Science.gov

Sample records for reduced dimensionality models

  1. Rigorous joining of advanced reduced-dimensional beam models to three-dimensional finite element models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Huimin

    In the aerospace and automotive industries, many finite element analyses use lower-dimensional finite elements such as beams, plates and shells, to simplify the modeling. These simplified models can greatly reduce the computation time and cost; however, reduced-dimensional models may introduce inaccuracies, particularly near boundaries and near portions of the structure where reduced-dimensional models may not apply. Another factor in creation of such models is that beam-like structures frequently have complex geometry, boundaries and loading conditions, which may make them unsuitable for modeling with single type of element. The goal of this dissertation is to develop a method that can accurately and efficiently capture the response of a structure by rigorous combination of a reduced-dimensional beam finite element model with a model based on full two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) finite elements. The first chapter of the thesis gives the background of the present work and some related previous work. The second chapter is focused on formulating a system of equations that govern the joining of a 2D model with a beam model for planar deformation. The essential aspect of this formulation is to find the transformation matrices to achieve deflection and load continuity on the interface. Three approaches are provided to obtain the transformation matrices. An example based on joining a beam to a 2D finite element model is examined, and the accuracy of the analysis is studied by comparing joint results with the full 2D analysis. The third chapter is focused on formulating the system of equations for joining a beam to a 3D finite element model for static and free-vibration problems. The transition between the 3D elements and beam elements is achieved by use of the stress recovery technique of the variational-asymptotic method as implemented in VABS (the Variational Asymptotic Beam Section analysis). The formulations for an interface transformation matrix and

  2. A Reduced Order, One Dimensional Model of Joint Response

    SciTech Connect

    DOHNER,JEFFREY L.

    2000-11-06

    As a joint is loaded, the tangent stiffness of the joint reduces due to slip at interfaces. This stiffness reduction continues until the direction of the applied load is reversed or the total interface slips. Total interface slippage in joints is called macro-slip. For joints not undergoing macro-slip, when load reversal occurs the tangent stiffness immediately rebounds to its maximum value. This occurs due to stiction effects at the interface. Thus, for periodic loads, a softening and rebound hardening cycle is produced which defines a hysteretic, energy absorbing trajectory. For many jointed sub-structures, this hysteretic trajectory can be approximated using simple polynomial representations. This allows for complex joint substructures to be represented using simple non-linear models. In this paper a simple one dimensional model is discussed.

  3. SCALING ANALYSIS OF REPOSITORY HEAT LOAD FOR REDUCED DIMENSIONALITY MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    MICHAEL T. ITAMUA AND CLIFFORD K. HO

    1998-06-04

    The thermal energy released from the waste packages emplaced in the potential Yucca Mountain repository is expected to result in changes in the repository temperature, relative humidity, air mass fraction, gas flow rates, and other parameters that are important input into the models used to calculate the performance of the engineered system components. In particular, the waste package degradation models require input from thermal-hydrologic models that have higher resolution than those currently used to simulate the T/H responses at the mountain-scale. Therefore, a combination of mountain- and drift-scale T/H models is being used to generate the drift thermal-hydrologic environment.

  4. Improved dimensionally-reduced visual cortical network using stochastic noise modeling.

    PubMed

    Tao, Louis; Praissman, Jeremy; Sornborger, Andrew T

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we extend our framework for constructing low-dimensional dynamical system models of large-scale neuronal networks of mammalian primary visual cortex. Our dimensional reduction procedure consists of performing a suitable linear change of variables and then systematically truncating the new set of equations. The extended framework includes modeling the effect of neglected modes as a stochastic process. By parametrizing and including stochasticity in one of two ways we show that we can improve the systems-level characterization of our dimensionally reduced neuronal network model. We examined orientation selectivity maps calculated from the firing rate distribution of large-scale simulations and stochastic dimensionally reduced models and found that by using stochastic processes to model the neglected modes, we were able to better reproduce the mean and variance of firing rates in the original large-scale simulations while still accurately predicting the orientation preference distribution.

  5. A Reduced Three Dimensional Model for SAW Sensors Using Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    El Gowini, Mohamed M.; Moussa, Walied A.

    2009-01-01

    A major problem that often arises in modeling Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) such as Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is the extensive computational capacity required. In this study a new approach is adopted to significantly reduce the computational capacity needed for analyzing the response of a SAW sensor using the finite element (FE) method. The approach is based on the plane wave solution where the properties of the wave vary in two dimensions and are uniform along the thickness of the device. The plane wave solution therefore allows the thickness of the SAW device model to be minimized; the model is referred to as a Reduced 3D Model (R3D). Various configurations of this novel R3D model are developed and compared with theoretical and experimental frequency data and the results show very good agreement. In addition, two-dimensional (2D) models with similar configurations to the R3D are developed for comparison since the 2D approach is widely adopted in the literature as a computationally inexpensive approach to model SAW sensors using the FE method. Results illustrate that the R3D model is capable of capturing the SAW response more accurately than the 2D model; this is demonstrated by comparison of centre frequency and insertion loss values. These results are very encouraging and indicate that the R3D model is capable of capturing the MEMS-based SAW sensor response without being computationally expensive. PMID:22303156

  6. A reduced-order model from high-dimensional frictional hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Saurabh; Chatterjee, Anindya

    2014-06-01

    Hysteresis in material behaviour includes both signum nonlinearities as well as high dimensionality. Available models for component-level hysteretic behaviour are empirical. Here, we derive a low-order model for rate-independent hysteresis from a high-dimensional massless frictional system. The original system, being given in terms of signs of velocities, is first solved incrementally using a linear complementarity problem formulation. From this numerical solution, to develop a reduced-order model, basis vectors are chosen using the singular value decomposition. The slip direction in generalized coordinates is identified as the minimizer of a dissipation-related function. That function includes terms for frictional dissipation through signum nonlinearities at many friction sites. Luckily, it allows a convenient analytical approximation. Upon solution of the approximated minimization problem, the slip direction is found. A final evolution equation for a few states is then obtained that gives a good match with the full solution. The model obtained here may lead to new insights into hysteresis as well as better empirical modelling thereof.

  7. A reduced-dimensionality quantum model which incorporates the full-dimensional energy of the system: Application to the vibrational predissociation of Cl2-Ne2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceotto, M.; García-Vela, A.

    2001-08-01

    A reduced-dimensionality quantum model is proposed which incorporates the zero-point energy of the neglected modes in a systematic, natural way. In this model the reduced-dimensionality Hamiltonian is obtained by averaging the exact Hamiltonian over the dependence of the full-dimensional initial state of the neglected modes. The reduced Hamiltonian conserves all the terms of the full Hamiltonian, providing a more flexible description of the couplings between the modes considered explicitly in the model. The model is applied to simulate the vibrational predissociation dynamics of Cl2-Ne2, considering the three stretching modes of the complex. The results are compared to experimental data and to previous calculations using a reduced-dimensionality quantum model and a full-dimensional quantum-classical approach. The Cl2-Ne2 resonance lifetimes obtained agree only qualitatively with the experimental and previously calculated ones. By contrast, the present model predicts more correctly than previous calculations the behavior of the Cl2 fragment vibrational distributions observed experimentally. The applicability of the model is discussed and further refinements are suggested.

  8. Experimental validation of a three-dimensional reduced-order continuum model of phonation.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Mehrdad H; Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2016-08-01

    Due to the complex nature of the phonation process, a one-dimensional (1D) glottal flow description is often used in current phonation models. Although widely used in voice research, these 1D flow-based phonation models have not been rigorously validated against experiments. In this study, a 1D glottal flow model is coupled with a three-dimensional nonlinear continuum model of the vocal fold and its predictions are compared to physical model experiments. The results show that the 1D flow-based model is able to predict the phonation threshold pressure and onset frequency within reasonable accuracy and to reproduce major vibratory features observed in the experiments. PMID:27586776

  9. Reduced dimensional computational models of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Paul; Kim, Gwang-Soo; Promislow, Keith; Wetton, Brian

    2007-05-01

    A model of steady state operation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stacks with straight gas channels is presented. The model is based on a decoupling of transport in the down-channel direction from transport in the cross-channel plane. Further, cross-channel transport is approximated heuristically using one-dimensional processes. The model takes into account the consumption of reactants down the channel, the effect of membrane hydration on its conductivity, water crossover through the membrane, the electrochemistry of the oxygen reduction reaction, thermal transport within the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and bipolar plates to the coolant, heat due to reaction and condensation and membrane resistance, electrical interaction between unit cells due to in-plane currents in the bipolar plates, and thermal coupling of unit cells through shared bipolar plates. The model corresponds to the typical operation with counter-flowing reactant gas streams. The model is a nonstandard system of non-smooth boundary value differential algebraic equations (DAEs) with strong, nonlocal coupling. A discretization of the system and a successful iterative strategy are described. Some preliminary analysis of the system and iterative strategy is given, using simple, constant coefficient, linear versions of the key components of the model. Representative computational results, validation against existing experimental data and a numerical convergence study are shown.

  10. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Reduced Fidelity Susceptibility in One-Dimensional Transverse Field Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jian; Xu, Lei; Wang, Xiao-Guang

    2010-01-01

    We study critical behaviors of the reduced fidelity susceptibility for two neighboring sites in the one-dimensional transverse field Ising model. It is found that the divergent behaviors of the susceptibility take the form of square of logarithm, in contrast with the global ground-state fidelity susceptibility which is power divergence. In order to perform a scaling analysis, we take the square root of the susceptibility and determine the scaling exponent analytically and the result is further confirmed by numerical calculations.

  11. Coupled and reduced dimensional modeling of respiratory mechanics during spontaneous breathing.

    PubMed

    Ismail, M; Comerford, A; Wall, W A

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we develop a total lung model based on a tree of 0D airway and acinar models for studying respiratory mechanics during spontaneous breathing. This model utilizes both computer tomography-based geometries and artificially generated lobe-filling airway trees to model the entire conducting region of the lung. Beyond the conducting airways, we develop an acinar model, which takes into account the alveolar tissue resistance, compliance, and the intrapleural pressure. With this methodology, we compare four different 0D models of airway mechanics and determine the best model based on a comparison with a 3D-0D coupled model of the conducting airways; this methodology is possible because the majority of airway resistance is confined to the lower generations, that is, the trachea and the first few bronchial generations. As an example application of the model, we simulate the flow and pressure dynamics under spontaneous breathing conditions, that is, at flow conditions driven purely by pleural space pressure. The results show good agreement, both qualitatively and quantitatively, with reported physiological values. One of the key advantages of this model is the ability to provide insight into lung ventilation in the peripheral regions. This is often crucial because this is where information, specifically for studying diseases and gas exchange, is needed. Thus, the model can be used as a tool for better understanding local peripheral lung mechanics without excluding the upper portions of the lung. This tool will be also useful for in vitro investigations of lung mechanics in both health and disease.

  12. Testing the Palma-Clary Reduced Dimensionality Model Using Classical Mechanics on the CH4 + H → CH3 + H2 Reaction.

    PubMed

    Vikár, Anna; Nagy, Tibor; Lendvay, György

    2016-07-14

    Application of exact quantum scattering methods in theoretical reaction dynamics of bimolecular reactions is limited by the complexity of the equations of nuclear motion to be solved. Simplification is often achieved by reducing the number of degrees of freedom to be explicitly handled by freezing the less important spectator modes. The reaction cross sections obtained in reduced-dimensionality (RD) quantum scattering methods can be used in the calculation of rate coefficients, but their physical meaning is limited. The accurate test of the performance of a reduced-dimensionality method would be a comparison of the RD cross sections with those obtained in accurate full-dimensional (FD) calculations, which is not feasible because of the lack of complete full-dimensional results. However, classical mechanics allows one to perform reaction dynamics calculations using both the RD and the FD model. In this paper, an RD versus FD comparison is made for the 8-dimensional Palma-Clary model on the example of four isotopologs of the CH4 + H → CH3 + H2 reaction, which has 12 internal dimensions. In the Palma-Clary model, the only restriction is that the methyl group is confined to maintain C3v symmetry. Both RD and FD opacity and excitation functions as well as differential cross sections were calculated using the quasiclassical trajectory method. The initial reactant separation has been handled according to our one-period averaging method [ Nagy et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2016, 144, 014104 ]. The RD and FD excitation functions were found to be close to each other for some isotopologs, but in general, the RD reactivity parameters are lower than the FD reactivity parameters beyond statistical error, and for one of the isotopologs, the deviation is significant. This indicates that the goodness of RD cross sections cannot be taken for granted. PMID:26918703

  13. Emergent reduced dimensionality by vertex frustration in artificial spin ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Ian; Lao, Yuyang; Carrasquillo, Isaac; O'Brien, Liam; Watts, Justin D.; Manno, Michael; Leighton, Chris; Scholl, Andreas; Nisoli, Cristiano; Schiffer, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Reducing the dimensionality of a physical system can have a profound effect on its properties, as in the ordering of low-dimensional magnetic materials, phonon dispersion in mercury chain salts, sliding phases, and the electronic states of graphene. Here we explore the emergence of quasi-one-dimensional behaviour in two-dimensional artificial spin ice, a class of lithographically fabricated nanomagnet arrays used to study geometrical frustration. We extend the implementation of artificial spin ice by fabricating a new array geometry, the so-called tetris lattice. We demonstrate that the ground state of the tetris lattice consists of alternating ordered and disordered bands of nanomagnetic moments. The disordered bands can be mapped onto an emergent thermal one-dimensional Ising model. Furthermore, we show that the level of degeneracy associated with these bands dictates the susceptibility of island moments to thermally induced reversals, thus establishing that vertex frustration can reduce the relevant dimensionality of physical behaviour in a magnetic system.

  14. Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome alters nuclear shape and reduces cell motility in three dimensional model substrates.

    PubMed

    Booth-Gauthier, Elizabeth A; Du, Vicard; Ghibaudo, Marion; Rape, Andrew D; Dahl, Kris Noel; Ladoux, Benoit

    2013-03-01

    Cell migration through tight interstitial spaces in three dimensional (3D) environments impacts development, wound healing and cancer metastasis and is altered by the aging process. The stiffness of the extracellular matrix (ECM) increases with aging and affects the cells and cytoskeletal processes involved in cell migration. However, the nucleus, which is the largest and densest organelle, has not been widely studied during cell migration through the ECM. Additionally, the nucleus is stiffened during the aging process through the accumulation of a mutant nucleoskeleton protein lamin A, progerin. By using microfabricated substrates to mimic the confined environment of surrounding tissues, we characterized nuclear movements and deformation during cell migration into micropillars where interspacing can be tuned to vary nuclear confinement. Cell motility decreased with decreased micropillar (μP) spacing and correlated with increased dysmorphic shapes of nuclei. We examined the effects of increased nuclear stiffness which correlates with cellular aging by studying Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome cells which are known to accumulate progerin. With the expression of progerin, cells showed a threshold response to decreased μP spacing. Cells became trapped in the close spacing, possibly from visible micro-defects in the nucleoskeleton induced by cell crawling through the μP and from reduced force generation, measured independently. We suggest that ECM changes during aging could be compounded by the increasing stiffness of the nucleus and thus changes in cell migration through 3D tissues.

  15. Empirical extensions of the lasso penalty to reduce the false discovery rate in high-dimensional Cox regression models.

    PubMed

    Ternès, Nils; Rotolo, Federico; Michiels, Stefan

    2016-07-10

    Correct selection of prognostic biomarkers among multiple candidates is becoming increasingly challenging as the dimensionality of biological data becomes higher. Therefore, minimizing the false discovery rate (FDR) is of primary importance, while a low false negative rate (FNR) is a complementary measure. The lasso is a popular selection method in Cox regression, but its results depend heavily on the penalty parameter λ. Usually, λ is chosen using maximum cross-validated log-likelihood (max-cvl). However, this method has often a very high FDR. We review methods for a more conservative choice of λ. We propose an empirical extension of the cvl by adding a penalization term, which trades off between the goodness-of-fit and the parsimony of the model, leading to the selection of fewer biomarkers and, as we show, to the reduction of the FDR without large increase in FNR. We conducted a simulation study considering null and moderately sparse alternative scenarios and compared our approach with the standard lasso and 10 other competitors: Akaike information criterion (AIC), corrected AIC, Bayesian information criterion (BIC), extended BIC, Hannan and Quinn information criterion (HQIC), risk information criterion (RIC), one-standard-error rule, adaptive lasso, stability selection, and percentile lasso. Our extension achieved the best compromise across all the scenarios between a reduction of the FDR and a limited raise of the FNR, followed by the AIC, the RIC, and the adaptive lasso, which performed well in some settings. We illustrate the methods using gene expression data of 523 breast cancer patients. In conclusion, we propose to apply our extension to the lasso whenever a stringent FDR with a limited FNR is targeted. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Stimuli Reduce the Dimensionality of Cortical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mazzucato, Luca; Fontanini, Alfredo; La Camera, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    The activity of ensembles of simultaneously recorded neurons can be represented as a set of points in the space of firing rates. Even though the dimension of this space is equal to the ensemble size, neural activity can be effectively localized on smaller subspaces. The dimensionality of the neural space is an important determinant of the computational tasks supported by the neural activity. Here, we investigate the dimensionality of neural ensembles from the sensory cortex of alert rats during periods of ongoing (inter-trial) and stimulus-evoked activity. We find that dimensionality grows linearly with ensemble size, and grows significantly faster during ongoing activity compared to evoked activity. We explain these results using a spiking network model based on a clustered architecture. The model captures the difference in growth rate between ongoing and evoked activity and predicts a characteristic scaling with ensemble size that could be tested in high-density multi-electrode recordings. Moreover, we present a simple theory that predicts the existence of an upper bound on dimensionality. This upper bound is inversely proportional to the amount of pair-wise correlations and, compared to a homogeneous network without clusters, it is larger by a factor equal to the number of clusters. The empirical estimation of such bounds depends on the number and duration of trials and is well predicted by the theory. Together, these results provide a framework to analyze neural dimensionality in alert animals, its behavior under stimulus presentation, and its theoretical dependence on ensemble size, number of clusters, and correlations in spiking network models. PMID:26924968

  17. Stimuli Reduce the Dimensionality of Cortical Activity.

    PubMed

    Mazzucato, Luca; Fontanini, Alfredo; La Camera, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    The activity of ensembles of simultaneously recorded neurons can be represented as a set of points in the space of firing rates. Even though the dimension of this space is equal to the ensemble size, neural activity can be effectively localized on smaller subspaces. The dimensionality of the neural space is an important determinant of the computational tasks supported by the neural activity. Here, we investigate the dimensionality of neural ensembles from the sensory cortex of alert rats during periods of ongoing (inter-trial) and stimulus-evoked activity. We find that dimensionality grows linearly with ensemble size, and grows significantly faster during ongoing activity compared to evoked activity. We explain these results using a spiking network model based on a clustered architecture. The model captures the difference in growth rate between ongoing and evoked activity and predicts a characteristic scaling with ensemble size that could be tested in high-density multi-electrode recordings. Moreover, we present a simple theory that predicts the existence of an upper bound on dimensionality. This upper bound is inversely proportional to the amount of pair-wise correlations and, compared to a homogeneous network without clusters, it is larger by a factor equal to the number of clusters. The empirical estimation of such bounds depends on the number and duration of trials and is well predicted by the theory. Together, these results provide a framework to analyze neural dimensionality in alert animals, its behavior under stimulus presentation, and its theoretical dependence on ensemble size, number of clusters, and correlations in spiking network models. PMID:26924968

  18. Reduced dimensionality and magnetic frustration in KCr3As3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Chao; Jiang, Hao; Feng, Xiao-Yong; Dai, Jianhui

    2015-12-01

    We study the electronic and magnetic structures of the newly discovered compound KCr3As3 . The nonmagnetic state has five Fermi surface sheets involving three quasi-one-dimensional and two three-dimensional energy bands. However, the ground state is magnetic, exhibiting an interlayer antiferromagnetic order where the basic block-spin state of a unit Cr triangle retains a high spin magnitude. Moreover, the magnetic Fermi surface involves three one-dimensional sheets only, manifesting the reduced dimensionality. By fitting a twisted spin tube model, the magnetic frustrations are found to be relaxed, leading to gapless spin excitations. A frustration-induced transition to the disordered low block-spin state is expected upon increasing the intralayer exchange interaction.

  19. Do muscle synergies reduce the dimensionality of behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Kuppuswamy, Naveen; Harris, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    The muscle synergy hypothesis is an archetype of the notion of Dimensionality Reduction (DR) occurring in the central nervous system due to modular organization. Toward validating this hypothesis, it is important to understand if muscle synergies can reduce the state-space dimensionality while maintaining task control. In this paper we present a scheme for investigating this reduction utilizing the temporal muscle synergy formulation. Our approach is based on the observation that constraining the control input to a weighted combination of temporal muscle synergies also constrains the dynamic behavior of a system in a trajectory-specific manner. We compute this constrained reformulation of system dynamics and then use the method of system balancing for quantifying the DR; we term this approach as Trajectory Specific Dimensionality Analysis (TSDA). We then investigate the consequence of minimization of the dimensionality for a given task. These methods are tested in simulations on a linear (tethered mass) and a non-linear (compliant kinematic chain) system. Dimensionality of various reaching trajectories is compared when using idealized temporal synergies. We show that as a consequence of this Minimum Dimensional Control (MDC) model, smooth straight-line Cartesian trajectories with bell-shaped velocity profiles emerged as the optima for the reaching task. We also investigated the effect on dimensionality due to adding via-points to a trajectory. The results indicate that a trajectory and synergy basis specific DR of behavior results from muscle synergy control. The implications of these results for the synergy hypothesis, optimal motor control, motor development, and robotics are discussed. PMID:25002844

  20. Evaluation of Floodplain Modifications to Reduce the Effect of Floods Using a Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model of the Flint River at Albany, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musser, Jonathan W.

    2008-01-01

    Potential flow characteristics of future flooding along a 4.8-mile reach of the Flint River in Albany, Georgia, were simulated using recent digital-elevation-model data and the U.S. Geological Survey finite-element surface-water modeling system for two-dimensional flow in the horizontal plane (FESWMS-2DH). The model was run at four water-surface altitudes at the Flint River at Albany streamgage (02352500): 181.5-foot (ft) altitude with a flow of 61,100 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), 184.5-ft altitude with a flow of 75,400 ft3/s, 187.5-ft altitude with a flow of 91,700 ft3/s, and 192.5-ft altitude with a flow of 123,000 ft3/s. The model was run to measure changes in inundated areas and water-surface altitudes for eight scenarios of possible modifications to the 4.8-mile reach on the Flint River. The eight scenarios include removing a human-made peninsula located downstream from Oglethorpe Boulevard, increasing the opening under the Oakridge Drive bridge, adding culverts to the east Oakridge Drive bridge approach, adding culverts to the east and west Oakridge Drive bridge approaches, adding an overflow across the oxbow north of Oakridge Drive, making the overflow into a channel, removing the Oakridge Drive bridge, and adding a combination of an oxbow overflow and culverts on both Oakridge Drive bridge approaches. The modeled inundation and water-surface altitude changes were mapped for use in evaluating the river modifications. The most effective scenario at reducing inundated area was the combination scenario. At the 187.5-ft altitude, the inundated area decreased from 4.24 square miles to 4.00 square miles. The remove-peninsula scenario was the least effective with a reduction in inundated area of less than 0.01 square miles. In all scenarios, the inundated area reduction increased with water-surface altitude, peaking at the 187.5-ft altitude. The inundated area reduction then decreased at the gage altitude of 192.5 ft.

  1. Electronic states in systems of reduced dimensionality

    SciTech Connect

    Ulloa, S.E.

    1992-04-15

    This report briefly discusses the following research: magnetically modulated systems, inelastic magnetotunneling, ballistic transport review, screening in reduced dimensions, raman and electron energy loss spectroscopy; and ballistic quantum interference effects. (LSP).

  2. Reduced basis ANOVA methods for partial differential equations with high-dimensional random inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Qifeng; Lin, Guang

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we present a reduced basis ANOVA approach for partial deferential equations (PDEs) with random inputs. The ANOVA method combined with stochastic collocation methods provides model reduction in high-dimensional parameter space through decomposing high-dimensional inputs into unions of low-dimensional inputs. In this work, to further reduce the computational cost, we investigate spatial low-rank structures in the ANOVA-collocation method, and develop efficient spatial model reduction techniques using hierarchically generated reduced bases. We present a general mathematical framework of the methodology, validate its accuracy and demonstrate its efficiency with numerical experiments.

  3. A three-dimensional ground-water-flow model modified to reduce computer-memory requirements and better simulate confining-bed and aquifer pinchouts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leahy, P.P.

    1982-01-01

    The Trescott computer program for modeling groundwater flow in three dimensions has been modified to (1) treat aquifer and confining bed pinchouts more realistically and (2) reduce the computer memory requirements needed for the input data. Using the original program, simulation of aquifer systems with nonrectangular external boundaries may result in a large number of nodes that are not involved in the numerical solution of the problem, but require computer storage. (USGS)

  4. Perpendicular diffusion of energetic particles: Numerical test of the theorem on reduced dimensionality

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, G.; Shalchi, A.

    2015-01-15

    A fundamental statement in diffusion theory is provided by the so-called theorem on reduced dimensionality. The latter theorem is saying that if the dimensionality of the turbulence is reduced, charged particles are tied to a single magnetic field line. If there is pitch-angle scattering and therewith parallel diffusion, this usually means that perpendicular transport is subdiffusive. Subdiffusive transport was found in numerous simulations for slab turbulence. However, it was unclear whether the theorem is valid for other models with reduced dimensionality such as the two-dimensional model. In the current paper, we simultaneously trace magnetic field lines and energetic particles and we compute the distance between the particle and the initial field line. We confirm the aforementioned theorem for slab turbulence but we cannot confirm it for two-dimensional turbulence. We also show that particles are not tied to field lines for two-component turbulence.

  5. System for generating two-dimensional masks from a three-dimensional model using topological analysis

    DOEpatents

    Schiek, Richard

    2006-06-20

    A method of generating two-dimensional masks from a three-dimensional model comprises providing a three-dimensional model representing a micro-electro-mechanical structure for manufacture and a description of process mask requirements, reducing the three-dimensional model to a topological description of unique cross sections, and selecting candidate masks from the unique cross sections and the cross section topology. The method further can comprise reconciling the candidate masks based on the process mask requirements description to produce two-dimensional process masks.

  6. Electronic, Optical, and Thermal Properties of Reduced-Dimensional Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shouting

    Reduced-dimensional materials have attracted tremendous attention because of their new physics and exotic properties, which are of great interests for fundamental science. More importantly, the manipulation and engineering of matter on an atomic scale yield promising applications for many fields including nanoelectronics, nanobiotechnology, environments, and renewable energy. Because of the unusual quantum confinement and enhanced surface effect of reduced-dimensional materials, traditional empirical models suffer from necessary but unreliable parameters extracted from previously-studied bulk materials. In this sense, quantitative, parameter-free approaches are highly useful for understanding properties of reduced-dimensional materials and, furthermore, predicting their novel applications. The first-principles density functional theory (DFT) is proven to be a reliable and convenient tool. In particular, recent progress in many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) makes it possible to calculate excited-state properties, e.g., quasiparticle (QP) band gap and optical excitations, by the first-principles approach based on DFT. Therefore, during my PhD study, I employed first-principles calculations based on DFT and MBPT to systematically study fundamental properties of typical reduced-dimensional semiconductors, i.e., the electronic structure, phonons, and optical excitations of core-shell nanowires (NWs) and graphene-like two-dimensional (2D) structures of current interests. First, I present first-principles studies on how to engineer band alignments of nano-sized radial heterojunctions, Si/Ge core-shell NWs. Our calculation reveals that band offsets in these one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures can be tailored by applying axial strain or varying core-shell sizes. In particular, the valence band offset can be efficiently tuned across a wide range and even be diminished via applied strain. Two mechanisms contribute to this tuning of band offsets. Furthermore, varying the

  7. Reduced order modeling of wall turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moin, Parviz

    2015-11-01

    Modeling turbulent flow near a wall is a pacing item in computational fluid dynamics for aerospace applications and geophysical flows. Gradual progress has been made in statistical modeling of near wall turbulence using the Reynolds averaged equations of motion, an area of research where John Lumley has made numerous seminal contributions. More recently, Lumley and co-workers pioneered dynamical systems modeling of near wall turbulence, and demonstrated that the experimentally observed turbulence dynamics can be predicted using low dimensional dynamical systems. The discovery of minimal flow unit provides further evidence that the near wall turbulence is amenable to reduced order modeling. The underlying rationale for potential success in using low dimensional dynamical systems theory is based on the fact that the Reynolds number is low in close proximity to the wall. Presumably for the same reason, low dimensional models are expected to be successful in modeling of the laminar/turbulence transition region. This has been shown recently using dynamic mode decomposition. Furthermore, it is shown that the near wall flow structure and statistics in the late and non-linear transition region is strikingly similar to that in higher Reynolds number fully developed turbulence. In this presentation, I will argue that the accumulated evidence suggests that wall modeling for LES using low dimensional dynamical systems is a profitable avenue to pursue. The main challenge would be the numerical integration of such wall models in LES methodology.

  8. Sensory stimuli reduce the dimensionality of cortical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzucato, Luca; Fontanini, Alfredo; La Camera, Giancarlo

    Neural ensembles in alert animals generate complex patterns of activity. Although cortical activity unfolds in a space whose dimension is equal to the number of neurons, it is often restricted to a lower dimensional subspace. Dimensionality is the minimal number of dimensions that accurately capture neural dynamics, and may be related to the computational tasks supported by the neural circuit. Here, we investigate the dimensionality of neural ensembles from the insular cortex of alert rats during periods of `ongoing' (spontaneous) and stimulus-evoked activity. We find that the dimensionality grows with ensemble size, and does so significantly faster during ongoing compared to evoked activity. We explain both results using a recurrent spiking network with clustered architecture, and obtain analytical results on the dependence of dimensionality on ensemble size, number of clusters, and pair-wise noise correlations. The theory predicts a characteristic scaling with ensemble size and the existence of an upper bound on dimensionality, which grows with the number of clusters and decreases with the amount of noise correlations. To our knowledge, this is the first mechanistic model of neural dimensionality in cortex during both spontaneous and evoked activity.

  9. Determining Reduced Order Models for Optimal Stochastic Reduced Order Models

    SciTech Connect

    Bonney, Matthew S.; Brake, Matthew R.W.

    2015-08-01

    The use of parameterized reduced order models(PROMs) within the stochastic reduced order model (SROM) framework is a logical progression for both methods. In this report, five different parameterized reduced order models are selected and critiqued against the other models along with truth model for the example of the Brake-Reuss beam. The models are: a Taylor series using finite difference, a proper orthogonal decomposition of the the output, a Craig-Bampton representation of the model, a method that uses Hyper-Dual numbers to determine the sensitivities, and a Meta-Model method that uses the Hyper-Dual results and constructs a polynomial curve to better represent the output data. The methods are compared against a parameter sweep and a distribution propagation where the first four statistical moments are used as a comparison. Each method produces very accurate results with the Craig-Bampton reduction having the least accurate results. The models are also compared based on time requirements for the evaluation of each model where the Meta- Model requires the least amount of time for computation by a significant amount. Each of the five models provided accurate results in a reasonable time frame. The determination of which model to use is dependent on the availability of the high-fidelity model and how many evaluations can be performed. Analysis of the output distribution is examined by using a large Monte-Carlo simulation along with a reduced simulation using Latin Hypercube and the stochastic reduced order model sampling technique. Both techniques produced accurate results. The stochastic reduced order modeling technique produced less error when compared to an exhaustive sampling for the majority of methods.

  10. Reduced-dimensionality-induced helimagnetism in iron nanoislands.

    PubMed

    Phark, S-H; Fischer, J A; Corbetta, M; Sander, D; Nakamura, K; Kirschner, J

    2014-01-01

    Low-dimensionality in magnetic materials often leads to noncollinear magnetic order, such as a helical spin order and skyrmions, which have received much attention because of envisioned applications in spin transport and in future data storage. Up to now, however, the real-space observation of the noncollinear magnetic order has been limited mostly to systems involving a strong spin-orbit interaction. Here we report a noncollinear magnetic order in individual nanostructures of a prototypical magnetic material, bilayer iron islands on Cu (111). Spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy reveals a magnetic stripe phase with a period of 1.28 nm, which is identified as a one-dimensional helical spin order. Ab initio calculations identify reduced-dimensionality-enhanced long-range antiferromagnetic interactions as the driving force of this spin order. Our findings point at the potential of nanostructured magnets as a new experimental arena of noncollinear magnetic order stabilized in a nanostructure, magnetically decoupled from the substrate. PMID:25336303

  11. Reduced models for binocular rivalry.

    PubMed

    Laing, Carlo R; Frewen, Thomas; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G

    2010-06-01

    Binocular rivalry occurs when two very different images are presented to the two eyes, but a subject perceives only one image at a given time. A number of computational models for binocular rivalry have been proposed; most can be categorised as either "rate" models, containing a small number of variables, or as more biophysically-realistic "spiking neuron" models. However, a principled derivation of a reduced model from a spiking model is lacking. We present two such derivations, one heuristic and a second using recently-developed data-mining techniques to extract a small number of "macroscopic" variables from the results of a spiking neuron model simulation. We also consider bifurcations that can occur as parameters are varied, and the role of noise in such systems. Our methods are applicable to a number of other models of interest.

  12. Reduced dimensionality diatom--diatom reactive scattering: Application to a model H sub 2 +A sub 2 r arrow H+HA sub 2 reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Q.; Bowman, J.M. )

    1990-01-15

    We apply a recently formulated quantum theory of diatom--diatom reactions (Q. Sun and J. M. Bowman, Int. J. Quant. Chem., Quant. Chem. Symp. {bold 23}, 9 (1989)) to a model collinear H{sub 2}+A{sub 2}{r arrow}H+HA{sub 2} reaction, where A has the mass of a hydrogen atom. The theory assumes one diatom bond is nonreactive, and the reactive scattering Hamiltonian is written in terms of hyperspherical and cylindrical coordinates. The potential-energy surface used is the PK2 H+H{sub 2} surface augmented by a harmonic degree of freedom describing the nonreactive A{sub 2}. Details of the formulation and solution of the coupled-channel equations are given, along with convergence tests, and a discussion of the new state-to-state transition probabilities. In particular, the partial quenching of the well-known collinear H+H{sub 2} resonances is noted.

  13. One-dimensional model of inertial pumping.

    PubMed

    Kornilovitch, Pavel E; Govyadinov, Alexander N; Markel, David P; Torniainen, Erik D

    2013-02-01

    A one-dimensional model of inertial pumping is introduced and solved. The pump is driven by a high-pressure vapor bubble generated by a microheater positioned asymmetrically in a microchannel. The bubble is approximated as a short-term impulse delivered to the two fluidic columns inside the channel. Fluid dynamics is described by a Newton-like equation with a variable mass, but without the mass derivative term. Because of smaller inertia, the short column refills the channel faster and accumulates a larger mechanical momentum. After bubble collapse the total fluid momentum is nonzero, resulting in a net flow. Two different versions of the model are analyzed in detail, analytically and numerically. In the symmetrical model, the pressure at the channel-reservoir connection plane is assumed constant, whereas in the asymmetrical model it is reduced by a Bernoulli term. For low and intermediate vapor bubble pressures, both models predict the existence of an optimal microheater location. The predicted net flow in the asymmetrical model is smaller by a factor of about 2. For unphysically large vapor pressures, the asymmetrical model predicts saturation of the effect, while in the symmetrical model net flow increases indefinitely. Pumping is reduced by nonzero viscosity, but to a different degree depending on the microheater location. PMID:23496615

  14. One-dimensional model of inertial pumping.

    PubMed

    Kornilovitch, Pavel E; Govyadinov, Alexander N; Markel, David P; Torniainen, Erik D

    2013-02-01

    A one-dimensional model of inertial pumping is introduced and solved. The pump is driven by a high-pressure vapor bubble generated by a microheater positioned asymmetrically in a microchannel. The bubble is approximated as a short-term impulse delivered to the two fluidic columns inside the channel. Fluid dynamics is described by a Newton-like equation with a variable mass, but without the mass derivative term. Because of smaller inertia, the short column refills the channel faster and accumulates a larger mechanical momentum. After bubble collapse the total fluid momentum is nonzero, resulting in a net flow. Two different versions of the model are analyzed in detail, analytically and numerically. In the symmetrical model, the pressure at the channel-reservoir connection plane is assumed constant, whereas in the asymmetrical model it is reduced by a Bernoulli term. For low and intermediate vapor bubble pressures, both models predict the existence of an optimal microheater location. The predicted net flow in the asymmetrical model is smaller by a factor of about 2. For unphysically large vapor pressures, the asymmetrical model predicts saturation of the effect, while in the symmetrical model net flow increases indefinitely. Pumping is reduced by nonzero viscosity, but to a different degree depending on the microheater location.

  15. Reducing the Dimensionality of the Inverse Problem in IMRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabal, Gonzalo

    2007-11-01

    The inverse problem in IMRT (Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy) consists in finding a set of radiation parameters based on the conditions given by the radiation therapist. The dimensionality of such problem usually depends on the number of bixels in which each radiation field is divided. Recently, the efforts have been put on finding arrangements of small segments (subfields) irradiating uniformly. In this paper a deterministic algorithm which allows to find solutions given a maximal number of segments is proposed. The procedure consists of two parts. In the first part the segments are chosen based on the irradiation geometry defined by the therapist. In the second part, the radiation intensity of the segments is optimized using standard optimization algorithms. Results are presented. Computational times were reduced and the final fluence maps were less complex without significantly sacrifying clinical value.

  16. Reducing the Dimensionality of the Inverse Problem in IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Cabal, Gonzalo

    2007-11-26

    The inverse problem in IMRT (Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy) consists in finding a set of radiation parameters based on the conditions given by the radiation therapist. The dimensionality of such problem usually depends on the number of bixels in which each radiation field is divided. Recently, the efforts have been put on finding arrangements of small segments (subfields) irradiating uniformly. In this paper a deterministic algorithm which allows to find solutions given a maximal number of segments is proposed. The procedure consists of two parts. In the first part the segments are chosen based on the irradiation geometry defined by the therapist. In the second part, the radiation intensity of the segments is optimized using standard optimization algorithms. Results are presented. Computational times were reduced and the final fluence maps were less complex without significantly sacrifying clinical value.

  17. Improving the text classification using clustering and a novel HMM to reduce the dimensionality.

    PubMed

    Seara Vieira, A; Borrajo, L; Iglesias, E L

    2016-11-01

    In text classification problems, the representation of a document has a strong impact on the performance of learning systems. The high dimensionality of the classical structured representations can lead to burdensome computations due to the great size of real-world data. Consequently, there is a need for reducing the quantity of handled information to improve the classification process. In this paper, we propose a method to reduce the dimensionality of a classical text representation based on a clustering technique to group documents, and a previously developed Hidden Markov Model to represent them. We have applied tests with the k-NN and SVM classifiers on the OHSUMED and TREC benchmark text corpora using the proposed dimensionality reduction technique. The experimental results obtained are very satisfactory compared to commonly used techniques like InfoGain and the statistical tests performed demonstrate the suitability of the proposed technique for the preprocessing step in a text classification task. PMID:27686709

  18. Improving the text classification using clustering and a novel HMM to reduce the dimensionality.

    PubMed

    Seara Vieira, A; Borrajo, L; Iglesias, E L

    2016-11-01

    In text classification problems, the representation of a document has a strong impact on the performance of learning systems. The high dimensionality of the classical structured representations can lead to burdensome computations due to the great size of real-world data. Consequently, there is a need for reducing the quantity of handled information to improve the classification process. In this paper, we propose a method to reduce the dimensionality of a classical text representation based on a clustering technique to group documents, and a previously developed Hidden Markov Model to represent them. We have applied tests with the k-NN and SVM classifiers on the OHSUMED and TREC benchmark text corpora using the proposed dimensionality reduction technique. The experimental results obtained are very satisfactory compared to commonly used techniques like InfoGain and the statistical tests performed demonstrate the suitability of the proposed technique for the preprocessing step in a text classification task.

  19. Sparse High Dimensional Models in Economics.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianqing; Lv, Jinchi; Qi, Lei

    2011-09-01

    This paper reviews the literature on sparse high dimensional models and discusses some applications in economics and finance. Recent developments of theory, methods, and implementations in penalized least squares and penalized likelihood methods are highlighted. These variable selection methods are proved to be effective in high dimensional sparse modeling. The limits of dimensionality that regularization methods can handle, the role of penalty functions, and their statistical properties are detailed. Some recent advances in ultra-high dimensional sparse modeling are also briefly discussed. PMID:22022635

  20. Sparse High Dimensional Models in Economics

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Lv, Jinchi; Qi, Lei

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on sparse high dimensional models and discusses some applications in economics and finance. Recent developments of theory, methods, and implementations in penalized least squares and penalized likelihood methods are highlighted. These variable selection methods are proved to be effective in high dimensional sparse modeling. The limits of dimensionality that regularization methods can handle, the role of penalty functions, and their statistical properties are detailed. Some recent advances in ultra-high dimensional sparse modeling are also briefly discussed. PMID:22022635

  1. POD/DEIM reduced-order strategies for efficient four dimensional variational data assimilation

    SciTech Connect

    Ştefănescu, R.; Sandu, A.; Navon, I.M.

    2015-08-15

    This work studies reduced order modeling (ROM) approaches to speed up the solution of variational data assimilation problems with large scale nonlinear dynamical models. It is shown that a key requirement for a successful reduced order solution is that reduced order Karush–Kuhn–Tucker conditions accurately represent their full order counterparts. In particular, accurate reduced order approximations are needed for the forward and adjoint dynamical models, as well as for the reduced gradient. New strategies to construct reduced order based are developed for proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) ROM data assimilation using both Galerkin and Petrov–Galerkin projections. For the first time POD, tensorial POD, and discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM) are employed to develop reduced data assimilation systems for a geophysical flow model, namely, the two dimensional shallow water equations. Numerical experiments confirm the theoretical framework for Galerkin projection. In the case of Petrov–Galerkin projection, stabilization strategies must be considered for the reduced order models. The new reduced order shallow water data assimilation system provides analyses similar to those produced by the full resolution data assimilation system in one tenth of the computational time.

  2. Hybrid reduced order modeling for assembly calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, Youngsuk; Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.; Jessee, Matthew A.; Mertyurek, Ugur

    2015-08-14

    While the accuracy of assembly calculations has greatly improved due to the increase in computer power enabling more refined description of the phase space and use of more sophisticated numerical algorithms, the computational cost continues to increase which limits the full utilization of their effectiveness for routine engineering analysis. Reduced order modeling is a mathematical vehicle that scales down the dimensionality of large-scale numerical problems to enable their repeated executions on small computing environment, often available to end users. This is done by capturing the most dominant underlying relationships between the model's inputs and outputs. Previous works demonstrated the use of the reduced order modeling for a single physics code, such as a radiation transport calculation. This paper extends those works to coupled code systems as currently employed in assembly calculations. Finally, numerical tests are conducted using realistic SCALE assembly models with resonance self-shielding, neutron transport, and nuclides transmutation/depletion models representing the components of the coupled code system.

  3. Hybrid reduced order modeling for assembly calculations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bang, Youngsuk; Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.; Jessee, Matthew A.; Mertyurek, Ugur

    2015-08-14

    While the accuracy of assembly calculations has greatly improved due to the increase in computer power enabling more refined description of the phase space and use of more sophisticated numerical algorithms, the computational cost continues to increase which limits the full utilization of their effectiveness for routine engineering analysis. Reduced order modeling is a mathematical vehicle that scales down the dimensionality of large-scale numerical problems to enable their repeated executions on small computing environment, often available to end users. This is done by capturing the most dominant underlying relationships between the model's inputs and outputs. Previous works demonstrated the usemore » of the reduced order modeling for a single physics code, such as a radiation transport calculation. This paper extends those works to coupled code systems as currently employed in assembly calculations. Finally, numerical tests are conducted using realistic SCALE assembly models with resonance self-shielding, neutron transport, and nuclides transmutation/depletion models representing the components of the coupled code system.« less

  4. Toward black-box-type full- and reduced-dimensional variational (ro)vibrational computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mátyus, Edit; Czakó, Gábor; Császár, Attila G.

    2009-04-01

    A black-box-type algorithm is presented for the variational computation of energy levels and wave functions using a (ro)vibrational Hamiltonian expressed in an arbitrarily chosen body-fixed frame and in any set of internal coordinates of full or reduced vibrational dimensionality. To make the required numerical work feasible, matrix representation of the operators is constructed using a discrete variable representation (DVR). The favorable properties of DVR are exploited in the straightforward and numerically exact inclusion of any representation of the potential and the kinetic energy including the G matrix and the extrapotential term. In this algorithm there is no need for an a priori analytic derivation of the kinetic energy operator, as all of its matrix elements at each grid point are computed numerically either in a full- or a reduced-dimensional model. Due to the simple and straightforward definition of reduced-dimensional models within this approach, a fully anharmonic variational treatment of large, otherwise intractable molecular systems becomes available. In the computer code based on the above algorithm, there is no inherent limitation for the maximally coupled number of vibrational degrees of freedom. However, in practice current personal computers allow the treatment of about nine fully coupled vibrational dimensions. Computation of vibrational band origins of full and reduced dimensions showing the advantages and limitations of the algorithm and the related computer code are presented for the water, ammonia, and methane molecules.

  5. Extra-dimensional models on the lattice

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Knechtli, Francesco; Rinaldi, Enrico

    2016-08-05

    In this paper we summarize the ongoing effort to study extra-dimensional gauge theories with lattice simulations. In these models the Higgs field is identified with extra-dimensional components of the gauge field. The Higgs potential is generated by quantum corrections and is protected from divergences by the higher dimensional gauge symmetry. Dimensional reduction to four dimensions can occur through compactification or localization. Gauge-Higgs unification models are often studied using perturbation theory. Numerical lattice simulations are used to go beyond these perturbative expectations and to include nonperturbative effects. We describe the known perturbative predictions and their fate in the strongly-coupled regime formore » various extra-dimensional models.« less

  6. Bayesian Methods for High Dimensional Linear Models

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Himel; Yi, Nengjun

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a selective overview of some recent developments in Bayesian model and variable selection methods for high dimensional linear models. While most of the reviews in literature are based on conventional methods, we focus on recently developed methods, which have proven to be successful in dealing with high dimensional variable selection. First, we give a brief overview of the traditional model selection methods (viz. Mallow’s Cp, AIC, BIC, DIC), followed by a discussion on some recently developed methods (viz. EBIC, regularization), which have occupied the minds of many statisticians. Then, we review high dimensional Bayesian methods with a particular emphasis on Bayesian regularization methods, which have been used extensively in recent years. We conclude by briefly addressing the asymptotic behaviors of Bayesian variable selection methods for high dimensional linear models under different regularity conditions. PMID:24511433

  7. Bayesian Methods for High Dimensional Linear Models.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Himel; Yi, Nengjun

    2013-06-01

    In this article, we present a selective overview of some recent developments in Bayesian model and variable selection methods for high dimensional linear models. While most of the reviews in literature are based on conventional methods, we focus on recently developed methods, which have proven to be successful in dealing with high dimensional variable selection. First, we give a brief overview of the traditional model selection methods (viz. Mallow's Cp, AIC, BIC, DIC), followed by a discussion on some recently developed methods (viz. EBIC, regularization), which have occupied the minds of many statisticians. Then, we review high dimensional Bayesian methods with a particular emphasis on Bayesian regularization methods, which have been used extensively in recent years. We conclude by briefly addressing the asymptotic behaviors of Bayesian variable selection methods for high dimensional linear models under different regularity conditions.

  8. Reduced Order Modeling in General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiglio, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Reduced Order Modeling is an emerging yet fast developing filed in gravitational wave physics. The main goals are to enable fast modeling and parameter estimation of any detected signal, along with rapid matched filtering detecting. I will focus on the first two. Some accomplishments include being able to replace, with essentially no lost of physical accuracy, the original models with surrogate ones (which are not effective ones, that is, they do not simplify the physics but go on a very different track, exploiting the particulars of the waveform family under consideration and state of the art dimensional reduction techniques) which are very fast to evaluate. For example, for EOB models they are at least around 3 orders of magnitude faster than solving the original equations, with physically equivalent results. For numerical simulations the speedup is at least 11 orders of magnitude. For parameter estimation our current numbers are about bringing ~100 days for a single SPA inspiral binary neutron star Bayesian parameter estimation analysis to under a day. More recently, it has been shown that the full precessing problem for, say, 200 cycles, can be represented, through some new ideas, by a remarkably compact set of carefully chosen reduced basis waveforms (~10-100, depending on the accuracy requirements). I will highlight what I personally believe are the challenges to face next in this subarea of GW physics and where efforts should be directed. This talk will summarize work in collaboration with: Harbir Antil (GMU), Jonathan Blackman (Caltech), Priscila Canizares (IoA, Cambridge, UK), Sarah Caudill (UWM), Jonathan Gair (IoA. Cambridge. UK), Scott Field (UMD), Chad R. Galley (Caltech), Frank Herrmann (Germany), Han Hestahven (EPFL, Switzerland), Jason Kaye (Brown, Stanford & Courant). Evan Ochsner (UWM), Ricardo Nochetto (UMD), Vivien Raymond (LIGO, Caltech), Rory Smith (LIGO, Caltech) Bela Ssilagyi (Caltech) and MT (UMD & Caltech).

  9. Finding four dimensional symplectic maps with reduced chaos: Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Weishi Wan; Cary, J.R.; Shasharina, S.G.

    1998-06-01

    A method for finding integrable four-dimensional symplectic maps is outlined. The method relies on solving for parameter values at which the linear stability factors of the fixed points of the map have the values corresponding to integrability. This method is applied to accelerator lattices in order to increase dynamic aperture. Results show a increase of the dynamic aperture after correction, which implies the validity of the method.

  10. Reduced-Order Modeling: New Approaches for Computational Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beran, Philip S.; Silva, Walter A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we review the development of new reduced-order modeling techniques and discuss their applicability to various problems in computational physics. Emphasis is given to methods ba'sed on Volterra series representations and the proper orthogonal decomposition. Results are reported for different nonlinear systems to provide clear examples of the construction and use of reduced-order models, particularly in the multi-disciplinary field of computational aeroelasticity. Unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic behaviors of two- dimensional and three-dimensional geometries are described. Large increases in computational efficiency are obtained through the use of reduced-order models, thereby justifying the initial computational expense of constructing these models and inotivatim,- their use for multi-disciplinary design analysis.

  11. Path Integral Solubility of Two-Dimensional Models

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Ashok K.; Mathur, Vishnu S.

    1985-07-01

    We apply the technique of Fujikawa to solve for simple two-dimensional models by looking at the nontrivial transformation properties of the fermion measure in the path-integral formalism. We obtain the most general solution for the massless Thirring model and point out how the one-parameter solution reduces to that of Johnson and Sommerfield in a particular limit. We present the most general solution for the massive vector model indicating how it reduces to the solutions of Brown and Sommerfield for different values of the parameter. The solution of a gradient-coupling model is also discussed.

  12. Three dimensional model of the human mandible.

    PubMed

    Muftić, O; Milcić, D; Saucha, J; Carek, V

    2000-07-01

    A new biomechanical three-dimensional (3D) model for the human mandible is proposed. A simple two-dimensional model cannot explain the biomechanics of the human mandible, where muscular forces through occlusion and condylar surfaces are in a state of dynamical 3D equilibrium. All forces are resolved into components according to a selected coordinate system. The muscular forces, which during clenching act on the jaw, along with the necessary force level for chewing, also act as some kind of stabilizers of the mandibular condyles preventing dislocation and loading of nonarticular tissues.

  13. A reduced-order approach to four-dimensional variational data assimilation using proper orthogonal decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yanhua; Zhu, Jiang; Navon, I. M.; Luo, Zhendong

    2007-04-01

    Four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4DVAR) is a powerful tool for data assimilation in meteorology and oceanography. However, a major hurdle in use of 4DVAR for realistic general circulation models is the dimension of the control space (generally equal to the size of the model state variable and typically of order 107-108) and the high computational cost in computing the cost function and its gradient that require integration model and its adjoint model.In this paper, we propose a 4DVAR approach based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). POD is an efficient way to carry out reduced order modelling by identifying the few most energetic modes in a sequence of snapshots from a time-dependent system, and providing a means of obtaining a low-dimensional description of the system's dynamics. The POD-based 4DVAR not only reduces the dimension of control space, but also reduces the size of dynamical model, both in dramatic ways. The novelty of our approach also consists in the inclusion of adaptability, applied when in the process of iterative control the new control variables depart significantly from the ones on which the POD model was based upon. In addition, these approaches also allow to conveniently constructing the adjoint model.The proposed POD-based 4DVAR methods are tested and demonstrated using a reduced gravity wave ocean model in Pacific domain in the context of identical twin data assimilation experiments. A comparison with data assimilation experiments in the full model space shows that with an appropriate selection of the basis functions the optimization in the POD space is able to provide accurate results at a reduced computational cost. The POD-based 4DVAR methods have the potential to approximate the performance of full order 4DVAR with less than 1/100 computer time of the full order 4DVAR. The HFTN (Hessian-free truncated-Newton)algorithm benefits most from the order reduction (see (Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids, in press)) since

  14. Response characteristics of a low-dimensional model neuron.

    PubMed

    Cartling, B

    1996-11-15

    It is shown that a low-dimensional model neuron with a response time constant smaller than the membrane time constant closely reproduces the activity and excitability behavior of a detailed conductance-based model of Hodgkin-Huxley type. The fast response of the activity variable also makes it possible to reduce the model to a one-dimensional model, in particular for typical conditions. As an example, the reduction to a single-variable model from a multivariable conductance-based model of a neocortical pyramidal cell with somatic input is demonstrated. The conditions for avoiding a spurious damped oscillatory response to a constant input are derived, and it is shown that a limit-cycle response cannot occur. The capability of the low-dimensional model to approximate higher-dimensional models accurately makes it useful for describing complex dynamics of nets of interconnected neurons. The simplicity of the model facilitates analytic studies, elucidations of neurocomputational mechanisms, and applications to large-scale systems.

  15. Rank-Based Similarity Search: Reducing the Dimensional Dependence.

    PubMed

    Houle, Michael E; Nett, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a data structure for k-NN search, the Rank Cover Tree (RCT), whose pruning tests rely solely on the comparison of similarity values; other properties of the underlying space, such as the triangle inequality, are not employed. Objects are selected according to their ranks with respect to the query object, allowing much tighter control on the overall execution costs. A formal theoretical analysis shows that with very high probability, the RCT returns a correct query result in time that depends very competitively on a measure of the intrinsic dimensionality of the data set. The experimental results for the RCT show that non-metric pruning strategies for similarity search can be practical even when the representational dimension of the data is extremely high. They also show that the RCT is capable of meeting or exceeding the level of performance of state-of-the-art methods that make use of metric pruning or other selection tests involving numerical constraints on distance values. PMID:26353214

  16. Local properties of the two-dimensional Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewes, Jan; Miller, Luke; Cocchi, Eugenio; Chan, Chun Fai; Pertot, Daniel; Brennecke, Ferdinand; Köhl, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Quantum gases of interacting fermionic atoms in optical lattices promise to shed new light on the low-temperature phases of the Hubbard model such as spin-ordered phases, or in particular, on possible d-wave superconductivity. In this context it remains challenging to further reduce the temperature of the trapped gas. We experimentally realize the two-dimensional Hubbard model by loading a quantum degenerate Fermi gas of 40K atoms into a three-dimensional optical lattice geometry. By tuning the interaction between the two lowest hyperfine states to strong repulsion the two-dimensional Mott-insulator is created. High resolution absorption imaging in combination with radio-frequency spectroscopy is applied to spatially resolve the atomic distribution in a single layer in the vertical direction. This measurement scheme gives direct access to the local properties of the trapped gas and we present most recent data on the distribution of entropy and density-density fluctuations.

  17. Pattern recognition in volcano seismology - Reducing spectral dimensionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unglert, K.; Radic, V.; Jellinek, M.

    2015-12-01

    Variations in the spectral content of volcano seismicity can relate to changes in volcanic activity. Low-frequency seismic signals often precede or accompany volcanic eruptions. However, they are commonly manually identified in spectra or spectrograms, and their definition in spectral space differs from one volcanic setting to the next. Increasingly long time series of monitoring data at volcano observatories require automated tools to facilitate rapid processing and aid with pattern identification related to impending eruptions. Furthermore, knowledge transfer between volcanic settings is difficult if the methods to identify and analyze the characteristics of seismic signals differ. To address these challenges we evaluate whether a machine learning technique called Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) can be used to characterize the dominant spectral components of volcano seismicity without the need for any a priori knowledge of different signal classes. This could reduce the dimensions of the spectral space typically analyzed by orders of magnitude, and enable rapid processing and visualization. Preliminary results suggest that the temporal evolution of volcano seismicity at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i, can be reduced to as few as 2 spectral components by using a combination of SOMs and cluster analysis. We will further refine our methodology with several datasets from Hawai`i and Alaska, among others, and compare it to other techniques.

  18. Escherichia coli growth under modeled reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Paul W.; Meyer, Michelle L.; Leff, Laura G.

    2004-01-01

    Bacteria exhibit varying responses to modeled reduced gravity that can be simulated by clino-rotation. When Escherichia coli was subjected to different rotation speeds during clino-rotation, significant differences between modeled reduced gravity and normal gravity controls were observed only at higher speeds (30-50 rpm). There was no apparent affect of removing samples on the results obtained. When E. coli was grown in minimal medium (at 40 rpm), cell size was not affected by modeled reduced gravity and there were few differences in cell numbers. However, in higher nutrient conditions (i.e., dilute nutrient broth), total cell numbers were higher and cells were smaller under reduced gravity compared to normal gravity controls. Overall, the responses to modeled reduced gravity varied with nutrient conditions; larger surface to volume ratios may help compensate for the zone of nutrient depletion around the cells under modeled reduced gravity.

  19. Semi-Empirical Modeling of Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Dynamic Stall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarres, Ramin

    Helicopters are generally limited in their performance by the phenomenon of dynamic stall. The purpose of this work is to develop a method for modeling dynamic stall that is appropriate to preliminary design and flight simulator applications. Unlike other semi-empirical dynamic stall models, the model developed in this thesis, not only counts for the well-known, three-dimensional flow effects on the stalled loads but also captures the secondary vortex-shedding phenomenon that has been seen in experiments. The fundamental physics that modify dynamic-stall behavior and that have been extended from two-dimensional to three-dimensional flow are, namely: 1.) yawed flow, 2.) time-varying velocity, 3.) the rotational environment and 4.) the radial blade coupling. For the reduced-order modeling, extra nonlinear states have been added to the dynamic stall model in order to simulate the double-dynamic-stall phenomenon. The results of this study will have practical applications to aerospace systems, such as compliant or morphing surfaces in rotary-wing systems that encounter transient or periodic separation and reattachment during phenomena such as dynamic stall.

  20. Verified reduction of dimensionality for an all-vanadium redox flow battery model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A. K.; Ling, C. Y.; Birgersson, E.; Vynnycky, M.; Han, M.

    2015-04-01

    The computational cost for all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB) models that seek to capture the transport phenomena usually increases with the number of spatial dimensions considered. In this context, we carry out scale analysis to derive a reduced zero-dimensional model. Two nondimensional numbers and their limits to support the model reduction are identified. We verify the reduced model by comparing its charge-discharge curve predictions with that of a full two-dimensional model. The proposed analysis leading to reduction in dimensionality is generic and can be employed for other types of redox flow batteries.

  1. Discovering genetic associations with high-dimensional neuroimaging phenotypes: A sparse reduced-rank regression approach.

    PubMed

    Vounou, Maria; Nichols, Thomas E; Montana, Giovanni

    2010-11-15

    There is growing interest in performing genome-wide searches for associations between genetic variants and brain imaging phenotypes. While much work has focused on single scalar valued summaries of brain phenotype, accounting for the richness of imaging data requires a brain-wide, genome-wide search. In particular, the standard approach based on mass-univariate linear modelling (MULM) does not account for the structured patterns of correlations present in each domain. In this work, we propose sparse reduced rank regression (sRRR), a strategy for multivariate modelling of high-dimensional imaging responses (measurements taken over regions of interest or individual voxels) and genetic covariates (single nucleotide polymorphisms or copy number variations), which enforces sparsity in the regression coefficients. Such sparsity constraints ensure that the model performs simultaneous genotype and phenotype selection. Using simulation procedures that accurately reflect realistic human genetic variation and imaging correlations, we present detailed evaluations of the sRRR method in comparison with the more traditional MULM approach. In all settings considered, sRRR has better power to detect deleterious genetic variants compared to MULM. Important issues concerning model selection and connections to existing latent variable models are also discussed. This work shows that sRRR offers a promising alternative for detecting brain-wide, genome-wide associations.

  2. Three-dimensional pancreas organogenesis models.

    PubMed

    Grapin-Botton, A

    2016-09-01

    A rediscovery of three-dimensional culture has led to the development of organ biogenesis, homeostasis and disease models applicable to human tissues. The so-called organoids that have recently flourished serve as valuable models bridging between cell lines or primary cells grown on the bottom of culture plates and experiments performed in vivo. Though not recapitulating all aspects of organ physiology, the miniature organs generated in a dish are useful models emerging for the pancreas, starting from embryonic progenitors, adult cells, tumour cells and stem cells. This review focusses on the currently available systems and their relevance to the study of the pancreas, of β-cells and of several pancreatic diseases including diabetes. We discuss the expected future developments for studying human pancreas development and function, for developing diabetes models and for producing therapeutic cells. PMID:27615129

  3. Low dimensional modeling of wall turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubry, Nadine

    2015-11-01

    In this talk we will review the original low dimensional dynamical model of the wall region of a turbulent boundary layer [Aubry, Holmes, Lumley and Stone, Journal of Fluid Dynamics 192, 1988] and discuss its impact on the field of fluid dynamics. We will also invite a few researchers who would like to make brief comments on the influence Lumley had on their research paths. In collaboration with Philip Holmes, Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics and Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ.

  4. Three-dimensional ring current decay model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fok, Mei Ching; Moore, Thomas E.; Kozyra, Janet U.; Ho, George C.; Hamilton, Douglas C.

    1995-06-01

    This work is an extension of a previous ring current decay model. In the previous work, a two-dimensional kinetic model was constructed to study the temporal variations of the equatorially mirroring ring current ions, considering charge exchange and Coulomb drag losses along drift paths in a magnetic dipole field. In this work, particles with arbitrary pitch angle are considered. By bounce averaging the kinetic equation of the phase space density, information along magnetic field lines can be inferred from the equator. The three-dimensional model is used to simulate the recovery phase of a model great magnetic storm, similar to that which occurred in early February 1986. The initial distribution of ring current ions (at the minimum Dst) is extrapolated to all local times from AMPTE/CCE spacecraft observations on the dawnside and duskside of the inner magnetosphere spanning the L value range L=2.25 to 6.75. Observations by AMPTE/CCE of ring current distributions over subsequent orbits during the storm recovery phase are compared to model outputs. In general, the calculated ion fluxes are consistent with observations, except for H+ fluxes at tens of keV, which are always overestimated. A newly invented visualization idea, designated as a chromogram, is used to display the spatial and energy dependence of the ring current ion diifferential flux. Important features of storm time ring current, such as day-night asymmetry during injection and drift hole on the dayside at low energies (<10 keV), are manifested in the chromogram representation. The pitch angle distribution is well fit by the function, j0(1+Ayn), where y is sine of the equatorial pitch angle. The evolution of the index n is a combined effect of charge exchange loss and particle drift. At low energies (<30 keV), both drift dispersion and charge exchange are important in determining n. ©American Geophysical 1995

  5. Three-dimensional ring current decay model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fok, Mei-Ching; Moore, Thomas E.; Kozyra, Janet U.; Ho, George C.; Hamilton, Douglas C.

    1995-01-01

    This work is an extension of a previous ring current decay model. In the previous work, a two-dimensional kinetic model was constructed to study the temporal variations of the equatorially mirroring ring current ions, considering charge exchange and Coulomb drag losses along drift paths in a magnetic dipole field. In this work, particles with arbitrary pitch angle are considered. By bounce averaging the kinetic equation of the phase space density, information along magnetic field lines can be inferred from the equator. The three-dimensional model is used to simulate the recovery phase of a model great magnetic storm, similar to that which occurred in early February 1986. The initial distribution of ring current ions (at the minimum Dst) is extrapolated to all local times from AMPTE/CCE spacecraft observations on the dawnside and duskside of the inner magnetosphere spanning the L value range L = 2.25 to 6.75. Observations by AMPTE/CCE of ring current distributions over subsequent orbits during the storm recovery phase are compared to model outputs. In general, the calculated ion fluxes are consistent with observations, except for H(+) fluxes at tens of keV, which are always overestimated. A newly invented visualization idea, designated as a chromogram, is used to display the spatial and energy dependence of the ring current ion differential flux. Important features of storm time ring current, such as day-night asymmetry during injection and drift hole on the dayside at low energies (less than 10 keV), are manifested in the chromogram representation. The pitch angle distribution is well fit by the function, J(sub o)(1 + Ay(sup n)), where y is sine of the equatorial pitch angle. The evolution of the index n is a combined effect of charge exchange loss and particle drift. At low energies (less than 30 keV), both drift dispersion and charge exchange are important in determining n.

