. DMD is characterized in humans and in mdx mice by a severe and progressive destruction of muscle fibers, inflammation, oxidative/nitrosative stress, and cell death. In mdx muscle fibers, we have shown that basal ATP release is increased and that extracellular ATP stimulation is pro-apoptotic. In normal fibers, depolarization-induced ATP release is blocked by nifedipine, leading us to study the potential therapeutic effect of nifedipine in mdx muscles and its relation with extracellular ATP signaling. Acute exposure to nifedipine (10 µM) decreased [Ca(2+)]r, NF-κB activity and iNOS expression in mdx myotubes. In addition, 6-week-old mdx mice were treated with daily intraperitoneal injections of nifedipine, 1 mg/Kg for 1 week. This treatment lowered the [Ca(2+)]r measured in vivo in the mdx vastus lateralis. We demonstrated that extracellular ATP levels were higher in adult mdx flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) fibers and can be significantly reduced after 1 week of treatment with nifedipine. Interestingly, acute treatment of mdx FDB fibers with apyrase, an enzyme that completely degrades extracellular ATP to AMP, reduced [Ca(2+)]r to a similar extent as was seen in FDB fibers after 1-week of nifedipine treatment. Moreover, we demonstrated that nifedipine treatment reduced mRNA levels of pro-oxidative/nitrosative (iNOS and gp91(phox)/p47(phox) NOX2 subunits) and pro-apoptotic (Bax) genes in mdx diaphragm muscles and lowered serum creatine kinase (CK) levels. In addition, nifedipine treatment increased muscle strength assessed by the inverted grip-hanging test and exercise tolerance measured with forced swimming test in mdx mice. We hypothesize that nifedipine reduces basal ATP release, thereby decreasing purinergic receptor activation, which in turn reduces [Ca(2+)]r in mdx skeletal muscle cells. The results in this work open new perspectives

  14. Mice lacking hypertension candidate gene ATP2B1 in vascular smooth muscle cells show significant blood pressure elevation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yusuke; Hirawa, Nobuhito; Tabara, Yasuharu; Muraoka, Hidenori; Fujita, Megumi; Miyazaki, Nobuko; Fujiwara, Akira; Ichikawa, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Yuichiro; Ichihara, Naoaki; Saka, Sanae; Wakui, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Shin-ichiro; Yatsu, Keisuke; Toya, Yoshiyuki; Yasuda, Gen; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Kita, Yoshikuni; Takei, Kohtaro; Goshima, Yoshio; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Miki, Tetsuro; Umemura, Satoshi

    2012-04-01

    We reported previously that ATP2B1 was one of the genes for hypertension receptivity in a large-scale Japanese population, which has been replicated recently in Europeans and Koreans. ATP2B1 encodes the plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoform 1, which plays a critical role in intracellular calcium homeostasis. In addition, it is suggested that ATP2B1 plays a major role in vascular smooth muscle contraction. Because the ATP2B1 knockout (KO) mouse is embryo-lethal, we generated mice with vascular smooth muscle cell-specific KO of ATP2B1 using the Cre-loxP system to clarify the relationship between ATP2B1 and hypertension. The KO mice expressed significantly lower levels of ATP2B1 mRNA and protein in the aorta compared with control mice. KO mice showed significantly higher systolic blood pressure as measured by tail-cuff method and radiotelemetric method. Similar to ATP2B1, the expression of the Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger isoform 1 mRNA was decreased in vascular smooth muscle cells of KO mice. However, ATP2B4 expression was increased in KO mice. The cultured vascular smooth muscle cells of KO mice showed increased intracellular calcium concentration not only in basal condition but also in phenylephrine-stimulated condition. Furthermore, phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction was significantly increased in vascular rings of the femoral artery of KO mice. These results suggest that ATP2B1 plays important roles in the regulation of blood pressure through alteration of calcium handling and vasoconstriction in vascular smooth muscle cells.

  15. [ATP in the metabolism of ruminants].

    PubMed

    Bergner, H

    1991-10-01

    The ATP yield from the carbohydrates of anaerobically living microorganisms in the rumen amounts to only 5-10% of the ATP yield of the intermediary metabolism in the presence of oxygen. Vital functions and thus microbial protein synthesis are due to protein degradation in the rumen. The ATP yield in the intermediary metabolism of ruminants is mainly achieved from propionate and microbial protein by means of gluconeogenesis because the absorption of glucose from digested starch is very low. The relationships between ATP yield in the rumen and the processes of glucose provision for the production of lactose as well as the protein content of the milk are shown. As important processes of ATP production in microorganisms from easily soluble carbohydrates take place in silage preparations before feed intake, the corresponding consequences for the metabolism of high-performance cows fed with silage are shown.

  16. Pannexin 1 channels mediate the release of ATP into the lumen of the rat urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Beckel, Jonathan M; Daugherty, Stephanie L; Tyagi, Pradeep; Wolf-Johnston, Amanda S; Birder, Lori A; Mitchell, Claire H; de Groat, William C

    2015-01-01

    ATP is released from the bladder epithelium, also termed the urothelium, in response to mechanical or chemical stimuli. Although numerous studies have described the contribution of this release to the development of various bladder disorders, little information exists regarding the mechanisms of release. In the present study, we examined the role of pannexin channels in mechanically-induced ATP release from the urothelium. PCR confirmed the presence of pannexin 1 and 2 mRNA in rat urothelial tissue, whereas immunofluorescence experiments localized pannexin 1 to all three layers of the urothelium. During continuous bladder cystometry in anaesthetized rats, inhibition of pannexin 1 channels using carbenoxolone (CBX) or Brilliant Blue FCF (BB-FCF) (1–100 μm, intravesically), or by using intravesical small interfering RNA, increased the interval between voiding contractions. Intravenous administration of BB-FCF (1–100 μg kg−1) did not alter bladder activity. CBX or BB-FCF (100 μm intravesically) also decreased basal ATP concentrations in the perfusate from non-distended bladders and inhibited increases in ATP concentrations in response to bladder distension (15 and 30 cmH2O pressure). Intravesical perfusion of the ATP diphosphohydrolase apyrase (2 U ml−1), or the ATPase inhibitor ARL67156 (10 μm) increased or decreased reflex bladder activity, respectively. Intravesical instillation of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) (Escherichia coli 055:B5, 100 μg ml−1) increased ATP concentrations in the bladder perfusate, and also increased voiding frequency; these effects were suppressed by BB-FCF. These data indicate that pannexin channels contribute to distension- or LPS-evoked ATP release into the lumen of the bladder and that luminal release can modulate voiding function. PMID:25630792

  17. Activated sludge optimization using ATP in pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Bäckman, Göran; Gytel, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    The activated sludge process is an old technology, but still the most commonly used one for treatment of wastewater. Despite the wide spread usage the technology still suffers from instability (Tandoi et al. 2006) and high operating cost. Activated sludge processes often carry a large solids inventory. Managing the total inventory without interference is the key component of the optimization process described in this paper. Use of nutrients is common in pulp and paper effluent treatment. Feeding enough nutrients to support the biomass growth is a delicate balance. Overfeeding or underfeeding of nutrients can result in higher costs. Detrimental substances and toxic components in effluents entering a biological treatment system can cause severe, long lasting disturbances (Hynninen & Ingman 1998; Bergeron & Pelletier 2004). A LumiKem test kit is used to measure biological activity with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in a pulp and paper mill. ATP data are integrated with other standardized mill parameters. Measurements of active volatile suspended solids based on ATP can be used to quantify the living biomass in the activated sludge process and to ensure that sufficient biomass is present in order to degrade the wastewater constituents entering the process. Information about active biomass will assist in optimizing sludge inventories and feeding of nutrients allowing the living biomass to re-populate to create optimal efficiency. ATP measurements can also be used to alert operators if any components toxic to bacteria are present in wastewater. The bio stress index represents the stress level experienced by the microbiological population. This parameter is very useful in monitoring toxicity in and around bioreactors. Results from the wastewater process optimization and ATP measurements showed that treatment cost could be reduced by approximately 20-30% with fewer disturbances and sustained biological activity compared to the reference period. This was mainly achieved by

  18. Homocysteine induces cardiac hypertrophy by up-regulating ATP7a expression

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhanwei; Zhang, Yanzhou; Sun, Tongwen; Zhang, Shuguang; Yu, Weiya; Zhu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the study is to investigate the molecular mechanism by which homocysteine (Hcy) induces cardiac hypertrophy. Methods: Primary cardiomyocytes were obtained from baby Sprague-Dawley rats within 3 days after birth. Flow cytometry was used to measure cell sizes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure the expression of β-myosin heavy chain and atrial natriuretic peptide genes. Western blotting assay was employed to determine ATP7a protein expression. Cytochrome C oxidase (COX) activity test was used to evaluate the activity of COX. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was performed to determine copper content. siRNAs were used to target-silence the expression of ATP7a. Results: Hcy induced cardiac hypertrophy and increased the expression of cardiac hypertrophy-related genes. ATP7a was a key factor in cardiac hypertrophy induced by Hcy. Reduced ATP7a expression inhibited cardiac hypertrophy induced by Hcy. Elevated ATP7a expression induced by Hcy inhibited COX activity. Enhanced ATP7a expression inhibited COX activity by lowering intracellular copper content. Conclusions: Hcy elevates ATP7a protein expression, reduces copper content, and lowers COX activity, finally leading to cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:26722473

  19. Marine ice sheet model performance depends on basal sliding physics and sub-shelf melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, Rupert Michael; Warner, Roland Charles; Galton-Fenzi, Benjamin Keith; Gagliardini, Olivier; Zwinger, Thomas; Greve, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Computer models are necessary for understanding and predicting marine ice sheet behaviour. However, there is uncertainty over implementation of physical processes at the ice base, both for grounded and floating glacial ice. Here we implement several sliding relations in a marine ice sheet flow-line model accounting for all stress components and demonstrate that model resolution requirements are strongly dependent on both the choice of basal sliding relation and the spatial distribution of ice shelf basal melting.Sliding relations that reduce the magnitude of the step change in basal drag from grounded ice to floating ice (where basal drag is set to zero) show reduced dependence on resolution compared to a commonly used relation, in which basal drag is purely a power law function of basal ice velocity. Sliding relations in which basal drag goes smoothly to zero as the grounding line is approached from inland (due to a physically motivated incorporation of effective pressure at the bed) provide further reduction in resolution dependence.A similar issue is found with the imposition of basal melt under the floating part of the ice shelf: melt parameterisations that reduce the abruptness of change in basal melting from grounded ice (where basal melt is set to zero) to floating ice provide improved convergence with resolution compared to parameterisations in which high melt occurs adjacent to the grounding line.Thus physical processes, such as sub-glacial outflow (which could cause high melt near the grounding line), impact on capability to simulate marine ice sheets. If there exists an abrupt change across the grounding line in either basal drag or basal melting, then high resolution will be required to solve the problem. However, the plausible combination of a physical dependency of basal drag on effective pressure, and the possibility of low ice shelf basal melt rates next to the grounding line, may mean that some marine ice sheet systems can be reliably simulated at

  20. Epidemiology of basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chinem, Valquiria Pessoa; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant neoplasm in humans and its incidence has increased over the last decades. Its high frequency significantly burdens the health system, making the disease a public health issue. Despite the low mortality rates and the rare occurrence of metastases, the tumor may be locally invasive and relapse after treatment, causing significant morbidity. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the main environmental risk factor associated with its cause. However, other elements of risk are described, such as light skin phototypes, advanced age, family history of skin carcinoma, light eyes and blond hair, freckles in childhood and immunosuppression. Behavioral aspects such as occupational sun exposure, rural labor and sunburns at a young age also play a role. Between 30% and 75% of the sporadic cases are associated with patched hedgehog gene mutation, but other genetic changes are also described. The tumor is commonly found in concomitance with skin lesions related to chronic sun exposure, such as actinic keratoses, solar lentigines and facial telangiectasia. The prevention of basal cell carcinoma is based on the knowledge of risk factors, early diagnosis and treatment, as well as on the adoption of specific measures, particularly in susceptible populations. The authors present a review of the epidemiology of basal cell carcinoma.

  1. ATP counteracts the rundown of gap junctional channels of rat ventricular myocytes by promoting protein phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Verrecchia, F; Duthe, F; Duval, S; Duchatelle, I; Sarrouilhe, D; Herve, J C

    1999-04-15

    1. The degree of cell-to-cell coupling between ventricular myocytes of neonatal rats appeared well preserved when studied in the perforated version of the patch clamp technique or, in double whole-cell conditions, when ATP was present in the patch pipette solution. In contrast, when ATP was omitted, the amplitude of junctional current rapidly declined (rundown). 2. To examine the mechanism(s) of ATP action, an 'internal perfusion technique' was adapted to dual patch clamp conditions, and reintroduction of ATP partially reversed the rundown of junctional channels. 3. Cell-to-cell communication was not preserved by a non-hydrolysable ATP analogue (5'-adenylimidodiphosphate, AMP-PNP), indicating that the effect most probably did not involve direct interaction of ATP with the channel-forming proteins. 4. An ATP analogue supporting protein phosphorylation but not active transport processes (adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate), ATPgammaS) maintained normal intercellular communication, suggesting that the effect was due to kinase activity rather than to altered intracellular Ca2+. 5. A broad spectrum inhibitor of endogenous serine/threonine protein kinases (H7) reversibly reduced the intercellular coupling. A non-specific exogenous protein phosphatase (alkaline phosphatase) mimicked the effects of ATP deprivation. The non-specific inhibition of endogenous protein phosphatases resulted in the preservation of substantial cell-to-cell communication in ATP-free conditions. 6. The activity of gap junctional channels appears to require both the presence of ATP and protein kinase activity to counteract the tonic activity of endogenous phosphatase(s).

  2. Effect of dibutyltin on ATP levels in human natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Dudimah, Fred D; Gibson, Constance; Whalen, Margaret M

    2007-04-01

    This study investigates the role that decreased ATP levels may play in dibutyltin (DBT)-induced decreases in the tumor-cell-lysing (lytic) function of natural killer (NK) cells. NK cells are a subset of lymphocytes capable of killing tumor cells, virally infected cells, and antibody coated cells. DBT is used as stabilizer in PVC plastics and has also been used as a deworming product in poultry. NK cells were exposed to various concentrations of DBT for 1 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 6 days before determining ATP levels and lytic function. ATP levels and lytic function were also determined in NK cells that were exposed to DBT for 1 h followed by 24 h, 48 h, and 6 days in DBT-free media. The results indicated that exposure of NK cells to 10 muM DBT for 1 h did not cause any significant decrease in NK cell ATP levels but did cause a very significant loss in lytic function. NK cells exposed to 500 nM DBT for 24 h showed significant loss of lytic function but showed no decrease in ATP levels. However, 48 h and 6 days exposures to those concentrations of DBT that caused decreases in tumor lysing function also caused significant decreases in ATP levels. Exposures of NK cells to varying DBT concentrations for 1 h followed by 24 h, 48 h, and 6 days in DBT free media produced effects on lytic function and ATP levels that were similar to those seen with continuous DBT exposures. The results indicate that DBT exposures decrease ATP levels in NK cells but that tumor lysing function can be reduced independent of any decreases in ATP levels. Additionally the results show that the effects of a range of DBT concentrations on ATP levels and tumor lysing function are irreversible.

  3. Metal-Dependent Regulation of ATP7A and ATP7B in Fibroblast Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Lenartowicz, Malgorzata; Moos, Torben; Ogórek, Mateusz; Jensen, Thomas G.; Møller, Lisbeth B.

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of one of the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B leads to the rare X-linked disorder Menkes Disease (MD) or the rare autosomal disorder Wilson disease (WD), respectively. In order to investigate whether the ATP7A and the ATP7B genes may be transcriptionally regulated, we measured the expression level of the two genes at various concentrations of iron, copper, and insulin. Treating fibroblasts from controls or from individuals with MD or WD for 3 and 10 days with iron chelators revealed that iron deficiency led to increased transcript levels of both ATP7A and ATP7B. Copper deficiency obtained by treatment with the copper chelator led to a downregulation of ATP7A in the control fibroblasts, but surprisingly not in the WD fibroblasts. In contrast, the addition of copper led to an increased expression of ATP7A, but a decreased expression of ATP7B. Thus, whereas similar regulation patterns for the two genes were observed in response to iron deficiency, different responses were observed after changes in the access to copper. Mosaic fibroblast cultures from female carriers of MD treated with copper or copper chelator for 6–8 weeks led to clonal selection. Cells that express the normal ATP7A allele had a selective growth advantage at high copper concentrations, whereas more surprisingly, cells that express the mutant ATP7A allele had a selective growth advantage at low copper concentrations. Thus, although the transcription of ATP7A is regulated by copper, clonal growth selection in mosaic cell cultures is affected by the level of copper. Female carriers of MD are rarely affected probably due to a skewed inactivation of the X-chromosome bearing the ATP7A mutation. PMID:27587995

  4. Aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibition combined with phenformin treatment reversed NSCLC through ATP depletion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Seon; Nam, Boas; Seong, Tae Wha; Son, Jaekyoung; Jang, Hyonchol; Hong, Kyeong Man; Lee, Cheolju; Kim, Soo-Youl

    2016-01-01

    Among ALDH isoforms, ALDH1L1 in the folate pathway showed highly increased expression in non-small-cell lung cancer cells (NSCLC). Based on the basic mechanism of ALDH converting aldehyde to carboxylic acid with by-product NADH, we suggested that ALDH1L1 may contribute to ATP production using NADH through oxidative phosphorylation. ALDH1L1 knockdown reduced ATP production by up to 60% concomitantly with decrease of NADH in NSCLC. ALDH inhibitor, gossypol, also reduced ATP production in a dose dependent manner together with decrease of NADH level in NSCLC. A combination treatment of gossypol with phenformin, mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, synergized ATP depletion, which efficiently induced cell death. Pre-clinical xenograft model using human NSCLC demonstrated a remarkable therapeutic response to the combined treatment of gossypol and phenformin. PMID:27384481

  5. Basal cell nevus syndrome - plantar pits (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pits in the palms and soles, and numerous basal cell carcinomas (skin cancers). This picture is a close-up of the pits found on the sole of the foot of an individual with basal cell nevus syndrome.

  6. The human airway epithelial basal cell transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Neil R; Shaykhiev, Renat; Walters, Matthew S; Wang, Rui; Zwick, Rachel K; Ferris, Barbara; Witover, Bradley; Salit, Jacqueline; Crystal, Ronald G

    2011-05-04

    The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population. Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the "human airway basal cell signature" as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels. The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of the stem/progenitor cells of the human airway epithelium.

  7. The Human Airway Epithelial Basal Cell Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Zwick, Rachel K.; Ferris, Barbara; Witover, Bradley; Salit, Jacqueline; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    Background The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population. Methodology/Principal Findings Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the “human airway basal cell signature” as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels. Conclusion/Significance The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of the stem

  8. Bioluminescence microscopy: application to ATP measurements in single living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brau, Frederic; Helle, Pierre; Bernengo, Jean C.

    1997-12-01

    Bioluminescence microscopy can be used to measure intracellular cofactors and ionic concentrations (Ca2+, K+, ATP, NADH), as an alternative to micro- spectrophotometry and micro-fluorimetry, due to the development of sensitive detectors (cooled photomultipliers tubes and CCD). The main limitation comes from the very small and brief intensity of the emitted light. Our instrumentation based on an inverted microscope, equipped with high aperture immersion lenses is presented. Light intensity measurements are carried out through a photomultiplier sorted for low dark current and cooled at -5 degree(s)C to reduce thermal noise. Our first aim is to quantify ATP on single living cells using the firefly luciferin-luciferase couple. Experimental and kinetic aspects are presented to emphasize the potentialities of the technique.

  9. An RNA motif that binds ATP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassanfar, M.; Szostak, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    RNAs that contain specific high-affinity binding sites for small molecule ligands immobilized on a solid support are present at a frequency of roughly one in 10(10)-10(11) in pools of random sequence RNA molecules. Here we describe a new in vitro selection procedure designed to ensure the isolation of RNAs that bind the ligand of interest in solution as well as on a solid support. We have used this method to isolate a remarkably small RNA motif that binds ATP, a substrate in numerous biological reactions and the universal biological high-energy intermediate. The selected ATP-binding RNAs contain a consensus sequence, embedded in a common secondary structure. The binding properties of ATP analogues and modified RNAs show that the binding interaction is characterized by a large number of close contacts between the ATP and RNA, and by a change in the conformation of the RNA.

  10. Customized ATP towpreg. [Automated Tow Placement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandusky, Donald A.; Marchello, Joseph M.; Baucom, Robert M.; Johnston, Norman J.

    1992-01-01

    Automated tow placement (ATP) utilizes robotic technology to lay down adjacent polymer-matrix-impregnated carbon fiber tows on a tool surface. Consolidation and cure during ATP requires that void elimination and polymer matrix adhesion be accomplished in the short period of heating and pressure rolling that follows towpreg ribbon placement from the robot head to the tool. This study examined the key towpreg ribbon properties and dimensions which play a significant role in ATP. Analysis of the heat transfer process window indicates that adequate heating can be achieved at lay down rates as high as 1 m/sec. While heat transfer did not appear to be the limiting factor, resin flow and fiber movement into tow lap gaps could be. Accordingly, consideration was given to towpreg ribbon having uniform yet non-rectangular cross sections. Dimensional integrity of the towpreg ribbon combined with customized ribbon architecture offer great promise for processing advances in ATP of high performance composites.

  11. An RNA motif that binds ATP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassanfar, M.; Szostak, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    RNAs that contain specific high-affinity binding sites for small molecule ligands immobilized on a solid support are present at a frequency of roughly one in 10(10)-10(11) in pools of random sequence RNA molecules. Here we describe a new in vitro selection procedure designed to ensure the isolation of RNAs that bind the ligand of interest in solution as well as on a solid support. We have used this method to isolate a remarkably small RNA motif that binds ATP, a substrate in numerous biological reactions and the universal biological high-energy intermediate. The selected ATP-binding RNAs contain a consensus sequence, embedded in a common secondary structure. The binding properties of ATP analogues and modified RNAs show that the binding interaction is characterized by a large number of close contacts between the ATP and RNA, and by a change in the conformation of the RNA.

  12. Cleanup MAC and MBA code ATP

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-10-17

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) and Material Balance (MBA) database system had some minor code cleanup performed to its code. This ATP describes how the code was to be tested to verify its correctness.

  13. The Rotary Mechanism of the ATP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Robert K.; Scanlon, Joanne A. Baylis; Al-Shawi, Marwan K.

    2008-01-01

    The FOF1 ATP synthase is a large complex of at least 22 subunits, more than half of which are in the membranous FO sector. This nearly ubiquitous transporter is responsible for the majority of ATP synthesis in oxidative and photo-phosphorylation, and its overall structure and mechanism have remained conserved throughout evolution. Most examples utilize the proton motive force to drive ATP synthesis except for a few bacteria, which use a sodium motive force. A remarkable feature of the complex is the rotary movement of an assembly of subunits that plays essential roles in both transport and catalytic mechanisms. This review addresses the role of rotation in catalysis of ATP synthesis/hydrolysis and the transport of protons or sodium. PMID:18515057

  14. Examining Dictionary Instruction in Basal Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Peter J. L.; And Others

    This study explored the nature of dictionary instruction in several basal reading series. Three basal reading series from major academic publishers (Scott Foresman, Ginn, and Holt) with 1989 copyrights, were selected for detailed analysis. Results indicated that even where the professed aim of the basal reading series was to incorporate dictionary…

  15. Basal cell nevus syndrome or Gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thalakoti, Srikanth; Geller, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) or Gorlin syndrome is a rare neurocutaneous syndrome sometimes known as the fifth phacomatosis, inherited in autosomal dominant fashion with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Gorlin syndrome is characterized by development of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, calcification of falx cerebri, various developmental skeletal abnormalities such as bifid rib, hemi- or bifid vertebra and predisposition to the development of various tumors. BCNS is caused by a mutation in the PTCH1 gene localized to 9q22.3. Its estimated prevalence varies between 1/55600 and 1/256000 with an equal male to female ratio. The medulloblastoma variant seen in Gorlin syndrome patients is of the desmoplastic type, characteristically presenting during the first 3 years of life. Therefore, children with desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be carefully screened for other features of BCNS. Radiation therapy for desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be avoided in BCNS patients as it may induce development of invasive BCCs and other tumors in the skin area exposed to radiation. This syndrome is a multisystem disorder so involvement of multiple specialists with a multimodal approach to detect and treat various manifestations at early stages will reduce the long-term sequelae and severity of the condition. Life expectancy is not significantly altered but morbidity from complications and cosmetic scarring can be substantial.

  16. The basal ganglia and apraxia.

    PubMed

    Pramstaller, P P; Marsden, C D

    1996-02-01

    Ever since Liepmann's original descriptions at the beginning of the century apraxia has usually been attributed to damage confined to the cerebral cortex and/or cortico-cortical connecting pathways. However, there have been suggestions that apraxia can be due to deep subcortical lesions, which raises the question as to whether damage to the basal ganglia or thalamus can cause apraxia. We therefore analysed 82 cases of such 'deep' apraxias reported in the literature. These reports consisted of a small number (n=9) of cases studied neuropathologically, and a much larger group (n=73) in which CT or MRI was used to identify the size and extent of the lesion. The reports were subdivided into (i) those with small isolated lesions which involved nuclei of the basal ganglia or thalamus only, and not extending to involve periventricular or peristriatal white matter; (ii) those with large lesions which involved two or more of the nuclei, or one or more of these deep structures plus damage to closely adjacent areas including the internal capsule, periventricular or peristriatal white matter; and (iii) lesions sparing basal ganglia and thalamus but involving adjacent white matter. The main conclusions to be drawn from this meta-analysis are that lesions confined to the basal ganglia (putamen, caudate nucleus and globus pallidus) rarely, if ever, cause apraxia. Lesions affecting the lenticular nucleus or putamen nearly always intruded into the adjacent lateral white matter to involve association fibres, in particular those of the superior longitudinal fasciculus and frontostriatal connections. Apraxia occurred with deep lesions of the basal ganglia apparently sparing white matter in only eight out of the 82 cases. Apraxia was most commonly seen when there were lesions in the lenticular nucleus or putamen (58 out of 72 cases) with additional involvement of capsular, and particularly of periventricular or peristriatal, white matter. Lesions of the globus pallidus (no cases) or

  17. Lixisenatide plus basal insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Charbonnel, Bernard; Bertolini, Monica; Tinahones, Francisco J; Domingo, Manuel Puig; Davies, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of the once-daily prandial GLP-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide plus basal insulin in T2DM was assessed by pooling results of phase III trials. A meta-analysis was performed of results from three trials in the GetGoal clinical program concerning lixisenatide or placebo plus basal insulin with/without OADs. The primary endpoint was change in HbA1c from baseline to week 24. Secondary endpoints were change in PPG, FPG, insulin dose, and weight from baseline to week 24. Hypoglycemia rates and several composite endpoints were assessed. Lixisenatide plus basal insulin was significantly more effective than basal insulin alone at reducing HbA1c at 24 weeks. Composite and secondary endpoints were improved significantly with lixisenatide plus basal insulin, with the exception of FPG, which showed no significant difference between the groups. Lixisenatide plus basal insulin was associated with an increased incidence of hypoglycemia versus basal insulin alone. Lixisenatide plus basal insulin resulted in significant improvement in glycemic control versus basal insulin alone, particularly in terms of controlling PPG. Prandial lixisenatide in combination with basal insulin is a suitable option for treatment intensification in patients with T2DM insufficiently controlled with basal insulin, as these agents have complementary effects on PPG and FPG, respectively. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Electrophysiology of autonomic neuromuscular transmission involving ATP.

    PubMed

    Sneddon, P

    2000-07-03

    Electrophysiological investigations of autonomic neuromuscular transmission have provided great insights into the role of ATP as a neurotransmitter. Burnstock and Holman made the first recordings of excitatory junction potentials (e.j.p.s) produced by sympathetic nerves innervating the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig vas deferens. This led to the identification of ATP as the mediator of e.j.p.s in this tissue, where ATP acts as a cotransmitter with noradrenaline. The e.j.p.s are mediated solely by ATP acting on P2X(1) receptors leading to action potentials and a rapid phasic contraction, whilst noradrenaline mediates a slower, tonic contraction which is not dependent on membrane depolarisation. Subsequent electrophysiological studies of the autonomic innervation of smooth muscles of the urogenital, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems have revealed a similar pattern of response, where ATP mediates a fast electrical and mechanical response, whilst another transmitter such as noradrenaline, acetylcholine, nitric oxide or a peptide mediates a slower response. The modulation of junction potentials by a variety of pre-junctional receptors and the mechanism of inactivation of ATP as a neurotransmitter will also be described.