  6. Nonlinear two-dimensional model for thermoacoustic engines.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Mark F; Ilinskii, Yurii A; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A

    2002-05-01

    A two-dimensional model and efficient solution algorithm are developed for studying nonlinear effects in thermoacoustic engines. There is no restriction on the length or location of the stack, and the cross-sectional area of the resonator may vary with position along its axis. Reduced model equations are obtained by ordering spatial derivatives in terms of rapid variations across the pores in the stack, versus slow variations along the resonator axis. High efficiency is achieved with the solution algorithm because the stability condition for numerical integration of the model equations is connected with resonator length rather than pore diameter. Computation time is reduced accordingly, by several orders of magnitude, without sacrificing spatial resolution. The solution algorithm is described in detail, and the results are verified by comparison with established linear theory. Two examples of nonlinear effects are investigated briefly, the onset of instability through to saturation and steady state, and nonlinear waveform distortion as a function of resonator shape.

  7. Vlasov multi-dimensional model dispersion relation

    SciTech Connect

    Lushnikov, Pavel M.; Rose, Harvey A.; Silantyev, Denis A.; Vladimirova, Natalia

    2014-07-15

    A hybrid model of the Vlasov equation in multiple spatial dimension D > 1 [H. A. Rose and W. Daughton, Phys. Plasmas 18, 122109 (2011)], the Vlasov multi dimensional model (VMD), consists of standard Vlasov dynamics along a preferred direction, the z direction, and N flows. At each z, these flows are in the plane perpendicular to the z axis. They satisfy Eulerian-type hydrodynamics with coupling by self-consistent electric and magnetic fields. Every solution of the VMD is an exact solution of the original Vlasov equation. We show approximate convergence of the VMD Langmuir wave dispersion relation in thermal plasma to that of Vlasov-Landau as N increases. Departure from strict rotational invariance about the z axis for small perpendicular wavenumber Langmuir fluctuations in 3D goes to zero like θ{sup N}, where θ is the polar angle and flows are arranged uniformly over the azimuthal angle.

  8. Incorporating 3-dimensional models in online articles

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Ruellasa, Antonio C. O.; Jomier, Julien; Nguyen, Tung; Pieper, Steve; Budin, Francois; Styner, Martin; Paniagua, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this article were to introduce the capability to view and interact with 3-dimensional (3D) surface models in online publications, and to describe how to prepare surface models for such online 3D visualizations. Methods Three-dimensional image analysis methods include image acquisition, construction of surface models, registration in a common coordinate system, visualization of overlays, and quantification of changes. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were acquired as volumetric images that can be visualized as 3D projected images or used to construct polygonal meshes or surfaces of specific anatomic structures of interest. The anatomic structures of interest in the scans can be labeled with color (3D volumetric label maps), and then the scans are registered in a common coordinate system using a target region as the reference. The registered 3D volumetric label maps can be saved in .obj, .ply, .stl, or .vtk file formats and used for overlays, quantification of differences in each of the 3 planes of space, or color-coded graphic displays of 3D surface distances. Results All registered 3D surface models in this study were saved in .vtk file format and loaded in the Elsevier 3D viewer. In this study, we describe possible ways to visualize the surface models constructed from cone-beam computed tomography images using 2D and 3D figures. The 3D surface models are available in the article’s online version for viewing and downloading using the reader’s software of choice. These 3D graphic displays are represented in the print version as 2D snapshots. Overlays and color-coded distance maps can be displayed using the reader’s software of choice, allowing graphic assessment of the location and direction of changes or morphologic differences relative to the structure of reference. The interpretation of 3D overlays and quantitative color-coded maps requires basic knowledge of 3D image analysis. Conclusions When submitting manuscripts, authors can

  9. High dimensional decision dilemmas in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracco, A.; Neelin, J. D.; Luo, H.; McWilliams, J. C.; Meyerson, J. E.

    2013-10-01

    An important source of uncertainty in climate models is linked to the calibration of model parameters. Interest in systematic and automated parameter optimization procedures stems from the desire to improve the model climatology and to quantify the average sensitivity associated with potential changes in the climate system. Building upon on the smoothness of the response of an atmospheric circulation model (AGCM) to changes of four adjustable parameters, Neelin et al. (2010) used a quadratic metamodel to objectively calibrate the AGCM. The metamodel accurately estimates global spatial averages of common fields of climatic interest, from precipitation, to low and high level winds, from temperature at various levels to sea level pressure and geopotential height, while providing a computationally cheap strategy to explore the influence of parameter settings. Here, guided by the metamodel, the ambiguities or dilemmas related to the decision making process in relation to model sensitivity and optimization are examined. Simulations of current climate are subject to considerable regional-scale biases. Those biases may vary substantially depending on the climate variable considered, and/or on the performance metric adopted. Common dilemmas are associated with model revisions yielding improvement in one field or regional pattern or season, but degradation in another, or improvement in the model climatology but degradation in the interannual variability representation. Challenges are posed to the modeler by the high dimensionality of the model output fields and by the large number of adjustable parameters. The use of the metamodel in the optimization strategy helps visualize trade-offs at a regional level, e.g., how mismatches between sensitivity and error spatial fields yield regional errors under minimization of global objective functions.

  10. High dimensional decision dilemmas in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracco, A.; Neelin, J. D.; Luo, H.; McWilliams, J. C.; Meyerson, J. E.

    2013-05-01

    An important source of uncertainty in climate models is linked to the calibration of model parameters. Interest in systematic and automated parameter optimization procedures stems from the desire to improve the model climatology and to quantify the average sensitivity associated with potential changes in the climate system. Neelin et al. (2010) used a quadratic metamodel to objectively calibrate an atmospheric circulation model (AGCM) around four adjustable parameters. The metamodel accurately estimates global spatial averages of common fields of climatic interest, from precipitation, to low and high level winds, from temperature at various levels to sea level pressure and geopotential height, while providing a computationally cheap strategy to explore the influence of parameter settings. Here, guided by the metamodel, the ambiguities or dilemmas related to the decision making process in relation to model sensitivity and optimization are examined. Simulations of current climate are subject to considerable regional-scale biases. Those biases may vary substantially depending on the climate variable considered, and/or on the performance metric adopted. Common dilemmas are associated with model revisions yielding improvement in one field or regional pattern or season, but degradation in another, or improvement in the model climatology but degradation in the interannual variability representation. Challenges are posed to the modeler by the high dimensionality of the model output fields and by the large number of adjustable parameters. The use of the metamodel in the optimization strategy helps visualize trade-offs at a regional level, e.g. how mismatches between sensitivity and error spatial fields yield regional errors under minimization of global objective functions.

  11. A three-dimensional human walking model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Q. S.; Qin, J. W.; Law, S. S.

    2015-11-01

    A three-dimensional human bipedal walking model with compliant legs is presented in this paper. The legs are modeled with time-variant dampers, and the model is able to characterize the gait pattern of an individual using a minimal set of parameters. Feedback control, for both the forward and lateral movements, is implemented to regulate the walking performance of the pedestrian. The model provides an improvement over classic invert pendulum models. Numerical studies were undertaken to investigate the effects of leg stiffness and attack angle. Simulation results show that when walking at a given speed, increasing the leg stiffness with a constant attack angle results in a longer step length, a higher step frequency, a faster walking speed and an increase in both the peak vertical and lateral ground reaction forces. Increasing the attack angle with a constant leg stiffness results in a higher step frequency, a decrease in the step length, an increase in the total energy of the system and a decrease in both the peak vertical and lateral ground reaction forces.

  12. Describing high-dimensional dynamics with low-dimensional piecewise affine models: applications to renewable energy.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2012-06-01

    We introduce a low-dimensional description for a high-dimensional system, which is a piecewise affine model whose state space is divided by permutations. We show that the proposed model tends to predict wind speeds and photovoltaic outputs for the time scales from seconds to 100 s better than by global affine models. In addition, computations using the piecewise affine model are much faster than those of usual nonlinear models such as radial basis function models.

  13. Three-dimensional model of lignin structure

    SciTech Connect

    Jurasek, L.

    1995-12-01

    An attempt to build a three-dimensional model of lignin structure using a computer program is described. The program simulates the biosynthesis of spruce lignin by allowing coniferyl alcohol subunits to be added randomly by six different types of linkages, assumed to be most common. The simulated biosynthesis starts from a number of seed points within restricted space, corresponding to 50 mM initial concentration of coniferyl alcohol. Rules of three-dimensional packing of the subunits within the lignin macro-molecule are observed during the simulated biosynthetic process. Branched oligomeric structures thus generated form crosslinks at those positions where the chains grow close enough to form a link. Inter-chain crosslinking usually joins the oligomers into one macromolecule. Intra-chain crosslinks are also formed and result in closed loops. Typically, a macromolecule with molecular weight of approx. 2 x 105 is formed, with internal density of 1.35g/cm3. Various characteristics of the internal structure, such as branching, crosslinking, bond frequencies, and chain length distribution are described. Breakdown of the polymer was also simulated and the effect of closed loops on the weight average molecular weight is shown. The effect of the shape of the biosynthetic space on the degree of crosslinking is discussed and predictions of the overall molecular shape of lignin particles are made.

  14. A Standardized Generalized Dimensionality Discrepancy Measure and a Standardized Model-Based Covariance for Dimensionality Assessment for Multidimensional Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Roy; Xu, Yuning; Yel, Nedim; Svetina, Dubravka

    2015-01-01

    The standardized generalized dimensionality discrepancy measure and the standardized model-based covariance are introduced as tools to critique dimensionality assumptions in multidimensional item response models. These tools are grounded in a covariance theory perspective and associated connections between dimensionality and local independence.…

  15. Multiscale modeling of three-dimensional genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Wolynes, Peter

    The genome, the blueprint of life, contains nearly all the information needed to build and maintain an entire organism. A comprehensive understanding of the genome is of paramount interest to human health and will advance progress in many areas, including life sciences, medicine, and biotechnology. The overarching goal of my research is to understand the structure-dynamics-function relationships of the human genome. In this talk, I will be presenting our efforts in moving towards that goal, with a particular emphasis on studying the three-dimensional organization, the structure of the genome with multi-scale approaches. Specifically, I will discuss the reconstruction of genome structures at both interphase and metaphase by making use of data from chromosome conformation capture experiments. Computationally modeling of chromatin fiber at atomistic level from first principles will also be presented as our effort for studying the genome structure from bottom up.

  16. Three-dimensional modeling of tsunami waves

    SciTech Connect

    Mader, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two- and three-dimensional, time-dependent, nonlinear, incompressible, viscous flow calculations of realistic models of tsunami wave formation and run up have been performed using the Los Alamos-developed SOLA-3D code. The results of the SOLA calculations are compared with shallow-water, long-wave calculations for the same problems using the SWAN code. Tsunami wave formation by a continental slope subsidence has been examined using the two numerical models. The SOLA waves were slower than the SWAN waves and the interaction with the shoreline was more complicated for the SOLA waves. In the SOLA calculation, the first wave was generated by the cavity being filled along the shoreline close to the source of motion. The second wave was generated by the cavity being filled from the deep water end. The two waves interacted along the shoreline resulting in the second wave being the largest wave with a velocity greater than the first wave. The second wave overtook the first wave at later times and greater distances from the source. In the SWAN calculation, the second wave was smaller than the first wave. 6 refs.

  17. A one dimensional model of population growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Fabiano L.; Ribeiro, Kayo N.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a one dimensional population growth model is proposed. The model, based on the cooperative and competitive individual-individual distance-dependent interaction, allows us to get a full analytical solution. With this analytical approach, it was possible to investigate the dynamics of the population according to some parameters, as intrinsic growth rate, strength of the interaction between individuals, and the distance-dependent interaction. As a consequence of the individuals' interaction, a rich phase diagram to which the population has access was observed. The phases observed are: convergence to carrying capacity, exponential growth, divergence at finite time, and extinction. Moreover, it was also observed that some phases are strictly dependent on the initial condition. For instance, in the cooperative regime with negative intrinsic growth rate, the population can diverge or become extinct according to the initial population size. The phases accessible to the population can be seen as a macroscopic behavior which emerges from the interaction among the individuals (the microscopic level).

  18. A Dimensionally Reduced Clustering Methodology for Heterogeneous Occupational Medicine Data Mining.

    PubMed

    Saâdaoui, Foued; Bertrand, Pierre R; Boudet, Gil; Rouffiac, Karine; Dutheil, Frédéric; Chamoux, Alain

    2015-10-01

    Clustering is a set of techniques of the statistical learning aimed at finding structures of heterogeneous partitions grouping homogenous data called clusters. There are several fields in which clustering was successfully applied, such as medicine, biology, finance, economics, etc. In this paper, we introduce the notion of clustering in multifactorial data analysis problems. A case study is conducted for an occupational medicine problem with the purpose of analyzing patterns in a population of 813 individuals. To reduce the data set dimensionality, we base our approach on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which is the statistical tool most commonly used in factorial analysis. However, the problems in nature, especially in medicine, are often based on heterogeneous-type qualitative-quantitative measurements, whereas PCA only processes quantitative ones. Besides, qualitative data are originally unobservable quantitative responses that are usually binary-coded. Hence, we propose a new set of strategies allowing to simultaneously handle quantitative and qualitative data. The principle of this approach is to perform a projection of the qualitative variables on the subspaces spanned by quantitative ones. Subsequently, an optimal model is allocated to the resulting PCA-regressed subspaces.

  19. Simple Two-Dimensional Corrections for One-Dimensional Pulse Tube Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. M.; Kittel, P.; Timmerhaus, K. D.; Radebaugh, R.

    2004-01-01

    One-dimensional oscillating flow models are very useful for designing pulse tubes. They are simple to use, not computationally intensive, and the physical relationship between temperature, pressure and mass flow are easy to understand when used in conjunction with phasor diagrams. They do not possess, however, the ability to directly calculate thermal and momentum diffusion in the direction transverse to the oscillating flow. To account for transverse effects, lumped parameter corrections, which are obtained though experiment, must be used. Or two-dimensional solutions of the differential fluid equations must be obtained. A linear two-dimensional solution to the fluid equations has been obtained. The solution provides lumped parameter corrections for one-dimensional models. The model accounts for heat transfer and shear flow between the gas and the tube. The complex Nusselt number and complex shear wall are useful in describing these corrections, with phase relations and amplitudes scaled with the Prandtl and Valensi numbers. The calculated ratio, a, between a two-dimensional solution of the oscillating temperature and velocity and a one-dimensional solution for the same shows a scales linearly with Va for Va less than 30. In this region alpha less than 0.5, that is, the enthalpy flow calculated with a two-dimensional model is 50% of a calculation using a one-dimensional model. For Va greater than 250, alpha = 0.8, showing that diffusion is still important even when it is confined to a thing layer near the tube wall.

  20. Towards automatic calibration of 2-dimensional flood propagation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabio, P.; Aronica, G. T.; Apel, H.

    2009-11-01

    Hydraulic models for flood propagation description are an essential tool in many fields, e.g. civil engineering, flood hazard and risk assessments, evaluation of flood control measures, etc. Nowadays there are many models of different complexity regarding the mathematical foundation and spatial dimensions available, and most of them are comparatively easy to operate due to sophisticated tools for model setup and control. However, the calibration of these models is still underdeveloped in contrast to other models like e.g. hydrological models or models used in ecosystem analysis. This has basically two reasons: first, the lack of relevant data against the models can be calibrated, because flood events are very rarely monitored due to the disturbances inflicted by them and the lack of appropriate measuring equipment in place. Secondly, especially the two-dimensional models are computationally very demanding and therefore the use of available sophisticated automatic calibration procedures is restricted in many cases. This study takes a well documented flood event in August 2002 at the Mulde River in Germany as an example and investigates the most appropriate calibration strategy for a full 2-D hyperbolic finite element model. The model independent optimiser PEST, that gives the possibility of automatic calibrations, is used. The application of the parallel version of the optimiser to the model and calibration data showed that a) it is possible to use automatic calibration in combination of 2-D hydraulic model, and b) equifinality of model parameterisation can also be caused by a too large number of degrees of freedom in the calibration data in contrast to a too simple model setup. In order to improve model calibration and reduce equifinality a method was developed to identify calibration data with likely errors that obstruct model calibration.

  1. Reduced order modeling of fluid/structure interaction.

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Matthew Franklin; Kalashnikova, Irina; Segalman, Daniel Joseph; Brake, Matthew Robert

    2009-11-01

    This report describes work performed from October 2007 through September 2009 under the Sandia Laboratory Directed Research and Development project titled 'Reduced Order Modeling of Fluid/Structure Interaction.' This project addresses fundamental aspects of techniques for construction of predictive Reduced Order Models (ROMs). A ROM is defined as a model, derived from a sequence of high-fidelity simulations, that preserves the essential physics and predictive capability of the original simulations but at a much lower computational cost. Techniques are developed for construction of provably stable linear Galerkin projection ROMs for compressible fluid flow, including a method for enforcing boundary conditions that preserves numerical stability. A convergence proof and error estimates are given for this class of ROM, and the method is demonstrated on a series of model problems. A reduced order method, based on the method of quadratic components, for solving the von Karman nonlinear plate equations is developed and tested. This method is applied to the problem of nonlinear limit cycle oscillations encountered when the plate interacts with an adjacent supersonic flow. A stability-preserving method for coupling the linear fluid ROM with the structural dynamics model for the elastic plate is constructed and tested. Methods for constructing efficient ROMs for nonlinear fluid equations are developed and tested on a one-dimensional convection-diffusion-reaction equation. These methods are combined with a symmetrization approach to construct a ROM technique for application to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations.

  2. Reducing Spatial Data Complexity for Classification Models

    SciTech Connect

    Ruta, Dymitr; Gabrys, Bogdan

    2007-11-29

    Intelligent data analytics gradually becomes a day-to-day reality of today's businesses. However, despite rapidly increasing storage and computational power current state-of-the-art predictive models still can not handle massive and noisy corporate data warehouses. What is more adaptive and real-time operational environment requires multiple models to be frequently retrained which further hinders their use. Various data reduction techniques ranging from data sampling up to density retention models attempt to address this challenge by capturing a summarised data structure, yet they either do not account for labelled data or degrade the classification performance of the model trained on the condensed dataset. Our response is a proposition of a new general framework for reducing the complexity of labelled data by means of controlled spatial redistribution of class densities in the input space. On the example of Parzen Labelled Data Compressor (PLDC) we demonstrate a simulatory data condensation process directly inspired by the electrostatic field interaction where the data are moved and merged following the attracting and repelling interactions with the other labelled data. The process is controlled by the class density function built on the original data that acts as a class-sensitive potential field ensuring preservation of the original class density distributions, yet allowing data to rearrange and merge joining together their soft class partitions. As a result we achieved a model that reduces the labelled datasets much further than any competitive approaches yet with the maximum retention of the original class densities and hence the classification performance. PLDC leaves the reduced dataset with the soft accumulative class weights allowing for efficient online updates and as shown in a series of experiments if coupled with Parzen Density Classifier (PDC) significantly outperforms competitive data condensation methods in terms of classification performance at the

  3. Reducing Spatial Data Complexity for Classification Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruta, Dymitr; Gabrys, Bogdan

    2007-11-01

    Intelligent data analytics gradually becomes a day-to-day reality of today's businesses. However, despite rapidly increasing storage and computational power current state-of-the-art predictive models still can not handle massive and noisy corporate data warehouses. What is more adaptive and real-time operational environment requires multiple models to be frequently retrained which further hinders their use. Various data reduction techniques ranging from data sampling up to density retention models attempt to address this challenge by capturing a summarised data structure, yet they either do not account for labelled data or degrade the classification performance of the model trained on the condensed dataset. Our response is a proposition of a new general framework for reducing the complexity of labelled data by means of controlled spatial redistribution of class densities in the input space. On the example of Parzen Labelled Data Compressor (PLDC) we demonstrate a simulatory data condensation process directly inspired by the electrostatic field interaction where the data are moved and merged following the attracting and repelling interactions with the other labelled data. The process is controlled by the class density function built on the original data that acts as a class-sensitive potential field ensuring preservation of the original class density distributions, yet allowing data to rearrange and merge joining together their soft class partitions. As a result we achieved a model that reduces the labelled datasets much further than any competitive approaches yet with the maximum retention of the original class densities and hence the classification performance. PLDC leaves the reduced dataset with the soft accumulative class weights allowing for efficient online updates and as shown in a series of experiments if coupled with Parzen Density Classifier (PDC) significantly outperforms competitive data condensation methods in terms of classification performance at the

  4. TRANSMISSION SPECTRA OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL HOT JUPITER MODEL ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Fortney, J. J.; Shabram, M.; Showman, A. P.; Lian, Y.; Lewis, N. K.; Freedman, R. S.; Marley, M. S.

    2010-02-01

    We compute models of the transmission spectra of planets HD 209458b, HD 189733b, and generic hot Jupiters. We examine the effects of temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity for the generic planets as a guide to understanding transmission spectra in general. We find that carbon dioxide absorption at 4.4 and 15 mum is prominent at high metallicity, and is a clear metallicity indicator. For HD 209458b and HD 189733b, we compute spectra for both one-dimensional and three-dimensional model atmospheres and examine the differences between them. The differences are usually small, but can be large if atmospheric temperatures are near important chemical abundance boundaries. The calculations for the three-dimensional atmospheres, and their comparison with data, serve as constraints on these dynamical models that complement the secondary eclipse and light curve data sets. For HD 209458b, even if TiO and VO gases are abundant on the dayside, their abundances can be considerably reduced on the cooler planetary limb. However, given the predicted limb temperatures and TiO abundances, the model's optical opacity is too high. For HD 189733b we find a good match with some infrared data sets and constrain the altitude of a postulated haze layer. For this planet, substantial differences can exist between the transmission spectra of the leading and trailing hemispheres, which are an excellent probe of carbon chemistry. In thermochemical equilibrium, the cooler leading hemisphere is methane-dominated, and the hotter trailing hemisphere is CO-dominated, but these differences may be eliminated by non-equilibrium chemistry due to vertical mixing. It may be possible to constrain the carbon chemistry of this planet, and its spatial variation, with James Webb Space Telescope.

  5. Online kernel principal component analysis: a reduced-order model.

    PubMed

    Honeine, Paul

    2012-09-01

    Kernel principal component analysis (kernel-PCA) is an elegant nonlinear extension of one of the most used data analysis and dimensionality reduction techniques, the principal component analysis. In this paper, we propose an online algorithm for kernel-PCA. To this end, we examine a kernel-based version of Oja's rule, initially put forward to extract a linear principal axe. As with most kernel-based machines, the model order equals the number of available observations. To provide an online scheme, we propose to control the model order. We discuss theoretical results, such as an upper bound on the error of approximating the principal functions with the reduced-order model. We derive a recursive algorithm to discover the first principal axis, and extend it to multiple axes. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, both on synthetic data set and on images of handwritten digits, with comparison to classical kernel-PCA and iterative kernel-PCA.

  6. A Probabilistic Model for Reducing Medication Errors

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phung Anh; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Iqbal, Usman; Hsu, Min-Huei; Huang, Chen-Ling; Li, Hsien-Chang; Clinciu, Daniel Livius; Jian, Wen-Shan; Li, Yu-Chuan Jack

    2013-01-01

    Background Medication errors are common, life threatening, costly but preventable. Information technology and automated systems are highly efficient for preventing medication errors and therefore widely employed in hospital settings. The aim of this study was to construct a probabilistic model that can reduce medication errors by identifying uncommon or rare associations between medications and diseases. Methods and Finding(s) Association rules of mining techniques are utilized for 103.5 million prescriptions from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance database. The dataset included 204.5 million diagnoses with ICD9-CM codes and 347.7 million medications by using ATC codes. Disease-Medication (DM) and Medication-Medication (MM) associations were computed by their co-occurrence and associations’ strength were measured by the interestingness or lift values which were being referred as Q values. The DMQs and MMQs were used to develop the AOP model to predict the appropriateness of a given prescription. Validation of this model was done by comparing the results of evaluation performed by the AOP model and verified by human experts. The results showed 96% accuracy for appropriate and 45% accuracy for inappropriate prescriptions, with a sensitivity and specificity of 75.9% and 89.5%, respectively. Conclusions We successfully developed the AOP model as an efficient tool for automatic identification of uncommon or rare associations between disease-medication and medication-medication in prescriptions. The AOP model helps to reduce medication errors by alerting physicians, improving the patients’ safety and the overall quality of care. PMID:24312659

  7. A nonlinear manifold-based reduced order model for multiscale analysis of heterogeneous hyperelastic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Satyaki; Matouš, Karel

    2016-05-01

    A new manifold-based reduced order model for nonlinear problems in multiscale modeling of heterogeneous hyperelastic materials is presented. The model relies on a global geometric framework for nonlinear dimensionality reduction (Isomap), and the macroscopic loading parameters are linked to the reduced space using a Neural Network. The proposed model provides both homogenization and localization of the multiscale solution in the context of computational homogenization. To construct the manifold, we perform a number of large three-dimensional simulations of a statistically representative unit cell using a parallel finite strain finite element solver. The manifold-based reduced order model is verified using common principles from the machine-learning community. Both homogenization and localization of the multiscale solution are demonstrated on a large three-dimensional example and the local microscopic fields as well as the homogenized macroscopic potential are obtained with acceptable engineering accuracy.

  8. A New Method for Reducing Dimensional Variability of Extruded Hollow Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Baringbing, Henry Ako; Welo, Torgeir; Soevik, Odd Perry

    2007-05-17

    Crash boxes are one recent application example of aluminum extrusions in the automotive industry. A crash box is typically made by welding an extruded tube (tower) to a foot plate at one end, providing the mounting features towards the rail tip of the vehicle. When using fully automated welding processes, the exterior dimensions of the tower have to be within a tolerance of typically +/- 0.25 mm in order to provide consistent weld properties. However, the extrusion process commonly introduces dimensional variations exceeding those required for good weld quality. In order to avoid costly hydro-forming processes, a new mechanical calibration process has been developed. This method represents a means to achieve sufficient dimensional accuracy of the crash box tower prior to welding. A prototype die was made to validate the calibration process using alloy AA6063 T4 extrusions. Tensile tests were performed in order to determine material parameters. The geometry of each tower was carefully measured before and after forming to determine the dimensional capability of the calibration process. Statistical methods were combined with FEA simulations and analytical methods to establish surrogate models and response surfaces. The results show that the calibration process is an effective method for improving the dimensional accuracy of crash box profiles, providing significant improvements in dimensional capability. It is concluded that the methodology has a high industrial potential.

  9. Three-Dimensional Lithium-Ion Battery Model (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2008-05-01

    Nonuniform battery physics can cause unexpected performance and life degradations in lithium-ion batteries; a three-dimensional cell performance model was developed by integrating an electrode-scale submodel using a multiscale modeling scheme.

  10. A three-dimensional transport model for the middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasch, Philip J.; Tie, Xuexi; Boville, Byron A.; Williamson, David L.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we describe fundamental properties of an 'off-line' three-dimensional transport model, that is, a model which uses prescribed rather than predicted winds. The model is currently used primarily for studying problems of the middle atmosphere because we have not (yet) incorporated a formulation for the convective transport of trace species, a prerequisite for many tropospheric problems. The off-line model is simpler and less expensive than a model which predicts the wind and mass evolution (an 'on-line' model), but it is more complex than the two-dimensional (2-D) zonally averaged transport models often used in the study of chemistry and transport in the middle atmosphere. It thus serves as a model of intermediate complexity and can fill a useful niche for the study of transport and chemistry. We compare simulations of four tracers, released in the lower stratosphere, in both the on- and off-line models to document the difference resulting from differences in modeling the same problem with this intermediate model. These differences identify the price to be paid in going to a cheaper and simpler calculation. The off-line model transports a tracer in three dimensions. For this reason, it requires fewer approximations than 2-D transport model, which must parameterize the effects of mixing by transient and zonally asymmetric wind features. We compare simulations of the off-line model with simulations of a 2-D model for two problems. First, we compare 2-D and three-dimensional (3-D) models by simulating the emission of an NO(x)-like tracer by a fleet of high-speed aircraft. The off-line model is then used to simulate the transport of C-14 and to contrast its simulation properties to that of the host of 2-D models which participated in an identical simulation in a recent NASA model intercomparison. The off-line model is shown to be somewhat sensitive to the sampling strategy for off-line winds. Simulations with daily averaged winds are in very good qualitative

  11. Adaptive h -refinement for reduced-order models: ADAPTIVE h -refinement for reduced-order models

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Carlberg, Kevin T.

    2014-11-05

    Our work presents a method to adaptively refine reduced-order models a posteriori without requiring additional full-order-model solves. The technique is analogous to mesh-adaptive h-refinement: it enriches the reduced-basis space online by ‘splitting’ a given basis vector into several vectors with disjoint support. The splitting scheme is defined by a tree structure constructed offline via recursive k-means clustering of the state variables using snapshot data. This method identifies the vectors to split online using a dual-weighted-residual approach that aims to reduce error in an output quantity of interest. The resulting method generates a hierarchy of subspaces online without requiring large-scale operationsmore » or full-order-model solves. Furthermore, it enables the reduced-order model to satisfy any prescribed error tolerance regardless of its original fidelity, as a completely refined reduced-order model is mathematically equivalent to the original full-order model. Experiments on a parameterized inviscid Burgers equation highlight the ability of the method to capture phenomena (e.g., moving shocks) not contained in the span of the original reduced basis.« less

  12. Inverse regression-based uncertainty quantification algorithms for high-dimensional models: Theory and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weixuan; Lin, Guang; Li, Bing

    2016-09-01

    Many uncertainty quantification (UQ) approaches suffer from the curse of dimensionality, that is, their computational costs become intractable for problems involving a large number of uncertainty parameters. In these situations, the classic Monte Carlo often remains the preferred method of choice because its convergence rate O (n - 1 / 2), where n is the required number of model simulations, does not depend on the dimension of the problem. However, many high-dimensional UQ problems are intrinsically low-dimensional, because the variation of the quantity of interest (QoI) is often caused by only a few latent parameters varying within a low-dimensional subspace, known as the sufficient dimension reduction (SDR) subspace in the statistics literature. Motivated by this observation, we propose two inverse regression-based UQ algorithms (IRUQ) for high-dimensional problems. Both algorithms use inverse regression to convert the original high-dimensional problem to a low-dimensional one, which is then efficiently solved by building a response surface for the reduced model, for example via the polynomial chaos expansion. The first algorithm, which is for the situations where an exact SDR subspace exists, is proved to converge at rate O (n-1), hence much faster than MC. The second algorithm, which doesn't require an exact SDR, employs the reduced model as a control variate to reduce the error of the MC estimate. The accuracy gain could still be significant, depending on how well the reduced model approximates the original high-dimensional one. IRUQ also provides several additional practical advantages: it is non-intrusive; it does not require computing the high-dimensional gradient of the QoI; and it reports an error bar so the user knows how reliable the result is.

  13. Two-dimensional integer wavelet transform with reduced influence of rounding operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strutz, Tilo; Rennert, Ines

    2012-12-01

    If a system for lossless compression of images applies a decorrelation step, this step must map integer input values to integer output values. This can be achieved, for example, using the integer wavelet transform (IWT). The non-linearity, introduced by the obligatory rounding steps, is the main drawback of the IWT, since it deteriorates the desired filter characteristic. This paper discusses different methods for reducing the influence of rounding in 5/3 and 9/7 filter banks. A novel combination of two-dimensional implementations of the JPEG2000 9/7 filter bank with new filter coefficients is proposed and the effects of the methods on lossless image compression are investigated. In addition, these filter banks are compared to the 9/7 Deslauriers-Dubuc filter bank (97DD). The analysed two-dimensional implementations generally perform better than their one-dimensional counterparts in terms of compression ratio for natural images. On average, the 2D 97DD filter bank performs best. In addition, it has been found that the compression results cannot be improved by simply reducing the number of lifting steps via 2D implementations of the JPEG2000 9/7 filter bank. Only the 2D implementation with a minimum number of lifting steps, in combination with modified lifting coefficients, leads to fewer bits per pixel than the separable implementation on average for a selected set of images.

  14. A Reduced Model for the Magnetorotational Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamroz, Ben; Julien, Keith; Knobloch, Edgar

    2008-11-01

    The magnetorotational instability is investigated within the shearing box approximation in the large Elsasser number regime. In this regime, which is of fundamental importance to astrophysical accretion disk theory, shear is the dominant source of energy, but the instability itself requires the presence of a weaker vertical magnetic field. Dissipative effects are weaker still. However, they are sufficiently large to permit a nonlinear feedback mechanism whereby the turbulent stresses generated by the MRI act on and modify the local background shear in the angular velocity profile. To date this response has been omitted in shearing box simulations and is captured by a reduced pde model derived here from the global MHD fluid equations using multiscale asymptotic perturbation theory. Results from numerical simulations of the reduced pde model indicate a linear phase of exponential growth followed by a nonlinear adjustment to algebraic growth and decay in the fluctuating quantities. Remarkably, the velocity and magnetic field correlations associated with these algebraic growth and decay laws conspire to achieve saturation of the angular momentum transport. The inclusion of subdominant ohmic dissipation arrests the algebraic growth of the fluctuations on a longer, dissipative time scale.

  15. Low-Dimensional Dynamical Models of Thermal Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liakopoulos, Anthony

    1996-01-01

    A low-dimensional dynamic model for transitional buoyancy-driven flow in a differentially heated tall enclosure is presented. The full governing partial differential equations with the associated boundary conditions are solved by a spectral element method for a cavity of aspect ratio A=20. Proper orthogonal decomposition is applied to the oscillatory solution at Prandtl number Pr=P tau (omega) = 0.71 and Grashof number G tau (omega) = 3.2 x 10 (exp 4) to construct empirical eigenfunctions. Using the four most energetic empirical eigenfunctions for the velocity and temperature as basis functions and applying Galerkin's method, a reduced model consisting of eight nonlinear ordinary differential equations is obtained. Close to the 'design' conditions (P tau(omega) G tau(omega)), the low-order model (LOM) predictions are in excellent agreement with the predictions of the full model. In particular, the critical Grashof number at the onset of the first temporal flow instability (Hopf bifurcation) was well as the frequency and amplitude of oscillations at supercritical conditions are in excellent agreement with the predictions of the full model. Far from the 'design' conditions, the LOM predicts the existence of multiple stable steady solutions at large values of G tau, and a unique stable steady solution at small values of G tau, and exhibits hysteretic behavior that is qualitatively similar to that observed in direct numerical simulations based on the full model.

  16. Three-dimensional effects for radio frequency antenna modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, M. D.; Batchelor, D. B.; Stallings, D. C.

    Electromagnetic field calculations for radio frequency (RF) antennas in two dimensions (2-D) neglect finite antenna length effects as well as the feeders leading to the main current strap. The 2-D calculations predict that the return currents in the sidewalls of the antenna structure depend strongly on the plasma parameters, but this prediction is suspect because of experimental evidence. To study the validity of the 2-D approximation, the Multiple Antenna Implementation System (MAntIS) has been used to perform three-dimensional (3-D) modeling of the power spectrum, plasma loading, and inductance for a relevant loop antenna design. Effects on antenna performance caused by feeders to the main current strap and conducting sidewalls are considered. The modeling shows that the feeders affect the launched power spectrum in an indirect way by forcing the driven RF current to return in the antenna structure rather than the plasma, as in the 2-D model. It has also been found that poloidal dependencies in the plasma impedance matrix can reduce the loading predicted from that predicted in the 2-D model. For some plasma parameters, the combined 3-D effects can lead to a reduction in the predicted loading by as much as a factor of 2 from that given by the 2-D model, even with end-effect corrections for the 2-D model.

  17. Three-dimensional effects for radio frequency antenna modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, M. D.; Batchelor, D. B.; Stallings, D. C.

    1994-10-01

    Electromagnetic field calculations for radio frequency (rf) antennas in two dimensions (2-D) neglect finite antenna length effects as well as the feeders leading to the main current strap. The 2-D calculations predict that the return currents in the sidewalls of the antenna structure depend strongly on the plasma parameters, but this prediction is suspect because of experimental evidence. To study the validity of the 2-D approximation, the Multiple Antenna Implementation System (MAntIS) has been used to perform three-dimensional (3-D) modeling of the power spectrum, plasma loading, and inductance for a relevant loop antenna design. Effects on antenna performance caused by feeders to the main current strap and conducting sidewalls are considered. The modeling shows that the feeders affect the launched power spectrum in an indirect way by forcing the driven rf current to return in the antenna structure rather than the plasma, as in the 2-D model. It has also been found that poloidal dependencies in the plasma impedance matrix can reduce the loading predicted from that predicted in the 2-D model. For some plasma parameters, the combined 3-D effects can lead to a reduction in the predicted loading by as much as a factor of 2 from that given by the 2-D model, even with end-effect corrections for the 2-D model.

  18. An Extensible Reduced Order Model Builder for Simulation and Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-28

    REVEAL is a software framework for building reduced order models (surrogate models) for high fidelity complex scientific simulations. REVEAL is designed to do reduced order modeling and sensitivity analysis for scientific simulations. REVEAL incorporates a range of sampling and regression methods. It provides complete user environment and is adaptable to new simulators, runs jobs on any computing platform of choice, automatically post processes simulation results and provides a range of data analysis tools. The software is generic and can easily be extended to incorporate new methods, simulators.

  19. An Extensible Reduced Order Model Builder for Simulation and Modeling

    2012-09-28

    REVEAL is a software framework for building reduced order models (surrogate models) for high fidelity complex scientific simulations. REVEAL is designed to do reduced order modeling and sensitivity analysis for scientific simulations. REVEAL incorporates a range of sampling and regression methods. It provides complete user environment and is adaptable to new simulators, runs jobs on any computing platform of choice, automatically post processes simulation results and provides a range of data analysis tools. The softwaremore » is generic and can easily be extended to incorporate new methods, simulators.« less

  20. Reduced-order model based feedback control of the modified Hasegawa-Wakatani model

    SciTech Connect

    Goumiri, I. R.; Rowley, C. W.; Ma, Z.; Gates, D. A.; Krommes, J. A.; Parker, J. B.

    2013-04-15

    In this work, the development of model-based feedback control that stabilizes an unstable equilibrium is obtained for the Modified Hasegawa-Wakatani (MHW) equations, a classic model in plasma turbulence. First, a balanced truncation (a model reduction technique that has proven successful in flow control design problems) is applied to obtain a low dimensional model of the linearized MHW equation. Then, a model-based feedback controller is designed for the reduced order model using linear quadratic regulators. Finally, a linear quadratic Gaussian controller which is more resistant to disturbances is deduced. The controller is applied on the non-reduced, nonlinear MHW equations to stabilize the equilibrium and suppress the transition to drift-wave induced turbulence.

  1. Reduced-order model based feedback control of the modified Hasegawa-Wakatani model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goumiri, I. R.; Rowley, C. W.; Ma, Z.; Gates, D. A.; Krommes, J. A.; Parker, J. B.

    2013-04-01

    In this work, the development of model-based feedback control that stabilizes an unstable equilibrium is obtained for the Modified Hasegawa-Wakatani (MHW) equations, a classic model in plasma turbulence. First, a balanced truncation (a model reduction technique that has proven successful in flow control design problems) is applied to obtain a low dimensional model of the linearized MHW equation. Then, a model-based feedback controller is designed for the reduced order model using linear quadratic regulators. Finally, a linear quadratic Gaussian controller which is more resistant to disturbances is deduced. The controller is applied on the non-reduced, nonlinear MHW equations to stabilize the equilibrium and suppress the transition to drift-wave induced turbulence.

  2. Analysis of intracellular reducing levels in human hepatocytes on three-dimensional focusing microchip.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunxiu; Cai, Longfei

    2014-02-01

    A novel three-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing microfluidic device integrated with high-throughput cell sampling and detection of intracellular contents is presented. It has a pivotal role in maintaining the reducing environment in cells. Intracellular reducing species such as vitamin C and glutathione in normal and tumor cells were labeled by a newly synthesized 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl-based fluorescent probe. Hepatocytes are adherent cells, which are prone to attaching to the channel surface. To avoid the attachment of cells on the channel surface, a single channel microchip with three sheath-flow channels located on both sides of and below the sampling channel was developed. Hydrostatic pressure generated by emptying the sample waste reservoir was used as driving force of fluid on the microchip. Owing to the difference between the liquid levels of the reservoirs, the labeled cells were three-dimensional hydrodynamically focused and transported from the sample reservoir to the sample waste reservoir. Hydrostatic pressure takes advantage of its ease of generation on a microfluidic chip without any external pressure pump, which drives three sheath-flow streams to constrain a sample flow stream into a narrow stream to avoid blockage of the sampling channel by adhered cells. The intracellular reducing levels of HepG2 cells and L02 cells were detected by home-built laser-induced fluorescence detector. The analysis throughput achieved in this microfluidic system was about 59-68 cells/min.

  3. Two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for magnetohydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Schaffenberger, Werner; Hanslmeier, Arnold

    2002-10-01

    We present a lattice Boltzmann model for the simulation of two-dimensional magnetohydro dynamic (MHD) flows. The model is an extension of a hydrodynamic lattice Boltzman model with 9 velocities on a square lattice resulting in a model with 17 velocities. Earlier lattice Boltzmann models for two-dimensional MHD used a bidirectional streaming rule. However, the use of such a bidirectional streaming rule is not necessary. In our model, the standard streaming rule is used, allowing smaller viscosities. To control the viscosity and the resistivity independently, a matrix collision operator is used. The model is then applied to the Hartmann flow, giving reasonable results.

  4. A Five Dimensional Model for Educating the Net Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyers, Ronald Noel

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a multi-dimensional concept model of an ICT enabled classroom to highlight potential similarities and differences between where teachers perceive themselves relative to their learners. Some teachers and learners may be at the two dimensional text-book level, while others are operating in at a globalization level. Being armed…

  5. Three dimensional water quality modeling of a shallow subtropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yongshan; Ji, Zhen-Gang; Shen, Jian; Hu, Guangdou; Sun, Detong

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge of estuarine hydrodynamics and water quality comes mostly from studies of large estuarine systems. The processes affecting algae, nutrients, and dissolved oxygen (DO) in small and shallow subtropical estuaries are relatively less studied. This paper documents the development, calibration, and verification of a three dimensional (3D) water quality model for the St. Lucie Estuary (SLE), a small and shallow estuary located on the east coast of south Florida. The water quality model is calibrated and verified using two years of measured data. Statistical analyses indicate that the model is capable of reproducing key water quality characteristics of the estuary within an acceptable range of accuracy. The calibrated model is further applied to study hydrodynamic and eutrophication processes in the estuary. Modeling results reveal that high algae concentrations in the estuary are likely caused by excessive nutrient and algae supplies in freshwater inflows. While algal blooms may lead to reduced DO concentrations near the bottom of the waterbody, this study indicates that stratification and circulation induced by freshwater inflows may also contribute significantly to bottom water hypoxia in the estuary. It is also found that high freshwater inflows from one of the tributaries can change the circulation pattern and nutrient loading, thereby impacting water quality conditions of the entire estuary. Restoration plans for the SLE ecosystem need to consider both a reduction of nutrient loading and regulation of the freshwater discharge pattern.

  6. Computation of pair distribution functions and three-dimensional densities with a reduced variance principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgis, Daniel; Assaraf, Roland; Rotenberg, Benjamin; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe

    2013-12-01

    No fancy statistical objects here, we go back to the computation of one of the most basic and fundamental quantities in the statistical mechanics of fluids, namely the pair distribution functions. Those functions are usually computed in molecular simulations by using histogram techniques. We show here that they can be estimated using a global information on the instantaneous forces acting on the particles, and that this leads to a reduced variance compared to the standard histogram estimators. The technique is extended successfully to the computation of three-dimensional solvent densities around tagged molecular solutes, quantities that are noisy and very long to converge, using histograms.

  7. Simulated annealing applied to two-dimensional low-beta reduced magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Chikasue, Y.; Furukawa, M.

    2015-02-15

    The simulated annealing (SA) method is applied to two-dimensional (2D) low-beta reduced magnetohydrodynamics (R-MHD). We have successfully obtained stationary states of the system numerically by the SA method with Casimir invariants preserved. Since the 2D low-beta R-MHD has two fields, the relaxation process becomes complex compared to a single field system such as 2D Euler flow. The obtained stationary state can have fine structure. We have found that the fine structure appears because the relaxation processes are different between kinetic energy and magnetic energy.

  8. Three-dimensional micro-diffraction modeling.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Román

    2014-03-20

    Squared elementary cells with correlated radiant point sources are presented as basic structures for characterizing the propagation of the field emitted by two-dimensional planar sources of any shape and in arbitrary state of spatial coherence. The field is transported on a finite expansion of nonparaxial modes, whose propagation in the micro-diffraction domain is discussed under both the diffraction and the interference conditions.

  9. Reduced-Order Model Based Feedback Control For Modified Hasegawa-Wakatani Model

    SciTech Connect

    Goumiri, I. R.; Rowley, C. W.; Ma, Z.; Gates, D. A.; Krommes, J. A.; Parker, J. B.

    2013-01-28

    In this work, the development of model-based feedback control that stabilizes an unstable equilibrium is obtained for the Modi ed Hasegawa-Wakatani (MHW) equations, a classic model in plasma turbulence. First, a balanced truncation (a model reduction technique that has proven successful in ow control design problems) is applied to obtain a low dimensional model of the linearized MHW equation. Then a modelbased feedback controller is designed for the reduced order model using linear quadratic regulators (LQR). Finally, a linear quadratic gaussian (LQG) controller, which is more resistant to disturbances is deduced. The controller is applied on the non-reduced, nonlinear MHW equations to stabilize the equilibrium and suppress the transition to drift-wave induced turbulence.

  10. Dynamic colloidal assembly pathways via low dimensional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuguang; Thyagarajan, Raghuram; Ford, David M.; Bevan, Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    Here we construct a low-dimensional Smoluchowski model for electric field mediated colloidal crystallization using Brownian dynamic simulations, which were previously matched to experiments. Diffusion mapping is used to infer dimensionality and confirm the use of two order parameters, one for degree of condensation and one for global crystallinity. Free energy and diffusivity landscapes are obtained as the coefficients of a low-dimensional Smoluchowski equation to capture the thermodynamics and kinetics of microstructure evolution. The resulting low-dimensional model quantitatively captures the dynamics of different assembly pathways between fluid, polycrystal, and single crystals states, in agreement with the full N-dimensional data as characterized by first passage time distributions. Numerical solution of the low-dimensional Smoluchowski equation reveals statistical properties of the dynamic evolution of states vs. applied field amplitude and system size. The low-dimensional Smoluchowski equation and associated landscapes calculated here can serve as models for predictive control of electric field mediated assembly of colloidal ensembles into two-dimensional crystalline objects.

  11. Reducing a spatial database to its effective dimensionality for logistic-regression analysis of incidence of livestock disease.

    PubMed

    Duchateau, L; Kruska, R L; Perry, B D

    1997-10-01

    Large databases with multiple variables, selected because they are available and might provide an insight into establishing causal relationships, are often difficult to analyse and interpret because of multicollinearity. The objective of this study was to reduce the dimensionality of a multivariable spatial database of Zimbabwe, containing many environmental variables that were collected to predict the distribution of outbreaks of theileriosis (the tick-borne infection of cattle caused by Theileria parva and transmitted by the brown ear tick). Principal-component analysis and varimax rotation of the principal components were first used to select a reduced number of variables. The logistic-regression model was evaluated by appropriate goodness-of-fit tests.

  12. Generalized Reduced Order Modeling of Aeroservoelastic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariffo, James Michael

    Transonic aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic (ASE) modeling presents a significant technical and computational challenge. Flow fields with a mixture of subsonic and supersonic flow, as well as moving shock waves, can only be captured through high-fidelity CFD analysis. With modern computing power, it is realtively straightforward to determine the flutter boundary for a single structural configuration at a single flight condition, but problems of larger scope remain quite costly. Some such problems include characterizing a vehicle's flutter boundary over its full flight envelope, optimizing its structural weight subject to aeroelastic constraints, and designing control laws for flutter suppression. For all of these applications, reduced-order models (ROMs) offer substantial computational savings. ROM techniques in general have existed for decades, and the methodology presented in this dissertation builds on successful previous techniques to create a powerful new scheme for modeling aeroelastic systems, and predicting and interpolating their transonic flutter boundaries. In this method, linear ASE state-space models are constructed from modal structural and actuator models coupled to state-space models of the linearized aerodynamic forces through feedback loops. Flutter predictions can be made from these models through simple eigenvalue analysis of their state-transition matrices for an appropriate set of dynamic pressures. Moreover, this analysis returns the frequency and damping trend of every aeroelastic branch. In contrast, determining the critical dynamic pressure by direct time-marching CFD requires a separate run for every dynamic pressure being analyzed simply to obtain the trend for the critical branch. The present ROM methodology also includes a new model interpolation technique that greatly enhances the benefits of these ROMs. This enables predictions of the dynamic behavior of the system for flight conditions where CFD analysis has not been explicitly

  13. Model of a Negatively Curved Two-Dimensional Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckroth, Charles A.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the construction of models of two-dimensional surfaces with negative curvature that are used to illustrate differences in the triangle sum rule for the various Big Bang Theories of the universe. (JRH)

  14. Revealing Optical Properties of Reduced-Dimensionality Materials at Relevant Length Scales.

    PubMed

    Ogletree, D Frank; Schuck, P James; Weber-Bargioni, Alexander F; Borys, Nicholas J; Aloni, Shaul; Bao, Wei; Barja, Sara; Lee, Jiye; Melli, Mauro; Munechika, Keiko; Whitelam, Stephan; Wickenburg, Sebastian

    2015-10-14

    Reduced-dimensionality materials for photonic and optoelectronic applications including energy conversion, solid-state lighting, sensing, and information technology are undergoing rapid development. The search for novel materials based on reduced-dimensionality is driven by new physics. Understanding and optimizing material properties requires characterization at the relevant length scale, which is often below the diffraction limit. Three important material systems are chosen for review here, all of which are under investigation at the Molecular Foundry, to illustrate the current state of the art in nanoscale optical characterization: 2D semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides; 1D semiconducting nanowires; and energy-transfer in assemblies of 0D semiconducting nanocrystals. For each system, the key optical properties, the principal experimental techniques, and important recent results are discussed. Applications and new developments in near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy, scanning probe microscopy, and cathodoluminescence in the electron microscope are given detailed attention. Work done at the Molecular Foundry is placed in context within the fields under review. A discussion of emerging opportunities and directions for the future closes the review.

  15. Two-Dimensional Intercomparison of Stratospheric Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H. (Editor); Seals, Robert K., Jr. (Editor); Prather, Michael J. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A detailed record is provided for the examination of fundamental differences in photochemistry and transport among atmospheric models. The results of 16 different modeling groups are presented for several model experiments.

  16. ASPEN: A Fully Kinetic, Reduced-Description Particle-in-Cell Model for Modeling Parametric Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, H. X.; Bezzerides, B.; Dubois, D. F.

    1998-11-01

    A fully kinetic, reduced-description particle-in-cell (RPIC) model is presented in which deviations from quasineutrality, electron and ion kinetic effects, and nonlinear interactions between low-frequency and high-frequency parametric instabilities are modeled correctly. The model is based on a reduced description where the electromagnetic field is represented by three separate temporal WKB envelopes in order to model low-frequency and high-frequency parametric instabilities. Because temporal WKB approximations are invoked, the simulation can be performed on the electron time scale instead of the time scale of the light waves. The electrons and ions are represented by discrete finite-size particles, permitting electron and ion kinetic effects to be modeled properly. The Poisson equation is utilized to ensure that space-charge effects are included. Although RPIC is fully three dimensional, it has been implemented in only two dimensions on a CRAY-T3D with 512 processors and on the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) parallel computer at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the resulting simulation code has been named ASPEN. Given the current computers available to the authors, one and two dimensional simulations are feasible to, and have been, performed. Three dimensional simulations are much more expensive, and are not feasible at this time. However, with rapidly advancing computer technologies, three dimensional simulations may be feasible in the near future. We believe this code is the first PIC code capable of simulating the interaction between low-frequency and high-frequency parametric instabilites in multiple dimensions. Test simulations of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), and Langmuir decay instability (LDI), are presented.

  17. Improving a regional model using reduced complexity and parameter estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelson, Victor A.; Hunt, Randall J.; Haitjema, Henk M.

    2002-01-01

    The availability of powerful desktop computers and graphical user interfaces for ground water flow models makes possible the construction of ever more complex models. A proposed copper-zinc sulfide mine in northern Wisconsin offers a unique case in which the same hydrologic system has been modeled using a variety of techniques covering a wide range of sophistication and complexity. Early in the permitting process, simple numerical models were used to evaluate the necessary amount of water to be pumped from the mine, reductions in streamflow, and the drawdowns in the regional aquifer. More complex models have subsequently been used in an attempt to refine the predictions. Even after so much modeling effort, questions regarding the accuracy and reliability of the predictions remain. We have performed a new analysis of the proposed mine using the two-dimensional analytic element code GFLOW coupled with the nonlinear parameter estimation code UCODE. The new model is parsimonious, containing fewer than 10 parameters, and covers a region several times larger in areal extent than any of the previous models. The model demonstrates the suitability of analytic element codes for use with parameter estimation codes. The simplified model results are similar to the more complex models; predicted mine inflows and UCODE-derived 95% confidence intervals are consistent with the previous predictions. More important, the large areal extent of the model allowed us to examine hydrological features not included in the previous models, resulting in new insights about the effects that far-field boundary conditions can have on near-field model calibration and parameterization. In this case, the addition of surface water runoff into a lake in the headwaters of a stream while holding recharge constant moved a regional ground watershed divide and resulted in some of the added water being captured by the adjoining basin. Finally, a simple analytical solution was used to clarify the GFLOW model

  18. Reduced order model of draft tube flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolf, P.; Štefan, D.

    2014-03-01

    Swirling flow with compact coherent structures is very good candidate for proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), i.e. for decomposition into eigenmodes, which are the cornerstones of the flow field. Present paper focuses on POD of steady flows, which correspond to different operating points of Francis turbine draft tube flow. Set of eigenmodes is built using a limited number of snapshots from computational simulations. Resulting reduced order model (ROM) describes whole operating range of the draft tube. ROM enables to interpolate in between the operating points exploiting the knowledge about significance of particular eigenmodes and thus reconstruct the velocity field in any operating point within the given range. Practical example, which employs axisymmetric simulations of the draft tube flow, illustrates accuracy of ROM in regions without vortex breakdown together with need for higher resolution of the snapshot database close to location of sudden flow changes (e.g. vortex breakdown). ROM based on POD interpolation is very suitable tool for insight into flow physics of the draft tube flows (especially energy transfers in between different operating points), for supply of data for subsequent stability analysis or as an initialization database for advanced flow simulations.

  19. Accelerated gravitational wave parameter estimation with reduced order modeling.

    PubMed

    Canizares, Priscilla; Field, Scott E; Gair, Jonathan; Raymond, Vivien; Smith, Rory; Tiglio, Manuel

    2015-02-20

    Inferring the astrophysical parameters of coalescing compact binaries is a key science goal of the upcoming advanced LIGO-Virgo gravitational-wave detector network and, more generally, gravitational-wave astronomy. However, current approaches to parameter estimation for these detectors require computationally expensive algorithms. Therefore, there is a pressing need for new, fast, and accurate Bayesian inference techniques. In this Letter, we demonstrate that a reduced order modeling approach enables rapid parameter estimation to be performed. By implementing a reduced order quadrature scheme within the LIGO Algorithm Library, we show that Bayesian inference on the 9-dimensional parameter space of nonspinning binary neutron star inspirals can be sped up by a factor of ∼30 for the early advanced detectors' configurations (with sensitivities down to around 40 Hz) and ∼70 for sensitivities down to around 20 Hz. This speedup will increase to about 150 as the detectors improve their low-frequency limit to 10 Hz, reducing to hours analyses which could otherwise take months to complete. Although these results focus on interferometric gravitational wave detectors, the techniques are broadly applicable to any experiment where fast Bayesian analysis is desirable. PMID:25763948

  20. Three Dimensional Vapor Intrusion Modeling: Model Validation and Uncertainty Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbariyeh, S.; Patterson, B.; Rakoczy, A.; Li, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Volatile organic chemicals (VOCs), such as chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbons, are prevalent groundwater contaminants due to their improper disposal and accidental spillage. In addition to contaminating groundwater, VOCs may partition into the overlying vadose zone and enter buildings through gaps and cracks in foundation slabs or basement walls, a process termed vapor intrusion. Vapor intrusion of VOCs has been recognized as a detrimental source for human exposures to potential carcinogenic or toxic compounds. The simulation of vapor intrusion from a subsurface source has been the focus of many studies to better understand the process and guide field investigation. While multiple analytical and numerical models were developed to simulate the vapor intrusion process, detailed validation of these models against well controlled experiments is still lacking, due to the complexity and uncertainties associated with site characterization and soil gas flux and indoor air concentration measurement. In this work, we present an effort to validate a three-dimensional vapor intrusion model based on a well-controlled experimental quantification of the vapor intrusion pathways into a slab-on-ground building under varying environmental conditions. Finally, a probabilistic approach based on Monte Carlo simulations is implemented to determine the probability distribution of indoor air concentration based on the most uncertain input parameters.

  1. Reduced modeling of the magnetorotational instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamroz, Ben F.

    2009-06-01

    well understood. Many recent numerical investigations of this problem are performed in a local domain, where the global cylindrical background state is projected onto a local Cartesian domain. The resulting system is then numerically modeled within a "shearing box" framework to obtain estimates of angular momentum transport and therefore accretion. However, the simplified geometry of the local domain, and the projection of global quantities leads to a model where the instability is able to grow unboundedly. Utilizing disparate characteristic scales, this thesis presents a reduced asymptotic model for the magnetorotational instability that allows a large scale feedback of local stresses (Reynolds, Maxwell and mixed) onto the projected background state. This system is investigated numerically to determine the impact of allowing this feedback on the saturated level of angular momentum transport.

  2. Dimensional reduction of the master equation for stochastic chemical networks: The reduced-multiplane method.

    PubMed

    Barzel, Baruch; Biham, Ofer; Kupferman, Raz; Lipshtat, Azi; Zait, Amir

    2010-08-01

    Chemical reaction networks which exhibit strong fluctuations are common in microscopic systems in which reactants appear in low copy numbers. The analysis of these networks requires stochastic methods, which come in two forms: direct integration of the master equation and Monte Carlo simulations. The master equation becomes infeasible for large networks because the number of equations increases exponentially with the number of reactive species. Monte Carlo methods, which are more efficient in integrating over the exponentially large phase space, also become impractical due to the large amounts of noisy data that need to be stored and analyzed. The recently introduced multiplane method [A. Lipshtat and O. Biham, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 170601 (2004)] is an efficient framework for the stochastic analysis of large reaction networks. It is a dimensional reduction method, based on the master equation, which provides a dramatic reduction in the number of equations without compromising the accuracy of the results. The reduction is achieved by breaking the network into a set of maximal fully connected subnetworks (maximal cliques). A separate master equation is written for the reduced probability distribution associated with each clique, with suitable coupling terms between them. This method is highly efficient in the case of sparse networks, in which the maximal cliques tend to be small. However, in dense networks some of the cliques may be rather large and the dimensional reduction is not as effective. Furthermore, the derivation of the multiplane equations from the master equation is tedious and difficult. Here we present the reduced-multiplane method in which the maximal cliques are broken down to the fundamental two-vertex cliques. The number of equations is further reduced, making the method highly efficient even for dense networks. Moreover, the equations take a simpler form, which can be easily constructed using a diagrammatic procedure, for any desired network

  3. Three-dimensional computer modeling of hydrogen injection and combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.L.; Amsden, A.A.; Naber, J.D.; Siebers, D.L.

    1995-02-01

    The hydrodynamics of hydrogen gas injection into a fixed-volume combustion chamber is analyzed and simulated using KIVA-3, a three-dimensional, reactive flow computer code. Comparisons of the simulation results are made to data obtained at the Combustion Research Facility at Sandia National Laboratory-California (SNL-CA). Simulation of the gas injection problem is found to be of comparable difficulty as the liquid fuel injection in diesel engines. The primary challenge is the large change of length scale from the flow of gas in the orifice to the penetration in the combustion chamber. In the current experiments, the change of length scale is about 4,000. A reduction of the full problem is developed that reduces the change in length scale in the simulation to about 400, with a comparable improvement in computational times. Comparisons of the simulation to the experimental data shows good agreement in the penetration history and pressure rise in the combustion chamber. At late times the comparison is sensitive to the method of determination of the penetration in the simulations. In a comparison of the combustion modeling of methane and hydrogen, hydrogen combustion is more difficult to model, and currently available kinetic models fail to predict the observed autoignition delay at these conditions.

  4. One-Dimensional Ising Model with "k"-Spin Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Yale

    2011-01-01

    We examine a generalization of the one-dimensional Ising model involving interactions among neighbourhoods of "k" adjacent spins. The model is solved by exploiting a connection to an interesting computational problem that we call ""k"-SAT on a ring", and is shown to be equivalent to the nearest-neighbour Ising model in the absence of an external…

  5. The Long Decay Model of One-Dimensional Projectile Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattery, Mark Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces a research study on student model formation and development in introductory mechanics. As a point of entry, I present a detailed analysis of the Long Decay Model of one-dimensional projectile motion. This model has been articulated by Galileo ("in De Motu") and by contemporary students. Implications for instruction are…

  6. Bacteriophage Infection of Model Metal Reducing Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, K. A.; Bender, K. S.; Gandhi, K.; Coates, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    filtered through a 0.22 μ m sterile nylon filter, stained with phosphotungstic acid (PTA), and examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM revealed the presence of viral like particles in the culture exposed to mytomycin C. Together these results suggest an active infection with a lysogenic bacteriophage in the model metal reducing bacteria, Geobacter spp., which could affect metabolic physiology and subsequently metal reduction in environmental systems.

  7. Multiscale modeling of two-dimensional contacts.

    PubMed

    Luan, B Q; Hyun, S; Molinari, J F; Bernstein, N; Robbins, Mark O

    2006-10-01

    A hybrid simulation method is introduced and used to study two-dimensional single-asperity and multi-asperity contacts both quasistatically and dynamically. The method combines an atomistic treatment of the interfacial region with a finite-element method description of subsurface deformations. The dynamics in the two regions are coupled through displacement boundary conditions applied at the outer edges of an overlap region. The two solutions are followed concurrently but with different time resolution. The method is benchmarked against full atomistic simulations. Accurate results are obtained for contact areas, pressures, and static and dynamic friction forces. The time saving depends on the fraction of the system treated atomistically and is already more than a factor of 20 for the relatively small systems considered here.

  8. Nonminimal universal extra dimensional model confronts Bs→μ+μ-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Anindya; Shaw, Avirup

    2016-03-01

    The addition of boundary localized kinetic and Yukawa terms to the action of a five-dimensional Standard Model would nontrivially modify the Kaluza-Klein spectra and some of the interactions among the Kaluza-Klein excitations compared to the minimal version of this model, in which these boundary terms are not present. In the minimal version of this framework, known as the universal extra dimensional model, special assumptions are made about these unknown, beyond the cutoff contributions to restrict the number of unknown parameters of the theory to be minimum. We estimate the contribution of Kaluza-Klein modes to the branching ratios of Bs (d )→μ+μ- in the framework of the nonminimal universal extra dimensional model, at one-loop level. The results have been compared to the experimental data to constrain the parameters of this model. From the measured decay branching ratio of Bs→μ+μ- (depending on the values of boundary localized parameters), the lower limit on R-1 can be as high as 800 GeV. We have briefly reviewed the bounds on nonminimal universal extra dimensional parameter space coming from electroweak precision observables. The present analysis (Bs→μ+μ-) has ruled out new regions of parameter space in comparison to the analysis of electroweak data. We have revisited the bound on R-1 in the universal extra dimensional model, which came out to be 454 GeV. This limit on R-1 in the universal extra dimensional framework is not as competitive as the limits derived from the consideration of relic density or Standard Model Higgs boson production and decay to W+W-. Unfortunately, the Bd→μ+μ- decay branching ratio would not set any significant limit on R-1 in a minimal or nonminimal universal extra dimensional model.

  9. Preparation of a Three-Dimensional Reduced Graphene Oxide Film by Using the Langmuir-Blodgett Method.

    PubMed

    Jaafar, M Musoddiq; Ciniciato, Gustavo P M K; Ibrahim, S Aisyah; Phang, S M; Yunus, K; Fisher, Adrian C; Iwamoto, M; Vengadesh, P

    2015-09-29

    The Langmuir-Blodgett method has always been traditionally utilized in the deposition of two-dimensional structures. In this work, however, we employed the method to deposit three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide layers using an unconventional protocol for the first time. This was achieved by carrying out the dipping process after the collapse pressure or breaking point, which results in the formation of a highly porous three-dimensional surface topography. By varying the number of deposition layers, the porosity could be optimized from nanometer to micrometer dimensions. Employed as bioelectrodes, these three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide layers may allow improved adhesion and biocompatibility compared to the conventional two-dimensional surfaces. A larger number of pores also improves the mass transport of materials and therefore increases the charge-sustaining capacity and sensitivity. This could ultimately improve the performance of biofuel cells and other electrode-based systems.

  10. Global Well-Posedness of an Inviscid Three-Dimensional Pseudo-Hasegawa-Mima Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Chongsheng; Farhat, Aseel; Titi, Edriss S.