  19. Stoichiometry of ATP hydrolysis and chlorophyllide formation of dark-operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus

    SciTech Connect

    Nomata, Jiro; Terauchi, Kazuki; Fujita, Yuichi

    2016-02-12

    Dark-operative protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) oxidoreductase (DPOR) is a nitrogenase-like enzyme catalyzing a reduction of the C17 = C18 double bond of Pchlide to form chlorophyllide a (Chlide) in bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis. DPOR consists of an ATP-dependent reductase component, L-protein (a BchL dimer), and a catalytic component, NB-protein (a BchN–BchB heterotetramer). The L-protein transfers electrons to the NB-protein to reduce Pchlide, which is coupled with ATP hydrolysis. Here we determined the stoichiometry of ATP hydrolysis and the Chlide formation of DPOR. The minimal ratio of ATP to Chlide (ATP/2e{sup –}) was 4, which coincides with that of nitrogenase. The ratio increases with increasing molar ratio of L-protein to NB-protein. This profile differs from that of nitrogenase. These results suggest that DPOR has a specific intrinsic property, while retaining the common features shared with nitrogenase. - Highlights: • The stoichiometry of nitrogenase-like protochlorophyllide reductase was determined. • The minimal ATP/2e{sup –} ratio was 4, which coincides with that of nitrogenase. • The ATP/2e{sup –} ratio increases with increasing L-protein/NB-protein molar ratio. • DPOR has an intrinsic property, but retains features shared with nitrogenase.

  20. Cultured senescent myoblasts derived from human vastus lateralis exhibit normal mitochondrial ATP synthesis capacities with correlating concomitant ROS production while whole cell ATP production is decreased.

    PubMed

    Minet, Ariane D; Gaster, Michael

    2012-06-01

    The free radical theory of aging says that increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are associated with old age. In the present study we have investigated the effects of cellular senescence on muscle energetic by comparing mitochondrial content and function in cultured muscle satellite cells at early and late passage numbers. We show that cultured muscle satellite cells undergoing senescence express a reduced mitochondrial mass, decreased whole cell ATP level, normal to increased mitochondrial ATP production under ATP utilization, increased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased superoxide/mitochondrial mass and hydrogen peroxide/mitochondrial mass ratios. Moreover, the increased ROS production correlates with the corresponding mitochondrial ATP production. Thus, myotubes differentiated from human myoblasts undergoing senescence have a reduced mitochondrial content, but the existent mitochondria express normal to increased functional capabilities. The present data suggest that the origin of aging lies outside the mitochondria and that a malfunction in the cell might be preceding and initiating the increase of mitochondrial ATP synthesis and concomitant ROS production in the single mitochondrion in response to decreased mitochondrial mass and reduced extra-mitochondrial energy supply. This then can lead to the increased damage of DNA, lipids and proteins of the mitochondria as postulated by the free radical theory of aging.

  1. Mechanisms of ATP-mediated vasodilation in humans: modest role for nitric oxide and vasodilating prostaglandins

    PubMed Central

    Crecelius, Anne R.; Kirby, Brett S.; Richards, Jennifer C.; Garcia, Leora J.; Voyles, Wyatt F.; Larson, Dennis G.; Luckasen, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    ATP is an endothelium-dependent vasodilator, and findings regarding the underlying signaling mechanisms are equivocal. We sought to determine the independent and interactive roles of nitric oxide (NO) and vasodilating prostaglandins (PGs) in ATP-mediated vasodilation in young, healthy humans and determine whether any potential role was dependent on ATP dose or the timing of inhibition. In protocol 1 (n = 18), a dose-response curve to intrabrachial infusion of ATP was performed before and after both single and combined inhibition of NO synthase [NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA)] and cyclooxygenase (ketorolac). Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured via venous occlusion plethysmography and forearm vascular conductance (FVC) was calculated. In this protocol, neither individual nor combined NO/PG inhibition had any effect on the vasodilatory response (P = 0.22–0.99). In protocol 2 (n = 16), we determined whether any possible contribution of both NO and PGs to ATP vasodilation was greater at low vs. high doses of ATP and whether inhibition during steady-state infusion of the respective dose of ATP impacted the dilation. FBF in this protocol was measured via Doppler ultrasound. In protocol 2, infusion of low (n = 8)- and high-dose (n = 8) ATP for 5 min evoked a significant increase in FVC above baseline (low = 198 ± 24%; high = 706 ± 79%). Infusion of l-NMMA and ketorolac together reduced steady-state FVC during both low- and high-dose ATP (P < 0.05), and in a subsequent trial with continuous NO/PG blockade, the vasodilator response from baseline to 5 min of steady-state infusion was similarly reduced for both low (ΔFVC = −31 ± 11%)- and high-dose ATP (ΔFVC −25 ± 11%; P = 0.70 low vs. high dose). Collectively, our findings indicate a potential modest role for NO and PGs in the vasodilatory response to exogenous ATP in the human forearm that does not appear to be dose or timing dependent; however, this is dependent on the method for assessing forearm vascular

  2. Experience with basal area estimation by prisms in lodgepole pine.

    Treesearch

    James M. Trappe

    1957-01-01

    Estimation of basal area by prisms offers intriguing possibilities for reducing time and effort in making stand inventories. Increased inventory efficiency is a particular need in stands that are relatively low in value due to small stems, predominance of low value species or heavy defect. In the Pacific Northwest, lodgepole pine characteristically forms dense low-...

  3. Does raking basal duff affect tree growth rates or mortality?

    Treesearch

    Erin Noonan-Wright; Sharon M. Hood; Danny R. Cluck

    2010-01-01

    Mortality and reduced growth rates due to raking accumulated basal duff were evaluated for old, large-diameter ponderosa and Jeffrey pine trees on the Lassen National Forest, California. No fire treatments were included to isolate the effect of raking from fire. Trees were monitored annually for 5 years after the raking treatment for mortality and then cored to measure...

  4. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month). The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human) brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF) to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication) group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF). Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine. PMID:21936901

  5. Functional roles of ATP-binding residues in the catalytic site of human mitochondrial NAD(P)+-dependent malic enzyme.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hui-Chih; Chien, Yu-Ching; Hsieh, Ju-Yi; Chang, Gu-Gang; Liu, Guang-Yaw

    2005-09-27

    Human mitochondrial NAD(P)+-dependent malic enzyme is inhibited by ATP. The X-ray crystal structures have revealed that two ATP molecules occupy both the active and exo site of the enzyme, suggesting that ATP might act as an allosteric inhibitor of the enzyme. However, mutagenesis studies and kinetic evidences indicated that the catalytic activity of the enzyme is inhibited by ATP through a competitive inhibition mechanism in the active site and not in the exo site. Three amino acid residues, Arg165, Asn259, and Glu314, which are hydrogen-bonded with NAD+ or ATP, are chosen to characterize their possible roles on the inhibitory effect of ATP for the enzyme. Our kinetic data clearly demonstrate that Arg165 is essential for catalysis. The R165A enzyme had very low enzyme activity, and it was only slightly inhibited by ATP and not activated by fumarate. The values of K(m,NAD) and K(i,ATP) to both NAD+ and malate were elevated. Elimination of the guanidino side chain of R165 made the enzyme defective on the binding of NAD+ and ATP, and it caused the charge imbalance in the active site. These effects possibly caused the enzyme to malfunction on its catalytic power. The N259A enzyme was less inhibited by ATP but could be fully activated by fumarate at a similar extent compared with the wild-type enzyme. For the N259A enzyme, the value of K(i,ATP) to NAD+ but not to malate was elevated, indicating that the hydrogen bonding between ATP and the amide side chain of this residue is important for the binding stability of ATP. Removal of this side chain did not cause any harmful effect on the fumarate-induced activation of the enzyme. The E314A enzyme, however, was severely inhibited by ATP and only slightly activated by fumarate. The values of K(m,malate), K(m,NAD), and K(i,ATP) to both NAD+ and malate for E314A were reduced to about 2-7-folds compared with those of the wild-type enzyme. It can be concluded that mutation of Glu314 to Ala eliminated the repulsive effects

  6. Basal lamina development in chicken muscle spindles.

    PubMed

    Maier, A; Mayne, R

    1995-03-01

    The development of basal laminas was examined in immunohistochemical sections of chicken leg muscle spindles from embryonic day (E) 13 to 8 weeks postnatal. Fragments of basal laminas as seen with immunostaining for isoforms of laminin were already observed in E6 muscles. When clusters of intrafusal myotubes were first recognized at E13-14, they were surrounded by basal laminas which were incomplete both in terms of coverage and molecular composition. More mature basal lamina tubes individually enclosed young myofibers at E18. After afferents made contact with myotubes, synaptic portions of basal laminas at myosensory junctions reacted strongly with antibodies against s-laminin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, while extrasynaptic portions were negative or reacted only weakly. At synaptic basal laminas of neuromuscular junctions heparin sulfate proteoglycan and s-laminin became prominent after E16. Contrary to the early presence of basal lamina proteins around intrafusal fibers, initial deposition of basal lamina proteins in the outer spindle capsule was not recognized until E17-18, and significant amounts were not detected until postnatal week 1. Unlike intrafusal basal laminas, capsular basal laminas developed no distinct specialized regions; however, molecular compositions of intrafusal and capsular basal laminas were similar.

  7. A tenth atp gene and the conserved atpI gene of a Bacillus atp operon have a role in Mg2+ uptake

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, David B.; Wang, ZhenXiong; Wei, Yi; Kent, Rebecca; Guffanti, Arthur A.; Banciu, Horia; Bechhofer, David H.; Krulwich, Terry A.

    2003-01-01

    The atp operon of alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4, as in most prokaryotes, contains the eight structural genes for the F-ATPase (ATP synthase), which are preceded by an atpI gene that encodes a membrane protein of unknown function. A tenth gene, atpZ, has been found in this operon, which is upstream of and overlapping with atpI. Most Bacillus species, and some other bacteria, possess atpZ homologues. AtpZ is predicted to be a membrane protein with a hairpin topology, and was detected by Western analyses. Deletion of atpZ, atpI, or atpZI from B. pseudofirmus OF4 led to a requirement for a greatly increased concentration of Mg2+ for growth at pH 7.5. Either atpZ, atpI, or atpZI complemented the similar phenotype of a triple mutant of Salmonella typhimurium (MM281), which is deficient in Mg2+ uptake. atpZ and atpI, separately and together, increased the Mg2+-sensitive 45Ca2+ uptake by vesicles of an Escherichia coli mutant that is defective in Ca2+ and Na+ efflux. We hypothesize that AtpZ and AtpI, as homooligomers, and perhaps as heterooligomers, are Mg2+ transporter, Ca2+ transporter, or channel proteins. Such proteins could provide Mg2+, which is required by ATP synthase, and also support charge compensation, when the enzyme is functioning in the hydrolytic direction; e.g., during cytoplasmic pH regulation. PMID:12917488

  8. Genetic dysfunction of MT-ATP6 causes axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

    PubMed Central

    Pitceathly, Robert D.S.; Murphy, Sinéad M.; Cottenie, Ellen; Chalasani, Annapurna; Sweeney, Mary G.; Woodward, Cathy; Mudanohwo, Ese E.; Hargreaves, Iain; Heales, Simon; Land, John; Holton, Janice L.; Houlden, Henry; Blake, Julian; Champion, Michael; Flinter, Frances; Robb, Stephanie A.; Page, Rupert; Rose, Michael; Palace, Jacqueline; Crowe, Carol; Longman, Cheryl; Lunn, Michael P.; Rahman, Shamima; Reilly, Mary M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common inherited neuromuscular disorder, affecting 1 in 2,500 individuals. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are not generally considered within the differential diagnosis of patients with uncomplicated inherited neuropathy, despite the essential requirement of ATP for axonal function. We identified the mtDNA mutation m.9185T>C in MT-ATP6, encoding the ATP6 subunit of the mitochondrial ATP synthase (OXPHOS complex V), at homoplasmic levels in a family with mitochondrial disease in whom a severe motor axonal neuropathy was a striking feature. This led us to hypothesize that mutations in the 2 mtDNA complex V subunit encoding genes, MT-ATP6 and MT-ATP8, might be an unrecognized cause of isolated axonal CMT and distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN). Methods: A total of 442 probands with CMT type 2 (CMT2) (270) and dHMN (172) were screened for MT-ATP6/8 mutations after exclusion of mutations in known CMT2/dHMN genes. Mutation load was quantified using restriction endonuclease analysis. Blue-native gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) was performed to analyze the effects of m.9185T>C on complex V structure and function. Results: Three further probands with CMT2 harbored the m.9185T>C mutation. Some relatives had been classified as having dHMN. Patients could be separated into 4 groups according to their mutant m.9185T>C levels. BN-PAGE demonstrated both impaired assembly and reduced activity of the complex V holoenzyme. Conclusions: We have shown that m.9185T>C in MT-ATP6 causes CMT2 in 1.1% of genetically undefined cases. This has important implications for diagnosis and genetic counseling. Recognition that mutations in MT-ATP6 cause CMT2 enhances current understanding of the pathogenic basis of axonal neuropathy. PMID:22933740

  9. ATP regulation of calcium transport in back-inhibited sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles.

    PubMed

    de Meis, L; Sorenson, M M

    1989-09-18

    At high concentrations of ATP, ATP hydrolysis and Ca2+ transport by the (Ca2+ + MG2+)-ATPase of intact sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles exhibit a secondary activation that varies with the extent of back-inhibition by Ca2+ accumulated within the vesicles. When the internal ionized Ca2+ is clamped at low and intermediate levels by the use of Ca-precipitating anions, the apparent Km values for activation by ATP are lower than in fully back-inhibited vesicles (high internal Ca2+). In leaky vesicles unable to accumulate Ca2+, raising Ca2+ in the assay medium from 20-30 microM to 5 mM abolishes the activation of hydrolysis by high concentrations of ATP. The level of [32P]phosphoenzyme formed during ATP hydrolysis from [32P]phosphate added to the medium also varies with the extent of back-inhibition; it is highest when Ca2+ is raised to a level that saturates the internal, low-affinity Ca2+ binding sites. In intact vesicles, increasing the ATP concentration from 10 to 400 microM competitively inhibits the reaction of inorganic phosphate with the enzyme but does not change the rate of hydrolysis. In a previous report (De Meis, L., Gomez-Puyou, M.T. and Gomez-Puyou, A. (1988) Eur. J. Biochem. 171, 343-349), it has been shown that the hydrophobic molecules trifluoperazine and iron bathophenanthroline compete for the catalytic site of the Pi-reactive form of the enzyme. Here it is shown that inhibition of ATP hydrolysis by these compounds is reduced or abolished when Ca2+ binds to the low-affinity Ca2+ binding sites of the enzyme. Since inhibition by these agents is indifferent to activation of hydrolysis by high concentrations of ATP, it is suggested that the second Km for ATP and the inhibition by hydrophobic molecules involve two different Ca-free forms of the enzyme.

  10. In vivo ATP production during free-flow and ischaemic muscle contractions in humans

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, Ian R; Wigmore, Danielle M; Befroy, Douglas E; Kent-Braun, Jane A

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how ATP synthesis and contractility in vivo are altered by ischaemia in working human skeletal muscle. The hypotheses were: (1) glycolytic flux would be higher during ischaemic (ISC) compared to free-flow (FF) muscle contractions, in compensation for reduced oxidative ATP synthesis, and (2) ischaemic muscle fatigue would be related to the accumulation of inhibitory metabolic by-products rather than to the phosphorylation potential ([ATP]/[ADP][Pi]) of the muscle. Twelve healthy adults (6 men, 6 women) performed six intermittent maximal isometric contractions of the ankle dorsiflexors (12 s contract, 12 s relax), once with intact blood flow and once with local ischaemia by thigh cuff inflation to 220 Torr. Intracellular phosphorous metabolites and pH were measured non-invasively with magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and rates of ATP synthesis through oxidative phosphorylation, anaerobic glycolysis, and the creatine kinase reaction were determined. The force–time integral declined more during ISC (66 ± 3% initial) than FF (75 ± 2% initial, P = 0.002), indicating greater fatigue in ISC. [ATP] was preserved in both protocols, indicating matching of ATP production and use under both conditions. Glycolytic flux (mm s−1) was similar during FF and ISC (P = 0.16). Total ATP synthesis rate was lower during ISC, despite adjustment for the greater muscle fatigue in this condition (P < 0.001). Fatigue was linearly associated with diprotonated inorganic phosphate (FF r = 0.94 ± 0.01, ISC r = 0.92 ± 0.02), but not phosphorylation potential. These data provide novel evidence that ATP supply and demand in vivo are balanced in human skeletal muscle during ischaemic work, not through higher glycolytic flux, but rather through increased metabolic economy and decreased rates of ATP consumption as fatigue ensues. PMID:16945975

  11. ATP Synthesis in the Extremely Halophilic Bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The proton-translocating ATPases are multimeric enzymes that carry out a multitude of essential functions. Their origin and evolution represent a seminal event in the early evolution of life. Amino acid sequences of the two largest subunits from archaeal ATPases (A-ATPases), vacuolar ATPases (V-ATPases), and FOF1-ATP syntheses (FATPases) suggest these ATPases evolved from an ancestral vacuolar-like ATP syntheses. A necessary consequence of this notion is that the A-ATPases are ATP syntheses. With the possible exception of the A-ATPase from Halobacterium salinarium. no A-ATPase has been demonstrated to synthesize ATP. The evidence for this case is dubious since ATP synthesis occurs only when conditions are distinctively unphysiological. We demonstrated that ATP synthesis in H.saccharovorum is inconsistent with the operation of an A-type ATPase. In order to determine if this phenomenon was unique to H. saccharovorum, ATP synthesis was examined in various extremely halophilic bacteria with the goal of ascertaining if it resembled what occurred in a. saccharovorum, or was consistent with the operation of an A-type ATPase. A-, V-, and F-type ATPases respond singularly to certain inhibitors. Therefore, the effect of these inhibitors on ATP synthesis in several extreme halophiles was determined. Inhibitors that either blocked or collapsed proton-gradients inhibited the steady state synthesis of ATP thus verifying that synthesis took place at the expense of a proton gradient. Azide, an inhibitor of F-ATPases inhibited ATP synthesis. Since the arginine-dependent synthesis of ATP, which occurs by way of substrate-level phosphorylation, was unaffected by azide, it was unlikely that azide acted as an "uncoupler." N -ethylmaleimide and nitrate, which inhibit V- and A-ATPases, either did not inhibit ATP synthesis or resulted in higher steady-state levels of ATP. These results suggest there are two types of proton-motive ATPases in the extreme halophiles (and presumably in other

  12. ATP Synthesis in the Extremely Halophilic Bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, Lawrence I.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The proton-translocating ATPases are multimeric enzymes that carry out a multitude of essential functions. Their origin and evolution represent a seminal event in the early evolution of life. Amino acid sequences of the two largest subunits from archaeal ATPases (A-ATPases), vacuolar ATPases (V-ATPases), and FOF1-ATP syntheses (FATPases) suggest these ATPases evolved from an ancestral vacuolar-like ATP syntheses. A necessary consequence of this notion is that the A-ATPases are ATP syntheses. With the possible exception of the A-ATPase from Halobacterium salinarium. no A-ATPase has been demonstrated to synthesize ATP. The evidence for this case is dubious since ATP synthesis occurs only when conditions are distinctively unphysiological. We demonstrated that ATP synthesis in H.saccharovorum is inconsistent with the operation of an A-type ATPase. In order to determine if this phenomenon was unique to H. saccharovorum, ATP synthesis was examined in various extremely halophilic bacteria with the goal of ascertaining if it resembled what occurred in a. saccharovorum, or was consistent with the operation of an A-type ATPase. A-, V-, and F-type ATPases respond singularly to certain inhibitors. Therefore, the effect of these inhibitors on ATP synthesis in several extreme halophiles was determined. Inhibitors that either blocked or collapsed proton-gradients inhibited the steady state synthesis of ATP thus verifying that synthesis took place at the expense of a proton gradient. Azide, an inhibitor of F-ATPases inhibited ATP synthesis. Since the arginine-dependent synthesis of ATP, which occurs by way of substrate-level phosphorylation, was unaffected by azide, it was unlikely that azide acted as an "uncoupler." N -ethylmaleimide and nitrate, which inhibit V- and A-ATPases, either did not inhibit ATP synthesis or resulted in higher steady-state levels of ATP. These results suggest there are two types of proton-motive ATPases in the extreme halophiles (and presumably in other

  13. Basal Ganglia Beta Oscillations Accompany Cue Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Daniel K.; Gage, Gregory J.; Schmidt, Robert; Pettibone, Jeffrey R.; Case, Alaina C.; Berke, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Beta oscillations in cortical-basal ganglia (BG) circuits have been implicated in normal movement suppression and motor impairment in Parkinson’s disease. To dissect the functional correlates of these rhythms we compared neural activity during four distinct variants of a cued choice task in rats. Brief beta (~20 Hz) oscillations occurred simultaneously throughout the cortical-BG network, both spontaneously and at precise moments of task performance. Beta phase was rapidly reset in response to salient cues, yet increases in beta power were not rigidly linked to cues, movements, or movement suppression. Rather, beta power was enhanced after cues were used to determine motor output. We suggest that beta oscillations reflect a postdecision stabilized state of cortical-BG networks, which normally reduces interference from alternative potential actions. The abnormally strong beta seen in Parkinson’s Disease may reflect overstabilization of these networks, producing pathological persistence of the current motor state. PMID:22325204

  14. Reversible transport by the ATP-binding cassette multidrug export pump LmrA: ATP synthesis at the expense of downhill ethidium uptake.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Lekshmy; Venter, Henrietta; Shilling, Richard A; van Veen, Hendrik W

    2004-03-19

    The ATP dependence of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters has led to the widespread acceptance that these systems are unidirectional. Interestingly, in the presence of an inwardly directed ethidium concentration gradient in ATP-depleted cells of Lactococcus lactis, the ABC multidrug transporter LmrA mediated the reverse transport (or uptake) of ethidium with an apparent K(t) of 2.0 microm. This uptake reaction was competitively inhibited by the LmrA substrate vinblastine and was significantly reduced by an E314A substitution in the membrane domain of the transporter. Similar to efflux, LmrA-mediated ethidium uptake was inhibited by the E512Q replacement in the Walker B region of the nucleotide-binding domain of the protein, which strongly reduced its drug-stimulated ATPase activity, consistent with published observations for other ABC transporters. The notion that ethidium uptake is coupled to the catalytic cycle in LmrA was further corroborated by studies in LmrA-containing cells and proteoliposomes in which reverse transport of ethidium was associated with the net synthesis of ATP. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the conformational changes required for drug transport by LmrA are (i) not too far from equilibrium under ATP-depleted conditions to be reversed by appropriate changes in ligand concentrations and (ii) not necessarily coupled to ATP hydrolysis, but associated with a reversible catalytic cycle. These findings and their thermodynamic implications shed new light on the mechanism of energy coupling in ABC transporters and have implications for the development of new modulators that could enable reverse transport-associated drug delivery in cells through their ability to uncouple ATP binding/hydrolysis from multidrug efflux.

  15. Moesin expression is a marker of basal breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Monville, Florence; Bertucci, François; Esterni, Benjamin; Ginestier, Christophe; Finetti, Pascal; Cervera, Nathalie; Geneix, Jeannine; Hassanein, Mohamed; Rabayrol, Laetitia; Sobol, Hagay; Taranger-Charpin, Colette; Xerri, Luc; Viens, Patrice; Birnbaum, Daniel; Jacquemier, Jocelyne

    2007-10-15

    Basal breast cancers (BBCs) have a high risk of metastasis, recurrence and death. Formal subtype definition relies on gene expression but can be approximated by protein expression. New markers are needed to help in the management of the basal subtype of breast cancer. In a previous transcriptional analysis of breast cell lines we found that Moesin expression was a potential basal marker. We show here that Moesin protein expression is a basal marker in breast tumors. In a tissue microarray (TMA) containing 547 sporadic breast cancers, of which 108 were profiled for gene expression, Moesin was expressed in 31% of all tumors and in 82% of the basal tumors. To confirm that Moesin expression remained associated with the basal phenotype in specific types of BBCs, we analyzed Moesin expression in 2 other TMAs containing 40 medullary breast cancers (MBCs) and 27 BRCA1-associated breast cancers (BRCA1-BCs), respectively. Moesin was strongly expressed in MBCs (87%; p = 2.4 x 10(-5)) and in BRCA1-BCs (58%; p = 1.3 x 10(-5)) as compared with non-MBCs and sporadic cases. Moesin-expressing tumors display features of BBCs, such as high proliferation rate, hormone receptors negativity, expression of putative basal/myoepithelial markers (CAV1, CD10, CK5/6, CK14, EGFR, P53, P-cadherin and SMA). Survival analysis showed a reduced specific survival and metastasis-free survival in Moesin-expressing tumors by log-rank test (p(SS) = 0.014 and p(MFS) = 0.014). In multivariate analysis, Moesin expression was nearly an independent prognostic marker of poor outcome as shown by Cox proportional hazard model in patients without lymph node metastasis (p = 0.052, HR = 2.38, CI 95[0.99-5.69]).

  16. ATP activates P2x receptors and requires extracellular Ca(++) participation to modify outer hair cell nonlinear capacitance.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ning; Zhao, Hong-Bo

    2008-11-01

    Intracochlear ATP is an important mediator in regulating hearing function. ATP can activate ionotropic purinergic (P2x) and metabotropic purinergic (P2y) receptors to influence cell functions. In this paper, we report that ATP can activate P2x receptors directly to modify outer hair cell (OHC) electromotility, which is an active cochlear amplifier determining hearing sensitivity and frequency selectivity in mammals. We found that ATP, but not UTP, a P2y receptor agonist, reduced the OHC electromotility-associated nonlinear capacitance (NLC) and shifted its voltage dependence to the right (depolarizing) direction. Blockage of the activation of P2x receptors by pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid (PPADS), suramin, and 4,4'-diisothiocyanato-stilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) could block the ATP effect. This modification also required extracellular Ca(++) participation. Removal of extracellular Ca(++) abolished the ATP effect. However, chelation of intracellular Ca(++) concentration by a fast calcium-chelating reagent 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA, 10 mM) did not affect the effect of ATP on NLC. The effect is also independent of K(+) ions. Substitution of Cs(+) for intracellular or extracellular K(+) did not affect the ATP effect. Our findings indicate that ATP activates P2x receptors instead of P2y receptors to modify OHC electromotility. Extracellular Ca(++) is required for this modification.

  17. Energy-dependent dissociation of ATP from high affinity catalytic sites of beef heart mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Penefsky, H.S.

    1985-11-05

    Incubation of (gamma-TSP)ATP with a molar excess of the membrane-bound form of mitochondrial ATPase (F1) results in binding of the bulk of the radioactive nucleotide in high affinity catalytic sites (Ka = 10(12) M-1). Subsequent initiation of respiration by addition of succinate or NADH is accompanied by a profound decrease in the affinity for ATP. About one-third of the bound radioactive ATP appears to dissociate, that is, the (gamma-TSP)ATP becomes accessible to hexokinase. The NADH-stimulated dissociation of (gamma-TSP)ATP is energy-dependent since the stimulation is inhibited by uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and is prevented by respiratory chain inhibitors. The rate of the energy-dependent dissociation of ATP that occurs in the presence of NADH, ADP, and Pi is commensurate with the measured initial rate of ATP synthesis in NADH-supported oxidative phosphorylation catalyzed by the same submitochondrial particles. Thus, the rate of dissociation of ATP from the high affinity catalytic site of submitochondrial particles meets the criterion of kinetic competency under the conditions of oxidative phosphorylation. These experiments provide evidence in support of the argument that energy conserved during the oxidation of substrates by the respiratory chain can be utilized to reduce the very tight binding of product ATP in high affinity catalytic sites and to promote dissociation of the nucleotide.

  18. Extracellular ATP and P2Y Receptor Activation Induce a Proinflammatory Host Response in the Human Urinary Tract▿

    PubMed Central

    Säve, Susanne; Persson, Katarina

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular ATP can be released by many cell types under conditions of cellular stress and signals through activation of purinergic receptors. Bladder uroepithelial cells grown in vitro have previously been shown to release ATP in response to stretch. In the present study, we investigated ATP release from uroepithelial cells infected with bacteria and the effect of ATP on the host cell proinflammatory interleukin 8 (IL-8) response. The human kidney epithelial cell line A498 and the human uroepithelial cell line UROtsa were grown in culture and stimulated by the uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) IA2 strain or the stable ATP analogue ATP-γ-S. ATP and IL-8 levels were measured in cell culture medium with a luciferin-luciferase assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The results showed that UPEC infection of uroepithelial cells for 1 h significantly increased (P < 0.01) the extracellular ATP levels. ATP-γ-S (10 and 100 μM) stimulated release of IL-8 from UROtsa and A498 cells after 6 and 24 h. Experiments with different purinoceptor agonists suggested that P2Y receptors, and not P2X receptors, were responsible for the ATP-γ-S-induced IL-8 release. The potency profile further suggested involvement of P2Y1, P2Y2, and/or P2Y11 receptors, and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) studies confirmed that the cells expressed these receptors. The amount of IL-8 released increased 12-fold in UPEC-infected cells, and apyrase, an enzyme that degrades ATP, reduced this increase by approximately 50%. The present study suggests that enhanced ATP release and P2Y receptor activation during urinary tract infection may represent a novel, non-TLR4-mediated mechanism for production of proinflammatory IL-8 in human urinary tract epithelial cells. PMID:20515921

  19. Parkinson's disease-linked human PARK9/ATP13A2 maintains zinc homeostasis and promotes α-Synuclein externalization via exosomes.