    2013-04-01

    The three-dimensional inviscid Hasegawa-Mima model is one of the fundamental models that describe plasma turbulence. The model also appears as a simplified reduced Rayleigh-Bénard convection model. The mathematical analysis of the Hasegawa-Mima equation is challenging due to the absence of any smoothing viscous terms, as well as to the presence of an analogue of the vortex stretching terms. In this paper, we introduce and study a model which is inspired by the inviscid Hasegawa-Mima model, which we call a pseudo-Hasegawa-Mima model. The introduced model is easier to investigate analytically than the original inviscid Hasegawa-Mima model, as it has a nicer mathematical structure. The resemblance between this model and the Euler equations of inviscid incompressible fluids inspired us to adapt the techniques and ideas introduced for the two-dimensional and the three-dimensional Euler equations to prove the global existence and uniqueness of solutions for our model. This is in addition to proving and implementing a new technical logarithmic inequality, generalizing the Brezis-Gallouet and the Brezis-Wainger inequalities. Moreover, we prove the continuous dependence on initial data of solutions for the pseudo-Hasegawa-Mima model. These are the first results on existence and uniqueness of solutions for a model that is related to the three-dimensional inviscid Hasegawa-Mima equations.

  11. Application of N-Doped Three-Dimensional Reduced Graphene Oxide Aerogel to Thin Film Loudspeaker.

    PubMed

    Kim, Choong Sun; Lee, Kyung Eun; Lee, Jung-Min; Kim, Sang Ouk; Cho, Byung Jin; Choi, Jung-Woo

    2016-08-31

    We built a thermoacoustic loudspeaker employing N-doped three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide aerogel (N-rGOA) based on a simple template-free fabrication method. A two-step fabrication process, which includes freeze-drying and reduction/doping, was used to realize a three-dimensional, freestanding, and porous graphene-based loudspeaker, whose macroscopic structure can be easily modulated. The simplified fabrication process also allows the control of structural properties of the N-rGOAs, including density and area. Taking advantage of the facile fabrication process, we fabricated and analyzed thermoacoustic loudspeakers with different structural properties. The anlayses showed that a N-rGOA with lower density and larger area can produce a higher sound pressure level (SPL). Furthermore, the resistance of the proposed loudspeaker can be easily controlled through heteroatom doping, thereby helping to generate higher SPL per unit driving voltage. Our success in constructing an array of optimized N-rGOAs able to withstand input power as high as 40 W demonstrates that a practical thermoacoustic loudspeaker can be fabricated using the proposed mass-producible solution-based process.

  12. Application of N-Doped Three-Dimensional Reduced Graphene Oxide Aerogel to Thin Film Loudspeaker.

    PubMed

    Kim, Choong Sun; Lee, Kyung Eun; Lee, Jung-Min; Kim, Sang Ouk; Cho, Byung Jin; Choi, Jung-Woo

    2016-08-31

    We built a thermoacoustic loudspeaker employing N-doped three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide aerogel (N-rGOA) based on a simple template-free fabrication method. A two-step fabrication process, which includes freeze-drying and reduction/doping, was used to realize a three-dimensional, freestanding, and porous graphene-based loudspeaker, whose macroscopic structure can be easily modulated. The simplified fabrication process also allows the control of structural properties of the N-rGOAs, including density and area. Taking advantage of the facile fabrication process, we fabricated and analyzed thermoacoustic loudspeakers with different structural properties. The anlayses showed that a N-rGOA with lower density and larger area can produce a higher sound pressure level (SPL). Furthermore, the resistance of the proposed loudspeaker can be easily controlled through heteroatom doping, thereby helping to generate higher SPL per unit driving voltage. Our success in constructing an array of optimized N-rGOAs able to withstand input power as high as 40 W demonstrates that a practical thermoacoustic loudspeaker can be fabricated using the proposed mass-producible solution-based process. PMID:27532328

  13. Adiabatic quantum optimization in the presence of discrete noise: Reducing the problem dimensionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandrà, Salvatore; Guerreschi, Gian Giacomo; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2015-12-01

    Adiabatic quantum optimization is a procedure to solve a vast class of optimization problems by slowly changing the Hamiltonian of a quantum system. The evolution time necessary for the algorithm to be successful scales inversely with the minimum energy gap encountered during the dynamics. Unfortunately, the direct calculation of the gap is strongly limited by the exponential growth in the dimensionality of the Hilbert space associated to the quantum system. Although many special-purpose methods have been devised to reduce the effective dimensionality, they are strongly limited to particular classes of problems with evident symmetries. Moreover, little is known about the computational power of adiabatic quantum optimizers in real-world conditions. Here we propose and implement a general purposes reduction method that does not rely on any explicit symmetry and which requires, under certain general conditions, only a polynomial amount of classical resources. Thanks to this method, we are able to analyze the performance of "nonideal" quantum adiabatic optimizers to solve the well-known Grover problem, namely the search of target entries in an unsorted database, in the presence of discrete local defects. In this case, we show that adiabatic quantum optimization, even if affected by random noise, is still potentially faster than any classical algorithm.

  14. Three-dimensional hyaluronic acid grafts promote healing and reduce scar formation in skin incision wounds.

    PubMed

    Hu, Min; Sabelman, Eric E; Cao, Yang; Chang, James; Hentz, Vincent R

    2003-10-15

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) has been found to play important roles in tissue regeneration and wound-healing processes. Fetal tissue with a high concentration of HA heals rapidly without scarring. The present study employed HA formed into three-dimensional strands with or without keratinocytes to treat full-thickness skin incision wounds in rats. Wound closure rates of HA strand grafts both with and without keratinocytes were substantially enhanced. The closure times of both HA grafts were less than 1 day (average 16 h), about 1/7 that of the contralateral control incisions (114 h, p <.01). Average wound areas after 10 days were HA-only graft: 0.151 mm2 +/- 0.035; HA + cell grafts: 0.143 mm2 +/- 0.036 and controls: 14.434 mm2 +/- 1.175, experimental areas were 1% of the controls (p < 0.01). Transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1 measured by immunostaining was remarkably reduced in HA-treated wounds compared to the controls. In conclusion, HA grafts appeared to produce a fetal-like environment with reduced TGF-beta1, which is known to be elevated in incipient scars. The HA strands with or without cultured cells may potentially improve clinical wound healing as well as reduce scar formation.

  15. Reduced dimensionality 3D HNCAN for unambiguous HN, CA and N assignment in proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Manoj Kumar; Mishra, Pushpa; Atreya, Hanudatta S.; Hosur, Ramakrishna V.

    2012-03-01

    We present here an improvisation of HNN (Panchal, Bhavesh et al., 2001) called RD 3D HNCAN for backbone (HN, CA and 15N) assignment in both folded and unfolded proteins. This is a reduced dimensionality experiment which employs CA chemical shifts to improve dispersion. Distinct positive and negative peak patterns of various triplet segments along the polypeptide chain observed in HNN are retained and these provide start and check points for the sequential walk. Because of co-incrementing of CA and 15N, peaks along one of the dimensions appear at sums and differences of the CA and 15N chemical shifts. This changes the backbone assignment protocol slightly and we present this in explicit detail. The performance of the experiment has been demonstrated using Ubiquitin and Plasmodium falciparum P2 proteins. The experiment is particularly valuable when two neighboring amino acid residues have nearly identical backbone 15N chemical shifts.

  16. The problem of dimensional instability in airfoil models for cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wigley, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of dimensional instability in airfoil models for cryogenic wind tunnels is discussed in terms of the various mechanisms that can be responsible. The interrelationship between metallurgical structure and possible dimensional instability in cryogenic usage is discussed for those steel alloys of most interest for wind tunnel model construction at this time. Other basic mechanisms responsible for setting up residual stress systems are discussed, together with ways in which their magnitude may be reduced by various elevated or low temperature thermal cycles. A standard specimen configuration is proposed for use in experimental investigations into the effects of machining, heat treatment, and other variables that influence the dimensional stability of the materials of interest. A brief classification of various materials in terms of their metallurgical structure and susceptability to dimensional instability is presented.

  17. Linearized reduced-order models for subsurface flow simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, M. A.; Durlofsky, L. J.

    2010-02-01

    A trajectory piecewise linearization (TPWL) procedure for the reduced-order modeling of two-phase flow in subsurface formations is developed and applied. The method represents new pressure and saturation states using linear expansions around states previously simulated and saved during a series of preprocessing training runs. The linearized representation is projected into a low-dimensional space, with the projection matrix constructed through proper orthogonal decomposition of the states determined during the training runs. The TPWL model is applied to two example problems, containing 24,000 and 79,200 grid blocks, which are characterized by heterogeneous permeability descriptions. Extensive test simulations are performed for both models. It is shown that the TPWL model provides accurate results when the controls (bottom hole pressures of the production wells in this case) applied in test simulations are within the general range of the controls applied in the training runs, even though the well pressure schedules for the test runs can differ significantly from those of the training runs. This indicates that the TPWL model displays a reasonable degree of robustness. Runtime speedups using the procedure are very significant-a factor of 100-2000 (depending on model size and whether or not mass balance error is computed at every time step) for the cases considered. The preprocessing overhead required by the TPWL procedure is the equivalent of about four high-fidelity simulations. Finally, the TPWL procedure is applied to a computationally demanding multiobjective optimization problem, for which the Pareto front is determined. Limited high-fidelity simulations demonstrate the accuracy and applicability of TPWL for this optimization. Future work should focus on error estimation and on stabilizing the method for large models with significant density differences between phases.

  18. Recent Progress in GW-based Methods for Excited-State Calculations of Reduced Dimensional Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Jornada, Felipe H.

    2015-03-01

    Ab initio calculations of excited-state phenomena within the GW and GW-Bethe-Salpeter equation (GW-BSE) approaches allow one to accurately study the electronic and optical properties of various materials, including systems with reduced dimensionality. However, several challenges arise when dealing with complicated nanostructures where the electronic screening is strongly spatially and directionally dependent. In this talk, we discuss some recent developments to address these issues. First, we turn to the slow convergence of quasiparticle energies and exciton binding energies with respect to k-point sampling. This is very effectively dealt with using a new hybrid sampling scheme, which results in savings of several orders of magnitude in computation time. A new ab initio method is also developed to incorporate substrate screening into GW and GW-BSE calculations. These two methods have been applied to mono- and few-layer MoSe2, and yielded strong environmental dependent behaviors in good agreement with experiment. Other issues that arise in confined systems and materials with reduced dimensionality, such as the effect of the Tamm-Dancoff approximation to GW-BSE, and the calculation of non-radiative exciton lifetime, are also addressed. These developments have been efficiently implemented and successfully applied to real systems in an ab initio framework using the BerkeleyGW package. I would like to acknowledge collaborations with Diana Y. Qiu, Steven G. Louie, Meiyue Shao, Chao Yang, and the experimental groups of M. Crommie and F. Wang. This work was supported by Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 and by National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR10-1006184.

  19. A two-dimensional dam-break flood plain model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hromadka, T.V., II; Berenbrock, C.E.; Freckleton, J.R.; Guymon, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    A simple two-dimensional dam-break model is developed for flood plain study purposes. Both a finite difference grid and an irregular triangle element integrated finite difference formulation are presented. The governing flow equations are approximately solved as a diffusion model coupled to the equation of continuity. Application of the model to a hypothetical dam-break study indicates that the approach can be used to predict a two-dimensional dam-break flood plain over a broad, flat plain more accurately than a one-dimensional model, especially when the flow can break-out of the main channel and then return to the channel at other downstream reaches. ?? 1985.

  20. Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional Ion Battery Performance Model

    2007-05-07

    The Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional (MSMD) Lithium Ion Battery Model allows for computer prediction and engineering optimization of thermal, electrical, and electrochemical performance of lithium ion cells with realistic geometries. The model introduces separate simulation domains for different scale physics, achieving much higher computational efficiency compared to the single domain approach. It solves a one dimensional electrochemistry model in a micro sub-grid system, and captures the impacts of macro-scale battery design factors on cell performance and materialmore » usage by solving cell-level electron and heat transports in a macro grid system.« less

  1. One-dimensional hydrodynamic model generating a turbulent cascade.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Sakajo, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    As a minimal mathematical model generating cascade analogous to that of the Navier-Stokes turbulence in the inertial range, we propose a one-dimensional partial-differential-equation model that conserves the integral of the squared vorticity analog (enstrophy) in the inviscid case. With a large-scale random forcing and small viscosity, we find numerically that the model exhibits the enstrophy cascade, the broad energy spectrum with a sizable correction to the dimensional-analysis prediction, peculiar intermittency, and self-similarity in the dynamical system structure. PMID:27300972

  2. Quantum Walks on Two Kinds of Two-Dimensional Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dan; Mc Gettrick, Michael; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Ke-Jia

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we numerically study quantum walks on two kinds of two-dimensional graphs: cylindrical strip and Mobius strip. The two kinds of graphs are typical two-dimensional topological graph. We study the crossing property of quantum walks on these two models. Also, we study its dependence on the initial state, size of the model. At the same time, we compare the quantum walk and classical walk on these two models to discuss the difference of quantum walk and classical walk.

  3. Bootstrapping Critical Ising Model on Three Dimensional Real Projective Space.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yu

    2016-04-01

    Given conformal data on a flat Euclidean space, we use crosscap conformal bootstrap equations to numerically solve the Lee-Yang model as well as the critical Ising model on a three dimensional real projective space. We check the rapid convergence of our bootstrap program in two dimensions from the exact solutions available. Based on the comparison, we estimate that our systematic error on the numerically solved one-point functions of the critical Ising model on a three dimensional real projective space is less than 1%. Our method opens up a novel way to solve conformal field theories on nontrivial geometries.

  4. Recent developments in three-dimensional numerical estuarine models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Smith, Peter E.; Casulli, Vincenzo

    1993-01-01

    For a fixed cost, computing power increases 5 to 10 times every five years. The readily available computing resources have inspired new modal formulations and innovative model applications. Significant progress has been advanced in three-dimensional numerical estuarine modeling within the past three or four years. This paper attempts to review and summarize properties of new 3-D estuarine hydrodynamic models. The emphasis of the review is placed on the formulation, numerical methods. The emphasis of the review is placed on the formulation, numerical methods, spatial and temporal resolution, computational efficiency, and turbulence closure of new models. Recent research has provided guidelines for the proper use of 3-D models involving in the σ-transformation. Other models resort to a fixed level discretization in the vertical. The semi-implicit treatment in time-stepping models appears to have gained momentum. Future research in three-dimensional numerical modeling remains to be on computational efficiency and turbulent closure.

  5. Creating physically-based three-dimensional microstructures: Bridging phase-field and crystal plasticity models.

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Hojun; Owen, Steven J.; Abdeljawad, Fadi F.; Hanks, Byron; Battaile, Corbett Chandler

    2015-09-01

    In order to better incorporate microstructures in continuum scale models, we use a novel finite element (FE) meshing technique to generate three-dimensional polycrystalline aggregates from a phase field grain growth model of grain microstructures. The proposed meshing technique creates hexahedral FE meshes that capture smooth interfaces between adjacent grains. Three dimensional realizations of grain microstructures from the phase field model are used in crystal plasticity-finite element (CP-FE) simulations of polycrystalline a -iron. We show that the interface conformal meshes significantly reduce artificial stress localizations in voxelated meshes that exhibit the so-called "wedding cake" interfaces. This framework provides a direct link between two mesoscale models - phase field and crystal plasticity - and for the first time allows mechanics simulations of polycrystalline materials using three-dimensional hexahedral finite element meshes with realistic topological features.

  6. Low-dimensional supersymmetric lattice models

    SciTech Connect

    Bergner, G. Kaestner, T. Uhlmann, S. Wipf, A.

    2008-04-15

    We study and simulate N=2 supersymmetric Wess-Zumino models in one and two dimensions. For any choice of the lattice derivative, the theories can be made manifestly supersymmetric by adding appropriate improvement terms corresponding to discretizations of surface integrals. In one dimension, our simulations show that a model with the Wilson derivative and the Stratonovich prescription for this discretization leads to far better results at finite lattice spacing than other models with Wilson fermions considered in the literature. In particular, we check that fermionic and bosonic masses coincide and the unbroken Ward identities are fulfilled to high accuracy. Equally good results for the effective masses can be obtained in a model with the SLAC derivative (even without improvement terms). In two dimensions we introduce a non-standard Wilson term in such a way that the discretization errors of the kinetic terms are only of order O(a{sup 2}). Masses extracted from the corresponding manifestly supersymmetric model prove to approach their continuum values much quicker than those from a model containing the standard Wilson term. Again, a comparable enhancement can be achieved in a theory using the SLAC derivative.

  7. Large field inflation models from higher-dimensional gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki; Koyama, Yoji

    2015-02-01

    Motivated by the recent detection of B-mode polarization of CMB by BICEP2 which is possibly of primordial origin, we study large field inflation models which can be obtained from higher-dimensional gauge theories. The constraints from CMB observations on the gauge theory parameters are given, and their naturalness are discussed. Among the models analyzed, Dante's Inferno model turns out to be the most preferred model in this framework.

  8. Large field inflation models from higher-dimensional gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki; Koyama, Yoji

    2015-02-23

    Motivated by the recent detection of B-mode polarization of CMB by BICEP2 which is possibly of primordial origin, we study large field inflation models which can be obtained from higher-dimensional gauge theories. The constraints from CMB observations on the gauge theory parameters are given, and their naturalness are discussed. Among the models analyzed, Dante’s Inferno model turns out to be the most preferred model in this framework.

  9. Existence of global weak solution for a reduced gravity two and a half layer model

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Zhenhua Li, Zilai Yao, Lei

    2013-12-15

    We investigate the existence of global weak solution to a reduced gravity two and a half layer model in one-dimensional bounded spatial domain or periodic domain. Also, we show that any possible vacuum state has to vanish within finite time, then the weak solution becomes a unique strong one.

  10. Reducing variation in decomposition odour profiling using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Perrault, Katelynn A; Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues; Stuart, Barbara H; Rai, Tapan; Focant, Jean-François; Forbes, Shari L

    2015-01-01

    Challenges in decomposition odour profiling have led to variation in the documented odour profile by different research groups worldwide. Background subtraction and use of controls are important considerations given the variation introduced by decomposition studies conducted in different geographical environments. The collection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from soil beneath decomposing remains is challenging due to the high levels of inherent soil VOCs, further confounded by the use of highly sensitive instrumentation. This study presents a method that provides suitable chromatographic resolution for profiling decomposition odour in soil by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry using appropriate controls and field blanks. Logarithmic transformation and t-testing of compounds permitted the generation of a compound list of decomposition VOCs in soil. Principal component analysis demonstrated the improved discrimination between experimental and control soil, verifying the value of the data handling method. Data handling procedures have not been well documented in this field and standardisation would thereby reduce misidentification of VOCs present in the surrounding environment as decomposition byproducts. Uniformity of data handling and instrumental procedures will reduce analytical variation, increasing confidence in the future when investigating the effect of taphonomic variables on the decomposition VOC profile.

  11. Dimensional reduction of the master equation for stochastic chemical networks: The reduced-multiplane method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzel, Baruch; Biham, Ofer; Kupferman, Raz; Lipshtat, Azi; Zait, Amir

    2010-08-01

    Chemical reaction networks which exhibit strong fluctuations are common in microscopic systems in which reactants appear in low copy numbers. The analysis of these networks requires stochastic methods, which come in two forms: direct integration of the master equation and Monte Carlo simulations. The master equation becomes infeasible for large networks because the number of equations increases exponentially with the number of reactive species. Monte Carlo methods, which are more efficient in integrating over the exponentially large phase space, also become impractical due to the large amounts of noisy data that need to be stored and analyzed. The recently introduced multiplane method [A. Lipshtat and O. Biham, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 170601 (2004)10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.170601] is an efficient framework for the stochastic analysis of large reaction networks. It is a dimensional reduction method, based on the master equation, which provides a dramatic reduction in the number of equations without compromising the accuracy of the results. The reduction is achieved by breaking the network into a set of maximal fully connected subnetworks (maximal cliques). A separate master equation is written for the reduced probability distribution associated with each clique, with suitable coupling terms between them. This method is highly efficient in the case of sparse networks, in which the maximal cliques tend to be small. However, in dense networks some of the cliques may be rather large and the dimensional reduction is not as effective. Furthermore, the derivation of the multiplane equations from the master equation is tedious and difficult. Here we present the reduced-multiplane method in which the maximal cliques are broken down to the fundamental two-vertex cliques. The number of equations is further reduced, making the method highly efficient even for dense networks. Moreover, the equations take a simpler form, which can be easily constructed using a diagrammatic procedure

  12. An Effective Parameter Screening Strategy for High Dimensional Watershed Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Y. P.; Martinez, C. J.; Munoz-Carpena, R.

    2014-12-01

    Watershed simulation models can assess the impacts of natural and anthropogenic disturbances on natural systems. These models have become important tools for tackling a range of water resources problems through their implementation in the formulation and evaluation of Best Management Practices, Total Maximum Daily Loads, and Basin Management Action Plans. For accurate applications of watershed models they need to be thoroughly evaluated through global uncertainty and sensitivity analyses (UA/SA). However, due to the high dimensionality of these models such evaluation becomes extremely time- and resource-consuming. Parameter screening, the qualitative separation of important parameters, has been suggested as an essential step before applying rigorous evaluation techniques such as the Sobol' and Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) methods in the UA/SA framework. The method of elementary effects (EE) (Morris, 1991) is one of the most widely used screening methodologies. Some of the common parameter sampling strategies for EE, e.g. Optimized Trajectories [OT] (Campolongo et al., 2007) and Modified Optimized Trajectories [MOT] (Ruano et al., 2012), suffer from inconsistencies in the generated parameter distributions, infeasible sample generation time, etc. In this work, we have formulated a new parameter sampling strategy - Sampling for Uniformity (SU) - for parameter screening which is based on the principles of the uniformity of the generated parameter distributions and the spread of the parameter sample. A rigorous multi-criteria evaluation (time, distribution, spread and screening efficiency) of OT, MOT, and SU indicated that SU is superior to other sampling strategies. Comparison of the EE-based parameter importance rankings with those of Sobol' helped to quantify the qualitativeness of the EE parameter screening approach, reinforcing the fact that one should use EE only to reduce the resource burden required by FAST/Sobol' analyses but not to replace it.

  13. Underwater striling engine design with modified one-dimensional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Daijin; Qin, Kan; Luo, Kai

    2015-05-01

    Stirling engines are regarded as an efficient and promising power system for underwater devices. Currently, many researches on one-dimensional model is used to evaluate thermodynamic performance of Stirling engine, but in which there are still some aspects which cannot be modeled with proper mathematical models such as mechanical loss or auxiliary power. In this paper, a four-cylinder double-acting Stirling engine for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs) is discussed. And a one-dimensional model incorporated with empirical equations of mechanical loss and auxiliary power obtained from experiments is derived while referring to the Stirling engine computer model of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The P-40 Stirling engine with sufficient testing results from NASA is utilized to validate the accuracy of this one-dimensional model. It shows that the maximum error of output power of theoretical analysis results is less than 18% over testing results, and the maximum error of input power is no more than 9%. Finally, a Stirling engine for UUVs is designed with Schmidt analysis method and the modified one-dimensional model, and the results indicate this designed engine is capable of showing desired output power.

  14. Underwater striling engine design with modified one-dimensional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Daijin; Qin, Kan; Luo, Kai

    2015-09-01

    Stirling engines are regarded as an efficient and promising power system for underwater devices. Currently, many researches on one-dimensional model is used to evaluate thermodynamic performance of Stirling engine, but in which there are still some aspects which cannot be modeled with proper mathematical models such as mechanical loss or auxiliary power. In this paper, a four-cylinder double-acting Stirling engine for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs) is discussed. And a one-dimensional model incorporated with empirical equations of mechanical loss and auxiliary power obtained from experiments is derived while referring to the Stirling engine computer model of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The P-40 Stirling engine with sufficient testing results from NASA is utilized to validate the accuracy of this one-dimensional model. It shows that the maximum error of output power of theoretical analysis results is less than 18% over testing results, and the maximum error of input power is no more than 9%. Finally, a Stirling engine for UUVs is designed with Schmidt analysis method and the modified one-dimensional model, and the results indicate this designed engine is capable of showing desired output power.

  15. Virtual model surgery and wafer fabrication using 2-dimensional cephalograms, 3-dimensional virtual dental models, and stereolithographic technology.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin-Young; Hwang, Jong-Min; Baek, Seung-Hak

    2012-02-01

    Although several 3-dimensional virtual model surgery (3D-VMS) programs have been introduced to reduce time-consuming manual laboratory steps and potential errors, these programs still require 3D-computed tomography (3D-CT) data and involve complex computerized maneuvers. Because it is difficult to take 3D-CTs for all cases, a new VMS program using 2D lateral and posteroanterior cephalograms and 3D virtual dental models (2.5D-VMS program; 3Txer version 2.5, Orapix, Seoul, Korea) has recently been introduced. The purposes of this article were to present the methodology of the 2.5D-VMS program and to verify the accuracy of intermediate surgical wafers fabricated with the stereolithographic technique. Two cases successfully treated using the 2.5D-VMS program are presented. There was no significant difference in the position of upper dentition after surgical movement between 2.5D-VMS and 3D-VMS in 18 samples (less than 0.10 mm, P > .05, Wilcoxon-signed rank test). The 2.5D-VMS can be regarded as an effective alternative for 3D-VMS for cases in which 3D-CT data are not available.

  16. Predictability and reduced order modeling in stochastic reaction networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Najm, Habib N.; Debusschere, Bert J.; Sargsyan, Khachik

    2008-10-01

    itself readily to sensitivity analysis. Reduced order modeling in the time dimension is accomplished using a Karhunen-Loeve (KL) decomposition of the stochastic process in terms of the eigenmodes of its covariance matrix. Subsequently, a Rosenblatt transformation relates the random variables in the KL decomposition to a set of independent random variables, allowing the representation of the system state with a PC expansion in those independent random variables. An adaptive clustering method is used to handle multimodal distributions efficiently, and is well suited for high-dimensional spaces. The spectral representation of the stochastic reaction networks makes these systems more amenable to analysis, enabling a detailed understanding of their functionality, and robustness under experimental data uncertainty and inherent variability.

  17. Simulation of upper troposphere CO2 from two-dimensional and three-dimensional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X.; Shia, R.; Li, Q.; Chahine, M. T.; Olsen, E. T.; Chen, L. L.; Yung, Y. L.

    2006-12-01

    The Caltech/JPL two-dimensional (2-D) chemistry and transport model (CTM) and three-dimensional (3-D) GEOS-CHEM model have been used to simulate the CO2 in the upper troposphere from 2000 to 2004. Model results agree well with the aircraft observations between 9 km and 13 km [Matsueda et al., Tellus 2002] in the tropics. However, in the mid-latitudes there are some discrepancies between the 3-D GEOS-CHEM simulation and 2-D CTM simulation. The 2-D CTM matches the observations better. The comparison of the profiles between the two model simulations reveals that the exchange between the stratosphere and troposphere in the 3-D model may be too strong in the winter and spring. Specific humidity from GEOS-4 model and AIRS is used as a diagnostic of convection in the 3-D GEOS-CHEM model. While the GEOS-4 specific humidity matches that of AIRS fairly well in the tropics, the agreement is poor at mid-latitudes, where the model does not show enough deep convection. Finally, CO2 simulated by 2-D and 3-D models are compared to the CO2 retrieval from Chahine et al. [GRL 2005].

  18. Fermions in five-dimensional brane world models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolyakov, Mikhail N.

    2016-06-01

    In the present paper the fermion fields, living in the background of five-dimensional warped brane world models with compact extra dimension, are thoroughly examined. The Kaluza-Klein decomposition and isolation of the physical degrees of freedom is performed for those five-dimensional fermion field Lagrangians, which admit such a decomposition to be performed in a mathematically consistent way and provide a physically reasonable four-dimensional effective theory. It is also shown that for the majority of five-dimensional fermion field Lagrangians there are no (at least rather obvious) ways to perform the Kaluza-Klein decomposition consistently. Moreover, in these cases one may expect the appearance of various pathologies in the four-dimensional effective theory. Among the cases, for which the Kaluza-Klein decomposition can be performed in a mathematically consistent way, the case, which reproduces the Standard Model by the zero Kaluza-Klein modes most closely regardless of the size of the extra dimension, is examined in detail in the background of the Randall-Sundrum model.

  19. Dimensional reduction of symmetric gauge fields, Higgs models, and spontaneous compactification

    SciTech Connect

    Volobuev, I.P.; Kubyshin, Y.A. ); Mourao, J.M. ); Rudolph, G. )

    1989-05-01

    Questions relating to the dimensional reduction of symmetric gauge fields in multidimensional spaces of the form {ital E}={ital M}{times}{ital G}/{ital H} are discussed. For such fields a general geometrical method of dimensional reduction and a method for calculating the potentials of the scalar fields of the reduced theory in the case of symmetric spaces {ital G}/{ital H} are presented systematically. The connection between dimensional reduction of gauge fields and the theory of spontaneous compactification and the physical interpretation of the solutions of this theory is traced in detail. Much attention is devoted to the application of the method of dimensional reduction to fermion matter fields and to the construction by this method of realistic models of the interactions of elementary particles in Minkowski space.

  20. On numerical modeling of one-dimensional geothermal histories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haugerud, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical models of one-dimensional geothermal histories are one way of understanding the relations between tectonics and transient thermal structure in the crust. Such models can be powerful tools for interpreting geochronologic and thermobarometric data. A flexible program to calculate these models on a microcomputer is available and examples of its use are presented. Potential problems with this approach include the simplifying assumptions that are made, limitations of the numerical techniques, and the neglect of convective heat transfer. ?? 1989.

  1. Three-dimensional models. [For orbital celestial mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C. )

    1990-06-01

    The Schwarzschild (1979) approach to the analysis of three-dimensional galactic models is reviewed. An analysis of triaxial Staeckel models is discussed which shows that such models have a wide variety of possible distribution functions. The uniqueness that Schwarzschild first encountered in his discrete formulation of the problem of finding a three-integral distribution function for a triaxial density is real and not an artifact of the finite cell approximation. 27 refs.

  2. Programmers manual for a one-dimensional Lagrangian transport model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoellhamer, D.H.; Jobson, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    A one-dimensional Lagrangian transport model for simulating water-quality constituents such as temperature, dissolved oxygen , and suspended sediment in rivers is presented in this Programmers Manual. Lagrangian transport modeling techniques, the model 's subroutines, and the user-written decay-coefficient subroutine are discussed in detail. Appendices list the program codes. The Programmers Manual is intended for the model user who needs to modify code either to adapt the model to a particular need or to use reaction kinetics not provided with the model. (Author 's abstract)

  3. Predicting bite force in mammals: two-dimensional versus three-dimensional lever models.

    PubMed

    Davis, J L; Santana, S E; Dumont, E R; Grosse, I R

    2010-06-01

    Bite force is a measure of whole-organism performance that is often used to investigate the relationships between performance, morphology and fitness. When in vivo measurements of bite force are unavailable, researchers often turn to lever models to predict bite forces. This study demonstrates that bite force predictions based on two-dimensional (2-D) lever models can be improved by including three-dimensional (3-D) geometry and realistic physiological cross-sectional areas derived from dissections. Widely used, the 2-D method does a reasonable job of predicting bite force. However, it does so by over predicting physiological cross-sectional areas for the masseter and pterygoid muscles and under predicting physiological cross-sectional areas for the temporalis muscle. We found that lever models that include the three dimensional structure of the skull and mandible and physiological cross-sectional areas calculated from dissected muscles provide the best predictions of bite force. Models that accurately represent the biting mechanics strengthen our understanding of which variables are functionally relevant and how they are relevant to feeding performance. PMID:20472771

  4. Likelihood-Free Inference in High-Dimensional Models.

    PubMed

    Kousathanas, Athanasios; Leuenberger, Christoph; Helfer, Jonas; Quinodoz, Mathieu; Foll, Matthieu; Wegmann, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Methods that bypass analytical evaluations of the likelihood function have become an indispensable tool for statistical inference in many fields of science. These so-called likelihood-free methods rely on accepting and rejecting simulations based on summary statistics, which limits them to low-dimensional models for which the value of the likelihood is large enough to result in manageable acceptance rates. To get around these issues, we introduce a novel, likelihood-free Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method combining two key innovations: updating only one parameter per iteration and accepting or rejecting this update based on subsets of statistics approximately sufficient for this parameter. This increases acceptance rates dramatically, rendering this approach suitable even for models of very high dimensionality. We further derive that for linear models, a one-dimensional combination of statistics per parameter is sufficient and can be found empirically with simulations. Finally, we demonstrate that our method readily scales to models of very high dimensionality, using toy models as well as by jointly inferring the effective population size, the distribution of fitness effects (DFE) of segregating mutations, and selection coefficients for each locus from data of a recent experiment on the evolution of drug resistance in influenza. PMID:27052569

  5. Emergent friction in two-dimensional Frenkel-Kontorova models.

    PubMed

    Norell, Jesper; Fasolino, Annalisa; de Wijn, Astrid S

    2016-08-01

    Simple models for friction are typically one-dimensional, but real interfaces are two-dimensional. We investigate the effects of the second dimension on static and dynamic friction by using the Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model. We study the two most straightforward extensions of the FK model to two dimensions and simulate both the static and dynamic properties. We show that the behavior of the static friction is robust and remains similar in two dimensions for physically reasonable parameter values. The dynamic friction, however, is strongly influenced by the second dimension and the accompanying additional dynamics and parameters introduced into the models. We discuss our results in terms of the thermal equilibration and phonon dispersion relations of the lattices, establishing a physically realistic and suitable two-dimensional extension of the FK model. We find that the presence of additional dissipation channels can increase the friction and produces significantly different temperature dependence when compared to the one-dimensional case. We also briefly study the anisotropy of the dynamic friction and show highly nontrivial effects, including that the friction anisotropy can lead to motion in different directions depending on the value of the initial velocity. PMID:27627382

  6. Likelihood-Free Inference in High-Dimensional Models.

    PubMed

    Kousathanas, Athanasios; Leuenberger, Christoph; Helfer, Jonas; Quinodoz, Mathieu; Foll, Matthieu; Wegmann, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Methods that bypass analytical evaluations of the likelihood function have become an indispensable tool for statistical inference in many fields of science. These so-called likelihood-free methods rely on accepting and rejecting simulations based on summary statistics, which limits them to low-dimensional models for which the value of the likelihood is large enough to result in manageable acceptance rates. To get around these issues, we introduce a novel, likelihood-free Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method combining two key innovations: updating only one parameter per iteration and accepting or rejecting this update based on subsets of statistics approximately sufficient for this parameter. This increases acceptance rates dramatically, rendering this approach suitable even for models of very high dimensionality. We further derive that for linear models, a one-dimensional combination of statistics per parameter is sufficient and can be found empirically with simulations. Finally, we demonstrate that our method readily scales to models of very high dimensionality, using toy models as well as by jointly inferring the effective population size, the distribution of fitness effects (DFE) of segregating mutations, and selection coefficients for each locus from data of a recent experiment on the evolution of drug resistance in influenza.

  7. Emergent friction in two-dimensional Frenkel-Kontorova models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norell, Jesper; Fasolino, Annalisa; de Wijn, Astrid S.

    2016-08-01

    Simple models for friction are typically one-dimensional, but real interfaces are two-dimensional. We investigate the effects of the second dimension on static and dynamic friction by using the Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model. We study the two most straightforward extensions of the FK model to two dimensions and simulate both the static and dynamic properties. We show that the behavior of the static friction is robust and remains similar in two dimensions for physically reasonable parameter values. The dynamic friction, however, is strongly influenced by the second dimension and the accompanying additional dynamics and parameters introduced into the models. We discuss our results in terms of the thermal equilibration and phonon dispersion relations of the lattices, establishing a physically realistic and suitable two-dimensional extension of the FK model. We find that the presence of additional dissipation channels can increase the friction and produces significantly different temperature dependence when compared to the one-dimensional case. We also briefly study the anisotropy of the dynamic friction and show highly nontrivial effects, including that the friction anisotropy can lead to motion in different directions depending on the value of the initial velocity.

  8. Reduced Order ODE Model for Linear Contrails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamdar, A. R.; Lele, S. K.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2015-12-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the large uncertainties in predictions of climate impact of linear contrails stem from inadequate parametrization of contrails in GCMs. But, the parameter space on which contrail dynamics and optical properties depend is very large and spanning it using high fidelity LES is prohibitively expensive. This study leverages the large dataset of LES done so far to understand the most important physical process that governs the evolution of contrails in different stages of its life and proposes a simple, low-cost and robust ODE model to capture the evolution of quantities of interest such as ice mass, vortex downwash and contrail cross-sectional dimensions. A direct consequence of modeling the contrail using parameters impacting the most important physical process is the reduction of the original parameter space to only those groupings of parameters that impact linear contrails independently. We are able to capture the most prominent features of the contrail at every stage of the life of the contrail - the induction of the jet exhaust by the trailing vortex pair, the vortex downwash and eventual destruction and the subsequent spreading of the contrail by ambient turbulence. A simplified version of GATOR-GCMOM - a GCM - is initialized using inputs from the new ODE model to test if the inclusion of the impact of the aforementioned parameter groups has significant persistent effects. Results from the GATOR-GCMOM box model calculations show which parameter groupings show persistent effects.

  9. Hybrid Reduced Order Modeling Algorithms for Reactor Physics Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Youngsuk

    Reduced order modeling (ROM) has been recognized as an indispensable approach when the engineering analysis requires many executions of high fidelity simulation codes. Examples of such engineering analyses in nuclear reactor core calculations, representing the focus of this dissertation, include the functionalization of the homogenized few-group cross-sections in terms of the various core conditions, e.g. burn-up, fuel enrichment, temperature, etc. This is done via assembly calculations which are executed many times to generate the required functionalization for use in the downstream core calculations. Other examples are sensitivity analysis used to determine important core attribute variations due to input parameter variations, and uncertainty quantification employed to estimate core attribute uncertainties originating from input parameter uncertainties. ROM constructs a surrogate model with quantifiable accuracy which can replace the original code for subsequent engineering analysis calculations. This is achieved by reducing the effective dimensionality of the input parameter, the state variable, or the output response spaces, by projection onto the so-called active subspaces. Confining the variations to the active subspace allows one to construct an ROM model of reduced complexity which can be solved more efficiently. This dissertation introduces a new algorithm to render reduction with the reduction errors bounded based on a user-defined error tolerance which represents the main challenge of existing ROM techniques. Bounding the error is the key to ensuring that the constructed ROM models are robust for all possible applications. Providing such error bounds represents one of the algorithmic contributions of this dissertation to the ROM state-of-the-art. Recognizing that ROM techniques have been developed to render reduction at different levels, e.g. the input parameter space, the state space, and the response space, this dissertation offers a set of novel

  10. Three dimensional modelling of ICRF launchers for fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, M. D.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Ryan, P. M.; Hanson, G. R.; Stallings, D. C.; Batchelor, D. B.; Bigelow, T. S.; England, A. C.; Hoffman, D. J.; Murakami, M.; Wang, C. Y.; Wilgen, J. B.; Rogers, J. H.; Wilson, J. R.; Majeski, R.; Schilling, G.

    1996-02-01

    The three dimensional (3-D) nature of antennas for fusion applications in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) requires accurate modelling to design and analyse new antennas. In this article, analysis and design tools for radiofrequency (RF) antennas are successfully benchmarked with experiment, and the 3-D physics of the launched waves is explored. The systematic analysis combines measured density profiles from a reflectometer system, transmission line circuit modelling, detailed 3-D magnetostatics modelling and a new 3-D electromagnetic antenna model including plasma. This analysis gives very good agreement with measured loading data from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Bay-M antenna, thus demonstrating the validity of the analysis for the design of new RF antennas. The 3-D modelling is contrasted with 2-D models, and significant deficiencies are found in the latter. The 2-D models are in error by as much as a factor of 2 in real and reactive loading, even after they are corrected for the most obvious 3-D effects. Three dimensional effects play the most significant role at low parallel wavenumbers, where the launched power spectrum can be quite different from the predictions of 2-D models. Three dimensional effects should not be ignored for many RF designs, especially those intended for fast wave current drive

  11. Highly efficient supercapacitor electrode with two-dimensional tungsten disulfide and reduced graphene oxide hybrid nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chao-Chi; Lin, Lu-Yin; Xiao, Bing-Chang; Chen, Yu-Shiang

    2016-07-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures with their high surface area and large in-plane conductivity have been regarded as promising materials for supercapacitors (SCs). Tungsten disulfide (WS2) is highly suitable for charge accumulation with its abundant active sites in the interspacing between the 2D structures and the intraspacing of each atomic layer, as well as on the tungsten centers with the charges generated by the Faradaic reactions. This study proposes the preparation of well-constructed WS2/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets using a simple molten salt process as the electroactive material for SCs, which presents a high specific capacitance (CF) of 2508.07 F g-1 at the scan rate of 1 mV s-1, because of the synergic effect of WS2 with its large charge-accumulating sites on the 2D planes and RGO with its highly enhanced conductivity and improved connections in the WS2 networks. The excellent cycling stability of 98.6% retention after 5000 cycles charge/discharge process and the Coulombic efficiency close to 100% for the entire measurement are also achieved for the WS2/RGO-based SC electrode. The results suggest the potential for the combination of the 2D metal sulfide and carbon materials as the charge storage material to solve the energy problems and attain a sustainable society.

  12. Interactive Multimedia and Concrete Three-Dimensional Modelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, J. H.; Preece, Peter F. W.

    1999-01-01

    Compares a multimedia package for teaching about the phases of the moon to grade 8 (12-year-old) students with a conventional three-dimensional modeling approach. Results show both methods were equally effective in terms of student learning, for male and female students, and prior computer experience was not a factor in multimedia use. (Author/LRW)

  13. THREE-DIMENSIONAL NAPL FATE AND TRANSPORT MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have added several new and significant capabilities to UTCHEM to make it into a general-purpose NAPL simulator. The simulator is now capable of modeling transient and steady-state three-dimensional flow and mass transport in the groundwater (saturated) and vadose (unsaturated...

  14. Judgment Research and the Dimensional Model of Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garb, Howard N.

    2008-01-01

    Comments on the original article "Plate tectonics in the classification of personality disorder: Shifting to a dimensional model," by T. A. Widiger and T. J. Trull. The purpose of this comment is to address (a) whether psychologists know how personality traits are currently assessed by clinicians and (b) the reliability and validity of those…

  15. A Framework for Dimensionality Assessment for Multidimensional Item Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svetina, Dubravka; Levy, Roy

    2014-01-01

    A framework is introduced for considering dimensionality assessment procedures for multidimensional item response models. The framework characterizes procedures in terms of their confirmatory or exploratory approach, parametric or nonparametric assumptions, and applicability to dichotomous, polytomous, and missing data. Popular and emerging…

  16. A two-dimensional analytical model of petroleum vapor intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yijun; Verginelli, Iason; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2016-02-01

    In this study we present an analytical solution of a two-dimensional petroleum vapor intrusion model, which incorporates a steady-state diffusion-dominated vapor transport in a homogeneous soil and piecewise first-order aerobic biodegradation limited by oxygen availability. This new model can help practitioners to easily generate two-dimensional soil gas concentration profiles for both hydrocarbons and oxygen and estimate hydrocarbon indoor air concentrations as a function of site-specific conditions such as source strength and depth, reaction rate constant, soil characteristics and building features. The soil gas concentration profiles generated by this new model are shown in good agreement with three-dimensional numerical simulations and two-dimensional measured soil gas data from a field study. This implies that for cases involving diffusion dominated soil gas transport, steady state conditions and homogenous source and soil, this analytical model can be used as a fast and easy-to-use risk screening tool by replicating the results of 3-D numerical simulations but with much less computational effort.

  17. Three dimensional global modeling of atmospheric CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, I.; Hansen, J.; Rind, D.

    1983-01-01

    A model was developed to study the prospects of extracting information on carbon dioxide sources and sinks from observed CO2 variations. The approach uses a three dimensional global transport model, based on winds from a 3-D general circulation model (GCM), to advect CO2 noninteractively, i.e., as a tracer, with specified sources and sinks of CO2 at the surface. The 3-D model employed is identified and biosphere, ocean and fossil fuel sources and sinks are discussed. Some preliminary model results are presented.

  18. Star-triangle relation for a three-dimensional model

    SciTech Connect

    Bazhanov, V.V. Institute for High Eenrgy Physics, Protvino, Moscow Region ); Baxter, R.J. Australian National Univ., Canberra )

    1993-06-01

    The solvable sl(n)-chiral Potts model can be interpreted as a three-dimensional lattice model with local interactions. To within a minor modification of the boundary conditions it is an Ising-type model on the body-centered cubic lattice with two- and three-spin interactions. The corresponding local Boltzmann weights obey a number of simple relations, including a restricted star-triangle relation, which is a modified version of the well-known star-triangle relation appearing in two-dimensional models. It is shown that these relations lead to remarkable symmetry properties of the Boltzmann weight function of an elementary cube of the lattice, related to the spatial symmetry group of the cubic lattice. These symmetry properties allow one to prove the commutativity of the row-to-row transfer matrices, bypassing the tetrahedron relation. The partition function per site for the infinite lattice is calculated exactly. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Two dimensional modelling of three core cable transient temperature rise

    SciTech Connect

    Lyall, J. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a study of the transient temperature rise of a three core table. Results from a computer program that models the two dimensional heat flow are compared with those obtained using the normally applied one dimensional model. The modelling technique is an alternative to the finite difference and finite element methods. It develops the concept of a thermal resistance/capacitance analogue as can be done using the finite difference method but does so more directly without the need to use the partial differential equation. In addition, it provides the flexibility of the finite element method when modelling a complex geometry and material combination such as that found in a 3-core cable without the complexity of its mathematics.

  20. Suspended Sediment Monitoring Strategies Reduce Model Uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eads, R.; O'Connor, M.

    2007-12-01

    Regulatory agencies require development and implementation of Total Maximum Daily Loads for watersheds listed under section 303d of the Clean Water Act. For rivers identified as sediment impaired, methods are required to identify sediment sources and to estimate loading capacities, and models, such as sediment budgets, are often employed. Models can be tested and improved when stream monitoring provides accurate estimates of sediment loads. Motivated by proposed vineyard development on forested ridges in a sediment-listed watershed in the Coast Range of northern California, four tributaries to Gualala River ranging in size from 300 to 800 ha2 were monitored over two winter seasons. More than 1850 samples were analyzed for suspended sediment concentration. Inter- annual variability of sediment loads from wet and dry years is compared. Traditional methods for estimating suspended sediment loads often rely on measurements, such as water discharge, that are not well correlated to sediment concentration due to the highly variable routing of sediment to the channel from hillslopes, roads, and landslides. A method, such as Turbidity Threshold Sampling, that employs a parameter well correlated to suspended sediment concentration can improve sampling efficiency by collecting samples that are distributed over a range of rising and falling concentrations. The resulting set of samples can be used to estimate sediment loads by establishing a relationship between concentration and turbidity for any sampled period and applying it to the continuous turbidity record.

  1. A multiphase model for three-dimensional tumor growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciumè, G.; Shelton, S.; Gray, W. G.; Miller, C. T.; Hussain, F.; Ferrari, M.; Decuzzi, P.; Schrefler, B. A.

    2013-01-01

    Several mathematical formulations have analyzed the time-dependent behavior of a tumor mass. However, most of these propose simplifications that compromise the physical soundness of the model. Here, multiphase porous media mechanics is extended to model tumor evolution, using governing equations obtained via the thermodynamically constrained averaging theory. A tumor mass is treated as a multiphase medium composed of an extracellular matrix (ECM); tumor cells (TCs), which may become necrotic depending on the nutrient concentration and tumor phase pressure; healthy cells (HCs); and an interstitial fluid for the transport of nutrients. The equations are solved by a finite element method to predict the growth rate of the tumor mass as a function of the initial tumor-to-healthy cell density ratio, nutrient concentration, mechanical strain, cell adhesion and geometry. Results are shown for three cases of practical biological interest such as multicellular tumor spheroids (MTSs) and tumor cords. First, the model is validated by experimental data for time-dependent growth of an MTS in a culture medium. The tumor growth pattern follows a biphasic behavior: initially, the rapidly growing TCs tend to saturate the volume available without any significant increase in overall tumor size; then, a classical Gompertzian pattern is observed for the MTS radius variation with time. A core with necrotic cells appears for tumor sizes larger than 150 μm, surrounded by a shell of viable TCs whose thickness stays almost constant with time. A formula to estimate the size of the necrotic core is proposed. In the second case, the MTS is confined within a healthy tissue. The growth rate is reduced, as compared to the first case—mostly due to the relative adhesion of the TCs and HCs to the ECM, and the less favorable transport of nutrients. In particular, for HCs adhering less avidly to the ECM, the healthy tissue is progressively displaced as the malignant mass grows, whereas TC

  2. Three-dimensional graphene foams loaded with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells promote skin wound healing with reduced scarring.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhonghua; Wang, Haiqin; Yang, Bo; Sun, Yukai; Huo, Ran

    2015-12-01

    The regeneration of functional skin remains elusive, due to poor engraftment, deficient vascularization, and excessive scar formation. Aiming to overcome these issues, the present study proposed the combination of a three-dimensional graphene foam (GF) scaffold loaded with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to improve skin wound healing. The GFs demonstrated good biocompatibility and promoted the growth and proliferation of MSCs. Meanwhile, the GFs loaded with MSCs obviously facilitated wound closure in animal model. The dermis formed in the presence of the GF structure loaded with MSCs was thicker and possessed a more complex structure at day 14 post-surgery. The transplanted MSCs correlated with upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), which may lead to neo-vascularization. Additionally, an anti-scarring effect was observed in the presence of the 3D-GF scaffold and MSCs, as evidenced by a downregulation of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) together with an increase of TGF-β3. Altogether, the GF scaffold could guide the wound healing process with reduced scarring, and the MSCs were crucial to enhance vascularization and provided a better quality neo-skin. The GF scaffold loaded with MSCs possesses necessary bioactive cues to improve wound healing with reduced scarring, which may be of great clinical significance for skin wound healing.

  3. Three-dimensional control-volume distributed multi-point flux approximation coupled with a lower-dimensional surface fracture model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Raheel; Edwards, Michael G.; Lamine, Sadok; Huisman, Bastiaan A. H.; Pal, Mayur

    2015-12-01

    A novel cell-centred control-volume distributed multi-point flux approximation (CVD-MPFA) finite-volume formulation is presented for discrete fracture-matrix simulations on unstructured grids in three-dimensions (3D). The grid is aligned with fractures and barriers which are then modelled as lower-dimensional surface interfaces located between the matrix cells in the physical domain. The three-dimensional pressure equation is solved in the matrix domain coupled with a two-dimensional (2D) surface pressure equation solved over fracture networks via a novel surface CVD-MPFA formulation. The CVD-MPFA formulation naturally handles fractures with anisotropic permeabilities on unstructured grids. Matrix-fracture fluxes are expressed in terms of matrix and fracture pressures and define the transfer function, which is added to the lower-dimensional flow equation and couples the three-dimensional and surface systems. An additional transmission condition is used between matrix cells adjacent to low permeable fractures to couple the velocity and pressure jump across the fractures. Convergence and accuracy of the lower-dimensional fracture model is assessed for highly anisotropic fractures having a range of apertures and permeability tensors. A transport equation for tracer flow is coupled via the Darcy flux for single and intersecting fractures. The lower-dimensional approximation for intersecting fractures avoids the more restrictive CFL condition corresponding to the equi-dimensional approximation with explicit time discretisation. Lower-dimensional fracture model results are compared with equi-dimensional model results. Fractures and barriers are efficiently modelled by lower-dimensional interfaces which yield comparable results to those of the equi-dimensional model. Pressure continuity is built into the model across highly conductive fractures, leading to reduced local degrees of freedom in the CVD-MPFA approximation. The formulation is applied to geologically complex

  4. Modeling complexly magnetized two-dimensional bodies of arbitrary shape

    SciTech Connect

    Mariano, J.; Hinze, W.J. . Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)

    1993-05-01

    A method has been devised for the forward computation of magnetic anomalies due to two-dimensional (2-D) polygonal bodies with heterogeneously directed magnetization. The calculations are based on the equivalent line source approach wherein the source is subdivided into discrete elements that vary spatially in their magnetic properties. This equivalent dipole line method provides a fast and convenient means of representing and computing magnetic anomalies for bodies possessing complexly varying magnitude and direction of magnetization. The algorithm has been tested and applied to several generalized cases to verify the accuracy of the computation. The technique has also been used to model observed aeromagnetic anomalies associated with the structurally deformed, remanently magnetized Keweenawan volcanic rocks in eastern Lake Superior. This method is also easily adapted to the calculation of anomalies due to two and one-half-dimensional (2.5-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) heterogeneously magnetized sources.

  5. A refined one-dimensional rotordynamics model with three-dimensional capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, E.; Filippi, M.

    2016-03-01

    This paper evaluates the vibration characteristics of various rotating structures. The present methodology exploits the one-dimensional Carrera Unified Formulation (1D CUF), which enables one to go beyond the kinematic assumptions of classical beam theories. According to the component-wise (CW) approach, Lagrange-like polynomial expansions (LE) are here adopted to develop the refined displacement theories. The LE elements make it possible to model each structural component of the rotor with an arbitrary degree of accuracy using either different displacement theories or localized mesh refinements. Hamilton's Principle is used to derive the governing equations, which are solved by the Finite Element Method. The CUF one-dimensional theory includes all the effects due to rotation, namely the Coriolis term, spin softening and geometrical stiffening. The numerical simulations have been performed considering a thin ring, discs and bladed-deformable shafts. The effects of the number and the position of the blades on the dynamic stability of the rotor have been evaluated. The results have been compared, when possible, with the 2D and 3D solutions that are available in the literature. CUF models appear very practical to investigate the dynamics of complex rotating structures since they provide 2D and quasi-3D results, while preserving the computational effectiveness of one-dimensional solutions.

  6. Approaches to verification of two-dimensional water quality models

    SciTech Connect

    Butkus, S.R. . Water Quality Dept.)

    1990-11-01

    The verification of a water quality model is the one procedure most needed by decision making evaluating a model predictions, but is often not adequate or done at all. The results of a properly conducted verification provide the decision makers with an estimate of the uncertainty associated with model predictions. Several statistical tests are available for quantifying of the performance of a model. Six methods of verification were evaluated using an application of the BETTER two-dimensional water quality model for Chickamauga reservoir. Model predictions for ten state variables were compared to observed conditions from 1989. Spatial distributions of the verification measures showed the model predictions were generally adequate, except at a few specific locations in the reservoir. The most useful statistics were the mean standard error of the residuals. Quantifiable measures of model performance should be calculated during calibration and verification of future applications of the BETTER model. 25 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Two-dimensional Core-collapse Supernova Models with Multi-dimensional Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolence, Joshua C.; Burrows, Adam; Zhang, Weiqun

    2015-02-01

    We present new two-dimensional (2D) axisymmetric neutrino radiation/hydrodynamic models of core-collapse supernova (CCSN) cores. We use the CASTRO code, which incorporates truly multi-dimensional, multi-group, flux-limited diffusion (MGFLD) neutrino transport, including all relevant {O}(v/c) terms. Our main motivation for carrying out this study is to compare with recent 2D models produced by other groups who have obtained explosions for some progenitor stars and with recent 2D VULCAN results that did not incorporate {O}(v/c) terms. We follow the evolution of 12, 15, 20, and 25 solar-mass progenitors to approximately 600 ms after bounce and do not obtain an explosion in any of these models. Though the reason for the qualitative disagreement among the groups engaged in CCSN modeling remains unclear, we speculate that the simplifying "ray-by-ray" approach employed by all other groups may be compromising their results. We show that "ray-by-ray" calculations greatly exaggerate the angular and temporal variations of the neutrino fluxes, which we argue are better captured by our multi-dimensional MGFLD approach. On the other hand, our 2D models also make approximations, making it difficult to draw definitive conclusions concerning the root of the differences between groups. We discuss some of the diagnostics often employed in the analyses of CCSN simulations and highlight the intimate relationship between the various explosion conditions that have been proposed. Finally, we explore the ingredients that may be missing in current calculations that may be important in reproducing the properties of the average CCSNe, should the delayed neutrino-heating mechanism be the correct mechanism of explosion.

  8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA MODELS WITH MULTI-DIMENSIONAL TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Dolence, Joshua C.; Burrows, Adam; Zhang, Weiqun E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.edu

    2015-02-10

    We present new two-dimensional (2D) axisymmetric neutrino radiation/hydrodynamic models of core-collapse supernova (CCSN) cores. We use the CASTRO code, which incorporates truly multi-dimensional, multi-group, flux-limited diffusion (MGFLD) neutrino transport, including all relevant O(v/c) terms. Our main motivation for carrying out this study is to compare with recent 2D models produced by other groups who have obtained explosions for some progenitor stars and with recent 2D VULCAN results that did not incorporate O(v/c) terms. We follow the evolution of 12, 15, 20, and 25 solar-mass progenitors to approximately 600 ms after bounce and do not obtain an explosion in any of these models. Though the reason for the qualitative disagreement among the groups engaged in CCSN modeling remains unclear, we speculate that the simplifying ''ray-by-ray'' approach employed by all other groups may be compromising their results. We show that ''ray-by-ray'' calculations greatly exaggerate the angular and temporal variations of the neutrino fluxes, which we argue are better captured by our multi-dimensional MGFLD approach. On the other hand, our 2D models also make approximations, making it difficult to draw definitive conclusions concerning the root of the differences between groups. We discuss some of the diagnostics often employed in the analyses of CCSN simulations and highlight the intimate relationship between the various explosion conditions that have been proposed. Finally, we explore the ingredients that may be missing in current calculations that may be important in reproducing the properties of the average CCSNe, should the delayed neutrino-heating mechanism be the correct mechanism of explosion.

  9. SOLVING THE TWO-DIMENSIONAL DIFFUSION FLOW MODEL.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hromadka, T.V.; Lai, Chintu

    1985-01-01

    A simplification of the two-dimensional (2-D) continuity and momentum equations is the diffusion equation. To investigate its capability, the numerical model using the diffusion approach is applied to a hypothetical failure problem of a regional water reservoir. The model is based on an explicit, integrated finite-difference scheme, and the floodplain is simulated by a popular home computer which supports 64K FORTRAN. Though simple, the 2-D model can simulate some interesting flooding effects that a 1-D full dynamic model cannot.

  10. Three-dimensional "Mercedes-Benz" model for water.

    PubMed

    Dias, Cristiano L; Ala-Nissila, Tapio; Grant, Martin; Karttunen, Mikko

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we introduce a three-dimensional version of the Mercedes-Benz model to describe water molecules. In this model van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds are given explicitly through a Lennard-Jones potential and a Gaussian orientation-dependent terms, respectively. At low temperature the model freezes forming Ice-I and it reproduces the main peaks of the experimental radial distribution function of water. In addition to these structural properties, the model also captures the thermodynamical anomalies of water: The anomalous density profile, the negative thermal expansivity, the large heat capacity, and the minimum in the isothermal compressibility.

  11. Three-dimensional ``Mercedes-Benz'' model for water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Cristiano L.; Ala-Nissila, Tapio; Grant, Martin; Karttunen, Mikko

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we introduce a three-dimensional version of the Mercedes-Benz model to describe water molecules. In this model van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds are given explicitly through a Lennard-Jones potential and a Gaussian orientation-dependent terms, respectively. At low temperature the model freezes forming Ice-I and it reproduces the main peaks of the experimental radial distribution function of water. In addition to these structural properties, the model also captures the thermodynamical anomalies of water: The anomalous density profile, the negative thermal expansivity, the large heat capacity, and the minimum in the isothermal compressibility.

  12. Three-dimensional "Mercedes-Benz" model for water.

    PubMed

    Dias, Cristiano L; Ala-Nissila, Tapio; Grant, Martin; Karttunen, Mikko

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we introduce a three-dimensional version of the Mercedes-Benz model to describe water molecules. In this model van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds are given explicitly through a Lennard-Jones potential and a Gaussian orientation-dependent terms, respectively. At low temperature the model freezes forming Ice-I and it reproduces the main peaks of the experimental radial distribution function of water. In addition to these structural properties, the model also captures the thermodynamical anomalies of water: The anomalous density profile, the negative thermal expansivity, the large heat capacity, and the minimum in the isothermal compressibility. PMID:19673572

  13. Reduced-dimensional quantum computations for the rotational-vibrational dynamics of F(-)-CH4 and F(-)-CH2D2.

    PubMed

    Fábri, Csaba; Császár, Attila G; Czakó, Gábor

    2013-08-15

    Variational rotational-vibrational quantum chemical computations are performed for the F(-)-CH4 and F(-)-CH2D2 anion complexes using several reduced-dimensional models in a curvilinear polyspherical coordinate system and utilizing an accurate ab initio potential energy surface (PES). The implementation of the models is made practical by using the general rovibrational code GENIUSH, which constructs the complicated form of the exact rovibrational kinetic energy operator in reduced and full dimensions in any user-specified coordinates and body-fixed frames. A one-dimensional CF stretch, 1D(RCF), a two-dimensional intermolecular bend, 2D(θ,φ), and a three-dimensional intermolecular, 3D(RCF,θ,φ), rigid methane model provide vibrational energies for the low-frequency, large-amplitude modes in good agreement with full-dimensional MCTDH results for F(-)-CH4. The 2D(θ,φ) and 3D(RCF,θ,φ) four-well computations, describing equally the four possible CH-F(-) bonds, show that the ground-state tunneling splitting is less than 0.01 cm(-1). For the hydrogen-bonded CH stretching fundamental a local-mode model is found to have almost spectroscopic accuracy, whereas a harmonic frequency analysis performs poorly. The 2D(θ,φ) and 3D(RCF,θ,φ) rotational-vibrational computations on the Td-symmetric four-well PES reveal that in most cases F(-)-CH4 behaves as a semirigid C3v symmetric top. For the degenerate intermolecular bending vibrational states substantial splittings of the rigid rotor levels are observed. For F(-)-CH2D2 the rotational levels guide the assignment of the vibrational states to either F(-)-H or F(-)-D connectivity. PMID:23402210

  14. POD-Galerkin reduced-order modeling with adaptive finite element snapshots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullmann, Sebastian; Rotkvic, Marko; Lang, Jens

    2016-11-01

    We consider model order reduction by proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) for parametrized partial differential equations, where the underlying snapshots are computed with adaptive finite elements. We address computational and theoretical issues arising from the fact that the snapshots are members of different finite element spaces. We propose a method to create a POD-Galerkin model without interpolating the snapshots onto their common finite element mesh. The error of the reduced-order solution is not necessarily Galerkin orthogonal to the reduced space created from space-adapted snapshot. We analyze how this influences the error assessment for POD-Galerkin models of linear elliptic boundary value problems. As a numerical example we consider a two-dimensional convection-diffusion equation with a parametrized convective direction. To illustrate the applicability of our techniques to non-linear time-dependent problems, we present a test case of a two-dimensional viscous Burgers equation with parametrized initial data.

  15. Equation of State of the Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model.

    PubMed

    Cocchi, Eugenio; Miller, Luke A; Drewes, Jan H; Koschorreck, Marco; Pertot, Daniel; Brennecke, Ferdinand; Köhl, Michael

    2016-04-29

    The subtle interplay between kinetic energy, interactions, and dimensionality challenges our comprehension of strongly correlated physics observed, for example, in the solid state. In this quest, the Hubbard model has emerged as a conceptually simple, yet rich model describing such physics. Here we present an experimental determination of the equation of state of the repulsive two-dimensional Hubbard model over a broad range of interactions 0≲U/t≲20 and temperatures, down to k_{B}T/t=0.63(2) using high-resolution imaging of ultracold fermionic atoms in optical lattices. We show density profiles, compressibilities, and double occupancies over the whole doping range, and, hence, our results constitute benchmarks for state-of-the-art theoretical approaches.

  16. Equation of State of the Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model.

    PubMed

    Cocchi, Eugenio; Miller, Luke A; Drewes, Jan H; Koschorreck, Marco; Pertot, Daniel; Brennecke, Ferdinand; Köhl, Michael

    2016-04-29

    The subtle interplay between kinetic energy, interactions, and dimensionality challenges our comprehension of strongly correlated physics observed, for example, in the solid state. In this quest, the Hubbard model has emerged as a conceptually simple, yet rich model describing such physics. Here we present an experimental determination of the equation of state of the repulsive two-dimensional Hubbard model over a broad range of interactions 0≲U/t≲20 and temperatures, down to k_{B}T/t=0.63(2) using high-resolution imaging of ultracold fermionic atoms in optical lattices. We show density profiles, compressibilities, and double occupancies over the whole doping range, and, hence, our results constitute benchmarks for state-of-the-art theoretical approaches. PMID:27176527

  17. Equation of State of the Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocchi, Eugenio; Miller, Luke A.; Drewes, Jan H.; Koschorreck, Marco; Pertot, Daniel; Brennecke, Ferdinand; Köhl, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The subtle interplay between kinetic energy, interactions, and dimensionality challenges our comprehension of strongly correlated physics observed, for example, in the solid state. In this quest, the Hubbard model has emerged as a conceptually simple, yet rich model describing such physics. Here we present an experimental determination of the equation of state of the repulsive two-dimensional Hubbard model over a broad range of interactions 0 ≲U /t ≲20 and temperatures, down to kBT /t =0.63 (2 ) using high-resolution imaging of ultracold fermionic atoms in optical lattices. We show density profiles, compressibilities, and double occupancies over the whole doping range, and, hence, our results constitute benchmarks for state-of-the-art theoretical approaches.

  18. Three Dimensional Thermal Abuse Reaction Model for Lithium Ion Batteries

    2006-06-29

    Three dimensional computer models for simulating thermal runaway of lithium ion battery was developed. The three-dimensional model captures the shapes and dimensions of cell components and the spatial distributions of materials and temperatures, so we could consider the geometrical features, which are critical especially in large cells. An array of possible exothermic reactions, such as solid-electrolyte-interface (SEI) layer decomposition, negative active/electrolyte reaction, and positive active/electrolyte reaction, were considered and formulated to fit experimental data frommore » accelerating rate calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. User subroutine code was written to implement NREL developed approach and to utilize a commercially available solver. The model is proposed to use for simulation a variety of lithium-ion battery safety events including thermal heating and short circuit.« less

  19. A three-dimensional model of Tangential YORP

    SciTech Connect

    Golubov, O.; Scheeres, D. J.; Krugly, Yu. N.

    2014-10-10

    Tangential YORP, or TYORP, has recently been demonstrated to be an important factor in the evolution of an asteroid's rotation state. It is complementary to normal YORP, or NYORP, which used to be considered previously. While NYORP is produced by non-symmetry in the large-scale geometry of an asteroid, TYORP is due to heat conductivity in stones on the surface of the asteroid. To date, TYORP has been studied only in a simplified one-dimensional model, substituting stones with high long walls. This article for the first time considers TYORP in a realistic three-dimensional model, also including shadowing and self-illumination effects via ray tracing. TYORP is simulated for spherical stones lying on regolith. The model includes only five free parameters and the dependence of the TYORP on each of them is studied. The TYORP torque appears to be smaller than previous estimates from the one-dimensional model, but is still comparable to the NYORP torques. These results can be used to estimate TYORP of different asteroids and also as a basis for more sophisticated models of TYORP.

  20. Statistical mechanics of shell models for two-dimensional turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurell, E.; Boffetta, G.; Crisanti, A.; Frick, P.; Paladin, G.; Vulpiani, A.

    1994-12-01

    We study shell models that conserve the analogs of energy and enstrophy and hence are designed to mimic fluid turbulence in two-dimensions (2D). The main result is that the observed state is well described as a formal statistical equilibrium, closely analogous to the approach to two-dimensional ideal hydrodynamics of Onsager [Nuovo Cimento Suppl. 6, 279 (1949)], Hopf [J. Rat. Mech. Anal. 1, 87 (1952)], and Lee [Q. Appl. Math. 10, 69 (1952)]. In the presence of forcing and dissipation we observe a forward flux of enstrophy and a backward flux of energy. These fluxes can be understood as mean diffusive drifts from a source to two sinks in a system which is close to local equilibrium with Lagrange multipliers (``shell temperatures'') changing slowly with scale. This is clear evidence that the simplest shell models are not adequate to reproduce the main features of two-dimensional turbulence. The dimensional predictions on the power spectra from a supposed forward cascade of enstrophy and from one branch of the formal statistical equilibrium coincide in these shell models in contrast to the corresponding predictions for the Navier-Stokes and Euler equations in 2D. This coincidence has previously led to the mistaken conclusion that shell models exhibit a forward cascade of enstrophy. We also study the dynamical properties of the models and the growth of perturbations.

  1. A three-dimensional spin-diffusion model for micromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abert, Claas; Ruggeri, Michele; Bruckner, Florian; Vogler, Christoph; Hrkac, Gino; Praetorius, Dirk; Suess, Dieter

    2015-10-01

    We solve a time-dependent three-dimensional spin-diffusion model coupled to the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation numerically. The presented model is validated by comparison to two established spin-torque models: The model of Slonzewski that describes spin-torque in multi-layer structures in the presence of a fixed layer and the model of Zhang and Li that describes current driven domain-wall motion. It is shown that both models are incorporated by the spin-diffusion description, i.e., the nonlocal effects of the Slonzewski model are captured as well as the spin-accumulation due to magnetization gradients as described by the model of Zhang and Li. Moreover, the presented method is able to resolve the time dependency of the spin-accumulation.

  2. A three-dimensional spin-diffusion model for micromagnetics

    PubMed Central

    Abert, Claas; Ruggeri, Michele; Bruckner, Florian; Vogler, Christoph; Hrkac, Gino; Praetorius, Dirk; Suess, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    We solve a time-dependent three-dimensional spin-diffusion model coupled to the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation numerically. The presented model is validated by comparison to two established spin-torque models: The model of Slonzewski that describes spin-torque in multi-layer structures in the presence of a fixed layer and the model of Zhang and Li that describes current driven domain-wall motion. It is shown that both models are incorporated by the spin-diffusion description, i.e., the nonlocal effects of the Slonzewski model are captured as well as the spin-accumulation due to magnetization gradients as described by the model of Zhang and Li. Moreover, the presented method is able to resolve the time dependency of the spin-accumulation. PMID:26442796

  3. Two dimensional hydrodynamic modeling of a high latitude braided river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, E.; Pavelsky, T.; Bates, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers are a fundamental resource to physical, ecologic and human systems, yet quantification of river flow in high-latitude environments remains limited due to the prevalence of complex morphologies, remote locations and sparse in situ monitoring equipment. Advances in hydrodynamic modeling and remote sensing technology allow us to address questions such as: How well can two-dimensional models simulate a flood wave in a highly 3-dimensional braided river environment, and how does the structure of such a flood wave differ from flow down a similar-sized single-channel river? Here, we use the raster-based hydrodynamic model LISFLOOD-FP to simulate flood waves, discharge, water surface height, and velocity measurements over a ~70 km reach of the Tanana River in Alaska. In order to use LISFLOOD-FP a digital elevation model (DEM) fused with detailed bathymetric data is required. During summer 2013, we surveyed 220,000 bathymetric points along the study reach using an echo sounder system connected to a high-precision GPS unit. The measurements are interpolated to a smooth bathymetric surface, using Topo to Raster interpolation, and combined with an existing five meter DEM (Alaska IfSAR) to create a seamless river terrain model. Flood waves are simulated using varying complexities in model solvers, then compared to gauge records and water logger data to assess major sources of model uncertainty. Velocity and flow direction maps are also assessed and quantified for detailed analysis of braided channel flow. The most accurate model output occurs with using the full two-dimensional model structure, and major inaccuracies appear to be related to DEM quality and roughness values. Future work will intercompare model outputs with extensive ground measurements and new data from AirSWOT, an airborne analog for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, which aims to provide high-resolution measurements of terrestrial and ocean water surface elevations globally.

  4. Macroinvertebrate response to flow changes in a subalpine stream: predictions from two-dimensional hydrodynamic models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddle, T.J.; Holmquist, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional hydrodynamic models are being used increasingly as alternatives to traditional one-dimensional instream flow methodologies for assessing adequacy of flow and associated faunal habitat. Two-dimensional modelling of habitat has focused primarily on fishes, but fish-based assessments may not model benthic macroinvertebrate habitat effectively. We extend two-dimensional techniques to a macroinvertebrate assemblage in a high-elevation stream in the Sierra Nevada (Dana Fork of the Tuolumne River, Yosemite National Park, CA, USA). This stream frequently flows at less than 0.03?m3?s?1 in late summer and is representative of a common water abstraction scenario: maximum water abstraction coinciding with seasonally low flows. We used two-dimensional modelling to predict invertebrate responses to reduced flows that might result from increased abstraction. We collected site-specific field data on the macroinvertebrate assemblage, bed topography and flow conditions and then coupled a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model with macroinvertebrate indices to evaluate habitat across a range of low flows. Macroinvertebrate indices were calculated for the wetted area at each flow. A surrogate flow record based on an adjacent watershed was used to evaluate frequency and duration of low flow events. Using surrogate historical records, we estimated that flow should fall below 0.071?m3?s?1 at least 1?day in 82 of 95?years and below 0.028?m3?s?1 in 48 of 95?years. Invertebrate metric means indicated minor losses in response to modelled discharge reductions, but wetted area decreased substantially. Responses of invertebrates to water abstraction will likely be a function of changing habitat quantity rather than quality.

  5. An algorithmic method for reducing conductance-based neuron models.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Michael E; DeWeerth, Stephen P

    2006-08-01

    Although conductance-based neural models provide a realistic depiction of neuronal activity, their complexity often limits effective implementation and analysis. Neuronal model reduction methods provide a means to reduce model complexity while retaining the original model's realism and relevance. Such methods, however, typically include ad hoc components that require that the modeler already be intimately familiar with the dynamics of the original model. We present an automated, algorithmic method for reducing conductance-based neuron models using the method of equivalent potentials (Kelper et al., Biol Cybern 66(5):381-387, 1992) Our results demonstrate that this algorithm is able to reduce the complexity of the original model with minimal performance loss, and requires minimal prior knowledge of the model's dynamics. Furthermore, by utilizing a cost function based on the contribution of each state variable to the total conductance of the model, the performance of the algorithm can be significantly improved.

  6. Fermion masses and mixing in general warped extra dimensional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Mariana; Hamzaoui, Cherif; Pourtolami, Nima; Toharia, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    We analyze fermion masses and mixing in a general warped extra dimensional model, where all the Standard Model (SM) fields, including the Higgs, are allowed to propagate in the bulk. In this context, a slightly broken flavor symmetry imposed universally on all fermion fields, without distinction, can generate the full flavor structure of the SM, including quarks, charged leptons and neutrinos. For quarks and charged leptons, the exponential sensitivity of their wave functions to small flavor breaking effects yield hierarchical masses and mixing as it is usual in warped models with fermions in the bulk. In the neutrino sector, the exponential wave-function factors can be flavor blind and thus insensitive to the small flavor symmetry breaking effects, directly linking their masses and mixing angles to the flavor symmetric structure of the five-dimensional neutrino Yukawa couplings. The Higgs must be localized in the bulk and the model is more successful in generalized warped scenarios where the metric background solution is different than five-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS5 ). We study these features in two simple frameworks, flavor complimentarity and flavor democracy, which provide specific predictions and correlations between quarks and leptons, testable as more precise data in the neutrino sector becomes available.

  7. Quasi-One-Dimensional Modeling of Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Christopher I.

    2002-01-01

    Pulsed detonation rocket engines (PDREs) have generated considerable research interest in recent years as a chemical propulsion system potentially offering improved performance and reduced complexity compared to conventional rocket engines. The detonative mode of combustion employed by these devices offers a thermodynamic advantage over the constant-pressure deflagrative combustion mode used in conventional rocket engines and gas turbines. However, while this theoretical advantage has spurred a great deal of interest in building PDRE devices, the unsteady blowdown process intrinsic to the PDRE has made realistic estimates of the actual propulsive performance problematic. The recent review article by Kailasanath highlights some of the difficulties in comparing the available experimental measurements with numerical models. In a previous paper by the author, parametric studies of the performance of a single, straight-tube PDRE were reported. A 1-D, unsteady method of characteristics code, employing a constant-gamma assumption behind the detonation front, was developed for that study. Models of this type are computationally inexpensive, and are particularly useful for parametric performance comparisons. For example, a plot showing the specific impulse of various PDRE and steady-state rocket engine (SSRE) configurations as a function of blowdown pressure ratio. The performance curves clearly indicate that a straight-tube PDRE is superior in specific impulse to a SSRE with a sonic nozzle over the entire range of pressure ratios. Note, however, that a straight-tube PDRE in general does not compare favorably to a SSRE fitted with an optimized de Laval supersonic nozzle, particularly at the high pressure ratios typical for boost or in-space rocket applications. However, the calculations also show that if a dynamically optimized, supersonic de Laval nozzle could be could be fitted to a PDRE, then the specific impulse of the device would exceed that of a comparable SSRE

  8. Spatial clustering method based on three-dimensional cloud model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haijun; Wang, Li; Deng, Yu; Liu, Jia

    2008-12-01

    Spatial clustering is one of those major methods applying to spatial data mining and knowledge discovery. The purpose of this paper is to set forth Spatial Clustering Method Based on Multidimensional Cloud Model, which can be widely applied to the research on classification and hierarchy in realm of spatial data mining and knowledge discovery. This paper summarizes all kinds of cloud model and analyzes the optimalizing form of spatial data-three-dimensional cloud model. The limitation which sets the weighing value subjectively in traditional way and propagation of error can be avoided. The implementation procedure of this method is advanced, and the feasibility of this method is proven through experiments effectively.

  9. New data assimilation system DNDAS for high-dimensional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qun-bo, Huang; Xiao-qun, Cao; Meng-bin, Zhu; Wei-min, Zhang; Bai-nian, Liu

    2016-05-01

    The tangent linear (TL) models and adjoint (AD) models have brought great difficulties for the development of variational data assimilation system. It might be impossible to develop them perfectly without great efforts, either by hand, or by automatic differentiation tools. In order to break these limitations, a new data assimilation system, dual-number data assimilation system (DNDAS), is designed based on the dual-number automatic differentiation principles. We investigate the performance of DNDAS with two different optimization schemes and subsequently give a discussion on whether DNDAS is appropriate for high-dimensional forecast models. The new data assimilation system can avoid the complicated reverse integration of the adjoint model, and it only needs the forward integration in the dual-number space to obtain the cost function and its gradient vector concurrently. To verify the correctness and effectiveness of DNDAS, we implemented DNDAS on a simple ordinary differential model and the Lorenz-63 model with different optimization methods. We then concentrate on the adaptability of DNDAS to the Lorenz-96 model with high-dimensional state variables. The results indicate that whether the system is simple or nonlinear, DNDAS can accurately reconstruct the initial condition for the forecast model and has a strong anti-noise characteristic. Given adequate computing resource, the quasi-Newton optimization method performs better than the conjugate gradient method in DNDAS. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41475094 and 41375113).

  10. A THREE-DIMENSIONAL BABCOCK-LEIGHTON SOLAR DYNAMO MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Miesch, Mark S.; Dikpati, Mausumi

    2014-04-10

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) kinematic solar dynamo model in which poloidal field is generated by the emergence and dispersal of tilted sunspot pairs (more generally bipolar magnetic regions, or BMRs). The axisymmetric component of this model functions similarly to previous 2.5 dimensional (2.5D, axisymmetric) Babcock-Leighton (BL) dynamo models that employ a double-ring prescription for poloidal field generation but we generalize this prescription into a 3D flux emergence algorithm that places BMRs on the surface in response to the dynamo-generated toroidal field. In this way, the model can be regarded as a unification of BL dynamo models (2.5D in radius/latitude) and surface flux transport models (2.5D in latitude/longitude) into a more self-consistent framework that builds on the successes of each while capturing the full 3D structure of the evolving magnetic field. The model reproduces some basic features of the solar cycle including an 11 yr periodicity, equatorward migration of toroidal flux in the deep convection zone, and poleward propagation of poloidal flux at the surface. The poleward-propagating surface flux originates as trailing flux in BMRs, migrates poleward in multiple non-axisymmetric streams (made axisymmetric by differential rotation and turbulent diffusion), and eventually reverses the polar field, thus sustaining the dynamo. In this Letter we briefly describe the model, initial results, and future plans.

  11. Numerical simulations of a reduced model for blood coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlova, Jevgenija; Fasano, Antonio; Sequeira, Adélia

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the three-dimensional numerical resolution of a complex mathematical model for the blood coagulation process is presented. The model was illustrated in Fasano et al. (Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 51:1-14, 2012), Pavlova et al. (Theor Biol 380:367-379, 2015). It incorporates the action of the biochemical and cellular components of blood as well as the effects of the flow. The model is characterized by a reduction in the biochemical network and considers the impact of the blood slip at the vessel wall. Numerical results showing the capacity of the model to predict different perturbations in the hemostatic system are discussed.

  12. Three-dimensional radiation transfer modeling in a dicotyledon leaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govaerts, Yves M.; Jacquemoud, Stéphane; Verstraete, Michel M.; Ustin, Susan L.

    1996-11-01

    The propagation of light in a typical dicotyledon leaf is investigated with a new Monte Carlo ray-tracing model. The three-dimensional internal cellular structure of the various leaf tissues, including the epidermis, the palisade parenchyma, and the spongy mesophyll, is explicitly described. Cells of different tissues are assigned appropriate morphologies and contain realistic amounts of water and chlorophyll. Each cell constituent is characterized by an index of refraction and an absorption coefficient. The objective of this study is to investigate how the internal three-dimensional structure of the tissues and the optical properties of cell constituents control the reflectance and transmittance of the leaf. Model results compare favorably with laboratory observations. The influence of the roughness of the epidermis on the reflection and absorption of light is investigated, and simulation results confirm that convex cells in the epidermis focus light on the palisade parenchyma and increase the absorption of radiation.

  13. Modeling and Experimentation on a Two-dimensional Synthetic jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunfei; Mohseni, Kamran

    2007-11-01

    Hotwire anemometry is employed in order to investigate the spatial development of a two-dimensional synthetic jet. Flow velocity at various locations downstream from a slit is measured. A self similar behavior in the measured velocity is observed. An analytical model for a steady synthetic jet is developed that accurately matches the experimental data. As observed by other groups, the two-dimensional synthetic jet spreads at a rate higher than a continuous jet. This rate is accurately predicted by our model. It is identified that the main difference between a continuous jet and a synthetic jet is the higher value of the virtual viscosity (eddy viscosity) in a synthetic jet. This is attributed to the pulsate nature of a synthetic jet that makes it more susceptible to turbulence.

  14. Phase Diagram of Symmetric Two-Dimensional Traffic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibashi, Yoshihiro; Fukui, Minoru

    2016-10-01

    On the basis of the critical car density line in the phase diagram of the Biham-Middleton-Levine model for symmetric two-dimensional traffic systems, the formula of the flow in the intermediate jam flow phase is hypothesized. The formula is utilized to obtain the phase boundary between the free flow and jam flow phases, where the flow becomes maximum. The validity of this phase boundary has been confirmed by simulations.

  15. Investigation on the Practicality of Developing Reduced Thermal Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lombardi, Giancarlo; Yang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the spacecraft design and development process, detailed instrument thermal models are created to simulate their on-orbit behavior and to ensure that they do not exceed any thermal limits. These detailed models, while generating highly accurate predictions, can sometimes lead to long simulation run times, especially when integrated with a spacecraft observatory model. Therefore, reduced models containing less detail are typically produced in tandem with the detailed models so that results may be more readily available, albeit less accurate. In the current study, both reduced and detailed instrument models are integrated with their associated spacecraft bus models to examine the impact of instrument model reduction on run time and accuracy. Preexisting instrument bus thermal model pairs from several projects were used to determine trends between detailed and reduced thermal models; namely, the Mirror Optical Bench (MOB) on the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) spacecraft, Advanced Topography Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) on the Ice, Cloud, and Elevation Satellite 2 (ICESat-2), and the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE). Hot and cold cases were run for each model to capture the behavior of the models at both thermal extremes. It was found that, though decreasing the number of nodes from a detailed to reduced model brought about a reduction in the run-time, a large time savings was not observed, nor was it a linear relationship between the percentage of nodes reduced and time saved. However, significant losses in accuracy were observed with greater model reduction. It was found that while reduced models are useful in decreasing run time, there exists a threshold of reduction where, once exceeded, the loss in accuracy outweighs the benefit from reduced model runtime.

  16. An algebraic turbulence model for three-dimensional viscous flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, R. V.; Giel, P. W.; Boyle, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    An algebraic turbulence model is proposed for use with three-dimensional Navier-Stokes analyses. It incorporates features of both the Baldwin-Lomax and Cebeci-Smith models. The Baldwin-Lomax model uses the maximum of a function f(y) to determine length and velocity scales. An analysis of the Baldwin-Lomax model shows that f(y) can have a spurious maximum close to the wall, causing numerical problems and non-physical results. The proposed model uses integral relations to determine delta(*) u(sub e) and delta used in the Cebeci-Smith mode. It eliminates a constant in the Baldwin-Lomax model and determines the two remaining constants by comparison to the Cebeci-Smith formulation. Pressure gradient effects, a new wake model, and the implementation of these features in a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code are also described. Results are shown for a flat plate boundary layer, an annular turbine cascade, and endwall heat transfer in a linear turbine cascade. The heat transfer results agree well with experimental data which shows large variations in endwall Stanton number contours with Reynolds number.

  17. Tipping Points in 1-Dimensional Schelling Models with Switching Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmpalias, George; Elwes, Richard; Lewis-Pye, Andy

    2015-02-01

    Schelling's spacial proximity model was an early agent-based model, illustrating how ethnic segregation can emerge, unwanted, from the actions of citizens acting according to individual local preferences. Here a 1-dimensional unperturbed variant is studied under switching agent dynamics, interpretable as being open in that agents may enter and exit the model. Following the authors' work (Barmpalias et al., FOCS, 2014) and that of Brandt et al. (Proceedings of the 44th ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC 2012), 2012), rigorous asymptotic results are established. The dynamic allows either type to take over almost everywhere. Tipping points are identified between the regions of takeover and staticity. In a generalization of the models considered in [1] and [3], the model's parameters comprise the initial proportions of the two types, along with independent values of the tolerance for each type. This model comprises a 1-dimensional spin-1 model with spin dependent external field, as well as providing an example of cascading behaviour within a network.

  18. On multiscale approaches to three-dimensional modelling of morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, R; Huang, C; Kazmierczak, B; Schneider, T; Izaguirre, J.A; Glimm, T; Hentschel, H.G.E; Glazier, J.A; Newman, S.A; Alber, M.S

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present the foundation of a unified, object-oriented, three-dimensional biomodelling environment, which allows us to integrate multiple submodels at scales from subcellular to those of tissues and organs. Our current implementation combines a modified discrete model from statistical mechanics, the Cellular Potts Model, with a continuum reaction–diffusion model and a state automaton with well-defined conditions for cell differentiation transitions to model genetic regulation. This environment allows us to rapidly and compactly create computational models of a class of complex-developmental phenomena. To illustrate model development, we simulate a simplified version of the formation of the skeletal pattern in a growing embryonic vertebrate limb. PMID:16849182

  19. Three-dimensional numerical model for soil vapor extraction.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van Thinh; Zhao, Lian; Zytner, Richard G

    2013-04-01

    Mass transfer limitations impact the effectiveness of soil vapor extraction (SVE) and cause tailing. In order to identify the governing mass transfer processes, a three-dimensional SVE numerical model was developed. The developed model was based on Comsol Multiphysics a finite element method that incorporates multi-phase flow, multi-component transport and non-equilibrium transient mass transfer. Model calibration was done against experimental data from previously completed lab-scale reactor experiments. The developed model, 3D-SVE, nicely simulates laboratory findings and allows for changes in the important governing mass transfer relationships. The modeling results showed that a single averaged mass transfer value is a poor representation of the entire SVE operation, and that a transient mass transfer coefficient is required to fully represent SVE tailing. Calibration of the lab scale model showed that the most important mass transfer occurs between the NAPL and vapor phase.

  20. Three-dimensional thermochemical nonequilibrium flow modeling for hypersonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, L. T.; Li, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    A three-dimensional thermochemical nonequilibrium model has been developed and applied to the study of entry flows surrounding space vehicles. The model accounts for both chemical and vibrational nonequilibrium phenomena behind the bow shock. The thermodynamic state of a real gas is modeled with a translational-rotational temperature and a electron-vibrational temperature. Their internal energies are averaged to determine the temperature used in the reaction rates calculation. In order to establish the validity of the selected models, both one- and two-temperature models with seven and/or eleven species were investigated. Several numerical experiments that include a sphere, the RAMC vehicle and 3D AFE forebody flows were performed. Preliminary results were compared with RAMC-II experimental data. Good agreement was obtained after a two-temperature model with eleven species and thirty reactions was incorporated into the study.

  1. Rigorous valid ranges for optimally reduced kinetic models

    SciTech Connect

    Oluwole, Oluwayemisi O.; Bhattacharjee, Binita; Tolsma, John E.; Barton, Paul I.; Green, William H.

    2006-07-15

    Reduced chemical kinetic models are often used in place of a detailed mechanism because of the computational expense of solving the complete set of equations describing the reacting system. Mathematical methods for model reduction are usually associated with a nominal set of reaction conditions for which the model is reduced. The important effects of variability in these nominal conditions are often ignored because there is no convenient way to deal with them. In this work, we introduce a method to identify rigorous valid ranges for reduced models; i.e., the reduced models are guaranteed to replicate the full model to within an error tolerance under all conditions in the identified valid range. Previous methods have estimated valid ranges using a limited set of variables (usually temperature and a few species compositions) and cannot guarantee that the reduced model is accurate at all points in the estimated range. The new method is demonstrated by identifying valid ranges for models reduced from the GRI-Mech 3.0 mechanism with 53 species and 325 reactions, and a truncated propane mechanism with 94 species and 505 reactions based on the comprehensive mechanism of Marinov et al. A library of reduced models is also generated for several prespecified ranges composing a desired state space. The use of these reduced models with error control in reacting flow simulations is demonstrated through an Adaptive Chemistry example. By using the reduced models in the simulation only when they are valid the Adaptive Chemistry solution matches the solution obtained using the detailed mechanism. (author)

  2. Signatures from an extra-dimensional seesaw model

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, Mattias; Melbeus, Henrik; Ohlsson, Tommy; Zhang He

    2010-08-15

    We study the generation of small neutrino masses in an extra-dimensional model, where singlet fermions are allowed to propagate in the extra dimension, while the standard model particles are confined to a brane. Motivated by the fact that extra-dimensional models are nonrenormalizable, we truncate the Kaluza-Klein towers at a maximal Kaluza-Klein number. This truncation, together with the structure of the bulk Majorana mass term, motivated by the Sherk-Schwarz mechanism, implies that the Kaluza-Klein modes of the singlet fermions pair to form Dirac fermions, except for a number of unpaired Majorana fermions at the top of each tower. These heavy Majorana fermions are the only sources of lepton number breaking in the model, and similarly to the type-I seesaw mechanism, they naturally generate small masses for the left-handed neutrinos. The lower Kaluza-Klein modes mix with the light neutrinos, and the mixing effects are not suppressed with respect to the light-neutrino masses. Compared to conventional fermionic seesaw models, such mixing can be more significant. We study the signals of this model at the Large Hadron Collider, and find that the current low-energy bounds on the nonunitarity of the leptonic mixing matrix are strong enough to exclude an observation.

  3. Three-dimensional Model of Tissue and Heavy Ions Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, Artem L.; Sundaresan, Alamelu; Huff, Janice L.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional tissue model was incorporated into a new Monte Carlo algorithm that simulates passage of heavy ions in a tissue box . The tissue box was given as a realistic model of tissue based on confocal microscopy images. The action of heavy ions on the cellular matrix for 2- or 3-dimensional cases was simulated. Cells were modeled as a cell culture monolayer in one example, where the data were taken directly from microscopy (2-d cell matrix), and as a multi-layer obtained from confocal microscopy (3-d case). Image segmentation was used to identify cells with precise areas/volumes in an irradiated cell culture monolayer, and slices of tissue with many cell layers. The cells were then inserted into the model box of the simulated physical space pixel by pixel. In the case of modeled tissues (3-d), the tissue box had periodic boundary conditions imposed, which extrapolates the technique to macroscopic volumes of tissue. For the real tissue (3-d), specific spatial patterns for cell apoptosis and necrosis are expected. The cell patterns were modeled based on action cross sections for apoptosis and necrosis estimated from current experimental data. A spatial correlation function indicating a higher spatial concentration of damaged cells from heavy ions relative to the low-LET radiation cell damage pattern is presented. The spatial correlation effects among necrotic cells can help studying microlesions in organs, and probable effects of directionality of heavy ion radiation on epithelium and endothelium.

  4. One-dimensional nonlinear elastodynamic models and their local conservation laws with applications to biological membranes.

    PubMed

    Cheviakov, A F; Ganghoffer, J-F

    2016-05-01

    The framework of incompressible nonlinear hyperelasticity and viscoelasticity is applied to the derivation of one-dimensional models of nonlinear wave propagation in fiber-reinforced elastic solids. Equivalence transformations are used to simplify the resulting wave equations and to reduce the number of parameters. Local conservation laws and global conserved quantities of the models are systematically computed and discussed, along with other related mathematical properties. Sample numerical solutions are presented. The models considered in the paper are appropriate for the mathematical description of certain aspects of the behavior of biological membranes and similar structures. PMID:26410196

  5. One-dimensional nonlinear elastodynamic models and their local conservation laws with applications to biological membranes.

    PubMed

    Cheviakov, A F; Ganghoffer, J-F

    2016-05-01

    The framework of incompressible nonlinear hyperelasticity and viscoelasticity is applied to the derivation of one-dimensional models of nonlinear wave propagation in fiber-reinforced elastic solids. Equivalence transformations are used to simplify the resulting wave equations and to reduce the number of parameters. Local conservation laws and global conserved quantities of the models are systematically computed and discussed, along with other related mathematical properties. Sample numerical solutions are presented. The models considered in the paper are appropriate for the mathematical description of certain aspects of the behavior of biological membranes and similar structures.

  6. A Multi-Dimensional Classification Model for Scientific Workflow Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakrishnan, Lavanya; Plale, Beth

    2010-04-05

    Workflows have been used to model repeatable tasks or operations in manufacturing, business process, and software. In recent years, workflows are increasingly used for orchestration of science discovery tasks that use distributed resources and web services environments through resource models such as grid and cloud computing. Workflows have disparate re uirements and constraints that affects how they might be managed in distributed environments. In this paper, we present a multi-dimensional classification model illustrated by workflow examples obtained through a survey of scientists from different domains including bioinformatics and biomedical, weather and ocean modeling, astronomy detailing their data and computational requirements. The survey results and classification model contribute to the high level understandingof scientific workflows.

  7. Three Dimensional Modeling of an MRI Actuated Steerable Catheter System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Taoming; Cavuşoğlu, M Cenk

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the three dimensional kinematic modeling of a novel steerable robotic ablation catheter system. The catheter, embedded with a set of current-carrying micro-coils, is actuated by the magnetic forces generated by the magnetic field of the MRI scanner. This paper develops a 3D model of the MRI actuated steerable catheter system by using finite differences approach. For each finite segment, a quasi-static torque-deflection equilibrium equation is calculated using beam theory. By using the deflection displacements and torsion angles, the kinematic modeling of the catheter system is derived. The proposed models are evaluated by comparing the simulation results of the proposed model with the experimental results of a proof-of-concept prototype. PMID:25328804

  8. Two-Dimensional Quantum Model of a Nanotransistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Govindan, T. R.; Biegel, B.; Svizhenko, A.; Anantram, M. P.

    2009-01-01

    A mathematical model, and software to implement the model, have been devised to enable numerical simulation of the transport of electric charge in, and the resulting electrical performance characteristics of, a nanotransistor [in particular, a metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) having a channel length of the order of tens of nanometers] in which the overall device geometry, including the doping profiles and the injection of charge from the source, gate, and drain contacts, are approximated as being two-dimensional. The model and software constitute a computational framework for quantitatively exploring such device-physics issues as those of source-drain and gate leakage currents, drain-induced barrier lowering, and threshold voltage shift due to quantization. The model and software can also be used as means of studying the accuracy of quantum corrections to other semiclassical models.

  9. The NASA Ames Research Center one- and two-dimensional stratospheric models. Part 2: The two-dimensional model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, R. C.; Borucki, W. J.; Watson, V. R.; Shimazaki, T.; Woodward, H. T.; Riegel, C. A.; Capone, L. A.; Becker, T.

    1977-01-01

    The two-dimensional model of stratospheric constituents is presented in detail. The derivation of pertinent transport parameters and the numerical solution of the species continuity equations, including a technique for treating the stiff differential equations that represent the chemical kinetic terms, and appropriate methods for simulating the diurnal variations of the solar zenith angle and species concentrations are discussed. Predicted distributions of tracer constituents (ozone, carbon 14, nitric acid) are compared with observed distributions.

  10. Mode specificity in the OH + CHD3 reaction: Reduced-dimensional quantum and quasi-classical studies on an ab initio based full-dimensional potential energy surface.

    PubMed

    Song, Hongwei; Lu, Yunpeng; Li, Jun; Yang, Minghui; Guo, Hua

    2016-04-28

    An initial state selected time-dependent wave packet method is applied to study the dynamics of the OH + CHD3 reaction with a six-dimensional model on a newly developed full-dimensional ab initio potential energy surface (PES). This quantum dynamical (QD) study is complemented by full-dimensional quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations on the same PES. The QD results indicate that both translational energy and the excitation of the CH stretching mode significantly promote the reaction while the excitation of the umbrella mode has a negligible effect on the reactivity. For this early barrier reaction, interestingly, the CH stretching mode is more effective than translational energy in promoting the reaction except at very low collision energies. These QD observations are supported by QCT results. The higher efficacy of the CH stretching model in promoting this early barrier reaction is inconsistent with the prediction of the naively extended Polanyi's rules, but can be rationalized by the recently proposed sudden vector projection model.

  11. Nonparametric Independence Screening in Sparse Ultra-High Dimensional Additive Models.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianqing; Feng, Yang; Song, Rui

    2011-06-01

    A variable screening procedure via correlation learning was proposed in Fan and Lv (2008) to reduce dimensionality in sparse ultra-high dimensional models. Even when the true model is linear, the marginal regression can be highly nonlinear. To address this issue, we further extend the correlation learning to marginal nonparametric learning. Our nonparametric independence screening is called NIS, a specific member of the sure independence screening. Several closely related variable screening procedures are proposed. Under general nonparametric models, it is shown that under some mild technical conditions, the proposed independence screening methods enjoy a sure screening property. The extent to which the dimensionality can be reduced by independence screening is also explicitly quantified. As a methodological extension, a data-driven thresholding and an iterative nonparametric independence screening (INIS) are also proposed to enhance the finite sample performance for fitting sparse additive models. The simulation results and a real data analysis demonstrate that the proposed procedure works well with moderate sample size and large dimension and performs better than competing methods.

  12. Reduced order modeling of the Newton formulation of MODFLOW to solve unconfined groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, Scott E.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Yeh, William W.-G.

    2015-09-01

    Projection-based model reduction techniques have been shown to be very effective for reducing the computational burden of high-dimensional groundwater simulations, but only applied to confined groundwater flow. A new methodology is proposed that reduces the dimension of a discretized, transient, unconfined groundwater-flow model. This unconfined model reduction technique is based on Galerkin projection and the Newton formulation of MODFLOW. The method is implemented following the standard package design and code structure that MODFLOW employs for all its features. When the package is invoked within MODFLOW it can collect snapshots, produce a basis, construct the reduced model and propagate the reduced model forward in time. The new formulation accurately represents the water-table surface under a variety of nonlinear settings, such as intraborehole flow from a Multi-Node Well. The unconfined model reduction is applied to four test cases to illustrate its flexibility in handling nonlinear features. Several test cases are discussed to demonstrate the unconfined model reduction applicability. The final test case applies the new model reduction methodology to a scoping MODFLOW model of Santa Barbara, CA composed of 113,578 cells, which requires solving 113,578 equations per time step, and reduces it to 127 equations.

  13. Three-dimensional face model reproduction method using multiview images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashima, Yoshio; Agawa, Hiroshi; Kishino, Fumio

    1991-11-01

    This paper describes a method of reproducing three-dimensional face models using multi-view images for a virtual space teleconferencing system that achieves a realistic visual presence for teleconferencing. The goal of this research, as an integral component of a virtual space teleconferencing system, is to generate a three-dimensional face model from facial images, synthesize images of the model virtually viewed from different angles, and with natural shadow to suit the lighting conditions of the virtual space. The proposed method is as follows: first, front and side view images of the human face are taken by TV cameras. The 3D data of facial feature points are obtained from front- and side-views by an image processing technique based on the color, shape, and correlation of face components. Using these 3D data, the prepared base face models, representing typical Japanese male and female faces, are modified to approximate the input facial image. The personal face model, representing the individual character, is then reproduced. Next, an oblique view image is taken by TV camera. The feature points of the oblique view image are extracted using the same image processing technique. A more precise personal model is reproduced by fitting the boundary of the personal face model to the boundary of the oblique view image. The modified boundary of the personal face model is determined by using face direction, namely rotation angle, which is detected based on the extracted feature points. After the 3D model is established, the new images are synthesized by mapping facial texture onto the model.

  14. Goldilocks models of higher-dimensional inflation (including modulus stabilization)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, C. P.; Enns, Jared J. H.; Hayman, Peter; Patil, Subodh P.

    2016-08-01

    We explore the mechanics of inflation within simplified extra-dimensional models involving an inflaton interacting with the Einstein-Maxwell system in two extra dimensions. The models are Goldilocks-like inasmuch as they are just complicated enough to include a mechanism to stabilize the extra-dimensional size (or modulus), yet simple enough to solve explicitly the full extra-dimensional field equations using only simple tools. The solutions are not restricted to the effective 4D regime with H ll mKK (the latter referring to the characteristic mass splitting of the Kaluza-Klein excitations) because the full extra-dimensional Einstein equations are solved. This allows an exploration of inflationary physics in a controlled calculational regime away from the usual four-dimensional lamp-post. The inclusion of modulus stabilization is important because experience with string models teaches that this is usually what makes models fail: stabilization energies easily dominate the shallow potentials required by slow roll and so open up directions to evolve that are steeper than those of the putative inflationary direction. We explore (numerically and analytically) three representative kinds of inflationary scenarios within this simple setup. In one the radion is trapped in an inflaton-dependent local minimum whose non-zero energy drives inflation. Inflation ends as this energy relaxes to zero when the inflaton finds its own minimum. The other two involve power-law scaling solutions during inflation. One of these is a dynamical attractor whose features are relatively insensitive to initial conditions but whose slow-roll parameters cannot be arbitrarily small; the other is not an attractor but can roll much more slowly, until eventually transitioning to the attractor. The scaling solutions can satisfy H > mKK, but when they do standard 4D fluctuation calculations need not apply. When in a 4D regime the solutions predict η simeq 0 and so r simeq 0.11 when ns simeq 0.96 and so

  15. One-dimensional Hubbard-Luttinger model for carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishkhanyan, H. A.; Krainov, V. P.

    2015-06-01

    A Hubbard-Luttinger model is developed for qualitative description of one-dimensional motion of interacting Pi-conductivity-electrons in carbon single-wall nanotubes at low temperatures. The low-lying excitations in one-dimensional electron gas are described in terms of interacting bosons. The Bogolyubov transformation allows one to describe the system as an ensemble of non-interacting quasi-bosons. Operators of Fermi excitations and Green functions of fermions are introduced. The electric current is derived as a function of potential difference on the contact between a nanotube and a normal metal. Deviations from Ohm law produced by electron-electron short-range repulsion as well as by the transverse quantization in single-wall nanotubes are discussed. The results are compared with experimental data.

  16. Reduced-order spectral data modeling based on local proper orthogonal decomposition.

    PubMed

    Cho, Woon; Sahyoun, Samir; Djouadi, Seddik M; Koschan, Andreas; Abidi, Mongi A

    2015-05-01

    Spectral imaging typically generates a large amount of high-dimensional data that are acquired in different sub-bands for each spatial location of interest. The high dimensionality of spectral data imposes limitations on numerical analysis. As such, there is an emerging demand for robust data compression techniques with loss of less relevant information to manage real spectral data. In this paper, we describe a reduced-order data modeling technique based on local proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) in order to compute low-dimensional models by projecting high-dimensional clusters onto subspaces spanned by local reduced-order bases. We refer to the proposed method as the local-based approach because POD finds locally optimal solutions on each group split by k-means clustering. Experimental results are reported on three public domain databases and an in-house database. Comparisons with three leading spectral recovery techniques, three decomposition techniques used for hyperspectral imaging, and two baseline techniques show that the proposed method leads to promising improvement on spectral and colorimetric accuracy corresponding to the reconstructed spectral reflectance. PMID:26366895

  17. Reduced-order spectral data modeling based on local proper orthogonal decomposition.

    PubMed

    Cho, Woon; Sahyoun, Samir; Djouadi, Seddik M; Koschan, Andreas; Abidi, Mongi A

    2015-05-01

    Spectral imaging typically generates a large amount of high-dimensional data that are acquired in different sub-bands for each spatial location of interest. The high dimensionality of spectral data imposes limitations on numerical analysis. As such, there is an emerging demand for robust data compression techniques with loss of less relevant information to manage real spectral data. In this paper, we describe a reduced-order data modeling technique based on local proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) in order to compute low-dimensional models by projecting high-dimensional clusters onto subspaces spanned by local reduced-order bases. We refer to the proposed method as the local-based approach because POD finds locally optimal solutions on each group split by k-means clustering. Experimental results are reported on three public domain databases and an in-house database. Comparisons with three leading spectral recovery techniques, three decomposition techniques used for hyperspectral imaging, and two baseline techniques show that the proposed method leads to promising improvement on spectral and colorimetric accuracy corresponding to the reconstructed spectral reflectance.

  18. Numerical study on a canonized Hamiltonian system representing reduced magnetohydrodynamics and its comparison with two-dimensional Euler system

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Yuta; Yoshida, Zensho

    2014-03-15

    Introducing a Clebsch-like parameterization, we have formulated a canonical Hamiltonian system on a symplectic leaf of reduced magnetohydrodynamics. An interesting structure of the equations is in that the Lorentz-force, which is a quadratic nonlinear term in the conventional formulation, appears as a linear term −ΔQ, just representing the current density (Q is a Clebsch variable, and Δ is the two-dimensional Laplacian); omitting this term reduces the system into the two-dimensional Euler vorticity equation of a neutral fluid. A heuristic estimate shows that current sheets grow exponentially (even in a fully nonlinear regime) together with the action variable P that is conjugate to Q. By numerical simulation, the predicted behavior of the canonical variables, yielding exponential growth of current sheets, has been demonstrated.

  19. Rotational excitation of H2O by para-H2 from an adiabatically reduced dimensional potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scribano, Yohann; Faure, Alexandre; Lauvergnat, David

    2012-03-01

    Cross sections and rate coefficients for low lying rotational transitions in H2O colliding with para-hydrogen pH2 are computed using an adiabatic approximation which reduces the dimensional dynamics from a 5D to a 3D problem. Calculations have been performed at the close-coupling level using the recent potential of Valiron et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 129, 134306 (2008), 10.1063/1.2988314]. A good agreement is found between the reduced adiabatic calculations and the 5D exact calculations, with an impressive time saving and memory gain. This adiabatic reduction of dimensionality seems very promising for scattering studies involving the excitation of a heavy target molecule by a light molecular projectile.

  20. Reduced modeling of signal transduction – a modular approach

    PubMed Central

    Koschorreck, Markus; Conzelmann, Holger; Ebert, Sybille; Ederer, Michael; Gilles, Ernst Dieter

    2007-01-01

    Background Combinatorial complexity is a challenging problem in detailed and mechanistic mathematical modeling of signal transduction. This subject has been discussed intensively and a lot of progress has been made within the last few years. A software tool (BioNetGen) was developed which allows an automatic rule-based set-up of mechanistic model equations. In many cases these models can be reduced by an exact domain-oriented lumping technique. However, the resulting models can still consist of a very large number of differential equations. Results We introduce a new reduction technique, which allows building modularized and highly reduced models. Compared to existing approaches further reduction of signal transduction networks is possible. The method also provides a new modularization criterion, which allows to dissect the model into smaller modules that are called layers and can be modeled independently. Hallmarks of the approach are conservation relations within each layer and connection of layers by signal flows instead of mass flows. The reduced model can be formulated directly without previous generation of detailed model equations. It can be understood and interpreted intuitively, as model variables are macroscopic quantities that are converted by rates following simple kinetics. The proposed technique is applicable without using complex mathematical tools and even without detailed knowledge of the mathematical background. However, we provide a detailed mathematical analysis to show performance and limitations of the method. For physiologically relevant parameter domains the transient as well as the stationary errors caused by the reduction are negligible. Conclusion The new layer based reduced modeling method allows building modularized and strongly reduced models of signal transduction networks. Reduced model equations can be directly formulated and are intuitively interpretable. Additionally, the method provides very good approximations especially for

  1. Two-dimensional numerical modeling of the Rheasilvia impact formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, B. A.; Melosh, H. J.

    2013-07-01

    We numerically modeled the formation of Rheasilvia crater, an enormous impact basin centered on asteroid 4 Vesta's south pole. Using a trial and error method, our models were adjusted to produce the best possible fit to Rheasilvia's size and shape, as observed during the Vesta orbital stage of the Dawn mission. The final model yields estimates of the shock wave decay, escaped material volume, depth of excavation, and other relevant characteristics, to the extent allowed by the two-dimensional (axially symmetric) approximation of the Simplified Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian hydrocode. Our model results permit interpretation of the Dawn data on Vesta's shape, topographic crater profiles, and the origin of the Vestoid asteroid family as escaped ejecta from the Rheasilvia crater.

  2. Error Estimation for Reduced Order Models of Dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Homescu, C; Petzold, L R; Serban, R

    2003-12-16

    The use of reduced order models to describe a dynamical system is pervasive in science and engineering. Often these models are used without an estimate of their error or range of validity. In this paper we consider dynamical systems and reduced models built using proper orthogonal decomposition. We show how to compute estimates and bounds for these errors, by a combination of the small sample statistical condition estimation method and of error estimation using the adjoint method. More importantly, the proposed approach allows the assessment of so-called regions of validity for reduced models, i.e., ranges of perturbations in the original system over which the reduced model is still appropriate. This question is particularly important for applications in which reduced models are used not just to approximate the solution to the system that provided the data used in constructing the reduced model, but rather to approximate the solution of systems perturbed from the original one. Numerical examples validate our approach: the error norm estimates approximate well the forward error while the derived bounds are within an order of magnitude.

  3. The Reduced RUM as a Logit Model: Parameterization and Constraints.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chia-Yi; Köhn, Hans-Friedrich

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs) for educational assessment are constrained latent class models. Examinees are assigned to classes of intellectual proficiency defined in terms of cognitive skills called attributes, which an examinee may or may not have mastered. The Reduced Reparameterized Unified Model (Reduced RUM) has received considerable attention among psychometricians. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) or Expectation Maximization (EM) are typically used for estimating the Reduced RUM. Commercial implementations of the EM algorithm are available in the latent class analysis (LCA) routines of Latent GOLD and Mplus, for example. Fitting the Reduced RUM with an LCA routine requires that it be reparameterized as a logit model, with constraints imposed on the parameters. For models involving two attributes, these have been worked out. However, for models involving more than two attributes, the parameterization and the constraints are nontrivial and currently unknown. In this article, the general parameterization of the Reduced RUM as a logit model involving any number of attributes and the associated parameter constraints are derived. As a practical illustration, the LCA routine in Mplus is used for fitting the Reduced RUM to two synthetic data sets and to a real-world data set; for comparison, the results obtained by using the MCMC implementation in OpenBUGS are also provided.

  4. A 2-dimensional model of the Venus ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    McGary, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Pioneer Venus observations show a peak in the O{sub 2}{sup +} concentration at {approx}170 km altitude in the dayside ionosphere of Venus. In this thesis, the 2-dimensional MHD equations are solved in a self-consistent manner, as an extension to the 1-dimensional model by Cloutier et al. (1987), to present a global model of the Venus dayside ionosphere for solar zenith angles (SZA) {le} 60{degree}. The model describes, by calculating vertical profiles at different SZA, ion densities, magnetic field magnitudes, and ion velocities. The model shows that the O{sub 2}{sup +} peak, at {approx}170 km altitude, occurs throughout the dayside ionosphere as observed by the Orbiter Ion Mass Spectrometer (OIMS). The velocity field, which affects the ion distributions, is mainly tangential near the ionopause and radial for altitudes below 200 km. The downward flow accelerates, near 170 km altitude, due to collisional interactions with the neutral atmosphere, and removes the O{sub 2}{sup +} densities to lower altitudes, thus, producing the bump observed in the altitude profile.

  5. Three-dimensional Myoblast Aggregates--Effects of Modeled Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byerly, Diane; Sognier, M. A.; Marquette, M. L.

    2006-01-01

    The overall objective of these studies is to elucidate the molecular and cellular alterations that contribute to muscle atrophy in astronauts caused by exposure to microgravity conditions in space. To accomplish this, a three-dimensional model test system was developed using mouse myoblast cells (C2C12). Myoblast cells were grown as three-dimensional aggregates (without scaffolding or other solid support structures) in both modeled microgravity (Rotary Cell Culture System, Synthecon, Inc.) and at unit gravity in coated Petri dishes. Evaluation of H&E stained thin sections of the aggregates revealed the absence of any necrosis. Confocal microscopy evaluations of cells stained with the Live/Dead assay (Molecular Probes) confirmed that viable cells were present throughout the aggregates with an average of only three dead cells observed per aggregate. Preliminary results from gene array analysis (Affymetrix chip U74Av2) showed that approximately 14% of the genes were down regulated (decreased more than 3 fold) and 4% were upregulated in cells exposed to modeled microgravity for 12 hours compared to unit gravity controls. Additional studies using fluorescent phallacidin revealed a decrease in F-actin in the cells exposed to modeled microgravity compared to unit gravity. Myoblast cells grown as aggregates in modeled microgravity exhibited spontaneous differentiation into syncitia while no differentiation was seen in the unit gravity controls. These studies show that 1)the model test system developed is suitable for assessing cellular and molecular alterations in myoblasts; 2) gene expression alterations occur rapidly (within 12 hours) following exposure to modeled microgravity; and 3) modeled microgravity conditions stimulated myoblast cell differentiation. Achieving a greater understanding of the molecular alterations leading to muscle atrophy will eventually enable the development of cell-based countermeasures, which may be valuable for treatment of muscle diseases on

  6. Reduced Order Models for Fluid-Structure Interaction Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, Daniele

    With the advent of active flow control devices for regulating the structural responses of systems involving fluid-structure interaction phenomena, there is a growing need of efficient models that can be used to control the system. The first step is then to be able to model the system in an efficient way based on reduced-order models. This is needed so that accurate predictions of the system evolution could be performed in a fast manner, ideally in real time. However, existing reduced-order models of fluid-structure interaction phenomena that provide closed-form solutions are applicable to only a limited set of scenarios while for real applications high-fidelity experiments or numerical simulations are required, which are unsuitable as efficient or reduced-order models. This thesis proposes a novel reduced-order and efficient model for fluid-structure interaction phenomena. The model structure employed is such that it is generic for different fluid-structure interaction problems. Based on this structure, the model is first built for a given fluid-structure interaction problem based on a database generated through high-fidelity numerical simulations while it can subsequently be used to predict the structural response over a wide set of flow conditions for the fluid-structure interaction problem at hand. The model is tested on two cases: a cylinder suspended in a low Reynolds number flow that includes the lock-in region and an airfoil subjected to plunge oscillations in a high Reynolds number regime. For each case, in addition to training profile we also present validation profiles that are used to determine the performance of the reduced-order model. The reduced-order model devised in this study proved to be an effective and efficient modeling method for fluid-structure interaction phenomena and it shown its applicability in very different kind of scenarios.

  7. REDUCING THE DIMENSIONALITY OF DATA: LOCALLY LINEAR EMBEDDING OF SLOAN GALAXY SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderplas, Jake; Connolly, Andrew

    2009-11-15

    We introduce locally linear embedding (LLE) to the astronomical community as a new classification technique, using Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra as an example data set. LLE is a nonlinear dimensionality reduction technique that has been studied in the context of computer perception. We compare the performance of LLE to well-known spectral classification techniques, e.g., principal component analysis and line-ratio diagnostics. We find that LLE combines the strengths of both methods in a single, coherent technique, and leads to improved classification of emission-line spectra at a relatively small computational cost. We also present a data subsampling technique that preserves local information content, and proves effective for creating small, efficient training samples from large, high-dimensional data sets. Software used in this LLE-based classification is made available.

  8. Adaptive tracking for complex systems using reduced-order models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carignan, Craig R.

    1990-01-01

    Reduced-order models are considered in the context of parameter adaptive controllers for tracking workspace trajectories. A dual-arm manipulation task is used to illustrate the methodology and provide simulation results. A parameter adaptive controller is designed to track the desired position trajectory of a payload using a four-parameter model instead of a full-order, nine-parameter model. Several simulations with different payload-to-arm mass ratios are used to illustrate the capabilities of the reduced-order model in tracking the desired trajectory.

  9. Generation of animation sequences of three dimensional models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poi, Sharon (Inventor); Bell, Brad N. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The invention is directed toward a method and apparatus for generating an animated sequence through the movement of three-dimensional graphical models. A plurality of pre-defined graphical models are stored and manipulated in response to interactive commands or by means of a pre-defined command file. The models may be combined as part of a hierarchical structure to represent physical systems without need to create a separate model which represents the combined system. System motion is simulated through the introduction of translation, rotation and scaling parameters upon a model within the system. The motion is then transmitted down through the system hierarchy of models in accordance with hierarchical definitions and joint movement limitations. The present invention also calls for a method of editing hierarchical structure in response to interactive commands or a command file such that a model may be included, deleted, copied or moved within multiple system model hierarchies. The present invention also calls for the definition of multiple viewpoints or cameras which may exist as part of a system hierarchy or as an independent camera. The simulated movement of the models and systems is graphically displayed on a monitor and a frame is recorded by means of a video controller. Multiple movement and hierarchy manipulations are then recorded as a sequence of frames which may be played back as an animation sequence on a video cassette recorder.

  10. Three-dimensional high-resolution plasma bubble modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki; Jin, Hidekatsu

    Equatorial plasma bubble (EPB) is a well-known phenomenon in the equatorial ionospheric F region. As it causes severe scintillation in the amplitude and phase of radio signals, it is important to understand and forecast the occurrence of EPB from a space weather point of view. The development of EPB is known as a evolution of the generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Numerical modelings of the instability on the equatorial two-dimensional plane have been conducted since the late 1970's, and the nonlinear evolution of the instability has been clearly presented. Recently, three-dimensional (3D) modelings became popular tools for further understanding of the development of EPB such as 3D structure of EPB, meridional wind effects and gravity wave seeding. One of the biggest advantages of the 3D model is that the off-equatorial E region which is coupled with the equatorial F region can be included in the model. It is known from observations that the conductance of the off-equatorial E region controls the growth rate of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, that is, sudden decrease of the E-region conductance around the sunset accelerates the evolution of the instability. We have developed a new 3D high-resolution model for EPB, and studied internal structure of EPB and the contribution of the off-equatorial E region. As it is necessary to use high-order numerical schemes to capture sharp plasma density gradient of EPB, we adopted the CIP scheme which can keep the third-order accuracy in time and space. The simulated EPB has asymmetrical density gradients at east and west walls, and the growth rate changes significantly depending on the condition of the off-equatorial E region. In the future, we will integrate the high-resolution model into whole atmosphere-ionosphere coupled model (GAIA) to study the growth of EPB under the realistic background conditions.

  11. A comparison of two- and three-dimensional stochastic models of regional solute movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shapiro, A.M.; Cvetkovic, V.D.

    1990-01-01

    Recent models of solute movement in porous media that are based on a stochastic description of the porous medium properties have been dedicated primarily to a three-dimensional interpretation of solute movement. In many practical problems, however, it is more convenient and consistent with measuring techniques to consider flow and solute transport as an areal, two-dimensional phenomenon. The physics of solute movement, however, is dependent on the three-dimensional heterogeneity in the formation. A comparison of two- and three-dimensional stochastic interpretations of solute movement in a porous medium having a statistically isotropic hydraulic conductivity field is investigated. To provide an equitable comparison between the two- and three-dimensional analyses, the stochastic properties of the transmissivity are defined in terms of the stochastic properties of the hydraulic conductivity. The variance of the transmissivity is shown to be significantly reduced in comparison to that of the hydraulic conductivity, and the transmissivity is spatially correlated over larger distances. These factors influence the two-dimensional interpretations of solute movement by underestimating the longitudinal and transverse growth of the solute plume in comparison to its description as a three-dimensional phenomenon. Although this analysis is based on small perturbation approximations and the special case of a statistically isotropic hydraulic conductivity field, it casts doubt on the use of a stochastic interpretation of the transmissivity in describing regional scale movement. However, by assuming the transmissivity to be the vertical integration of the hydraulic conductivity field at a given position, the stochastic properties of the hydraulic conductivity can be estimated from the stochastic properties of the transmissivity and applied to obtain a more accurate interpretation of solute movement. ?? 1990 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  12. Ion binding sites and their representations by reduced models.

    PubMed

    Roux, Benoît

    2012-06-14

    The binding of small metal ions to complex macromolecular structures is typically dominated by strong local interactions of the ion with its nearest ligands. Progress in understanding the molecular determinants of ion selectivity can often be achieved by considering simplified reduced models comprised of only the most important ion-coordinating ligands. Although the main ingredients underlying simplified reduced models are intuitively clear, a formal statistical mechanical treatment is nonetheless necessary in order to draw meaningful conclusions about complex macromolecular systems. By construction, reduced models only treat the ion and the nearest coordinating ligands explicitly. The influence of the missing atoms from the protein or the solvent is incorporated indirectly. Quasi-chemical theory offers one example of how to carry out such a separation in the case of ion solvation in bulk liquids, and in several ways, a statistical mechanical formulation of reduced binding site models for macromolecules is expected to follow a similar route. However, there are also important differences when the ion-coordinating moieties are not solvent molecules from a bulk phase but are molecular ligands covalently bonded to a macromolecular structure. Here, a statistical mechanical formulation of reduced binding site models is elaborated to address these issues. The formulation provides a useful framework to construct reduced binding site models, and define the average effect from the surroundings on the ion and the nearest coordinating ligands.

  13. Block-structured adaptive meshes and reduced grids for atmospheric general circulation models.

    PubMed

    Jablonowski, Christiane; Oehmke, Robert C; Stout, Quentin F

    2009-11-28

    Adaptive mesh refinement techniques offer a flexible framework for future variable-resolution climate and weather models since they can focus their computational mesh on certain geographical areas or atmospheric events. Adaptive meshes can also be used to coarsen a latitude-longitude grid in polar regions. This allows for the so-called reduced grid setups. A spherical, block-structured adaptive grid technique is applied to the Lin-Rood finite-volume dynamical core for weather and climate research. This hydrostatic dynamics package is based on a conservative and monotonic finite-volume discretization in flux form with vertically floating Lagrangian layers. The adaptive dynamical core is built upon a flexible latitude-longitude computational grid and tested in two- and three-dimensional model configurations. The discussion is focused on static mesh adaptations and reduced grids. The two-dimensional shallow water setup serves as an ideal testbed and allows the use of shallow water test cases like the advection of a cosine bell, moving vortices, a steady-state flow, the Rossby-Haurwitz wave or cross-polar flows. It is shown that reduced grid configurations are viable candidates for pure advection applications but should be used moderately in nonlinear simulations. In addition, static grid adaptations can be successfully used to resolve three-dimensional baroclinic waves in the storm-track region.

  14. Emergent O(n ) symmetry in a series of three-dimensional Potts models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Chengxiang; Blöte, Henk W. J.; Deng, Youjin

    2016-09-01

    We study the q -state Potts model on a simple cubic lattice with ferromagnetic interactions in one lattice direction, and antiferromagnetic interactions in the other two directions. As the temperature T decreases, the system undergoes a second-order phase transition that fits in the universality class of the three-dimensional O (n ) model with n =q -1 . This conclusion is based on the estimated critical exponents, and histograms of the order parameter. At even smaller T we find, for q =4 and 5, a first-order transition to a phase with a different type of long-range order. This long-range order dissolves at T =0 , and the system effectively reduces to a disordered two-dimensional Potts antiferromagnet. These results are obtained by means of Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling.

  15. Superconductivity in the two-dimensional generalized Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, L. S.

    2016-08-01

    We have used the Green's functions method at finite temperature and the Kubo's formalism, to calculate the electron conductivity σ(ω) in the generalized two-dimensional Hubbard model. We have obtained a behavior superconductor for the system to T > T0. The AC conductivity falls to zero in ω =ω0 , where ω0 depends on Δ, which is the gap of the system. The behavior gotten is according of with the behavior of the superconductors of high Tc where there is a changes abruptly from a Mott's insulator state to superconductor.

  16. Spin transport in a one-dimensional anisotropic Heisenberg model.

    PubMed

    Znidarič, Marko

    2011-06-01

    We analytically and numerically study spin transport in a one-dimensional Heisenberg model in linear-response regime at infinite temperature. It is shown that as the anisotropy parameter Δ is varied spin transport changes from ballistic for Δ<1 to anomalous at the isotropic point Δ=1, to diffusive for finite Δ>1, ending up as a perfect isolator in the Ising limit of infinite Δ. Using perturbation theory for large Δ a quantitative prediction is made for the dependence of diffusion constant on Δ. PMID:21702588

  17. n-vicinities method for three dimensional Ising Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryzhanovsky, Boris; Litinskii, Leonid

    2016-08-01

    The n -vicinities method for approximate calculations of the partition function of a spin system was proposed previously. The equation of state was obtained in the most general form. In the present publication these results are adapted to the Ising model on the D - dimensional cubic lattice. The state equation is solved for an arbitrary dimension D and the behavior of the free energy is analyzed. For large values of D (D > 2) the obtained results are in good agreement with the ones obtained by means of computer simulations. For small values of D, there are noticeable discrepancies with the exact results.

  18. Modeling direct interband tunneling. II. Lower-dimensional structures

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Andrew; Chui, Chi On

    2014-08-07

    We investigate the applicability of the two-band Hamiltonian and the widely used Kane analytical formula to interband tunneling along unconfined directions in nanostructures. Through comparisons with k·p and tight-binding calculations and quantum transport simulations, we find that the primary correction is the change in effective band gap. For both constant fields and realistic tunnel field-effect transistors, dimensionally consistent band gap scaling of the Kane formula allows analytical and numerical device simulations to approximate non-equilibrium Green's function current characteristics without arbitrary fitting. This allows efficient first-order calibration of semiclassical models for interband tunneling in nanodevices.

  19. Moduli inflation in five-dimensional supergravity models

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Hiroyuki; Otsuka, Hajime E-mail: hajime.13.gologo@akane.waseda.jp

    2014-11-01

    We propose a simple but effective mechanism to realize an inflationary early universe consistent with the observed WMAP, Planck and/or BICEP2 data, which would be incorporated in various supersymmetric models of elementary particles constructed in the (effective) five-dimensional spacetime. In our scenario, the inflaton field is identified with one of the moduli appearing when the fifth direction is compactified, and a successful cosmological inflation without the so-called η problem can be achieved by a very simple moduli stabilization potential. We also discuss the related particle cosmology during and (just) after the inflation, such as the (no) cosmological moduli problem.

  20. Modeling of Unsteady Three-dimensional Flows in Multistage Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Kenneth C.; Pratt, Edmund T., Jr.; Kurkov, Anatole (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Despite many years of development, the accurate and reliable prediction of unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on turbomachinery blades remains less than satisfactory, especially when viewed next to the great success investigators have had in predicting steady flows. Hall and Silkowski (1997) have proposed that one of the main reasons for the discrepancy between theory and experiment and/or industrial experience is that many of the current unsteady aerodynamic theories model a single blade row in an infinitely long duct, ignoring potentially important multistage effects. However, unsteady flows are made up of acoustic, vortical, and entropic waves. These waves provide a mechanism for the rotors and stators of multistage machines to communicate with one another. In other words, wave behavior makes unsteady flows fundamentally a multistage (and three-dimensional) phenomenon. In this research program, we have has as goals (1) the development of computationally efficient computer models of the unsteady aerodynamic response of blade rows embedded in a multistage machine (these models will ultimately be capable of analyzing three-dimensional viscous transonic flows), and (2) the use of these computer codes to study a number of important multistage phenomena.

  1. Implementation of REDIM reduced chemistry to model an axisymmetric laminar diffusion methane-air flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrique de Almeida Konzen, Pedro; Richter, Thomas; Riedel, Uwe; Maas, Ulrich

    2011-06-01

    The goal of this work is to analyze the use of automatically reduced chemistry by the Reaction-Diffusion Manifold (REDIM) method in simulating axisymmetric laminar coflow diffusion flames. Detailed chemical kinetic models are usually computationally prohibitive for simulating complex reacting flows, and therefore reduced models are required. Automatic reduction model approaches usually exploit the natural multi-scale structure of combustion systems. The novel REDIM approach applies the concept of invariant manifolds to treat also the influence of the transport processes on the reduced model, which overcomes a fundamental problem of model reduction in neglecting the coupling of molecular transport with thermochemical processes. We have considered a previously well studied atmospheric pressure nitrogen-diluted methane-air flame as a test case to validate the methodology presented here. First, one-dimensional and two-dimensional REDIMs were computed and tabulated in lookup tables. Then, the full set of governing equations are projected on the REDIM and implemented in the object-oriented C++ Gascoigne code with a new add-on library to deal with the REDIM tables. The projected set of governing equations have been discretized by the Finite Element Method (FEM) and solved by a GMRES iteration preconditioned by a geometric multigrid method. Local grid refinement, adaptive mesh and parallelization are applied to ensure efficiency and precision. The numerical results obtained using the REDIM approach have shown very good agreement with detailed numerical simulations and experimental data.