    PubMed

    Kong, Stephanie M Y; Chan, Brian K K; Park, Jin-Sung; Hill, Kathryn J; Aitken, Jade B; Cottle, Louise; Farghaian, Hovik; Cole, Adam R; Lay, Peter A; Sue, Carolyn M; Cooper, Antony A

    2014-06-01

    α-Synuclein plays a central causative role in Parkinson's disease (PD). Increased expression of the P-type ATPase ion pump PARK9/ATP13A2 suppresses α-Synuclein toxicity in primary neurons. Our data indicate that ATP13A2 encodes a zinc pump; neurospheres from a compound heterozygous ATP13A2(-/-) patient and ATP13A2 knockdown cells are sensitive to zinc, whereas ATP13A2 over-expression in primary neurons confers zinc resistance. Reduced ATP13A2 expression significantly decreased vesicular zinc levels, indicating ATP13A2 facilitates transport of zinc into membrane-bound compartments or vesicles. Endogenous ATP13A2 localized to multi-vesicular bodies (MVBs), a late endosomal compartment located at the convergence point of the endosomal and autophagic pathways. Dysfunction in MVBs can cause a range of detrimental effects including lysosomal dysfunction and impaired delivery of endocytosed proteins/autophagy cargo to the lysosome, both of which have been observed in cells with reduced ATP13A2 function. MVBs also serve as the source of intra-luminal nanovesicles released extracellularly as exosomes that can contain a range of cargoes including α-Synuclein. Elevated ATP13A2 expression reduced intracellular α-Synuclein levels and increased α-Synuclein externalization in exosomes >3-fold whereas ATP13A2 knockdown decreased α-Synuclein externalization. An increased export of exosome-associated α-Synuclein may explain why surviving neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta in sporadic PD patients were observed to over-express ATP13A2. We propose ATP13A2's modulation of zinc levels in MVBs can regulate the biogenesis of exosomes capable of containing α-Synuclein. Our data indicate that ATP13A2 is the first PD-associated gene involved in exosome biogenesis and indicates a potential neuroprotective role of exosomes in PD.

  20. Sperm morphology, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration and swimming velocity: unexpected relationships in a passerine bird

    PubMed Central

    Bennison, Clair; Brookes, Lola; Slate, Jon; Birkhead, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between sperm energetics and sperm function is poorly known, but is central to our understanding of the evolution of sperm traits. The aim of this study was to examine how sperm morphology and ATP content affect sperm swimming velocity in the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata. We exploited the high inter-male variation in this species and created extra experimental power by increasing the number of individuals with very long or short sperm through artificial selection. We found a pronounced quadratic relationship between total sperm length and swimming velocity, with velocity increasing with length up to a point, but declining in the very longest sperm. We also found an unexpected negative association between midpiece length and ATP content: sperm with a short midpiece generally contained the highest concentration of ATP. Low intracellular ATP is therefore unlikely to explain reduced swimming velocity among the very longest sperm (which tend to have a shorter midpiece). PMID:27559067

  1. Thiamine pyrophosphate stimulates acetone activation by Desulfococcus biacutus as monitored by a fluorogenic ATP analogue.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Acosta, Olga B; Hardt, Norman; Hacker, Stephan M; Strittmatter, Tobias; Schink, Bernhard; Marx, Andreas

    2014-06-20

    Acetone can be degraded by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Studies with the strictly anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfococcus biacutus indicate that acetone degradation by these bacteria starts with an ATP-dependent carbonylation reaction leading to acetoacetaldehyde as the first reaction product. The reaction represents the second example of a carbonylation reaction in the biochemistry of strictly anaerobic bacteria, but the exact mechanism and dependence on cofactors are still unclear. Here, we use a novel fluorogenic ATP analogue to investigate its mechanism. We find that thiamine pyrophosphate is a cofactor of this ATP-dependent reaction. The products of ATP cleavage are AMP and pyrophosphate, providing first insights into the reaction mechanism by indicating that the reaction proceeds without intermediate formation of acetone enol phosphate.

  2. Niflumic acid inhibits ATP-stimulated exocytosis in a mucin-secreting epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, C A; Danahay, H; Poll, C T; Laboisse, C; Hopfer, U; Bridges, R J

    2004-02-01

    ATP is an efficacious secretagogue for mucin and chloride in the epithelial cell line HT29-Cl.16E. Mucin release has been measured as [3H]glucosamine-labeled product in extracellular medium and as single-cell membrane capacitance increases indicative of exocytosis-related increases in membrane area. The calcium-activated chloride channel blocker niflumic acid, also reported to modulate secretion, was used to probe for divergence in the purinergic signaling of mucin exocytosis and channel activation. With the use of whole cell patch clamping, ATP stimulated a transient capacitance increase of 15 +/- 4%. Inclusion of niflumic acid significantly reduced the ATP-stimulated capacitance change to 3 +/- 1%, although normalized peak currents were not significantly different. Ratiometric imaging was used to assess intracellular calcium (Cai2+) dynamics during stimulation. In the presence of niflumic acid, the ATP-stimulated peak change in Cai2+ was unaffected, but the initial response and overall time to Cai2+ peak were significantly affected. Excluding external calcium before ATP stimulation or including the capacitative calcium entry blocker LaCl3 during stimulation muted the initial calcium transient similar to that observed with niflumic acid and significantly reduced peak capacitance change, suggesting that a substantial portion of the ATP-stimulated mucin exocytosis in HT29-Cl.16E depends on a rapid, brief calcium influx through the plasma membrane. Niflumic acid interferes with this influx independent of a chloride channel blockade effect.

  3. Blockade of Extracellular ATP Effect by Oxidized ATP Effectively Mitigated Induced Mouse Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis (EAU)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ronglan; Liang, Dongchun; Sun, Deming

    2016-01-01

    Various pathological conditions are accompanied by ATP release from the intracellular to the extracellular compartment. Extracellular ATP (eATP) functions as a signaling molecule by activating purinergic P2 purine receptors. The key P2 receptor involved in inflammation was identified as P2X7R. Recent studies have shown that P2X7R signaling is required to trigger the Th1/Th17 immune response, and oxidized ATP (oxATP) effectively blocks P2X7R activation. In this study we investigated the effect of oxATP on mouse experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). Our results demonstrated that induced EAU in B6 mice was almost completely abolished by the administration of small doses of oxATP, and the Th17 response, but not the Th1 response, was significantly weakened in the treated mice. Mechanistic studies showed that the therapeutic effects involve the functional change of a number of immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs), T cells, and regulatory T cells. OxATP not only directly inhibits the T cell response; it also suppresses T cell activation by altering the function of DCs and Foxp3+ T cell. Our results demonstrated that inhibition of P2X7R activation effectively exempts excessive autoimmune inflammation, which may indicate a possible therapeutic use in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:27196432

  4. Blockade of Extracellular ATP Effect by Oxidized ATP Effectively Mitigated Induced Mouse Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis (EAU).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ronglan; Liang, Dongchun; Sun, Deming

    2016-01-01

    Various pathological conditions are accompanied by ATP release from the intracellular to the extracellular compartment. Extracellular ATP (eATP) functions as a signaling molecule by activating purinergic P2 purine receptors. The key P2 receptor involved in inflammation was identified as P2X7R. Recent studies have shown that P2X7R signaling is required to trigger the Th1/Th17 immune response, and oxidized ATP (oxATP) effectively blocks P2X7R activation. In this study we investigated the effect of oxATP on mouse experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). Our results demonstrated that induced EAU in B6 mice was almost completely abolished by the administration of small doses of oxATP, and the Th17 response, but not the Th1 response, was significantly weakened in the treated mice. Mechanistic studies showed that the therapeutic effects involve the functional change of a number of immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs), T cells, and regulatory T cells. OxATP not only directly inhibits the T cell response; it also suppresses T cell activation by altering the function of DCs and Foxp3+ T cell. Our results demonstrated that inhibition of P2X7R activation effectively exempts excessive autoimmune inflammation, which may indicate a possible therapeutic use in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  5. Synthetic peptides target ATP translocase of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ to block ATP uptake

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As an obligate intracellular pathogen, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) may act as an “energy parasite” by importing ATP from its host’s cells. We previously demonstrated that the Las translocase NttA (gb|ACX71867.1) is functional in Escherichia coli and enables the direct import of ATP/ADP...

  6. The role of metal binding and phosphorylation domains in the regulation of cisplatin-induced trafficking of ATP7B.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Roohangiz; Adams, Preston L; Mathews, Ryan A; Manorek, Gerald; Howell, Stephen B

    2013-08-01

    The copper (Cu) exporter ATP7B mediates cellular resistance to cisplatin (cDDP) by increasing drug efflux. ATP7B binds and sequesters cDDP in into secretory vesicles. Upon cDDP exposure ATP7B traffics from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the periphery of the cell in a manner that requires the cysteine residues in its metal binding domains (MBD). To elucidate the role of the various domains of ATP7B in its cDDP-induced trafficking we expressed a series of mCherry-tagged variants of ATP7B in HEK293T cells and analyzed their subcellular localization in basal media and after a 1 h exposure to 30 μM cDDP. The wild type ATP7B and a variant in which the cysteines in the CXXC motifs of MBD 1-5 were converted to serines trafficked out of the trans-Golgi (TGN) when exposed to cDDP. Conversion of the cysteines in all 6 of the CXXC motifs to serines, or in only the sixth MBD, rendered ATP7B incapable of trafficking on exposure to cDDP. Truncation of MBD1-5 or MBD1-6 resulted in the loss of TGN localization. Addition of the first 63 amino acids of ATP7B to these variants restored TGN localization to a great extent and enabled the MBD1-5 variant to undergo cDDP-induced trafficking. A variant of ATP7B in which the aspartate 1027 residue in the phosphorylation domain was converted to glutamine localized to the TGN but was incapable of cDDP-induced trafficking. These results demonstrate that the CXXC motif in the sixth MBD and the catalytic activity of ATP7B are required for cDDP-induced trafficking as they are for Cu-induced redistribution of ATP7B; this provides further evidence that cDDP mimics Cu with respect to the molecular mechanisms by they control the subcellular distribution of ATP7B.

  7. Magnetic field affects enzymatic ATP synthesis.

    PubMed

    Buchachenko, Anatoly L; Kuznetsov, Dmitry A

    2008-10-01

    The rate of ATP synthesis by creatine kinase extracted from V. xanthia venom was shown to depend on the magnetic field. The yield of ATP produced by enzymes with 24Mg2+ and 26Mg2+ ions in catalytic sites increases by 7-8% at 55 mT and then decreases at 80 mT. For enzyme with 25Mg2+ ion in a catalytic site, the ATP yield increases by 50% and 70% in the fields 55 and 80 mT, respectively. In the Earth field the rate of ATP synthesis by enzyme, in which Mg2+ ion has magnetic nucleus 25Mg, is 2.5 times higher than that by enzymes, in which Mg2+ ion has nonmagnetic, spinless nuclei 24Mg or 26Mg. Both magnetic field effect and magnetic isotope effect demonstrate that the ATP synthesis is an ion-radical process, affected by Zeeman interaction and hyperfine coupling in the intermediate ion-radical pair.

  8. [Therapy of basal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Schmitz, L; Dirschka, T

    2016-06-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represents the most common malignant skin tumour in fair-skinned people. Despite low metastatic potential, BCC can cause decisive tissue destruction and disfigurement by invasive growth. In addition to clinical and histologic diagnosis modern imaging techniques as optical coherence tomography and confocal laser microscopy have been introduced. BCCs with aggressive growth pattern and/or increased risk of relapse are preferentially treated surgically. For superficial BCCs various topical treatments and photodynamic therapy are available. Inhibitors of the sonic hedgehog pathway have been approved for symptomatic treatment of metastatic BCC and locally advanced BCC inappropriate for surgery or radiotherapy. Detailed knowledge of the clinical spectrum of BCC and an appropriate choice of therapy are mandatory for the successful treatment of BCC.

  9. Monomeric Alpha-Synuclein Exerts a Physiological Role on Brain ATP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Ludtmann, Marthe H.R.; Angelova, Plamena R.; Ninkina, Natalia N.; Gandhi, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Misfolded α-synuclein is a key factor in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, knowledge about a physiological role for the native, unfolded α-synuclein is limited. Using brains of mice lacking α-, β-, and γ-synuclein, we report that extracellular monomeric α-synuclein enters neurons and localizes to mitochondria, interacts with ATP synthase subunit α, and modulates ATP synthase function. Using a combination of biochemical, live-cell imaging and mitochondrial respiration analysis, we found that brain mitochondria of α-, β-, and γ-synuclein knock-out mice are uncoupled, as characterized by increased mitochondrial respiration and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, synuclein deficiency results in reduced ATP synthase efficiency and lower ATP levels. Exogenous application of low unfolded α-synuclein concentrations is able to increase the ATP synthase activity that rescues the mitochondrial phenotypes observed in synuclein deficiency. Overall, the data suggest that α-synuclein is a previously unrecognized physiological regulator of mitochondrial bioenergetics through its ability to interact with ATP synthase and increase its efficiency. This may be of particular importance in times of stress or PD mutations leading to energy depletion and neuronal cell toxicity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Misfolded α-synuclein aggregations in the form of Lewy bodies have been shown to be a pathological hallmark in histological staining of Parkinson's disease (PD) patient brains. It is known that misfolded α-synuclein is a key driver in PD pathogenesis, but the physiological role of unfolded monomeric α-synuclein remains unclear. Using neuronal cocultures and isolated brain mitochondria of α-, β-, and γ-synuclein knock-out mice and monomeric α-synuclein, this current study shows that α-synuclein in its unfolded monomeric form improves ATP synthase efficiency and mitochondrial function. The ability of monomeric α-synuclein to enhance

  10. Voltage dependence of ATP secretion in mammalian taste cells.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Roman A; Rogachevskaja, Olga A; Khokhlov, Alexander A; Kolesnikov, Stanislav S

    2008-12-01

    Mammalian type II taste cells release the afferent neurotransmitter adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through ATP-permeable ion channels, most likely to be connexin (Cx) and/or pannexin hemichannels. Here, we show that ion channels responsible for voltage-gated (VG) outward currents in type II cells are ATP permeable and demonstrate a strong correlation between the magnitude of the VG current and the intensity of ATP release. These findings suggest that slowly deactivating ion channels transporting the VG outward currents can also mediate ATP secretion in type II cells. In line with this inference, we studied a dependence of ATP secretion on membrane voltage with a cellular ATP sensor using different pulse protocols. These were designed on the basis of predictions of a model of voltage-dependent transient ATP efflux. Consistently with curves that were simulated for ATP release mediated by ATP-permeable channels deactivating slowly, the bell-like and Langmuir isotherm-like potential dependencies were characteristic of ATP secretion obtained for prolonged and short electrical stimulations of taste cells, respectively. These observations strongly support the idea that ATP is primarily released via slowly deactivating channels. Depolarizing voltage pulses produced negligible Ca(2+) transients in the cytoplasm of cells releasing ATP, suggesting that ATP secretion is mainly governed by membrane voltage under our recording conditions. With the proviso that natural connexons and pannexons are kinetically similar to exogenously expressed hemichannels, our findings suggest that VG ATP release in type II cells is primarily mediated by Cx hemichannels.

  11. Basal area or stocking percent: which works best in controlling density in natural shortleaf pine stands

    Treesearch

    Ivan L. Sander

    1986-01-01

    Results from a shortleaf pine thinning study in Missouri show that continually thinning a stand to the same basal area will eventually create an understocked stand and reduce yields. Using stocking percent to control thinning intensity allows basal area to increase as stands get older. The best yield should occur when shortleaf pine is repeatedly thinned to 60 percent...

  12. Insulin Inhibits Low Oxygen-Induced ATP Release from Human Erythrocytes: Implication for Vascular Control

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Madelyn S.; Ellsworth, Mary L.; Achilleus, David; Stephenson, Alan H.; Bowles, Elizabeth A.; Sridharan, Meera; Adderley, Shaquria; Sprague, Randy S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective ATP released from human erythrocytes in response to reduced oxygen tension (pO2) participates in the matching of oxygen (O2) supply with need in skeletal muscle by stimulating increases in blood flow to areas with increased O2 demand. Here we investigated the hypothesis that hyperinsulinemia inhibits ATP release from erythrocytes and impairs their ability to stimulate dilation of isolated arterioles exposed to decreased extra-luminal pO2. Methods Erythrocyte ATP release was stimulated pharmacologically (mastoparan 7) and physiologically (reduced pO2) in the absence or presence of insulin. We also examined the ability of isolated skeletal muscle arterioles perfused with buffer containing erythrocytes treated with insulin or its vehicle (saline) to dilate in response to decreased extra-luminal pO2. Results Insulin significantly attenuated mastoparan 7– and reduced pO2–induced ATP release. In vessels perfused with untreated erythrocytes, low extra-luminal pO2 resulted in an increase in vessel diameter. In contrast, when erythrocytes were treated with insulin, no vasodilation occurred. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that insulin inhibits ATP release from erythrocytes in response to reduced pO2 and impairs their ability to stimulate dilation of skeletal muscle arterioles. These results suggest that hyperinsulinemia could hinder the matching of O2 supply with need in skeletal muscle. PMID:19412833

  13. Basal ganglia lesions following carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Ramona O; Fearing, Michael A; Weaver, Lindell K; Foley, John F

    2006-03-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the most common cause of poisoning and may result in basal ganglia lesions. This study reviewed the literature of carbon monoxide poisoning and basal ganglia lesions and prospectively assessed the prevalence of basal ganglia lesions in a cohort of patients with CO poisoning. Literature review and prospective cohort study. This study conducted a comprehensive review of the literature and assessed 73 CO-poisoned patients for basal ganglia lesions on sequential MR scans. Magnetic resonance scans were obtained on day 1, 2 weeks and 6 months post-CO poisoning. The literature review found basal ganglia lesions occur in 4-88% of subjects. Only one patient was found with globus pallidus lesions at 2 weeks and 6 months following CO poisoning, that were not present on the initial day 1 MR scan. Basal ganglia lesions, including lesions of the globus pallidus, may be less common than previously reported.

  14. Dynamic regulation of extracellular ATP in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Cora Lilia; Corradi, Gerardo; Lauri, Natalia; Marginedas-Freixa, Irene; Leal Denis, María Florencia; Enrique, Nicolás; Mate, Sabina María; Milesi, Verónica; Ostuni, Mariano Anibal; Herlax, Vanesa; Schwarzbaum, Pablo Julio

    2017-04-04

    We studied the kinetics of extracellular ATP (ATPe) in Escherichia coli and their outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) stimulated with amphipatic peptides melittin (MEL) and mastoparan 7 (MST7). Real-time luminometry was used to measure ATPe kinetics, ATP release, and ATPase activity. The latter was also determined by following [(32)P]Pi released from [γ-(32)P]ATP. E. coli was studied alone, co-incubated with Caco-2 cells, or in rat jejunum segments. In E. coli, the addition of [γ-(32)P]ATP led to the uptake and subsequent hydrolysis of ATPe. Exposure to peptides caused an acute 3-fold (MST7) and 7-fold (MEL) increase in [ATPe]. In OMVs, ATPase activity increased linearly with [ATPe] (0.1-1 µM). Exposure to MST7 and MEL enhanced ATP release by 3-7 fold, with similar kinetics to that of bacteria. In Caco-2 cells, the addition of ATP to the apical domain led to a steep [ATPe] increase to a maximum, with subsequent ATPase activity. The addition of bacterial suspensions led to a 6-7 fold increase in [ATPe], followed by an acute decrease. In perfused jejunum segments, exposure to E. coli increased luminal ATP 2 fold. ATPe regulation of E. coli depends on the balance between ATPase activity and ATP release. This balance can be altered by OMVs, which display their own capacity to regulate ATPe. E. coli can activate ATP release from Caco-2 cells and intestinal segments, a response which in vivo might lead to intestinal release of ATP from the gut lumen.

  15. Inhibition of ATP Synthase by Chlorinated Adenosine Analogue

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lisa S.; Nowak, Billie J.; Ayres, Mary L.; Krett, Nancy L.; Rosen, Steven T.; Zhang, Shuxing; Gandhi, Varsha

    2009-01-01

    8-Chloroadenosine (8-Cl-Ado) is a ribonucleoside analogue that is currently in clinical trial for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Based on the decline in cellular ATP pool following 8-Cl-Ado treatment, we hypothesized that 8-Cl-ADP and 8-Cl-ATP may interfere with ATP synthase, a key enzyme in ATP production. Mitochondrial ATP synthase is composed of two major parts; FO intermembrane base and F1 domain, containing α and β subunits. Crystal structures of both α and β subunits that bind to the substrate, ADP, are known in tight binding (αdpβdp) and loose binding (αtpβtp) states. Molecular docking demonstrated that 8-Cl-ADP/8-Cl-ATP occupied similar binding modes as ADP/ATP in the tight and loose binding sites of ATP synthase, respectively, suggesting that the chlorinated nucleotide metabolites may be functional substrates and inhibitors of the enzyme. The computational predictions were consistent with our whole cell biochemical results. Oligomycin, an established pharmacological inhibitor of ATP synthase, decreased both ATP and 8-Cl-ATP formation from exogenous substrates, however, did not affect pyrimidine nucleoside analogue triphosphate accumulation. Synthesis of ATP from ADP was inhibited in cells loaded with 8-Cl-ATP. These biochemical studies are in consent with the computational modeling; in the αtpβtp state 8-Cl-ATP occupies similar binding as ANP, a non-hydrolyzable ATP mimic that is a known inhibitor. Similarly, in the substrate binding site (αdpβdp) 8-Cl-ATP occupies a similar position as ATP mimic ADP-BeF3 −. Collectively, our current work suggests that 8-Cl-ADP may serve as a substrate and the 8-Cl-ATP may be an inhibitor of ATP synthase. PMID:19477165

  16. The cerebellum communicates with the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Eiji; Tremblay, Léon; Féger, Jean; Carras, Peter L; Strick, Peter L

    2005-11-01

    The cerebral cortex is interconnected with two major subcortical structures: the basal ganglia and the cerebellum. How and where cerebellar circuits interact with basal ganglia circuits has been a longstanding question. Using transneuronal transport of rabies virus in macaques, we found that a disynaptic pathway links an output stage of cerebellar processing, the dentate nucleus, with an input stage of basal ganglia processing, the striatum.

  17. BASAL BODIES, BUT NOT CENTRIOLES, IN NAEGLERIA

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Chandler; Dingle, Allan D.

    1971-01-01

    Amebae of Naegleria gruberi transform into flagellates whose basal bodies have the typical centriole-like structure. The amebae appear to lack any homologous structure, even during mitosis. Basal bodies are constructed during transformation and, in cells transforming synchronously at 25°C, they are first seen about 10 min before flagella are seen. No structural precursor for these basal bodies has been found. These observations are discussed in the light of hypotheses about the continuity of centrioles. PMID:4942778

  18. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2015-11-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe noninvasive treatment for low-risk basal cell carcinoma, with the advantage of an excellent cosmetic outcome. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in basal cell carcinoma is supported by substantial research and clinical trials. In this article, we review the procedure, indications and clinical evidences for the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  19. Stable nuclear expression of ATP8 and ATP6 genes rescues a mtDNA Complex V null mutant

    PubMed Central

    Boominathan, Amutha; Vanhoozer, Shon; Basisty, Nathan; Powers, Kathleen; Crampton, Alexandra L.; Wang, Xiaobin; Friedricks, Natalie; Schilling, Birgit; Brand, Martin D.; O'Connor, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the possibility of re-engineering mitochondrial genes and expressing them from the nucleus as an approach to rescue defects arising from mitochondrial DNA mutations. We have used a patient cybrid cell line with a single point mutation in the overlap region of the ATP8 and ATP6 genes of the human mitochondrial genome. These cells are null for the ATP8 protein, have significantly lowered ATP6 protein levels and no Complex V function. Nuclear expression of only the ATP8 gene with the ATP5G1 mitochondrial targeting sequence appended restored viability on Krebs cycle substrates and ATP synthesis capabilities but, failed to restore ATP hydrolysis and was insensitive to various inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation. Co-expressing both ATP8 and ATP6 genes under similar conditions resulted in stable protein expression leading to successful integration into Complex V of the oxidative phosphorylation machinery. Tests for ATP hydrolysis / synthesis, oxygen consumption, glycolytic metabolism and viability all indicate a significant functional rescue of the mutant phenotype (including re-assembly of Complex V) following stable co-expression of ATP8 and ATP6. Thus, we report the stable allotopic expression, import and function of two mitochondria encoded genes, ATP8 and ATP6, resulting in simultaneous rescue of the loss of both mitochondrial proteins. PMID:27596602

  20. An ATP2B4 polymorphism protects against malaria in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bedu-Addo, George; Meese, Stefanie; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2013-05-15

    Polymorphisms of ATP2B4 encoding an ubiquitous Ca(2+) pump protect against severe childhood malaria. We assessed the influence of a main polymorphism (rs10900585) on malaria among 834 delivering Ghanaian women. In homozygous primiparae, the odds of placental Plasmodium falciparum infection were reduced by 64%. No influence of the polymorphism on parasite density, low birth weight, or preterm delivery was discernible. However, malarial anemia was greatly reduced in primiparous carriers of the variant allele, paralleling the reduced impact of malaria on hemoglobin levels in this group. A common ATP2B4 polymorphism protects against malaria in pregnancy and related maternal anemia, suggesting ATP2B4 variant associated protection not to be limited to severe childhood malaria.

  1. Functional Neuroanatomy of the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Lanciego, José L.; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The “basal ganglia” refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amplified with the emergence of new data. Furthermore, parallel circuits subserve the other functions of the basal ganglia engaging associative and limbic territories. Disruption of the basal ganglia network forms the basis for several movement disorders. This article provides a comprehensive account of basal ganglia functional anatomy and chemistry and the major pathophysiological changes underlying disorders of movement. We try to answer three key questions related to the basal ganglia, as follows: What are the basal ganglia? What are they made of? How do they work? Some insight on the canonical basal ganglia model is provided, together with a selection of paradoxes and some views over the horizon in the field. PMID:23071379

  2. Continuous intravenous infusion of ATP in humans yields large expansions of erythrocyte ATP pools but extracellular ATP pools are elevated only at the start followed by rapid declines.

    PubMed

    Rapaport, Eliezer; Salikhova, Anna; Abraham, Edward H

    2015-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) was investigated in a clinical trial that included 15 patients with advanced malignancies (solid tumors). ATP was administered by continuous intravenous infusions of 8 h once weekly for 8 weeks. Three values of blood ATP levels were determined. These were total blood (erythrocyte) and blood plasma (extracellular) ATP pools along with the initial rate of release of ATP into the blood plasma. We found that values related to erythrocyte ATP pools showed great variability (diversity) among individuals (standard deviation of about 30-40% of mean at baseline). It was discovered that erythrocyte baseline ATP pool sizes are unique to each individual and that they fall within a narrow range in each individual. At the end of an 8 h continuous intravenous infusion of ATP, intracellular erythrocyte ATP pools were increased in the range of 40-60% and extracellular ATP declined from elevated levels achieved at the beginning and middle of the infusion, to baseline levels. The ability of erythrocytes to sequester exogenously administered ATP to this degree, after its initial conversion to adenosine in the blood plasma is unexpected, considering that some of the adenosine is likely to have been degraded by in vivo catabolic activities or taken up by organs. The data suggest that administration of ATP by short-term intravenous infusions, of up to 4 h, may be a favorable way for elevating extracellular ATP pools. A large fraction of the total exogenously administered ATP is sequestered into the intracellular compartments of the erythrocytes after an 8 h intravenous infusion. Erythrocytes loaded with ATP are known to release their ATP pools by the application of previously established agents or conditions applied locally or globally to circulating erythrocytes. Rapid degradation of intravenously administered ATP to adenosine and subsequent accumulation of ATP inside erythrocytes indicate the existence of very effective mechanisms

  3. Local detection of mechanically induced ATP release from bone cells with ATP microbiosensors.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Elena; Liedert, Astrid; Ignatius, Anita; Mizaikoff, Boris; Kranz, Christine

    2013-06-15

    The mechanically induced release of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) from osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1) was measured in real time. A stretching device integrated into scanning electrochemical microscopy was developed to apply controlled mechanical strain to MC3T3-E1 cells. For ATP secretion, a stepwise yet uniform mechanical stress was imposed onto MC3T3-E1 cells. The ATP biosensors were positioned at a distance of approximately 30-40 μm above the cell surface. Calibration functions were recorded prior to the cell measurements and revealed a linear response up to 40 μM with a sensitivity of 1-5pA/μM ATP. Stretching MC3T3-E1 cells up to 21% resulted in a concentration of 30.57±4.82 μM of extracellular ATP (N=12) detected above the cell surface. As a control experiment, nifedipine, a L-type voltage sensitive calcium channel (L-VSCC) inhibitor was applied, which blocks Ca(2+)entry from the outer medium into the cell. Inhibition resulted in a significantly smaller amount of released ATP, i.e., 7.08±1.93 μM ATP (N=10). Further control experiments with glucose microbiosensors did not yield significant changes of the baseline current (N=8). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sulfide-based ATP production in Urechis unicinctus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhuojun; Bao, Zhenmin; Wang, Sifeng; Zhang, Zhifeng

    2010-05-01

    We measured sulfide-based ATP production by isolated mitochondria from four tissues of Urechis unicinctus and the effects of inhibitors of respiratory complexes on ATP production were evaluated. The results show that these mitochondria could oxidize sulfide to produce ATP. The yield of sulfide-stimulated ATP varied from 5 nmol ATP/min/mg to 90 nmol ATP/min/mg according to the sulfide concentration and the source of the mitochondria. The maximum ATP synthesis occurred in hindgut mitochondria using 5 μmol/L sulfide as a substrate. The effects of inhibitors (Rotenone, Antimycin A, Cyanide, and Salicylhydroxamic acid) on mitochondrial ATP production varied with the source of the mitochondria. Our results indicate that sulfide-based ATP production and the associated electron transport pathway are tissue-specific in U. unicinctus.

  5. Dynein ATPase pathway: ATP analogs and regulation by phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Chilcote, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Three biochemical aspects of 22S dynein from Tetrahymena cilia have been investigated: its ATP binding polypeptides and the manner in which they bind ATP, its AMPPNP-induced dissociation from microtubules, and its phosphorylation. We have attempted to identify the polypeptides of dynein that bind ATP, i.e., the active site polypeptides, with the photoaffinity ATP analog 8-N{sub 3}ATP. The 8-N{sub 3}ATP has been shown to bind to dyneins active sites and in a manner similar to that of ATP. Upon irradiation, (2-{sup 3}H)8-N{sub 3}ATP covalently labels the three heavy chains, i.e., heads, which is detected by autoradiography of SDS PAG's. Thus, the three heads are considered to be the three active sites of dynein. AMPPNP is a nonhydrolyzable ATP analog which we have assayed for the ability to induce dynein dissociation from microtubules.

  6. Non-cytochrome mediated mitochondrial ATP production in bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei brucei.

    PubMed

    Bienen, E J; Maturi, R K; Pollakis, G; Clarkson, A B

    1993-08-15

    The life cycle of Trypanosoma brucei brucei involves a series of differentiation steps characterized by marked changes in mitochondrial development and function. The bloodstream forms of this parasite completely lack cytochromes and have not been considered to have any Krebs cycle function. It has been suggested that glycolysis is the sole source of ATP in all bloodstream forms. However, earlier results indicated that in the mitochondria of the transitional intermediate/short stumpy bloodstream forms, the biochemical pathways are present that could allow intra-mitochondrial production of ATP. Using a high mannitol buffer to enhance permeability, we confirm previous observations showing that transitional forms maintain motility and respiratory activity with 2-oxoglutarate as the sole substrate. Using a luminometer to measure intracellular ATP levels via the luciferin/luciferase chemiluminescence assay, we show that these same transitional forms, but not long slender forms, maintain high levels of intracellular ATP in the presence of 2-oxoglutarate. Further, in the presence of bongkrekic acid, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase, ATP levels are reduced with subsequent death and lysis of the cells when 2-oxoglutarate, but not glucose, is used as sole substrate. These data are direct evidence of ATP production by transitional bloodstream form mitochondria.

  7. Autocrine and paracrine roles for ATP and serotonin in mouse taste buds.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yijen A; Dando, Robin; Roper, Stephen D

    2009-11-04

    Receptor (type II) taste bud cells secrete ATP during taste stimulation. In turn, ATP activates adjacent presynaptic (type III) cells to release serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE). The roles of these neurotransmitters in taste buds have not been fully elucidated. Here we tested whether ATP or 5-HT exert feedback onto receptor (type II) cells during taste stimulation. Our previous studies showed NE does not appear to act on adjacent taste bud cells, or at least on receptor cells. Our data show that 5-HT released from presynaptic (type III) cells provides negative paracrine feedback onto receptor cells by activating 5-HT(1A) receptors, inhibiting taste-evoked Ca(2+) mobilization in receptor cells, and reducing ATP secretion. The findings also demonstrate that ATP exerts positive autocrine feedback onto receptor (type II) cells by activating P2Y1 receptors and enhancing ATP secretion. These results begin to sort out how purinergic and aminergic transmitters function within the taste bud to modulate gustatory signaling in these peripheral sensory organs.

  8. Effects and mechanism of acid rain on plant chloroplast ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingwen; Hu, Huiqing; Li, Yueli; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2016-09-01

    Acid rain can directly or indirectly affect plant physiological functions, especially photosynthesis. The enzyme ATP synthase is the key in photosynthetic energy conversion, and thus, it affects plant photosynthesis. To clarify the mechanism by which acid rain affects photosynthesis, we studied the effects of acid rain on plant growth, photosynthesis, chloroplast ATP synthase activity and gene expression, chloroplast ultrastructure, intracellular H(+) level, and water content of rice seedlings. Acid rain at pH 4.5 remained the chloroplast structure unchanged but increased the expression of six chloroplast ATP synthase subunits, promoted chloroplast ATP synthase activity, and increased photosynthesis and plant growth. Acid rain at pH 4.0 or less decreased leaf water content, destroyed chloroplast structure, inhibited the expression of six chloroplast ATP synthase subunits, decreased chloroplast ATP synthase activity, and reduced photosynthesis and plant growth. In conclusion, acid rain affected the chloroplast ultrastructure, chloroplast ATPase transcription and activity, and P n by changing the acidity in the cells, and thus influencing the plant growth and development. Finally, the effects of simulated acid rain on the test indices were found to be dose-dependent.

  9. Energy metabolic state in hypothermically stored boar spermatozoa using a revised protocol for efficient ATP extraction

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quynh Thu; Wallner, Ulrike; Schmicke, Marion; Waberski, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mammalian spermatozoa utilize ATP as the energy source for key functions on the route to fertilization. ATP and its precursor nucleotides ADP and AMP are regularly investigated in sperm physiology studies, mostly by bioluminescence assays. Assay results vary widely, mainly due to different efficiencies in nucleotide extraction and prevention of their enzymatic degradation. Here, we describe a revised, validated protocol for efficient phosphatase inhibition and adenine nucleotide extraction resulting in consistently high ATP concentrations exceeding previously reported values for boar spermatozoa up to 20-fold. The revised assay is applicable for determining ATP concentrations and adenylate energy charge in extracts from fresh and frozen samples, thereby allowing simultaneous assessment of semen samples from long-term storage experiments. After validation, the assay was applied to liquid-preserved boar spermatozoa stored at 17°C and 5°C for 24 and 72 h. Cooling to 5°C, but not storage duration, reduced ATP concentration in spermatozoa (P<0.05), which was accompanied by the appearance of AMP and ADP in the preservation medium. ATP and energy charge were highly correlated to the proportion of membrane-intact spermatozoa, supporting the idea of nucleotides leaking through disrupted membranes in cold-shocked cells. The present assay allows highly standardized studies of energy metabolism in spermatozoa. PMID:27612509

  10. Integrating printed microfluidics with silicon photomultipliers for miniaturised and highly sensitive ATP bioluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, M F; Libertino, S; Turner, A P F; Filippini, D; Mak, W C

    2018-01-15

    Bioluminescence has been widely used for important biosensing applications such as the measurement of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy unit in biological systems and an indicator of vital processes. The current technology for detection is mainly based on large equipment such as readers and imaging systems, which require intensive and time-consuming procedures. A miniaturised bioluminescence sensing system, which would allow sensitive and continuous monitoring of ATP, with an integrated and low-cost disposable microfluidic chamber for handling of biological samples, is highly desirable. Here, we report the design, fabrication and testing of 3D printed microfluidics chips coupled with silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) for high sensitive real-time ATP detection. The 3D microfluidic chip reduces reactant consumption and facilitates solution delivery close to the SiPM to increase the detection efficiency. Our system detects ATP with a limit of detection (LoD) of 8nM and an analytical dynamic range between 15nM and 1µM, showing a stability error of 3%, and a reproducibility error below of 20%. We demonstrate the dynamic monitoring of ATP in a continuous-flow system exhibiting a fast response time, ~4s, and a full recovery to the baseline level within 17s. Moreover, the SiPM-based bioluminescence sensing system shows a similar analytical dynamic range for ATP detection to that of a full-size PerkinElmer laboratory luminescence reader. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of ATP release on mucin5AC secretion in airway epithelial cells by mechanical stretching.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Liu, Chunyi; Zhou, Xiangdong; Kolosov, Victor P; Perelman, Juliy M

    2014-01-01

    This study is to determine the effects of ATP and Ca(2+) on mucin5AC (MUC5AC) overexpression in airway epithelial cells in mechanical ventilation. Oxygen was injected into the closed box used in this study to increase the pressure. Gravity-driven draining flow led to formation of a thin liquid film on the upper portion of cell monolayer, exposing cells to the tension forces at the air-liquid interface. The levels of MUC5AC protein and ATP in culture medium were detected by ELISA and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Ca(2+) and MUC5AC mRNA in culture cells were detected by flow cytometry and RT-PCR, respectively. Mechanical stretching increased the expression of MUC5AC in cells and the concentration of MUC5AC and ATP in supernatant. BAPTA-AM and EGTA partially reduced the increases in the concentrations of MUC5AC and ATP in supernatant with mechanical ventilation. BAPTA-AM completely inhibited ATP in supernatant with normal breathing conditions. Our results showed that mechanical ventilation increases the secretion of MUC5AC in airway epithelial cells. This is possibly related to Ca(2+)-dependent ATP release and intracellular and external Ca(2+). © 2014 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  12. ATP-induced photoreceptor death in a feline model of retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Aplin, Felix P; Luu, Chi D; Vessey, Kirstan A; Guymer, Robyn H; Shepherd, Robert K; Fletcher, Erica L

    2014-11-25

    To develop and characterize a feline model of retinal degeneration induced by intravitreal injection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Nineteen normally sighted adult cats received 100 μL intravitreal injections of ATP with a final concentration of 11, 22, or 55 mM at the retina. Four animals were euthanized 30 hours after injection and retinal sections examined for apoptosis using a TUNEL cell death assay. In the remaining animals, structural and functional changes were characterized over a 3-month period using a combination of electroretinography (ERG) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Using a TUNEL cell death assay, we detected widespread photoreceptor death 30 hours after injection with 55 mM intravitreal ATP. All concentrations of ATP caused loss of retinal function and gross changes in retinal structure within 2 weeks of injection. Intravitreal injection of ATP led to a rapid loss of rod photoreceptor function and a gradual loss of cone photoreceptor function within 3 months. Outer nuclear layer thickness was globally reduced by 3 months, with the inner nuclear layer including the retinal nerve fiber layer remaining intact. Structural abnormalities were observed, including focal retinal detachment with evidence of both intravitreal and intraretinal inflammation in some eyes. Development of an ATP-induced feline model of retinal degeneration provides a rapid and effective large-eyed animal model for research into vision restoration. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  13. Energy metabolic state in hypothermically stored boar spermatozoa using a revised protocol for efficient ATP extraction.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quynh Thu; Wallner, Ulrike; Schmicke, Marion; Waberski, Dagmar; Henning, Heiko

    2016-11-15

    Mammalian spermatozoa utilize ATP as the energy source for key functions on the route to fertilization. ATP and its precursor nucleotides ADP and AMP are regularly investigated in sperm physiology studies, mostly by bioluminescence assays. Assay results vary widely, mainly due to different efficiencies in nucleotide extraction and prevention of their enzymatic degradation. Here, we describe a revised, validated protocol for efficient phosphatase inhibition and adenine nucleotide extraction resulting in consistently high ATP concentrations exceeding previously reported values for boar spermatozoa up to 20-fold. The revised assay is applicable for determining ATP concentrations and adenylate energy charge in extracts from fresh and frozen samples, thereby allowing simultaneous assessment of semen samples from long-term storage experiments. After validation, the assay was applied to liquid-preserved boar spermatozoa stored at 17°C and 5°C for 24 and 72 h. Cooling to 5°C, but not storage duration, reduced ATP concentration in spermatozoa (P<0.05), which was accompanied by the appearance of AMP and ADP in the preservation medium. ATP and energy charge were highly correlated to the proportion of membrane-intact spermatozoa, supporting the idea of nucleotides leaking through disrupted membranes in cold-shocked cells. The present assay allows highly standardized studies of energy metabolism in spermatozoa.

  14. ATP-driven Rad50 conformations regulate DNA tethering, end resection, and ATM checkpoint signaling.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Rajashree A; Williams, Gareth J; Limbo, Oliver; Williams, R Scott; Kuhnlein, Jeff; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Classen, Scott; Guenther, Grant; Russell, Paul; Tainer, John A; Paull, Tanya T

    2014-03-03

    The Mre11-Rad50 complex is highly conserved, yet the mechanisms by which Rad50 ATP-driven states regulate the sensing, processing and signaling of DNA double-strand breaks are largely unknown. Here we design structure-based mutations in Pyrococcus furiosus Rad50 to alter protein core plasticity and residues undergoing ATP-driven movements within the catalytic domains. With this strategy we identify Rad50 separation-of-function mutants that either promote or destabilize the ATP-bound state. Crystal structures, X-ray scattering, biochemical assays, and functional analyses of mutant PfRad50 complexes show that the ATP-induced 'closed' conformation promotes DNA end binding and end tethering, while hydrolysis-induced opening is essential for DNA resection. Reducing the stability of the ATP-bound state impairs DNA repair and Tel1 (ATM) checkpoint signaling in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, double-strand break resection in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and ATM activation by human Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 in vitro, supporting the generality of the P. furiosus Rad50 structure-based mutational analyses. These collective results suggest that ATP-dependent Rad50 conformations switch the Mre11-Rad50 complex between DNA tethering, ATM signaling, and 5' strand resection, revealing molecular mechanisms regulating responses to DNA double-strand breaks.

  15. Local regulation of vasopressin and oxytocin secretion by extracellular ATP in the isolated posterior lobe of the rat hypophysis.

    PubMed

    Sperlágh, B; Mergl, Z; Jurányi, Z; Vizi, E S; Makara, G B

    1999-03-01

    It is now widely accepted that ATP functions as a signalling substance in the nervous system. The presence of P2 receptors mediating the action of extracellular ATP in brain regions involved in hormonal regulation raises the possibility that a similar role for ATP might also exist in the neuroendocrine system. In this study, the release from the rat isolated neurohypophysis preparation of endogenous ATP, oxytocin and vasopressin (AVP) were measured simultaneously using luciferin-luciferase and RIA techniques. After 70 min preperfusion, electrical field stimulation caused a rapid increase in the amount of ATP in the effluent and the release of AVP and oxytocin also increased stimulation-dependently. Inhibition of voltage-dependent Na+ channels by tetrodotoxin (1 microM) reduced the stimulation-evoked release of AVP and oxytocin; however, the evoked release of ATP remained unaffected. The effect of endogenous ATP on the hormone secretion was tested by suramin (300 microM), the P2 receptor antagonist. Suramin significantly increased the release of AVP, and the release of oxytocin was also enhanced. ATP, when applied to the superfusing medium, decreased the release of AVP, but not that of oxytocin, and its effect was prevented by suramin. ATP (60 nmol), added to the tissues, was readily decomposed to ADP, AMP and adenosine measured by HPLC combined with ultraviolet light detection, and the kinetic parameters of the enzymes responsible for inactivation of ATP (ectoATPase and ecto5'-nucleotidase) were also determined (Km=264+/-2.7 and 334+/-165 microM and vmax=6.7+/-1.1 and 2.54+/-0.24 nmol/min per preparation (n=3) for ectoATPase and ecto5'-nucleotidase respectively). Taken together, our data demonstrate the stimulation-dependent release, P2 receptor-mediated action and extracellular metabolism of endogenous ATP in the posterior lobe of the hypophysis and indicate its role, as a paracrine regulator, in the local control of hormone secretion.

  16. Real-time imaging of ATP release induced by mechanical stretch in human airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Norihiro; Ito, Satoru; Furuya, Kishio; Naruse, Keiji; Aso, Hiromichi; Kondo, Masashi; Sokabe, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2014-12-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells within the airway walls are continually exposed to mechanical stimuli, and exhibit various functions in response to these mechanical stresses. ATP acts as an extracellular mediator in the airway. Moreover, extracellular ATP is considered to play an important role in the pathophysiology of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, it is not known whether ASM cells are cellular sources of ATP secretion in the airway. We therefore investigated whether mechanical stretch induces ATP release from ASM cells. Mechanical stretch was applied to primary human ASM cells cultured on a silicone chamber coated with type I collagen using a stretching apparatus. Concentrations of ATP in cell culture supernatants measured by luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence were significantly elevated by cyclic stretch (12 and 20% strain). We further visualized the stretch-induced ATP release from the cells in real time using a luminescence imaging system, while acquiring differential interference contrast cell images with infrared optics. Immediately after a single uniaxial stretch for 1 second, strong ATP signals were produced by a certain population of cells and spread to surrounding spaces. The cyclic stretch-induced ATP release was significantly reduced by inhibitors of Ca(2+)-dependent vesicular exocytosis, 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetraacetoxymethyl ester, monensin, N-ethylmaleimide, and bafilomycin. In contrast, the stretch-induced ATP release was not inhibited by a hemichannel blocker, carbenoxolone, or blockade of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 by short interfering RNA transfection or ruthenium red. These findings reveal a novel property of ASM cells: mechanically induced ATP release may be a cellular source of ATP in the airway.

  17. Firefly bioluminescent assay of ATP in the presence of ATP extractant by using liposomes.

    PubMed

    Kamidate, Tamio; Yanashita, Kenji; Tani, Hirofumi; Ishida, Akihiko; Notani, Mizuyo

    2006-01-01

    Liposomes containing phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cholesterol (Chol) were applied to the enhancer for firefly bioluminescence (BL) assay for ATP in the presence of cationic surfactants using as an extractant for the release of ATP from living cells. Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) was used as an ATP extractant. However, BAC seriously inhibited the activity of luciferase, thus resulting in the remarkable decrease in the sensitivity of the BL assay for ATP. On the other hand, we found that BAC was associated with liposomes to form cationic liposomes containing BAC. The association rate of BAC with liposomes was faster than that of BAC with luciferase. As a result, the inhibitory effect of BAC on luciferase was eliminated in the presence of liposomes. In addition, cationic liposomes thus formed enhanced BL emission. BL measurement conditions were optimized in terms of liposome charge type, liposome size, and total concentration of PC and Chol. ATP can be sensitively determined without dilution of analytical samples by using liposomes. The detection limit of ATP with and without liposomes was 100 amol and 25 fmol in aqueous ATP standard solutions containing 0.06% BAC, respectively. The method was applied to the determination of ATP in Escherichia coli extracts. The BL intensity was linear from 4 x 10(4) to 1 x 10(7) cells mL(-1) in the absence of liposomes. On the other hand, the BL intensity was linear from 4 x 10(3) to 4 x 10(6) cells mL(-1) in the presence of liposomes. The detection limit of ATP in E. coli extracts was improved by a factor of 10 via use of liposomes.

  18. ATP11C mutation is responsible for the defect in phosphatidylserine uptake in UPS-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Takada, Naoto; Takatsu, Hiroyuki; Miyano, Rie; Nakayama, Kazuhisa; Shin, Hye-Won

    2015-01-01

    Type IV P-type ATPases (P4-ATPases) translocate phospholipids from the exoplasmic to the cytoplasmic leaflets of cellular membranes. We and others previously showed that ATP11C, a member of the P4-ATPases, translocates phosphatidylserine (PS) at the plasma membrane. Twenty years ago, the UPS-1 (uptake of fluorescent PS analogs) cell line was isolated from mutagenized Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells with a defect in nonendocytic uptake of nitrobenzoxadiazole PS. Due to its defect in PS uptake, the UPS-1 cell line has been used in an assay for PS-flipping activity; however, the gene(s) responsible for the defect have not been identified to date. Here, we found that the mRNA level of ATP11C was dramatically reduced in UPS-1 cells relative to parental CHO-K1 cells. By contrast, the level of ATP11A, another PS-flipping P4-ATPase at the plasma membrane, or CDC50A, which is essential for delivery of most P4-ATPases to the plasma membrane, was not affected in UPS-1 cells. Importantly, we identified a nonsense mutation in the ATP11C gene in UPS-1 cells, indicating that the intact ATP11C protein is not expressed. Moreover, exogenous expression of ATP11C can restore PS uptake in UPS-1 cells. These results indicate that lack of the functional ATP11C protein is responsible for the defect in PS uptake in UPS-1 cells and ATP11C is crucial for PS flipping in CHO-K1 cells. PMID:26420878

  19. ATP11C mutation is responsible for the defect in phosphatidylserine uptake in UPS-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Takada, Naoto; Takatsu, Hiroyuki; Miyano, Rie; Nakayama, Kazuhisa; Shin, Hye-Won

    2015-11-01

    Type IV P-type ATPases (P4-ATPases) translocate phospholipids from the exoplasmic to the cytoplasmic leaflets of cellular membranes. We and others previously showed that ATP11C, a member of the P4-ATPases, translocates phosphatidylserine (PS) at the plasma membrane. Twenty years ago, the UPS-1 (uptake of fluorescent PS analogs) cell line was isolated from mutagenized Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells with a defect in nonendocytic uptake of nitrobenzoxadiazole PS. Due to its defect in PS uptake, the UPS-1 cell line has been used in an assay for PS-flipping activity; however, the gene(s) responsible for the defect have not been identified to date. Here, we found that the mRNA level of ATP11C was dramatically reduced in UPS-1 cells relative to parental CHO-K1 cells. By contrast, the level of ATP11A, another PS-flipping P4-ATPase at the plasma membrane, or CDC50A, which is essential for delivery of most P4-ATPases to the plasma membrane, was not affected in UPS-1 cells. Importantly, we identified a nonsense mutation in the ATP11C gene in UPS-1 cells, indicating that the intact ATP11C protein is not expressed. Moreover, exogenous expression of ATP11C can restore PS uptake in UPS-1 cells. These results indicate that lack of the functional ATP11C protein is responsible for the defect in PS uptake in UPS-1 cells and ATP11C is crucial for PS flipping in CHO-K1 cells. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Dynamics of ATP-induced Calcium Signaling in Single Mouse Thymocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Paul E.; Ehring, George R.; Cahalan, Michael D.

    1997-01-01

    Extracellular ATP (ATPo) elicits a robust change in the concentration of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in fura-2–loaded mouse thymocytes. Most thymocytes (60%) exposed to ATPo exhibited a biphasic rise in [Ca2+]i; [Ca2+]i rose slowly at first to a mean value of 260 nM after 163 s and then increased rapidly to a peak level of 735 nM. In many cells, a declining plateau, which lasted for more than 10 min, followed the crest in [Ca2+]i. Experiments performed in the absence of extracellular [Ca2+]o abolished the rise in thymocyte [Ca2+]i, indicating that Ca2+ influx, rather than the release of stored Ca2+, is stimulated by ATPo. ATPo- mediated Ca2+ influx was potentiated as the [Mg2+]o was reduced, confirming that ATP4− is the active agonist form. In the absence of Mg2+o, 3′-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl-ATP (BzATP) proved to be the most effective agonist of those tested. The rank order of potency for adenine nucleotides was BzATP4−>ATP4−>MgATP2−>ADP3−, suggesting purinoreceptors of the P2X7/P2Z class mediate the ATPo response. Phenotyping experiments illustrate that both immature (CD4−CD8−, CD4+CD8+) and mature (CD4+CD8−, CD4−CD8+) thymocyte populations respond to ATP. Further separation of the double-positive population by size revealed that the ATPo-mediated [Ca2+]i response was much more pronounced in large (actively dividing) than in small (terminally differentiated) CD4+CD8+ thymocytes. We conclude that thymocytes vary in sensitivity to ATPo depending upon the degree of maturation and suggest that ATPo may be involved in processes that control cellular differentiation within the thymus. PMID:9281578

  1. The ADP/ATP Carrier and Its Relationship to Oxidative Phosphorylation in Ancestral Protist Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Gnipová, Anna; Šubrtová, Karolína; Panicucci, Brian; Horváth, Anton; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-01-01

    The highly conserved ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) is a key energetic link between the mitochondrial (mt) and cytosolic compartments of all aerobic eukaryotic cells, as it exchanges the ATP generated inside the organelle for the cytosolic ADP. Trypanosoma brucei, a parasitic protist of medical and veterinary importance, possesses a single functional AAC protein (TbAAC) that is related to the human and yeast ADP/ATP carriers. However, unlike previous studies performed with these model organisms, this study showed that TbAAC is most likely not a stable component of either the respiratory supercomplex III+IV or the ATP synthasome but rather functions as a physically separate entity in this highly diverged eukaryote. Therefore, TbAAC RNA interference (RNAi) ablation in the insect stage of T. brucei does not impair the activity or arrangement of the respiratory chain complexes. Nevertheless, RNAi silencing of TbAAC caused a severe growth defect that coincides with a significant reduction of mt ATP synthesis by both substrate and oxidative phosphorylation. Furthermore, TbAAC downregulation resulted in a decreased level of cytosolic ATP, a higher mt membrane potential, an elevated amount of reactive oxygen species, and a reduced consumption of oxygen in the mitochondria. Interestingly, while TbAAC has previously been demonstrated to serve as the sole ADP/ATP carrier for ADP influx into the mitochondria, our data suggest that a second carrier for ATP influx may be present and active in the T. brucei mitochondrion. Overall, this study provides more insight into the delicate balance of the functional relationship between TbAAC and the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) pathway in an early diverged eukaryote. PMID:25616281

  2. NS5ATP13 Promotes Liver Fibrogenesis via Activation of Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaru; Liu, Shunai; Han, Ming; Lu, Hongping; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Yu; Tursun, Kelbinur; Li, Zhongshu; Feng, Shenghu; Cheng, Jun

    2017-01-29

    Liver fibrosis is a reversible wound-healing response to any etiology of chronic hepatic injuries. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the key event in liver fibrogenesis. Generally, persistent activation and proliferation of HSCs results in liver fibrosis progression, while primary mechanisms of liver fibrosis resolution are apoptosis and reversion to a quiescent phenotype of activated HSCs. NS5ATP13 (HCV NS5A-transactivated protein 13) is involved in nucleologenesis and tumorigenesis, but its role in liver fibrosis and HSC activation remains unclear. This study found that NS5ATP13 was upregulated in both fibrotic liver tissues and activated human HSCs induced by TGF-β1. Moreover, NS5ATP13 enhanced extracellular matrix (ECM) production and HSC activation, with or without TGF-β1 treatment, likely involving the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway. Additionally, NS5ATP13 boosted HSC proliferation by inhibiting cell apoptosis. Furthermore, HCV NS5A promoted the profibrogenic effect of NS5ATP13 partly through TGF-β1 and NF-κB p65 (RelA) upregulation. Meanwhile, NS5ATP13 was required for the pro-fibrogenic effect of NF-κB. Moreover, NS5ATP13 and NF-κB phosphorylation as well as HSC activation were reduced by CX-4945, a CK2 specific inhibitor. These findings indicated that NS5ATP13 acts as a profibrogenic factor, providing a potential target for antifibrotic therapies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Modulation by extracellular ATP of L-type calcium channels in guinea-pig single sinoatrial nodal cell.