  2. Users manual for a one-dimensional Lagrangian transport model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoellhamer, D.H.; Jobson, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    A Users Manual for the Lagrangian Transport Model (LTM) is presented. The LTM uses Lagrangian calculations that are based on a reference frame moving with the river flow. The Lagrangian reference frame eliminates the need to numerically solve the convective term of the convection-diffusion equation and provides significant numerical advantages over the more commonly used Eulerian reference frame. When properly applied, the LTM can simulate riverine transport and decay processes within the accuracy required by most water quality studies. The LTM is applicable to steady or unsteady one-dimensional unidirectional flows in fixed channels with tributary and lateral inflows. Application of the LTM is relatively simple and optional capabilities improve the model 's convenience. Appendices give file formats and three example LTM applications that include the incorporation of the QUAL II water quality model 's reaction kinetics into the LTM. (Author 's abstract)

  3. MODELING THREE-DIMENSIONAL MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURES USING SPHERICAL HARMONICS

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li; Farid, Hany; McPeek, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Quantifying morphological shape is a fundamental issue in evolutionary biology. Recent technological advances (e.g., confocal microscopy, laser scanning, computer tomography) have made the capture of detailed three-dimensional (3D) morphological structure easy and cost-effective. In this article, we develop a 3D analytic framework (SPHARM—spherical harmonics) for modeling the shapes of complex morphological structures from continuous surface maps that can be produced by these technologies. Because the traditional SPHARM methodology has limitations in several of its processing steps, we present new algorithms for two SPHARM processing steps: spherical parameterization and SPHARM registration. These new algorithms allow for the numerical characterization of a much larger class of 3D models. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method by applying it to modeling the cerci of Enallagma damselflies. PMID:19154365

  4. Three-dimensional temporomandibular joint modeling and animation.

    PubMed

    Cascone, Piero; Rinaldi, Fabrizio; Pagnoni, Mario; Marianetti, Tito Matteo; Tedaldi, Massimiliano

    2008-11-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) temporomandibular joint (TMJ) model derives from a study of the cranium by 3D virtual reality and mandibular function animation. The starting point of the project is high-fidelity digital acquisition of a human dry skull. The cooperation between the maxillofacial surgeon and the cartoonist enables the reconstruction of the fibroconnective components of the TMJ that are the keystone for comprehension of the anatomic and functional features of the mandible. The skeletal model is customized with the apposition of the temporomandibular ligament, the articular disk, the retrodiskal tissue, and the medial and the lateral ligament of the disk. The simulation of TMJ movement is the result of the integration of up-to-date data on the biomechanical restrictions. The 3D TMJ model is an easy-to-use application that may be run on a personal computer for the study of the TMJ and its biomechanics. PMID:19098544

  5. Modeling for Process Control: High-Dimensional Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lev S. Tsimring

    2008-09-15

    Most of other technologically important systems (among them, powders and other granular systems) are intrinsically nonlinear. This project is focused on building the dynamical models for granular systems as a prototype for nonlinear high-dimensional systems exhibiting complex non-equilibrium phenomena. Granular materials present a unique opportunity to study these issues in a technologically important and yet fundamentally interesting setting. Granular systems exhibit a rich variety of regimes from gas-like to solid-like depending on the external excitation. Based the combination of the rigorous asymptotic analysis, available experimental data and nonlinear signal processing tools, we developed a multi-scale approach to the modeling of granular systems from detailed description of grain-grain interaction on a micro-scale to continuous modeling of large-scale granular flows with important geophysical applications.

  6. Finite volume model for two-dimensional shallow environmental flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simoes, F.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a two-dimensional, depth integrated, unsteady, free-surface model based on the shallow water equations. The development was motivated by the desire of balancing computational efficiency and accuracy by selective and conjunctive use of different numerical techniques. The base framework of the discrete model uses Godunov methods on unstructured triangular grids, but the solution technique emphasizes the use of a high-resolution Riemann solver where needed, switching to a simpler and computationally more efficient upwind finite volume technique in the smooth regions of the flow. Explicit time marching is accomplished with strong stability preserving Runge-Kutta methods, with additional acceleration techniques for steady-state computations. A simplified mass-preserving algorithm is used to deal with wet/dry fronts. Application of the model is made to several benchmark cases that show the interplay of the diverse solution techniques.

  7. Three-dimensional cardiac computational modelling: methods, features and applications.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Perez, Alejandro; Sebastian, Rafael; Ferrero, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    The combination of computational models and biophysical simulations can help to interpret an array of experimental data and contribute to the understanding, diagnosis and treatment of complex diseases such as cardiac arrhythmias. For this reason, three-dimensional (3D) cardiac computational modelling is currently a rising field of research. The advance of medical imaging technology over the last decades has allowed the evolution from generic to patient-specific 3D cardiac models that faithfully represent the anatomy and different cardiac features of a given alive subject. Here we analyse sixty representative 3D cardiac computational models developed and published during the last fifty years, describing their information sources, features, development methods and online availability. This paper also reviews the necessary components to build a 3D computational model of the heart aimed at biophysical simulation, paying especial attention to cardiac electrophysiology (EP), and the existing approaches to incorporate those components. We assess the challenges associated to the different steps of the building process, from the processing of raw clinical or biological data to the final application, including image segmentation, inclusion of substructures and meshing among others. We briefly outline the personalisation approaches that are currently available in 3D cardiac computational modelling. Finally, we present examples of several specific applications, mainly related to cardiac EP simulation and model-based image analysis, showing the potential usefulness of 3D cardiac computational modelling into clinical environments as a tool to aid in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cardiac diseases. PMID:25928297

  8. Projection-Based Reduced Order Modeling for Spacecraft Thermal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qian, Jing; Wang, Yi; Song, Hongjun; Pant, Kapil; Peabody, Hume; Ku, Jentung; Butler, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematically rigorous, subspace projection-based reduced order modeling (ROM) methodology and an integrated framework to automatically generate reduced order models for spacecraft thermal analysis. Two key steps in the reduced order modeling procedure are described: (1) the acquisition of a full-scale spacecraft model in the ordinary differential equation (ODE) and differential algebraic equation (DAE) form to resolve its dynamic thermal behavior; and (2) the ROM to markedly reduce the dimension of the full-scale model. Specifically, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) in conjunction with discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM) and trajectory piece-wise linear (TPWL) methods are developed to address the strong nonlinear thermal effects due to coupled conductive and radiative heat transfer in the spacecraft environment. Case studies using NASA-relevant satellite models are undertaken to verify the capability and to assess the computational performance of the ROM technique in terms of speed-up and error relative to the full-scale model. ROM exhibits excellent agreement in spatiotemporal thermal profiles (<0.5% relative error in pertinent time scales) along with salient computational acceleration (up to two orders of magnitude speed-up) over the full-scale analysis. These findings establish the feasibility of ROM to perform rational and computationally affordable thermal analysis, develop reliable thermal control strategies for spacecraft, and greatly reduce the development cycle times and costs.

  9. Computational procedure for finite difference solution of one-dimensional heat conduction problems reduces computer time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iida, H. T.

    1966-01-01

    Computational procedure reduces the numerical effort whenever the method of finite differences is used to solve ablation problems for which the surface recession is large relative to the initial slab thickness. The number of numerical operations required for a given maximum space mesh size is reduced.

  10. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic and erosion modeling of fluidized beds using kinetic theory

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, J.; Lyczkowski, R.W. ); Burge, S.W. . Research Center)

    1992-05-01

    Three-dimensional hydrodynamic models for gas-solids flow are developed and used to compute bubble and solids motion in rectangular fluidized beds. Our computed results demonstrate the significance and necessity for three-dimensional models of hydrodynamics and erosion in fluidized-bed combustors. A kinetic theory model for erosion using Finnie's single-particle ductile erosion model was used to compute erosion in a rectangular fluidized bed containing a single tube. Comparison of two-dimensional and three-dimensional computed hydrodynamics, erosion rates, and patterns clearly show the superiority of three-dimensional modeling.

  11. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic and erosion modeling of fluidized beds using kinetic theory

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, J.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burge, S.W.

    1992-05-01

    Three-dimensional hydrodynamic models for gas-solids flow are developed and used to compute bubble and solids motion in rectangular fluidized beds. Our computed results demonstrate the significance and necessity for three-dimensional models of hydrodynamics and erosion in fluidized-bed combustors. A kinetic theory model for erosion using Finnie`s single-particle ductile erosion model was used to compute erosion in a rectangular fluidized bed containing a single tube. Comparison of two-dimensional and three-dimensional computed hydrodynamics, erosion rates, and patterns clearly show the superiority of three-dimensional modeling.

  12. Reducing Redundancies in Reconfigurable Antenna Structures Using Graph Models

    SciTech Connect

    Costantine, Joseph; al-Saffar, Sinan; Christodoulou, Christos G.; Abdallah, Chaouki T.

    2010-04-23

    Many reconfigurable antennas have redundant components in their structures. In this paper we present an approach for reducing redundancies in reconfigurable antenna structures using graph models. We study reconfigurable antennas, which are grouped, categorized and modeled according to a set of proposed graph rules. Several examples are presented and discussed to demonstrate the validity of this new technique.

  13. Multi-Dimensional Calibration of Impact Dynamic Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horta, Lucas G.; Reaves, Mercedes C.; Annett, Martin S.; Jackson, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Langley, under the Subsonic Rotary Wing Program, recently completed two helicopter tests in support of an in-house effort to study crashworthiness. As part of this effort, work is on-going to investigate model calibration approaches and calibration metrics for impact dynamics models. Model calibration of impact dynamics problems has traditionally assessed model adequacy by comparing time histories from analytical predictions to test at only a few critical locations. Although this approach provides for a direct measure of the model predictive capability, overall system behavior is only qualitatively assessed using full vehicle animations. In order to understand the spatial and temporal relationships of impact loads as they migrate throughout the structure, a more quantitative approach is needed. In this work impact shapes derived from simulated time history data are used to recommend sensor placement and to assess model adequacy using time based metrics and orthogonality multi-dimensional metrics. An approach for model calibration is presented that includes metric definitions, uncertainty bounds, parameter sensitivity, and numerical optimization to estimate parameters to reconcile test with analysis. The process is illustrated using simulated experiment data.

  14. Mathematical modeling of the neuron morphology using two dimensional images.

    PubMed

    Rajković, Katarina; Marić, Dušica L; Milošević, Nebojša T; Jeremic, Sanja; Arsenijević, Valentina Arsić; Rajković, Nemanja

    2016-02-01

    In this study mathematical analyses such as the analysis of area and length, fractal analysis and modified Sholl analysis were applied on two dimensional (2D) images of neurons from adult human dentate nucleus (DN). Using mathematical analyses main morphological properties were obtained including the size of neuron and soma, the length of all dendrites, the density of dendritic arborization, the position of the maximum density and the irregularity of dendrites. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for modeling the size of neurons and the length of all dendrites. However, the RSM model based on the second-order polynomial equation was only possible to apply to correlate changes in the size of the neuron with other properties of its morphology. Modeling data provided evidence that the size of DN neurons statistically depended on the size of the soma, the density of dendritic arborization and the irregularity of dendrites. The low value of mean relative percent deviation (MRPD) between the experimental data and the predicted neuron size obtained by RSM model showed that model was suitable for modeling the size of DN neurons. Therefore, RSM can be generally used for modeling neuron size from 2D images.

  15. Dimensional models of personality: the five-factor model and the DSM-5

    PubMed Central

    Trull, Timothy J.; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that the classification of personality disorder is shifting toward a dimensional trait model and, more specifically, the five-factor model (FFM). The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the FFM of personality disorder. It will begin with a description of this dimensional model of normal and abnormal personality functioning, followed by a comparison with a proposal for future revisions to DSM-5 and a discussion of its potential advantages as an integrative hierarchical model of normal and abnormal personality structure. PMID:24174888

  16. Dimensional models of personality: the five-factor model and the DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Trull, Timothy J; Widiger, Thomas A

    2013-06-01

    It is evident that the classification of personality disorder is shifting toward a dimensional trait model and, more specifically, the five-factor model (FFM). The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the FFM of personality disorder. It will begin with a description of this dimensional model of normal and abnormal personality functioning, followed by a comparison with a proposal for future revisions to DSM-5 and a discussion of its potential advantages as an integrative hierarchical model of normal and abnormal personality structure.

  17. One-dimensional cloud fluid model for propagating star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Struck-Marcell, Curtis

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this project was to study the propagation of star formation (SF) with a self-consistent deterministic model for the interstellar gas. The questions of under what conditions does star formation propagate in this model and what are the mechanisms of the propagation are explored. Here, researchers used the deterministic Oort-type cloud fluid model of Scalo and Struck-Marcell (1984, also see the review of Struck-Marcell, Scalo and Appleton 1987). This cloud fluid approach includes simple models for the effects of cloud collisional coalescence or disruption, collisional energy dissipation, and cloud disruption and acceleration as the result of young star winds, HII regions and supernovae. An extensive one-zone parameter study is presented in Struck-Marcell and Scalo (1987). To answer the questions above, researchers carried out one-dimensional calculations for an annulus within a galactic disk, like the so-called solar neighborhood of the galactic chemical evolution. In the calculations the left-hand boundary is set equal to the right hand boundary. The calculation is obviously idealized; however, it is computationally convenient to study the first order effects of propagating star formation. The annulus was treated as if it were at rest, i.e., in the local rotating frame. This assumption may remove some interesting effects of a supersonic gas flow, but was necessary to maintain a numerical stability in the annulus. The results on the one-dimensional propagation of SF in the Oort cloud fluid model follow: (1) SF is propagated by means of hydrodynamic waves, which can be generated by external forces or by the pressure generated by local bursts. SF is not effectively propagated via diffusion or variation in cloud interaction rates without corresponding density and velocity changes. (2) The propagation and long-range effects of SF depend on how close the gas density is to the critical threshold value, i.e., on the susceptibility of the medium.

  18. Two-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Anthropogenic Beach Berm Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeri Majd, M.; Schubert, J.; Gallien, T.; Sanders, B. F.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic beach berms (sometimes called artificial berms or artificial dunes) temporarily enhance the ability of beaches to withstand overtopping and thus guard against coastal flooding. However, the combination of a rising tide, storm surge, and/or waves may erode anthropogenic berms in a matter of hours or less and cause flooding [1]. Accurate forecasts of coastal flooding therefore demand the ability to predict where and when berms fail and the volume of water that overtops into defended coastal lowlands. Here, a two-dimensional numerical model of swash zone waves and erosion is examined as a tool for predicting the erosion of anthropogenic beach berms. The 2D model is known as a Debris Flow Model (DFM) because it tightly couples flow and sediment transport within an approximate Riemann solver and is able to resolve shocks in fluid/sediment interface [2]. The DFM also includes a two dimensional avalanching scheme to account for gravity-driven slumping of steep slopes. The performance of the DFM is examined with field-scale anthropogenic berm erosion data collected at Newport Beach, California. Results show that the DFM can be applied in the swash zone to resolve wave-by-wave flow and sediment transport. Results also show that it is possible to calibrate the model for a particular event, and then predict erosion for another event, but predictions are sensitive to model parameters, such as erosion and avalanching. References: [1] Jochen E. Schubert, Timu W. Gallien, Morteza Shakeri Majd, and Brett F. Sanders. Terrestrial laser scanning of anthropogenic beach berm erosion and overtopping. Journal of Coastal Research In-Press, 2014. [2] Morteza Shakeri Majd and Brett F. Sanders. The LHLLC scheme for Two-Layer and Two-Phase transcritical flows over a mobile bed with avalanching, wetting and drying. Advances in Water Resources, 64, 16-31, 2014.

  19. A three-dimensional ring current decay model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fok, Mei-Ching; Moore, Thomas E.; Kozyra, Janet U.; Ho, George C.; Hamilton, Douglas C.

    1994-01-01

    This work is an extension of a previous ring current decay model. In the previous work, a two-dimensional kinetic model was constructed to study the temporal variations of the equatorially mirroring ring current ions, considering charge exchange and Coulomb drag losses along drift paths in a magnetic dipole field. In this work, particles with arbitrary pitch angle are considered. By bounce averaging the kinetic equation of the phase space density, information along magnetic field lines can be inferred from the equator. The three-dimensional model is used to simulate the recovery phase of a model great magnetic storm, similar to that which occurred in early February 1986. The initial distribution of ring current ions (at the minimum Dst) is extrapolated to all local times from AMPTE/CCE spacecraft observations on the dawn and dusk sides of the inner magnetosphere spanning the L value range L = 2.25 to 6.75. Observations by AMPTE/CCE of ring current distributions over subsequent orbits during the storm recovery phase are compared to model outputs. In general, the calculated ion fluxes are consistent with observations, except for H+ fluxes at tens of keV, which are always over-estimated. A newly-invented visualization idea, designated as a chromogram, is used to display the spatial and energy dependence of the ring current ion differential flux. Important features of storm-time ring current, such as day-night asymmetry during injection and drift hole on the dayside at low energies (less than 10 keV), are manifested in the chromogram representation. The pitch angle distribution is well fit by the function, j(sub o)(1+Ay(exp n)), where y is sine of the equatorial pitch angle. The evolution of the index n is a combined effect of charge exchange loss and particle drift. At low energies (less than 30 keV), both drift dispersion and charge exchange are important in determining n.

  20. A Reduced Grid Method for a Parallel Global Ocean General Circulation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Wickett, M.E.

    1999-12-01

    A limitation of many explicit finite-difference global climate models is the timestep restriction caused by the decrease in cell size associated with the convergence of meridians near the poles. A computational grid in which the number of cells in the longitudinal direction is reduced toward high-latitudes, keeping the longitudinal width of the resulting cells as uniform as possible and increasing the allowable timestep, is applied to a three-dimensional primitive equation ocean-climate model. This ''reduced'' grid consists of subgrids which interact at interfaces along their northern and southern boundaries, where the resolution changes by a factor of three. Algorithms are developed to extend the finite difference techniques to this interface, focusing on the conservation required to perform long time integrations, while preserving the staggered spatial arrangement of variables and the numerics used on subgrids. The reduced grid eliminates the common alternative of filtering high-frequency modes from the solution at high-latitudes to allow a larger timestep and reduces execution time per model step by roughly 20 percent. The reduced grid model is implemented for parallel computer architectures with two-dimensional domain decomposition and message passing, with speedup results comparable to those of the original model. Both idealized and realistic model runs are presented to show the effect of the interface numerics on the model solution. First, a rectangular, mid-latitude, at-bottomed basin with vertical walls at the boundaries is driven only by surface wind stress to compare three resolutions of the standard grid to reduced grid cases which use various interface conditions. Next, a similar basin with wind stress, heat, and fresh water forcing is used to compare the results of a reduced grid with those of a standard grid result while exercising the full set of model equations. Finally, global model runs, with topography, forcing, and physical parameters similar to

  1. A reduced-grid method for a parallel global ocean general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickett, Michael Everett

    A limitation of many explicit finite-difference global climate models is the timestep restriction caused by the decrease in cell size associated with the convergence of meridians near the poles. A computational grid in which the number of cells in the longitudinal direction is reduced toward high- latitudes, keeping the longitudinal width of the resulting cells as uniform as possible and increasing the allowable timestep, is applied to a three- dimensional primitive equation ocean-climate model. This ``reduced'' grid consists of subgrids which interact at interfaces along their northern and southern boundaries, where the resolution changes by a factor of three. Algorithms are developed to extend the finite difference techniques to this interface, focusing on the conservation required to perform long time integrations, while preserving the staggered spatial arrangement of variables and the numerics used on subgrids. The reduced grid eliminates the common alternative of filtering high- frequency modes from the solution at high-latitudes to allow a larger timestep and reduces execution time per model step by roughly 20 percent. The reduced grid model is implemented for parallel computer architectures with two-dimensional domain decomposition and message passing, with speedup results comparable to those of the original model. Both idealized and realistic model runs are presented to show the effect of the interface numerics on the model solution. First, a rectangular, mid-latitude, flat-bottomed basin with vertical walls at the boundaries is driven only by surface wind stress to compare three resolutions of the standard grid to reduced grid cases which use various interface conditions. Next, a similar basin with wind stress, heat, and fresh water forcing is used to compare the results of a reduced grid with those of a standard grid result while exercising the full set of model equations. Finally, global model runs, with topography, forcing, and physical parameters

  2. Dynamics and stability of a three-dimensional model of cell signal transduction with delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Chris; Iron, David

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a three-dimensional model of cell signal transduction with delay. The deactivation of signalling proteins occurs throughout the cytosol and activation is localized to specific sites in the cell. The enzyme kinetic functions employ a constant delay to model the time lapse during reactions and also the recovery times associated with conformational changes. We use matched asymptotic expansions to construct the dynamic solutions of signalling protein concentrations. The result of the asymptotic analysis is a system of delayed differential algebraic equations. This reduced system is compared to numerical simulations of the full three-dimensional system. As well, we consider the stability of equilibrium solutions. We find that the systems under consideration may undergo Hopf bifurcations for certain delay values. In these cases sustained oscillations are observed. The Poincaré-Lindstedt3 method is used to improve upon the asymptotic approximations. The simulations of the full three-dimensional system correspond well with simulations of the reduced delayed differential algebraic equations.

  3. ODTLES : a model for 3D turbulent flow based on one-dimensional turbulence modeling concepts.

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, Randy; Kerstein, Alan R.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon

    2005-01-01

    This report describes an approach for extending the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model of Kerstein [6] to treat turbulent flow in three-dimensional (3D) domains. This model, here called ODTLES, can also be viewed as a new LES model. In ODTLES, 3D aspects of the flow are captured by embedding three, mutually orthogonal, one-dimensional ODT domain arrays within a coarser 3D mesh. The ODTLES model is obtained by developing a consistent approach for dynamically coupling the different ODT line sets to each other and to the large scale processes that are resolved on the 3D mesh. The model is implemented computationally and its performance is tested and evaluated by performing simulations of decaying isotropic turbulence, a standard turbulent flow benchmarking problem.

  4. Development of Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Reduced-Order Models Using the FUN3D Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Vatsa, Veer N.; Biedron, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Recent significant improvements to the development of CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic reduced-order models (ROMs) are implemented into the FUN3D unstructured flow solver. These improvements include the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes of the CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic system via a single CFD solution, minimization of the error between the full CFD and the ROM unsteady aero- dynamic solution, and computation of a root locus plot of the aeroelastic ROM. Results are presented for a viscous version of the two-dimensional Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) model and an inviscid version of the AGARD 445.6 aeroelastic wing using the FUN3D code.

  5. A four-dimensional variational chemistry data assimilation scheme for Eulerian chemistry transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibern, Hendrik; Schmidt, Hauke

    1999-08-01

    The inverse problem of data assimilation of tropospheric trace gas observations into an Eulerian chemistry transport model has been solved by the four-dimensional variational technique including chemical reactions, transport, and diffusion. The University of Cologne European Air Pollution Dispersion Chemistry Transport Model 2 with the Regional Acid Deposition Model 2 gas phase mechanism is taken as the basis for developing a full four-dimensional variational data assimilation package, on the basis of the adjoint model version, which includes the adjoint operators of horizontal and vertical advection, implicit vertical diffusion, and the adjoint gas phase mechanism. To assess the potential and limitations of the technique without degrading the impact of nonperfect meteorological analyses and statistically not established error covariance estimates, artificial meteorological data and observations are used. The results are presented on the basis of a suite of experiments, where reduced records of artificial "observations" are provided to the assimilation procedure, while other "data" is retained for performance control of the analysis. The paper demonstrates that the four-dimensional variational technique is applicable for a comprehensive chemistry transport model in terms of computational and storage requirements on advanced parallel platforms. It is further shown that observed species can generally be analyzed, even if the "measurements" have unbiased random errors. More challenging experiments are presented, aiming to tax the skill of the method (1) by restricting available observations mostly to surface ozone observations for a limited assimilation interval of 6 hours and (2) by starting with poorly chosen first guess values. In this first such application to a three-dimensional chemistry transport model, success was also achieved in analyzing not only observed but also chemically closely related unobserved constituents.

  6. The NASA Ames Research Center one- and two-dimensional stratospheric models. Part 1: The one-dimensional model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Whitten, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    A one-dimensional model of stratospheric trace constituents is described in detail. Specifically, the numerical solution of the species continuity equations, including a technique for treating the stiff differential equations representing the chemical kinetic terms, and an appropriate method for simulating the diurnal variations of the species concentrations, are discussed. A specialized treatment of atmospheric photodissociation rates is outlined in the text. The choice of a vertical eddy diffusivity profile and its success in predicting the vertical tracer distributions (carbon 14, methane, and nitrous oxide) are also discussed.

  7. A Reduced-Order Model of Transport Phenomena for Power Plant Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Cizmas; Brian Richardson; Thomas Brenner; Raymond Fontenot

    2009-09-30

    A reduced-order model based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) has been developed to simulate transient two- and three-dimensional isothermal and non-isothermal flows in a fluidized bed. Reduced-order models of void fraction, gas and solids temperatures, granular energy, and z-direction gas and solids velocity have been added to the previous version of the code. These algorithms are presented and their implementation is discussed. Verification studies are presented for each algorithm. A number of methods to accelerate the computations performed by the reduced-order model are presented. The errors associated with each acceleration method are computed and discussed. Using a combination of acceleration methods, a two-dimensional isothermal simulation using the reduced-order model is shown to be 114 times faster than using the full-order model. In the pursue of achieving the objectives of the project and completing the tasks planned for this program, several unplanned and unforeseen results, methods and studies have been generated. These additional accomplishments are also presented and they include: (1) a study of the effect of snapshot sampling time on the computation of the POD basis functions, (2) an investigation of different strategies for generating the autocorrelation matrix used to find the POD basis functions, (3) the development and implementation of a bubble detection and tracking algorithm based on mathematical morphology, (4) a method for augmenting the proper orthogonal decomposition to better capture flows with discontinuities, such as bubbles, and (5) a mixed reduced-order/full-order model, called point-mode proper orthogonal decomposition, designed to avoid unphysical due to approximation errors. The limitations of the proper orthogonal decomposition method in simulating transient flows with moving discontinuities, such as bubbling flows, are discussed and several methods are proposed to adapt the method for future use.

  8. Toward a General Nonlinear Model of Reduced Scale UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chriette, A.; Cheviron, T.; Plestan, F.

    2009-03-01

    This paper proposes, through a survey of models of several UAV-Structures, a generic nonlinear model for reduced scale aerial robotic vehicles (6 DOF)*. Dynamics of an aircraft and some VTOL UAV (quadricopter, ducted fan and classical helicopter) are illustrated. This generic model focuses only on the key physical efforts acting on the dynamics in order to be sufficiently simple to design a controller. The Small Body Forces expression which can introduce a zero dynamics is then discussed.

  9. Electronic states in systems of reduced dimensionality. Progress report, September 15, 1991--September 14, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ulloa, S.E.

    1992-04-15

    This report briefly discusses the following research: magnetically modulated systems, inelastic magnetotunneling, ballistic transport review, screening in reduced dimensions, raman and electron energy loss spectroscopy; and ballistic quantum interference effects. (LSP).

  10. One-dimensional Kondo lattice model at quarter filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, J. C.; Miranda, E.

    2008-10-01

    We revisit the problem of the quarter-filled one-dimensional Kondo lattice model, for which the existence of a dimerized phase and a nonzero charge gap had been reported by Xavier [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 247204 (2003)]. Recently, some objections were raised claiming that the system is neither dimerized nor has a charge gap. In the interest of clarifying this important issue, we show that these objections are based on results obtained under conditions in which the dimer order is artificially suppressed. We use the incontrovertible dimerized phase of the Majumdar-Ghosh point of the J1-J2 Heisenberg model as a paradigm with which to illustrate this artificial suppression. Finally, by means of extremely accurate density-matrix renormalization-group calculations, we show that the charge gap is indeed nonzero in the dimerized phase.

  11. Two-dimensional lattice-fluid model with waterlike anomalies.

    PubMed

    Buzano, C; De Stefanis, E; Pelizzola, A; Pretti, M

    2004-06-01

    We investigate a lattice-fluid model defined on a two-dimensional triangular lattice, with the aim of reproducing qualitatively some anomalous properties of water. Model molecules are of the "Mercedes Benz" type, i.e., they possess a D3 (equilateral triangle) symmetry, with three bonding arms. Bond formation depends both on orientation and local density. We work out phase diagrams, response functions, and stability limits for the liquid phase, making use of a generalized first order approximation on a triangle cluster, whose accuracy is verified, in some cases, by Monte Carlo simulations. The phase diagram displays one ordered (solid) phase which is less dense than the liquid one. At fixed pressure the liquid phase response functions show the typical anomalous behavior observed in liquid water, while, in the supercooled region, a reentrant spinodal is observed.

  12. Two-dimensional lattice-fluid model with waterlike anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzano, C.; de Stefanis, E.; Pelizzola, A.; Pretti, M.

    2004-06-01

    We investigate a lattice-fluid model defined on a two-dimensional triangular lattice, with the aim of reproducing qualitatively some anomalous properties of water. Model molecules are of the “Mercedes Benz” type, i.e., they possess a D3 (equilateral triangle) symmetry, with three bonding arms. Bond formation depends both on orientation and local density. We work out phase diagrams, response functions, and stability limits for the liquid phase, making use of a generalized first order approximation on a triangle cluster, whose accuracy is verified, in some cases, by Monte Carlo simulations. The phase diagram displays one ordered (solid) phase which is less dense than the liquid one. At fixed pressure the liquid phase response functions show the typical anomalous behavior observed in liquid water, while, in the supercooled region, a reentrant spinodal is observed.

  13. Quantum quench dynamics in analytically solvable one-dimensional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iucci, Anibal; Cazalilla, Miguel A.; Giamarchi, Thierry

    2008-03-01

    In connection with experiments in cold atomic systems, we consider the non-equilibrium dynamics of some analytically solvable one-dimensional systems which undergo a quantum quench. In this quench one or several of the parameters of the Hamiltonian of an interacting quantum system are changed over a very short time scale. In particular, we concentrate on the Luttinger model and the sine-Gordon model in the Luther-Emery point. For the latter, we show that the order parameter and the two-point correlation function relax in the long time limit to the values determined by a generalized Gibbs ensemble first discussed by J. T. Jaynes [Phys. Rev. 106, 620 (1957); 108, 171 (1957)], and recently conjectured by M. Rigol et.al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 050405 (2007)] to apply to the non-equilibrium dynamics of integrable systems.

  14. Two-Dimensional Massless Light Front Fields and Solvable Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinovic̆, L'ubomír; Grangé, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Quantum field theory formulated in terms of light front (LF) variables has a few attractive as well as some puzzling features. The latter hindered a wider acceptance of LF methods. In two space-time dimensions, it has been a long-standing puzzle how to correctly quantize massless fields, in particular fermions. Here we show that two-dimensional massless LF fields (scalar and fermion) can be recovered in a simple way as limits of the corresponding massive fields and thereby quantized without any loss of physical information. Bosonization of the fermion field then follows in a straightforward manner and the solvable models can be studied directly in the LF theory. We sketch the LF operator solution of the Thirring-Wess model and also point out the closeness of the massless LF fields to those of conformal field theory.

  15. One-dimensional Ising model with multispin interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turban, Loïc

    2016-09-01

    We study the spin-1/2 Ising chain with multispin interactions K involving the product of m successive spins, for general values of m. Using a change of spin variables the zero-field partition function of a finite chain is obtained for free and periodic boundary conditions and we calculate the two-spin correlation function. When placed in an external field H the system is shown to be self-dual. Using another change of spin variables the one-dimensional Ising model with multispin interactions in a field is mapped onto a zero-field rectangular Ising model with first-neighbour interactions K and H. The 2D system, with size m × N/m, has the topology of a cylinder with helical BC. In the thermodynamic limit N/m\\to ∞ , m\\to ∞ , a 2D critical singularity develops on the self-duality line, \\sinh 2K\\sinh 2H=1.

  16. Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, M. W.; Hawk, C. W.; Litchford, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past several years, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has engaged in the design and development of an experimental research facility to investigate the use of diagonalized crossed-field magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerators as a possible thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems. In support of this effort, a three-dimensional numerical MHD model has been developed for the purpose of analyzing and optimizing accelerator performance and to aid in understanding critical underlying physical processes and nonideal effects. This Technical Memorandum fully summarizes model development efforts and presents the results of pretest performance optimization analyses. These results indicate that the MHD accelerator should utilize a 45deg diagonalization angle with the applied current evenly distributed over the first five inlet electrode pairs. When powered at 100 A, this configuration is expected to yield a 50% global efficiency with an 80% increase in axial velocity and a 50% increase in centerline total pressure.

  17. Three-family unification in higher dimensional models

    SciTech Connect

    Mimura, Yukihiro; Nandi, S.

    2009-05-01

    In orbifold models, gauge, Higgs, and the matter fields can be unified in one multiplet from the compactification of higher dimensional supersymmetric gauge theory. We study how three families of chiral fermions can be unified in the gauge multiplet. The bulk gauge interaction includes the Yukawa interactions to generate masses for quarks and leptons after the electroweak symmetry is broken. The bulk Yukawa interaction has global or gauged flavor symmetry originating from the R symmetry or bulk gauge symmetry, and the Yukawa structure is restricted. When the global and gauged flavor symmetries are broken by orbifold compactification, the remaining gauge symmetry which contains the standard model gauge symmetry is restricted. The restrictions from the bulk flavor symmetries can provide explanations of fermion mass hierarchy.

  18. One dimensional modeling of blood flow in large networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Lagree, Pierre-Yves; Fullana, Jose-Maria; Lorthois, Sylvie; Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    A fast and valid simulation of blood flow in large networks of vessels can be achieved with a one-dimensional viscoelastic model. In this paper, we developed a parallel code with this model and computed several networks: a circle of arteries, a human systemic network with 55 arteries and a vascular network of mouse kidney with more than one thousand segments. The numerical results were verified and the speedup of parallel computing was tested on multi-core computers. The evolution of pressure distributions in all the networks were visualized and we can see clearly the propagation patterns of the waves. This provides us a convenient tool to simulate blood flow in networks.

  19. Two-dimensional lattice-fluid model with waterlike anomalies.

    PubMed

    Buzano, C; De Stefanis, E; Pelizzola, A; Pretti, M

    2004-06-01

    We investigate a lattice-fluid model defined on a two-dimensional triangular lattice, with the aim of reproducing qualitatively some anomalous properties of water. Model molecules are of the "Mercedes Benz" type, i.e., they possess a D3 (equilateral triangle) symmetry, with three bonding arms. Bond formation depends both on orientation and local density. We work out phase diagrams, response functions, and stability limits for the liquid phase, making use of a generalized first order approximation on a triangle cluster, whose accuracy is verified, in some cases, by Monte Carlo simulations. The phase diagram displays one ordered (solid) phase which is less dense than the liquid one. At fixed pressure the liquid phase response functions show the typical anomalous behavior observed in liquid water, while, in the supercooled region, a reentrant spinodal is observed. PMID:15244571

  20. Three-Dimensional Crumpled Reduced Graphene Oxide/MoS2 Nanoflowers: A Stable Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Fangyu; Cai, Zhengyang; Qu, Longbing; Zhang, Pengfei; Yuan, Zefang; Asare, Owusu Kwadwo; Xu, Wangwang; Lin, Chao; Mai, Liqiang

    2015-06-17

    Recently, layered transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have gained great attention for their analogous graphite structure and high theoretical capacity. However, it has suffered from rapid capacity fading. Herein, we present the crumpled reduced graphene oxide (RGO) decorated MoS2 nanoflowers on carbon fiber cloth. The three-dimensional framework of interconnected crumpled RGO and carbon fibers provides good electronic conductivity and facile strain release during electrochemical reaction, which is in favor of the cycling stability of MoS2. The crumpled RGO decorated MoS2 nanoflowers anode exhibits high specific capacity (1225 mAh/g) and excellent cycling performance (680 mAh/g after 250 cycles). Our results demonstrate that the three-dimensional crumpled RGO/MoS2 nanoflowers anode is one of the attractive anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  1. One-dimensional particle models for heat transfer analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Ghendrih, Ph; Tamain, P.; Bagnoli, F.; Lepri, S.; Livi, R.

    2010-11-01

    For a better understanding of Spitzer-Härm closure restrictions and for estimating the relevancy of this expression when collisionnality decreases, an effort is done in developing simple models that aim at catching the physics of the transition from conductive to free-streaming heat flux. In that perspective, one-dimensional particle models are developed to study heat transfer properties in the direction parallel to the magnetic field in tokamaks. These models are based on particles that carry energy at a specific velocity and that can interact with each other or with heat sources. By adjusting the particle dynamics and particle interaction properties, it is possible to generate a broad range of models of growing complexity. The simplest models can be solved analytically and are used to link particle behavior to general macroscopic heat transfer properties. In particular, some configurations recover Fourier's law and make possible to investigate the dependance of thermal conductivity on temperature. Besides, some configurations where local balance is lost require defining non local expression for heat flux. These different classes of models could then be linked to different plasma configurations and used to study transition from collisional to non-collisional plasma.

  2. Three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flows.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chenghai; Hsu, Andrew T

    2003-07-01

    A three-dimensional compressible lattice Boltzmann model is formulated on a cubic lattice. A very large particle-velocity set is incorporated in order to enable a greater variation in the mean velocity. Meanwhile, the support set of the equilibrium distribution has only six directions. Therefore, this model can efficiently handle flows over a wide range of Mach numbers and capture shock waves. Due to the simple form of the equilibrium distribution, the fourth-order velocity tensors are not involved in the formulation. Unlike the standard lattice Boltzmann model, no special treatment is required for the homogeneity of fourth-order velocity tensors on square lattices. The Navier-Stokes equations were recovered, using the Chapman-Enskog method from the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) lattice Boltzmann equation. The second-order discretization error of the fluctuation velocity in the macroscopic conservation equation was eliminated by means of a modified collision invariant. The model is suitable for both viscous and inviscid compressible flows with or without shocks. Since the present scheme deals only with the equilibrium distribution that depends only on fluid density, velocity, and internal energy, boundary conditions on curved wall are easily implemented by an extrapolation of macroscopic variables. To verify the scheme for inviscid flows, we have successfully simulated a three-dimensional shock-wave propagation in a box and a normal shock of Mach number 10 over a wedge. As an application to viscous flows, we have simulated a flat plate boundary layer flow, flow over a cylinder, and a transonic flow over a NACA0012 airfoil cascade.

  3. Reduced-order-model based feedback control of the Modified Hasegawa-Wakatani equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goumiri, Imene; Rowley, Clarence; Ma, Zhanhua; Gates, David; Parker, Jeffrey; Krommes, John

    2012-10-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the development of model-based feedback control for stabilization of an unstable equilibrium obtained in the Modified Hasegawa-Wakatani (MHW) equations, a classic model in plasma turbulence. First, a balanced truncation is applied; a model reduction technique that has been proved successful in flow control design problems, to obtain a low dimensional model of the linearized MHW equation. A model-based feedback controller is then designed for the reduced order model using linear quadratic regulators (LQR) then a linear quadratic gaussian (LQG) control. The controllers are then applied on the original linearized and nonlinear MHW equations to stabilize the equilibrium and suppress the transition to drift-wave induced turbulences.

  4. THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELING OF HOT JUPITER ATMOSPHERIC FLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Rauscher, Emily; Menou, Kristen

    2010-05-10

    We present a three-dimensional hot Jupiter model, extending from 200 bar to 1 mbar, using the Intermediate General Circulation Model from the University of Reading. Our horizontal spectral resolution is T31 (equivalent to a grid of 48 x 96), with 33 logarithmically spaced vertical levels. A simplified (Newtonian) scheme is employed for the radiative forcing. We adopt a physical setup nearly identical to the model of HD 209458b by Cooper and Showman to facilitate a direct model inter-comparison. Our results are broadly consistent with theirs but significant differences also emerge. The atmospheric flow is characterized by a super-rotating equatorial jet, transonic wind speeds, and eastward advection of heat away from the dayside. We identify a dynamically induced temperature inversion ('stratosphere') on the planetary dayside and find that temperatures at the planetary limb differ systematically from local radiative equilibrium values, a potential source of bias for transit spectroscopic interpretations. While our model atmosphere is quasi-identical to that of Cooper and Showman and we solve the same meteorological equations, we use different algorithmic methods, spectral-implicit versus grid-explicit, which are known to yield fully consistent results in the Earth modeling context. The model discrepancies identified here indicate that one or both numerical methods do not faithfully capture all of the atmospheric dynamics at work in the hot Jupiter context. We highlight the emergence of a shock-like feature in our model, much like that reported recently by Showman et al., and suggest that improved representations of energy conservation may be needed in hot Jupiter atmospheric models, as emphasized by Goodman.

  5. Reduced-order models for vertical human-structure interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Nimmen, Katrien; Lombaert, Geert; De Roeck, Guido; Van den Broeck, Peter

    2016-09-01

    For slender and lightweight structures, the vibration serviceability under crowd- induced loading is often critical in design. Currently, designers rely on equivalent load models, upscaled from single-person force measurements. Furthermore, it is important to consider the mechanical interaction with the human body as this can significantly reduce the structural response. To account for these interaction effects, the contact force between the pedestrian and the structure can be modelled as the superposition of the force induced by the pedestrian on a rigid floor and the force resulting from the mechanical interaction between the structure and the human body. For the case of large crowds, however, this approach leads to models with a very high system order. In the present contribution, two equivalent reduced-order models are proposed to approximate the dynamic behaviour of the full-order coupled crowd-structure system. A numerical study is performed to evaluate the impact of the modelling assumptions on the structural response to pedestrian excitation. The results show that the full-order moving crowd model can be well approximated by a reduced-order model whereby the interaction with the pedestrians in the crowd is modelled using a single (equivalent) SDOF system.

  6. Three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, M.; Munoz, J. D.

    2008-02-15

    We develop a three-dimensional (3D) lattice Boltzmann model that recovers in the continuous limit the two-fluids theory for plasmas, and consequently includes the generalized Ohm's law. The model reproduces the magnetic reconnection process just by giving the right initial equilibrium conditions in the magnetotail, without any assumption on the resistivity in the diffusive region. In this model, the plasma is handled similar to two fluids with an interaction term, each one with distribution functions associated to a cubic lattice with 19 velocities (D3Q19). The electromagnetic fields are considered as a third fluid with an external force on a cubic lattice with 13 velocities (D3Q13). The model can simulate either viscous fluids in the incompressible limit or nonviscous compressible fluids, and successfully reproduces both the Hartmann flow and the magnetic reconnection in the magnetotail. The reconnection rate in the magnetotail obtained with this model lies between R=0.062 and R=0.073, in good agreement with the observations.

  7. Three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for magnetic reconnection.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, M; Muñoz, J D

    2008-02-01

    We develop a three-dimensional (3D) lattice Boltzmann model that recovers in the continuous limit the two-fluids theory for plasmas, and consequently includes the generalized Ohm's law. The model reproduces the magnetic reconnection process just by giving the right initial equilibrium conditions in the magnetotail, without any assumption on the resistivity in the diffusive region. In this model, the plasma is handled similar to two fluids with an interaction term, each one with distribution functions associated to a cubic lattice with 19 velocities (D3Q19). The electromagnetic fields are considered as a third fluid with an external force on a cubic lattice with 13 velocities (D3Q13). The model can simulate either viscous fluids in the incompressible limit or nonviscous compressible fluids, and successfully reproduces both the Hartmann flow and the magnetic reconnection in the magnetotail. The reconnection rate in the magnetotail obtained with this model lies between R=0.062 and R=0.073, in good agreement with the observations.

  8. Preliminary results of a three-dimensional radiative transfer model

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hirok, W.

    1995-09-01

    Clouds act as the primary modulator of the Earth`s radiation at the top of the atmosphere, within the atmospheric column, and at the Earth`s surface. They interact with both shortwave and longwave radiation, but it is primarily in the case of shortwave where most of the uncertainty lies because of the difficulties in treating scattered solar radiation. To understand cloud-radiative interactions, radiative transfer models portray clouds as plane-parallel homogeneous entities to ease the computational physics. Unfortunately, clouds are far from being homogeneous, and large differences between measurement and theory point to a stronger need to understand and model cloud macrophysical properties. In an attempt to better comprehend the role of cloud morphology on the 3-dimensional radiation field, a Monte Carlo model has been developed. This model can simulate broadband shortwave radiation fluxes while incorporating all of the major atmospheric constituents. The model is used to investigate the cloud absorption anomaly where cloud absorption measurements exceed theoretical estimates and to examine the efficacy of ERBE measurements and cloud field experiments. 3 figs.

  9. A one-dimensional model of Nucleosome distribution in DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osberg, Brendan; Moebius, Wolfram; Nguyen, Kien; Gerland, Ulrich

    2012-02-01

    Nucleosome positioning along DNA is neither random nor precisely regular. Genome-wide maps of nucleosome positions in various eukaryotes have revealed a common pattern around transcription start sites, involving a nucleosome-free region flanked by a periodic pattern in the average nucleosome density. We take a quantitative mathematical description of the nucleosome pattern, and incorporate specifically bound transcription factors. Our model assumes a dense, one-dimensional gas of particles, however, instead of previous work which assumes fixed-size particles interacting only by exclusion, our model explicitly accounts for transient unwrapping of short segments of nucleosomal DNA. Hence, such particles no longer have a fixed size, but interact by an effective repulsive potential. This model has been succesfully used, by us, to provide a unified description of 12 Hemiascomycota yeast species with a single unified set of model parameters. We incorporate into this model, specifically bound particles, or transcription factors (TF), which serve an important role in gene regulation. Nucleosome distribution patterns have an important influence on TF binding, and can even mediate interactions between transcription factors at a distance. This interaction can account for cooperative or competitive binding between these proteins, and we will discuss the implications this can have on gene regulation.

  10. An efficient chemical kinetics solver using high dimensional model representation

    SciTech Connect

    Shorter, J.A.; Ip, P.C.; Rabitz, H.A.

    1999-09-09

    A high dimensional model representation (HDMR) technique is introduced to capture the input-output behavior of chemical kinetic models. The HDMR expresses the output chemical species concentrations as a rapidly convergent hierarchical correlated function expansion in the input variables. In this paper, the input variables are taken as the species concentrations at time t{sub i} and the output is the concentrations at time t{sub i} + {delta}, where {delta} can be much larger than conventional integration time steps. A specially designed set of model runs is performed to determine the correlated functions making up the HDMR. The resultant HDMR can be used to (1) identify the key input variables acting independently or cooperatively on the output, and (2) create a high speed fully equivalent operational model (FEOM) serving to replace the original kinetic model and its differential equation solver. A demonstration of the HDMR technique is presented for stratospheric chemical kinetics. The FEOM proved to give accurate and stable chemical concentrations out to long times of many years. In addition, the FEOM was found to be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional stiff equation solver. This computational acceleration should have significance in many chemical kinetic applications.

  11. A Three-Dimensional Computational Model of Collagen Network Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoungkoo; Zhou, Xin; Riching, Kristin; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Keely, Patricia J.; Guelcher, Scott A.; Weaver, Alissa M.; Jiang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) strongly influences cellular behaviors, including cell proliferation, adhesion, and particularly migration. In cancer, the rigidity of the stromal collagen environment is thought to control tumor aggressiveness, and collagen alignment has been linked to tumor cell invasion. While the mechanical properties of collagen at both the single fiber scale and the bulk gel scale are quite well studied, how the fiber network responds to local stress or deformation, both structurally and mechanically, is poorly understood. This intermediate scale knowledge is important to understanding cell-ECM interactions and is the focus of this study. We have developed a three-dimensional elastic collagen fiber network model (bead-and-spring model) and studied fiber network behaviors for various biophysical conditions: collagen density, crosslinker strength, crosslinker density, and fiber orientation (random vs. prealigned). We found the best-fit crosslinker parameter values using shear simulation tests in a small strain region. Using this calibrated collagen model, we simulated both shear and tensile tests in a large linear strain region for different network geometry conditions. The results suggest that network geometry is a key determinant of the mechanical properties of the fiber network. We further demonstrated how the fiber network structure and mechanics evolves with a local formation, mimicking the effect of pulling by a pseudopod during cell migration. Our computational fiber network model is a step toward a full biomechanical model of cellular behaviors in various ECM conditions. PMID:25386649

  12. Use of a clay modeling task to reduce chocolate craving.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Jackie; Pears, Sally; May, Jon; Kavanagh, David J

    2012-06-01

    Elaborated Intrusion theory (EI theory; Kavanagh, Andrade, & May, 2005) posits two main cognitive components in craving: associative processes that lead to intrusive thoughts about the craved substance or activity, and elaborative processes supporting mental imagery of the substance or activity. We used a novel visuospatial task to test the hypothesis that visual imagery plays a key role in craving. Experiment 1 showed that spending 10 min constructing shapes from modeling clay (plasticine) reduced participants' craving for chocolate compared with spending 10 min 'letting your mind wander'. Increasing the load on verbal working memory using a mental arithmetic task (counting backwards by threes) did not reduce craving further. Experiment 2 compared effects on craving of a simpler verbal task (counting by ones) and clay modeling. Clay modeling reduced overall craving strength and strength of craving imagery, and reduced the frequency of thoughts about chocolate. The results are consistent with EI theory, showing that craving is reduced by loading the visuospatial sketchpad of working memory but not by loading the phonological loop. Clay modeling might be a useful self-help tool to help manage craving for chocolate, snacks and other foods. PMID:22369958

  13. Model multilayer structures for three-dimensional cell imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozole, Joseph; Szakal, Christopher; Kurczy, Michael; Winograd, Nicholas

    2006-07-01

    The prospects for SIMS three-dimensional analysis of biological materials were explored using model multilayer structures. The samples were analyzed in a ToF-SIMS spectrometer equipped with a 20 keV buckminsterfullerene (C 60+) ion source. Molecular depth information was acquired using a C 60+ ion beam to etch through the multilayer structures at specified time intervals. Subsequent to each individual erosion cycle, static SIMS spectra were recorded using a pulsed C 60+ ion probe. Molecular intensities in sequential mass spectra were monitored as a function of primary ion fluence. The resulting depth information was used to characterize C 60+ bombardment of biological materials. Specifically, molecular depth profile studies involving dehydrated dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) organic films indicate that cell membrane lipid materials do not experience significant chemical damage when bombarded with C 60+ ion fluences greater than 10 15 ions/cm 2. Moreover, depth profile analyses of DPPC-sucrose frozen multilayer structures suggest that biomolecule information can be uncovered after the C 60+ sputter removal of a 20 nm overlayer with no appreciable loss of underlying molecular signal. The experimental results support the potential for three-dimensional molecular mapping of biological materials using cluster SIMS.

  14. Three-Dimensional Tissue Models of Normal and Diseased Skin

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Mark W.; Alt-Holland, Addy; Egles, Christophe; Garlick, Jonathan A.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, the development of in vitro, human, three-dimensional (3D) tissue models, known as human skin equivalents (HSEs), has furthered understanding of epidermal cell biology and provided novel experimental systems. Signaling pathways that mediate the linkage between growth and differentiation function optimally when cells are spatially organized to display the architectural features seen in vivo, but are uncoupled and lost in two-dimensional culture systems. HSEs consist of a stratified squamous epithelium grown at an air-liquid interface on a collagen matrix populated with dermal fibroblasts. These 3D tissues demonstrate in vivo–like epithelial differentiation and morphology, and rates of cell division, similar to those found in human skin. This unit describes fabrication of HSEs, allowing the generation of human tissues that mimic the morphology, differentiation, and growth of human skin, as well as disease processes of cancer and wound re-epithelialization, providing powerful new tools for the study of diseases in humans. PMID:19085986

  15. Three Dimensional TEM Forward Modeling Using FDTD Accelerated by GPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Huang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Three dimensional inversion of transient electromagnetic (TEM) data is still challenging. The inversion speed mostly depends on the forward modeling. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is one of the popular forward modeling scheme. In an explicit type, which is based on the Du Fort-Frankel scheme, the time step is under the constraint of quasi-static approximation. Often an upward-continuation boundary condition (UCBC) is applied on the earth-air surface to avoid time stepping in the model air. However, UCBC is not suitable for models with topography and has a low parallel efficiency. Modeling without UCBC may cause a much smaller time step because of the resistive attribute of the air and the quasi-static constraint, which may also low the efficiency greatly. Our recent research shows that the time step in the model air is not needed to be constrained by the quasi-static approximation, which can let the time step without UCBC much closer to that with UCBC. The parallel performance of FDTD is then largely released. On a computer with a 4-core CPU, this newly developed method is obviously faster than the method using UCBC. Besides, without UCBC, this method can be easily accelerated by Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). On a computer with a CPU of 4790k@4.4GHz and a GPU of GTX 970, the speed accelerated by CUDA is almost 10 times of that using CPU only. For a model with a grid size of 140×140×130, if the conductivity of the model earth is 0.02S/m, and the minimal space interval is 15m, it takes only 80 seconds to evolve the field from excitation to 0.032s.

  16. High performance computing for three-dimensional agent-based molecular models.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, G; Pérez-Pérez, M; Fdez-Riverola, F; Lourenço, A

    2016-07-01

    Agent-based simulations are increasingly popular in exploring and understanding cellular systems, but the natural complexity of these systems and the desire to grasp different modelling levels demand cost-effective simulation strategies and tools. In this context, the present paper introduces novel sequential and distributed approaches for the three-dimensional agent-based simulation of individual molecules in cellular events. These approaches are able to describe the dimensions and position of the molecules with high accuracy and thus, study the critical effect of spatial distribution on cellular events. Moreover, two of the approaches allow multi-thread high performance simulations, distributing the three-dimensional model in a platform independent and computationally efficient way. Evaluation addressed the reproduction of molecular scenarios and different scalability aspects of agent creation and agent interaction. The three approaches simulate common biophysical and biochemical laws faithfully. The distributed approaches show improved performance when dealing with large agent populations while the sequential approach is better suited for small to medium size agent populations. Overall, the main new contribution of the approaches is the ability to simulate three-dimensional agent-based models at the molecular level with reduced implementation effort and moderate-level computational capacity. Since these approaches have a generic design, they have the major potential of being used in any event-driven agent-based tool. PMID:27372059

  17. High performance computing for three-dimensional agent-based molecular models.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, G; Pérez-Pérez, M; Fdez-Riverola, F; Lourenço, A

    2016-07-01

    Agent-based simulations are increasingly popular in exploring and understanding cellular systems, but the natural complexity of these systems and the desire to grasp different modelling levels demand cost-effective simulation strategies and tools. In this context, the present paper introduces novel sequential and distributed approaches for the three-dimensional agent-based simulation of individual molecules in cellular events. These approaches are able to describe the dimensions and position of the molecules with high accuracy and thus, study the critical effect of spatial distribution on cellular events. Moreover, two of the approaches allow multi-thread high performance simulations, distributing the three-dimensional model in a platform independent and computationally efficient way. Evaluation addressed the reproduction of molecular scenarios and different scalability aspects of agent creation and agent interaction. The three approaches simulate common biophysical and biochemical laws faithfully. The distributed approaches show improved performance when dealing with large agent populations while the sequential approach is better suited for small to medium size agent populations. Overall, the main new contribution of the approaches is the ability to simulate three-dimensional agent-based models at the molecular level with reduced implementation effort and moderate-level computational capacity. Since these approaches have a generic design, they have the major potential of being used in any event-driven agent-based tool.

  18. Reduced complexity structural modeling for automated airframe synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajela, Prabhat

    1987-01-01

    A procedure is developed for the optimum sizing of wing structures based on representing the built-up finite element assembly of the structure by equivalent beam models. The reduced-order beam models are computationally less demanding in an optimum design environment which dictates repetitive analysis of several trial designs. The design procedure is implemented in a computer program requiring geometry and loading information to create the wing finite element model and its equivalent beam model, and providing a rapid estimate of the optimum weight obtained from a fully stressed design approach applied to the beam. The synthesis procedure is demonstrated for representative conventional-cantilever and joined wing configurations.

  19. A zero dimensional model of lithium-sulfur batteries during charge and discharge.

    PubMed

    Marinescu, Monica; Zhang, Teng; Offer, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur cells present an attractive alternative to Li-ion batteries due to their large energy density, safety, and possible low cost. Their successful commercialisation is dependent on improving their performance, but also on acquiring sufficient understanding of the underlying mechanisms to allow for the development of predictive models for operational cells. To address the latter, we present a zero dimensional model that predicts many of the features observed in the behaviour of a lithium-sulfur cell during charge and discharge. The model accounts for two electrochemical reactions via the Nernst formulation, power limitations through Butler-Volmer kinetics, and precipitation/dissolution of one species, including nucleation. It is shown that the flat shape of the low voltage plateau typical of the lithium-sulfur cell discharge is caused by precipitation. During charge, it is predicted that the dissolution can act as a bottleneck, because for large enough currents the amount that dissolves becomes limited. This results in reduced charge capacity and an earlier onset of the high plateau reaction, such that the two voltage plateaus merge. By including these effects, the model improves on the existing zero dimensional models, while requiring considerably fewer input parameters and computational resources than one dimensional models. The model also predicts that, due to precipitation, the customary way of experimentally obtaining the open circuit voltage from a low rate discharge might not be suitable for lithium-sulfur. This model can provide the basis for mechanistic studies, identification of dominant effects in a real cell, predictions of operational behaviour under realistic loads, and control algorithms for applications.

  20. A zero dimensional model of lithium-sulfur batteries during charge and discharge.

    PubMed

    Marinescu, Monica; Zhang, Teng; Offer, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur cells present an attractive alternative to Li-ion batteries due to their large energy density, safety, and possible low cost. Their successful commercialisation is dependent on improving their performance, but also on acquiring sufficient understanding of the underlying mechanisms to allow for the development of predictive models for operational cells. To address the latter, we present a zero dimensional model that predicts many of the features observed in the behaviour of a lithium-sulfur cell during charge and discharge. The model accounts for two electrochemical reactions via the Nernst formulation, power limitations through Butler-Volmer kinetics, and precipitation/dissolution of one species, including nucleation. It is shown that the flat shape of the low voltage plateau typical of the lithium-sulfur cell discharge is caused by precipitation. During charge, it is predicted that the dissolution can act as a bottleneck, because for large enough currents the amount that dissolves becomes limited. This results in reduced charge capacity and an earlier onset of the high plateau reaction, such that the two voltage plateaus merge. By including these effects, the model improves on the existing zero dimensional models, while requiring considerably fewer input parameters and computational resources than one dimensional models. The model also predicts that, due to precipitation, the customary way of experimentally obtaining the open circuit voltage from a low rate discharge might not be suitable for lithium-sulfur. This model can provide the basis for mechanistic studies, identification of dominant effects in a real cell, predictions of operational behaviour under realistic loads, and control algorithms for applications. PMID:26618508

  1. Correlation driven dimensional reduction in a two orbital Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Anamitra; Patel, Niravkumar D.; Moreo, Adrianna; Dagotto, Elbio

    We apply a recently developed many-body technique that allows for the incorporation of thermal effects, to a two orbital Hubbard model of relevance for the pnictides. In this `Mean Field-Monte Carlo' (MF-MC) approach, we first perform a mean field (MF) decomposition of the Hubbard model and then treat the mean field parameters via the standard finite-temperature classical Monte Carlo (MC). We have earlier established that for the one orbital Hubbard model, this MF-MC approach provides remarkable improvement over simple finite-temperature mean field methods and is in good agreement with Determinantal Quantum Monte Carlo results. In this talk we will discuss our MC-MF results applied to the two orbital Hubbard model with degenerate dxz and dyz orbitals for the undoped pnictides. The onsite repulsion strength U vs. temperature phase diagram is rich and has a narrow window of nematicity above the N'eel temperature. Our main result is the discovery of a novel intermediate coupling regime characterized by an unexpected spontaneous dimensional reduction that renders one direction insulating and the other metallic.

  2. Development of an interactive anatomical three-dimensional eye model.

    PubMed

    Allen, Lauren K; Bhattacharyya, Siddhartha; Wilson, Timothy D

    2015-01-01

    The discrete anatomy of the eye's intricate oculomotor system is conceptually difficult for novice students to grasp. This is problematic given that this group of muscles represents one of the most common sites of clinical intervention in the treatment of ocular motility disorders and other eye disorders. This project was designed to develop a digital, interactive, three-dimensional (3D) model of the muscles and cranial nerves of the oculomotor system. Development of the 3D model utilized data from the Visible Human Project (VHP) dataset that was refined using multiple forms of 3D software. The model was then paired with a virtual user interface in order to create a novel 3D learning tool for the human oculomotor system. Development of the virtual eye model was done while attempting to adhere to the principles of cognitive load theory (CLT) and the reduction of extraneous load in particular. The detailed approach, digital tools employed, and the CLT guidelines are described herein. PMID:25228501

  3. Persistence in a Two-Dimensional Moving-Habitat Model.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Austin; Kot, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Environmental changes are forcing many species to track suitable conditions or face extinction. In this study, we use a two-dimensional integrodifference equation to analyze whether a population can track a habitat that is moving due to climate change. We model habitat as a simple rectangle. Our model quickly leads to an eigenvalue problem that determines whether the population persists or declines. After surveying techniques to solve the eigenvalue problem, we highlight three findings that impact conservation efforts such as reserve design and species risk assessment. First, while other models focus on habitat length (parallel to the direction of habitat movement), we show that ignoring habitat width (perpendicular to habitat movement) can lead to overestimates of persistence. Dispersal barriers and hostile landscapes that constrain habitat width greatly decrease the population's ability to track its habitat. Second, for some long-distance dispersal kernels, increasing habitat length improves persistence without limit; for other kernels, increasing length is of limited help and has diminishing returns. Third, it is not always best to orient the long side of the habitat in the direction of climate change. Evidence suggests that the kurtosis of the dispersal kernel determines whether it is best to have a long, wide, or square habitat. In particular, populations with platykurtic dispersal benefit more from a wide habitat, while those with leptokurtic dispersal benefit more from a long habitat. We apply our model to the Rocky Mountain Apollo butterfly (Parnassius smintheus).

  4. Persistence in a Two-Dimensional Moving-Habitat Model.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Austin; Kot, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Environmental changes are forcing many species to track suitable conditions or face extinction. In this study, we use a two-dimensional integrodifference equation to analyze whether a population can track a habitat that is moving due to climate change. We model habitat as a simple rectangle. Our model quickly leads to an eigenvalue problem that determines whether the population persists or declines. After surveying techniques to solve the eigenvalue problem, we highlight three findings that impact conservation efforts such as reserve design and species risk assessment. First, while other models focus on habitat length (parallel to the direction of habitat movement), we show that ignoring habitat width (perpendicular to habitat movement) can lead to overestimates of persistence. Dispersal barriers and hostile landscapes that constrain habitat width greatly decrease the population's ability to track its habitat. Second, for some long-distance dispersal kernels, increasing habitat length improves persistence without limit; for other kernels, increasing length is of limited help and has diminishing returns. Third, it is not always best to orient the long side of the habitat in the direction of climate change. Evidence suggests that the kurtosis of the dispersal kernel determines whether it is best to have a long, wide, or square habitat. In particular, populations with platykurtic dispersal benefit more from a wide habitat, while those with leptokurtic dispersal benefit more from a long habitat. We apply our model to the Rocky Mountain Apollo butterfly (Parnassius smintheus). PMID:26582361

  5. Three-dimensional antiferromagnetic CP(N-1) models.

    PubMed

    Delfino, Francesco; Pelissetto, Andrea; Vicari, Ettore

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the critical behavior of three-dimensional antiferromagnetic CP(N-1) (ACP(N-1)) models in cubic lattices, which are characterized by a global U(N) symmetry and a local U(1) gauge symmetry. Assuming that critical fluctuations are associated with a staggered gauge-invariant (Hermitian traceless matrix) order parameter, we determine the corresponding Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson (LGW) model. For N=3 this mapping allows us to conclude that the three-component ACP(2) model undergoes a continuous transition that belongs to the O(8) vector universality class, with an effective enlargement of the symmetry at the critical point. This prediction is confirmed by numerical analyses of the finite-size scaling behaviors of the ACP(2) and the O(8) vector models, which show the same universal features at their transitions. We also present a renormalization-group (RG) analysis of the LGW theories for N≥4. We compute perturbative series in two different renormalization schemes and analyze the corresponding RG flow. We do not find stable fixed points that can be associated with continuous transitions. PMID:26066121

  6. Numerical Bifurcation Theory for High-Dimensional Neural Models.

    PubMed

    Laing, Carlo R

    2014-12-01

    Numerical bifurcation theory involves finding and then following certain types of solutions of differential equations as parameters are varied, and determining whether they undergo any bifurcations (qualitative changes in behaviour). The primary technique for doing this is numerical continuation, where the solution of interest satisfies a parametrised set of algebraic equations, and branches of solutions are followed as the parameter is varied. An effective way to do this is with pseudo-arclength continuation. We give an introduction to pseudo-arclength continuation and then demonstrate its use in investigating the behaviour of a number of models from the field of computational neuroscience. The models we consider are high dimensional, as they result from the discretisation of neural field models-nonlocal differential equations used to model macroscopic pattern formation in the cortex. We consider both stationary and moving patterns in one spatial dimension, and then translating patterns in two spatial dimensions. A variety of results from the literature are discussed, and a number of extensions of the technique are given.

  7. Parameterized reduced-order models using hyper-dual numbers.

    SciTech Connect

    Fike, Jeffrey A.; Brake, Matthew Robert

    2013-10-01

    The goal of most computational simulations is to accurately predict the behavior of a real, physical system. Accurate predictions often require very computationally expensive analyses and so reduced order models (ROMs) are commonly used. ROMs aim to reduce the computational cost of the simulations while still providing accurate results by including all of the salient physics of the real system in the ROM. However, real, physical systems often deviate from the idealized models used in simulations due to variations in manufacturing or other factors. One approach to this issue is to create a parameterized model in order to characterize the effect of perturbations from the nominal model on the behavior of the system. This report presents a methodology for developing parameterized ROMs, which is based on Craig-Bampton component mode synthesis and the use of hyper-dual numbers to calculate the derivatives necessary for the parameterization.

  8. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of a tidal estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, Roy A.; Cheng, Ralph T.

    1979-01-01

    A finite element model is described which is used in the computation of tidal currents in an estuary. This numerical model is patterned after an existing algorithm and has been carefully tested in rectangular and curve-sided channels with constant and variable depth. One of the common uncertainties in this class of two-dimensional hydrodynamic models is the treatment of the lateral boundary conditions. Special attention is paid specifically to addressing this problem. To maintain continuity within the domain of interest, ‘smooth’ curve-sided elements must be used at all shoreline boundaries. The present model uses triangular, isoparametric elements with quadratic basis functions for the two velocity components and a linear basis function for water surface elevation. An implicit time integration is used and the model is unconditionally stable. The resultant governing equations are nonlinear owing to the advective and the bottom friction terms and are solved iteratively at each time step by the Newton-Raphson method. Model test runs have been made in the southern portion of San Francisco Bay, California (South Bay) as well as in the Bay west of Carquinez Strait. Owing to the complex bathymetry, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the Bay system are dictated by the generally shallow basins which contain deep, relict river channels. Great care must be exercised to ensure that the conservation equations remain locally as well as globally accurate. Simulations have been made over several representative tidal cycles using this finite element model, and the results compare favourably with existing data. In particular, the standing wave in South Bay and the progressive wave in the northern reach are well represented.

  9. Higher dimensional analysis shows reduced dynamism of time-varying network connectivity in schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robyn L; Yaesoubi, Maziar; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-01-01

    Assessments of functional connectivity between brain networks is a fixture of resting state fMRI research. Until very recently most of this work proceeded from an assumption of stationarity in resting state network connectivity. In the last few years however, interest in moving beyond this simplifying assumption has grown considerably. Applying group temporal independent component analysis (tICA) to a set of time-varying functional network connectivity (FNC) matrices derived from a large multi-site fMRI dataset (N=314; 163 healthy, 151 schizophrenia patients), we obtain a set of five basic correlation patterns (component spatial maps (SMs)) from which observed FNCs can be expressed as mutually independent linear combinations, i.e., the coefficient on each SM in the linear combination is maximally independent of the others. We study dynamic properties of network connectivity as they are reflected in this five-dimensional space, and report stark differences in connectivity dynamics between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. We also find that the most important global differences in FNC dynamism between patient and control groups are replicated when the same dynamical analysis is performed on sets of correlation patterns obtained from either PCA or spatial ICA, giving us additional confidence in the results.

  10. Three dimensional CAD model of the Ignitor machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandi, S.; Zanaboni, P.; Macco, A.; Sioli, V.; Risso, E.

    1998-11-01

    defind The final, global product of all the structural and thermomechanical design activities is a complete three dimensional CAD (AutoCAD and Intergraph Design Review) model of the IGNITOR machine. With this powerful tool, any interface, modification, or upgrading of the machine design is managed as an integrated part of the general effort aimed at the construction of the Ignitor facility. ind The activities that are underway, to complete the design of the core of the experiment and that will be described, concern the following: ind - the cryogenic cooling system, ind - the radial press, the center post, the mechanical supports (legs) of the entire machine, ind - the inner mechanical supports of major components such as the plasma chamber and the outer poloidal field coils.

  11. Mode Estimation for High Dimensional Discrete Tree Graphical Models

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chao; Liu, Han; Metaxas, Dimitris N.; Zhao, Tianqi

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the following problem: given samples from a high dimensional discrete distribution, we want to estimate the leading (δ, ρ)-modes of the underlying distributions. A point is defined to be a (δ, ρ)-mode if it is a local optimum of the density within a δ-neighborhood under metric ρ. As we increase the “scale” parameter δ, the neighborhood size increases and the total number of modes monotonically decreases. The sequence of the (δ, ρ)-modes reveal intrinsic topographical information of the underlying distributions. Though the mode finding problem is generally intractable in high dimensions, this paper unveils that, if the distribution can be approximated well by a tree graphical model, mode characterization is significantly easier. An efficient algorithm with provable theoretical guarantees is proposed and is applied to applications like data analysis and multiple predictions. PMID:25620859

  12. Three-dimensional antenna models for fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, M. D.; Wang, C. Y.; Hogan, J. T.; Harris, J. H.; Hoffman, D. J.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Ryan, P. M.; Stallings, D. S.; Batchelor, D. B.; Beaumont, B.; Hutter, T.; Saoutic, B.

    1996-02-01

    The development of the RANT3D code has permitted the systematic study of the effect of three-dimensional structures on the launched power spectrum for antennas in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. The code allows the septa between current straps to be modeled with arbitrary heights and permits the antenna to interact with other structures in the tokamak. In this paper we present comparisons of calculated loading with the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and Tore Supra experiments, demonstrate the effects on loading caused by positioning uncertainties for an antenna in Tore Supra, and show electric field patterns near the Tore Supra antenna. A poloidal component in the static magnetic field for the plasma response is included in the near-field calculations using the warm plasma code, GLOSI. Preliminary estimates for the heat flux on the bumper limiters during typical operation in Tore Supra are also presented.

  13. 3-dimensional current collection model. [Of Tethered Satellite System 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Kai-Shen; Shiah, A.; Wu, S.T.; Stone, N. Alabama, University, Huntsvilll NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ae )

    1992-07-01

    A three-dimensional, time dependent current collection model of a satellite has been developed for the TSS-1 system. The system has been simulated particularly for the Research of Plasma Electrodynamics (ROPE) experiment. The Maxwellian distributed particles with the geomagnetic field effects are applied in this numerical simulation. The preliminary results indicate that a ring current is observed surrounding the satellite in the equatorial plane. This ring current is found between the plasma sheath and the satellite surface and is oscillating with a time scale of approximately 1 microsec. This is equivalent to the electron plasma frequency. An hour glass shape of electron distribution was observed when the viewing direction is perpendicular to the equatorial plane. This result is consistent with previous findings from Linson (1969) and Antoniades et al. (1990). Electrons that are absorbed by the satellite are limited from the background ionosphere as indicated by Parker and Murphy (1967). 6 refs.

  14. An adaptive high-dimensional stochastic model representation technique for the solution of stochastic partial differential equations

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Xiang; Zabaras, Nicholas

    2010-05-20

    A computational methodology is developed to address the solution of high-dimensional stochastic problems. It utilizes high-dimensional model representation (HDMR) technique in the stochastic space to represent the model output as a finite hierarchical correlated function expansion in terms of the stochastic inputs starting from lower-order to higher-order component functions. HDMR is efficient at capturing the high-dimensional input-output relationship such that the behavior for many physical systems can be modeled to good accuracy only by the first few lower-order terms. An adaptive version of HDMR is also developed to automatically detect the important dimensions and construct higher-order terms using only the important dimensions. The newly developed adaptive sparse grid collocation (ASGC) method is incorporated into HDMR to solve the resulting sub-problems. By integrating HDMR and ASGC, it is computationally possible to construct a low-dimensional stochastic reduced-order model of the high-dimensional stochastic problem and easily perform various statistic analysis on the output. Several numerical examples involving elementary mathematical functions and fluid mechanics problems are considered to illustrate the proposed method. The cases examined show that the method provides accurate results for stochastic dimensionality as high as 500 even with large-input variability. The efficiency of the proposed method is examined by comparing with Monte Carlo (MC) simulation.

  15. Current status of one- and two-dimensional numerical models: Successes and limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, R. J.; Gray, J. L.; Lundstrom, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    The capabilities of one and two-dimensional numerical solar cell modeling programs (SCAP1D and SCAP2D) are described. The occasions when a two-dimensional model is required are discussed. The application of the models to design, analysis, and prediction are presented along with a discussion of problem areas for solar cell modeling.

  16. Reduced-order models of the coagulation cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Kirk B.; Shadden, Shawn C.

    2015-11-01

    Previous models of flow-mediated thrombogenesis have generally included the transport and reaction of dozens of biochemical species involved in the coagulation cascade. Researchers have shown, however, that thrombin generation curves can be accurately reproduced by a significantly smaller system of reactions. These reduced-order models are based on the system of ordinary differential equations representative of a well-mixed system, however, not the system of advection-diffusion-reaction equations required to model the flow-mediated case. Additionally, they focus solely on reproducing the thrombin generation curve, although accurate representation of certain intermediate species may be required to model additional aspects of clot formation, e.g. interactions with activated and non-activated platelets. In this work, we develop a method to reduce the order of a coagulation model through optimization techniques. The results of this reduced-order model are then compared to those of the full system in several representative cardiovascular flows. This work was supported by NSF grant 1354541, the NSF GRFP, and NIH grant HL108272.

  17. Robust simulation of buckled structures using reduced order modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, R.; Perez, R. A.; Spottswood, S. M.

    2016-09-01

    Lightweight metallic structures are a mainstay in aerospace engineering. For these structures, stability, rather than strength, is often the critical limit state in design. For example, buckling of panels and stiffeners may occur during emergency high-g maneuvers, while in supersonic and hypersonic aircraft, it may be induced by thermal stresses. The longstanding solution to such challenges was to increase the sizing of the structural members, which is counter to the ever present need to minimize weight for reasons of efficiency and performance. In this work we present some recent results in the area of reduced order modeling of post- buckled thin beams. A thorough parametric study of the response of a beam to changing harmonic loading parameters, which is useful in exposing complex phenomena and exercising numerical models, is presented. Two error metrics that use but require no time stepping of a (computationally expensive) truth model are also introduced. The error metrics are applied to several interesting forcing parameter cases identified from the parametric study and are shown to yield useful information about the quality of a candidate reduced order model. Parametric studies, especially when considering forcing and structural geometry parameters, coupled environments, and uncertainties would be computationally intractable with finite element models. The goal is to make rapid simulation of complex nonlinear dynamic behavior possible for distributed systems via fast and accurate reduced order models. This ability is crucial in allowing designers to rigorously probe the robustness of their designs to account for variations in loading, structural imperfections, and other uncertainties.

  18. A Novel Medical Freehand Sketch 3D Model Retrieval Method by Dimensionality Reduction and Feature Vector Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Zhang; Sheng, Kang Bao

    2016-01-01

    To assist physicians to quickly find the required 3D model from the mass medical model, we propose a novel retrieval method, called DRFVT, which combines the characteristics of dimensionality reduction (DR) and feature vector transformation (FVT) method. The DR method reduces the dimensionality of feature vector; only the top M low frequency Discrete Fourier Transform coefficients are retained. The FVT method does the transformation of the original feature vector and generates a new feature vector to solve the problem of noise sensitivity. The experiment results demonstrate that the DRFVT method achieves more effective and efficient retrieval results than other proposed methods. PMID:27293478

  19. Multi-dimensional Vlasov simulations and modeling of trapped-electron-driven filamentation of electron plasma waves

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, R. L. Cohen, B. I.; Brunner, S.; Banks, J. W.; Winjum, B. J.

    2015-05-15

    Kinetic simulations of two-dimensional finite-amplitude electron plasma waves are performed in a one-wavelength long system. A systematic study of the most unstable linear sideband mode, in particular its growth rate γ and wavenumber k{sub y}, is carried out by scanning the amplitude and wavenumber of the initial wave. Simulation results are compared with numerical and analytical solutions to a two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger model [H. A. Rose and L. Yin, Phys. Plasmas 15, 042311 (2008)] and to the reduced model by Kruer et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 838 (1969)] generalized to two dimensions.

  20. Mobile phone model with metamaterials to reduce the exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Yenny; Begaud, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a terminal mobile model where an Inverted-F Antenna (IFA) is associated with three different kinds of metamaterials: artificial magnetic conductor (AMC), electromagnetic band gap (EBG) and resistive high-impedance surface (RHIS). The objective was to evaluate whether some metamaterials may be used to reduce exposure while preserving the antenna performances. The exposure has been evaluated using a simplified phantom model. Two configurations, antenna in front of the phantom and antenna hidden by the ground plane, have been evaluated. Results show that using an optimized RHIS, the SAR 10 g is reduced and the antenna performances are preserved. With RHIS solution, the SAR 10 g peak is reduced by 8 % when the antenna is located in front of the phantom and by 6 % when the antenna is hidden by ground plane.

  1. Three-dimensional lung nodule segmentation and shape variance analysis to detect lung cancer with reduced false positives.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Senthilkumar; Narasimhan, Ganesh; Rengasamy, Umamaheswari

    2016-01-01

    The three-dimensional analysis on lung computed tomography scan was carried out in this study to detect the malignant lung nodules. An automatic three-dimensional segmentation algorithm proposed here efficiently segmented the tissue clusters (nodules) inside the lung. However, an automatic morphological region-grow segmentation algorithm that was implemented to segment the well-circumscribed nodules present inside the lung did not segment the juxta-pleural nodule present on the inner surface of wall of the lung. A novel edge bridge and fill technique is proposed in this article to segment the juxta-pleural and pleural-tail nodules accurately. The centroid shift of each candidate nodule was computed. The nodules with more centroid shift in the consecutive slices were eliminated since malignant nodule's resultant position did not usually deviate. The three-dimensional shape variation and edge sharp analyses were performed to reduce the false positives and to classify the malignant nodules. The change in area and equivalent diameter was more for malignant nodules in the consecutive slices and the malignant nodules showed a sharp edge. Segmentation was followed by three-dimensional centroid, shape and edge analysis which was carried out on a lung computed tomography database of 20 patient with 25 malignant nodules. The algorithms proposed in this article precisely detected 22 malignant nodules and failed to detect 3 with a sensitivity of 88%. Furthermore, this algorithm correctly eliminated 216 tissue clusters that were initially segmented as nodules; however, 41 non-malignant tissue clusters were detected as malignant nodules. Therefore, the false positive of this algorithm was 2.05 per patient.

  2. Three-dimensional ray-tracing model for the study of advanced refractive errors in keratoconus.

    PubMed

    Schedin, Staffan; Hallberg, Per; Behndig, Anders

    2016-01-20

    We propose a numerical three-dimensional (3D) ray-tracing model for the analysis of advanced corneal refractive errors. The 3D modeling was based on measured corneal elevation data by means of Scheimpflug photography. A mathematical description of the measured corneal surfaces from a keratoconus (KC) patient was used for the 3D ray tracing, based on Snell's law of refraction. A model of a commercial intraocular lens (IOL) was included in the analysis. By modifying the posterior IOL surface, it was shown that the imaging quality could be significantly improved. The RMS values were reduced by approximately 50% close to the retina, both for on- and off-axis geometries. The 3D ray-tracing model can constitute a basis for simulation of customized IOLs that are able to correct the advanced, irregular refractive errors in KC.

  3. Intraspecific differences in bacterial responses to modelled reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, P. W.; Leff, L. G.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: Bacteria are important residents of water systems, including those of space stations which feature specific environmental conditions, such as lowered effects of gravity. The purpose of this study was to compare responses with modelled reduced gravity of space station, water system bacterial isolates with other isolates of the same species. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacterial isolates, Stenotrophomonas paucimobilis and Acinetobacter radioresistens, originally recovered from the water supply aboard the International Space Station (ISS) were grown in nutrient broth under modelled reduced gravity. Their growth was compared with type strains S. paucimobilis ATCC 10829 and A. radioresistens ATCC 49000. Acinetobacter radioresistens ATCC 49000 and the two ISS isolates showed similar growth profiles under modelled reduced gravity compared with normal gravity, whereas S. paucimobilis ATCC 10829 was negatively affected by modelled reduced gravity. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that microgravity might have selected for bacteria that were able to thrive under this unusual condition. These responses, coupled with impacts of other features (such as radiation resistance and ability to persist under very oligotrophic conditions), may contribute to the success of these water system bacteria. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Water quality is a significant factor in many environments including the ISS. Efforts to remove microbial contaminants are likely to be complicated by the features of these bacteria which allow them to persist under the extreme conditions of the systems.

  4. Light transmission through a one-dimensional metallic grating covered by a reduced cytochrome c molecule layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai-Jun; Peng, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Lei; Liu, Ling-Hong; Li, Ze-Jun; Xu, Liang; Wang, Xin-Jun; Li, Jian-Bo; He, Meng-Dong

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the transmission characteristics of a one-dimensional metallic grating covered by a reduced cytochrome (Cyt) c molecule layer by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. It is found that the introduction of reduced Cyt c molecule layer leads to a transmission dip due to the plasmon resonance energy transfer (PRET) from metallic grating to Cyt c molecules. The transmission dip depth can be controlled by the period of metallic grating, the width and length of slit, and the Cyt c molecule layer number, while the transmission dip wavelength is unchanged with these parameters. The findings expand our understanding of the PRET phenomenon and have potential applications in molecule identification and detection.

  5. Anchoring semiconductor and metal nanoparticles on a two-dimensional catalyst mat. Storing and shuttling electrons with reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Lightcap, Ian V; Kosel, Thomas H; Kamat, Prashant V

    2010-02-10

    Using reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as a two-dimensional support, we have succeeded in selective anchoring of semiconductor and metal nanoparticles at separate sites. Photogenerated electrons from UV-irradiated TiO(2) are transported across RGO to reduce silver ions into silver nanoparticles at a location distinct from the TiO(2) anchored site. The ability of RGO to store and shuttle electrons, as visualized via a stepwise electron transfer process, demonstrates its capability to serve as a catalyst nanomat and transfer electrons on demand to adsorbed species. These findings pave the way for the development of next generation catalyst systems and can spur advancements in graphene-based composites for chemical and biological sensors.

  6. Three dimensional numerical modeling of land subsidence in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, S.; Luo, Y.; Wu, J.; Teatini, P.; Wang, H.; Jiao, X.

    2015-11-01

    Shanghai city has been suffering land subsidence caused by overly exploitation of ground water since 1921, which is a serious problem for this coastal city with altitude of 2.2-4.8 m above mean sea level. The largest cumulative land subsidence amounted to 2.6 m in the downtown area. Measures to decrease the ground water exploitation, change the pumping aquifers, and increase aquifer artificial recharge have been used to mitigate land subsidence since 1961. It is necessary to develop a proper numerical model to simulate and predict land subsidence. In this study, a decoupled three-dimensional (3-D) finite element land subsidence model including a 3-D ground water flow model and a 3-D geo-mechanical model was developed to simulate the 3-D deformation of the aquifer systems in the center area of Shanghai. The area of downtown Shanghai is 660 km2, with 10 million inhabitants, dense high buildings, and 11 metro lines. The simulation spans the period from 1979 to 1995. Two different assumptions have been tested on the side boundary, i.e., precluding the three components of the displacement, or assuming a free-displacement condition. The distribution of calculated land subsidence and horizontal displacements in different aquifers was analyzed. The computed vertical displacement fitted well with the available observations. It has been verified that the two different assumptions on the lateral boundaries in the geo-mechanical model caused different results just limited on nodes close to boundary. The developed 3-D land subsidence model is reasonable and can be used to simulate and predict 3-D movement of aquifer systems in the center area of Shanghai, which could provide scientific support to local government in controlling land subsidence and differential movements of the land surface.

  7. Spatially clustered zealots in a two-dimensional voter model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Thomas; Ludden, Matthew; McKay, Susan

    The voter model, solvable in all dimensions in its standard form, has been extensively used to study behavior dynamics by using the tools of statistical mechanics. Recently, much work has been focused on determining the effects of zealots in the voter model, where a zealot is an agent that maintains its opinion (akin to an Ising spin variable) no matter the local environment. Here we investigate the effects of spatially clustered zealots in the standard voter model on a two-dimensional square lattice. The clustering of zealots is quantified by the conditional probability that a zealot of the +1 state appears on an adjacent site to a randomly chosen zealot. (All zealots are of the +1 state.) We determine the functional forms of the system consensus time with respect to system size, clustering, and zealot density, and compare these findings to previous results that do not include clustering. We also discuss an interesting random walk problem that arises when one attempts to calculate how clustering affects the consensus time for fixed zealot density and system size.

  8. Three-dimensional generalized xy models: A Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamati, H.; Romano, S.; Mól, L. A. S.; Pereira, A. R.

    2005-10-01

    The lattice spin models considered in the present paper consist of three-component unit vectors, associated with a D-dimensional lattice (say Bbb Zd), parameterized by usual spherical angles (θk,phik), and interacting via a ferromagnetic potential restricted to nearest neighbours, of the form Wjk = - epsilon(sin θj sin θk)p cos (phij - phik), p in Bbb N, p >= 1; here epsilon is a positive quantity setting energy and temperature scales. The models were recently introduced, and rigorous comparison inequalities holding for them were investigated, and used to prove the existence of an ordering transition when D = 3 (Romano S. and Zagrebnov V. A., Phys. Lett. A, 301 (2002) 402), investigated by other approximate techniques as well (Mól L. A. S., Pereira A. R. and Moura-Melo W. A., Phys. Lett. A, 319 (2003) 114). We report here an extensive Monte Carlo study of the critical behaviour for D = 3 and p <= 4; our results are consistent with the same universality class as the xy model.

  9. Three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, M; Muñoz, J D

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we introduce a three-dimensional Lattice-Boltzmann model that recovers in the continuous limit the Maxwell equations in materials. In order to build conservation equations with antisymmetric tensors, like the Faraday law, the model assigns four auxiliary vectors to each velocity vector. These auxiliary vectors, when combined with the distribution functions, give the electromagnetic fields. The evolution is driven by the usual Bhatnager-Gross-Krook (BGK) collision rule, but with a different form for the equilibrium distribution functions. This lattice Bhatnager-Gross-Krook (LBGK) model allows us to consider for both dielectrics and conductors with realistic parameters, and therefore it is adequate to simulate the most diverse electromagnetic problems, like the propagation of electromagnetic waves (both in dielectric media and in waveguides), the skin effect, the radiation pattern of a small dipole antenna and the natural frequencies of a resonant cavity, all with 2% accuracy. Actually, it shows to be one order of magnitude faster than the original Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) formulation by Yee to reach the same accuracy. It is, therefore, a valuable alternative to simulate electromagnetic fields and opens lattice Boltzmann for a broad spectrum of new applications in electrodynamics.

  10. Three-dimensional model of cytochrome P450 human aromatase.

    PubMed

    Loge, Cedric; Le Borgne, Marc; Marchand, Pascal; Robert, Jean-Michel; Le Baut, Guillaume; Palzer, Martina; Hartmann, Rolf W

    2005-12-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) structure of human aromatase (CYP 19) was modeled on the basis of the crystal structure of rabbit CYP2C5, the first solved X-ray structure of an eukaryotic cytochrome P450 and was evaluated by docking S-fadrozole and the steroidal competitive inhibitor (19R)-10-thiiranylestr-4-ene-3,17-dione, into the enzyme active site. According to a previous pharmacophoric hypothesis described in the literature, the cyano group of S-fadrozole partially mimics the steroid backbone C(17) carbonyl group of (19R)-10-thiiranylestr-4-ene-3,17-dione, and was oriented in a favorable position for H-bonding with the newly identified positively charged residues Lys 119 and Arg435. In addition, this model is consistent with the recent combined mutagenesis/modeling studies already published concerning the roles ofAsp309 and His480 in the aromatization of the steroid A ring. PMID:16408794

  11. Two-dimensional CFD modeling of wave rotor flow dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Gerard E.; Chima, Rodrick V.

    1994-01-01

    A two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver developed for detailed study of wave rotor flow dynamics is described. The CFD model is helping characterize important loss mechanisms within the wave rotor. The wave rotor stationary ports and the moving rotor passages are resolved on multiple computational grid blocks. The finite-volume form of the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations with laminar viscosity are integrated in time using a four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme. Roe's approximate Riemann solution scheme or the computationally less expensive advection upstream splitting method (AUSM) flux-splitting scheme is used to effect upwind-differencing of the inviscid flux terms, using cell interface primitive variables set by MUSCL-type interpolation. The diffusion terms are central-differenced. The solver is validated using a steady shock/laminar boundary layer interaction problem and an unsteady, inviscid wave rotor passage gradual opening problem. A model inlet port/passage charging problem is simulated and key features of the unsteady wave rotor flow field are identified. Lastly, the medium pressure inlet port and high pressure outlet port portion of the NASA Lewis Research Center experimental divider cycle is simulated and computed results are compared with experimental measurements. The model accurately predicts the wave timing within the rotor passages and the distribution of flow variables in the stationary inlet port region.

  12. Three-dimensional bonded-cell model for grain fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantor, D.; Azéma, E.; Sornay, P.; Radjai, F.

    2016-07-01

    We present a three-dimensional numerical method for the simulation of particle crushing in 3D. This model is capable of producing irregular angular fragments upon particle fragmentation while conserving the total volume. The particle is modeled as a cluster of rigid polyhedral cells generated by a Voronoi tessellation. The cells are bonded along their faces by a cohesive Tresca law with independent tensile and shear strengths and simulated by the contact dynamics method. Using this model, we analyze the mechanical response of a single particle subjected to diametral compression for varying number of cells, their degree of disorder, and intercell tensile and shear strength. In particular, we identify the functional dependence of particle strength on the intercell strengths. We find that two different regimes can be distinguished depending on whether intercell shear strength is below or above its tensile strength. In both regimes, we observe a power-law dependence of particle strength on both intercell strengths but with different exponents. The strong effect of intercell shear strength on the particle strength reflects an interlocking effect between cells. In fact, even at low tensile strength, the particle global strength can still considerably increase with intercell shear strength. We finally show that the Weibull statistics describes well the particle strength variability.

  13. One-dimensional cold cap model for melters with bubblers

    SciTech Connect

    Pokorny, Richard; Hilliard, Zachary J.; Dixon, Derek R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Guillen, Donna P.; Kruger, Albert A.; Hrma, Pavel

    2015-07-28

    The rate of glass production during vitrification in an all-electrical melter greatly impacts the cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization. The feed is charged to the melter on the top of the molten glass, where it forms a layer of reacting and melting material, called the cold cap. During the final stages of the batch-to-glass conversion process, gases evolved from reactions produce primary foam, the growth and collapse of which controls the glass production rate. The mathematical model of the cold cap was revised to include functional representation of primary foam behavior and to account for the dry cold cap surface. The melting rate is computed as a response to the dependence of the primary foam collapse temperature on the heating rate and melter operating conditions, including the effect of bubbling on the cold cap bottom and top surface temperatures. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data from laboratory-scale and pilot-scale melter studies. Lastly, the cold cap model will become part of the full three-dimensional mathematical model of the waste glass melter.

  14. One-dimensional cold cap model for melters with bubblers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pokorny, Richard; Hilliard, Zachary J.; Dixon, Derek R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Guillen, Donna P.; Kruger, Albert A.; Hrma, Pavel

    2015-07-28

    The rate of glass production during vitrification in an all-electrical melter greatly impacts the cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization. The feed is charged to the melter on the top of the molten glass, where it forms a layer of reacting and melting material, called the cold cap. During the final stages of the batch-to-glass conversion process, gases evolved from reactions produce primary foam, the growth and collapse of which controls the glass production rate. The mathematical model of the cold cap was revised to include functional representation of primary foam behavior and to account for themore » dry cold cap surface. The melting rate is computed as a response to the dependence of the primary foam collapse temperature on the heating rate and melter operating conditions, including the effect of bubbling on the cold cap bottom and top surface temperatures. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data from laboratory-scale and pilot-scale melter studies. Lastly, the cold cap model will become part of the full three-dimensional mathematical model of the waste glass melter.« less

  15. Theme section: Multi-dimensional modelling, analysis and visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilbert, Éric; Çöltekin, Arzu; Castro, Francesc Antón; Pettit, Chris

    2016-07-01

    Spatial data are now collected and processed in larger amounts, and used by larger populations than ever before. While most geospatial data have traditionally been recorded as two-dimensional data, the evolution of data collection methods and user demands have led to data beyond the two dimensions describing complex multidimensional phenomena. An example of the relevance of multidimensional modelling is seen with the development of urban modelling where several dimensions have been added to the traditional 2D map representation (Sester et al., 2011). These include obviously the third spatial dimension (Biljecki et al., 2015) as well as the temporal, but also the scale dimension (Van Oosterom and Stoter, 2010) or, as mentioned by (Lu et al., 2016), multi-spectral and multi-sensor data. Such a view provides an organisation of multidimensional data around these different axes and it is time to explore each axis as the availability of unprecedented amounts of new data demands new solutions. The availability of such large amounts of data induces an acute need for developing new approaches to assist with their dissemination, visualisation, and analysis by end users. Several issues need to be considered in order to provide a meaningful representation and assist in data visualisation and mining, modelling and analysis; such as data structures allowing representation at different scales or in different contexts of thematic information.

  16. Effect of reduced visual acuity on precision of two-dimensional tracing movements

    PubMed Central

    Domkin, Dmitry; Richter, Hans O.; Zetterlund, Christina; Lundqvist, Lars-Olov

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We intended to assess consequences of reduced visual acuity for performance in a natural simple motor task (tracing) using objective kinematic performance measures. Specifically, we intended to elucidate the kind of relationship between the task performance and best corrected binocular visual acuity and to determine the threshold of visual acuity when task performance starts to deteriorate. Methods Ninety-five individuals with different best corrected visual acuity participated in the study (age 49 ± 12 years, mean ± SD, 27 men and 68 women). The participants manually traced maze-like visual patterns of different spatial complexity presented on the screen of a portable notebook computer using Clinical Kinematic Assessment Tool software. Tracing error was computed as performance measure in each trial with a spatial pattern matching technique – rigid point set registration method. Results The segmented linear regression analysis showed that the relation between visual acuity and tracing errors was best described with a regression function having a break point between two data segments. Tracing performance was unaffected by values of visual acuity below 0.2 on logMAR scale, but when logMAR values increased above this critical limit (i.e. when visual acuity is further reduced), tracing errors linearly increased. The rate of the increase of the tracing error correlated with the complexity of visual stimulus shape. Conclusion Testing of fine motor functions with objective kinematic measures during visuomotor tasks may help differentiating between actual effects of reduced visual acuity on eye–hand coordination in individuals with similar levels of impairment of visual acuity. PMID:26002409

  17. Verification and transfer of thermal pollution model. Volume 5: Verification of 2-dimensional numerical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. S.; Sengupta, S.; Nwadike, E. V.

    1982-01-01

    The six-volume report: describes the theory of a three dimensional (3-D) mathematical thermal discharge model and a related one dimensional (1-D) model, includes model verification at two sites, and provides a separate user's manual for each model. The 3-D model has two forms: free surface and rigid lid. The former, verified at Anclote Anchorate (FL), allows a free air/water interface and is suited for significant surface wave heights compared to mean water depth; e.g., estuaries and coastal regions. The latter, verified at Lake Keowee (SC), is suited for small surface wave heights compared to depth (e.g., natural or man-made inland lakes) because surface elevation has been removed as a parameter. These models allow computation of time dependent velocity and temperature fields for given initial conditions and time-varying boundary conditions.

  18. Accelerating transient simulation of linear reduced order models.

    SciTech Connect

    Thornquist, Heidi K.; Mei, Ting; Keiter, Eric Richard; Bond, Brad

    2011-10-01

    Model order reduction (MOR) techniques have been used to facilitate the analysis of dynamical systems for many years. Although existing model reduction techniques are capable of providing huge speedups in the frequency domain analysis (i.e. AC response) of linear systems, such speedups are often not obtained when performing transient analysis on the systems, particularly when coupled with other circuit components. Reduced system size, which is the ostensible goal of MOR methods, is often insufficient to improve transient simulation speed on realistic circuit problems. It can be shown that making the correct reduced order model (ROM) implementation choices is crucial to the practical application of MOR methods. In this report we investigate methods for accelerating the simulation of circuits containing ROM blocks using the circuit simulator Xyce.

  19. Neurobiological dimensional models of personality: a review of the models of Cloninger, Depue, and Siever.

    PubMed

    Paris, Joel

    2005-04-01

    Neurobiological dimensional models of personality aim to account for the structure of personality traits and disorders through links to neurotransmitter systems. Three such models are reviewed: those of Cloninger, Depue, and Siever. While these proposals have heuristic value, none of them has obtained strong empirical support. Our current understanding of neurobiology is insufficient to develop a model of personality on this basis. At this point, dimensions of personality should be derived from factor analysis rather than from neurobiological theories.

  20. A regional adaptive and assimilative three-dimensional ionospheric model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbagh, Dario; Scotto, Carlo; Sgrigna, Vittorio

    2016-03-01

    A regional adaptive and assimilative three-dimensional (3D) ionospheric model is proposed. It is able to ingest real-time data from different ionosondes, providing the ionospheric bottomside plasma frequency fp over the Italian area. The model is constructed on the basis of empirical values for a set of ionospheric parameters Pi[base] over the considered region, some of which have an assigned variation ΔPi. The values for the ionospheric parameters actually observed at a given time at a given site will thus be Pi = Pi[base] + ΔPi. These Pi values are used as input for an electron density N(h) profiler. The latter is derived from the Advanced Ionospheric Profiler (AIP), which is software used by Autoscala as part of the process of automatic inversion of ionogram traces. The 3D model ingests ionosonde data by minimizing the root-mean-square deviation between the observed and modeled values of fp(h) profiles obtained from the associated N(h) values at the points where observations are available. The ΔPi values are obtained from this minimization procedure. The 3D model is tested using data collected at the ionospheric stations of Rome (41.8N, 12.5E) and Gibilmanna (37.9N, 14.0E), and then comparing the results against data from the ionospheric station of San Vito dei Normanni (40.6N, 18.0E). The software developed is able to produce maps of the critical frequencies foF2 and foF1, and of fp at a fixed altitude, with transverse and longitudinal cross-sections of the bottomside ionosphere in a color scale. fp(h) and associated simulated ordinary ionogram traces can easily be produced for any geographic location within the Italian region. fp values within the volume in question can also be provided.

  1. Simulational Studies of a 2-DIMENSIONAL Burridge - Model for Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, John Bernard

    1993-01-01

    A two-dimensional cellular automaton version of the Burridge-Knopoff (BK) model for earthquakes is studied. The model consists of a lattice of blocks connected by springs, subject to static friction and driven at a rate v by an externally applied force. A block ruptures provided that its total stress matches or exceeds static friction. The distance it moves is proportional to the total stress, alpha of which it releases to each of its neighbors and 1 - qalpha<=aves the system, where q is the number of neighbors. The BK model with nearest neighbor (q = 4) and long range (q = 24) interactions is simulated for spatially uniform and random static friction on lattices with periodic, open, closed, and fixed boundary conditions. In the nearest neighbor model, the system appears to have a spinodal critical point at v = v_{c} in all cases except for closed boundaries and uniform thresholds, where the system appears to be self-organized critical. The dynamics of the model is always periodic or quasiperiodic for non-closed boundaries and uniform thresholds. The stress is "quantized" in multiples of the loader force in this case. A mean field theory is presented from which v _{c} and the dominant period of oscillation is derived, which agree well with the data. v_{c} varies inversely with the number of neighbors to which each blocks is attached and, as a result, goes to zero as the range of the springs goes to infinity. This is consistent with the behavior of a spinodal critical point as the range of interactions goes to infinity. The quasistatic limit of tectonic loading is thus recovered.

  2. Methodology for Constructing Reduced-Order Power Block Performance Models for CSP Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M.

    2010-10-01

    The inherent variability of the solar resource presents a unique challenge for CSP systems. Incident solar irradiation can fluctuate widely over a short time scale, but plant performance must be assessed for long time periods. As a result, annual simulations with hourly (or sub-hourly) timesteps are the norm in CSP analysis. A highly detailed power cycle model provides accuracy but tends to suffer from prohibitively long run-times; alternatively, simplified empirical models can run quickly but don?t always provide enough information, accuracy, or flexibility for the modeler. The ideal model for feasibility-level analysis incorporates both the detail and accuracy of a first-principle model with the low computational load of a regression model. The work presented in this paper proposes a methodology for organizing and extracting information from the performance output of a detailed model, then using it to develop a flexible reduced-order regression model in a systematic and structured way. A similar but less generalized approach for characterizing power cycle performance and a reduced-order modeling methodology for CFD analysis of heat transfer from electronic devices have been presented. This paper builds on these publications and the non-dimensional approach originally described.

  3. Airfoil model in Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1939-01-01

    Airfoil model with pressure taps inside the test section of the Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel. The Two-Dimensional Low-Turbulence Tunnel was originally called the Refrigeration or 'Ice' tunnel because it was intended to support research on aircraft icing. The tunnel was built of wood, lined with sheet steel, and heavily insulated on the outside. Refrigeration equipment was installed to generate icing conditions inside the test section. The NACA sent out a questionnaire to airline operators, asking them to detail the specific kinds of icing problems they encountered in flight. The replies became the basis for a comprehensive research program begun in 1938 when the tunnel commenced operation. Research quickly focused on the concept of using exhaust heat to prevent ice from forming on the wing's leading edge. This project was led by Lewis Rodert, who later would win the Collier Trophy for his work on deicing. By 1940, aircraft icing research had shifted to the new Ames Research Laboratory, and the Ice tunnel was refitted with screens and honeycomb. Researchers were trying to eliminate all turbulence in the test section. From TN 1283: 'The Langley two-dimensional low-turbulence pressure tunnel is a single-return closed-throat tunnel.... The tunnel is constructed of heavy steel plate so that the pressure of the air may be varied from approximately full vacuum to 10 atmospheres absolute, thereby giving a wide range of air densities. Reciprocating compressors with a capacity of 1200 cubic feet of free air per minute provide compressed air. Since the tunnel shell has a volume of about 83,000 cubic feet, a compression rate of approximately one atmosphere per hour is obtained. ... The test section is rectangular in shape, 3 feet wide, 7 1/2 feet high, and 7 1/2 feet long. ... The over-all size of the wind-tunnel shell is about 146 feet long and 58 feet wide with a maximum diameter of 26 feet. The test section and entrance and exit cones are surrounded by a 22-foot

  4. Three-dimensional modeling of plastic deformation flow during ECAP

    SciTech Connect

    Budilov, I. N.; Alexandrov, I. V.; Beyerlein, Irene J.; Lukaschuk, Y. V.; Zhernakov, V. S.

    2004-01-01

    ECAP. In this work, we present preliminary results using a three dimensional (3D) FE code for simulating ECAP. The influence of the outer die radius and friction coefficient on the accumulated plastic strain in a single ECAP pass of pure Cu (99.9%) is investigated. Special attention is paid to the heterogeneity in strain along the billet length, from top to bottom, and side to side. We will also compare the simulated punch force vs displacement curve with the experimental curve to access the accuracy of the material and friction models.

  5. Roughness distribution of multiple hit and long surface diffusion length noise reduced discrete growth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disrattakit, P.; Chanphana, R.; Chatraphorn, P.

    2016-11-01

    Conventionally, the universality class of a discrete growth model is identified via the scaling of interface width. This method requires large-scale simulations to minimize finite-size effects on the results. The multiple hit noise reduction techniques (m > 1 NRT) and the long surface diffusion length noise reduction techniques (ℓ > 1 NRT) have been used to promote the asymptotic behaviors of the growth models. Lately, an alternative method involving comparison of roughness distribution in the steady state has been proposed. In this work, the roughness distribution of the (2 +1)-dimensional Das Sarma-Tamborenea (DT), Wolf-Villain (WV), and Larger Curvature (LC) models, with and without NRTs, are calculated in order to investigate effects of the NRTs on the roughness distribution. Additionally, effective growth exponents of the noise reduced (2 +1)-dimensional DT, WV and LC models are also calculated. Our results indicate that the NRTs affect the interface width both in the growth and the saturation regimes. In the steady state, the NRTs do not seem to have any impact on the roughness distribution of the DT model, but it significantly changes the roughness distribution of the WV and LC models to the normal distribution curves.

  6. A three-dimensional Conservative Cascade semi-Lagrangian transport Scheme using the Reduced Grid on the sphere (CCS-RG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shashkin, Vladimir; Fadeev, Rostislav; Tolstykh, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    Cell-integrated semi-Lagrangian (CISL) transport schemes is being considered in literature as a viable alternative for traditional Eulerian finite-volume and finite-difference schemes and also for emerging spectral element and discontinuous Galerkin algorithms. CISL approach ensures mass-conservation and shape-preservation during numerical solution while allowing for longer time-steps as compared to the Eulerian schemes. Recently the scalable CISL schemes was created (Erath et al. 2012, Erath and Nair 2014). The presented CCS-RG scheme is the extension of the cascade scheme by Nair et al. 2002 to the three-dimensional space and to the reduced lat-lon grid case. Using a reduced lat-lon grid, i.e. the grid where the number of points in longitude at each latitude circle is gradually diminished while approaching the pole is one of the ways to avoid concentration of grid points near the poles on the regular lat- lon grid. The reduced grids for the CCS-RG are constructed with the algorithm by Fadeev 2013. The important part of CCS-RG is the integration of the tracer density over the Lagrangian control volume. The cascade approach is used to split the three-dimensional integration in three subsequent one-dimensional integrations. Two different options for shape-preservation are used. First is the Barth and Jespersen 1989 (BJ) filter also used in the CSLAM CISL advection scheme by Lauritzen et al. 2010. The second option is the diagnostic filter (DF) which moves a part of the tracer mass to the neighboring Lagrangian control volume in the case of monotonicity violation is detected. Here we present the results for the three-dimensional tracer transport test cases from Dynamical Core Model Intercomparison Project (DCMIP) test suite (Kent et al., 2013). The CCS-RG is found to have comparable accuracy as the SLICE transport scheme (Zerroukat and Allen 2012) on the regular lat-lon grid (also using cascade CISL approach). The impact of the reduced grid with 20% less points than

  7. Wightman function and vacuum fluctuations in higher dimensional brane models

    SciTech Connect

    Saharian, Aram A.

    2006-02-15

    The Wightman function and the vacuum expectation value of the field square are evaluated for a massive scalar field with a general curvature coupling parameter subject to Robin boundary conditions on two codimension-one parallel branes located on a (D+1)-dimensional background spacetime AdS{sub D{sub 1}}{sub +1}x{sigma} with a warped internal space {sigma}. The general case of different Robin coefficients on separate branes is considered. The application of the generalized Abel-Plana formula for the series over zeros of combinations of cylinder functions allows us to manifestly extract the part due to the bulk without boundaries. Unlike the purely anti-de Sitter (AdS) bulk, the vacuum expectation value of the field square induced by a single brane, in addition to the distance from the brane, depends also on the position of the brane in the bulk. The brane induced part in this expectation value vanishes when the brane position tends to the AdS horizon or the AdS boundary. The asymptotic behavior of the vacuum densities near the branes and at large distances is investigated. The contribution of Kaluza-Klein modes along {sigma} is discussed in various limiting cases. In the limit when the curvature radius for the AdS spacetime tends to infinity, we derive the results for two parallel Robin plates on the background spacetime R{sup (D{sub 1},1)}x{sigma}. For strong gravitational fields corresponding to large values of the AdS energy scale, both the single brane and interference parts of the expectation values integrated over the internal space are exponentially suppressed. As an example the case {sigma}=S{sup 1} is considered, corresponding to the AdS{sub D+1} bulk with one compactified dimension. An application to the higher dimensional generalization of the Randall-Sundrum brane model with arbitrary mass terms on the branes is discussed.

  8. Identification of Reduced-Order Thermal Therapy Models Using Thermal MR Images: Theory and Validation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and validate a method to identify computationally efficient site- and patient-specific models of ultrasound thermal therapies from MR thermal images. The models of the specific absorption rate of the transduced energy and the temperature response of the therapy target are identified in the reduced basis of proper orthogonal decomposition of thermal images, acquired in response to a mild thermal test excitation. The method permits dynamic reidentification of the treatment models during the therapy by recursively utilizing newly acquired images. Such adaptation is particularly important during high-temperature therapies, which are known to substantially and rapidly change tissue properties and blood perfusion. The developed theory was validated for the case of focused ultrasound heating of a tissue phantom. The experimental and computational results indicate that the developed approach produces accurate low-dimensional treatment models despite temporal and spatial noises in MR images and slow image acquisition rate. PMID:22531754

  9. Analysis, simulation and visualization of 1D tapping via reduced dynamical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmore, Denis; Rosato, Anthony; Tricoche, Xavier; Urban, Kevin; Zou, Luo

    2014-04-01

    A low-dimensional center-of-mass dynamical model is devised as a simplified means of approximately predicting some important aspects of the motion of a vertical column comprised of a large number of particles subjected to gravity and periodic vertical tapping. This model is investigated first as a continuous dynamical system using analytical, simulation and visualization techniques. Then, by employing an approach analogous to that used to approximate the dynamics of a bouncing ball on an oscillating flat plate, it is modeled as a discrete dynamical system and analyzed to determine bifurcations and transitions to chaotic motion along with other properties. The predictions of the analysis are then compared-primarily qualitatively-with visualization and simulation results of the reduced continuous model, and ultimately with simulations of the complete system dynamics.

  10. Three-dimensional numerical modeling of indium phosphide Point-Contact Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Ralph O.

    1992-01-01

    The Point-Contact Solar Cell (PCSC) geometry has proven very effective for silicon cells. To date, it has not been implemented in III-V materials. In addition, modeling such a geometry is very difficult because of its three-dimensional nature. We have developed a three-dimensional finite element modeling code (FIESTA ROC). In this paper, we present results from a three-dimensional modeling study of InP point-contact solar cells.

  11. Review of simplified Pseudo-two-Dimensional models of lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokar, Ali; Rajabloo, Barzin; Désilets, Martin; Lacroix, Marcel

    2016-09-01

    Over the last decade, many efforts have been deployed to develop models for the prediction, the control, the optimization and the parameter estimation of Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. It appears that the most successful electrochemical-based model for Li-ion battery is the Pseudo-two-Dimensional model (P2D). Due to the fact that the governing equations are complex, this model cannot be used in real-time applications like Battery Management Systems (BMSs). To remedy the situation, several investigations have been carried out to simplify the P2D model. Mathematical and physical techniques are employed to reduce the order of magnitude of the P2D governing equations. The present paper is a review of the studies on the modeling of Li-ion batteries with simplified P2D models. The assumptions on which these models rest are stated, the calculation methods are examined, the advantages and the drawbacks of the models are discussed and their applications are presented. Suggestions for overcoming the shortcomings of the models are made. Challenges and future directions in the modeling of Li-ion batteries are also discussed.

  12. A six-dimensional (Z2)3 symmetric model with warped physical space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahabandu, Chetiya; Suranyi, Peter; Rohana Wijewardhana, L. C.; Vaz, Cenalo

    2008-08-01

    The Randall-Sundrum model is studied in six dimension with AdS4 or dS4 metric in the physical four-dimensional space. Two solutions are found, one with induced five-dimensional gravity terms added to the induced cosmological constant terms. We study the graviton modes in both solutions by transforming the mass eigenvalue equation to a Schrodinger equation with a volcano potential. The spectrum of gravitational excitations depends on the input parameters of the theory, the six-dimensional and the effective four-dimensional cosmological constants. The model gives a physically acceptable spectrum if the four-dimensional cosmological constant is sufficiently small.

  13. Grid Generator for Two, Three-dimensional Finite Element Subsurface Flow Models

    1993-04-28

    GRIDMAKER serves as a preprocessor for finite element models in solving two- and three-dimensional subsurface flow and pollutant transport problems. It is designed to generate three-point triangular or four-point quadrilateral elements for two-dimensional domains and eight-point hexahedron elements for three-dimensional domains. A two-dimensional domain of an aquifer with a variable depth layer is treated as a special case for depth-integrated two-dimensional, finite element subsurface flow models. The program accommodates the need for aquifers with heterogeneousmore » systems by identifying the type of material in each element.« less

  14. GRIDMAKER. Grid Generator for Two, Three-dimensional Finite Element Subsurface Flow Models

    SciTech Connect

    Tsay, T.K.; Yeh, G.T.; Wilson, G.V.; Toran, L.E.

    1990-06-01

    GRIDMAKER serves as a preprocessor for finite element models in solving two- and three-dimensional subsurface flow and pollutant transport problems. It is designed to generate three-point triangular or four-point quadrilateral elements for two-dimensional domains and eight-point hexahedron elements for three-dimensional domains. A two-dimensional domain of an aquifer with a variable depth layer is treated as a special case for depth-integrated two-dimensional, finite element subsurface flow models. The program accommodates the need for aquifers with heterogeneous systems by identifying the type of material in each element.

  15. Onset of chaos in finite-dimensional models of turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levich, Eugene; Malomed, Boris A.

    1999-03-01

    A review of the approach to the study of turbulence (spatiotemporal chaos) in a finite spatial region, based on decomposition of the underlying partial differential equations over an infinite set of modes and subsequent truncation of the infinite chain of the corresponding ordinary differential equations (ODEs), is given. The review starts with a general survey of this approach. Then, to illustrate it in terms of real systems, two recently studied models are considered in some detail. The first model is a system of six ODEs for amplitudes of eigenmodes of the curl operator, which is a simplest nontrivial truncation of the three-dimensional (3D) Euler equations; the wave vectors of the six modes are closed into a simplex (tetrahedron) in the 3D space, which makes this truncation basis very natural. The resultant dynamical system (DS) has three integrals of motion, that can be interpreted as the energy, helicity, and squared angular momentum of the flow. Depending on values of these conserved quantities, numerical simulations reveal both regions of purely chaotic (ergodic) motion, and mixed regions where chaotic and regular motions coexist. The second model is produced by truncation of the two-dimensional (2D) complex Ginzburg-Landau (CGL) equation in a rectangular region, the spatiotemporal chaos being triggered by the modulational instability (MI) of a spatially uniform solution. Close to the MI threshold, the instability is dominated by few spatial modes, which makes it possible to perform the truncation in a consistent way. This leads to a fifth-order DS, that admits two different invariant reductions to third-order DSs. One reduction corresponds to a particular case of the 1D CGL equation, and it this case the system can be further transformed into the famous Lorenz system or its modified form. The other reduction produces DS that has coexisting exploding (singular) solutions and dynamical chaos accounted for by a compact strange attractor. Both types of the

  16. An Efficient Algorithm to Construct the Reduced Stiffness and Mass Matrices in a Reduced Order Groundwater Flow Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushijima, T.; Yeh, W. W. G.

    2014-12-01

    An algorithm is developed to reduce the computational burden of constructing the reduced stiffness and mass matrices for a reduced order groundwater model. A reduced order groundwater model can be developed by projecting the full groundwater model onto a subspace whose range spans the range of the full model space. This is done through the use of a projection matrix. Although reduced order groundwater models have been shown to be able to make accurate estimates of the full model solution at a greatly reduced dimension, the computational cost of projecting the stiffness and mass matrices onto the subspace of the reduced model can be very demanding. To alleviate this difficulty, an algorithm is developed that is able to reduce the effort and cost of constructing the reduced stiffness and mass matrices of the reduced model. The algorithm is based on the concept of approximating the value of a function at some point by use of the first-order Taylor series approximation. The developed algorithm is applied to both a 1-D test case and a 2-D test case. In both cases the algorithm is able to reduce the effort and cost of constructing the reduced order model by several orders of magnitude while losing little to no accuracy.

  17. Verification and transfer of thermal pollution model. Volume 6: User's manual for 1-dimensional numerical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. S.; Sengupta, S.; Nwadike, E. V.

    1982-01-01

    The six-volume report: describes the theory of a three dimensional (3-D) mathematical thermal discharge model and a related one dimensional (1-D) model, includes model verification at two sites, and provides a separate user's manual for each model. The 3-D model has two forms: free surface and rigid lid. The former, verified at Anclote Anchorage (FL), allows a free air/water interface and is suited for significant surface wave heights compared to mean water depth; e.g., estuaries and coastal regions. The latter, verified at Lake Keowee (SC), is suited for small surface wave heights compared to depth (e.g., natural or man-made inland lakes) because surface elevation has been removed as a parameter.

  18. Reducing equifinality of hydrological models by integrating Functional Streamflow Disaggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüdtke, Stefan; Apel, Heiko; Nied, Manuela; Carl, Peter; Merz, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    A universal problem of the calibration of hydrological models is the equifinality of different parameter sets derived from the calibration of models against total runoff values. This is an intrinsic problem stemming from the quality of the calibration data and the simplified process representation by the model. However, discharge data contains additional information which can be extracted by signal processing methods. An analysis specifically developed for the disaggregation of runoff time series into flow components is the Functional Streamflow Disaggregation (FSD; Carl & Behrendt, 2008). This method is used in the calibration of an implementation of the hydrological model SWIM in a medium sized watershed in Thailand. FSD is applied to disaggregate the discharge time series into three flow components which are interpreted as base flow, inter-flow and surface runoff. In addition to total runoff, the model is calibrated against these three components in a modified GLUE analysis, with the aim to identify structural model deficiencies, assess the internal process representation and to tackle equifinality. We developed a model dependent (MDA) approach calibrating the model runoff components against the FSD components, and a model independent (MIA) approach comparing the FSD of the model results and the FSD of calibration data. The results indicate, that the decomposition provides valuable information for the calibration. Particularly MDA highlights and discards a number of standard GLUE behavioural models underestimating the contribution of soil water to river discharge. Both, MDA and MIA yield to a reduction of the parameter ranges by a factor up to 3 in comparison to standard GLUE. Based on these results, we conclude that the developed calibration approach is able to reduce the equifinality of hydrological model parameterizations. The effect on the uncertainty of the model predictions is strongest by applying MDA and shows only minor reductions for MIA. Besides

  19. Three-Dimensional Modeling of Quasi-Homologous Solar Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pariat, E.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.

    2010-01-01

    Recent solar observations (e.g., obtained with Hinode and STEREO) have revealed that coronal jets are a more frequent phenomenon than previously believed. This higher frequency results, in part, from the fact that jets exhibit a homologous behavior: successive jets recur at the same location with similar morphological features. We present the results of three-dimensional (31)) numerical simulations of our model for coronal jets. This study demonstrates the ability of the model to generate recurrent 3D untwisting quasi-homologous jets when a stress is constantly applied at the photospheric boundary. The homology results from the property of the 3D null-point system to relax to a state topologically similar to its initial configuration. In addition, we find two distinct regimes of reconnection in the simulations: an impulsive 3D mode involving a helical rotating current sheet that generates the jet, and a quasi-steady mode that occurs in a 2D-like current sheet located along the fan between the sheared spines. We argue that these different regimes can explain the observed link between jets and plumes.

  20. Modelling for three dimensional coalescence of two bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, R.; Li, S.; Zhang, A. M.; Wang, Q. X.

    2016-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the three dimensional (3D) interaction and coalescence of two bubbles subject to buoyancy and the dynamics of the subsequent joined bubble using the boundary integral method (BIM). An improved density potential method is implemented to control the mesh quality. It helps to avoid the numerical instabilities, which occur after coalescence. Numerical convergence tests are conducted in terms of mesh sizes and time steps. The 3D numerical model agrees well with an axisymmetric BIM model for axisymmetric cases as well as experimental results captured by high-speed camera. The bubble jetting, interaction, and coalescence of the two bubbles depend on the maximum bubble radii, the centre distance between two bubbles at inception, and the angle β between the centre line and the direction of buoyancy. We investigate coalescence of two bubbles for β = 0, π/4, and π/2, respectively, and at various centre distances at inception. Numerical results presented include the bubble and jet shapes, the velocity, and pressure fields surrounding the bubbles, as well as the time histories of bubble volumes, jet velocities, and positions of centroid of the bubble system.

  1. A reduced grid model for shallow flows on the sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Reisner, J.M.; Margolin, L.G.; Smolarkiewicz, P.K.

    1995-09-01

    The authors describe a numerical model for simulating shallow water flows on a rotating sphere. The model is augmented by a reduced grid capability that increases the allowable time step based on stability requirements, and leads to significant improvements in computational efficiency. The model is based on finite difference techniques, and in particular on the nonoscillatory forward-in-time advection scheme MPDATA. They have implemented the model on the massively parallel CM-5, and have used it to simulate shallow water flows representative of global atmospheric motions. Here they present simulations of two flows, the Rossby-Haurwitz wave of period four, a nearly steady pattern with a complex balance of large and small scale motions, and also a zonal flow perturbed by an obstacle. They compare the accuracy and efficiency of using the reduced grid option with that of the original model. The authors also present simulations at several levels of resolution to show how the efficiency of the model scales with problem size.

  2. Moiré reducing two-dimensional diffractive optical low-pass filter made from molded plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakohira, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Okada, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    A two dimensional sinusoid diffraction grating is developed for a moiré-reducing low-pass filter. Typical display units have image pixels arranged systematically in two dimensions, with non-illuminating regions between the image pixels. Using a conventional lens to view this display, the image pixels and the region between the pixels are both magnified, and the resulting image is unpleasant to the human eye, especially with color displays, called the screen door effect. This pixel problem is typically solved with a low-pass filter using a diffraction grating. However, depending on the period of the diffraction grating compared to the period of the image pixels, moiré can be seen. In recent years, organic electroluminescence displays with a small fill factor are growing popular, but such displays are usually more prone to the screen door effect and moiré. With conventional optical low-pass filters, only the pixel pitch in the vertical and horizontal directions are taken into account, but this is insufficient with small fill-factor pixels, and consideration for various diagonal periods is needed. A two dimensional sinusoid structure diffraction grating is developed for a moiré-reducing low-pass filter. The angle of the grating with the image pixel arrangement, the distance between the display and the grating, the grating depth, and the grating period are all chosen appropriately, and take into account multiple non-adjacent diagonal image pixel periods for all colors, consequently reducing moiré and the screen door effect. We present the calculations and evaluation results from plastic samples made by lithography tooled molds.

  3. A two-dimensional kinematic dynamo model of the ionospheric magnetic field at Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cravens, T. E.; Wu, D.; Shinagawa, H.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a high-resolution, two-dimensional, time dependent, kinematic dynamo model of the ionospheric magnetic field of Venus are presented. Various one-dimensional models are considered and the two-dimensional model is then detailed. In this model, the two-dimensional magnetic induction equation, the magnetic diffusion-convection equation, is numerically solved using specified plasma velocities. Origins of the vertical velocity profile and of the horizontal velocities are discussed. It is argued that the basic features of the vertical magnetic field profile remain unaltered by horizontal flow effects and also that horizontal plasma flow can strongly affect the magnetic field for altitudes above 300 km.

  4. One-dimensional frustrated plaquette compass model: Nematic phase and spontaneous multimerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzezicki, Wojciech; Oleś, Andrzej M.

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a one-dimensional (1D) pseudospin model on a ladder where the Ising interactions along the legs and along the rungs alternate between XiXi +1 and ZiZi +1 for even/odd bond (rung). We include also the next-nearest-neighbor Ising interactions on plaquettes' diagonals that alternate in such a way that a model where only leg interactions are switched on is equivalent to the one when only the diagonal ones are present. Thus in the absence of rung interactions the model can interpolate between two 1D compass models. The model possesses local symmetries which are the parities within each 2 ×2 cell (plaquette) of the ladder. We find that for different values of the interaction it can realize ground states that differ by the patterns formed by these local parities. By exact diagonalization we derive detailed phase diagrams for small systems of L =4 , 6, and 8 plaquettes, and use next L =12 to identify generic phases that appear in larger systems as well. Among them we find a nematic phase with macroscopic degeneracy when the leg and diagonal interactions are equal and the rung interactions are larger than a critical value. By performing a perturbative expansion around this phase we find indeed a very complex competition around the nematic phase which has to do with releasing frustration in this range of parameters. The nematic phase is similar to the one found in the two-dimensional compass model. For particular parameters the low-energy sector of the present plaquette model reduces to a 1D compass model with spins S =1 which suggests that it realizes peculiar crossovers within the class of compass models. Finally, we show that the model can realize phases with broken translation invariance which can be either dimerized, trimerized, etc., or completely disordered and highly entangled in a well identified window of the phase diagram.

  5. Chitosan Enriched Three-Dimensional Matrix Reduces Inflammatory and Catabolic Mediators Production by Human Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Oprenyeszk, Frederic; Sanchez, Christelle; Dubuc, Jean-Emile; Maquet, Véronique; Henrist, Catherine; Compère, Philippe; Henrotin, Yves

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study investigated the metabolism of human osteoarthritic (OA) chondrocytes encapsulated in a spherical matrix enriched of chitosan. Human OA chondrocytes were encapsulated and cultured for 28 days either in chitosan-alginate beads or in alginate beads. The beads were formed by slowly passing dropwise either the chitosan 0.6%–alginate 1.2% or the alginate 1.2% solution through a syringe into a 102 mM CaCl2 solution. Beads were analyzed histologically after 28 days. Interleukin (IL)-6 and -8, prostaglandin (PG) E2, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), hyaluronan and aggrecan were quantified directly in the culture supernatant by specific ELISA and nitric oxide (NO) by using a colorimetric method based on the Griess reaction. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that chitosan was homogeneously distributed through the matrix and was in direct contact with chondrocytes. The production of IL-6, IL-8 and MMP-3 by chondrocytes significantly decreased in chitosan-alginate beads compared to alginate beads. PGE2 and NO decreased also significantly but only during the first three days of culture. Hyaluronan and aggrecan production tended to increase in chitosan-alginate beads after 28 days of culture. Chitosan-alginate beads reduced the production of inflammatory and catabolic mediators by OA chondrocytes and tended to stimulate the synthesis of cartilage matrix components. These particular effects indicate that chitosan-alginate beads are an interesting scaffold for chondrocytes encapsulation before transplantation to repair cartilage defects. PMID:26020773

  6. Space-time-resolved quantum electrodynamics: A (1+1)-dimensional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasgow, Scott; Smith, Dallas; Pritchett, Luke; Gardner, John; Ware, Michael J.

    2016-06-01

    We develop a model that reduces quantum electrodynamics (QED) in time plus three spatial dimensions to time plus a single spatial dimension, making it is possible to numerically calculate the dynamic behavior of simple QED systems. The dimensionality is restricted in such a way as to preserve the influence of spin and angular momentum. In contrast to the S -matrix scattering approach, these calculations are not perturbative within the zero- and one-photon sector of the relevant Hilbert space. The model restricts the electron occupation number to one and the photon occupation number to zero or one. We use this model to calculate the dynamics of a so-called bare electron that dresses itself by a photon field.

  7. Three-Dimensional Electron Optics Model Developed for Traveling-Wave Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.

    2000-01-01

    A three-dimensional traveling-wave tube (TWT) electron beam optics model including periodic permanent magnet (PPM) focusing has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. This accurate model allows a TWT designer to develop a focusing structure while reducing the expensive and time-consuming task of building the TWT and hot-testing it (with the electron beam). In addition, the model allows, for the first time, an investigation of the effect on TWT operation of the important azimuthally asymmetric features of the focusing stack. The TWT is a vacuum device that amplifies signals by transferring energy from an electron beam to a radiofrequency (RF) signal. A critically important component is the focusing structure, which keeps the electron beam from diverging and intercepting the RF slow wave circuit. Such an interception can result in excessive circuit heating and decreased efficiency, whereas excessive growth in the beam diameter can lead to backward wave oscillations and premature saturation, indicating a serious reduction in tube performance. The most commonly used focusing structure is the PPM stack, which consists of a sequence of cylindrical iron pole pieces and opposite-polarity magnets. Typically, two-dimensional electron optics codes are used in the design of magnetic focusing devices. In general, these codes track the beam from the gun downstream by solving equations of motion for the electron beam in static-electric and magnetic fields in an azimuthally symmetric structure. Because these two-dimensional codes cannot adequately simulate a number of important effects, the simulation code MAFIA (solution of Maxwell's equations by the Finite-Integration-Algorithm) was used at Glenn to develop a three-dimensional electron optics model. First, a PPM stack was modeled in three dimensions. Then, the fields obtained using the magnetostatic solver were loaded into a particle-in-cell solver where the fully three-dimensional behavior of the beam

  8. A one-dimensional model for gas-solid heat transfer in pneumatic conveying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smajstrla, Kody Wayne

    A one-dimensional ODE model reduced from a two-fluid model of a higher dimensional order is developed to study dilute, two-phase (air and solid particles) flows with heat transfer in a horizontal pneumatic conveying pipe. Instead of using constant air properties (e.g., density, viscosity, thermal conductivity) evaluated at the initial flow temperature and pressure, this model uses an iteration approach to couple the air properties with flow pressure and temperature. Multiple studies comparing the use of constant or variable air density, viscosity, and thermal conductivity are conducted to study the impact of the changing properties to system performance. The results show that the fully constant property calculation will overestimate the results of the fully variable calculation by 11.4%, while the constant density with variable viscosity and thermal conductivity calculation resulted in an 8.7% overestimation, the constant viscosity with variable density and thermal conductivity overestimated by 2.7%, and the constant thermal conductivity with variable density and viscosity calculation resulted in a 1.2% underestimation. These results demonstrate that gas properties varying with gas temperature can have a significant impact on a conveying system and that the varying density accounts for the majority of that impact. The accuracy of the model is also validated by comparing the simulation results to the experimental values found in the literature.

  9. Predictive modeling and reducing cyclic variability in autoignition engines

    DOEpatents

    Hellstrom, Erik; Stefanopoulou, Anna; Jiang, Li; Larimore, Jacob

    2016-08-30

    Methods and systems are provided for controlling a vehicle engine to reduce cycle-to-cycle combustion variation. A predictive model is applied to predict cycle-to-cycle combustion behavior of an engine based on observed engine performance variables. Conditions are identified, based on the predicted cycle-to-cycle combustion behavior, that indicate high cycle-to-cycle combustion variation. Corrective measures are then applied to prevent the predicted high cycle-to-cycle combustion variation.

  10. Systematic development of reduced reaction mechanisms for dynamic modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frenklach, M.; Kailasanath, K.; Oran, E. S.

    1986-01-01

    A method for systematically developing a reduced chemical reaction mechanism for dynamic modeling of chemically reactive flows is presented. The method is based on the postulate that if a reduced reaction mechanism faithfully describes the time evolution of both thermal and chain reaction processes characteristic of a more complete mechanism, then the reduced mechanism will describe the chemical processes in a chemically reacting flow with approximately the same degree of accuracy. Here this postulate is tested by producing a series of mechanisms of reduced accuracy, which are derived from a full detailed mechanism for methane-oxygen combustion. These mechanisms were then tested in a series of reactive flow calculations in which a large-amplitude sinusoidal perturbation is applied to a system that is initially quiescent and whose temperature is high enough to start ignition processes. Comparison of the results for systems with and without convective flow show that this approach produces reduced mechanisms that are useful for calculations of explosions and detonations. Extensions and applicability to flames are discussed.