    PubMed Central

    Qi, A. D.; Kwan, Y. W.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate ([ATP]zero) on the L-type Ca2+ channel currents in guinea-pig single sinoatrial nodal (SAN) cells, isolated by enzymatic dissociation, were investigated by use of whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. 2. The application of [ATP]zero (2 microM-1 mM) produced an inhibitory effect on the L-type Ca2+ channel current peak amplitude (10 mM Ba2+ as charge carrier) in a concentration-dependent and reversible manner with an IC50 of 100 microM and a Hill coefficient of 1.83. 3. The presence of the adenosine receptor antagonists, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX, 0.1 microM) and 8-phenyltheophylline (10 microM) did not affect the [ATP]zero-induced inhibition of the Ca2+ channel currents. Adenosine (100 microM) had little effect on the basal Ca2+ channel currents. Adenosine 500 microM, caused 23% inhibition of the Ca2+ channel current, which was abolished by 0.1 microM DPCPX. 4. The presence of the P2-purinoceptor antagonists, suramin (1, 10 and 100 microM), reactive blue 2 (1 and 10 microM) and pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid (PPADS, 50 and 100 microM) failed to affect the inhibitory action of [ATP]zero on Ca2+ channel currents. 5. The relative rank order of potency of different nucleotides and nucleosides, at a concentration of 100 microM, on the inhibition of the Ca2+ channel currents is as follows: adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) = alpha,beta-methylene-ATP (alpha,beta MeATP) > > 2-methylthioATP (2-MeSATP) > or = adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATP gamma S) > > uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP) = adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) > adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) > or = adenosine. 6. These results suggest that [ATP]zero may play an important role in the heart beat by inhibiting the L-type Ca2+ channel currents in single SAN cells. This inhibitory effect is not due to the formation of adenosine resulting from the enzymatic degradation of [ATP]zero. Based on the relative order of inhibitory

  4. Pseudohypoparathyroidism with basal ganglia calcification

    PubMed Central

    Song, Cheng-Yuan; Zhao, Zhen-Xiang; Li, Wei; Sun, Cong-Cong; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Parkinsonism can be secondary to many internal diseases, in some certain conditions, it seems that the clinical manifestations of parkinsonism presenting reversible. We report a case of patient with parkinsonism secondary to pseudohypoparathyroidism, who improved markedly after the supplement of serum calcium. Patient concerns and diagnoses: A 52-year-old woman with acute parkinsonism was diagnosed as pseudohypoparathyroidism after the conducting of brain computed tomography, laboratory examinations, and gene detection. The son of the patient was also examined and was diagnosed as pseudohypoparathyroidism, who had ever complained of the history of epilepsy. The clinical manifestations of parkinsonism of the patient was reevaluated after the supplement of serum calcium according to the diagnosis. Interventions and outcomes: The brain computed tomography revealed the basal ganglia calcification of the patient, accompanying by serum hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. Loss of function mutation also confirmed the diagnosis. Five days after the therapy targeting at correction of serum hypocalcemia, the patient improved greatly in dyskinesia. Lessons: This study reported a patient presenting as acute reversible parkinsonism, who was finally diagnosed as pseudohypoparathyroidism. It indicated us that secondary parkinsonism should be carefully differentiated for its dramatic treatment effect. And the family history of seizures might be an indicator for the consideration of pseudohypoparathyroidism. PMID:28296742

  5. Basal cell carcinoma and rhinophyma.

    PubMed

    Leyngold, Mark; Leyngold, Ilya; Letourneau, Peter R; Zamboni, William A; Shah, Himansu

    2008-10-01

    Rhinophyma, the end stage in the development of acne rosacea, is characterized by sebaceous hyperplasia, fibrosis, follicular plugging, and telangiectasia. Although it is commonly considered a cosmetic problem, it can result in gross distortion of soft tissue and airway obstruction. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a rare finding in patients with rhinophyma. The objective of this study is to review the literature of BCC in rhinophyma and report on a case. A 70-year-old male presented with long-standing rosacea that resulted in a gross nasal deformity. The patient suffered from chronic drainage and recurrent infections that failed conservative treatment with oral and topical antibiotics. The patient decided to proceed with surgical intervention and underwent tangential excision and dermabrasion in the operating room. Since 1955 there have been 11 cases reported in the literature. In our case, the pathology report noted that the specimen had an incidental finding of a completely resected BCC. The patient did well postoperatively and at follow-up remains tumor-free. Despite the uncommon occurrence of BCC in resection specimens for rhinophyma, we recommend that all specimens be reviewed by a pathologist. If BCC is detected, re-excision may be necessary and careful follow-up is mandatory. Larger studies would be needed to determine the correlation between the 2 conditions.

  6. The Parkinson-associated human P5B-ATPase ATP13A2 protects against the iron-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Débora E; Corradi, Gerardo R; Cuesta, Lucía Martínez; Adamo, Hugo P; de Tezanos Pinto, Felicitas

    2015-08-01

    P-type ion pumps are membrane transporters that have been classified into five subfamilies termed P1-P5. The ion transported by the P5-ATPases is not known. Five genes named ATP13A1-ATP13A5 that belong to the P5-ATPase group are present in humans. Loss-of-function mutations in the ATP13A2 gene (PARK9, OMIM 610513) underlay a form of Parkinson's disease (PD) known as the Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS), which belongs to the group of syndromes of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). Here we report that the cytotoxicity induced by iron exposure was two-fold reduced in CHO cells stably expressing the ATP13A2 recombinant protein (ATP13A2). Moreover, the iron content in ATP13A2 cells was lower than control cells stably expressing an inactive mutant of ATP13A2. ATP13A2 expression caused an enlargement of lysosomes and late endosomes. ATP13A2 cells exhibited a reduced iron-induced lysosome membrane permeabilization (LMP). These results suggest that ATP13A2 overexpression improves the lysosome membrane integrity and protects against the iron-induced cell damage. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. A reusable prepositioned ATP reaction chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, D. G.

    1972-01-01

    Luminescence biometer detects presence of life by means of light-emitting chemical reaction of luciferin and luciferase with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that occurs in all living cells. Amount of light in reaction chamber is measured to determine presence and extent of life.

  8. Monitoring enzymatic ATP hydrolysis by EPR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Stephan M; Hintze, Christian; Marx, Andreas; Drescher, Malte

    2014-07-14

    An adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analogue modified with two nitroxide radicals is developed and employed to study its enzymatic hydrolysis by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. For this application, we demonstrate that EPR holds the potential to complement fluorogenic substrate analogues in monitoring enzymatic activity.

  9. Calcium and ATP control multiple vital functions.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Ole H; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2016-08-05

    Life on Planet Earth, as we know it, revolves around adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a universal energy storing molecule. The metabolism of ATP requires a low cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, and hence tethers these two molecules together. The exceedingly low cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration (which in all life forms is kept around 50-100 nM) forms the basis for a universal intracellular signalling system in which Ca(2+) acts as a second messenger. Maintenance of transmembrane Ca(2+) gradients, in turn, requires ATP-dependent Ca(2+) transport, thus further emphasizing the inseparable links between these two substances. Ca(2+) signalling controls the most fundamental processes in the living organism, from heartbeat and neurotransmission to cell energetics and secretion. The versatility and plasticity of Ca(2+) signalling relies on cell specific Ca(2+) signalling toolkits, remodelling of which underlies adaptive cellular responses. Alterations of these Ca(2+) signalling toolkits lead to aberrant Ca(2+) signalling which is fundamental for the pathophysiology of numerous diseases from acute pancreatitis to neurodegeneration. This paper introduces a theme issue on this topic, which arose from a Royal Society Theo Murphy scientific meeting held in March 2016.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'.

  10. Electric Field Driven Torque in ATP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Miller, John H.; Rajapakshe, Kimal I.; Infante, Hans L.; Claycomb, James R.

    2013-01-01

    FO-ATP synthase (FO) is a rotary motor that converts potential energy from ions, usually protons, moving from high- to low-potential sides of a membrane into torque and rotary motion. Here we propose a mechanism whereby electric fields emanating from the proton entry and exit channels act on asymmetric charge distributions in the c-ring, due to protonated and deprotonated sites, and drive it to rotate. The model predicts a scaling between time-averaged torque and proton motive force, which can be hindered by mutations that adversely affect the channels. The torque created by the c-ring of FO drives the γ-subunit to rotate within the ATP-producing complex (F1) overcoming, with the aid of thermal fluctuations, an opposing torque that rises and falls with angular position. Using the analogy with thermal Brownian motion of a particle in a tilted washboard potential, we compute ATP production rates vs. proton motive force. The latter shows a minimum, needed to drive ATP production, which scales inversely with the number of proton binding sites on the c-ring. PMID:24040370

  11. Electric field driven torque in ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Miller, John H; Rajapakshe, Kimal I; Infante, Hans L; Claycomb, James R

    2013-01-01

    FO-ATP synthase (FO) is a rotary motor that converts potential energy from ions, usually protons, moving from high- to low-potential sides of a membrane into torque and rotary motion. Here we propose a mechanism whereby electric fields emanating from the proton entry and exit channels act on asymmetric charge distributions in the c-ring, due to protonated and deprotonated sites, and drive it to rotate. The model predicts a scaling between time-averaged torque and proton motive force, which can be hindered by mutations that adversely affect the channels. The torque created by the c-ring of FO drives the γ-subunit to rotate within the ATP-producing complex (F1) overcoming, with the aid of thermal fluctuations, an opposing torque that rises and falls with angular position. Using the analogy with thermal Brownian motion of a particle in a tilted washboard potential, we compute ATP production rates vs. proton motive force. The latter shows a minimum, needed to drive ATP production, which scales inversely with the number of proton binding sites on the c-ring.

  12. Electrophysiological effects of ATP on brain neurones.

    PubMed

    Illes, P; Nieber, K; Nörenberg, W

    1996-12-01

    1. The electrophysiological effects of ATP on brain neurones are either due to the direct activation of P2 purinoceptors by the unmetabolized nucleotide or to the indirect activation of P1. purinoceptors by the degradation product adenosine. 2. Two subtypes of P2 purinoceptors are involved, a ligand-activated ion channel (P2X) and a G protein-coupled receptor (P2Y). Hence, the stimulation of P2X purinoceptors leads to a cationic conductance increase, while the stimulation of P2Y purinoceptors leads to a G protein-mediated opening or closure of potassium channels. 3. ATP may induce a calcium-dependent potassium current by increasing the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. This is due either to the entry of Ca2+ via P2X purinoceptors or to the activation of metabotropic P2Y purinoceptors followed by signaling via the G protein/phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) cascade. Eventually, IP3 releases Ca2+ from its intracellular pools. 4. There is no convincing evidence for the presence of P2U purinoceptors sensitive to both ATP and UTP, or pyrimidinoceptors sensitive to UTP only, in the central nervous system (CNS). 5. ATP-sensitive P2X and P2Y purinoceptors show a wide distribution in the CNS and appear to regulate important neuronal functions.

  13. Basal body reorientation mediated by a Ca2+-modulated contractile protein

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    A rapid, Ca2+-dependent change in the angle between basal bodies (up to 180 degrees) is associated with light-induced reversal of swimming direction (the "photophobic" response) in a number of flagellated green algae. In isolated, detergent-extracted, reactivated flagellar apparatus complexes of Spermatozopsis similis, axonemal beat form conversion to the symmetrical/undulating flagellar pattern and basal body reorientation (from the antiparallel to the parallel configuration) are simultaneously induced at greater than or equal to 10(-7) M Ca2+. Basal body reorientation, however, is independent of flagellar beating since it is induced at greater than or equal to 10(- 7) M Ca2+ when flagellar beating is inhibited (i.e., in the presence of 1 microM orthovanadate in reactivation solutions; in the absence of ATP or dithiothreitol in isolation and reactivation solutions), or when axonemes are mechanically removed from flagellar apparatuses. Although frequent axonemal beat form reversals were induced by varying the Ca2+ concentration, antiparallel basal body configuration could not be restored in isolated flagellar apparatuses. Observations of the photophobic response in vivo indicate that even though the flagella resume the asymmetric, breaststroke beat form 1-2 s after photostimulation, antiparallel basal body configuration is not restored until a few minutes later. Using an antibody generated against the 20- kD Ca2+-modulated contractile protein of striated flagellar roots of Tetraselmis striata (Salisbury, J. L., A. Baron, B. Surek, and M. Melkonian, 1984, J. Cell Biol., 99:962-970), we have found the distal connecting fiber of Spermatozopsis similis to be immunoreactive by indirect immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy. Electrophoretic and immunoblot analysis indicates that the antigen of S. similis flagellar apparatuses consists, like the Tetraselmis protein, of two acidic isoforms of 20 kD. We conclude that the distal basal body connecting fiber is

  14. Assessment of contamination using an ATP bioluminescence assay on doorknobs in a university-affiliated hospital in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kajigaya, Naoko; Hirose, Yoneji; Koike, Shinta; Fujita, Tomohiro; Yokota, Norio; Hata, Satsuki; Ikenaga, Makoto; Kobayashi, Noritada; Takahashi, Takashi

    2015-08-14

    Doorknobs are inevitable points of hand contact. We monitored doorknob contamination in a university hospital using an ATP bioluminescence assay and stamp agar method. We selected grip-, lever-, push-, insert-, and two-pull-type doorknobs in staff lavatories and break rooms, a linen closet, dirty utility rooms, a newborn care unit, clinical lavatories and examination rooms, dressing rooms for radiological tests, and lavatories for health examination, as monitoring points in wards and clinics. Sequential monitoring with an ATP assay (six times) and culture (once) were performed at the same time of day in autumn, winter, and summer. We provided contamination data to appropriate healthcare providers and housekeepers, and queried the staff regarding decontamination of doorknobs. When comparing ATP values on the same type of doorknobs, significant differences in contamination were demonstrated among several clinical rooms and several rooms in wards during all three seasons. No correlation was observed between ATP values on clinical-examination-room doorknobs and outpatient numbers, or between ATP values at any monitoring point and microbial colony-forming units. ATP values on clinical-examination-room doorknobs were reduced after cleaning according to instructions. ATP assay is useful for measuring baseline doorknob contamination in clinical rooms. Our findings confirm the need to improve routine decontamination in clinical departments. We need to analyze further the relationship between hospital-acquired infections and doorknob contamination, as assessed by ATP assay in clinics.

  15. Can measuring environmental cleanliness using ATP aid in the monitoring of wards with periods of increased incidence of Clostridium difficile?

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Katherine; Abbott, Gill; Bashford, Sarah; Bucior, Helen; Codd, Jane; Holland, Madelaine; Reynolds, Mandy; Simms, Avril

    2013-01-01

    Management of periods of increased incidence of Clostridium difficile (PIIs) on a ward have become multi-factorial and involve isolation of patients, typing of the isolates, antibiotic audit and a weekly environmental audit completed until three consecutive weekly passes are obtained. The aim of this study was to establish if monitoring the environment using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) could aid in reducing the length of time the wards remained on the weekly environmental audit. Secondly, it was to establish if certain pieces of equipment had continually high ATP scores requiring wider interventions. The study took place across three hospital sites covered by one infection control team over a 22 month period. There were three study periods, with the only difference being that ATP monitoring was conducted during period B. There was a difference in the length of time the wards remained on the audit between the first period and the ATP period; however this decrease was sustained in the third period when ATP monitoring ceased. There was an increase in the percentage of sites achieving a pass with ATP week on week. ATP monitoring provided the staff with non-subjective results and immediate feedback that facilitated discussions about cleaning regimes. ATP monitoring was a useful adjunct to environmental audits.

  16. In vivo imaging demonstrates ATP release from murine keratinocytes and its involvement in cutaneous inflammation after tape stripping.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshiya; Kimura, Yutaka; Niwa, Kazuki; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro; Fujimura, Taku; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Aiba, Setsuya

    2013-10-01

    Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) release from keratinocytes has been observed in various stress models in vitro, but studies demonstrating epidermal ATP release in vivo are limited. To visualize extracellular ATP (eATP) in vivo, we developed enhanced green-emitting luciferase immobilized on agarose beads (Eluc-agarose). Subcutaneous injection of Eluc-agarose together with ATP into the dorsal skin of BALB/c mice following intraperitoneal luciferin injection produced detectable and measurable bioluminescence using an in vivo imaging system. Using Eluc-agarose, we demonstrated in vivo that bright bioluminescence was observed from 1 to 20 minutes after repeated tape stripping of murine skin. This bioluminescence was suppressed by the local administration of apyrase. Eluc-agarose bioluminescence was observed only in tape-stripped skin with transepidermal water loss (TEWL) between 100 and 140 g m(2) h(-1), indicating a loss of bioluminescence with excessive tape stripping (TEWL>140 g m(-2) h(-1)). Histologically, tape-stripped skin with detectable eATP had a viable epidermis and a subepidermal neutrophil infiltrate, and administration of apyrase reduced the inflammatory infiltrate. Neither a viable epidermis nor an upper dermal neutrophil infiltrate was observed after excessive tape stripping. These results suggest that tape stripping prompts ATP release from viable keratinocytes, which facilitates inflammatory cell migration. Eluc-agarose may be useful in the in vivo detection of eATP in murine models of skin diseases.

  17. On the excitatory effects of ATP and its role as a neurotransmitter in coeliac neurons of the guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Silinsky, E M; Gerzanich, V

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of ATP on neurons from guinea-pig coeliac ganglia were studied to evaluate the possibility that this nucleotide acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter substance. 2. In experiments with intracellular microelectrodes, ATP (> or = 10 nM) depolarized coeliac neurons from the resting potential and produced an increase in the membrane conductance. These excitatory effects of ATP were observed in isolated coeliac ganglia, in acutely dissociated neurons or in cultured neurons. ATP also produced membrane conductance increases in neurons clamped at the resting potential using a single electrode voltage clamp. 3. When studied in the whole-cell configuration of the patch clamp (intracellular Cs+ to block K+ currents; -50 mV holding potential), ATP evoked inward currents in a manner more potent and efficacious than acetylcholine (ACh). 4. Whole-cell currents induced by ATP were inwardly rectifying and reversed at -13 mV in normal Na+ solutions. Changes in extracellular Na+ concentration altered the reversal potential in a manner predicted by the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz bi-ionic equation with a ratio of Na+ to Cs+ permeability (PNa/PCs) = 0.6. 5. Single channel currents were evoked by ATP in excised (outside-out) patches. Current-voltage relationships for single channel currents exhibited inward rectification. The mean single channel conductance was 22 pS at -50 mV. 6. Antagonists of ATP-gated channels (suramin, Reactive Blue 2) reduced the effects of ATP but not ACh. 7. Antagonists at nicotinic receptors/ion channels (hexamethonium or tubocurarine) reduced the effects of ACh but not ATP. 8. Excitatory synaptic currents were observed in cultures of coeliac neurons. Synaptic currents possessed similar current-voltage relationships to currents produced by ATP, were increased in frequency by K+ depolarization in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, and were selectively antagonized by ATP antagonists. 9. Local K+ depolarization of the ends of neurites evoked single channel

  18. The effects of ATP on the interactions between monovalent cations and the sodium pump in dialysed squid axons

    PubMed Central

    Beaugé, Luis; Di Polo, Reinaldo

    1981-01-01

    1. The efflux of Na in dialysed axons of the squid has been used to monitor the sidedness of the interactions of the Na pump with Na+ ions, K+ ions and ATP. The axons were under conditions such that most of the Na efflux went through the Na pump by means of a complete cycle of ATP hydrolysis. 2. With 310 mm-Ki+, 70 mm-Nai+ and 10 mm-K+ artificial sea water (ASW) more than 97% of the Na efflux was abolished by removal of ATP. The efflux of Na was stimulated by ATP with a K½ of about 200 μm. This is similar to the K½ of 150 μm found for the ATP dependence of a ouabain-sensitive Na,K-ATPase activity in membrane fragments isolated from squid optical nerves. 3. A 100-fold reduction in the ATP concentration (from 3-5 mm to 30-50 μm) increased the apparent affinity of the Na pump for Ko+ about 8-fold. In addition, the maximal rate of Ko+-stimulated Na efflux was reduced by a similar factor. Analogous results were seen in axons dialysed with 310 mm-Ki+ or without Ki+. 4. The relative effectiveness of external monovalent cations as activators of the Na efflux was a function of the ATP concentration inside the axon. With 3-5 mm-ATP the order of effectiveness was K+ > NH4+ > Rb+. With 30-50 μm-ATP the sequence was NH4+ » K+ » Rb+. These results were not affected by the removal of Ki+. 5. When the ATP concentration was 3 mm and the Nai+ concentration 70 mm, the removal of Ki+ produced a slight and reversible increase in the total efflux of Na (15%) and no change in the ATP-dependent Na efflux. When the ATP concentration was reduced to 30-50 μm, or the Nai+ concentration lowered to 5-10 mm, the removal of Ki+ reversibly increased the total and the ATP-dependent efflux of Na. The largest increase in Na efflux was seen when both ATP and Nai+ were simultaneously reduced. The ATP-dependent extra Na efflux resulting from the exclusion of Ki+ was abolished by 10-4 m-ouabain in the sea waters. 6. The increase in the ATP-dependent Na efflux observed in axons dialysed with 0 Ki

  19. ATP Binding by Proteasomal ATPases Regulates Cellular Assembly and Substrate-induced Functions of the 26 S Proteasome*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Chan; Li, Xiaohua; Thompson, David; DeMartino, George N.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the role of ATP binding by six different ATPase subunits (Rpt1–6) in the cellular assembly and molecular functions of mammalian 26 S proteasome. Four Rpt subunits (Rpt1–4) with ATP binding mutations were incompetent for cellular assembly into 26 S proteasome. In contrast, analogous mutants of Rpt5 and Rpt6 were incorporated normally into 26 S proteasomes in both intact cells and an in vitro assembly assay. Surprisingly, purified 26 S proteasomes containing either mutant Rpt5 or Rpt6 had normal basal ATPase activity and substrate gate opening for hydrolysis of short peptides. However, these mutant 26 S proteasomes were severely defective for ATP-dependent in vitro degradation of ubiquitylated and non-ubiquitylated proteins and did not display substrate-stimulated ATPase and peptidase activities characteristic of normal proteasomes. These results reveal differential roles of ATP binding by various Rpt subunits in proteasome assembly and function. They also indicate that substrate-stimulated ATPase activity and gating depend on the concerted action of a full complement of Rpt subunits competent for ATP binding and that this regulation is essential for normal proteolysis. Thus, protein substrates appear to promote their own degradation by stimulating proteasome functions involved in proteolysis. PMID:23212908

  20. Study of the Effects of ATP Suppliers and Thiol Reductants on Toxicity of Pioglitazone in Isolated Rat Liver Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Rezaiean Mehrabadi, Abbas; Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Rashedinia, Marzieh; Niknahad, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Pioglitazone (PG) is one of thiazolidinediones used for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. Some reports of its hepatotoxicity exist, but the mechanism of its hepatotoxicity is not well known. In the present study, the protective effect of some ATP suppliers are investigated against mitochondrial toxicity of PG in isolated rat mitochondria. Mitochondrial viability was investigated by MTT assay. The effects of PG on superoxide dismutase activity, ATP production, mitochondrial swelling and oxidative stress were also investigated. PG reduced mitochondrial viability with an LC50 of 880±32 µM. It reduced ATP production and superoxide dismutase activity in mitochondria and increased mitochondrial swelling, but no oxidant effect was present as measured by TBARS formation. Fructose, dihydroxyacetone, dithioteritol, and N-acetylcysteine reduced mitochondrial toxicity of PG. Therefore, PG toxicity may be due to its mitochondrial toxicity and energy depletion, and ATP suppliers could be effective in preventing its toxicity. PMID:26330870

  1. Sequential Action of MalE and Maltose Allows Coupling ATP Hydrolysis to Translocation in the MalFGK2 Transporter.

    PubMed

    Bao, Huan; Dalal, Kush; Cytrynbaum, Eric; Duong, Franck

    2015-10-16

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have evolved an ATP-dependent alternating-access mechanism to transport substrates across membranes. Despite important progress, especially in their structural analysis, it is still unknown how the substrate stimulates ATP hydrolysis, the hallmark of ABC transporters. In this study, we measure the ATP turnover cycle of MalFGK2 in steady and pre-steady state conditions. We show that (i) the basal ATPase activity of MalFGK2 is very low because the cleavage of ATP is rate-limiting, (ii) the binding of open-state MalE to the transporter induces ATP cleavage but leaves release of Pi limiting, and (iii) the additional presence of maltose stimulates release of Pi, and therefore increases the overall ATP turnover cycle. We conclude that open-state MalE stabilizes MalFGK2 in the outward-facing conformation until maltose triggers return to the inward-facing state for substrate and Pi release. This concerted action explains why ATPase activity of MalFGK2 depends on maltose, and why MalE is essential for transport.

  2. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy.

  3. The role of ATP and adenosine in the brain under normoxic and ischemic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Melani, A.; Pugliese, A. M.; Coppi, E.; Cipriani, S.; Traini, C.

    2007-01-01

    By taking advantage of some recently synthesized compounds that are able to block ecto-ATPase activity, we demonstrated that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the hippocampus exerts an inhibitory action independent of its degradation to adenosine. In addition, tonic activation of P2 receptors contributes to the normally recorded excitatory neurotransmission. The role of P2 receptors becomes critical during ischemia when extracellular ATP concentrations increase. Under such conditions, P2 antagonism is protective. Although ATP exerts a detrimental role under ischemia, it also exerts a trophic role in terms of cell division and differentiation. We recently reported that ATP is spontaneously released from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in culture. Moreover, it decreases hMSC proliferation rate at early stages of culture. Increased hMSC differentiation could account for an ATP-induced decrease in cell proliferation. ATP as a homeostatic regulator might exert a different effect on cell trophism according to the rate of its efflux and receptor expression during the cell life cycle. During ischemia, adenosine formed by intracellular ATP escapes from cells through the equilibrative transporter. The protective role of adenosine A1 receptors during ischemia is well accepted. However, the use of selective A1 agonists is hampered by unwanted peripheral effects, thus attention has been focused on A2A and A3 receptors. The protective effects of A2A antagonists in brain ischemia may be largely due to reduced glutamate outflow from neurones and glial cells. Reduced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases that are involved in neuronal death through transcriptional mechanisms may also contribute to protection by A2A antagonism. Evidence that A3 receptor antagonism may be protective after ischemia is also reported. PMID:18404443

  4. Populus euphratica APYRASE2 Enhances Cold Tolerance by Modulating Vesicular Trafficking and Extracellular ATP in Arabidopsis Plants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Shurong; Sun, Jian; Zhao, Rui; Ding, Mingquan; Zhang, Yinan; Sun, Yuanling; Wang, Wei; Tan, Yeqing; Liu, Dandan; Ma, Xujun; Hou, Peichen; Wang, Meijuan; Lu, Cunfu; Shen, Xin; Chen, Shaoliang

    2015-01-01

    Apyrase and extracellular ATP play crucial roles in mediating plant growth and defense responses. In the cold-tolerant poplar, Populus euphratica, low temperatures up-regulate APYRASE2 (PeAPY2) expression in callus cells. We investigated the biochemical characteristics of PeAPY2 and its role in cold tolerance. We found that PeAPY2 predominantly localized to the plasma membrane, but punctate signals also appeared in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. PeAPY2 exhibited broad substrate specificity, but it most efficiently hydrolyzed purine nucleotides, particularly ATP. PeAPY2 preferred Mg2+ as a cofactor, and it was insensitive to various, specific ATPase inhibitors. When PeAPY2 was ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), cold tolerance was enhanced, based on root growth measurements and survival rates. Moreover, under cold stress, PeAPY2-transgenic plants maintained plasma membrane integrity and showed reduced cold-elicited electrolyte leakage compared with wild-type plants. These responses probably resulted from efficient plasma membrane repair via vesicular trafficking. Indeed, transgenic plants showed accelerated endocytosis and exocytosis during cold stress and recovery. We found that low doses of extracellular ATP accelerated vesicular trafficking, but high extracellular ATP inhibited trafficking and reduced cell viability. Cold stress caused significant increases in root medium extracellular ATP. However, under these conditions, PeAPY2-transgenic lines showed greater control of extracellular ATP levels than wild-type plants. We conclude that Arabidopsis plants that overexpressed PeAPY2 could increase membrane repair by accelerating vesicular trafficking and hydrolyzing extracellular ATP to avoid excessive, cold-elicited ATP accumulation in the root medium and, thus, reduced ATP-induced inhibition of vesicular trafficking. PMID:26224801

  5. Populus euphratica APYRASE2 Enhances Cold Tolerance by Modulating Vesicular Trafficking and Extracellular ATP in Arabidopsis Plants.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shurong; Sun, Jian; Zhao, Rui; Ding, Mingquan; Zhang, Yinan; Sun, Yuanling; Wang, Wei; Tan, Yeqing; Liu, Dandan; Ma, Xujun; Hou, Peichen; Wang, Meijuan; Lu, Cunfu; Shen, Xin; Chen, Shaoliang

    2015-09-01

    Apyrase and extracellular ATP play crucial roles in mediating plant growth and defense responses. In the cold-tolerant poplar, Populus euphratica, low temperatures up-regulate APYRASE2 (PeAPY2) expression in callus cells. We investigated the biochemical characteristics of PeAPY2 and its role in cold tolerance. We found that PeAPY2 predominantly localized to the plasma membrane, but punctate signals also appeared in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. PeAPY2 exhibited broad substrate specificity, but it most efficiently hydrolyzed purine nucleotides, particularly ATP. PeAPY2 preferred Mg(2+) as a cofactor, and it was insensitive to various, specific ATPase inhibitors. When PeAPY2 was ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), cold tolerance was enhanced, based on root growth measurements and survival rates. Moreover, under cold stress, PeAPY2-transgenic plants maintained plasma membrane integrity and showed reduced cold-elicited electrolyte leakage compared with wild-type plants. These responses probably resulted from efficient plasma membrane repair via vesicular trafficking. Indeed, transgenic plants showed accelerated endocytosis and exocytosis during cold stress and recovery. We found that low doses of extracellular ATP accelerated vesicular trafficking, but high extracellular ATP inhibited trafficking and reduced cell viability. Cold stress caused significant increases in root medium extracellular ATP. However, under these conditions, PeAPY2-transgenic lines showed greater control of extracellular ATP levels than wild-type plants. We conclude that Arabidopsis plants that overexpressed PeAPY2 could increase membrane repair by accelerating vesicular trafficking and hydrolyzing extracellular ATP to avoid excessive, cold-elicited ATP accumulation in the root medium and, thus, reduced ATP-induced inhibition of vesicular trafficking. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Mechanisms of ATP Release by Human Trabecular Meshwork Cells, the Enabling Step in Purinergic Regulation of Aqueous Humor Outflow

    PubMed Central

    LI, ANG; LEUNG, CHI TING; PETERSON-YANTORNO, KIM; STAMER, W. DANIEL; MITCHELL, CLAIRE H.; CIVAN, MORTIMER M.

    2011-01-01

    Our guiding hypothesis is that ecto-enzymatic conversion of extracellular ATP to adenosine activates A1 adenosine receptors, reducing resistance to aqueous humor outflow and intraocular pressure. The initial step in this purinergic regulation is ATP release from outflow-pathway cells by mechanisms unknown. We measured similar ATP release from human explant-derived primary trabecular meshwork (TM) cells (HTM) and a human TM cell line (TM5). Responses to 21 inhibitors indicated that pannexin-1 (PX1) and connexin (Cx) hemichannels and P2X7 receptors (P2RX7) were comparably important in modulating ATP release induced by hypotonic swelling, whereas vesicular release was insignificant. Consistent with prior studies of PX1 activity in certain other cells, ATP release was lowered by the reducing agent dithiothreitol. Overexpressing PX1 in HEK293T cells promoted, while partial knockdown (KD) in both HEK293T and TM5 cells inhibited hypotonicity-activated ATP release. Additionally, KD reduced the pharmacologically-defined contribution of PX1 and enhanced those of Cx and P2RX7. ATP release was also triggered by raising intracellular Ca2+ activity with ionomycin after a prolonged lag time and was unaffected by the PX1 blocker probenecid, but nearly abolished by P2RX7 antagonists. We conclude that swelling-stimulated ATP release from human TM cells is physiologically mediated by PX1 and Cx hemichannels and P2X7 receptors, but not by vesicular release. PX1 appears not to be stimulated by intracellular Ca2+ in TM cells, but can be modulated by oxidation-reduction state. The P2RX7-dependent component of swelling-activated release may be mediated by PX1 hemichannels or reflect apoptotic magnification of ATP release, either through itself and/or hemichannels. PMID:21381023

  7. The basal proton conductance of mitochondria depends on adenine nucleotide translocase content

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The basal proton conductance of mitochondria causes mild uncoupling and may be an important contributor to metabolic rate. The molecular nature of the proton-conductance pathway is unknown. We show that the proton conductance of muscle mitochondria from mice in which isoform 1 of the adenine nucleotide translocase has been ablated is half that of wild-type controls. Overexpression of the adenine nucleotide translocase encoded by the stress-sensitive B gene in Drosophila mitochondria increases proton conductance, and underexpression decreases it, even when the carrier is fully inhibited using carboxyatractylate. We conclude that half to two-thirds of the basal proton conductance of mitochondria is catalysed by the adenine nucleotide carrier, independently of its ATP/ADP exchange or fatty-acid-dependent proton-leak functions. PMID:16076285

  8. Overexpression of the ATP binding cassette gene ABCA1 determines resistance to Curcumin in M14 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bachmeier, Beatrice E; Iancu, Cristina M; Killian, Peter H; Kronski, Emanuel; Mirisola, Valentina; Angelini, Giovanna; Jochum, Marianne; Nerlich, Andreas G; Pfeffer, Ulrich

    2009-12-23

    Curcumin induces apoptosis in many cancer cells and it reduces xenograft growth and the formation of lung metastases in nude mice. Moreover, the plant derived polyphenol has been reported to be able to overcome drug resistance to classical chemotherapy. These features render the drug a promising candidate for tumor therapy especially for cancers known for their high rates concerning therapy resistance like melanoma. We show here that the melanoma cell line M14 is resistant to Curcumin induced apoptosis, which correlates with the absence of any effect on NFkappaB signaling. We show that CXCL1 a chemokine that is down regulated in breast cancer cells by Curcumin in an NFkappaB dependent manner is expressed at variable levels in human melanomas. Yet in M14 cells, CXCL1 expression did not change upon Curcumin treatment. Following the hypothesis that Curcumin is rapidly removed from the resistant cells, we analyzed expression of known multi drug resistance genes and cellular transporters in M14 melanoma cells and in the Curcumin sensitive breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1, a gene involved in the cellular lipid removal pathway is over-expressed in resistant M14 melanoma as compared to the sensitive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Gene silencing of ABCA1 by siRNA sensitizes M14 cells to the apoptotic effect of Curcumin most likely as a result of reduced basal levels of active NFkappaB. Moreover, ABCA1 silencing alone also induces apoptosis and reduces p65 expression. Resistance to Curcumin thus follows classical pathways and ABCA1 expression should be considered as response marker.

  9. Kinetics of extracellular ATP in mastoparan 7-activated human erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Denis, María Florencia Leal; Incicco, J. Jeremías; Espelt, María Victoria; Verstraeten, Sandra V.; Pignataro, Omar P.; Lazarowski, Eduardo R.; Schwarzbaum, Pablo J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Background The peptide mastoparan 7 (MST7) stimulated ATP release in human erythrocytes. We explored intra- and extracellular processes governing the time-dependent accumulation of extracellular ATP (i.e., ATPe kinetics). Methods Human erythrocytes were treated with MST7 in the presence or absence of two blockers of pannexin 1. ATPe concentration was monitored by luciferin-luciferase based real-time luminometry. Results Exposure of human erythrocytes to MST7 led to an acute increase in [ATPe], followed by a slower increase phase. ATPe kinetics reflected a strong activation of ATP efflux and a low rate of ATPe hydrolysis by ectoATPase activity. Enhancement of [ATPe] by MST7 required adhesion of erythrocytes to poly-D-lysin-coated coverslips, and correlated with a 31% increase of cAMP and 10% cell swelling. However, when MST7 was dissolved in a hyperosmotic medium to block cell swelling, ATPe accumulation was inhibited by 49%. Erythrocytes pre-exposure to 10 μM of either carbenoxolone or probenecid, two blockers of pannexin 1, exhibited a partial reduction of ATP efflux. Erythrocytes from pannexin 1 knockout mice exhibited similar ATPe kinetics as those of wild type mice erythrocytes exposed to pannexin 1 blockers. Conclusions MST7 induced release of ATP required either cell adhesion or strong activation of cAMP synthesis. Part of this release required cell swelling. Kinetic analysis and a data driven model suggested that ATP efflux is mediated by two ATP conduits displaying different kinetics, with one conduit being fully blocked by pannexin 1 blockers. General Significance Kinetic analysis of extracellular ATP accumulation from human erythrocytes and potential effects on microcirculation. PMID:23742824

  10. Immunohistochemical expression of MYB in salivary gland basal cell adenocarcinoma and basal cell adenoma.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Sydney L; Robinson, Robert A

    2017-07-20

    Basal cell predominant salivary gland neoplasms can be difficult to separate histologically. One of the most aggressive of basaloid salivary gland neoplasms is adenoid cystic carcinoma. MYB expression by immunohistochemistry has been documented in adenoid cystic carcinoma. Some investigators have suggested that using this expression can help in establishing the diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma. Utilizing tissue microarrays, we studied a group of basal cell adenocarcinomas and basal cell adenomas to determine: (i) whether either tumor expressed MYB and (ii) the frequency of any expression in either tumors. Seventeen salivary gland basal cell adenocarcinomas and 30 salivary gland basal cell adenomas were used to construct microarrays. These tissue microarrays were used to assess for immunohistochemical MYB expression. Fifty-three percent (nine of 17) of salivary gland basal cell adenocarcinomas and 57% (17 of 30) of salivary gland basal cell adenomas showed MYB overexpression. For comparison, we studied 11 adenoid cystic carcinomas for MYB expression and found that 64% (seven of 11) overexpressed MYB. We found no relation to clinical course for basal adenomas or basal cell adenocarcinomas that overexpressed MYB vs those that did not. MYB expression does not help separate basal cell adenocarcinomas from basal cell adenomas, and our data suggest it does not differentiate between either of these neoplasms and adenoid cystic carcinoma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Altered potassium ATP channel signaling in mesenteric arteries of old high salt-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Whidden, Melissa A.; Basgut, Bilgen; Kirichenko, Nataliya; Erdos, Benedek; Tümer, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Both aging and the consumption of a high salt diet are associated with clear changes in the vascular system that can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease; however the mechanisms are not clearly understood. Therefore, we examined whether aging and the consumption of excess salt alters the function of potassium ATP-dependent channel signaling in mesenteric arteries [Methods] Young (7 months) and old (29 months) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats were fed a control or a high salt diet (8% NaCl) for 12 days and mesenteric arteries were utilized for vascular reactivity measurements. [Results] Acetylcholine-induced endothelium relaxation was significantly reduced in old arteries (81 ± 4%) when compared with young arteries (92 ± 2%). Pretreatment with the potassium-ATP channel blocker glibenclamide reduced relaxation to acetylcholine in young arteries but did not alter dilation in old arteries. On a high salt diet, endothelium dilation to acetylcholine was significantly reduced in old salt arteries (60 ± 3%) when compared with old control arteries (81 ± 4%). Glibenclamide reduced acetylcholine-induced dilation in young salt arteries but had no effect on old salt arteries. Dilation to cromakalim, a potassium-ATP channel opener, was reduced in old salt arteries when compared with old control arteries. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that aging impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation in mesenteric arteries. Furthermore, a high salt diet alters the function of potassium-ATP-dependent channel signaling in old isolated mesenteric arteries and affects the mediation of relaxation stimuli. PMID:27508155

  12. Altered potassium ATP channel signaling in mesenteric arteries of old high salt-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Whidden, Melissa A; Basgut, Bilgen; Kirichenko, Nataliya; Erdos, Benedek; Tümer, Nihal

    2016-06-01

    Both aging and the consumption of a high salt diet are associated with clear changes in the vascular system that can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease; however the mechanisms are not clearly understood. Therefore, we examined whether aging and the consumption of excess salt alters the function of potassium ATP-dependent channel signaling in mesenteric arteries. Young (7 months) and old (29 months) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats were fed a control or a high salt diet (8% NaCl) for 12 days and mesenteric arteries were utilized for vascular reactivity measurements. Acetylcholine-induced endothelium relaxation was significantly reduced in old arteries (81 ± 4%) when compared with young arteries (92 ± 2%). Pretreatment with the potassium-ATP channel blocker glibenclamide reduced relaxation to acetylcholine in young arteries but did not alter dilation in old arteries. On a high salt diet, endothelium dilation to acetylcholine was significantly reduced in old salt arteries (60 ± 3%) when compared with old control arteries (81 ± 4%). Glibenclamide reduced acetylcholine-induced dilation in young salt arteries but had no effect on old salt arteries. Dilation to cromakalim, a potassium-ATP channel opener, was reduced in old salt arteries when compared with old control arteries. These findings demonstrate that aging impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation in mesenteric arteries. Furthermore, a high salt diet alters the function of potassium-ATP-dependent channel signaling in old isolated mesenteric arteries and affects the mediation of relaxation stimuli.

  13. Yeast mitochondria import ATP through the calcium-dependent ATP-Mg/Pi carrier Sal1p, and are ATP consumers during aerobic growth in glucose.

    PubMed

    Traba, Javier; Froschauer, Elisabeth Maria; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Satrústegui, Jorgina; Del Arco, Araceli

    2008-08-01

    Sal1p, a novel Ca2+-dependent ATP-Mg/Pi carrier, is essential in yeast lacking all adenine nucleotide translocases. By targeting luciferase to the mitochondrial matrix to monitor mitochondrial ATP levels, we show in isolated mitochondria that both ATP-Mg and free ADP are taken up by Sal1p with a K(m) of 0.20 +/- 0.03 mM and 0.28 +/- 0.06 mM respectively. Nucleotide transport along Sal1p is strictly Ca2+ dependent. Ca2+ increases the V(max) with a S(0.5) of 15 muM, and no changes in the K(m) for ATP-Mg. Glucose sensing in yeast generates Ca2+ transients involving Ca2+ influx from the external medium. We find that carbon-deprived cells respond to glucose with an immediate increase in mitochondrial ATP levels which is not observed in the presence of EGTA or in Sal1p-deficient cells. Moreover, we now report that during normal aerobic growth on glucose, yeast mitochondria import ATP from the cytosol and hydrolyse it through H+-ATP synthase. We identify two pathways for ATP uptake in mitochondria, the ADP/ATP carriers and Sal1p. Thus, during exponential growth on glucose, mitochondria are ATP consumers, as those from cells growing in anaerobic conditions or deprived of mitochondrial DNA which depend on cytosolic ATP and mitochondrial ATPase working in reverse to generate a mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, the results show that growth on glucose requires ATP hydrolysis in mitochondria and recruits Sal1p as a Ca2+-dependent mechanism to import ATP-Mg from the cytosol. Whether this mechanism is used under similar settings in higher eukaryotes is an open question.

  14. Inhibiting the Hedgehog Pathway in Patients with the Basal-Cell Nevus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jean Y.; Mackay-Wiggan, Julian M.; Aszterbaum, Michelle; Yauch, Robert L.; Lindgren, Joselyn; Chang, Kris; Coppola, Carol; Chanana, Anita M.; Marji, Jackleen; Bickers, David R.; Epstein, Ervin H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dysregulated hedgehog signaling is the pivotal molecular abnormality underlying basal-cell carcinomas. Vismodegib is a new orally administered hedgehog-pathway inhibitor that produces objective responses in locally advanced and metastatic basal-cell carcinomas. METHODS We tested the anti–basal-cell carcinoma efficacy of vismodegib in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with the basal-cell nevus syndrome at three clinical centers from September 2009 through January 2011. The primary end point was reduction in the incidence of new basal-cell carcinomas that were eligible for surgical resection (surgically eligible) with vismodegib versus placebo after 3 months; secondary end points included reduction in the size of existing basal-cell carcinomas. RESULTS In 41 patients followed for a mean of 8 months (range, 1 to 15) after enrollment, the per-patient rate of new surgically eligible basal-cell carcinomas was lower with vismodegib than with placebo (2 vs. 29 cases per group per year, P<0.001), as was the size (percent change from baseline in the sum of the longest diameter) of existing clinically significant basal-cell carcinomas (−65% vs. −11%, P = 0.003). In some patients, all basal-cell carcinomas clinically regressed. No tumors progressed during treatment with vismodegib. Patients receiving vismodegib routinely had grade 1 or 2 adverse events of loss of taste, muscle cramps, hair loss, and weight loss. Overall, 54% of patients (14 of 26) receiving vismodegib discontinued drug treatment owing to adverse events. At 1 month, vismodegib use had reduced the hedgehog target-gene expression by basal-cell carcinoma by 90% (P<0.001) and diminished tumor-cell proliferation, but apoptosis was not affected. No residual basal-cell carcinoma was detectable in 83% of biopsy samples taken from sites of clinically regressed basal-cell carcinomas. CONCLUSIONS Vismodegib reduces the basal-cell carcinoma tumor burden and blocks growth of

  15. The Basal Ganglia-Circa 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehler, William R.

    1981-01-01

    Our review has shown that recent studies with the new anterograde and retrograde axon transport methods have confirmed and extended our knowledge of the projection of the basal ganglia and clarified their sites of origin. They have thrown new light on certain topographic connectional relationships and revealed several new reciprocal connections between constituent nuclei of the basal ganglia. Similarly, attention has been drawn to the fact that there have also been many new histochemical techniques introduced in recent years that are now providing regional biochemical overlays for connectional maps of the central nervous system, especially regions in, or interconnecting with, the basal ganglia. However, although these new morphological biochemical maps are very complex and technically highly advanced, our understanding of the function controlled by the basal ganglia still remains primitive. The reader who is interested in some new ideas of the functional aspects of the basal ganglia is directed to Nauta's proposed conceptual reorganization of the basal ganglia telencephalon and to Marsden's more clinically orientated appraisal of the unsolved mysteries of the basal ganglia participation in the control of movement.

  16. Metastatic Basal cell carcinoma accompanying gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  17. Involvement of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in the acidosis-induced efflux of ATP from rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jie; Le, Gengyun; Ballard, Heather J

    2010-11-15

    The present study was performed to investigate the effect of acidosis on the efflux of ATP from skeletal muscle. Infusion of lactic acid to the perfused hindlimb muscles of anaesthetised rats produced dose-dependent decreases in pH and increases in the interstitial ATP of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle: 10 mM lactic acid reduced the venous pH from 7.22 ± 0.04 to 6.97 ± 0.02 and increased interstitial ATP from 38 ± 8 to 67 ± 11 nM. The increase in interstitial ATP was well-correlated with the decrease in pH (r(2) = 0.93; P < 0.05). Blockade of cellular uptake of lactic acid using α-cyano-hydroxycinnamic acid abolished the lactic acid-induced ATP release, whilst infusion of sodium lactate failed to depress pH or increase interstitial ATP, suggesting that intracellular pH depression, rather than lactate, stimulated the ATP efflux. Incubation of cultured skeletal myoblasts with 10 mM lactic acid significantly increased the accumulation of ATP in the bathing medium from 0.46 ± 0.06 to 0.76 ± 0.08 μM, confirming the skeletal muscle cells as the source of the released ATP. Acidosis-induced ATP efflux from the perfused muscle was abolished by CFTR(inh)-172, a specific inhibitor of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), or glibenclamide, an inhibitor of both K(ATP) channels and CFTR, but it was not affected by atractyloside, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial ATP transporter. Silencing of the CFTR gene using an siRNA abolished the acidosis-induced increase in ATP release from cultured myoblasts. CFTR expression on skeletal muscle cells was confirmed using immunostaining in the intact muscle and Western blotting in the cultured cells. These data suggest that depression of the intracellular pH of skeletal muscle cells stimulates ATP efflux, and that CFTR plays an important role in the release mechanism.

  18. Regulation of MDCK cell-substratum adhesion by RhoA and myosin light chain kinase after ATP depletion.

    PubMed

    Prahalad, Priya; Calvo, Ignacio; Waechter, Holly; Matthews, Jeffrey B; Zuk, Anna; Matlin, Karl S

    2004-03-01

    The attachment of epithelial cells to the extracellular matrix substratum is essential for their differentiation and polarization. Despite this, the precise adhesion mechanism and its regulation are poorly understood. In the kidney, an ischemic insult causes renal tubular epithelial cells to detach from the basement membrane, even though they remain viable. To understand this phenomenon, and to probe the regulation of epithelial cell attachment, we used a model system consisting of newly adherent Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells subjected to ATP depletion to mimic ischemic injury. We found that MDCK cells detach from collagen I after 60 min of ATP depletion but reattach when resupplied with glucose. Detachment is not caused by degradation or endocytosis of beta(1)-integrins, which mediate attachment to collagen I. Basal actin filaments and paxillin-containing adhesion complexes are disrupted by ATP depletion and quickly reform on glucose repletion. However, partial preservation of basal actin by overexpression of constitutively active RhoA does not significantly affect cell detachment. Furthermore, Y-27632, an inhibitor of the RhoA effector Rho-kinase, does not prevent reattachment of cells on glucose addition, even though reformation of central stress fibers and large adhesion complexes is blocked. In contrast, reattachment of ATP-depleted cells and detachment of cells not previously subjected to ATP depletion are prevented by ML-7, an inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). We conclude that initial adherence of MDCK cells to a collagen I substratum is mediated by peripheral actin filaments and adhesion complexes regulated by MLCK but not by stress fibers and adhesion complexes controlled by RhoA.

  19. Validation of the AccuPoint Advanced ATP Hygiene Monitoring System for Sanitation Monitoring Through Detection of ATP from Stainless Steel Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Viator, Ryan; Gray, R Lucas; Sarver, Ron; Steiner, Brent; Mozola, Mark; Rice, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    The AccuPoint Advanced ATP Hygeine Monitoring System was validated by an AOAC International Performance Tested MethodSM on the detection of ATP from stainless steel surfaces. Neogen Corp.'s system is a lightweight, hand-held diagnostic tool used to validate and verify a hygiene program's effectiveness by detecting organic residues remaining on surfaces and in liquids after cleaning. The system is composed of three primary components: an electronic luminometer, fully self-contained single-use samplers, and software. The system is designed to detect adenosine triphosphate (ATP) at set thresholds and to report the measurement in relative light units (RLU). These thresholds are established by a facility to reflect effective cleaning practices. The instrument compares the measured level of ATP with the established threshold and reports the results as pass, marginal, or fail. A linear dose-response in RLU was observed with pure analyte. In the matrix and microbial studies, detection levels varied depending on the matrix and microorganism tested. Independent laboratory trials confirmed pure analyte and matrix observations. Specificity testing of similar, yet different, compounds resulted in 0 RLU for all except 2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate sodium salt, which showed markedly reduced reactivity when compared with ATP. Also, interference by these compounds was negligible. When disinfectant residues were evaluated for their effect on the test, cleaners increased RLU output to varying degrees. Stability testing showed consistent results between three independently manufactured lots and stable results through the 9 month shelf-life. Additionally, when three readers were compared using electronic light-emitting diodes as the light source, instrument variability was low (<3%). Robustness testing results provided evidence that temperature affects test performance more than shaking time, and sampler performance improves as the temperature increases to room temperature. These

  20. Natural Variation in the ATPS1 Isoform of ATP Sulfurylase Contributes to the Control of Sulfate Levels in Arabidopsis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Koprivova, Anna; Giovannetti, Marco; Baraniecka, Patrycja; Lee, Bok-Rye; Grondin, Cécile; Loudet, Olivier; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur is an essential macronutrient for all living organisms. Plants take up inorganic sulfate from the soil, reduce it, and assimilate it into bioorganic compounds, but part of this sulfate is stored in the vacuoles. In our first attempt to identify genes involved in the control of sulfate content in the leaves, we reported that a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for sulfate content in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) was underlain by the APR2 isoform of the key enzyme of sulfate assimilation, adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate reductase. To increase the knowledge of the control of this trait, we cloned a second QTL from the same analysis. Surprisingly, the gene underlying this QTL encodes the ATPS1 isoform of the enzyme ATP sulfurylase, which precedes adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate reductase in the sulfate assimilation pathway. Plants with the Bay allele of ATPS1 accumulate lower steady-state levels of ATPS1 transcript than those with the Sha allele, which leads to lower enzyme activity and, ultimately, the accumulation of sulfate. Our results show that the transcript variation is controlled in cis. Examination of ATPS1 sequences of Bay-0 and Shahdara identified two deletions in the first intron and immediately downstream the gene in Bay-0 shared with multiple other Arabidopsis accessions. The average ATPS1 transcript levels are lower in these accessions than in those without the deletions, while sulfate levels are significantly higher. Thus, sulfate content in Arabidopsis is controlled by two genes encoding subsequent enzymes in the sulfate assimilation pathway but using different mechanisms, variation in amino acid sequence and variation in expression levels. PMID:24027241

  1. Microglial cell migration stimulated by ATP and C5a involve distinct molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Aaron M.; Stella, Nephi

    2009-01-01

    Microglial cells, the macrophages of the brain, play an essential role in the propagation of neuroinflammation. Increased microglial cell migration in response to specific chemoattractants has been documented, but less is known about the differences between these stimuli and the signal transduction pathways that mediate their effects. Current methods to measure cell migration are often labor-intensive and rely on the manual counting of cell number, so more efficient and objective methods are needed. Here we present an improved and higher-throughput Boyden Chamber technique that measures microglial cell migration by using DRAQ5, a nuclear dye that emits in the near-infrared. Out of a panel of chemoattractants tested, we found that ATP and C5a potently stimulate the migration of mouse primary microglial cells. The stimulatory effects of ATP and C5a displayed significant additivity, suggesting that each chemoattractant stimulated migration through independent molecular mechanisms. Accordingly, we found key differences in these responses: ATP stimulated a combination of both chemokinesis and chemotaxis, and this response was mediated by the ROCK signaling pathway; whereas C5a stimulated only chemotaxis and this response was mediated by the Rac1 signaling pathway. Finally, we found that functional PI3-kinase is only required for random basal microglial cell migration. Thus, our results show that distinct non-overlapping signal transduction pathways control different modes of microglial cell migration and suggest that the targeting of these distinct molecular mechanisms should modulate different aspects of neuroinflammation propagation. PMID:19053059

  2. Transcription Start Site Scanning and the Requirement for ATP during Transcription Initiation by RNA Polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Fishburn, James; Galburt, Eric; Hahn, Steven

    2016-06-17

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase (Pol) II locates transcription start sites (TSS) at TATA-containing promoters by scanning sequences downstream from the site of preinitiation complex formation, a process that involves the translocation of downstream promoter DNA toward Pol II. To investigate a potential role of yeast Pol II transcription in TSS scanning, HIS4 promoter derivatives were generated that limited transcripts in the 30-bp scanned region to two nucleotides in length. Although we found that TSS scanning does not require RNA synthesis, our results revealed that transcription in the purified yeast basal system is largely ATP-independent despite a requirement for the TFIIH DNA translocase subunit Ssl2. This result is rationalized by our finding that, although they are poorer substrates, UTP and GTP can also be utilized by Ssl2. ATPγS is a strong inhibitor of rNTP-fueled translocation, and high concentrations of ATPγS make transcription completely dependent on added dATP. Limiting Pol II function with low ATP concentrations shifted the TSS position downstream. Combined with prior work, our results show that Pol II transcription plays an important role in TSS selection but is not required for the scanning reaction.

  3. A basal carbon concentrating mechanism in plants?

    PubMed

    Zabaleta, Eduardo; Martin, M Victoria; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2012-05-01

    Many photosynthetic organisms have developed inorganic carbon (Ci) concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) that increase the CO₂ concentration within the vicinity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). Several CCMs, such as four carbon (C4) and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), bicarbonate accumulation systems and capsular structures around RubisCO have been described in great detail. These systems are believed to have evolved several times as mechanisms that acclimate organisms to unfavourable growth conditions. Based on recent experimental evidence we propose the occurrence of another more general CCM system present in all plants. This basal CCM (bCCM) is supposed to be composed of mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases (a β-type carbonic anhydrase and the γ-type carbonic anhydrase domain of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase complex) and probably further unknown components. The bCCM is proposed to reduce leakage of CO₂ from plant cells and allow efficient recycling of mitochondrial CO₂ for carbon fixation in chloroplasts. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Space shuttle (ATP configuration) abort staging investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampy, J. M.; Blackwell, K. L.; Allen, E. C., Jr.; Fossler, I.

    1973-01-01

    A wind tunnel test conducted in a 14-inch trisonic wind tunnel to determine the force and moment characteristics of the ATP Orbiter and modified ATP External Tank/SRB combination during abort staging conditions is discussed. Six component aerodynamic force and moment data were recorded for the orbiter and ET/SRB combination. Pitch polars were obtained for an angle of attack range from minus 10 to plus 10 degrees and orbiter incidence angles (orbiter relative to the ET/SRB combination) of 0 and 2 degrees. A limited amount of yaw data were obtained at 0 degree angle of attack and beta range from minus 10 to plus 10 degrees. In addition, orbiter pitch control effectiveness was determined at several grid points. These force and moment data were obtained for Mach numbers of 0.9, 1.2 and 2.0.

  5. Inhibition of gamma-secretase activity reduces Abeta production, reduces oxidative stress, increases mitochondrial activity and leads to reduced vulnerability to apoptosis: Implications for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Baiyang; Gong, Kai; Niu, Ying; Liu, Lingling; Yan, Yufang; Lu, Guangyuan; Zhang, Lihai; Hu, Min; Zhao, Nanming; Zhang, Xiufang; Tang, Peifu; Gong, Yandao

    2009-05-15

    It has been argued that gamma-secretase should be considered as a pharmacological target, as there are few mechanism-based experimental and clinical studies on gamma-secretase treatment. In this study, we found that N2a cells bearing APP695 or its Swedish mutant exhibited increased basal levels of ROS, nitric oxide (NO), protein carbonyls, MDA and intracellular calcium, as well as reduced level of the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP. When the activity of gamma-secretase was inhibited by expression of the D385A PS1 variant, cells (N2a/Swe.D385A) showed reduced basal levels of ROS, nitric oxide (NO), protein carbonyls, MDA and intracellular calcium, as well as increased mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP level. In addition, N2a/Swe.D385A cells showed reduced vulnerability to H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis. The Bcl-2 and JNK/ERK pathways were proven to be involved in the change of vulnerability to H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis. Moreover, we discovered that inhibition of gamma-secretase by DAPT would lead to a reduction of ROS levels and stabilization of mitochondrial function in APP (N2a/APP695) and APP Swedish mutant (N2a/APPswe) transfected cells. At last, it was shown that Abeta antibody and antiserum prevented increase of ROS and reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential in N2a/Swe.DeltaE9 cells but not in N2a/Swe.D385A cells, which indicated that reduced formation of Abeta was the reason for reduction of ROS formation and increase of mitochondrial membrane potential when PS-1 activity was impaired in N2a/Swe.D385A cells. We concluded that neurotoxicity was positively correlated with the activity of gamma-secretase, which suggested inhibition of gamma-secretase is a rational pharmacological target for Alzheimer's disease treatment.

  6. [Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation].