  11. Chemistry and Transport in a Multi-Dimensional Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yung, Yuk L.

    2004-01-01

    Our work has two primary scientific goals, the interannual variability (IAV) of stratospheric ozone and the hydrological cycle of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Our efforts are aimed at integrating new information obtained by spacecraft and aircraft measurements to achieve a better understanding of the chemical and dynamical processes that are needed for realistic evaluations of human impact on the global environment. A primary motivation for studying the ozone layer is to separate the anthropogenic perturbations of the ozone layer from natural variability. Using the recently available merged ozone data (MOD), we have carried out an empirical orthogonal function EOF) study of the temporal and spatial patterns of the IAV of total column ozone in the tropics. The outstanding problem about water in the stratosphere is its secular increase in the last few decades. The Caltech/PL multi-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM) photochemical model is used to simulate the processes that control the water vapor and its isotopic composition in the stratosphere. Datasets we will use for comparison with model results include those obtained by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV and SBUV/2), Stratosphere Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE I and II), the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), the Atmospheric Trace Molecular Spectroscopy (ATMOS) and those soon to be obtained by the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) mission. The focus of the investigations is the exchange between the stratosphere and the troposphere, and between the troposphere and the biosphere.

  12. Reducing uncertainty in risk modeling for methylmercury exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, R.; Egeland, G.; Middaugh, J.; Lee, R.

    1995-12-31

    The biomagnification and bioaccumulation of methylmercury in marine species represents a challenge for risk assessment related to the consumption of subsistence foods in Alaska. Because of the profound impact that food consumption advisories have on indigenous peoples seeking to preserve a way of life, there is a need to reduce uncertainty in risk assessment. Thus, research was initiated to reduce the uncertainty in assessing the health risks associated with the consumption of subsistence foods. Because marine subsistence foods typically contain elevated levels of methylmercury, preliminary research efforts have focused on methylmercury as the principal chemical of concern. Of particular interest are the antagonistic effects of selenium on methylmercury toxicity. Because of this antagonism, methylmercury exposure through the consumption of marine mammal meat (with high selenium) may not be as toxic as comparable exposures through other sources of dietary intake, such as in the contaminated bread episode of Iraq (containing relatively low selenium). This hypothesis is supported by animal experiments showing reduced toxicity of methylmercury associated with marine mammal meat, by the antagonistic influence of selenium on methylmercury toxicity, and by negative clinical findings in adult populations exposed to methylmercury through a marine diet not subject to industrial contamination. Exploratory model development is underway to identify potential improvements and applications of current deterministic and probabilistic models, particularly by incorporating selenium as an antagonist in risk modeling methods.

  13. Underwater drag-reducing effect of superhydrophobic submarine model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songsong; Ouyang, Xiao; Li, Jie; Gao, Shan; Han, Shihui; Liu, Lianhe; Wei, Hao

    2015-01-01

    To address the debates on whether superhydrophobic coatings can reduce fluid drag for underwater motions, we have achieved an underwater drag-reducing effect of large superhydrophobic submarine models with a feature size of 3.5 cm × 3.7 cm × 33.0 cm through sailing experiments of submarine models, modified with and without superhydrophobic surface under similar power supply and experimental conditions. The drag reduction rate reached as high as 15%. The fabrication of superhydrophobic coatings on a large area of submarine model surfaces was realized by immobilizing hydrophobic copper particles onto a precross-linked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface. The pre-cross-linking time was optimized at 20 min to obtain good superhydrophobicity for the underwater drag reduction effect by investigating the effect of pre-cross-linking on surface wettability and water adhesive property. We do believe that superhydrophobic coatings may provide a promising application in the field of drag-reducing of vehicle motions on or under the water surface. PMID:25496725

  14. Underwater drag-reducing effect of superhydrophobic submarine model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songsong; Ouyang, Xiao; Li, Jie; Gao, Shan; Han, Shihui; Liu, Lianhe; Wei, Hao

    2015-01-01

    To address the debates on whether superhydrophobic coatings can reduce fluid drag for underwater motions, we have achieved an underwater drag-reducing effect of large superhydrophobic submarine models with a feature size of 3.5 cm × 3.7 cm × 33.0 cm through sailing experiments of submarine models, modified with and without superhydrophobic surface under similar power supply and experimental conditions. The drag reduction rate reached as high as 15%. The fabrication of superhydrophobic coatings on a large area of submarine model surfaces was realized by immobilizing hydrophobic copper particles onto a precross-linked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface. The pre-cross-linking time was optimized at 20 min to obtain good superhydrophobicity for the underwater drag reduction effect by investigating the effect of pre-cross-linking on surface wettability and water adhesive property. We do believe that superhydrophobic coatings may provide a promising application in the field of drag-reducing of vehicle motions on or under the water surface.

  15. Full-dimensional and reduced-dimensional calculations of initial state-selected reaction probabilities studying the H + CH{sub 4} → H{sub 2} + CH{sub 3} reaction on a neural network PES

    SciTech Connect

    Welsch, Ralph Manthe, Uwe

    2015-02-14

    Initial state-selected reaction probabilities of the H + CH{sub 4} → H{sub 2} + CH{sub 3} reaction are calculated in full and reduced dimensionality on a recent neural network potential [X. Xu, J. Chen, and D. H. Zhang, Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 27, 373 (2014)]. The quantum dynamics calculation employs the quantum transition state concept and the multi-layer multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree approach and rigorously studies the reaction for vanishing total angular momentum (J = 0). The calculations investigate the accuracy of the neutral network potential and study the effect resulting from a reduced-dimensional treatment. Very good agreement is found between the present results obtained on the neural network potential and previous results obtained on a Shepard interpolated potential energy surface. The reduced-dimensional calculations only consider motion in eight degrees of freedom and retain the C{sub 3v} symmetry of the methyl fragment. Considering reaction starting from the vibrational ground state of methane, the reaction probabilities calculated in reduced dimensionality are moderately shifted in energy compared to the full-dimensional ones but otherwise agree rather well. Similar agreement is also found if reaction probabilities averaged over similar types of vibrational excitation of the methane reactant are considered. In contrast, significant differences between reduced and full-dimensional results are found for reaction probabilities starting specifically from symmetric stretching, asymmetric (f{sub 2}-symmetric) stretching, or e-symmetric bending excited states of methane.

  16. Development and validation of a two-dimensional fast-response flood estimation model

    SciTech Connect

    Judi, David R; Mcpherson, Timothy N; Burian, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    A finite difference formulation of the shallow water equations using an upwind differencing method was developed maintaining computational efficiency and accuracy such that it can be used as a fast-response flood estimation tool. The model was validated using both laboratory controlled experiments and an actual dam breach. Through the laboratory experiments, the model was shown to give good estimations of depth and velocity when compared to the measured data, as well as when compared to a more complex two-dimensional model. Additionally, the model was compared to high water mark data obtained from the failure of the Taum Sauk dam. The simulated inundation extent agreed well with the observed extent, with the most notable differences resulting from the inability to model sediment transport. The results of these validation studies complex two-dimensional model. Additionally, the model was compared to high water mark data obtained from the failure of the Taum Sauk dam. The simulated inundation extent agreed well with the observed extent, with the most notable differences resulting from the inability to model sediment transport. The results of these validation studies show that a relatively numerical scheme used to solve the complete shallow water equations can be used to accurately estimate flood inundation. Future work will focus on further reducing the computation time needed to provide flood inundation estimates for fast-response analyses. This will be accomplished through the efficient use of multi-core, multi-processor computers coupled with an efficient domain-tracking algorithm, as well as an understanding of the impacts of grid resolution on model results.

  17. Reduced Complexity Modeling (RCM): toward more use of less

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paola, Chris; Voller, Vaughan

    2014-05-01

    Although not exact, there is a general correspondence between reductionism and detailed, high-fidelity models, while 'synthesism' is often associated with reduced-complexity modeling. There is no question that high-fidelity reduction- based computational models are extremely useful in simulating the behaviour of complex natural systems. In skilled hands they are also a source of insight and understanding. We focus here on the case for the other side (reduced-complexity models), not because we think they are 'better' but because their value is more subtle, and their natural constituency less clear. What kinds of problems and systems lend themselves to the reduced-complexity approach? RCM is predicated on the idea that the mechanism of the system or phenomenon in question is, for whatever reason, insensitive to the full details of the underlying physics. There are multiple ways in which this can happen. B.T. Werner argued for the importance of process hierarchies in which processes at larger scales depend on only a small subset of everything going on at smaller scales. Clear scale breaks would seem like a way to test systems for this property but to our knowledge has not been used in this way. We argue that scale-independent physics, as for example exhibited by natural fractals, is another. We also note that the same basic criterion - independence of the process in question from details of the underlying physics - underpins 'unreasonably effective' laboratory experiments. There is thus a link between suitability for experimentation at reduced scale and suitability for RCM. Examples from RCM approaches to erosional landscapes, braided rivers, and deltas illustrate these ideas, and suggest that they are insufficient. There is something of a 'wild west' nature to RCM that puts some researchers off by suggesting a departure from traditional methods that have served science well for centuries. We offer two thoughts: first, that in the end the measure of a model is its

  18. Three-dimensional effects for radio frequency antenna modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, M. D.; Batchelor, D. B.; Stallings, D. C.

    1993-09-01

    Electromagnetic field calculations for radio frequency (RF) antennas in two dimensions (2-D) neglect finite antenna length effects as well as the feeders leading to the main current strap. Comparisons with experiments indicate that these 2-D calculations can overestimate the loading of the antenna and fail to give the correct reactive behavior. To study the validity of the 2-D approximation, the Multiple Antenna Implementation System (MAntIS) has been used to perform 3-D modeling of the power spectrum, plasma loading, and inductance for a relevant loop antenna design. Effects on antenna performance caused by feeders to the main current strap, conducting sidewalls, and finite phase velocity are considered. The plasma impedance matrix for the loading calculation is generated by use of the ORION-1D code. The 3-D model is benchmarked with the 2-D model in the 2-D limit. For finite-length antennas, inductance calculations are found to be in much more reasonable agreement with experiments for 3-D modeling than for the 2-D estimates. The modeling shows that the feeders affect the launched power spectrum in an indirect way by forcing the driven RF current to return in the antenna sidewalls rather than in the plasma as in the 2-D model. Thus, the feeders have much more influence than the plasma on the currents that return in the sidewall. It has also been found that poloidal dependencies in the plasma impedance matrix can reduce the loading from that predicted in the 2-D model. For some plasma parameters, the combined 3-D effects can lead to a reduction in the predicted loading by as much as a factor of 2 from that given by the 2-D model.

  19. Three-dimensional effects for radio frequency antenna modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, M.D.; Batchelor, D.B.; Stallings, D.C.

    1993-09-01

    Electromagnetic field calculations for radio frequency (rf) antennas in two dimensions (2-D) neglect finite antenna length effects as well as the feeders leading to the main current strap. Comparisons with experiments indicate that these 2-D calculations can overestimate the loading of the antenna and fail to give the correct reactive behavior. To study the validity of the 2-D approximation, the Multiple Antenna Implementation System (MAntIS) has been used to perform 3-D modeling of the power spectrum, plasma loading, and inductance for a relevant loop antenna design. Effects on antenna performance caused by feeders to the main current strap, conducting sidewalls, and finite phase velocity are considered. The plasma impedance matrix for the loading calculation is generated by use of the ORION-1D code. The 3-D model is benchmarked with the 2-D model in the 2-D limit. For finite-length antennas, inductance calculations are found to be in much more reasonable agreement with experiments for 3-D modeling than for the 2-D estimates. The modeling shows that the feeders affect the launched power spectrum in an indirect way by forcing the driven rf current to return in the antenna sidewalls rather than in the plasma as in the 2-D model. Thus, the feeders have much more influence than the plasma on the currents that return in the sidewall. It has also been found that poloidal dependencies in the plasma impedance matrix can reduce the loading from that predicted in the 2-D model. For some plasma parameters, the combined 3-D effects can lead to a reduction in the predicted loading by as much as a factor of 2 from that given by the 2-D model.

  20. One-dimensional lattices topologically equivalent to two-dimensional lattices within the context of the lattice gas model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanza, E. F.; Costanza, G.

    2016-10-01

    Continuum partial differential equations are obtained from a set of discrete stochastic evolution equations of both non-Markovian and Markovian processes and applied to the diffusion within the context of the lattice gas model. A procedure allowing to construct one-dimensional lattices that are topologically equivalent to two-dimensional lattices is described in detail in the case of a rectangular lattice. This example shows the general features that possess the procedure and extensions are also suggested in order to provide a wider insight in the present approach.

  1. A Three-Dimensional Model of the Yeast Genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, William; Duan, Zhi-Jun; Andronescu, Mirela; Schutz, Kevin; McIlwain, Sean; Kim, Yoo Jung; Lee, Choli; Shendure, Jay; Fields, Stanley; Blau, C. Anthony

    Layered on top of information conveyed by DNA sequence and chromatin are higher order structures that encompass portions of chromosomes, entire chromosomes, and even whole genomes. Interphase chromosomes are not positioned randomly within the nucleus, but instead adopt preferred conformations. Disparate DNA elements co-localize into functionally defined aggregates or factories for transcription and DNA replication. In budding yeast, Drosophila and many other eukaryotes, chromosomes adopt a Rabl configuration, with arms extending from centromeres adjacent to the spindle pole body to telomeres that abut the nuclear envelope. Nonetheless, the topologies and spatial relationships of chromosomes remain poorly understood. Here we developed a method to globally capture intra- and inter-chromosomal interactions, and applied it to generate a map at kilobase resolution of the haploid genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The map recapitulates known features of genome organization, thereby validating the method, and identifies new features. Extensive regional and higher order folding of individual chromosomes is observed. Chromosome XII exhibits a striking conformation that implicates the nucleolus as a formidable barrier to interaction between DNA sequences at either end. Inter-chromosomal contacts are anchored by centromeres and include interactions among transfer RNA genes, among origins of early DNA replication and among sites where chromosomal breakpoints occur. Finally, we constructed a three-dimensional model of the yeast genome. Our findings provide a glimpse of the interface between the form and function of a eukaryotic genome.

  2. Efimov-Like Behaviour in Low-Dimensional Polymer Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mura, Federica; Bhattacharjee, Somendra M.; Maji, Jaya; Masetto, Mario; Seno, Flavio; Trovato, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    In the quantum Efimov effect, identical bosons form infinitely many bound trimer states at the bound dimer dissociation threshold, with their energy spectrum obeying a universal geometrical scaling law. Inspired by the formal correspondence between the possible trajectories of a quantum particle and the possible conformations of a polymer chain, the existence of a triple-stranded DNA bound state when a double-stranded DNA is not stable was recently predicted by modelling three directed polymer chains in low-dimensional lattices, both fractal (d<1) and euclidean (d=1). A finite melting temperature for double-stranded DNA requires in d≤ 2 the introduction of a weighting factor penalizing the formation of denaturation bubbles, that is non-base paired portions of DNA. The details of how bubble weighting is defined for a three-chain system were shown to crucially affect the presence of Efimov-like behaviour on a fractal lattice. Here we assess the same dependence on the euclidean 1+1 lattice, by setting up the transfer matrix method for three infinitely long chains confined in a finite size geometry. This allows us to discriminate unambiguously between the absence of Efimov-like behaviour and its presence in a very narrow temperature range, in close correspondence with what was already found on the fractal lattice. When present, however, no evidence is found for triple-stranded bound states other than the ground state at the two-chain melting temperature.

  3. Three-dimensional parabolic equation modeling of mesoscale eddy deflection.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Kevin D; Campbell, Richard L

    2016-02-01

    The impact of mesoscale oceanography, including ocean fronts and eddies, on global scale low-frequency acoustics is examined using a fully three-dimensional parabolic equation model. The narrowband acoustic signal, for frequencies from 2 to 16 Hz, is simulated from a seismic event on the Kerguellen Plateau in the South Indian Ocean to an array of receivers south of Ascension Island in the South Atlantic, a distance of 9100 km. The path was chosen for its relevance to seismic detections from the HA10 Ascension Island station of the International Monitoring System, for its lack of bathymetric interaction, and for the dynamic oceanography encountered as the sound passes the Cape of Good Hope. The acoustic field was propagated through two years (1992 and 1993) of the eddy-permitting ocean state estimation ECCO2 (Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean, Phase II) system. The range of deflection of the back-azimuth was 1.8° with a root-mean-square of 0.34°. The refraction due to mesoscale oceanography could therefore have significant impacts upon localization of distant low-frequency sources, such as seismic or nuclear test events.

  4. Doping induced Mott transition in the two dimensional Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordi, Giovanni; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    2010-03-01

    The description of the Mott transition by single-site dynamical mean-field theory is exact in infinite dimensions but, in two dimensions, substantial deviations from those results have been found for the interaction driven transition [1]. In addition, the experimentally relevant transition for layered systems such as the high-Tc cuprates is doping driven. We thus study this transition in the two dimensional Hubbard model on the square lattice using cluster dynamical mean-field theory with continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo in the hybridization expansion [2]. We find that the Mott transition is strongly influenced by the inclusion of short-range antiferromagnetic correlations. Doping of the Mott insulating state occurs gradually in the different momentum sectors, as found in previous studies [3], but in addition we find a first order transition between an incoherent metal and an insulator or between two incoherent metals, depending on interaction strength. Short range spin correlations create a pseudogap in a doping range that increases with interaction. [1] H. Park et al., PRL 101, 186403 (2008) [2] K. Haule, PRB 75, 155113 (2007) [3] E. Gull et al., arXiv:0909.1795 (2009)

  5. A Three-Dimensional Unsteady CFD Model of Compressor Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, Rodrick V.

    2006-01-01

    A three-dimensional unsteady CFD code called CSTALL has been developed and used to investigate compressor stability. The code solved the Euler equations through the entire annulus and all blade rows. Blade row turning, losses, and deviation were modeled using body force terms which required input data at stations between blade rows. The input data was calculated using a separate Navier-Stokes turbomachinery analysis code run at one operating point near stall, and was scaled to other operating points using overall characteristic maps. No information about the stalled characteristic was used. CSTALL was run in a 2-D throughflow mode for very fast calculations of operating maps and estimation of stall points. Calculated pressure ratio characteristics for NASA stage 35 agreed well with experimental data, and results with inlet radial distortion showed the expected loss of range. CSTALL was also run in a 3-D mode to investigate inlet circumferential distortion. Calculated operating maps for stage 35 with 120 degree distortion screens showed a loss in range and pressure rise. Unsteady calculations showed rotating stall with two part-span stall cells. The paper describes the body force formulation in detail, examines the computed results, and concludes with observations about the code.

  6. Electromagnetic quantum effects in higher-dimensional cosmological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotanjyan, Anna; Sargsyan, Hayk; Simonyan, David; Saharian, Aram

    2016-07-01

    Among the most interesting directions in quantum field theory on curved spacetimes is the investigation of the influence of the gravitational field on the properties of the quantum vacuum. The corresponding problems are exactly solvable for highly symmetric background geometries only. In particular, the investigations of quantum effects in de Sitter (dS) and anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetimes have attracted a great deal of attention. We consider electromagnetic quantum effects in higher-dimensional cosmological models. The two-point functions of the vector potential and of the field tensor for the electromagnetic field in background of dS and AdS spacetime are evaluated in arbitrary number of spatial dimensions. First we consider the two-point functions in the boundary-free geometry and then generalize the results in the presence of a reflecting boundary, for AdS spacetimes parallel to the AdS horizon. By using the expressions for the two-point functions of the field tensor, we investigate the vacuum expectation values of the electric field squared and of the energy-momentum tensor. Simple asymptotic expressions are provided for both cases, in particular for AdS geometry near the AdS boundary and horizon.

  7. A Three-Dimensional Model of the Yeast Genome

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Zhijun; Andronescu, Mirela; Schutz, Kevin; Mcllwain, Sean; Kim, Yoo Jung; Lee, Choli; Shendure, Jay; Fields, Stanley; Blau, C. Anthony; Noble, William S.

    2010-01-01

    Layered on top of information conveyed by DNA sequence and chromatin are higher order structures that encompass portions of chromosomes, entire chromosomes, and even whole genomes1-3. Interphase chromosomes are not positioned randomly within the nucleus but instead adopt preferred conformations4-7. Disparate DNA elements co-localize into functionally defined aggregates or “factories” for transcription8 and DNA replication9. In budding yeast, Drosophila and many other eukaryotes, chromosomes adopt a Rabl configuration, with arms extending from centromeres adjacent to the spindle pole body to telomeres that abut the nuclear envelope10-12. Nonetheless, the topologies and spatial relationships of chromosomes remain poorly understood. Here we developed a method to globally capture intra- and inter-chromosomal interactions, and applied it to generate a map at kilobase resolution of the haploid genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The map recapitulates known features of genome organization, thereby validating the method, and identifies new features. Extensive regional and higher order folding of individual chromosomes is observed. Chromosome XII exhibits a striking conformation that implicates the nucleolus as a formidable barrier to interaction between DNA sequences at either end. Inter-chromosomal contacts are anchored by centromeres and include interactions among tRNA genes, among origins of early DNA replication and among sites where chromosomal breakpoints occur. Finally, we constructed a three-dimensional model of the yeast genome. Our findings provide a glimpse of the interface between the form and function of a eukaryotic genome. PMID:20436457

  8. Three-dimensional Thermal Model of the Mexican Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas, J. C.; Pimentel, F. D. C.; Currie, C. A.; He, J.; Harris, R. N.

    2015-12-01

    Along the Mexican section of the Middle America Trench (MAT), the Cocos plate subducts beneath the North American plate. The most important feature of this subduction zone is the flat-slab section below central Mexico, extending approximately 250 km landward from the trench at a depth of 50 km. Further west, the dip changes to 45-50º. This particular geometry has several unique consequences, such as a volcanic arc that is not aligned with the trench and very shallow slab seismicity. For the mantle wedge, the abrupt change in slab geometry could lead to a three-dimensional (3D) mantle wedge flow that departs from the classical 2D subduction-driven corner flow. Evidence of 3D flow in the region comes from seismic anisotropy studies, which show that olivine fast-direction axes have a component that is parallel to the MAT. In other subduction zones, such as Costa Rica-Nicaragua and Japan, 3D flow has been observed to increase temperatures by >50º C relative to corner flow models.For this study, we have created the first 3D finite-element model of the Mexican subduction zone in order to analyze its thermal structure. Our objective is to assess the effects of 3D mantle flow and hydrothermal circulation (HC) in the subducting slab. In this region, low surface heat flow values near the trench indicate that HC may remove heat from the oceanic plate. Our model incorporates the effect of HC through conductivity proxies in the subducting crust and a 2D oceanic geotherm that includes the age variations of the Cocos plate along the MAT. For an isoviscous mantle, our model shows that the slab dip variations induce a flow that departs from 2D corner flow near the transition between the flat-slab and normal-dipping sections. The mantle flows in eastward direction toward the flat slab, and its orientation is consistent with seismic anisotropy studies. The maximum along-margin flow rate is nearly 2 cm/yr, which is >30% of the convergence rate. Temperatures at the location of this

  9. 3-dimensional modeling of transcranial magnetic stimulation: Design and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, Felipe Santiago

    Over the past three decades, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has emerged as an effective tool for many research, diagnostic and therapeutic applications in humans. TMS delivers highly localized brain stimulations via non-invasive externally applied magnetic fields. This non-invasive, painless technique provides researchers and clinicians a unique tool capable of stimulating both the central and peripheral nervous systems. However, a complete analysis of the macroscopic electric fields produced by TMS has not yet been performed. In this dissertation, we present a thorough examination of the total electric field induced by TMS in air and a realistic head model with clinically relevant coil poses. In the first chapter, a detailed account of TMS coil wiring geometry was shown to provide significant improvements in the accuracy of primary E-field calculations. Three-dimensional models which accounted for the TMS coil's wire width, height, shape and number of turns clearly improved the fit of calculated-to-measured E-fields near the coil body. Detailed primary E-field models were accurate up to the surface of the coil body (within 0.5% of measured values) whereas simple models were often inadequate (up to 32% different from measured). In the second chapter, we addressed the importance of the secondary E-field created by surface charge accumulation during TMS using the boundary element method (BEM). 3-D models were developed using simple head geometries in order to test the model and compare it with measured values. The effects of tissue geometry, size and conductivity were also investigated. Finally, a realistic head model was used to assess the effect of multiple surfaces on the total E-field. We found that secondary E-fields have the greatest impact at areas in close proximity to each tissue layer. Throughout the head, the secondary E-field magnitudes were predominantly between 25% and 45% of the primary E-fields magnitude. The direction of the secondary E

  10. An Explicit 3-Dimensional Model for Reactive Transport of Nitrogen in Tile Drained Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, D. J.; Valocchi, A. J.; Hudson, R. J.

    2001-12-01

    Recently, there has been increased interest in nitrate contamination of groundwater in the Midwest because of its link to surface water eutrophication, especially in the Gulf of Mexico. The vast majority of this nitrate is the product of biologically mediated transformation of fertilizers containing ammonia in the vadose zone of agricultural fields. For this reason, it is imperative that mathematical models, which can serve as useful tools to evaluate both the impact of agricultural fertilizer applications and nutrient-reducing management practices, are able to specifically address transport in the vadose zone. The development of a 3-dimensional explicit numerical model to simulate the movement and transformation of nitrogen species through the subsurface on the scale of an individual farm plot will be presented. At this scale, nitrogen fate and transport is controlled by a complex coupling among hydrologic, agricultural and biogeochemical processes. The nitrogen model is a component of a larger modeling effort that focuses upon conditions typical of those found in agricultural fields in Illinois. These conditions include non-uniform, multi-dimensional, transient flow in both saturated and unsaturated zones, geometrically complex networks of tile drains, coupled surface-subsurface-tile flow, and dynamic levels of dissolved oxygen in the soil profile. The advection-dispersion-reaction equation is solved using an operator-splitting approach, which is a flexible and straightforward strategy. Advection is modeled using a total variation diminishing scheme, dispersion is modeled using an alternating direction explicit method, and reactions are modeled using rate law equations. The model's stability and accuracy will be discussed, and test problems will be presented.

  11. Paris basin petroleum systems revisited by two-dimensional modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Gaulier, J.M.; Burrus, J.; Poulet, M. ); Barlier, J. , Pau )

    1991-03-01

    The authors investigate the history of petroleum generation, expulsion, and migration along two E-W and N-W cross sections in the Paris basin. Source rocks, represented by Liassic marine shales (merely Hetangian-Sinemurian and Toarcian) reach the top of the oil window around 2,000 m and begin effective expulsion around 2,400 m. Reservoirs are essentially found in the subtle structures in the Dogger (carbonates) and Triassic (sandstones). These levels are normally separated from the source rocks by several hundred meters of impervious marls or shales. Regional faults are often viewed as major conduits that allow both expulsion and migration to the reservoirs. This petroleum system is seen by the use of two-dimensional modeling techniques: (1) The generation history is derived from an investigation of thermal history and kinetic modeling. They show that the present subsurface temperatures are influenced by regional convective discharge linked to the uplift of eastern and southeastern basin edges and that this cooling postdates the maturity. They also show that, in the eastern basin, the basement heat flow could have been increased since the Tertiary, at a time when Tertiary erosion had nearly frozen the maturity development. (2) The expulsion and migration are analyzed by coupling numerically the compaction history, the generation history, and the regional hydrodynamics. They show that expulsion efficiency is very much dependent on parameters not well constrained, but a sensitivity analysis confirms the prominent role of vertical faults as well as the influence of regional water flow on the distribution of accumulations.

  12. Construction of energy-stable Galerkin reduced order models.

    SciTech Connect

    Kalashnikova, Irina; Barone, Matthew Franklin; Arunajatesan, Srinivasan; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf

    2013-05-01

    This report aims to unify several approaches for building stable projection-based reduced order models (ROMs). Attention is focused on linear time-invariant (LTI) systems. The model reduction procedure consists of two steps: the computation of a reduced basis, and the projection of the governing partial differential equations (PDEs) onto this reduced basis. Two kinds of reduced bases are considered: the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) basis and the balanced truncation basis. The projection step of the model reduction can be done in two ways: via continuous projection or via discrete projection. First, an approach for building energy-stable Galerkin ROMs for linear hyperbolic or incompletely parabolic systems of PDEs using continuous projection is proposed. The idea is to apply to the set of PDEs a transformation induced by the Lyapunov function for the system, and to build the ROM in the transformed variables. The resulting ROM will be energy-stable for any choice of reduced basis. It is shown that, for many PDE systems, the desired transformation is induced by a special weighted L2 inner product, termed the %E2%80%9Csymmetry inner product%E2%80%9D. Attention is then turned to building energy-stable ROMs via discrete projection. A discrete counterpart of the continuous symmetry inner product, a weighted L2 inner product termed the %E2%80%9CLyapunov inner product%E2%80%9D, is derived. The weighting matrix that defines the Lyapunov inner product can be computed in a black-box fashion for a stable LTI system arising from the discretization of a system of PDEs in space. It is shown that a ROM constructed via discrete projection using the Lyapunov inner product will be energy-stable for any choice of reduced basis. Connections between the Lyapunov inner product and the inner product induced by the balanced truncation algorithm are made. Comparisons are also made between the symmetry inner product and the Lyapunov inner product. The performance of ROMs constructed

  13. Reduced order component models for flexible multibody dynamics simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuha, Walter S.; Spanos, John T.

    1990-01-01

    Many flexible multibody dynamics simulation codes require some form of component description that properly characterizes the dynamic behavior of the system. A model reduction procedure for producing low order component models for flexible multibody simulation is described. Referred to as projection and assembly, the method is a Rayleigh-Ritz approach that uses partitions of the system modal matrix as component Ritz transformation matrices. It is shown that the projection and assembly method yields a reduced system model that preserves a specified set of the full order system modes. Unlike classical component mode synthesis methods, the exactness of the method described is obtained at the expense of having to compute the full order system modes. The paper provides a comprehensive description of the method, a proof of exactness, and numerical results demonstrating the method's effectiveness.

  14. Reducing and meta-analysing estimates from distributed lag non-linear models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The two-stage time series design represents a powerful analytical tool in environmental epidemiology. Recently, models for both stages have been extended with the development of distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs), a methodology for investigating simultaneously non-linear and lagged relationships, and multivariate meta-analysis, a methodology to pool estimates of multi-parameter associations. However, the application of both methods in two-stage analyses is prevented by the high-dimensional definition of DLNMs. Methods In this contribution we propose a method to synthesize DLNMs to simpler summaries, expressed by a reduced set of parameters of one-dimensional functions, which are compatible with current multivariate meta-analytical techniques. The methodology and modelling framework are implemented in R through the packages dlnm and mvmeta. Results As an illustrative application, the method is adopted for the two-stage time series analysis of temperature-mortality associations using data from 10 regions in England and Wales. R code and data are available as supplementary online material. Discussion and Conclusions The methodology proposed here extends the use of DLNMs in two-stage analyses, obtaining meta-analytical estimates of easily interpretable summaries from complex non-linear and delayed associations. The approach relaxes the assumptions and avoids simplifications required by simpler modelling approaches. PMID:23297754

  15. Three dimensional gravity field modelling of the Chicxulub impact crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrand, A.; Millar, J.; Pilkington, M.; Lawton, D.

    2003-04-01

    Three dimensional gravity field modeling of the Chicxulub crater’s gravity field has refined our working structural model [e.g. 1, 2], and differs somewhat from the results of [3]. The 3D gravity model establishes that the central uplift is within reach of scientific drilling. The 3D gravity modeling method employed is that of [4]. Modelling results particularly reveal the crater’s central structures. The central uplift is a twin peaked structural high with vergence towards the southwest as previously indicated by 2D models [1] and consistent with seismic refraction results [5]. An arm extends towards the northeast, in contrast to the steep gradients that bound the central uplift to the southwest. The width of the uplift at 4 km depth is ~45 km broadening to ~60 km at 5 km depth consistent with 2D modeling. The central uplift rises into the melt sheet to ~2 km depth in contrast to the results of [4] where a top of ~4 km was obtained. However, as refraction results [5] independently constrain the central uplift width and the central uplift density contrast is limited (+0.11gcm-3 here), this is probably a realistic result. The shape of the modeled central uplift is radically different from that advocated by [6] who, based on seismic refraction results, proposed a cup-shaped central uplift (concave top) with a top at ~3 km depth, but of similar width. This interpretation requires substantial departure from density velocity proportionality, and we doubt that the central uplift has an annular top. The filling of the CDC, which we interpret as melt, is revealed as a body slightly elongated in a NE-SW sense with a size consistent with previous 2D model results. With the density contrast measured from the top of the melt sheet, its base lies near ~4 km is obtained consistent with the result of [4]. This depth is dependent upon the density contrast used (-0.15 g/cc), however, and all the mass deficiency need not be melt. The derived melt volume is 1.5 X 104 km3

  16. Reduced Uterine Perfusion Pressure (RUPP) Model of Preeclampsia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fushima, Tomofumi; Sekimoto, Akiyo; Minato, Takahiro; Ito, Takuya; Oe, Yuji; Kisu, Kiyomi; Sato, Emiko; Funamoto, Kenichi; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Kimura, Yoshitaka; Ito, Sadayoshi; Sato, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-induced hypertension with proteinuria that typically develops after 20 weeks of gestation. A reduction in uterine blood flow causes placental ischemia and placental release of anti-angiogenic factors such as sFlt-1 followed by PE. Although the reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) model is widely used in rats, investigating the role of genes on PE using genetically engineered animals has been problematic because it has been difficult to make a useful RUPP model in mice. To establish a RUPP model of PE in mice, we bilaterally ligated ovarian vessels distal to ovarian branches, uterine vessels, or both in ICR-strain mice at 14.5 days post coitum (dpc). Consequently, these mice had elevated BP, increased urinary albumin excretion, severe endotheliosis, and mesangial expansion. They also had an increased incidence of miscarriage and premature delivery. Embryonic weight at 18.5 dpc was significantly lower than that in sham mice. The closer to the ligation site the embryos were, the higher the resorption rate and the lower the embryonic weight. The phenotype was more severe in the order of ligation at the ovarian vessels < uterine vessels < both. Unlike the RUPP models described in the literature, this model did not constrict the abdominal aorta, which allowed BP to be measured with a tail cuff. This novel RUPP model in mice should be useful for investigating the pathogenesis of PE in genetically engineered mice and for evaluating new therapies for PE. PMID:27187738

  17. ASPEN: A Fully Kinetic, Reduced-Description Particle-in-Cell Model for Simulating Parametric Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, H. X.; Bezzerides, B.; DuBois, D. F.

    1999-11-01

    A fully kinetic, reduced-description particle-in-cell (RPIC) model is presented in which deviations from quasineutrality, electron and ion kinetic effects, and nonlinear interactions between low-frequency and high-frequency parametric instabilities are modeled correctly. The model is based on a reduced description where the electromagnetic field is represented by three separate temporal envelopes in order to model parametric instabilities with low-frequency and high-frequency daughter waves. Because temporal envelope approximations are invoked, the simulation can be performed on the electron time scale instead of the time scale of the light waves. The electrons and ions are represented by discrete finite-size particles, permitting electron and ion kinetic effects to be modeled properly. The Poisson equation is utilized to ensure that space-charge effects are included. The RPIC model is fully three dimensional and has been implemented in two dimensions on the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) parallel computer at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the resulting simulation code has been named ASPEN. We believe this code is the first particle-in-cell code capable of simulating the interaction between low-frequency and high-frequency parametric instabilites in multiple dimensions. Test simulations of stimulated Raman scattering, stimulated Brillouin scattering, and Langmuir decay instability are presented.

  18. Bayesian Inference of High-Dimensional Dynamical Ocean Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Lermusiaux, P. F. J.; Lolla, S. V. T.; Gupta, A.; Haley, P. J., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation addresses a holistic set of challenges in high-dimension ocean Bayesian nonlinear estimation: i) predict the probability distribution functions (pdfs) of large nonlinear dynamical systems using stochastic partial differential equations (PDEs); ii) assimilate data using Bayes' law with these pdfs; iii) predict the future data that optimally reduce uncertainties; and (iv) rank the known and learn the new model formulations themselves. Overall, we allow the joint inference of the state, equations, geometry, boundary conditions and initial conditions of dynamical models. Examples are provided for time-dependent fluid and ocean flows, including cavity, double-gyre and Strait flows with jets and eddies. The Bayesian model inference, based on limited observations, is illustrated first by the estimation of obstacle shapes and positions in fluid flows. Next, the Bayesian inference of biogeochemical reaction equations and of their states and parameters is presented, illustrating how PDE-based machine learning can rigorously guide the selection and discovery of complex ecosystem models. Finally, the inference of multiscale bottom gravity current dynamics is illustrated, motivated in part by classic overflows and dense water formation sites and their relevance to climate monitoring and dynamics. This is joint work with our MSEAS group at MIT.

  19. A two-state hysteresis model from high-dimensional friction.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Saurabh; Chatterjee, Anindya

    2015-07-01

    In prior work (Biswas & Chatterjee 2014 Proc. R. Soc. A 470, 20130817 (doi:10.1098/rspa.2013.0817)), we developed a six-state hysteresis model from a high-dimensional frictional system. Here, we use a more intuitively appealing frictional system that resembles one studied earlier by Iwan. The basis functions now have simple analytical description. The number of states required decreases further, from six to the theoretical minimum of two. The number of fitted parameters is reduced by an order of magnitude, to just six. An explicit and faster numerical solution method is developed. Parameter fitting to match different specified hysteresis loops is demonstrated. In summary, a new two-state model of hysteresis is presented that is ready for practical implementation. Essential Matlab code is provided. PMID:26587279

  20. A two-state hysteresis model from high-dimensional friction.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Saurabh; Chatterjee, Anindya

    2015-07-01

    In prior work (Biswas & Chatterjee 2014 Proc. R. Soc. A 470, 20130817 (doi:10.1098/rspa.2013.0817)), we developed a six-state hysteresis model from a high-dimensional frictional system. Here, we use a more intuitively appealing frictional system that resembles one studied earlier by Iwan. The basis functions now have simple analytical description. The number of states required decreases further, from six to the theoretical minimum of two. The number of fitted parameters is reduced by an order of magnitude, to just six. An explicit and faster numerical solution method is developed. Parameter fitting to match different specified hysteresis loops is demonstrated. In summary, a new two-state model of hysteresis is presented that is ready for practical implementation. Essential Matlab code is provided.

  1. Reduced Lorenz models for anomalous transport and profile resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Rypdal, K.; Garcia, O. E.

    2007-02-15

    The physical basis for the Lorenz equations for convective cells in stratified fluids, and for magnetized plasmas imbedded in curved magnetic fields, are reexamined with emphasis on anomalous transport. It is shown that the Galerkin truncation leading to the Lorenz equations for the closed boundary problem is incompatible with finite fluxes through the system in the limit of vanishing diffusion. An alternative formulation leading to the Lorenz equations is proposed, invoking open boundaries and the notion of convective streamers and their back-reaction on the profile gradient, giving rise to resilience of the profile. Particular emphasis is put on the diffusionless limit, where these equations reduce to a simple dynamical system depending only on one single forcing parameter. This model is studied numerically, stressing experimentally observable signatures, and some of the perils of dimension-reducing approximations are discussed.

  2. A Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Model To Study Enterovirus Infection of Polarized Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Coyne G.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite serving as the primary entry portal for coxsackievirus B (CVB), little is known about CVB infection of the intestinal epithelium, owing at least in part to the lack of suitable in vivo models and the inability of cultured cells to recapitulate the complexity and structure associated with the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Here, we report on the development of a three-dimensional (3-D) organotypic cell culture model of Caco-2 cells to model CVB infection of the gastrointestinal epithelium. We show that Caco-2 cells grown in 3-D using the rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor recapitulate many of the properties of the intestinal epithelium, including the formation of well-developed tight junctions, apical-basolateral polarity, brush borders, and multicellular complexity. In addition, transcriptome analyses using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) revealed the induction of a number of genes associated with intestinal epithelial differentiation and/or intestinal processes in vivo when Caco-2 cells were cultured in 3-D. Applying this model to CVB infection, we found that although the levels of intracellular virus production were similar in two-dimensional (2-D) and 3-D Caco-2 cell cultures, the release of infectious CVB was enhanced in 3-D cultures at early stages of infection. Unlike CVB, the replication of poliovirus (PV) was significantly reduced in 3-D Caco-2 cell cultures. Collectively, our studies show that Caco-2 cells grown in 3-D using the RWV bioreactor provide a cell culture model that structurally and transcriptionally represents key aspects of cells in the human GI tract and can thus be used to expand our understanding of enterovirus-host interactions in intestinal epithelial cells. IMPORTANCE Coxsackievirus B (CVB), a member of the enterovirus family of RNA viruses, is associated with meningitis, pericarditis, diabetes, dilated cardiomyopathy, and myocarditis, among other pathologies. CVB is transmitted via the fecal-oral route and

  3. A Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Model To Study Enterovirus Infection of Polarized Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Coyne G; Nickerson, Cheryl A; Coyne, Carolyn B

    2016-01-01

    Despite serving as the primary entry portal for coxsackievirus B (CVB), little is known about CVB infection of the intestinal epithelium, owing at least in part to the lack of suitable in vivo models and the inability of cultured cells to recapitulate the complexity and structure associated with the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Here, we report on the development of a three-dimensional (3-D) organotypic cell culture model of Caco-2 cells to model CVB infection of the gastrointestinal epithelium. We show that Caco-2 cells grown in 3-D using the rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor recapitulate many of the properties of the intestinal epithelium, including the formation of well-developed tight junctions, apical-basolateral polarity, brush borders, and multicellular complexity. In addition, transcriptome analyses using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) revealed the induction of a number of genes associated with intestinal epithelial differentiation and/or intestinal processes in vivo when Caco-2 cells were cultured in 3-D. Applying this model to CVB infection, we found that although the levels of intracellular virus production were similar in two-dimensional (2-D) and 3-D Caco-2 cell cultures, the release of infectious CVB was enhanced in 3-D cultures at early stages of infection. Unlike CVB, the replication of poliovirus (PV) was significantly reduced in 3-D Caco-2 cell cultures. Collectively, our studies show that Caco-2 cells grown in 3-D using the RWV bioreactor provide a cell culture model that structurally and transcriptionally represents key aspects of cells in the human GI tract and can thus be used to expand our understanding of enterovirus-host interactions in intestinal epithelial cells. IMPORTANCE Coxsackievirus B (CVB), a member of the enterovirus family of RNA viruses, is associated with meningitis, pericarditis, diabetes, dilated cardiomyopathy, and myocarditis, among other pathologies. CVB is transmitted via the fecal-oral route and encounters the

  4. Viscoelastic Properties of a Hierarchical Model of Soft Biological Tissue: Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posnansky, Oleg

    2016-09-01

    The measuring of viscoelastic response is widely used for revealing information about soft matter and biological tissue noninvasively. This information encodes intrinsic dynamic correlations and depends on relations between macroscopic viscoelasticity and structure at the mesoscopic scale. Here we show numerically that the frequency dependent dynamical shear moduli distinguish between the mesoscopic architectural complexities and sensitive to the Euclidean dimensionality. Our approach enables the explanation of two- and three-dimensional viscoelastic experiments by objectively choosing and modeling the most relevant architectural features such as the concentration of compounds and intra-model hierarchical characteristics of physical parameters. Current work provides a link between the macroscopical effective viscoelastic properties to viscoelastic constants and network geometry on the mesoscale. Besides of this we also pay attention to the analytical properties of generalized susceptibility function of considered constitutive model accounting principles of causality.

  5. Three-dimensional modelling in magnetotelluric and magnetic variational sounding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, I. K.; Phillips, R. J.; Rankin, D.

    1977-01-01

    The Galerkin finite-element method is used to obtain approximate solutions for the three-dimensional induction problem. A rectangular conductive prism is considered as an example, and solutions are obtained for linear and circularly polarized incident plane-wave fields. Magnetotelluric tensor impedances and magnetic transfer functions are computed. Polar diagrams of the tensor impedances and magnetic transfer functions along with their amplitude contour maps are presented. The dimensionality parameter, skew, is contoured at the surface of the earth. It is shown that the relative amplitudes and shapes of the additional and principal impedance polar diagrams can be used to determine the dimensionality of geoelectrical structures. Stations with skew values greater than 0.2 are significantly influenced by the three-dimensionality of the geoelectric structure. The amplitudes of the magnetic transfer function and the orientations of its polar diagrams exhibit large anomalies in the vicinity of the intersection of the lateral contacts.

  6. The dimensional nature of externalizing behaviors in adolescence: evidence from a direct comparison of categorical, dimensional, and hybrid models.

    PubMed

    Walton, Kate E; Ormel, Johan; Krueger, Robert F

    2011-05-01

    Researchers have recognized the importance of developing an accurate classification system for externalizing disorders, though much of this work has been framed by a priori preferences for categorical vs. dimensional constructs. Newer statistical technologies now allow categorical and dimensional models of psychopathology to be compared empirically. In this study, we directly compared the fit of categorical and dimensional models of externalizing behaviors in a large and representative community sample of adolescents at two time points separated by nearly 2.5 years (N = 2027; mean age at Time 1 = 11.09 years; 50.8% female). Delinquent and aggressive behaviors were assessed with child and parent Child Behavior Checklist reports. Latent trait, latent class, and factor mixture models were fit to the data, and at both time points, the latent trait model provided the best fit to the data. The item parameters were inspected and interpreted, and it was determined that the items were differentially sensitive across all regions of the dimension. We conclude that classification models can be based on empirical evidence rather than a priori preferences, and while current classification systems conceptualize externalizing problems in terms of discrete groups, they can be better conceptualized as dimensions.

  7. Enforcing elemental mass and energy balances for reduced order models

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, J.; Agarwal, K.; Sharma, P.; Lang, Y.; Zitney, S.; Gorton, I.; Agawal, D.; Miller, D.

    2012-01-01

    Development of economically feasible gasification and carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technologies requires a variety of software tools to optimize the designs of not only the key devices involved (e., g., gasifier, CO{sub 2} adsorber) but also the entire power generation system. High-fidelity models such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models are capable of accurately simulating the detailed flow dynamics, heat transfer, and chemistry inside the key devices. However, the integration of CFD models within steady-state process simulators, and subsequent optimization of the integrated system, still presents significant challenges due to the scale differences in both time and length, as well the high computational cost. A reduced order model (ROM) generated from a high-fidelity model can serve as a bridge between the models of different scales. While high-fidelity models are built upon the principles of mass, momentum, and energy conservations, ROMs are usually developed based on regression-type equations and hence their predictions may violate the mass and energy conservation laws. A high-fidelity model may also have the mass and energy balance problem if it is not tightly converged. Conservations of mass and energy are important when a ROM is integrated to a flowsheet for the process simulation of the entire chemical or power generation system, especially when recycle streams are connected to the modeled device. As a part of the Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) project supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, we developed a software framework for generating ROMs from CFD simulations and integrating them with Process Modeling Environments (PMEs) for system-wide optimization. This paper presents a method to correct the results of a high-fidelity model or a ROM such that the elemental mass and energy are conserved perfectly. Correction factors for the flow rates of individual species in the product streams are solved using a

  8. Modeling self-excited combustion instabilities using a combination of two- and three-dimensional simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvazinski, Matthew Evan

    observed in experiments. All fuel rich simulations used a single step global reaction for the chemical kinetic model. A fuel lean operating condition is also studied and has a lower level of instability. The two-dimensional results are unable to provide good agreement with experimental results unless a more expensive four-step chemical kinetic model is used. The three-dimensional simulation is able to predict the harmonic behavior but fails to capture the amplitude of the instability observed in the companion experiment, instead predicting lower amplitude oscillations. A detailed analysis of the three-dimensional results on a single cycle shows that the periodic heat release commonly associated with combustion instability can be interpreted to be a result of the time lag between the instant the fuel is injected and when it is burned. The time lag is due to two mechanisms. First, methane present near the backstep can become trapped and transported inside shed vortices to the point of combustion. The second aspect of the time lag arises due to the interaction of the fuel with upstream-running pressure waves. As the wave moves past the injection point the flow is temporarily disrupted, reducing the fuel flow into the combustor. A comparison between the fuel lean and fuel rich cases shows several differences. Whereas both cases can produce instability, the fuel-rich case is measurably more unstable. Using the tools developed differences in the location of the damping, and driving regions are evident. By moving the peak driving area upstream of the damping region the level of instability is lower in the fuel lean case. The location of the mean heat release is also important; locating the mean heat release adjacent to the vortex impingement point a higher level of instability is observed for the fuel rich case. This research shows that DES instability modeling has the ability to be a valuable tool in the study of combustion instability. The lower grid size requirement makes the

  9. Structure and modeling of the three dimensional boundary layer on a rotating disk. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, J.K.

    1996-12-01

    Almost all practical turbulent flows include three dimensional boundary layers (3DTBL`s), and in many cases, the 3DTBL is the dominant feature of the flow. A boundary layer is defined as a thin layer adjacent to the surface in which the velocity drops rapidly from the freestream value to zero at the wall. A 3D boundary layer is one in which the flow direction also changes rapidly approaching the wall. This change in the flow direction called skewing is caused by transverse pressure gradients, centrifugal forces, or motion of the surface. Most research on turbulent boundary layers has been done in simple two dimensional flows in carefully controlled wind tunnels. Such boundary layers are now well understood, and excellent models are available describing both the fluid mechanics and heat transfer behavior. Recent fluid mechanics studies have shown that skewing can have a pronounced effect on the boundary layer turbulence. Models based on eddy-viscosity concepts fail, and more complex stress transport models cannot capture the reduction of turbulent mixing that usually accompanies skewing. It was unknown prior to the present study what effect the skewing might have on turbulent heat transfer. It was suspected that turbulent heat transport would be reduced in analogy to the reductions of turbulent shear stress. It was also unknown how the skewing would effect the turbulent Prandtl number, a quantity which is embedded in most turbulent heat transfer prediction schemes. The objectives of the present study were then to study the surface heat transfer rate and the turbulent heat flux in a simple three dimensional boundary layer. In particular, the research addressed the heat transfer from a heated disk rotating in an otherwise quiescent environment.

  10. Three-dimensional modeling of the plasma arc in arc welding

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, G.; Tsai, H. L.; Hu, J.

    2008-11-15

    Most previous three-dimensional modeling on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) focuses on the weld pool dynamics and assumes the two-dimensional axisymmetric Gaussian distributions for plasma arc pressure and heat flux. In this article, a three-dimensional plasma arc model is developed, and the distributions of velocity, pressure, temperature, current density, and magnetic field of the plasma arc are calculated by solving the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy, as well as part of the Maxwell's equations. This three-dimensional model can be used to study the nonaxisymmetric plasma arc caused by external perturbations such as an external magnetic field. It also provides more accurate boundary conditions when modeling the weld pool dynamics. The present work lays a foundation for true three-dimensional comprehensive modeling of GTAW and GMAW including the plasma arc, weld pool, and/or electrode.

  11. Two-dimensional nanoplates of Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 with reduced thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sung Min; Ha, Sung-Soo; Jung, Wan-Gil; Park, Mansoo; Song, Hyon-Seok; Kim, Bong-Joong; Hong, Jung-Il

    2016-02-01

    Free-standing thin nanoplates of Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 were synthesized by solvothermal method. It was demonstrated that the thickness of the nanoplates can be controlled by introducing a controlled amount of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in the synthesis reaction. PVP bonds to the polar basal planes of hexagonal crystal structure of Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3, and they suppress the growth (speed) of the hexagonal crystals in the c-axis direction. Highly anisotropic growth yielded the formation of 2-dimensional nanostructures of nanoplates. The plates were examined directly with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with in-situ heating. These crystalline nanoplates with extremely high width to thickness ratios were found to exhibit much lower thermal stability compared to the bulk counterpart or the conventional nanoparticles as represented by the reduced melting temperature. The melting temperature of a nanoplate decreased by more than 100°C compared to the melting temperature of the bulk material. While it is widely known that the meting temperature decreases for nanoparticles with reduced sizees in all three spatial dimensions, we demonstrate that the reduction in one dimension, i.e. thickness of the platelets in the present study, is effective enough to induce much greater decrease of the melting point than the decrease as observed for the case of nanoparticles.

  12. Brownian-dynamics computer simulations of a one-dimensional polymer model. I. Simple potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R.; Livornese, L.L.

    1982-11-01

    Brownian Dynamics computer simulation results are presented on a simple one-dimensional polymer model which contains the essential features of rotational angle flexibility. Comparison is made with analytical treatments of the model.

  13. A THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODEL ASSESSMENT OF THE GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF HEXACHLOROBENZENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The distributions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the global environment have been studied typically with box/fugacity models with simplified treatments of atmospheric transport processes1. Such models are incapable of simulating the complex three-dimensional mechanis...

  14. Hardening transition in a one-dimensional model for ferrogels.

    PubMed

    Annunziata, Mario Alberto; Menzel, Andreas M; Löwen, Hartmut

    2013-05-28

    We introduce and investigate a coarse-grained model for quasi one-dimensional ferrogels. In our description the magnetic particles are represented by hard spheres with a magnetic dipole moment in their centers. Harmonic springs connecting these spheres mimic the presence of a cross-linked polymer matrix. A special emphasis is put on the coupling of the dipolar orientations to the elastic deformations of the matrix, where a memory effect of the orientations is included. Although the particles are displaced along one spatial direction only, the system already shows rich behavior: as a function of the magnetic dipole moment, we find a phase transition between "soft-elastic" states with finite interparticle separation and finite compressive elastic modulus on the one hand, and "hardened" states with touching particles and therefore diverging compressive elastic modulus on the other hand. Corresponding phase diagrams are derived neglecting thermal fluctuations of the magnetic particles. In addition, we consider a situation in which a spatially homogeneous magnetization is initially imprinted into the material. Depending on the strength of the magneto-mechanical coupling between the dipole orientations and the elastic deformations, the system then relaxes to a uniaxially ferromagnetic, an antiferromagnetic, or a spiral state of magnetization to minimize its energy. One purpose of our work is to provide a largely analytically solvable approach that can provide a benchmark to test future descriptions of higher complexity. From an applied point of view, our results could be exploited, for example, for the construction of novel damping devices of tunable shock absorbance.

  15. A Laboratory Model of two-dimensional Granular Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, J. C.; Nagel, S.

    2011-12-01

    Many astrophysical and geophysical processes involve repeated inelastic collisions between discrete granular particles in large-scale flows. Every time the particles collide with one another they lose kinetic energy so that the system cools over time. Examples include the clustering of particles in a granular gas [1], flow in avalanches [2], and the catastrophic collapse of Antarctic ice-shelves [3]. In order to investigate such inelastic, many-particle, systems, we have studied ~2000 particles moving on a two-dimensional, 90 cm x 90 cm, anodized aluminum plate. Our particles are composed of dry ice (solid carbon dioxide) pellets with diameter ~0.5 cm. When placed on a heated flat surface, the pellets float on a cushion of sublimated gas, so that they move in two dimensions essentially without friction. Over time (~ 1 minute), the particles slowly lose mass until they have completely disappeared. Collisions with the plate boundaries are made elastic by sloping the plate's edges slightly upward. The experiment is filmed from above with a high-speed digital camera, so that translational and rotational kinetic energy of each particle can be tracked over time. Our results show qualitative clustering of pellets into regions where many collisions occur, as expected from models of inelastic gases [4]. We will show the results for different initial conditions including "clouds" of pellets colliding with each other at different initial impact velocities. [1] I. Goldhirsch and G. Zanetti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1619 (1993); S. McNamara and W.R. Young. Phys. Rev. E 50, R28 (1994). [2] P. Bartelt and O. Buser, Ann. Glaciol. 51, 98 (2010). [3] N. Guttenberg et al., Ann. Glaciol. 52, 51 (2011). [4] For a review see: I. Goldhirsch, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 35, 267 (2003).

  16. Two- and 3-Dimensional Knee Valgus Are Reduced After an Exercise Intervention in Young Adults With Demonstrable Valgus During Squatting

    PubMed Central

    Bell, David R.; Oates, D. Craig; Clark, Micheal A.; Padua, Darin A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Two-dimensional (or medial knee displacement [MKD]) and 3-dimensional (3D) knee valgus are theorized to contribute to anterior cruciate ligament injuries. However, whether these displacements can be improved in the double-legged squat (DLS) after an exercise intervention is unclear. Objective: To determine if MKD and 3D knee valgus are improved in a DLS after an exercise intervention. Design:  Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 32 participants were enrolled in this study and were randomly assigned to the control (n = 16) or intervention (n = 16) group. During a DLS, all participants demonstrated knee valgus that was corrected with a heel lift. Intervention(s):  The intervention group completed 10 sessions of directed exercise that focused on hip and ankle strength and flexibility over a 2- to 3-week period. Main Outcome Measure(s): We assessed MKD and 3D knee valgus during the DLS using an electromagnetic tracking system. Hip strength and ankle-dorsiflexion range of motion were measured. Change scores were calculated for MKD and 3D valgus at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% phases, and group (2 levels)-by phase (6 levels) repeated-measures analyses of variance were conducted. Independent t tests were used to compare change scores in other variables (α < .05). Results: The MKD decreased from 20% to 50% of the DLS (P = .02) and 3D knee valgus improved from 30% to 50% of the squat phase (P = .001). Ankle-dorsiflexion range of motion (knee extended) increased in the intervention group (P = .009). No other significant findings were observed (P > .05). Conclusions:  The intervention reduced MKD and 3D knee valgus during a DLS. The intervention also increased ankle range of motion. Our inclusion criteria might have limited our ability to observe changes in hip strength. PMID:23724771

  17. Coupled models and parallel simulations for three-dimensional full-Stokes ice sheet modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Huai; Ju, Lili; Gunzburger, Max; Ringler, Todd; Price, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    A three-dimensional full-Stokes computational model is considered for determining the dynamics, temperature, and thickness of ice sheets. The governing thermomechanical equations consist of the three-dimensional full-Stokes system with nonlinear rheology for the momentum, an advective-diffusion energy equation for temperature evolution, and a mass conservation equation for icethickness changes. Here, we discuss the variable resolution meshes, the finite element discretizations, and the parallel algorithms employed by the model components. The solvers are integrated through a well-designed coupler for the exchange of parametric data between components. The discretization utilizes high-quality, variable-resolution centroidal Voronoi Delaunay triangulation meshing and existing parallel solvers. We demonstrate the gridding technology, discretization schemes, and the efficiency and scalability of the parallel solvers through computational experiments using both simplified geometries arising from benchmark test problems and a realistic Greenland ice sheet geometry.

  18. Three-Dimensional Radiobiologic Dosimetry: Application of Radiobiologic Modeling to Patient-Specific 3-Dimensional Imaging–Based Internal Dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Prideaux, Andrew R.; Song, Hong; Hobbs, Robert F.; He, Bin; Frey, Eric C.; Ladenson, Paul W.; Wahl, Richard L.; Sgouros, George

    2010-01-01

    Phantom-based and patient-specific imaging-based dosimetry methodologies have traditionally yielded mean organ-absorbed doses or spatial dose distributions over tumors and normal organs. In this work, radiobiologic modeling is introduced to convert the spatial distribution of absorbed dose into biologically effective dose and equivalent uniform dose parameters. The methodology is illustrated using data from a thyroid cancer patient treated with radioiodine. Methods Three registered SPECT/CT scans were used to generate 3-dimensional images of radionuclide kinetics (clearance rate) and cumulated activity. The cumulated activity image and corresponding CT scan were provided as input into an EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo calculation: The cumulated activity image was used to define the distribution of decays, and an attenuation image derived from CT was used to define the corresponding spatial tissue density and composition distribution. The rate images were used to convert the spatial absorbed dose distribution to a biologically effective dose distribution, which was then used to estimate a single equivalent uniform dose for segmented volumes of interest. Equivalent uniform dose was also calculated from the absorbed dose distribution directly. Results We validate the method using simple models; compare the dose-volume histogram with a previously analyzed clinical case; and give the mean absorbed dose, mean biologically effective dose, and equivalent uniform dose for an illustrative case of a pediatric thyroid cancer patient with diffuse lung metastases. The mean absorbed dose, mean biologically effective dose, and equivalent uniform dose for the tumor were 57.7, 58.5, and 25.0 Gy, respectively. Corresponding values for normal lung tissue were 9.5, 9.8, and 8.3 Gy, respectively. Conclusion The analysis demonstrates the impact of radiobiologic modeling on response prediction. The 57% reduction in the equivalent dose value for the tumor reflects a high level of dose

  19. User's manual for master: Modeling of aerodynamic surfaces by 3-dimensional explicit representation. [input to three dimensional computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    A system of computer programs was developed to model general three dimensional surfaces. Surfaces are modeled as sets of parametric bicubic patches. There are also capabilities to transform coordinates, to compute mesh/surface intersection normals, and to format input data for a transonic potential flow analysis. A graphical display of surface models and intersection normals is available. There are additional capabilities to regulate point spacing on input curves and to compute surface/surface intersection curves. Input and output data formats are described; detailed suggestions are given for user input. Instructions for execution are given, and examples are shown.

  20. Kinetic simulations and reduced modeling of longitudinal sideband instabilities in non-linear electron plasma waves

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, S.; Berger, R. L.; Cohen, B. I.; Hausammann, L.; Valeo, E. J.

    2014-10-01

    Kinetic Vlasov simulations of one-dimensional finite amplitude Electron Plasma Waves are performed in a multi-wavelength long system. A systematic study of the most unstable linear sideband mode, in particular its growth rate γ and quasi- wavenumber δk, is carried out by scanning the amplitude and wavenumber of the initial wave. Simulation results are successfully compared against numerical and analytical solutions to the reduced model by Kruer et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 838 (1969)] for the Trapped Particle Instability (TPI). A model recently suggested by Dodin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 215006 (2013)], which in addition to the TPI accounts for the so-called Negative Mass Instability because of a more detailed representation of the trapped particle dynamics, is also studied and compared with simulations.

  1. Optimizing Crawler4j using MapReduce Programming Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddesh, G. M.; Suresh, Kavya; Madhuri, K. Y.; Nijagal, Madhushree; Rakshitha, B. R.; Srinivasa, K. G.

    2016-08-01

    World wide web is a decentralized system that consists of a repository of information on the basis of web pages. These web pages act as a source of information or data in the present analytics world. Web crawlers are used for extracting useful information from web pages for different purposes. Firstly, it is used in web search engines where the web pages are indexed to form a corpus of information and allows the users to query on the web pages. Secondly, it is used for web archiving where the web pages are stored for later analysis phases. Thirdly, it can be used for web mining where the web pages are monitored for copyright purposes. The amount of information processed by the web crawler needs to be improved by using the capabilities of modern parallel processing technologies. In order to solve the problem of parallelism and the throughput of crawling this work proposes to optimize the Crawler4j using the Hadoop MapReduce programming model by parallelizing the processing of large input data. Crawler4j is a web crawler that retrieves useful information about the pages that it visits. The crawler Crawler4j coupled with data and computational parallelism of Hadoop MapReduce programming model improves the throughput and accuracy of web crawling. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed solution achieves significant improvements with respect to performance and throughput. Hence the proposed approach intends to carve out a new methodology towards optimizing web crawling by achieving significant performance gain.

  2. Three Dimensional Morphodynamic and Vegetation Modeling of Wax Lake Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadka, A. K.; Meselhe, E. A.; Sadid, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Wax Lake Delta (WLD) is located at the downstream end of the Wax Lake outlet, approximately 13 miles upstream from Morgan City, Louisiana. In 1942 the United States Army Corps of Engineer (USACE) dredged Wax Lake Outlet channel from lower Atchafalaya River to reduce flood stages at Morgan City. The channel diverts 50% of Atchafalaya River water and sediment to WLD. Since 1942, the WLD has been building seaward due to the deposition of sediment at the channel mouth. Growth of this delta supports the concept of land building via river diversions. A process based morphodynamic model (Delft3D) with the ability to predict evolution of river-dominated deltas is used in this study to further our understanding of land-building and delta growth processes. Initial model bathymetry is prepared based on USACE hydrographic survey of 1998 along with LIDAR survey data for over bank areas. Two continuous gauges at Wax Lake outlet near Calumet and Atchafalaya Bay near Eugene Island are used to assign upstream inflow and outflow boundary conditions, respectively. The model is calibrated and validated for Hydrodynamics and Sediment transport through two sets of field observations for flooded and average conditions. Vertical velocity and suspended sediment profiles made in the channels of the WLD in 2000 and 2001 are used for the model calibration and validation. More comprehensive field observations are being gathered as part of an ongoing study funded by the National Science Foundation (FESD-Delta Dynamics Collaboratory). Data include mutli-beam bathymetric data, velocities, sediment, and nutrient concentrations in the channels as well as on top of the islands. The Delft3D morphodynamic model for WLD provides quantitative information regarding water and sediment distribution among the inter-connected channel bifurcations, the exchange of sediment and nutrients between the channels and islands. The model is being used to investigate the rate of land building and delta growth from

  3. Experimental design for estimating unknown groundwater pumping using genetic algorithm and reduced order model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushijima, Timothy T.; Yeh, William W.-G.