    PubMed

    Goldman-Lévy, Gabrielle; Frouin, Eric; Soubeyran, Isabelle; Maury, Géraldine; Guillot, Bernard; Costes, Valérie

    2015-04-01

    Basal cell carcinoma with matrical differentiation is a very rare variant of basal cell carcinoma. To our knowledge, less than 30 cases have been reported. This tumor is composed of basaloid lobules showing a differentiation toward the pilar matrix cells. Recently, it has been demonstrated that beta-catenin would interfer with physiopathogenesis of matrical tumors, in particular pilomatricomas, but also basal cell carcinomas with matrical differentiation. This is a new case, with immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of beta-catenin, in order to explain its histogenesis.

  7. Yeast ADP/ATP Carrier Isoform 2

    PubMed Central

    Clémençon, Benjamin; Rey, Martial; Trézéguet, Véronique; Forest, Eric; Pelosi, Ludovic

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier, or Ancp, is a member of the mitochondrial carrier family responsible for exchanging ADP and ATP across the mitochondrial inner membrane. ADP/ATP transport involves Ancp switching between two conformational states. These can be analyzed using specific inhibitors, carboxyatractyloside (CATR) and bongkrekic acid (BA). The high resolution three-dimensional structure of bovine Anc1p (bAnc1p), as a CATR-carrier complex, has been solved. However, because the structure of the BA-carrier complex has not yet been determined, the detailed mechanism of transport remains unknown. Recently, sample processing for hydrogen/deuterium exchange experiments coupled to mass spectrometry was improved, providing novel insights into bAnc1p conformational transitions due to inhibitor binding. In this work we performed both hydrogen/deuterium exchange-mass spectrometry experiments and genetic manipulations. Because these are very difficult to apply with bovine Anc1p, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae Anc isoform 2 (ScAnc2p). Significant differences in solvent accessibility were observed throughout the amino acid sequence for ScAnc2p complexed to either CATR or BA. Interestingly, in detergent solution, the conformational dynamics of ScAnc2p were dissimilar to those of bAnc1p, in particular for the upper half of the cavity, toward the intermembrane space, and the m2 loop, which is thought to be easily accessible to the solvent from the matrix in bAnc1p. Our study then focused on the methionyl residues of the Ancp signature sequence, RRRMMM. All our results indicate that the methionine cluster is involved in the ADP/ATP transport mechanism and confirm that the Ancp cavity is a highly dynamic structure. PMID:21868387

  8. H+/ATP ratio during ATP hydrolysis by mitochondria: modification of the chemiosmotic theory.

    PubMed Central

    Brand, M D; Lehninger, A L

    1977-01-01

    The stoichiometry of H+ ejection by mitochondria during hydrolysis of a small pulse of ATP (the H+/ATP ratio) has been reexamined in the light of our recent observation that the stoichiometry of H+ ejection during mitochondrial electron transport (the H+/site ratio) was previously underestimated. We show that earlier estimates of the H+/ATP ratio in intact mitochondria were based upon an invalid correction for scaler H+ production and describe a modified method for determination of this ratio which utilizes mersalyl or N-ethylmaleimide to prevent complicating transmembrane movements of phosphate and H+. This method gives a value for the H+/ATP ratio of 2.0 without the need for questionable corrections, compared with a value of 3.0 for the H+/site ratio also obtained by pulse methods. A modified version of the chemiosmotic theory is presented, in which 3 H+ are ejected per pair of electrons traversing each energy-conserving site of the respiratory chain. Of these, 2 H+ return to the matrix through the ATPase to form ATP from ADP and phosphate, and 1 H+ returns through the combined action of the phosphate and adenine nucleotide exchange carriers of the inner membrane to allow the energy-requiring influx of Pi and ADP3- and efflux of ATP4-. Thus, up to one-third of the energy input into synthesis of extramitochondrial ATP may be required for transport work. Since other methods suggest that the H+/site significantly exceeds 3.0, an alternative possibility is that 4 h+ are ejected per site, followed by return of 3 H+ through the ATPase and 1 H+ through the operation of the proton-coupled membrane transport systems. PMID:17116

  9. H+/ATP ratio during ATP hydrolysis by mitochondria: modification of the chemiosmotic theory.

    PubMed

    Brand, M D; Lehninger, A L

    1977-05-01

    The stoichiometry of H+ ejection by mitochondria during hydrolysis of a small pulse of ATP (the H+/ATP ratio) has been reexamined in the light of our recent observation that the stoichiometry of H+ ejection during mitochondrial electron transport (the H+/site ratio) was previously underestimated. We show that earlier estimates of the H+/ATP ratio in intact mitochondria were based upon an invalid correction for scaler H+ production and describe a modified method for determination of this ratio which utilizes mersalyl or N-ethylmaleimide to prevent complicating transmembrane movements of phosphate and H+. This method gives a value for the H+/ATP ratio of 2.0 without the need for questionable corrections, compared with a value of 3.0 for the H+/site ratio also obtained by pulse methods. A modified version of the chemiosmotic theory is presented, in which 3 H+ are ejected per pair of electrons traversing each energy-conserving site of the respiratory chain. Of these, 2 H+ return to the matrix through the ATPase to form ATP from ADP and phosphate, and 1 H+ returns through the combined action of the phosphate and adenine nucleotide exchange carriers of the inner membrane to allow the energy-requiring influx of Pi and ADP3- and efflux of ATP4-. Thus, up to one-third of the energy input into synthesis of extramitochondrial ATP may be required for transport work. Since other methods suggest that the H+/site significantly exceeds 3.0, an alternative possibility is that 4 h+ are ejected per site, followed by return of 3 H+ through the ATPase and 1 H+ through the operation of the proton-coupled membrane transport systems.

  10. Regulation of mitochondrial translation of the ATP8/ATP6 mRNA by Smt1p.

    PubMed

    Rak, Malgorzata; Su, Chen Hsien; Xu, Jonathan Tong; Azpiroz, Ricardo; Singh, Angela Mohan; Tzagoloff, Alexander

    2016-03-15

    Expression of the mitochondrially encoded ATP6 and ATP8 genes is translationally regulated by F1 ATPase. We report a translational repressor (Smt1p) of the ATP6/8 mRNA that, when mutated, restores translation of the encoded Atp6p and Atp8p subunits of the ATP synthase. Heterozygous smt1 mutants fail to rescue the translation defect, indicating that the mutations are recessive. Smt1p is an intrinsic inner membrane protein, which, based on its sedimentation, has a native size twice that of the monomer. Affinity purification of tagged Smt1p followed by reverse transcription of the associated RNA and PCR amplification of the resultant cDNA with gene-specific primers demonstrated the presence in mitochondria of Smt1p-ATP8/ATP6 and Smt1p-COB mRNA complexes. These results indicate that Smt1p is likely to be involved in translational regulation of both mRNAs. Applying Occam's principle, we favor a mechanistic model in which translation of the ATP8/ATP6 bicistronic mRNA is coupled to the availability of F1 for subsequent assembly of the Atp6p and Atp8p products into the ATP synthase. The mechanism of this regulatory pathway is proposed to entail a displacement of the repressor from the translationally mute Smt1-ATP8/ATP6 complex by F1, thereby permitting the Atp22p activator to interact with and promote translation of the mRNA.

  11. Altered ATP7A expression and other compensatory responses in a murine model of Menkes disease.

    PubMed

    Niciu, Mark J; Ma, Xin-Ming; El Meskini, Rajaâ; Pachter, Joel S; Mains, Richard E; Eipper, Betty A

    2007-09-01

    Mutations in the copper-transporter ATP7A lead to severe neurodegeneration in the mottled brindled hemizygous male (MoBr/y) mouse and human patients with Menkes disease. Our earlier studies demonstrated cell-type- and -stage-specific changes in ATP7A protein expression during postnatal neurodevelopment. Here we examined copper and cuproenzyme levels in MoBr/y mice to search for compensatory responses. While all MoBr/y neocortical subcellular fractions had decreased copper levels, the greatest decrease (8-fold) was observed in cytosol. Immunostaining for ATP7A revealed decreased levels in MoBr/y hippocampal pyramidal and cerebellar Purkinje neurons. In contrast, an upregulation of ATP7A protein occurred in MoBr/y endothelial cells, perhaps to compensate for a lack of copper in the neuropil. MoBr/y astrocytes and microglia increased their physical association with the blood-brain barrier. No alterations in ATP7A levels were observed in ependymal cells, arguing for specificity in the alteration observed at the blood-brain barrier. The decreased expression of ATP7A protein in MoBr/y Purkinje cells was associated with impaired synaptogenesis and dramatic cytoskeletal dysfunction. Immunoblotting failed to reveal any compensatory increase in levels of ATP7B. While total levels of several cuproenzymes (peptide-amidating monooxygenase, SOD1, and SOD3) were unaltered in the MoBr/y brain, levels of amidated cholecystokinin (CCK8) and amidated pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP38) were reduced in a tissue-specific fashion. The compensatory changes observed in the neurovascular unit provide insight into the success of copper injections within a defined neurodevelopmental period.

  12. Phosphate metabolite concentrations and ATP hydrolysis potential in normal and ischaemic hearts

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fan; Zhang, Eric Y; Zhang, Jianyi; Bache, Robert J; Beard, Daniel A

    2008-01-01

    To understand how cardiac ATP and CrP remain stable with changes in work rate – a phenomenon that has eluded mechanistic explanation for decades – data from 31phosphate-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) are analysed to estimate cytoplasmic and mitochondrial phosphate metabolite concentrations in the normal state, during high cardiac workstates, during acute ischaemia and reactive hyperaemic recovery. Analysis is based on simulating distributed heterogeneous oxygen transport in the myocardium integrated with a detailed model of cardiac energy metabolism. The model predicts that baseline myocardial free inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentration in the canine myocyte cytoplasm – a variable not accessible to direct non-invasive measurement – is approximately 0.29 mm and increases to 2.3 mm near maximal cardiac oxygen consumption. During acute ischaemia (from ligation of the left anterior descending artery) Pi increases to approximately 3.1 mm and ATP consumption in the ischaemic tissue is reduced quickly to less than half its baseline value before the creatine phosphate (CrP) pool is 18% depleted. It is determined from these experiments that the maximal rate of oxygen consumption of the heart is an emergent property and is limited not simply by the maximal rate of ATP synthesis, but by the maximal rate at which ATP can be synthesized at a potential at which it can be utilized. The critical free energy of ATP hydrolysis for cardiac contraction that is consistent with these findings is approximately −63.5 kJ mol−1. Based on theoretical findings, we hypothesize that inorganic phosphate is both the primary feedback signal for stimulating oxidative phosphorylation in vivo and also the most significant product of ATP hydrolysis in limiting the capacity of the heart to hydrolyse ATP in vivo. Due to the lack of precise quantification of Piin vivo, these hypotheses and associated model predictions remain to be carefully tested experimentally. PMID:18617566

  13. Functional expression of a heterologous nickel-dependent, ATP-independent urease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Milne, N; Luttik, M A H; Cueto Rojas, H F; Wahl, A; van Maris, A J A; Pronk, J T; Daran, J M

    2015-07-01

    In microbial processes for production of proteins, biomass and nitrogen-containing commodity chemicals, ATP requirements for nitrogen assimilation affect product yields on the energy producing substrate. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a current host for heterologous protein production and potential platform for production of nitrogen-containing chemicals, uptake and assimilation of ammonium requires 1 ATP per incorporated NH3. Urea assimilation by this yeast is more energy efficient but still requires 0.5 ATP per NH3 produced. To decrease ATP costs for nitrogen assimilation, the S. cerevisiae gene encoding ATP-dependent urease (DUR1,2) was replaced by a Schizosaccharomyces pombe gene encoding ATP-independent urease (ure2), along with its accessory genes ureD, ureF and ureG. Since S. pombe ure2 is a Ni(2+)-dependent enzyme and Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not express native Ni(2+)-dependent enzymes, the S. pombe high-affinity nickel-transporter gene (nic1) was also expressed. Expression of the S. pombe genes into dur1,2Δ S. cerevisiae yielded an in vitro ATP-independent urease activity of 0.44±0.01 µmol min(-1) mg protein(-1) and restored growth on urea as sole nitrogen source. Functional expression of the Nic1 transporter was essential for growth on urea at low Ni(2+) concentrations. The maximum specific growth rates of the engineered strain on urea and ammonium were lower than those of a DUR1,2 reference strain. In glucose-limited chemostat cultures with urea as nitrogen source, the engineered strain exhibited an increased release of ammonia and reduced nitrogen content of the biomass. Our results indicate a new strategy for improving yeast-based production of nitrogen-containing chemicals and demonstrate that Ni(2+)-dependent enzymes can be functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae.

  14. AMP kinase regulates ligand-gated K-ATP channels in substantia nigra dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ke-Zhong; Wu, Yan-Na; Munhall, Adam C; Johnson, Steven W

    2016-08-25

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master enzyme that regulates ATP-sensitive K(+) (K-ATP) channels in pancreatic beta-cells and cardiac myocytes. We used patch pipettes to record currents and potentials to investigate effects of AMPK on K-ATP currents in substantia nigra compacta (SNC) dopamine neurons in slices of rat midbrain. When slices were superfused repeatedly with the K-ATP channel opener diazoxide, we were surprised to find that diazoxide currents gradually increased in magnitude, reaching 300% of the control value 60min after starting whole-cell recording. However, diazoxide current increased significantly more, to 472% of control, when recorded in the presence of the AMPK activator A769662. Moreover, superfusing the slice with the AMPK blocking agent dorsomorphin significantly reduced diazoxide current to 38% of control. Control experiments showed that outward currents evoked by the K-ATP channel opener NN-414 also increased over time, but not currents evoked by the GABAB agonist baclofen. Delaying the application of diazoxide after starting whole-cell recording correlated with augmentation of current. Loose-patch recording showed that diazoxide produced a 34% slowing of spontaneous firing rate that did not intensify with repeated applications of diazoxide. However, superfusion with A769662 significantly augmented the inhibitory effect of diazoxide on firing rate. We conclude that K-ATP channel function is augmented by AMPK, which is activated during the process of making whole-cell recordings. Our results suggest that AMPK and K-ATP interactions may play an important role in regulating dopamine neuronal excitability.

  15. ATP-Induced Helicase Slippage Reveals Highly Coordinated Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bo; Johnson, Daniel S.; Patel, Gayatri; Smith, Benjamin Y.; Pandey, Manjula; Patel, Smita S.; Wang, Michelle D.

    2011-01-01

    Helicases are vital enzymes that carry out strand separation of duplex nucleic acids during replication, repair, and recombination1,2. Bacteriophage T7 gene product 4 is a model hexameric helicase which has been observed to utilize dTTP, but not ATP, to unwind dsDNA as it translocates from 5′ to 3′ along ssDNA2–6. Whether and how different subunits of the helicase coordinate their chemo-mechanical activities and DNA binding during translocation is still under debate1,7. Here we address this question using a single molecule approach to monitor helicase unwinding. We discovered that T7 helicase does in fact unwind dsDNA in the presence of ATP and the unwinding rate is even faster than that with dTTP. However unwinding traces showed a remarkable sawtooth pattern where processive unwinding was repeatedly interrupted by sudden slippage events, ultimately preventing unwinding over a substantial distance. This behavior was not observed with dTTP alone and was greatly reduced when ATP solution was supplemented with a small amount of dTTP. These findings presented an opportunity to use nucleotide mixtures to investigate helicase subunit coordination. We found T7 helicase binds and hydrolyzes ATP and dTTP by competitive kinetics such that the unwinding rate is dictated simply by their respective Vmax, KM, and concentrations. In contrast, processivity does not follow a simple competitive behavior and shows a cooperative dependence on nucleotide concentrations. This does not agree with an uncoordinated mechanism where each subunit functions independently, but supports a model where nearly all subunits coordinate their chemo-mechanical activities and DNA binding. Our data indicate that only one subunit at a time can accept a nucleotide while other subunits are nucleotide-ligated and thus interact with the DNA to ensure processivity. Such subunit coordination may be general to many ring-shaped helicases and reveals a potential mechanism for regulation of DNA unwinding

  16. Isolation of radio-iodinated apical and basal-lateral plasma membranes of toad bladder epithelium.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, H J; Edelman, I S

    1979-04-09

    The apical and basal-lateral plasma membranes of toad bladder epithelium were radio-iodinated with the glucose-glucose oxidase-lactoperoxidase system. The covalently bound radio iodine was used as a marker during subcellular fractionation and membrane isolation. Homogenization conditions that ensured rupture of more than 80% of the cells without substantial nuclear damage were defined by Normarski optics. The nuclei were separated by differential centrifugation and the apical and basal-lateral components were resolved by differential and sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The apical components yielded two radioactive bands that were identified as glycocalyx and plasma membrane labeled with 125I. The basal-lateral components yielded a hetero-disperse pattern made up of at least 3 radioactive bands, but the bulk of the activity of ouabain-sensitive ATPase comigrated with only one of these bands. The mitochondia, identified by assays for cytochrome oxidase and NADH cytochrome c reductase activities, were separated from the radio-iodine labeled by centrifugation in sucrose density gradients under isokinetic conditions. The labeled glycocalyx and the slowly migrating components of basal-lateral labeling were separated from the radio-iodinated membranes by centrifugation at 100,000 x g x 1 hr after removal of the mitochrondria by the isokinetic method. The labeled membranes were then subjected to ultracentrifugation in sucrose density gradients under isopycnic conditions; the basal-lateral membranes containing ouabain-sensitive ATP-ase were well resolved from the apical membranes by this method. These results provide a relatively rapid method of attaining partial purification of the apical and basal-lateral plasma membranes of toad bladder epithelium.

  17. Taurine blocks ATP-sensitive potassium channels of rat skeletal muscle fibres interfering with the sulphonylurea receptor.

    PubMed

    Tricarico, D; Barbieri, M; Camerino, D C

    2000-06-01

    Taurine is a sulphonic aminoacid present in high amounts in various tissues including cardiac and skeletal muscles showing different properties such as antioxidative, antimyotonic and anti-schaemic effects. The cellular mechanism of action of taurine is under investigation and appears to involve the interaction of the sulphonic aminoacid with several ion channels. Using the patch-clamp technique we studied the effects of taurine in rat skeletal muscle fibres on ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (K(ATP)) immediately after excision and on channels that underwent rundown. The cytoplasmic application of 20 mM of taurine reduced the K(ATP) current; this effect was reverted by washout of the drug solution. In this experimental condition the IC(50) was 20.1 mM. After rundown, taurine inhibited the K(ATP) current with similar efficacy. Competition experiments showed that taurine shifted the dose-response inhibition curve of glybenclamide to the left on the log-dose axis without significantly affecting those of ATP or Ca(2+) ion. Single channel recording revealed that taurine affects the close state of the channel prolonging it and reducing the bursts duration. Our data indicate that taurine inhibits the muscular K(ATP) channel interfering with the glybenclamide site on the sulphonylurea receptor of the channel or on the site allosterically coupled to it. During ischaemia and hypoxia, the skeletal and heart muscles undergo several changes; for example, the activation of K(ATP) channels and loss of the intracellular taurine content. The depletion of taurine during ischaemia would contribute to the early activation of K(ATP) channels and salvage the intracellular ATP content.

  18. Plant basal resistance to nematodes: an update.

    PubMed

    Holbein, Julia; Grundler, Florian M W; Siddique, Shahid

    2016-03-01

    Most plant-parasitic nematodes are obligate biotrophs feeding on the roots of their hosts. Whereas ectoparasites remain on the root surface and feed on the outer cell layers, endoparasitic nematodes enter the host to parasitize cells around or within the central cylinder. Nematode invasion and feeding causes tissue damage which may, in turn, lead to the activation of host basal defence responses. Hitherto, research interests in plant-nematode interaction have emphasized effector-triggered immunity rather than basal plant defence responses. However, some recent investigations suggest that basal defence pathways are not only activated but also play an important role in determining interaction outcomes. In this review we discuss the major findings and point out future directions to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying plant basal defence to nematodes further. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Electrical stimuli are anti-apoptotic in skeletal muscle via extracellular ATP. Alteration of this signal in Mdx mice is a likely cause of dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Valladares, Denisse; Almarza, Gonzalo; Contreras, Ariel; Pavez, Mario; Buvinic, Sonja; Jaimovich, Enrique; Casas, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    ATP signaling has been shown to regulate gene expression in skeletal muscle and to be altered in models of muscular dystrophy. We have previously shown that in normal muscle fibers, ATP released through Pannexin1 (Panx1) channels after electrical stimulation plays a role in activating some signaling pathways related to gene expression. We searched for a possible role of ATP signaling in the dystrophy phenotype. We used muscle fibers from flexor digitorum brevis isolated from normal and mdx mice. We demonstrated that low frequency electrical stimulation has an anti-apoptotic effect in normal muscle fibers repressing the expression of Bax, Bim and PUMA. Addition of exogenous ATP to the medium has a similar effect. In dystrophic fibers, the basal levels of extracellular ATP were higher compared to normal fibers, but unlike control fibers, they do not present any ATP release after low frequency electrical stimulation, suggesting an uncoupling between electrical stimulation and ATP release in this condition. Elevated levels of Panx1 and decreased levels of Cav1.1 (dihydropyridine receptors) were found in triads fractions prepared from mdx muscles. Moreover, decreased immunoprecipitation of Cav1.1 and Panx1, suggest uncoupling of the signaling machinery. Importantly, in dystrophic fibers, exogenous ATP was pro-apoptotic, inducing the transcription of Bax, Bim and PUMA and increasing the levels of activated Bax and cytosolic cytochrome c. These evidence points to an involvement of the ATP pathway in the activation of mechanisms related with cell death in muscular dystrophy, opening new perspectives towards possible targets for pharmacological therapies.

  20. The transhepatic action of ATP on the hepatic arterial and portal venous vascular beds of the rabbit: the role of nitric oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Browse, D J; Mathie, R T; Benjamin, I S; Alexander, B

    1994-01-01

    1. The effect of bolus administration of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) into the portal vein on hepatic arterial pressure (the transhepatic action of ATP) and portal venous pressure, and the contribution of nitric oxide towards these responses, was studied in the in vitro dual-perfused rabbit liver. 2. At basal tone, hepatic arterial and portal venous vasoconstriction followed ATP injection, while at a tone raised with methoxamine (10(-6)-10(-5) M) ATP caused hepatic arterial vasodilatation, and a phasic vasodilatation followed by vasoconstriction in the portal venous vascular bed. 3. To determine whether the transhepatic arterial dilatation was due to the diffusion of nitric oxide (NO) from the portal venous vasculature, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 microM), an inhibitor of NO synthesis, was infused selectively into the portal vein. L-NAME infusion potentiated portal venous vasoconstriction to ATP (-log M ED50 5.32 +/- 0.31 to 6.51 +/- 0.43, P < 0.05, Student's paired t test) indicating the possible inhibition of a NO-mediated vasodilator component of the portal venous response to ATP. There was, however, no demonstrable difference in the transhepatic arterial vasodilatation induced by ATP during this infusion. 4. Simultaneous perfusion of both the hepatic arterial and portal venous inflows with L-NAME (100 microM) resulted in a significant decrease in the amplitude of hepatic arterial responses to ATP demonstrating that these responses were ultimately mediated by an NO-dependent mechanism. 5. This study has thus demonstrated a vasodilator component of the portal venous response to ATP that is NO-mediated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7858895

  1. Electrical Stimuli Are Anti-Apoptotic in Skeletal Muscle via Extracellular ATP. Alteration of This Signal in Mdx Mice Is a Likely Cause of Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Valladares, Denisse; Almarza, Gonzalo; Contreras, Ariel; Pavez, Mario; Buvinic, Sonja; Jaimovich, Enrique; Casas, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    ATP signaling has been shown to regulate gene expression in skeletal muscle and to be altered in models of muscular dystrophy. We have previously shown that in normal muscle fibers, ATP released through Pannexin1 (Panx1) channels after electrical stimulation plays a role in activating some signaling pathways related to gene expression. We searched for a possible role of ATP signaling in the dystrophy phenotype. We used muscle fibers from flexor digitorum brevis isolated from normal and mdx mice. We demonstrated that low frequency electrical stimulation has an anti-apoptotic effect in normal muscle fibers repressing the expression of Bax, Bim and PUMA. Addition of exogenous ATP to the medium has a similar effect. In dystrophic fibers, the basal levels of extracellular ATP were higher compared to normal fibers, but unlike control fibers, they do not present any ATP release after low frequency electrical stimulation, suggesting an uncoupling between electrical stimulation and ATP release in this condition. Elevated levels of Panx1 and decreased levels of Cav1.1 (dihydropyridine receptors) were found in triads fractions prepared from mdx muscles. Moreover, decreased immunoprecipitation of Cav1.1 and Panx1, suggest uncoupling of the signaling machinery. Importantly, in dystrophic fibers, exogenous ATP was pro-apoptotic, inducing the transcription of Bax, Bim and PUMA and increasing the levels of activated Bax and cytosolic cytochrome c. These evidence points to an involvement of the ATP pathway in the activation of mechanisms related with cell death in muscular dystrophy, opening new perspectives towards possible targets for pharmacological therapies. PMID:24282497

  2. Mechanosensitive ATP Release Maintains Proper Mucus Hydration of Airways

    PubMed Central

    Button, Brian; Okada, Seiko F.; Frederick, Charles Brandon; Thelin, William R.; Boucher, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    The clearance of mucus from the airways protects the lungs from inhaled noxious and infectious materials. Proper hydration of the mucus layer enables efficient mucus clearance through beating of cilia on airway epithelial cells, and reduced clearance of excessively concentrated mucus occurs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. Key steps in the mucus transport process are airway epithelia sensing and responding to changes in mucus hydration. We reported that extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine were important luminal auto-crine and paracrine signals that regulated the hydration of the surface of human airway epithelial cultures through their action on apical membrane purinoceptors. Mucus hydration in human airway epithelial cultures was sensed by an interaction between cilia and the overlying mucus layer: Changes in mechanical strain, proportional to mucus hydration, regulated ATP release rates, adjusting fluid secretion to optimize mucus layer hydration. This system provided a feedback mechanism by which airways maintained mucus hydration in an optimum range for cilia propulsion. Understanding how airway epithelia can sense and respond to changes in mucus properties helps us to understand how the mucus clearance system protects the airways in health and how it fails in lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis. PMID:23757023

  3. Mechanosensitive ATP release maintains proper mucus hydration of airways.

    PubMed

    Button, Brian; Okada, Seiko F; Frederick, Charles Brandon; Thelin, William R; Boucher, Richard C

    2013-06-11

    The clearance of mucus from the airways protects the lungs from inhaled noxious and infectious materials. Proper hydration of the mucus layer enables efficient mucus clearance through beating of cilia on airway epithelial cells, and reduced clearance of excessively concentrated mucus occurs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. Key steps in the mucus transport process are airway epithelia sensing and responding to changes in mucus hydration. We reported that extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine were important luminal autocrine and paracrine signals that regulated the hydration of the surface of human airway epithelial cultures through their action on apical membrane purinoceptors. Mucus hydration in human airway epithelial cultures was sensed by an interaction between cilia and the overlying mucus layer: Changes in mechanical strain, proportional to mucus hydration, regulated ATP release rates, adjusting fluid secretion to optimize mucus layer hydration. This system provided a feedback mechanism by which airways maintained mucus hydration in an optimum range for cilia propulsion. Understanding how airway epithelia can sense and respond to changes in mucus properties helps us to understand how the mucus clearance system protects the airways in health and how it fails in lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis.

  4. ATP-induced helicase slippage reveals highly coordinated subunits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Michelle D.

    2012-02-01

    Helicases are vital enzymes that carry out strand separation of duplex nucleic acids during replication, repair and recombination. T7 helicase, a model hexameric motor, has been observed to use dTTP, but not ATP, to unwind dsDNA as it translocates along ssDNA. Whether and how different subunits of the helicase coordinate their chemo-mechanical activities and DNA binding during translocation is still under debate. Here we address this question using a single-molecule approach to monitor helicase unwinding. We found that T7 helicase does in fact unwind dsDNA in the presence of ATP and that the unwinding rate is even faster than that with dTTP. However, unwinding was repeatedly interrupted by sudden slippage events, ultimately preventing unwinding over a substantial distance. This behaviour was greatly reduced with the supplement of a small amount of dTTP. These findings presented an opportunity to use nucleotide mixtures to investigate helicase subunit coordination. Our results support a model where nearly all subunits coordinate their chemo-mechanical activities and DNA binding. Such subunit coordination may be general to many ring-shaped helicases and reveals a potential mechanism for regulation of DNA unwinding during replication.

  5. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a possible indicator of extraterrestrial biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The ubiquity of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in terrestrial organisms provides the basis for proposing the assay of this vital metabolic intermediate for detecting extraterrestrial biological activity. If an organic carbon chemistry is present on the planets, the occurrence of ATP is possible either from biosynthetic or purely chemical reactions. However, ATP's relative complexity minimizes the probability of abiogenic synthesis. A sensitive technique for the quantitative detection of ATP was developed using the firefly bioluminescent reaction. The procedure was used successfully for the determination of the ATP content of soil and bacteria. This technique is also being investigated from the standpoint of its application in clinical medicine.

  6. Synaptic organisation of the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    BOLAM, J. P.; HANLEY, J. J.; BOOTH, P. A. C.; BEVAN, M. D.