    2013-10-01

    An optimal experimental design algorithm is developed to select locations for a network of observation wells that provide maximum information about unknown groundwater pumping in a confined, anisotropic aquifer. The design uses a maximal information criterion that chooses, among competing designs, the design that maximizes the sum of squared sensitivities while conforming to specified design constraints. The formulated optimization problem is non-convex and contains integer variables necessitating a combinatorial search. Given a realistic large-scale model, the size of the combinatorial search required can make the problem difficult, if not impossible, to solve using traditional mathematical programming techniques. Genetic algorithms (GAs) can be used to perform the global search; however, because a GA requires a large number of calls to a groundwater model, the formulated optimization problem still may be infeasible to solve. As a result, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is applied to the groundwater model to reduce its dimensionality. Then, the information matrix in the full model space can be searched without solving the full model. Results from a small-scale test case show identical optimal solutions among the GA, integer programming, and exhaustive search methods. This demonstrates the GA's ability to determine the optimal solution. In addition, the results show that a GA with POD model reduction is several orders of magnitude faster in finding the optimal solution than a GA using the full model. The proposed experimental design algorithm is applied to a realistic, two-dimensional, large-scale groundwater problem. The GA converged to a solution for this large-scale problem.

  4. Control-oriented reduced order modeling of dipteran flapping flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faruque, Imraan

    Flying insects achieve flight stabilization and control in a manner that requires only small, specialized neural structures to perform the essential components of sensing and feedback, achieving unparalleled levels of robust aerobatic flight on limited computational resources. An engineering mechanism to replicate these control strategies could provide a dramatic increase in the mobility of small scale aerial robotics, but a formal investigation has not yet yielded tools that both quantitatively and intuitively explain flapping wing flight as an "input-output" relationship. This work uses experimental and simulated measurements of insect flight to create reduced order flight dynamics models. The framework presented here creates models that are relevant for the study of control properties. The work begins with automated measurement of insect wing motions in free flight, which are then used to calculate flight forces via an empirically-derived aerodynamics model. When paired with rigid body dynamics and experimentally measured state feedback, both the bare airframe and closed loop systems may be analyzed using frequency domain system identification. Flight dynamics models describing maneuvering about hover and cruise conditions are presented for example fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and blowflies (Calliphorids). The results show that biologically measured feedback paths are appropriate for flight stabilization and sexual dimorphism is only a minor factor in flight dynamics. A method of ranking kinematic control inputs to maximize maneuverability is also presented, showing that the volume of reachable configurations in state space can be dramatically increased due to appropriate choice of kinematic inputs.

  5. Informing Investment to Reduce Inequalities: A Modelling Approach

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, Andrew; Denny, Cheryl; Taulbut, Martin; Mitchell, Rory; Fischbacher, Colin; Graham, Barbara; Grant, Ian; O’Hagan, Paul; McAllister, David; McCartney, Gerry

    2016-01-01

    Background Reducing health inequalities is an important policy objective but there is limited quantitative information about the impact of specific interventions. Objectives To provide estimates of the impact of a range of interventions on health and health inequalities. Materials and Methods Literature reviews were conducted to identify the best evidence linking interventions to mortality and hospital admissions. We examined interventions across the determinants of health: a ‘living wage’; changes to benefits, taxation and employment; active travel; tobacco taxation; smoking cessation, alcohol brief interventions, and weight management services. A model was developed to estimate mortality and years of life lost (YLL) in intervention and comparison populations over a 20-year time period following interventions delivered only in the first year. We estimated changes in inequalities using the relative index of inequality (RII). Results Introduction of a ‘living wage’ generated the largest beneficial health impact, with modest reductions in health inequalities. Benefits increases had modest positive impacts on health and health inequalities. Income tax increases had negative impacts on population health but reduced inequalities, while council tax increases worsened both health and health inequalities. Active travel increases had minimally positive effects on population health but widened health inequalities. Increases in employment reduced inequalities only when targeted to the most deprived groups. Tobacco taxation had modestly positive impacts on health but little impact on health inequalities. Alcohol brief interventions had modestly positive impacts on health and health inequalities only when strongly socially targeted, while smoking cessation and weight-reduction programmes had minimal impacts on health and health inequalities even when socially targeted. Conclusions Interventions have markedly different effects on mortality, hospitalisations and

  6. UV fixed-point structure of the three-dimensional Thirring model

    SciTech Connect

    Gies, Holger; Janssen, Lukas

    2010-10-15

    We investigate the UV fixed-point structure of the three-dimensional Thirring model by means of the functional renormalization group. We classify all possible 4-fermi interactions compatible with the present chiral and discrete symmetries and calculate the purely fermionic renormalization group flow using a full basis of fermionic four-point functions in the pointlike limit. Our results show that the UV complete (asymptotically safe) Thirring model lies in a two-dimensional coupling plane which reduces to the conventional Thirring coupling only in the strict large-N{sub f} limit. In addition to the Thirring universality class, which is characterized by one relevant direction (also at finite N{sub f}), two further interacting fixed points occur which may define new universality classes of second-order phase transitions also involving parity-broken phases. The N{sub f} dependence of the Thirring fixed point sheds further light on the existence of an N{sub f}-controlled quantum phase transition above which chiral symmetry remains unbroken for arbitrary large coupling, even though a definite answer will require a direct computation of competing orders.

  7. Reducing long-term remedial costs by transport modeling optimization.

    PubMed

    Becker, David; Minsker, Barbara; Greenwald, Robert; Zhang, Yan; Harre, Karla; Yager, Kathleen; Zheng, Chunmiao; Peralta, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) Environmental Security Technology Certification Program and the Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a project to evaluate the benefits and utility of contaminant transport simulation-optimization algorithms against traditional (trial and error) modeling approaches. Three pump-and-treat facilities operated by the DoD were selected for inclusion in the project. Three optimization formulations were developed for each facility and solved independently by three modeling teams (two using simulation-optimization algorithms and one applying trial-and-error methods). The results clearly indicate that simulation-optimization methods are able to search a wider range of well locations and flow rates and identify better solutions than current trial-and-error approaches. The solutions found were 5% to 50% better than those obtained using trial-and-error (measured using optimal objective function values), with an average improvement of approximately 20%. This translated into potential savings ranging from 600,000 dollars to 10,000,000 dollars for the three sites. In nearly all cases, the cost savings easily outweighed the costs of the optimization. To reduce computational requirements, in some cases the simulation-optimization groups applied multiple mathematical algorithms, solved a series of modified subproblems, and/or fit "meta-models" such as neural networks or regression models to replace time-consuming simulation models in the optimization algorithm. The optimal solutions did not account for the uncertainties inherent in the modeling process. This project illustrates that transport simulation-optimization techniques are practical for real problems. However, applying the techniques in an efficient manner requires expertise and should involve iterative modification to the formulations based on interim results. PMID:17087758

  8. Reducing long-term remedial costs by transport modeling optimization.

    PubMed

    Becker, David; Minsker, Barbara; Greenwald, Robert; Zhang, Yan; Harre, Karla; Yager, Kathleen; Zheng, Chunmiao; Peralta, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) Environmental Security Technology Certification Program and the Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a project to evaluate the benefits and utility of contaminant transport simulation-optimization algorithms against traditional (trial and error) modeling approaches. Three pump-and-treat facilities operated by the DoD were selected for inclusion in the project. Three optimization formulations were developed for each facility and solved independently by three modeling teams (two using simulation-optimization algorithms and one applying trial-and-error methods). The results clearly indicate that simulation-optimization methods are able to search a wider range of well locations and flow rates and identify better solutions than current trial-and-error approaches. The solutions found were 5% to 50% better than those obtained using trial-and-error (measured using optimal objective function values), with an average improvement of approximately 20%. This translated into potential savings ranging from 600,000 dollars to 10,000,000 dollars for the three sites. In nearly all cases, the cost savings easily outweighed the costs of the optimization. To reduce computational requirements, in some cases the simulation-optimization groups applied multiple mathematical algorithms, solved a series of modified subproblems, and/or fit "meta-models" such as neural networks or regression models to replace time-consuming simulation models in the optimization algorithm. The optimal solutions did not account for the uncertainties inherent in the modeling process. This project illustrates that transport simulation-optimization techniques are practical for real problems. However, applying the techniques in an efficient manner requires expertise and should involve iterative modification to the formulations based on interim results.

  9. Two-dimensional electrical modeling of asymmetric radio-frequency discharges for geometry effect analysis. Comparison with experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radouane, K.; Despax, B.; Yousfi, M.; Couderc, J. P.; Klusmann, E.; Meyer, H.; Schulz, R.; Schulze, J.

    2001-11-01

    A self-consistent two-dimensional particle model coupled to the external circuit equations was developed in an asymmetrical configuration for the self-bias voltage calculation and the reactor design study. An intermediate modeling was performed in one and two symmetrical geometries. The one-dimensional model is used to optimize the computing time which is reduced by a factor of 10 by using some optimization techniques. It is also used to validate the charged particle and basic data choices. We have shown that the consideration of only two charged particle species (electron and H3+ positive ion) is sufficient in the present hydrogen radio-frequency discharge modeling. Computational results (i.e., power density and self-bias voltage) are in good agreement with experimental results. A strong gradient of the plasma parameters (such as electric field, potential, charged particle densities and energies) was observed in the periphery of the driven electrode. Furthermore, the present two-dimensional asymmetric model shows that the interelectrode distance increase (from 1.7 up to 3.7 cm) can lead to reducing the plasma heterogeneity due to the geometrical electric field.

  10. Three-dimensional patterns in the Lengyel-Rabai-Epstein model of the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction.

    PubMed

    Moore, Peter K; Horsthemke, Werner

    2009-12-01

    We present computational solutions to the Lengyel-Rabai-Epstein model in three space dimensions. The results show that three-dimensional patterns exist and that they differ significantly from the two-dimensional patterns. Patterns occur at three locations in the reactor corresponding to peaks in the one-dimensional concentration of the starch tri-iodide concentration. Each pattern possesses its own intrinsic wavelength and is neither striped nor hexagonal, the two types that have been shown to exist in two dimensions. Computations suggest a bifurcation exists as a function of the reactor thickness. Solutions are computed using a high-order adaptive finite element method coupled with a multistep integrator in time. Linear systems generated in the multistep solver are solved using the iterative method GMRES with a Jacobi preconditioner. Matrix storage is reduced by incomplete assembly via thresholding. Preconditioner factorization and matrix-vector multiplication efficiency are enhanced by the use of OPENMP.

  11. Three-dimensional patterns in the Lengyel-Rabai-Epstein model of the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Peter K.; Horsthemke, Werner

    2009-12-01

    We present computational solutions to the Lengyel-Rabai-Epstein model in three space dimensions. The results show that three-dimensional patterns exist and that they differ significantly from the two-dimensional patterns. Patterns occur at three locations in the reactor corresponding to peaks in the one-dimensional concentration of the starch tri-iodide concentration. Each pattern possesses its own intrinsic wavelength and is neither striped nor hexagonal, the two types that have been shown to exist in two dimensions. Computations suggest a bifurcation exists as a function of the reactor thickness. Solutions are computed using a high-order adaptive finite element method coupled with a multistep integrator in time. Linear systems generated in the multistep solver are solved using the iterative method GMRES with a Jacobi preconditioner. Matrix storage is reduced by incomplete assembly via thresholding. Preconditioner factorization and matrix-vector multiplication efficiency are enhanced by the use of OPENMP.

  12. Three-Dimensional Blood-Brain Barrier Model for in vitro Studies of Neurovascular Pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hansang; Seo, Ji Hae; Wong, Keith H. K.; Terasaki, Yasukazu; Park, Joseph; Bong, Kiwan; Arai, Ken; Lo, Eng H.; Irimia, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) pathology leads to neurovascular disorders and is an important target for therapies. However, the study of BBB pathology is difficult in the absence of models that are simple and relevant. In vivo animal models are highly relevant, however they are hampered by complex, multi-cellular interactions that are difficult to decouple. In vitro models of BBB are simpler, however they have limited functionality and relevance to disease processes. To address these limitations, we developed a 3-dimensional (3D) model of BBB on a microfluidic platform. We verified the tightness of the BBB by showing its ability to reduce the leakage of dyes and to block the transmigration of immune cells towards chemoattractants. Moreover, we verified the localization at endothelial cell boundaries of ZO-1 and VE-Cadherin, two components of tight and adherens junctions. To validate the functionality of the BBB model, we probed its disruption by neuro-inflammation mediators and ischemic conditions and measured the protective function of antioxidant and ROCK-inhibitor treatments. Overall, our 3D BBB model provides a robust platform, adequate for detailed functional studies of BBB and for the screening of BBB-targeting drugs in neurological diseases.

  13. Three-Dimensional Blood-Brain Barrier Model for in vitro Studies of Neurovascular Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hansang; Seo, Ji Hae; Wong, Keith H. K.; Terasaki, Yasukazu; Park, Joseph; Bong, Kiwan; Arai, Ken; Lo, Eng H.; Irimia, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Blood–brain barrier (BBB) pathology leads to neurovascular disorders and is an important target for therapies. However, the study of BBB pathology is difficult in the absence of models that are simple and relevant. In vivo animal models are highly relevant, however they are hampered by complex, multi-cellular interactions that are difficult to decouple. In vitro models of BBB are simpler, however they have limited functionality and relevance to disease processes. To address these limitations, we developed a 3-dimensional (3D) model of BBB on a microfluidic platform. We verified the tightness of the BBB by showing its ability to reduce the leakage of dyes and to block the transmigration of immune cells towards chemoattractants. Moreover, we verified the localization at endothelial cell boundaries of ZO-1 and VE-Cadherin, two components of tight and adherens junctions. To validate the functionality of the BBB model, we probed its disruption by neuro-inflammation mediators and ischemic conditions and measured the protective function of antioxidant and ROCK-inhibitor treatments. Overall, our 3D BBB model provides a robust platform, adequate for detailed functional studies of BBB and for the screening of BBB-targeting drugs in neurological diseases. PMID:26503597

  14. Approximation of skewed interfaces with tensor-based model reduction procedures: Application to the reduced basis hierarchical model reduction approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlberger, Mario; Smetana, Kathrin

    2016-09-01

    In this article we introduce a procedure, which allows to recover the potentially very good approximation properties of tensor-based model reduction procedures for the solution of partial differential equations in the presence of interfaces or strong gradients in the solution which are skewed with respect to the coordinate axes. The two key ideas are the location of the interface either by solving a lower-dimensional partial differential equation or by using data functions and the subsequent removal of the interface of the solution by choosing the determined interface as the lifting function of the Dirichlet boundary conditions. We demonstrate in numerical experiments for linear elliptic equations and the reduced basis-hierarchical model reduction approach that the proposed procedure locates the interface well and yields a significantly improved convergence behavior even in the case when we only consider an approximation of the interface.

  15. A multiphase model for three-dimensional tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Sciumè, G; Shelton, S; Gray, WG; Miller, CT; Hussain, F; Ferrari, M; Decuzzi, P; Schrefler, BA

    2014-01-01

    Several mathematical formulations have analyzed the time-dependent behaviour of a tumor mass. However, most of these propose simplifications that compromise the physical soundness of the model. Here, multiphase porous media mechanics is extended to model tumor evolution, using governing equations obtained via the Thermodynamically Constrained Averaging Theory (TCAT). A tumor mass is treated as a multiphase medium composed of an extracellular matrix (ECM); tumor cells (TC), which may become necrotic depending on the nutrient concentration and tumor phase pressure; healthy cells (HC); and an interstitial fluid (IF) for the transport of nutrients. The equations are solved by a Finite Element method to predict the growth rate of the tumor mass as a function of the initial tumor-to-healthy cell density ratio, nutrient concentration, mechanical strain, cell adhesion and geometry. Results are shown for three cases of practical biological interest such as multicellular tumor spheroids (MTS) and tumor cords. First, the model is validated by experimental data for time-dependent growth of an MTS in a culture medium. The tumor growth pattern follows a biphasic behaviour: initially, the rapidly growing tumor cells tend to saturate the volume available without any significant increase in overall tumor size; then, a classical Gompertzian pattern is observed for the MTS radius variation with time. A core with necrotic cells appears for tumor sizes larger than 150 μm, surrounded by a shell of viable tumor cells whose thickness stays almost constant with time. A formula to estimate the size of the necrotic core is proposed. In the second case, the MTS is confined within a healthy tissue. The growth rate is reduced, as compared to the first case – mostly due to the relative adhesion of the tumor and healthy cells to the ECM, and the less favourable transport of nutrients. In particular, for tumor cells adhering less avidly to the ECM, the healthy tissue is progressively displaced

  16. Usefulness Of Three-Dimensional Printing Models for Patients with Stoma Construction

    PubMed Central

    Tominaga, Tetsuro; Takagi, Katsunori; Takeshita, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Tomo; Shimoda, Kozue; Matsuo, Ayano; Matsumoto, Keitaro; Hidaka, Shigekazu; Yamasaki, Naoya; Sawai, Terumitsu; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    The use of patient-specific organ models in three-dimensional printing systems could be helpful for the education of patients and medical students. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the use of patient-specific stoma models is helpful for patient education. From January 2014 to September 2014, 5 patients who underwent colorectal surgery and for whom a temporary or permanent stoma had been created were involved in this study. Three-dimensional stoma models and three-dimensional face plates were created. The patients’ ages ranged from 59 to 81 years. Four patients underwent stoma construction because of rectal cancer, and 1 underwent stoma construction because of colon stenosis secondary to recurrent cancer. All patients were educated about their stoma and potential stoma-associated problems using three-dimensional stoma models, and all practiced cutting face plates using three-dimensional face plates. The models were also used during medical staff conferences to discuss current issues. All patients understood their problems and finally became self-reliant. The recent availability of three-dimensional printers has enabled the creation of many organ models, and full-scale stoma and face plate models are now available for patient education on cutting an appropriately individualized face plate. Thus, three-dimensional printers could enable fewer skin problems than are currently associated with daily stomal care. PMID:27403103

  17. Usefulness Of Three-Dimensional Printing Models for Patients with Stoma Construction.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Tetsuro; Takagi, Katsunori; Takeshita, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Tomo; Shimoda, Kozue; Matsuo, Ayano; Matsumoto, Keitaro; Hidaka, Shigekazu; Yamasaki, Naoya; Sawai, Terumitsu; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    The use of patient-specific organ models in three-dimensional printing systems could be helpful for the education of patients and medical students. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the use of patient-specific stoma models is helpful for patient education. From January 2014 to September 2014, 5 patients who underwent colorectal surgery and for whom a temporary or permanent stoma had been created were involved in this study. Three-dimensional stoma models and three-dimensional face plates were created. The patients' ages ranged from 59 to 81 years. Four patients underwent stoma construction because of rectal cancer, and 1 underwent stoma construction because of colon stenosis secondary to recurrent cancer. All patients were educated about their stoma and potential stoma-associated problems using three-dimensional stoma models, and all practiced cutting face plates using three-dimensional face plates. The models were also used during medical staff conferences to discuss current issues. All patients understood their problems and finally became self-reliant. The recent availability of three-dimensional printers has enabled the creation of many organ models, and full-scale stoma and face plate models are now available for patient education on cutting an appropriately individualized face plate. Thus, three-dimensional printers could enable fewer skin problems than are currently associated with daily stomal care. PMID:27403103

  18. Rovibrational Levels and Inelastic Scattering of the H_2O-Ar Cluster in Full and Reduced Dimensionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndengue, Steve Alexandre; Majumder, Moumita; Dawes, Richard; Gatti, Fabien; Meyer, Hans-Dieter

    2016-06-01

    The Water-Argon cluster is an important system of fundamental and practical interest. It is for example known to be one of the simplest systems capable of manifesting "hydrophobic interactions" and as such is an ideal candidate for the study of those interactions. On the fundamental level, it is a model system for the description of the intermolecular potential, rovibrational states and inelastic scattering of an atom and an asymmetric top van der Waal complex and thus may serve as a test to perform similar work on other systems. Additionally, the description of the H_2O-Ar intermolecular interaction is an important initial step to a deeper understanding of the static and dynamical properties of condensed phases such H_2O doped in large (Ar)_N clusters. We investigate in this work the H_2O-Ar cluster on a global potential energy surface recently generated. We thus compute the rovibrational energy levels of the cluster in the rigid rotor approximation and in full dimensionality using the MCTDH improved relaxation method and compare our results with available experimental measurements and previous calculations. Then, we present inelastic scattering cross-sections of H_2O+Ar collisions obtained in the rigid rotor approximation using time-independent method and time-dependent method, and compare where available results with previous calculations. Finally, we will discuss the extension of the scattering calculations to the full dimensional case and the prospect of studying rovibrational relaxation within accurate time-dependent quantum calculations on similar systems or clusters.

  19. Higher Dimensional Meta-State Analysis Reveals Reduced Resting fMRI Connectivity Dynamism in Schizophrenia Patients.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robyn L; Yaesoubi, Maziar; Turner, Jessica A; Mathalon, Daniel; Preda, Adrian; Pearlson, Godfrey; Adali, Tulay; Calhoun, Vince D

    2016-01-01

    Resting-state functional brain imaging studies of network connectivity have long assumed that functional connections are stationary on the timescale of a typical scan. Interest in moving beyond this simplifying assumption has emerged only recently. The great hope is that training the right lens on time-varying properties of whole-brain network connectivity will shed additional light on previously concealed brain activation patterns characteristic of serious neurological or psychiatric disorders. We present evidence that multiple explicitly dynamical properties of time-varying whole-brain network connectivity are strongly associated with schizophrenia, a complex mental illness whose symptomatic presentation can vary enormously across subjects. As with so much brain-imaging research, a central challenge for dynamic network connectivity lies in determining transformations of the data that both reduce its dimensionality and expose features that are strongly predictive of important population characteristics. Our paper introduces an elegant, simple method of reducing and organizing data around which a large constellation of mutually informative and intuitive dynamical analyses can be performed. This framework combines a discrete multidimensional data-driven representation of connectivity space with four core dynamism measures computed from large-scale properties of each subject's trajectory, ie., properties not identifiable with any specific moment in time and therefore reasonable to employ in settings lacking inter-subject time-alignment, such as resting-state functional imaging studies. Our analysis exposes pronounced differences between schizophrenia patients (Nsz = 151) and healthy controls (Nhc = 163). Time-varying whole-brain network connectivity patterns are found to be markedly less dynamically active in schizophrenia patients, an effect that is even more pronounced in patients with high levels of hallucinatory behavior. To the best of our knowledge this is the

  20. Higher Dimensional Meta-State Analysis Reveals Reduced Resting fMRI Connectivity Dynamism in Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Robyn L.; Yaesoubi, Maziar; Turner, Jessica A.; Mathalon, Daniel; Preda, Adrian; Pearlson, Godfrey; Adali, Tulay; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2016-01-01

    Resting-state functional brain imaging studies of network connectivity have long assumed that functional connections are stationary on the timescale of a typical scan. Interest in moving beyond this simplifying assumption has emerged only recently. The great hope is that training the right lens on time-varying properties of whole-brain network connectivity will shed additional light on previously concealed brain activation patterns characteristic of serious neurological or psychiatric disorders. We present evidence that multiple explicitly dynamical properties of time-varying whole-brain network connectivity are strongly associated with schizophrenia, a complex mental illness whose symptomatic presentation can vary enormously across subjects. As with so much brain-imaging research, a central challenge for dynamic network connectivity lies in determining transformations of the data that both reduce its dimensionality and expose features that are strongly predictive of important population characteristics. Our paper introduces an elegant, simple method of reducing and organizing data around which a large constellation of mutually informative and intuitive dynamical analyses can be performed. This framework combines a discrete multidimensional data-driven representation of connectivity space with four core dynamism measures computed from large-scale properties of each subject’s trajectory, ie., properties not identifiable with any specific moment in time and therefore reasonable to employ in settings lacking inter-subject time-alignment, such as resting-state functional imaging studies. Our analysis exposes pronounced differences between schizophrenia patients (Nsz = 151) and healthy controls (Nhc = 163). Time-varying whole-brain network connectivity patterns are found to be markedly less dynamically active in schizophrenia patients, an effect that is even more pronounced in patients with high levels of hallucinatory behavior. To the best of our knowledge this is

  1. Three dimensional model for surgical planning in resection of thoracic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min P.; Ta, Anderson H.; Ellsworth, Warren A.; Marco, Rex A.; Gaur, Puja; Miller​, Jordan S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The computed tomography scan provides vital information about the relationship of thoracic malignancies to the surrounding structures and aids in surgical planning. However, it can be difficult to visualize the images in a two-dimensional screen to interpret the full extent of the relationship between important structures in the surgical field. Presentation of case We report two cases where we used a three-dimensional printed model to aid in the surgical resection of thoracic malignancies. Discussion Careful planning is necessary to resect thoracic malignancies. Although two-dimensional images of the thoracic malignancies provide vital information about the tumor and its surrounding structures, the three-dimensional printed model can provide more accurate information about the tumor and assist in surgical planning. Conclusion Three-dimensional printed model provide better visualization of complex thoracic tumors, aid in counseling the patient about the surgical procedure and assisted in surgical resection of thoracic malignancy. PMID:26453940

  2. Facile preparation of three-dimensional multilayer porous MnO2/reduced graphene oxide composite and its supercapacitive performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiju; Wang, Guiling; Ye, Ke; Cheng, Kui; Pan, Yue; Yan, Peng; Yin, Jinling; Cao, Dianxue

    2014-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) multilayer porous MnO2/reduced graphene oxide composites are coated on a nickel foam substrate (denoted as MnO2/R-GO@Ni-foam) by a facile and scalable spray method following by low temperature annealing. The composite electrodes are characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The content of MnO2 in the MnO2/R-GO@Ni-foam composites is determined by thermal gravimetric analysis. The supercapacitive performance of the composite electroides is investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that the MnO2/R-GO@Ni-foam composite displays a high specific capacitance of 267 F g-1 at 0.25 A g-1 and excellent capacitance retention of 89.5% after 1000 cycles. This study provides a facile way for the preparation of composite electrodes for high-performance supercapacitor.

  3. Synergetic antibacterial activity of reduced graphene oxide and boron doped diamond anode in three dimensional electrochemical oxidation system.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiujuan; Wang, Ting; Long, Yujiao; Ni, Jinren

    2015-05-21

    A 100% increment of antibacterial ability has been achieved due to significant synergic effects of boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) coupled in a three dimensional electrochemical oxidation system. The rGO, greatly enhanced by BDD driven electric field, demonstrated strong antibacterial ability and even sustained its excellent performance during a reasonable period after complete power cut in the BDD-rGO system. Cell damage experiments and TEM observation confirmed much stronger membrane stress in the BDD-rGO system, due to the faster bacterial migration and charge transfer by the expanded electro field and current-carrying efficiency by quantum tunnel. Reciprocally the hydroxyl-radical production was eminently promoted with expanded area of electrodes and delayed recombination of the electron-hole pairs in presence of the rGO in the system. This implied a huge potential for practical disinfection with integration of the promising rGO and the advanced electrochemical oxidation systems.

  4. Formulation of reduced surface integral equations for the electromagnetic wave scattering from three-dimensional layered dielectric bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciric, I. R.

    2008-08-01

    A reduction procedure is developed for an arbitrarily shaped layered dielectric body using for each interface a single unknown function to which the classical surface electric and magnetic currents are related by some surface operators. These operators and single functions are determined recursively from one interface to the next. This allows us to derive the field everywhere from the solution of a surface integral equation in only one vector function relative to only the interface between the layered body and the source region. Since the reduction operators are independent of the structure of the outside region and of the given field source, and also invariant under translation and rotation, the analysis of the three-dimensional electromagnetic wave scattering and propagation for systems of multilayered or/and multiply nested dielectric bodies based on reduced single integral equations is substantially more efficient than that based on existing coupled integral equation formulations using electric and magnetic currents on all the interfaces, especially for configurations with identical such bodies arbitrarily located and oriented with respect to each other.

  5. Application of three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide-gold composite modified electrode for direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Shi, Fan; Xi, Jingwen; Hou, Fei; Han, Lin; Li, Guangjiu; Gong, Shixing; Chen, Chanxing; Sun, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a three-dimensional (3D) reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and gold (Au) composite was synthesized by electrodeposition and used for the electrode modification with carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) as the substrate electrode. Myoglobin (Mb) was further immobilized on the surface of 3D RGO-Au/CILE to obtain an electrochemical sensing platform. Direct electrochemistry of Mb on the modified electrode was investigated with a pair of well-defined redox waves appeared on cyclic voltammogram, indicating the realization of direct electron transfer of Mb with the modified electrode. The results can be ascribed to the presence of highly conductive 3D RGO-Au composite on the electrode surface that accelerate the electron transfer rate between the electroactive center of Mb and the electrode. The Mb modified electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity to the reduction of trichloroacetic acid in the concentration range from 0.2 to 36.0 mmol/L with the detection limit of 0.06 mmol/L (3σ).

  6. Synergetic antibacterial activity of reduced graphene oxide and boron doped diamond anode in three dimensional electrochemical oxidation system.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiujuan; Wang, Ting; Long, Yujiao; Ni, Jinren

    2015-01-01

    A 100% increment of antibacterial ability has been achieved due to significant synergic effects of boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) coupled in a three dimensional electrochemical oxidation system. The rGO, greatly enhanced by BDD driven electric field, demonstrated strong antibacterial ability and even sustained its excellent performance during a reasonable period after complete power cut in the BDD-rGO system. Cell damage experiments and TEM observation confirmed much stronger membrane stress in the BDD-rGO system, due to the faster bacterial migration and charge transfer by the expanded electro field and current-carrying efficiency by quantum tunnel. Reciprocally the hydroxyl-radical production was eminently promoted with expanded area of electrodes and delayed recombination of the electron-hole pairs in presence of the rGO in the system. This implied a huge potential for practical disinfection with integration of the promising rGO and the advanced electrochemical oxidation systems. PMID:25994309

  7. Synergetic antibacterial activity of reduced graphene oxide and boron doped diamond anode in three dimensional electrochemical oxidation system

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xiujuan; Wang, Ting; Long, Yujiao; Ni, Jinren

    2015-01-01

    A 100% increment of antibacterial ability has been achieved due to significant synergic effects of boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) coupled in a three dimensional electrochemical oxidation system. The rGO, greatly enhanced by BDD driven electric field, demonstrated strong antibacterial ability and even sustained its excellent performance during a reasonable period after complete power cut in the BDD-rGO system. Cell damage experiments and TEM observation confirmed much stronger membrane stress in the BDD-rGO system, due to the faster bacterial migration and charge transfer by the expanded electro field and current-carrying efficiency by quantum tunnel. Reciprocally the hydroxyl-radical production was eminently promoted with expanded area of electrodes and delayed recombination of the electron–hole pairs in presence of the rGO in the system. This implied a huge potential for practical disinfection with integration of the promising rGO and the advanced electrochemical oxidation systems. PMID:25994309

  8. Global climate changes as forecast by Goddard Institute for Space Studies three-dimensional model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J.; Fung, I.; Lacis, A.; Rind, D.; Lebedeff, S.; Ruedy, R.; Russell, G.

    1988-01-01

    The global climate effects of time-dependent atmospheric trace gas and aerosol variations are simulated by NASA-Goddard's three-dimensional climate model II, which possesses 8 x 10-deg horizontal resolution, for the cases of a 100-year control run and three different atmospheric composition scenarios in which trace gas growth is respectively a continuation of current exponential trends, a reduced linear growth, and a rapid curtailment of emissions due to which net climate forcing no longer increases after the year 2000. The experiments begin in 1958, run to the present, and encompass measured or estimated changes in CO2, CH4, N2O, chlorofluorocarbons, and stratospheric aerosols. It is shown that the greenhouse warming effect may be clearly identifiable in the 1990s.

  9. One-dimensional extended Hubbard model with spin-triplet pairing ground states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Akinori

    2016-10-01

    We show that the one-dimensional extended Hubbard model has saturated ferromagnetic ground states with the spin-triplet electron pair condensation in a certain range of parameters. The ground state wave functions with fixed electron numbers are explicitly obtained. We also construct two ground states in which both the spin-rotation and the gauge symmetries are broken, and show that these states are transferred from one to the other by applying the edge operators. The edge operators are reduced to the Majorana fermions in a special case. These symmetry breaking ground states are shown to be stabilized by a superconducting mean field Hamiltonian which is related to the Kitaev chain with the charge-charge interaction.

  10. Three-Dimensional Electro-Thermal Verilog-A Model of Power MOSFET for Circuit Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chvála, A.; Donoval, D.; Marek, J.; Príbytný, P.; Molnár, M.; Mikolášek, M.

    2014-04-01

    New original circuit model for the power device based on interactive coupling of electrical and thermal properties is described. The thermal equivalent network for a three-dimensional heat flow is presented. Designed electro-thermal MOSFET model for circuit simulations with distributed properties and three-dimensional thermal equivalent network is used for simulation of multipulse unclamped inductive switching (UIS) test of device robustness. The features and the limitations of the new model are analyzed and presented.

  11. Two-dimensional String Theory from the c = 1 Matrix Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Avinash

    1996-02-01

    We identify the nonlocal and nonlinear operator in the c = 1 matrix model which satisfies the tachyron β-function equation of 2-dimensional string theory in flat-space and linear-dilaton background. This reinforces the viewpoint thata nonlocal transform is required to extract the space-time physics of the 2-dimensional strong theory from the matrix model. We also comment on the realization of the W-infinity symmetry of the matrix model in the string theory.

  12. Computational design of patterned interfaces using reduced order models

    PubMed Central

    Vattré, A. J.; Abdolrahim, N.; Kolluri, K.; Demkowicz, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Patterning is a familiar approach for imparting novel functionalities to free surfaces. We extend the patterning paradigm to interfaces between crystalline solids. Many interfaces have non-uniform internal structures comprised of misfit dislocations, which in turn govern interface properties. We develop and validate a computational strategy for designing interfaces with controlled misfit dislocation patterns by tailoring interface crystallography and composition. Our approach relies on a novel method for predicting the internal structure of interfaces: rather than obtaining it from resource-intensive atomistic simulations, we compute it using an efficient reduced order model based on anisotropic elasticity theory. Moreover, our strategy incorporates interface synthesis as a constraint on the design process. As an illustration, we apply our approach to the design of interfaces with rapid, 1-D point defect diffusion. Patterned interfaces may be integrated into the microstructure of composite materials, markedly improving performance. PMID:25169868

  13. Determinations of from inclusive semileptonic decays with reduced model dependence.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Best, D S; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Minamora, J S; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Dickopp, M; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Latour, E; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Gaillard, J R; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Vazquez, W Panduro; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mader, W F; Mallik, U; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J I; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Diberder, F Le; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Petersen, T C; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Green, M G; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Kelly, M P; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S Y; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pacetti, S; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Gioi, L Li; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Tehrani, F Safai; Voena, C; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Graziani, G; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; Mayer, B; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Abe, T; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Ricca, G Della; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Martinez-Vidal, F; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Graham, M T; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mellado, B; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Tan, P; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2006-06-01

    We report two novel determinations of /|Vub/ with reduced model dependence, based on measurements of the mass distribution of the hadronic system in semileptonic B decays. Events are selected by fully reconstructing the decay of one B meson and identifying a charged lepton from the decay of the other B meson from Upsilon(4S)-->BB events. In one approach, we combine the inclusive B-->Xulambdav rate, integrated up to a maximum hadronic mass mX<1.67 GeV/c2, with a measurement of the inclusive B-->Xsgamma photon energy spectrum. We obtain /Vub/=(4.43+/-0.38stat+/-0.25syst+/-0.29theo) x 10-3. In another approach we measure the total B-->Xulambdav rate over the full phase space and find /Vub/=(3.84+/-0.70stat+/-0.30syst+/-0.10theo) x 10-3.

  14. Reduced Operator Approximation for Modelling Open Quantum Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werpachowska, A.

    2015-06-01

    We present the reduced operator approximation: a simple, physically transparent and computationally efficient method of modelling open quantum systems. It employs the Heisenberg picture of the quantum dynamics, which allows us to focus on the system degrees of freedom in a natural and easy way. We describe different variants of the method, low- and high-order in the system-bath interaction operators, defining them for either general quantum harmonic oscillator baths or specialising them for independent baths with Lorentzian spectral densities. Its wide applicability is demonstrated on the examples of systems coupled to different baths (with varying system-bath interaction strength and bath memory length), and compared with the exact pseudomode and the popular quantum state diffusion approach. The method captures the decoherence of the system interacting with the bath, while conserving the total energy. Our results suggest that quantum coherence effects persist in open quantum systems for much longer times than previously thought.

  15. DNA repair in reduced genome: the Mycoplasma model.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fabíola Marques; Fonseca, Marbella Maria; Batistuzzo De Medeiros, Sílvia; Scortecci, Kátia Castanho; Blaha, Carlos Alfredo Galindo; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella

    2005-11-01

    The occurrence of bacteria with a reduced genome, such as that found in Mycoplasmas, raises the question as to which genes should be enough to guarantee the genomic stability indispensable for the maintenance of life. The aim of this work was to compare nine Mycoplasma genomes in regard to DNA repair genes. An in silico analysis was done using six Mycoplasma species, whose genomes are accessible at GenBank, and M. synoviae, and two strains of M. hyopneumoniae, whose genomes were recently sequenced by The Brazilian National Genome Project Consortium and Southern Genome Investigation Program (Brazil) respectively. Considering this reduced genome model, our comparative analysis suggests that the DNA integrity necessary for life can be primarily maintained by nucleotide excision repair (NER), which is the only complete repair pathway. Furthermore, some enzymes involved with base excision repair (BER) and recombination are also present and can complement the NER activity. The absence of RecR and RecO-like ORFs was observed only in M. genitalium and M. pneumoniae, which can be involved with the conservation of gene order observed between these two species. We also obtained phylogenetic evidence for the recent acquisition of the ogt gene in M. pulmonis and M. penetrans by a lateral transference event. In general, the presence or nonexistence of repair genes is shared by all species analyzed, suggesting that the loss of the majority of repair genes was an ancestral event, which occurred before the divergence of the Mycoplasma species. PMID:16153783

  16. Efficiency of a POD-based reduced second-order adjoint model in 4D-Var data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daescu, D. N.; Navon, I. M.

    2007-02-01

    Order reduction strategies aim to alleviate the computational burden of the four-dimensional variational data assimilation by performing the optimization in a low-order control space. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) approach to model reduction is used to identify a reduced-order control space for a two-dimensional global shallow water model. A reduced second-order adjoint (SOA) model is developed and used to facilitate the implementation of a Hessian-free truncated-Newton (HFTN) minimization algorithm in the POD-based space. The efficiency of the SOA/HFTN implementation is analysed by comparison with the quasi-Newton BFGS and a nonlinear conjugate gradient algorithm. Several data assimilation experiments that differ only in the optimization algorithm employed are performed in the reduced control space. Numerical results indicate that first-order derivative methods are effective during the initial stages of the assimilation; in the later stages, the use of second-order derivative information is of benefit and HFTN provided significant CPU time savings when compared to the BFGS and CG algorithms. A comparison with data assimilation experiments in the full model space shows that with an appropriate selection of the basis functions the optimization in the POD space is able to provide accurate results at a reduced computational cost. The HFTN algorithm benefited most from the order reduction since computational savings were achieved both in the outer and inner iterations of the method. Further experiments are required to validate the approach for comprehensive global circulation models.

  17. An Overview of Software for Conducting Dimensionality Assessment in Multidimensional Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svetina, Dubravka; Levy, Roy

    2012-01-01

    An overview of popular software packages for conducting dimensionality assessment in multidimensional models is presented. Specifically, five popular software packages are described in terms of their capabilities to conduct dimensionality assessment with respect to the nature of analysis (exploratory or confirmatory), types of data (dichotomous,…

  18. Exploring variations in the gauge sector of a six-dimensional flavour model

    SciTech Connect

    Frère, J.-M.; Libanov, M.; Mollet, S.; Troitsky, S.

    2015-03-15

    In the context of extra-dimensional models that describe three families of fermions (including their masses and mixing in terms of a single 6-dimensional family), we explore possible variations (including of the extra dimensions) and argue that the apparent plethora of variants does not lead to drastic changes in the expected phenomenology.

  19. The Lagrangian coordinate system and what it means for two-dimensional crowd flow models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wageningen-Kessels, Femke; Leclercq, Ludovic; Daamen, Winnie; Hoogendoorn, Serge P.

    2016-02-01

    A continuum crowd flow model is solved using the Lagrangian coordinate system. The system has proven to give computational advantages over the traditional Eulerian coordinate system for (one-dimensional) road traffic flow. Our extension of the model and simulation method to (two-dimensional) crowd flow paves the way to explore the advantages for crowd flow simulation. Detailed analysis of the advantages is left for future research. However, this paper provides a first exploration and shows that a model and simulation method for two-dimensional crowd flow can be developed using Lagrangian numerical techniques and that it leads to accurate simulation results.

  20. Particle orbits in two-dimensional equilibrium models for the magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karimabadi, H.; Pritchett, P. L.; Coroniti, F. V.

    1990-01-01

    Assuming that there exist an equilibrium state for the magnetotail, particle orbits are investigated in two-dimensional kinetic equilibrium models for the magnetotail. Particle orbits in the equilibrium field are compared with those calculated earlier with one-dimensional models, where the main component of the magnetic field (Bx) was approximated as either a hyperbolic tangent or a linear function of z with the normal field (Bz) assumed to be a constant. It was found that the particle orbits calculated with the two types of models are significantly different, mainly due to the neglect of the variation of Bx with x in the one-dimensional fields.

  1. Methods: Using Three-Dimensional Culture (Spheroids) as an In Vitro Model of Tumour Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Leek, Russell; Grimes, David Robert; Harris, Adrian L; McIntyre, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Regions of hypoxia in tumours can be modelled in vitro in 2D cell cultures with a hypoxic chamber or incubator in which oxygen levels can be regulated. Although this system is useful in many respects, it disregards the additional physiological gradients of the hypoxic microenvironment, which result in reduced nutrients and more acidic pH. Another approach to hypoxia modelling is to use three-dimensional spheroid cultures. In spheroids, the physiological gradients of the hypoxic tumour microenvironment can be inexpensively modelled and explored. In addition, spheroids offer the advantage of more representative modelling of tumour therapy responses compared with 2D culture. Here, we review the use of spheroids in hypoxia tumour biology research and highlight the different methodologies for spheroid formation and how to obtain uniformity. We explore the challenge of spheroid analyses and how to determine the effect on the hypoxic versus normoxic components of spheroids. We discuss the use of high-throughput analyses in hypoxia screening of spheroids. Furthermore, we examine the use of mathematical modelling of spheroids to understand more fully the hypoxic tumour microenvironment. PMID:27325267

  2. Computational Study of Effects of Tension Imbalance on Phonation in a Three Dimensional Tubular Larynx Model

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Qian; Zheng, Xudong; Mittal, Rajat; Bielamowicz, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective The current study explores the use of a continuum based computational model to investigate the effect of left right tension imbalance on vocal fold vibrations and glottal aerodynamics, as well as its implication on phonation. The study allows us to gain new insights into the underlying physical mechanism of irregularities induced by vocal fold tension imbalance associated with unilateral cricothyroid muscle paralysis. Method A three dimensional simulation of glottal flow and vocal fold dynamics in a tubular laryngeal model with tension imbalance was conducted by using a coupled flow-structure interaction computational model. Tension imbalance was modeled by reducing by 20% the Young’s modulus of one of the vocal folds, while holding vocal fold length constant. Effects of tension imbalance on vibratory characteristic of the vocal folds and on the time-varying properties of glottal airflow as well as the aerodynamic energy transfer are comprehensively analyzed. Results and Conclusions The analysis demonstrates that the continuum based biomechanical model can provide a good description of phonatory dynamics in tension imbalance conditions. It is found that while 20% tension imbalance does not have noticeable effects on the fundamental frequency, it does lead to a larger glottal flow leakage and asymmetric vibrations of the two vocal folds. A detailed analysis of the energy transfer suggests that the majority of the energy is consumed by the lateral motion of the vocal folds and the net energy transferred to the softer fold is less than the one transferred to the normal fold. PMID:24725589

  3. Development of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model for solar corona and solar wind simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xingqiu; Trichtchenko, Larisa; Boteler, David

    Propagation of coronal mass ejections from solar surface to the Earth magnetosphere is strongly influenced by the conditions in solar corona and ambient solar wind. Thus, reliable simulation of the background solar wind is the primary task toward the development of numerical model for the transient events. In this paper we introduce a new numerical model which has been specifically designed for numerical study of the solar corona and ambient solar wind. This model is based on our recently developed three-dimensional Spherical Coordinate Adaptive Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) code (SCA-MHD-3D) [Yuan et al., 2009]. Modifications has been done to include the observed magnetic field at the photosphere as inner boundary conditions. The energy source term together with reduced plasma gamma are used in the nonlinear MHD equations in order to simulate the solar wind acceleration from subsonic speed at solar surface to supersonic speed at the inter-heliosphere region, and the absorbing boundary conditions are used at the solar surface. This model has been applied to simulate the background solar wind condition for several different solar rotations, and comparison between the observation and model output have shown that it reproduces many features of solar wind, including open and closed magnetic fields, fast and slow solar wind speed, sector boundaries, etc.

  4. Effect of a levee setback on aquatic resources using two-dimensional flow and bioenergetics models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, Robert W.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Magirl, Christopher S.; McCarthy, Sarah; Berge, Hans; Comanor, Kyle

    2016-04-05

    Watershed restoration is the focus of many resource managers and can include a multitude of restoration actions each with specific restoration objectives. For the White River flowing through the cities of Pacific and Sumner, Washington, a levee setback has been proposed to reconnect the river with its historical floodplain to help reduce flood risks, as well as provide increased habitat for federally listed species of salmonids. The study presented here documents the use of a modeling framework that integrates two-dimensional hydraulic modeling with process-based bioenergetics modeling for predicting how changes in flow from reconnecting the river with its floodplain affects invertebrate drift density and the net rate of energy intake of juvenile salmonids. Modeling results were calculated for flows of 25.9 and 49.3 cubic meters per second during the spring, summer, and fall. Predicted hypothetical future mean velocities and depths were significantly lower and more variable when compared to current conditions. The abundance of low energetic cost and positive growth locations for salmonids were predicted to increase significantly in the study reach following floodplain reconnection, particularly during the summer. This modeling framework presents a viable approach for evaluating the potential fisheries benefits of reconnecting a river to its historical floodplain that integrates our understanding of hydraulic, geomorphology, and organismal biology.

  5. Use of upscaled elevation and surface roughness data in two-dimensional surface water models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, J.D.; Decker, J.D.; Langevin, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach that uses a combination of cell-block- and cell-face-averaging of high-resolution cell elevation and roughness data to upscale hydraulic parameters and accurately simulate surface water flow in relatively low-resolution numerical models. The method developed allows channelized features that preferentially connect large-scale grid cells at cell interfaces to be represented in models where these features are significantly smaller than the selected grid size. The developed upscaling approach has been implemented in a two-dimensional finite difference model that solves a diffusive wave approximation of the depth-integrated shallow surface water equations using preconditioned Newton–Krylov methods. Computational results are presented to show the effectiveness of the mixed cell-block and cell-face averaging upscaling approach in maintaining model accuracy, reducing model run-times, and how decreased grid resolution affects errors. Application examples demonstrate that sub-grid roughness coefficient variations have a larger effect on simulated error than sub-grid elevation variations.

  6. Two-dimensional sectioned images and three-dimensional surface models for learning the anatomy of the female pelvis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Sun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Hwang, Sung Bae; Har, Dong-Hwan; Moon, Young Lae; Chung, Min Suk

    2013-01-01

    In the Visible Korean project, serially sectioned images of the pelvis were made from a female cadaver. Outlines of significant structures in the sectioned images were drawn and stacked to build surface models. To improve the accessibility and informational content of these data, a five-step process was designed and implemented. First, 154 pelvic structures were outlined with additional surface reconstruction to prepare the image data. Second, the sectioned and outlined images (in a browsing software) as well as the surface models (in a PDF file) were placed on the Visible Korean homepage in a readily-accessible format. Third, all image data were visualized with interactive elements to stimulate creative learning. Fourth, two-dimensional (2D) images and three-dimensional (3D) models were superimposed on one another to provide context and spatial information for students viewing these data. Fifth, images were designed such that structure names would be shown when the mouse pointer hovered over the 2D images or the 3D models. The state-of-the-art sectioned images, outlined images, and surface models, arranged and systematized as described in this study, will aid students in understanding the anatomy of female pelvis. The graphic data accompanied by corresponding magnetic resonance images and computed tomographs are expected to promote the production of 3D simulators for clinical practice.

  7. Two-dimensional sectioned images and three-dimensional surface models for learning the anatomy of the female pelvis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Sun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Hwang, Sung Bae; Har, Dong-Hwan; Moon, Young Lae; Chung, Min Suk

    2013-01-01

    In the Visible Korean project, serially sectioned images of the pelvis were made from a female cadaver. Outlines of significant structures in the sectioned images were drawn and stacked to build surface models. To improve the accessibility and informational content of these data, a five-step process was designed and implemented. First, 154 pelvic structures were outlined with additional surface reconstruction to prepare the image data. Second, the sectioned and outlined images (in a browsing software) as well as the surface models (in a PDF file) were placed on the Visible Korean homepage in a readily-accessible format. Third, all image data were visualized with interactive elements to stimulate creative learning. Fourth, two-dimensional (2D) images and three-dimensional (3D) models were superimposed on one another to provide context and spatial information for students viewing these data. Fifth, images were designed such that structure names would be shown when the mouse pointer hovered over the 2D images or the 3D models. The state-of-the-art sectioned images, outlined images, and surface models, arranged and systematized as described in this study, will aid students in understanding the anatomy of female pelvis. The graphic data accompanied by corresponding magnetic resonance images and computed tomographs are expected to promote the production of 3D simulators for clinical practice. PMID:23463707

  8. Use of Air Modeling to Reduce Facility Demolition Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Dennis; Sanford, Peter; Parsons, Duane A.

    2003-02-26

    DOE faces the problem of decommissioning facilities contaminated with plutonium, uranium, and beryllium. The standard process has been to remove the contaminated process equipment from a facility, and then decontaminate the residual radiological and hazardous contamination from the facility structure to an ''unconditional release'' level. The facility would then be taken down as a clean demolition. Several beryllium-contaminated facilities were identified that will be particularly difficult to decontaminate to these release levels. A number of alternative decommissioning approaches were investigated that would require less decontamination, and thus reduced cost and schedule. Initial alternative approaches proposed erection of barriers (i.e. building-size tent structures with ventilation controls) to minimize the release of contamination to the environment. More recently we have investigated methods to control contamination at the structure surfaces before and during demolition, and model the risk posed to the workers, public, and the environment by the small residual material actually dispersed. This approach promises to minimize decontamination by removing only the highest contamination levels, and eliminates the need for erecting large contamination control structures along with the attendant ventilation equipment and administrative controls. The modeling has demonstrated the regulatory acceptability of this approach, and the approach is ready to be discussed with the regulators and the public.

  9. Modeling self-excited combustion instabilities using a combination of two- and three-dimensional simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvazinski, Matthew Evan

    observed in experiments. All fuel rich simulations used a single step global reaction for the chemical kinetic model. A fuel lean operating condition is also studied and has a lower level of instability. The two-dimensional results are unable to provide good agreement with experimental results unless a more expensive four-step chemical kinetic model is used. The three-dimensional simulation is able to predict the harmonic behavior but fails to capture the amplitude of the instability observed in the companion experiment, instead predicting lower amplitude oscillations. A detailed analysis of the three-dimensional results on a single cycle shows that the periodic heat release commonly associated with combustion instability can be interpreted to be a result of the time lag between the instant the fuel is injected and when it is burned. The time lag is due to two mechanisms. First, methane present near the backstep can become trapped and transported inside shed vortices to the point of combustion. The second aspect of the time lag arises due to the interaction of the fuel with upstream-running pressure waves. As the wave moves past the injection point the flow is temporarily disrupted, reducing the fuel flow into the combustor. A comparison between the fuel lean and fuel rich cases shows several differences. Whereas both cases can produce instability, the fuel-rich case is measurably more unstable. Using the tools developed differences in the location of the damping, and driving regions are evident. By moving the peak driving area upstream of the damping region the level of instability is lower in the fuel lean case. The location of the mean heat release is also important; locating the mean heat release adjacent to the vortex impingement point a higher level of instability is observed for the fuel rich case. This research shows that DES instability modeling has the ability to be a valuable tool in the study of combustion instability. The lower grid size requirement makes the

  10. A Reduced Order Model of the Linearized Incompressible Navier-Strokes Equations for the Sensor/Actuator Placement Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, Brian G.

    2000-01-01

    A reduced order modeling approach of the Navier-Stokes equations is presented for the design of a distributed optimal feedback kernel. This approach is based oil a Krylov subspace method where significant modes of the flow are captured in the model This model is then used in all optimal feedback control design where sensing and actuation is performed oil tile entire flow field. This control design approach yields all optimal feedback kernel which provides insight into the placement of sensors and actuators in the flow field. As all evaluation of this approach, a two-dimensional shear layer and driven cavity flow are investigated.

  11. Reducing structural uncertainty in conceptual hydrological modeling in the semi-arid Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hublart, P.; Ruelland, D.; Dezetter, A.; Jourde, H.

    2014-10-01

    The use of lumped, conceptual models in hydrological impact studies requires placing more emphasis on the uncertainty arising from deficiencies and/or ambiguities in the model structure. This study provides an opportunity to combine a multiple-hypothesis framework with a multi-criteria assessment scheme to reduce structural uncertainty in the conceptual modeling of a meso-scale Andean catchment (1515 km2) over a 30 year period (1982-2011). The modeling process was decomposed into six model-building decisions related to the following aspects of the system behavior: snow accumulation and melt, runoff generation, redistribution and delay of water fluxes, and natural storage effects. Each of these decisions was provided with a set of alternative modeling options, resulting in a total of 72 competing model structures. These structures were calibrated using the concept of Pareto optimality with three criteria pertaining to streamflow simulations and one to the seasonal dynamics of snow processes. The results were analyzed in the four-dimensional space of performance measures using a fuzzy c-means clustering technique and a differential split sample test, leading to identify 14 equally acceptable model hypotheses. A filtering approach was then applied to these best-performing structures in order to minimize the overall uncertainty envelope while maximizing the number of enclosed observations. This led to retain 8 model hypotheses as a representation of the minimum structural uncertainty that could be obtained with this modeling framework. Future work to better consider model predictive uncertainty should include a proper assessment of parameter equifinality and data errors, as well as the testing of new or refined hypotheses to allow for the use of additional auxiliary observations.

  12. Reducing structural uncertainty in conceptual hydrological modelling in the semi-arid Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hublart, P.; Ruelland, D.; Dezetter, A.; Jourde, H.

    2015-05-01

    The use of lumped, conceptual models in hydrological impact studies requires placing more emphasis on the uncertainty arising from deficiencies and/or ambiguities in the model structure. This study provides an opportunity to combine a multiple-hypothesis framework with a multi-criteria assessment scheme to reduce structural uncertainty in the conceptual modelling of a mesoscale Andean catchment (1515 km2) over a 30-year period (1982-2011). The modelling process was decomposed into six model-building decisions related to the following aspects of the system behaviour: snow accumulation and melt, runoff generation, redistribution and delay of water fluxes, and natural storage effects. Each of these decisions was provided with a set of alternative modelling options, resulting in a total of 72 competing model structures. These structures were calibrated using the concept of Pareto optimality with three criteria pertaining to streamflow simulations and one to the seasonal dynamics of snow processes. The results were analyzed in the four-dimensional (4-D) space of performance measures using a fuzzy c-means clustering technique and a differential split sample test, leading to identify 14 equally acceptable model hypotheses. A filtering approach was then applied to these best-performing structures in order to minimize the overall uncertainty envelope while maximizing the number of enclosed observations. This led to retain eight model hypotheses as a representation of the minimum structural uncertainty that could be obtained with this modelling framework. Future work to better consider model predictive uncertainty should include a proper assessment of parameter equifinality and data errors, as well as the testing of new or refined hypotheses to allow for the use of additional auxiliary observations.

  13. Mechanism of drag reduction on a three-dimensional model vehicle using a passive control device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Wook; Sagong, Woong; Choi, Haecheon

    2007-11-01

    It has been well known that the boat-tail device reduces drag on a three-dimensional vehicle. However, its detailed mechanism is not clearly known yet. To understand this mechanism, we conduct an experiment for flow over a three-dimensional model vehicle in ground proximity. We consider various lengths (l/H = 0.1 ˜0.5) and slant angles (θ=0^o ˜40^o) of the boat tail, and conduct velocity measurements near the boat tail and oil visualizations on the boat-tail surface. We find that the slant angle is an important parameter for drag reduction. The maximum drag reduction occurs at θ=12.5^o, 15^o and 15^o for l/H = 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5, respectively, and the amounts of maximum drag reduction are 20, 41 and 45%. For the case of l/H = 0.3, separation starts to occur from θ= 6^o at the leading edge of the boat tail. This separated flow reattaches on the boat-tail surface and forms a small secondary separation bubble, which provides strong near-wall momentum and delays main separation down to the trailing edge of boat tail. The size of secondary separation bubble increases with increasing θ. At θ>16^o, main separation occurs at the leading edge of boat tail, and drag increases from the minimum value and reaches that of no control at large θ's.

  14. One-dimensional wave bottom boundary layer model comparison: specific eddy viscosity and turbulence closure models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puleo, J.A.; Mouraenko, O.; Hanes, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Six one-dimensional-vertical wave bottom boundary layer models are analyzed based on different methods for estimating the turbulent eddy viscosity: Laminar, linear, parabolic, k—one equation turbulence closure, k−ε—two equation turbulence closure, and k−ω—two equation turbulence closure. Resultant velocity profiles, bed shear stresses, and turbulent kinetic energy are compared to laboratory data of oscillatory flow over smooth and rough beds. Bed shear stress estimates for the smooth bed case were most closely predicted by the k−ω model. Normalized errors between model predictions and measurements of velocity profiles over the entire computational domain collected at 15° intervals for one-half a wave cycle show that overall the linear model was most accurate. The least accurate were the laminar and k−ε models. Normalized errors between model predictions and turbulence kinetic energy profiles showed that the k−ω model was most accurate. Based on these findings, when the smallest overall velocity profile prediction error is required, the processing requirements and error analysis suggest that the linear eddy viscosity model is adequate. However, if accurate estimates of bed shear stress and TKE are required then, of the models tested, the k−ω model should be used.

  15. Computational modeling of phonatory dynamics in a tubular three-dimensional model of the human larynx

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Q.; Mittal, R.; Zheng, X.; Bielamowicz, S.

    2012-01-01

    Simulation of the phonatory flow-structure interaction has been conducted in a three-dimensional, tubular shaped laryngeal model that has been designed with a high level of realism with respect to the human laryngeal anatomy. A non-linear spring-based contact force model is also implemented for the purpose of representing contact in more general conditions, especially those associated with three-dimensional modeling of phonation in the presence of vocal fold pathologies. The model is used to study the effects of a moderate (20%) vocal-fold tension imbalance on the phonatory dynamics. The characteristic features of phonation for normal as well as tension-imbalanced vocal folds, such as glottal waveform, glottal jet evolution, mucosal wave-type vocal-fold motion, modal entrainment, and asymmetric glottal jet deflection have been discussed in detail and compared to established data. It is found that while a moderate level of tension asymmetry does not change the vibratory dynamics significantly, it can potentially lead to measurable deterioration in voice quality. PMID:22978889

  16. Reduced-dimension model of liquid plug propagation in tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, Hideki; Halpern, David; Ryans, Jason; Gaver, Donald P.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the flow resistance caused by the propagation of a liquid plug in a liquid-lined tube and propose a simple semiempirical formula for the flow resistance as a function of the plug length, the capillary number, and the precursor film thickness. These formulas are based on computational investigations of three key contributors to the plug resistance: the front meniscus, the plug core, and the rear meniscus. We show that the nondimensional flow resistance in the front meniscus varies as a function of the capillary number and the precursor film thickness. For a fixed capillary number, the flow resistance increases with decreasing precursor film thickness. The flow in the core region is modeled as Poiseuille flow and the flow resistance is a linear function of the plug length. For the rear meniscus, the flow resistance increases monotonically with decreasing capillary number. We investigate the maximum mechanical stress behavior at the wall, such as the wall pressure gradient, the wall shear stress, and the wall shear stress gradient, and propose empirical formulas for the maximum stresses in each region. These wall mechanical stresses vary as a function of the capillary number: For semi-infinite fingers of air propagating through pulmonary airways, the epithelial cell damage correlates with the pressure gradient. However, for shorter plugs the front meniscus may provide substantial mechanical stresses that could modulate this behavior and provide a major cause of cell injury when liquid plugs propagate in pulmonary airways. Finally, we propose that the reduced-dimension models developed herein may be of importance for the creation of large-scale models of interfacial flows in pulmonary networks, where full computational fluid dynamics calculations are untenable.

  17. Three-dimensional finite element modeling of liquid crystal devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanbrabant, Pieter J. M.; James, Richard; Beeckman, Jeroen; Neyts, Kristiaan; Willman, Eero; Fernandez, F. Anibal

    2011-03-01

    A finite element framework is presented to combine advanced three-dimensional liquid crystal director calculations with a full-vector beam propagation analysis. This approach becomes especially valuable to analyze and design structures in which disclinations or diffraction effects play an important role. The wide applicability of the approach is illustrated in our overview from several examples including small pixel LCOS microdisplays with homeotropic alignment.

  18. Scalable Reduced-order Models for Fine-resolution Hydrologic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Pau, G. S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Fine-resolution descriptions of hydrologic variables are desirable for an improved investigation of regional-scale and watershed-scale phenomena. For example, fine-resolution soil moisture allows biogeochemical processes to be modeled at the desired mechanistic scales. However, direct deterministic simulations of fine-resolution land surface variables present many challenges, a prominent one of which is the high computational cost. To address this challenge, we propose the use of reduced-order modeling techniques, such as Gaussian process regression and polynomial chaos expansion, to directly emulate fine-resolution models. Dimension reduction techniques, such as proper orthogonal decomposition method, are further used to improve the efficiency of the resulting reduced order model (ROM). We also develop procedures to efficiently quantify the uncertainties in the ROM solutions. Although ROM, by definition, is computationally efficient, the construction of ROM can be computationally expensive and memory-intensive since we need to use many high-resolution solutions to train the ROM. In addition, high-dimensional regression models can have non-negligible computational demands. To address these computational challenges, we have developed a new parallel and scalable software framework for developing emulators for fine-resolution models. The framework allows ROM to be efficiently constructed from fine-resolution solutions and deployed on high-performance computing platforms. The framework utilizes some existing high-performance computing libraries such as PETSc (Portable, Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation), SLEPc (Scalable Library for Eigenvalue Problem Computation) and Elemental. We will demonstrate the accuracy of the ROMs we developed for two fine-resolution surface-subsurface models and the performance of our software framework.

  19. Development of Comprehensive Reduced Kinetic Models for Supersonic Reacting Shear Layer Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zambon, A. C.; Chelliah, H. K.; Drummond, J. P.

    2006-01-01

    Large-scale simulations of multi-dimensional unsteady turbulent reacting flows with detailed chemistry and transport can be computationally extremely intensive even on distributed computing architectures. With the development of suitable reduced chemical kinetic models, the number of scalar variables to be integrated can be decreased, leading to a significant reduction in the computational time required for the simulation with limited loss of accuracy in the results. A general MATLAB-based automated mechanism reduction procedure is presented to reduce any complex starting mechanism (detailed or skeletal) with minimal human intervention. Based on the application of the quasi steady-state (QSS) approximation for certain chemical species and on the elimination of the fast reaction rates in the mechanism, several comprehensive reduced models, capable of handling different fuels such as C2H4, CH4 and H2, have been developed and thoroughly tested for several combustion problems (ignition, propagation and extinction) and physical conditions (reactant compositions, temperatures, and pressures). A key feature of the present reduction procedure is the explicit solution of the concentrations of the QSS species, needed for the evaluation of the elementary reaction rates. In contrast, previous approaches relied on an implicit solution due to the strong coupling between QSS species, requiring computationally expensive inner iterations. A novel algorithm, based on the definition of a QSS species coupling matrix, is presented to (i) introduce appropriate truncations to the QSS algebraic relations and (ii) identify the optimal sequence for the explicit solution of the concentration of the QSS species. With the automatic generation of the relevant source code, the resulting reduced models can be readily implemented into numerical codes.

  20. HR Del REMNANT ANATOMY USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL SPECTRAL DATA AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL PHOTOIONIZATION SHELL MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Moraes, Manoel; Diaz, Marcos E-mail: marcos@astro.iag.usp.br

    2009-12-15

    The HR Del nova remnant was observed with the IFU-GMOS at Gemini North. The spatially resolved spectral data cube was used in the kinematic, morphological, and abundance analysis of the ejecta. The line maps show a very clumpy shell with two main symmetric structures. The first one is the outer part of the shell seen in H{alpha}, which forms two rings projected in the sky plane. These ring structures correspond to a closed hourglass shape, first proposed by Harman and O'Brien. The equatorial emission enhancement is caused by the superimposed hourglass structures in the line of sight. The second structure seen only in the [O III] and [N II] maps is located along the polar directions inside the hourglass structure. Abundance gradients between the polar caps and equatorial region were not found. However, the outer part of the shell seems to be less abundant in oxygen and nitrogen than the inner regions. Detailed 2.5-dimensional photoionization modeling of the three-dimensional shell was performed using the mass distribution inferred from the observations and the presence of mass clumps. The resulting model grids are used to constrain the physical properties of the shell as well as the central ionizing source. A sequence of three-dimensional clumpy models including a disk-shaped ionization source is able to reproduce the ionization gradients between polar and equatorial regions of the shell. Differences between shell axial ratios in different lines can also be explained by aspherical illumination. A total shell mass of 9 x 10{sup -4} M {sub sun} is derived from these models. We estimate that 50%-70% of the shell mass is contained in neutral clumps with density contrast up to a factor of 30.