    2000-01-01

    The basal ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei involved in a variety of processes including motor, cognitive and mnemonic functions. One of their major roles is to integrate sensorimotor, associative and limbic information in the production of context-dependent behaviours. These roles are exemplified by the clinical manifestations of neurological disorders of the basal ganglia. Recent advances in many fields, including pharmacology, anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology have provided converging data that have led to unifying hypotheses concerning the functional organisation of the basal ganglia in health and disease. The major input to the basal ganglia is derived from the cerebral cortex. Virtually the whole of the cortical mantle projects in a topographic manner onto the striatum, this cortical information is ‘processed’ within the striatum and passed via the so-called direct and indirect pathways to the output nuclei of the basal ganglia, the internal segment of the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata. The basal ganglia influence behaviour by the projections of these output nuclei to the thalamus and thence back to the cortex, or to subcortical ‘premotor’ regions. Recent studies have demonstrated that the organisation of these pathways is more complex than previously suggested. Thus the cortical input to the basal ganglia, in addition to innervating the spiny projection neurons, also innervates GABA interneurons, which in turn provide a feed-forward inhibition of the spiny output neurons. Individual neurons of the globus pallidus innervate basal ganglia output nuclei as well as the subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars compacta. About one quarter of them also innervate the striatum and are in a position to control the output of the striatum powerfully as they preferentially contact GABA interneurons. Neurons of the pallidal complex also provide an anatomical substrate, within the basal ganglia, for the synaptic

  7. Microglial migration mediated by ATP-induced ATP release from lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Dou, Ying; Wu, Hang-jun; Li, Hui-quan; Qin, Song; Wang, Yin-er; Li, Jing; Lou, Hui-fang; Chen, Zhong; Li, Xiao-ming; Luo, Qing-ming; Duan, Shumin

    2012-06-01

    Microglia are highly motile cells that act as the main form of active immune defense in the central nervous system. Attracted by factors released from damaged cells, microglia are recruited towards the damaged or infected site, where they are involved in degenerative and regenerative responses and phagocytotic clearance of cell debris. ATP release from damaged neural tissues has been suggested to mediate the rapid extension of microglial process towards the site of injury. However, the mechanisms of the long-range migration of microglia remain to be clarified. Here, we found that lysosomes in microglia contain abundant ATP and exhibit Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis in response to various stimuli. By establishing an efficient in vitro chemotaxis assay, we demonstrated that endogenously-released ATP from microglia triggered by local microinjection of ATPγS is critical for the long-range chemotaxis of microglia, a response that was significantly inhibited in microglia treated with an agent inducing lysosome osmodialysis or in cells derived from mice deficient in Rab 27a (ashen mice), a small GTPase required for the trafficking and exocytosis of secretory lysosomes. These results suggest that microglia respond to extracellular ATP by releasing ATP themselves through lysosomal exocytosis, thereby providing a positive feedback mechanism to generate a long-range extracellular signal for attracting distant microglia to migrate towards and accumulate at the site of injury.

  8. Relative maxima of diameter and basal area

    Treesearch

    Thomas B. Lynch; Difei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    It has often been observed that maximum dbh growth occurs at an earlier age than maximum individual tree basal area growth. This can be deduced from the geometry of the tree stem, by observing that a dbh increment at a given radius will be associated with a larger basal area increment than an equal dbh increment occurring at a shorter radius from the stem center. Thus...

  9. Automatic basal slice detection for cardiac analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paknezhad, Mahsa; Marchesseau, Stephanie; Brown, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    Identification of the basal slice in cardiac imaging is a key step to measuring the ejection fraction (EF) of the left ventricle (LV). Despite research on cardiac segmentation, basal slice identification is routinely performed manually. Manual identification, however, has been shown to have high inter-observer variability, with a variation of the EF by up to 8%. Therefore, an automatic way of identifying the basal slice is still required. Prior published methods operate by automatically tracking the mitral valve points from the long-axis view of the LV. These approaches assumed that the basal slice is the first short-axis slice below the mitral valve. However, guidelines published in 2013 by the society for cardiovascular magnetic resonance indicate that the basal slice is the uppermost short-axis slice with more than 50% myocardium surrounding the blood cavity. Consequently, these existing methods are at times identifying the incorrect short-axis slice. Correct identification of the basal slice under these guidelines is challenging due to the poor image quality and blood movement during image acquisition. This paper proposes an automatic tool that focuses on the two-chamber slice to find the basal slice. To this end, an active shape model is trained to automatically segment the two-chamber view for 51 samples using the leave-one-out strategy. The basal slice was detected using temporal binary profiles created for each short-axis slice from the segmented two-chamber slice. From the 51 successfully tested samples, 92% and 84% of detection results were accurate at the end-systolic and the end-diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle, respectively.

  10. Flying saucer located at the basal septum.

    PubMed

    Akcay, Murat; Senkaya, Emine Bilen; Bilge, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Mehmet; Arslantas, Ugur; Karakas, Fatih

    2008-08-01

    Left ventricular thrombus formation is a frequent complication in patients with ischemic heart disease and is associated with a high risk of systemic embolization. Generally, thrombi localize at the apical segment. However, thrombus localized at the basal septum has not been reported yet. In this case, we discuss a flying saucer shaped mass located at the basal septum, which was later diagnosed as thrombus after anticoagulant therapy.

  11. ON POSSIBLE VARIATIONS OF BASAL Ca II K CHROMOSPHERIC LINE PROFILES WITH THE SOLAR CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Uitenbroek, Han; Bertello, Luca E-mail: huitenbroek@nso.edu

    2013-04-10

    We use daily observations of the Ca II K line profiles of the Sun-as-a-star taken with the Integrated Sunlight Spectrometer from 2006 December through 2011 July to deconvolve the contributions from the quiet (basal) chromosphere and with magnetic network/plage areas. The 0.5 A emission index computed from basal profiles shows a significantly reduced modulation (as compared with one derived from the observed profiles) corresponding to the Sun's rotation. For basal contribution of the Ca II K line, the peak in power spectrum corresponding to solar rotation is broad and not well defined. Power spectra for the plage contribution show two narrow well-defined peaks corresponding to solar rotation at two distinct latitudes, in agreement with the latitudinal distribution of activity on the Sun at the end of Cycle 23 and beginning of Cycle 24. We use the lack of a signature of solar rotation in the basal (quiet Sun) component as an indication of a successful removal of the active Sun (plage) component. Even though the contribution from solar activity is removed from the basal line profiles, we find a weak dependency of intensity in the line core (K3) of basal profiles with the phase of the solar cycle. Such dependency could be the result of changes in thermal properties of basal chromosphere with the solar cycle. As an alternative explanation, we also discuss a possibility that the basal component does not change with the phase of the solar cycle.

  12. Age and basal follicle stimulating hormone as predictors of in vitro fertilisation outcome.

    PubMed

    Sharif, K; Elgendy, M; Lashen, H; Afnan, M

    1998-01-01

    To examine the relative effect of basal follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) concentration and the woman's age on predicting the ovarian response to gonadotrophin stimulation, normal fertilisation rate and pregnancy rate in in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment following pituitary desensitisation. Descriptive cohort study. Three hundred and forty-four women undergoing their first IVF cycle. Basal (menstrual-day 3) FSH concentration was measured and the woman's age calculated before she underwent pituitary desensitisation followed by gonadotrophin ovarian stimulation and IVF treatment. Cancellation rate due to poor ovarian response, total dose of gonadotrophin required to achieve follicular maturity, number of oocytes collected, normal fertilisation rate and pregnancy rate were compared between banded values of the variables studied. Increasing basal FSH concentration was associated significantly with increased cancellation rate, but increasing age was not. Both increasing basal FSH and age were associated significantly with increased total gonadotrophin dose, and reduced number of oocytes collected and pregnancy rate. Analysis of variance showed that the association for basal FSH with the number of oocytes was significant, independent of, and stronger than the effects of age. Logistic regression analysis showed that age, but not basal FSH, was independently associated with pregnancy rate. Neither basal FSH, nor age had significant association with normal fertilisation rate. Basal FSH concentration is a better predictor of cancellation rate and of the number of oocytes collected in IVF treatment than age, but age is a stronger predictor of pregnancy rate.

  13. Evidence for an ATP-driven proton pump in rat thyroid phagolysosomes. Effects of protonophores and ionophores.

    PubMed

    Fouchier, F; Dang, J

    1983-11-15

    During incubations at 37 degrees C in appropriate media (buffered 0.25 M sucrose) isolated thyroid phagolysosomes degrade the thyroglobulin they contain (labelled with 131I in vivo) giving rise to trichloroacetic-acid-soluble radio-iodine. Thyroglobulin-degradation is unaffected by external pH (7 or 8) or by 20-40 mM external NaCl or KCl, while it is strongly inhibited by ionophores and protonophores. As a consequence, thyroglobulin degradation can be used as an index of the intralysosomal pH which appears to be powerfully maintained in basal conditions (no ionophore and no protonophore) by the strong impermeability of the lysosomal membranes to various compounds including ionic species MgATP which does not modify basal proteolysis prevents or minimizes the alkalinizing effects of both ionophores and protonophores. ATP can thus be concluded to promote a protonic flux inward thyroid lysosomes via the activity of a lysosomal ATP-driven proton pump regulated by the magnitude of the intralysosomal pH.

  14. Real-time luminescence imaging of cellular ATP release.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Kishio; Sokabe, Masahiro; Grygorczyk, Ryszard

    2014-03-15

    Extracellular ATP and other purines are ubiquitous mediators of local intercellular signaling within the body. While the last two decades have witnessed enormous progress in uncovering and characterizing purinergic receptors and extracellular enzymes controlling purinergic signals, our understanding of the initiating step in this cascade, i.e., ATP release, is still obscure. Imaging of extracellular ATP by luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence offers the advantage of studying ATP release and distribution dynamics in real time. However, low-light signal generated by bioluminescence reactions remains the major obstacle to imaging such rapid processes, imposing substantial constraints on its spatial and temporal resolution. We have developed an improved microscopy system for real-time ATP imaging, which detects ATP-dependent luciferin-luciferase luminescence at ∼10 frames/s, sufficient to follow rapid ATP release with sensitivity of ∼10 nM and dynamic range up to 100 μM. In addition, simultaneous differential interference contrast cell images are acquired with infra-red optics. Our imaging method: (1) identifies ATP-releasing cells or sites, (2) determines absolute ATP concentration and its spreading manner at release sites, and (3) permits analysis of ATP release kinetics from single cells. We provide instrumental details of our approach and give several examples of ATP-release imaging at cellular and tissue levels, to illustrate its potential utility.

  15. Fluoride decreased the sperm ATP of mice through inhabiting mitochondrial respiration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zilong; Zhang, Wen; Xue, Xingchen; Zhang, Yuliang; Niu, Ruiyan; Li, Xuying; Li, Baojun; Wang, Xiaowen; Wang, Jundong

    2016-02-01

    Fluoride-induced low sperm motility was observed in accumulated investigations. However, the effect of fluoride exposure on ATP generation which is essential to sperm motility remains to be elucidated. In this study, 120 healthy male mice were orally administrated with 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg L(-1) NaF for 90 d. Results showed that compared with controls, fluoride ingestion significantly reduced sperm count, survival, as well as mobility and total ATP level in sperm untreated with carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) or pyruvate, which was used to establish glycolysis or mitochondrial respiration model, respectively. Data further revealed that sperm mobility and ATP level under mitochondrial respiration condition were significantly suppressed, while no statistical difference occurred in the model of glycolysis, indicating ATP derived from mitochondria was affected. Moreover, mRNA expressions of mitochondrial cytochrome b (mt-Cytb) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (mt-COX2), two important molecules in mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), were down-regulated in all fluoride treatment groups. Mitochondria in sperm of mice exposed to 100 mg L(-1) NaF appeared to be irregular and vacuolated. These findings suggested that decreased sperm motility induced by fluoride may result from low ATP generation due to the disturbed ETC in sperm mitochondrial.

  16. ATP P2X receptors downregulate AMPA receptor trafficking and postsynaptic efficacy in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Pougnet, Johan-Till; Toulme, Estelle; Martinez, Audrey; Choquet, Daniel; Hosy, Eric; Boué-Grabot, Eric

    2014-07-16

    P2X receptors (P2XRs) are ATP-gated cation channels widely expressed in the brain where they mediate action of extracellular ATP released by neurons or glia. Although purinergic signaling has multiple effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity, P2XR function at brain synapses remains to be established. Here, we show that activation of postsynaptic P2XRs by exogenous ATP or noradrenaline-dependent glial release of endogenous ATP decreases the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents and AMPA-evoked currents in cultured hippocampal neurons. We also observed a P2X-mediated depression of field potentials recorded in CA1 region from brain slices. P2X2Rs trigger dynamin-dependent internalization of AMPA receptors (AMPARs), leading to reduced surface AMPARs in dendrites and at synapses. AMPAR alteration required calcium influx through opened ATP-gated channels and phosphatase or CamKII activities. These findings indicate that postsynaptic P2XRs play a critical role in regulating the surface expression of AMPARs and thereby regulate the synaptic strength.

  17. Neuronal NTPDase3 Mediates Extracellular ATP Degradation in Trigeminal Nociceptive Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lihua; Trinh, Thu; Ren, Yanfang; Dirksen, Robert T.; Liu, Xiuxin

    2016-01-01

    ATP induces pain via activation of purinergic receptors in nociceptive sensory nerves. ATP signaling is terminated by ATP hydrolysis mediated by cell surface-localized ecto-nucleotidases. Using enzymatic histochemical staining, we show that ecto-ATPase activity is present in mouse trigeminal nerves. Using immunofluorescence staining, we found that ecto-NTPDase3 is expressed in trigeminal nociceptive neurons and their projections to the brainstem. In addition, ecto-ATPase activity and ecto-NTPDase3 are also detected in the nociceptive outermost layer of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that incubation with anti-NTPDase3 serum reduces extracellular ATP degradation in the nociceptive lamina of both the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis and the spinal cord dorsal horn. These results are consistent with neuronal NTPDase3 activity modulating pain signal transduction and transmission by affecting extracellular ATP hydrolysis within the trigeminal nociceptive pathway. Thus, disruption of trigeminal neuronal NTPDase3 expression and localization to presynaptic terminals during chronic inflammation, local constriction and injury may contribute to the pathogenesis of orofacial neuropathic pain. PMID:27706204

  18. Setting the chaperonin timer: The effects of K+ and substrate protein on ATP hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Grason, John P.; Gresham, Jennifer S.; Widjaja, Lusiana; Wehri, Sarah C.; Lorimer, George H.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of potassium ion on the nested allostery of GroEL are due to increases in the affinity for nucleotide. Both positive allosteric transitions, TT-TR and TR-RR, occur at lower [ATP] as [K+] is increased. Negative cooperativity in the double-ringed system is also due to an increase in the affinity of the trans ring for the product ADP as [K+] is increased. Consequently, (i) rates of ATP hydrolysis are inversely proportional to [K+] and (ii) the residence time of GroES bound to the cis ring is prolonged and the hemicycle time extended. Substrate protein suppresses negative cooperativity by decreasing the affinity of the trans ring for ADP, reducing the hemicycle time to a constant minimum. The trans ring thus serves as a variable timer. ATP added to the asymmetric GroEL-GroES resting-state complex lacking trans ring ADP is hydrolyzed in the newly formed cis ring with a presteady-state burst of ≈6 mol of Pi per mole of 14-mer. No burst is observed when the trans ring contains ADP. The amplitude and kinetics of ATP hydrolysis in the cis ring are independent of the presence or absence of encapsulated substrate protein and independent of K+ at concentrations where there are profound effects on the linear steady-state rate. The hydrolysis of ATP by the cis ring constitutes a second, nonvariable timer of the chaperonin cycle. PMID:18988745

  19. Setting the chaperonin timer: the effects of K+ and substrate protein on ATP hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Grason, John P; Gresham, Jennifer S; Widjaja, Lusiana; Wehri, Sarah C; Lorimer, George H

    2008-11-11

    The effects of potassium ion on the nested allostery of GroEL are due to increases in the affinity for nucleotide. Both positive allosteric transitions, TT-TR and TR-RR, occur at lower [ATP] as [K(+)] is increased. Negative cooperativity in the double-ringed system is also due to an increase in the affinity of the trans ring for the product ADP as [K(+)] is increased. Consequently, (i) rates of ATP hydrolysis are inversely proportional to [K(+)] and (ii) the residence time of GroES bound to the cis ring is prolonged and the hemicycle time extended. Substrate protein suppresses negative cooperativity by decreasing the affinity of the trans ring for ADP, reducing the hemicycle time to a constant minimum. The trans ring thus serves as a variable timer. ATP added to the asymmetric GroEL-GroES resting-state complex lacking trans ring ADP is hydrolyzed in the newly formed cis ring with a presteady-state burst of approximately 6 mol of Pi per mole of 14-mer. No burst is observed when the trans ring contains ADP. The amplitude and kinetics of ATP hydrolysis in the cis ring are independent of the presence or absence of encapsulated substrate protein and independent of K(+) at concentrations where there are profound effects on the linear steady-state rate. The hydrolysis of ATP by the cis ring constitutes a second, nonvariable timer of the chaperonin cycle.

  20. Urothelial ATP exocytosis: regulation of bladder compliance in the urine storage phase

    PubMed Central

    Nakagomi, Hiroshi; Yoshiyama, Mitsuharu; Mochizuki, Tsutomu; Miyamoto, Tatsuya; Komatsu, Ryohei; Imura, Yoshio; Morizawa, Yosuke; Hiasa, Miki; Miyaji, Takaaki; Kira, Satoru; Araki, Isao; Fujishita, Kayoko; Shibata, Keisuke; Shigetomi, Eiji; Shinozaki, Youichi; Ichikawa, Reiko; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Iwatsuki, Ken; Nomura, Masatoshi; de Groat, William C.; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Takeda, Masayuki; Koizumi, Schuichi

    2016-01-01

    The bladder urothelium is more than just a barrier. When the bladder is distended, the urothelium functions as a sensor to initiate the voiding reflex, during which it releases ATP via multiple mechanisms. However, the mechanisms underlying this ATP release in response to the various stretch stimuli caused by bladder filling remain largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate these mechanisms. By comparing vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT)-deficient and wild-type male mice, we showed that ATP has a crucial role in urine storage through exocytosis via a VNUT-dependent mechanism. VNUT was abundantly expressed in the bladder urothelium, and when the urothelium was weakly stimulated (i.e. in the early filling stages), it released ATP by exocytosis. VNUT-deficient mice showed reduced bladder compliance from the early storage phase and displayed frequent urination in inappropriate places without a change in voiding function. We conclude that urothelial, VNUT-dependent ATP exocytosis is involved in urine storage mechanisms that promote the relaxation of the bladder during the early stages of filling. PMID:27412485

  1. Urothelial ATP exocytosis: regulation of bladder compliance in the urine storage phase.

    PubMed

    Nakagomi, Hiroshi; Yoshiyama, Mitsuharu; Mochizuki, Tsutomu; Miyamoto, Tatsuya; Komatsu, Ryohei; Imura, Yoshio; Morizawa, Yosuke; Hiasa, Miki; Miyaji, Takaaki; Kira, Satoru; Araki, Isao; Fujishita, Kayoko; Shibata, Keisuke; Shigetomi, Eiji; Shinozaki, Youichi; Ichikawa, Reiko; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Iwatsuki, Ken; Nomura, Masatoshi; de Groat, William C; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Takeda, Masayuki; Koizumi, Schuichi

    2016-07-14

    The bladder urothelium is more than just a barrier. When the bladder is distended, the urothelium functions as a sensor to initiate the voiding reflex, during which it releases ATP via multiple mechanisms. However, the mechanisms underlying this ATP release in response to the various stretch stimuli caused by bladder filling remain largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate these mechanisms. By comparing vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT)-deficient and wild-type male mice, we showed that ATP has a crucial role in urine storage through exocytosis via a VNUT-dependent mechanism. VNUT was abundantly expressed in the bladder urothelium, and when the urothelium was weakly stimulated (i.e. in the early filling stages), it released ATP by exocytosis. VNUT-deficient mice showed reduced bladder compliance from the early storage phase and displayed frequent urination in inappropriate places without a change in voiding function. We conclude that urothelial, VNUT-dependent ATP exocytosis is involved in urine storage mechanisms that promote the relaxation of the bladder during the early stages of filling.

  2. Recombinant expression and purification of an ATP-dependent DNA ligase from Aliivibrio salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Adele; Pedersen, Hege

    2014-05-01

    The genome of the psychrophilic fish-pathogen Aliivibrio salmonicida encodes a putative ATP-dependent DNA ligase in addition to a housekeeping NAD-dependent enzyme. In order to study the structure and activity of the ATP dependent ligase in vitro we have undertaken its recombinant production and purification from an Escherichia coli based expression system. Expression and purification of this protein presented two significant challenges. First, the gene product was moderately toxic to E. coli cells, second it was necessary to remove the large amounts of E. coli DNA present in bacterial lysates without contamination of the protein preparation by nucleases which might interfere with future assaying. The toxicity problem was overcome by fusion of the putative ligase to large solubility tags such as maltose-binding protein (MBP) or Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and DNA was removed by treatment with a nuclease which could be inhibited by reducing agents. As the A. salmonicida ATP-dependent DNA ligase gene encodes a predicted leader peptide, both the full-length and mature forms of the protein were produced. Both possessed ATP-dependent DNA ligase activity, but the truncated form was significantly more active. Here we detail the first reported production, purification and preliminary characterization of active A. salmonicida ATP-dependent DNA ligase.

  3. Gap junctions and other mechanisms of cell-cell communication regulate basal insulin secretion in the pancreatic islet.

    PubMed

    Benninger, R K P; Head, W Steven; Zhang, Min; Satin, Leslie S; Piston, David W

    2011-11-15

    Cell-cell communication in the islet of Langerhans is important for the regulation of insulin secretion. Gap-junctions coordinate oscillations in intracellular free-calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) and insulin secretion in the islet following elevated glucose. Gap-junctions can also ensure that oscillatory [Ca(2+)](i) ceases when glucose is at a basal levels. We determine the roles of gap-junctions and other cell-cell communication pathways in the suppression of insulin secretion under basal conditions. Metabolic, electrical and insulin secretion levels were measured from islets lacking gap-junction coupling following deletion of connexion36 (Cx36(-/-)), and these results were compared to those obtained using fully isolated β-cells. K(ATP) loss-of-function islets provide a further experimental model to specifically study gap-junction mediated suppression of electrical activity. In isolated β-cells or Cx36(-/-) islets, elevations in [Ca(2+)](i) persisted in a subset of cells even at basal glucose. Isolated β-cells showed elevated insulin secretion at basal glucose; however, insulin secretion from Cx36(-/-) islets was minimally altered. [Ca(2+)](i) was further elevated under basal conditions, but insulin release still suppressed in K(ATP) loss-of-function islets. Forced elevation of cAMP led to PKA-mediated increases in insulin secretion from islets lacking gap-junctions, but not from islets expressing Cx36 gap junctions. We conclude there is a redundancy in how cell-cell communication in the islet suppresses insulin release. Gap junctions suppress cellular heterogeneity and spontaneous [Ca(2+)](i) signals, while other juxtacrine mechanisms, regulated by PKA and glucose, suppress more distal steps in exocytosis. Each mechanism is sufficiently robust to compensate for a loss of the other and still suppress basal insulin secretion.

  4. When Too Much ATP Is Bad for Protein Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Mauricio H; Sevostyanova, Anastasia; Groisman, Eduardo A

    2015-08-14

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the energy currency of living cells. Even though ATP powers virtually all energy-dependent activities, most cellular ATP is utilized in protein synthesis via tRNA aminoacylation and guanosine triphosphate regeneration. Magnesium (Mg(2+)), the most common divalent cation in living cells, plays crucial roles in protein synthesis by maintaining the structure of ribosomes, participating in the biochemistry of translation initiation and functioning as a counterion for ATP. A non-physiological increase in ATP levels hinders growth in cells experiencing Mg(2+) limitation because ATP is the most abundant nucleotide triphosphate in the cell, and Mg(2+) is also required for the stabilization of the cytoplasmic membrane and as a cofactor for essential enzymes. We propose that organisms cope with Mg(2+) limitation by decreasing ATP levels and ribosome production, thereby reallocating Mg(2+) to indispensable cellular processes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. [Use of the bioluminescent method for the determination of bacterial adenosinetriphosphate (ATP-metry) in microbiology].

    PubMed

    Kuzikov, A N; Bondarenko, V M; Latkin, A T

    2003-01-01

    The attention of a wide circle of specialists has recently been attracted by different methods for rapid determination of pathogenic microorganisms in biological specimens, environmental objects and foodstuffs, as well as in cases of possible acts of bioterrorism. In this respect the bioluminescent method for determination of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) contained in microbial cells is of interest. The method is based on the interaction ATP, luciferase and luciferin, accompanied by giving off energy in the form of light emission. When compared with routine methods, the use of this method considerably reduces the duration of the analysis, and its high sensitivity is comparable with that of the polymerase chain reaction. In this review the data on the prospects of the practical use of the bioluminescent method of ATP-metry are presented.

  6. Increase in the ADP/ATP exchange in rat liver mitochondria irradiated in vitro by helium-neon laser

    SciTech Connect

    Passarella, S.; Ostuni, A.; Atlante, A.; Quagliariello, E.

    1988-10-31

    To gain some insight into the mechanism of cell photostimulation by laser light, measurements were made of the rate of ADP/ATP exchange in mitochondria irradiated with the low power continuous wave Helium Neon laser (energy dose 5 Joules/cm2). To do this a method has been developed to continuously monitor ATP efflux from phosphorylating mitochondria caused by externally added ADP, by photometrically following the NADP+ reduction which occurs in the presence of glucose, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and effluxed ATP. The NADP+ reduction rate shows hyperbolic dependence on ADP concentration (Km and Vmax values 8.5 +/- 0.87 microM and 20.7 +/- 0.49 nmoles NADP+ reduced/min x mg mitochondrial protein, respectively), and proves to measure the activity of the ADP/ATP translocator as shown by inhibition experiments using atracyloside, powerful inhibitor of this carrier. Irradiation was found to enhance the rate of ADP/ATP antiport, with externally added ADP ranging between 5 and 100 microM. As a result of experiments carried out with mitochondria loaded with either ATP or ADP, the increase in the activity of the ADP/ATP translocator is here proposed to depend on the increase in the electrochemical proton gradient which occurs owing to irradiation of mitochondria.

  7. The Purine Salvage Pathway and the Restoration of Cerebral ATP: Implications for Brain Slice Physiology and Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Frenguelli, Bruno G

    2017-08-24

    Brain slices have been the workhorse for many neuroscience labs since the pioneering work of Henry McIlwain in the 1950s. Their utility is undisputed and their acceptance as appropriate models for the central nervous system is widespread, if not universal. However, the skeleton in the closet is that ATP levels in brain slices are lower than those found in vivo, which may have important implications for cellular physiology and plasticity. Far from this being a disadvantage, the ATP-impoverished slice can serve as a useful and experimentally-tractable surrogate for the injured brain, which experiences similar depletion of cellular ATP. We have shown that the restoration of cellular ATP in brain slices to in vivo values is possible with a simple combination of D-ribose and adenine (RibAde), two substrates for ATP synthesis. Restoration of ATP in slices to physiological levels has implications for synaptic transmission and plasticity, whilst in the injured brain in vivo RibAde shows encouraging positive results. Given that ribose, adenine, and a third compound, allopurinol, are all separately in use in man, their combined application after acute brain injury, in accelerating ATP synthesis and increasing the reservoir of the neuroprotective metabolite, adenosine, may help reduce the morbidity associated with stroke and traumatic brain injury.

  8. Disruption of copper homeostasis due to a mutation of Atp7a delays the onset of prion disease

    PubMed Central

    Siggs, Owen M.; Cruite, Justin T.; Du, Xin; Rutschmann, Sophie; Masliah, Eliezer; Beutler, Bruce; Oldstone, Michael B. A.

    2012-01-01

    Copper influences the pathogenesis of prion disease, but whether it is beneficial or detrimental remains controversial. Copper homeostasis is also essential for normal physiology, as highlighted by the spectrum of diseases caused by disruption of the copper transporting enzymes ATP7A and ATP7B. Here, by using a forward genetics approach in mice, we describe the isolation of three alleles of Atp7a, each with different phenotypic consequences. The mildest of the three, Atp7abrown, was insufficient to cause lethality in hemizygotes or mottling of the coat in heterozygotes, but did lead to coat hypopigmentation and reduced copper content in the brains of hemizygous males. When challenged with Rocky Mountain Laboratory scrapie, the onset of prion disease was delayed in Atp7abrown mice, and significantly less proteinase-resistant prion protein was found in the brains of moribund Atp7abrown mice compared with WT littermates. Our results establish that ATP7A-mediated copper homeostasis is important for the formation of pathogenic proteinase-resistant prion protein. PMID:22869751

  9. Persistence of biomarker ATP and ATP-generating capability in bacterial cells and spores contaminating spacecraft materials under earth conditions and in a simulated martian environment.

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Schuerger, Andrew C; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2008-08-01

    Most planetary protection research has concentrated on characteriz